US Presidents (B): LBJ to GW Bush

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Presidents of the US:

1908        Aug 27, Lyndon B. Johnson, the 36th president of the United States (1963-1969), was born near Stonewall, Texas.
    (AP, 8/27/97)(HN, 8/27/98)
1911        May 27, Hubert Humphrey, senator, was born. He served as VP (1965-69) to Lyndon Johnson (38th VP), and was a presidential candidate in 1968. "The greatest gift of life is friendship and I have received it."
    (HN, 5/27/98)(AP, 2/28/01)(MC, 5/27/02)
1912        Dec 22, Claudia "Lady Bird" Johnson, wife of President Lyndon Baines Johnson, was born.
    (HN, 12/22/98)
1934        Nov 17, Lyndon Baines Johnson married Claudia Alta Taylor, better known as "Lady Bird," in San Antonio, Texas.
    (AP, 11/17/07)
1943        Lady Bird Johnson purchased KTBC, a low-powered radio station in Texas. The Federal Communications Commission, which reviewed all broadcast-license transfers, was close to being abolished. Congressman Lyndon Johnson used his political influence in both Congress and the White House to prevent that from happening. In 1945 the FCC OK'd KTBC's request to quintuple its power, which cast its signal over 63 counties.
    (Econ, 7/21/07, p.85)(
1963        Nov 23, President Johnson proclaimed Nov. 25 a day of national mourning as JFK's body lay in repose in East Room of White House.
    (AP, 11/23/01)(MC, 11/23/01)
1964        Jan 3, Barry Goldwater announced that he was a candidate for the U.S. Presidency. He lost to Lyndon B. Johnson: 43,126,506 to 27,176,799.
    (440 Int'l. 1/3/99)
1964        Jan 8, President Johnson declared a "War on Poverty" in his State of the Union address.
    (AP, 1/8/08)
1964            Jan 10, Pres. Johnson held a meeting with Sec. of Defense Robert McNamara after which he approved covert operations against North Vietnam [see Jan 16].
    (SFEC, 8/17/97, BR p.9)
1964            Jan 16, Pres. Johnson approved OPLAN 34A-64, calling for stepped up infiltration and covert operations against North Vietnam to be transferred from the Central Intelligence Agency (CIA) to the military."
1964        Mar 15, LBJ asked for a War on Poverty and for Congress to ensure everybody's right to vote. [see Mar 16]
    (MC, 3/15/02)
1964        Mar 16, LBJ submitted a $1billion war on poverty program to Congress. [see Mar 15]
    (HN, 3/16/98)
1964        Apr 22, President Johnson opened the 1964-1965 New York World's Fair in Queens. It featured the futuristic Unisphere and a house made of formica. Ken Kesey and 14 Merry Pranksters drove to the fair in a 1939 Intl. Harvester school bus with Neal Cassidy driving. The trip was immortalized in "The Electric Kool-Aid Acid Test" by Tom Wolfe in 1968.
    (TMC, 1994, p.1964)(AP, 4/22/97)(SFEM, 2/22/98, p.34)(WSJ, 1/22/99, p.W10)(SFC, 1/21/14, p.A1)
1964        May 22, Pres. Johnson (LBJ) presented his Great Society speech at the Univ. of Mich.
1964        Jun 19, The Civil Rights Act of 1964 survived an 83-day filibuster in the US Senate, and was approved by a vote of 73-27. Pres. Johnson passed the Civil Rights Act that guaranteed the vote for everyone and that prohibited segregation in public places. Sex was added to Title VII of the Civil Rights Act and outlawed discrimination on the basis of sex in the labor market.
    (TMC, 1994, p.1964)(LSA, Spg/97, p.19)(AP, 6/19/06)
1964        Jul 2, President Johnson signed into law a sweeping civil rights bill passed by Congress. It guaranteed voting rights and equal access to public accommodations and education.
    (AP, 7/2/97)(SSFC, 6/9/02, p.F5)
1964        Jul 15, The Republican National Convention was held in SF. It elected Barry Goldwater as its presidential candidate. John Chancellor was ejected from the convention for blocking an aisle during a demonstration by the delegates. Here Goldwater proclaimed "Extremism in defense of liberty is no vice."
    (SFC, 7/13/96, p.A5)(WSJ, 8/5/96, p.A10)(AP, 7/15/97)
1964        Jul 27, President Lyndon Johnson sent an additional 5,000 advisers to South Vietnam.
    (HN, 7/27/98)
1964        Aug 4, Pres. Johnson ordered an immediate retaliation for the Aug 2 attack on the US destroyer Maddux in the Gulf of Tonkin.
    (SSFC, 6/9/02, p.F5)
1964        Aug 7, Congress passed the Gulf of Tonkin resolution, giving President Johnson broad powers in dealing with reported North Vietnamese attacks on U.S. forces. It allowed the president to use unlimited military force to prevent attacks on U.S. forces. U.S. Senators Wayne Morse of Oregon and Ernest Gruening of Alaska share the distinction of casting the only votes against the Gulf of Tonkin Resolution. The resolution supported President Lyndon Johnson's military actions against North Vietnam in retaliation for its attack on a U.S. spy ship in the Tonkin Gulf. The resolution passed in the House 414-0 and the Senate 88-2. The resolution, which amounted to a declaration of war, was repealed by Congress on January 13, 1971.
    (AP, 8/7/97)(HNQ, 6/24/98)(HN, 8/7/98)
1964        Aug 20, President Johnson signed the Economic Opportunity Act, a nearly $1 billion anti-poverty measure.
    (AP, 8/20/07)
1964        Aug 26, President Johnson was nominated for a term of office in his own right at the Democratic National Convention in Atlantic City, N.J.
    (AP, 8/26/97)
1964        Sep 3, Pres. Johnson signed the Wilderness Act and designated 9 million acres as an area "where the Earth and its community of life are untrammeled by man, where man himself is a visitor who does not remain." It allowed for roadless federal lands to qualify for wilderness protection. In 1999 the act sheltered over 100 million acres. Conservationists stopped a dam in Echo Park in Dinosaur National Monument and persuaded Congress to pass the Wilderness Act to provide permanent protection to wilderness areas.
    (NG, May 1985, p.669)(SFC, 8/6/93, p.C4)(SFEC, 8/29/99, Z1 p.6)
1964        Nov 3, President Johnson, the 36th president, soundly defeated Republican challenger Barry Goldwater to win a White House term. Johnson won over 61% of the vote with 486 electoral votes to Goldwaters 52.
    (AP, 11/3/97)(SFC, 5/30/98, p.A3)(HN, 11/3/98)
1965        Jan 4, President Johnson outlined the goals of his "Great Society" in his State of the Union address. The "Great Society" was to be achieved through a vast program that included an attack on diseases, a doubling of the war on poverty, greater enforcement of Civil Rights Law, immigration law reform and greater support of education.
    (AP, 1/4/98)(HNQ, 9/11/99)
1965        Feb 7, U.S. jets hit Don Hoi guerrilla base in reprisal for the Viet Cong raids. Pres. Johnson ordered the bombing of North Vietnam following the deaths of 9 US soldiers near Pleiku.
    (HN, 2/7/99)(SFEC, 4/23/00, p.A19)
1965        Feb 8, Pres. Lyndon B. Johnson called for the development and protection of a balanced system of trails to help protect and enhance the quality of the outdoor experience.
    (PCTA, 4/08)
1965        Feb 11, Pres. Lyndon Johnson ordered air strikes against targets in North Vietnam, in retaliation for guerrilla attacks on the American military in South Vietnam. The American "Rolling Thunder" bombing campaign intensified.
    (HN, 2/11/02)
1965        Mar 9, Pres. Johnson signed the Appalachian Regional Development Act into law.
    (, 3/21/15, p.21)
1965        Mar 15, Addressing a joint session of Congress, President Johnson called for new legislation to guarantee every American's right to vote. His speech was written by Richard Goodwin. In 2007 Garth E. Pauley authored LBJs American Promise: the 1965 Voting Rights Address.
    (AP, 3/15/97)(WSJ, 4/12/08, p.W8)(AH, 10/07, p.65)
1965        Mar 20, Lyndon B. Johnson ordered 4,000 troops to protect the Selma-Montgomery civil rights marchers.
    (HN, 3/20/98)
1965        Apr 6, President Lyndon B. Johnson authorized the use of ground troops in combat operations.
    (HN, 4/6/99)
1965        Jun 8, President Lyndon B. Johnson authorized commanders in Vietnam to commit U.S. ground forces to combat.
    (HN, 6/8/98)
1965        Jun 28, Pres. Johnson authorized the1st US ground combat forces in Vietnam. [see Jun 8]
    (MC, 6/28/02)
1965        Jul 27, Pres. Johnson signed a bill requiring cigarette makers to print health warnings on all cigarette packages about the effects of smoking.
    (MC, 7/27/02)
1965        Jul 28, President Johnson announced he was increasing the number of American troops in South Vietnam to 175,000 "almost immediately."
    (HN, 7/28/98)(AP, 7/28/08)
1965        Jul 30, President Johnson signed into law the Medicare bill, which went into effect the following year. John W. Gardner (d.2002), a member of Johnsons cabinet, was responsible for starting Medicare. A statute required coverage of items that were reasonable and necessary.
    (AP, 7/30/97)(SFC, 2/18/02, p.A6)(WSJ, 7/16/03, p.A1)
1965        Aug 6, The Voting Rights Act of 1965 was passed and signed by President Johnson. It outlawed the literacy test for voting eligibility in the South. It was later used to justify drawing some congressional districts that would make the architects of South Africa's apartheid blush. In 1995 Roberts and Stratton authored "The New Color Line: How Quotas and Privilege Destroy Democracy."
    (WSJ, 10/26/95, p.A-20)(HFA, '96, p.36)(AP, 8/6/97)(HN, 8/6/98)
1965        Sep 22, Pres. Johnson designated Columbus Day a federal public holiday to be celebrated on Oct. 12. In 1968 He moved it to the 2nd Monday of October. In 2004 Pres. Bush set it to Oct 11.
1965        Oct 3, US Pres. Lyndon Johnson signed the Immigration and Nationality Act into law, sweeping away a system that favored white Europeans over other races. It abolished quotas by national origin and allowed nearly 300,000 immigrants per year.
    (SFEC, 9/20/98, Z1 p.6)(Econ, 10/3/15, p.23)
1965        Oct 8, US Pres. Lyndon Johnson underwent gall bladder surgery. It was later reported that he spiraled into depression following the surgery and talked to his wife of retreating into seclusion back home.
    (, 3/14/21, p.A17)
1965        Nov 8, The US Higher Education Act became law. It was intended to strengthen the educational resources of US colleges and universities and to provide financial assistance to students in postsecondary and higher education. The student loan system was part of Lyndon Johnsons Great Society program.
    (, 8/4/07, p.28)   
1965        Dec 29, A Christmas truce was observed in Vietnam, while President Johnson tried to get the North Vietnamese to the bargaining table.
    (HN, 12/29/98)
1966        Feb 11, Vice President Hubert Humphrey began a tour of Vietnam.
    (HN, 2/11/97)
1966        Mar 30, President Johnson asked Congress for authority to ship to India 3.5 million tons of bread grains, 200,000 tons of corn, 150 million pounds of vegetable oils, and 125 million pounds of milk powder.
1966        Apr 23, President Lyndon Johnson publicly appeals for "more flags" (foreign countries) to come to the aid of South Vietnam.
    (HN, 4/23/00)
1966        Nov 8, Pres. Johnson signed anti-trust immunity to AFL-NFL merger.
    (MC, 11/8/01)
1966        Pres. Johnson gave Waterloo, NY, the distinction of holding the 1st Memorial Day on May 5, 1866. On Apr 13, 1862, volunteers led by Sarah J. Evans paid homage to the graves of Civil War soldiers in the Washington area.
    (SFC, 5/26/03, p.A2)
1966        Pres. Johnson named Lim Poon Lee as postmaster of San Francisco. To date this was the highest federally appointed position ever held by a Chinese American.
    (SFC, 11/5/09, p.C3)
1967        Feb 22, Barbara Garson's "MacBird!," a notorious counterculture drama, premiered in NYC. It satirically depicted President Lyndon Johnson as Macbeth and his wife, Lady Bird Johnson, as Lady Macbeth.
1967        Mar 6, US Pres. Lyndon B. Johnson announced his plan to establish a draft lottery.
1967        Mar 31, President Lyndon Johnson signed the Consular Treaty, the first bi-lateral pact with the Soviet Union since the Bolshevik Revolution.
1967        Jun 23, President Lyndon Johnson and Soviet Premier Alexi Kosygin began a 3-day meeting at Glassboro State College in New Jersey to talk through similarly turbulent times following the Six-Day War between Israel and Arab states.
    (AP, 6/23/07)(AP, 6/24/17)
1967        Jul 27, In the wake of urban rioting, President Johnson appointed the Kerner Commission to assess the causes of the violence. The same day, black militant H. Rap Brown said violence was "as American as cherry pie."
    (AP, 7/27/97)
1967        Aug 3, President Lyndon B. Johnson announced plans to send 45,000 more troops to Vietnam.
    (HN, 8/3/98)
1967        Oct, Pres. Johnson named Edward M. Korry (d.2003 at 81) to serve as the US ambassador to Chile. Korry served until 1971 and was kept ignorant by the Nixon administration of plans for a coup.
    (SFC, 2/1/03, p.A19)
1967        Nov 21, President Lyndon B. Johnson signed the Air Quality Act, allotting $428 million for the fight against pollution.
    (HN, 11/21/98)(AP, 11/21/07)
1967        Nov 27, Lyndon Johnson appointed Robert McNamara to the presidency of the World Bank. McNamara served 2 terms from 1968-1981.
    (HN, 11/27/98)(SFC, 9/28/99, p.C16)
1967        Nov 30, Sen. Eugene McCarthy began a run for US presidency.
    (MC, 11/30/01)
1967        Dec 23, President Johnson, on his way home from a visit to Southeast Asia, held an unprecedented meeting with Pope Paul VI at the Vatican.
    (AP, 12/23/07)
1968        Mar 12, President Lyndon Johnson won the New Hampshire Democratic primary, but a strong second-place showing by anti-war Senator Eugene McCarthy of Minnesota played a role in Johnson's decision not to seek re-election. Johnson won over Eugene McCarthy 49.6 to 41.9%. Republican Richard Nixon won the New Hampshire primary over Nelson Rockefeller 77.6 to 10.8%.
    (SSFC, 1/25/04, p.A19)(AP, 3/12/08)
1968        Mar 16, LBJ decided to send 35-50,000 more troops to Vietnam.
    (HN, 3/16/98)
1968        Mar 18, Pres. Johnson signed Public Law 90-269 removing gold backing from US paper money.
1968        Mar 22, Gen'l. William Westmoreland (1914-2005) was relieved of his duties in the wake of the Tet disaster. Troop strength under Westmoreland had reached over 500,000 and he wanted more. He was succeeded by Gen'l. Creighton Abrams. Abrams reversed Westmoreland's strategy. He ended major "search and destroy" missions and focused on protecting population centers. William Colby took charge of the pacification campaign. President Lyndon B. Johnson named Gen. William C. Westmoreland to be the Army's new Chief of Staff.
    (HN, 3/22/97)(WSJ, 6/23/99, p.A24)(Econ, 7/30/05, p.79)(AP, 3/22/08)
1968        Mar 20, Pres. Lyndon Johnson held talks with Paraguays Pres.-Gen. Alfredo Stroessner in Washington DC.
    (Econ, 2/14/04, p.34)(
1968        Mar 31, Pres. Johnson announced that he would not run for re-election and declared a partial bombing halt in Vietnam. The stock market soared. Citing national divisions over the war in Vietnam, Johnson declares that "I shall not seek, and I will not accept, the nomination of my party for another term as your president."
    (WUD, 1994, p.1687)(TMC, 1994, p.1968)(SFC, 8/18/96, Z1 p.4)(AP, 3/31/97)
1968        Apr 10, President Johnson replaced General Westmoreland with General Creighton Abrams in Vietnam [see Mar 22].
    (HN, 4/10/98)
1968        Apr 11, President Johnson signed into law the Civil Rights Act of 1968, a week after the assassination of Martin Luther King Jr. This included a Fair Housing Act and the Indian Civil Rights Act, which limited sentences that tribes could hand down on any charge to six months. In 1968 Congress increased the maximum to one year.
    (, 4/11/98)(SFC, 2/20/98, p.A23)(WSJ, 6/12/07, p.A14)
1968        May 29, Pres. Johnson signed the Truth in Lending Act into law.
1968        Jun 13, US Supreme Court Chief Justice Earl Warren (1891-1974) submitted his resignation to Pres. Johnson.
1968        Jun 26, President Johnson read and released Supreme Court Chief Justice Earl Warren's two June 13 letters, his June 26 reply, and announced that he had named Associate Justice Abe Fortas to succeed Warren.
    (AP, 6/26/98)(
1968        Jun 28, Pres. Johnson signed the Uniform Monday Holiday Act. It moved official recognition of Washingtons birthday and some other holidays to Mondays. Columbus Day, previously celebrated on Oct. 12, was moved to the 2nd Monday of October. In 2004 Pres. Bush set it to Oct 11.
    (, 2/21/05, p.A7)
1968        Aug 28, In Chicago, Ill., Vice-President Hubert Horatio Humphrey was nominated by the Democrats for US Presidency on the first ballot. Riots broke out outside the Democratic National Convention as police and anti-war demonstrators clashed in the streets.
    (WUD, 1994, p.1687) (TMC, 1994, p.1968)(Hem, 8/96, p.86-88)(AP, 8/28/97)
1968        Oct 1, The US Senate refused to shut down a filibuster against President Lyndon B. Johnson's nomination of Abe Fortas to be US chief justice. Fortas withdrew the next day.
    (AP, 10/1/08)
1968        Oct 2, Pres. Johnson established Redwood National Park in northern California under Public Law 90-545. Congress created the Redwood National Park in California at a cost of $306 million. Large portions of the Arcata Redwood Corp. lands were detached to form sections of Redwood National Park. The land was initially assembled by Michigan timber baron Arthur Hill. His son, Harry Hill, built the French Renaissance townhouse that is now the Italian consulate.
    (,_United_States)(SFC, 9/9/97, p.A19)(SFEC, 12/5/99, p.T1)
1968        Oct 2, Pres. Johnson signed a bill establishing Washington states North Cascades National Park.
    (SSFC, 7/18/04, p.D7)(
1968        Oct 2, The 2,650-mile Pacific Crest Trail, spanning Mexico to Canada, was designated a National Scenic Trail as part of the US National Trails System Act.
    (SFC, 7/16/08, p.E2)(
1968        Oct 22, Pres. Johnson signed the Gun Control Act of 1968. It regulated firearms above .50-caliber as destructive devices and required registration and owners fingerprints. It also banned the sale of handguns to those under 21. Enforcement was up to the Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco and Firearms (BATF). It barred the import of assault weapons even if they were reconfigured if they were not found to have legitimate "sporting purposes." In the wake of the Kennedy and King assassinations the US Congress expanded gun ownership prohibitions to include dishonorably discharged veterans and other groups.
    (WSJ, 3/24/97, p.A12)(SFC,10/17/97, p.A4)(, 12/16/03, p.A4)(Econ, 12/4/10, p.44)
1968        Pres. Johnson set Columbus Day, previously celebrated on Oct. 12, to be held on the 2nd Monday of October. In 2004 Pres. Bush set it to Oct 11.
1969        Eric F. Goldman (1915-1989), American historian, authored "The Tragedy of Lyndon Johnson."
    (SFC, 6/2/00, p.D4)(
2002        Robert A. Caro authored "Lyndon Johnson: Master of the Senate," the 3rd volume of his 4-Vol. biography of Johnson that included "The Path to Power" (1982) and "Means of Ascent" (1990). Caro published Volume 4, the Passage of Power, in 2012.
    (WSJ, 5/1/02, p.D7)(SSFC, 5/5/02, p.M2)(Econ, 5/5/12, p.80)

#37 Richard Nixon (1969-1974)

1913        Jan 9, Richard Milhous Nixon, 37th president of the United States (1968-1974) and first President to resign from office, was born in Yorba Linda, Calif.
    (HN, 1/9/98)(AP, 1/9/08)
1918        Nov 9, Spiro Agnew (d.Sep 17, 1996) was born. He later became governor of Maryland and 39th vice-president of the US under Nixon (1968-1973) until convicted of tax evasion.
    (SFC, 9/18/96, p.A7)(HN, 11/9/98)
1925        Mar 20, John Ehrlichman, Watergate conspirator, was born in Tacoma, Wa. He served Pres. Nixon as White House counsel and then domestic advisor and played a key role in creating the Environmental Protection Agency, passing the Clean Water Act, the Clean Air Act, the Endangered Species Act and the National Environmental Policy Act.
    (HN, 3/20/98)(SFC, 2/16/99, p.A18)
1934        Richard Nixon graduated from Whittier College.
    (SSFC, 8/8/04, p.B5)
1937        Richard Nixon graduated from Duke Univ. School of Law.
    (SSFC, 8/8/04, p.B5)
1939        May 12, Ronald Ziegler, press secretary to Pres. Nixon, was born.
    (MC, 5/12/02)
1940        Jun 21, Richard Nixon married Thelma Catharine (Pat) Ryan.
    (SSFC, 8/8/04, p.B5)
1942-46    Richard Nixon served in the US Navy.
    (SSFC, 8/8/04, p.B5)
1946        Richard Nixon was elected to the US House of Representatives.
    (SSFC, 8/8/04, p.B5)
1948        Richard Nixon was re-elected to the US House of Representatives.
    (SSFC, 8/8/04, p.B5)
1950        Nov 7, Richard Nixon won a seat in the US Senate.
    (SSFC, 6/9/02, p.F2)
1952        Sep 23, Republican vice-presidential candidate Richard M. Nixon went on television to deliver what came to be known as the "Checkers" speech as he refuted allegations of improper campaign financing. Nixon denied that he maintained a private slush fund and all financial allegations except for the gift of a cocker spaniel dog named Checkers from a Texan who heard that his daughters wanted a puppy. Some 30 million television viewers watched as Nixon, Dwight Eisenhowers running mate in the upcoming presidential elections, made a plea for sympathy and vindication in light of charges he was living a lifestyle beyond the means of his $12,500 Senate salary. In 1997 plans were underway to exhume the dog and rebury it near the former president.
    (TMC, 1994, p.1952)(SFC, 4/28/97, p.A5)(AP, 9/23/97)(HNQ, 10/12/99)
1953        Nov 19, US VP Richard Nixon visited Hanoi.
    (MC, 11/19/01)
1956        Richard Nixon was re-elected as vice president.
    (SSFC, 8/8/04, p.B5)
1958        Apr 28, Vice President Richard Nixon and his wife, Pat, began a goodwill tour of Latin America that was marred by hostile mobs in Lima, Peru, and Caracas, Venezuela.
    (AP, 4/28/99)
1958        May 15, Vice President Richard Nixon received a hero's welcome on his return from a violence-marred tour of Latin America.
    (AP, 5/15/08)
1959        Jul 23, Vice President Richard M. Nixon flew to Moscow to open the US Trade and Cultural Fair in Sokolniki Park, organized as a goodwill gesture by the USSR.
    (MC, 7/23/02)
1959        Jul 24, During a visit to the Soviet Union, VP Richard M. Nixon got into a "kitchen debate" with Soviet leader Nikita Khrushchev at a US exhibition. Nixon correctly said that the $100-a-month mortgage for the model ranch house was well within the reach of a typical American steelworker.
    (AP, 7/24/97)(Econ, 5/26/07, p.33)
1960        Feb 18, The Eighth Winter Olympic Games were formally opened in Squaw Valley, Calif., by Vice President Nixon. A drought of snow ended 2 days before the start of the games.
    (AP, 2/18/98)(SSFC, 1/3/10, p.A13)
1960        Jul 27, Vice President Nixon was nominated for president at the Republican national convention in Chicago. 
    (AP, 7/27/00)
1960        Jul 28, Republican National convention selected Richard Nixon.
    (SC, 7/28/02)
1960        Sep 13, VP Richard Nixon campaigned in San Francisco and 40,000 came to Union Square as he promised to keep the US military as the strongest in the world.
    (SSFC, 9/12/10, DB p.50)
1960        Richard Nixon lost the US presidential election to John F. Kennedy.
    (SSFC, 8/8/04, p.B5)
1961        Sep 28, Richard Nixon jumped into the race for governor of California and said he would not run for president in 1964.
    (SSFC, 9/25/11, DB p.42)
1962        Nov 6, Edmund G. "Pat" Brown was re-elected as democratic governor over Richard Nixon by some 300,000 votes.
    (SFC, 10/17/96, C2)(SFEM, 11/17/96, p.18)(SFEC, 12/6/98, p.A1)
1968        Feb 1, Richard M. Nixon announced his bid for the Republican presidential nomination.
    (AP, 2/1/08)
1968        Republican Richard Nixon won the New Hampshire primary over Nelson Rockefeller 77.6 to 10.8%. Democrat Lyndon Johnson won over Eugene McCarthy 49.6 to 41.9%.
    (SSFC, 1/25/04, p.A19)
1968        Aug 5, The Republican national convention convened in Miami Beach. Ronald Reagan announced that he would seek the GOP nomination for president. He soon threw his support to Nixon.
    (AP, 8/5/08)(SSFC, 6/9/02, p.F6)(SSFC, 6/6/04, A16)
1968        Aug 8, Richard M. Nixon was nominated for president at the Republican National Convention in Miami Beach. Later that day, Nixon chose Maryland Gov. Spiro T. Agnew to be his running mate.
    (AP, 8/8/97)
1968        Sep 16, Republican presidential nominee Richard Nixon exclaimed, "Sock it to ME?" in a taped bit for the NBC-TV comedy program "Rowan & Martin's Laugh-In."
    (AP, 9/16/08)
1968        Nov 5, Richard M. Nixon was elected the 37th US President with Spiro Agnew as vice-president. He defeated Vice President Hubert H. Humphrey and third-party candidate George C. Wallace
    (WUD, 1994, p.1687)(TMC, 1994, p.1968)(AP, 11/5/97)(HN, 11/5/98)
1968        Dec 2, Pres Nixon named Henry Kissinger (b.1923) security advisor.
1968        Richard Nixon (1913-1994) was given the mood-altering prescription drug Dilantin by Jack Dreyfus, founder of the Dreyfus Fund.
    (SFEC, 8/27/00, p.A6)(
1969        Jan 5, President Nixon appointed Henry Cabot Lodge as negotiator at the Paris Peace Talks.
    (HN, 1/5/99)
1969        Jan 7, US Congress doubled the presidents salary.
    (MC, 1/7/02)
1969        Jan 20, Richard Nixon in his first inaugural address proclaimed that Americans "cannot learn from one another until we stop shouting at one another." He also said: "the greatest honor history can bestow is the title of peacemaker. This honor now beckons America."
    (HNQ, 6/30/98)(SSFC, 6/9/02, p.F6)
1969        Feb 23, Pres. Nixon ordered plans for the secret bombing of Cambodia.
    (, 4/23/00, p.A19)
1969        Feb 27, President Nixon arrived in Rome from West Berlin amid protests by thousands of students.
1969        Mar 18, President Richard M. Nixon authorized Operation Menu, the 'secret' bombing of Cambodia [see Feb 23].
1969        Jul 25, The Nixon Doctrine was put forth in a press conference in Guam, in which he stated that the US henceforth expected its Asian allies to take care of their own military defense [see Nov 3, 1969].
1969         Aug 2, Richard Nixon visited Romania becoming the first president to visit a communist nation since the start of the Cold War.
    (HNQ, 11/20/01)(
1969        Sep 16, President Nixon ordered the withdrawal of 35,000 soldiers from Vietnam and reduced the number required to be drafted.
1969        Oct 13-25, Pres. Nixon ordered a worldwide "secret" nuclear alert to scare the Soviets into forcing concessions from North Vietnam. Nixon called that tactic a "madman strategy," and it did not work.
    (SFC, 12/25/02, p.A7)
1969        Nov 3, Pres. Nixon elaborated his Nixon Doctrine in a televised speech. He stated that the US henceforth expected its Asian allies to take care of their own military defense. At the end of the speech, Nixon asked for the support of the "great silent majority" of Americans. This was the start of the "Vietnamization" of the Vietnam War. The Doctrine argued for the pursuit of peace through a partnership with American allies [see Jul 25, 1969].
1969        Nov 12, The US Army admitted to the 1968 Vietnam massacre of civilians at My Lai and announced an investigation of Lt William Calley for massacre of civilians at the Vietnamese village on March 16, 1968. The number of civilians who were killed numbered at least 100. Lt. Calley was later found guilty of murder, and sentenced to life imprisonment at hard labor. Calley was the only person ever charged in connection with the events at My Lai. The nation was shocked and divided by the claims from Calley that he was following orders and that he was a scapegoat. President Richard Nixon in 1971 ordered him released from prison and placed under house arrest, and finally a federal judge threw out all charges against Calley and ordered him freed. Although the charges were later re-instated on appeal, he served no more jail time for the massacre at My Lai.
    (SFEC, 4/23/00, p.A19)(MC, 11/12/01)
1969        Nov 13, Speaking in Des Moines, Iowa, Vice President Spiro T. Agnew accused network television news departments of bias and distortion, and urged viewers to lodge complaints.
    (AP, 11/13/97)
1969        Nov 20, The Nixon administration announced a halt to residential use of the pesticide DDT as part of a total phase-out.
    (AP, 11/20/97)
1969        Nov 25, Pres. Nixon announced an unconditional renunciation of biological weapons.
    (SFC, 2/19/00, p.A14)(
1969        Nov 26, Pres. Nixon signed Executive Order 11497, the Lottery for Selective Service draftees.
1969        Dec 15, President Nixon announced the third round of Vietnam withdrawals.
1969        Dec 30, Pres. Nixon signed the Tax Reform Act of 1969. The US Congress had enacted legislation that created a minimum tax (later known as the Alternative Minimum Tax, AMT) after the IRS revealed that about 155 high-income households had paid no tax in 1966. It was part of the Tax Reform Act of 1969 and became operative in 1970. The AMT was designed to make sure everyone pays some tax.
    (, 12/14/05, p.A1)
1969-1974    Richard Nixon (1913-1994) served as the 37th President of the US. He was forced to resign in 1974 and his Vice-President Gerald Ford assumed the office of president.
    (SFEC, 5/11/97, p.T8,9)(
1970        Jan 19, President Nixon nominated G. Harrold Carswell to the Supreme Court, but the nomination was later defeated because of controversy over Carswell's past racial views.
    (AP, 1/19/98)
1970        Mar 8, The Nixon administration disclosed the deaths of 27 Americans in Laos.
    (HN, 3/8/98)
1970        Mar 18, The US Postal Service was paralyzed by the first postal strike. A walkout of letter carriers in Brooklyn and Manhattan set off a strike that involved 210,000 of the nations 750,000 postal employees. Pres. Nixon declared a state of national emergency and assigned military units to NYC post offices.
    (HN, 3/18/98)(SFC, 10/4/02, p.A17)
1970        Apr 1, President Nixon signed a measure banning cigarette advertising on radio and television, to take effect after Jan. 1, 1971.
    (AP, 4/1/98)
1970        Apr 8, The Senate rejected President Nixon's nomination of G. Harold Carswell to the Supreme Court.
    (AP, 4/8/97)
1970        Apr 24, President Nixon ordered US and South Vietnamese troops to secretly invade the Parrots Beak region of Cambodia, thought to be a Viet Cong stronghold. Operation Patio was a covert aerial interdiction effort conducted by the United States Seventh Air Force in Cambodia from 24-29 April 1970 during the Vietnam Conflict. It served as a tactical adjunct to the heavier B-52 bombing missions being carried out in Operation Menu.
1970        Apr 30, President Nixon announced to a national TV audience that the United States was sending troops into Cambodia "to win the just peace that we desire." The action that sparked widespread protest. U.S. troops invaded Cambodia to disrupt North Vietnamese Army base areas and to attack Communist border sanctuaries. Calling the joint U.S.-South Vietnamese operation "indispensable," some 32,000 American and 48,000 South Vietnamese troops captured large caches of supplies, but most Communist forces had already been withdrawn. A storm of protest against expansion of the war swept the United States and four days later four student protesters at Ohio's Kent State University were shot dead by National Guardsmen.
    (AP, 4/30/97)(TMC, 1994, p.1970)(HN, 4/30/98)(HNQ, 5/3/98)
1970        May 1, Students at Kent State University rioted in downtown Kent, Ohio, in protest of the American invasion of Cambodia. Campus protests broke out across the nation.
    (HN, 5/1/98)
1970        Jun 22, President Nixon signed the 26th amendment, a measure lowering the voting age to 18.
    (AP, 6/22/97) (HN, 6/22/98)
1970        Jul 24, Pres. Nixon signed the Failing Newspaper Act (Newspaper Preservation Act) allowing papers in the same market to cut costs by merging some of their operations.
    (SFC, 10/21/09, p.D5)(
1970        Aug 10, Dan Mitrione (b.1920), a former Indiana police officer and FBI agent who had been advising Latin American governments, including Uruguay's, on techniques for interrogating suspects, was killed by Tupamaro guerrillas. He had been kidnapped on July 31. In 2010 diplomatic cables revealed that President Richard Nixon wanted the Uruguayan government to threaten to kill leftist prisoners in an attempt to save the life of Mitrione.
    (AP, 8/13/10)(
1970        Sep 11, US Pres. Nixons VP Spiro Agnew first used the term "nattering nabobs of negativism" during his address to the California Republican state convention in San Diego.
1970        Sep 15, Pres. Nixon authorized a US-backed coup in Chile.
    (SSFC, 6/9/02, p.F7)
1970        Sep 20, Pres. Nixons aide, Charles W. Colson, stated in a memo to Chief of staff H.R. Haldeman: "(the networks) are very much afraid of us and are trying hard to prove they are good guys."
    (SFC, 12/1/97, p.A7)
1970        Sep 22, President Richard M. Nixon signed a bill giving the District of Columbia representation in the U.S. Congress. Pres Nixon requested 1,000 new FBI agents for college campuses.
    (HN, 9/22/98)(
1970        Sep 26, The Presidents Commission on Campus Unrest, also referred to as the Scranton Commission, investigated the Kent killings and found "The indiscriminate firing of rifles into a crowd of students and the deaths that followed were unnecessary, unwarranted, and inexcusable." The commission, directed by former Pennsylvania Governor William Scranton, was appointed by President Richard Nixon shortly after the Kent State shootings and relied heavily on a massive FBI investigation. The Scranton report also found student conduct prior to the shootings partly responsible.
    (HNQ, 5/4/98)
1970        Oct 7, Pres. Nixon proposed a cease-fire-in-place in a televised speech.
    (WSJ, 2/5/96, p.A-19)
1970        Oct 12, President Richard Nixon announced the pullout of 40,000 more American troops in Vietnam by Christmas.
    (HN, 10/12/98)
1970        Oct 15, Pres. Nixon signed the Racketeer Influenced and Corrupt Organizations Act (RICO). It provides for extended criminal penalties and a civil cause of action for acts performed as part of an ongoing criminal organization.
1970        Oct 26, Pres. Nixon signed Executive Order 11566  ordered the establishment of the Consumer Information Center (CIC).
    (WSJ, 1/8/97, p.A18)(
1970        Oct 27, President Richard Nixon signed the Controlled Substance Act into law. The CSA classified marijuana, heroin and LSD as schedule I, drugs with no accepted medical use. People arrested for drug offences then rose from an initial 416,000 per year to 1,890,000 per year in 2007. Psilocybin and psilocyn were also scheduled under the CSA as Schedule I drugs, the mushrooms themselves are not scheduled. The CSA implemented the 1961 Single Convention on Narcotic drugs. Cocaine was first listed in the US Controlled Substances Act. Until that point, the use of cocaine was open and rarely prosecuted in the US due to the moral and physical debates commonly discussed.
    (, 2/8/05, p.D7) (Econ, 12/15/07, p.38)(Econ, 2/23/13, p.58)(
1970        Nov 25, Walter Hickel (1919-2010), former governor of Alaska and US Secretary of the Interior, was fired by Pres. Nixon after sending Nixon a letter critical of how the president handled student protests following the National Guard shootings at Kent State.
    (AH, 10/04, p.42)(SSFC, 5/9/10, p.C8)(
1970        Nov 3, President Nixon delivered a speech to explain why American troops in Vietnam had invaded the neutral country of Cambodia.
1970        Nov 13, VP Spiro Agnew called TV executives "impudent snobs."
    (MC, 11/13/01)
1970        Dec 2, The Environmental Protection Agency began operating under director William Ruckelshaus. Pres. Nixon appointed a 3-member Council on Environmental Quality that included journalist Robert Cahn (d.1997 at 80). It was the first centralized White House office to advise the president on environmental matters. Cahn served to 1972. President Nixon created the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). The EPA took over certain functions previously handled by the departments of the Interior, Agriculture and Health, Education and Welfare in an effort to set and enforce national pollution-control standards. The first task it was given was the administration of the Clean Air Act, passed that same year. Currently, the EPA enforces 12 federal statutes ranging from safe drinking water to pesticide use.
    (SFC,11/1/97, p.A17)(AP, 12/2/97)(HNQ, 4/16/01)
1970        Dec 21, A meeting took place between Elvis Presley and President Nixon as Elvis sought to get the credentials of a Federal Agent to help Nixon fight drugs. The meeting remained secret until The Washington Post broke the story on Jan. 27, 1972.
    (AP, 1/8/07)
1970        Dec 31, Pres. Nixon signed US Public Law 91-604 amending the Clean Air Act to control smog but not global warning. Catalytic converters designed to reduce smog were produced by the automobile companies. In 1998 it was reported that the nitrous oxide comprised 7.2% of the gases in global warming. Catalytic converters produced nearly half of this nitrous oxide.
    (SFC, 5/29/98, p.A2)(
1970        Dr. Hale E. Dougherty (d.2002) began marketing a Spiro Agnew wristwatch. It was a result of the current joke: "Did you know that Mickey Mouse wears a Spiro Agnew watch.
    (SFC, 1/3/03, p.A28)
1971        Jan 5, Pres. Nixon named Robert Dole as chairman of the Republican National Party.
    (HN, 1/5/01)
1971        Feb 16, Richard Nixon began secret recordings using a newly installed taping system in White House.
    (SFC, 12/1/97, p.A7)(
1971        Feb-1973 Jul,    Pres. Nixon kept over 3000 hours of tapes that were ordered to be released by Congress in 1975. Univ. of Wisconsin historian Stanley Kutler won release of the tapes and had 201 hours transcribed for his 1997 book "Abuse of Power."
    (SFC, 4/13/96, p.A-2)(LVRJ, 11/1/97, p.4A)
1971        Mar 8, Pres. Nixon expressed his bigotry against women, blacks and Mexicans and Italians on tape recordings that were only made public in 1998.
    (SFEC, 12/27/98, p.a15)
1971        Apr 1, President Richard M. Nixon ordered Lt. William Calley transferred from prison to house arrest at Fort Benning, Georgia, pending appeal.
1971        Apr 7,  President Nixon pledged a withdrawal of 100,000 more men from Vietnam by December.
    (HN, 4/7/97)
1971        Apr 14, President Nixon ended a blockade against People's Republic of China.
    (MC, 4/14/02)
1971        May 18, President Nixon rejected the 60 demands of the Congressional Black Caucus.
1971        May 28, Pres. Nixon ordered John Haldeman to do more wiretapping and political espionage against the Democrats. The orders were recorded on tape.
    (SFEM, 4/11/99, p.41)
1971        Jun 17, US Pres. Richard Nixon declared a war on drugs.
    (AP, 7/20/21)
1971        Jul 1, President Nixon ordered chief of staff H. R. Haldeman to have the Brookings Institute burglarized. Nixon met with Haldeman and Kissinger and told them: "Were up against an enemy, a conspiracy, that (sic) are using any means."
    (, 11/23/96, p.A6)
1971        Jul 15, President Nixon announced he would visit the People's Republic of China to seek a "normalization of relations."
    (AP, 7/15/97)
1971        Aug 15, Pres. Nixon suspended conversion of dollars to gold and imposed a 90-day price, wage and rents freeze and 10% import charge. He also cut various taxes and expenditures. This became known as the Nixon Shock and marked the end of the gold standard and fixed exchange rates. The Bretton Woods agreement, that defined the post World War II economic environment, collapsed under the weight of US deficit spending. In the wake of this exchange rates were allowed to float under the watchful eye of central bankers.
    (WSJ, 5/28/96, p. R-44)(WSJ, 8/15/96, p.A12)(AP, 8/15/97)(WSJ, 10/1/98, p.A16)(WSJ, 1/11/99, p.R42)(Econ, 3/27/10, p.86)
1971        Sep 8, Pres. Nixon told John Ehrlichman to investigate the tax returns of rich Jews contributing to the democratic campaigns of Humphrey and Muskie.
    (SFEC, 12/8/96, p.A14)
1971        Sep 9, A list of Pres. Richard Nixons major political opponents, compiled by Charles Colson, written by George T. Bell (assistant to Colson, special counsel to the White House), was sent in memorandum form to John Dean. It did not become public until 1973. 
1971        Oct 26, California Gov. Ronald Reagan called Mr Nixon at the White House to complain about UN members who voted against the US position a day after the UN voted to admit The Peoples Republic of China into the global organization. Mr Reagan said: To see those, those monkeys from those African countries damn them, theyre still uncomfortable wearing shoes! The explosive recordings were originally released by the National Archives in 2000, though they were later withdrawn due to a court-ordered review.
    (The Independent, 7/31/19)
1971        Nov 5, Nixon and Kissinger met in the Oval Office, to discuss Nixon's conversation with Gandhi the day before. "We really slobbered over the old witch," Nixon told Kissinger, according to a transcript of their conversation released in 2005 as part of a State Department compilation of significant documents involving American foreign policy.
    (AP, 6/28/05)
1971        Dec 15, Pres. Nixon signed the Wild Free-Roaming Horses and Burro Act. The $18 million Wild Horse and Burro Program, headed by the Bureau of Land Management, was designed to find homes for wild horses. "Excess" animals were annually culled. The 10-17,000 wild horses grew to some 43,000 in 1998. In 2004 Conrad Burns, Republican Senator for Montana, introduced an amendment that removed protection for wild horses over age 10.
    (, 8/25/98, p.A1)(Econ, 6/28/08, p.90)
1971        Dec 18, Pres. Nixon devalued the dollar, and even though the devaluation was effective immediately, only Congress could officially change the gold value of the dollar. The US dollar went off the gold standard and was devalued by 7.9%. The 10% import surcharge was lifted.
    (WUD, 1994, p. 1688)(
1971        Dec 23, Pres. Nixon signed the National Cancer Act, an initiative that came to be known as the war on cancer. Dr. David A. Wood (1905-1996) helped draft the National Cancer Act. The act added $100 million to the National Cancer Institute directed by Dr. Carl Baker (1920-2009).
    (, 5/6/98, p.A1)(Econ, 10/16/04, p.13)(SFC, 11/13/96, p.C3)(SFC, 3/13/09, p.B7)
1971        Dec 24, Jimmy Hoffa (1913-1975), Teamster union leader, was released from prison after President Nixon commuted his jail term.
1971        The US government set strict federal safety standards for the auto industry that included passive restraints, i.e. air bags. The National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA) delayed a passive-restraint mandate until 1976 after Henry Ford II and Ford President Lee Iacocca lobbied President Nixon.
    (WSJ, 6/19/96, Adv. Supl)(
1971        The US under Pres. Nixon sent military planes and other material to Pakistan as East Pakistan fought for independence. Nixon, at the behest of national security advisor Henry Kisinger, also deployed a naval task force to the Bay of Bengal to intimidate India.
    (Econ, 9/21/13, p.90)
1971        Archer Blood, the senior US consul-general in Dhaka, sent regular, detailed and accurate reports of the bloodshed that was taking place in East Pakistan. In 2013 Gary Bass authored The Blood Telegram: Nixon, MKissinger and the Forgotten Genocide.
    (Econ, 9/21/13, p.90)
1972        Jan 5, President Nixon ordered development of the space shuttle.
    (AP, 1/5/98)
1972        Jan 25, Pres. Nixon made public the secret talks from May 31, 1971, that included a cease-fire-in-place, US withdrawal, and the return of prisoners from North Vietnam. He made a revised offer with the concurrence of South Vietnam's Pres. Thieu. Nixon aired the eight-point peace plan for Vietnam, asking for POW release in return for withdrawal.
    (WSJ, 2/5/96, p.A-19)(HN, 1/25/99)
1972        Feb 17, President Nixon departed on his historic 10-day trip to China.
    (AP, 2/17/98)(SSFC, 6/9/02, p.F7)
1972        Feb 21, Pres. Nixon began his visit to China as he and his wife arrived in Shanghai. He was the 1st US president to visit a country not diplomatically recognized by the US. He brought along a bottle of Schramsberg sparkling wine from California.
    (HN, 2/21/01)(AP, 2/21/04)(WSJ, 7/1/05, p.W6)
1972        Feb 22, President Nixon met with Mao Tse-tung in Peking and Chinese Premier Chou En-Lai in Beijing. In 2006 Margaret McMillan authored Seize the Hour: When Nixon Met Mao.
    (HN, 2/22/98)(Econ, 10/28/06, p.93)
1972        Feb 28, President Nixon and Chinese Premier Chou En-lai signed the Shanghai Communique at the Jin Jiang Hotel Assembly Hall on the last night of Nixons visit.
    (WSJ, 3/5/97, p.A16)(AP, 2/28/07)
1972        Mar 7, Republican Richard Nixon won the New Hampshire primary over Paul McCloskey 67.6 to 19.8%. Democrat Edmund Muskie won over George McGovern 46.4 to 37.1%.
    (SSFC, 1/25/04, p.A19)(
1972        Mar 8, Pres. Nixon signed Executive Order 11652 lifting a 50-year secrecy ban on the exploits of the more than 6,000 Nisei, second-generation Japanese-Americans, who helped decode Japanese messages and who provided crucial information on Japanese military operations during WW II.
    (SFC, 5/26/96, Par p.14)(
1972        Mar 14, Pres. Nixon remarked "Its better to chase girls than boys" after columnist Jack Anderson reported that Ambassador Arthur Watson had groped flight attendants on a trip home from Paris. A Congressional investigation prompted Watsons resignation.
    (SFC, 3/1/02, p.A3)
1972        Mar 17, Nixon asked Congress to halt busing in order to achieve desegregation.
    (HN, 3/17/98)
1972        Mar 23, Pres. Nixon discussed his orders to undermine Chilean democracy after the leak of corporate papers revealing collaboration between ITT and the CIA to rollback the election of socialist leader Salvador Allende.
1972        Mar 24, The US announces a boycott of the Paris peace talks as President Nixon accuses Hanoi of refusing to "negotiate seriously."
1972        Apr 2, In response to the North Vietnamese Easter Offensive, President Nixon authorized the US 7th Fleet to target NVA troops massed around the Demilitarized Zone with air strikes and naval gunfire.
1972        Apr 4, In further response to the North Vietnamese Easter Offensive, US President Nixon authorized a massive bombing campaign targeting all NVA troops invading South Vietnam along with B-52 air strikes against North Vietnam. "The bastards have never been bombed like they're going to be bombed this time," Nixon privately declares.
1972        May 22, President Nixon began a visit to the Soviet Union, the 1st for a US president, during which he and Kremlin leaders signed the SALT I arms limitation treaty.
    (AP, 5/22/02)(MC, 5/22/02)
1972        May 26, President Richard M. Nixon and Soviet Communist Party chief Leonid Brezhnev signed in Moscow an arms reduction agreement that became known as SALT (Strategic Arms Limitation Talks).
    (SSFC, 8/8/04, p.B5)
1972        May 28, Operatives working for the Committee to Re-elect the President (CRP) burglarized the Democratic National Committee headquarters in the Washington, DC, Watergate office complex.
1972        Jun 2, Pres. Nixon in discussion with aide Charles Colson said: We want to decimate the god-damned place North Vietnam is going to get reordered its about time. Its what should have been done years ago."
    (SFC, 3/1/02, p.A3)
1972        Jun 16, Five men wearing surgical gloves were caught breaking into the headquarters of the Democratic National Committee.
    (USAT, 2/13/97, p.5D)
1972        Jun 17, President Nixon's eventual downfall began when five men were arrested for breaking into the Democratic National Committee offices at the Watergate hotel at 1:52 a.m. Carl Schloffler (1945-1996), undercover police officer, made the arrest. Howard Hunt and G. Gordon Liddy ran the break-in from a nearby hotel room. Within hours of the bust Liddy attempted to shred all related documents. After the arrests of the burglars, White House Counsel John Dean took custody of evidence and money from the White House safe of E. Howard Hunt, Jr., who had been supervising the burglaries, and later destroyed some of the evidence before it could be found by investigators The five burglars, led by former CIA agent James McCord Jr. (1924-2019), were soon linked to Nixon's Committee for the Re-election of the President (CREEP) and, as suspicion grew, Nixon conspired to obstruct an FBI investigation of the incident. Nixon's conversations about the obstruction and subsequent cover-up had been tape-recorded as part of a secret tape-recording system revealed to investigators by Nixon's schedule keeper. Jeb Magruder later wrote "An American Life." The book has been described as the most accurate description of what happened. Stanley I. Kutler later authored "The Wars of Watergate." Liddy later asserted that John Dean was really after a brochure of call-girl pictures kept by DNC secretary Ida Wells that included a picture of Deans girlfriend, Maureen Biner.
    (SFC, 4/13/96, p.A-2)(TMC, 1994, p.1972)(SFC, 7/16/96, p.A14)(SFC, 2/1/99, p.A3) (HNPD, 6/17/99)(SFC, 2/4/00, p.D9)(SFC, 1/31/01, p.A2)(SSFC, 4/21/19, p.C9)
1972        Jun 19, Two days after the botched Watergate break-in, FBI official W. Mark Felt secretly assured Bob Woodward that The Washington Post could safely make a connection between the burglars and a former CIA agent linked to the White House, E. Howard Hunt. Woodwards secret source for information became known as Deep Throat, and Felts name was not made public until 2005.
1972        Jun 20, Pres. Nixon recorded on tape information relating to the Jun 16 Watergate break-in. Sections of the tape were later erased, allegedly accidentally by sec. Rose Mary Woods. A panel of experts examined the tape to see if the 18-minute gap was intentional. Richard H. Bolt (d.2002 at 90), acoustic expert at Bolt, Beranek and Newman, later said that if it was an accident than it was committed at least 5 times in the 18 minutes.
    (SFC, 2/4/02, p.B5)
1972        Jun 23, President Nixon and White House chief of staff H.R. Haldeman discussed a plan to use the CIA to obstruct the FBI's Watergate investigation. Revelation of the tape recording of this conversation sparked Nixon's resignation in 1974. In the smoking gun tape Pres. Nixon told his chief of Staff, H.R. Haldeman, to tell top CIA officials that the president believes this (in reference to Watergate) is going to open the whole Bay of Pigs thing up again. Nixon counseled Haldeman on how to use deception to thwart an FBI investigation on how Watergate was financed.
    (SFC, 6/23/96, p.B11)(SFC, 11/19/96, p.A10)(AP, 6/23/97)
1972        Jun 23, Pres. Nixon signed the federal Title IX of the Education Amendment for nondiscrimination and affirmative action as an amendment to the 1964 Civil Rights Act. In 1975 it was bolstered strengthened to insure equal rights for womens sports programs.
    (GEG, 6/96, p.4)(SFC, 6/23/98, p.A3)(WSJ, 4/25/02, p.D9)(SSFC, 6/24/07, p.E1)(SFC, 6/9/14, p.C4)
1972        Aug 1, The 1st article exposing Watergate scandal was published by Bernstein and Woodward.
    (MC, 8/1/02)
1972        Aug 8, A special meeting of the Democratic National Committee chose R. Sargent Shriver, the former director of the Peace Corps, as McGoverns running mate. The Democrat ticket was swamped in the general election by incumbent President Richard Nixon in the November 7 election.
    (HNQ, 4/25/00)
1972        Aug 23, The Republican National Convention, meeting in Miami Beach, Fla., nominated Vice President Spiro T. Agnew for a second term.
    (AP, 8/23/97)
1972        Oct 24, Henry Kissinger in secret unauthorized talks in Paris proposed to end the war in Vietnam by this date, but was urged by Pres. Nixon to stretch the timing a few months so as to insure re-election in Nov. A drama was made in 1995 depicting these events based on the book by Walter Isaacson: Kissinger: A Biography. The peace agreement allowed North Vietnam to keep its army in the South.
    (WSJ, 11/30/95, p.A-20)(WSJ, 1/23/96, p.A-15)
1972        Oct 26, The Washington Post first disclosed that Attorney General of the United States, John Mitchell, personally controlled a secret fund to finance intelligence operations against Democrats during the Nixon administration. The money financed spying and sabotaging Democratic primary campaigns in 1972 and included activity such as forgery of correspondence, release of false leaks to the press and seizure of confidential campaign files.
1972        Nov 7, President Richard Nixon was re-elected in a landslide over Democrat George McGovern.
    (TMC, 1994, p.1972)(AP, 11/7/97)
1972        Dec 18, The heaviest bombing of North Vietnam, under orders from US Pres. Nixon, began over Hanoi. Operation Linebacker II lasted 11 days and killed over 1600 civilians with 70 US airmen killed or captured. The bombardment ended 12 days later. President Nixon declared that the bombing of North Vietnam would continue until an accord was reached. In 2002 Marshall L. Michel III authored The 11 Days of Christmas, an account of the B-52 bombings.
    (SFC,12/16/97, p.B1)(AP, 12/18/97)(HN, 12/18/98)(WSJ, 1/22/02, p.A18)
1973        Jan 8, The trial of Watergate burglars began in Washington, DC. In 2006 Andreas Killen authored 1973 Nervous Breakdown: Watergate, Warhol and the Birth of Post-Sixties America.
    (, 4/16/06, p.M3)
1973        Jan 8, Secret peace talks between the United States and North Vietnam resumed near Paris.
    (AP, 1/8/98)
1973        Jan 15, President Nixon announced the suspension of all U.S. offensive action in North Vietnam, citing progress in peace negotiations.
    (AP, 1/15/98)
1973        Jan 15, Four of six remaining Watergate defendants pleaded guilty.
    (HN, 1/15/99)
1973        Jan 23, President Nixon claimed that Vietnam peace had been reached in Paris and that the POWs would be home in 60 days.
    (AP, 1/23/98)(HN, 1/23/99)
1973        Feb 8, Pres. Nixon appointed Daniel Patrick Moynihan (1927-2003) ambassador to India.
    (SFC, 11/7/98, p.A2)(
1973        Feb 17, President Richard Nixon named Patrick Gray director of the FBI.
    (HN, 2/17/98)
1973        Mar 6, President Richard Nixon imposed price controls on oil and gas.
    (HN, 3/6/98)
1973        Mar 7, Pres. Nixon invited Thomas Pappas, a Greek-American businessman, to the oval office to thank him for money that was used to buy the silence of the Watergate burglars.
    (SFC,11/1/97, p.A3)(
1973        Mar 21, Dean told Nixon: "There is a cancer growing on the Presidency."
1973        Mar 27, Ruth Lewis Farkas (1907-1996), was appointed ambassador to Luxembourg by Pres. Nixon after she and her husband, founder of Alexanders department stores, contributed $300,000 to Nixons re-election campaign.
    (SFC, 10/22/96, p.A18)(
1973        Apr 30, President Nixon announced the resignations of his aides H.R. Haldeman and John Ehrlichman, along with Attorney General Richard Kleindienst and White House counsel John Dean. Nixon announced that he would nominate Elliot Richardson as US attorney general to oversee the Watergate investigation.
    (AP, 4/30/97)(HN, 4/30/98)(SFC, 1/1/00, p.A25)
1973        May 17, The US Senate began its televised hearings into the Watergate scandal and the role of Pres. Nixon.
    (HN, 5/17/98)(AH, 10/04, p.16)(AP, 5/17/08)
1973        May 22, President Nixon made a 4,000-word defense of his own actions in the Watergate scandal.
1973        May, Pres. Nixon told Gen'l. Alexander Haig that "I'd authorize any means to achieve a goal abroad" - including "the break-in of embassies and so forth."
    (SFC, 2/26/99, p.A4)(
1973        Jun 7, Pres. Nixon nominated Clarence M. Kelley (1911-1997), chief of police in Kansas City, to succeed J. Edgar Hoover as director of the FBI. Kelley retired in 1978 when Pres. Carter selected William Webster to serve as the director.
    (SFC, 8/6/97, p.A14)(
1973        Jun 25, White House Counsel John Dean began testimony before Senate Watergate Committee and admitted that President Nixon took part in the Watergate cover-up.
    (, 6/25/98)
1973        Jun 26, Former White House counsel John W. Dean told the Senate Watergate Committee about an "enemies list" kept by the Nixon White House. Nixons Enemies List is the informal name of what started as a list of Pres. Journalist Daniel Schorr soon obtained the list and read it  over the air with preview finding his own name listed as #17. Richard Nixons major political opponents compiled by Charles Colson, written by George T. Bell (assistant to Colson, special counsel to the White House), were sent in memorandum form to John Dean on September 9, 1971. 
    (AP, 6/26/07)(SFC, 7/24/10, p.C4)(
1973        Jul 16, In testimony before the Senate Select Committee on Presidential Campaign Activities (the Ervin Committee), former presidential assistant Alexander Butterfield disclosed to lawyer Donald Sanders (d.1999 at 69) that President Richard Nixon had tape recorded all of his conversations in the White House and Executive Office Building. Butterfield's revelations led to Nixon's assertion of executive privilege and his refusal to release the tapes to the Ervin Committee on July 17 or to special prosecutor Archibald Cox on July 23. Judge John Sirica ordered Nixon to turn over the tapes on August 29, an order subsequently upheld by U.S. Court of Appeals on October 12. When a Nixon "compromise" of release of written summaries of the tapes was turned down by Cox, Nixon ordered Attorney General Elliot L. Richardson and deputy attorney general William Ruckelshaus to fire Cox. Both refused and resigned. Solicitor General Robert Bork complied with Nixon's order on Saturday, October 20, resulting in the so-called "Saturday Night Massacre."
    (AP, 7/16/97)(HNQ, 10/15/98)(SFC, 9/28/99, p.A26)
1973        Jul 24, John Ehrlichman, aide to President Richard Nixon, appeared before the Senate Watergate Committee. Testifying before the Select Committee on Presidential Campaign Activities (the Ervin Committee), Ehrlichman asserted that the burglary of anti-war activist Daniel Ellsberg's psychiatrist's office was within the constitutional powers of the president. The televised committee hearings exposed a wide range of activities, including a secret White House program of harassment and IRS audits of political enemies, burglaries, wiretaps, forging of State Department documents, a secret fund to finance spying and sabotage of Democratic Party primary campaigns and more that culminated in the House vote for impeachment and the Nixon's resignation on August 9, 1974.
    {NixonR, USA, Govmt. Scandal}
    (HNQ, 10/9/98)(
1973        Jul 25, Pres Nixon refused to release Watergate tapes of conversations in the White House relevant to the Watergate investigation.
1973        Aug 8, Vice President Spiro T. Agnew branded as "damned lies" reports he had taken kickbacks from government contracts in Maryland and vowed not to resign. He eventually did resign.
    (AP, 8/8/97)
1973        Aug 13, Pres. Nixon instituted general wage and price controls. Phase IV controls went into effect for the general economy and lasted until Economic Stabilization Program (ESP) expired on April 30, 1974.
    (WSJ, 11/4/96, p.C1)(
1973        Aug 16, Pres. Richard Nixon proclaimed August 26 as Womens Equality Day. A joint resolution of the US Congress, submitted in 1971, had designated August 26 of each year as Women's Equality Day. Roxcy ONeal Bolton (1927-2017) had prompted Pres. Richard Nixon to proclaim August 26 as Women's Equality Day.
    ( 6/17/17, p.82)
1973        Aug 22, Henry Kissinger (b.1923), German-born American bureaucrat, succeeded William Rogers as Secretary of State under Pres. Nixon. He continued in office until 1977.
1973        Aug 29, Judge John Sirica ordered President Nixon to turn over secret Watergate tapes. Nixon refused and appealed the order.
1973        Sep 14, Pres Nixon signed into law a measure lifting pro football's blackout.
1973        Sep 21, The US Senate confirmed Henry Kissinger to be Secretary of State under Pres. Nixon.
    (AP, 9/21/98)
1973        Sep 22, Henry Kissinger (b.1923), German-born American bureaucrat, was sworn in as America's 1st Jewish Secretary of State, the 1st time a naturalized citizen held this office.
1973        Oct 10, US Vice President Spiro T. Agnew (1918-1996), accused of accepting bribes, pleaded no contest (nolo contendere) to one count of federal income tax evasion, and resigned his office. Agnew was the first US Vice President to resign in disgrace and was later convicted and sentenced to three years probation and fined $10,000. President Richard Nixon named Gerald Ford as the new VP.
    (TMC, 1994, p.1973)(SFC, 9/18/96, p.A7)(AP, 10/10/97)(HN, 10/10/98)
1973        Oct 12, President Nixon nominated House minority leader Gerald R. Ford of Michigan to succeed Spiro T. Agnew as vice president.
    (AP, 10/12/97)
1973        Oct 20, In the so-called Saturday Night Massacre, Pres. Nixon ordered the dismissal of special Watergate prosecutor Archibald Cox. Attorney General Elliot L. Richardson and Deputy Attorney General William B. Ruckelshaus refused to fire Cox and resigned. Cox was later dismissed by Solicitor General Robert Bork.
    (AP, 10/20/97)(SFEC, 3/7/99, Z1 p.6)(SFC, 1/1/00, p.A25)
1973        Oct 25, Pres. Nixon put U.S. troops on high alert for just under a week to show the Soviet Union that America would not allow it to send forces to aid Arab states fighting Israel.
    (AP, 1/1/04)
1973        Oct 26, President Nixon released the 1st White House tapes on Watergate scandal.
1973        Nov 16, President Nixon signed the Trans Alaska Pipeline Authorization Act into law. Oil companies formed a consortium that gave British Petroleum 50.1% control of the pipeline.
    (, 10/04, p.43)
1973        Nov 17, President Nixon told an Associated Press managing editors meeting in Orlando, Fla., that "people have got to know whether or not their president is a crook. Well, I'm not a crook."
    (AP, 11/17/97)
1973        Nov 21, President Nixon's attorney, J. Fred Buzhardt, revealed the existence of an 18 1/2- minute gap in one of the White House tape recordings related to Watergate.
    (AP, 11/21/97)
1973        Nov 25, Pres. Nixon called for a ban on Sunday gasoline sales.
1973        Nov 26, President Nixon's personal secretary, Rose Mary Woods, told a federal court that she'd accidentally caused part of the 18 1/2-minute gap in a key Watergate tape.
    (AP, 11/26/97)
1973        Dec 6, House minority leader Gerald R. Ford was sworn in as vice president, succeeding Spiro T. Agnew. Agnew, vice president to President Richard M. Nixon, resigned from his office and pleaded no contest to one charge of income tax evasion in return for the dropping of all other charges. Agnew, the only US Vice President to resign in disgrace, was fined $10,000 and given three year's probation.
    (AP, 12/6/97)(MC, 12/6/01)
1973        Dec 28, Pres. Nixon signed into law the Endangered Species Act. The first list of endangered species contained Gray whales. The Gray whale was removed from the list in 1994 when the population climbed back to about 22,000.
    (PacDis, Fall/96, p.24)(SFC, 10/2/98, p.A6)(SFC, 12/28/98, p.A1)
1973        Timothy Crouse authored The Boys on the Bus, an account of the press pack covering the 1972 presidential campaigns of Richard Nixon and George McGovern.
    (WSJ, 12/1/07, p.W10)
1973        Abba Eban, Israeli foreign minister helped persuade the U.S. administration of Pres. Richard Nixon to carry out an emergency airlift of weapons and supplies.
    (AP, 11/17/02)
1974        Jan 2, President Nixon signed legislation requiring states to limit highway speeds to 55 mph. Federal speed limits were abolished in 1995. The legislation was conceived by Claude Brinegar (1926-2009), Nixons secretary of transportation.
    (AP, 1/2/98)(, 3/18/09, p.B6)
1974        Jan 4, President Nixon refused to hand over tape recordings and documents subpoenaed by the Senate Watergate Committee.
    (AP, 1/4/98)
1974        Jan 10, An Advisory Panel on White House Tapes determined that an 18-m gap in Watergate tape was due to erasure and of no consequence.
1974        Feb 6, The Committee on the Judiciary of the House of Representatives was authorized to begin determining grounds for the impeachment of Pres. Nixon. Public hearings began on May 9.
1974        Mar 1, A grand jury in Washington, DC, concluded that President Nixon was indeed involved in the Watergate cover-up.  7 people, including former Nixon White House aides H.R. Haldeman and John D. Ehrlichman, former Attorney General John Mitchell and former assistant Attorney General Robert Mardian, were indicted on charges of conspiring to obstruct justice in connection with the Watergate break-in. They were convicted the following January, although Mardian's conviction was later reversed. In 2005 Vanity Fair Magazine revealed that W. Mark Felt (91), former FBI official, was the Watergate whistleblower Deep Throat, who helped bring down Pres. Nixon.
    (HN, 3/1/98)(AP, 3/1/99)(AP, 6/1/05)
1974        Apr 3, The Joint Committee on Internal Revenue Taxation of the Congress reported that $476,531 in back taxes and interest was owed by President Richard Nixon. Responding to charges of fraud, Nixon requested the committee investigation of his taxes and, upon its report, agreed to pay. The report made no conclusion regarding fraud.
    (HNQ, 6/1/98)(
1974        Apr 11, The US House Judiciary Committee votes 33-3 to issue a subpoena ordering Nixon to turn over all tape recordings and related materials on 42 conversations.
1974        Apr 28, A federal jury in New York acquitted former Attorney General John Mitchell and former Commerce Secretary Maurice H. Stans of charges in connection with a secret $200,000 contribution to President Nixon's re-election campaign from financier Robert Vesco. Vesco had gained control of IOS, a mutual fund firm, and looted hundreds of millions. In 1971 he fled to the Bahamas, then Costa Rica and finally to Cuba where he was convicted in 1996 for economic crimes against the state and sentenced to 13 years in prison.
    (AP, 4/28/99)(WSJ, 7/10/02, p.A8)
1974        Apr 29, President Nixon announced he was releasing edited transcripts of some secretly made White House tape recordings related to Watergate.
    (AP, 4/29/98)
1974        Apr 30, President Nixon handed over partial transcripts of Watergate tape recordings.
1974        May 2, Former Vice President Spiro T. Agnew was disbarred by the Maryland Court of Appeals, effectively preventing him from practicing law anywhere in the United States.
    (AP, 5/2/97)
1974        May 9, The House Judiciary Committee opened hearings on whether to recommend the impeachment of President Nixon.
    (AP, 5/9/97)(HN, 5/9/98)
1974        May 20, Judge John Sirica ordered President Nixon to turn over tapes and records of 64 White House conversations regarding Watergate.
1974        May 29, President Nixon agreed to turn over 1,200 pages of edited Watergate transcripts.
    (HN, 5/29/98)
1974        Jun 17, In Washington, DC, US District Court Judge John J. Sirica sentenced Herbert Kalmbach 1921-2017), Pres. Nixons personal attorney, to up to 18 months in prison. In February Kalmbach had pleaded guilty to violating the Federal Corrupt Practices Act by raising $3.9 million for a secret Republican Congressional Campaign Committee. Kalmbach ended up serving only 191 days, when Sirica released him citing his cooperation with prosecutors. Kalmbach was a conduit for hush money from the 1972 presidential campaign.
    (SSFC, 10/1/17, p.C10)
1974        Jun 19, Pres. Nixon returned from a 9-day visit to the Middle-East, where he met with leaders of Egypt, Syria, Israel, Saudi Arabia and Jordan.
1974        Jun 27, Pres. Nixon arrived in Moscow for his 3rd summit. During the summit the US and Russia approved a partial  atomic test ban treaty.
1974        Jul 11, John W. Dean testified before the US House Judiciary Committee in the impeachment inquiry of Pres. Nixon.
1974        Jul 12, President Richard Nixon's aides G. Gordon Liddy, John Ehrlichman and two others were convicted of conspiracy and perjury in connection with the Watergate scandal. They were convicted of conspiring to violate the civil rights of Daniel Ellsberg's former psychiatrist.
    (AP, 7/12/97)(HN, 7/12/98)
1974        July 13, The US Senate Watergate Committee proposed sweeping reforms to prevent another Watergate scandal.
    (AP, 7/13/99)
1974        Jul 19, The House Judiciary Committee recommended that President Richard Nixon should stand trial in the Senate for any of the five impeachment charges against him.
    (HN, 7/19/98)
1974        Jul 24, The U.S. Supreme Court unanimously ruled that President Nixon had to turn over subpoenaed White House tape recordings to the Watergate special prosecutor.
    (AP, 7/24/97)(HN, 7/24/98)
1974        Jul 27, The House Judiciary Committee voted 27-11 to recommend President Nixon's impeachment on a charge that he had personally engaged in a "course of conduct" designed to obstruct justice in the Watergate case.
    (AP, 7/27/97)(HN, 7/27/98)
1974        Jul 29, The 2nd impeachment vote against Nixon was by the House Judiciary Committee.
    (MC, 7/29/02)
1974        Jul 30, The House Judiciary Committee voted down an article of impeachment against President Richard Nixon relating to demeaning his office by misconduct of personal financial affairs. In April, 1974, a congressional inquiry into possible tax fraud revealed that Nixon owed $476,531 in back taxes for the period 1969-72. He agreed to pay and no conclusion was drawn by the congress regarding fraud. The Judiciary Committee vote against the article of impeachment was 26-12. Article 3 of the impeachment was passed. Nixon resigned on August 9, 1974. Peter Rodino presided over the impeachment hearings.
    (, 12/15/98, p.A3)
1974        Aug 5, President Richard Nixon admitted that he ordered a cover-up of the Watergate break-in for political as well as national security reasons. One of the secret recordings, known as the "smoking gun" tape, was released. It revealed that Nixon authorized hush money to Watergate burglar E. Howard Hunt, and also revealed that Nixon ordered the CIA to tell the FBI to stop investigating certain topics because of "the Bay of Pigs thing."
    (HN, 8/5/98)(SFC, 12/6/99, p.B8)(
1974         Aug 8, President Nixon announced he would resign his office 12PM Aug 9, following damaging revelations in the Watergate scandal.
    (AP, 8/8/97)(
1974        Aug 9, President Nixon's resignation took effect. Gerald R. Ford was sworn in as the 38th US President (1974-1976). Ford said "Our long national nightmare is over" after he assumed the presidency following Richard Nixons resignation. After being sworn in, Ford spoke in the White Houses East Room and said, "My fellow Americans, our long national nightmare is over." It was a line that Ford initially objected to saying, feeling it was a little hard on Nixon. In 2007 Robert Dallek authored Nixon and Kissinger: Partners in Power.
    (SFEC, 5/11/97, p.T8,9)(HN, 8/9/98)(HNQ, 6/23/00)(Econ, 5/19/07, p.87)
1974        Apr 11, The Judiciary committee presented a subpoena to President Richard Nixon to produce tapes for impeachment inquiry.
    (HN, 4/11/98)
1974        Aug 20, Pres. Gerald Ford selected Nelson Rockefeller as VP.
1974        Sep 8, President Gerald Ford pardoned former President Richard M. Nixon for any crimes arising from the Watergate scandal he may have committed while in office.
    (AP, 9/8/97)(HN, 9/8/98)
1974        Dec 19, Former Pres. Nixons presidential papers were seized by an act of Congress. A court later ruled that much of the material belonged to Nixon and that he deserved compensation. In 1998 there was still no settlement on value.
    (WSJ, 11/27/98, p.W10)
1975        Jan 1, The Watergate verdict was guilty when a jury convicted Richard Nixon's three top advisers on all counts in the Watergate coverup: former attorney general John Mitchell and White House aides Bob Haldeman and John Ehrlichman. "Watergate" became shorthand for the burglary of Democratic Party offices in Washington's Watergate office complex. The burglars were caught and found to have White House connections. Robert Mardian (1923-2006), attorney for the Committee to Re-elect the President (CREEP), was also convicted, but an appeals court in October, 1996, reversed his conviction.
    (SFC, 7/21/06, p.B9)
1975        Jan 8, Judge Sirica ordered the release of Watergate's John W Dean III, Herbert W. Kalmbach & Jeb Stuart Magruder from prison.
    (MC, 1/8/02)
1975        Jun 23, Former US Pres. Richard Nixon met with grand jurors at a California Coast Guard Station to testify under oath about the Watergate affair. The transcript was made public on Nov 10, 2011.
    (SFC, 11/11/11, p.A9)
1975        Feb 21, Former Attorney General John N. Mitchell and former White House aides H.R. Haldeman and John D. Ehrlichman were sentenced to 2 1/2 to 8 years in prison for their roles in the Watergate cover-up. Mitchell was found guilty of conspiracy, obstruction of justice and perjury. He served 19 months behind bars.
    (AP, 2/21/00)(SFC, 11/6/98, p.D5)
1975        Mar 12, Maurice Stans, former Nixon Cabinet member, pleaded guilty to three counts of violating the reporting sections of the Federal Election Campaign Act and two counts of accepting illegal campaign contributions. He was fined $5,000.
    (SFC, 11/6/98, p.D5)(
1975        Aug 10, Television personality David Frost announced he had purchased the exclusive rights to interview former President Nixon.
    (AP, 8/10/00)
1975        Oct 2, Armand Hammer (1898-1992) pleaded guilty to three misdemeanor charges of making illegal contributions in the names of other persons to the 1972 Nixon re-election campaign.
    (WSJ, 6/29/00, p.A26)(
1975        The US Ford administration resumed limited military aid to Pakistan.
    (SSFC, 3/27/17, p.E2)
1976        Feb 27, The final meeting between Mao Tse Tung and Richard Nixon took place.
1977        Jun 28, Supreme Court allowed Federal control of Nixon tapes and papers.
    (MC, 6/28/02)
1980        Spiro Agnew, former US vice-president, authored Go Quietly Or Else. Jules Witcover had already written two biographies of Agnew: White Knight: The Rise of Spiro Agnew (1972) and A Heartbeat Away (1974). In 2007 Witcover authored a 3rd titled Very Strange Bedfellows: The Short and Unhappy Marriage of Richard Nixon & Spiro Agnew.
    (WSJ, 6/14/07, p.D6)
1981        Aug 10, Richard Nixon Museum in San Clemente closed ( On July 11, 2007, the Nixon Library in Yorba Linda, Ca., officially opened as a federal facility.
1988        Nov 9, John N. Mitchell (b.1913), former Attorney General under Pres. Nixon, died in Washington. He was a major figure in the Watergate scandal and served 19 months at a federal prison in Alabama (1977-1979) for his role in the scandal. In 2008 James Rosen authored The Strong Man: John Mitchell and the Secrets of Watergate.
    (AP, 1/19/98)(AP, 11/9/02)(WSJ, 5/24/08, p.W8)
1990        Jul 19, President Bush joined former presidents Ronald Reagan, Gerald R. Ford and Richard M. Nixon at ceremonies dedicating the Nixon Library and Birthplace in Yorba Linda, California.
    (AP, 7/19/00)
1993        Nov 12, Former Nixon White House chief of staff H.R. Haldeman died in Santa Barbara, Calif., at age 67.
    (AP, 11/12/98)
1994        Apr 18, Former President Richard Nixon suffered a stroke at his home in Park Ridge, N.J., and was taken to New York Hospital-Cornell Medical Center; he died four days later.
    (AP, 4/18/99)
1994        Apr 22, Richard M. Nixon (81), the 37th president of the United States (1969-1975), died at New York Hospital-Cornell Medical Center, four days after suffering a stroke. In 1990 Roger Morris wrote the biography: "Richard Milhous Nixon." In 2000 Anthony Summers authored "The Arrogance of Power: The Secret World of Richard Nixon." In 2008 Rick Perlstein authored Nixonland: The rise of a President and the Fracturing of America, and Conrad Black authored Richard M. Nixon: A Life in Full.
    (SFC, 11/19/96, p.A10)(SFEC, 2/23/97, BR p.3)(AP, 4/22/97)(SFEC, 8/27/00, p.A6)(SSFC, 5/18/08, Books p.4)(WSJ, 8/29/08, p.A15)
1994        Apr 27, Former President Richard M. Nixon was remembered at an outdoor funeral service attended by all five of his successors at the Nixon presidential library in Yorba Linda, Calif.
    (AP, 4/27/99)
1999        Feb 14, John D. Ehrlichman, President Nixon's domestic affairs adviser imprisoned for his role in the Watergate cover-up that ultimately led to Nixon's resignation, died in Atlanta at age 73. He wrote at least 4 novels and the memoir "Witness to Power: The Nixon Years."
    (SFC, 2/15/99, p.A18)(AP, 2/14/00)
2000        Jan 1, Some 254 hours of Nixon White House tapes were to be made available for public duplication and sale under a 1996 agreement. Another 2,338 hours, mostly unrelated to Watergate, were to be released over the next few years.
    (SFEC, 8/8/99, p.A3)
2002        Sep 3, W. Clement Stone (100), insurance tycoon who bankrolled former Pres. Nixons races, died. Stones self-help books included "The Success System That Never Fails."
    (WSJ, 9/5/02, p.A1)(SFC, 9/13/02, p.A27)
2003        David Greenberg authored "Nixon's Shadow."
    (WSJ, 10/30/03, p.D10)
2014        Patrick Buchanan authored The Greatest Comeback: How Richard Nixon Rose from Defeat to Create the New Majority.
    (Econ, 6/28/14, p.72)

#38 Gerald Ford (1974-1977)

1908        Jul 8, Nelson Rockefeller, 41st U.S. vice president, was born. He served under Pres. Gerald Ford from 1974-77.
    (HN, 7/8/98)
1913        Jul 14, Gerald Ford (d.2006), 41st vice-president and 38th president of the United States, was born as Leslie King, Jr. in Omaha, Nebraska, and achieved his highest prominence as the 38th president of the Untied States. He became president upon Richard Nixon's resignation from office. Gerald Rudolph Ford was age two when his mother divorced his father and moved to Grand Rapids, Michigan. She remarried Gerald Ford, Sr., who adopted the young boy and gave him his name. Ford assumed the presidency on August 9, 1974, upon the resignation of Richard M. Nixon.
    (HN, 7/14/99)(HNQ, 11/24/99)(AP, 12/27/06)
1935        Gerald Ford (1908-2006), 41st vice-president and 38th president of the United States, graduated from the Univ. of Michigan, where he had been a star football player.
    (SFC, 12/27/06, p.A11)
1941        Gerald Ford (1908-2006), 41st vice-president and 38th president of the United States, graduated from Yale University law school.
    (SFC, 12/27/06, p.A11)
1973        Nov 27, The Senate voted 92-3 to confirm Gerald R. Ford as vice president, succeeding Spiro T. Agnew, who'd resigned.
    (AP, 11/27/97)
1973        Dec 6, House minority leader Gerald R. Ford was sworn in as vice president, succeeding Spiro T. Agnew. Agnew, vice president to President Richard M. Nixon, resigned from his office and pleaded no contest to one charge of income tax evasion in return for the dropping of all other charges. Agnew, the only US Vice President to resign in disgrace, was fined $10,000 and given three year's probation.
    (AP, 12/6/97)(SFC, 12/27/06, p.A11)
1974        Aug 9, President Nixon's resignation took effect. Gerald R. Ford was sworn in as the 38th US President (1974-1976). Ford said "Our long national nightmare is over" after he assumed the presidency following Richard Nixons resignation. After being sworn in, Ford spoke in the White Houses East Room and said, "My fellow Americans, our long national nightmare is over." It was a line that Ford initially objected to saying, feeling it was a little hard on Nixon. In 2007 Robert Dallek authored Nixon and Kissinger: Partners in Power.
    (SFEC, 5/11/97, p.T8,9)(HN, 8/9/98)(HNQ, 6/23/00)(Econ, 5/19/07, p.87)
1974        Aug 20, Pres. Gerald Ford selected Nelson Rockefeller as VP.
1974        Sep 2, Pres. Ford signed the Employee Retirement Income Security Act (ERISA), to protect pension accounts. It was passed partly in response to Studebaker employee pension losses in 1963. The US Pension Benefit Guaranty Corporation (PBGC) was set up to insure the bulk of corporate Americas pension plans. It was expanded to include 401(k) accounts in 1978.
    (WSJ, 6/5/96, p.A1,8)(
1974        Sep 8, President Gerald Ford pardoned former President Richard M. Nixon for any crimes arising from the Watergate scandal he may have committed while in office.
    (AP, 9/8/97)(HN, 9/8/98)
1974        Sep 16, President Ford announced a conditional amnesty program for Vietnam War deserters and draft-evaders. Limited amnesty was offered to Vietnam-era draft resisters who would now swear allegiance to the United States and perform two years of public service.
    (AP, 9/16/97)(HN, 9/16/98)
1974        Oct 8, President Gerald Ford's WIN (Whip Inflation Now) program was announced in response to a high inflation rate. Consumer prices rose 12.2 percent in 1974. The WIN program, introduced by Ford to a national television audience, included tax and spending assistance to hard-pressed industries, a five percent tax surcharge, reduced federal spending and tight monetary policies. During 1974 unemployment jumped from 5 percent to more than 7 percent, interest rates climbed to 12 percent, the stock market fell 28 percent, automobile sales collapsed. In 1974 real economic growth was negative 5 percent.
    (HNQ, 11/1/99)
1974        Oct 15, Pres. Ford signed legislation limiting campaign spending by political parties. Congress amended the Federal Election Campaign Act (FECA) of 1971 to set limits on contributions by individuals, political parties and PACs.
    (SFC, 6/27/96, p.A3)(
1974        Nov 5, The Republicans lost 40 seats in the House and 4 in the Senate, widening the Democratic majority in Congress during the mid-term elections.
1974        Nov 21, The Freedom of Information Act was passed by Congress over Pres. Ford's veto.
1974        Nov 23-1974 Nov 24, US Pres. Gerald Ford attended a summit in Vladivostok, USSR, with Soviet Pres. Brezhnev. They reached a tentative agreement to limit the number of nuclear weapons.
    (SFC, 12/27/06, p.A11)
1974        Dec 19, Nelson A. Rockefeller was sworn in as the 41st vice president of the United States after a House vote.
    (AP, 12/19/97)(HN, 12/19/98)
1975        Jan 3, President Ford signed Public Law 93-620. This Act, written to enlarge the Grand Canyon National Park, also provided in Section 10 for the enlargement of the adjacent Havasupai Indian Reservation by 185,000 acres and designated a contiguous 95,300 acres of the enlarged National Park as a permanent traditional use area of the Havasupai Indians of Havasu Canyon, Arizona.
    (SSFC, 2/19/06, p.F4)(
1975        Jan 3, President Gerald Ford signed the Jackson-Vanik amendment into law, after both houses of the United States Congress unanimously voted for its adoption. Congress had passed the Jackson-Vanik amendment for economic sanctions on Russia to pressure the Soviet Union to allow unfettered emigration for Soviet Jews. Pres. Bush in 2001 proposed that it be lifted.
    (WSJ, 11/5/01, p.A1)(
1975        Jan 4, Pres. Fords signed Executive Order No. 11828 on CIA Activities within the US. He directed the Commission, chaired by VP Nelson A. Rockefeller, to determine whether or not any domestic CIA activities exceeded the Agency's statutory authority and to make appropriate recommendations.
1975        Jan 4, Pres. Ford signed into law the US Indian Self-Determination Act. It began the transfer of administration from the Bureau of Indian Affairs to the tribal governments.
    (, 4/7/12, p.35)
1975        Feb 6, President Gerald Ford asked Congress for $497 million in aid to Cambodia.
    (HN, 2/6/99)
1975        Feb 7, Pres. Edward H. Levi (1911-2000), former president of the Univ. of Chicago, began serving as the attorney general under Pres. Ford.
    (WSJ, 3/13/00, p.A46)(
1975        Apr 29, US forces pulled out of Vietnam. The US embassy was evacuated as North Vietnamese forces fought their way into Saigon. Just hours after the last American was lifted out by helicopter from the roof of the embassy, James Reston of the NY Times issued an apologia for the press. NVA shelled Tan Son Nhut air base in Saigon, killing two US Marines at the compound gate. The last C-130A Hercules at Tan Son Nhut Air Base carried 452 people to Thailand. South Vietnamese civilians looted the air base. President Ford ordered Operation Frequent Wind, the helicopter evacuation of 7000 Americans and South Vietnamese from Saigon. At Tan Son Nhut, frantic civilians begin swarming the helicopters. The evacuation then shifted to the walled-in American embassy, secured by US Marines in full combat gear. Thousands of civilians attempted to get into the compound. Three US aircraft carriers stood by off the coast to handle incoming Americans and South Vietnamese refugees. Many South Vietnamese pilots also landed on the carriers, flying American-made helicopters which were then pushed overboard to make room for more arrivals.
    (, 10/5/98, p.A21)(
1975        May 7, President Ford formally declared an end to the "Vietnam era."
    (AP, 5/7/97)(HN, 5/7/98)
1975        May 12, The White House announced the new Cambodian government had seized an American merchant ship, the Mayaguez, with 39 crew members in international waters. Pres. Gerald Ford sent a company of Marines to rescue the ship. The ship was freed but there were 41 Americans killed or missing and more than 50 wounded.
    (SFEC, 5/11/97, p.T10)(AP, 5/12/97)
1975        Jun 2, Vice President Nelson Rockefeller said his commission had found no widespread pattern of illegal activities at the Central Intelligence Agency.
    (AP, 6/2/97)
1975        Jun 30, Russian writer Alexander Solzhenitsyn, having accepted a request from George Meany, a stalwart anti-communist labor leader, spoke at an AFL-CIO dinner in Washington. The former prisoner cut loose, freely blasting away not merely at the USSR but at any effort to accommodate it, particularly through the prevailing policy of dtente. US Pres. Gerald Ford refused to meet with Solzhenitsyn.
    ( 6/3/17, p.54)
1975        Jul 8, President Ford announced he would seek the Republican nomination for the presidency in 1976.
    (AP, 7/8/97)
1975        Jul 29, President Ford became the first U.S. president to visit the site of the Nazi concentration camp Auschwitz in Poland as he paid tribute to the camp's victims.
    (AP, 7/29/97)
1975        Sep 5, President Ford escaped an attempt on his life by Lynette "Squeaky" Fromme, a disciple of Charles Manson, in Sacramento, Calif. In 1997 Jess Bravin wrote her biography: Squeaky: The Life and Times of Lynette Alice Fromme.
    (SFC, 6/18/97, p.E5)(AP, 9/5/97)
1975        Sep 22, President Gerald R. Ford dodged a second assassination in less than three weeks. Sara Jane Moore, an FBI informer and self-proclaimed revolutionary, attempted to shoot President Ford outside a San Francisco hotel, but missed. Oliver Sipple (1941-1989), a disabled former Marine, knocked Moores arm aside. A bullet she fired slightly wounded a man in the crowd. Moore was sentenced to life in prison, but was paroled at the end of 2007 after serving over 30 years without getting into trouble.
    (AP, 9/22/97)(SFC, 1/1/08, p.A1)(SSFC, 2/2/14, DB p.42)
1975        Nov 26, A federal jury in Sacramento, Calif., found Lynette Fromme, a follower of Charles Manson, guilty of trying to assassinate President Ford. [see Sep 5]
    (HN, 11/26/98)(AP, 11/26/99)
1975        Nov 29, President Ford required states to provide free education for handicapped.
1975        Dec 6, US President Ford and Secretary of State Kissinger met with Indonesian President Suharto and explicitly approved Indonesias invasion of East Timor. This information was only made public in 2005.
    (AFP, 12/02/05)(
1975        Dec 12, Sara Jane Moore pleaded guilty to a charge of trying to kill President Ford in San Francisco the previous September.
    (AP, 12/12/97)
1975        President Ford signed legislation opening the service academies to women applicants.
1975        The US interagency Committee on Foreign Investment (CFIUS) was established by Pres. Gerald Ford to review the national security implications of foreign investments of US companies or operations.
    (, 7/12/08, p.36)
1976        Jan 3, Pres. Gerald Ford signed the American Folklife Preservation Act. San Francisco Folklorist Aaron Green (1917-2009) had lobbied Congress for the passage of the bill.
1976        Feb 18, Pres. Gerald Ford signed an executive order prohibiting US officials from plotting or engaging in political assassination. The order was later broadened by Presidents Carter and Reagan. Ford issued  Executive Order 11905 to clarify U.S. foreign-intelligence activities. In a section of the order labeled "Restrictions on Intelligence Activities," Ford concisely but explicitly outlawed political assassination. It became effective on March 1.
1976        Mar 1, The US Intelligence Oversight Board was created as part of Pres. Fords Feb 18 Executive Order 11905. It was made up of private citizens and designed to ferret out illegal spying activities. In 2008 Pres George W. Bush issued an executive order that stripped the board of much of its authority.
    (SSFC, 3/16/08, p.A4)
1975        Nov 20, Ronald Reagan announced his intention to battle Gerald Ford for the Republican presidential nomination.
    (SSFC, 6/6/04, A16)(
1976        May 28, Pres. Ford signed the Medical Device Amendments which established a product approval process overseen by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) with the authority to regulate medical devices. Sales of silicone breast implants, already on the market, were allowed to continue without proof of safety.    
    (WSJ, 4/9/96, p.B-1)(SFC, 4/13/98, p.A8)(WSJ, 4/13/05, p.A3)
1976        Jun 30, Pres. Gerald R. Ford enacted the US Arms Export Control Act. It gave the President of the United States the authority to control the import and export of defense articles and defense services.
1976        Aug 19, President Ford narrowly won the Republican presidential nomination over Ronald Reagan at the party's convention in Kansas City. The convention was called to order by Mary Louis Smith, chair of the Republican National Committee and the first woman to organize and call to order the convention of a major US political party. In 2005 Craig Shirley authored Reagans Revolution: The Untold Story of the Campaign That Started It all.
    (AP, 8/19/97)(SFEC, 8/24/97, p.D8)(WSJ, 2/2/05, p.D10)
1976        Oct 6, In his second debate with Jimmy Carter, President Ford asserted in SF that there was "no Soviet domination of eastern Europe." Ford later conceded he'd misspoken. Carter charged the Ford administration with excessive secrecy, immorality and weakness in dealing with the Soviet Union and Arab nations. Some 3,000 people protested outside the Palace of Fine Arts. The US non-partisan League of Women Voters organized the presidential debates and continued to do so in 1980 and 1984. In 1988 Democrats and Republicans took control of the debates. 
    (AP, 10/6/97)(SFC, 10/5/01, WB p.6)(Econ., 10/17/20, p.16)
1976        Oct 19, Pres. Ford signed the US Copyright Act of 1976, effective as of January 1, 1978. It declared unpublished materials to be in the public domain when the records are 100 years old or when the creator of the records has been dead for fifty years, whichever date comes first. The act also declared that records created before January 1, 1978 enter the public domain in 2002, provided that they are over 100 years old or the creator of the records has been dead 50 years. The act established the first sale doctrine, which gives copyright holders control of their goods until their first sale.
    (, 4/19/99)(Econ, 3/23/13, p.71)
1976        Oct 22, Pres. Ford signed S. 3091, the National Forest Management Act of 1976.
    (WSJ, 2/25/97, p.A22)(
1976        Nov 2, Former Georgia Gov. (James Earl) Jimmy Carter defeated Republican incumbent Gerald R. Ford, becoming the 39th president and the first from the Deep South since the Civil War.
    (AP, 11/2/97)(HN, 11/2/98)
1976        Pres. Ford suspended nuclear reprocessing under the fear that terrorist groups might steal plutonium from American plants to manufacture bombs. Pres. Carter made the decision permanent in 2007.
    (WSJ, 3/13/09, p.A9)
1977        Jan 19, In one of his last acts of office, President Ford pardoned Iva Toguri D'Aquino, a Japanese-American who had been suspected of being wartime radio propagandist "Tokyo Rose"  [see Sep 25, 1948].
    (AP, 1/19/00)(AH, 10/02, p.28)
1979        Former US Pres. Gerald Ford (1908-2006) authored his autobiography A Time to Heal.
    (WSJ, 1/2/07, p.A1)
2000        Aug 2, Former President Ford was hospitalized after suffering one, possibly two, small strokes.
    (AP, 8/2/01)
2004        Nov 12, Former President Gerald R. Ford attended groundbreaking ceremonies at the Univ. of Michigan for the new home of the Gerald R. Ford School of Public Policy.
    (SFC, 12/27/06, p.A11)
2006        Dec 26, Gerald R. Ford (b.1913), former Michigan Congressman and US President (1973-1976), died. He had declared "Our long national nightmare is over" as he replaced Richard Nixon, but may have doomed his own chances of election by pardoning his disgraced predecessor.
    (AP, 12/27/06)
2007        Jan 2, US markets and federal agencies closed in respect for funeral rites for former Pres. Gerald Ford. Fords body was flown to Michigan for burial following services in the National Cathedral.
    (WSJ, 1/2/06, p.A1)(WSJ, 1/3/06, p.A1)
2006        Nov 12, Gerald R. Ford surpassed Ronald Reagan as the longest-lived US president at 93 years and 121 days.
    (AP, 11/12/07)

#39 Jimmy Carter (1977-1981)

1924        Oct 1, Jimmy Carter (James Earl), 39th president of the U.S. (1977-1981), was born in Plains, Georgia.
    (SFEC, 1/12/97,  Z3 p.3)(HN, 10/1/98)(MC, 10/1/01)
1928        Jan 5, Walter Mondale, 42nd Vice President (1977-1981) of the U.S., was born. He was the Democratic presidential nominee who lost to Ronald Reagan in 1984, and Ambassador to Japan.
    (HN, 1/5/99)
1929        Aug 7, Ruth Carter-Stapleton, Pres. Carters sister, evangelist, was born in Plains, Ga.
    (MC, 8/7/02)
1937        Mar 29, Billy Carter, brother of Pres Carter, was born in Plains, Georgia.
    (MC, 3/29/02)
1971        Jan 12, Jimmy Carter (b.1924) was sworn in as the 76th governor of Georgia.
1976        Jan 19, In the Iowa caucus Jimmy Carter won with 28% of the vote. The rest went to Birch Bayh (13%), Fred R. Harris (10%), Morris Udall (6%) and Uncommitted (37%).
1976        Republican Gerald Ford won the New Hampshire primary over Ronald Reagan 50.1 to 48.6%. Democrat Jimmie Carter won over Mo Udall and Birch Bayh 28.7 to 23 to 15.3%.
    (SSFC, 1/25/04, p.A19)
1976        Jul 14, Jimmy Carter won the Democratic presidential nomination by an overwhelming margin at the party's convention in New York City.
    (AP, 7/14/97)
1976        Sep 20, Playboy magazine released an interview in which Democratic presidential nominee Jimmy Carter admitted he'd "looked on a lot of women with lust." Carter was interviewed for the November issue of Playboy and he admitted that he had committed "lust in my heart."
    (AP, 9/20/01)(SFEC, 9/28/97, p.A11)
1976        Oct 6, In his second debate with Jimmy Carter, President Ford asserted in SF that there was "no Soviet domination of eastern Europe." Ford later conceded he'd misspoken. Carter charged the Ford administration with excessive secrecy, immorality and weakness in dealing with the Soviet Union and Arab nations. Some 3,000 people protested outside the Palace of Fine Arts. The US non-partisan League of Women Voters organized the presidential debates and continued to do so in 1980 and 1984. In 1988 Democrats and Republicans took control of the debates. 
    (AP, 10/6/97)(SFC, 10/5/01, WB p.6)(Econ., 10/17/20, p.16)
1976        Dec 16, President Jimmy Carter appointed Andrew Young as Ambassador to the United Nations.
    (HN, 12/16/98)
1977        Jan 20, President Jimmy Carter was sworn in and then surprised everyone as he walked from the U.S. Capitol to the White House.
    (HN, 1/20/99)
1977        Jan 21, US President Carter pardoned almost all Vietnam War draft evaders as long as they had not been involved in violent acts. Carter also urged 65 degrees as the maximum heat in homes to ease the energy crisis.
    (AP, 1/21/98)(HN, 1/21/99)(HNQ, 11/13/99)
1977        Feb 24, Pres. Carter announced the US was cutting off all military aid to Ethiopia because of its human rights violations. The unstated reason was the US desire to cooperate with Saudi Arabia to lure Somalia from the Soviet camp, an effort which was ultimately successful.
1977        Mar 5, President Carter took questions from 42 telephone callers in 26 states on a network radio call-in program moderated by Walter Cronkite.
    (AP, 3/5/98)(
1977        Mar 7, Israeli PM Yitzhak Rabin met with Pres. Carter in Washington.
1977        Mar 9, Pres. Carter proposed an end to travel restrictions to Cuba, Vietnam, N. Korea and Cambodia effective as of March 18.
1977        Mar 16, US president Carter pleaded for a Palestinian homeland.
1977        Mar 2    2, President Carter proposed the abolition of the Electoral College.
    (HN, 3/22/97)
1977        Apr 4, Egyptian Pres Anwar Sadat held his 1st meeting with President Jimmy Carter.
1977        Apr 7, Pres. Carter stopped the reprocessing of used nuclear fuel rods in order to discourage the proliferation of nuclear weapons.
    (SSFC, 4/8/07, p.A18)
1977        May 23, Pres. Jimmy Carter presented an environmental message to Congress: "I am directing to make a one-year study of the probable changes in the worlds population, natural resources and environment through the end of the century. This study will serve as the foundation of our longer-term planning. The Global 2000 Report sold 1.5 million copies and pronounced a world that would be more crowded, more polluted, less stable ecologically and more vulnerable to disruption than the world of 1980.
    (SFC, 12/31/00, WB p.1)
1977        Jun 24, The IRS revealed that Pres. Jimmy Carter paid no taxes in 1976.
1977        Jul 12, President Carter defended Supreme Court decisions limiting government payments for poor women's abortions, saying, "There are many things in life that are not fair."
    (AP, 7/12/97)
1977        Aug 4, President Carter signed a measure establishing the Department of Energy.
    (AP, 8/4/97)
1977        Sep 7, Pres. Carter and Gen. Herrera signed the Panama Canal treaties in Washington. They called for the U.S. to eventually turn over control of the waterway to Panama. The US Southern Command was scheduled to withdraw to new Miami headquarters by the end of 1999. The US agreed to clean up its bases before turning them over to Panama. Gen'l. Torrijos signed the treaty with Pres. Jimmy Carter. The deal was negotiated by Sol Linowitz (d.2005).
    (AP, 9/7/97)(SFC, 6/2/97, p.A6)(SFC, 8/22/97, p.A14)(SFC, 4/29/99, p.D5)(WSJ, 3/21/05, p.A1)
1977        Nov 15, Pres. Jimmy Carter welcomed the Shah of Iran to Washington, DC.
1977        Dec 19, Pres. Jimmy Carter signed into law the US Foreign Corrupt Practices Act (FCPA). The act made it a crime for a US citizen to pay bribes to win contracts abroad. The Lockheed Corp. had bribed Japanese officials for business contracts and caused a furor that brought down the Tokyo government and inspired the Foreign Corrupt Practices Act in the US.
    (, 4/8/96, p.A-8)
1978        Apr 7, President Carter announced he was deferring development of the neutron bomb, a high-radiation weapon.
    (AP, 4/7/08)
1978        May 17, Women were included in the White House honor guard for the first time as President Carter welcomed Zambian President Kenneth Kaunda.
    (AP, 5/17/08)
1978        Jul 15, President Carter, in West Germany for an economic summit, presided over a "town meeting" during which he fielded questions from about 1,000 Berliners.
    (AP, 7/15/04)
1978        Pres. Jimmy Carter signed the Cranston Act, which loosened restriction on home brewing and changed the federal excise taxes so that home brewers were given lighter levies than big brewers when they sold their product.
    (Economist, 9/8/12, p.65)
1979        Aug 6, Paul Volcker (b.1927), appointed by Pres. Carter, took over as the new chair of the US Federal Reserve Board.
1978        Sep 5-1978 Sep 17, US Pres. Carter, Menachem Begin of Israel and Anwar Sadat of Egypt met at Camp David, Md. In 2014 Lawrence Wright authored Thirteen Days in September: Carter, Begin, and Sadat at Camp David.
    (SFC, 6/2/97, p.D5)(Econ, 9/20/14, p.79)
1978        Sep 17, US Pres. Carter, Menachem Begin of Israel and Anwar Sadat of Egypt signed agreements at Camp David, Md. Israel promised to withdraw gradually from Sinai and to establish some form of autonomous Palestinian territory on the West Bank. Sadats astrologer, Hasan al-Tuhami, was the only person Sadat trusted. In the Camp David Accord "Israel was the winner and Egypt the Loser." Thus wrote Boutros Boutros-Ghali in his 1997 book: "Egypts Road to Jerusalem: A Diplomats Story of the Struggle for Peace in the Middle East."
    (WUD, 1994, p.1691)(TL, 1988, p.119)(SFC, 6/2/97, p.D5)(SFC, 4/24/98, p.A17)
1978        Oct 10, President Carter signed a bill authorizing the Susan B. Anthony dollar coin.
    (, 10/10/98)
1978        Oct 24, Pres. Carter signed the Airline Deregulation Act. The main purpose of the act was to remove government control from commercial aviation and expose the passenger airline industry to market forces. Alfred Kahn (1917-2010) was the head of Americas Civil Aeronautics Board and the driving force behind the deregulation of air travel.
    (, 10/5/04, p.A1)(Econ, 1/8/11, p.67)
1978        Oct 26, Pres. Carter signed the Ethics in Government Act. It provided for the appointment of independent counsels. The Supreme Court upheld the law in 1987.
    (, 8/31/97)(SFEC, 3/7/99, Z1 p.6)
1978        Dec 1, Pres. Jimmy Carter proclaimed 15 new national monuments, eleven under NPS jurisdiction and two each for the Forest Service and the Fish and Wildlife Service.
1978        Pres. Jimmy Carter declared permanent national monuments on 56 million acres in Alaska. Sec. of Interior Cecil Andrus ordered protection of an additional 52 million acres of Alaskan public land.
    (SSFC, 3/27/17, p.C3)
1979        Jan 29, President Jimmy Carter commuted the sentence of Patty Hearst (24) from 7 to 2 years. She had served 23 months in prison.
    (HN, 1/29/99)(SFC, 1/23/04, p.E2)
1979        Jan 29, President Carter formally welcomed Chinese Vice Premier Deng Xiaoping to the White House, following the establishment of diplomatic relations.
    (AP, 1/29/98)
1979        Feb 1, US Pres. Jimmy Carter legalized home brewing.
    (Hem., 8/96, p.113)(
1979        Mar 26, The Camp David peace treaty was signed by Israeli Prime Minister Menachem Begin and Egyptian President Anwar Sadat at the White House. [see Sep 5-17, 1978] Under the historic peace accord, Israel and Egypt agreed to operate flights between the countries.
    (AP, 3/26/97)(, 9/16/12)
1979        Jul 15, President Carter delivered his "malaise" speech in which he lamented what he called a "crisis of confidence" in America.
    (AP, 7/15/97)
1979        Sep 6, Pres. Carter designated the first Sunday of September following Labor Day of each year as National Grandparents Day.
1979        Sep 10, Four Puerto Rican nationalists imprisoned for a 1954 attack on the House of Representatives and a 1950 attempt on the life of President Truman were granted clemency by President Carter.
    (AP, 9/10/99)
1979        Oct 17, Pres. Carter signed legislation creating Dept. of Education.
1979        Nov 4, The US Embassy was taken over by Iranian students and a hostage crisis began. 90 people, including 63 Americans, were taken hostage at the American embassy in Teheran, Iran, by militant student followers of Ayatollah Khomeini who demanded the return of Shah Mohammad Reza Pahlavi to Iran for trial. He was undergoing medical treatment in New York City. The students held 52 American hostages for 444 days, and were released on the day of the inauguration President Ronald Reagan, January 20, 1981. In 2005 David Harris authored The Crisis: The President, the Prophet and the Shah 1979 and the coming of Militant Islam.
    (WSJ, 11/19/96, p.A1)(AP, 11/4/97)(HNQ, 5/19/98)(HN, 11/4/98)(SSFC, 4/3/05, p.F4)
1979        Nov 12, President Carter announced an immediate halt to all imports of Iranian oil and freezes Iranian assets in US. Executive Order 12170 halted oil imports from Iran.
1979        Dec 12, In response to the Iran hostage crisis, the Carter administration ordered the removal of most Iranian diplomats in the United States.
    (AP, 12/12/99)
1979        Apr 6, The US Carter administration cut off aid to Pakistan, because of that countrys covert construction of a uranium enrichment facility.
    (HNQ, 11/14/99)(SSFC, 3/27/17, p.E2)
1980        Jan 2, President Carter asked the Senate to delay the arms treaty ratification in response to Soviet action in Afghanistan.
    (HN, 1/2/99)
1980        Jan 13, The United States offered Pakistan a two-year aid plan to counter the Soviet threat in Afghanistan.
    (HN, 1/13/99)
1980        Jan 20, President Jimmy Carter announced the US boycott of Olympics in Moscow.
1980        Jan 23, Pres. Jimmy Carter made his State of the Union address. His new American policy came to be known as the Carter Doctrine. It was a pledge to defend US interests in the Persian Gulf, using military force if necessary.
1980        Jan 24, In a rebuff to the Soviets, the U.S. announced intentions to sell arms to China.
    (HN, 1/24/99)
1980        Feb 8, President Jimmy Carter unveiled a plan to re-introduce draft registration.
    (AP, 2/8/00)
1980        Feb 26, Republican Ronald Reagan won the New Hampshire primary over George H.W. Bush and Howard Baker 49.8 to 22.8 to 12.9%. Democrat Jimmie Carter won over Ted Kennedy, Jerry Brown and Birch Bayh 47.2 to 37.4 to 9.6%.
    (SSFC, 1/25/04, p.A19)(
1980        Mar 14, Pres. Carter signed Executive order 12201 imposing credit controls to reduce inflation. Credit usage plunged and GDP fell by an annualized 8%, the steepest quarterly drop in 50 years.
    (Econ, 10/18/08, p.85)(
1980        Mar 21, President Carter announced to the U.S. Olympic Team that they would not participate in the 1980 Summer Games in Moscow as a boycott against Soviet intervention in Afghanistan.
1980        Mar 31, President Carter deregulated the banking industry.
    (HN, 3/31/98)
1980        Apr 7,  The US broke relations with Iran during the hostage crises. Pres. Carter ordered all Iranian diplomats expelled from the US and prohibited any further exports to the nation. Pres. Carter signed Executive Order 12205 for economic sanctions against Iran.
    (HN, 4/7/97)(
1980        Apr 20, The first Cubans sailing to the United States as part of the massive Mariel boatlift reached Florida.
    (SFC,12/13/97, p.A14)(AP, 9/26/97)(AP, 4/20/00)
1980        Apr 24, An American assault team held 44 Iranians hostage for about 3 hours when their bus stumbled upon the remote desert site. The failed operation was commanded by Colonel Charles Beckwith, the founder of US Delta Force. The mission resulted in the deaths of eight U.S. servicemen. A U.S. hostage rescue failed when a plane collided with a helicopter in Iran. The Iranian film: "Sandstorm," which depicted the event, was made in 1996 for release in Feb, 1997.
    (WSJ, 11/19/96, p.A1)(AP, 4/24/97)(HN, 4/24/98)
1980        Apr 25, President Jimmy Carter announced the hostage rescue disaster in Iran.
    (HN, 4/25/98)
1980        Apr 28, President Carter accepted the resignation of Secretary of State Cyrus Vance (1917-2002), who had opposed the failed rescue mission aimed at freeing American hostages in Iran. The decision to proceed had been spearheaded by Zbigniev Brzeninski.
    (AP, 4/28/97)(SSFC, 1/13/02, p.A27)(SFC, 3/16/03, p.AD3)
1980        May 5, Pres. Carter said that the Mariel Cubans would be welcomed "with open hearts and open arms." In 1999 1750 Mariels were in detention as "excludable aliens," under INS custody for crimes committed after being released at least once.
    (SFEC, 7/11/99, Par p.14)
1980         May 14, President Carter inaugurated the Department of Health and Human Services.
    (AP, 5/14/97)
1980        May 22, In response to a request from the Governor of NY, President Carter declared a second federal emergency at Love Canal, paving the way for federal aid to relocate the more than 700 families who still lived near the former toxic waste dump.
1980        Jul 1, Pres. Jimmy Carter signed the  Motor Carrier Regulatory Reform and Modernization Act (aka the Motor Carrier Act of 1980). It swept away restrictions on the number of haulage firms, as well as price controls.
    (, 8/8/20, p.54)
1980        Jul 2, President Jimmy Carter reinstated draft registration for males 18 years of age.
    (HN, 7/2/98)
1980        Jul 23, The US Senator Judiciary Committee was reported to be officially joining those investigating allegations of misconduct in Billy Carter's relationship with Libya.
1980        Aug 14, President Carter and Vice President Walter Mondale were nominated for a second term at the Democratic national convention in New York.
    (AP, 8/14/00)
1980        Nov 4, Ronald Reagan (69) was elected the 40th president of the United States. He beat President Carter (56) by a wide margin. George H.W. Bush was elected vice-president. Inflation and the crises in Iran caused Jimmy Carter to lose to Ronald Reagan, Americas oldest Pres.-elect.
    (TMC, 1994, p.1980)(HN, 11/4/98)(AP, 11/4/97)
1980        Dec 2, Pres. Carter signed the Alaska National Interest Lands Conservation Act and protected 104 million acres of wilderness. The size of Denali National Park was tripled to 6.2 million acres. Motorized access to the land was given for traditional activities such as hunting, fishing and camping. Peggy Wayburns book: "Alaska the Great Land" was credited with helping persuade Congress. The law directed the Interior Dept. to assess oil potential in 1.5 million acres of the coastal plain. A ban was put on drilling in the Arctic National Wildlife Refuge. In 2002 Pres. Bush pushed to overturn the ban. Estimates on oil there ranged from 3.2 to at least 5.7 billion barrels.
    (, 5/13/99, p.B1)(SFC, 3/28/02, p.A24) (SFC, 9/30/06, p.B6)(Econ, 12/20/03, p.38)(SSFC, 2/24/02, p.A9)(SSFC, 8/28/05, p.A13)
1980        Dec 11, President Carter signed into a law legislation creating a $1.6 billion environmental "superfund" to pay for cleaning up chemical spills and toxic waste dumps. The Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act of 1980 (CERCLA or Superfund) was established by the US Congress to clean up America's worst hazardous waste sites. Fifteen years later more than $20 billion had been spent with 1300 waste sites identified but only a small fraction cleaned. The fund was established in response to toxic chemicals seeping into a housing development at Love Canal in New York. The aim was to require private parties to clean up past pollution when they could be found. The Fed would pay where the responsible parties could not be determined. It took 21 years and the removal of 1,200 cubic meters of soil to clean up Love Canal.
    (, 10/25/95, p.A-18)(SFC, 6/8/96, p.A13)(Econ 6/10/17, p.24)
1982        In 1982 Jimmy Carter became University Distinguished Professor at Emory University in Atlanta, and founded The Carter Center. With a permanent staff of approximately 160, The Carter Center works to resolve conflict, advance democracy and human rights, and prevent disease and hunger. The Carter Center Conflict Resolution Program was founded and helped Jimmy Carter win the Nobel Peace Prize in 2002.
    (Econ, 7/2/11, p.50)(
1994        Jun 16, Former President Jimmy Carter, on a private visit to North Korea, reported the Communist nation's leaders were eager to resume talks with the United States on resolving disputes about Pyongyang's nuclear program and improving relations. Carter made history as the first former US president to visit North Korea. Carter's unofficial four-day visit included a meeting with then-North Korean leader Kim Il Sung. His intervention headed off a potential conflict and helped seal an aid-for-disarmament agreement that lasted nearly a decade.
    (AP, 6/16/99)(AP, 3/9/18)
1994        Dec 14, Bosnian Serb leader Radovan Karadzic asked former U.S. President Jimmy Carter to mediate a lasting peace in Bosnia.
    (AP, 12/14/02)
1994        Dec 18, Former U.S. president Jimmy Carter arrived in Bosnia-Herzegovina on a private mission to seek an end to 32 months of war.
    (AP, 12/18/99)
1994        Dec 19, Former President Jimmy Carter, on a peace mission to Bosnia-Herzegovina, met with Bosnian Serb leaders, who offered a four-month cease-fire.
    (AP, 12/18/99)
1994        Dec 20, Former President Jimmy Carter succeeded in getting Bosnia's warring factions to agree to a temporary cease-fire.
    (AP, 12/20/99)
1995        Feb 23, Former U.S. President Jimmy Carter arrived in Haiti to help prepare for peaceful elections.
    (AP, 2/23/00)
1995        Feb 25, Former President Jimmy Carter wound up a 54-hour visit to Haiti, denying he'd been given a chilly reception by Haitians whom he'd helped save from a potentially bloody U.S.-led intervention.
    (AP, 2/25/00)
1995        Mar 27, Former President Jimmy Carter announced he had brokered a two-month cease-fire between Sudan's Islamic government and rebels.
    (AP, 3/27/00)
2002        May 12, Former US Pres. Jimmy Carter arrived in Cuba and Castro offered him an unfettered access. He was the 1st US president, in or out of office, to visit since the 1959 revolution that put Fidel Castro in power.
    (WSJ, 5/13/02, p.A1)(AP, 5/12/03)
2002        May 13, In Cuba former US Pres. Carter challenged US government conservatives to prove charges that Cuba has developed biological weapons and shared such technology with renegade states.
    (SFC, 5/14/02, p.A9)
2002        May 14, Former Pres. Carter addressed the Cuban people and said the US should end its embargo and that Cuba should become more democratic.
    (SFC, 5/15/02, p.A1)
2002        May 16, In Cuba former US Pres. Jimmy Carter met with over 20 dissidents and urged them to continue fighting for democratic change and human rights.
    (SFC, 5/17/02, p.A14)
2002        May 17, Former President Jimmy Carter ended a historic visit to Cuba sharply at odds with the Bush administration over how to deal with Fidel Castro, saying limits on tourism and trade often hurt Americans more than Cubans.
    (AP, 5/17/03)
2003          Mar 8, Former US president and Nobel Peace Prize winner Jimmy Carter condemned preparations for a unilateral US attack on Iraq.
    (AP, 3/9/03)
2007        Jan 11, Fourteen members of an advisory board to Jimmy Carter's human rights organization resigned to protest his new book, "Palestine: Peace Not Apartheid," which has been attacked as unfairly critical of Israel and riddled with inaccuracies.
    (AP, 1/11/07)
2007        Oct 4, Prominent world figures led by former President Carter and Desmond Tutu of South Africa said they were shocked by the suffering in Darfur and criticized Sudan's government in exceptionally harsh terms.
    (AP, 10/4/07)
2008        Apr 14, Former President Jimmy Carter deplored Palestinian militant attacks on Israel as a "despicable crime" as he toured Sderot, a rocket-battered town.
    (AP, 4/14/08)
2008        Apr 15, Former US Pres. Jimmy Carter visited the West Bank and laid a wreath at the grave of Yasser Arafat. Carter was criticized by Israel and Washington for his plans to meet with Hamas leaders in Syria.
    (SFC, 4/16/08, p.A8)
2008        Apr 17, In Egypt former President Carter met with a Hamas delegation from Gaza, part of a series of talks with the Islamic militant group that has drawn sharp criticism from US and Israeli officials. Carter said he urged Hamas leaders from the Gaza Strip to stop militants from firing rockets into southern Israel.
    (AP, 4/17/08)(AP, 4/18/08)
2008        Apr 18,     Former US Pres. Jimmy Carter arrived in Syria where he met Pres. Bashar Assad, the political leader of the militant Palestinian Hamas group and Syrian businessmen.
    (AP, 4/18/08)
2008        Apr 19, In Syria defying US and Israeli warnings, former President Jimmy Carter met again on with Khaled Mashaal, the exiled leader of the militant Hamas group, and his deputy, Moussa Abu Marzouk.
    (AP, 4/19/08)
2008        Apr 21, Israeli military forces killed three Palestinian militants who were trying to infiltrate into Israel from Gaza. Former President Carter said that Hamas, the Islamic militant group that has called for the destruction of Israel, is prepared to accept the right of the Jewish state to "live as a neighbor next door in peace."
    (AP, 4/21/08)
2008        Dec 14, In Syria former US President Jimmy Carter met with Khaled Mashaal, the exiled leader of the Palestinian militant group Hamas, for the second time this year.
    (AP, 12/14/08)
2011        Mar 28, Former US President Jimmy Carter arrived in Cuba to discuss economic policies and ways to improve Washington-Havana relations.
    (AP, 3/28/11)
2011        Mar 29, In Cuba former US President Jimmy Carter and President Raul Castro discussed US-Cuba relations in a meeting in which Castro repeated an offer to hold talks with the United States on any issue.
    (Reuters, 3/30/11)
2011        Mar 30, Former President Jimmy Carter left Cuba without gaining the release of Alan Gross, a US government contractor jailed the past 16 months.
    (AP, 3/31/11)
2011        Apr 26, Former US President Jimmy Carter and three other former heads of state embarked on a three-day mission to North Korea, where they plan to discuss dangerous food shortages and stalled nuclear disarmament talks.
    (AP, 4/26/11)
2011        Apr 27, In North Korea former US president Jimmy Carter met with Kim Yong-Nam, North Korea's de facto head of state, during a peace mission to Pyongyang and said in a blog posting that the North seeks better ties with Washington. Travelling with Carter on this trip were former Finnish president Martti Ahtisaari, ex-Norwegian prime minister Gro Harlem Brundtland and former Irish president Mary Robinson.
    (AFP, 4/27/11)
2011        Apr 28, In South Korea former US President Jimmy Carter said that North Korean leader Kim Jong Il wants direct talks with South Korea's leader, an offer unlikely to be accepted until Pyongyang takes responsibility for violence that killed 50 South Koreans last year.
    (AP, 4/28/11)

#40 Ronald Reagan (1981-1989)


1911        Feb 6, Ronald Reagan was born in Tampico, Illinois. Reagan went on to become a film actor, governor of California (1967-1975) and the 40th president of the United States (1981-1989) and was credited with ending the Cold War.
    (HN, 2/6/99)(AP, 2/6/08)
1914        Jan 4, Jane Wyman, U.S. film actress who was the first wife of President Ronald Reagan, was born.
    (HN, 1/4/99)
1920-1928    The Reagan family settled in Dixon, Ill., and Ronald Reagan attended Dixon Northside High School.
    (SSFC, 6/6/04, A12)
1932        Ronald Reagan graduated from Eureka College in Eureka, Ill. He majored in economics and sociology and served as student body president.
    (SSFC, 6/6/04, A12)
1932-1937    Ronald Reagan worked as a radio sports broadcaster in Iowa.
    (SSFC, 6/6/04, A12)
1937        The film Love Is on the Air featured Ronald Reagan in his 1st film.
    (SSFC, 6/6/04, A14)
1938        The film "Boy Meets Girl" featured Joy Hodges, as a mentor to Ronald Reagan.
    (SFC, 2/1/03, p.A19)
1939        The film "Code of the Secret Service" starred Ronald Reagan.
    (SFC, 9/3/02, p.A20)
1939        The film "Dark Victory" starred Ronald Reagan and Bette Davis as a spoiled socialite with an incurable brain tumor.
    (SFEC, 6/13/99, DB p.37)(SSFC, 3/11/01, DB p.53)
1940        Ronald Reagan married actress Jane Wyman (26).
    (SSFC, 6/6/04, A14)
1940        Ronald Reagan and Pat OBrian starred in the film "Knute Rockne, All American." Here is where we hear Reagan exclaim: "Win one for the Gipper" a reference to George Gipp.
    (SFC, 7/14/96, DB p.32)(SFEC, 11/3/96, DB p.54)(SSFC, 6/9/02, p.F3)
1940        The film "Santa Fe Trail" starred Errol Flynn and Ronald Reagan.
    (SSFC, 6/6/04, A26)
1941        Ronald Reagan starred in the film "Juke Girl" as a leader of a band of truckers.
    (SFEC, 6/29/97, DB p.33)
1941        The film "Sea Wolf" premiered in Sonoma, Ca. It starred Jane Wyman, Ronald Reagan, Alice Talton, Edward G. Robinson, and John Garfield.
    (SFEC,12/14/97, BR p.7)
1942        The film "Kings Row" starred Ronald Reagan and Rhonda Fleming.
    (SFEC, 11/3/96, DB p.54)
1942        The film "Juke Girl" starred Ronald Reagan and Ann Sheridan.
    (SSFC, 6/6/04, A26)
1943        The film "This Is the Army" with Ross Elliott, Ronald Reagan, Irving Berlin, George Murphy and Henry Jones (d.1999 at 86) was produced. It was based on a show by Irving Berlin and Zinn Arthur (d.2003).
    (SFEC, 11/3/96, DB p.54)(SFC, 5/21/99, p.D6)(SFC, 8/18/99, p.C4)(SFC, 3/15/03, p.A17)
1946        Ronald Reagan was a sponsor and director of the Committee for a Democratic Far East Policy. The organization had been designated as subversive by the Attorney General under Executive Order 10450. He was also a member of the American Veterans Committee, whose California chapter was cited as "communist dominated."
    (SSFC, 6/9/02, p.F7)
1946        Ronald Reagan signed a new 7-year contract with Warner Brothers for $3,500 a week.
    (SSFC, 6/6/04, A14)
1947        Apr 10, Ronald Reagan and his wife Jane Wyman provided names to the FBI of Screen Actors Guild (SAG) members believed to be communist sympathizers.
    (SSFC, 6/9/02, p.F2)
1947        Ronald Reagan became president of the Screen Actors Guild and held the post for 5 years.
    (SSFC, 6/6/04, A14)
1947        The comedy film "The Voice of the Turtle" starred Ronald Reagan and Eleanor Parker. It was directed by Irving Rapper.
    (SFEC, 6/29/97, DB p.33)(SFC, 12/30/99, p.C6)
1949        Ronald Reagan and Jane Wyman divorced.
    (SSFC, 6/6/04, A14)
1950        The film "The Hasty Heart" starred Ronald Reagan
    (SFEC, 11/3/96, DB p.54)(SFEC, 6/29/97, DB p.33)
1951        The film "Bedtime for Bonzo" starred Ronald Reagan.
    (SFEC, 11/3/96, DB p.54)
1952        Mar 4, Ronald Reagan and Nancy Davis were married in the San Fernando Valley, north of Los Angeles.
    (AP, 3/4/98)
1952        The film "The Winning Team" with Ronald Reagan was produced.
    (SFEC, 11/3/96, DB p.54)
1954        Sep 26, Ronald Reagan made his 1st appearance as host of the "General Electric Theater," and continued on for 8 years.
    (SSFC, 6/6/04, A14)
1957        The film "Hellcats of the Navy" starred Ronald Reagan and his wife Nancy Davis.
    (SFEC, 11/3/96, DB p.54)
1958        Jun 20, FBI headquarters learned of Ronald Reagans desire to star in the film "The FBI Story." The bureau rejected the idea because of Reagans association with Communist front organizations in the 1940s.
    (SSFC, 6/9/02, p.F3)
1958        The film "Crash Landing" was the last movie for Nancy Reagan.
    (SFEC, 1/11/98, Z1 p.8)
1959        Ronald Reagan delivered over 200 speeches as a "Democrat for Nixon."
    (SSFC, 6/9/02, p.F3)
1962        General Electric dropped Ronald Reagan from his $150,000 per year job as company representative due to his political views. Reagan switched to the Republican Party.
    (SSFC, 6/9/02, p.F6)
1962        Jeane Dixon (1918-1997), astrologer, told Ronald Reagan that he would someday be president.
    (SFEC, 1/26/97, p.B6)
1964        The film "The Killers" starred Lee Marvin, Clu Gulager, John Cassavetes, Angie Dickinson and Ronal Reagan in his last film role.
    (SFC, 2/20/98, p.C13)
1964        Ronald Reagan hosted Death Valley Days and appeared in some episodes through 1965.
    (SSFC, 6/9/02, p.F5)
1965        Oct 10, Ronald Reagan spoke at Coalinga Junior College and called for an official declaration of war in Vietnam.
    (SSFC, 6/9/02, p.F5)
1966        Jan 4, Ronald Reagan announced his candidacy for California Governor.
    (SSFC, 6/9/02, p.F6)
1966        Jan 9, Ronald Reagan appeared on Meet the Press and was asked why he had not disavowed the John Birch Society. Reagan said a committee had looked into the group and found "nothing of a subversive nature." In 1960 an informer reported to the FBI that Reagan was a Beverly Hills chapter member.
    (SSFC, 6/9/02, p.F6)
1966        May 12, Ronald Reagan told a crowd at the Cow Palace that a 153-page report by the Burns committee accused UC Pres. Kerr of fostering an atmosphere that turned the university into a haven for protesters and sex deviants.
    (SSFC, 6/9/02, p.F6)
1966        Jun 7, Ronald Reagan defeated SF Mayor George Christopher in the GOP primary.
    (SSFC, 6/9/02, p.F6)
1966        Aug 20, Ronald Reagan announced a plan for a new anti-crime academy to be located in Berkeley.
    (SSFC, 6/9/02, p.F6)
1966        Aug, John McCone, former CIA director, joined Ronald Reagans campaign as head of an executive policy advice committee.
    (SSFC, 6/9/02, p.F6)
1966        Nov 8, Ronald Reagan defeated Pat Brown by over a million votes to become governor of California. Reagan had defeated former SF Mayor George Christopher in the primary.
    (AP, 11/8/97)(SFEC, 11/28/99, p.A28)(SFC, 9/15/00, p.A19)(SSFC, 6/9/02, p.F6)
1966        Dec 18, Gov. Reagan filled out a personal Security Questionnaire for a comprehensive FBI background check. Reagan falsely answered 2 questions, but the FBI cleared his application.
    (SSFC, 6/9/02, p.F7)
1967        Jan 5, Ronald Reagan was sworn in as Gov. of California.
    (SSFC, 6/9/02, p.F7)
1967        Jan 16, Gov. Reagan met with FBI agents at his governors mansion in Sacramento for information on UC campus radicals.
    (SSFC, 6/9/02, p.F1)
1967        Jan 20, Clark Kerr, president of the UC system, was fired by Gov. Reagan and the UC Regents for being too soft on student protesters at Berkeley. In 2003 Kerr authored vol. 2 of his memoir: "The Gold and the Blue: A Personal Memoir of the Univ. of California.
    (SSFC, 2/17/02, p.M6)(SSFC, 6/9/02, p.F6)
1967        Jun 15, Gov. Reagan signed the Therapeutic Abortion Act, which permitted abortions in the first 20 weeks of pregnancy if a woman's life or health was threatened or the pregnancy was the result of rape or incest.
    (SFC, 12/27/99, p.A10)(AP, 6/15/07)
1968        Aug 5, The Republican national convention convened in Miami Beach. Ronald Reagan announced that he would seek the GOP nomination for president. He soon threw his support to Nixon.
    (AP, 8/5/08)(SSFC, 6/9/02, p.F6)(SSFC, 6/6/04, A16)
1969        May 15, UC officials fenced Peoples Park and planned to build dormitories. This prompted some 3,000 protesters to try to seize it back. Gov. Reagan placed Berkeley under martial law and dispatched tear gas-spraying helicopters and riot police who shot and killed one man.
    (SSFC, 6/9/02, p.F7)
1969        The Young Americas Foundation was founded at Vanderbilt University to teach patriotism, limited, government and other values espoused by later Pres. Ronald Reagan. In 1998 the foundation purchased the 680-acre Reagan ranch north of Santa Barbara.
    (SFC, 4/21/98, p.A3)(
1970        Nov 3, California Gov. Reagan won a 2nd term. He defeated Jesse Unruh.
    (SSFC, 6/9/02, p.F7)
1971        Oct 26, California Gov. Ronald Reagan called Mr Nixon at the White House to complain about UN members who voted against the US position a day after the UN voted to admit The Peoples Republic of China into the global organization. Mr Reagan said: To see those, those monkeys from those African countries damn them, theyre still uncomfortable wearing shoes! The explosive recordings were originally released by the National Archives in 2000, though they were later withdrawn due to a court-ordered review.
    (The Independent, 7/31/19)
1971        Gov. Reagan approved a major increase in aid to welfare recipients.
    (SFC, 12/27/99, p.A10)
1974        Gov. Ronald Reagan appointed Judge Frank K. Richardson (d.1999 at age 85) to the California Supreme Court. Richardson retired in 1983. Regan served as governor from 1966-1974. In 2003 Lou Cannon authored "Governor Reagan."
    (SFC, 10/7/99, p.C4)(WSJ, 10/7/03, p.D10)
1974        California state spending under Gov. Reagan increased from $4.6 to $10.2 billion when he left office.
    (SSFC, 6/6/04, A27)
1975        Nov 20, Ronald Reagan announced his intention to battle Gerald Ford for the Republican presidential nomination.
    (SSFC, 6/6/04, A16)(
1976        Aug 19, President Ford narrowly won the Republican presidential nomination over Ronald Reagan at the party's convention in Kansas City. The convention was called to order by Mary Louis Smith, chair of the Republican National Committee and the first woman to organize and call to order the convention of a major US political party. In 2005 Craig Shirley authored Reagans Revolution: The Untold Story of the Campaign That Started It all.
    (AP, 8/19/97)(SFEC, 8/24/97, p.D8)(WSJ, 2/2/05, p.D10)
1976        Republican Gerald Ford won the New Hampshire primary over Ronald Reagan 50.1 to 48.6%. Democrat Jimmie Carter won over Mo Udall and Birch Bayh 28.7 to 23 to 15.3%.
    (SSFC, 1/25/04, p.A19)
1979        Nov 13, Former California Gov. Ronald Reagan announced in New York his candidacy for the Republican presidential nomination.
    (AP, 11/13/99)
1980        Jan 21, In the Iowa Republican caucus George H. W. Bush beat Ronald Reagan 32% to 30%. Reagan went onto win the nomination and the presidency.
1980        Feb 26, Republican Ronald Reagan won the New Hampshire primary over George H.W. Bush and Howard Baker 49.8 to 22.8 to 12.9%. Democrat Jimmie Carter won over Ted Kennedy, Jerry Brown and Birch Bayh 47.2 to 37.4 to 9.6%.
    (SSFC, 1/25/04, p.A19)(
1980        Jul 16, Ronald Reagan won the Republican presidential nomination at the party's convention in Detroit.
    (AP, 7/16/97)(SFEM,11/2/97, p.12)
1980        Jul 17, Ronald Reagan formally accepted the Republican nomination for president.
1980        cAug, The Republican National Convention, held in Detroit, nominated Ronald Reagan and George Bush to lead the [party.
    (WSJ, 8/13/96, p.A9)
1980        Oct 14, Republican presidential nominee Ronald Reagan promised that, if elected, he would name a woman to the US Supreme Court. He later nominated Judge Sandra Day OConnor of Arizona.
    (AP, 10/14/00)
1980        Oct 28, President Carter and Republican presidential nominee Ronald Reagan faced off in a nationally broadcast, 90-minute debate in Cleveland.
    (AP, 10/28/98)
1980        Nov 4, Ronald Reagan (69) was elected the 40th president of the United States. He beat President Carter (56) by a wide margin. George H.W. Bush was elected vice-president. Inflation and the crises in Iran caused Jimmy Carter to lose to Ronald Reagan, Americas oldest Pres.-elect.
    (TMC, 1994, p.1980)(HN, 11/4/98)(AP, 11/4/97)
1980        Pres. candidate Ronald Reagan named the Jelly Belly jelly bean as his favorite confection.
    (SFC, 8/11/99, Z1 p.3)
1981        Jan 20, Ronald Reagan was sworn in as president of the US. He inherited 10% inflation and 20% interest rates.
    (AP, 1/20/98)(WSJ, 8/15/96, p.A12)
1981        Jan 20, Iran released 52 Americans held hostage for 444 days, minutes after the presidency had passed from Jimmy Carter to Ronald Reagan. In 2015 The US Congress authorized the payment of $4.4 million to Americans held hostage by Iran from Nov. 4, 1979, to Jan. 20, 1981, or $10,000 for each day of captivity to the surviving members of that ordeal and their families. As of 2021 full payment had not been made.
    (AP, 1/20/98)(USA Today, 8/14/21)
1981        Jan 27, President Reagan greeted the 52 former American hostages released by Iran, telling them during a visit to the White House: "Welcome home."
    (AP, 1/27/98)
1981        Mar 5, President Reagan asked Congress to end federal legal aid to the poor.
    (HN, 3/5/98)
1981        Mar 6, President Reagan announced plans to cut 37,000 federal jobs.
    (HN, 3/6/98)
1981        Mar 30, John W. Hinckley Jr. shot and wounded Pres. Ronald Reagan outside a Washington, D.C., hotel. Press Sec. James Brady took a bullet as did Secret Service agent Tim McCarthy and District of Columbia police officer Thomas Delahanty.
    (SFC, 7/14/96, Par p.2)(HN, 3/30/02)(AP, 3/30/08)
1981        Apr 11, President Reagan returned to the White House from the hospital, 12 days after John W. Hinckley Jr. shot him in an assassination attempt.
    (AP, 4/11/97)(HN, 4/11/98)
1981        Aug 3, US air traffic controllers (PATCO) went on strike, despite a warning from President Reagan they would be fired. Most of the 13,000 controllers defied Reagans order to return to work within 48 hours and were fired.
    (AP, 8/3/02)(SFC, 10/4/02, p.A17)
1981        Aug 5, Pres. Reagan began firing 11,500 air traffic controllers who had gone out on strike 2 days earlier.
    (AP, 8/5/97)(WSJ, 9/3/96, p.A1)
1981        Aug 12, President Reagan, citing alleged Libyan involvement in terrorism, ordered U.S. jets to attack targets in Libya.
    (AP, 12/19/03)
1981        Aug 13, In a ceremony at his California ranch, President Reagan signed a historic package of tax and budget reductions, also known as the Kemp-Roth tax cuts. Abstinence-only sex education programs were introduced under Pres. Reagan. Sponsors Rep. Jack Kemp and Sen. William Roth, had hoped for more significant tax cuts, but settled on this bill after a great debate in Congress. The Omnibus Budget Reconciliation Act (OBRA) of 1981 included a rider known as the Adolescent Family Life Act (AFLA), sponsored by Republican Senators Orrin Hatch (Utah) and Jeremiah Denton (Alabama). AFLA set aside a small but significant amount of federal money to be used for the promotion of abstinence, as well as religious instruction in sexual matters within the public schools. In the first four years following implementation of the tax reform act annual revenues were reduced by almost 2% of GDP.
    (, 8/13/01)(Econ, 11/19/16, p.66)
1981        Aug 28, John W. Hinckley Jr. pleaded innocent to charges of attempting to kill President Reagan. Hinckley was later acquitted by reason of insanity.
    (AP, 8/28/97)
1981        Sep 16, Pres. Reagan announced his intention to appoint Edgar Callahan (d.2009 at 80) as chairman of the National Credit Union Administration, making him the highest-ranking credit union regulator in the country. Callahan, former director the Department of Financial Institutions in Illinois, stepped down in 1987 after guiding the industry into deregulation.
    (SFC, 4/3/09, p.B5)(
1981        Sep 28, US Pres. Ronald Reagan designated, October 24, 1981, as United Nations Day. In 2002, September 21 was declared the annual date for "commemorating and strengthening the ideals of peace both within and among all nations and peoples."
    (AFP, 9/20/09)(
1981        Oct 5, President Ronald Reagan signed a resolution granting honorary American citizenship to Swedish diplomat Raoul Wallenberg, credited with saving about 100,000 Hungarians, most of them Jews, from the Nazis during WW II. He became the second honorary American. Winston Churchill was the first.
    (AP, 10/5/01)
1981        Dec 4, President Reagan broadened the power of the CIA by allowing spying in the U.S. This was Executive Order on Intelligence  No 12,333. The order also barred assassinations.
    (HN, 12/4/98)(Econ, 2/20/10, p.57)(
1981        Dec 7, The Reagan Administration predicted a record deficit in 1982 of $109 billion.
    (HN, 12/7/98)
1981        Dec 11, Concerned about the safety of Americans in Libya, the Reagan administration asked them to leave. It also invalidated the use of US passports for travel to Libya.
    (AP, 12/19/03)
1981        Dec 29, President Reagan curtailed Soviet trade in reprisal for its harsh Polish policy.
    (HN, 12/29/00)
1981        Ronald Reagans autobiographical memoir: "Wheres the Rest of Me," was published
1981        Pres. Ronald Reagan negotiated a 5-year, $3.2 billion economic package and military aid package for Pakistan following the Soviet invasion of Afghanistan.
    (SSFC, 3/27/17, p.E2)
1981-1982    The US experienced a recession as Pres. Reagan made tax cuts and built up defense.
    (Econ, 11/20/10, p.30)
1981-1983    Richard Pipes, Harvard Prof. of Russian History, served Pres. Reagan as chief adviser on Soviet and East European affairs. In 2004 Pipes authored "Vixi: Memoirs of a Non-Belonger."
    (SSFC, 1/11/04, p.M6)
1981-1988    Ronald Reagan (b.1911) served as the 40th president of the US. In 2001 Steven V. Hayward authored "The Age of Reagan."
    (WUD, 1994, p.1196)(WSJ, 9/20/01, p.A14)
1981-1989    A. Alan Hill (1938-1996), appointed by Ronald Reagan as an environmental aide, served for this period as chairman of the Council on Environmental Quality and helped craft an acid rain pact between the US and Canada.
    {ReaganR, USA, Environment}
    (SFC, 11/1/96, p.A28)
1982        Feb 4, President Reagan announced a plan to eliminate all medium-range nuclear missiles in Europe.
    (AP, 2/4/02)
1982        Mar 10, Pres Reagan proclaimed economic sanctions against Libya and banned Libyan oil imports, because of the continued support of terrorism.
    (HN, 3/10/98)(
1982        Jun 7, Pres. Reagan met with Pope John Paul II at the Vatican and later with Queen Elizabeth in England.
1982        Jun 17, Pres. Reagan addressed the UN General Assembly in NYC.
1982        Jun 24, Pres. Reagan dismissed Gen. Alexander Haig (1924-2010) from his position as Sec. of State.
    (SSFC, 2/21/10, p.A9)
1982        Jun 24, The US Supreme Court ruled that the president cannot be sued for actions while in office.
1982        Nov 22, President Reagan called for defense-pact deployment of the MX missile.
    (HN, 11/22/98)
1982        Pres. Reagan in a defense directive said homosexuality is incompatible with military service. Under the declaration service members who said they were gay or engaged in homosexual acts were discharged.
    (SFC, 12/23/10, p.A8)
1982        Guatemalan Pres. Rios Montt met with US Pres. Ronald Reagan in Honduras. Reagan dismissed reports of human rights abuses in the region and lifted an arms embargo to resume sales to military rulers.
    (SSFC, 3/14/04, p.M3)
1983        Jan 5, President Reagan announced he was nominating Elizabeth Dole to succeed Drew Lewis as secretary of transportation. Dole became the first woman to head a Cabinet department in Reagan's administration, and the first to head the DOT.
    (AP, 1/5/03)
1983        Mar 8, Pres Reagan called the USSR an "Evil Empire."
1983        Apr 20, Pres. Reagan signed a $165B bail out for Social Security.
1983        Jun 24, The US Supreme Court ruled that Congress cannot veto presidential decisions.
1983        Oct 21, US Pres. Ronald Reagan sent a ten-ship task force to Grenada.
    (HN, 10/21/98)
1983        Nov 11, President Reagan became the first U.S. chief executive to address the Diet, Japan's national legislature.
    (AP, 11/11/03)
1983        Dec 27, President Reagan took all responsibility for the lack of security in Beirut that allowed a terrorist on a suicide mission to kill 241 Marines on Oct 23.
1983        Glenn Seaborg, a Nobel winning chemist, published the report "A Nation at Risk," for the Reagan administration. It inspired a decade of educational reform.
    (SFC, 1/29/98, p.B12)(Econ, 12/3/16, p.21)
1983        Pres. Ronald Reagan made Americas military satellite navigation system, GPS, available to the world. President Ronald Reagan declassified the GPS system in response to a tragedy involving a civilian airplane. Korean Airline flight 007 got lost over Soviet territory and was shot down by Soviet fighters.
    (Econ, 5/18/13, p.73)(
1983        Faith Whittlesey (1939-2018) became the director of the White House Office of Public Liaison under Pres. Ronald Reagan.
    (SSFC, 5/27/18, p.C10)
1984        Jan 25, President Reagan endorsed the development of the first U.S. permanently manned space station.
    (HN, 1/25/99)
1984        Jan 29, President Ronald Reagan announced that he would run for a second term.
    (HN, 1/29/99)
1984        Feb 9, Soviet leader Yuri V. Andropov (69) died, less than 15 months after succeeding Leonid Brezhnev. He was succeeded by Konstantin U. Chernenko. US Pres. Ronald Reagan said he wouldnt go to any memorial for Andropov: I dont want to honor that prick.
    (AP, 2/9/99)(Econ, 2/4/06, p.75)
1984        Apr 26, Pres. Reagan arrived in China for the start of a 6-day visit.
1984        Aug 27, President Reagan announced the Teacher in Space project.
1984        May 28, President Reagan led a state funeral at Arlington National Cemetery at the Tomb of the Unknowns for an unidentified American soldier killed in the Vietnam War. The remains were unearthed in 1998 for DNA testing and possible identification. They were later identified as those of Air Force First Lieutenant Michael J. Blassie, and were sent to St. Louis for hometown burial.
    (AP, 5/28/97)(WSJ, 5/15/98, p.A1)(AP, 5/28/01)
1984         Jun 1, President Ronald Reagan visited Ireland.
1984        Aug 11, President Reagan sparked controversy when he joked during a voice test for a paid political radio address: "My fellow Americans, I'm  pleased to tell you today that I've signed legislation that will outlaw Russia forever. We begin bombing in  five minutes."
    (AP, 8/11/97)(
1984        Aug 27, President Reagan announced the Teacher in Space project.
1984        Nov 6, President Ronald Reagan was re-elected. Reagan beat Mondale in the landslide of 1984 with 97.6% of the Electoral College and over 58% of the popular vote. It almost matched the 1936 landslide of Roosevelt over Landon.
    (HN, 11/6/98)(HNQ, 11/7/00)
1984        Nov 26, US and Iraq resumed diplomatic relations after Pres. Reagan met with Deputy PM Tariq Aziz.
    (SFC, 9/24/02, p.A11)
1985         Jan 3, President Reagan condemned a rash of arsons on abortion clinics.
    (HN, 1/3/99)
1985        Feb 23, US Senate confirmed Edwin Meese III as attorney general.
1985        Mar 17, President Reagan agreed to a joint study with Canada on acid rain.
    (HN, 3/17/98)
1985        Mar 19, In a legislative victory for President Reagan, the Senate voted, 55-45, to authorize production of the MX missile.
    (AP, 3/19/97)
1985        May 1, US president Reagan ordered an embargo against Nicaragua.
1985        Jul 12, Doctors discovered what turned out to be a cancerous growth in President Reagans large intestine, prompting surgery the following day.
    (AP, 7/12/00)
1985        Sep 9, President Ronald W. Reagan issued Executive Order No. 12532 establishing sanctions against South Africa. Reagan banned the sale of computers to South African security agencies, barred most loans to the Pretoria government, halted the importation of the Krugerrand, South Africa's gold coin (effective Oct 11), and stopped exports of nuclear technology until South Africa signs an accord to prevent the spread of nuclear weapons.
1985        Nov 19, President Reagan and Soviet leader Mikhail S. Gorbachev met for the first time as they began their summit in Geneva.
    (AP, 11/19/97)
1985        Pres. Reagan signed into law the Gold Bullion Coin Act that authorized the government to mint gold coins.
    (SFC, 7/14/04, p.C1)
1986        Jan 7, US president Reagan proclaimed economic sanctions against Libya.
1986        Mar 25, President Ronald Reagan ordered emergency aid for the Honduran army. U.S. helicopters took Honduran troops to the Nicaraguan border.
    (HN, 3/24/98)
1986        Jun 23, Tip O'Neill refused to let Reagan address the House.
1986        Jul 3, President Reagan presided over a gala ceremony in New York Harbor that saw the relighting of the renovated Statue of Liberty.
    (AP, 7/3/97)
1986        Jul 11, President Ronald Reagan placed the Contras, who were fighting the government of Nicaragua, under CIA jurisdiction.
    (HN, 7/11/98)
1986        Oct 22, President Reagan signed into law the US Tax Reform Act, also known as the Tax Reform Act of 1985. It flattened rates, simplified rules and removed countless loopholes. It closed a loophole which had helped wealthy families shield assets by designating inheritance past a generation. The top marginal rate was cut from 50% to 28%. The tax law made it possible to slice up mortgage-backed securities. In the five years following the Tax Reform Act of 1986, 5,400 changes were made in the tax law.
    (, 10/22/06)(Econ, 6/19/04, p.15)(Econ, 8/4/07, p.61)(Econ, 1/8/11, p.84)(Econ, 9/24/11, p.84)
1986        Nov 6, Pres. Reagan signed a landmark immigration reform bill. The Simpson-Rodino Immigration Reform and Control Act led to amnesty and legal residency for 2.7 million illegal immigrants. Harold Ezell served as the western chief of the immigration service under Ronald Reagan and implemented the act.
    (, 8/27/98, p.C4)(WSJ, 9/18/06, p.A1)
1986        Nov 13, President Reagan publicly acknowledged that the US had sent "defensive weapons and spare parts" to Iran in an attempt to improve relations, but denied the shipments were part of a deal aimed at freeing hostages in Lebanon.
    (AP, 11/13/06)
1986        Nov 15, A government tribunal in Nicaragua convicted American Eugene Hasenfus of charges related to his role in delivering arms to Contra rebels, and sentenced him to 30 years in prison. He was pardoned a month later.
    (AP, 11/15/97)
1986        Nov 17, Pres. Reagan signed the Columbia River Gorge National Scenic Area Act. It designated over 292,000 acres in Oregon and Washington states as federally regulated land. Much of the work in getting the act passed was done by Nancy Russell (d.2008).
1986        Nov 22, Justice Department found a memo in Lt. Col. Oliver Norths office on the transfer of $12 million to contras from Iran arms sale.
    (HN, 11/22/98)
1986        Nov 26, President Reagan appointed a commission headed by former Sen. John Tower to investigate his National Security Council staff in the wake of the Iran-Contra affair.
    (AP, 11/26/97)
1986        Pres. Reagan signed a law creating a medical malpractice data base. It began operations in 1990.
    (WSJ, 8/27/04, p.A6)
1987        Jan 17, A Reagan Administration official who initiated the arms shipments to Iran, acknowledged that the US had virtually no independent intelligence to support its policy.
1987        Feb 4, Congress overrode Pres Reagan's veto of Clean Water Act. Changes in the 1972 Act phased out the construction grants program, replacing it with the State Water Pollution Control Revolving Fund, more commonly known as the Clean Water State Revolving Fund.
    {ReaganR, USA, Environment}
1987        Feb 19, US Pres. Reagan lifted remaining economic sanctions against Poland.
1987        Mar 4, President Reagan addressed the nation on the Iran-Contra affair. He took full responsibility for the affair acknowledging his overtures to Iran had "deteriorated" into an arms-for-hostages deal. Michale Ledeen, Pentagon employee, later authored "Perilous Statecraft: An Insider's Account of the Iran-Contra Affair."
    (AP, 3/4/98)(HN, 3/4/98)(SFC, 5/14/03, p.A19)
1987        Mar 14, President Reagan, in his Saturday radio address, said he should have listened to Secretary of State George P. Shultz and Defense Sec. Caspar Weinberger when they advised him not to sell arms to Iran.
    (AP, 3/14/97)
1987        May 15, President Reagan told a gathering of out-of-town reporters at the White House he did not consider himself "mortally wounded" by the Iran-Contra affair.
    (AP, 5/15/97)
1987        Mar 19,  President Reagan, in a news conference, repudiated his policy of selling arms to Iran, saying, "I would not go down that road again."
    (AP, 3/19/97)
1987        Apr 1, In his first major speech on the AIDS epidemic, President Reagan told doctors in Philadelphia, "We've declared AIDS public health enemy number one."
    (AP, 4/1/98)
1987        Apr 10, President Reagan and Soviet leader Mikhail S. Gorbachev delivered speeches on nuclear arms, with the president challenging the Soviets to join the United States in working harder for arms reductions, and Gorbachev proposing talks on short-range weapons.
    (AP, 4/9/97)
1987        Apr 17, President Reagan slapped $300 million in punitive duties on imported Japanese computers, television sets and power tools, in retaliation for Japan's alleged violation of a computer chip trade agreement.
    (AP, 4/17/97)
1987        Apr 18, President Reagan used his weekly radio address to express hope the superpowers could reach an agreement to sharply reduce the threat of intermediate-range nuclear weapons.
    (AP, 4/18/97)
1987        Apr 21, The Senate panel investigating the Iran-Contra affair voted to grant limited immunity to President Reagan's former national security adviser, Rear Adm. John M. Poindexter.
    (AP, 4/21/97)
1987        Apr 30, President Reagan welcomed Japanese Prime Minister Yasuhiro Nakasone to the White House.
    (AP, 4/30/97)
1987        May 10, President Reagan visited Tuskegee University, one of the nation's oldest black educational institutions, where he told graduating seniors his administration "won't be satisfied until every American who wants a job has a job and is earning a decent living."
    (AP, 5/10/97)
1987        May 13, President Reagan said his personal diary confirmed that he'd talked with Saudi Arabia's King Fahd about Saudi help for the Nicaraguan Contras at a time when Congress banned military aid, but Reagan said he did not solicit secret contributions.
    (AP, 5/13/97)
1987        May 15, President Reagan told a gathering of out-of-town reporters at the White House he did not consider himself "mortally wounded" by the Iran-Contra affair. The president got to relive his radio-announcer days when he complied with a reporter's request to read a promo for Nashville station WSM.
    (AP, 5/15/97)
1987        May 19, President Reagan defended America's presence in the Persian Gulf, two days after 37 American sailors were killed when an Iraqi warplane attacked the U.S. frigate Stark.
    (AP, 5/19/97)
1987        May 31, Addressing AIDS research supporters in Washington, D.C., President Reagan called "for urgency, not panic," but drew scattered boos when he announced he would seek expanded testing for the disease.
    (AP, 5/31/97)
1987        Jul 1, President Reagan nominated federal appeals court judge Robert H. Bork to the Supreme Court, setting off a tempestuous confirmation process that ended with Bork's rejection in October by the Senate.
    (AP, 7/1/97)
1987        Jul 18, President Reagan used his weekly radio address to call on Congress to give more aid to the Nicaraguan Contras.
    (AP, 7/18/97)
1987        Aug 3, The Iran-Contra congressional hearings ended, with none of the 29 witnesses tying President Reagan directly to the diversion of arms-sales profits to Nicaraguan rebels.
    (AP, 8/3/97)
1987        Aug 5, President Reagan announced his administration had reached a "general agreement" with leaders of Congress on a new Central America peace plan. Nicaraguan President Daniel Ortega offered to discuss the U.S. proposal.
    (AP, 8/5/97)
1987        Aug 10, President Reagan said he would nominate C. William Verity Jr., a retired steel company executive, to replace the late Malcolm Baldrige as commerce secretary.
    (AP, 8/10/97)
1987        Aug 12,  President Reagan addressed the nation on the Iran-Contra affair, saying his former national security adviser, John Poindexter, was wrong not to have told him about the diversion of Iran arms-sale money.
    (AP, 8/12/97)
1987        Sep 5, In his weekly radio address, President Reagan urged American workers to shun protectionist legislation and "meet the competition head-on."
    (AP, 9/5/97)
1987        Sep 10,  Pope John Paul II arrived in Miami, where he was welcomed by President and Mrs. Reagan, to begin a 10-day tour of the United States.
    (AP, 9/10/97)
1987        Sep 18, President Reagan announced that he and Soviet leader Mikhail S. Gorbachev would meet later in the year to sign a treaty banning medium- and shorter-range nuclear missiles.
    (AP, 9/18/97)
1987        Oct 30, President Reagan announced that Soviet leader Mikhail S. Gorbachev would visit Washington the following December for a summit, during which the two leaders would sign a treaty banning intermediate-range nuclear missiles.
    (AP, 10/30/97)
1987        Nov 11, Following the failure of two Supreme Court nominations, President Reagan announced his choice of Justice Anthony M. Kennedy, who went on to win confirmation.
    (AP, 11/11/97)
1987        Nov 18, The congressional Iran-Contra committees issued their final report, saying President Reagan bore "ultimate responsibility" for wrongdoing by his aides.
    (AP, 11/18/97)(
1987        Nov 20, President Reagan and congressional leaders announced agreement on a two-year, $76 billion deficit-reduction plan designed to reassure jittery financial markets.
    (AP, 11/20/97)
1987        Dec 3, Four days before his summit with Soviet leader Mikhail S. Gorbachev to sign a treaty banning intermediate-range nuclear missiles, President Reagan said in an interview with television network anchormen that there was a reasonably good chance of progress toward a treaty on long-range weapons.
    (AP 12/3/97)
1987        Dec 8, President Reagan and Soviet leader Mikhail S. Gorbachev signed the INF Treaty, Intermediate-range Nuclear Forces Treaty, under which the superpowers agreed to destroy their arsenals of intermediate-range nuclear missiles.
    (TMC, 1994, p.1987)(AP 12/8/97)(SFEC, 12/19/99, p.C12)
1987        Dec 10, President Reagan and Soviet leader Mikhail S. Gorbachev concluded three days of summit talks in Washington.
    (AP, 12/10/97)
1988        Jan 1, President Reagan and Soviet leader Mikhail Gorbachev exchanged optimistic New Year's greetings, expressing mutual hope they would reach an arms control treaty on strategic weapons within six months.
    (AP, 1/1/98)
1988        Jan 2, President Reagan and Canadian Prime Minister Brian Mulroney signed an agreement to lift trade restrictions between their countries.
    (AP, 1/2/98)
1988        Jan 25, In his final State of the Union address, President Reagan declared America was "strong, prosperous, at peace." Vice President George Bush and Dan Rather clashed on "The CBS Evening News" as the anchorman attempted to question the Republican presidential candidate about his role in the Iran-Contra affair.
    (AP, 1/25/98)
1988        Feb 2, In a speech that three major television networks declined to broadcast live, President Reagan pressed his case for aid to the Nicaraguan Contras.
    (AP, 2/2/97)
1988        Feb 3, The U.S. House of Representatives handed President Reagan a major defeat, rejecting his request for at least $36.25 million in aid to the Nicaraguan Contras.
    (AP, 2/3/97)
1988        Feb 4, Senate Republican Leader Bob Dole twice confronted Vice President George Bush on the floor of the Senate, accusing his GOP presidential rival of condoning a campaign attack that amounted to "groveling in the mud."
    (AP, 2/4/97)
1988        Feb 23, President Reagan named William L. Ball III to succeed James H. Webb Jr. as Navy Secretary.
    (AP, 2/23/98)
1988        Mar 16, The US sent 3000 soldiers to Honduras.
1988        Mar 17, Planeloads of U.S. soldiers arrived at Palme Rola Air Base in Honduras in a show of strength ordered by President Reagan.
    (AP, 3/17/98)
1988        Mar 22, Both houses of Congress overrode President Reagan's veto of a sweeping civil rights bill.
    (AP, 3/22/97)
1988        Mar 24, Former national security aides Oliver L. North and John M. Poindexter and businessmen Richard V. Secord and Albert Hakim pleaded innocent to Iran-Contra charges. North and Poindexter were convicted, but had their convictions thrown out; Secord and Hakim received probation after each pleaded guilty to a single count under a plea bargain.
    (AP, 3/24/98)
1988        May 1, Newsweek magazine reported that, according to a memoir by former White House chief of staff Donald Regan (1918-2003), astrology had influenced the planning of President Reagan's schedule. Regan's memoir was titled "For the Record: From Wall Street to Washington."
    (AP, 5/1/98)(WSJ, 6/11/03, p.A1)(SFC, 6/12/03, p.A25)
1988        May 3, The White House acknowledged that first lady Nancy Reagan had used astrological advice to help schedule her husband's activities. The unflattering revelations surfaced in a yet-to-be published memoir by former chief of staff Donald Regan.
    (AP, 5/3/98)
1988        May 6, In his first comment on the matter, President Reagan said he didn't "look kindly" on reports that a memoir by former chief of staff Donald Regan painted an unflattering portrait of first lady Nancy Reagan.
    (AP, 5/6/98)
1988        May 24, President Reagan vetoed legislation that would have strengthened the nation's ability to defend itself and its industries against trading practices of other nations that were deemed unfair.
    (AP, 5/24/98)
1988        May 24, Vice President George Bush and Michael Dukakis won the Idaho presidential primaries.
    (AP, 5/24/98)
1988        May 25, President Reagan left for a trip to the Soviet Union and a superpower summit with Mikhail S. Gorbachev.
    (AP, 5/25/98)
1988        May 28, On the eve of the Moscow summit, Soviet television aired a 34-minute interview with President Reagan in which he pledged to make human rights "agenda item number one."
    (AP, 5/28/98)
1988        May 29, President Reagan began his first visit to the Soviet Union as he arrived in Moscow for a superpower summit with Soviet leader Mikhail S. Gorbachev.
    (AP, 5/29/98)
1988        May 30, On the second day of the Moscow summit, Soviet leader Mikhail S. Gorbachev, giving a toast at a state dinner, called for closer contacts with Americans, adding, "This should be done without interfering in domestic affairs, without sermonizing or imposing one's views and ways."
    (AP, 5/30/98)
1988        May 31, On the third day of the Moscow superpower summit, Soviet leader Mikhail S. Gorbachev said maybe it was "time to bang our fists on the table" to complete work on a strategic arms treaty. President Reagan responded: "I'll do anything that works." Reagan received a standing ovation from students at Moscow Univ. following a short speech with questions and answers.
    (AP, 5/31/98)(HN, 5/31/99)(WSJ, 6/18/04, p.A11)
1988        Jul 23, In his weekly radio address, President Reagan responded to the just-completed Democratic national convention by accusing Democrats of "singing the same sad song they sang four years ago."
    (AP, 7/23/98)
1988        Jul 24, On the campaign trail, Republican George Bush heard chants of "ERA," a reference to the proposed Equal Rights Amendment, from members of a professional women's group in Albuquerque, N.M. Democratic nominee Michael Dukakis was heckled by anti-abortion protesters in St. Louis.
    (AP, 7/24/98)
1988        Aug 5, Treasury Secretary James A. Baker III announced he was resigning to take over the presidential election campaign of Vice President George Bush. Nicholas F. Brady was nominated to take Baker's place at Treasury.
    (AP, 8/5/98)
1988        Aug 9, President Reagan nominated Lauro Cavazos to be secretary of education; Cavazos became the first Hispanic to serve in the Cabinet.
    (AP, 8/9/98)
1988        Aug 10, President Reagan signed the Civil Liberties Act, a measure providing $20,000 payments to Japanese-Americans interned by the US government during World War II. The American government issued a formal apology and eventually compensated 80,000 victims.
    (AP, 8/10/97)(SFEC, 8/9/98, p.A1)(Econ., 6/20/20, p.64)
1988        Aug 22, Speaking to the Veterans of Foreign Wars in Chicago, Vice President George Bush defended the Vietnam-era National Guard service of running mate Dan Quayle, saying, "He did not go to Canada, he did not burn his draft card and he damn sure didn't burn the American flag."
    (AP, 8/22/98)
1988        Aug 24, Democratic presidential nominee Michael Dukakis picked up the endorsement of the AFL-CIO while Republican nominee George Bush campaigned in California with President Reagan.
    (AP, 8/24/98)
1988        Aug 25, In his sharpest attack yet on the Reagan administration's drug policies, Democratic presidential nominee Michael Dukakis criticized U.S. dealings with Panama's military leader, Gen. Manuel Noriega, as "criminal."
    (AP, 8/25/98)
1988        Aug 26, Republican presidential nominee George Bush denounced Democrat Michael Dukakis' criticism of Reagan administration drug policies as "an insult," one day after the Massachusetts governor called U.S. dealings with Panamanian General Manuel Noriega "criminal."
    (AP, 8/26/98)
1988        Sep 5, On the campaign trail, Republican George Bush continued to link his opponent with "the liberal left," while Democrat Michael Dukakis charged that under a GOP administration, "the rich have become richer, the poor have gotten poorer."
    (AP, 9/5/98)
1988        Nov 4, In a ceremony at O'Hare International Airport in Chicago, President Reagan signed a measure providing for US participation in an anti-genocide treaty signed by President Truman in 1948. The law created no obligation to do anything.
    (AP, 11/4/98)(Econ., 2/13/21, p.30)
1988        Nov 8, The US held elections and Republican VP George Bush defeated Massachusetts Gov. Michael Dukakis. Bush was elected the 41st president with 54% of the popular vote. He and Dan Quail were elected over Dukakis and Bentson. There have been 14 American vice presidents who have gone on to serve as president. John Adams, Thomas Jefferson, Martin Van Buren, John Tyler, Millard Fillmore, Andrew Johnson, Chester A. Arthur, Theodore Roosevelt, Calvin Coolidge, Harry S. Truman, Richard M. Nixon, Lyndon Johnson, Gerald Ford, George Bush.
    (WSJ, 8/5/96, p.A10)(AP, 11/8/98)(HN, 11/6/98)(HNQ, 2/19/00)
1988        Nov 23, President Reagan announced he was pocket-vetoing a bill designed to further restrict lobbying by former federal employees, saying it was "excessive and discriminatory."
    (AP, 11/23/98)
1988        Dec 14, In a dramatic policy shift, President Reagan authorized the United States to enter into a "substantive dialogue" with the Palestine Liberation Organization, after chairman Yasser Arafat said he was renouncing "all forms of terrorism."
    (AP, 12/14/98)
1988        Dec 30, President Reagan and President-elect Bush were subpoenaed to testify as defense witnesses in the pending Iran-Contra trial of Oliver North. The subpoenas were subsequently quashed.
    (AP, 12/30/98)
1988        Dec 31, President Reagan and Soviet President Mikhail Gorbachev exchanged New Year's messages in which both leaders expressed optimism about future superpower relations.
    (AP, 12/31/98)
1989        Jan 5, Lawrence E. Walsh, the special prosecutor in the Iran-Contra case, asked for a dismissal of two charges against Oliver North, citing the Reagan administration's refusal to release material sought by North.
    (AP, 1/5/99)
1989        Jan 9, The Supreme Court agreed to consider the Webster abortion case the same day that Surgeon General C. Everett Koop advised President Reagan he would not issue a report on the health risks of abortion.
    (AP, 1/9/99)
1989        Jan 11, President Reagan bade the nation farewell in an address from the Oval Office.
    (AP, 1/11/99)
1989        Jan 14, President Reagan delivered his 331st and last weekly radio address, telling listeners, "Believe me, Saturdays will never seem the same. I'll miss you." In 2001 Peggy Noonan authored the Reagan biography "When character Was King."
    (AP, 1/14/99)(WSJ, 11/15/01, p.A24)
1989        Jan 19, Pres Reagan pardoned George Steinbrenner for illegal funds for Nixon.
1989        Jan 20, George Bush was sworn in as the 41st president of the United States; Dan Quayle was sworn in as vice president. Reagan became the 1st pres elected in a "0" year, since 1840, to leave office alive.
    (AP, 1/20/99)
1989        Mar 3, Robert McFarlane got a $20,000 fine and 2 years probation for Iran-Contra.
    (SC, 3/3/02)
1989        Sep 8, Former President Reagan underwent surgery at the Mayo Clinic in Minnesota to relieve fluid build-up on his brain after a horse-riding accident.
    (AP, 9/8/99)
1990        Jan 30, A federal judge ordered former President Reagan to provide excerpts of his personal diaries to John M. Poindexter for the former national security adviser's Iran-Contra trial. The judge later reversed himself, deciding the material was not essential.
    (AP, 1/30/00)
1990        Feb 16, Former President Reagan began two days of giving a videotaped deposition in Los Angeles for the Iran-Contra trial of former national security adviser John Poindexter.
    (AP, 2/16/00)
1990        Feb 17, Former President Reagan spent a second day in a Los Angeles courtroom, giving videotaped testimony about the Iran-Contra affair for the trial of his former national security adviser, John Poindexter.
    (AP, 2/17/00)
1990        Feb 22, Former President Reagan's videotaped testimony for the trial of former national security adviser John Poindexter was released in Washington; in his deposition, Reagan said he never had "any inkling" his aides were secretly arming the Nicaraguan Contras.
    (AP, 2/22/00)
1990        Ronald Reagan published his memoir An American Life.
    (SSFC, 6/6/04, A18)
1991        Mar 28, Former President Reagan declared his support for the so-called "Brady Bill" requiring a seven-day waiting period for handgun purchases.
    (AP, 3/28/01)
1991        May 15, Simon and Schuster published Nancy Reagan: The Unauthorized Biography by Kitty Kelly. Review copies came out in April.
1991        Aug 5, Democratic congressional leaders formally launched an investigation into whether the 1980 Reagan-Bush campaign had secretly conspired with Iran to delay release of American hostages until after the presidential election. A task force later concluded there was "no credible evidence" of such a deal.
    (AP, 8/5/01)
1991        Nov 4, Ronald Reagan opened his presidential library in Simi Valley, Calif., with a dedication ceremony attended by President Bush and former presidents Jimmy Carter, Gerald Ford and Richard Nixon - the first-ever gathering of five U.S. chief executives.
    (AP, 11/4/01)
1994        Jan 18, Iran-Contra prosecutor Lawrence Walsh released his final report in which he said former President Reagan had acquiesced in a cover-up of the scandal. Reagan called the accusation "baseless."
    (AP, 1/18/99)
1994        Nov 5, Former President Reagan disclosed he had Alzheimer's disease.
    (AP, 11/5/97)
2001        Mar 4, President George W. Bush dedicated a $4 billion aircraft carrier in honor of former President Reagan. Nancy Reagan christened the ship. It was commissioned in 2003.
    (AP, 3/4/02)(SSFC, 7/13/03, p.A2)
2001        Aug 8, Maureen Reagan, daughter of former Pres. Ronald Reagan, died at age 60 of malignant melanoma. She authored the 1989 autobiography "First Father, First Daughter."
    (SFC, 8/9/01, p.A20)
2002        Peter Schweizer authored "Reagans War: The Epic Story of His Forty-Year Struggle and Final Triumph Over Communism." Peter J. Wallison authored the biography "Ronald Reagan."
    (SSFC, 11/10/02, p.M6)(WSJ, 12/24/02, p.D4)
2002        May, Pres. Bush presented the Reagans with a Congressional Gold medal.
    (SSFC, 6/6/04, A18)
2003        Peter Robinson, Reagan speechwriter, authored "How Ronald Reagan Changed My Life."
    (WSJ, 8/20/03, p.D12)
2004        Jun 5, Ronald Reagan (b.1911), 40th US president (1981-1989), died in California after a long twilight struggle with Alzheimer's disease. In 2005 Paul Lettow authored Ronald Reagan and His Quest to Abolish Nuclear Weapons. It focused on what Reagan said and did. John Ehrman authored The Eighties: America in the Age of Reagan, in which he sees Reagan as the embodiment of the conservative movement. In 2006 Richard Reeves authored President Reagan: The Triumph of Imagination.
    (AP, 6/6/04)(SSFC, 3/27/05, p.E3)(Econ, 2/4/06, p.75)
2014        Oct 23, Joan Quigley (b.1927), former astrologer to Ronald and Nancy Reagan, died in San Francisco. The SF socialite and writer began working for the Reagans in May, 1981, and continued for seven years.
    (SFC, 10/24/14, p.D1)(
2015        H.W. Brands authored Reagan: The Life.
    (SSFC, 5/24/15, p.N3)
2016        Mar 6, Nancy Reagan (b.1921), former film actress and wife of Pres. Ronald Reagan, died in Los Angeles.
    (SFC, 3/7/16, p.A1)

#41 George Bush (1989-1993)

1924        Jun 12, George Bush (d.2018), the forty-first US President, was born in Milton, Mass. He sent the US Armed Forces to defeat Iraq in the Persian Gulf War.
    (SSFC, 12/2/18, p.A13)
1944        Jul 25, US Ensign George H.W. Bush, later US president (1989-1993) was one of two pilots who helped sink a Japanese trawler off Palau, along with two smaller cargo ships. A Navy report at the time recorded that Bush and other pilots shot at life rafts.
    (SSFC, 8/5/18, DB p.50)
1944        Sep 2, Navy pilot George Herbert Walker Bush was shot down by Japanese forces as he completed a bombing run over the Bonin Islands. Bush was rescued by the crew of the U.S. submarine Finback; his two crew members, however, died.
    (AP, 9/2/04)
1947        Feb 4, Dan Quayle was born in Indianapolis. He later became vice-president under George H.W.  Bush (1988-1992).
    (DFP, 7/28/96, p.J5)(HN, 2/4/01)
1971-1973    George H.W. Bush served as the US ambassador to the United Nations.
    (SSFC, 8/15/04, p.D11)
1973        George H.W. Bush was named US Republican national Committee Chairman.
    (SSFC, 12/2/18, p.A13)
1974        Pres. Gerald Ford named George H.W. Bush was named Head of the US Liaison Office in Beijing.
    (SSFC, 12/2/18, p.A13)
1976        Jan 30, George Bush became the 11th director of the CIA replacing William E. Colby. Bush revived the reputation of the organization and left it Jan 20, 1977.
    (SFEC, 1/16/00, Par p.2)(
1980        Nov 4, Ronald Reagan (69) was elected the 40th president of the United States. He beat President Carter (56) by a wide margin. George H.W. Bush was elected vice-president. Inflation and the crises in Iran caused Jimmy Carter to lose to Ronald Reagan, Americas oldest Pres.-elect.
    (TMC, 1994, p.1980)(HN, 11/4/98)(AP, 11/4/97)
1985        Sep 11, VP George Bush visited San Francisco and gave the most extensive administration comments on the AIDS epidemic to date. He sympathized with parents afraid to send their children to school with victims of the disease.
    (SSFC, 9/12/10, DB p.50)
1987        Feb 27, Donald Regan resigned as White House chief of staff.
1987        Nov 9, Senate Minority Leader Bob Dole formally announced a bid for the Republican presidential nomination during a visit to his hometown of Russell, Kan.
    (AP, 11/9/97)
1987        GOP strategist Vic Gold (1928-2017) helped George H.W. Bush write an autobiography: Looking Forward, published in 1988.
    (SFC, 6/9/17, p.D4)
1988        Jan 11, Vice President George Bush met with representatives of independent counsel Lawrence E. Walsh to answer questions about the Iran-Contra affair.
    (AP, 1/11/98)
1988        Feb 13, President Reagan and Mexican President Miguel de la Madrid met in the Mexican resort of Mazatlan.
    (AP, 2/13/98)
1988        Feb 23, Presidential hopeful Bob Dole defeated Vice President George Bush in the South Dakota and Minnesota Republican primaries; among Democrats, Michael S. Dukakis won in Minnesota, Dick Gephardt in South Dakota.
    (AP, 2/23/98)
1988        Feb, Republican George H.W. Bush won the New Hampshire primary over Bob Dole, Jack Kemp, Pete du Pont and Pat Robertson 37.7 to 28.5 to 12.8 to 10.1 to 9.4%. Democrat Michael Dukakis won over Dick Gephardt and Paul Simon 35.9 to 19.9 to 17.2%.
    (SSFC, 1/25/04, p.A19)
1988        Mar 5, Vice President George Bush won the South Carolina Republican primary, with Kansas Senator Bob Dole running a distant second, followed by Pat Robertson and New York Congressman Jack Kemp.
    (AP, 3/5/98)
1988        Mar 8, Vice President George Bush was the big winner in the Super Tuesday Republican presidential primaries. Among Democrats, Michael S. Dukakis, Jesse Jackson and Al Gore split the lion's share of delegates.
    (AP, 3/8/98)
1988        Mar 9, The day after the Super Tuesday primaries and caucuses, Republican George Bush spent the day in Houston, savoring his 16-state sweep, while Democrats Michael Dukakis, Jesse Jackson and Al Gore enjoyed more modest successes.
    (AP, 3/9/98)
1988        Mar 16, The US sent 3000 soldiers to Honduras.
1988        Apr 19, Republican George Bush and Democrat Michael Dukakis handily won the New York presidential primaries.
    (AP, 4/19/97)
1988        Apr 26, Vice President George Bush locked up the Republican presidential nomination with an easy win in the Pennsylvania primary. Massachusetts Gov. Michael Dukakis won the Democratic contest.
    (AP, 4/26/98)
1988        May 24, Vice President George Bush and Michael Dukakis won the Idaho presidential primaries.
    (AP, 5/24/98)
1988        Jul 14, Speaking before the U.N. Security Council, Iran's foreign minister, Ali-Akbar Velayati, denounced the U.S. downing of an Iranian jetliner as "a barbaric massacre." Vice President Bush replied that the U.S.S. Vincennes had fired in self-defense.
    (AP, 7/14/98)
1988        Jul 18, Texas Treasurer Ann Richards delivered the keynote address at the Democratic national convention in Atlanta, needling Republican nominee-apparent George Bush as having been "born with a silver foot in his mouth."
    (HN, 7/18/98)
1988        Aug 13, Vice President George Bush contemplated a list of potential running mates as Republicans gathered in New Orleans for their party's national convention.
    (HN 8/13/98)
1988        Aug 14, Pres. Reagan arrived in New Orleans on the eve of the Republican national convention that would nominate VP George Bush, to be its choice to succeed him.
    (AP, 8/14/98)
1988         Aug 15, President Reagan bade a sentimental farewell on the first night of the Republican national convention in New Orleans, and praised the man destined to succeed him, Vice President George Bush.
    (AP, 8/15/98)
1988        Aug 16, VP George Bush tapped Indiana Sen. Dan Quayle to be his running mate.
    (AP, 8/16/98)
1988        Aug 17, Vice President George Bush was nominated for president at the Republican National Convention in New Orleans.
    (AP, 8/17/98)
1988        Aug 22, Speaking to the Veterans of Foreign Wars in Chicago, Vice President George Bush defended the Vietnam-era National Guard service of running mate Dan Quayle, saying, "He did not go to Canada, he did not burn his draft card and he damn sure didn't burn the American flag."
    (AP, 8/22/98)
1988        Aug 24, Democratic presidential nominee Michael Dukakis picked up the endorsement of the AFL-CIO while Republican nominee George Bush campaigned in California with President Reagan.
    (AP, 8/24/98)
1988        Aug 26, Republican presidential nominee George Bush denounced Democrat Michael Dukakis' criticism of Reagan administration drug policies as "an insult," one day after the Massachusetts governor called U.S. dealings with Panamanian General Manuel Noriega "criminal."
    (AP, 8/26/98)
1988        Aug 29, On the presidential campaign trail, Democrat Michael Dukakis sought to counter Republican George Bush's salvos against the Massachusetts prison furlough program, while Bush continued to charge that Dukakis was soft on defense.
    (AP, 8/29/98)
1988        Sep 5, On the campaign trail, Republican George Bush continued to link his opponent with "the liberal left," while Democrat Michael Dukakis charged that under a GOP administration, "the rich have become richer, the poor have gotten poorer."
    (AP, 9/5/98)
1988        Sep 7, Vice President George Bush startled an American Legion audience in Louisville, Ky., by referring to Sept. 7 as "Pearl Harbor Day," which is actually Dec. 7. Realizing his mistake, Bush said, "Did I say Sept. 7? Sorry about that."
    (AP, 9/7/98)
1988        Nov 8, The US held elections and Republican VP George Bush defeated Massachusetts Gov. Michael Dukakis. Bush was elected the 41st president with 54% of the popular vote. He and Dan Quail were elected over Dukakis and Bentson. There have been 14 American vice presidents who have gone on to serve as president. John Adams, Thomas Jefferson, Martin Van Buren, John Tyler, Millard Fillmore, Andrew Johnson, Chester A. Arthur, Theodore Roosevelt, Calvin Coolidge, Harry S. Truman, Richard M. Nixon, Lyndon Johnson, Gerald Ford, George Bush.
    (WSJ, 8/5/96, p.A10)(AP, 11/8/98)(HN, 11/6/98)(HNQ, 2/19/00)
1988        Nov 23, President-elect Bush announced his choice of Brent Scowcroft to be his national security adviser.
    (AP, 11/23/98)
1988        Dec 16, President-elect Bush chose former Texas Sen. John Tower to be his secretary of defense, a nomination that went down to defeat in the U.S. Senate.
    (AP, 12/16/98)
1988        Dec 19, President-elect Bush nominated New York Congressman Jack Kemp to be his secretary of Housing and Urban Development.
    (AP, 12/19/98)
1988        Dec 22, President-elect Bush appointed Dr. Louis W. Sullivan secretary of health and human services, Samuel K. Skinner transportation secretary and Manuel Lujan Jr. interior secretary.
    (AP, 12/22/98)
1989        Jan 12, President-elect Bush completed the selection of his Cabinet, naming retired Adm. James D. Watkins secretary of energy and former education secretary William J. Bennett drug czar.
    (AP, 1/12/99)
1989        Jan 20, George Bush was sworn in as the 41st president of the United States; Dan Quayle was sworn in as vice president. Reagan became the 1st pres elected in a "0" year, since 1840, to leave office alive.
    (AP, 1/20/99)
1989        Jan 27, President Bush held an informal White House news conference in which he defended a widely criticized pay raise for Congress scheduled to go into effect the following month.
    (AP, 1/27/99)
1989        Feb 1, In his first diplomatic mission of the Bush administration, Vice President Dan Quayle began a trip to Venezuela and El Salvador.
    (AP, 2/1/99)
1989        Feb 2, President Bush met at the White House with Japanese Prime Minister Noboru Takeshita, after which both leaders sounded upbeat about U.S-Japanese relations.
    (AP, 2/2/99)
1989        Feb 9, President Bush, in his first major speech to Congress, proposed a $1.16 trillion "common sense" budget for fiscal 1990.
    (AP, 2/9/99)
1989        Feb 21, President Bush called Ayatollah Khomeini's death warrant against "Satanic Verses" author Salman Rushdie "deeply offensive to the norms of civilized behavior."
    (AP, 2/21/99)
1989        Feb 23, The Senate Armed Services Committee voted against recommending the nomination of John Tower to become secretary of defense.
    (AP, 2/23/99)
1989        Feb 25, President Bush left Japan, where he had attended the funeral of Emperor Hirohito, and arrived in China for a three-day visit.
    (AP, 2/25/99)
1989        Feb 27, President Bush warned of what he called the "fool's gold" of trade protectionism as he addressed South Korea's National Assembly before returning home.
    (AP, 2/27/99)
1989        Mar 9, The Senate rejected President Bush's nomination of John Tower to be defense secretary by a vote of 53-47.
    (AP, 3/9/99)
1989        Mar 14, In a policy shift, the Bush administration announced an indefinite ban on imports of semiautomatic assault rifles.
    (AP, 3/14/99)
1989        Apr 7, A week after the Exxon Valdez oil spill disaster, President Bush pledged federal assistance to help in the clean-up.
    (AP, 4/7/99)
1989        Apr 24, President Bush led a memorial service at the Norfolk Naval Station in Virginia for the 47 sailors killed in a gun-turret explosion aboard the USS Iowa.
    (AP, 4/24/99)
1989        Apr 28, President Bush announced the U.S. and Japan had concluded a deal on joint development of a new Japanese jet fighter, the FSX, despite concerns that U.S. technology secrets would be given away.
    (AP, 4/28/99)
1989        Apr 30, President Bush attended a parade in New York City celebrating the bicentennial of the American presidency.
    (AP, 4/30/99)
1989        May 8, Former President Carter, a leader of an international team observing Panama's elections, declared that the armed forces were defrauding the opposition of victory.
    (AP, 5/8/99)
1989        May 9, President Bush complained that Panama's elections were marred by "massive irregularities," and he called for worldwide pressure on General Manuel Antonio Noriega to step down as military leader.
    (AP, 5/9/99)
1989        May 9, VP Quayle said in United Negro College Fund speech: "What a waste it is to lose one's mind" instead of "a mind is terrible thing to waste."
1989        May 11, President Bush recalled the US ambassador and planned to dispatch about 1,700 soldiers and 165 marines in phases to reinforce troops already in Panama.
1989        May 13, In unusually strong language, President Bush called on the people of Panama and the country's defense forces to overthrow their military leader, Gen. Manuel Antonio Noriega.
    (AP, 5/13/99)
1989        Jul 9, President Bush began a visit to Poland.
    (AP, 7/9/99)
1989        Jul 12, President Bush continued his visit to Hungary, where he held talks with officials and made a speech at Karl Marx University in Budapest.
    (AP, 7/12/99)
1989        Jul 20, President Bush called for a long-range space program to build an orbiting space station, establish a base on the moon and send a manned mission to the planet Mars.
    (AP, 7/20/99)
1989        Jul 24, President Bush said he was "aggrieved" about allegations that veteran U.S. diplomat Felix S. Bloch might have spied for the Soviet Union.
    (AP, 7/24/99)
1989        Aug 4, Iranian President Hashemi Rafsanjani offered to help end the hostage crisis in Lebanon, prompting President Bush to say he was "encouraged."
    (AP, 8/4/99)
1989        Aug 9, The Financial Institutions Reform, Recovery and Enforcement Act of 1989 was signed by Pres. George H.W. Bush. It allowed prosecutors more time to bring cases, compel testimony and apply a lower burden of proof involving banks.
    (, 8/30/14, p.23)
1989        Sep 5, In his first nationally broadcast address from the White House, President Bush outlined a plan to fight illicit drugs, which he called the "quicksand of our entire society."
    (AP, 9/5/99)
1989        Nov 21, A law banning smoking on most domestic flights signed by President Bush.
1989        Dec 3, Presidents George Bush and Mikhail Gorbachev, in Malta, announced  the official end to the Cold War.
    (SSFC, 12/2/18, p.A13)
1989        Dec 11, President Bush, facing criticism at home for sending two U.S. officials to China, defended the diplomatic overture despite the Beijing government's crackdown on pro-democracy demonstrators the previous June.
    (AP, 12/11/99)
1989        Dec 19, The US invaded Panama and captured Manuel Noriega. A 1997 book: "The Memoirs of Manuel Noriega" by Noriega and Peter Eisner told his version.
    (HFA, '96, p.20)(SFEC, 4/13/97, BR p.3)
1990        Jan 5, President Bush told a news conference the United States had a strong case against deposed Panamanian leader Manuel Noriega and said he was convinced Noriega would receive a fair trial on drug-trafficking charges.
    (AP, 1/5/00)
1990        Jan 24, The House voted 390-25 to override President Bush's veto of legislation protecting Chinese students from deportation. Bush prevailed in a Senate vote the next day.
    (AP, 1/24/00)
1990        Feb 12, President Bush rejected Soviet President Mikhail S. Gorbachev's new initiative for troop reductions in Europe, but predicted a "major success" on arms control at the superpower summit in June.
    (AP, 2/12/00)
1990        Feb 15, President Bush and the leaders of Colombia, Bolivia and Peru met in Cartagena, Colombia for a drug-fighting summit.
    (AP, 2/15/00)
1990        Feb 19, Defense Secretary Dick Cheney, snubbed by Philippine President Corazon Aquino, met in Manila with Defense Minister Fidel Ramos to discuss the future of U.S. bases in the country.
    (AP, 2/19/00)
1990        Feb 28, In San Francisco protesters lit the street outside the St. Francis Hotel with a flaming torch parade and bonfire as part of demonstrations against a visit by Pres. George H.W. Bush.
    (SSFC, 3/1/15, DB p.42)
1990        Mar 3, President Bush sparked controversy by expressing opposition to the settlement of Soviet Jewish refugees in East Jerusalem.
    (AP, 3/3/00)
1990        Mar 12, Vice President Quayle met in Santiago, Chile, with Nicaraguan President Daniel Ortega, who promised to peacefully relinquish power to Violeta Chamorro, the U.S.-backed candidate who had won Nicaragua's presidential election.
    (AP, 3/12/00)
1990        Mar 29, President Bush, addressing the National Leadership Coalition on AIDS, declared his administration "on a wartime footing" against the disease, and called for compassion, not discrimination, toward those infected with the virus.
    (AP, 3/29/00)
1990        Apr 5, It was announced that President Bush and Soviet President Gorbachev would hold their first full-scale summit in the United States.
    (AP, 4/5/00)
1990        Apr 6, US Secretary of State James Baker and Soviet Foreign Minister Eduard Shevardnadze concluded three days of talks in Washington, after which Shevardnadze handed President Bush a letter from Soviet President Mikhail S. Gorbachev.
    (AP, 4/6/00)
1990        Apr 17, President Bush warned the Soviet Union against carrying out an economic blockade of Lithuania, hinting at "appropriate responses."
    (AP, 4/17/00)
1990        Apr 23, Pres. George H. W. Bush signed the Hate Crime Statistics Act of 1990. It required the Attorney General to collect data on crimes committed because of the victim's race, religion, disability, sexual orientation, or ethnicity. The bill was the first federal statute to "recognize and name gay, lesbian and bisexual people.
    (, 12/10/16, p.33)
1990        May 7, The White House put aside President Bush's pledge of no new taxes, saying talks to strike a budget deal with Congress would have "no preconditions."
    (AP, 5/7/00)
1990        May 9, President Bush and congressional leaders announced plans for emergency budget talks, with tax increases and spending cuts on the negotiating table.
    (AP, 5/9/00)
1990        May 11, President Bush, on a two-day trip of college commencement speeches, told reporters aboard Air Force One that there were "no conditions" going into a budget summit with Congress.
    (AP, 5/11/00)
1990        May 23, Neil Bush, son of the president, denied any wrongdoing as a director of a failed Denver savings-and-loan in testimony before Congress.
    (AP, 5/23/00)
1990        May 31, President Bush and his wife, Barbara, welcomed Soviet President Mikhail S. Gorbachev in a ceremony on South Lawn of the White House. The two leaders and their aides then held talks on German reunification.
    (AP, 5/31/00)
1990        Jun 1, President Bush and Soviet President Mikhail S.  Gorbachev signed more than a dozen bilateral accords in the second day of their Washington summit. Meanwhile, Barbara Bush and Raisa Gorbachev traveled to Wellesley College in Massachusetts to deliver commencement addresses.
    (AP, 6/1/00)
1990        Jun 2, On the third day of their Washington summit, President Bush and Soviet President Mikhail S. Gorbachev held informal talks at the Camp David presidential retreat in Maryland.
    (AP, 6/2/00)
1990        Jun 3, President Bush and Soviet President Mikhail S. Gorbachev concluded their Washington summit with a joint news conference at the White House. During their 4-day meeting they sealed agreements to slash long-range nuclear weapons, halt production of chemical weapons and lift trade barriers. Gorbachev and his delegation then flew to Minnesota for a whirlwind tour of Minneapolis-St. Paul.
    (AP, 6/3/00)(SSFC, 12/2/18, p.A13)
1990        Jul 21, A day after Supreme Court Justice William J. Brennan announced his retirement, President Bush convened a meeting with key administration officials to begin finding a replacement.
    (AP, 7/21/00)
1990        Jul 23, President George H.W. Bush announced his choice of Judge David Souter of New Hampshire to succeed retiring Justice William J.  Brennan on the US Supreme Court.
    (AP, 7/23/00)
1990        Jul 26, US Congress passed and Pres. George Bush signed the Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA).
    (WSJ, 7/26/95, p.A-12)(SFEC, 5/25/97, p.C10)
1990        Aug 2, Iraq invaded Kuwait, seizing control of the oil-rich emirate. The day came to be known in Kuwait as "Black Thursday." 330 Kuwaitis died during the occupation and war. Sadam Hussein, leader of Iraq, took over Kuwait. US Pres. George H.W. Bush led an inter-national coalition for sanctions and a demand for withdrawal. The Iraqis were later driven out in Operation Desert Storm.
    (SFC, 9/4/96, p.A8)(TMC, 1994, p.1990)(AP, 8/2/97)(SFEC, 7/30/00, p.C18)
1990        Aug 5, An angry President Bush again denounced the Iraqi invasion of Kuwait, telling reporters, "This will not stand. This will not stand, this aggression against Kuwait."
    (AP, 8/5/00)
1990        Aug 7, President Bush ordered US troops and warplanes to Saudi Arabia to guard the oil-rich desert kingdom against a possible invasion by Iraq. The US Persian Gulf War began. Operation Desert Shield ended Feb 28, 1991. It cost $8.1 billion and left 383 US casualties with 458 wounded.
    (AP, 8/7/99)(WSJ, 9/22/99, p.A8)
1990        Aug 8, As the Persian Gulf crisis deepened, American forces began taking up positions in Saudi Arabia; Iraq announced it had annexed Kuwait as its 19th province; President Bush warned Iraqi President Saddam Hussein that "a line has been drawn in the sand."
    (AP, 8/8/00)
1990        Aug 13, President Bush ordered Defense Secretary Dick Cheney to the Persian Gulf for the second time since Iraq invaded Kuwait. American combat troops in Saudi Arabia, meanwhile, were told to prepare for a long stay.
    (AP, 8/13/00)
1990        Aug 14, Interrupting his vacation in Kennebunkport, Maine, President Bush returned to Washington, where he told reporters he saw no hope for a diplomatic solution to the Persian Gulf crisis, at least until economic sanctions forced Iraq to withdraw from Kuwait.
    (AP, 8/14/00)
1990        Aug 16, President Bush met with Jordans King Hussein in Kennebunkport, Maine, where he urged the monarch to close Iraqs access to the sea through the port of Aqaba.
    (AP, 8/16/00)
1990        Aug 20, For the first time since Iraq began detaining foreigners, President Bush publicly referred to the detainees as hostages, and demanded their release. Iraq moved Western hostages to military installations (human shields).
    (AP, 8/20/00)
1990        Aug 22, President Bush signed an order calling up reservists to bolster the US military buildup in the Persian Gulf.
    (AP, 8/22/00)
1990        Aug 30, President Bush told a news conference that a "new world order" could emerge from the Gulf crisis.
    (AP, 8/30/00)
1990        Sep 1, President Bush announced that he and Soviet President Mikhail S. Gorbachev would meet in Helsinki, Finland, for a "free-flowing" one-day summit on the Persian Gulf crisis and other issues.
    (AP, 9/1/00)
1990        Sep 3, President Bush returned to Washington from his Maine vacation home to prepare for his summit in Finland with Soviet President Mikhail S. Gorbachev.
    (AP, 9/3/00)
1990        Sep 7, President Bush left for his one-day Finland summit with Soviet President Mikhail S. Gorbachev.
    (AP, 9/7/00)
1990        Sep 8, President Bush and Soviet President Mikhail S. Gorbachev arrived in Helsinki, Finland, for a one-day summit sparked by the Persian Gulf crisis.
    (AP, 9/8/00)
1990        Sep 9, President Bush and Soviet President Mikhail S.  Gorbachev held a one-day summit in Helsinki, Finland, after which they joined in condemning Iraqs invasion of Kuwait.
    (AP, 9/9/00)
1990        Sep 11, President Bush addressed Congress on the Persian Gulf crisis, vowing that Saddam Hussein will fail in his takeover of Kuwait.
    (AP, 9/11/00)
1990        Nov 8, President Bush ordered a new round of troop deployments in the Persian Gulf, adding up to 150-thousand soldiers to the multinational force facing off against Iraq.
    (AP, 11/8/00)
1990        Nov 13, Secretary of State James A. Baker III told reporters in Hamilton, Bermuda, the Persian Gulf crisis threatened world recession and the loss of American jobs. Members of Congress demanded a larger role in US Gulf policy following President Bushs decision to send more US troops to the region.
    (AP, 11/13/00)
1990        Nov 14, President Bush told congressional leaders he had no immediate plans to go to war in the Persian Gulf.
    (AP, 11/14/00)
1990        Nov 15, Pres. Bush signed the Clear Air Act of 1990.
1990        Nov 17, President Bush, on the first visit to Czechoslovakia by a US president, told a cheering crowd of 100,000 in Prague that "America will stand with you" through hard times ahead.
    (AP, 11/17/00)
1990        Nov 19, US Pres. George H.W. Bush met with Soviet President Mikhail S. Gorbachev in Paris for a 3-day meeting between NATO members and Warsaw Pact nations.
    (SSFC, 12/2/18, p.A13)
1990        Nov 21, President Bush arrived in Saudi Arabia, where he conferred with Saudi King Fahd and Kuwaits exiled emir.
    (AP, 11/21/00)
1990        Nov 23, President Bush conferred separately with Egyptian President Hosni Mubarak in Cairo and Syrian President Hafez Assad in Geneva, seeking Arab support for his drive to expel Iraqi troops from Kuwait.
    (AP, 11/23/00)
1990        Nov 29, Pres. George H. Bush signed the US Immigration Act of this year allowed up to 10,000 foreign citizens to gain an "employment creation" visa if they would put up $1 million in a job creating enterprise. Immigrant Investor Program, also known as EB-5, was set up to lure foreigners by giving them the right to live and work in the US if they created jobs. The H-1B visa allowed companies to hire a limited number of temporary foreign labor in specialized occupations.
    (,12/26/97, p.A8)(Econ, 12/3/11, p.40)(SFC, 2/17/17, p.C1)
1990        Nov 30, Pres. Bush announced that Secretary of State James Baker the Third would go to Iraq in a last-ditch diplomatic peace effort.
    (AP, 11/30/00)
1990        Nov 30, Pres. Bush named outgoing Florida Governor Bob Martinez to head the nations war on drugs.
    (AP, 11/30/00)
1990        Dec 3, President Bush began a five-nation South American tour as he arrived in Brazil.
    (AP, 12/3/00)
1990        Dec 5, President Bush, on a visit to Argentina, said he was "not optimistic" that Iraqi President Saddam Hussein would withdraw from Kuwait without a fight.
    (AP, 12/5/00)
1990        Dec 7, As President Bush arrived in Venezuela on the last stop of his South American tour, his chief spokesman, Marlin Fitzwater, warned Iraq that there was "no lessening in the threat of war," despite Iraqs promise to release its hostages.
    (AP, 12/7/00)
1990        Dec 12, President Bush announced that he and Soviet President Mikhail S. Gorbachev would hold a summit the following February in Moscow.
    (AP, 12/11/00)
1990        Dec 14,  President Bush said he would nominate Lynn Martin to succeed Elizabeth H. Dole as labor secretary.
    (AP, 12/14/00)
1990        Dec 14, President Bush prodded Iraqi President Saddam Hussein to agree to talks on the Persian Gulf crisis by January third.
    (AP, 12/14/00)
1990        Dec 17, President Bush pledged "no negotiation for one inch" of Kuwaiti territory would take place as he repeated his demand for Iraqs complete withdrawal.
    (AP, 12/17/00)
1990        Dec 17, President Bush nominated former Tennessee Governor Lamar Alexander to be secretary of education, succeeding Lauro Cavazos.
    (AP, 12/17/00)
1990        Dec 18, Less than a month before a UN deadline for Iraq to withdraw from Kuwait, President Bush told reporters he believed Americans would support a military strike, if one proved necessary. In Baghdad, the ruling Revolutionary Command Council said Iraq was "ready for the decisive showdown."
    (AP, 12/18/00)
1991        Jan 1, President Bush called top advisers to the White House for a fresh assessment of the Persian Gulf crisis.
    (AP, 1/1/01)
1991        Jan 5, President Bush met at Camp David, Maryland, with UN Secretary-General Javier Perez de Cuellar to discuss the Persian Gulf crisis. The same day, a pretaped radio address by Bush was broadcast in which the president warned Iraq: "Time is running out."
    (AP, 1/5/01)
1991        Jan 9, Secretary of State James A. Baker the Third and Iraqi Foreign Minister Tariq Aziz met for six hours in Geneva, but failed to resolve the Persian Gulf crisis. President Bush, in Washington, accused Iraq of "a total stiff-arm, a total rebuff." Mr. Baker told Mr. Aziz that America would throw Iraq out by force if it did not leave Kuwait.   
    (AP, 1/9/01)(Econ, 5/24/08, p.19)
1991        Jan 11, The United States and Iraq intensified their rhetoric, with Secretary of State James A. Baker III telling Air Force pilots in Saudi Arabia, "We pass the brink at midnight January 15," and Iraqi President Saddam Hussein boasting of his armys readiness. Congress empowered Bush to order attack on Iraq.
    (AP, 1/11/01)(MC, 1/11/02)
1991        Jan 12, A deeply divided Congress gave President Bush the authority to wage war in the Persian Gulf. The Senate voted 52-to-47 to empower Bush to use armed forces to expel Iraq from Kuwait; the House followed suit on a vote of 250-to-183.
    (HN, 1/12/99)(AP, 1/12/01)
1991        Jan 16, The White House announced the start of Operation Desert Storm to drive Iraqi forces out of Kuwait. President Bush said in a nationally broadcast address "the battle has been joined" as fighter bombers pounded Iraqi targets. Because of the time difference, it was early January 17th in the Persian Gulf when the attack began. At 4:30 P.M. EST, the first fighter aircraft are launched from Saudi Arabia and off of U.S. and British aircraft carriers in the Persian Gulf on bombing missions over Iraq.
    (AP, 1/16/01)(MC, 1/16/02)
1991        Feb 20, President Bush and Queen Margarethe II of Denmark spoke in a ceremony marking the arrival of the Queen and her husband in the United States. President Bush spoke on the price of freedom and the sharing of values between Denmark and the United States since World War II and including the Persian Gulf war.
1991        Jan 29, In his State of the Union address, President Bush assured Americans that the war against Iraq would be won and that the recession at home would end in short order. Extraordinary security measures were in effect for the first wartime State of the Union address since the Vietnam era.
    (AP, 1/29/01)
1991        Feb 4, President Bush sent Congress a $1.45 trillion budget for fiscal 1992 containing a deficit of $280.9 billion.
    (AP, 2/4/01)
1991        Feb 5, President Bush announced he was sending Defense Secretary Dick Cheney and General Colin L. Powell, chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff, to the Gulf war zone to assess how the US-led offensive was progressing.
    (AP, 2/5/01)
1991        Feb 11, President Bush met with Defense Secretary Dick Cheney and Joint Chiefs Chairman Colin L. Powell, who had just returned from the Gulf region. Afterward, Bush said he would hold off on a ground war against Iraq for the time being, saying allied air strikes had been "very, very effective."
    (AP, 2/11/01)
1991        Feb 15, Iraq proposed a conditional withdrawal from Kuwait, an offer dismissed by President Bush as a "cruel hoax."
    (AP, 2/15/01)
1991        Feb 19, President Bush told reporters a Soviet proposal to end the Persian Gulf War fell "well short of what would be required." Russian Federation President Boris Yeltsin delivered an unprecedented public appeal for Soviet President Mikhail S. Gorbachev to resign.
    (AP, 2/19/01)
1991        Feb 22, President Bush and Americas Gulf War allies gave Iraq 24 hours to begin withdrawing from Kuwait, or face a final all-out attack. Iraq denounced the "shameful" US ultimatum, aligning itself with a Soviet peace plan the US had rejected.
    (AP, 2/22/01)
1991        Feb 23, President Bush announced that the allied ground offensive against Iraqi forces had begun (because of the time difference, it was already the early morning of February 24th in the Persian Gulf).
    (AP, 2/23/01)
1991        Feb 27, President Bush declared that "Kuwait is liberated, Iraqs army is defeated," and announced that the allies would suspend combat operations at midnight. General H. Norman Schwarzkopf, the US commander in the Gulf, briefed reporters in detail on the successful allied offensive. Coalition forces liberated Kuwait after seven months of occupation by the Iraqi army.
    (SFC, 2/24/98, p.A9)(HN, 2/27/99)(AP, 2/27/01)
1991        Feb 28, Pres. Bush announced a cease-fire in Kuwait. Allied and Iraqi forces suspended their attacks as Iraq pledged to accept all United Nations resolutions concerning Kuwait. In 1998 George Bush co-wrote "A World Transformed" with Brent Scowcroft, his national security advisor. The book was a dialogue about the foreign policy problems face by the US during the Bush administration (1988-1992). In 1995 Michael Gordon and Bernard Trainor published "The General's War: The Inside Story of the Conflict in the Gulf."
    (, 9/4/96, p.A8)(SFC, 5/4/99, p.D1)(AP, 2/28/01)
1991        Mar 1, President Bush said "weve kicked the Vietnam syndrome once and for all" following the allied victory in the Gulf War.
    (AP, 3/1/01)
1991        Mar 6, Following Iraqs capitulation in the Persian Gulf conflict, President Bush told a cheering joint session of Congress that "aggression is defeated. The war is over."
    (AP, 3/6/01)
1991        Mar 13, President Bush, during a visit to Ottawa, Canada, warned Iran against seizing Iraqi territory in the aftermath of the Persian Gulf War.
    (AP, 3/13/01)
1991        Mar 21, Test results released in Los Angeles showed that Rodney King, the motorist whose beating by police was videotaped by a bystander, had marijuana and alcohol in his system following his arrest. President Bush denounced Kings beating as "sickening" and "outrageous."
    (AP, 3/21/01)
1991        Mar 23, Iraqi President Saddam Hussein shuffled his Cabinet, but kept in place his hard-line ministers of interior and defense to direct a crackdown on rebellion against his rule. A popular uprising had been prompted by Pres. Bush and 15 of 18 provinces were liberated, but no American help followed and Husseins forces crushed the intifada.
    (AP, 3/23/01)(WSJ, 9/10/02, p.A12)
1991        Mar 26, The Bush administration indicated it would not aid rebels seeking to overthrow Iraqi President Saddam Hussein.
    (AP, 3/26/01)
1991        Mar 27, In a surprising flap, President Bush publicly disagreed with General H. Norman Schwarzkopf, who claimed he had urged further fighting in the Persian Gulf War at the time Bush ordered a cease-fire. Schwarzkopf later apologized to Bush.
    (AP, 3/27/01)
1991        Mar 29, General H. Norman Schwarzkopf publicly apologized to President Bush for questioning his judgment about calling a cease-fire in the Gulf War.
    (AP, 3/29/01)
1991        Apr 16, President Bush announced that US forces would be sent into northern Iraq to assist Kurdish refugees.
    (AP, 4/16/01)
1991        Apr 17, Congress voted to put a quick end to a day-old nationwide strike by 235,000 rail workers. President Bush signed the legislation early the next day.
    (AP, 4/17/01)
1991        Apr 18, President Bush unveiled his "America 2000" education strategy, which included a voluntary nationwide exam system and aid pegged to academic results.
    (AP, 4/18/01)
1991        Apr 23, President Bush welcomed General H. Norman Schwarzkopf, the just-returned Gulf War commander, at the White House.
    (AP, 4/23/01)
1991        May 4, President George H.W. Bush suffered shortness of breath while jogging at Camp David; he was rushed to Bethesda Naval Hospital, where doctors found he was experiencing an irregular heartbeat. He was diagnosed with a thyroid condition called Graves Disease.
    (AP, 5/4/01)(SSFC, 12/2/18, p.A13)
1991        May 5, President Bush continued to experience an irregular heartbeat, one day after he was taken to Bethesda Naval Hospital because of fatigue and shortness of breath.
    (AP, 5/5/01)
1991        May 6, President Bush returned to work after spending two nights at Bethesda Naval Hospital because of an irregular heartbeat; he met at the White House with Soviet Foreign Minister Eduard Shevardnadze.
    (AP, 5/6/01)
1991        May 7, Doctors said that President Bushs recent bout with an irregular heartbeat was caused by a mildly overactive thyroid gland, a condition they said was easily treatable.
    (AP, 5/7/01)
1991        May 9, President Bush met at the White House with UN Secretary-General Javier Perez de Cuellar, who relayed Iraqs rejection of a US-backed proposal for a UN civilian force in northern Iraq.
    (AP, 5/9/01)
1991        May 11, President Bush dispatched an amphibious task force with thousands of Marines and dozens of helicopters to help cyclone-ravaged Bangladesh with disaster relief efforts.
    (AP, 5/11/01)
1991        May 14, President Bush announced his selection of Robert M. Gates to head the Central Intelligence Agency.
    (AP, 5/14/01)
1991        May 15, President Bush took Britains Queen Elizabeth the Second to a baseball game between the Baltimore Orioles and the Oakland Athletics. The queen left after two innings; the As won, 6-to-3.
    (AP, 5/15/01)
1991        May 27, In a commencement speech at Yale University, President Bush announced he would ask Congress to extend most-favored-nation trade benefits to China for another year.
    (AP, 5/27/01)
1991        May 29, President Bush, addressing the US Air Force Academy in Colorado Springs, Colorado, unveiled a plan to curb "unnecessary and destabilizing weapons" in the Middle East.
    (AP, 5/29/01)
1991        Jul 1, President Bush nominated federal appeals court judge Clarence Thomas to the US Supreme Court, beginning a confirmation process marked by allegations of sexual harassment.
    (AP, 7/1/01)
1991        Jul 10, President Bush lifted economic sanctions against South Africa, citing its "profound transformation" toward racial equality.
    (AP, 7/10/97)
1991        Jul 10, President Bush announced he was appointing Alan Greenspan to a second term as Federal Reserve chairman.
    (AP, 7/10/01)
1991        Jul 19, President Bush toured the Souda Bay US naval base during a visit to Greece.
    (AP, 7/19/01)
1991        Jul 20,    President Bush, visiting Turkey, was cheered by thousands of people in Ankara.
    (AP, 7/20/01)
1991        Jul 22, President Bush returned from a nine-day trip that included the Group of Seven summit in London.
    (AP, 7/22/01)
1991        Jul 28, President Bush warned Iraq it would be making "an enormous mistake" if it failed to disclose its nuclear weapons program to United Nations inspectors.
    (AP, 7/28/01)
1991        Jul 29, President Bush arrived in Moscow for a superpower summit with Soviet President Mikhail S. Gorbachev that included the signing of the Strategic Arms Reduction Treaty.
    (AP, 7/29/01)
1991        Jul 31, President Bush and Soviet President Mikhail S. Gorbachev signed START I, the Strategic Arms Reduction Treaty in Moscow. The agreement included the deactivation and removal by May, 1995, of 150 Minuteman II missiles in Missouri. The treaty was set to expire in Dec, 2009.
    (AP, 7/31/01)(WSJ, 5/23/96, p.A-1)(WSJ, 12/1/07, p.A8)(Econ, 3/14/09, p.64)
1991        Aug 1, President Bush, visiting the Ukrainian capital of Kiev, urged Soviet republics to show restraint in their demands for more autonomy.
    (AP, 8/1/01)
1991        Aug 5, Democratic congressional leaders formally launched an investigation into whether the 1980 Reagan-Bush campaign had secretly conspired with Iran to delay release of American hostages until after the presidential election. A task force later concluded there was "no credible evidence" of such a deal.
    (AP, 8/5/01)
1991        Aug 14, President Bush expressed "100 percent" support for United Nations efforts to mediate a settlement to the Middle East hostage crisis.
    (AP, 8/14/01)
1991        Aug 20, More than 100,000 people rallied outside the Russian Parliament building as protests against the Soviet coup increased. President Bush said he would never deal with the coup leaders.
    (AP, 8/20/01)
1991        Sep 2, President Bush formally recognized the independence of the Baltic states of Lithuania, Latvia and Estonia.
    (AP, 9/2/01)
1991        Sep 12, Saying Middle East peace negotiations might be in jeopardy, President Bush told reporters he would use his veto authority, if necessary, to delay action on Israel's call for $10 billion in housing loan guarantees.
    (AP, 9/12/01)
1991        Sep 13, President Bush, who had suffered an irregular heartbeat because of a thyroid condition, was pronounced in "incredible physical condition" after a checkup by his doctors.
    (AP, 9/13/01)
1991        Nov 9, President Bush returned from a four-day European trip that included a NATO summit.
    (AP, 11/9/01)
1991        Nov 19, The U.S. House of Representatives sustained President Bush's veto of a bill that would have lifted his ban on federally financed abortion counseling.
    (AP, 11/19/01)
1991        Nov 21, President Bush signed a civil rights bill, then sought to calm a storm of controversy by withdrawing a tentative order to end government hiring preferences for blacks and women.
    (AP, 11/21/01)
1991        Nov 25, President George H.W. Bush threatened to veto anti-crime legislation heading for a final vote in Congress, accusing Democrats of producing a bill that would actually weaken law enforcement.
    (AP, 11/25/01)
1991        Dec 3, Embattled White House chief of staff John H. Sununu resigned; he was succeeded by Samuel K. Skinner.
    (AP, 12/3/01)
1991        Dec 5, Samuel K. Skinner was named White House chief of staff by President Bush, succeeding John H. Sununu.
    (AP, 12/5/01)
1991        Dec 14, President Bush and Mexican President Carlos Salinas de Gortari, meeting at Camp David, Md., renewed their commitment to conclude quickly the North American Free Trade Agreement.
    (AP, 12/14/01)
1991        Dec 17, In an about-face, the White House used the word "recession" to characterize the state of the economy, although spokesman Marlin Fitzwater said the administration did not believe there was a recession in a technical sense.
    (AP, 12/17/01)
1991        Dec 31, President Bush arrived in Australia as part of a 12-day Pacific trip.
    (AP, 12/31/01)
1991        US Pres. George H.W. Bush ordered the withdrawal of US nuclear weapons from South Korea as a prelude to talks with North Korea two years later. 950 had been placed there after the Korean War.
    (Econ, 9/9/17, p.35)(Econ, 9/30/17, p.25)
1992        Jan 1, President Bush became the first American leader to address the Australian Parliament, telling lawmakers the United States would continue to subsidize its agricultural exports, despite protests by Australia's farmers.
    (AP, 1/1/02)
1992        Jan 4, President Bush, visiting Singapore as part of a Pacific trade tour, announced plans to shift to Singapore the Navy logistics command that was being evicted from the Philippines.
    (AP, 1/4/02)
1992        Jan 5, President Bush arrived in Seoul, South Korea, on the third stop of a 12-day tour focusing on international trade issues.
    (AP, 1/5/02)
1992        Jan 7, President Bush arrived in Japan on a tough-talk trade mission.
    (AP, 1/7/02)
1992        Jan 8, President Bush collapsed during a state dinner in Tokyo; White House officials said Bush was suffering from stomach flu. Bush vomited on the Japanese prime minister's lap
    (AP, 1/8/02)(MC, 1/8/02)
1992        Jan 9, President Bush declared his trade visit to Japan a success, saying Japanese officials had agreed to increase imports of American cars, auto parts, computers and other goods. However, U.S. auto executives traveling with Bush sounded less enthusiastic.
    (AP, 1/9/02)
1992        Jan 10, President Bush returned home from his grueling 12-day journey to Australia, Singapore, South Korea and Japan, boasting of "dramatic progress" on trade issues.
    (AP, 1/10/02)
1992        Jan 16, Four days of Middle East peace talks recessed in Washington, D.C.
    (AP, 1/16/02)
1992        Jan 28, President George H.W. Bush, in his State of the Union address, proposed tax breaks and business incentives to revive the economy, and announced dramatic cuts in the U.S. nuclear arsenal.
    (AP, 1/28/02)
1992        Jan 29, President Bush presented a $1.2 trillion budget plan.
    (AP, 1/29/02)
1992        Jan 30, President George H.W. Bush and other world leaders gathered for an unprecedented U.N. Security Council summit to coordinate policy on peacekeeping, disarmament and quelling aggression.
    (AP, 1/30/02)
1992        Feb 1, President George H.W. Bush and Russian President Boris N. Yeltsin met at Camp David.
    (AP, 2/1/02)
1992        Feb 3, President George H.W. Bush got into a testy exchange with Democratic governors over his economic-revival plan.
    (AP, 2/3/02)
1992        Feb 4, President George H.W. Bush defended his economic recovery plan before a National Grocers Association meeting in Orlando, Fla. During his visit, Bush appeared intrigued by an electronic checkout machine, leaving reporters wondering if he'd ever seen such a device before.
    (AP, 2/4/02)
1992        Feb 6, President George H.W. Bush unveiled a health care plan for most Americans.
    (AP, 2/6/02)
1992        Feb 12, President Bush formally announced his bid for re-election.
    (AP, 2/12/02)
1992        Feb 18, Republican Pres. George H.W. Bush won the New Hampshire primary over Pat Buchanon, 58.6 to 41.4%. Democrat Paul Tsongas won over Bill Clinton, Bob Kerrey, Tom Harkin and Jerry Brown 38 to 28.3 to 12.7 to 11.6 to 9.3%.
    (SFEM,11/2/97, p.12)(AP, 2/18/02)(SSFC, 1/25/04, p.A19)
1992        Feb 22, President Bush renewed his attack on a Democratic tax plan, saying in a radio address that congressional Democrats were choosing "politics over duty."
    (AP, 2/22/02)
1992        Feb 25, President Bush won the South Dakota Republican primary, Bob Kerrey the Democratic primary.
    (AP, 2/25/02)
1992        Mar 3, President Bush apologized for raising taxes after pledging not to.
    (SC, 3/3/02)
1992        Mar 8, President George H.W. Bush and Democrat Bill Clinton headed toward "Super Tuesday" claiming big boosts from weekend victories.
    (AP, 3/8/02)
1992        Mar 10, Democrat Bill Clinton claimed front-runner status as he won a series of Southern landslides on "Super Tuesday." President George H.W. Bush swept all the Republican contests.
    (AP, 3/10/02)
1992        Mar 15, Democratic presidential candidates debated in Chicago, criticizing President George H.W. Bush's handling of the Persian Gulf War and its aftermath, and clashing over economic issues.
    (AP, 3/15/97)
1992        Mar 20, Congress passed, and President Bush immediately vetoed, a Democratic tax cut for the middle class that would have been funded by a tax hike on the rich.
    (AP, 3/20/97)
1992        Mar 21, Pres. Bush and German Chancellor Helmut Kohl met at Camp David, Md.
    (AP, 3/21/97)
1992        Mar 22, President Bush and German Chancellor Helmut Kohl wrapped up a weekend of informal talks by reiterating their resolve to break a deadlock on global trade talks.
    (AP, 3/22/02)
1992        Apr 1,    President Bush pledged the United States would help finance a $24 billion international aid fund for the former Soviet Union.
    (AP, 4/1/97)
1992        Apr 3, President Bush, speaking in Philadelphia, said members of Congress should shorten their annual sessions and retire after 12 years, calling for changes in "a failed status quo"; Democratic leaders accused Bush of "scapegoating."
    (AP, 4/3/97)
1992        Apr 4,    His campaign acknowledged that Bill Clinton had received an induction notice in April 1969 while attending college in Oxford, England; Clinton said the notice arrived after he was due to report, and that his local draft board had told him he could complete the school term.
    (AP, 4/4/97)
1992        Apr 24, President Bush and Democratic challenger Bill Clinton made long-distance back-to-back appearances via satellite hookups before the National Association of Hispanic Journalists meeting in Albuquerque, N.M.
    (AP, 4/24/97)
1992        Apr 30, As rioting in Los Angeles entered its second day, President Bush condemned the violence and said the Justice Department would intensify its investigation of police conduct in the beating of Rodney King.
    (AP, 4/30/97)
1992        May 1, On the third day of the Los Angeles riots, beaten motorist Rodney King appeared in public to appeal for calm, asking, "Can we all get along?" President Bush delivered a nationally broadcast address in which he vowed to "use whatever force is necessary" to restore order.
    (AP, 5/1/97)
1992        May 7, President Bush visited riot-scarred Los Angeles.
    (AP, 5/7/97)
1992        May 8, President Bush wound up two emotional days in riot-ravaged Los Angeles, promising to work harder in Washington to enact a "common-sense agenda" of conservative proposals to help urban America.
    (AP, 5/8/97)
1992        May 9, President Bush, back in Washington after a visit to riot-torn Los Angeles, promised in a radio speech that he would work with the Democrat-controlled Congress on proposals to help American cities.
    (AP, 5/9/97)
1992        May 12, President Bush announced he would travel to the Earth Summit in Brazil.
    (AP, 5/12/97)
1992        May 13, President Bush announced a $600 million loan package to help rebuild riot-scarred Los Angeles.
    (AP, 5/13/02)
1992        May 19, In San Francisco, Vice President Dan Quayle denounced what he called the "poverty of values" in America's inner cities, and criticized the TV show "Murphy Brown" for having its title character decide to bear a child out of wedlock.
    (AP, 5/19/97)(DTnet, 5/19/97)
1992        May 23, Pres. Bush ordered the Coast Guard to intercept boats with Haitian refugees.
    (MC, 5/23/02)
1992        May 24, President Bush authorized the Coast Guard to return directly home all Haitian refugees picked up at sea.
    (AP, 5/24/97)
1992        Jul 2, President Bush vetoed the so-called "motor-voter" registration bill; President Clinton later signed a revised version into law.
    (AP, 7/2/97)
1992        Jul 24, Members of POW-MIA families disrupted a speech by President Bush, prompting Bush to snap, "Would you please shut up and sit down?"
    (AP, 7/24/97)
1992        Jul 27, President Bush's aides attacked Democratic nominee Bill Clinton's foreign policy credentials and judgment.
    (AP, 7/27/97)
1992        Aug 1, The Supreme Court permitted the Bush administration to continue returning Haitians intercepted at sea to their Caribbean homeland.
    (AP, 8/1/97)
1992        Aug 6, President Bush granted full diplomatic recognition to the former Yugoslav republics of Bosnia-Herzegovina, Slovenia and Croatia, the same day Britain's Independent Television News showed videotape of emaciated detainees at a pair of Serb prison camps.
    (AP, 8/6/97)
1992        Aug 10, President Bush met at his Kennebunkport, Maine, vacation home with Israeli Prime Minister Yitzhak Rabin. Afterward, Bush announced that Mideast peace talks would resume in two weeks in Washington, D.C.
    (AP, 8/10/97)
1992        Aug 13, President Bush announced that Secretary of State James A. Baker III was leaving his diplomatic post to be White House chief of staff in a shake-up designed to energize Bush's re-election campaign.
    (HN 8/13/97)
1992        Aug 15, While Republicans gathered in Houston for their national convention, President Bush spent the weekend at Camp David, his renomination secure.
    (AP, 8/15/97)
1992        Aug 16, On the eve of the Republican National Convention in Houston, President Bush and party officials heatedly denied a report in The New York Times that a confrontation with Iraqi President Saddam Hussein was motivated by political concerns.
    (AP, 8/16/97)
1992        Aug 17, President Bush arrived in Houston for the opening of the Republican National Convention, which featured an address by former President Reagan.
    (AP, 8/17/97)
1992        Aug 20, In the early hours of Aug. 20, the Republican National Convention in Houston renominated President Bush and Vice President Quayle. On the evening of the 20th, Bush delivered a hard-hitting speech in which he attacked the Democrats and promised to seek across-the-board tax cuts if re-elected.
    (HN 8/20/97)
1992        Aug 21, The day after the close of the Republican National Convention in Houston, the two major party candidates traded hard blows, with President Bush deriding Bill Clinton as a "wishy-washy" leader, and Clinton lashing back at Bush as a "great fearmonger."
    (AP, 8/21/97)
1992        Aug 22, President Bush told an evangelical gathering in Dallas that the Democrats had left "three simple letters" out of their platform: "G-o-d." Democrat Bill Clinton said Bush was trying to divert attention from the economy.
    (AP, 8/22/02)
1992        Aug 23, James A. Baker III bowed out as secretary of state after three-and-a-half years to become White House chief of staff.
    (AP, 8/23/97)
1992        Aug 25, President Bush and Democrat Bill Clinton appeared separately before the American Legion in Chicago; Bush cited his World War II military service while Clinton sought to bury the controversy over his Vietnam-era draft status.
    (AP, 8/25/97)
1992        Aug 26, A federal judge declared a mistrial in the Iran-Contra cover-up trial of former CIA spy chief Clair George. George was convicted of perjury in a retrial, but was then pardoned by President H.W. Bush.
    (AP, 8/26/97)
1992        Aug 27, President Bush ordered federal troops to Florida for emergency relief in the wake of Hurricane Andrew.
    (AP, 8/27/97)
1992        Sep 2, On the campaign trail, President Bush announced nearly $2 billion in new aid for US farmers and a $6 billion jet fighter sale that would largely benefit Texas. Democrat Bill Clinton, meanwhile, charged that Bush would short change middle-class students to finance tax cuts for the rich. Bush announced the agreement to sell Taiwan 150 F-16 jet fighters at the General Dynamics factory in Fort Worth, Texas.
    (AP, 9/2/97)(
1992        Sep 8, President Bush asked Congress to provide more than $7.6 billion to help Hurricane Andrew recovery efforts.
    (AP, 9/8/97)
1992        Sep 10, Less than two months before Election Day, President Bush unveiled a repackaged economic manifesto which included a possible 1 percentage-point across-the-board tax-rate cut.
    (AP, 9/10/97)
1992        Sep 11, President Bush announced he was approving the sale of 72 F-15 jet fighters to Saudi Arabia.
    (AP, 9/11/97)
1992        Oct 5, Pres. George H. W. Bush signed America's Hong Kong Policy Act. It allowed the US government to treat Hong Kong as a separate entity for trade and other purposes, as long as it is demonstrably freer than the rest of China. It became effective on July 1, 1997 and was amended on November 27, 2019, by the Hong Kong Human Rights and Democracy Act.
1992        Oct 26, Pres. Bush signed an act requiring the release of nearly all government files concerning the assassination of President Kennedy. The President John F. Kennedy Assassination Records Collection Act compelled anything related to the assassination to be released 25 years after its passage.
    (, 6/8/19, p.29)
1992        Dec 17, President Bush, Canadian Prime Minister Brian Mulroney and Mexican President Carlos Salinas de Gortari signed the North American Free Trade Agreement in separate ceremonies.
    (AP, 12/17/97)
1992        Dec 24, President Bush pardoned former Defense Secretary Caspar Weinberger and five others in the Iran-Contra scandal.
    (AP, 12/24/97)
1992        Feb 18, In the New Hampshire primary, President George H.W. Bush won the Republican contest while challenger Patrick Buchanan placed a strong second; among Democrats, Paul Tsongas came in first.
    (SFEM,11/2/97, p.12)(AP, 2/18/02)
1992        Mar 3, President Bush apologized for raising taxes after pledging not to.
    (SC, 3/3/02)
1992        Mar 3, In so-called "Junior Tuesday" political contests, Democrat Paul Tsongas won primaries in Maryland and Utah; Bill Clinton won in Georgia, Jerry Brown in Colorado. Among Republicans, President George H.W. Bush swept Georgia, Maryland and Colorado.
    (AP, 3/3/02)
1992        Aug 27, President Bush ordered federal troops to Florida for emergency relief in the wake of Hurricane Andrew.
    (AP, 8/27/97)
1992        Sep 2, On the campaign trail, President Bush announced nearly $2 billion in new aid for U.S. farmers and a $6 billion jet fighter sale that would largely benefit Texas. Democrat Bill Clinton, meanwhile, charged that Bush would shortchange middle-class students to finance tax cuts for the rich.
    (AP, 9/2/97)
1992        Nov 3, Bill Clinton, governor of Arkansas, was elected as the 42nd president of the United States, defeating President Bush, who won 38% of the popular vote.
    (AP, 11/3/97)(HN, 11/3/98)(SSFC, 4/29/01, p.D1)
1992        Nov 3, Bill Clinton won Ohio by 2 percentage points.
    (Econ, 8/2/08, p.31)
1992        Dec 24, President George H.W. Bush pardoned former Defense Secretary Caspar Weinberger and five others in the Iran-Contra scandal. This sparked a lengthy investigation by a special prosecutor.
    (AP, 12/24/97)(SSFC, 12/2/18, p.A13)
1992        Dec 30, President Bush embarked on the final foreign trip of his term in office, heading to a Black Sea summit with Russian President Boris Yeltsin, with a stopover in Somalia to visit U.S. troops helping famine victims.
    (AP, 12/30/97)
1992        Dec 31, President Bush visited Somalia, where he saw firsthand the famine racking the east African nation. He praised U.S. troops that provided relief to the starving population.
    (AP, 12/31/97)
1993        Jan 1, President Bush continued to tour Somalia, greeting hundreds of cheering youngsters and foreign relief workers at an orphanage in Baidoa.
    (AP, 1/1/98)
1993        Jan 2, President Bush arrived in Moscow to sign a strategic arms treaty with Russian President Boris Yeltsin, who hailed the agreement as "our joint gift to the people of the Earth."
    (AP, 1/2/98)
1993        Jun 27, US warships fired 24 Tomahawk cruise missiles at intelligence headquarters in Baghdad in retaliation for the assassination plot. The Iraqis claimed 8 dead. Iraqis pulled their dead from the rubble of buildings wrecked by U.S. missiles during an early morning raid ordered by President Clinton in reprisal for an alleged assassination plot against former President Bush.
    (SFC, 9/4/96, p.A8)(AP, 6/27/98)
1995        May 10, Former President Bushs office released his letter of resignation from the National Rifle Association in which Bush expressed outrage over its reference to federal agents as "jack-booted government thugs."
    (AP, 5/10/00)
1997        Mar 25, Former President George Bush, 73, parachuted from a plane over the Arizona desert.
    (AP, 3/24/98)
1999        Nov 8, Former President Bush was honored in Germany for his role in the fall of the Berlin Wall ten years earlier.
    (AP, 11/8/00)
2011        Feb 15, former US Pres. George H.W. Bush received the Presidential Medal of Freedom, the nation's highest civilian honor for contributions to society.
    (SSFC, 12/2/18, p.A13)
2017        Oct 26, A 2nd actress accused former Pres. George H.W. Bush of inappropriate touching. Jordana Grolnick said Bush grabbed her buttocks last year in Maine and quipped that his favorite magician is David Cop-a-Feel.
    (SFC, 10/27/17, p.A8)

#42 Bill Clinton (1993-2001)

1946        Aug 19, Bill Clinton, US President from 1992-2000, was born as William J. Blythe III in Hope, Arkansas. He was the son of Virginia Cassidy Blythe and William Jefferson Blythe II. Clintons father was killed in a traffic accident prior to his birth. His mother married Roger Clinton when Bill was 4 years old.
    (SFC, 7/14/96, Par p.23)(SFEC, 3/9/96, Z1 p.5)(WUD, 1994 p.1698)(HNQ, 1/1/02)
1947        Oct 26, Hillary Rodham Clinton, First lady (1993-2001), was born.
    (HN, 10/26/98)(MC, 10/26/01)
1978        Apr 25, William Clinton (31), attorney general of Arkansas and candidate for governor, sexually assaulted Juanita Broaddrick at the Camelot Inn in Little Rock. Broaddrick made the story public on national TV in 1999.
    (SFC, 2/19/99, p.A1,10)(SFC, 2/25/99, p.A2)
1978        Jun 18, The Whitewater business venture was incorporated. Arkansas Gov. Bill Clinton and his wife Hillary set up their 50-50 Whitewater venture with Mr. & Mrs. McDougal. The Clintons lost money in the real estate deal that later turned into the Whitewater scandal.
    (, 8/19/96, p.A12)(SFC, 6/4/96, p.A19)
1980        Feb 27, Chelsea Clinton, daughter of President Clinton (1993-2001), was born.
    (MC, 2/27/02)
1991        May 8, At the Third Annual Governors Quality Management Conference at the Excelsior Hotel in Little Rock, Ark., Gov. Bill Clinton invited Paula Jones, a state employee working at the registration desk, to a private meeting and exposed his desire for her. Days later Paula Jones filed a complaint of sexual harassment in US District Court in Little Rock. She has been seeking $700,000 in damages.
    (WSJ, 6/26/96, p.A18)(SFC, 5/29/96, A4)(SFEC, 11/24/96, zone 1 p.9)(WSJ, 4/20/98, p.A20)
1992        Jan 27, Democratic presidential candidate Bill Clinton and Gennifer Flowers accused each other of lying in a renewed dispute over her assertion that they'd had a 12-year affair.
    (AP, 1/27/02)
1992        Feb 6, Democratic presidential candidate Bill Clinton denied he'd tried to avoid the Vietnam draft, saying he gave up a draft deferment in the fall of 1969 because he "didn't think it was right" to keep it.
    (AP, 2/6/02)
1992        Feb 10, In the Iowa caucus favorite son Tom Harkin won with 76% of the vote. The rest went to Uncommitted (12%), Paul Tsongas (4%), Bill Clinton (3%), Bob Kerrey (2%), and Jerry Brown (2%). Clinton ended up winning the Democratic nomination and the presidency.
1992        Feb 12, Democratic presidential candidate Bill Clinton released a letter he'd written as a student in 1969 in which he said he had decided to give up a draft deferment in order to "maintain my political viability."
    (AP, 2/12/02)
1992        Mar 7, Democrat Bill Clinton picked up additional victories in the South Carolina primary and the Wyoming caucuses, while fellow Democrat Paul Tsongas won the Arizona caucuses. President George H.W. Bush won the Republican primary in South Carolina.
    (AP, 3/7/02)
1992        Mar 10, Democrat Bill Clinton claimed front-runner status as he won a series of Southern landslides on "Super Tuesday." President George H.W. Bush swept all the Republican contests.
    (AP, 3/10/02)
1992        Mar 17, Democrat Bill Clinton scored big primary victories in Illinois and Michigan. In Illinois, Sen. Alan Dixon was defeated in his primary re-election bid by Carol Moseley-Braun, who went on to become the first black woman in the U.S. Senate.
    (AP, 3/17/97)
1992        Mar 28, Democrats Bill Clinton and Jerry Brown clashed over Brown's flat-tax proposal, with Clinton charging the plan would hurt the poor, and Brown accusing Clinton of inventing "another big lie."
    (AP, 3/28/97)
1992        Mar 29, Democratic presidential front-runner Bill Clinton acknowledged experimenting with marijuana "a time or two" while attending Oxford University, adding, "I didn't inhale and I didn't try it again."
    (AP, 3/29/97)
1992        Apr 7,    Democrat Bill Clinton swept the New York, Kansas and Wisconsin primaries.
    (AP, 4/7/97)
1992        May 4, Democratic presidential candidate Bill Clinton toured riot-ravaged Los Angeles streets, blaming the destruction on what he called 12 years of Republican neglect.
    (AP, 5/4/97)
1992        May 16, Polls showed Perot, Bush and Clinton could be in a deadlock.
    (MC, 5/16/02)
1992        Jul 9, Democrat Bill Clinton tapped Tennessee Sen. Al Gore to be his running mate.
    (AP, 7/9/97)
1992        Jul 15, Arkansas Gov. Bill Clinton claimed the Democratic presidential nomination at the party's convention in New York City.
    (AP, 7/15/97)
1992        Jul 16, Bill Clinton delivered his acceptance speech a day after winning the Democratic presidential nomination at the party's convention in New York City. To the dismay and anger of supporters, Ross Perot announced he would not run for president. He later changed his mind.
    (AP, 7/16/97)
1992        Aug 25, President Bush and Democrat Bill Clinton appeared separately before the American Legion in Chicago; Bush cited his World War II military service while Clinton sought to bury the controversy over his Vietnam-era draft status.
    (AP, 8/25/97)
1992        Nov 3, Bill Clinton, governor of Arkansas, was elected as the 42nd president of the United States, defeating President Bush, who won 38% of the popular vote.
    (AP, 11/3/97)(HN, 11/3/98)(SSFC, 4/29/01, p.D1)
1992        Nov 3, Bill Clinton won Ohio by 2 percentage points.
    (Econ, 8/2/08, p.31)
1992        Nov 12, In his first formal post-election news conference, President-elect Clinton presented a detailed blueprint for action once he took office, and promised his administration would have the strictest ethical guidelines in history.
    (AP, 11/12/97)
1992        Nov 15, President-elect Clinton and his wife, Hillary, hosted a dinner in Little Rock, Ark., for Democratic congressional leaders in the first such meeting since the presidential election.
    (AP, 11/15/97)
1992        Nov 19, President-elect Clinton paid a call on Congress.
    (AP, 11/19/97)
1992        Nov 22, President-elect Bill Clinton met in Little Rock, Ark., with sometime-critic Jesse Jackson, who praised the future chief executive as a leader who could "make the nation whole."
    (AP, 11/22/97)
1992        Dec 10, President-elect Clinton announced his first Cabinet selections, including Lloyd Bentsen to be treasury secretary and Leon Panetta to be budget director.
    (AP, 12/10/97)
1992        Dec 11, President-elect Clinton tapped Robert Reich to be labor secretary and Donna Shalala to be secretary of Health and Human Services.
    (AP, 12/11/97)
1992        Dec 12, President-elect Clinton tapped Thomas F. "Mack" McLarty to be his chief of staff and Democratic national chairman Ron Brown to be commerce secretary.
    (AP, 12/12/97)
1992        Dec 14, President-elect Clinton opened a two-day conference in Little Rock, Ark., on the nation's economic problems.
    (AP, 12/14/97)
1992        Dec 17, President-elect Clinton tapped former San Antonio Mayor Henry Cisneros to be Secretary of Housing.
    (AP, 12/17/97)
1992        Dec 22, President-elect Clinton chose Warren Christopher to be his secretary of state and tapped Les Aspin to be defense secretary.
    (AP, 12/22/97)
1992        Dec 26, Time magazine announced it had chosen President-elect Bill Clinton its 1992 "Man of the Year."
    (AP, 12/26/97)
1992        US Pres. candidate Bill Clinton promised to lift the ban against homosexual military service members.
    (SFC, 12/23/10, p.A8)
1993        Jan 4, President-elect Clinton spoke by telephone with Russian President Boris Yeltsin about the newly signed START II treaty; Clinton pledged to do all he could to get early ratification.
    (AP, 1/4/98)
1993        Jan 14, Retreating from a campaign promise, President-elect Clinton said he would continue President Bush's policy of forcibly returning Haitian boat people to Haiti.
    (AP, 1/14/98)
1993        Jan 17, The United States, accusing Iraq of a series of military provocations, unleashed Tomahawk missiles against a military complex eight miles from downtown Baghdad. President-elect Clinton, arriving in Washington for his inauguration, backed the action.
    (AP, 1/17/98)
1993         Jan 20, Bill Clinton was sworn in as the 42nd president of the United States; Al Gore was sworn in as vice president. The Senate confirmed Lloyd Bentsen as treasury secretary, Les Aspin as defense secretary and Warren Christopher as secretary of state. That night, Clinton picked up a saxophone and jammed at five of the 12 inaugural balls he and his wife, Hillary, attended.
    (SFC, 11/8/96, p.C6)(AP, 1/20/98)(MC, 1/20/02)
1993        Jan 25, President Clinton appointed his wife, Hillary, to head a committee on health-care reform.
    (AP, 1/25/98)
1993        Jan 29, President Clinton announced that he was ordering the draft of a formal directive by July 15 to end the longstanding ban on homosexuals in the U.S. military.
    (AP, 1/29/98)
1993        Feb 2, In a speech to the National Governors' Association, President Clinton pledged to transform welfare into a "hand up, not a handout" by giving recipients training and then requiring them to work.
    (AP, 2/2/97)
1993        Feb 5, Federal judge Kimba Wood, President Clinton's expected choice for attorney general, withdrew from consideration, saying her baby sitter had been an illegal alien for seven years.
    (AP, 2/5/97)
1993        Feb 10, The Clinton administration said U.S. troops could be sent to enforce peace in former Yugoslavia provided warring factions there negotiated a settlement.
    (AP, 2/10/97)
1993        Feb 11, President Clinton announced his choice of Miami prosecutor Janet Reno to be the nation's first female attorney general, after two earlier candidates stumbled because they'd hired illegal aliens.
    (AP, 2/11/97)
1993        Feb 15, President Clinton issued an economic "call to arms," asking Americans to accept a painful package of tax increases and spending cuts.
    (AP, 2/15/98)
1993        Feb 16, Prices fell as Wall Street reacted unfavorably to President Clinton's economic austerity plan outlined in a White House address the night before.
    (AP, 2/16/98)
1993        Feb 17, President Clinton addressed a joint session of Congress, asking Americans to accept one of the biggest tax increases in history as part of a plan to stimulate the economy and curb massive budget deficits.
    (AP, 2/17/98)
1993        Feb 18, President Clinton hosted a campaign-style rally at St. Louis' Union Station to enlist citizen support for his economic plan.
    (AP, 2/18/98)
1993        Feb 19, President Clinton's economic plan won praise from Federal Reserve Chairman Alan Greenspan. The president, visiting Hyde Park, N.Y., suggested the United States might have to consider a national sales tax "not too long in the future," then said he'd meant in 10 years or so.
    (AP, 2/19/98)
1993        Feb 23, President Clinton won United Nations support for a plan to airdrop relief supplies to starving Bosnians during an Oval Office meeting with Secretary-General Boutros Boutros-Ghali.
    (AP, 2/23/98)
1993        Feb 25, President Clinton ordered the Pentagon to mount an airdrop of relief supplies into Bosnia-Herzegovina.
    (AP, 2/25/98)
1993        Feb 27, President Clinton, in his weekly radio address, promised to find out who was behind the huge explosion at New York City's World Trade Center, a bombing later blamed on Islamic militants.
    (AP, 2/27/98)
1993        Mar 16, President Clinton met with ousted Haitian President Jean-Bertrand Aristide; afterward, Clinton announced he was sending a special envoy to Haiti to seek a return to democracy.
    (AP, 3/16/98)
1993        Mar 18, On Capitol Hill, the House approved President Clinton's deficit-reduction blueprint on a virtual party-line 243-183 vote.
    (AP, 3/18/98)
1993        Mar 23, In his first formal news conference since taking office, President Clinton suggested restricting the duty assignment of homosexuals in the military as a way of allowing openly gay personnel; however, the idea was quickly abandoned.
    (AP, 3/23/98)
1993        Mar 25, The Senate approved an outline of President Clinton's plan to spark the economy and trim the budget deficit by a vote of 54-45.
    (AP, 3/24/98)
1993        Mar 26, President Clinton promised a "full-court press" against Bosnian Serbs to secure their agreement to a United Nations peace plan endorsed by Bosnian Muslims and Croats.
    (AP, 3/25/98)
1993        Apr 1, In an impassioned plea for Russian aid, President Clinton told newspaper editors in Annapolis, Md., that America should help "not out of charity" but as a crucial investment in peace and prosperity.
    (AP, 4/1/98)
1993        Apr 2, President Clinton presided at a daylong conference in Portland, Ore., on how much logging should be allowed on federal land.
    (AP, 4/2/98)
1993        Apr 3, President Clinton and Russian President Boris Yeltsin opened a weekend summit in Vancouver, B.C., beginning talks after a luncheon with Canadian Prime Minister Brian Mulroney.
    (AP, 4/3/98)
1993        Apr 4, President Clinton and Russian President Boris Yeltsin wrapped up their two-day summit in Vancouver, B.C. Clinton extended $1.6 billion in aid; Yeltsin proclaimed the two countries "partners and future allies."
    (AP, 4/4/98)
1993        Apr 8, President Clinton unveiled his $1.52 trillion budget for fiscal 1994.
    (AP, 4/8/98)
1993        Apr 16, At the White House, President Clinton pressed Japanese Prime Minister Kiichi Miyazawa to help ease Japan's persistent trade surplus with the United States. President Clinton received gay and lesbian activists in the Oval Office for a one-hour meeting.
    (AP, 4/16/98)
1993        Apr 20, President Clinton said he accepted responsibility for the decision to try to end the 51-day siege at the Branch Davidian compound in Texas, yet laid "ultimate responsibility" on David Koresh for the deaths that resulted.
    (AP, 4/20/98)
1993        Apr 23, President Clinton said he was giving "serious consideration" to limited U.S. air strikes against Bosnian Serb positions.
    (AP, 4/23/98)
1993        Apr 26, President Clinton signed an executive order imposing new economic sanctions against Yugoslavia after the Serbian leadership in Bosnia voted against accepting a U.N.-sponsored plan to end the war.
    (AP, 4/26/98)
1993        May 1, President Clinton held a strategy session with top military and foreign policy advisers on Bosnia.
    (AP, 5/1/98)
1993        May 7, President Clinton proposed dramatic changes in political campaign financing.
    (AP, 5/7/98)
1993        May 9, The White House said President Clinton had directed Secretary of State Warren M. Christopher to contact U.S. allies to discuss how they could ensure Serbia's promise to cut supplies to the Bosnian Serbs.
    (AP, 5/9/98)
1993        May 12, President Clinton proposed putting all money raised from new taxes and spending cuts into a trust fund dedicated solely to reducing the nation's huge budget deficit.
    (AP, 5/12/98)
1993        May 13, The House Ways and Means Committee gave final approval to President Clinton's deficit-cutting package, containing a tax increase of $246 billion over five years.
    (AP, 5/13/98)
1993        May 14, President Clinton told a news conference his threat of military force to halt the war in the former Yugoslavia was "still on the table" despite opposition from European allies.
    (AP, 5/14/98)
1993        May 17, President Clinton visited the Los Alamos National Laboratory in New Mexico, the birthplace of the atomic bomb to promote a five-year, $20 billion defense-conversion plan.
    (AP, 5/17/98)
1993        May 21, President Clinton met at the White House with Russian Foreign Minister Andrei Kozyrev; afterward, Clinton expressed pessimism over resolving the ethnic conflict in the Balkans and pledged not to send American soldiers into a "shooting gallery."
    (AP, 5/21/98)
1993        May 29, President Clinton tapped Republican David Gergen to assume responsibility for White House communications and press operations.
    (AP, 5/29/98)
1993        May 31, President Clinton paid a Memorial Day visit to the Vietnam Veterans Memorial, where some in the crowd jeered him for avoiding military service. "Disagreement is freedom's privilege," Clinton exhorted critics.
    (AP, 5/31/98)
1993        Jul 5, President Clinton left Washington for a Group of Seven summit in Japan.
    (AP, 7/5/98)
1993        Jul 10, President Clinton ended his visit to Japan, then traveled to South Korea, where in a speech to the National Assembly he denounced communist North Korea for raising the specter of "nuclear annihilation."
    (AP, 7/10/98)
1993        Jul 11, President Clinton wrapped up his visit to South Korea with a visit to the Demilitarized Zone separating South and North Korea; he then flew to Hawaii, where he placed a wreath at the site of the sunken battleship USS Arizona at Pearl Harbor.
    (AP, 7/11/98)
1993        Jul 14, President Clinton visited flood-stricken Iowa for the second time in 10 days, telling flood victims to "hang in there."
    (AP, 7/14/98)
1993        Jul 17, President Clinton, with several Cabinet members in tow, traveled to Arnold, Mo., where he heard the governors of eight flood-stricken states appeal for more financial assistance; however, he held out little hope the government could offer a total bailout.
    (AP, 7/17/98)
1993        Jul 19, President Clinton fired FBI Director William Sessions, citing "serious questions" about Sessions' conduct and leadership.
    (HN, 7/19/98)
1993        Jul 19, President Clinton announced a compromise allowing homosexuals to serve in the military, but only if they refrained from all homosexual activity, under a compromise dubbed "don't ask, don't tell, don't pursue."
    (HN, 7/19/98)(AP, 7/19/08)
1993        Jul 20, Vincent Foster Jr., deputy White House council, was found dead in a Virginia Park near Washington. His death was claimed to be a suicide. An eye-witness later claimed to see  "suspicious-looking man" and a car with Arkansas license plates not far from the scene. His death was later concluded to be a suicide. Information relating to these events were later leaked by a source identified as "Deep Water."
    (SFC, 11/12/96, p.A7)(SFC, 7/16/97, p.A3)(WSJ, 2/18/98, p.A24)(AP, 7/20/98)
1993        Jul 20, A day after firing William Sessions as FBI director, President Clinton named federal judge Louis Freeh (b.1950) to replace him. Freeh served until June, 2001.
    (AP, 7/20/98)(WSJ, 6/14/02, p.A4)
1993        Jul 26, President Clinton launched a harder sell for his budget at a conference in Chicago, accusing Republicans of gridlock.
    (AP, 7/26/98)
1993        Jul 28, President Clinton declared himself ready to provide air power to protect peacekeepers in Bosnia if he received a request from the United Nations.
    (AP, 7/28/98)
1993        Aug 5, The U.S. House of Representatives passed President Clinton's budget plan by a close vote of 218-216.
    (AP, 8/5/98)
1993        Aug 6, The U.S. Senate joined the House in passing President Clinton's budget plan, 51-50, with a tie-breaking vote cast by Vice President Al Gore.
    (AP, 8/6/98)
1993        Aug 10, President Clinton signed a massive deficit-reduction bill into law.
    (AP, 8/10/98)
1993        Aug 11, President Clinton named Army Gen. John Shalikashvili to be the new chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff, succeeding the retiring Gen. Colin Powell.
    (AP, 8/11/98)
1993        Aug 12, President Clinton signed a relief package for the flooded Midwest. President Clinton lifted a ban on rehiring air traffic controllers fired for going on strike in 1981.
    (AP, 8/12/98)
1993        Aug 16, President Clinton opened his campaign for health care reform with a speech to the nation's governors in Tulsa, Okla.
    (AP, 8/16/98)
1993        Sep 6, President Clinton visited South Florida, where he met with residents recovering from Hurricane Andrew.
    (AP, 9/6/98)
1993        Sep 7, President Clinton put forth an ambitious plan to "reinvent government" by reducing the federal bureaucracy.
    (AP, 9/7/98)
1993        Sep 13, In a historic scene at the White House, Israeli Prime Minister Yitzhak Rabin and PLO chairman Yasser Arafat shook hands after signing an accord granting limited Palestinian autonomy. In 2002 Neal Kozodoy edited ""The Mideast Peace Process: An Autopsy."
    (AP, 9/13/97)(WSJ, 2/11/02, p.A1)
1993        Nov 9, Vice President Al Gore and Ross Perot debated the North American Free Trade Agreement on CNN's Larry King Live.
    (AP, 11/9/98)
1993        Nov 13, President Clinton used his weekly radio address to make yet another pitch for the North American Free Trade Agreement, then flew to Memphis, Tenn., where he delivered an anti-crime speech to black ministers at the Temple Church of God in Christ.
    (AP, 11/13/98)
1993        Nov 19, President Clinton met in Seattle with Chinese President Jiang Zemin.
    (AP, 11/19/98)
1993        Nov 23, President Clinton signed legislation lifting remaining U.S. sanctions against South Africa, and announced an initiative to spur investment in South Africa's black private sector.
    (AP, 11/23/98)
1993        Nov 27, In his weekly radio address, President Clinton said enacting comprehensive anti-crime legislation was the first priority for 1994, saying, "We have to be concerned that in both our cities and our rural areas, the value of life has been cheapened."
    (AP, 11/27/98)
1993        Nov 30, President Clinton signed into law the Brady bill, which required a five-day waiting period for handgun purchases and background checks of prospective buyers.
    (AP, 11/30/98)
1993        Dec 8, President Clinton signed into U.S. law the North American Free Trade Agreement, which went into effect at the start of 1994.
    (AP, 12/8/98)
1993        Dec 11, President Clinton, in his weekly radio address, said the nation must fight "violence with values" and praised radio stations that refused to play songs advocating violent crime or showing contempt for women.
    (AP, 12/11/98)
1993        Dec 16, President Clinton announced the nomination of Bobby Ray Inman to succeed Les Aspin as defense secretary. Inman, however, later withdrew.
    (AP, 12/16/98)
1993        Dec 23, President Clinton, under intense political pressure, instructed his attorney to give the Justice Department all records of his investment in an Arkansas real estate partnership linked to a failed savings and loan company.
    (AP, 12/23/98)
1993          Pres. Clinton signed the Family and Medical Leave Act. It granted workers 24 hours a year of unpaid leave to handle family matters. In 2003 the US Supreme Court allowed state employees to sue for denial of unpaid family leave.
    (SFC, 6/25/96, p.A1)(SFC, 5/28/03, p.B1)
1994        Jan 5, The Clinton administration said North Korea had agreed to allow renewed international inspections of seven nuclear sites.
    (AP, 1/5/99)
1994        Jan 9, President Clinton began the first European trip of his administration in Belgium, where -- on the eve of a NATO summit -- he warned of a rising mood of nationalism in Russia that he said threatened Eastern Europe's march of democracy.
    (AP, 1/9/99)
1994        Jan 12, Pres. Clinton bowed to political pressure and asked that a special prosecutor be named to investigate his 1980's Whitewater land dealings with Arkansas businessman James B. McDougal.
    (SFEC, 11/15/98, p.A3)(AP, 1/12/99)
1994        Jan 12, President Clinton, en route to Russia, nailed down an agreement with Ukraine to eliminate the country's nuclear arsenal, the third-largest in the world.
    (AP, 1/12/99)
1994        Jan 14, In post-Cold War breakthroughs, President Clinton and Russian President Boris Yeltsin signed Kremlin accords to stop aiming missiles at any nation and to dismantle the nuclear arsenal of Ukraine.
    (AP, 1/14/99)
1994        Jan 15, President Clinton paid solemn tribute to victims of Stalinist purges and German occupation during a six-hour stop in the former Soviet republic of Belarus before continuing on to Geneva.
    (AP, 1/15/99)
1994        Jan 16, President Clinton held marathon talks in Geneva with Syrian President Hafez Assad, who offered Israel "normal, peaceful relations" in exchange for land.
    (AP, 1/16/99)
1994        Jan 19, President Clinton visited quake-stricken Los Angeles, where he pledged fast and aggressive federal help.
    (AP, 1/19/99)
1994        Jan 23, Treasury Secretary Lloyd Bentsen, visiting Japan, met with Prime Minister Morihiro Hosokawa, who promised to go through with a scheduled summit with President Clinton.
    (AP, 1/23/99)
1994        Jan 24, President Clinton promoted William J. Perry, the Pentagon's second in command, to the post of defense secretary.
    (AP, 1/24/99)
1994        Jan 25, President Clinton delivered his State of the Union address in which he challenged Congress to pass comprehensive health care reforms.
    (AP, 1/25/99)
1994        Feb 3, President Clinton lifted the 19-year-old U.S. trade embargo against Vietnam.
    (SFC, 12/26/98, p.A9)(AP, 2/3/99)
1994        Feb 6, A day after a mortar shell killed 68 people in a Sarajevo marketplace, President Clinton called for a United Nations probe. NATO threatened air strikes if Serbs failed to pull weapons back from around the city. They moved their weapons and brought a temporary respite.
    (AP, 2/6/99)
1994        Feb 7, President Clinton sent Congress his $1.5 trillion budget plan, declaring cuts in hundreds of programs would achieve a deficit-reduction record unequaled since President Truman's administration.
    (AP, 2/7/99)
1994        Feb 8, President Clinton's health-care proposal suffered a blow as the Congressional Budget Office released an analysis saying that the plan would not shrink federal deficits, but instead drive them higher.
    (AP, 2/8/99)
1994        Feb 11, President Clinton and Japanese Prime Minister Morihiro Hosokawa, meeting at the White House, failed to resolve key differences on trade.
    (AP, 2/11/99)
1994        Feb 12, President Clinton signed an $8.6 billion relief package for victims of the Northridge earthquake in Southern California.
    (AP, 2/12/99)
1994        Feb 14, President Clinton used his first annual economic report to proclaim his policies had put the country on track for rising prosperity for years to come.
    (AP, 2/14/99)
1994        Feb 18, President Clinton notified Congress he was prepared to order bombing by U.S. warplanes in Bosnia.
    (AP, 2/18/99)
1994        Mar 8, President Clinton announced the appointment of Washington attorney Lloyd Cutler as senior counsel, replacing Bernard Nussbaum.
    (AP, 3/8/99)
1994        Mar 18, Published reports said first lady Hillary Rodham Clinton had made nearly $100,000 from the commodities market in the late 1970's on an initial investment of only $1,000.
    (AP, 3/18/99)
1994        Mar 19, In his weekly radio address, President Clinton promised to tell people "all across America about our health reform plan and what it really means."
    (AP, 3/19/99)
1994        Mar 24, President Clinton held a news conference in which he acknowledged he had significantly overstated the loss in his Whitewater land investment and promised to release late 1970's tax returns to answer questions on the land deal.
    (AP, 3/24/99)
1994        Mar 26, The Senate passed President Clinton's education reform measure, the "Goals 2000" bill, 63-22.
    (AP, 3/26/99)
1994        Mar 30, The Clinton administration announced it was lifting virtually all export controls on non-military products to China and the former Soviet bloc.
    (AP, 3/30/99)
1994        Apr 2, President Clinton warned Americans against "demagogues of division" in his weekly radio address, while calling for greater personal responsibility and cooperation to overcome the nation's problems.
    (AP, 4/2/99)
1994        Apr 5, President Clinton presided over a 90-minute town hall meeting in Charlotte, N.C., in which he called himself the victim of "false charges" in connection with the Whitewater controversy.
    (AP, 4/5/99)
1994        Apr 11, The White House disclosed that President and Mrs. Clinton had failed to report $6,498 in income that the first lady made in commodities trading in 1980; the couple wrote checks totaling $14,615 in back taxes and interest.
    (AP, 4/11/99)
1994        May 3, President Clinton presided over a televised forum from Atlanta, during which he denied suggestions he'd vacillated on foreign policy, but said global problems were more difficult than he'd imagined.
    (AP, 5/3/99)
1994        May 6, Paula Jones filed a complaint of sexual harassment in US District Court in Little Rock, Ark. against Pres. Bill Clinton. According to Jones, on May 8, 1991 at the Third Annual Governors Quality Management Conference in Little Rock, Ark., Gov. Bill Clinton invited Ms. Jones, a state employee working at the registration desk,  to a private meeting and exposed his desire for her. Jones reached a settlement with Clinton in November 1998.
    (WSJ, 6/26/96, p.A18)(AP, 5/6/04)
1994        May 8, President Clinton announced a shift in U.S. policy toward Haitian refugees, saying there would be offshore screening of boat people seeking political asylum.
    (AP, 5/8/99)
1994        May 13, President Clinton nominated federal appeals Judge Stephen G. Breyer to the U.S. Supreme Court to replace retiring Justice Harry A. Blackmun.
    (AP, 5/13/99)
1994        May 19, President Clinton held a news conference in which he defended his foreign policy against suggestions he improvises it from crisis to crisis, saying, "I continue to look for new solutions."
    (AP,, 5/19/99)(DTnet, 5/19/97)
1994        May 26, President Clinton renewed trade privileges for China, and announced his administration would no longer link China's trade status with its human rights record.
    (AP, 5/26/99)
1994        May 28, US District Judge Susan Weber Wright ruled that the Paula Jones case could not be tried until Pres. Clinton left office.
    (WSJ, 4/20/98, p.A20)
1994        Jun 2, President Clinton met at the Vatican with Pope John Paul II.
    (AP, 6/2/99)
1994        Jul 5, In an attempt to halt a surge of Haitian refugees, the Clinton administration announced it was refusing entry to new Haitian boat people.
    (AP, 7/5/99)
1994        Jun 6, President Clinton joined leaders from America's World War II allies to mark the 50th anniversary of the D-Day invasion of Normandy.
    (AP, 6/6/04)
1994        Jul 5, President Clinton set out on a four-nation European trip that included a Group of Seven summit in Naples, Italy.
    (AP, 7/5/99)
1994        Jul 11, President Clinton, on his first official visit to Germany, urged his hosts to take on a stronger leadership role in global affairs.
    (AP, 7/11/99)
1994        Jul 12, President Clinton, visiting Germany, went to the eastern sector of Berlin, the first president to do so since Harry Truman.
    (AP, 7/12/99)
1994        Jul 26, The House Banking Committee opened limited hearings on the Whitewater controversy.
    (AP, 7/26/99)
1994        Aug 2, US Congressional hearings began on White Water.
    (MC, 8/2/02)
1994        Aug 3, President Clinton told a prime-time news conference he would sign either of two Democratic health care plans before Congress.
    (AP, 8/2/99)
1994        Aug 5, A three-judge panel of the U.S. Court of Appeals in Washington chose Kenneth W. Starr to take over the Whitewater investigation from Robert Fiske.
    (AP, 8/5/99)
1994        Aug 10, President Clinton claimed presidential immunity in asking a federal judge to dismiss, at least for the time being, a sexual harassment lawsuit filed by Paula Corbin Jones, a former Arkansas state employee.
    (AP, 8/10/99)
1994        Aug 13, In his weekly radio address, President Clinton put Congress on notice that he wouldn't give up an assault weapons ban as the price to revive a crime bill stalled on Capitol Hill.
    (AP, 8/13/99)
1994        Aug 16, President Clinton and other top Democrats were scouring the House of Representatives for converts in hopes of reviving a stalled anti-crime bill.
    (AP, 8/16/99)
1994        Aug 17, Deputy Treasury Secretary Roger Altman resigned under pressure, the latest Clinton administration official felled by the Whitewater controversy.
    (AP, 8/17/99)
1994        Aug 23, Republican senators threatened to thwart a $30 billion anti-crime bill unless Democrats accepted changes in the House-passed measure; President Clinton appealed for bipartisan cooperation.
    (AP, 8/23/99)
1994        Aug 25, The Senate passed a $30 billion crime bill, a major victory for President Clinton.
    (AP, 8/25/99)
1994        Sep 10, President Clinton, Vice President Al Gore and top national security advisers met to discuss intervention in Haiti, but made no final decisions.
    (AP, 9/10/99)
1994        Sep 13 President Clinton signed into law a $30 billion anticrime bill. It included a 10 year ban on assault weapons, which expired in 2004.
    (AP, 9/13/99)(SFC, 9/10/04, p.A1)
1994        Sep 13, Pres. Clinton signed the Violence Against Women Act. The first lawsuit under the act was reinstated in 1997 in a case where a Virginia Tech student claimed to have been raped by two football players.
    (, 3/27/96, p.A-1)(WSJ, 12/24/97, p.A1)
1994        Oct 21, President Clinton conceded in a news conference that Democrats would lose seats in the upcoming election.
    (AP, 10/21/04)
1994        Oct 26, Israel's PM Yitzhak Rabin of Israel and Jordan's PM Abdel Salam Majali of Jordan signed a peace treaty in a ceremony attended by President Clinton. The peace agreement allowed Israel to lease two small areas, Baqura and Ghamr, from the Jordanians for 25 years. The Naharayim park on the border was established as a symbol of the landmark peace agreement.  In 2018 Jordan chose not to renew a clause of the peace treaty that granted Israel use of two enclaves inside Jordanian territory. The site was set to revert to full Jordanian control in early November, 2019.
    (WSJ, 5/30/96, p.A4)(SFC, 6/15/96, p.A7)(SFC, 4/24/98, p.A17)(AP, 10/26/97)(AP, 10/21/18)(AP, 10/25/19)(AP, 11/6/19)
1994        Nov 8, In midterm elections, Republicans won a majority in the Senate, gained control of the House for the first time in 40 years. California voters approved Proposition 187, designed to bar illegal aliens from education, social services and non-emergency health care.
    (WSJ,11/9/94)(AP, 11/8/99)
1994        Nov 12, President Clinton arrived in the Philippines to open a campaign for free trade in Asia and to commemorate World War II Allied victories in the Pacific.
    (AP, 11/12/99)
1994        Nov 13, President Clinton, visiting the Philippines, sought to assure world leaders that his party's severe losses in midterm elections wouldn't undercut his foreign policy.
    (AP, 11/13/99)
1994        Nov 21, Sen. Jesse Helms, R-N.C., remarked in a newspaper interview that President Clinton "better have a bodyguard" if he were to visit North Carolina; Helms later called his comment a mistake.
    (AP, 11/21/99)
1994        Dec 5, President Clinton, on a whirlwind visit to the Conference on Security and Cooperation in Budapest, Hungary, urged European leaders to "prevent future Bosnias." In the so-called Budapest memorandum Britain, Russia and the US affirmed their commitment to respect the independence, sovereignty and existing borders of Ukraine.
    (AP, 12/5/99)(AFP, 3/3/14)
1994        Dec 9, President Clinton fired Surgeon General Joycelyn Elders after learning she'd told a conference that masturbation should be discussed in school as a part of human sexuality.
    (AP, 12/9/99)
1994        Dec 16, White House and Republicans traded barbs over whose tax plan was fairer to the middle class, a day after President Clinton presented a package of proposed tax cuts.
    (AP, 12/16/99)
1994        Dec 17, Six shots were fired at the White House by an unidentified gunman.
    (AP, 12/17/99)
1994        Dec 28, President Clinton nominated Dan Glickman as agriculture secretary, succeeding Mike Espy.
    (AP, 12/28/99)
1994        Pres. Clinton presided over the first Summit of the Americas held in Miami. Topics included lower trade barriers and plans for a Free Trade Area of the Americas (FTAA).
    (SFEC, 4/20/98, p.A1)(SFC, 11/21/03, p.A12)
1994        US Pres. Clinton assigned Richard Holbrooke, ambassador in Germany, to be in charge of European Affairs at the State Dept. This meant that he was to handle affairs concerning Bosnia.
    (SFEC, 8/16/98, BR p.9)
1994        Pres. Clinton signed the General Aviation Revitalization Act, which gave aircraft manufacturers broad immunity from liability suits. Cessna resumed production of single-engine planes, which had stopped in 1983.
    (WSJ, 4/30/01, p.A1)
1994        The US Supreme Court ruled unanimously that Pres. Bill Clinton could be sued by Arkansas state employee Paula Jones for allegedly harassing her while he was governor. A federal judge later dismissed the suit.
    (SFC, 11/12/16, p.A1)
1995        Jan 4, The 104th Congress convened, the first entirely under Republican control since the Eisenhower era; Newt Gingrich was elected speaker of the House.
    (SFC, 11/7/98, p.A4)(AP, 1/4/00)
1995        Jan 5, President Clinton received Republican congressional leaders at the White House, declaring that "we can do a lot of business together" on reforming the way government works.
    (AP, 1/5/00)
1995        Jan 10, President Clinton declared flood-stricken areas of California major disaster areas.
    (AP, 1/10/00)
1995        Jan 11, President Clinton and Japanese Prime Minister Tomiichi Murayama held a low-key summit in Washington, playing down differences over trade.
    (AP, 1/11/00)
1995        Jan 24, President Clinton appealed for common ground as he delivered his second State of the Union address, this time before a Republican-led Congress.
    (AP, 1/24/00)
1995        Jan 28, President Clinton was host to a 5 1/2-hour "work session" of governors, legislators and local officials, both Democrats and Republicans, to discuss welfare reform.
    (AP, 1/28/00)
1995        Jan 31, President Clinton scrapped a $40 billion rescue plan for Mexico, announcing instead that he would act unilaterally to provide Mexico with $20 billion from a fund normally used to defend the U.S. dollar.
    (AP, 1/31/00)
1995        Feb 2, President Clinton nominated Henry Foster Jr. to succeed fired Surgeon General Joycelyn Elders; however, Foster's nomination was later defeated in the Senate.
    (AP, 2/2/00)
1995        Feb 5, The White House and congressional Republicans drew battle lines over President Clinton's $1.61 trillion budget, with Republicans accusing Clinton of "taking a walk" and the administration saying Clinton was cutting the deficit more than any president in history.
    (AP, 2/5/00)
1995        Feb 6, President Clinton unveiled his $1.61 trillion budget for 1996, mixing mild tax relief and spending reductions.
    (AP, 2/6/00)
1995        Feb 11, President Clinton, in his weekly radio address, threatened to veto any attempt by Republicans to scrap plans to put 100,000 additional police officers on the streets.
    (AP, 2/11/00)
1995        Feb 23, Administration officials said President Clinton would review dozens of affirmative action programs.
    (AP, 2/23/00)
1995        Mar 3, President Clinton held a news conference in which he asserted his administration had built a safer world and stronger economy while Republicans were trying to cut money for the needy to give tax breaks to the rich.
    (AP, 3/3/00)
1995        Mar 4, President Clinton, in his weekly radio address, said spending cuts proposed by congressional Republicans would gut safe-school and anti-drug programs needed to protect children.
    (AP, 3/4/00)
1995        Mar 9, President Clinton eased travel restrictions on Sinn Fein leader Gerry Adams and invited him to the White House for St. Patrick's Day.
    (AP, 3/9/00)
1995        Mar 10, The Clinton administration released $3 billion to support Mexico's faltering economy. Former Mexican President Carlos Salinas de Gortari fled to the United States.
    (AP, 3/10/00)
1995        Mar 11, President Clinton nominated Deputy Defense Secretary John Deutch to be CIA director.
    (AP, 3/11/00)
1995        Mar 12, President Clinton declared 39 California counties disaster areas after storms and floods battered two-thirds of the state.
    (AP, 3/12/00)
1995        Mar 15, President Clinton issued an executive order formally blocking a $1 billion contract between Conoco and Iran to develop a huge offshore oil tract in the Persian Gulf.
    (AP, 3/15/00)
1995        Mar 31, President Clinton briefly visited Haiti, where he declared the U.S. mission to restore democracy there a "remarkable success."
    (AP, 3/31/00)
1995        Apr 7, President Clinton threatened to veto a lengthy list of bills passed by the Republican-controlled House if they were not modified in the Senate.
    (AP, 4/7/00)
1995        Apr 11, President Clinton expressed sympathy for Pakistan's anger over the blocked sale of American fighter jets, telling visiting Prime Minister Benazir Bhutto that it was "not right" for the United States to keep the planes and refuse to give the money back.
    (AP, 4/11/00)
1995        Apr 15, In his weekly radio address, President Clinton asked Congress to protect a short list of key legislation, saying he was giving the highest priority to welfare reform, targeted tax cuts and a crime bill preserving the assault weapons ban.
    (AP, 4/15/00)
1995        Apr 17, President Clinton signed an executive order stripping the classified label from most national security documents that were at least 25 years old.
    (AP, 4/17/00)
1995        Apr 18, President Clinton held a prime-time news conference in which he said he was satisfied that he remained relevant in a Republican-dominated capital, and challenged Congress to send him an acceptable welfare bill by July 4.
    (AP, 4/18/00)
1995        Apr 23, Pres. Clinton declared a national day of mourning for the victims of the Oklahoma City blast.
    (AP, 4/23/00)(MC, 4/23/02)
1995        Apr 30, President Clinton announced he would end U.S. trade and investment with Iran, denouncing the Tehran government as "inspiration and paymaster to terrorists."
    (AP, 4/30/00)
1995        May 1, President Clinton defended his choice for surgeon general, Henry Foster, as a "pro-life, pro-choice doctor."
    (AP, 5/1/00)
1995        May 2, President Clinton agreed to allow some 20,000 Cubans into the United States after months of detention at Guantanamo Bay, but said any more Cubans who fled their country would be forcibly repatriated.
    (AP, 5/2/00)
1995        May 5, As rescue workers ended their search for bodies in the Oklahoma City bombing, President Clinton denounced self-styled anti-government militias, saying, "How dare you call yourselves patriots and heroes."
    (AP, 5/5/00)
1995        May 9, President Clinton arrived in Moscow for a summit with Russian President Boris Yeltsin.
    (AP, 5/9/00)
1995        May 12, President Clinton, during a stopover in Ukraine, visited Babi Yar, where the Nazis massacred more than 30,000 Kiev Jews in 1941.
    (AP, 5/12/00)
1995        May 16, The Clinton administration threatened punitive tariffs that would double the prices for Japan's most popular luxury cars.
    (AP, 5/16/00)
1995        May 19, The Senate voted 99-0 to reject President Clinton's spending blueprint.
    (AP, 5/19/00)
1995        May 20, President Clinton announced that the two-block stretch of Pennsylvania Avenue in front of the White House would be permanently closed to motor vehicles as a security measure.
    (AP, 5/20/00)
1995        May 31, President Clinton declared he was ready to permit the temporary use of American ground forces in Bosnia to help UN peacekeepers move to safer positions if necessary.
    (AP, 5/31/00)
1995        Jun 15, The Summit of 7 leading industrialist nations, G-7, met in Halifax, Canada, for talks on a unified front against terrorism. President Clinton met with Japanese PM Tomiichi Murayama on the opening day of a Group of Seven summit in Halifax, Nova Scotia.
    (AP, 6/15/00)(SFC, 6/20/97, p.A16)
1995        Jun 26, President Clinton observed the 50th anniversary of the United Nations at the site of its birth in San Francisco.
    (AP, 6/26/00)
1995        Jul 10,  President Clinton embraced mandatory ratings for TV programs and legislation to put parental-control chips in new sets.
    (AP, 7/10/00)
1995        Jul 11, Full diplomatic relations were established between the United States and Vietnam following an order by Pres. Clinton.
    (SFEM, 6/9/96, p.9)(HN, 7/11/98)(SSFC, 8/24/03, p.I6)
1995        Jul 12, President Clinton spelled out school-prayer guidelines, asserting the First Amendment already guaranteed adequate freedom of religion.
    (AP, 7/12/00)
1995        Jul 29, President Clinton and Republicans marked the 30th anniversary of Medicare by accusing one another of putting the programs future at risk.
    (AP, 7/29/00)
1995        Aug 8, President Clinton, during a visit to Baltimore, ordered all companies doing business with the federal government to report the pollution they cause.
    (AP, 8/8/00)
1995        Aug 11, President Clinton banned all US nuclear tests, calling his decision "the right step as we continue pulling back from the nuclear precipice."
    (AP, 8/11/00)
1995        Aug 11, Pres. Clinton vetoed a congressional move to end the arms embargo on Bosnia and sent Envoy Richard Holdbrooke on a new peace mission.
    (WSJ, 6/11/96, p.A14)(SFC,10/16/97, p.A12)
1995        Aug 17, James B. McDougal, McDougals ex-wife, Susan H. McDougal, and Arkansas Governor Jim Guy Tucker were indicted by the Whitewater grand jury. James McDougal was convicted on 18 of 19 counts of fraud and conspiracy; Tucker was found guilty on one count of fraud and one count of conspiracy; Susan McDougal was convicted on four fraud-related charges. James B. McDougals sentencing was delayed when the court suggested he testify against the Clintons. He died of a heart attack in federal prison in Fort Worth, Texas, on March 8, 1998. Susan H. McDougal was sentenced to two years in prison, probation, community service and $305,000 in fines and restitution. She received a full Presidential pardon from outgoing President Bill Clinton in the final hours of his presidency on January 20, 2001. Jim Guy Tucker was convicted of three counts of felony; due to his poor health, he was sentenced to four years probation and 18 months of house detention and $325,000 in fines and restitution.
    (AP, 8/17/01)(
1995        Aug 23, During a memorial service at Fort Myer, Virginia, President Clinton eulogized three US diplomats killed in a road accident near Sarajevo, Bosnia-Herzegovina, and vowed to carry on the struggle for peace in the Balkans.
    (AP, 8/23/00)
1995        Aug 26, In his weekly radio address, President Clinton explained his decision to impose a two-year moratorium on mining claims on 4500 acres of federal land near the northeast corner of Yellowstone National Park, saying the land was "more priceless than gold."
    (AP, 8/26/00)
1995        Sep 2, At a military cemetery on a hill high above Honolulu, President Clinton marked the 50th anniversary of the end of World War Two, saying it taught Americans that "the blessings of freedom are never easy or free."
    (AP, 9/2/00)
1995        Nov 13, The US government braced for imminent partial shutdown as President Clinton vetoed one budget bill and prepared to reject another in a fiscal standoff with Republicans.
    (AP, 11/13/00)
1995        Nov 15, On the 2nd day of a government shutdown Monica Lewinsky and Pres. Clinton began a sexual relationship at the White House.
    (SFC, 9/12/98, p.A12)
1995        Nov 17, Pres. Clinton and Monica Lewinsky engaged in their 2nd sexual encounter. This occurred during a phone call to Rep. H. L. "Sonny" Callahan (R., Ala.) to secure his vote against an attempt to deny funds to commit troops in Bosnia.
    (SFC, 9/12/98, p.A12)(WSJ, 9/28/98, p.A28)
1995        Nov 19, The Clinton administration and Republican congressional leaders reached a deal to end a six-day budget standoff and resulting partial government shutdown.
    (AP, 11/19/00)
1995        Nov 25, In his weekly radio address, President Clinton appealed to Americas values and interests as he pleaded for support for the Bosnia peace agreement.
    (AP, 11/25/00)
1995        Nov 28, President Clinton continued to press his case for sending 20,000 US ground troops to Bosnia. President Clinton signed a $6 billion road bill that ended the federal 55 mile-an-hour speed limit.
    (WSJ, 11/29/95, p.A-1)(AP, 11/28/00)
1995        Nov 30, President Clinton became the first US chief executive to visit Northern Ireland, where he implored Roman Catholics and Protestants alike not to surrender to the impulses of "old habits and hard grudges."
    (AP, 11/30/00)
1995        Dec 3, President Clinton, wrapping up a five-day European trip, authorized a vanguard of 700 American troops to open a risky mission in Bosnia-Herzegovina.
    (AP, 12/3/00)
1995        Dec 6, President Clinton vetoed a seven-year Republican budget-balancing plan.
    (AP, 12/6/00)
1995        Dec 7, Under Republican pressure, President Clinton reluctantly presented a seven-year balanced-budget plan that was quickly criticized by GOP lawmakers.
    (AP, 12/7/00)
1995        Dec 16, President Clinton and congressional Republicans traded accusations as their budget impasse led to a second shutdown of the federal government.
    (AP, 12/16/00)
1995        Dec 22, The Senate approved a wide-ranging Republican plan to overhaul the nations welfare system, 52-to-47, but without enough votes to override President Clintons promised veto.
    (AP, 12/22/00)
1996        Jan 3, As a partial US government shutdown spilled into its record 19th day, stubborn House Republicans rebuffed a Senate bill that would have immediately returned idled federal workers to their jobs.
    (AP, 1/3/01)
1996        Jan 5, An end to a three-week-old partial government shutdown was in sight as the House acted to restore the jobs and wages of hundreds of thousands of federal workers.
    (AP, 1/5/01)
1996        Jan 5, Lawyers for Hillary Rodham Clinton released sought-after billing records that were discovered the day before in a White House office.
    (AP, 1/5/01)
1996        Jan 11, Addressing pointed questions about the first lady, President Clinton offered a rousing defense of his wife, Hillary, during a news conference.
    (AP, 1/11/01)
1996        Jan 23, Delivering his State of the Union address to a skeptical Republican Congress, President Clinton traced the themes of his re-election campaign and confronted GOP lawmakers on the budget, demanding they "neverever" shut down the government again.
    (AP, 1/23/01)
1996        Feb 4, Pres. Clinton and Monica had their 6th sexual encounter at the White House.
    (SFC, 9/12/98, p.A13)
1996        Feb 8, In a ceremony at the Library of Congress, President Clinton signed legislation revamping the telecommunications industry, saying it would "bring the future to our doorstep."
    (AP, 2/8/01)
1996        Feb 9, Pres. Clinton signed the new telecommunications bill into law. It included a subsidy program, "E-Rate," to provide schools with a connection to the Internet. Phone companies in 1998 began charging their long-distance customers a surcharge to cover the subsidies. It also included a ban on Internet smut that was upheld by the Supreme Court in 1999.
    (WSJ, 1/2/97, p.R2)(WSJ, 4/20/99, A1)
1996        Feb 10, President Clinton signed a $265 billion defense bill, but said he would battle for repeal of a section forcing the discharge of service members with the AIDS virus.
    (AP, 2/10/01)
1996        Feb 19, Pres. Clinton told Monica Lewinsky that their relationship must end. It was later resumed.
    (SFC, 9/12/98, p.A13)
1996        Mar 1, President Clinton slapped economic sanctions on Colombia, concluding that Colombian authorities had not fully cooperated with the US war on drugs.
    (AP, 3/1/01)
1996        Mar 12, Pres. Clinton signed the Helms-Burton Act. It shut off visas to executives and shareholders of firms doing business in Cuba on property confiscated from Americans. This stripped the3 White House of the power to end the Cuban embargo.
    (SFC, 8/22/96, p.E4)(, 3/24/12, SR p.11)
1996        Mar 13, World leaders, including President Clinton, held a summit in Sharm El-Sheik, Egypt, where they vowed unequivocal support for the Mideast peace process.
    (AP, 3/13/97)
1996        Mar 14, During a visit to Israel, President Clinton pledged $100 million to the fight against terrorism.
    (AP, 3/14/97)
1996        Mar 14, The US approved arms and equipment for Bosnia. It was the same day that the UN embargo on small arms for the region was lifted. In the following weeks M-16 rifles, machine guns, field phone systems, and military radio equipment arrived in Bosnia.
    (SFC, 5/24/96, p.A12)
1996        Mar 16, In his weekly radio address, President Clinton accused the Republican-controlled House of bowing to "the back-alley whispers of the gun lobby" by gutting anti-terrorism legislation he'd submitted in response to the Oklahoma City bombing.
    (AP, 3/16/97)
1996        Mar 19, President Clinton rolled out a $1.64 trillion election-year budget, promising it would invigorate the economy, erase federal deficits and cut taxes.
    (AP, 3/19/97)
1996        Mar 29 Congress passed, and President Clinton quickly signed, a 12th stopgap spending bill to avert a partial federal shutdown.
    (AP, 3/28/97)
1996        Mar 29, President Bill Clinton signed into law the Congressional Review Act (CRA). It is a law that was enacted by the United States Congress under House Speaker Newt Gingrich as Subtitle E of the Contract with America Advancement Act of 1996.  The law empowers Congress to review, by means of an expedited legislative process, new federal regulations issued by government agencies and, by passage of a joint resolution, to overrule a regulation.
1996        Mar 31, Pres. Clinton and Monica Lewinsky resumed their sexual relationship.
    (SFC, 9/12/98, p.A13)
1996        Apr 4, President Clinton signed legislation severing the link between crop prices and government subsidies.
    (AP, 4/4/97)
1996        Apr 5, Accompanied by six children who survived the Oklahoma City bombing, President Clinton bowed his head in silent prayer at the site where 168 people were killed almost a year earlier.
    (AP, 4/5/01)
1996        Apr 6, A sorrowful President Clinton was on hand at Dover Air Force Base in Delaware to greet the arrival of 33 flag-draped caskets carrying the remains of Commerce Secretary Ron Brown and other victims of a plane crash in Croatia.
    (AP, 4/6/97)
1996        Apr 7, Monica Lewinsky informed pres. Clinton that she was to be transferred from the White House. He promised to bring her back following the elections and they had another sexual encounter.
    (SFC, 9/12/98, p.A13)
1996        Apr 9,    In a dramatic shift of purse-string power, President Clinton signed a line-item veto bill into law. However, the U.S. Supreme Court struck down the veto as unconstitutional in 1998.
    (WSJ, 4/10/96, p.A-1)(AP, 4/9/02)
1996        Apr 10, President Clinton vetoed a bill that would have outlawed a technique used to end pregnancies in their late stages.
    (AP, 4/10/97)
1996        Apr 12, President Clinton named U.S. Trade Representative Mickey Kantor to succeed the late Ron Brown as commerce secretary.
    (AP, 4/12/97)
1996        Apr 13, President Clinton used his weekly radio address to call on Congress to pass an anti-terrorist bill that had languished for a year despite a promise of quick action after the Oklahoma City bombing.
    (AP, 4/13/97)
1996        Apr 15, President Clinton began a weeklong, round-the-world trip, heading for a three-day visit to Japan after a brief stopover in Cheju, South Korea.
    (AP, 4/15/97)
1996        Apr 16, President Clinton and his wife, Hillary, arrived in Japan for a three-day visit after a brief stopover in South Korea.
    (AP, 4/16/97)
1996        Apr 17, Seeking to calm Pacific security jitters, President Clinton and Japanese Prime Minister Ryutaro Hashimoto signed a joint declaration establishing new U.S.-Japan ties for a "stable and prosperous" Asia.
    (AP, 4/17/97)
1996        Apr 18,  President Clinton addressed the Japanese Parliament, hailing security ties between the two countries as the cornerstone of stability in Asia. Congress passed and sent to President Clinton long-awaited legislation giving federal law officers new powers to use against terrorism.
    (AP, 4/18/97)
1996        Apr 19, President Clinton, visiting Russia, paid tribute to the hundreds of thousands of Russians who died in the Nazi siege of Leningrad -- and to the victims of the Oklahoma bombing as well.
    (AP, 4/19/97)
1996        Apr 21, President Clinton and Boris Yeltsin traded warm compliments and played down nagging differences, insisting their election-year summit in Moscow was not being influenced by presidential politics.
    (AP, 4/21/97)
1996        Apr 22, Pres. Clinton endorsed a plan to expand the Point Reyes National Seashore by 38,000 acres. The Dept. of the Interior was to buy easements from local farmers and to begin purchasing the 564-acre Giacomini dairy ranch.
    (SFC, 5/31/96, E1)
1996        Apr 24, Pres. Clinton signed the Anti-Terrorism and Effective Death Penalty Act (AEDPA). It restricted the role of federal judges in reviewing state cases.
    (SFC, 4/19/00, p.A1)(
1996        Apr 28, President Clinton gave 4 1/2 hours of videotaped testimony as a defense witness in the criminal trial of his former Whitewater business partners.
    (AP, 4/28/97)
1996        Apr 30, President Clinton and Israeli Prime Minister Shimon Peres signed an accord in Washington extending U.S. help to Israel in countering terrorism.
    (AP, 4/30/97)
1996        May 9, In dramatic video testimony to a hushed courtroom in Little Rock, Ark., President Clinton insisted he had nothing to do with a $300,000 loan at the heart of the criminal case against his former Whitewater partners.
    (AP, 5/9/97)
1996        May 17, President Clinton signed a measure requiring neighborhood notification when sex offenders move in. Megan's Law, as it's known, is named for Megan Kanka, a 7-year-old New Jersey girl who was raped and slain in 1994.
    (AP, 5/17/97)
1996        May 18, President Clinton, seeking to deflect Republican criticism that he was weak on welfare reform, endorsed Wisconsin's welfare-to-work plan in his Saturday radio address.
    (AP, 5/18/97)
1996        May 22, President Clinton counterattacked against Republican criticism of his foreign policy during a commencement address at the U.S. Coast Guard Academy in New London, Conn.; the president then traveled to New York where he was cheered by sailors from four nations aboard the USS Intrepid.
    (AP, 5/22/97)
1996        May 24, President Clinton underwent his annual physical at Bethesda Naval Medical Center, where he had a precancerous lesion removed from his nose. On the plus side, his weight was the same as the year before -- 216 -- and his cholesterol count had improved from 203 to 191.
    (AP, 5/24/97)
1996        May 25 President Clinton, honoring the men and women who died in military service, used his weekly radio address to defend America's global military role, saying it "is making our people safer and the world more secure."
    (AP, 5/25/97)
1996        Jul 1, President Clinton declared an emergency in drought-stricken parts of the Southwest.
    (AP, 7/1/97)
1996        Jun 13, Bill Clinton, in a speech endorsing a national effort against teen pregnancy, said: "The other thing we have to do is to take seriously the role in this problem of...older men who prey on underage women...There are consequences to decisions way or the other, people always wind up being held accountable." [see Nov 15, 1995]
1996        Jul 3, The Clinton administration awarded a $1 mil grant to the Univ. of Alabama for an experiment that would test for illicit drug use of everyone arrested in Birmingham.
    (SFC, 7/4/96, p.A3)
1996        Jul 16, President Clinton told the National Governors Association he was granting states new powers to deny benefits to recipients who refuse to move from welfare to work.
    (AP, 7/16/97)
1996        Jul 16, Pres. Clinton waived for 6 months sanctions on Cuba that would have allowed US courts to sue foreign companies for the use of property confiscated by the Castro regime.
    (WSJ, 7/16/96, p.A1)
1996        Jul 20, In his weekly radio address, President Clinton paid tribute to America's Olympic athletes at the just-opened Atlanta games, as well as 16 high school students from Montoursville, Pa., who died in the crash of TWA Flight 800.
    (AP, 7/20/97)
1996        Jul 26, President Clinton rejected a clemency plea from Jonathan Pollard, who'd spent more than 10 years in prison for spying for Israel.
    (AP, 7/26/97)
1996        Jul 31, After President Clinton's announcement that he would sign it, 98 Democrats joined the House's Republican majority to pass a historic welfare overhaul bill.
    (AP, 7/31/97)
1996        Jul 31, The White House won agreement with key Republican lawmakers on a package of anti-terrorism measures.
    (AP, 7/31/97)
1996        Aug 5, US Pres. Clinton signed the Iran and Libya Sanctions Act. It held that foreign companies with investments of more than $40 million in the oil and gas sectors of these nations to be subject to US imposed sanctions.
    (WSJ, 8/6/96, p.A14)
1996        Aug 8, President Clinton belittled Bob Dole's tax plan, vowing to oppose tax cuts that he said the country couldn't afford. Republican sources, meanwhile, said Dole was seriously considering Jack Kemp to be his running mate.
    (AP, 8/8/97)
1996        Aug 13, At their convention in San Diego, Republicans delivered a blistering critique of President Clinton's record, portraying the Democratic incumbent as an unprincipled liberal conning voters with election-year conservatism.
    (HN 8/13/97)
1996        Aug 18, On the eve of his 50th birthday, President Clinton was guest of honor at a trio of events in New York that combined celebrating with fund-raising. Ross Perot, the presidential nominee of the Reform Party, launched his campaign with a speech in which he criticized the Republican and Democratic parties as captives of special interests.
    (AP, 8/18/97)
1996        Aug 20, Pres. Clinton signed the federal minimum wage bill for an increase of .90 cents per hour in two steps to $5.15 per hour over 13 months. It was the first minimum-wage increase in five years. The bill included a $5,000 tax credit for the cost of adopting a child. He also signed a new retirement savings program for small-business workers.
    (WSJ, 8/21/96, p.A1)(SFC, 8/21/96, p.A3)
1996        Aug 20, President Clinton approved raising the hourly minimum by 90 cents to $5.15 per hour
    (HN 8/20/97)
1996        Aug 20, Susan McDougal was sentenced in Little Rock, Ark., to two years in prison in a Whitewater fraud case.
    (HN 8/20/97)
1996        Aug 21, President Clinton signed the Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act of 1996, aimed at making health insurance easier to obtain and keep.
    (SFC, 8/22/96, p.A3)(AP, 8/21/97)
1996        Aug 22, Pres. Clinton signed a welfare reform bill, the Personal Responsibility and Work Opportunity Reconciliation Act (welfare to work), to curtail fraud and abuse that also set new standards for disabled children and ended up eliminating many from supplemental security income. It ended guaranteed cash payments to the poor and demanded work from recipients. It originated in the 1994 Republican "Contract with America." It included a ban on free federal medical care for new green-card holders during their 1st 5 years. The bill included Temporary Assistance for Needy Families (TANF), which replaced welfare.
    (SFC, 8/15/97, p.A1,17)(AP, 8/22/97)(WSJ, 11/20/00, p.A24)(WSJ, 8/29/01, p.A1)(Econ, 12/18/10, p.46)
1996        Aug 23, President Clinton imposed limits on peddling cigarettes to children as he unveiled Food and Drug Administration regulations declaring nicotine an addictive drug. The same day, a jury in Indianapolis found cigarette companies were not responsible for the lung cancer death of a 52-year-old lawyer who began smoking at age 5.
    (AP, 8/23/97)
1996        Aug 25, President Clinton began a whistle-stop train trip in Huntington, W.Va., that would take him to the Democratic National Convention in Chicago.
    (AP, 8/25/97)
1996        Aug 27, First lady Hillary Rodham Clinton addressed the Democratic convention in Chicago, forcefully making her husband's case for re-election while rebutting her Republican critics.
    (AP, 8/27/97)
1996        Aug 28, Democrats nominated President Clinton for a second term at their national convention in Chicago.
    (AP, 8/28/97)
1996        Aug 29, In a rousing climax to the Democratic convention in Chicago, President Clinton appealed for a second term, declaring, "Hope is back in America." The convention also nominated Al Gore for a second term as vice president. Earlier in the day, President Clinton's chief political strategist, Dick Morris, resigned amid a scandal over his relationship with a prostitute.
    (AP, 8/29/97)
1996        Aug 30, President Clinton and Vice President Gore, fresh from their renominations at the just-concluded Democratic National Convention in Chicago, set out with their wives on a bus caravan through America's heartland.
    (AP, 8/30/97)
1996        Aug 30, Dick Morris, the campaign strategist for pres. Bill Clinton, resigned due to exposure in a sex scandal.
    (SFC, 8/30/96, p.A1)
1996        Sep 3-1996 Sep 4, The United States launched 27 cruise missiles at "selected air defense targets" in Iraq as punishment for Iraq's invasion of Kurdish safe havens. Pres. Clinton extended the no-fly zone to the suburbs of Baghdad.
    (AP, 9/3/97)(SFC,10/30/97, p.A12)
1996        Sep 9, Promising safer skies, President Clinton issued orders to tighten airport security and challenged Congress to support a $1.1 billion anti-terrorism crackdown.
    (AP, 9/9/97)
1996        Sep 12, Last-minute intervention by Republican presidential candidate Bob Dole led to Senate postponement of action on a treaty designed to eliminate chemical weapons. President Clinton said the agreement was threatened by "a bitter partisan debate."
    (AP, 9/12/97)
1996        Nov 6, A day after being re-elected, President Clinton threw a party on the White House lawn; that same day, he received resignations from secretaries of state, defense, energy and commerce.
    (AP, 11/6/97)
1996        Jan 7, Pres. Clinton and Monica Lewinsky, a White House intern, engaged in a 5th sexual encounter at the White House.
    (SFC, 9/12/98, p.A13)
1996        Jan 7, Republicans rejected President Clintons budget plan and warned they would close government programs they didnt like if there were no agreement on a budget plan in the next few weeks.
    (AP, 1/7/01)
1996        Jan 7, A major blizzard, one of the worst in the century, paralyzed the Eastern United States. More than 100 deaths were later blamed on the severe weather.
    (WSJ, 1/8/96, p.A-1)(WSJ, 1/2/97, p.R2)(AP, 1/7/01)
1996        Jan 9, President Clinton and Republican congressional leaders broke off budget talks. President Clinton vetoed a Republican welfare overhaul bill.
    (AP, 1/9/01)
1996        Feb 8, In a ceremony at the Library of Congress, President Clinton signed the Communications Decency Act (CDA), legislation revamping the telecommunications industry, saying it would "bring the future to our doorstep." Section 230 of the act protected online intermediaries that host or republish speech against a range of laws that might otherwise be used to hold them legally responsible for what others say and do.
1996        Feb 22, President Clinton announced he would nominate Alan Greenspan to a third term as chairman of the Federal Reserve.
    (AP, 2/22/01)
1996        Aug 22, Pres. Clinton signed a welfare reform bill, the Personal Responsibility and Work Opportunity Reconciliation Act (welfare to work), to curtail fraud and abuse that also set new standards for disabled children and ended up eliminating many from supplemental security income. It ended guaranteed cash payments to the poor and demanded work from recipients. It originated in the 1994 Republican "Contract with America." It included a ban on free federal medical care for new green-card holders during their 1st 5 years.
    (SFC, 8/15/97, p.A1,17)(AP, 8/22/97)(WSJ, 11/20/00, p.A24)(WSJ, 8/29/01, p.A1)
1996        Nov 8, Three days after his re-election, President Clinton said at a news conference that there always are "a lot of hard feelings" after elections, but he urged Republicans to put aside politically charged investigations and work with him to balance the budget and enact campaign finance reform. 
    (AP, 11/8/97)
1996        Nov 9, President Clinton used his weekly radio address to condemn the decision of the nation's distillers to end their voluntary ban on airing hard-liquor ads, calling it "simply irresponsible."
    (AP, 11/9/97)
1996        Nov 23, Following a four-day visit to Australia, President Clinton arrived in the Philippines for a summit of Asian-Pacific leaders.
    (AP, 11/23/97)
1996        Nov 25, President Clinton won a victory on the trade front by getting Pacific Rim leaders meeting in the Philippines to accept the year 2000 as a deadline for cutting tariffs on information technology.
    (AP, 11/25/97)
1996        Nov 26, President Clinton ended his 12-day Pacific trip with a stopover in Thailand.
    (AP, 11/26/97)
1996        Dec 5, President Clinton announced the foreign policy team for his second term, including Madeleine Albright as the first female secretary of state, Sen. William Cohen of Maine, a Republican, as defense secretary and Anthony Lake as CIA director.
    (WSJ, 12/6/96, p.A1)(AP, 12/5/97)
1996        Dec 18, Aides to President Clinton disclosed that Asian-American businessman Charles Yah Lin Trie, who delivered $460,000 in questionable donations to the Clintons' legal defense fund, had been to the White House at least 23 times since 1993.
    (AP, 12/18/97)
1996        Dec 20, President Clinton selected Federico Pena as energy secretary, Rodney Slater as transportation secretary, Andrew Cuomo as housing secretary and Alexis Herman as labor secretary.
    (AP, 12/20/97)
1996        Dec 30, The Clinton administration said that doctors who prescribe marijuana could be excluded from Medicare and Medicaid programs and lose the right to prescribe drugs. Voters in California and Arizona had approved measures for medical use of marijuana.
    (SFC, 12/31/96, p.A1)
1997        Jan 1, The line-item veto became officially available to Pres. Clinton.
    (SFC, 1/2/97, p.A20)
1997        Jan 3, Pres. Clinton waived indefinitely the part of the Helms-Burton law that would punish foreign companies that used American property confiscated in Cuba 40 years ago.
    (SFC, 1/4/97, p.A3)
1997        Jan 3, President Clinton declared northern Nevada a major disaster area following days of rain that sent rivers over their banks in the Reno and Carson City area.
    (AP, 1/3/98)
1997        Jan 4, President Clinton, in his weekly radio address, took credit for policies reducing teen-age pregnancy and said he would work for even greater reductions over the next four years.
    (AP, 1/4/98)
1997        Jan 7, Newt Gingrich overcame dissension in GOP ranks to become the first Republican re-elected House speaker in 68 years with 216 of 227 Republicans in support.
    (SFC, 1/8/97, p.A5)(AP, 1/7/98)
1997        Jan 11, President Clinton summoned top administration officials to a daylong planning session for his second term.
    (AP, 1/11/98)
1997        Jan 20, President Clinton and Vice President Gore were sworn in for second terms of office. In his inaugural address, Clinton called for an end to "the politics of petty bickering and extreme partisanship." Poet Miller Williams delivered the inaugural poem.
    (WSJ, 1/22/97, p.A12)(AP, 1/20/98)
1997        Jan 25, Responding to recent cases of deadly food poisoning, President Clinton promised to seek $43 million dollars to implement an early warning system for food contamination.
    (AP, 1/25/98)
1997        Feb 4, Pres. Clinton in his State of the Union speech that education was his No. 1 priority for his 2nd term.
    (SFC, 2/5/97, p.A1) (AP, 2/4/97)
1997        Feb 6, President Clinton sent Congress a $1.69 trillion budget for fiscal 1998, saying it would erase deficits by 2002 and for 20 years beyond. Though citing costly new programs and phantom savings, Republicans said they were ready to bargain.
    (AP, 2/6/97)
1997        Feb 7, Mindful of Boris Yeltsin's ailments, President Clinton agreed to shift their March summit meeting from the United States to Helsinki, Finland.
    (AP, 2/7/97)
1997        Feb 8, President Clinton announced in his weekly radio address that he was releasing the first of a $200 million program of grants to provide schools with computers and Internet training.
    (AP, 2/8/02)
1997        Feb 11, In a display of bipartisan unity, President Clinton and congressional leaders agreed to focus the new Congress on balancing the budget and other issues ranging from cutting taxes to solving the capital city's myriad problems.
    (AP, 2/11/97)
1997        Feb 12, The Clinton administration gave permission to 10 U.S. news organizations to open bureaus in Cuba.
    (AP, 2/12/98)
1997        Mar 2, It was revealed that Vice President Gore had raised millions of dollars for the 1996 campaign through direct telephone solicitations, and that some of the calls were made on special phones installed in government buildings for that purpose.
    (AP, 3/2/98)
1997        Mar 3, Vice President Al Gore, under fire for his aggressive role in campaign fund raising, acknowledged he'd solicited donations from his White House office but insisted he did not do "anything wrong, much less illegal." But he said he would never do it again.
    (AP, 3/3/98)
1997        Mar 4, Calling creation of life "a miracle that reaches beyond laboratory science," President Clinton barred spending federal money on human cloning.
    (AP, 3/4/98)
1997        Mar 4, President Clinton surveyed tornado destruction in his home state of Arkansas and also declared Ohio and Kentucky disaster areas because of floods.
    (AP, 3/4/98)
1997        Mar 7, After a week of embarrassing disclosures about White House fund raising, President Clinton told a news conference, "I'm not sure, frankly" if he also had made calls for campaign cash. But he insisted that nothing had undercut his pledge to have the highest ethical standards ever.
    (AP, 3/7/98)
1997        Mar 8, President Clinton, in keeping with his push for private businesses and churches to hire off welfare rolls, ordered federal agencies to do the same.
    (AP, 3/8/07)
1997        Mar 10, The White House and the FBI clashed in a rare public quarrel after President Clinton said he should have been alerted when the bureau told national security officials that the Chinese government might be trying to influence U.S. elections.
    (AP, 3/10/98)
1997        Mar 14, Surgeons at Bethesda Naval Medical Center repaired a painful torn knee tendon in President Clintons right leg. The injury had been caused by a freak middle-of-the-night stumble at golfer Greg Normans Florida home.
    (AP, 3/14/98)
1997        Mar 15, President Clinton spent a second day at Bethesda Naval Medical Center, recuperating from surgery for a partially torn knee tendon.
    (AP, 3/15/98)
1997        Mar 19, Following the withdrawal of Anthony Lake, President Clinton nominated acting CIA Director George Tenet to head the nation's spy agency. President Clinton departed Washington for a summit in Helsinki, Finland, with Russian President Boris Yeltsin.
    (AP, 3/19/98)
1997        Mar 20, Bill Clinton and Boris Yeltsin met in Helsinki for talks on arms control and NATO expansion. They agreed to negotiate a new arms accord to reduce strategic warheads, and to give Russia a more formal role in the Group of Seven leading industrialized nations.
    (WSJ, 3/21/97, p.A1)(SFC, 3/22/97, p.A1)(AP, 3/20/98)
1997        Mar 21, President Clinton and Russian President Boris Yeltsin wrapped up their summit in Helsinki, Finland, still deadlocked over NATO expansion, but able to agree on slashing nuclear weapons arsenals.
    (AP, 3/21/02)
1997        Apr 2, The White House released documents showing how eager it had been to exploit the money-drawing powers of President Clinton and Vice President Gore during the 1996 campaign while coordinating with the Democratic Party's fund-raising machine.
    (AP, 4/2/98)
1997        Apr 18, President Clinton held a news conference in which he warned Republicans that a balanced-budget deal may not come quickly, while reassuring nervous Democrats that he would not abandon the party's prized social programs.
    (AP, 4/18/98)
1997        Apr 21, Pres. Clinton approved a ban on new American investment in Burma due to human rights abuses.
    (SFC, 4/22/97, p.A6)
1997        Apr 22, President Clinton flew over the flooded town of Grand Forks, N.D.
    (AP, 4/22/98)
1997        Apr 26, In his Saturday radio address, President Clinton prepared for the opening of a community service summit by asking Congress to pay for a literacy drive for third-graders.
    (AP, 4/26/98)
1997        Apr 27, President Clinton, along with former presidents George Bush and Jimmy Carter, helped polish gritty city streets in Philadelphia as they launched the Summit for America's Future, a three-day gathering on community service.
    (AP, 4/27/98)
1997        Apr 28, In Philadelphia, President Clinton and three predecessors -- George Bush, Jimmy Carter and Gerald Ford -- began drafting a national army of community service volunteers during the Presidents' Summit for America's Future.
    (AP, 4/28/98)
1997        Apr 30, President Clinton reopened the newly renovated Thomas Jefferson Building of the Library of Congress in Washington, D.C.
    (AP, 4/30/98)
1997        May 2, President Clinton and congressional Republicans came to terms on a plan to balance the budget over five years.
    (SFC, 5/3/97, p.A1)(AP, 5/2/98)
1997        May 5, President Clinton arrived in Mexico for his first Latin American trip while in office.
    (AP, 5/5/98)
1997        May 6, Pres. Clinton made a state visit to Mexico and spent some time meeting with the leaders of Mexicos main opposition parties. Clinton and Mexican President Ernesto Zedillo pledged closer cooperation on immigration and drug smuggling.
    (SFC, 5/7/97, p.c3)(AP, 5/6/98)
1997        May 8, President Clinton assured Central American leaders during a summit in Costa Rica that they need not fear mass deportations of immigrants who had sought refuge in the United States during U.S.-backed conflicts.
    (AP, 5/8/98)
1997        May 9, During a visit to a rain forest in Costa Rica, President Clinton urged nations not to sacrifice their environment in pursuit of economic gain.
    (AP, 5/9/98)
1997        May 10, President Clinton signed modest drug-fighting and trade agreements with Caribbean leaders in Barbados.
    (AP, 5/10/98)
1997        May 16, Pres. Clinton spoke an apology for the governments Tuskegee syphilis study from 1932-1972, in which 399 black men were kept untreated by government scientists in order to study the progression of the disease.
    (WSJ, 5/16/97, p.A1)(AP, 5/16/98)
1997        May 18, President Clinton announced creation of a research center at the National Institutes of Health devoted to the goal of developing an AIDS vaccine within the next decade, but offered no new federal spending.
    (WSJ, 5/19/97, p.A1)(AP, 5/18/98)
1997        May 26, President Clinton left for Paris to sign a new agreement between NATO and Russia.
    (AP, 5/26/98)
1997        May 27, In Paris, Russian President Boris Yeltsin joined 16 NATO leaders, including President Clinton, to sign a historic agreement giving Moscow a voice in NATO affairs. Boris Yeltsin joined Bill Clinton and the leaders of the 15 other NATO member states in signing the "Founding Act on Mutual Relations, Cooperation and Security between NATO and the Russian Federation."   
    (AP, 5/27/98)(
1997        May 27, The Supreme Court ruled that Paula Jones may pursue her sexual harassment lawsuit against Pres. Clinton while he is in office. The suit was based on an incident in 1991 when Clinton was governor of Arkansas.
    (SFC, 5/28/97, p.A1)(AP, 5/27/98)
1997        May 28, President Clinton paid tribute to the 50th anniversary of the Marshall Plan with a speech in the Netherlands in which he urged today's leaders to revive economies in the former Soviet bloc.
    (AP, 5/28/98)
1997        Jul 10, President Clinton, visiting Poland, told a Warsaw square filled with cheering Poles that "never again will your fate be decided by others." He announced a successful drive to bring Poland, Hungary and the Czech Republic into NATO by 1999.
    (AP, 7/10/98)
1997        Jul 11, President Clinton was cheered by tens of thousands of people in Bucharest, Romania, where he raised hopes for NATO membership.
    (AP, 7/11/98)
1997        Jul 17, President Clinton nominated Army Gen. Henry Shelton to be the next chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff.
    (AP, 7/17/98)
1997        Jul 24, Pres. Clinton held a White House symposium on global warming.
    (WSJ, 7/25/97, p.A1)
1997        Jul 26, Pres. Clinton visited Lake Tahoe and announced that the Forest Service would allot 350 acres to the Washoe Indian tribe for a cultural center and give tribal members access to the edge of lake Tahoe. He also made an executive order for $50 million over 2 years and 25 initiatives to improve the water quality of Lake Tahoe. He brought with him $26 million worth of postal trucks and sewage pipes to help preserve the lake.
    (SFEC, 7/27/97, p.A1,14)(AP, 7/26/98)
1997        Aug 1, Pres. Clinton announced that the 1978 ban on sales of high-performance aircraft and other advanced weapons to Latin America would be lifted.
    (SFC, 8/2/97, p.A8)(AP, 8/1/98)
1997        Aug 5, President Clinton signed the budget-balancing and tax-cutting bills into law, calling the legislation "a true milestone for our nation."
    (AP, 8/5/98)
1997        Aug 11, Pres. Clinton made the first use of the historic line-item veto approved by Congress. He removed 3 narrow provisions in the new budget legislation in spending and tax bills.
    (SFC, 8/12/97, p.A1)(AP, 8/11/98)
1997        Aug 17, President Clinton urged both sides in the United Parcel Service strike to "redouble their efforts" to reach a deal, but hours later, negotiators recessed their intensive talks.
    (AP, 8/17/98)
1997        Aug 22, A federal judge rejected Pres. Clintons request to dismiss the sexual harassment suit of Paula Jones. The trial was scheduled to start May 27, 1998.
    (SFC, 8/23/97, p.A1)
1997        Aug 23, In his weekly radio address, President Clinton said he would ask Congress to renew his authority for speedy negotiation of trade agreements, saying the "fast track" approach would make U.S. companies more competitive worldwide. 
    (AP, 8/23/98)
1997        Sep 8, Lawyers in the Paula Jones case against Pres. Clinton decided to quit the suit after Jones refused to accept a financial settlement.
    (SFC, 9/9/97, p.A3)
1997        Sep 12, Pres. Clinton named Dr. David Satcher, 56, as the new surgeon general.
    (SFC, 9/13/97, p.A20)
1997        Nov 8, Pres. Clinton promised a crusade for equal rights for gay and lesbian Americans.
    (SFEC,11/9/97, p.A1)
1997        Nov 14, Pres. Clinton signed a bill containing $250 million to buy 7,500 acres in the headwaters forest of northern California. The agreement with Charles Hurwitz was revised in 1998 and protection was tentatively established for 12 of 13 stands of redwoods and Pacific Lumber was to be allowed to log one grove.
    (SFC,11/15/97, p.A3)(SFC, 2/28/98, p.A1)
1997        Nov 15, A day after moving to halt the import of modified assault weapons, President Clinton defended the action in his weekly radio address, saying such weapons did nothing but "inspire fear and wreck deadly havoc on our streets."
    (AP, 11/15/98)
1997        Nov 21, "The Food and Drug Administration Act of 1997" was signed into law by President Clinton. The new law was designed to enhance the product development and review process; streamline the way the Agency regulates medical devices; simplify enforcement procedures; and move the Agency toward greater use of national and international standards. The law gave the FDA new powers to speed the approval of drugs to combat a host of killer diseases, including cancer and AIDS.
    (PR, NPTH, 6/4/98)(AP, 11/21/98)
1997        Nov 25, President Clinton and Pacific Rim leaders meeting in Vancouver, British Columbia, approved a rescue strategy for Asian economies shaken by plunging currencies, bank failures and bankruptcies. The 2-day APEC summit in Vancouver closed and leaders agreed to an IMF bailout plan. Forum leaders also agreed to admit Russia, Vietnam and Peru into the organization as of 1998.
    (SFC,11/26/97, p.C2) (HN, 11/25/98)
1997        Dec 1, Pres. Clinton signed the 50 States Commemorative Coin Program Act into law.
    (SFC, 12/20/99, p.E1)
1997        Dec 2, Attorney General Janet Reno declined to seek an independent counsel investigation of telephone fund-raising by President Clinton and Vice President Gore, concluding they did not violate election laws, a decision that drew jeers from Republicans.
    (AP, 12/2/98)
1997        Dec 3, President Clinton hosted his first town hall meeting on America's race relations in Akron, Ohio.
    (AP, 12/3/98)
1997        Dec 5, Pres. Clinton said US troops in Haiti will continue their presence. Some 300-500 troops were posted on a rotating basis for civil affairs work with an additional 150 US military police for security.
    (SFC,12/6/97, p.A10)
1997        Dec 7, A new Presidential Decision Directive was reported to replace one put into place by Pres. Reagan in 1981. It reset the guidelines for the use of nuclear weapons. Nuclear weapons would still be maintained as a deterrent.
    (SFC,12/897, p.A14)
1997        Dec 11, Henry Cisneros, President Clinton's first housing secretary, was indicted for conspiracy, obstructing justice and making false statements about payments to former mistress.
    (AP, 12/11/98)
1997        Dec 17, President Clinton's panel on race relations met at Annandale High School in Virginia.
    (AP, 12/17/98)
1997        Dec 17, The United States and 33 other countries signed a convention in Paris aimed at eradicating bribery in international business.
    (AP, 12/17/98)
1997        Dec 18, President Clinton extended indefinitely the deadline for withdrawal of U.S. troops helping with the U.N. peacekeeping effort in Bosnia.
    (AP, 12/18/98)
1997        Dec 22, During his visit to Bosnia, President Clinton thanked American troops and lectured the nation's three presidents to set aside their differences.
    (AP, 12/22/98)
1997        The Clinton Foundation was formed to fund Pres. Clintons presidential library. It later morphed into a sprawling philanthropic conglomerate.
    (Econ, 10/1/16, p.25)
1998        Jan 10, In his weekly radio address, President Clinton denounced Chicago physicist Richard Seed's expressed desire to clone humans, calling it "morally unacceptable."
    (AP, 1/10/99)
1998        Jan 14, Whitewater prosecutors questioned Hillary Rodham Clinton at the White House for 10 minutes about the gathering of FBI background files on past Republican political appointees. Sources quoted Mrs. Clinton as saying she knew nothing about any such collection of files.
    (AP, 1/14/99)
1998        Jan 15, Pres. Clinton presented the Presidential Medal of Freedom to 15 honorees.
    (SFC, 1/16/98, p.A1,13)
1998        Jan 19, This was the Martin Luther King Jr. federal holiday. During a ceremony in Atlanta commemorating the Martin Luther King Jr. holiday, Vice President Gore announced that the Clinton administration would propose increasing spending on civil rights by $86 million.
    (AP, 1/19/98)(AP, 1/19/99)
1998        Jan 23, Fighting scandal allegations involving Monica Lewinsky, President Clinton assured his Cabinet that he was innocent.
    (AP, 1/23/99)
1998        Jan 24, President Clinton, in his weekly radio address, unveiled a proposal to root out Medicare fraud.
    (AP, 1/24/99)
1998        Jan 26, Pres. Clinton firmly denied having sexual relations with Monica Lewinsky: "I did not have sexual relations with that womanI never told anybody to lie."
    (SFC, 1/27/98, p.A1)(SFEC, 11/15/98, p.A3)
1998        Jan 27, Shaken by scandal, Pres. Clinton made his State of the Union address and proposed bolstering Social Security with the current surplus, improving schools by reducing class size and building more, raising the minimum wage, and making child care more available for low-income families before cutting taxes or increasing spending. He also issued a warning to Sadam Hussein of Iraq and asked Congress to support NATO expansion. Earlier in the day, First Lady Hillary Rodham Clinton, appearing on NBC's "Today" show, charged the allegations against her husband were the work of a "vast right-wing conspiracy."
    (SFC, 1/28/98, p.A1)(AP, 1/27/99)
1998        Jan 28, The day after his State of the Union address, President Clinton barnstormed in the nation's heartland, where he was warmly received; accompanying him was Vice President Al Gore, who urged Americans to "join me in supporting him and standing by his side."
    (AP, 1/28/99)
1998        Feb 1, In a round of Sunday talk show appearances, Monica Lewinsky's attorney, William Ginsburg, predicted that the controversy over whether the former White House intern had had an affair with President Clinton would "go away" and that the president would survive unscathed.
    (AP, 2/1/03)
1998        Feb 2, Pres. Clinton proposed a $1.73 trillion fiscal 1999 budget and projected a $10 billion surplus, the first year without a deficit since 1969. He planned to pump billions to schools, health and child care.
    (WSJ, 2/2/98, p.A1)(AP, 2/2/99)
1998        Feb 5, Pres. Clinton ordered 2,000 Marines to the Persian Gulf and met with PM Tony Blair of Britain to discuss the possible use of force against Iraq.
    (SFC, 2/6/98, p.E2)
1998        Feb 6, President Clinton and British Prime Minister Tony Blair redoubled their pledge to use military force against Iraq if necessary; during a joint news conference in which the subject of Monica Lewinsky came up, Clinton said he would never resign.
    (AP, 2/6/99)
1998        Feb 6, President Clinton signed a bill changing the name of Washington National Airport to Ronald Reagan Washington National Airport.
    (AP, 2/6/00)
1998        Feb 9, Pres. Clinton declared 27 counties in California a federal disaster area. Estimated storm damage reached over $275 million.
    (SFC, 2/10/98, p.A1)
1998        Feb 17, President Clinton, preparing Americans for possible air strikes against Iraq, said military force is never the first answer "but sometimes it's the only answer."
    (AP, 2/17/99)
1998        Feb 18, President Clinton's foreign policy team encountered jeers during a town meeting at Ohio State University while trying to defend the administration's threat to bomb Iraq into compliance with UN weapons edicts.
    (AP, 2/18/99)
1998        Feb 23, President Clinton gave cautious approval to a U.N. agreement reached by Secretary-General Kofi Annan with Saddam Hussein for monitoring suspected weapons sites in Iraq.
    (AP, 2/23/99)
1998        Feb 25, The US Congress for the first time reversed Pres. Clintons line item veto and restored 38 military projects.
    (SFC, 2/26/98, p.A3)
1998        Mar 5, Details of President Clinton's deposition testimony in the Paula Jones sexual harassment case against him were published in The Washington Post, prompting an angry denunciation from the president for the news leak.
    (AP, 3/5/99)
1998        Mar 15, CBS' "60 Minutes" aired an interview with former White House employee Kathleen Willey, who said President Clinton had made unwelcome sexual advances toward her in the Oval Office in 1993, a charge denied by the president.
    (AP, 3/15/99)
1998        Mar 18, Julie Hiatt Steele, a former friend of Kathleen Willey's, released a sworn affidavit undercutting Willey's claim that President Clinton had made an unwanted sexual advance toward her in 1993. According to Steele, Willey instructed her to tell Newsweek that Willey had confided the alleged episode to her immediately after it supposedly happened; Steele said she first heard about the accusation in 1997.
    (AP, 3/18/08)
1998        Mar 19, Pres. Clinton eased US restrictions on humanitarian aid and travel to Cuba. Cuban-American households would be allowed to send back $1,200 a year.
    (WSJ, 3/20/98, p.A1)
1998        Mar 20, President Clinton's lawyer, appearing before a federal court, declared that Paula Jones' evidence of sexual harassment was "garbage" unworthy of a trial.
    (AP, 3/20/99)
1998        Mar 22, President Clinton departed Washington for an historic 12-day tour of Africa.
    (AP, 3/22/99)
1998        Mar 23, Pres. Clinton visited Ghana, the first nation where Peace Corps volunteers were sent. He hailed "the new face of Africa" as he opened a historic six-nation.
    (SFC, 3/21/98, p.A13)(AP, 3/23/99)
1998        Mar 24, The Clinton administration announced a $56 million food and medical supply donation to Indonesia.
    (SFC, 3/25/98, p.C14)
1998        Mar 25, Pres. Clinton visited Rwanda. Shaken by horror stories from the worst genocide since World War II, President Clinton grimly acknowledged during his Africa tour that "we did not act quickly enough" to stop the slaughter of up to 1 million Rwandans four years earlier.
    (SFC, 3/21/98, p.A13)(AP, 3/25/99)
1998        Mar 26, President Clinton stood with President Nelson Mandela in a racially integrated South African parliament to salute a country that was "truly free and democratic at last."
    (SFC, 3/21/98, p.A13)(AP, 3/26/99)
1998        Mar 28, President Clinton, during his visit to South Africa, went to Soweto, a landmark in the bloody uprising against apartheid, to honor South Africans "who answered the call of conscience" and defeated their country's system of white supremacy.
    (AP, 3/28/99)
1998        Mar 31, For the first time in history, the Clinton administration released a detailed financial statement for the federal government showing its assets and liabilities.
    (AP, 3/31/99)
1998        Apr 1, Judge Susan Webber threw out the sexual harassment suit filed by Paula Jones against Pres. Clinton saying her claims of sexual harassment fell "far short" of being worthy of trial. Clinton later settled with Jones without apology or admission of guilt.
    (SFC, 4/2/98, p.A1)(AP, 4/1/08)
1998        Apr 3, Pres. Clinton warned that Japanese officials "have to make a break" with their past policies. Moodys Investors Services changed its outlook on Japans government debt to "negative" from "stable."
    (SFC, 4/4/98, p.A1)
1998        Apr 6, Pres. Clinton announced a ban on imports of 58 types of military-style assault weapons.
    (SFC, 4/6/98, p.A1)
1998        Apr 7, President Clinton held a town meeting in Kansas City, Mo., on the future of Social Security.
    (AP, 4/7/99)
1998        Apr 14, President Clinton moderated a town meeting on race with an all-star panel of sports figures.
    (AP, 4/14/99)
1998        Apr 15, Pres. Clinton traveled to Chile for a Latin American trade summit.
    (WSJ, 4/14/98, p.A1)
1998        Apr 16, Paula Jones announced she would ask an appeals court to reinstate her sexual harassment lawsuit against President Clinton after it was thrown out by a federal judge.
    (AP, 4/16/99)
1998        Apr 30, President Clinton questioned the conduct of Whitewater prosecutor Kenneth Starr and dismissed Republican challenges to his own character as "high-level static" during a news conference.
    (AP, 4/30/99)
1998        May 2, In separate radio addresses, President Clinton and congressional Republicans lambasted the Internal Revenue Service and promised more reforms to prevent future abuses.
    (AP, 5/2/99)
1998        May 13, Pres. Clinton traveled to Germany to meet with Chancellor Kohl and commemorate the 50th anniversary of the Berlin Airlift.
    (WSJ, 5/12/98, p.A1)
1998        May 13, President Clinton ordered harsh sanctions against an unapologetic India, which undertook a second round of nuclear tests despite global criticism. It was later reported that the number and size of the weapons were exaggerated.
    (SFC, 5/13/98, p.A1)(SFC, 9/16/98, p.A1)(AP, 5/13/99)
1998        May 20, Pres. Clinton vetoed a school voucher plan that would have provided tax funds for poor children in Washington D.C. to attend private or religious schools.
    (WSJ, 5/21/98, p.A1)
1998        May 27, The sexual harassment suit of Paula Jones against pres. Clinton was scheduled to start.
    (SFC, 8/23/97, p.A1)
1998        May 31, Pres. Clinton endorsed additional conditional financial support for Russia from the IMF and World Bank.
    (SFC, 6/1/98, p.A9)
1998        Jun 20, On the eve of Father's Day, President Clinton used his weekly radio address to announce the release of the first wave of almost $60 million in prostate cancer research grants.
    (AP, 6/20/08)
1998        Jun 29, Students at Peking University peppered President Clinton with polite but critical questions about America's human rights record, Taiwan policy and views on China in an exchange televised live across the vast nation. In Beijing US corporations announced major sales agreements with China worth nearly $2 billion.
    (SFC, 6/30/98, p.A8)(AP, 6/29/08)
1998        Jul 1, Pres. Clinton in Guilin and Shanghai, China, said to the Chinese that the environment must not be sacrificed for economic growth. China was reported to have the top ten of the worlds most polluted cities. Clinton urged his Chinese hosts to also open markets and battle corruption.
    (SFC, 7/2/98, p.A1,14)(AP, 7/1/99)
1998        Jul 3, Pres. Clinton ended his trip to China and praised Pres. Zemin as a man with "good imagination." Clinton concluded his Far East tour in Hong Kong, where he challenged leaders to set the pace for rescuing Asia from the region's financial crisis.
    (SFC, 7/4/98, p.A1)(AP, 7/3/9)
1998        Jul 9, Congress sent President Clinton an election-year bill overhauling the Internal Revenue Service; Clinton said he would sign it.
    (AP, 7/9/99)
1998        Jul 17, Prosecutors in the Monica Lewinsky case questioned President Clinton's Secret Service protectors before a grand jury.
    (AP, 7/17/99)
1998        Jul 17, The Clinton administration sought approval to use funds for covert operations against Iraqi Pres. Saddam Hussein.
    (SFC, 7/18/98, p.A3)
1998        Jul 21, President Clinton announced a crackdown on nursing homes that were lax about quality and on states that do a poor job of regulating them.
    (AP, 7/21/99)
1998        Jul 22, President Clinton, with Republican lawmakers at his side, signed a bill designed to mold the Internal Revenue Service into a friendlier, fairer tax collector.
    (AP, 7/22/99)
1998        Jul 25, Two government officials revealed that Pres. Clinton was subpoenaed by Independent Council Kenneth Starr to testify before a federal grand jury investigating Monica Lewinsky.
    (SFEC, 7/26/98, p.A1)(AP, 7/25/99)
1998        Jul 26, The White House said President Clinton's lawyers were working with prosecutor Kenneth Starr to avert Clinton's direct testimony to a grand jury about the Monica Lewinsky case. The president ended up testifying via closed-circuit television.
    (AP, 7/26/99)
1998        Jul 27, President Clinton held a town meeting in Albuquerque, N.M., on the future of Social Security, during which he expressed skepticism about proposals to privatize part of the Social Security trust fund.
    (AP, 7/27/99)
1998        Jul 28, During a day of official mourning, President Clinton praised two slain police officers at the U.S. Capitol as heroes whose sacrifice "consecrated this house of freedom."
    (AP, 7/28/99)
1998        Jul 28, Monica Lewinsky struck a deal with independent council Kenneth Starr granting her blanket protection from prosecution in exchange for her "full and truthful testimony" to a grand jury on her relationship with Pres. Clinton.
    (SFC, 7/29/98, p.A1)(AP, 7/28/99)
1998        Jul 29, Pres. Clinton reached an agreement with Kenneth Starr to provide closed-circuit videotaped testimony at the White House on Aug. 17 about whether he tried to cover up a sexual relationship with Monica Lewinsky.
    (SFC, 7/30/98, p.A1)(AP, 7/29/99)
1998        Jul 31, President Clinton said he would "completely and truthfully" answer prosecutors' questions about Monica Lewinsky in testimony to be beamed by closed-circuit television to a grand jury.
    (AP, 7/31/99)
1998        Aug 1, Dismissing as "an empty promise" GOP-backed legislation to create a patients' bill of rights, President Clinton in his Saturday radio address pressed Congress to pass a measure that would allow patients to sue their health insurers.
    (AP, 8/1/99)
1998        Aug 3, The White House played down the possibility that President Clinton would reverse previous statements and admit to a sexual relationship with former White House intern Monica Lewinsky when he testified before a grand jury.
    (AP, 8/2/99)
1998        Aug 6, Monica Lewinsky testified for 8 1/2 hours that she had a sexual affair with Pres. Clinton before a federal grand jury.
    (SFC, 8/7/98, p.A1)(AP, 8/6/99)
1998        Aug 7, Pres. Clinton signed the US federal Workforce Investment Act (WIA). It reformed federal employment, training, adult education, and vocational rehabilitation programs by creating an integrated "one-stop" system of workforce investment and education services for adults, dislocated workers, and youth. It superseded the Job Training Partnership Act.
1998        Aug 8, President Clinton, in his Saturday radio address, vowed the bombers of two U.S. embassies in Africa would be brought to justice, "no matter how long it takes or where it takes us.''
    (AP, 8/8/99)
1998        Aug 13, President Clinton led the nation in mourning 12 Americans killed in a pair of U.S. embassy bombings in Africa. Standing before black hearses carrying 10 of the bodies, the president pledged to seek justice "for these evil acts."
    (AP, 8/13/99)
1998        Aug 16, A day before President Clinton was to face a criminal grand jury about his relationship with Monica Lewinsky, his lawyer said, "The truth is the truth, and that's how the president will testify."
    (AP, 8/16/99)
1998        Aug 17, Pres. Clinton testified via video via closed-circuit TV from the White House before a grand jury concerning his relations with Monica Lewinsky. He then delivered a TV address in which he denied previously committing perjury, admitted his relationship with Lewinsky was "wrong," and criticized Kenneth Starr's investigation. "I did have a relationship with Miss Lewinsky that was not appropriate... It was wrong."
    (WSJ, 8/17/98, p.A1)(SFC, 8/18/98, p.A1)(AP, 8/17/99)
1998        Aug 18, A day after his grand jury testimony, President Clinton left Washington on a vacation with his family. Meanwhile, some lawmakers called for Clinton to resign in the wake of his admissions concerning Monica Lewinsky while a spokeswoman for Hillary Rodham Clinton said the first lady "believes in this marriage."
    (AP, 8/18/99)
1998        Aug 20, Monica Lewinsky went before a grand jury for a second round of explicit testimony about her White House trysts with President Clinton.
    (AP, 8/20/99)
1998        Aug 20, Pres. Clinton ordered cruise missile attacks on Sudan and Afghanistan13 days after the deadly embassy bombings in East Africa. About 50 missiles were fired at the camp of Osama Bin Laden and some 25 missiles against a suspected chemical plant in Khartoum. The plant in Sudan was suspected of producing the chemical EMPTA, one of the ingredients in VX nerve gas, but also an ingredient in fungicides and anti-microbial agents.
    (WSJ, 8/21/98, p.A1)(SFC, 8/27/98, p.A10)(AP, 8/20/99)
1998        Aug 22, President Clinton, in his Saturday radio address, announced he had signed an executive order putting Osama bin Laden's Islamic Army on a list of terrorist groups.
    (AP, 8/22/99)
1998        Aug 28, President Clinton, speaking in Oak Bluffs, Mass., said he'd become such an expert in asking forgiveness in recent days that it was now "burned in my bones." But he still stopped short of offering a direct apology for the Monica Lewinsky affair.
    (AP, 8/28/99)
1998        Sep 2, President Clinton concluded his Moscow summit with Russian President Boris Yeltsin.
    (WSJ, 9/3/98, p.A1)(AP, 9/2/99)
1998        Sep 4, During a visit to Ireland, President Clinton said the words "I'm sorry" for the first time about his affair with Monica Lewinsky, describing his behavior as indefensible.
    (AP, 9/4/99)
1998        Sep 9, Pres. Clinton released $20 million in aid for the refugees in Kosovo.
    (SFC, 9/11/98, p.D3)
1998        Sep 9, Kenneth Starr, independent council, delivered 36 boxes to Capital Hill that contained 2 copies of his report on the case for the impeachment of Pres. Clinton. His probe began with the failed Arkansas land deal and ended with the Monica Lewinsky affair.
    (SFC, 9/10/98, p.A3)(WSJ, 9/10/98, p.A1)
1998        Sep 10, President Clinton met with members of his Cabinet to apologize, ask forgiveness and promise to improve as a person in the wake of the Monica Lewinsky scandal.
    (AP, 9/10/99)
1998        Sep 10, The 445-page Starr report on Pres. Clinton was to be made partly public in the Internet.
    (SFC, 9/11/98, p.A1)
1998        Sep 11, Congress released Kenneth Starr's report that offered graphic details of President Clinton's alleged sexual misconduct and leveled accusations of perjury and obstruction of justice; the president's attorneys quickly issued a rebuttal.
    (AP, 9/11/99)
1998        Sep 12, The White House responded to Kenneth Starr's graphic report on President Clinton by calling it a "hit-and-run smear campaign."
    (AP, 9/12/03)
1998        Sep 14, President Clinton, struggling to regain his footing from the Monica Lewinsky scandal, pledged during a speech in New York to work with America's allies to deal with the "biggest financial challenge facing the world in a half-century."
    (AP, 9/14/03)
1998        Oct 15, Pres. Clinton opened the Mideast summit talks in Maryland between Arafat and Netanyahu in Washington that resulted in the Wye River land-for-peace agreement.
    (WSJ, 10/16/98, p.A1)(AP, 10/15/99)
1998        Nov 11, President Clinton ordered warships, planes and troops to the Persian Gulf as he laid out his case for a possible attack on Iraq. Iraq, meanwhile, showed no sign of backing down on its refusal to deal with U.N. weapons inspectors.
    (AP, 11/11/99)
1998        Nov 12, Pres. Clinton signed a UN accord on global warming. It still needed to be ratified by Congress.
    (SFC, 11/13/98, p.A3)
1998        Nov 13, Pres. Clinton, without admitting guilt, agreed to pay Paula Jones $850,000 to settle her sexual harassment suit. In 1999 Jones accepted to receive $200,000 with the rest going for lawyer fees. This ended the four-year legal battle over her sexual harassment lawsuit that spurred impeachment proceedings against him.
    (SFC, 11/14/98, p.A1)(SFC, 3/5/99, p.A6)(AP, 11/13/99)
1998        Nov 13, Pres. Clinton and the IMF announced a $41.5 billion loan package for Brazil.
    (SFC, 11/14/98, p.A10)
1998        Nov 17, The House Judiciary Committee released 22 hours of telephone tape recordings secretly made of Monica Lewinsky by Linda Tripp.
    (SFC, 11/18/98, p.A1)(AP, 11/17/99)
1998        Nov 19, Pres. Clinton began a 5-day trip to Asia and in Japan suggested that current efforts to end an 8-year economic downturn may not be enough.
    (SFC, 11/20/98, p.A16)
1998        Nov 19, Independent Counsel Kenneth Starr laid out his evidence for the impeachment hearings against Pres. Clinton. He defended his investigation under withering questions from Democrats, during a daylong appearance before the House Judiciary Committee.
    (SFC, 11/20/98, p.A1,3)(AP, 11/19/99)
1998        Nov 21, President Clinton, visiting South Korea, warned North Korea to forsake nuclear weapons and urged the North to seize a "historic opportunity" for peace with the South.
    (AP, 11/21/99)
1998        Nov 27, Answering 81 questions put to him three weeks earlier, President Clinton wrote the House Judiciary Committee that his testimony in the Monica Lewinsky affair was "not false and misleading."
    (AP, 11/27/99)
1998        Nov 28, Some Republicans expressed disappointment and outrage over President Clinton's written responses to 81 questions from the House Judiciary Committee concerning the Monica Lewinsky affair, with one accusing the president of "word games."
    (AP, 11/28/99)
1998        Nov 30, Pres. Clinton pledged an extra $400 million to aid the Palestinians over the next 5 years. This was in addition to the current $100 million per year for the next 5 years. A total of $3 billion in aid was pledged.
    (SFC, 12/1/98, p.A1)(WSJ, 12/1/98, p.A1)
1998        Dec 1, Pres. Clinton marked World Aids Day by announcing an increase in NIH funding for an AIDS vaccine to $200 million.
    (WSJ, 12/2/98, p.A1)
1998        Dec 3, Republicans jettisoned campaign fund-raising from their inquiry of President Clinton, clearing the way for a historic House Judiciary Committee vote on articles of impeachment over President Clinton's relationship with Monica Lewinsky and his effort to cover it up.
    (AP, 12/3/03)
1998        Dec 7, Pres. Clinton announced the removal of Iran from the list of drug problem countries due to an energetic campaign to eliminate opium poppies.
    (SFC, 12/8/98, p.A12)
1998        Dec 7, On the eve of historic hearings, House Judiciary Committee Chairman Henry Hyde said there was a "compelling case" for impeaching President Clinton. Attorney General Janet Reno declined to seek an independent counsel investigation of President Clinton over 1996 campaign financing.
    (AP, 12/7/99)
1998        Dec 8, The White House opened its defense against the impeachment of Pres. Clinton. A 184-page defense, written by White House lawyers, held that Clintons actions were "immoral" and "misleading" but did not amount to impeachable offenses.
    (WSJ, 12/8/98, p.A1)(SFC, 12/9/98, p.A1)
1998        Dec 9, The Republicans on the House Judiciary Committee drafted 4 articles of impeachment for Pres. Clinton, all stemming from his sexual relationship with Monica Lewinsky and long campaign to cover it up. The Democrats countered with a censure plan.
    (SFC, 12/10/98, p.A1)(AP, 12/9/99)
1998        Dec 10, The House Judiciary Committee opened debate on 4 articles of impeachment against Pres. Clinton. Republicans on the House Judiciary Committee lined up one by one in favor of impeaching President Clinton; Democrats vowed opposition after lawyers clashed in closing arguments over alleged "high crimes and misdemeanors."
    (SFC, 12/11/98, p.A1)(AP, 12/10/99)
1998        Dec 11, Pres. Clinton appealed for forgiveness but majority Republicans on the House Judiciary Committee voted 21 to 16 to approve 3 articles of impeachment.
    (SFC, 12/12/98, p.A1)(AP, 12/11/99)
1998        Dec 12, The House Judiciary Committee approved a 4th and final article of impeachment against Pres. Clinton as he flew for a three-day visit to the Middle East aimed at rescuing the Wye River peace accords.
    (SFEC, 12/13/98, p.A1)(AP, 12/12/99)
1998        Dec 14, In Gaza City Pres. Clinton watched as hundreds of Palestinian leaders raised their hands to renounce a call for the destruction of Israel.
    (SFC, 12/15/98, p.A1)(AP, 12/14/99)
1998        Dec 16, Pres. Clinton ordered a sustained series of missile strikes against Iraq forces in response to Saddam Hussein's continued defiance of UN weapons inspectors. Iraqi envoy Nizar Hamdoon accused UN weapons inspector Richard Butler of producing a biased report on weapons inspections. The strike came one before scheduled vote on Clintons impeachment by the House of Representatives and days before the beginning of Ramadan. Some 200 missiles fell on Iraq in the first 24 hours of the attack and initial reports indicated two people killed and 30 injured. The House Republicans postponed impeachment by at least 24 hours.
    (SFC, 12/17/98, p.A1,8)(AP, 12/16/99)
1998        Dec 16, The House delayed a debate set to begin the next day on four articles of impeachment against President Clinton.
    (AP, 12/16/99)
1998        Dec 17, Republicans advanced the impeachment case against President Clinton to the House floor for a debate the following day. House Speaker-designate Bob Livingston shocked fellow Republicans by admitting he'd had extramarital affairs.
    (AP, 12/17/99)
1998        Dec 18, US House Republicans rebuffed calls for a vote on censure and pushed forward the vote on impeachment.
    (SFC, 12/19/98, p.A1)(AP, 12/18/99)
1998        Dec 19, President Clinton was impeached on 2 counts, Articles 1 and 3, by the Republican-controlled House for perjury and obstruction of justice. The 42nd chief executive became only the second in history to be ordered to stand trial in the Senate, where, like Andrew Johnson before him, he was acquitted.
    (SFEC, 12/20/98, p.A1)(AP, 12/19/99)
1998        Dec 19, The US and Britain ended their attack on Iraq after 4 days of air and missile strikes in Operation Desert Fox. An early estimate of US defense expenses was put at $500 million. Some 62 members of the Republican Guard were killed.
    (SFEC, 12/20/98, p.A1,24)(SFC, 12/22/98, p.A14)(WSJ, 8/27/99, p.A10)
1998        Dec 26, President Clinton, in his weekly radio address, urged Congress to lower the blood-alcohol limit for drunken driving nationwide to 0.08 percent to conform with 17 states and the District of Columbia. The other 33 states have 0.10.
    (AP, 12/26/99)
1998        Pres. Clinton signed the Internet Tax Freedom Act. It mandated a moratorium on any state or local taxes on Internet access.
    (WSJ, 12/8/03, p.B1)
1998        Pres. Clinton signed the Intl. Religious Freedom Act.
    (WSJ, 5/26/04, p.A8)
1999        Jan 7, The Senate impeachment trial against pres. Clinton began. Chief Justice William Rehnquist was sworn in to preside over the trial. Bill Clinton was ultimately acquitted of charges of perjury and obstruction of justice.
    (SFC, 1/8/99, p.A1)(AP, 1/7/00)
1999        Jan 8, By a unanimous vote, the U.S. Senate formally ratified the rules for President Clinton's impeachment trial.
    (AP, 1/8/00)
1999        Jan 9, Presidential advisers prepared a public and legal defense in President Clinton's impeachment trial on charges of perjury and obstruction of justice; Senate Majority Leader Trent Lott, meanwhile, pledged "above all, fairness" to the president.
    (AP, 1/9/00)
1999        Jan 10, Republicans and Democrats disagreed over whether to call witnesses in President Clinton's impeachment trial, with Republicans pressing to hear testimony from Monica Lewinsky and others, and Democrats saying such testimony could unnecessarily prolong the proceedings.
    (AP, 1/10/00)
1999        Jan 11, President Clinton and House Republicans clashed in impeachment trial papers, with the White House claiming the perjury and obstruction allegations fell short of high crimes and misdemeanors and GOP lawmakers rebutting: "If this is not enough, what is?"
    (AP, 1/11/00)
1999        Jan 14, The Clinton administration planned to propose that the UN lift all limits on Iraq's ability to export oil to pay for food and medicine.
    (SFC, 1/14/99, p.A10)
1999        Jan 14, The Senate began opening arguments its trial of Pres. Clinton. Before a jury of 100 silent senators, House prosecutors demanded President Clinton's removal from office, charging he had "piled perjury upon perjury" and obstructed justice.
    (SFC, 1/14/99, p.A1)(SFC, 1/15/99, p.A1)(AP, 1/14/00)
1999        Jan 15, House prosecutors prodded senators at President Clinton's impeachment trial to summon Monica Lewinsky, Vernon Jordan and others for testimony and "invite the president" to appear as well.
    (AP, 1/15/00)
1999        Jan 16, Closing three days of opening arguments, House prosecutors demanded President Clinton's removal from office, telling a hushed Senate that otherwise the presidency itself may be "deeply and perhaps permanently damaged."
    (AP, 1/16/00)
1999        Jan 19, Pres. Clinton gave his State of the Union address and proposed a number of new policies that included infusions of cash to bolster Social Security and Medicare. He also said that the Justice Dept. will sue cigarette makers for smoking-related health care costs and wanted to tie federal education funds to improvements in local schools. Hours earlier, at the president's impeachment trial in the Senate, White House Counsel Charles Ruff opened the defense with ringing statements of Clinton's innocence.
    (SFC, 1/20/99, p.A1)(WSJ, 1/20/99, p.A1)(SFC, 1/21/99, p.A1)(AP, 1/19/00)
1999        Jan 20, For a second day, President Clinton's legal team argued its case before the Senate, saying that House-passed articles of impeachment were "flawed and unfair."
    (AP, 1/20/00)
1999        Jan 20, The Clinton administration pledged $6.6 billion over 5 years for a national missile defense system.
    (SFC, 1/21/99, p.A3)
1999        Jan 27, The Clinton administration announced a plan to end fighting in Kosovo. It called for NATO air strikes if autonomy to the region is not accepted by Pres. Milosevic.
    (SFC, 1/28/99, p.A12)
1999        Jan 27, In 2 votes the Senate voted along party lines, 56-44, to reject a Democratic proposal to dismiss the impeachment case against Pres. Clinton and to subpoena 3 witnesses including Monica Lewinsky. Wisconsin Democrat Feingold made the only crossover vote.
    (SFC, 1/28/99, p.A1)(WSJ, 1/28/99, p.A1)
1999        Feb 1, Pres. Clinton presented a $1.77 trillion budget that he said will help rescue Social Security and Medicare. He proposed to use federal surpluses for the next 15 years to pay down the national debt.
    (SFC, 2/2/99, p.A1)(WSJ, 2/2/99, p.A1)
1999        Feb 1, Former White House intern Monica Lewinsky gave a deposition that was videotaped for senators weighing impeachment charges against President Clinton.
    (AP, 2/1/00)
1999        Feb 3, Pres. Clinton signed an executive order to establish a council of scientists and bureaucrats to combat zebra mussels, leafy spurge, long-horned beetles and other invasive pests.
    (SFC, 2/4/99, p.A6)
1999        Feb 3, The Clinton administration told Congress a NATO-led peacekeeping force could be needed in Kosovo for three to five years and might include up to 4,000 American troops.
    (AP, 2/3/00)
1999        Feb 4, Senators at President Clinton's impeachment trial voted to permit the showing of portions of Monica Lewinsky's videotaped deposition.
    (AP, 2/4/00)
1999        Feb 6, The public finally got to see and hear Monica Lewinsky as excerpts of the former White House intern's videotaped testimony were shown at President Clinton's impeachment trial.
    (AP, 2/6/00)
1999        Feb 6, President Clinton requested legislation to require background checks on buyers at gun shows.
    (AP, 2/6/00)
1999        Feb 8, The Senate heard closing arguments at President Clinton's impeachment trial, with House prosecutors challenging senators to "cleanse the office" and the president's attorney dismissing the case as one of partisan retribution.
    (AP, 2/8/00)
1999        Feb 9, The Senate began closed-door deliberations in President Clinton's impeachment trial, even though members from both parties acknowledged that the two-thirds margin for conviction could not be attained.
    (AP, 2/9/00)
1999        Feb 12, Pres. Clinton was acquitted by the Senate 55-45 on a perjury charge and 50-50 on an obstruction of justice charge. He once again apologized for burdening the nation with his conduct. Clinton told Americans he was "profoundly sorry" for what he had said and done in the Monica Lewinsky affair that triggered the impeachment drama.
    (SFC, 2/13/99, p.A1)(AP, 2/12/00)
1999        Feb 13, Pres. Clinton announced that he would send some 4,000 troops to Kosovo as part of a NATO peacekeeping force if warring Serbs and ethnic Albanians reached a political settlement.
    (SFEC, 2/14/99, p.A1)(AP, 2/13/00)
1999        Feb 14, Pres. Clinton, accompanied by his wife, Hillary, traveled to Merida, Mexico, for talks with Pres. Ernesto Zedillo to encourage the struggle against narcotics and government corruption, and to grow markets for U.S. products.
    (SFC, 2/15/99, p.A8)(AP, 2/14/00)
1999        Feb 15, In Mexico Pres. Clinton and Pres. Zedillo signed several accords on economic measures and the drug war.
    (WSJ, 2/16/99, p.A1)
1999        Feb 17, In a satellite-linked address to college campuses across the country, President Clinton made his case for shoring up Social Security and Medicare.
    (AP, 2/17/00)
1999        Feb 18, The Clinton administration warned Serbian President Slobodan Milosevic to choose peace with ethnic Albanians in Kosovo, or face a devastating military strike.
    (AP, 2/18/00)
1999        Feb 19, President Clinton posthumously pardoned Henry O. Flipper, the first black graduate of West Point, whose military career was tarnished by a racially motivated discharge.
    (AP, 2/19/00)
1999        Mar 5, Italian Prime Minister Massimo D'Alema met at the White House with President Clinton, a day after a military jury in North Carolina acquitted a Marine pilot in the Italian cable car accident that killed 20 people; D'Alema demanded justice, while Clinton expressed profound regret.
    (AP, 3/5/00)
1999        Mar 8, Pres. Clinton began a 4-day tour of Central America and the region's efforts to recover from Hurricane Mitch. Clinton toured Posoltega, Nicaragua, by the Casita Volcano where a wall of mud took 2,000 lives.
    (SFC, 3/8/99, p.A1)(WSJ, 3/9/99, p.A1)
1999        Mar 9, Pres. Clinton visited Honduras and paid tribute to US military efforts in rebuilding roads, bridges, schools and clinics following Hurricane Mitch.
    (SFC, 3/10/99, p.A12)
1999        Mar 10, Pres. Clinton visited Guatemala and acknowledged the U.S. role in Central America's "dark and painful period" of civil wars and repression. He apologized for US support of rightist regimes that ruled the country for 3 decades.
    (SFC, 3/11/99, p.A1)(AP, 3/10/00)
1999        Mar 11, The House voted 219-191 to conditionally support President Clinton's plan to send U.S. troops to Kosovo if a peace agreement was reached. 
    (AP, 3/11/00)
1999        Mar 14, The Clinton administration conceded the Chinese had gained from technology allegedly stolen from a federal nuclear weapons lab but insisted the government responded decisively; Republicans demanded a comprehensive review of U.S. policy toward China.
    (AP, 3/14/00)
1999        Mar 19, At a White House news conference, President Clinton prepared the nation for airstrikes against Serbian targets following the collapse of Kosovo peace talks in Paris.
    (AP, 3/19/00)
1999        Mar 22, The Clinton administration announced new food deals for North Korea to total $60 million.
    (WSJ, 3/23/99, p.A1)
1999        Mar 30, Olusegun Obasanjo, pres. elect of Nigeria, met with Pres. Clinton and vowed to build democracy.
    (WSJ, 3/31/99, p.A1)
1999        Apr 3, Pres. Clinton authorized $50 million in emergency funds for Kosovo refugees and urged Americans to make donations.
    (SFEC, 4/4/99, p.A11)
1999        Apr 8, At a White House news conference, President Clinton said NATO could still win in Kosovo by air power alone, and he expressed hope for an early release of three American POW's.
    (AP, 4/8/00)
1999        Apr 8, Pres. Clinton and Premier Zhu Rongji of China made some trade agreements but did not agree on China's entry into the WTO. Premier Zhu Rongji promised to cooperate in investigations of alleged nuclear-weapons spying and illegal campaign contributions by Beijing.
    (SFC, 4/9/99, p.A1)(AP, 4/8/00)
1999        Apr 12, In Arkansas U.S. District Judge Susan Webber Wright cited President Clinton for contempt of court, concluding that the president had lied about his relationship with Monica Lewinsky in a deposition in the Paula Jones case.
    (SFC, 4/13/99, p.A1)(AP, 4/12/00)
1999        Apr 16, President Clinton defended NATO airstrikes against Serbian targets during visits to Michigan and Massachusetts, saying U.S. involvement in Kosovo was a moral imperative.
    (AP, 4/16/00)
1999        May 1, Pres. Clinton imposed a trade embargo on Serbia that excepted only food and medicine.
    (SFEC, 5/2/99, p.A3)
1999        May 3, Pres. Clinton said that he would support a bombing pause if he was convinced that the Yugoslav crackdown on Kosovo guerrillas and civilians was ending and that Serbian forces were being withdrawn.
    (SFC, 5/4/99, p.A1)
1999        May 4, Pres. Clinton authorized a Congressional Gold Medal for Rosa Parks.
    (SFC, 5/5/99, p.A3)
1999        May 5, Pres. Clinton visited US troops in Germany and conferred with senior NATO commanders. Clintons morale-boosting trip to Europe included a visit to Ramstein Air Base in Germany, where he met the three American soldiers just released by Yugoslavia.
    (SFC, 5/6/99, p.A10)(AP, 5/5/00)
1999        May 6, President Clinton met with Kosovo refugees in Germany, listening to accounts of murder, rape and terror and promising them, "You will go home again in safety and in freedom."
    (AP, 5/6/00)
1999        May 12, Robert Rubin, US Treasury Secretary, announced his resignation. Pres. Clinton chose Lawrence Summers, the deputy secretary to succeed Rubin.
    (SFC, 5/13/99, p.A1,19)
1999        May 14, His previous calls rebuffed, President Clinton finally got through to Chinese President Jiang Zemin; Clinton expressed hope the two countries could repair the damage to their relations since the U.S. bombing of the Chinese Embassy in Belgrade.
    (AP, 5/14/00)
1999        May 18, Pres. Clinton declared for the first time that he would consider ground troops in Kosovo if he becomes convinced that the NATO bombing strategy would not bring victory.
    (SFC, 5/19/99, p.A10)
1999        May 31, During a Memorial Day visit to Arlington National Cemetery, President Clinton asked Americans to reconsider their ambivalence about Kosovo, calling it "a very small province in a small country. But it is a big test of what we believe in."
    (AP, 5/31/00)
1999        Jun 1, President Clinton ordered a government investigation into whetherand howthe entertainment business markets violence to children. In a report released in September 2000, federal regulators said the movie, video game and music industries aggressively marketed to underage youths violent products that carried adult ratings.
    (AP, 6/1/04)
1999        Jul 3, President Clinton, acting to head off potential problems with the safety of imported food, said in his weekly radio address he was ordering inspectors at American ports to brand all unsafe and rejected food products, "Refused US."
    (AP, 7/3/00)
1999        Jul 5, President Clinton began a four-day, cross-country tour to promote a plan for drawing jobs and investment to areas that had not shared in the prosperity of the 1990s.
    (AP, 7/5/00)
1999        Jul 12, President Clinton and Republican congressional leaders held their first face-to-face budget meeting of the year; the talk was described afterward as positive.
    (AP, 7/12/00)
1999        Jul 15, The Clinton administration conceded that workers exposed to beryllium deserved compensation for induced beryllium disease. Some 26,000 workers had been exposed over the last 50 years and there were an estimated 500 to 1000 cases of the disease.
    (SFC, 7/16/99, p.A5)
1999        Jul 15, Pres. Clinton met with Israeli Prime Minister Ehud Barak for the beginning of 5 days of talks.
    (SFC, 7/16/99, p.A10)
1999        Jul 24, President Clinton attacked the Republicans $792 billion tax-cut plan in fund-raising speeches and his weekly radio address, saying it would "imperil the future stability of the country." House Majority Leader Dick Armey replied that the GOP plan would help fix an unfair tax system.
    (AP, 7/24/00)
1999        Jul 27, The House approved President Clintons one-year extension of normal trade with China.
    (AP, 7/27/00)
1999        Jul 29, A federal judge ordered Pres. Clinton to pay $90,000 to the lawyers of Paula Jones in compensation for extra work due his false testimony.
    (SFC, 7/30/99, p.A1)
1999        Aug 5, Republicans overcame solid Democratic opposition to narrowly win passage of a ten-year, $792 billion tax cut, first in the House, then in the Senate; President Clinton denounced the bill and promised a veto.
    (AP, 8/5/00)
1999        Aug 7, President Clinton, during a visit to his home state of Arkansas, promised to devote the rest of his presidency to erasing poverty.
    (AP, 8/7/00)
1999        Aug 8, Opening a new attack on the Republican tax-cut measure, President Clinton warned the nations governors at their meeting in St. Louis that the $792 billion package would trigger "huge cuts" in Medicare, farm programs and other spending critical to their voters.
    (AP, 8/8/00)
1999        Aug 9, Pres. Clinton presented former Pres. Jimmy Carter and Rosalynn Carter the Medal of Freedom, the highest US civilian award.
    (SFC, 8/10/99, p.A3)
1999        Aug 11, Pres. Clinton offered conditional amnesty to imprisoned Puerto Rican militants (FALN). The separatists were responsible for at least 150 bombings over a 9-year period that killed 6 people and injured over 70.
    (SFC, 9/8/99, p.A3)(WSJ, 9/14/99, p.A22)
1999        Aug 15, President Clinton and his family went house-hunting in Westchester County, New York. They later settled on a house in Chappaqua.
    (AP, 8/15/00)
1999        Aug 21, President Clinton urged Americans to contribute to the relief effort for Turkey, where the death toll from a massive earthquake four days earlier topped 12,000. It eventually reached 17,000.
    (AP, 8/21/00)
1999        Aug 28, Pres. Clinton announced a $100 million distribution by the US Dept. of Education for charter schools.
    (SFEC, 8/29/99, p.A8)
1999        Sep 2, It was announced that President and Mrs. Clinton had signed a contract to purchase a $1.7 million house in Chappaqua, New York, ending a months-long guessing game over where the couple would live after leaving the White House.
    (AP, 9/2/00)
1999        Sep 9, Pres. Clinton moved to cut military ties with Indonesia and the IMF suspended its lending program due to the violence in East Timor.
    (SFC, 9/10/99, p.A1)
1999        Sep 11, President Clinton, attending a conference of Asia-Pacific leaders in New Zealand and backed by the UN General Assembly, demanded that Indonesia allow an international force to restore peace in East Timor.
    (SFEC, 9/12/99, p.A1)(AP, 9/11/00)
1999        Sep 11, Pres. Clinton in his weekly radio address announced grants of $106 million for 54 US school districts to help reduce youth violence.
    (SFEC, 9/12/99, p.A9)
1999        Oct 8, Pres. Clinton asked the US Senate to postpone a vote on the global nuclear test ban treaty (CTBT) due to insufficient votes for passage [see Oct 13].
    (SFC, 10/9/99, p.A1)(Econ, 3/14/09, p.64)
1999        Oct 13, Pres. Clinton proposed to place 40 million acres of federal forest beyond the reach of loggers, miners and road-builders. He urged the forest service to engage the public in how best to manage and conserve over 50 million acres of the last roadless tracts.
    (SFC, 10/14/99, p.A1)(SFC, 8/9/00, p.A21)
1999        Oct 13, The US Senate rejected the Comprehensive Nuclear Test Ban treaty 51-48.
    (SFC, 10/14/99, p.A1)(AP, 10/13/00)
1999        Nov 8, President Clinton participated in a "virtual town hall meeting" on the Internet, answering questions from pre-screened online users.
    (AP, 11/8/00)
1999        Nov 12, President Clinton signed a sweeping measure knocking down Depression-era barriers and allowing banks, investment firms and insurance companies to sell each others products.
    (SFC, 11/13/99, p.D1)(AP, 11/12/00)
1999        Nov 15, The Clinton administration claimed victory in a seven-year struggle to persuade Congress to pay nearly $1 billion in back dues to the United Nations, saying restrictions in the deal on backing for international family planning would have no practical effect.
    (AP, 11/15/00)
1999        Nov 17, In Greece over 10,000 people protested against the arrival of Pres. Clinton.
    (SFC, 11/18/99, p.A17)
1999        Nov 19, In Greece some 10,000 people demonstrated as Pres. Clinton rode through Athens under tight security and proclaimed a "profound and enduring friendship." The Greek government ran into a storm of opposition and media criticism for failing to prevent a rampage through Athens by leftists hostile to visiting President Clinton.
    (SFC, 11/20/99, p.A1)(Excite, 11/20/99)(AP, 11/19/00)
1999        Nov 21, President Clinton, speaking at a conference in Florence, Italy, called on prosperous nations to spread global wealth by helping poor countries with Internet hookups, cell phones, debt relief and small loans.
    (AP, 11/21/00)
1999        Nov 22, During a visit to the former communist country of Bulgaria, President Clinton promised tens of thousands of cheering Bulgarians in Sofia that "you too shall overcome" in their difficult struggle for democracy and prosperity.
    (SFC, 11/23/99, p.A14)(AP, 11/22/00)   
1999        Nov 23, In a plea met with scant applause and silent stares, President Clinton told ethnic Albanians in Kosovo that "you must try" to forgive Serb neighbors and stop punishing them for the terror campaign of Slobodan Milosevic.
    (SFC, 11/24/99, p.A16)(WSJ, 11/24/99, p.A1)(AP, 11/23/00)
1999        Dec 3, Pres. Clinton offered to reduce bombing practice on Vieques in the spring and use only dummy bombs plus $40 million in economic incentives with phase out in 5 years. Puerto Rico rejected the offer.
    (SFC, 12/4/99, p.A3)
1999        Dec 11, Agreeing with his wife, President Clinton told CBS Radio his 1993 "dont ask, dont tell" policy on gays in the military wasnt working, and he pledged to work with the Pentagon to find a way to fix it.
    (AP, 12/11/00)
1999        Dec 17, President Clinton signed a law letting millions of disabled Americans retain their government-funded health coverage when they take a job.
    (AP, 12/17/00)
1999        Dec 22, President Clinton urged Americans not to panic despite enhanced security measures prompted by fears of terrorism.
    (AP, 12/22/00)
1999        The Plan Colombia program began as the US under Pres. Clinton deployed a small air force to Colombia to spray coca plants and help Colombia fight insurgents and shut down processing plants for cocaine. At this time traffickers had some 463,322 acres of coca plant cultivation and produced 90% of the worlds cocaine. By 2009, despite 10 years of eradication efforts, Colombia had some 575,750 acres under coca plant cultivation and still produced 90% of the worlds cocaine.
    (SSFC, 3/15/09, Insight p.H8)(
2000        Jan 3, Pres. Clinton opened peace talks between Syria and Israel in Shepherdstown, West Virginia.
    (SFC, 1/4/00, p.A1)
2000        Jan 7, Pres. Clinton announced a $91 million program to protect computer security as part of the 2001 fiscal budget.
    (SFC, 1/8/00, p.A1)
2000        Jan 9, Pres. Clinton had dinner with Israeli PM Ehud Barak and Syrian Foreign Minister Farouk al-Sharaa. It was the 1st time in half a century that the Israeli and Syrian leaders had shared a meal but no agreement on peace talks was expected.
    (SFC, 1/10/00, p.A10)
2000        Jan 11, Pres. Clinton signed a proclamation for the Grand Parashant National Monument with 1.014 million acres along the northern boundary of the Grand Canyon; the 71,100 acre Agua Fria National Monument near Phoenix; and the California Coastal National Monument, which includes thousands of islands, rocks and reefs along the 840 mile California coast.
    (SFC, 1/12/00, p.A3)(WSJ, 1/12/00, p.A4)
2000        Jan 20, The Clinton administration issued visas to the grandmothers of Elian Gonzalez, enabling them to visit the United States to make their case for the six-year-olds return to Cuba.
    (AP, 1/20/01)
2000        Jan 27, Pres. Clinton gave his last State of the Union address. His proposals included a $250 billion tax cut; tough gun control measures; expanded tax breaks for vaccine development; new education spending; and approval of the China WTO accord. Clinton proposed a $350 billion tax cut, big spending increases for schools and health care and photo ID licenses for handgun purchases in his final State of the Union address.
    (WSJ, 1/28/00, p.A1,3)(AP, 1/27/01)
2000        Jan 29, In Switzerland Pres. Clinton addressed the World Economic Forum at Davos and urged corporate leaders to help lift the burden of debt from developing countries and to examine environmental concerns. Some 1000 protestors demonstrated outside.
    (SFEC, 1/30/00, p.A16)
2000        Feb 2, Pres. Clinton proposed a $2 billion "ClickStart" program to bring Internet access to low-income households.
    (SFC, 2/3/00, p.A1)
2000        Feb 7, Pres. Clinton proposed a $1.84 trillion budget and called for using a projected surplus to strengthen Medicare and health insurance.
    (SFC, 2/7/00, p.A3)
2000        Mar 8, President Clinton submitted to Congress legislation to establish permanent normal trade relations with China.
    (AP, 3/8/01)
2000        Mar 14, Pres. Clinton and PM Tony Blair said that the raw data of human genes "should be made freely available to scientists everywhere."
    (SFC, 3/15/00, p.A1)
2000        Mar 19, President Clinton arrived near New Delhi on the first presidential visit to India in 22 years as he opened a six-day trip through troubled South Asia.
    (WSJ, 3/20/00, p.A1)(AP, 3/19/01)
2000        Mar 20, The Clinton administration moved to phase out the fuel additive MTBE to avoid further contamination of groundwater.
    (SFC, 3/21/00, p.A1)   
2000        Mar 20, Pres. Clinton stopped in Bangladesh, but only stood for a reception at the US Embassy due to security reasons. This was the first such visit by an American president.
    (SFC, 3/21/00, p.A14)(AP, 3/20/01)
2000        Mar 21, Pres. Clinton began a 5 day stay in India. India rejected his call for further curbs in the nuclear program.
    (SFC, 3/21/00, p.A14)(SFC, 3/22/00, p.A11)
2000        Mar 23, President Clinton visited the western Indian village of Nayla.
    (AP, 3/23/01)
2000        Mar 25, Pres. Clinton arrived in Pakistan under heavy security, where he met with the new military ruler, General Pervez Musharraf. Clinton urged the government to restore democracy, reduce its nuclear arsenal, fight terrorism and find a peaceful solution to the Kashmir crises with India.
    (SFEC, 3/26/00, p.A1)(AP, 3/25/01)
2000        Mar 26, Pres Clinton met with Pres. Assad of Syria in Geneva but failed to get an agreement to revive peace talks with Israel.
    (WSJ, 3/27/00, p.A1)
2000        Mar 29, President Clinton told a news conference he was appalled when he first learned his campaign had taken illegal foreign donations in 1996 -- contributions he called both wrong and unneeded.
    (AP, 3/29/01)
2000        Mar 29, A federal judge ruled that President Clinton "committed a criminal violation of the Privacy Act" by releasing personal letters to undermine the credibility of Kathleen Willey, one of his accusers.
    (AP, 3/29/01)
2000        Apr 1, President Clinton, speaking at a fund-raiser for his wifes Senate campaign, accused New York Mayor Rudolph Giuliani of enlisting a "right-wing venom machine" against Hillary Rodham Clinton.
    (AP, 4/1/01)
2000        Apr 7, Pres. Clinton signed a bill to allow people aged 65-70 to earn as much as they can without losing Social Security benefits.
    (SFC, 4/8/00, p.A1)
2000        Apr 13, President Clinton, during a question-and-answer session with newspaper editors, heatedly said "Im not ashamed" about being impeached and "Im not interested" in being pardoned for any alleged crimes in the Monica Lewinsky scandal and Whitewater investigation.
    (AP, 4/13/01)
2000        Apr 15, In California Pres. Clinton created Giant Sequoia National Monument in Sequoia National Park. It protected 328,000 acres and 34 groves of Sequoias from timber harvest within 2 years.
    (SFEC, 4/16/00, p.C7)
2000        Apr 19, President Clinton knelt among 168 empty chairs memorializing each victim of the Oklahoma City bombing and declared the site "sacred ground" in the soul of America during a fifth-anniversary dedication ceremony.
    (AP, 4/19/01)
2000        May 5, President Clinton met at the White House with Japans new prime minister, Yoshiro Mori.
    (AP, 5/5/01)
2000        May 10, Pres. Clinton issued an executive order to make drugs for AIDS less expensive in Africa.
    (SFC, 5/11/00, p.A1)
2000        May 12, During visits to Ohio and Minnesota, President Clinton called for open trade with China, saying it would help the communist nation move closer to democracy.
    (AP, 5/12/01)
2000        May 22, A committee of the Arkansas Supreme Court recommended that President Clinton be disbarred for giving false testimony about his relationship with Monica Lewinsky in the Paula Jones sexual harassment case. Clinton later agreed to give up his Arkansas law license for five years.
    (AP, 5/22/01)
2000        May 29, President Clinton left Washington for a weeklong European tour.
    (AP, 5/29/01)
2000        May 30, Pres. Clinton traveled to Portugal for talks with the EU and met with Pres. Jorge Sampaio at the Belem Palace outside of Lisbon. Clinton opened a week-long visit to Europe.
    (SFC, 5/31/00, p.A10)(AP, 5/30/01)
2000        May 31, Pres. Clinton proposed to EU allies in Portugal to share key technology on a US missile defense program to calm fears of a nuclear arms race that would leave Europe vulnerable.
    (SFC, 6/1/00, p.A16)(AP, 5/31/01)
2000        Jun 2, President Clinton, visiting Germany, was honored with the prestigious International Charlemagne Prize at Aachen Cathedral.
    (AP, 6/2/01)
2000        Jul 3, President Clinton made a congratulatory telephone call to Mexican President-elect Vicente Fox, a day after Foxs election.
    (AP, 7/3/01)
2000        Jul 5, At the United Nations, President Clinton signed an international agreement to ban the forcible recruitment of youths as soldiers in armed conflict, and a companion accord to protect children from being forced into slavery, prostitution and pornography.
    (AP, 7/5/01)
2000        Jul 10, Pres. Clinton moved to establish an 84 million gallon stockpile of heating oil for the Northeast.
    (SFC, 7/11/00, p.A7)
2000        Jul 11, A Middle East summit hosted by President Clinton opened at Camp David between Israeli Prime Minister Ehud Barak and Palestinian leader Yasser Arafat.
    (AP, 7/11/01)(SFC, 7/12/00, p.A1)
2000        Jul 19, President Clinton shuttled between Israeli Prime Minister Ehud Barak, Palestinian leader Yasser Arafat and his own experts during peace talks at Camp David after delaying his departure for an economic summit in Japan.
    (SFC, 7/19/00, p.A1)(AP, 7/19/01)
2000        Jul 23, President Clinton rejoined the troubled Middle East talks at Camp David after hurrying back from a four-day trip to Asia.
    (AP, 7/23/01)
2000        Jul 24, President Clinton continued to mediate the Camp David Mideast summit, meeting with Israeli, Palestinian and US negotiators.
    (AP, 7/24/01)
2000        Jul 28, Pres. Clinton warned Yasser Arafat that relations with the US would be harmed if statehood was declared without a peace deal with Israel.
    (SFC, 7/29/00, p.A10)
2000         Aug 2, Pres. Clinton delayed the federal execution of Juan Raul Garza, convicted in 1993 for killing 3 men in Texas in 1990-1991. Garza, a Texas drug kingpin, was executed June 19th, 2001.
    (SFC, 8/3/00, p.A3)(AP, 8/2/01)
2000        Aug 5, President Clinton vetoed a Republican-sponsored tax cut for married couples, describing it as "the first installment of a fiscally reckless tax strategy."
    (AP, 8/5/01)
2000        Aug 7, Vice President and Democratic presidential candidate Al Gore selected Connecticut Senator Joseph Lieberman as his running mate; Lieberman was the first Jew on a major partys presidential ticket.
    (SFC, 8/8/00, p.A1)(AP, 8/7/01)
2000        Aug 8, Vice President Al Gore formally introduced and celebrated his Jewish running mate, Senator Joseph Lieberman, during an appearance in Gores home state of Tennessee.
    (AP, 8/8/01)
2000        Aug 23, The Clinton administration released guidelines for federally funded scientists to conduct research on human embryonic stem cells.
    (SFC, 8/23/00, p.A1)
2000        Aug 23, Pres. Clinton ordered millions in relief funds for electricity users in southern California and an investigation into the states power market.
    (SFC, 8/24/00, p.A1)
2000        Aug 24, Pres. Clinton and Vice President Al Gore met with Pres.-elect Vincente Fox of Mexico. Fox promoted his ideas on an open border a day before he met with Texas Gov. George W. Bush in Dallas.
    (SFC, 8/25/00, p.A14)(AP, 8/24/01)
2000        Aug 26, Pres. Clinton visited Nigeria. Pres. Obasanjo, head of 110 million people, pressed Clinton to help reduce the countrys $32 billion debt. Clinton appealed to the leaders of the oil-rich nation to set aside political acrimony so that their citizens could lift themselves from poverty and isolation.
    (SFEC, 8/27/00, p.A14)(AP, 8/24/01)
2000        Aug 27, Pres. Clinton visited the village of Ushafa in Nigeria and urged Nigerians to confront the "tyranny" of AIDS.
    (SFC, 8/28/00, p.A1)
2000        Aug 28, Pres. Clinton stopped in Burundi where Tutsi minority parties refused to sign a deal with the Hutu majority. Clinton urged the parties to work for peace.
    (SFC, 8/29/00, p.A6)
2000        Aug 29, President Clinton ended a four-day trip to Africa with a brief visit to Cairo, where he sought the help of President Hosni Mubarak on the Middle East peace process, i.e. a deal between Israel and the Palestinians.
    (SFC, 8/30/00, p.A12)(AP, 8/29/01)
2000        Aug 29, In Colombia a videotape by Pres. Clinton sought to calm fears over a $1.3 billion aid package expected to escalate the guerrilla war. Pres. Clinton was scheduled to arrive the next day.
    (SFC, 8/30/00, p.A14)
2000        Aug 30, Pres. Clinton stopped in Colombia and pledged that US aid would not lead to military escalation in the drug war. The recent $1.5 billion military aid package was part of a broader $7.5 billion Colombian plan to fight drugs, help refugees and strengthen government institutions.
    (SFC, 8/31/00, p.A1)
2000        Sep 1, Pres. Clinton put the anti-missile national defense system on hold and passed the decision for moving the project forward to his successor.
    (SFC, 9/2/00, p.A1)
2000        Sep 9, President Clinton proposed spending about $1.6 billion to help communities recover from recent Western wildfires.
    (AP, 9/9/01)
2000        Sep 20, Robert Ray, the independent counsel who succeeded Kenneth Starr, ended the $52 million Whitewater probe ended without charges against the Clintons, saying there was insufficient evidence to warrant charges against Pres. Clinton and first lady Hillary Clinton.
    (AP, 9/20/01)(WSJ, 9/21/00, p.A1)
2000        Oct 2, Pres. Clinton signed into law the African Growth and Opportunity Act (AGOA) as Title 1 of the Trade and Development Act of 2000. It offered tangible incentives for African countries to continue their efforts to open their economies and build free markets.
2000        Oct 12, Pres. Clinton lifted key economic sanctions against Serbia.
    (SFC, 10/13/00, p.A16)
2000        Oct 12, North Koreas Vice-Marshal Jo Myong Rok presented Pres. Clinton with a personal invitation from Pres. Kim to visit Pyongyang. The Clinton administration and North Korea issued a joint communique asserting a decision to "fundamentally improve" their relations.
    (SFC, 10/13/00, p.A17)(WSJ, 1/2/03, p.A1)
2000        Nov 9, Pres. Clinton met with Yasser Arafat in Washington in an effort to end the bloodshed between Israel and Palestine.
    (SFC, 11/10/00, p.A16)
2000        Nov 9, Pres. Clinton established the 293,000-acre Vermillion Cliffs in northern Arizona as a national monument. He also ordered 661,000 acres of federal land added to the 54,400-acre craters of the Moon National Monument in central Idaho. 
    (SFC, 11/10/00, p.A6)
2000        Nov 12, Pres. Clinton met with Ehud Barak in an effort to end Arab-Israeli fighting. Meanwhile one Palestinian youth was killed in Gaza.
    (SFC, 11/13/00, p.A1)
2000        Nov 19, Pres. Clinton  ended his historic 3-day visit to Vietnam.
    (SFC, 11/20/00, p.A1)(AP, 11/19/01)
2000        Nov 21, Pres. Clinton agreed not to punish China for exporting missile components to Iran and Pakistan after China promised to end future technological cooperation with countries seeking to develop missile weaponry.
    (SFC, 11/22/00, p.A20)
2000        Dec 1, Pres. Clinton on World AIDS Day urged Congress to provide more money for the prevention and treatment of AIDS. In the US 40,000 people were being infected each year and 420,000 had died since 1981. Worldwide almost 60 million people were infected and 16,000 more were being infected every day.
    (SFC, 12/2/00, p.A6)
2000        Dec 4, Pres. Clinton set aside 84 million underwater acres along the northwestern stretch of the Hawaiian Islands as a nature reservation.
    (SFC, 12/5/00, p.A3)
2000        Dec 6, Pres. Clinton gave the US Presidential Medal of Freedom to Alexander Aris, the son of Aung San Suu Kyi of Burma, on behalf of his mother who was held under house arrest.
    (SFC, 12/7/00, p.C10)
2000        Dec 11, Pres. Clinton signed the bipartisan $7.8 billion Comprehensive Everglades Restoration Plan. CERP included 68 projects planned over 30 years and was the largest environmental restoration effort in history. In 2015 the cost of restoration was placed at about $16 billion.
    (Econ, 10/8/05, p.32)(SFC, 12/4/19, p.A7)
2000        Dec 14, Pres. Clinton spoke in England and urged the US and other rich countries to end farm subsidies, spend money on fighting disease in the 3rd World and to cut emissions to thwart global warming.
    (SFC, 12/15/00, p.D8)
2000        Dec 22, Pres. Clinton granted Christmastime clemency 59 (62) people including Dan Rostenkowski, former Illinois congressman and chairman of the House Ways and Means Committee.
    (SFC, 12/23/00, p.A1)(AP, 12/22/01)
2000        Dec 26, Pres. Clinton signed a ban on cutting shark fins and discarding the fish back to the sea.
    (SFC, 12/27/00, p.A6)
2001        Jan 2, Pres. Clinton met with Yasser Arafat and coaxed Arafat to curb the Middle East violence.
    (SFC, 1/3/01, p.A1)
2001        Jan 3, The 107th Congress opened with the Senate split evenly down the middle. Because of the 50-50 divide, the Democrats were initially in control, since Vice President Al Gore could break ties, but the Republicans took over on Inauguration Day when Dick Cheney became vice president. However, the Senate reverted to Democratic control when Vermont Sen. James Jeffords switched his affiliation from Republican to Independent in May.
    (SFC, 1/4/01, p.A3)(AP, 1/3/02)
2001        Jan 5, In a blizzard of last-minute executive orders, President Clinton banned roads and most logging in 58.5 million acres of federal forests in 38 states.
    (WSJ, 1/05/01, p.A1)(AP, 1/5/02)
2001        Jan 5, US Republicans agreed to share power in the Senate with Democrats on committees.
    (SFC, 1/6/01, p.A1)
2001        Jan 7, Pres. Clinton told the people of Israel that "there is no choice for you but to divide this land into two states for two people."
    (SFC, 1/8/01, p.A9)
2001        Jan 11, James Riady, Indonesian businessman, agreed to pay an $8.6 million US fine and pleaded guilty for arranging $500,000 in illegal donations to Pres. Clinton and others.
    (WSJ, 1/12/01, p.A1)
2001        Jan 18, One year ago: President Clinton, in a farewell from the Oval Office, told the nation that "America has done well" during his presidency, with record-breaking prosperity and a cleaner environment.
    (AP, 1/18/02)
2001        Jan 19, Pres. Clinton admitted that he misled prosecutors about his relationship with Monica Lewinsky and struck a deal with independent counsel Robert Ray to accept a 5-year suspension of his Arkansas law license and pay a $25,000 fine.
    (SFC, 1/20/01, p.A1)(AP, 1/19/02)
2001        Jan 19, Pres. Clinton lifted economic sanctions against Yugoslavia.
    (SFC, 1/20/01, p.A11)
2001        Jan 20, Pres. Clinton in his final hours issued 36 commutations and 140 pardons that included Susan McDougal, Patricia Hearst, Henry Cisneros, John Deutch and Roger Clinton. It was later revealed that Hugh Rodham, the brother of Hillary Rodham Clinton, received $400,000 to help 2 felons win clemency.
    (SSFC, 1/21/01, p.A1)(SFC, 2/23/01, p.A1)
2001        Feb 2, Former President Clinton and Sen. Hillary Rodham Clinton said they would pay for $86,000 worth of White House gifts they'd chosen to keep.
    (AP, 2/2/02)
2001        Feb 6, Former Vice Pres. Al Gore taught his 1st class "The Media and Public Policy in the Information Age" at Columbia Univ.
    (SFC, 2/7/01, p.A3)
2001        Aug 6, Former Pres. Clinton signed an agreement with Knopf to publish his memoirs for an advance of over $10 million.
    (SFC, 8/7/01, p.A1)
2003          Mar 9, Bill Clinton and Bob Dole made their debut as 2-minute TV commentators on 60 Minutes. Their 1st topic was "tax cuts in times of war."
    (WSJ, 3/7/03, p.A1)(NW, 3/17/03, p.45)
2003        Jun 9, Hillary Clinton's memoir "Living History" was released.
    (SFC, 6/9/03, p.A2)
2004        Jun 3, Former Pres. Clinton opened a book tour for his 900-page memoir My Life to be published on June 22.
    (SFC, 6/4/04, A2)
2004        Nov 18, In Little Rock, Ark., an estimated 30,000 guests attended the opening of the Clinton Presidential Center, the $165 million glass-and-steel home of artifacts and documents gathered during Clinton's eight years in the White House.
    (AP, 11/18/04)
2009        Aug 4, In North Korea former US Pres. Bill Clinton met with North Korean leader Kim Jong Il on the first day of a surprise visit to Pyongyang, with the "exhaustive" talks covering a wide range of topics. Clinton was in communist North Korea on a mission to secure the release of Americans , who were arrested along the Chinese-North Korean border in March and sentenced in June to 12 years of hard labor for illegal entry and engaging in "hostile acts." After 140 days in custody, the reporters were granted a pardon by North Korea.
    (AP, 8/4/09)(AP, 8/5/09)
2010        Ken Gormley authored The Death of American Virtue: Clinton vs. Starr.
    (SSFC, 2/21/10, p.F1)

#43 George W. Bush (2001-2008)

1941        Jan 30, Dick Cheney was born in Lincoln, Neb. He served as chief of staff for Pres. Ford from 1975-1977. He was a US Rep. From 1979-1989 and served as the Sec. of Defense for pres. George H.W. Bush from 1989-1993. From 1995 to 2000 he served as the CEO of Halliburton Corp. and in 2000 was chosen by Gov. George W. Bush as a running mate.
    (WSJ, 7/26/00, p.A28)
1946        Jul 6, George Walker Bush Jr., Gov-R-TX, US Pres., was born.
    (MC, 7/6/02)
1986        Sep 19, Harken Energy agreed to acquire Spectrum 7 Energy Corp., a Texas oil and gas company where George W. Bush was chairman, for 200,000 shares and a consulting salary. Bush became a Harken board member and a $100,000-a-year ($120,000-a-year) consultant. In 1989 Harken sold 80% of its Aloha petroleum subsidiary to a group of insiders. An SEC investigation pointed to disguised Harken losses of $8 million.
    (SFC, 7/9/02, p.A12)(WSJ, 10/9/02, p.A4)
1986        Oct 15, Harvard Univ. agreed to buy 1.35 million shares of Harken Energy for $2 million and to invest $20 million in Harken projects. George W. Bush served as a Harken board member and paid consultant.
    (WSJ, 10/9/02, p.A4)
1990        Jun 22, George W. Bush, a director of Harken Energy Corp., a Texas oil company, sold 212,140 shares at $4 per share just before huge losses were reported. Corporate disclosure of the sale was filed months later.
    (SFC, 7/4/02, p.A1)(SFC, 7/9/02, p.A12)(WSJ, 7/10/02, p.A8)
1990        Jun 30, Harken Energy reported a $23 million 2nd quarter loss.
    (SSFC, 7/28/02, p.A19)
1990        Nov 30, Harken Energy transferred $20 million in debt to a Harvard partnership, and eliminated another $16 million in debt by transferring assets to Harvard. George W. Bush served as a Harken board member and paid consultant.
    (WSJ, 10/9/02, p.A4)
1991        Mar 4, George W. Bush notified the SEC about his 1990 sale of Harken stock.
    (SSFC, 7/28/02, p.A19)
1995-2000    Dick Cheney, former Sec. of Defense, served as CEO of Halliburton Corp. He brought in some $1 billion in federal contracts.
    (SSFC, 7/28/02, p.A19)
1999        Mar 2, Texas Governor George W. Bush announced he was forming a presidential exploratory committee.
    (AP, 3/2/00)
1999          Aug 14, Gov. George Bush, Republican presidential candidate, won the Iowa Straw Poll with Steve Forbes 2nd and Elizabeth Dole 3rd.
    (SFEC, 8/15/99, p.A1)(AP, 8/14/00)
2000        Jan 4, Former presidential rival Elizabeth Dole endorsed fellow Republican George W. Bush.
    (AP, 1/4/01)
2000        Feb 1, Republican John McCain won the New Hampshire primary over George W. Bush, Steve Forbes and Alan Keyes 49.5 to 31 to 12.9 to 6.5%. Democrat Al Gore won over Bill Bradley 52.1 to 47.8%.
    (SFC, 2/2/00, p.A1,19)(SSFC, 1/25/04, p.A19)
2000        Feb 8, George W. Bush won the Delaware Republican primary with 51% of the vote.
    (SFC, 2/9/00, p.A3)
2000        Feb 15, Republican presidential rivals George W. Bush and John McCain fought over campaign financing and the tenor of their nomination contest in a testy debate in Columbia, South Carolina, that included Alan Keyes.
    (AP, 2/15/01)
2000        Mar 4, Ahead of Super Tuesday, Republican presidential candidate George W. Bush charged John McCain with "clouded" education views while the Arizona senator asked "Where the outrage?" over a late surge of money to pay for negative TV ads.
    (AP, 3/4/01)
2000        May 23, Two weeks before a US-Russia arms summit, presidential candidate George W. Bush said he would slash Americas nuclear arsenal as part of a broad national security review that would call for a missile-defense system.
    (AP, 5/23/01)
2000        Jul 10, Texas Governor George W. Bush, facing a skeptical audience, told the NAACP convention in Baltimore that "the party of Lincoln has not always carried the mantle of Lincoln," and promised to work to improve relations.
    (AP, 7/10/01)
2000        Jul 25, Presidential candidate George W. Bush announced Former Defense Sec. Dick Cheney as his running mate.
    (SFC, 7/25/00, p.A1)
2000        Jul 26, George W. Bush and his just-chosen running mate, Dick Cheney, set out on their first campaign excursion together as they visited Cheneys former hometown of Casper, Wyoming.
    (AP, 7/26/01)
2000        Jul 31, The Republican national convention opened in Philadelphia, with George W. Bushs name put into nomination for president.
    (SFEC, 7/30/00, p.A1)(AP, 7/31/01)
2000        Aug 2, Republicans awarded Texas Governor George W. Bush their 2000 presidential nomination at the partys convention in Philadelphia and ratified Dick Cheney as his running mate.
    (AP, 8/2/01)
2000        Aug 3, George W. Bush accepted the Republican presidential nomination at the partys convention in Philadelphia with a 52 minute speech He presented himself as an outsider who would return "civility and respect" to Washington politics.
    (SFC, 8/4/00, p.A1)(AP, 8/3/01)
2000        Aug 4, Fresh from the Republican national convention in Philadelphia, GOP presidential nominee George W. Bush and running mate Dick Cheney began an air and rail tour of four swing states: Pennsylvania, Ohio, Michigan and Illinois. For his part, Democratic presidential candidate Al Gore mocked the Republican gathering as a special-interests-sponsored sham.
    (AP, 8/4/01)
2000        Sep 3, The presidential candidates squabbled over debate schedules as Republican George W. Bush announced he had accepted three prime-time sessions. Democrat Al Gore rejected the plan, saying the formats proposed by Bush could limit the audience and amount of face-to-face debate time.
    (AP, 9/3/01)
2000        Nov 7, In US elections Al Gore conceded to George Bush and then retracted his concession based on an early prediction of the vote in Florida, which was reversed as too close to call. Hillary Clinton won the NY Senate seat. In 2001 Bill Sammon authored "At Any Cost: How Al Gore Tried to Steal the Election" and Alan M Dershowitz authored ""Supreme Injustice: How the High Court Hijacked Election 2000." Gore lost to Bush despite receiving over 500,000 more votes.
    (SFC, 11/8/00, p.A1)(WSJ, 11/8/00, p.A1)(WSJ, 6/18/01, p.A17)(Econ, 2/9/13, p.31)
2000        Nov 7, George Bush won Colorado by 8% points. Ralph Nader took over 5% of the vote.
    (Econ, 8/28/04, p.30)
2000        Nov 7, George Bush won New Hampshire by 1.27%.
    (Econ, 7/3/04, p.27)
2000        Nov 8, A statewide recount began in Florida, which emerged as critical in deciding the winner of the 2000 presidential election. 19,000 votes were reported disqualified in West Palm Beach. Early that day, Vice President Al Gore telephoned Texas Gov. George W. Bush to concede, but called back about an hour later to retract his concession.
    (SFC, 11/9/00, p.A1)(AP, 11/8/01)
2000        Nov 9, George W. Bush's lead over Al Gore in all-or-nothing Florida slipped beneath 300 votes in a suspense-filled recount, as Democrats threw the presidential election to the courts, claiming "an injustice unparalleled in our history."
    (AP, 11/9/01)
2000        Nov 13, The vote count in Florida was set to conclude though absentee ballots remained. Lawyers for George W. Bush failed to win a court order barring manual recounts of ballots in Florida. Florida Secretary of State Katherine Harris announced she would end the recounting at 5 p.m. the next day - prompting an immediate appeal by lawyers for Al Gore.
    (WSJ, 11/13/00, p.A1)(AP, 11/13/01)
2000        Nov 15, Al Gore made a surprise proposal for a statewide hand recount of Florida's 6 million ballots - an idea immediately rejected by George W. Bush. Earlier, Florida Secretary of State Katherine Harris had rejected requests from 4 counties to update presidential vote totals with the results of hand recounts under way at Gore's urging.
    (SFC, 11/16/00, p.A1)(AP, 11/15/01)
2000        Nov 21, In a setback for George W. Bush, the Florida Supreme Court granted Al Gore's request to keep the presidential recounts going; Democrats were jubilant, Republicans bitter and angry. The Florida Supreme Court issued a 42-page unanimous decision that called for the recount in 3 counties to continue and that results be posted no later than 9 a.m. Nov 27.
    (SFC, 11/22/00, p.A1)(AP, 11/21/01)
2000        Nov 26, Sec. of State Katherine Harris certified Gov. George W. Bush as winner in the states presidential election, 2,912,790 to 2,912,253, a 537-vote margin. Ralph Nader received 97,488 votes.
    (SFC, 11/27/00, p.A1)(AP, 11/26/01)(Econ, 7/24/04, p.32)
2000        Nov 30, Gov. Bush proceeded with transition plans as Al Gore asked a Florida judge to begin an immediate review of 13,000 ballots from Palm Beach and Dade counties. GOP lawmakers in Tallahassee moved to award the presidency to George W. Bush in case the courts did not by appointing their own slate of electors.
    (SFC, 12/1/00, p.A1)(AP, 11/30/01)
2000        Dec 2, Al Gore sought a recount in south Florida, while George W. Bush flatly asserted, "I'm soon to be the president" and met with GOP congressional leaders.
    (AP, 12/2/01)
2000        Dec 7, Al Gore's lawyer, David Boies, pleaded with the Florida Supreme Court to order vote recounts and revive his presidential campaign. Republican attorneys called George W. Bush the certified, rightful victor.
    (WSJ, 12/6/00, p.A1)(AP, 12/7/01)
2000        Dec 12, The US Supreme Court decided 5-4 to block all ballot recounts and effectively secured the presidency for Gov. George W. Bush. A later review of the ballots suggested that George W. bush would have won anyway. The high court agreed, 7-to-2, to reverse the Florida court's order of a state recount and voted 5-to-4 that there was no acceptable procedure by which a timely new recount could take place.
    (SFC, 12/13/00, p.A1)(WSJ, 11/12/01, p.A1)(AP, 12/12/01)
2000        Dec 14, President-elect George W. Bush conferred by phone with congressional leaders of both parties and planned a goodwill tour of Washington, D.C.; he also received a flood of congratulatory calls from world leaders on his first full day as president-elect.
    (AP, 12/14/01)
2000        Dec 16, Pres.-elect Bush chose retired Gen. Colin Powell (63) to become the 65th Sec. of State, the 1st African American to hold that post.
    (SFC, 12/16/00, p.A1)(SSFC, 12/17/00, p.A1)
2000        Dec 17, Pres.-elect Bush named Condoleeza Rice (46) of Stanford to be his national security advisor and Texas Supreme Court Justice Alberto Gonzales as White House counsel.
    (SFC, 12/18/00, p.A1)(AP, 12/17/01)
2000        Dec 20, Pres.-elect Bush appointed Paul ONeill (65) as head of the Treasury Dept., Ann Veneman (51) as Sec. of Agriculture, Mel Martinez (54) as Sec. of Housing and Urban Development, and Don Evans (54) as Sec of Commerce. Andrew Card (53) was appointed his Chief of Staff and Karen Hughes (43) as Communications Director.
    (SFC, 12/21/00, p.A23)
2000        Dec 22, Pres.-elect Bush named Sen. John Ashcroft of Missouri to become US Attorney General, and Gov. Christie Todd Whitman of New Jersey as head of the EPA.
    (SFC, 12/23/00, p.A1)
2000        Dec 28, Pres.-elect Bush picked Donald Rumsfeld (68) as Sec. of Defense. Rumsfeld had served in the same position under Pres. Ford.
    (SFC, 12/29/00, p.A3)
2000        Dec 29, Pres.-elect Bush filled four more Cabinet slots, tapping Wisconsin Gov. Tommy Thompson as head of the Dept. of Health and Human Services.  Thompson was soon criticized for his ties to tobacco interests. Colorado Attorney General Gale A. Norton was nominated as interior secretary, Houston schools chief Rod Paige as secretary of education and Anthony J. Principi to return as secretary to the Department of Veterans Affairs.
    (SFC, 12/30/00, p.A1)(SFC, 1/11/01, p.A15)(AP, 12/29/01)
2001        Jan 2, Pres.-elect Bush chose Spencer Abraham of Michigan as Sec. of Energy; Linda Chavez as Sec. of labor; and Norm Mineta, Pres. Clintons Commerce Sec., as Sec. of Transportation. Chavez ended up withdrawing after it was disclosed she had given money and shelter to an illegal immigrant who once did chores around Chavez's house.
    (SFC, 1/3/01, p.A1)(AP, 1/2/02)
2001        Jan 7, President-elect George W. Bush's transition team acknowledged that Labor Secretary-designate Linda Chavez had provided housing and financial aid to an illegal immigrant. Chavez ended up withdrawing her nomination.
    (AP, 1/7/02)
2001        Jan 10, President-elect Bush moved quickly in search of a new candidate for labor secretary after the abrupt withdrawal of his first choice, Linda Chavez. Bush and his national security team received a top-secret Pentagon briefing on military challenges around the world.
    (AP, 1/10/02)
2001        Jan 11, Pres.-elect Bush chose Elaine Chao , a former head of the peace Corps and United Way, to serve as secretary of labor after Linda Chavez withdrew. Bush chose Robert Zoellick to be the US trade representative.
    (SFC, 1/12/01, p.A1,12)(AP, 1/11/02)
2001        Jan 15, President-elect Bush marked the Martin Luther King Jr. holiday at an elementary school in Houston, where he promised wary black Americans: "My job will be to listen not only to the successful, but also to the suffering."
    (AP, 1/15/02)
2001        Jan 20, George Bush, the 1st president with an MBA, was inaugurated as the nations 43rd president in Washington DC. The "compassionate conservative" vowed to lead "through civility, courage, compassion and character."
    (SFC, 1/20/01, p.A1)(SSFC, 1/21/01, p.A1)
2001        Jan 20, Pres. Bush suspended all late-term executive orders issued by Pres. Clinton.
    (SSFC, 1/21/01, p.A5)
2001        Jan 20, Some 25,000 protesters gathered in Washington DC for the inauguration of Pres. Bush along with some 7,000 police.
    (SSFC, 1/21/01, p.A4)
2001        Jan 23, Pres. Bush proposed his No Child Left Behind (NCLB) education reform program. It was signed into law on Jan 8, 2002.
    (Econ, 6/11/05, p.28)(
2001        Jan 26, Pres. Bush renewed his pledge to build a missile defense system and to reduce the nuclear arsenal.
    (SFC, 1/27/01, p.A3)
2001        Jan 28, Marc Rich, fugitive financier pardoned by outgoing Pres. Clinton, said he would return to the US to face tax evasion charges.
    (SSFC, 12/30/01, p.D2)
2001        Jan 29, President Bush promised to "act boldly and swiftly" to address the nation's energy problems, and directed Vice President Dick Cheney to head a task force to develop an energy strategy.
    (AP, 1/29/02)
2001        Jan 29, Pres. Bush signed an executive order creating a new white House Office of Faith-based and Community Initiatives.
    (SFC, 1/30/01, p.A1)
2001        Feb 1, John Ashcroft won confirmation as attorney general on a 58-42 Senate vote, completing President George W. Bush's Cabinet over strong Democratic opposition.
    (AP, 2/1/02)
2001        Feb 5, Flanked by a jumbo refund-check stage prop, President George W. Bush asked Americans to get behind his proposed tax cuts.
    (AP, 2/5/02)
2001        Feb 5, Pres. Bush met with Canadian PM Jean Chretien at the White House for a get-acquainted session.
    (SFC, 2/6/01, p.A8)
2001        Feb 8, President Bush sent his proposed $1.6 trillion, 10-year tax cut plan to Congress.
    (SFC, 2/9/01, p.A1)(AP, 2/8/02)
2001        Feb 13, Pres. Bush nominated Gov. Paul Cellucci as ambassador to Canada and cleared the way for Jane Swift to become 1st female governor of Massachusetts.
    (SFC, 2/14/01, p.A7)
2001        Feb 15, President Bush said the Pentagon should review its policy on civilian participation in military exercises like the emergency ascent drill a Navy submarine was performing when it sank a Japanese fishing vessel off Hawaii.
    (AP, 2/15/02)
2001        Feb 16, Pres. Bush on his first foreign trip met with Pres. Fox in Mexico. They announced a joint agenda to expand trade, protect immigrant rights and reduce drug trafficking.
    (SFC, 2/17/01, p.A1)(AP, 2/16/02)
2001        Feb 17, Pres. Bush named John Negroponte (62) as the next US ambassador to the UN.
    (SSFC, 2/18/01, p.D5)
2001        Feb 19, President George W. Bush opened a museum commemorating the 1995 Oklahoma City bombing.
    (AP, 2/19/02)
2001        Feb 22, President Bush held his first full-fledged presidential news conference, in which he defended his tax-cutting and budget-tightening plans and gave FBI director Louis Freeh a vote of confidence following the arrest of veteran agent Robert Hanssen on spying charges.
    (AP, 2/22/02)
2001        Feb 23, Pres. Bush opened a two-day summit with British Prime Minister Tony Blair at Camp David. They endorsed a European rapid-action force as long as it is secondary to NATO.
    (SFC, 2/24/01, p.A3)(AP, 2/23/02)
2001        Feb 23, Defense Secretary Donald Rumsfeld ordered an indefinite moratorium on civilian visitors operating military equipment, a possible factor in the collision of a U.S. submarine collision with a Japanese fishing boat.
    (AP, 2/23/02)
2001        Feb 27, President Bush went before Congress with a $1.9 trillion spending plan that would sharply reduce growth in many government programs while leaving room to give Americans the biggest tax cut in two decades.
    (SFC, 2/28/01, p.A1)(AP, 2/27/02)
2001        Mar 4, President George W. Bush dedicated a $4 billion aircraft carrier in honor of former President Reagan.
    (AP, 3/4/02)
2001        Mar 7, Pres. Bush met with South Koreas Pres. Kim Dae Jung and said he did not plan to resume talks with North Korea.
    (WSJ, 3/8/01, p.A1)
2001        Mar 10, President George W. Bush told Americans in his Saturday radio address that he thought support for tax relief was building, while opening the door to considering a different sort of cut than he had proposed and Democrats deplored.
    (AP, 3/10/02)
2001        Mar 13, Pres. Bush backed off from seeking reductions in carbon dioxide emissions due to projected higher energy costs from a shift from coal to natural gas.
    (SFC, 3/14/01, p.A1)
2001        Mar 19, Pres. Bush met with Japanese Prime Minister Yoshiro Mori. They did not come up with any specific measures to revive economic growth.
    (SFC, 3/20/01, p.A10)
2001        Mar 20, Pres. Bush met with Israels Ariel Sharon and urged him avoid provocative acts.
    (SFC, 3/21/01, p.A12)
2001        Mar 22, Pres. Bush met with Chinese Deputy Premier Qian Qichen and said the US would support Taiwans military needs.
    (WSJ, 3/23/01, p.A1)
2002        Mar 23, Pres. Bush met with Pres. Toledo in Lima, Peru, and called for a "war without quarter" against terrorism and drug trafficking in the region. 18 demonstrators were arrested.
    (SSFC, 3/24/02, p.A17)
2001        Mar 29, Pres. Bush met with German Chancellor Gerhard Schroeder, who disagreed with Bushs opposition to the 1997 Kyoto global-warming accord. It was later revealed that the 2 men agreed to withhold aid from Russia until corruption ceased.
    (SFC, 3/30/01, p.A9)(WSJ, 5/22/01, p.A1)
2001        Mar 29, Pres. Bush urged Israel to use restraint in military actions and instructed Sec. of State Colin Powell to call Yasser Arafat with the message to stop Palestinian violence.
    (SFC, 3/30/01, p.A16)
2001        Mar 30, The Bush administration suspended a late Clinton rule that directed federal agencies to assess whether prospective contractors had violated federal laws.
    (SFC, 3/31/01, p.A3)
2001        Apr 2, Pres. Bush demanded that the Chinese release the US Navy crew and spy plane that had made an emergency landing on Chinas Hainan Island after colliding with a Chinese fighter.
    (SFC, 4/3/01, p.A1)(WSJ, 4/3/01, p.A1)(AP, 4/2/02)
2001        Apr 2, Pres. Bush met with Egypts Pres. Mubarek and both pledged to continue searching for an end to Middle East violence.
    (WSJ, 4/3/01, p.A1)
2001        Apr 3, President Bush warned China it risked damaging relations with the United States unless it quickly released the American crew of a damaged Navy spy plane. The plane had made an emergency landing in China after colliding with a Chinese fighter.
    (AP, 4/3/02)
2001        Apr 5, The United States and China intensified negotiations for the release of an American spy plane's crew; President Bush, in a conciliatory gesture, expressed regret over the plane's Apr 1 in-flight collision with a Chinese fighter that triggered the tense standoff.
    (SFC, 4/6/01, p.A1)(AP, 4/5/02)
2001        Apr 9, President George W. Bush sent Congress details of his $1.96 trillion budget for fiscal 2002, in which he targeted scores of federal programs to make room for his 10-year, $1.6 trillion tax cut.
    (AP, 4/9/02)
2001        Apr 10, Pres. Bush met with Jordans King Abdullah and both agreed that ending violence in the Middle East was the main goal for the region.
    (WSJ, 4/11/01, p.A1)
2001        Apr 12, Pres. Bush blamed the Chinese for the midair collision of the US spy plane and a Chinese jet and rebuffed demands to end reconnaissance flights off the coast of China.
    (SFC, 4/13/01, p.A1)
2001        Apr 20, President Bush attended his first international summit as leaders of the Western Hemisphere's 34 democracies met in Quebec to advance plans to create the world's largest free-trade zone; police in riot gear clashed with protesters. Protestors pushed to interrupt the Summit of the Americas and held that the free trade efforts put corporate interests ahead of workers, human rights and the environment.
    (SFC, 4/21/01, p.A1)(AP, 4/20/02)
2001        Apr 23, Pres. Bush decided to sell Taiwan older ships and planes, but not the advanced Aegis radar system.
    (SFC, 4/24/01, p.A1)
2001        Apr 24, Pres. Bush said that the annual process of selling arms to Taiwan, a US policy since 1982, would end. China condemned the recent $5 billion arms sale.
    (SFC, 4/25/01, p.A9)
2001        Apr 25, In unusually blunt terms, President Bush warned China that an attack on Taiwan could provoke a U.S. military response.
    (AP, 4/25/02)
2001        May 1, Pres. Bush committed the US to a missile defense shield. He also presented his case for withdrawing from the 1972 Anti-Ballistic Missile Treaty with Russia.
    (SFC, 5/2/01, p.A1)(WSJ, 5/2/01, p.A1)(AP, 5/1/02)
2001        May 2, President Bush and Republican congressional leaders clinched a budget deal embracing most of the president's tax and spending goals.
    (AP, 5/2/02)
2001        May 3, Pres. Bush met with Pres. Fox of Mexico and discussed temporary visas for Mexican workers and plans for long-range energy development.
    (SFC, 5/4/01, p.D3)
2001        May 9, Pres. Bush told Pres. Kostunica of Yugoslavia that aid would depend on cooperation with the Balkan war crimes tribunal.
    (SFC, 5/10/01, p.A16)
2001        May 17, President Bush unveiled his energy plan, bracing Americans for a summer of blackouts, layoffs, business closings and skyrocketing fuel costs and warning of "a darker future" without his aggressive plans to drill for more oil and gas and rejuvenate nuclear power.
    (AP, 5/17/02)
2001        May 23, Pres. Bush banned the import of rough diamonds from Liberia in an effort to deprive rebels in Sierra Leone of a source of funds.
    (SFC, 5/24/01, p.C3)
2001        May 23, Pres. Bush met with the Dalai Lama as China condemned the Taiwan presidents visit to NYC.
    (WSJ, 5/24/01, p.A1)
2001        May 26, Republicans and moderate Democrats drove a sweeping $1.35 trillion, 10-year tax cut through Congress, handing President Bush a political triumph. Some 100 million refund checks were due to be mailed out by Oct 1.
    (SSFC, 5/27/01, p.A1)(AP, 5/26/02)
2001        May 28, President Bush honored America's veterans with the Memorial Day signing of legislation to construct a World War II monument on the National Mall.
    (SFC, 5/29/01, p.A3)(AP, 5/28/02)
2001        May 29, Pres. Bush met with Gov. Davis in Los Angeles. Bush ruled out federal price controls and Davis said he would sue to impose controls.
    (SFC, 5/30/01, p.A1)(AP, 5/29/02)
2001        Aug 27, The Bush administration confirmed that Sec. of State Colin Powell would not attend the UN conference on racism in Durban, South Africa.
    (SFC, 8/28/01, p.A6)
2001        May 30, Pres. Bush spoke from Sequoia National Park and renewed his campaign promise to spend $4.9 billion to restore the nations national parks and to protect "these works of God" and other natural treasures from mankind.
    (SFC, 5/31/01, p.A1)(AP, 5/30/02)
2001        Jul 5, Pres. Bush appointed Robert S. Mueller III, a US attorney in SF, as the new head of the FBI. If confirmed he would become the 9th director.
    (SFC, 7/6/01, p.A1)(WSJ, 7/6/01, p.A1)
2001        Jul 18, Pres. Bush landed in England to meet with PM Tony Blair prior to the G-8 summit in Genoa.
    (SFC, 7/19/01, p.A10)
2001        Jul 22, Pres. Bush and Pres. Putin agreed to link discussions of US plans for a missile defense system with the prospect of large cuts in their nuclear arsenals.
    (SFC, 7/23/01, p.A1)
2001        Jul 22, President Bush and other world leaders closed out a summit in Genoa, Italy, with a vow to wage a united attack on global poverty and disease. They failed, however, to resolve a sharp dispute over global warming.
    (AP, 7/22/02)
2001        Jul 23, Pres. Bush met with Pope John Paul II at Castel Gandolfo, Italy, and was urged to reject the use of human embryos for stem cell research.
    (SFC, 7/24/01, p.A1)(AP, 7/23/02)
2001        Aug 6, US intelligence told Pres. Bush that al Qaeda might try to hijack American planes. The document "Bin Laden Determined to Strike in US" was presented to Bush while he was on vacation in Crawford, Texas.
    (SFC, 5/17/02, p.A1)(WSJ, 4/9/04, p.A3)(SSFC, 4/11/04, p.A1)
2001        Aug 9, Pres. Bush announced that he would allow taxpayer dollars to be used for stem cell research limited to some 5 dozen existing stem cell lines.
    (SFC, 8/10/01, p.A1)(WSJ, 8/10/01, p.A1)
2001        Aug 11, In his weekly radio address, President Bush said his decision to restrict but not forbid federal financing of embryonic stem cell research placed him at the crossroads between protecting and enhancing human life.
    (AP, 8/11/02)
2001        Aug 24, President Bush blamed the slumping economy for the shrinking budget surplus, rather than his tax cut, and said it was up to Congress to restrain spending.
    (AP, 8/24/02)
2001        Aug 26, President Bush admitted he was worried about the economy's "paltry" growth and, without making promises, assured steel company executives and workers that protecting domestic steel was a national security priority.
    (AP, 8/26/02)
2001        Aug 27, The Bush administration confirmed that Sec. of State Colin Powell would not attend the UN conference on racism in Durban, South Africa.
    (SFC, 8/28/01, p.A6)
2001        Sep 4, President Bush opened the door to a future cut in the capital gains tax, but said he first wanted to see the effects of the previous spring's income tax cut.
    (AP, 9/4/02)
2001        Sep 6, Pres. Bush named John Danforth as a special envoy to broker a peace agreement in Sudans civil war.
    (SFC, 9/7/01, p.A14)
2001        Sep 6, In a dramatic shift, the Bush administration abandoned the Clinton-era effort to break up Microsoft.
    (AP, 9/6/02)
2001        Sep 10, The Bush administration designated the Colombian paramilitary group, the United Self-Defense Forces (AUC), as a terrorist group.
    (SFC, 9/11/01, p.B1)
2001        Sep 12, Pres. Bush called Tuesdays terrorist attacks "acts of war." Stunned rescue workers continued to search for bodies in the World Trade Center's smoking rubble a day after a terrorist attack that shut down the financial capital, badly damaged the Pentagon and left thousands dead. The US began building a broad intl. coalition for a possible military retaliation against those responsible for the terrorist attacks on Sep 11. Federal authorities said followers of Osama bin Laden were responsible for airline hijackings directed at NYC and the Pentagon. The US air system remained grounded and financial markets closed.
    (SFC, 9/13/01, p.A1,16)(AP, 9/12/02)
2001        Sep 13,  Pres. Bush asked Congress for powers to wage war against an unidentified enemy. Bush called the terrorist attacks in New York and Washington "the first war of the 21st century" as his administration labeled fugitive Osama bin Laden a prime suspect. The United States promised to wage all-out retaliation against those responsible and any regime that protected them. Jetliners returned to the nation's skies for the first time in two days, carrying nervous passengers who faced strict new security measures.
    (SFC, 9/14/01, p.A1)(AP, 9/13/02)
2001        Sep 15, Pres. Bush stated: We are planning a broad and sustained campaign to secure our country and eradicate the evil or terrorism. Bush ordered US troops to get ready for war and braced Americans for a long, difficult assault against terrorists to avenge the Sept. 11 attacks. US Congress approved a resolution authorizing Bush to use all necessary and appropriated force against anyone associated with the 9/11 terrorist attacks.
    (SSFC, 9/16/01, p.A1)(AP, 9/15/06)(SSFC, 3/16/08, p.A8)
2001        Oct 12, US Attorney General John Ashcroft urged federal agencies to resist most Freedom of Information Act requests made by American citizens. The act was passed in 1974 during the Watergate scandal
    (SSFC, 1/6/02, p.D4)
2001        Oct 26, Pres. Bush signed a sweeping anti-terrorism bill into law. It gave police and intelligence agencies vast new powers to fight terrorism. The USA Patriot Act included Section 215 that gave the FBI authority to obtain library and bookstore records without evidence of wrongdoing. It allowed the government to detain aliens without public acknowledgement. Section 311 gave the Treasury sweeping powers to act against those who facilitate financial crime.
    (SFC, 10/27/01, p.A3,6)(SSFC, 6/23/02, p.A5)(SSFC, 12/22/02, p.A5)(Econ, 6/6/15, p.67)
2001        Nov 1, President Bush issued Executive Order 13233 allowing past presidents, beginning with Ronald Reagan in 1980, to have as much say as incumbent presidents in keeping some of their White House papers private.
    (SSFC, 1/6/02, p.D4)(AP, 11/1/02)(SFC, 1/21/08, p.C5)
2001        Nov 9, The US Federal Election Committee voted 6-0 to recognize the Green Party as a national committee.
    (SSFC, 11/11/01, p.A15)
2001        Nov 19, Pres. Bush signed airport security legislation that required programs for the inspection of air travel checked baggage within 60 days.
    (SFC, 11/20/01, p.A1)(WSJ, 11/20/01, p.A1)
2001        Dec 4, Pres. Bush announced the seizure of assets and records of the Holy Land foundation for Relief and Development based in Richardson, Texas, due to suspected ties with Hamas.
    (SFC, 12/5/01, p.A16)
2001        Dec 4, The Bush administration ordered tons of PCBs removed from the upper Hudson River. Dredging was expected to cost GE $500 million.
    (SFC, 12/5/01, p.A6)
2001        Dec 17, The Bush administration announced that the anthrax attacks most likely originated from a domestic source.
    (SFC, 12/18/01, p.A1)
2001        Dec 20, Pres. Bush marked the 100-day anniversary of Sep 11 by freezing the assets of 2 Pakistan-based groups suspected of terrorist support.
    (WSJ, 12/21/01, p.A1)
2001        Dec, Pres. Bush began meeting with Gen. Tommy Franks and his war cabinet to plan a US attack on Iraq.
    (SFC, 4/17/04, p.A1)
2001        Collection of telecommunication metadata by the National Security Agency (NSA) began in secret under Pres. George W. Bush.
    (, 11/28/15, p.A4)
2002        Jan 1, Pres. Bush announced that envoy Gen. Anthony Zinni would return to the Middle East to push for steps to renew peace talks.
    (SFC, 1/2/02, p.A9)
2002        Jan 8, Pres. Bush signed an education bill that tied federal aid to test performance.
    (WSJ, 1/9/02, p.A1)
2002        Jan 8, Pres. Bush signed an education bill that tied federal aid to test performance. It was the most far-reaching federal education bill in nearly 4 decades. Bushs No Child Left Behind (NCLB) program decreed that all students should by reading and doing math at age-appropriate levels by 2014.
    (WSJ, 1/9/02, p.A1)(AP, 1/8/03)(Econ, 8/13/11, p.28)
2002        Jan 8, The Bush administration sent a secret report to Congress, the "Nuclear Posture Review," that said the Pentagon needs to be prepared to use nuclear weapons against 7 nations: China, Russia, Iraq, North Korea, Syria, Iran, and Libya. A furor erupted when it was leaked to the press in March.
    (SFC, 3/9/02, p.A1)(SFC, 3/11/02, p.A3)
2002        Jan 23, Pres. Bush said he would ask for $48 billion in additional spending for the armed services next year. Federal deficits were expected for the next 2 years.
    (SFC, 1/24/02, p.A1)
2002        Jan 29, Pres. Bush made his 1st State of the Union address and declared that the "war against terror is only beginning." Bush singled out Iran, Iraq and North Korea as an "axis of evil." He also appealed to Americans to volunteer for community services.
    (SFC, 1/30/02, p.A1)(SFC, 1/31/02, p.A1)(SFC, 2/1/02, p.A3)
2002        Jan 31, The Bush administration said it would classify fetuses as "unborn children" making them eligible for government health care.
    (SFC, 2/1/02, p.A1)
2002        Feb 1, Pres. Bush named Jim Tower (45), former Florida Sec. of Health, to lead his initiative to give federal money to religious charities.
    (SFC, 2/2/02, p.A5)
2002        Feb 2, The Bush administration approved a $700 million grant to help rebuild lower Manhattan devastated by the Sep 11 terrorist attacks.
    (SSFC, 2/3/02, p.A13)
2002        Feb 4, Pres. Bush released his $2.13 trillion budget plan for the coming federal year. It included a 12% increase in military spending and cuts in highway and job training.
    (SSFC, 2/3/02, p.A1)(SFC, 2/5/02, p.A1)
2002        Feb 5, Pres. Bush promoted his call for $5.9 billion to be dedicated to bioterrorism preparedness as part of a $38 billion homeland defense.
    (SFC, 2/6/02, p.A13)
2002        Feb 7, Pres. Bush met with Israels PM Sharon and said he would continue to press the Palestinian Authority to crack down on terrorism. Bush rebuffed a plea to sever ties with Arafat.
    (SFC, 2/8/02, p.A8)(WSJ, 2/8/02, p.A1)
2002        Feb 8, Pres. Bush opened the 19th Winter Olympic Games as part of a 3-hour ceremony at Rice-Eccles Stadium at the Univ. of Utah campus.
    (SFC, 2/9/02, p.A1)
2002        Feb 12, Sec. of State Colin Powell said the Bush administration was considering a variety of options to topple Iraqs Saddam Hussein.
    (SFC, 2/12/02, p.A17)
2002        Feb 13, Pres. Bush welcomed Pres. Musharraf to the White House. Musharraf sought a revival of arms deals and relaxed tariffs on textiles. The Bush administration agreed to $142 million in trade benefits.
    (SFC, 2/14/02, p.A10)(SFC, 2/15/02, p.A14)
2002        Feb 14, Pres. Bush proposed an environmental plan that would encourage businesses to cut pollution and develop more energy-efficient technology.
    (SFC, 2/15/02, p.A5)
2002        Feb 15, Pres. Bush approved the Nevada Yucca Mountain site for nuclear waste. Nevada filed suit to block the decision.
    (SFC, 2/16/02, p.A7)
2002        Feb 16, Pres. Bush departed on a 6-day Asia trip.
    (SFC, 2/16/02, p.A3)
2002        Feb 17, Pres. Bush visited Japan and urged PM Koizum to act quickly on the restructure of the Japanese economy.
    (SFC, 2/18/02, p.A1)
2002        Feb 19, Pres. Bush urged the "despotic regime" in North Korea to reunite with the free South.
    (SFC, 2/20/02, p.A14)
2002        Feb 21, Pres. Bush met with Pres. Zemin in Beijing and both agreed to work on the reunification of North and South Korea. They disagreed over controls on exports of missile technology. Pres. Bush answered questions in a live broadcast and reaffirmed the US right to protect Taiwan.
    (SFC, 2/21/02, p.A12)(SFC, 2/22/02, p.A12)(WSJ, 2/22/02, p.A1)
2002        Mar 1, Pres. Bush approved plans to send some 100 US troops to Yemen to help train the nations military to fight terrorists.
    (SFC, 3/2/02, p.A14)
2002        Mar 5, Pres. Bush approved tariffs of 8-30% on several types of imported steel.
    (SFC, 3/6/02, p.A4)
2002        Mar 5, Pres. Bush planned to nominate Elias Zerhouni, vice dean of John Hopkins School of Medicine, as director of the NIH.
    (SFC, 3/6/02, p.A3)
2002        Mar 5, Pres. Bush met with Egypts Pres. Mubarek, who called for greater US involvement in seeking Middle East peace.
    (SFC, 3/5/02, p.A11)(SFC, 3/6/02, p.A13)
2002        Mar 11, Pres. Bush outlines a "second stage of the war on terror" in an address that marked the 6-months since the Sep 11 terrorist attacks.
    (SFC, 3/12/02, p.A1)
2002        Mar 12, The Bush administration announced a 5-color code system to alert Americans on the danger level posed by terrorists.
    (SFC, 3/13/02, p.A1)
2002        Mar 14, The Bush administration demanded that PM Ariel Sharon order a withdrawal from Palestinian controlled areas.
    (SFC, 3/15/02, p.A1)
2002        Mar 22, Pres. Bush addressed the UN meeting in Monterey, Mexico, and called on wealthy nations to link foreign aid to economic reform. Bush had already proposed an extra $10 billion over 3 years starting in 2004. US aid was about .01% of GDP as compared to 1% of GDP for Denmark.
    (SFC, 3/23/02, p.A1)(SSFC, 3/24/02, p.D3)
2002        Mar 25, The Bush administration released thousands of documents on its energy task force just before a midnight deadline. They showed that Spencer Abraham, Sec. of Energy, had relied almost exclusively on industry representatives with no input from conservation or environmental groups.
    (SFC, 3/26/02, p.A3)(SFC, 3/27/02, p.A3)
2002        Mar 26, Pres. Bush nominated Richard Carmona (52), a trauma surgeon from Arizona, as surgeon-general. Elias Zerhouni, a Johns Hopkins Univ. administrator, was nominated to the NIH.
    (SFC, 3/27/02, p.A3)
2002        Apr 1, Pres. Bush said he would sell Governors Island in NY Harbor to NY state and NYC for a nominal charge.
    (SFC, 4/2/02, p.A3)
2002        Apr 4, Pres. Bush demanded that Israel withdraw from West Bank cities and end settlement activity in occupied territories. He blasted Arafat and other Arab leaders for abetting terrorism and dispatched Sec. of State Colin Powell to push for a political settlement.
    (SFC, 4/5/02, p.A1,14)
2002        Apr 4, Pres. Bush responded to British TV journalist Trevor McDonalds question "Have you made up your mind that Iraq must be attacked?" by saying: "I made up my mind that Hussein needs to go."
    (SFC, 6/15/02, p.A13)
2002        Apr 6, Pres. Bush said Israel must withdraw its forces from Palestinian territory without delay.
    (SSFC, 4/7/02, p.A3)
2002        Apr 7, Pres. Bush ended weekend talks with Britains PM Tony Blair in Texas. Blair said he would back a US military action against Iraq.
    (SFC, 4/8/02, p.A9)
2002        Apr 25, Pres. Bush met with Saudi Crown Prince Abdullah, who told him bluntly that the US must temper its support of Israel. Abdullah gave Bush an 8-point proposal for Middle East peace.
    (SFC, 4/26/02, p.A1)
2002        May 7, Pres. Bush met with PM Ariel Sharon. They called for sweeping changes to Palestinian governing institutions and a new Palestinian security service but they failed to agree on many other issues.
    (SFC, 5/8/02, p.A18)
2002        May 13, Pres. Bush signed the farm subsidy bill, which increased federal payments by some $83 billion over the next 10 years. It was passed to help farmers cope with low commodity prices.
    (WSJ, 5/9/02, p.A1)(SFC, 5/14/02, p.A5)
2002        May 20, Pres. Bush marked Cuban Independence Day with a speech that offered Cuba greater economic and political ties in exchange for free and transparent elections and an open economy.
    (WSJ, 5/20/02, p.A3)(SFC, 5/21/02, p.A3)
2002        May 22, Pres. Bush arrived in Berlin on a 7-day trip to 4 countries.
    (SFC, 5/23/02, p.A10)
2002        May 23, Pres. Bush at a Berlin press conference said that he expects Pres. Putin to "get on board" with Americas hard-line policy toward Iran and Iraq. Bush also addressed the German Parliament and said terrorist groups constitute a "new totalitarian threat," and then flew on to Moscow.
    (SFC, 5/24/02, p.A1)
2002        May 24, Presidents Bush and Putin signed the Treaty of Moscow, an agreement to reduce nuclear stockpiles by two-thirds over the next 10 years.
    (SFC, 5/25/02, p.A1)
2002        May 25, Pres. Bush and Putin pressured Pakistans Pres. Musharraf to stop incursions into Indian-controlled Kashmir.
    (SSFC, 5/26/02, p.A12)
2002        May 26, President Bush visited Paris, where he met with French President Jacques Chirac.
    (AP, 5/26/03)
2002        May 28, Pres. Bush met with Pope John Paul II in Vatican City and expressed his worries on the sex scandals in the US involving Catholic clergy.
    (SFC, 5/29/02, p.A8)
2002        May 29, Pres. Bush moved to prevent oil drilling off the Florida coast and in the Everglades. Payments of $115  and $120 million would be made to buy back drilling rights. Florida Gov. Jeb Bush said it was good public policy.
    (SFC, 5/30/02, p.A3)
2002        Jun 18, Pres. Bush sent to Congress his detailed proposal for creation of a new Homeland Security Department.
    (AP, 6/18/03)
2002        Jun 24, Pres. Bush outlined his blueprint for peace in the Middle East. His statement included a call on Palestinians to replace Yasser Arafat with leaders "not compromised by terror" and adopt democratic reforms that could produce an independent state within three years.
    (SFC, 6/25/02, p.A1)(AP, 6/24/03)
2002        Jul 5, Pres. Bush telephoned Afghan Pres. Hamid Karzai to express condolences for the deaths of Afghan civilians killed in a US bombing 4 days earlier that killed 48 civilians.
    (AP, 7/5/03)
2002        Jul 9, Speaking in New York, President Bush called for doubled prison terms and aggressive policing to combat fraud and corruption in corporate America.
    (SFC, 7/10/02, p.A1)(AP, 7/9/03)
2002        Jul 12, The Bush administration expected a $165 billion deficit mainly due to a falloff in tax revenues from stock market capital gains.
    (SFC, 7/13/02, p.A1)
2002        Jul 23, Pres. Bush signed legislation designating Nevada's Yucca Mountain as the nation's nuclear waste repository.
    (WSJ, 7/24/02, p.A1)
2002        Jul 30, President Bush signed into law the most far-reaching government crackdown on business fraud since the Depression. The Sarbanes-Oxley Act, named after sponsors Paul Sarbanes and Mike Oxley, was signed into law in response to corporate scandals. Its rules included the independence of corporate directors requirements for better internal monitoring. The law curbed stock option backdating by requiring prompt reporting of stock option grants. The Public Company Accounting Oversight Board (PCOAB) was established as part of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act. In 2006 the Free Enterprise Fund filed a suit claiming that the PCOAB is unconstitutional.
    (AP, 7/30/03)(WSJ, 7/22/03, p.B1)(Econ, 2/18/06, p.70)(WSJ, 12/27/06, p.A6)
2002        Aug 6, President Bush signed legislation restoring broad trade negotiating authority to US presidents. Bush signed the Trade Adjustment Assistance Reform Act (TAA) offering wage insurance to any trade displaced worker over 50.
    (AP, 8/6/03)(, 1/20/07, p.34)
2002        Aug 13, President Bush hosted a half-day economic forum at Baylor University in Waco, Texas, where he assured Americans that his administration had a steady hand on the economy.
    (AP, 8/13/03)
2002        Aug 15, President Bush, using Mount Rushmore as a dramatic backdrop, pressed Congress to give him a flexible, fast-moving homeland security department.
    (AP, 8/15/03)
2002        Aug 21, President Bush told reporters at his Texas ranch that ousting Iraq's Saddam Hussein was "in the interests of the world" but indicated the United States was in no hurry.
    (AP, 8/21/03)
2002        Aug 22, In Oregon President Bush proposed to end the government's "hands-off" policy in national forests and ease logging restrictions in fire-prone areas.
    (WSJ, 8/23/02, p.A1)(AP, 8/22/03)
2002        Aug 27, Pres. Bush met with Prince Bandar bin Sultan of Saudi Arabia, who said war with Iraq was not acceptable and that Saudi Arabia would not cooperate. Bush told the Saudi diplomat he had not yet decided whether to attack Iraq.
    (SFC, 8/28/02, p.A1)(AP, 8/27/03)
2002        Sep 3, Defense Secretary Donald H. Rumsfeld said the Bush administration had secret information supporting its claims that Saddam Hussein was close to developing nuclear weapons.
    (AP, 9/3/03)
2002        Sep 4, President Bush promised to seek Congress' approval for "whatever is necessary" to oust Saddam Hussein including using military force.
    (AP, 9/4/03)
2002        Sep 7, Pres. Bush met with British PM Tony Blair at Camp David, Md., to work out a strategy for taking action against Iraq's Saddam Hussein. They said the world had to act against Saddam Hussein, arguing that the Iraqi leader had defied the United Nations and reneged on promises to destroy weapons of mass destruction.
    (SSFC, 9/8/02, p.A3)(AP, 9/6/03)
2002        Sep 10, The Bush administration raised the nationwide terror alert to yellow, its second-highest level, closed nine U.S. embassies overseas and heightened security at federal buildings and landmarks in America on the eve of the Sept. 11 anniversary.
    (AP, 9/10/03)
2002        Sep 11, With words of comfort and resolve, President Bush joined the nation in remembering "how it began and who fell first" in the terrorist attacks one year earlier. Memorial ceremonies were tinged with fear the anniversary could spark repeat attacks.
    (Reuters, 9/11/02)(AP, 9/11/03)
2002        Sep 12, Pres. Bush addressed the UN and laid out his case against Iraq's Pres. Saddam Hussein. Bush told skeptical world leaders at the United Nations to confront the "grave and gathering danger" of Saddam Hussein's Iraq, or to stand aside as the United States acted. Bush was expected to announce US plans to rejoin Unesco, headquartered in Paris. France favored a demand for weapons inspectors in Iraq along with force if Iraq resisted.
    (WSJ, 9/12/02, p.A1,4)(SFC, 9/13/02, p.A1)(AP, 9/12/03)
2002        Sep 13, President Bush said it was "highly doubtful" that Saddam Hussein would comply with demands that he disarm and avoid a confrontation with the world community. And he mocked Democrats and other lawmakers who wanted UN action before a congressional vote on confronting Saddam.
    (AP, 9/13/03)
2002        Nov 20, Francoise Ducros, aide to PM Chretien of Canada, called Pres. Bush a moron during a private conversation in Prague.
    (SFC, 11/23/02, p.A1)
2002        Nov, North Korean leader Kim Jong Il in a private message to Pres. Bush said the US and North Korea "should be able to resolve the nuclear issue in compliance with the demands of the new century." The message was not disclosed until 2005.
    (AP, 6/22/05)
2002        Dec 12, Pres. Bush announced a series of regulatory changes to allow religious social-service organizations to receive more government grants and contracts.
    (SFC, 12/13/02, p.A3)
2002        Pres. Bush unveiled a new fund called the Millennium Challenge Account to fund honest governments pursuing sound economic policies. Its 1st grant, made to Madagascar on Apr 18, 2005, was for $110 million.
    (Econ, 4/23/05, p.75)
2003        Jan 7, Pres. Bush put forward a $674 billion "growth and jobs" economic stimulus plan that would provide tax relief to an estimated 92 million Americans by accelerating income tax rate cuts, wiping out all federal taxes on stock dividends paid to investors and boosting the child tax credit by $400 per child.
    (AP, 1/7/03)(SFC, 1/8/03, p.A1)
2003        Jan 8, Pres. Bush signed an emergency extension of federal unemployment benefits. It extended 26 weeks of state aid with 13 weeks of federal aid.
    (SFC, 1/9/03, p.A1)
2003        Jan 28, Pres. Bush in his State of the Union vowed to use the "full force and might of the U.S. military" if needed to disarm Saddam Hussein's Iraq. Bush pledged of $15 billion for AIDS assistance in Africa, a domestic agenda of tax cuts, medical malpractice caps and a ban on certain late abortions.
    (AP, 1/29/03)(WSJ, 1/29/03, p.A1)
2003        Feb 3, Pres. Bush set forth a $2.2 trillion budget and acknowledged that it would contribute to years of deficits.
    (SFC, 2/4/03, p.A1)
2003        Feb 7, The US moved its terror alert status to orange, the 2nd highest level. Attorney General John Ashcroft said the government had received intelligence information, corroborated by multiple sources, that Osama bin Ladens terror organization sought to attack Americans at home or abroad during the annual hajj pilgrimage to the holy Saudi city of Mecca.
    (AP, 2/8/03)
2003        Feb 11, Federal Chairman Alan Greenspan said that Pres. Bushs tax cut would increase the federal budget deficits and voiced opposition.
    (SFC, 2/12/03, p.A1)
2003          Feb 15, Rattled by an outpouring of anti-war sentiment, the US and Britain began reworking a draft resolution to authorize force against Saddam Hussein.
    (AP, 2/15/03)
2003          Feb 24, The US, Britain and Spain introduced a new draft Security Council resolution laying the groundwork for a US-led invasion of Iraq.
    (SFC, 2/25/03, A1)
2003          Feb 27, The Bush administration lowered the terror alert threat to code yellow.
    (SFC, 2/28/03, A3)
2003        Feb, John Brady Kiesling, US career diplomat in Athens, resigned over the Bush policy towards Iraq.
    (SFC, 3/16/03, p.D4)
2003          Mar 6, President Bush held a new conference and warned that he was prepared to go to war soon in Iraq with or without U.N. backing.
    (AP, 3/7/03)(SFC, 3/7/03, p.A1)
2003          Mar 7, The US and its allies moved to set March 17 as the final deadline for Saddam Hussein to prove he has given up his weapons of mass destruction.
    (AP, 3/8/03)(SFC, 3/8/03, p.A1)
2003          Mar 7, Pres. Bush invoked economic sanctions against Pres. Robert Mugabe of Zimbabwe and dozens of officials of his government on grounds they undermined the countrys democratic institutions.
    (AP, 3/7/03)
2003        Mar 14, Pres. Bush promised to reveal a US "road map" to Middle East peace. It was contingent on the confirmation of a Palestinian prime minister with real authority.
    (SFC, 3/15/03, p.A1)
2003        Mar 16, Pres. Bush met with PM Tony Blair and Spains PM Jose Maria Aznar in the Azores and made it clear they were ready to go to war with or without UN endorsement. Bush said "Tomorrow is a moment of truth for the world."
    (SFC, 3/17/03, p.A1)
2003        Mar 17, Pres. Bush gave Saddam Hussein 48 hours to go into exile or face military onslaught.
    (SFC, 3/19/03, p.A1)
2003        Mar 20, Operation Iraqi Freedom began with a few targeted strikes in Baghdad against Saddam Hussein, targeting him personally with a barrage of cruise missiles and bombs as a prelude to invasion. Iraq responded hours later, firing missiles toward American troops positioned just across its border with Kuwait. US Sec. of State Rumsfeld warned that the attack in Iraq would be "of a force and scope and scale that is beyond what has been seen before." A "shock and awe" strategy was planned based on a 1996 "rapid dominance" strategy. The US seized $1.74 billion in frozen Iraqi assets and declared it would be used for humanitarian purposes. Iraq set fire to at least 10 oil wells.
    (AP, 3/20/03) (SFC, 3/20/03, p.W1)(SFC, 3/21/03, p.W11)(WSJ, 3/21/03, p.A1)
2003        Mar 23, Michael Moore criticized Pres. Bush and the US-led war in Iraq during his acceptance speech at the Academy Awards, drawing a partial standing ovation and some jeers from Hollywood's elite.
    (AP, 3/24/03)
2003        Mar 23, In the 4th day of Operation Iraqi Freedom US-led warplanes and helicopters attacked Republican Guard units defending Baghdad while ground troops advanced to within 50 miles of the Iraqi capital. Pres. Bush put a $75 billion price tag on a down payment for the war.
    (AP, 3/24/03)
2003        Mar 24, In the 5th day of Operation Iraqi Freedom US forces began strikes against the Medina Division of the Republican Guard guarding Baghdad.
    (WSJ, 3/25/03, p.A1)
2003        Mar 25, In the 6th day of Operation Iraqi Freedom US aircraft dropped more than 2,000 precision-guided bombs on Iraq since the war's start, a feat possible in part because the "smart" bombs were produced for a relatively cheap $20,000 each.
    (AP, 3/25/03)
2003        Mar 26, In the 7th day of Operation Iraqi Freedom Baghdad officials said two cruise missiles hit a residential area, killing 14 people.
    (AP, 3/26/03)
2003        Mar 25, Pres. Bush issued an order to delay the release of millions of historical documents for more than 3 years and to ease reclassification of data deemed of possible harm to national security.
    (WSJ, 3/26/03, p.A1)
2003        May 28, Pres. Bush signed a tax cut into law. It was the 3rd cut in 3 years and included a cut in the rates on capital gains and dividends, breaks for small businesses and funds for state governments. It was valued at $350 billion over 10 years.
    (SFC, 5/29/03, p.A4)
2003        Jul 8, Pres. Bush met with Pres. Abdoulaye Wade in Senegal. Bush visited Senegal's notorious Goree Island, for several centuries a processing station for African slaves bound in chains for the Western Hemisphere.
    (SFC, 7/7/03, p.A8)(AP, 7/8/03)
2003        Jul 9, Pres. Bush met with South African President Thabo Mbeki in Pretoria for discussions on AIDS, the war on terror, trade issues and to seek common ground in their attempts to deal with the political and economic crisis in neighboring Zimbabwe.
    (AP, 7/9/03)(SFC, 7/10/03, p.A3)
2003        Jul 10, Pres. Bush met with Pres. Festus Mogae in Botswana. Bush said that AIDS is "the deadliest enemy Africa has ever faced" and promised that the US will help meet the challenge.
    (SFC, 7/10/03, p.A8)
2003        Jul 11, Pres. Bush met with Pres. Yoweri Museveni in Uganda. Bush and his wife Laura praised Uganda's aggressive prevention and treatment programs to combat HIV.
    (SFC, 7/11/03, p.A8)(AP, 7/11/03)
2003        Jul 12, Pres. Bush met with Pres. Olusegun Obasanjo in Nigeria. They discussed the circumstances under which Liberian President Charles Taylor will live in exile in Nigeria,
    (SFC, 7/7/03, p.A8)(AP, 7/12/03)
2003        Jul 25, Pres. Bush ordered a naval amphibious force from the Mediterranean to position itself off the coast of Liberia.
    (SFC, 7/26/03, p.A1)
2003        Jul 25, Palestinian PM Mahmoud Abbas met with Pres. George Bush in Washington DC. Abbas thanked Bush for his efforts in pursuit of a peaceful Middle East and for a recent grant of $20 million in direct aid to the Palestinian Authority.
    (AP, 7/26/03)
2003        Jul, Joseph Wilson, former American ambassador, alleged that Pres. Bush had falsely accused Iraq of trying to buy uranium from Niger. Two White House officials soon called at least 6 Washington journalists and told them that Wilsons wife, Valerie Plame, was a undercover CIA agent who had worked in Niger.
    (Econ, 8/21/04, p.28)
2003        Aug 11, Pres. Bush named Mike Leavitt, Republican governor of Utah, to head the EPA.
    (SFC, 8/11/03, p.A1)
2003        Sep 4, Pres. Bush signed the Prison Rape Elimination Act (PREA) into law. It required the collection of data on sexual abuse in prison and the creation of a commission to recommend ways of prevention.
    (Econ, 8/6/05, p.25)(, 5/7/11, p.32)
2003        Sep 7, President Bush spoke on national TV and said he would ask Congress for $87 billion to fight terrorism. He cautioned that the struggle "will take time and require sacrifice."
    (AP, 9/8/03)
2003        Oct 22, President Bush praised Indonesia, the world's most populous Muslim nation, for battling terrorism. Bush defended US policy from the Mideast to Iraq during a frank exchange with moderate Muslim leaders during a stopover in Bali, Indonesia.
    (AP, 10/22/03)(AP, 10/22/08)
2003        Dec 8, Pres. Bush signed into law the Medicare Prescription Drug, Improvement, and Modernization Act (the Medicare Modernization Act or MMA). It was the biggest expansion of Medicare since its creation in 1965. The $400 billion Medicare overhaul bill included a provision to put away pre-tax money into interest bearing accounts to save for medical expenses. Medicare Part D, also called the Medicare prescription drug benefit, was enacted as part of the MMA (which also made changes to the public Part C Medicare health plan program) and went into effect on January 1, 2006.
    (, 12/9/03, p.A1)(WSJ, 12/16/03, p.D1)
2003        Dec 16, Pres. Bush signed legislation to curb unsolicited commercial e-mails and a bill to establish a national museum devoted to black history. The National Museum of African American History and Culture (NMAAHC), a Smithsonian Institution museum located on the National Mall in Washington, D.C., was established. It opened its permanent home in September 2016 with a ceremony led by President Barack Obama.
    (WSJ, 12/17/03, p.A1)(AP, 12/16/04)(
2003        PEPFAR, the President's Emergency Plan for AIDS Relief, was launched under US Pres. George Bush. It became the world's largest provider of AIDS-fighting medicine and branched out over the years to include provision of services for cervical cancer, which is linked to HIV infections in women.
    (, 4/4/17)
2004        Jan, Pres. George W. Bush signed the DC Opportunity Scholarship Program, the first school-voucher scheme directly subsidized by the federal government.   
    (, 5/6/17, p.29)
2004        Sep 30, President Bush and Sen. John Kerry held their 1st debate. Neither candidate made the kind of gaffe that will cost him the election, but Kerry fared slightly better.
    (AP, 10/1/04)
2004        Oct 8, In St. Louis, Missouri, President Bush and Sen. John Kerry debated for a 2nd time.
    (AP, 10/9/04)(SFC, 10/9/04, p.A1)
2004        Oct 13, In Tempe, Ariz., Pres. Bush and Sen John Kerry held their 3rd and final debate.
    (SFC, 10/14/04, p.A1)
2004        Oct 14, The US Treasury reported that the federal deficit surged to $413 billion in 2004.
    (SFC, 10/15/04, p.A3)
2004        Oct 22, Pres. Bush signed a $136 billion corporate tax cut bill.
    (SFC, 10/23/04, p.A1)
2004        Oct 29, Pres. Bush signed a Defense Department authorization bill that included a provision for up to $25 million to support foreign forces aiding US efforts against terrorists.
    (SSFC, 10/31/04, p.A4)
2004        Nov 2, In US presidential elections a federal appeals court cleared the way for political parties to send in people to challenge voters' eligibility at Ohio polling places. US Supreme Court Justice John Paul Stevens allowed Republicans to challenge voter qualifications at the polls in Ohio. Pres. Bush won the elections spending an estimated $5.20 for each of his votes.
    (AP, 11/2/04)(Econ, 9/27/08, p.50)
2004        Nov 3, President Bush's campaign declared victory over Democratic Sen. John Kerry and claimed a second term in the White House, but Kerry refused to concede until all ballots were counted in the undecided state of Ohio. John Kerry conceded defeat to President Bush in make-or-break Ohio rather than launch a legal fight reminiscent of the contentious Florida recount of four years earlier. Bush won more votes than any other president in American history.
    (Reuters, 11/3/04)(AP, 11/3/05)(Econ, 8/18/07, p.26)
2004        Nov 5, Pres. Bush laid out plans to revamp taxes and social security. The DJ jumped 177 to close at 10314.76.
    (WSJ, 11/5/04, p.A1)
2004        Nov 15, President Bush selected Condoleezza Rice, his most trusted foreign policy adviser,  as Sec. of State, replacing Colin Powell. Energy Sec. Spencer Abraham announced his departure as did Agricultural Sec. Ann Veneman and Education Sec. Rod Paige.
    (AP, 11/16/04)(SFC, 11/16/04, p.A1)
2004        Dec 6, Ohio certified President Bush's victory over John Kerry, even as the Kerry campaign and third-party candidates prepared to demand a statewide recount. Bush won Ohio by 118,600 votes.
    (AP, 12/06/05)(Econ, 8/2/08, p.31)
2004        Dec 19, President George Bush for the second time was chosen as Time magazine's Person of the Year.
    (AP, 12/19/04)
2004        Natan Sharansky authored The Case for Democracy: The Power of Freedom to Overcome Tyranny and Terror. The book had a strong influence on Pres. Bush.
    (Econ, 2/5/05, p.32)(
2005        Jan 20, The inauguration ceremony for Pres. Bush was held in Washington DC. The event was expected to cost $40 million the administration asked DC to use 11.9 million of its federal homeland security funds to help pay costs. Pres. bush pledged to spread democracy and support democratic movements worldwide. Thousands of people in dozens of cities across the US walked out of work and school, held mock coronations, intoned the names of the Iraq war dead and held candlelight vigils to show their disapproval of President Bush.
    (SFC, 1/20/05, p.A12)(AP, 1/21/05)(SFC, 1/21/05, p.A1)
2005        Feb 7, Pres. Bush proposed a $2.57 trillion budget that would slash domestic programs including entitlements such as Medicaid, farm subsidies and veterans benefits.
    (SFC, 6/8/05, p.A1)
2005        Feb 17, President Bush named John Negroponte, the U.S. ambassador to Iraq, as the government's first national intelligence director. Central American politicians and human rights activists issued stinging criticism of Negroponte, citing the career diplomat's active backing for the Contra rebels and support for a government involved in human rights abuses.
    (AP, 2/17/05)
2005        Feb 20, President Bush land in Belgium to begin a five-day European trip aimed at fostering a friendly atmosphere early in his second term.
    (AP, 2/20/05)
2005        Feb 21, President Bush appealed to Europe to move beyond animosities over Iraq and join forces in encouraging democratic reforms across the Middle East. He also prodded Russia to reverse a crackdown on political dissent, demanded that Iran end its nuclear ambitions and told Syria to get out of Lebanon.
    (AP, 2/21/05)
2005        Mar 7, President Bush named John R. Bolton (56), undersecretary of state for arms control and international security, as US ambassador to the UN.
    (AP, 3/8/05)(SFC, 3/8/05, p.A10)
2005        Aug 10, Pres. Bush visited a Caterpillar plant in Illinois where he signed a $286.4 billion highway bill. It was the most expensive US public works program to date.
    (WSJ, 8/11/05, p.A1)(Econ, 5/31/08, p.38)
2006        Jun 15, Pres. Bush announced plans to designate a new marine sanctuary in the area of the Northwestern Hawaiian Islands encompassing nearly 140,000 square miles. The plan for Papahanaumokuakea Marine National Monument, the nations 14th marine sanctuary, would end fishing in the area within 5 years. Formal designation was about a year away. Ricky Grigg (1937-2014), surfing trailblazer and oceanographer, gathered data along with colleagues to help establish the reserve.
    (SFC, 6/15/06, p.A2)(WSJ, 6/16/06, p.A1)(Econ, 1/10/09, p.70)(SSFC, 6/1/14, p.C8)
2006        Oct 13, President Bush signed a law imposing sanctions against people responsible for genocide and war crimes in Sudan. He also signed the Security and Accountability For Every Port Act. It contained language barring the electronic settling of gambling debts, the Unlawful Internet Gaming Enforcement Act (UIGEA).
    (Reuters, 10/13/06)(WSJ, 10/14/06, p.A1)(Econ, 7/10/10, SR p.7)
2006        Oct 17, President Bush signed legislation authorizing tough interrogation of terror suspects and smoothing the way for trials before military commissions. The Military Commissions Act virtually abolished the right of any non-American deemed an enemy combatant to challenge his indefinite detention before American courts.
    (AP, 10/17/06)(Econ, 5/26/07, p.30)
2006        Oct 17, Pres. George W. Bush signed the Military Lending Act, capping loan rates to service members at 36%.
    (, 4/8/17, p.67)
2006        Oct 17, Pres. Bush signed into law a bill to provide grant money for the Gullah/Geechee Cultural Heritage Corridor. In September Congress had declared a swathe of coastline from North Carolina to Florida the Gullah/Geechee Cultural Heritage Corridor, in an effort to preserve the regions distinctive black culture and creole language.
    (, 2/2/08, p.42)
2006        Nov 8, Pres. Bush announced the resignation of Donald Rumsfeld, US Defense Secretary, and named Robert Gates (63), the current president of Texas A&M Univ., to succeed Rumsfeld. Rumsfelds letter of resignation was dated Nov 6, but Pres. Bush waited till after elections to make the announcement.
    (SFC, 11/9/06, p.A13)(SFC, 8/14/07, p.A7)
2006        Dec 20, Pres. George W. Bush signed the Stolen Valor Act prohibiting anyone from falsely claiming to have won a military decoration.
    (SFC, 10/18/11, p.A6)(
2006        Dec 20, Acknowledging deepening frustration over Iraq, President Bush told a news conference he was considering an increase in American forces and warned that the next year would bring more painful US losses.
    (AP, 12/20/07)
2008        Apr 15, Pope Benedict arrived at Andrews Air Force Base in Maryland and was met by President Bush and Catholic dignitaries. Benedict turned 81 the next day.
    (AP, 4/16/08)(SFC, 4/16/08, p.A2)
2008        Dec 14, Pres. George W. Bush visited Baghdad just 37 days before he hands the war off to President-elect Barack Obama, who has pledged to end it. At the end of nearly two hours of meetings, Bush defended the war, now in its sixth year, as a reporter threw his shoes at him. The reporter was later identified as Muntadar al-Zeidi, a correspondent for Al-Baghdadia television, an Iraqi-owned station based in Cairo, Egypt. Bush then traveled to Afghanistan where he spoke to US soldiers and Marines at a hangar on the tarmac at Bagram Air Base. On March 12 shoe thrower was convicted of assaulting a foreign leader and sentenced to 3 years in prison. On April 7 the sentence was soon reduced to one year. In 2010 Muntadhar al-Zeidi published his first book, entitled "The Last Salute to President Bush."
    (AP, 12/14/08)(AP, 12/15/08)(AP, 3/12/09)(AP, 4/7/09)(AP, 12/14/10)
2011        Dec 1, Amnesty International urged Ethiopia, Tanzania and Zambia to arrest former US president George W. Bush for violating international torture laws, during his African tour this week.
    (AFP, 12/1/11)
2013        Jul 2, In Tanzania President Barack Obama and former President George W. Bush found common ground, honoring the victims of a terrorist attack in an unprecedented encounter a world away from home. The Obamas departed Africa for home shortly after crossing paths with the Bushes, who were hosting the summit promoting the role of African first ladies in bringing change to their countries. During his visit Obama announced his Power Africa plan to electrify the continent.
    (AP, 7/2/13)(Econ, 1/9/16, p.42)
2017        Apr 4, Former US President George W. Bush touted PEPFAR, his 2003 signature aid project for Africa, during a visit to Botswana, saying he hoped Washington would recognize its importance in saving lives threatened by AIDS.
    (Reuters, 4/4/17)

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