Timeline Volcanoes

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201.4Mil BC    A mass extinction occurred about this time. In 1999 it was reported that a titanic volcanic eruption occurred about this time and split an ancient super-continent. This process began the formation of the Atlantic Ocean. Half of all marine species died in a few million years. [see 252 and 225 mil]
    (SFC, 4/23/99, p.A3)(Econ, 11/8/03, p.78)(Econ, 3/27/10, p.88)

28Mil BC    The La Garita event in Colorado state in the US, erupted about this time, flushing out 5,000 cubic kilometers of ash.  The eruption that created the La Garita Caldera is among the largest known volcanic eruptions in Earth's history, as well as being one of the most powerful known supervolcanic events

20Mil BC    A volcanic eruption around this time smothered Lesbos island and its subtropical forest ecosystem in lava. In 2021 Greek scientists found a rare fossilized tree on Lesbos whose branches and roots were still intact.
    (Reuters, 1/26/21)

1Mil BC    Ascension Island, the top of a volcano, broke through the surface of the Atlantic Ocean about this time. Since then the island has grown to about 100 square km.
    (Econ, 12/18/10, p.159)

74000BC    The major Toba volcanic eruption occurred in Sumatra about this time. It was later believed that this eruption caused a major temperature drop and reduction in the human population. Analysis of mitochondrial DNA seemed to corroborate a significant reduction in human population around this time.
    (DC, 7/1/00)(DC, 9/2/02)

35000BC    In Australia the Budj Bim volcano erupted about this time. Three overlapping volcanic craters formed Lake Surprise in what later became southwestern Victoria state. The mountain was named Mount Eeles in 1836 by Major Thomas Mitchell after William Eeles of the 95th Regiment of Foot who fought with Mitchell in the Peninsular War. A draftsman's error meant that the name was rendered Eccles from 1845.
    (Econ., 2/29/20, p.65)

5700BC    In Oregon the 12,000 foot Mt. Mazama blew up and collapsed about this time. Its gaping crater filled rainfall and snowmelt creating what is now called Crater Lake.
    (https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mount_Mazama)(SSFC, 5/27/18, p.M6)

1627BC    The volcano Thera, or Santorini in the Aegean Sea, erupted about this time. Akrotiri, a Minoan city on the south part of Thera, was later excavated. About 3-6 feet (1-2 m) of ash fell on the city which had a population of about 30,000. The explosion of Thera about this time released energy equal to 200,000 H-bombs. In 1939 Spyridon Marinatos authored “The Volcanic Destruction of Minoan Crete."
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Minoan_eruption)(NH, 5/96, p.3)

79CE        Aug 24, Pliny the Elder, Roman naturalist, witnessed the eruption of long-dormant Mount Vesuvius and was overcome by the fumes as he tried to rescue refugees. The eruption buried the Roman cities of Pompeii, Stabiae, Herculaneum and other, smaller settlements in 13 feet of volcanic ash and pumice. An estimated 20,000 people died. The event was described by Pliny the Younger, the elder’s nephew, in a letter to Tacitus.
    (HFA, '96, p.36)(DD-EVTT, p.70)(AP, 8/24/97)(WUD, 1994, p.1106)(SFC, 9/1/97, p.A2)(HNQ, 6/16/98)

79CE        Aug 25, Gaius Plinius Secundus, [Plinius Maior], Roman admiral, writer, died in the eruption of Mount Vesuvius. [see Aug 24]
    (MC, 8/25/02)

535        Feb, There is evidence that the Krakatoa volcano had a major eruption about this time. In 1869 Rangawarsita, a Javanese royal courtier, compiled the  Books of Kings, which mentioned an event from the middle of the first millennium that sounded like a major eruption.
    (WSJ, 5/15/00, p.A46)(Disc., 7/4/03)

822        In Iceland an eruption of the Katla volcano about this time led to a rupture of the Myrdalsjokull, a glacier overlying the volcano. This led to a major flood that knocked over a forest 35 km away. Temperatures plunged and the following winters in Europe turned particularly cold with hailstorms and snow that led to plague and famine.
    (SFC, 12/27/17, p.64)

946        Mount Paektu, a volcano straddling the border between North Korea and China, erupted with apocalyptic fire and fury in what scientists later considered one of the five largest volcanic events in human history. It ejected enough material to bury Greater London to a depth of 60 meters (200 feet), and caused temporary climate change in the region.
    (http://tinyurl.com/y98xvulc)(AFP, 9/19/19)

1362        In Iceland the Oraefajokull volcano erupted. This eruption was later believed to have eclipsed the 79AD eruption of Mount Vesuvius.
    (Econ, 4/24/10, p.62)

1430        In the Canary Islands the earliest recorded volcanic eruption in La Palma took place.
    (Reuters, 9/19/21)

1600        Feb 19, Arequipa, Peru, was destroyed as the Huaynaputina volcano exploded catastrophically, in the largest volcanic explosion in South America in historic times. The eruption continued with associated earthquakes into March and devastated the socioeconomic fabric of southern Peru and neighboring Chile and Bolivia. The explosion had effects on climate around the Northern Hemisphere, where 1601 was the coldest year in six centuries, leading to a famine in Russia.
    (SSFC, 6/24/01, p.A16)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Huaynaputina)

1610        Leon, Nicaragua, was buried by the Mombotombo volcano.
    (SSFC, 4/10/05, p.F5)

1631        Dec 16, In Italy Mount Vesuvius erupted and destroyed 6 villages. Some 3.5-4,000 people were killed.
    (SFEC, 5/2/99, p.T8)(MC, 12/16/01)

1669        Mar 11, Mount Etna in Sicily began erupting. Lava flows that destroyed at least 10 villages on its southern flank before reaching the city walls of the town of Catania five weeks later, on 15 April. Contemporaneous accounts written both in Italian and English mention no deaths related to this eruption (but give very precise figures of the number of buildings destroyed, the area of cultivated land lost, and the economic damage).

1707        Japan’s Mount Fuji erupted. It produced only 2% as much ash as the 1815 Mount Tambora eruption.
    (SFC, 2/14/98, p.A12)(Econ., 4/11/15, p.23)

1772        Aug 11, An explosive eruption blew 4,000 feet off Papandayan, Java, and 3,000 people were killed.
    (MC, 8/11/02)

1783        Jun 8, In Iceland the Lakagicar volcano began erupting. Over the next 6 months it built a lava dam 40 miles long and 540 feet high in a month. The Laki volcano wiped out 75% of the crops, which led to a severe famine that killed some 10,000 people, 20% of the population, reducing the population to some 40,000 people. This was described by Haraldur Sigurdson in an article titled Volcanic Pollution and Climate: Eos 63, Aug. 10, 1982. The Laki eruption sent poisonous gases across Europe. In 2014 Alexandra Witze and Jeff Kanipe authored “Island on Fire: The Extraordinary Story of Laki: the Volcano that Turned Eighteenth-Century Europe Dark."
    (NH, 9/97, p.38)(SFEC, 9/19/99, p.A18)(AM, 7/00, p.40)(ON, 2/04, p.9)(Econ, 12/22/07, p.132)(Econ, 4/24/10, p.62)(Econ, 5/29/10, p.85)(Econ, 7/19/14,p.71)
1783        Jun 8-1784 Feb, A series of 10 eruptions from the Laki Craters on Iceland changed atmospheric conditions in most of the Northern Hemisphere. This also generated a cascade of events that led to record low levels of water in the Nile River and brought famine to the region. By 1785 a sixth of Egypt’s population had either perished or fled.
    (http://tinyurl.com/y9xemq)(Econ, 12/22/07, p.134)

1783        Mount Asama, one of Japan's largest and most active volcanoes, had a major eruption.
    (AP, 9/15/04)
1783-1786    Japan suffered one of its worst famines in history when exceptional cold destroyed the rice harvest. As many as 1 million people died. Most of the impact for this was due to the eruptions of the Laki volcano in Iceland beginning in June, 1783.
    (Econ, 12/22/07, p.134)

1793        Apr 1,  The volcano Unsen on Japan erupted killing about 53,000.

1809        A large volcanic eruption took place, but the exact location was unknown. Evidence was later found in ice cores of the Greenland and Antarctic ice sheets.
    (Econ., 4/11/15, p.22)

1814        Feb, In Legazpi, Philippines, the Mayon volcano erupted and 1,200 people were killed.
    (SFC, 6/25/01, p.A9)(Reuters, 1/15/18)

1815        Apr 5, Mount Tambora on Sumbawa Island, Indonesia, in the Java Sea began erupting. [see Apr 10]
    (NOHY, 3/90, p.41)(www.britannica.com/eb/article?tocId=9071099)

1815        Apr 10, A third of the 13,000 foot Mount Tambora on Sumbawa Island, Indonesia, was blasted into the air. Some 50,000 islanders were killed and the whole planet was shrouded in a debris of sulfuric droplets. In 2006 scientist reported finding traces of Tambora society. Tsunamis and starvation that followed killed an estimated 60-120 thousand people.
    (www.sullivan-county.com/immigration/e3.htm)(AP, 2/28/06)(Econ., 4/11/15, p.21)

1816        Jun 6, There was a 10" snowfall in New England in this "year without a summer". The oceanographer Henry Stommel and his wife Elizabeth described this year in their (1983) book “Volcano Weather: The Story of 1816, The year Without a Summer." The 1815 eruption of Mt. Tambora lofted a cloud of ash that turned this summer into a virtual winter with snow in Europe and New England.
    (NOHY, 3/90, p.130)(SFC, 5/19/97, p.D1)

1816-1818    Bad weather around the world during this period was a result of the 1815 volcanic eruption of Mount Tambora in Indonesia.
    (Econ., 4/11/15, p.22)

1821-1823    In Iceland the Eyjafjallajokull volcano erupted over this period.
    (Econ, 4/24/10, p.62)

1822        Oct 8, The Galunggung volcano on Java sent boiling sludge into valley. The eruption left 4,011 dead. The long-inactive volcano erupted Apr 4 and blew its top on Apr 12. The Oct 8 and Oct 12 eruptions left 4,011 dead.

1834        Aug 18, Mt. Vesuvius erupted.
    (MC, 8/18/02)

1835        Jan, Consiguina volcano in Nicaragua erupted and threw ash as far away as Mexico and Jamaica.
    (SSFC, 4/10/05, p.F5)

1851        Mt. Pelee volcano on the French Island of Martinique erupted. It left the city of St. Pierre unscathed.
    (NH, 10/02, p.76)

1867        Mar 11, Great Mauna Loa volcano eruption in Hawaii.
    (MC, 3/12/02)

1868        Nov 28, Mt. Etna in Sicily erupted violently.
    (HN, 11/28/98)

1872        Apr 24, Mt. Vesuvius erupted.
    (MC, 4/24/02)

1883        Aug 26, The island volcano Krakatoa in Indonesia began erupting with increasingly large explosions and killed some 36,000 people, both on the island itself and from the resulting 131-foot tidal waves that obliterated 163 villages on the shores of nearby Java and Sumatra. A book by Ian Thornton: "Krakatau: The Destruction and Reassembly of an Island Ecosystem" was published in 1996 [see Aug 27].
    (AP, 8/26/97)(Nat. Hist, 3/96, p.6)(HN, 8/26/02)

1883        Aug 27, The island volcano Krakatoa erupted; the resulting tidal waves in Indonesia's Sunda Strait claimed some 36,417 lives in Java and Sumatra. In 2003 Simon Winchester authored Krakatoa: The Day the World Exploded: Aug 27, 1883." [see Aug 26]
    (AP, 8/27/97)(SSFC, 4/6/03, p.M2)

1883        Aug 29, Seismic sea waves, created by Krakatoa eruption, created a rise in the English Channel 32 hrs after explosion.
    (MC, 8/29/01)

1886        Jun 10, Mount Tarawera erupted at Rotorua on the North Island of New Zealand. An estimated 120 people were killed and several Maori and European settlements, including Te Wairoa, were destroyed. The official death toll was reported at 150. Some of the local survivors took shelter in a Maori meeting house, a wharenui, named Hinemihi, which was later taken to England and erected in the grounds of Clandon Park, the seat of the 4th Earl Onslow, who had been governor-general of New Zealand at the time.
    (https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/1886_eruption_of_Mount_Tarawera)(SFEC, 1/9/00, p.T5)(SSFC, 10/28/12, p.M6)

1902        May 8, Mt. Pelee volcano, on the French Island of Martinique in the east W. Indies, blew its top and wiped out the town of St. Pierre. A pyroclastic flow killed  29-40 thousand people. In 1972 Jacques Petitjean Roget published a detailed report on the event. In 2002 Alwyn Scarth authored “La Catastrophe."
    (SFC, 8/13/01, p.A4)(SFC, 1/19/02, p.A14)(NH, 10/02, p.76)

1902        May, In Nicaragua the Momotombo volcano erupted.
    (ON, 1/00, p.2)

1902        The Soufrire volcano erupted on St. Vincent and 1,680 people were killed.
    (SFC, 1/19/02, p.A14)

1912        Jun 6, In Alaska the Novarupta volcano began erupting 6 miles from Mount Katmai. When the eruption stopped on June 9th, the ash cloud had spread across southern Alaska. This was later recognized as the most powerful volcanic eruption of the 20th century. Crops withered across Canada and the US that summer under skies shrouded with volcanic ash. 
    (http://geology.com/novarupta/)(Hem, 4/96, p.78)

1913        Mexico’s active Volcan de Fuego, part of the Colima volcano complex, experienced a major eruption. As of 2012 it has erupted more than 40 times since 1576. Only a fraction of the volcano's surface area is in the state of Colima; the majority of its surface area lies over the border in the neighboring state of Jalisco.
    (SSFC, 8/19/12, p.P3)(www.gomanzanillo.com/old_articles/volcano/)

1914        Jun, Mt. Lassen in northern California began erupting and continued to spew volcanic debris through 1921.
    (SFEC, 8/3/97, p.T5)(SSFC, 6/15/14, DB p.46)

1915        May 22, At Mt. Lassen in northern California a searing cloud of hot gas and vaporized lava created the Devastated Area, a mile wide and 5 miles long.
    (SFEC, 8/13/00, p.T8)

1915        Jun 3, In northern California the Mount Lassen volcano erupted.
    (SSFC, 5/31/15, DB p.42)

1919        May 1, In Indonesia Mount Kelud erupted. A powerful explosion that could be heard hundreds of miles away destroyed dozens of villages and killed at least 5,160 when a boiling crater lake broke through the crater wall killing people in 104 small villages.
    (SFC, 1/19/02, p.A14)(AP, 11/3/07)

1919        May 20, Volcano Keluit on Java erupted killing 550. [see May 1]
    (MC, 5/20/02)

1930        Sep 11, The Stromboli volcano off Sicily threw 2-ton basaltic rocks 2 miles.

1930        Nov 21, In Indonesia lava began flowing as the Mount Merapi volcano erupted. 13 villages were destroyed and some 1369 people were killed by pyroclastic flows.

1943        A volcano erupted near Sobetsucho, Japan, and formed a mountain, that was named Showa Shinzan.
    (WSJ, 2/26/04, p.A1)

1943        Parcutin Volcano in central Mexico began a 9-year eruption.
    (AM, 3/04, p.50)

1944        Jan 6, In Italy lava began flowing from the conelet of Mount Vesuvius. Lava flows continued into March with several explosions thru the end of March.

1949        In the Canary Islands the Cumbre Vieja volcano erupted on island of La Palma.

1956        Mar 20, Mount Bezymianny on Kamchatka Peninsula, USSR, exploded.
    (MC, 3/20/02)

1957        Nicaragua’s Concepcion volcano erupted.
    (SSFC, 4/10/05, p.F4)

1962        Jan 10, Eruptions on Mount Huascaran in Peru destroyed 7 villages and killed 3,500.
    (MC, 1/10/02)

1963        Mar 17, In Indonesia eruptions of Mount Agung volcano on Bali killed 1,184 people.
    (SFC, 1/19/02, p.A14)(AP, 12/3/17)

1968        Oct 23, In Nicaragua the Cerro Negro volcano began erupting again and continued to Dec 10. It had first appeared in 1850.
    (DD-EVTT, Illustr.#9)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cerro_Negro)

1971        Apr 5, In Sicily, Italy, Mount Etna began a series of eruptions.

1971        In the Canary Islands the Cumbre Vieja volcano erupted on island of La Palma.

1972        Aug 26, In southern Chile the Calbuco volcano erupted for four hours. It is considered one of the top three most potentially dangerous among Chile's 90 active volcanos.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Calbuco_%28volcano%29)(AP, 4/23/15)

1973        Jan 23, Helgafell, an island of Heimaey, Iceland, erupted for the 1st time in 7,000 yrs.

1976        Jul 8, A volcano erupted on Guadeloupe and frightened the capital, Basse-Terre. A phreatic eruption of the Soufriere volcano cracked open the summit dome

1978        Oct 24, Mount Usu, 475 miles north of Tokyo, erupted. Mud flows killed 2 people and 196 homes were destroyed.
    (SFC, 3/30/00, p.C3)(http://ci.nii.ac.jp/naid/110004665764/en/)

1980        Mar 27, Mount St. Helens, dormant for 123 years, erupted with ash and steam. A crater formed at the summit and the north flank began to bulge.
    (SFEC, 8/16/98, p.A15)(http://pubs.usgs.gov/fs/2000/fs036-00/)

1980        May 18, At 8:32 a.m. Mount Saint Helens, in Washington, erupted. It burst 3 times in 24 hours after rumbling for two months and left 57 people dead or missing. The mountain lost over 1,300 feet of elevation and gained a two-mile-long and one mile-wide crater.
    (AAM, 3/96, p.84)(AP, 5/18/97)(SFEC, 8/16/98, p.A15)(HN, 5/18/02)

1980        May 25, Mount St. Helens erupted again and deposited ash over western Washington and Oregon.
    (SFEC, 8/16/98, p.A15)

1980        Jun 12, A 3rd major eruption occurred at Mount St. Helens. A lava dome began to form in the crater.
    (SFEC, 8/16/98, p.A15)

1980        Jun 14, A 4th eruption blasted through the lava dome at Mount St. Helens.
    (SFEC, 8/16/98, p.A15)

1980        Aug 7, A 5th major eruption occurred at Mount St. Helens. [see May 18]
    (SFEC, 8/16/98, p.A15)

1980        Oct 17, Mt. St. Helens erupted 3 times in 24 hours, in Washington. The eruptions had begun May 18.
    (HN, 10/17/98)

1980        Oct 18, A 6th major eruption occurred at Mount St. Helens and a new lava dome emerged that grew to 130 feet by the next day.
    (SFEC, 8/16/98, p.A15)

1983        Jan 3, In Hawaii the Pu’u O’o vent of the Kilauea volcano lit up the skies for the first time and began a state of almost constant eruption.
    (SFEC, 4/2/00, p.T6)

1990        Feb 10, In Indonesia Mount Kelud erupted. Some 33 post eruption lahars took place from Feb 15-mar28 and more than 30 people were killed with hundreds injured.
    (AP, 11/3/07)(www.springerlink.com/content/x7d7qvad0ct3c9bf/)

1991        Jun 3, Mount Unzendake in southern Japan erupted and left 43 people dead and nearly 2,300 homeless. The dead included volcano experts Maurice and Katia Krafft.
    (SFC, 3/31/00, p.A17)(SFEC, 4/2/00, p.A17)(AP, 6/3/01)(WSJ, 4/18/02, p.D7)

1991        Jun 12, The Mount Pinatubo volcano in the Philippines began erupting. [see Jun 15]
    (AP, 6/12/01)

1991        Jun 15, Mount Pinatubo (4,750 feet high) erupted. Due to early warning 56,000 people were evacuated and only 450 people died. The eruption forced the closure of Clark Air Force Base in Angeles City and displaced hundreds of families of the Aeta tribe. [see June 1,12]
    (PacDisc. Spring/’96, p.27)(SSFC, 11/11/01, p.F4)

1991        Aug, Chile’s Hudson Volcano erupted in Aisen province. It launched a cubic mile of ash and piled ash 18 inches (45 cm) high killing an estimated 1.5 million sheep on the Argentine side of the Andean mountain chain.
    (SFCM, 10/3/04, p.51)(AP, 10/28/11)

1991        Mount Lokon, one of about 129 active volcanoes in Indonesia, erupted. It killed a Swiss hiker and forced thousands of people to flee their homes.
    (AP, 10/26/11)    (AP, 10/26/11)

1994        Nov 22, In Indonesia the Merapi volcano erupted. Pyroclastic flows and surges killed 43 people.
    (http://dogeatdogma.com/merapi.htm)(Reuters, 10/26/10)

1996        May, In Montserrat a series of eruption from a volcano in the Soufriere Hills sent a plume of ash and rock soaring 3,000 feet.
    (SFC, 5/18/96, p.A-9)

1996        Jun 17, In New Zealand Mount Ruapehu erupted.
    (SFC, 6/22/96, p.A6)

1996        Aug 10, In the Philippines Mount Canlaon erupted and killed 3 climbers. The mountain is one of 21 active volcanoes in the Philippines.
    (SFC, 8/12/96, p.C1)

1997        Aug 11, In Hawaii lava from Kilauea Volcano began to flow over the walls of a 700-year-old temple believed to have been used for human sacrifice.
    (SFC, 8/12/97, p.A3)

1998        May 23, From Guatemala it was reported that the Pacaya volcano had erupted during the week and covered Guatemala City with a half-inch of grit.
    (SFC, 5/23/98, p.A5)

1998        Jul 1, In Sicily Mt. Etna erupted for 30 minutes.
    (SFC, 7/4/98, p.A7)

2002        Jan 17, In CongoDRC the Mount Nyiragongo volcano erupted near Goma. Rivers of lava destroyed 14 villages. Goma was devastated and some 400,000 people fled their homes. About 250 people were killed and many sought refuge in Rwanda.
    (SFC, 1/18/02, p.A8)(SFC, 1/19/02, p.A1)(SSFC, 1/20/02, p.A16)(SSFC, 10/18/20, p.B10)

2002        Feb 10-11, A 2,100 foot stretch of lava flowed down from Volcano del Fuego near Antigua.
    (SFC, 2/16/02, p.A26)

2002        Jun 22, The official inauguration of the $89 million, Auvergne region European Volcanic Park in was scheduled. It included a building complex designed by Hans Hollein of Austria.
    (WSJ, 4/18/02, p.D7)

2002        Sep, Mount Pago spewed silicone ash and a serious eruption was expected. Parts of New Britain Island were made uninhabitable.
    (SFC, 9/7/02, p.A18)

2002        Oct 27, In Sicily Mount Etna began spewing thick clouds of ash and magma.
    (AP, 10/28/02)

2004        Jun 10, In Indonesia Mount Awu on Sangihe Island erupted. Nearly 12,000 people living around the mountain had been evacuated to a nearby town.
    (AP, 6/10/04)

2004        Oct 1, Mount St. Helens quieted down after spewing a plume of steam and ash, but only briefly. Within hours of the eruption, seismic readings suggested pressure was building again inside the volcano, which had been dormant for 18 years.
    (AP, 10/2/04)

2006        May 15, Indonesia’s Mount Merapi erupted violently, sending searing gas clouds and burning rocks down its scorched flanks and threatening villagers who refused to leave because of ancient mystical beliefs.
    (AP, 5/15/06)

2008        Jan 2, In southern Chile hundreds of people fled their homes overnight as the Llaima volcano erupted, rocking the area with explosions and spewing lava and ash.
    (AP, 1/2/08)

2008        Feb 6, Ecuador's Tungurahua volcano shot columns of ash miles into the air, as officials ordered the evacuation of 3,000 villagers living near its slopes.
    (AP, 2/6/08)

2008        Apr 15, Colombia's Nevado del Huila volcano erupted in a shower of hot ash, prompting thousands of people to leave their homes.
    (AP, 4/15/08)

2008        Apr 16, Mount Egon volcano on Flores island in eastern Indonesia spewed ash and smoke 2 1/2 miles into the sky, forcing the evacuation of hundreds of nearby villagers.
    (AP, 4/16/08)

2008        May 2, In southern Chile authorities evacuated hundreds of people from villages after the snowcapped Chaiten volcano, considered dormant for thousands of years, erupted.
    (AP, 5/3/08)

2008        Nov 20, In southwestern Colombia the Nevado del Huila volcano erupted and loosed avalanches of mud and ash that injured nine, destroyed bridges and trapped people in their towns. At least 10 people died in landslides triggered by the eruption.
    (AP, 11/22/08)(SFC, 11/29/08, p.B6)

2009        Feb 2, A volcano near Tokyo erupted, shooting up billowing smoke and showering parts of the capital with a fine ash that sent some city residents to the car wash and left others puzzled over the white powder they initially mistook for snow.
    (AP, 2/2/09)

2009        Mar 23, Alaska's Mount Redoubt volcano erupted five times overnight, sending an ash plume more than 9 miles into the air in the volcano's first emissions in nearly 20 years.
    (AP, 3/23/09)

2009        May 29, Indonesian government marine geologist Yusuf Surachman said that a massive underwater mountain discovered off the island of Sumatra could be a volcano with potentially catastrophic power. It was discovered earlier this month about 330 kilometers (205 miles) west of Bengkulu city during research to map the seabed's seismic faultlines.
    (AFP, 5/30/09)

2009        Dec 15, The Philippines' most active volcano oozed lava and shot up plumes of ash, forcing thousands of people to evacuate their homes and face the possibility of a bleak Christmas in a shelter. State volcanologists raised the alert level on the cone-shaped, 8,070-foot (2,460-meter) Mayon volcano overnight to two steps below a major eruption.
    (AP, 12/15/09)

2010        Mar 21, In southern Iceland a volcano erupted overnight, forcing hundreds of people to evacuate the area and diverting flights after authorities declared a local state of emergency.
    (Reuters, 3/21/10)

2010        Apr 12, A British scientific expedition said it has discovered the world's deepest known underwater volcanic vent off the Cayman Islands.
    (AP, 4/12/10)

2010        Apr 14, In Iceland a volcano under the Eyjafjallajokull glacier erupted for the second time in less than a month, melting ice, shooting smoke and steam into the air, closing a major road and forcing hundreds of people to flee rising floodwaters.
    (AP, 4/14/10)

2010        Apr 15, British airport operator BAA Ltd. said all flights at London's Heathrow Airport have been suspended for the rest of the day, causing travel chaos as ash clouds from Iceland's spewing volcano halted air traffic across Europe.
    (AP, 4/15/10)

2010        Apr 16, Volcanic ash blanketed parts of rural Iceland and left a widening arc of grounded aircraft across Europe, as thousands of planes stayed on the tarmac to avoid the hazardous cloud. Travel chaos engulfed major European cities and the UN warned of possible health risks from falling ash.
    (AP, 4/16/10)

2010        Apr 17, A lingering volcanic ash plume forced extended no-fly restrictions over much of Europe, as Icelandic scientists warned that volcanic activity had increased and showed no sign of abating, a portent of more travel chaos to come.
    (AP, 4/17/10)

2010        Apr 26, In Guatemala the Santiaguito volcano showered sand and ash over a large western area in an "unusual" and "violent" eruption.
    (AFP, 4/27/10)

2010        May 27, Authorities closed Guatemala's international airport after the nearby Pacaya volcano showered as much as 3 inches (8 centimeters) of ash over parts of the city. A television reporter was killed by a shower of burning rocks when he got too close to the volcano, about 15 miles (25 km) south of Guatemala City.
    (AP, 5/28/10)(AP, 5/29/10)

2010        May 28, In Ecuador strong explosions rocked the Tungurahua volcano, prompting evacuations of hundreds of people from nearby villages.
    (AP, 5/29/10)

2010        Aug 6, In Indonesia the Mount Karangetang volcano erupted, sending lava and a searing gas cloud tumbling down its slopes. At least four family members were swept away and feared dead.
    (AP, 8/6/10)

2010        Aug 29, In Indonesia the Sinabung volcano on the island of Sumatra erupted for the first time in 400 years, spewing a vast cloud of smoke and ash into the air and sending thousands of people fleeing from their homes.
    (AFP, 8/29/10)

2010        Sep 7, Indonesia’s Mount Sinabung volcano shot a towering cloud of black ash high into the air, dusting villages 15 miles (25 km) away in its most powerful eruption since awakening last week from four centuries of dormancy.
    (AP, 9/7/10)

2010        Oct 26, Indonesia’s Mount Merapi volcano erupted, prompting terrified villagers to flee and join the thousands already evacuated from its slopes.
    (Reuters, 10/26/10)

2010        Oct 27, In Indonesia helicopters with emergency supplies finally landed on the remote islands slammed by a tsunami that killed at least 272 people. Elsewhere in the archipelago the toll from a volcanic eruption rose to 30, including the mountain's spiritual caretaker.
    (AP, 10/27/10)

2010        Oct 28, Indonesia's Mount Merapi erupted for the second time in a week, blasting vast plumes of ash into the sky, as the death toll from the initial eruption and a tsunami that hit remote western islands reached 377.
    (AP, 10/28/10)

2010        Oct 30, In Indonesia clouds of gray ash rumbled down the slopes of Mount Merapi in its most powerful eruption of a deadly week, prompting soldiers to force reluctant villagers to evacuate amid fears of a larger blast as the death toll reached 36. Storms again prevented aid deliveries to increasingly desperate survivors of a tsunami, including a teenage girl with an open chest wound, that killed 413 people in the Mentawai islands. The number of missing dropped by half to 163 as searchers discovered survivors who had fled to the hills.
    (AP, 10/30/10)

2010        Nov 1, Icelandic Meteorological Office geophysicist Gunnar Gudmundsson said that floodwater is coming from the subglacial Grimsvotn volcano, but there are no signs of the underground tremors that would signal an eruption.
    (AP, 11/1/10)
2010        Nov 1, Indonesia's most volatile volcano, Mount Merapi, one of 22 that have been increasingly active, spewed searing clouds of gas and debris for hours in its most powerful eruption in a deadly week that has left 38 dead.
    (AP, 11/1/10)

2010        Nov 4, In Indonesia clouds of hot ash gushed from the Mount Merapi volcano, forcing motorists in cities 20 miles (30 km) away to use their headlights in broad daylight and raising aviation concerns. The death toll climbed to 44.
    (AP, 11/4/10)

2010        Nov 5, In Indonesia searing gas avalanched down the Mount Merapi volcano with a thunderous roar, torching houses and trees and incinerating villagers as they fled. About 70 more people were killed raising the death toll to 122.
    (AP, 11/5/10)(Econ, 11/13/10, p.50)

2010        Nov 8, In Indonesia frightened residents abandoned their homes in Yogyakarta, a bustling city of 400,000 at the foot of Mount Merapi, as authorities warned the volcano could erupt again at any time. 153 people have been killed in the last two weeks.
    (AP, 11/8/10)(AP, 11/9/10)

2010        Nov 10, Indonesia's Mount Merapi volcano spewed clouds of ash high into the sky, forcing some international airlines to again cancel flights and President Barack Obama to cut short his visit.
    (AP, 11/10/10)

2010        Nov 14, In Indonesia rescuers digging through several feet of ash discovered nine more bodies on the slopes of Mount Merapi, whose explosive eruption a week ago buried whole villages. Confirmation of more deaths trickled in  and the toll from a series of blasts at the volcano rose to at least 250.
    (AP, 11/14/10)

2010        Nov 17, Indonesia’s disaster agency said that the death toll due to Mount Merapi had risen to 275 and that most of the people were killed by searing gas clouds. Others died during panicked evacuations or from respiratory problems and other illnesses linked to the volcano.
    (AP, 11/18/10)

2010        Nov 21, In Indonesia the death toll from the Mount Merapi volcano rose to 304 after more victims succumbed to severe burns and illnesses.
    {Indonesia, Volcano}
    (SFC, 11/22/10, p.A2)

2011        Jan 13, Italy's Mount Etna has come back to life with a brief eruption that sent lava down its slopes and a cloud of ash into the sky, forcing the overnight closure of a nearby airport. Its last major eruption was in 1992.
    (AP, 1/13/11)

2011        Mar 6, Scientists at Hawaii’s Kilauea volcano said a new vent has opened, sending lava shooting up to 65 feet high.
    (AP, 3/7/11)

2011        May 22, Iceland closed its main international airport and canceled all domestic flights as the Grimsvotn volcano sent a plume of ash, smoke and steam 12 miles (20 km) high.
    (AP, 5/22/11)

2011        May 24, About 250 flights to northern Britain were canceled over concerns about the ash cloud spewing from an Icelandic volcano, but British and Irish officials dismissed fears of a mass shutdown of airspace.
    (Reuters, 5/24/11)

2011        Jun 4, In southern Chile the long dormant Puyehue-Cordon Caulle, one of the volcanoes in the Caulle Cordon, erupted violently, billowing smoke and ash high into the sky and prompting more than 3,500 people living nearby to evacuate.
    (AP, 6/5/11)(Reuters, 6/5/11)(AP, 6/5/11)

2011        Jun 11, Chile’s Puyehue-Cordon Caulle volcano continued to sporadically spew a cloud of ash, disrupting airline travel from Brazil and Argentina to as far away as Australia and New Zealand.
            (AP, 6/11/11)

2011        Jun 12, Chile's Puyehue-Cordon Caulle volcano continued to emit a cloud of ash, disrupting flights to Buenos Aires, Argentina and Montevideo, Uruguay. Authorities were also monitoring the volcano for its potential to cause landslides and avalanches.
            (AP, 6/12/11)

2011        Jun 14, In Chile The cloud of ash spewing from an erupting volcano grounded more flights in countries from Uruguay to Australia and threatened to delay next month's start of the Copa America football tournament in Argentina.
    (AP, 6/14/11)

2011        Jul 7, Ash from a Chilean volcano grounded flights across much of South America again, disrupting travel for thousands of people just as the continent's premier football tournament got going in Argentina.
    (AP, 7/7/11)

2011        Jul 14, In Indonesia Mount Lokon on Sulawesi island burst into life late at night and continued to spew ash and searing gas into the air well into the next morning, prompting more than 4,500 residents to head to safety.
    (AFP, 7/15/11)

2011        Jul 17, In Indonesia the Mount Lokon volcano on northern Sulawesi island erupted again and released the greatest amount of energy so far, shooting soot and debris 11,400 feet (3,500 meters) into the sky.
    (AP, 7/17/11)

2011        Oct 28, Chile's Hudson Volcano released three huge columns of steam and ash that combined in a cloud more than 3 miles (5 km) high.
    (AP, 10/28/11)

2011        Nov 7, In the CongoDRC the Nyamulagira volcano (also known as Nyamuragira) began an eruption that happens about every two years. It has been described as Africa’s most active volcano and has erupted over 40 times since 1885.
    (AFP, 11/9/11)(http://tinyurl.com/ckekoy5)

2011        Dec 27, In eastern Indonesia mudflows streaming from a volcano killed four villagers and about 1,000 others have fled their homes. Mount Gamalama in the Molucca Islands sprang to life this month with a powerful, non-fatal eruption.
    (AP, 12/28/11)

2012        Apr 20, Mexico’s Popocatepetl volcano shot a heavy plume of ash into the sky southeast of Mexico City and spewed glowing rock from its crater at dawn.
    (AP, 4/20/12)

2012        Aug 6, In New Zealand Mount Tongariro spewed ash and rocks for about 30 minutes after a few weeks of increased seismic activity. It didn't cause any injuries or damage in the sparsely populated central North Island region.
    (AP, 8/7/12)

2012        Sep 8, In Nicaragua the San Cristobal volcano spewed out a column of ash and gas 2½ miles high, leading authorities to evacuate about 3,000 people from nine communities around the country's tallest mountain.
    (AP, 9/8/12)

2012        Sep 13, In Guatemala the Volcan del Fuego, or Volcano of Fire, erupted in a ferocious lava flow 6 miles from Antigua.
    (AP, 9/14/12)

2012        Nov 21, New Zealand’s Mount Tongariro erupted with a brief blast of dark ash, canceling flights but causing no significant damage. Tongariro National Park has three active volcanoes.
    (AP, 11/21/12)

2013        May 7, In the Philippines the active Mayon volcano spewed room-sized rocks toward nearly 30 surprised climbers, killing 5 and injuring others who were fetched with rescue helicopters and rope. The 2,460-meter (8,070-foot) mountain, about 340 km (212 miles) southeast of Manila, has erupted about 40 times during the last 400 years.
    (AP, 5/7/13)

2013        Jul 4, In Mexico the Popocatepetl volcano registered several tremors after spraying rock and ash over the last 24 hours. At leaqst 40 commercial flights in the Mexico City area were canceled.
    (SFC, 7/5/13, p.A3)

2013        Aug 10, In eastern Indonesia gushing hot lava from the erupting Mount Rokatenda volcano killed 6 people sleeping in a beach village on Palue island. Ash and smoke shot up to 2 km into the air.
    (AP, 8/10/13)

2013        Oct 26, Mount Etna, Europe's most active volcano, erupted, sending up a towering plume of ash visible in much of eastern Sicily.
    (AP, 10/26/13)

2013        Nov 3, Indonesia’s Mount Sinabung volcano erupted for the third time in as many months on the western island of Sumatra, forcing hundreds of villagers to evacuate.
    (Reuters, 11/4/13)

2013        Nov 16, Sicily’s Mount Etna began erupting againt.
    (SFC, 11/18/13, p.A2)

2013        Dec 17, In Sicily eruptions at Mount Etna volcano died down, allowing the nearby airport of Catania to re-open after a two-day stoppage that disrupted dozens of flights.
    (AFP, 12/17/13)

2013        Dec 29, El Salvador authorities evacuated an area around the Chaparrastique volcano after the peak shot a cloud of gas and ash about 3 miles (5 km) into the air.
    (AP, 12/29/13)

2013        Dec 31, In Indonesia more than 19,000 people were displaced by the Mount Sinabung volcano on Sumatra that has been erupting for months and shot lava into the air nine times overnight.
    (AFP, 12/31/13)

2014        Feb 1, Indonesia’s Mount Sinabung volcano, that has been rumbling for months, unleased a major eruption killing 14 people just a day after authorities allowed thousands of villagers who had been evacuated to return to its slopes.
    (AP, 2/1/14)

2014        Feb 1, Indonesia’s Mount Sinabung volcano, that has been rumbling for months, unleased a major eruption killing at least 15 people just a day after authorities allowed thousands of villagers who had been evacuated to return to its slopes.
    (AP, 2/1/14)(AFP, 2/3/14)

2014        Feb 3, Indonesia’s Mount Sinabung shot hot ash and rocks high into the air again, halting a search for any more victims from its Feb 1 eruption.
    (AFP, 2/3/14)

2014        Feb 14, In Indonesia a volcanic eruption on Java sent a 17 km (10 mile) ash cloud into the air. More than 56,000 people were forced to flee their homes and four 4 were killed when Mount Kelud erupted.
    (Reuters, 2/15/14)

2014        Apr 4, Ecuador's Tungurahua volcano spewed a 6-mile (10-km) column of ash after a powerful, five-minute explosion that shot pyroclastic material onto its northern and northwestern flanks.
    (AP, 4/4/14)

2014        May 31, Some flights between Australia and southeast Asia and all domestic flights operating out of Darwin airport in the country’s north were canceled after the eruption a day earlier of Sangeang Api in Indonesia’s south produced a large cloud of ash.
    (Reuters, 5/31/14)

2014        Aug 22, Scientists in Hawaii began warning the public on the lava flow at Pahoa on the Big Island. The lava was flowing at 2-20 yards per hour and in late October was 510 yards from Pahoa Village Road, which goes through downtown Pahoa.
    (SFC, 10/29/14, p.A6)

2014        Aug 23, Iceland said its Bardarbunga volcano has begun erupting under the ice of Europe’s largest glacier, prompting the country to close the airspace over the volcano. Iceland the next day said no eruption took place, but that one remained imminent following increased seismic activity.
    (SSFC, 8/24/14, p.A10)(SFC, 8/25/14, p.A2)

2014        Aug 29, In Papua New Guinea Mount Tavurvur erupted early today in Rabaul district on New Britain Island. The eruption forced several communities to evacuate and some international flights were diverted.
    (AP, 8/29/14)

2014        Sep 27, In central Japan the Mount Ontake volcano erupted in spectacular fashion, catching mountain climbers by surprise. At least 51 people were killed with 63 injured.
    (AP, 9/27/14)(Reuters, 10/1/14)(AP, 10/4/14)

2014        Nov 23, In Cape Verde the volcano Pico do Fogo erupted forcing more than 1,000 people to evacuate from the Cha das Caldeiras region. By mid-December lava flow destroyed two villages and threatened a forest reserve.
    (AFP, 12/16/14)

2014        Nov 28, In southern Japan the Mount Aso volcano blasted out chunks of magma in the first such eruption in 22 years, causing flight cancellations and prompting warnings to stay away from its crater.
    (AP, 11/30/14)

2014        Dec 19, In eastern Indonesia the Mount Gamalama volcano on Ternate island in North Maluku province erupted, spewing towering clouds of hot ash into the air and leaving four hikers injured and one missing when they scrambled to safety.
    (AP, 12/19/14)

2015        Mar 12, Costa Rica's Turrialba volcano belched a column of gas and ash up to 3,280 feet (1 km) into the air in its most powerful eruption in two decades.
    (Reuters, 3/13/15)

2015        Apr 22, In southern Chile the Calbuco volcano erupted for the first time in more than four decades. LATAM airlines cancelled flights to and from Puerto Montt. One hiker was reported missing.
    (AP, 4/23/15)

2015        May 25, In Ecuador's Galapagos islands the Wolf volcano erupted after being dormant for 33 years. The eruption threatened a unique species of pink iguanas.
    (Reuters, 5/25/15)

2015        May 29, In Japan Mount Shindake erupted on Kuchinoerabu island spewing out rocks and sending black clouds of ash 9 km (5.6 miles) into the sky.
    (AP, 5/29/15)

2015        Jun 13, In western Indonesia the Mount Sinabung volcano on Sumatra unleashed a new powerful burst high into the sky sending hot ash far down the mountain's slopes.
    (AP, 6/13/15)

2015        Jun 15, In western Indonesia hundreds more villagers were evacuated on Sumatra island as Mount Sinabung volcano spewed at least 28 hot ash avalanches.
    (SFC, 6/16/15, p.A2)

2015        Jul 9, In western Mexico the Colima Volcano, also known as the Volcano of Fire, began erupting and continued into the next morning.
    (AP, 7/10/15)

2015        Jul 10, In Indonesia Mount Raung in East Java province began spewing ash sparking chaos for holidaymakers. Airports were closed and international airlines canceled flights to tourist hotspot Bali, stranding thousands.
    (AP, 7/10/15)

2015        Jul 11, In western Mexico ash and cinders spewed from the Colima Volcano, prompting authorities to close the airport in the state capital of Colima and order the evacuation of a half dozen hamlets on the flanks of the peak.
    (AP, 7/12/15)

2015        Jul 16, In Indonesia eruptions at Mount Raung and Mount Gamalama caused closures at three airports, including Juanda International serving Surabaya, the country's 2nd-largest city.
    (AP, 7/16/15)

2015        Jul 22, In Indonesia eruptions of ash at five volcanoes shrouded the skies over parts of the archipelago, forcing three airports to close.
    (AP, 7/22/15)

2015        Aug 15, In Ecuador several villages were evacuated, as the Cotopaxi volcano rumbled to life, angrily spewing ash into the sky and threatening nearby residents with potential volcanic landslides.
    (AFP, 8/15/15)

2015        Nov 4, In Indonesia thousands of tourists were stranded on three islands after ash from Mount Rinjani on Lombok Island forced the closure of airports and blanketed villages and farmlands.
    (AP, 11/4/15)

2016        Mar 27, In southwestern Alaska the Pavlof Volcano erupted sending ash 20,000 feet into the air.
    (SFC, 3/29/16, p.A14)

2016        May 25, Italy's Mount Etna, Europe's highest and most active volcano, erupted spewing red torrents of lava into the sky.
    (Reuters, 5/26/16)

2017        Sep 22, In Indonesia thousands of residents were evacuated from villages near Mount Agung, an active volcano, on the island of Bali, as the alert status was raised to the highest level, meaning an eruption could be imminent.
    (Reuters, 9/22/17)(SSFC, 9/24/17 p.A2)

2017        Sep 26, Indonesia’s country's disaster agency said warnings that the Mount Agung volcano on the island of Bali will erupt have sparked an exodus of more than 75,000 people that is likely to continue to swell.
    (AP, 9/26/17)

2017        Sep 27, In Indonesia the exodus from the menacing Mount Agung volcano on Bali neared 100,000 people, as hundreds of tremors from the mountain were recorded daily.
    (AP, 9/27/17)
2017        Sep 27, Vanuatu authorities have declared an emergency on Ambae island, where activity at the Manaro volcano has increased recently, raising fears of a major eruption. More than 7,000 people have fled their homes.
    (AP, 9/27/17)

2017        Sep 30, Australia dispatched a naval vessel to Vanuatu to help the South Pacific nation evacuate all 11,000 inhabitants from the northern island of Ambae as an erupting volcano threatens to shower down burning ash and acid rain.
    (Reuters, 9/30/17)

2017        Nov 25, Indonesia’s Mount Agung volcano on island of Bali erupted for a second time in less than a week, sending a grey-black plume of ash and steam at least 1,500 meters into the sky and leading several airlines to change flight plans.
    (Reuters, 11/25/17)

2017        Nov 26, Indonesian and regional authorities heightened flight warnings around Bali's Mount Agung as the volcano's eruptions sent a plume of volcanic ash and steam more than 6,000 meters into the skies above the popular holiday island.
    (Reuters, 11/26/17)

2017        Nov 27, In Indonesia nearly two dozen villages were emptied of their inhabitants, including farmers reluctant to leave precious livestock behind as so-called cold lava flows appeared on Bali’s Mount Agung.
    (AP, 11/27/17)

2017        Nov 28, In Indonesia Mount Agung continued to erupt on Bali, spitting ash 4,000 meters (2 ½ miles) high and stranding tens of thousands of tourists for a second day.
    (AP, 11/28/17)

2017        Dec 2, Airlines canceled more flights departing the Indonesian holiday island of Bali, citing forecasts of deteriorating flying conditions due to a risk of volcanic ash from the erupting Mount Agung volcano.
    (Reuters, 12/2/17)

2018        Jan 5, In Papua New Guinea the Kadovar Island volcano, thought to be dormant, began spewing ash into the air, forcing the evacuation of more than 500 residents.
    (Reuters, 1/6/18)

2018        Jan 14, Mount Mayon, the Philippines' most active volcano, rumbled back to life with lava rising to its crater in a gentle eruption that has prompted authorities to evacuate thousands of villagers.  Mayon's most destructive eruption was in February 1814, when lava buried a town and killed 1,200 people.
    (AP, 1/14/18)(Reuters, 1/15/18)

2018        Jan 16, The central Philippine Albay province declared a state of calamity as the Mount Mayon volcano spewed lava that reached the limits of a six-km radius no-go zone and spread ash on nearby farming villages.
    (Reuters, 1/16/18)

2018        Jan 21, In Papua New Guinea a volcano on Kadovar Island erupted again, sending plumes of steam and ash into the air. Flights nearby have been canceled due to the risk posed by ash plumes and ships were warned to stay away from the island.
    (AP, 1/21/18)

2018        Jan 22, In the Philippines the Mount Mayon volcano ejected a huge column of lava fragments, ash and smoke in a thunderous explosion. The alert level was raised to four on a scale of five, which means an explosive eruption is possible within hours or days.
    (AP, 1/22/18)

2018        Jan 23, In central Japan 12 people, including eight soldiers, skiing on the slopes of the Mount Kusatsu-Shirane volcano near a famous hot spring resort were injured by flying rocks during a sudden eruption. One soldier later died.
    (AP, 1/23/18)
2018        Jan 23, In the Philippines the Mount Mayon volcano spewed fountains of red-hot lava and massive ash plumes anew in a dazzling but increasingly dangerous eruption that has sent more than 56,000 villagers fleeing to evacuation centers.
    (AP, 1/23/18)

2018        Jan 24, In the Philippines the Mount Mayon volcano belched red-hot lava and clouds of ash and debris at least four times today, prompting the number of displaced villagers to swell to more than 74,000 and causing officials to brace for a humanitarian emergency they fear could last for months.
    (AP, 1/24/18)

2018        Jan 25, In the Philippines a huge plume of ash billowed from the glowing peak of Mount Mayon volcano, as more residents of surrounding areas fled and experts warned of further escalation 12 days after it started to erupt.
    (AP, 1/25/18)

2018        Jan 29, In the Philippines a heavy shroud of ash from erupting Mount Mayon halted vehicles in at least two towns due to poor visibility as the volcano blew more lava and columns of ash from its crater.
    (AP, 1/30/18)

2018        Feb 19, Indonesia’s Mount Sinabung on the island of Sumatra shot billowing columns of ash more than 5,000 meters (16,400 feet) into the atmosphere and hot clouds down its slopes.
    (AP, 2/19/18)

2018        Apr 19, In southern Japan the Mount Io volcano erupted for the first time in 250 years, spewing steam and ash hundreds of meters into the air, as authorities warned locals not to approach the mountain.
    (AFP, 4/19/18)

2018        May 3, Hawaii's Kilauea Volcano erupted, belching ash into the sky and spewing fountains of lava in a residential area after a series of earthquakes over the last couple of days. Hundreds of people on the Big Island were ordered to evacuate their homes.
    (Reuters, 5/4/18)

2018        May 4, In Hawaii magnitude 6.9 temblor rocked the Big Island as the Kilauea volcano continued erupting.
    (AP, 5/6/18)

2018        May 6, Hawaiian officials said nearly 2,000 people on the Big Island have been evacuated from homes after lava eruptions destroyed five houses and sulfur dioxide gas threatened to harm anyone who stayed in the residential area.
    (Reuters, 5/6/18)

2018        May 7, In Hawaii emergency authorities battling lava flows and gas erupting from Kilauea volcano warned some residents to "go now" after a new fissure opened and more structures were destroyed.
    (Reuters, 5/7/18)

2018        May 12, In Hawaii a crack in pasture land on Kilauea's east flank was the 16th recorded since the US volcano, one of the world's most active, erupted on May 3. A 17th fissure opened later in the day.
    (AP, 5/13/18)

2018        May 20, A stream of lava blocked a Hawaii highway that serves as an escape route for coastal residents, while the first known serious injury was reported from fresh explosive eruptions from the Kilauea volcano.
    (Reuters, 5/20/18)

2018        May 25, A tide of molten rock turned a Hawaii street into a volcanic wasteland as the number of homes destroyed by the erupting Kilauea volcano soared and authorities told residents to flee a surge of lava heading towards them.
    (Reuters, 5/25/18)

2018        Jun 2, In Hawaii National Guard troops, police and firefighters ushered the last group of evacuees from homes on the eastern tip of the Big Island, hours before lava from the Kilauea volcano cut off road access to the area.
    (Reuters, 6/3/18)

2018        Jun 3, Guatemala's Fuego volcano, near the colonial city of Antigua, erupted sending a pyroclastic flow that engulfed the village of El Rodeo. At least 25 people were reported killed.
    (Reuters, 6/4/18)

2018        Jun 4, In Guatemala a hot flow of mud, ash and gas swept down from the Fuego volcano, after a new explosion in the morning interrupted disaster workers pulling bodies from the brown sludge known as a pyroclastic flow that engulfed the village of El Rodeo. The national disaster agency raised the death toll to 38 from 25.
    (Reuters, 6/4/18)

2018        Jun 7, The United States said it is sending emergency aid, including financial resources, to help meet food, water and sanitation needs for victims affected by the eruption of Guatemala's Volcano of Fire. Guatemalan officials have confirmed 99 dead, with many more missing.
    (AP, 6/7/18)

2018        Jun 9, In Guatemala the Volcano of Fire released a fresh flow of burning sediment almost a week after the initial eruption left at least 110 people dead and 200 about missing.
(SFC, 6/11/18, p.A2)

2018        Jun 28, In Indonesia the Mount Agung volcano on Bali shot ash 2,000 meters (6,600 feet) into the atmosphere, disrupting the travel plans of thousands as several airlines canceled flights from the tourist island.
    (AP, 6/28/18)

2018        Jul 2, Indonesia's Mount Agung volcano on the tourist island of Bali erupted this evening, ejecting a 2,000-meter-high (6,560-foot-high) column of thick ash and hurling lava down its slopes.
    (AP, 7/2/18)

2018        Aug 23, Mount Etna in Sicily roared back into spectacular volcanic action, sending up plumes of ash and spewing lava.
    (AP, 8/24/18)

2018        Aug 24, In Papua New Guinea a volcano erupted early today, forcing 2,000 villagers to flee from lava flows on Manam Island.
    (Reuters, 8/25/18)

2018        Oct 3, In Indonesia Mount Soputan on Sulawesi island spewed a massive column of ash more than 6,000 meters (19,700 feet) into the sky. The official death toll from the Sept. 28 earthquake and tsunami on Sulawesi increased to 1,407, with thousands injured and more than 70,000 displaced from their homes.
    (AP, 10/3/18)

2018        Nov 19, Nearly 4,000 people were evacuated from areas around Guatemala's Fuego volcano, which began violently erupting overnight.
    (Reuters, 11/19/18)

2018        Dec 16, In Indonesia Mount Soputan, located on the northern part of Sulawesi island, erupted twice. Local residents were urged to avoid activities near the mountain.
    (AP, 12/16/18)

2018        Dec 22, In Indonesia a deadly tsunami struck in the dark, without warning, killing at least 222 people late today along the Sunda Strait. The disaster followed an eruption and possible landslide on the volcanic island of Anak Krakatau. The death toll soon climbed to 373, with 128 missing and more than 1,400 injured.
    (AP, 12/23/18)(AP, 12/24/18)

2018        Dec 24, In Sicily lava and ash spewed from a new fracture on the active Mt. Etna volcano amid an unusually high level of seismic activity.
    (AP, 12/24/18)

2018        Dec 26, A magnitude 4.8 earthquake triggered by Mount Etna's eruption jolted eastern Sicily before dawn, injuring at least 10 people.
    (Reuters, 12/26/18)

2019        Feb 3, In Indonesia the 1,784-meter (5,853-foot) Mount Karangetang volcano located on Siau island of North Sulawesi province started spitting clouds of gas and lava.
    (AP, 2/5/19)

2019        May 25, In Indonesia Mount Agung volcano erupted overnight on the holiday island of Bali, causing some flight cancellations to and from Australia as an ash cloud rose into the sky.
    (Reuters, 5/25/19)

2019        Jun 26, Papua New Guinea's volatile Ulawun volcano, designated one of the world's most hazardous, erupted sending residents fleeing. Villagers living at the base of the volcano had already been evacuated.
    (AFP, 6/26/19)

2019        Jun 30, It was reported that two recent volcanic eruptions in Papua New Guinea (PNG) have forced 15,000 villagers in the country's northeast to flee their homes.
    (Reuters, 6/30/19)

2019        Jul 4, In Italy firefighters doused fires ignited by the eruption of the Stromboli volcano on the Sicilian island of Stromboli. One hiker was reported killed.
    (SFC, 7/5/19, p.A2)

2019        Dec 9, In New Zealand a volcano erupted on the White Island tourist spot. Six deaths were later confirmed after the eruption. Another eight people were believed to have died, with their bodies remaining on the ash-covered island for now. The death toll later rose to 19.
    (AP, 12/9/19)(AP, 12/10/19)(AP, 12/22/19)

2019        Dec 13, New Zealand military specialists wearing protective gear landed on the small volcanic White Island and recovered six bodies of the 16 people who died in an eruption four days earlier. Another recovery operation was planned for the last two bodies.
    (AP, 12/13/19)

2019        Dec 14, New Zealand police said another person has died from their injuries in the deadly volcanic eruption on New Zealand's White Island, bringing the confirmed fatalities to 15.
    (Good Morning America, 12/14/19)

2020        Jan 3, In Alaska Shishaldin Volcano in the Aleutian Islands, one of Alaska’s most active volcanoes, shot a cloud of ash more than 5 miles high, triggering a warning to aviators and putting on a show that was captured in satellite imagery.
    (Reuters, 1/3/20)

2020        Jan 12, In the Philippines clouds of ash from the Taal volcano reached Manila, 65 km (40 miles) to the north, forcing the shutdown of the country's main airport, with more than 500 flights canceled. Tens of thousands of people fled through heavy ash and frightening tremors, and authorities made plans to evacuate hundreds of thousands more for fear of a bigger eruption.
    (AP, 1/12/20)

2020        Jan 14, In the Philippines the Taal volcano near Manila spewed lava into the sky and trembled constantly Tuesday, possibly portending a bigger and more dangerous eruption, as tens of thousands of people fled villages darkened and blanketed by heavy ash.
    (AP, 1/14/20)

2020        Mar 3, Indonesia's Mount Merapi, the most active of the country's 500 volcanoes, erupted spewing pyroclastic material and sending as 19,680 feet.
    (SFC, 3/4/20, p.A2)

2020        Apr 10, Indonesia’s Anak Krakatau volcano began spewing lava into the sky in the longest eruption since the explosive collapse of the island caused a deadly tsunami in 2018.
    (AP, 4/11/20)

2020        Jun 21, Indonesia's most active volcano spewed ash and hot gas as high as 3.7 miles. Mt. Merapi last erupted in 2010 killing 353 people.
    (SFC, 6/22/20, p.A2)

2020        Dec 20, The Kilauea volcano on Hawaii's Big Island erupted late today, followed by magnitude 4.4 earthquake that struck at the volcano's south flank.
    (Reuters, 12/21/20)

2021        Jan 7, Indonesia's Mount Merapi volcano spewed avalanches of hot clouds morning as hundreds more residents were evacuated from its fertile slopes.
    (AP, 1/7/21)

2021        Jan 16, Mount Semeru, the highest volcano on Indonesia’s most densely populated island of Java, spewed hot clouds as far away as 4.5 km (nearly 3 miles).
    (AP, 1/16/21)

2021        Jan 27, Indonesia’s Mount Merapi erupted with a river of lava and searing gas clouds flowing 3,000 meters (nearly 10,000 feet) down its slopes. No casualties were reported.
    (AP, 1/27/21)

2021        Mar 7, Italy’s national geophysics and volcanology institute INGV said the powerful explosion of Mt. Etna at 2 a.m. was the 10th such big blast since Feb. 16, when Europe's most active volcano started giving off an impressive demonstration of nature's fire power.
    (AP, 3/7/21)

2021        Mar 19, In Iceland the Fagradalsfjall volcano awoke from a slumber that has lasted about 6,000 years. A long-dormant volcano on the Reykjanes Peninsula in southwest Iceland flared to life after tens of thousands of earthquakes were recorded in the area in the past three weeks. It was the area’s first volcanic eruption in nearly 800 years.
    (AP, 4/5/21)(AP, 5/15/21)

2021        May 22, In CongoDRC Mount Nyiragongo erupted. Tens of thousands of people fled the eastern city of Goma late today when lava began to spew from the flanks of the volcano. At least 32 people were killed amid chaos in Goma. Residents of Buhene returned early the next day to find that their homes had been swallowed by a river of lava, about half a mile wide. Nearly 500,000 people were left without clean drinking water after the volcano erupted.
    (NY Times, 5/23/21)(AP, 5/23/21)(AP, 5/24/21)(SSFC, 5/30/21, p.B8)(BBC, 6/2/21)

2021        May 27, It was reported that tens of thousands of people have been evacuated from the city of Goma in the Democratic Republic of Congo over fears of another volcanic eruption.
    (BBC, 5/27/21)

2021        Jul 2, The Philippines raised an alert to level three on a 5-level scale after the Taal Volcano, near Manila, blasted a dark gray plume into the sky a day earlier. Level 3 means magma is near or at the surface. Thousands of people were evacuated from villages near the volcano.
    (SFC, 7/3/21, p.A3)

2021        Aug 9, A volcanic eruption on Indonesia’s turbulent Mount Merapi churned and boiled, sending renewed flows of lava and ash down its slopes for a second day.
    (AP, 8/9/21)

2021        Sep 19, A volcano erupted on the Spanish Canary Island of La Palma, sending fountains of lava and a plume of smoke and ash into the air from the Cumbre Vieja national park in the south of the island.
    (Reuters, 9/19/21)

2021        Sep 21, In the Canary Islands families rushed to retrieve belongings from their homes and escape the advancing lava, as sirens sounded and helicopters flew overhead in air filled with smoke from an erupting volcano on the Spanish island of La Palma.
    (Reuters, 9/21/21)

2021        Sep 22, In the Canary Islands lava flowed from an erupting volcano on the island of La Palma for a fourth day, forcing more people to evacuate their homes and blanketing towns in ash, while residents struggled to come to terms with the destruction. The Cumbre Vieja volcano has now destroyed at least 150 houses and forced thousands of people to flee.
    (Reuters, 9/22/21)

2021        Sep 23, In the Canary Islands a huge cloud of toxic ash drifted from the Cumbre Vieja volcano toward the mainland and jeopardized La Palma's economically crucial banana crops.
    (Reuters, 9/23/21)

2021        Sep 25, In the Canary Islands volcanic explosions spewed red hot lava high into the air on La Palma as a new emission vent opened, forcing the small Spanish island to close its airport and causing long queues for boats off the island.
    (Reuters, 9/25/21)

2021        Sep 26, In the Canary Islands a massive cloud of ash prevented flights in and out of the Spanish island of La Palma as molten rock continued to be flung high into the air from an erupting volcano.
    (Reuters, 9/26/21)

2021        Sep 27, In the Canary Islands the Cumbre Vieja volcano on La Palma island began ejecting ash and smoke again after a brief lull, while hundreds of people in coastal villages were locked down in anticipation of the lava reaching the sea and releasing toxic gas.
    (Reuters, 9/27/21)

2021        Sep 30, Hawaii's Kilauea volcano, in its first eruption in nearly a year, was filling the crater at its summit with hot red lava and clouding the skies with volcanic smog.
    (Reuters, 9/30/21)

2021        Oct 1, In the Canary Islands lava flowed from a newly opened crack in the Cumbre Vieja volcano on La Palma island, carving a different path from previous flows and raising fears of more destruction, while fine ash forced islanders to don masks and goggles.
    (Reuters, 10/1/21)

2021        Oct 9, In the Canary Islands buildings near the volcano on the Spanish island of La Palma were engulfed by rivers of lava. Since the Cumbre Vieja volcano began erupting on Sept. 19 it has destroyed nearly 1,150 buildings and engulfed 480 hectares (1,190 acres) of land.
    (Reuters, 10/9/21)

2021        Oct 12, In the Canary Islands over 700 residents were ordered to abandon their homes on the Spanish island of La Palma as red-hot lava advanced towards their neighborhood. A day earlier Lava gushing from the volcano engulfed a cement plant.
    (Reuters, 10/12/21)

2021        Oct 14, In the Canary Islands around 300 more people fled their homes early today as flows of molten rock pouring from the Cumbre Vieja volcano threatened to engulf another area on the island of La Palma. A 4.5-magnitude earthquake shook La Palma overnight.
    (Reuters, 10/14/21)(AP, 10/14/21)

2021        Oct 17, In the Canary Islands 42 seismic movements were recorded on the island of la Palma, the largest of which measured 4.3. President Angel Víctor Torres said there is no immediate end in sight to the volcanic eruption that has caused chaos on the island.
    (Reuters, 10/17/21)

2021        Oct 20, In Japan the Mount Aso volcano erupted on the main southern island of Kyushu, blasting ash several miles into the sky and prompting officials to warn against the threat of lava flows and falling rocks, but there were no reports of injuries or casualties.
    (Reuters, 10/20/21)

2021        Nov 14, It was reported that floating pumice spewed last August from an undersea volcano in Japan's Ogasawara Islands has damaged boats and ports as far north as Okinawa and Kyushu.
    (SFC, 11/14/21, p.A24)

2021        Dec 4, The Semeru volcano on the Indonesian island of Java erupted, killing one person, injuring at least 35 and trapping some people in buildings as it spewed out huge clouds of smoke and ash.
    (Reuters, 12/4/21)

2021        Dec 6, Indonesia's Mt. Semeru volcano was active again, spewing out hot clouds of ash, two days after a powerful eruption killed at least 34 people and left dozens missing.
    (Reuters, 12/6/21)(Reuters, 12/7/21)

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