Oil and Gas Timeline

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Gulf Region oil company histories: http://www.virginia.edu/igpr/APAG/apagoilhistory.html
US Dept. of Energy Timeline:

1815        Jul 9, The 1st US natural gas well was discovered.
    (MC, 7/9/02)

1855        Organic chemist Benjamin Stillman laid the foundations for the Pennsylvania oil rush by his discovery that petroleum could be distilled into lubricants and kerosene for cooking and illumination. Suddenly there was a use for the crude oil that seeped to the surface, annoying farmers by ruining the land and polluting the water supply.
    (HNPD, 10/4/98)

1859        Aug 27-28, The US oil business was born in Titusville, Pa. Former army officer Colonel Edwin L. Drake drilled the first oil well in Titusville, Pa., striking oil at 70 feet and setting off a wild scramble for wealth similar to the California gold rush of 1849. The land belonged to the Pennsylvania Rock Oil Company. Until that time, the company had simply collected oil that seeped out of the ground. Drake's plan was to produce it in large quantities for use in heating and illumination. Overnight oil fields sprang up in Pennsylvania but competition, disorganization and oversupply kept oil prices low. It was not until John D. Rockefeller and the Standard Oil Company came onto the scene in 1870 that the petroleum industry developed into a vastly profitable, although much hated, monopoly.
    (HFA, '96, p.36)(AP, 8/27/97)(HNPD, 10/4/98)(WSJ, 10/4/96, p.A9)(HNQ, 2//99)

1870        Jan 10, John D. Rockefeller (1839-1937) and his brother William incorporated the Standard Oil Company of Ohio. The original Standard Oil Company, founded by John D. Rockefeller and three partners, was incorporated in Cleveland, Ohio.
    (WSJ, 7/15/97, p.A16)(AP, 1/10/98)(HN, 1/10/99)(HNQ, 1/23/00)

1877        Oil was found in the Santa Clara area of Los Angeles County. Chevron later traced its roots to this discovery.
    (SSFC, 4/13/08, p.C5)

1879        Sep 10, Pacific Coast Oil Co. was founded in San Francisco by Lloyd Tevis, George Loomis and Charles Felton. It eventually became ChevronTexaco.
    (SFC, 10/20/04, p.C6)

1880         Nov 8, Edwin Drake (b.1819), the man who drilled the first productive oil well (1859), died penniless.

1880        The Pacific Coast Oil Co. built its 1st refinery at Alameda Port.
    (SFC, 10/20/04, p.C6)

1880        Oilmen in southern California formed a company that grew to become Unocal.
    (SFC, 4/5/05, p.C1)

1882        Jan 2, Because of anti-monopoly laws, Standard Oil was organized as a trust. Attorney Samuel Dodd of Standard Oil first had the idea of a trust. A board of trustees was set up, and all the Standard properties were placed in its hands.

1882        The Standard Oil Trust began and issued its first stock signed by John D. Rockefeller. The trust was preceded by the Standard Oil Company. All pre-1920 stocks were printed by the American Banknote Co. John D. Rockefeller by this time had acquired 77 separate oil companies and controlled some 90 percent of the refinery and pipeline business in the country through the Standard Oil Trust.
    (Cont, 12/97, p.58)(HNQ, 1/23/00)

1885        Sep 5, The 1st gasoline pump was delivered to a gasoline dealer in Ft. Wayne, Ind.
    (MC, 9/5/01)

1890        The Royal Dutch Petroleum Co. was founded.
    (WSJ, 11/2/04, p.A14)

1899        The Los Angeles Oil Exchange was established to handle the securities of oil companies in southern California.
    (SSFC, 1/25/04, p.I3)
1899        In California wildcatters discovered oil along the Kern River in Bakersfield.
    (SSFC, 4/13/08, p.C1)

1900        Standard Oil Co. acquired Pacific Oil Co.
    (SFC, 10/20/04, p.C6)

1901        Standard Oil set up shop and established Richmond, Ca., as a company town. Its Richmond refinery opened in 1902.
    (SFC, 8/8/05, p.B6)(SSFC, 8/12/12, p.A10)
1901        Natural gas was discovered in coastal Louisiana. This led to the sinking of thousands of oil wells in the state’s wetlands.
    (Econ, 8/26/17, p.24)
1901        English millionaire William Knox D’Arcy arranged to pay £40,000 in cash and company stock to the Shah of Tehran, Muzaffar al-Din, for the right to drill for oil in western Persia. The deal included a pledge, should commercial production begin, to pay the Persian government 16% of annual profits until 1961.
    (ON, 8/08, p.1)

1902        The Pacific Coast Oil refinery at Alameda Port, owned by Standard Oil, was replaced by the Richmond refinery.
    (SFC, 10/20/04, p.C6)

1902        The Texas Fuel Co. was founded. It soon changed its name to the Texas Co. and eventually became Texaco.
    (SFC, 10/20/04, p.C6)

1904        Jan 19, A team of oil drillers led by George Reynolds and funded by English millionaire William Knox D’Arcy, struck oil at Chiah Surkh, Persia, but by March the volume dwindled to an unprofitable trickle.
    (ON, 8/08, p.2)

1904        Ida Tarbell (1857-1944), journalist, published the 2-volume "History of the Standard Oil Company." It revealed the illegal means used by John D. Rockefeller to gain a monopoly and control oil prices and began as a series in McClure's Magazine in 1902. This led to a federal investigation and the 1911 order by the Supreme Court for the breakup of Standard Oil.
    (WSJ, 12/15/98, p.B1)(WSJ, 9/13/99, p.R4)(HNQ, 6/22/00)

1906-1916    In Daly City, Ca., businesses made gas out of oil at 731 Schwerin St.
    (SFC, 3/2/09, p.B1)

1907        Britain and Russia carved Iran into spheres of influence.
    (WSJ, 4/2/07, p.A6)

1907        Royal Dutch combines its oil operations with Shell Transport & Trading Co.
    (WSJ, 11/2/04, p.A14)

1908         May 26, The first major oil strike in the Middle East took place as engineers working for British entrepreneur William Knox D'Arcy and led by George B. Reynolds hit a gusher more than 1,100 feet below ground in Masjid-i-Suleiman, Persia (Iran). The Concessions Syndicate Limited, later the Anglo-Persian Oil Co., included the Burmah Oil Company of Glasgow, Scotland, and the Persian oil project of William Knox D'Arcy.
    (WSJ, 9/13/99, p.R4)(WSJ, 4/2/07, p.A6)(AP, 5/26/08)(ON, 8/08, p.3)

1910        Royal Dutch Shell began pumping oil out of Sarawak, a British colony on Borneo. Sarawak became part of Malaysia in 1963.
    (Econ, 6/9/12, p.46)
1910        Production of Egyptian crude oil was started in the Gulf of Suez.
    (Econ, 7/17/10, SR p.9)

1911        May 15, The Supreme Court ordered the dissolution of Standard Oil Company, ruling it was in violation of the Sherman Antitrust Act. The anti-trust suit led to the dissolution of Standard Oil Co. of John D. Rockefeller. From its remains 34 new companies were formed that included Exxon, Mobil, Amoco, Chevron, Arco and Conoco. Rockefeller’s quarter interest in the parent turned into a quarter interest in all the offspring.
    (AP, 5/15/97)(WSJ, 5/8/98, p.W10)

1912        Standard Oil established America’s first gas station in Cincinnati.
    (F, 10/7/96, p.67)

1913        Dec 1, The first drive-in automobile service station, built by Gulf Refining Co., opened in Pittsburgh. [see Cincinnati in 1912] 
    (AP, 12/1/06)

1914        Venezuela’s 1st oil gusher was drilled near Lake Maracibo.
    (WSJ, 4/18/02, p.A9)

1914        The discovery of oil in Venezuela prompted Royal Dutch/Shell to build an oil refinery on Curacao.
    (Econ, 6/19/04, p.72)

1919        Feb 25, Oregon introduced the first state tax on gasoline at one cent per gallon, to be used for road construction.
    (HN, 2/25/98)(AP, 2/25/98)

1922        The oil tanker Lyman A. Stuart sank near Mile Rocks off the coast of San Francisco.
    (G, Winter 96/97, p.3)(SFC, 6/29/13, p.C2)

1923        US Pres. Warren Harding authorized a 22-million-acre National Petroleum Reserve as an emergency oil supply for the US Navy near Prudhoe Bay, Alaska. In 2015 ConocoPhillips became the first company to draw from the reserve.
    (Econ, 12/11/04, p.28)(SFC, 3/4/16, p.A9)
1923        The Navajo Nation’s tribal government was established following the discovery of oil on its reservation so that the tribe could enter into leases with energy companies.
    (SFC, 11/14/11, p.D4)
1923        In South Dakota Gov. William McMaster bought cut rate gas from a Chicago distributor and began selling it at a state depot for 16 cents a gallon. Standard Oil was charging 26.6 cents (equal to about $3.16 in 2008), which he called “highway robbery." Standard oil cut its price to 16.6 cents and other states began to demand the same price. McMaster and Standard eventually negotiated a price of 20 cents a gallon.
    (WSJ, 3/31/08, p.B1)
1923        German researchers Franz Fischer and Hans Tropsch, working at the Kaiser Wilhelm Institute, developed a process for converting coal to gas, which was then used to make synthetic fuels.
    (WSJ, 8/16/06, p.A12)(www.encyclopedia.com/html/F/FischerT1.asp)

1924        Mar 28, At the request of French President Raymond Poincaré Col. Ernest Mercier with the support of ninety banks and companies founded Compagnie française des pétroles (CFP), later renamed Total.

1926        Apr 7, In San Luis Obispo, Ca., lightning sparked a 5-day oil fire killing 2 people. Over 6 million barrels of oil were burned. Final damages were estimated at $15 million.
    (SFC, 4/7/09, p.D8)

1927        Jun, Oil was discovered near Kirkuk, Iraq, the 1st commercial find in any Arab country. BP was a shareholder in the Iraqi Petroleum Company when it started drilling Iraq's first oil well at Baba Gurgur just north of the oil-rich province of Kirkuk.
    (SSFC, 4/13/03, p.E1)(AP, 10/17/09)

1928        Mar 27, The U.S. accepted the new oil-land laws enacted by Mexico, ending a long-standing dispute between Mexico and the United States.
    (HN, 3/27/98)

1928        Oct 25, An American group, led by James A. Talbot of Richfield Oil, acquired control of the American airplane business of Anthony H.G. Fokker.
    (SFC, 10/24/03, p.E10)

1930        May 8, The Richfield Oil Company tanker Richfield wrecked on the rocks off Point Reyes, Ca., with a cargo or 25,000 gallons of high-test gasoline.
    (SFC, 5/6/05, p.F3)

1932        Jun 6, A US Federal gas tax was enacted.
    (MC, 6/6/02)

1932        Jul 9, John Paul Getty II, US-British oil magnate, billionaire (Getty Oil), was born.
    (MC, 7/9/02)

1932        May 31, Socal, formerly Standard Oil of California, discovered oil in Bahrain. This was the 1st middle eastern oil discovered by an American firm.
    (SFC, 10/20/04, p.C6)(www.saudiaramcoworld.com/issue/199901/prelude.to.discovery.htm)

1932        Reza Shah revoked the Anglo-Persian Co. oil monopoly.
    (WSJ, 4/2/07, p.A6)

1933        May, Saudi Arabia gave Standard Oil of California exclusive rights to explore for oil. Socal formed the California Arabian Standard Oil Co. to drill for oil in Saudi Arabia.
    (www.chevron.com)(SFC, 10/20/04, p.C6)

1933        Petromex was formed during the presidency of Abelardo L. Rodriguez.

1935        Jan 14, The oil pipeline from Iraq to the Mediterranean went into use.
    (MC, 1/14/02)

1936        Jan, Standard Oil of California found some gas and oil at their 1st Saudi Arabia test well, Damman No. 1.

1936        Mar 3, Standard Oil of California struck oil at Damman No 7. Aramco made the first commercial oil find in Dhahran, Saudi Arabia. The English Arabist, H. St. John Philby, orchestrated the Aramco concession in Saudi Arabia.
    (HN, 3/15/98)(WSJ, 3/8/99, p.A16)(SFEC, 6/27/99, p.T3)(www.chevron.com)

1936        The Texas Co. joined Standard Oil in Saudi Arabia. The joint venture eventually became the Saudi oil giant Aramco.
    (SFC, 10/20/04, p.C6)

1937        Jan 30, Mexico's Pres. Lazaro Cardenas created the AGPN, "Administracion General del Petroleo Nacional." The AGPN became a public organism that would guide the Mexican oil industry. The creation of the AGPN constituted the transformation of Petromex into a publicly driven firm.

1938        Mar 18, Mexican President Lazaro Cardenas nationalized his country's petroleum reserves and took control of foreign-owned oil facilities.
    (WSJ, 3/20/96, p.A-1)(WSJ, 6/14/96, p.A15)(AP, 3/18/08)

1938        Mar 27, The U.S. stopped buying Mexican silver in reprisal for the Mexican seizure of American oil companies.
    (HN, 3/27/98)

1938        Nov 24, Mexico seized oil land adjacent to Texas.
    (HN, 11/24/98)

1938        Hammond Chaffetz (d.2001 at 93) won a big price-fixing case against the oil industry. 30 oil executives were convicted along with 16 major oil companies for violating the Sherman Antitrust Act.
    (SFC, 1/18/01, p.C2)

1938        Oil was found in Kuwait.
    (SSFC, 4/13/03, p.E1)

1938        Inventor Earl Silas Tupper left the Du Pont company in 1938 to form the Tupper Plastics Company. The material called "Poly-T" used to create Tupperware was developed from a black, putrid, rock-hard oil refining waste product called polyethylene slag. He refined and purified the slag into a higher quality plastic. He then turned his attention to replacing the widely used glass and metal food containers with his waterproof and airtight seal introduced in 1947.
    (HNQ, 2/13/99)

1938-1992    Mobil Oil operated a fueling facility at San Francisco’s Fisherman’s Wharf during this period. In 2008 the city sued Exxon-Mobil to force a cleanup of the site and pay damages and attorney fees.
    (WSJ, 6/20/08, p.B3)

1940        Jul, Avila Camacho was elected president of Mexico. He agreed to compensate the multi-nationals for their oil losses and a new market for Mexican oil opened, i.e. the US.

1940        Fred Koch (1900-1967) joined partners to create the Wood River Oil and Refining Company. It was renamed Koch Industries in 1968. In 1927 Koch had developed a more efficient thermal cracking process for turning crude oil into gasoline which allowed smaller players in the industry to better compete with the oil majors.

1941        Aug, The US placed an embargo on oil shipments to Japan in response to Japan’s occupation of French Indochina (later Cambodia, Laos, Vietnam).
    (Econ, 12/6/14, p.24)

1941        Dec 23, The 440-foot tanker Montebello was sunk off the California coast near Cambria by Japanese submarine I-21. The crew of 38 survived. In 1996 it was found that the 4.1 million gallon cargo of crude oil appeared intact.
    (SFC, 11/30/96, p.A19)(SFC, 8/27/10, p.A12)

1942        Jul 22, Gasoline rationing involving the use of coupons began along the Atlantic seaboard.
    (AP, 7/22/99)

1943        Aug 1, Over 177 B-24 Liberator bombers attacked the German oil fields in Ploesti, Romania, for a second time. Of 1,762 airmen on the mission, 532 were killed, captured, interned or listed as missing in action. In 2007 Duane Schultz authored “Into the Fire: Ploesti" The Most Fateful Mission of World War II.
    (HN, 8/1/98)(WSJ, 11/13/07, p.D5)

1943        Two American oil firms decided to expand their refinery in Bahrain and hired Bechtel. Capacity was doubled to 65,000 barrels per day.
    (SSFC, 5/4/03, p.A8)

1945        Aug 15, Gasoline and fuel oil rationing ended in the United States.
    (HN, 8/15/98)

1947        The first offshore oil rig out of sight of land was set up by Kerr-McGee, Phillips Petroleum and Stanolind Oil & Gas 10 miles off the Louisiana coast.
    (WSJ, 9/13/99, p.R4)

1948        Neste Corporation, an oil refining and marketing company, was founded in Espoo, Finland, as the state petrol company. By 2017 it had operations in 14 countries.

1950        South Africa set up Sasol as a state-owned company and authorized funds for the development of a coal-to-liquids facility called Sasolburg.
    (WSJ, 8/16/06, p.A12)

1950        An industrial explosion exacerbated oil leakage into Newtown Creek, which separates Brooklyn from Queens. The problem was ignored until the coast Guard rediscovered it in 1978 and determined that oil was leaking from nearby refineries and storage facilities. In 1990 ExxonMobil signed a consent agreement with the state of NY to clean up the creek. In 2007 oil still floated on the water.
    (Econ, 7/28/07, p.32)

1951        Mar 15, Persia nationalized the Anglo-Iranian Oil Company.
    (MC, 3/15/02)

1951        Jun 24, Persian army took over nationalized oil installations.
    (MC, 6/24/02)

1951        Sep 27, Persian troops occupied oil refinery at Abadan.
    (MC, 9/27/01)

1951        There was a struggle to nationalize Iranian oil.
    (SFEC, 4/13/97, BR p.4)

1951        Saudi Arabia put the Ghawar oil field into production. It measured 20 miles wide and 175 miles long and was the largest oil field ever found.
    (WSJ, 5/6/08, p.A15)

1952        Apr 23, Oil pipeline from Kirkuk, Iraq, to Banias was completed.
    (MC, 4/23/02)

1953        Mar, The US CIA’s Tehran station reported that an Iranian general had approached the US embassy for support in an army-led coup. Based on this information Allen Dulles, director of the CIA, approved $1 million to be used to help bring about the fall of Prime Minister Mossadegh. Pres. Eisenhower gave the CIA the ok to overthrow the elected government of PM Mohammad Mossadegh. Mossadegh had nationalized the Anglo-Iranian Oil Co. after Britain refused to compromise and split profits 50-50. In 2003 Stephen Kinzer authored "All the Shah's Men: An American Coup and the Roots of the Middle East Terror."
    (SFEC, 4/16/00, p.A18)(SSFC, 8/24/03, p.M6)

1953        Jul 14, The freighter Jacob Luckenbach from SF rammed the Matson freighter Hawaiian Pilot near Point Montara, 17 miles from the Golden Gate. The Luckenbach sank while the Hawaiian Pilot limped to SF. Oil leaked from the Luckenbach later killed numerous birds. In 2002 a $3.5 million plan for cleanup was begun. A $19 million cleanup ended in Sep.
    (Ind, 3/31/01, 5A)(SFC, 2/5/02, p.A15)(SFC, 5/8/02, p.A22)(SFC, 10/1/02, p.A13)

1953        Aug 19, Gen'l. Zahedi ousted PM Mossadegh and became the Premier of Iran in a bloody coup that left 300 dead. Britain and the US CIA under Allen Dulles planned a secret mission to overthrow the government. PM Mossadeq had sought to nationalize the Anglo-Persian Oil Co. The US government made a formal apology for the coup in 2000. A 1954 CIA description of the coup was made public in 2000. In 1979 Kermit Roosevelt (d.2000) published “Countercoup: The Struggle for the Control of Iran," an account of his role in the coup.
    (SFC, 11/20/53, p.A1)(SFC, 11/15/99, p.E6)(SFC, 5/29/97, p.A4)(WSJ, 3/20/00, p.A1)(SFEC, 4/16/00, p.A18)(SFEC, 6/11/00, p.D6)(WSJ, 4/2/07, p.A6)

1953        Brazil’s Petrobras was founded under the slogan “o petroleo e nosso" (the oil is ours) as the country produced 2,700 barrels of oil per day and consumed 137,000 per day. In 2006 Brazil became independent from foreign oil.
    (AP, 4/22/06)(Econ, 2/14/15, p.33)

1953        Italy founded ENIPower, a state attempt to challenge the oil majors.
    (Econ, 8/21/04, p.53)

1954        Truman Anderson, Chuck Arnao and Raymond Plank (1922-2018) formed Apache Corp. to raise investor funds for oil and gas drilling. Plank pioneered the use of what came to be known as master limited partnerships, an investment vehicle that can be traded publicly with significant tax advantages to investors. The firm later expanded to oil exploration and production and in 2017 reported revenue of almost $6 billion.
    (SSFC, 11/11/18, p.C10)

1956        Mar 8, On the 2nd day of a 3-day regional conference of the Southern District Division of Production, American Petroleum Institute, in San Antonio, Texas, M. King Hubbert, a Shell geologist, predicted that US oil production for the 48 states would peak (i.e., reach a maximum annual extraction rate) in 1965 if the nation ultimately produced 150 billion barrels, and in 1969 if the nation ultimately produced 200 billion barrels. 1970 turned out to be the peak year, both for the 48 states and for the 50 states including Alaska.
    (SSFC, 3/21/04, p.J3)(WSJ, 6/28/05, p.D8)

1956        In Nigeria Shell became the first company to strike oil at Oloibiri (later Bayelsa state).
    (AP, 6/1/06)

1957        Hondo Oil Co., led by Robert O. Anderson (1917-2007), discovered the quarter-billion-barrel Empire-Abo oilfield in southeast New Mexico.
    (WSJ, 12/8/07, p.A7)

1958        Jul 15, President Eisenhower ordered 5,000 US Marines to Lebanon, at the request of that country’s president, Camille Chamoun, in the face of a perceived threat by Muslim rebels, to help end a short-lived civil war. Eisenhower justified his decision to send troops to the region on the basis that it was the "birthplace of three great religions," as well as having "two-thirds of the presently known oil deposits."
    (SFEC, 4/13/97, p.T8)(AP, 7/15/98)(HN, 7/15/98)(Econ, 4/25/20, p.22)

1959        China discovered huge oil reserves in the northern basin of the Songhua and Liao Rivers. This ended dependence on Soviet supplies. The area was named Daqing (Great Happiness).
    (WSJ, 3/1/00, p.A8)(Econ, 5/1/04, p.41)
1959        In the Netherlands a massive gas field was discovered under the city of Groningen. In the 1970s higher gas export prices raised the value of the guilder by a sixth , hitting the competitiveness of Dutch manufaturing and services. In 1977 The Economist dubbed this economic curse “Dutch disease".
    (WSJ, 6/26/08, p.B1)(Econ, 8/12/17, p.58)

1960        Sep 14, Iraq, Iran, Kuwait, Saudi Arabia and Venezuela formed OPEC. Fuad Rouhani (1907-2004) of Iran served as its 1st secretary-general. In 1964 he was succeeded by Abdul Rahman Bazzaz of Iraq.
    (HN, 9/14/98)(WSJ, 7/28/03, p.A8)

1960        New discoveries of oil peaked.
    (WSJ, 6/28/05, p.D8)

1962        Abu Dhabi began exporting the oil it just discovered off its shores.
    (AP, 11/3/04)

1962        A gas fire in Algeria called “The Devil’s Cigarette Lighter" had burned for 6 months until it was put out by Texas firefighter Red Adair (1915-2004).
    (Econ, 8/14/04, p.78)

1964-1992    Texaco dumped some 18 billion gallons of toxic waste into open pits, estuaries and rivers and allegedly polluted some 2.5 million acres of pristine rain forest. Texaco merged with Chevron in 2001 and a suit over the toxic waste went to trial in Ecuador in 2003. In 2014 Paul M. Barrett authored “Law of the Jungle: The $19 Billion Legal Battle Over Oil in the Rain Forest and the Lawyer Who’d Stop at Nothing to Win."
    (SFC, 5/1/03, A8)(SFC, 10/21/03, p.A3)(SSFC, 9/21/14, p.N1)

1965        Nov 9, A major power failure hit the East Coast of the US. New York City experienced a major blackout just after 5:30 PM. In the great Northeast blackout several US states and parts of Canada were hit by a series of power failures lasting up to 13 1/2 hours. Nine Northeastern states and parts of Canada went dark in the worst power failure in history, when a switch at a station near Niagara Falls failed.
    (HFA, '96,p.42)(SFE,10/1/95, Z1, p.10)(AP, 11/9/97)(HN, 11/9/98)

1966        During a fishing retreat Robert O. Anderson, head of Atlantic Refining Co., sealed a merger deal with the head of Richfield Oil Corp., creating the Atlantic-Richfield Co. (ARCO).
    (WSJ, 12/8/07, p.A7)

1966        Oil discovered in Dubai (UAR) provided cash for modernization projects such as the world’s largest man-made harbor at Jebel Ali.
    (Econ, 5/29/04, p.61)

1967        Jun 6, An Arab oil embargo began one day after the beginning of the Arab-Israeli Six-Day War, with a joint Arab decision to deter any countries from supporting Israel militarily.

1967        Dec 26, Atlantic Richfield oil workers struck oil on Alaska’s North Slope at Prudhoe Bay.
    (AH, 10/04, p.42)

1967        Texas increased oil production to soften the blow of the Arab oil embargo following Israel’s 6-day war.
    (Econ, 2/15/14, p.23)

1968        Mar 13, Atlantic Richfield Company (ARCO) and Humble Oil and Refining Company (now Exxon Company, U.S.A.) announced the discovery of oil on Alaska’s North Slope (Prudhoe Bay). The oil companies soon began efforts to construct a pipeline, but work was suspended due to environmental concerns.
    (AH, 2/05, p.14)(www.alyeska-pipe.com/Pipelinefacts/Chronology.html)

1968        Oct 9, The new military government of Peru seized the country's oil fields.
    (AP, 10/9/08)

1969        Jan 29, An undersea oil well off Santa Barbara, Ca., suffered a blowout and over the next 11 days released some 200,000 gallons of oil that spread over 800 square miles of ocean and soiled 35 miles of coastline. The blowout of the Union Oil rig spilled an estimated 4.2 million gallons of oil. Some 3,500 birds were killed as well as some 100 elephant seals and sea lions on San Miguel island.
    (www.geog.ucsb.edu/~jeff/sb_69oilspill/69oilspill_articles2.html)(SFC, 5/22/15, p.A12)

1969        Jul 24, Petroleos del Peru (PETROPERU S.A.) was created (law No.17753) as a state-owned entity.

1969        Nov 5, Bolivia nationalized its energy sector a 2nd time. Marcelo Quiroga Santa Cruz, the Minister of Mines and Petroleum, nationalized the assets and concessions of the Gulf Oil Company, under the administration of General Alfredo Ovando Candia (1969-1970).

1969        George B. Kaiser took over Kaiser-Francis Oil Co., a small family oil firm founded in the 1940s by his uncle and parents, Jewish refugees from Nazi Germany, who had settled in Oklahoma. Operations at the time were limited to Kansas. By 2004 the firm had over $600 million in revenues from oil and gas production.
    (WSJ, 7/23/04, p.A1)
1969        Atlantic Richfield Co. (ARCO), led by Robert O. Anderson, merged with Sinclair Oil.
    (WSJ, 12/8/07, p.A7)
1969        Britain discovered oil and gas in the North Sea. By 2012 some 40 billion barrels of oil was extracted.
    (Econ, 2/18/12, p.59)
1969        John Latsis (1910-2003), Greek shipping magnate, established Petrola, the 1st export-oriented oil refinery in Greece.
    {Greece, Oil}
     (SFC, 4/18/03, p.A24)

1970        Wang Jinxi (47), icon of Chinese communism, died. Known as the “iron man," he helped turn Daqing into China’s biggest oil production center.
    (Econ, 1/10/04, p.60)

1971        Jan 18, Two Standard Oil tankers collided in the fog a quarter mile west of the Golden Gate Bridge. The Arizona Standard ripped into the Oregon Standard and caused the spill of some 1.9 million gallons of heavy bunker oil.
    (SFEC, 2/23/96, Z1 p.5)

1971        Feb 3, OPEC decided to set oil prices without consulting buyers.
    (HN, 2/3/99)

1971        Feb 24, Algeria nationalized French oil companies.

1971        Mar, Mexican fisherman Rudesindo Cantarell took geologists of Petroleos Mexicanos to an site where oil impacted his nets. The Cantarell field turned out to be one of the largest offshore oil fields ever found. In 2006-2006 production fell 20% as the reserve declined.
    (WSJ, 4/5/07, p.A1)

1971        Tesoro Corp. was listed on the NYSE. Robert V. West Jr. (1921-2006), founder of the oil company (1964), retired in San Antonio, Tx., in 1992.
    (WSJ, 11/25/06, p.A6)
1971        Norway began extracting oil from its continental shelf.
    (Econ, 10/10/15, p.69)
1971        In Turkmenistan Soviet geologists started drilling a borehole to prospect for gas in the Karakum desert. The boring equipment drilled through into an underground cavern, and a deep sinkhole formed. The equipment tumbled through though no one was killed. Fearing that the crater would emit poisonous gases, the scientists took the decision to set it alight, thinking that the gas would burn out quickly and this would cause the flames to go out. As of 2014 the pit, dubbed the Door to Hell," continued to burn.
    (AFP, 6/20/14)

1971-1983    Stagflation, a period of rising inflation, high oil prices and weak labor markets, marked the global economy.
    (Econ, 5/7/05, p.13)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Stagflation)

1972        Mar, Texas called for flat out oil production amidst rising consumption and declining production.
    (Econ, 2/15/14, p.23)

1972        Jun 1, Iraq nationalized the Iraq Petroleum Company controlled by British, American, Dutch and French oil companies.
    (SFC, 9/24/02, p.A10)(www.globalpolicy.org/security/oil/5873nation.htm)

1972        Denmark began extracting oil and gas in the North Sea.
    (SFC, 12/5/20, p.A3)

1973        Mar 6, President Richard Nixon imposed price controls on oil and gas.
    (WSJ, 11/4/96, p.C1)(HN, 3/6/98)

1973        Oct 16, OPEC, the Arab oil-producing nations, announced they would begin cutting back on oil exports to Western nations and Japan. The next day, the five Arab members of the OPEC committee were joined in Kuwait by the oil ministers of Algeria, Bahrain, Egypt, Libya, and Syria. The result was a total embargo that lasted until March 1974 and caused oil prices to quadruple. During the OPEC oil embargo oil prices were increased fourfold. Japan experienced its first oil crises with the Middle East war. The US experienced a gasoline shortage.
    (WSJ, 4/24/95, p.R-5) (WSJ, 6/19/96, Adv. Supl)(www.harvardir.org/articles/1659/)(AP, 10/17/97)(WSJ, 7/28/03, p.A8)(Jap. Enc., BLDM, p. 216)(WSJ, 1/11/99, p.R49)

1973        Oct 20, Arab oil-producing nations banned oil exports to the United States, following the outbreak of Arab-Israeli war.
    (HN, 10/20/98)

1973        Nov 16, President Nixon signed the Trans Alaska Pipeline Authorization Act into law. Oil companies formed a consortium that gave British Petroleum 50.1% control of the pipeline.
    (www.alyeska-pipe.com/Pipelinefacts/Chronology.html)(AH, 10/04, p.43)

1973        Nov 19, Saudi Arabia, Libya and other Arab states proclaimed a total ban on oil exports to the United States. Gasoline prices quadrupled from twenty-five cents per gallon to over one dollar. The New York stock market took its sharpest drop in 19 years.
    (HN, 11/19/98)(www.bullnotbull.com/archive/market-01222006.html)

1973        Oil was discovered off the coast of Louisiana at the underwater site called Eugene Island 330. By 1989 production slowed to 4,000 barrels from a peak of 15,000 and then suddenly increased and in 1999 produced 13,000 barrels a day. Geologists were unable to account for the source of the oil.
    (WSJ, 4/16/99, p.A1)
1973        The Arab oil embargo doubled Brazil’s import bill with a year.
    (Econ, 11/14/09, SR p.5)
1973        The Saudi Arabian government acquired a 25% stake in Aramco, following US support for Israel during the Yom Kippur War. It increased its shareholding to 60% by 1974, and finally took full control of Aramco by 1980 by acquiring a 100% percent stake in the company.

1974        Jan 2, President Nixon signed legislation requiring states to limit highway speeds to 55 mph. Federal speed limits were abolished in 1995. The legislation was conceived by Claude Brinegar (1926-2009), Nixon’s secretary of transportation.
    (AP, 1/2/98)(http://tinyurl.com/45ywak)(SFC, 3/18/09, p.B6)

1974        Feb 15, US gasoline stations threatened to close because of federal fuel policies.
    (HN, 2/15/98)

1974        Mar 17 Arab oil ministers, with the exception of Libya, announced the end the oil embargo on the US.

1974        Nov 29, Haroldson L. Hunt (b.1889), Texas oil man and multi-millionaire, died.

1974        Dec 24, An oil spill polluted 1,600 square miles of scenic Inland Sea in Japan.
    (HN, 12/24/98)

1974        Mobil Oil gained control of Montgomery Ward.
    (SFC, 12/29/00, p.A12)

1974        The US economy cooled, prices climbed with much wealth transferred to the Arabs for oil.
    (TMC, 1994, p.1974)

1974        Oil was discovered in Chad.
    (WSJ, 6/24/03, p.A9)

1974        In France the economy slowed following the Arab oil embargo and the policy of recruiting foreign labor ended.
    (NG, 5/93, p.110)
1974        In France the Int'l. Energy Agency was formed in Paris to coordinate oil sharing. The US led the formation of the IEA in order to stockpile oil and help offset supply shortages.
    (WSJ, 9/13/99, p.R4)(WSJ, 7/28/03, p.A8)

1974        Petronas, Malaysia’s national oil firm, was given exclusive rights to the nation’s hydrocarbons. Until this year all of Malaysia’s oil was pumped by foreigners.
    (Econ, 10/10/09, p.69)

1975        Mar 6, OPEC held a meeting in Algiers attended for the first time by its members’ top leaders. Here the Algiers Accord between Baghdad and Teheran put an end to their border dispute and brought all Iranian help to the Kurdish rebellion to a halt. The United States abruptly withdrew its support for the Kurds and the rebellion collapsed. Many thousands of Kurdish fighters and their families were forced to flee to Iran to escape the pursuing Iraqi army.
    (http://mondediplo.com/2002/10/06timeline)(SFC, 11/19/07, p.A11)

1975        Mar 27, The 1st pipe of the Alaska oil pipeline was laid at Tonsina River.

1975        Nov 3, Queen Elizabeth formally began the operation of the UK's first North Sea oil pipeline at a ceremony in Scotland.

1975        Nov 5, The scrapped passenger ship Queen Elizabeth rolled over and disgorged several tons of oil in Hong Kong.

1975        Dec 21, There was a terrorist kidnapping of Saudi oil minister Sheik Ahmed Zaki Yamani and other ministers at the OPEC gathering in Vienna, Austria. Three people were killed and 11 taken hostage. The oil ministers were taken to North Africa in a hijacked plane in a $1 billion ransom drama. Carlos the Jackal, aka Ilich Ramirez Sanchez, later admitted to planning the attack. In 2001 Germany sentenced Hans-Joachim Klein to 9 years for his role in the attack. Klein had accused Sonja Suder of recruiting him to take part in the bloody Vienna siege. In 2013 Suder was acquitted of having helped Carlos in the OPEC attack. She was found guilty of having aided in three non-deadly explosives and arson attacks in Germany in the late 1970s. 
    (WSJ, 12/4/95, p.B-1)(SFC,12/11/97, p.C2)(SFC, 2/16/01, p.D2)(AFP, 11/12/13)

1975        Dec 22, The Energy Policy and Conservation Act (EPCA) made it policy for the US to establish a reserve up to one billion barrels (159 million m³) of petroleum. The Strategic Petroleum Reserve was created to provide a guaranteed domestic supply. The oil was put into salt domes on the Gulf Coast near the Texas-Louisiana border. The storage capacity was 700 million barrels.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Strategic_Petroleum_Reserve)(SFC, 11/14/01, p.A15)

1975        Anthony Sampson authored "The Seven Sisters: The Great Oil Companies and the World They Made."
    (SSFC, 2/8/04, p.A31)
1975        America banned crude oil exports.
    (Econ, 2/15/14, p.24)
1975        In Brazil the military government launched a "pro-alcohol" program as a source of fuel in response to the first oil crisis which hit in 1973. The country at the time was importing 80% of its fuel and suffered in its balance of payments.
    {Brazil, oil}
    (WSJ, 6/27/97, p.A9A)
1975        Saudi Arabia began nationalizing foreign oil assets with full compensation.
    (WSJ, 10/4/01, p.A1)

1976        Jun 6, Jean Paul Getty (b.1892), US oil magnate, billionaire, died. He left $1.2 billion as an endowment for a museum and art activities around the world.
    (SFC, 7/15/96, p.D2)(http://wapedia.mobi/en/J._Paul_Getty)

1976        Dec 21, The Liberian-registered tanker Argo Merchant ran aground near Nantucket Island, spilling millions of gallons of oil into the North Atlantic.
    (AP, 12/21/97)

1976        America banned most exports of crude oil. Congress lifted ban in December, 2015.
    (Econ, 1/9/16, p.61)
1976        The Alaska Permanent Fund was created after oil was discovered on the North Slope. Residents of over a year received an annual dividend from the fund.
    (SFC, 9/27/02, p.A7)
1976        The world’s last major oil field, yielding over a million barrels a day, was found in Mexico.
    (WSJ, 6/28/05, p.D8)

1977        May 31, The trans-Alaska oil pipeline, formally proposed in 1969, was completed after three years of work. Alaska's Senator Mike Gravel (1930-2021) had seized the issue in 1973 by proposing legislation that would exempt the project from any further court intervention under the National Environmental Policy Act.
    (AP, 5/31/97)(NY Times, 6/27/21)

1977        Jul 13, A 25-hour power blackout hit the New York City area and looters rampaged in the city after lightning struck upstate power lines. Some 9 million people were affected.
    (TMC, 1994, p.1977)(AP, 7/13/97)(SFC, 8/15/03, p.A7)

1977        Jun 20, The 1st oil of the Alaska pipeline began to flow south 799 miles from Prudhoe Bay to the port of Valdez. [see Jul 28]

1977        Jun 28, The 1st Prudhoe Bay oil of the Alaska pipeline reached the port of Valdez as construction of the Trans-Alaskan pipeline was completed.

1978        Mar 16, The Amoco-Cadiz oil tanker spilled a record 1.6 million barrels of crude oil off the coast of France.
    (WSJ, 9/13/99, p.R4)(www.cedre.fr/uk/spill/amoco/amoco.htm)

1978        Nov 9, The US Congress enacted a Gas Policy Act as part of broader legislation known as the National Energy Act (NEA).

1978        Chevron discovered oil in Sudan and sank wells north of Bentiu.
    (SFC, 6/13/01, p.D3)(WSJ, 10/22/03, p.A4)(www.hrw.org/reports/2003/sudan1103/10.htm)

1978-1979    The Iranian revolution took place and oil prices doubled.
    (WSJ, 7/28/03, p.A8)

1979        May 11, SF passed an odd-even gas sales plan in response to the gasoline crises.
    (SFC, 5/7/04, p.F2)

1979        Jun 3, Ixtoc 1, an exploratory oil well in the Gulf of Mexico, blew and spilled an estimated 3.3 million barrels of oil by March 1980.
    (SFC, 11/20/02, p.A14)(Econ, 5/8/10, p.69)

1979        Jun 26-1979 Jun 28, OPEC raised oil prices an average of 15%, effective July 1.

1979        Jul 19, Two supertankers collided off Tobago and spilled 260,000 tons of oil. It was the worst oil spill to date with 88 million gallons spewed.
    (WSJ, 1/11/99, p.R49)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_oil_spills)

1979        Nov 1, The tanker Burmah Agate, spilled 10.7 million gallons of oil off Galveston Bay, Texas, in US's worst oil spill disaster.

1979        Nov 12, President Carter announced an immediate halt to all imports of Iranian oil and freezes Iranian assets in US. Executive Order 12170 halted oil imports from Iran.

1979        Nigeria outlawed gas flaring, to be phased out over 5 years. The law was not enforced and in 2008 some 20 billion cubic meters of year were flared, out of a global total of 150 billion.
    (Econ, 4/5/08, p.50)

1979        South Africa privatized Sasol, a coal-to-liquids facility, and listed it on the Johannesburg Stock Exchange.
    (WSJ, 8/16/06, p.A12)

1980        Jan 7, Some 60,000 US oil refinery workers went on nationwide strike for the 1st time in 11 years. No major disruptions were reported in the walkout.
    (SFC, 1/7/05, p.F6)

1980        Mar 27, The Alexander L. Kielland, a North Sea Norwegian floating oil field platform, capsized during a storm killing 123 workers. It was owned by the Stavanger Drilling Company of Norway and was on hire to the US company Phillips Petroleum at the time of the disaster.
    (AP, 3/27/02)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Alexander_L._Kielland_%28platform%29)

1980         Sep 22, Iraq invaded Iran following border skirmishes and a dispute over the Shatt al-Arab waterway. This marked the beginning of a war that would last eight years. Iraq invaded Iran striking refineries and an oil-loading terminal on Kharg Island. The Iraqis used the political instability in Iran to try to capture long-disputed territory. They attacked across the Shatt al Arab River, a trunk of the great Tigris-Euphrates river system.
    (http://news.bbc.co.uk/hi/english/world/middle_east/newsid_806000/806268.stm)(AP, 9/22/97)(NG, 5/88, p.653,663)

1980        Dec, In Baiji, Iraq, Sadam Hussein began construction of an oil refinery under the Jabal Makhul mountains.
    (SFC, 5/5/03, p.A12)

1980        French oil giant Total SA leased an oil patch in southern Sudan the size of Pennsylvania. In 2005 the lease came under dispute as southern Sudan gained limited autonomy and signed an oil deal with London-based White Nile Ltd.
    (WSJ, 6/19/06, p.A1)(www.sudantribune.com/spip.php?article20234)
1980        Saudi Arabia completed the buy-out of the American-owned Aramco coil company.
    (Econ., 2/21/15, p.63)

1981        George Mitchell (b.1919), a Texas oilman, began to develop an affordable way to extract natural gas locked up in shale rock and other geological formations. By the early 1990s his Mitchell Energy & Development company successfully perfected the fracking process.

1981        Mexican crude oil peaked at $38.50 a barrel.
    (Econ, 3/6/04, p.77)

1982        May 2, A project to produce oil from shale rock in Colorado's Roan Plateau collapsed due to technical hurdles and falling oil prices.
    (USAT, 3/5/04, p.6A)

1982        In Texas the West Houston Assistance Ministries was founded to help people during an oil bust that eliminated 225,000 jobs and toppled the city's real estate market.
    (AP, 10/25/20)
1982        Mexico’s oil market collapsed.
    (WSJ, 8/22/97, p.A10)

1983        Fred J. Cook (1911-2003) authored "The Great Energy Scam," an examination of the oil companies.
    (SFC, 5/5/03, p.B4)

1983        Trading began in NYC on future delivery of light crude oil.
    (SFC, 8/10/04, p.A1)

1984        Mar 19, The SS Mobil Oil spilled 200,000 gallons of oil into the Columbia River near Longview.

1984        Jul 30, The tanker Alvenus at Cameron, La., spilled 2.8 million gallons of oil.
    (MC, 7/30/02)

1984        Aug 18, Triangle Oil Corp, above-ground storage tank at Jacksonville Fla, spilled 2.5 m gallons of oil and burned after lightning sparked a fire.
    (MC, 8/18/02)

1984        Jan 6, Texaco offered $125 per share for Getty oil stock superceding the Pennzoil offer of $112.50 per share. It became the biggest merger on record.
    (SFC, 1/8/95, p.7)

1984        Mar 19, Mobil oil tanker spilled 200,000 gallons into the Columbia River.
    (MC, 3/19/02)

1984        Jun 25, In Chevron U.S.A., Inc. v. Natural Resources Defense Council, Inc. the US Supreme Court court gave agencies wide latitude to interpret laws when they are vaguely written. This became known as the “Chevron deference".
    (http://tinyurl.com/ybe4s6o8)(Econ, 3/4/17, p.19)

1984        Jul 30, The tanker Alvenus at Cameron, La., spilled 2.8 million gallons of oil.
    (MC, 7/30/02)

1984        Aug 18, Triangle Oil Corp, above-ground storage tank at Jacksonville Fla, spilled 2.5 m gallons of oil and burned after lightning sparked a fire.
    (MC, 8/18/02)

1984        Sep 17, Oil heir Gordon P. Getty, with a fortune of $4.1 billion dollars, was named the richest person in the US. There were a dozen billionaires in the US at the time.
    (MC, 9/17/01)

1984        Oct 31, The oil tanker Puerto Rican exploded in the Gulf of the Farallones off the coast of San Francisco spilling 2 million gallons of oil as the ship caught fire. A bomb was believed to have caused the blast 10 miles west of the Golden Gate Bridge. The inferno left one man dead. On Nov 18 a 360-foot remnant of the 600-foot tanker was towed to San Francisco Bay. There was no leakage of some 2.7 million gallons of lube oil in the hold.
    (, 11/15/09, DB p.46)

1984        Standard Oil of California (Socal), under George M. Keller (1923-2008), purchased Gulf Oil and its extensive operations in Nigeria and changed its name to Chevron.
    (SFC, 11/19/98, p.A8)(SFC, 10/20/04, p.C6)(SFC, 10/18/08, p.B1)
1984        In Uzbekistan an earthquake, later linked to the extraction of hydrocarbons, killed one person.
    (Econ, 5/3/14, p.72)

1984        William Flanagan, head of Arriba Ltd., signed a deal with Mexico’s Petroleum Worker’s Union for at least 6 million barrels of slop oil. The union failed to deliver and Flanagan won a suit in 1986. The judgement ballooned to nearly $250 million in 2002 with still no settlement.
    (WSJ, 2/20/02, p.A1)

1985        Aug 15, Iraqis staged an air raid on Iran’s Kharg oil-island.
    (MC, 8/15/02)

1985        Sep, Saudi Arabia announced a quadrupling of oil production. This led to a collapse in oil prices and helped contribute to the collapse of the Soviet Union five years later.
    (Econ, 12/6/14, p.24)

1985        California’s oil production peaked at 423.9 million barrels.
    (SSFC, 4/13/08, p.C5)

1986        Jan 28, In northern California the Apex Houston oil spill began. By Feb 4 it killed an estimated 6,500 common murre seabirds.
    (www.dfg.ca.gov/ospr/NRDA/apex-houston.aspx)(SSFC, 1/20/02, p.A27)

1986        Jun, In Mexico Gustavo Petricioli Iturbe was named treasury secretary by Pres. Miguel de la Madrid. The foreign debt was near $100 billion due to the collapse of oil prices earlier in the decade.
    (SFEC, 10/11/98, p.D10)

1986        Dr. Len Srnka patented an electromagnetic method for locating oil deposits on behalf of Exxon Oil Corp.
    (WSJ, 8/17/04, p.A6)

1987        Mar 13, The president of Ecuador announced his country had suspended payments on its foreign debt after earthquakes killed hundreds of people and ruptured the country's main oil pipeline. The quake destroyed nearly 25 miles of oil pipeline.
    (AP, 3/13/97)(SFC, 5/1/03, A8)

1987        Oct 19, U.S. Navy warships disabled the 1st of 3 Iranian oil platforms in the Persian Gulf in retaliation for an Iranian missile attack on a U.S.-flagged tanker off Kuwait. [see Apr 18, 1988]
    (AP, 10/19/97)(HN, 10/19/02)
1987        Oct 19, Black Monday, the stock market crashed as the Dow Jones Industrial Average, amid frenzied selling, plunged 508 points, 22.6%,-- its biggest-ever one-day decline. The crash was preceded by legislation to block tax deductions for debt incurred in corporate takeovers which were fueling the market. It was also preceded by plunges in other international markets. Hong Kong suffered a 46% decline in October.
    (V.D.-H.K.p.253)(TMC, 1994, p.1987)(AP, 10/19/97)(SFC,10/27/97, p.B2)

1987        Oct, The British government sold the last of its shares in British Petroleum, allowing the company to finally be completely privatized for the first time in 73 years. The Kuwaiti government bought 22% of British Petroleum’s total shares while the price was low, but the deal was opposed by PM Margaret Thatcher. This forced the Kuwaitis so sell over half their stake. Eventually British Petroleum bought back nearly 400 million of the Kuwaiti shares and cancelled them.
    (http://www.conservapedia.com/BP)(Econ, 1/19/08, p.80)

1987        T. Boone Pickens, head of Mesa Petroleum, published his autobiography “Boone." In 2000 it was updated under the title “The Luckiest Guy in the World."
    (WSJ, 9/10/08, p.A13)

1987        In Ecuador members of the Tagaeri tribe killed Spanish Bishop Alejandro Lavaca and Colombian nun Ines Arango with poison-tipped spears. The 2 had been dropped in by an oil company helicopter to bring the word of god and discuss the arrival of oil workers.
    (SFC, 9/3/04, p.W2)

1988        Jan 2, An Ashland Oil Company tank collapsed at Floreffe near Elizabeth, Penn., sending more than 700,000 gallons of diesel oil into the Monongahela River.
    (AP, 1/2/98)

1988        Jan 4, Drinking water began to dry up in Pittsburgh suburbs because of a massive diesel oil spill two days earlier that fouled the Monongahela and Ohio rivers.
    (AP, 1/4/98)

1988        Apr 18, The United States destroyed two more Iraqi oil platforms, after a mine in the Persian Gulf injured 10 crewmen aboard a U.S. frigate. In 2003 a World Court in a 14-2 decision ruled the US was wrong but doesn't need to pay damages.
    (AP, 11/7/03)

1988        Apr 23, A drain valve was left open at the Shell Marsh in Martinez, Ca., and 10,000 barrels of oil (432,000 gallons) poured in the marsh adjoining Peyton Slough. Shell cleaned the mess and paid $20 million in penalties. The marsh was purchased with part of the funds and turned into a regional park.
    (SFC, 4/21/98, p.A19-20)(SFC, 4/30/04, p.A17)

1988        May 4, A spectacular explosion occurred at the Shell oil refinery in Norco, La., on the Mississippi river just north of New Orleans. 8 people were killed and over 40 injured.

1988        Jul 6, A series of explosions and fires destroyed the Piper Alpha North Sea oil drilling platform. 167 North Sea oil workers were killed.
    (AP, 7/6/98)(SFC, 8/9/04, p.B6)

1988        Alaskan oil production peaked.
    (Econ, 8/23/14, p.23)
1988        Basin Electric Power Cooperative of Bismarck paid the US government $85 million for the Dakota Gasification Co. of Beulah, which had begun as a $1.5 billion public-private venture under the Carter administration to turn reduce US dependence on Middle East oil.
    (SFC, 10/15/03, p.A4)
1988        A memo from a Camp Lejeune, NC, lawyer, Staff Judge Advocate A.P. Tokarz, to the base's assistant facilities manager said the Marine Corps had known for years that a fuel farm, built in 1941, was leaking 1,500 gallons a month and had done nothing to stop it. "It's an indefensible waste of money and a continuing potential threat to human health and the environment."
    (AP, 2/18/10)

1989        Mar 24, Good Friday. The nation's worst oil spill occurred as the supertanker Exxon Valdez ran aground on a reef in Alaska's Prince William Sound and began leaking 11 million gallons of crude. The Exxon Valdez struck ground in Alaska’s Prince William Sound and spilled 10.6 million gallons of oil. It was later renamed the Mediterranean and operated between Europe and the Middle East. Exxon then spent some $2.5 billion to clean up the spill and filed suit against Lloyd’s of London for reimbursement under a $210 million insurance policy. In 1996 a jury in Houston voted that Lloyd’s and some 250 other underwriters should compensate Exxon $250 million. The Exxon Valdez oil spill fouled approximately 1,000 miles of Alaska shoreline. The oil tanker ran aground in Prince William Sound, spilling some 11 million gallons of crude oil. An estimated 250,000 seabirds were killed. The Exxon Valdez spilled 240,000 barrels of oil in Alaska's Prince William Sound.
    (AP, 3/23/97)(TMC, 1994, p.1989)(SFC, 5/5/96, p.A-11)(SFC, 6/11/96, p.A10)(SFEC, 2/8/98, p.T5)(HNQ, 8/14/99)

1989        Aubrey McClendon (b.1959) and Tom L. Ward co-founded Chesapeake Energy in Oklahoma City. They took the company public in 1993. In 2012 Chesapeake was the second-largest producer of natural gas, a Top 15 oil producer and the most active driller in the United States.
    (Econ, 5/5/12, p.64)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Aubrey_McClendon)

1989        A tanker ran aground near Claymont, Del., spilling 300,000 gallons of heating oil into the Delaware River.
    (AP, 11/28/04)

1990        Jul 24, Iraq, accusing Kuwait of conspiring to harm its economy through oil overproduction, massed tens of thousands of troops and hundreds of tanks along the Iraqi-Kuwaiti border. US warships in Persian Gulf were placed on alert.
    (AP, 7/24/00)(MC, 7/24/02)

1990        Aug 2, Iraq invaded Kuwait, seizing control of the oil-rich emirate. The day came to be known in Kuwait as “Black Thursday." 330 Kuwaitis died during the occupation and war. Sadam Hussein, leader of Iraq, took over Kuwait. G. Bush led an inter-national coalition for sanctions and a demand for withdrawal. The Iraqis were later driven out in Operation Desert Storm.
    (SFC, 9/4/96, p.A8)(TMC, 1994, p.1990)(AP, 8/2/97)(SFEC, 7/30/00, p.C18)

1990        Aug 7, President Bush ordered U.S. troops and warplanes to Saudi Arabia to guard the oil-rich desert kingdom against a possible invasion by Iraq. The US Persian Gulf War began. Operation Desert Shield ended Feb 28, 1991. It cost $8.1 billion and left 383 US casualties with 458 wounded.
    (AP, 8/7/99)(WSJ, 9/22/99, p.A8)(MC, 8/7/02)

1990        Aug 18, A US frigate fired warning shots across the bow of an Iraqi oil tanker in the Gulf of Oman—apparently the first shots fired by the United States in the Persian Gulf crisis.
    (AP, 8/18/00)

1990        Sep 23, Iraq threatened to destroy Middle East oil fields and attack Israel if other nations tried to force it from Kuwait.
    (AP, 9/23/00)

1990        Oct 3, Iraqi President Saddam Hussein made his first known visit to Kuwait since his country seized control of the oil-rich emirate.
    (AP, 10/3/00)

1990        Oct 18, Iraq offered to sell its oil to anyone—including the United States—for $21 a barrel, the same price level that preceded the invasion of Kuwait.
    (AP, 10/18/00)

1990        Dec 19, Iraq urged its people to stockpile oil to avoid shortages should war break out, and Saddam Hussein declared he was “ready to crush any attack."
    (AP, 12/19/00)

1990        The US Oil Pollution Act (OPA) was passed. It required new tankers sailing through US waters to have double hulls and that old tankers be fitted with double hulls by 2015. It capped liability for economic damages at $75 million.
    (SFC, 5/27/96, p.A11,15)(Econ, 5/22/10, p.68)
1990        Before the invasion of Kuwait, Iraq was producing about 3.5 million barrels of oil per day.
    (WSJ, 5/21/96, p.A-12)
1990        Norway established a sovereign wealth fund, the Government Pension Fund Global, to prepare the country for a post-oil future and to prevent deindustrialization. By 2020 the $1 trillion GPFG was the world's largest fund  and owned about 1.5% of all world shares.
    (Econ, 2/2/13, SR p.14)(Econ., 5/23/20, p.61)

1991        Jan 17, Crude oil futures fell $10.56 following the release of strategic US crude oil stockpiles coinciding with the start of the Persian Gulf War.
    (WSJ, 8/23/08, p.B6)

1991        Jan 23, Iraqi forces in Kuwait deliberately created a huge oil spill in the Persian Gulf.
    (SFC, 2/24/98, p.A9)

1991        Jan 25, During the Gulf War Iraq sabotaged Kuwait’s main supertanker loading pier, dumping an estimated 460 million gallons of crude oil into the Persian Gulf. Missiles fired from western Iraq struck in the Tel Aviv and Haifa areas, killing one Israeli and injuring more than 40 others.
    (AP, 1/25/01)(SFC, 11/20/02, p.A14)

1991        Mar 7, Iraq continued to explode oil fields in Kuwait.

1991        Aug 7, The five permanent members of the UN Security Council agreed to authorize Iraq to sell as much as $1.6 billion in oil over six months to pay for food, humanitarian supplies and war reparations; however, Baghdad rejected the resolution.
    (AP, 8/7/01)

1991        Aug 15, The UN Security Council, by a vote of 13-to-one, authorized Iraq to export one-point-six billion dollars’ worth of oil in a tightly controlled sale to pay for desperately needed food and medicine.
    (AP, 8/15/01)

1991        Oct 4, In Madrid, Spain, 26 nations, including the United States, signed the Antarctic Treaty, which imposed a 50-year ban on oil exploration and mining in Antarctica. It would be up for review in 2048. China acceded to the treaty in 1983.
    (AP, 10/4/01)(Econ, 11/16/13, p.50)

1991        Mexico shut down an oil refinery in Mexico City. It was said to have belched out 7$ of the city’s air pollution.
    (Econ, 7/31/10, p.27)

1991-1993    Ecuador’s government overestimated domestic crude oil demand and to boost its share of production from Texaco operated wells. It then sold the oil on int’l. markets depriving Texaco of profits. In 2011 Chevron, which acquired Texaco in 2001, won a $96 million judgement against Ecuador.
    (SFC, 9/1/11, p.D3)

1992        Daniel Yergin authored “The Prize: The Epic Quest for Oil, Money and Power."
    (SSFC, 4/13/03, p.E6)
1992        Texaco quit drilling in Ecuador after nearly 30 years. It left behind a toxic dump of some 1.8 million gallons of spilled crude oil.
    (SFC, 5/1/03, A8)
1992        China issued a license to explore for oil in block WAB-21, 650 miles from its coast. This was the first time it claimed resources in the South China Sea, so far from its shore.
    (Econ, 1/24/15, p.36)
1992        Total, a France-based oil and gas company, was privatized. It was founded in 1924 as  the Compagnie française des pétroles (CFP).
    (https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Total_SE)(Econ., 12/12/20, p.68)

1993        Jun 16, The UN authorized an arms and oil embargo against Haiti.

1993        Shell Oil stopped pumping oil in the Ogoni Province, but continued to use pipelines that pass through it. The Ogonis are a 500,000-strong community in southwestern Nigeria. They maintain that oil production has polluted their land, destroying their livelihoods of fishing and farming. Shell canceled several community development projects. It had earlier agreed to spend $29 million per year on such projects. In 2011 a UN report said it could take 30 years and at least $1 billion to rid the poisoned mangroves of a black carpet of crude.
    (WSJ, 10/14/95, p.A-11)(WSJ, 11/15/95, p.A-1)(WSJ, 12/15/95, p.A-16)(Econ, 8/13/11, p.46)

1994        Mar 13, The oil tanker Nassia collided with an empty cargo ship at the entrance of the Bosporus. 27-29 people lost their lives. 9,000 tons of petroleum spilled and 20,000 tons burned for four days long affecting the marine environment.
    (www.bosphorusstrait.com/the-bosporus-strait/incidents/)(AP, 4/27/11)

1994        Jun, The idea of a credit default swap (CDS), a financial swap agreement that the seller of the CDS will compensate the buyer in the event of a loan default or other credit event came out of a JP Morgan meeting off-site in Boca Raton. The first credit-default swap transaction took place when the European Bank for Reconstruction and Development contracted for a modest sum to assume the risk that Exxon (XOM) wouldn’t repay a $4.8 billion line of credit it had borrowed from Morgan in order to pay the fine for its 1989 Exxon Valdez oil spill.
    {Banking, Money, USA, Oil}
    (http://tinyurl.com/8447k8f)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Credit_default_swap)(Econ, 2/25/12, SRp.5)

1994        Aug 11, A US federal jury awarded $286.8 million to some 10,000 commercial fishermen for losses as a result of the 1989 Exxon Valdez oil spill in Alaska.
    (AP, 8/11/99)

1995        Mar 1, The Bosnian Serb government received a $60 million mortgage for the oil refinery in Srpski Brod from a Liberian-owned company, Orbal Marketing Service Ltd. [see Jan 1995] Delivery was made to the Bosnian Serbs in late March of a supposed nuclear device of red mercury at the Gradiska border. It was discovered to be a swindle.
    (SFEC,12/14/97, p.A25)

1995        Mar 15, President Clinton issued an executive order formally blocking a $1 billion contract between Conoco and Iran to develop a huge offshore oil tract in the Persian Gulf.
    (AP, 3/15/00)

1995        Mar 20, In Nigeria General Sani Abacha appointed Dan Etete as Minister of Petroleum.

1995        Apr 14, The UN Security Council (Resolution 986) gave permission to Iraq, still under sanctions for its invasion of Kuwait, to sell $2 billion dollars' worth of oil to buy food, medicine and other supplies. Iraq later rejected the offer.
    (AP, 4/14/00)(SFC, 9/24/02, p.A12)

1995        Oct 20, Tiger guerrillas blew up two oil depots in Colombo, Sri Lanka.
    (SFC, 7/24/96, p.A9)

1995        US lawmakers passed a royalty relief bill to spur production in the Gulf of Mexico as oil costs averaged $18.43 per barrel.
    (SFC, 2/15/06, p.C3)

1995        Iran awarded a $1 billion contract to the American oil firm Conoco, but US Pres. Clinton scuttled the deal and subsequently banned US companies from most forms of trading with Iran. He accused Tehran of continued support for international terrorism. Iran then awarded the oil contract to the French firm Total.
    (SFC, 4/14/96, p.A14)

1995        Activists forced a reversal of Royal Dutch Shell plans to sink the Brent Spar oil platform.
    (WSJ, 11/2/04, p.A14)

1995        A strong wind pushed a tanker away from a refinery dock in West Deptford, N.J., snapping a fuel line that spilled 40,000 gallons into the Delaware River.
    (AP, 11/28/04)

1995        Equatorial Guinea's Zafiro field, located northwest of Bioko Island, was discovered by ExxonMobil and Ocean Energy (bought by Devon Energy in 2003). It contains the majority of the country's oil reserves.

1995-1998    The Yadana pipeline and offshore natural gas production facilities were built by a consortium of Total, Unocal and Myanmar Oil and Gas Enterprise.
    (SFC, 4/29/08, p.D1)

1996        Feb 15, The Sea Empress grounded off of Wales and spilled 18 million gallons (72,000 tons) of oil.
    (SFC, 11/20/02, p.A14)(http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/low/uk_news/55393.stm)

1996        May 16, UN and Iraqi officials reached a tentative agreement to resume oil sales of $4 billion a year to buy food and medicine. The oil for food program mandated that 13% of the UN resources go to northern Kurdish areas. In 2004 it was reported that illicit trade agreements with neighbors netted Iraq nearly $11 billion between 1990 and 2003. In 2004 the estimate for illicit trade was raised to $21.3 billion. In 2008 Michael Soussan authored “Backstabbing for Beginners: My Crash Course in International Diplomacy," in which he tells of his 3-year close-up experience in the UN’s Oil for Food program beginning in 1997.
    (SFC, 5/16/96, p.A-9)(SFC, 9/3/01, p.A9)(SFC, 10/9/04, p.A15)(SFC, 11/16/04, p.A9)(WSJ, 11/14/08, p.A15)

1996        May 18, A 40 year agreement was signed between Royal Dutch/Shell and Perupetro, Peru’s state oil company. Royal Dutch will spend $2.7 bil to develop a natural gas field.
    (SFC, 5/18/96, p.D-6)

1996        Aug 23, It was reported that British Petroleum signed a 3-year agreement with the defense ministry of Columbia for $60 mil. for a battalion of soldiers to protect expansion and construction of new drilling sites.
    (SFC, 8/23/96, p.A20)

1996        Aug, Equatorial Guinea’s offshore Zafiro oil field came onstream and by the end of 1997 was producing 75,000 barrels a day. Output from Zafiro peaked in 2004.
    (Econ, 11/3/12, p.74)

1996        Nov, The Canadian firm Hurricane Hydrocarbons Ltd. (later known as PetroKazakhstan Inc. of Calgary) won the bidding in the country’s first oilfield privatization. For $120 million it acquired a field producing 50,000 barrels a day with reserves of 340 million barrels. The deal was accompanied by an array of social obligations. It later faced problems with the Kazakh government over fuel pricing and environmental rules.
    (WSJ, 11/18/97, p.A1)(WSJ, 6/1/05, p.A11)

1996        A West Coast power blackout affected 4 million people.
    (SFC, 8/15/03, p.A7)
1996        California started using its own unique fuel blends to combat air pollution. No other state adopted the standards. A premium for the special blends resulted and became larger as the number of state refineries shrunk.
    (SFC, 9/24/09, p.A12)
1996        The Argentine oil firm Compania General de Combustibles (CGC) received a contract to drill for oil Sarayaca, Ecuador, home to some 2,000 Quichua Indians. Natives fended off oil drilling well into 2004.
    (SFC, 8/13/04, p.W1)
1996        Bolivia passed a hydrocarbons law that paved the way for privatizations.
    (Econ, 9/13/03, p.34)

1997        A US federal judge allowed a lawsuit to proceed against Unocal, accusing the oil company of complicity in human rights abuses on the Yadana project in Myanmar. The decision opened the door to suing US corporations on their behaviour pverseas.
    (SFC, 4/29/08, p.D1)

1997        Gunvor, a Cyprus-registered commodities dealer, was created by Russian oil trader Gennady Timchenko and Swedish oil trader Torbjorn Tornqvist. By 2011 its revenues had grown to $80 billion.
    (Econ, 5/5/12, p.59)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Gunvor_%28company%29)

1998        Mar, Saudi Arabia, Venezuela and Mexico began talking to reduce oil output. They pledged to take 2-3% of the world’s oil production off the market in what came to be called the Riyadh Pact.
    (WSJ, 6/23/98, p.A1)

1998        Aug 14, In China flooding in Daqing broke a levee protecting the nation’s largest oil field. 155 0f 20,000 wells were closed as 200,000 people fought the flood.
    (SFC, 8/15/98, p.A10)

1998        May 29, Two activists were killed by the Nigerian Mobile Police on Chevron’s Parabe oil production platform. The police were flown in on Chevron helicopters following 4 days of protests. In 2009 a federal judge upheld a San Francisco jury’s verdict that cleared Chevron of wrongdoing in the shootings.
    (SFC, 11/19/98, p.A8,9)(SFC, 3/5/09, p.C1)

1998        Texaco completed a $40 million oil cleanup in Ecuador. The Ecuadoran government, PetroEcuador and 5 municipalities released the company from all liabilities and obligations related to its oil operations. A class-action suit against ChevronTexaco opened in 2003.
    (SFC, 10/21/03, p.A3)(Econ, 5/16/09, p.42)
1998        Nigeria’s petroleum minister Dan Etete awarded block OPL245 to Malabu Oil and Gas, a company established just days before with no employees or assets. There was a signature bonus of $20 million for which Malabu only paid $2 million. In 2011 Shell paid $1.3 billion for the block. The government helped direct most of the money back to Malabu.
    (Econ, 6/15/13, p.63)
1998        In Nigeria a dip in the price of oil forced 28 banks to close. Another dip in 2009 caused ten more banks to close.
    (Econ, 8/12/17, p.58)

1999        Apr 1, An oil pipeline from Baku, Azerbaijan, to the Georgian Black Sea port of Supsa was to begin operating.
    (SFC, 10/27/98, p.B5)

1999        Dec 12, The Erika, a Maltese registered oil tanker, broke in two during a storm off the coast of Brest, France, with 8 million gallons of diesel oil. Half the ship was towed to deeper waters and 3 million gallons were spilled. In 2008 a French court found Total SA guilty of maritime pollution and fined it the maximum penalty of $560,000. It also ordered Total and three other defendants to pay total damages of $285 million.
    (SFC, 12/13/99, p.A13)(WSJ, 12/13/99, p.A1)(SFC, 11/20/02, p.A14)(AP, 1/16/08)

1999        British North Sea oil production peaked at 4.5 million barrels per day with Britain as the world’s 6th biggest producer of oil and gas. By 2007 Britain dropped to 12th biggest.
    (Econ, 7/14/07, p.59)(Econ, 3/8/08, p.65)

2000        Feb 5, An oil pipeline began leaking and released some 25,000 gallons below the surface of a frozen pond in the John Heinz National Wildlife Refuge in southwest Philadelphia.
    (SFC, 2/7/00, p.A10)

2000        Mar 28, Nine of 11 OPEC nations voted to raise oil production by a total of 1.45 million barrels a day.
    (SFC, 3/29/00, p.A1)

2000        May 15, A consortium of Western oil companies found a large oil reserve in the northern Caspian Sea off the coast of Kazakhstan. The 480-sq. mile Kashagan field was estimated at 8 to 50 billion barrels of oil. In 2007 it was reported that the Kashagan field contained some 12-billion barrels of oil.
    (SFC, 5/16/00, p.A14)(Econ, 11/17/07, p.43)

2000        Sep 27, OPEC’s top leaders gathered in Caracas for a 2-day meeting. OPEC speakers called on Western countries to reduce taxes levied on oil to ease prices.
    (SFC, 9/27/00, p.A1)(SFC, 9/28/00, p.A1)

2000        Oct 13, Chevron announced plans to acquire Texaco in a deal valued at $37 billion. Chevron and Texaco agreed to merge on Oct 15 for $35 billion in stock and $7.5 billion in debt.
    (SFC, 10/14/00, p.A1)(SFC, 10/16/00, p.A1)

2000        Nov 22, A $2.5 billion oil pipeline from Kazakhstan to the Russian port of Novorossiisk on the Black Sea was reported completed by an int’l. consortium. Pumping of 600,000 barrels per day was expected to begin in 2001.
    (SFC, 11/23/00, p.D5)

2000        In Angola Manuel Vincente became the head of Sonangol, the state oil company and chief purveyor of government party funds.
    (Economist, 9/1/12, p.52)

2001        Mar 1, China was reported to consume a little over 6% of the world’s total 75.5 million barrels per day.
    (WSJ, 3/1/01, p.A1)

2001        Mar 26, In Kazakhstan the Caspian Pipeline Consortium began pumping crude oil from the Tengiz field to Novorossiysk, Russia’s Black Sea port. The 990-mile Tengiz-Novorossiysk oil pipeline was owned by Kazakhstan, Russia, Oman and 8 oil companies. Chevron held 15% in the 12-partner consortium.
    (WSJ, 2/26/01, p.A14)(SFC, 3/27/01, p.C4)

2001        cApr 5, Presidents Robert Kocharian of Armenia and Heydar Aliyev of Azerbaijan met in Key West, Fla., for negotiations on Nagorno-Karabakh. A new $2.7 billion oil pipeline from Baku to Ceyhan, Turkey, was expected to pass just north of the area. Halliburton Co., was a finalist in engineering bids for the line and Vice President Chaney was the former chief executive of Halliburton. National Security Advisor Condoleeza Rice formerly served on the Board of Directors for Chevron, a player in the pipeline bid.
    (SFC, 4/4/01, p.A10)

2001        Jul 17, In Moscow Russia and China agreed to plan a $1.7 billion pipeline for oil from Siberia to northeastern China.
    (SFC, 7/18/01, p.C4)

2001        Aug 20, Four oil companies (Chevron, Shell, Texaco and Unocal) agreed to clean up MTBE contamination in California caused by leaking storage tanks. 4 others (ARCO, Exxon, Mobil and Tosco) declined to settle the suit.
    (SFC, 8/21/01, p.A3)

2001        Sep 7, The Utah Attorney General approved the merger of Chevron and Texaco.
    (SFC, 10/20/04, p.C6)(http://attorneygeneral.utah.gov/PrRel/prsept72001.htm)

2001        Dec, Oscar Wyatt (81), chairman of Coastal Corp., agreed to a surcharge of about $200,000 to be paid to bank account in Jordan controlled by officials of Iraq’s State Oil Marketing Organization. This was in violation of the UN’s oil-for-food program. Wyatt was arrested in 2005 at his home in Houston. In 2007 Wyatt was sentenced to over a year in jail after admitting approval of the surcharge.
    (SFC, 10/22/05, p.A3)(WSJ, 11/28/07, p.B10)

2001        In Nigeria over 100 flare stacks burned some 2 billion standard cubic feet of natural gas per day. It was estimated that 35 million tons of carbon dioxide was released annually along with 12 million tons of methane.
    (SSFC, 6/3/01, p.A14)

2001-2003    Cuba ran up an oil debt to Venezuela of some $752 million.
    (WSJ, 2/2/04, p.A1)

2002        Feb, Royal Dutch/Shell executives were advised that there were huge shortfalls in proven oil and natural-gas reserves. The information was not made public for 2 years.
    (SFC, 2/09/04, p.A1)

2002        Jul 19, In Abiteye, Nigeria, unarmed women occupying at least four ChevronTexaco facilities took two hostages in a bid to meet with oil executives.
    (AP, 7/20/02)

2002        Aug 5, Shell Oil agreed to pay $28 million to the Tahoe Public Utility District to help cleanup contamination from the gasoline additive MTBE.
    (SFC, 8/5/02, p.A17)

2002        Nov 19, The Prestige oil tanker, carrying 20 million gallons of fuel oil, broke in two and sank in the Atlantic Ocean off the coast of Spain. It leaked up to 1.02 million gallons of oil and threatened a spill nearly twice as big as the Exxon Valdez in 1989. Leakage continued at some 33,000 gallons per day and could drain until 2006. Spain later put the estimated cost of the Prestige oil tanker spill at least $1.05 billion. In 2013 a judge acquitted crew members and a top maritime official of causing the massive oil spill. The Greek captain (78) of the Prestige was sentenced to nine months in prison for resisting attempts to tow the wreck away from shore before it spilled its load.
    (AP, 11/19/02)(WSJ, 12/11/02, p.A1)(AP, 1/15/03)(AP, 11/13/13)

2002        The US Geological Survey estimated there may be 1.9 trillion cubic feet of gas in the Marcellus Shale of Pennsylvania. In 2008 Prof. Terry Engelder of Pennsylvania State Univ. estimated the amount at 168 trillion cubic feet. US consumption in 2007 was 23.05 trillion. The Marcellus shale formation stretched some 600 miles along the Appalachians from New York to West Virginia.
    (WSJ, 4/2/08, p.A2)(Econ, 3/16/13, SR p.6)
2002        World oil production reached nearly 67 million barrels per day.
    (SSFC, 3/21/04, p.J3)
2002        China announced a $5.25 billion East-West natural gas project. A Western consortium backed out in 2004.
    (WSJ, 8/4/04, p.A11)
2002        The first Timor Sea Treaty was signed with Australia giving East Timor 90% of the revenue from a Joint Petroleum Development Area (JPDA).
    (Econ, 6/8/13, p.44)

2003        Jan 17, Iraq and Russia signed three oil agreements for exploration and development of oil fields in southern and western Iraq.
    (AP, 1/17/03)

2003        Jan 29, Belgium said oil leaking from the sunken cargo ship Tricolor (Dec 14) is washing up on the Belgian coastline, damaging wildlife and beaches.
    (AP, 1/30/03)

2003        Feb 2, BP and AAR, a Russian consortium, agreed to combine their Russian oil and gas interests, with each holding a 50% stake in TNK-BP.
    (Econ, 6/9/12, p.68)

2003        Feb 8, Tens of thousands of Venezuelans marched in support of 9,000 oil workers fired for leading a two-month strike against President Hugo Chavez that battered the economy of this oil-dependent nation.
    (AP, 2/8/03)

2003         Feb 15, Nigerian oil workers launched an indefinite strike that could shut down crude exports in the world’s 6th largest oil exporter.
    (AP, 2/15/03)

2003        Feb 21, An explosion rocked a Mobil oil refinery on the edge of Staten Island and 2 workers were killed.
    (AP, 2/21/03)

2003        Feb 21, It was reported that Iraq had recently begun shipping large quantities of oil through its Khor al Amaya port.
    (WSJ, 2/21/03, p.A1)

2003        Feb 24, Dan Rather interviewed Saddam Hussein via satellite and Hussein proposed a live debate with Pres. Bush. Hussein said he would rather die than leave his country and that he would not destroy its wealth by setting fire to its oil wells in the event of a U.S.-led invasion.
    (SFC, 2/25/03, A10)(AP, 2/26/03)

2003        Feb 25, In Nigeria cars and buses ground to a halt in Africa’s leading oil-producing nation, gripped by its worst fuel shortage since military rule ended four years ago. Nigeria, with a population of 120 million people, consumes 300,000 barrels of crude oil daily. Panic buying followed a recent strike.
    (AP, 2/25/03)

2003         Feb 26, In Guatemala striking teachers seized a pumping station on the nation’s only oil pipeline to press their demands for a hefty wage increase and better schools. About 60,000 of the country’s 80,000 teachers are striking to demand a near-doubling of salaries that now range from about $190 to $390 per month. They also seek improved school buildings, more books and better school lunches.
    (AP, 2/27/03)

2003        Mar 8, In India separatist rebels in northeastern Assam state shot and killed three laborers, ignited a huge fire by launching mortars at an oil refinery and used explosives to damage a pipeline.
    (AP, 3/8/03)

2003        Mar 18, In Yemen a man shot 4 Hunt Oil company workers. He killed 3 and shot himself dead.
    (SFC, 3/19/03, p.A5)

2003        Mar 19, Boatloads of Nigerian troops headed into the oil-rich Niger Delta on to put down days of ethnic violence that has left dozens dead and disrupted multinational oil operations.
    (AP, 3/20/03)(SFC, 3/21/03, p.A9)

2003        Mar 20, The US-led ground war in Iraq began. US Sec. of State Rumsfeld warned that the attack in Iraq would be “of a force and scope and scale that is beyond what has been seen before." A “shock and awe" strategy was planned based on a 1996 “rapid dominance" strategy. The US seized $1.74 billion in frozen Iraqi assets and declared it would be used for humanitarian purposes. Iraq set fire to at least 10 oil wells.
    (AP, 3/20/03)(SFC, 3/20/03, p.W1)(SFC, 3/21/03, p.W11)(WSJ, 3/21/03, p.A1)

2003        Mar 22, In Nigeria ethnic militants threatened to blow up 11 multinational oil installations they claimed to have captured in retaliation for military raids.
    (AP, 3/22/03)

2003        Mar 27, EU governments agreed to ban single-hulled oil tankers carrying heavy fuel in an attempt to reduce the risk of slicks.
    (AP, 3/27/03)

2003        Mar, Oil flow from Iraq to Syria ceased with the US invasion. It had reached 130,000 barrels a day providing both countries over $10 million a month in profits.
    (SFC, 4/11/03, p.A18)

2003        Apr 1, In Nigeria the 12-day rampage by Ijaw extremists has cut the normal oil output of 2 million barrels a day by 40 percent. Nigeria is the fifth-biggest supplier of US oil imports.
    (AP, 4/1/03)

2003        Apr 3, Venezuela’s government fired 828 more employees from Petroleos de Venezuela (PDVSA), the state oil monopoly, for participating in a two-month strike to oust Pres. Chavez. PDVSA lost many of its most experienced and best-qualified employees. Altogether Chavez fired some 18,000 employees of PDVSA this year and many of them soon found work Colombia.
    (AP, 4/4/03)(Econ, 8/12/06, p.56)(Econ, 7/19/14, p.31)

2003        Apr 10, In the 22nd day of Operation Iraqi Freedom US and Kurdish troops seized oil-rich Kirkuk without a fight and held a second city within their grasp as opposition forces crumbled in northern Iraq. Looting in Baghdad prompted orders for US Marines to crack down on thieves.
    (AP, 4/10/03)(SFC, 4/11/03, p.A1)

2003        May 28, China’s President Hu Jintao called for a "multipolar world" and a strategic partnership with Russia to counter US dominance, and oil executives signed a preliminary deal for pipeline to carry Siberian oil to China.
    (AP, 5/29/03)

2003        May, In China’s Jingbian County, Shaanxi province, authorities moved to confiscate some 1,600 privately held oil wells following orders from the central government. Tens of thousands of investors had stakes in over 4,000 oil wells valued at about $850 million. A county-run company took over oil production and in 2005 struck a deal with Yanchang, a regional state-owned company to assume control.
    (Econ, 8/4/12, p.39)

2003        Jun 17, The Extractive Industries Transparency Initiative (EITI) was formed at a conference in London as a global standard for dealings in oil, gas and mining. By 2016 the EITI Standard was implemented in 51 countries.
    (https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Extractive_Industries_Transparency_Initiative)(Econ, 2/27/15, p.55)

2003        Aug 14, A Greek oil tanker that ran aground Jul 27 off the port city of Karachi broke apart, but officials said the worst was over and rich fishing grounds nearby were not threatened. The ship carried 378,000 to 450,000 gallons. It leaked an estimated 12,000 metric tons.
    (AP, 8/14/03)(SFC, 8/15/03, p.A3)

2003        Aug, British Petroleum bought half of Russia’s Tyumen Oil Co. for $6.75 billion. TNK-BP was originally formed from the assets of TNK (Tyumen Oil Co), Onako, Sidanco and the majority of BP’s Russian assets. TNK-BP became equally owned by BP and AAR, a consortium controlled by 3 billionaires.
    (Econ, 5/22/04, Survey p.11)(http://tinyurl.com/4lfczjv)(Econ, 6/9/12, p.67)

2003        Oct 12, In Bolivia violence erupted at El Alto when the military tried to break a blockade against gas trucks bound for Chile. The death toll grew to 59 after 4 days of clashes at El Alto.
    (SFC, 10/15/03, p.A11)(Econ, 10/18/03, p.38)

2003        Oct 22, It was reported that pirated fuel from Iraq totaled some 2,000 tons for a daily loss of $250,000.
    (SFC, 10/22/03, p.A1)

2003        Dec 5, A tractor in Tracy, Ca., punctured a Chevron oil pipeline and over 21,000 gallons of oil leaked out. Officials said the leak could exceed 40,000 gallons.
    (SFC, 12/6/03, p.A17)

2003        Dec 30, The Russian Tax Ministry slapped a $3.3 billion bill for back taxes, fines and other penalties on the oil giant Yukos.
    (SFC, 12/31/03, p.B6)

2003        Dec, George B. Kaiser, head of Kaiser-Francis Oil, took over the LNG business of El Paso Oil. This included the Energy Bridge technology for pumping natural gas from new, specially-built off-shore vessels.
    (WSJ, 7/23/04, p.A1)

2003        Oil insiders began to consider that some 180 billion barrels of oil, trapped in the tar sands of Alberta, were economically viable.
    (Econ, 6/28/03, p.75)

2003        James Giffen, a US oil consultant, was indicted in the US under the 1977 Foreign Corrupt Practices Act. He was charged with accepting bribes from US companies to gain access to Kazakhstan’s Tengiz oil field. Giffen claimed he was working as a US intelligence asset.
    (WSJ, 5/12/08, p.A6)

2004        Jan 9, Royal Dutch/Shell announced that it overstated its proven reserves and planned to slash estimates by 20%.
    (WSJ, 4/20/04, p.A12)

2004        Jan 31, China’s oil-refining boss signed a deal to buy crude oil from Gabon. Pres. Hu Jintao visited Gabon the next day.
    (Econ, 2/7/04, p.45)

2004        Feb 10, OPEC met in Algiers and agreed to reduce its official production by 1 million barrels-a-day beginning Apr 1. Current production was 24.5 million.
    (WSJ, 2/11/04, p.A1)

2004        Feb 19, A Japanese consortium announced it will develop an Iranian oil field with reserves of up to 26 billion barrels. The deal was opposed by the United States because of fears the money could go to nuclear proliferation.
    (AP, 2/19/04)

2004        Mar 3, Royal Dutch/Shell announced the resignations of CEO Sir Philip Watts and Walter van de Vijver, head of exploration and production.
    (WSJ, 4/20/04, p.A12)

2004        Mar 22, Oil giant Royal Dutch/Shell said it plans to streamline its operations in Nigeria. An estimated 1,500 people, or about 30 percent of its work force of about 5,000, will be laid off.
    (AP, 3/22/04)

2004        Mar 23, A Unocal helicopter with 10 on board went missing in the Gulf of Mexico. The Coast Guard found 4 bodies.
    (WSJ, 3/25/04, p.A1)

2004        Mar 31, OPEC voted to cut oil production by 4.1%.
    (SFC, 4/1/04, p.C1)

2004        Apr 29, Cleanup crews arrived at Suisun Marsh in the SF Bay area to tackle an estimated 60,000 gallon diesel fuel spill from a pipeline operated by Kinder Morgan Energy Partners of Houston, Texas. The amount of spill was later raised to 85,000 gallons.
    (SFC, 4/30/04, p.A1)(SSFC, 5/30/04, p.B5)

2004        May 4, Oil prices for June delivery rose to $38.98 a barrel.
    (WSJ, 5/5/04, p.A1)

2004        May 10, Saudi oil ministers called on OPEC to pump more oil.
    (SFC, 5/11/04, p.A1)

2004        May 11, Oil for June delivery rose to 40.06 per barrel, the highest price in 13 years.
    (SFC, 5/12/04, p.A1)

2004        May 15, In Jordan a three-day World Economic Forum began. Augusto Lopez-Claros, chief economist and director of the Global Competitiveness Program in the World Economic Forum, said "oil will remain a source of instability in the world, and perhaps in the short-term it is the most significant factor."
    (AP, 5/14/04)(AP, 5/15/04)

2004        May 17, China and Kazakhstan agreed to build a 744-mile crude oil pipeline to send an initial 10 million tons of Kazakh oil to Xinjiang by 2006.
    (WSJ, 6/17/04, p.A16)

2004        Jun 3, In Beirut, Lebanon, OPEC leaders agreed to raise their output ceiling by 2.5 million barrels a day.
    (WSJ, 6/4/04, p.A2)

2004        Jul 2, A Norwegian strike began targeting the oil exploration sector. It incidentally affected two mobile production units, the Petrojarl I, which ceased operations in early September, and the Petrojarl Varg.
    (AP, 10/13/04)

2004        Jul 4, It was reported that Libya's state-owned Tam Oil Co has bought the Niger unit of US oil major ExxonMobil Corp, in the first such deal following an end to US sanctions on Tripoli.
    (AP, 7/4/04)

2004        Aug 9, Oil prices for September delivery of light crude hit a record high of $44.98 since trading began in NYC in 1983.
    (SFC, 8/10/04, p.A1)

2004        Aug 18, Indian shares slid as oil prices surged to a new high of $47 a barrel, threatening domestic demand and growth in Asia's fourth-largest economy.
    (AP, 8/18/04)

2004        Aug 30, Mexico’s state oil company said it believes that vast untapped oil reserves lie in the deep waters of the Gulf of Mexico.
    (WSJ, 8/31/04, p.A10)

2004        Sep 14, Hurricane Ivan whipped western Cuba with 160 mph winds. The hurricane knocked some 25 million barrels of oil off world markets by causing undersea mudslides in the Gulf of Mexico.
    (AP, 9/14/04)(WSJ, 10/27/04, p.A1)

2004        Sep 16, Waves from Hurricane Ivan triggered an underwater mudslide that toppled a Taylor Energy Company oil platform and buried 28 wells under sediment 10 miles off the coast of Louisiana. By 2015 it was estimated that some 300,000 to 1.4 million gallons of oil had spilled from the site. The leak continued into 2017 and regulators warned it could last a century or more. In 2018 a new estimate said 10,500 to 29, 4000 gallons of oil were leaking daily from the site.
     (SFC, 4/17/15, p.A6)(SFC, 5/11/17, p.A5)(SFC, 12/22/18, p.A7)

2004        Sep 29, In a deal paving the way for future joint ventures, U.S. oil giant ConocoPhillips has won an auction with a bid of nearly $2 billion US for the Russian government's 7.6 per cent stake in Russia's Lukoil - the world's No. 2 oil company by reserves.
    (AP, 9/29/04)

2004        Sep, Construction began on a 620-mile pipeline to take oil from eastern Kazakhstan into China’s western Xinjiang region.
    (Econ, 11/13/04, p.46)

2004        Oct 5, Light crude oil for November closed at a record $51.09 per barrel.
    (SFC, 10/6/04, p.C1)

2004        Oct 6, Light crude oil for November closed in NYC at a record $52.02 per barrel.
    (SFC, 10/6/04, p.C1)

2004        Oct 7, Light crude oil for November closed in NYC at a record $52.67 per barrel.
    (WSJ, 10/8/04, p.C1)

2004        Oct 11, Light crude oil for November closed in NYC at a record $53.64 per barrel.
    (SFC, 10/12/04, p.E12)

2004        Oct 14, Light crude oil for November closed in NYC at a record $54.76 per barrel.
    (SFC, 10/15/04, p.C1)

2004        Nov 25, In Singapore China Aviation Oil (Singapore) filed for bankruptcy protection following an estimated loss of $550 million from a series of bets on oil prices.
    (WSJ, 12/6/04, p.A1)

2004        Nov 26, A Cyprus-registered tanker spilled 30,000 gallons of crude oil into the Delaware River between Philadelphia and southern New Jersey, creating a 20-mile-long slick that killed dozens of birds and threatened other wildlife.
    (AP, 11/28/04)

2004        Dec 5, In Nigeria hundreds of protesters besieged two oil platforms run by Royal Dutch/Shell Group Cos. and ChevronTexaco Corp. in the southern oil region, shutting down production of 90,000 barrels of oil a day.
    (AP, 12/6/04)

2004        Dec 7, The German-registered MSC Ilona was punctured during a collision night with the Panama-registered Hyundai Advance near the mouth of the Pearl River, northwest of Hong Kong. The collision of the container ships caused a huge oil spill and cleanup effort.
    (AP, 12/9/04)

2004        Dec 10, OPEC agreed to reduce output by one million barrels a day in hopes of staving off further price declines without triggering a new buying frenzy.
    (AP, 12/10/04)

2004        Dec 19, Russia's little-known BaikalFinansGroup bought Yuganskneftegaz, the core production unit of oil giant Yukos, at auction for $9.3 billion US.
    (AP, 12/19/04)(Econ, 1/1/05, p.49)

2004        Dec 25, President Fidel Castro said a 100-million-barrel crude oil deposit had been discovered off Cuba by Canadian firms. Cuba imports about half the petroleum it needs.
    (AP, 12/25/04)

2004        Dec 28, Albania, Bulgaria and Macedonia gave political support to a $1.2 billion private trans-Balkan pipeline that will allow Russian and Caspian crude oil to avoid Turkish waters.
    (WSJ, 12/29/04, p.A7)

2004        Dec 30, Russia said it would form a new state oil company base on the core operations of Yukos and that it would offer a minority stake to China.
    (WSJ, 12/31/04, p.A1)

2004        The new Iraqi government priced local petrol at one American cent per liter. The policy caused severe shortages as large amounts leaked over to the black market where prices were significantly higher.
    (Econ, 12/18/04, p.64)

2004        David Goodstein authored "Out of Gas: The End of the Age of Oil."
    (SSFC, 2/22/04, p.M6)
2004        Michael T. Klare authored “Blood and Oil: The Dangers and Consequences of America’s Growing Dependency on Imported Petroleum."
    (SSFC, 9/11/04, p.M1)
2004        Stephen and Donna Leeb authored “The Oil Factor" and claimed that the price of oil will soar above $100 per barrel by the end of the decade.
2004        Amory Lovins, head of the Rocky Mountain Institute (RMI), authored “Winning the Oil Endgame." Lovins offered a plan for reducing US oil use by 50% by 2025, and ending foreign oil dependency based on a study funded by the Pentagon.
    (Econ, 3/20/04, p.62)(www.financialsense.com/fsu/posts/dancy/reviews/030904.html)
2004        Peter R. Odell authored “Why Carbon Fuels Will Dominate the 21st Century’s Global Energy Economy.
    (Econ, 10/9/04, p.77)
2004        Matthew Yeomans authored “Oil: Anatomy of an Industry."
    (SSFC, 9/11/04, p.M1)

2005        Jan 12, Nigeria made public plans to build a second $6-billion liquefied natural gas (LNG) plant in the southwestern state of Ondo.
    (AFP, 1/13/05)

2005        Jan 21, The US Bureau of Land Management (BLM) posted a decision to open thousands of acres on Alaska’s North Slope for exploratory oil drilling.
    (SFC, 1/22/05, p.A5)

2005        Jan 29, Libya granted its first oil exploration licenses in over four decades, awarding 15 permits to foreign companies, with US companies taking the lion's share. PM Shukri Ghanem said Libya has opted for a policy of open communication with total transparence."
    (AP, 1/29/05)

2005        Jan 30, OPEC warned that oil prices, already hovering near $50 a barrel, would remain high through the spring, even as the cartel decided to keep its production ceiling at 27 million barrels a day.
    (AP, 1/30/05)

2005        Feb 1, China lent Russia $6 billion to help finance the nationalization of OAO Yukos. The loan was in effect a forward payment for some 48 million metric tons of crude oil.
    (WSJ, 2/2/05, p.A2)
2005        Feb 1, Venezuela’s Pres. Chavez said he intends to sell his country’s interests in 8 US oil refineries.
    (WSJ, 2/2/05, p.A2)

2005        Feb 15, It was reported that major energy firms had committed $20 billion to build a new gas-to-liquids (GTL) plant in Qatar to develop the huge natural gas reserves there.
    (WSJ, 2/15/05, p.A1)

2005        Mar 4, President Hugo Chavez said Venezuela wants to supply crude oil to India, Asia's third-biggest consumer, under a long-term agreement.
    (AP, 3/4/05)

2005        Mar 11, Crude oil futures prices climbed over $54 a barrel after the Int’l. Energy Agency estimated global petroleum demand would grow faster than previously expected in 2005.
    (AP, 3/13/05)

2005        Mar 12, Algeria's minister for energy and mines said OPEC has reached its production limit, and trying to stretch output by one million barrels per day isn't likely to lower oil prices.
    (AP, 3/12/05)
2005        Mar 12, Turkish authorities closed the Bosphorus Strait to maritime traffic after a roll-on-roll-off (ro-ro) vessel carrying 7 tanker trucks loaded with 138 tons of liquefied petroleum gas (LPG) sank in the narrow waterway, which separates the European and Asian sides of Istanbul.
    (AP, 3/13/05)

2005        Mar 23, In Texas City, Texas, an explosion at BP's 1,200-acre plant near Houston killed 15 and injured 170 others. BP later acknowledged faulty equipment at the plant. In 2009 oil giant BP was hit with a record 52-million-pound fine for safety violations at the Texas refinery.
    (AP, 3/24/05)(SFC, 3/25/05, p.A4)(WSJ, 7/27/05, p.A1)(AFP, 10/30/09)(Econ, 5/8/10, p.68)

2005        Apr 1, Oil prices closed on Nymex at a record $57.27 per barrel sending the DJIA down 99 points to 10,404.
    (SFC, 4/2/05, p.A1)

2005        Apr 4, Oil prices hit an intraday high of $58.28 per barrel.
    (SFC, 4/5/05, p.C1)
2005        Apr 4, Chevron announced plans to purchase Unocal Corp. for $18.4 billion. Chevron’s eventual acquisition of Unocal included a stake in the Yadana project in Myanmar, in which Unocal invested in the 1990s along with France’s Total, Myanmar Oil and Gas Enterprise and the petroleum Authority of Thailand. Total with a 31% stake operated the project. The Yadana project brought in an estimated $969 million to the government undercutting international sanctions to isolate the regime.
    (SFC, 4/5/05, p.A1)(SFC, 10/4/07, p.A10)(SFC, 4/29/08, p.D3)

2005        Apr 8, ChevronTexaco Corp. said it has awarded a $1.7 billion contract to build Nigeria's third natural gas-to-liquids plant to a consortium including Halliburton Co. subsidiary KBR.
    (AP, 4/8/05)

2005        Apr 29, In Canada oil companies stopped all engineering work on a natural gas pipeline from the Arctic ocean to the oil sands of Alberta, due to high compensation demands by the Deh Cho First Nation native Indian tribe in Fort Simpson, Northwest Territories. The Deh Cho also sought a new autonomous government and complete ownership of subsurface rights within their 81,000 square mile claim, an area about the size of Nebraska.
    (SFC, 5/23/05, p.A1)

2005        Apr, Unocal agreed to settle a lawsuit, for an undisclosed sum, concerning human rights abuses on the Yadana project in Myanmar.
    (SFC, 4/29/08, p.D1)

2005        May 5, It was reported that Wolverine Gas & Oil of Grand Rapids, Mich., had snapped up leasing rights to a half-million acres in central Utah and estimated yields up to a billion or more barrels of oil.
    (SFC, 5/5/05, p.C3)

2005        May 17, In Bolivia a measure increasing taxes on foreign oil companies became law. It slapped a 32% production tax on top of royalties of 18% paid by producers of natural gas and oil. The president and thousands of street protesters wanted the industry nationalized.
    (AP, 5/18/05)(Econ, 5/21/05, p.42)
2005        May 17, In Vietnam an international consortium led by French group Technip signed a 1.5-billion-dollar deal to build Vietnam's first oil refinery.
    (AP, 5/17/05)

2005        Jun 15, OPEC agreed to increase its production quota by half a million barrels a day in an effort to cool high crude oil costs that have dampened the global economy.
    (AP, 6/15/05)

2005        Jun 17, Crude oil prices for July delivery hit a record high closing at $58.47 a barrel.
    (AP, 6/18/05)(SFC, 6/18/05, p.C1)

2005        Jun 24, Crude oil, at close to $60 a barrel, caused widespread selling on global equity markets, as shares in transport and automobile companies fell sharply.
    (AP, 6/24/05)

2005        Jun 25, Gujarat's chief minister said Gujarat Petroleum Corp (GSPC) has made the India’s biggest gas discovery 20 trillion cubic feet, worth $50 billion off the southeast coast.
    (AP, 6/26/05)

2005        Jun 28, China said it will begin filling its strategic oil reserve by the end of the year.
    (WSJ, 6/29/05, p.A13)

2005        Jun 30, Justice Minister Yuri Chaika said that Russia was seeking to have assets of the beleaguered Yukos oil company seized overseas and had asked Netherlands and Lithuania for help.
    (AP, 6/30/05)

2005        Jul 1, Egypt and Israel signed a commercial agreement committing Egypt to export natural gas to Israel for 20 years. Egypt pulled out of the deal in 2012. A Swiss court eventually ordered Egas to pay $1.7 billion to compensate its Israeli partners.
    (www.jewishvirtuallibrary.org/jsource/Peace/egisgas.html)(Econ, 8/19/17, p.41)

2005        Jul 6, Crude oil for August delivery rose $1.69 to settle at a record $61.28 per barrel.
    (SFC, 7/7/05, p.C1)

2005        Jul 8, In China Exxon Mobil Corp., Saudi Aramco and top Asian refiner Sinopec signed a $3.5 billion deal to expand a refinery in south China, sealing what they called the country's largest oil project.
    (Reuters, 7/8/05)

2005        Sep 9, China deployed a fleet of 5 warships near a gas field in the East China Sea, an area disputed by China and Japan.
    (SSFC, 9/11/05, p.A12)

2005        Oct 21, Oscar Wyatt (81), former chairman of Coastal Corp., was arrested at his home in Houston for paying millions in kickbacks to the government of Saddam Hussein in exchange for rights to buy discounted Iraqi oil under the UN’s oil-for-food program. 2 Swiss associates were also indicted. In 2007 Wyatt was sentenced to over a year in jail after admitting that he agreed to a surcharge of about $200,000 to be paid to bank account in Jordan controlled by officials of Iraq’s State Oil Marketing Organization in Dec 2001.
    (SFC, 10/22/05, p.A3)(WSJ, 11/28/07, p.B10)

2005        Oct 27, The 18-month Independent Inquiry Committee under former US Federal Reserve chairman Paul Volcker issued a final 623-page report on corruption in the UN oil-for-food program. It claimed that between 1997 and 2003 the Iraqi government sold $64 billion of oil to 248 companies and bought $34.5 billion worth of humanitarian goods. The report accused more than 2,200 companies from some 40 countries of colluding with Saddam's regime to bilk the humanitarian program in Iraq of $1.8 billion.
    (AP, 10/27/05)(Econ, 10/29/05, p.28)(AP, 1/26/08)

2005        Nov-2005 Dec, In San Francisco between 39,488 and 53,988 gallons of diesel fuel leaked over 4 weeks from an underground storage tank at the John Muir Motor Coach yard at 1095 Indiana St. Muni workers had disabled an alarm system that would have warned of the leak. In 2009 the US EPA sought a $250,000 settlement for the leak which allowed fuel to enter a storm drain leading the SF Bay.
    (SFC, 11/3/09, p.C1)

2005        Dec 11, In Britain a huge inferno followed explosions at the Buncefield oil depot. 43 people were injured. In 2009 a court said French oil giant Total must pay bills valued at more than 750 million pounds for people whose homes and businesses were damaged in the fire. In 2010 five companies were ordered to pay fines and costs of more than £9 million (13.8 million dollars, 10.6 million euros).
    (http://tinyurl.com/chwzwb)(AFP, 3/20/09)(AFP, 7/16/10)

2005        Matthew R. Simmons authored “Twilight in the Desert: The Coming Saudi Oil shock and the World Economy."
    (WSJ, 6/28/05, p.D8)
2005        Members of the “peak-oil movement" believed that by about this time humanity will have extracted about half the oil that it would ever get.
    (WSJ, 9/21/04, p.A1)
2005        Kerr-McGee installed its Constitution platform 300km southwest of New Orleans. The $600 million structure was moored to the ocean floor 1,500 meters below the surface.
    (Econ, 3/6/10, TQ p.15)
2005        A syndicate called China Int’l. Fund or China Sonangol, created by a man named Sam Pa (aka Xu Jinghua), signed contracts giving the company the right to export Angolan oil  and act as a middleman between Sonangol and Sinopec. The company operated out of Hong Kong. By 2009 the company had bought the JPMorgan Chase building at 23 Wall Street, NYC. Newbright Int’l., a core company of the syndicate, was 70% controlled by Veronica Fung.
    (Econ, 8/13/11, p.21)

2006        Jan 12, Australia and East Timor agreed to equally share revenue from the Greater Sunrise natural gas project in the Timor Sea.
    (WSJ, 1/13/06, p.A8)

2006        Mar 2, An oil spill in Alaska curtailed Prudhoe Bay production. At least 265,000 gallons spilled onto the tundra from a British Petroleum (BP) line handling 100,000 barrels per day. The spill of 5,000 barrels was the largest in the field’s 29-year history. In 2011 a $25 million settlement was reached with a BP subsidiary for the spill.
    (WSJ, 3/3/06, p.A1)(SFC, 3/11/06, p.A4)(SSFC, 8/13/06, p.A18)(SFC, 5/4/11, p.A6)

2006        Jun, Brazil’s Pres. Lula da Silva went to Itaborai to announce the building of Comperj, a Rio de Janeiro petrochemical complex. By 2015 the complex was reduced to one small refinery with a completion date pushed back to 2016.
    (Econ, 6/27/15, p.27)

2006        Jul 7, Oil hit a fresh record high of $75.78 a barrel, boosted by strong demand in the US and global tension ranging from Iran's nuclear work to North Korea's missile tests.
    (Reuters, 7/7/06)

2006        Aug 1, Cabinda, a 7,000 sq-km province of Angola located on the western coast just north of the CongoDRC, signed the “Memorandum of Understanding for Peace in Cabinda" with the government of Angola, granting it “a special statute" and greater autonomy. In 2007 the province pumped over half of Angola’s 1.7 million barrels per day oil production.
    (Econ, 1/5/08, Angola p.8)

2006        Oct 15, Algerian Energy Minister Chehib Khelil said that the Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries will announce a 1 million barrel a day cut in crude production during a meeting in Qatar.
    (AP, 10/15/06)

2006        Dec 12, Russia's Gazprom closed in on half of Royal Dutch Shell's $22 billion Sakhalin-2 energy project while Shell denied it had buckled under Kremlin pressure and warned Moscow the world was watching.
    (AP, 12/12/06)(WSJ, 12/12/06, p.A3)

2006        Dec 21, Royal Dutch Shell and its partners agreed to hand over 50% plus one share of the Sakhalin II oil and gas project to OAO Gazprom, the Russian state-controlled energy firm, for $7.45 billion. Shell and its partners have already put $12 billion into the project, which was about 80% complete.
    (WSJ, 12/22/06, p.A3)

2006        In South Africa an investigation was commissioned by the government into the UN oil-for-food program in Iraq. The probe was ordered by president Thabo Mbeki, into what has become known in the country as "Oilgate," to look at allegations of kickbacks sourced by senior members of the ruling party from the State Oil Marketing Organization of Iraq (SOMO).
    (AFP, 12/7/11)

2007        Jan 25, Ukraine’s PM Yanukovych said that he is working to complete a pipeline to carry Caspian-region oil directly to the EU.
    (WSJ, 1/27/06, p.A4)

2007        May 1, John Browne, head of BP PLC, resigned after Britain’s highest legal body triggered the release of documents detailing his relationship with a former lover. In 2014 he authored “The Glass Closet."
    (WSJ, 5/2/07, p.A1)(Econ, 5/31/14, p.62)

2007        May 29, Libya said it will sign a 900 million dollar exploration deal with energy giant BP, which plans to return to the north African country after a 33 year absence.
    (AP, 5/29/07)

2007        Jun 6, Los Angeles based Colony Capital LLC, private investment firm, said it has agreed to buy a controlling stake in Libyan state-owned Tamoil in a deal that valued the Italy-based refiner at 4 billion euros ($5.4 billion), double earlier estimates. Colony, founded in 1991 by Thomas Barrack, focuses on real estate-related assets, securities, and operating companies. In March, 2008, the deal was reported to be off.
    (Reuters, 6/6/07)(Reuters, 3/3/08)

2007        Jun 22, British energy group BP, facing pressure from the Kremlin, said that it had agreed to sell its stakes in a Siberian gas field and company to Russian gas giant Gazprom for up to 900 million dollars (669 million euros).
    (AP, 6/22/07)(WSJ, 6/22/07, p.A3)

2007        Sep 12, Exxon Mobil Corp. said in a filing with the SEC that it had filed a request with the Int’l. Center for Settlement of Investment Disputes for arbitration over compensation from the Venezuelan government for seized oil production assets.
    (WSJ, 9/14/07, p.A9)

2007        Sep 28, The United States announced it would spend up to $25 million to pay for 50,000 tons of heavy fuel oil for North Korea as part of an agreement to dismantle the North’s nuclear program.
    (AP, 9/28/08)

2007        Oct 10, Ministers from Azerbaijan, Georgia, Lithuania, Poland and Ukraine signed a deal to build an oil pipeline linking the Black and Baltic seas.
    (WSJ, 10/11/07, p.A18)

2007        Oct 16, Oil prices reached another record high closing at 87.61 per barrel in the NY Mercantile Exchange.
    (SFC, 10/17/07, p.C1)

2007        Oct 23, At least 21 oil workers were killed when a drilling rig hit an oil platform in stormy weather, spilling gas and oil into the Gulf of Mexico. Pemex said the workers who died included four Pemex employees, seven employees of the subcontractor company that operated the rig, at least one rescue boat crew member, and six others who worked for other companies. On Dec 16 Pemex announced that the well was finally capped. Roughly 420 barrels of oil per day had spilled from the damaged platform since the accident.
    (AP, 10/25/07)(AP, 12/16/07)

2007        Oct 29,     Oil prices closed at a record $93.53 per barrel on the NY Mercantile Exchange.
    (SFC, 10/30/07, p.C2)

2007        Nov 6, Crude oil prices hit a record highs at $97.10 and closed at a record $96.70 per barrel on the NY Mercantile Exchange.
    (SFC, 11/7/07, p.C2)

2007        Nov 5, In Yemen unidentified saboteurs bombed an oil pipeline in Marib province. The attack halted the flow of oil and added to concerns in the world oil markets about adequate supplies for heating fuel.
    (AP, 11/8/07)

2007        Nov 7, The Cosco Busan, a 65,131 ton Greek-owned container ship leased by Hanjin Shipping of South Korea, hit a protective shield at the base of a tower of the Bay Bridge. The Bridge was not damaged, but the ship suffered a gash and spilled 58,000 gallons of bunker fuel oil into the SF Bay. By the end of the month estimated bird deaths due to the oil topped 20,000. The cleanup cost was later estimated at some $61 million. A year later federal authorities still held 6 Chinese crew members for their testimony. In July, 2009, Cosco Busan Capt. John Cota (61) was sentenced to 10 months in prison, becoming the first ship’s pilot in US history to be sent to prison for an accident. On August 13, 2009, Fleet Management Ltd. of Hong Kong pleaded guilty to charges of water pollution and falsifying documents and agreed to pay $10 million in fines. On Dec 4, 2011, a settlement was reached to pay 120 SF Bay Area commercial fishermen $3.6 million.
    (SFC, 11/8/07, p.A1)(SFC, 11/27/07, p.A1)(SFC, 12/19/07, p.A1)(WSJ, 11/5/08, p.A2)(SFC, 7/18/09, p.C1)(SFC, 8/14/09, p.D1)(SFC, 1/5/11, p.C3)

2007        Nov 8, Brazil’s Petrobras reported the discovery of a large oil reserve with as much as 8 billion barrels of crude in a field called Tupi. This represented about 3 months worth of current world supply, with estimated use at 86 million barrels a day. The oil was sitting between 5.3 and 7km below sea level.
    (WSJ, 11/9/07, p.A12)(Econ, 8/30/08, p.36)
2007        Nov 8, In Yemen tribesmen attacked an oil installation and then clashed with government troops, leaving 12 people dead. It was the second attack on the country's oil industry this week.
    (AP, 11/8/07)

2007        Nov 10, Iranian state television reported that Iran and Pakistan have reached a deal to build a multi-billion-dollar pipeline to transport natural gas between the two countries.
    (AP, 11/11/07)

2007        Nov 11, A severe storm broke the Volganeft-139, a small Russian oil tanker, in two in the Strait of Kerch, spilling at least 560,000 gallons of fuel into the strait between the Sea of Azov and the Black Sea. A Russian official said it was an "environmental disaster." 8 seamen were left missing. Two freighters nearby also sank under 18-foot waves in storm. As many as 10 ships sank or ran aground in the area.
    (AP, 11/11/07)(Reuters, 11/12/07)(SFC, 11/12/07, p.A15)

2007        Nov 12, Alexander Tkachyov, governor of Russia’s Krasnodar region, said more than 30,000 birds and countless fish have been killed in an "ecological catastrophe" wrought by thousands of tons of oil from a tanker that broke apart in a heavy storm near the Black Sea. 3 bodies washed ashore and 20 sailors remained missing after the sinking of at least 11 ships.
    (AP, 11/12/07)(SFC, 11/13/07, p.A10)

2007        Nov 14, Chevron agreed to pay $30 million to settle charges that it made illegal kickbacks to Iraq for oil purchased in 2001 and 2002 under the UN oil-for-food program.
    (SFC, 11/15/07, p.C1)

2007        Nov 20, Crude-oil futures surged to a record high settling at $98.03 a barrel on the NY Mercantile Exchange.
    (WSJ, 11/21/07, p.C8)

2007        Nov 27, Russia’s Gazprom made clear its interest in buying a half share of TNK-BP and any large UK power company that may come up for sale, while repeating its warning that wholesale gas prices could rise sharply in Europe next year.

2007        Dec 2, Robert O. Anderson (b.1917), oil man and creator of the Atlantic Richfield Co. (1966), died in Roswell, NM.
    (WSJ, 12/8/07, p.A7)

2007        Dec 4, French oil group Total said it had signed a deal to invest about 1.5 billion dollars in a new 3.0-billion-dollar (2.0 billion euros) petrochemical plant in Algeria.
    (AFP, 12/4/07)

2007        Dec 10, Petro-Canada, Canada's third largest oil and gas company, signed a $7 billion deal with Libya's state-run National Oil Corp. to invest in exploration in the North African nation.
    (AP, 12/10/07)

2007        US federal officials alleged that $84 million held in Swiss bank accounts stem from bribes paid by US companies to Kazakhstan’s president and other top officials for access to energy reserves. The money was frozen as an investigation continued.
    (WSJ, 5/12/08, p.A6)
2007        Australia’s environment minister Malcolm Turnbull, gave the green light for a liquefied natural gas project dubbed Gorgon.
    (Econ, 11/26/16, p.37)
2007        Italian Oil company ENI SpA bought Burren Energy PLC, a small independent company that operates an oil field in Turkmenistan. ENI from that point on was denied entry visas by Turkmenistan, which was annoyed at not being consulted in the deal.
    (WSJ, 4/23/08, p.B8)
2007        Nigeria’s petroleum minister Dan Etete was found guilty of m oney laundering by a French court. His conviction was upheld in 2009.
    (Econ, 6/15/13, p.64)
2007        Syria’s oil exports were expected to almost cease by this time.
    (SFEC, 1/25/98, p.A18)

2008        Jan 2, Oil futures hit an intraday high of $100 per barrel and closed at a record $99.62.
    (WSJ, 1/3/08, p.A1)

2008        Jan 4, The Zambian government awarded a 1.2 billion dollar crude oil deal to a Kuwait firm to supply over 1.4 million tons of oil to the southern African nation.
    (AP, 1/5/08)

2008        Feb 4, Secretary-General Ban Ki-moon said the UN has transferred $161 million from the defunct oil-for-food program to a development program for Iraq.
    (AP, 2/4/08)

2008        Feb 7, Libya’s National Oil Corp and Indonesia signed a deal for the north African state to supply the world's most populous Muslim nation with crude oil for the next 20 years.
    (AFP, 2/7/08)

2008        Feb 10, President Hugo Chavez threatened to cut off oil sales to the United States in an "economic war" if Exxon Mobil Corp. wins court judgments to seize billions of dollars in Venezuelan assets.
    (AP, 2/10/08)

2008        Feb 17, Iran inaugurated its first stock exchange for oil products and petrochemicals, in a bid to become a major player in the global downstream industry.
    (AFP, 2/17/08)

2008        Feb 28, In Ecuador a landslide caused some 4,000 barrels of oil to spill from its main pipeline contaminating Coca River.

2008        Mar 10, Crude oil futures moved to another all-time high as April delivery for light, sweet crude rose to $107.90 per barrel.
    (WSJ, 3/11/08, p.C7)

2008        Mar 16, In France a pipe ruptured while a tanker was being loaded at a Total refinery. Some 3,000 barrels of fuel oil leaked in and along the Loire River.
    (AP, 3/18/08)

2008        Apr 8, In Mexico Pres. Calderon said he would ease some bureaucratic barriers, and allow Pemex to pay outside contractors a "bonus," not a percentage cut, for oil found in deep-water reserves.
    (AP, 4/9/08)

2008        Apr 14, Algeria, the world’s 4th largest gas exporter, said it will and stop signing long term gas contracts and switch to shorter term ones.
    (WSJ, 4/15/08, p.A14)
2008        Apr 14, In Brazil a top energy official said a deep-water exploration area could contain as much as 33 billion barrels of oil, an amount that would nearly triple Brazil's reserves and make the offshore bloc the world's third-largest known oil reserve.
    (AP, 4/14/08)

2008        Apr 17, The May contract for light sweet crude oil hit a trading record of $115.54 as the dollar fell to a new low against the euro.
    (AP, 4/18/08)
2008        Apr 17, Russian President Vladimir Putin wrapped up his two-day visit with Libyan leader Moammar Gadhafi by writing off $4.5 billion in Libyan debts in exchange for multibillion-dollar deals for Russian companies.
    (AP, 4/17/08)

2008        Apr 21,     A rebel group from Nigeria's oil producing Niger Delta said it attacked two major oil pipelines there in what it called a message to the United States to stop supporting "injustice" in the troubled region.
    (AP, 4/21/08)
2008        Apr 21, Pirates in the Gulf of Aden fired on a Japanese oil tanker, unleashing hundreds of gallons of fuel into the sea. The attack took place 170 miles off the coast of Yemen while the 150,000-ton tanker was heading to Saudi Arabia.
    (AP, 4/21/08)
2008        Apr 21, Crude oil futures settled at a record $117.48 per barrel.
    (WSJ, 4/21/08, p.A1)

2008        Apr 22, Anglo-Dutch oil group Shell reported output loss of 169,000 barrels per day following the sabotage of its key supply pipelines in southern Nigeria.
    (AP, 4/22/08)

2008        Apr 27, Hundreds of workers at Scotland's only oil refinery began a 48-hour strike. This forced BP PLC to shut a pipeline system that delivers almost a third of Britain's North Sea oil.
    (AP, 4/27/08)

2008        Apr 28, In Washington truck drivers honked horns, waved placards and shouted through bullhorns at the Capitol to protest rising fuel prices they say are hurting their livelihood.
    (AP, 4/29/08)

2008        Apr 29, Workers returned to the Grangemouth refinery in central Scotland after a 48-hour strike that forced the closure of a major North Sea pipeline system.
    (AP, 4/29/08)

2008        Apr 30, Syncrude Canada's operations were under investigation by environmental regulators after as many as 500 birds landed in the waste water in the oil sands region of northern Alberta.
    (Reuters, 5/1/08)

2008        May 1, It was reported that Iran has stopped using dollars for oil deals as it seeks to reduce reliance on the US.
    (WSJ, 5/1/08, p.A1)

2008        May 3, Rebels in Nigeria's oil-rich Niger Delta blew up three oil wells operated by Royal Dutch Shell, their fifth attack in recent weeks against the petroleum industry.
    (AP, 5/3/08)

2008        May 5, Oil futures hit a trading record of $120.36 before closing at a record $119.97.
    (SFC, 5/6/08, p.D1)

2008        May 7, Oil closed at a record high with light, sweet crude settling at $123.53 per barrel on the New York Mercantile Exchange.
    (SFC, 5/8/08, p.C5)

2008        May 9, A newly disclosed set of documents that Colombia's government says were recovered on March 1 from a slain rebel's computers indicate senior Venezuelan officials tried to help arm Colombia's main guerrilla army. The price of crude rose above US$126 a barrel for the first time as investors questioned whether a Wall Street Journal report regarding the documents could lead to a confrontation between Washington and Venezuela.
    (AP, 5/10/08)

2008        May 10, Oil major Royal Dutch Shell said it was losing the equivalent of 30,000 barrels of crude oil per day because of recent attacks against its installations in Nigeria.
    (AP, 5/10/08)

2008        May 9, Oil closed at a record high with light, sweet crude settling at $125.96 per barrel on the New York Mercantile Exchange.
    (WSJ, 5/10/08, p.B4)

2008        May 14, US federal prosecutors said Willbros Group Inc., a Houston-based oil services company, agreed to pay $32.3 million in criminal and civil penalties to settle charges that it bribed officials in Nigeria and Ecuador to get contracts between 2003-2005.
    (WSJ, 5/15/08, p.B2)

2008        May 16, Under pressure from Congress the US Energy Dept. said it would temporarily suspend filling the US strategic oil stocks. Oil futures rose to a record $126.29 on the NY Mercantile Exchange. Pres. Bush signed a bill to stop the filling on May 19.
    (SFC, 5/17/08, p.C1)(WSJ, 5/20/08, p.A1)

2008        May 21, Hundreds of French fishermen clashed with police in Paris and severely disrupted cross-Channel traffic as they stepped up a 10-day-old protest against soaring fuel costs.
    (AFP, 5/21/08)
2008        May 21, In Indonesia thousands of students took to the streets across the country to protest the government's plan to raise fuel prices.
    (AP, 5/21/08)

2008        May 21, American Airlines said it will remove 75 of 954 aircraft in its fleet and start charging some domestic passengers $15 to check a suitcase due to rising fuel costs. Oil futures closed at a record $133.17.
    (SFC, 5/22/08, p.C1)(WSJ, 5/22/08, p.A1)

2008        May 26, Rebels from Nigeria's oil-producing Niger Delta said they had blown up a Royal Dutch Shell pipeline and killed 11 soldiers in a firefight, but the army denied losing any men.
    (Reuters, 5/26/08)

2008        Jun 3, A Cabinet minister said Malaysia will remove price controls on gasoline and diesel, allowing stations to sell fuel at world market prices in an attempt to reduce the government's ballooning subsidy bill.
    (AP, 6/3/08)

2008        Jun 4, An undetermined amount of fuel oil was released after the Greece-registered Syros slammed against the Malta-registered Sea Bird near Montevideo, Uruguay.
    (AP, 6/5/08)

2008        Jun 6, Crude oil settled up $10.75 at a record $138.54 on the NY Mercantile Exchange.
    (WSJ, 6/7/08, p.A1)

2008        Jun 8, G8 leaders meeting in Japan pledged to fight skyrocketing energy prices by increasing efficiency and accelerating investment in new technologies, while urging producers to expand production.
    (AP, 6/8/08)

2008        Jun 10, XTO Energy said it will buy closely held Hunt Petroleum for $4.19 billion.
    (WSJ, 6/11/08, p.B1)

2008        Jun 11, In Thailand thousands of truckers went on a half-day strike demanding government help against rising fuel prices, the latest in a series of protests that have swept across Asia and Europe.
    (Reuters, 6/11/08)

2008        Jun 18, In Belgium hundreds of farmers, truckers and taxi drivers blocked roads in and around Brussels on the eve of an EU summit to push leaders for help coping with skyrocketing fuel prices.
    (AP, 6/18/08)

2008        Jun 19, China’s government raised its base price for gasoline by 17% and 18% for diesel in an effort to diminish the nation’s appetite for fuel.
    (WSJ, 6/19/08, p.A1)
2008        Jun 19, Nigeria's most prominent militant group claimed responsibility for an attack on Shell's main offshore oilfield and said it had kidnapped a US oil worker. The attack shut down a tenth of the country's oil output in a rare attack on a deepwater facility. The Movement for the Emancipation of the Niger Delta (MEND) said US captain Jack Stone from oil services company Tidex was freed in the afternoon.
    (AFP, 6/19/08)(Reuters, 6/19/08)

2008        Jun 25, The US Supreme Court overturned the $2.5 billion in punitive damages that Exxon Mobil Corp had been ordered to pay for the 1989 Exxon Valdez oil spill off Alaska. Punitive damages were reduced to $507.5 million.
    (AP, 6/25/08)(Econ, 5/22/10, p.68)

2008        Jun 26, Cuts in Haitian gasoline subsidies pushed the price of fuel to $6.14 a gallon, further burdening the people as the government redirected money to other programs.
    (AP, 6/27/08)

2008        Jun 30, Crude oil futures hit a record intraday high of $143.67 before closing at $140.
    (WSJ, 7/1/08, p.C16)

2008        Jul 9, In Peru tens of thousands of union workers took to the streets across the country to protest rising food and fuel prices they blame on the free market policies of President Alan Garcia.
    (AP, 7/9/08)

2008        Jul 10, Nigeria's main militant group said it would resume attacks in the country's oil-rich river delta region because of Britain's recent pledge to back the government in the conflict there. UN special envoy Ibrahim Gambari resigned as chairman of a planned peace summit for the oil-rich Niger Delta following opposition from regional leaders.
    (AP, 7/10/08)(AFP, 7/10/08)
2008        Jul 10, Iraq's Oil Ministry said that it is close to signing contracts to build two new oil refineries in southern Iraq. Turkey's PM Recep Tayyip Erdogan became the first Turkish leader to visit Iraq in nearly 20 years.
    (AP, 7/10/08)

2008        Jul 11, Oil prices touched $147 a barrel before beginning a decline.
    (Econ, 8/9/08, p.70)

2008        Jul 12, President Hugo Chavez said that he is expanding his Venezuela's Petrocaribe oil-supply pact to include Guatemala.
    (AP, 7/13/08)

2008        Jul 13, Algeria’s government newspaper El Moudjhaid said a consortium of British-based oil services company Petrofac and Indonesian engineering company IKPT provisionally won a contract to build an LNG plant in western Mediterranean port of Arzew.
    (AP, 7/13/08)
2008        Jul 13, Iranian state TV said the country is exploring a newly discovered oil field believed to contain more than 1 billion barrels of crude oil.
    (AP, 7/13/08)

2008        Jul 15, Fishermen across Japan went on a massive one-day strike to protest skyrocketing fuel prices, the latest blow to the country's foundering fishing industry.
    (AP, 7/15/08)
2008        Jul 15, The EU agreed to an emergency aid package for its fishing industry to cope with fuel prices.
    (WSJ, 7/17/08, p.A8)

2008        Jul 17, Nigerian villagers blew up a key crude oil supply pipeline operated by Agip, the Nigerian subsidiary of Italian group Eni, cutting production.
    (AFP, 7/17/08)

2008        Jul 23, In Louisiana an oil tanker and an oil barge collided near New Orleans creating a 12-mile oil slick and closing almost 100 miles of the Mississippi River. Over 400,000 gallons of fuel spilled into the river.
    (SFC, 7/24/08, p.A3)(SFC, 7/25/08, p.A2)
2008        Jul 23, Nigeria's main militant group threatened to destroy the nation's major oil pipelines within 30 days to counter allegations it had struck a $12 million deal with the government to protect them.
    (AP, 7/23/08)
2008        Jul 23, Venezuela signed over three more oil fields to a joint venture with Belarus, with Venezuelan President Hugo Chavez declaring that the two nations were strongly united in their resistance to "US imperialism" and Washington's "lackeys."
    (AP, 7/23/08)

2008        Jul 24, Ten insurgents and two Cameroonian soldiers were killed in a rebel attack in the oil-rich Bakassi peninsula. The rebels, who call themselves the Niger Delta Defense and Security Council, oppose Cameroon's ownership of the West African peninsula, which is also claimed by Nigeria.
    (AP, 7/25/08)

2008        Jul 27, Mexico City residents voted against the president's proposal to give private companies a bigger role in the country's state-run oil industry in a nonbinding referendum.
    (AP, 7/28/08)

2008        Jul 31, Exxon Mobil Corp. reported second-quarter earnings of $11.68 billion, the biggest quarterly profit ever by any US corporation, but the results were well short of Wall Street expectations and its shares fell.
    (AP, 7/31/08)

2008        Aug 4, A Nigerian presidential panel on oil and gas sector reform recommended that the state oil company be transformed into an "independent limited liability company."
    (AFP, 8/4/08)

2008        Aug 5, The US General Accounting Office predicted Iraq could finish the year with as much as a $79 billion cumulative budget surplus due to the influx of oil revenues. The GAO estimated that Iraqi oil revenues from 2005 through the end of this year will amount to at least $156 billion.
    (AP, 8/7/08)
2008        Aug 5, In Turkey an oil pipeline that has allowed the West to tap the rich fields of Azerbaijan, bypassing Iran and Russia, was set on fire. A Kurdish rebel organization later admitted sabotaging the pipeline.
    (AP, 8/7/08)

2008        Aug 12, Nigerian militants claimed they had destroyed a pipeline supplying gas to a key oil refinery in southern Rivers state.
    (AFP, 8/12/08)

2008        Aug 27, China and Iraq signed a $3 billion deal revising a prewar agreement for China's biggest oil company to help develop the Ahdab oil field. On Sep 2 Iraq’s Cabinet approved the deal with China National Petroleum Corp.
    (AP, 8/28/08)(AP, 9/2/08)

2008        Sep 2, South Africa planned to sign an energy agreement with oil-rich Venezuela as President Hugo Chavez arrived on his first state visit. Political, trade and economic relations were on the agenda with President Thabo Mbeki.
    (AFP, 9/2/08)

2008        Sep 4, In Moscow officials said BP PLC and its billionaire Russian partners in the joint venture TNK-BP have agreed on a deal that forces out its embattled CEO and signals an end to a bitter struggle for control of the Russian-British company.
    (AP, 9/4/08)

2008        Sep 9, The Iraqi oil ministry said Anglo-Dutch energy giant Royal Dutch Shell has agreed to a gas joint venture with Iraq worth up to four billion dollars, becoming the first Western oil major to gain access to the violence-wracked country's vast energy reserves.
    (AP, 9/9/08)
2008        Sep 9, OPEC ministers decided to scale back production by some 520,000 barrels a day in the face of falling oil prices and slowing demand. Hours earlier Russia proposed extensive cooperation with OPEC.
    (WSJ, 9/10/08, p.A7)
2008        Sep 9, Serbian lawmakers ratified a pre-membership agreement with the EU and an oil and gas deal with Russia after months of heated debate over the direction of the country's policies.
    (AP, 9/9/08)

2008        Sep 10, An internal government report said US Interior Department employees in Denver and Washington, who oversaw oil drilling on federal lands, had sex and used illegal drugs with workers at energy companies where they were conducting official business.
    (AP, 9/11/08)

2008        Sep 11, James Ashley Nasmyth (b.1918), English oil journalist, died. In 1979 he launched Argus Telex, the first daily oil market report.
    (www.timesonline.co.uk/tol/comment/obituaries/article4827314.ece)(WSJ, 9/27/08, p.A16)

2008        Sep 15, Oil prices plunged to a seven-month low as the Gulf Coast energy infrastructure appeared relatively unharmed after Hurricane Ike and traders bet that Lehman Brothers' bankruptcy could ignite a massive liquidation of commodities. Oil closed at $95.71, its first close below $100 since March 4.
    (AP, 9/15/08)(WSJ, 9/16/08, p.A12)

2008        Sep 16, In Nigeria militants destroyed the Orubiri flow station operated by the Shell Petroleum Development Company in Rivers state. The next day MEND said it killed all the soldiers on guard at the facility and took their weapons.
    (AFP, 9/17/08)

2008        Sep 17, Armed Nigerian militants, who have declared an "oil war" in the restive south of the country, claimed to have blown up a major pipeline in their latest attack on oil installations in the region. A spokesman for Nigeria's state oil company said that militant attacks are now cutting the country's daily oil production by about 1 million barrels a day, 40 percent of what the country produced before the militant campaign began three years ago.
    (AP, 9/17/08)

2008        Sep 18, MEND militants in southern Nigeria, as part of their "oil war," claimed to have destroyed a major oil pipeline belonging to Royal Dutch Shell in the fifth attack on the company in less than a week.
    (AP, 9/19/08)

2008        Sep 19, Nigerian militants destroyed another major oil pipeline in the Niger Delta after a week of the most intense attacks against Africa's biggest oil and gas industry for years.
    (Reuters, 9/20/08)

2008        Sep 21, In southern Nigeria MEND declared a ceasefire following a week of attacks on oil industry targets.
    (AFP, 9/21/08)

2008        Sep 22, The price of oil jumped $16.37 to $120.92 per barrel, its biggest single-day gain ever, as the dollar posted its worst single-day percentage drop. During this final day for the October contract, oil had soared to as high as $130 per barrel.
    (SFC, 9/23/08, p.D1)(WSJ, 9/23/08, p.C2)(Econ, 9/27/08, p.90)
2008        Sep 22, Iraq and Royal Dutch Shell PLC signed a deal to establish a joint venture that will tap natural gas in southern Iraq. A mortar round apparently aimed at an Iraqi military base missed its target and slammed into a house in northwestern Baghdad, killing one man and wounding four others. A car bomb struck a mainly Shiite area in central Baghdad. Police said two men and a woman were killed and seven people wounded.
    (AP, 9/22/08)

2008        Sep 23, Venezuelan President Hugo Chavez arrived in China to hold talks with his counterpart Hu Jintao and sign a deal for combat aircraft in a visit likely to irk the US. Chavez said Venezuela and China agreed to jointly build 2 oil refineries, one in each country.
    (AP, 9/23/08)(WSJ, 9/24/08, p.A25)

2008        Sep 29, The US House of Representatives rejected the Bush administration’s $700 billion emergency rescue plan. Democrats voted 140 to 90 in favor, while Republicans voted 133-65 against the plan. The Dow Jones industrial average lost 777.68 points, its biggest single-day fall ever, easily beating the 684 points it lost on the first day of trading after the Sept. 11, 2001, terrorist attacks. Crude oil futures closed down $10.52 in their biggest decline since Jan 17, 1991, when the US opened strategic oil reserves during the first Gulf war.
    (AP, 9/29/08)(SFC, 9/30/08, p.A1)(WSJ, 9/30/08, p.C8)(Econ, 10/4/08, p.30)

2008        Oct 5, Abu Dhabi’s Mubadala Development Co. and Texas-based ConocoPhillips said they have signed a deal with Kazakhstan’s national oil company to drill in a potentially lucrative region in the Caspian Sea.
    (SFC, 10/6/08, p.D1)

2008        Oct 9, The Libyan oil company Tamoil said the Libyan government has again decided to halt oil deliveries to Switzerland.
    (AFP, 10/9/08)

2008        Oct 10, Global stocks dove head first to five-year lows at the end of a brutal week as even the traditional safe-havens of gold and government bonds suffered as fear-stricken investors sought refuge in cash. The DJIA fell 128 to close at 8451.19 in its most volatile day ever. Oil on the NY mercantile Exchange fell over 10% to close at $77.70 a barrel, its lowest level in over a year.
    (Reuters, 10/10/08)(SFC, 10/11/08, p.C1)
2008        Oct 10, The Libyan news agency JANA said Libya will withdraw $7 billion of assets in Swiss banks, cut economic ties with Switzerland and stop supplying it with oil to protest against poor treatment of Libyan diplomats and businessmen.
    (AP, 10/10/08)

2008        Oct 13, Iraq's oil minister met 34 oil company representatives in London to set out the ground rules for foreign multinationals' first bite at the country's enormous energy reserves since the U.S.-led invasion in 2003.
    (AP, 10/13/08)

2008        Oct 15, The Shell Anglo-Dutch group said a Nigerian court has ordered it to hand over land around its giant Bonny oil terminal to the local population, a key demand of armed rebels in the volatile region. Shell said ruling was given some months ago but we have appealed.
    (AFP, 10/15/08)

2008        Oct 17, George M Keller (b.1923), former head of Standard Oil of California (1981-1988), died at his home in Palo Alto, Ca. He oversaw the 1984 merger with Gulf Oil to form Chevron Corp.
    (SFC, 10/18/08, p.B1)

2008        Oct 24, OPEC said at an emergency meeting that it will slash oil production by 1.5 million barrels to stem the "dramatic collapse" of oil prices, but crude prices plunged 7 percent anyway as financial markets spiraled downward across the globe.
    (AP, 10/24/08)

2008        Oct 31, Petrofac evacuated 56 non-essential workers from the North Sea Heather Alpha oil rig after a reports of 10-20 ton oil spill.
    (AP, 10/31/08)
2008        Oct 31, Brazil's state-run oil company signed an agreement to explore for oil in deep Caribbean waters north of Cuba that officials in Havana say could contain 20 billion barrels of crude.
    (AP, 10/31/08)

2008        Nov 7, An environmentalist group and four Nigerians filed suit against Royal Dutch Shell PLC in the Netherlands, claiming the company was negligent in cleaning up oil spills in Nigeria.
    (AP, 11/7/08)

2008        Nov 10, Iraq and China signed the final agreement on a $3 billion deal to develop the Ahdab oil field south of Baghdad over a 22 year-period.
    (AP, 11/11/08)

2008        Nov 14, In Nigeria 22 Filipinos were arrested by a joint army-navy patrol on the Warri River with the vessel MT Akuada laden with its cargo of 12,500 metric tons of crude oil. On Feb 20, 2009, 13 Filipinos were sentenced to five years each or a fine of one million naira (6,800 dollars) for stealing crude oil from the Niger delta.
    (AFP, 2/21/09)

2008        Nov 15, Gunmen hijacked a freighter with 23 crew off the coast of Somalia. The crew of the Japanese-owned Chemstar Venus consisted of five South Koreans and 18 Filipinos. Somali pirates hijacked the Sirius Star, a newly commissioned supertanker, more than 450 nautical miles southeast of Mombasa, Kenya, along with its 25-member crew. The ship, owned by Saudi oil company Aramco, was capable of carrying about 2 million barrels of oil.
    (AP, 11/16/08)(AP, 11/17/08)

2008        Nov 20, US oil group Chevron suspended export contracts on much of its Nigerian production after a militant attack on a key pipeline. Chevron said it was declaring "force majeure" until December 31 following the Nov 14 attack on the pipeline which carries supplies to its Escravos terminal in the Niger Delta.
    (AFP, 11/20/08)
2008        Nov 20, Vietnam's president Nguyen Minh Triet was set to meet Venezuelan leader Hugo Chavez, during the first visit by a head of state from the communist nation here, mainly focused on oil and gas ties.
    (AP, 11/20/08)

2008        Dec 1, A federal jury in SF cleared Chevron Corp. of responsibility for any human rights abuses during a violent protest on a company oil platform in Nigeria a decade ago.
    (AP, 12/2/08)

2008        Dec 17, OPEC, meeting in Algeria, said it is cutting 2.2 million barrels a day from its output, the largest ever at one time, to stem crude prices that have plummeted over 70% from summer highs of nearly $150. Members among the 13-nation organization were officially producing a daily 29.045 million barrels in September.
    (AP, 12/17/08)

2008        Dec 26, China National Offshore Oil Corp., the country's largest offshore oil and gas producer, signed four oil cooperation agreements with Taiwan's CPC Corp.
    (AP, 12/26/08)

2008        Dec 30, Libya asked oil companies to slash production by 270,000 barrels per day from Jan. 1, the latest such reduction by an OPEC member as the producer group struggles to boost faltering oil prices.
    (AP, 12/30/08)
2008        Dec 30, Russia's natural gas company Gazprom said it will stop energy shipments to Ukraine and sharply raise the price for future deliveries if it doesn't pay a $2 billion debt by New Year's Eve.
    (AP, 12/30/08)

2008        Dec 31, In Iraq Oil Minister Hussein al-Shahristani kicked off the country's second postwar bidding round, naming 11 oil and gas fields or groups of fields as eligible for development proposals. 8 people were killed in four bombings in the north. At least 314 US soldiers died in 2008, down from 904 in 2007.
    (AP, 12/31/08)(AP, 1/1/09)

2008        Dec, Tanganyika Oil was acquired by a subsidiary of China Petroleum & Chemical Corp. (Sinopec) for $2 billion.
    (Econ, 6/27/09, p.72)

2008        Royal Dutch Shell set up its 22,000 ton Perdido spar off the coast of Texas and chained it to the seabed 2,400 meters below the surface. The platform had been constructed in Finland.
    (Econ, 3/6/10, TQ p.15)
2008        BP bypassed its private Russian partners and negotiated a deal with Gazprom, Russia’s state controlled gas company.
    (Econ, 2/5/11, p.73)

2009        Jan 2, Ukraine sought support in European capitals a day after Russia cut off gas supplies and hardened its stance on prices. The cutoff came after Ukraine made a $1.5 billion overdue payment, but Russia demanded another $600 million, including $450 million penalties for the late payment for gas shipped in November and December. The two sides also have not agreed on prices for 2009. Russia accused Ukraine of stealing gas destined for the rest of Europe.
    (AP, 1/2/09)(Reuters, 1/2/09)

2009        Jan 4, Gunmen hijacked a vessel and 9 crewmen belonging to French oil services group Bourbon off Nigeria's Niger Delta as it traveled toward a Royal Dutch Shell offshore oilfield. The 9 crewmen: five Nigerians, two Ghanaians, one Cameroonian and one Indonesian aboard. were released on Dec 7.
    (Reuters, 1/4/09)(AP, 1/6/09)(AP, 1/7/09)

2009        Jan 5, Former US Representative Joseph P. Kennedy said Citgo Petroleum, the US refiner owned by the Venezuelan government, planned to stop deliveries to his Boston-based nonprofit, Citizens’ Energy, due to falling oil prices.
    (WSJ, 1/6/09, p.A7)

2009        Jan 6, In southern Nigeria armed men robbed an offshore oil platform operated by a subsidiary of US oil giant ExxonMobile although the attack did not disrupt oil production.
    (AFP, 1/7/09)

2009        Jan 7, Venezuela's Citgo Petroleum Corp. announced its fuel oil aid program would continue, just two days after its partner nonprofit group, Boston-based Citizens Energy, said Citgo had halted the free fuel shipments due to the world economic crisis.
    (AP, 1/8/09)

2009        Jan 9, In India some 55,000 white collar workers at state-run oil companies called off a three-day strike, after causing a severe fuel shortage in India.
    (AP, 1/9/09)
2009        Jan 9, Somali pirates released the MV Sirius Star, an oil-laden Saudi supertanker seized on Nov 15, after receiving a $3 million ransom.
    (AP, 1/9/09)

2009        Jan 11, Two Nigerian soldiers were killed and one wounded in an attack by unidentified gunmen in the restive oil-rich Niger Delta. Police said the attack might be connected with the police seizure of a vessel, the Sandra Valleta, which was carrying stolen crude oil.
    (AFP, 1/12/09)

2009        Jan 18, Dubai said it has reached a deal with Nigeria to invest in the African nation's conflict-ravaged oil industry and other sectors of the economy.
    (AP, 1/18/09)
2009        Jan 18, Russia and Ukraine announced a deal to end the bitter dispute that has blocked Russian natural gas from Europe following talks between Russian PM Vladimir Putin and his Ukrainian counterpart Yulia Tymoshenko. Under the terms, Ukraine will pay 20 percent less than the European "market price" price for gas this year, which Russia says is $450 per 1,000 cubic meters. That's more than twice as much as the $179.50 Ukraine paid in 2008.
    (AP, 1/18/09)

2009        Jan 19, Russia and Ukraine signed a deal that restores natural gas shipments to Ukraine and paves the way for an end to the nearly two-week cutoff of most Russian gas to a freezing Europe.
    (AP, 1/19/09)

2009        Jan 21, In Nigeria the best-known militant group in the Niger Delta said one of its allies carried out an attack on a tanker in southern Nigeria in which one Romanian crewman was taken hostage. He was soon released. The MT Meredith, loaded with 4,000 tons of diesel, was attacked by gunmen in speedboats and sustained "massive damage" during the attack.
    (AFP, 1/21/09)(AFP, 1/22/09)

2009        Jan 30, Exxon Mobil Corp. reported a profit of $45.2 billion for 2008, breaking its own record for a US company, even as its fourth-quarter earnings fell 33 percent from a year ago.
    (AP, 1/30/09)

2009        Jan, The Tamar gas field was discovered off the coast of Israel. It was the largest gas find this year.
    (Econ, 11/13/10, p.54)(www.offshore-technology.com/projects/tamar-field/)

2009        Feb 5, A nongovernment organization said the corrupt elite of Cambodia, one of the world's most impoverished nations, has laid the groundwork for siphoning off vast profits from a coming boom in mining and oil exploitation.
    (AP, 2/5/09)
2009        Feb 5, In Nigeria a private security official said unidentified gunmen have attacked an oil-industry vessel off the coast of Nigeria and killed its captain.
    (AP, 2/5/09)

2009        Feb 10, A tanker burst into flames after colliding with a container ship in a shipping channel off the coast of Dubai. The Maltese-flagged tanker, Kashmir, was carrying about 30,000 tons of oil condensate.
    (AP, 2/10/09)

2009        Feb 13, Oil giant Royal Dutch Shell said it has declared force majeure on shipments from its main Nigerian terminal because of increased attacks by insurgents on key facilities. Force Majeure (French for "superior force") is a common clause in contracts which essentially frees both parties from liability or obligation when an extraordinary event or circumstance beyond the control of the parties.
    (AP, 2/13/09)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Force_majeure)

2009        Feb 14, Irish authorities learned about an oil spill through surveillance carried out by the European Maritime Safety Agency in Lisbon, Portugal. Irish military aircraft flew over the area and saw the Russian aircraft carrier Admiral Kuznetsov, a Russian oil tanker, and a Russian oceangoing tug near the slick. this was the biggest oil spill in the waters around Ireland in the last ten years.
    (AP, 2/17/09)

2009        Feb 17, In southern Nigeria gunmen attacked two oil facilities operated by Royal Dutch Shell. A local militant leader claimed responsibility for the attack in a letter and threatened further violence. A Nigerian appeal court sacked the governor of the southwestern state of Ekiti after complaints of vote irregularities and ordered a fresh poll within three months.
    (AP, 2/17/09)(AFP, 2/18/09)

2009        Feb 18, In Nigeria gunmen in a midnight raid attacked a compound housing ExxonMobil staff in the Niger Delta but were repulsed after a fierce battle with Nigerian troops.
    (AFP, 2/18/09)

2009        Feb 24, South Korea signed a $3.55 billion deal with Iraq to help rebuild the war-ravaged country in return for oil and gas. The deal was inked by South Korean President Lee Myung-bak and his Iraqi counterpart Jalal Talabani.
    (AP, 2/24/09)

2009        Feb 25, US Interior Sec. Ken Salazar scrapped leases, created under the Bush administration, on federal land for oil-shale development in Colorado, Utah and Wyoming.
    (AP, 2/26/09)

2009        Mar 23, Suncor Energy Inc, Canada's No.2 oil company, agreed to buy rival Petro-Canada for about C$18.43 billion ($14.86 billion) to expand its oil sand reserves and create the country's biggest energy group.
    (Reuters, 3/23/09)

2009        Apr 8, In China visiting Venezuelan President Hugo Chavez said the world's center of gravity has moved to Beijing, as he focused on boosting Chinese oil purchases.
    (AP, 4/8/09)

2009        Apr 8, Nigeria President Umaru Yar'Adua dismissed top managers across the board of the state Nigerian National Petroleum Company (NNPC).
    (AFP, 4/8/09)

2009        Apr 12, In Nigeria fire broke out on the Trans-Niger Pipeline. All the feeder flowstations outside Ogoniland (in Rivers State) adjoining it were shut down to allow for repairs.
    (AP, 4/13/09)

2009        Apr 13, In southern Nigeria gunmen riding in 18 boats attacked a military houseboat outside an oil facility, commandeering a naval vessel and killing one sailor.
    (AP, 4/13/09)

2009        Apr 21, In Nigeria officials said a strike by petrol truck drivers has caused a scarcity of fuel in the commercial capital Lagos, leading to long queues at petrol stations. The strike began at the weekend following a dispute between the tanker drivers and officials of the Lagos state traffic management authority LASMA. Gunmen in Nigeria attacked an oil tanker off the coast of the Niger Delta, kidnapping the ship's captain and an engineer. The Turkish vessel Ilena Mercan, chartered by French oil company Total, was attacked on its way to Onne port in Nigeria's southeastern Rivers state.
    (AFP, 4/21/09)(Reuters, 4/21/09)

2009        Apr 20, Nigerian pirates attacked the Aleyna Mercan ship about 50 nautical miles off Onne port, near the oil city of Port Harcourt. The vessel was delivering equipment to French oil group Total. On April 22 the kidnappers released the Turkish captain and the chief engineer.
    (AFP, 4/23/09)

2009        Apr 23, Iran's official news agency says Tehran has reached an agreement with Iraq to build a pipeline that will feed Iraqi crude to an Iranian refinery.
    (AP, 4/23/09)

2009        May 8, Venezuela’s National Guard began occupying dozens of oil rigs, docks and boats operated by private contractors, both local and foreign, hired by PDVSA, the state oil company. It appeared that PDVSA had run out of cash.
    (Econ, 5/16/09, p.44)

2009        May 13, Nigerian MEND rebels hijacked an oil industry ship and held 15 foreign sailors hostage. They demanded that all oil workers leave the southern Niger Delta by May 16.
    (AP, 5/14/09)

2009        May 17, Jordan and Royal Dutch Shell PLC signed a concessionary agreement to explore for oil in the country's vast oil shale deposits.
    (AP, 5/17/09)

2009        May 19, China and Brazil signed a raft of agreements in Beijing including a $10 billion loan for the South American country's state energy company and a deal to send oil to China amid stronger ties between the two developing world giants.
    (AP, 5/19/09)

2009        May 25, In Nigeria militants sabotaged major crude pipelines in the chaotic oil region, further trimming crude production as the military widened an operation to uproot the fighters. Chevron in Nigeria reported a 100,000 barrel-per-day oil output cut after a militant attack the day before on one of its pipelines in the southern Delta state. The militants said they had released three Filipino hostages seized this month.
    (AP, 5/25/09)(AFP, 5/25/09)

2009        Jun 5, Indians in Peru's Amazon, protesting government moves to develop oil, gas and other resources on their lands, battled police in an area called Curva del Diablo, or "Devil's Curve." Authorities and Indian leaders reported the death of 11 police and 25 protesters.
    (AP, 6/5/09)

2009        Jun 8, Royal Dutch Shell agreed In NYC to a $15.5 million settlement to end a lawsuit alleging that the oil giant was complicit in the executions of activist Ken Saro-Wiwa and other civilians by Nigeria's former military regime.
    (AP, 6/8/09)

2009        Jun 9, In Nigeria MEND (Movement for the Emancipation of the Niger Delta) set a pumping station of US oil giant Chevron on fire.
    (AFP, 6/10/09)

2009        Jun 12, In Nigeria MEND rebels breached Chevron’s Makaraba-Utonana-Abiteye pipeline and started a fire at the Makaraba Jacket 5 facility in Delta State. MEND also released a British oil sector worker who had been held for nine months.
    (AFP, 6/13/09)

2009        Jun 13, Algeria's national oil company Sonatrach announced it had awarded a 79.3-billion-dinar (1.11-billion-dollar, 793-million-euro) contract to the Canadian engineering firm SNC-Lavalin to build natural gas processing facilities.
    (AFP, 6/13/09)

2009        Jun 15, Nigerian Petroleum Development Company (NPDC) and China's state oil firm SIPEC said they have discovered crude oil in Niger Delta region.
    (AFP, 6/15/09)

2009        Jun 17, Royal Dutch Shell said it had deferred shipments of crude oil from its Nigerian Forcados exports terminal for two months due to delays in repairing a key pipeline damaged by vandals.
    (AFP, 6/17/09)

2009        Jun 18, Nigeria's main militant group said it had destroyed a major crude oil pipeline belonging to Royal Dutch Shell as it fights a campaign against foreign oil companies.
    (AFP, 6/18/09)

2009        Jun 19, Nigeria's main militant group said it had destroyed a major pipeline supplying crude oil to Italian oil group Agip's Brass exports terminal.
    (AFP, 6/19/09)

2009        Jun 21, Nigeria's main militant group said it had attacked a Shell offshore facility, the third attack against the Anglo-Dutch company's facilities in Nigeria in one day. The company denied the incident, saying the alleged incident was part of the attack on two other Shell oil pipelines in southern Rivers state earlier in the day.
    (AFP, 6/21/09)

2009        Jun 25, Nigerian rebels said that they carried out a pre-dawn attack against Royal Dutch Shell facilities in a warning to Russia not to invest in the country's oil and gas industry. Later in the day the main militant group blew up a well-head in a Royal Dutch Shell (RDSa.L) oil field in Delta state, hours after President Umaru Yar'Adua announced an amnesty offer for gunmen.
    (AFP, 6/25/09)(Reuters, 6/26/09)

2009        Jun 30, Iraq's long-awaited licensing round to develop some of its massive oil reserves stumbled as oil and gas companies dug in their heals, demanding more money for their efforts than the government was willing to pay. Iraq celebrated National Sovereignty Day, a new public holiday, following the withdrawal of US forces from its cities. An explosion in Kirkuk killed at least 30 people.
    (AP, 6/30/09)(SFC, 7/1/09, p.A2)(AP, 7/2/09)

2009        Jul 1, The Indian government announced a rise in petrol and diesel fuel prices, saying its hand had been forced by the increase in global crude oil prices.
    (AFP, 7/1/09)
2009        Jul 1, Iraq's government approved a BP-led consortium's offer to develop a giant southern oil field near Basra, moving forward with the only deal struck during a disappointing international oil auction. On Oct 16 the Iraqi government approved the deal by BP and its Chinese partner CNPC to develop the 17.8 billion barrel Rumaila field, the 2nd largest in the Middle East. A bombing in Kirkuk killed at least 30 people.
    (AP, 7/1/09)(AP, 7/2/09)(AP, 10/17/09)(Econ, 12/4/10, p.58)

2009        Jul 3, Algeria, Niger and Nigeria signed an accord to build a 10-billion-dollar trans-Saharan gas pipeline linking vast reserves in Nigeria to Europe.
    (AFP, 7/3/09)

2009        Jul 4, Nigeria's rebel group MEND threatened to thwart a 10-billion-dollar trans-Saharan gas pipeline linking vast reserves in Nigeria to Europe. The army vowed to protect the project.  Rebels Sichem Peace oil tanker and its six crew members. The ship and crew were freed July 21 after spending 18 days in captivity in the Niger Delta.
    (AFP, 7/4/09)(AP, 7/22/09)

2009        Jul 5, Nigerian rebels announced they had launched a fresh attack on an oil facility run by the Anglo-Dutch group Shell in the restive Niger Delta. The militants destroyed a Chevron oil pipeline junction in the latest attack on Nigeria's key money earner since the government offered an amnesty.
    (AP, 7/5/09)(AFP, 7/6/09)

2009        Jul 8, Nigerian MEND militants said they blew up two key oil pipelines as they stepped up attacks in response to a government amnesty offer.
    (AFP, 7/8/09)

2009        Jul 10, Nigerian militants claimed to have blown up for a second time a recently repaired oil pipeline operated by US petroleum giant Chevron.
    (AP, 7/11/09)

2009        Jul 12, Nigerian rebels took their battle with the government into the country's main city, targeting an oil tanker loading facility in Lagos harbor in an unprecedented attack there.
    (AFP, 7/13/09)

2009        Jul 22, An international arbitration panel awarded the Sudanese government control over almost all major oil reserves in a disputed region of Sudan that erupted into violence last year between state forces and former southern rebels.
    (AP, 7/22/09)

2009        Jul 29, Cuban state media said Russia and Cuba have signed agreements to search for oil in the Gulf of Mexico. Moscow extended the island $150 million in credit for construction materials and farm machinery.
    (AP, 7/29/09)

2009        Aug 9, US Secretary of State Hillary Rodham Clinton arrived in oil-rich Angola to underscore America's presence in one of sub-Saharan Africa's largest energy producers where America is competing with China for resources.
    (AP, 8/9/09)

2009        Aug 11, The US Homeland Security department was scheduled to return $2.4 million to Mexico's tax administration, the first batch of money seized during a binational investigation into smuggled oil that authorities expect to lead to more arrests and seizures. So far this year, oil theft was up 10 percent, and confirmed in 19 states, up from 13 in 2008.
    (AP, 8/11/09)

2009        Aug 17, In Russia powerful explosion took place during repair work at the Sayano-Shushinskaya hydroelectric plant in southern Siberia. The death toll soon reached 69 with 6 still missing and feared dead after an engine room was suddenly flooded. The accident produced an oil spill and the slick that floated down the Yenisei River.
    (AP, 8/17/09)(AP, 8/18/09)(AP, 8/21/09)(AP, 8/23/09)

2009        Aug 20, Angola and South Africa signed a number of trade agreements including cooperation in the oil sector, following major bilateral talks aimed at strengthening economic relations.
    (AFP, 8/20/09)

2009        Aug 21, A massive oil and gas leak forced the evacuation of an oil rig off Australia's northwest coast. PTTEP Australasia, a branch of Thai-owned PTT Exploration and Production Co. Ltd., said about 40 barrels of oil had been discharged in the initial incident, and it was still attempting to bring the leak under control at the rig, owned by Norway's Seadrill. After 2 days PTTEP said plugging the leak will take weeks. Government officials said there was little threat of environmental damage. By the end of October an estimated 400 barrels a day of oil continued leaking from the fissure off the Australian coast. PTTEP Australasia has failed repeatedly to stop the leak but said it is still trying.
    (AFP, 8/22/09)(AP, 8/23/09)(AP, 10/30/09)

2009        Aug 24, Bangladesh awarded three offshore blocks to two global energy companies to explore for gas in the Bay of Bengal. The US-based ConocoPhillips and Ireland's Tullow Oil could start exploration work by early next year.
    (AP, 8/25/09)

2009        Aug 29, Britain’s Cairn Energy began pumping crude from a vast oilfield in the Indian desert state of Rajasthan that is set to increase the country's crude output by 20 percent.
    (AFP, 8/29/09)

2009        Sep 2, BP announced the discovery of oil at its new Tiber Prospect oil reserve in the Gulf of Mexico. It later estimated the reserve held between 4 and 6 billion barrels of oil. Its Deepwater Horizon rig had drilled down 7 miles to reach the oil.
    (http://tinyurl.com/mhnujo)(SSFC, 9/6/09, p.E4)

2009        Sep 6, In Iran Venezuela’s President Hugo Chavez sealed an agreement to export 20,000 barrels per day of gasoline to Iran. The deal would give Tehran a cushion if the West carries out threats of fuel sanctions over Iran's nuclear program. The two countries also agreed to set up a bank together to help finance joint projects.
    (AP, 9/7/09)

 2009        Sep 7, UK-based Global Witness said they had found serious discrepancies in reports of Sudan's oil revenues which could mean Khartoum's government was underpaying its strife torn south by hundreds of millions of dollars.
    (Reuters, 9/7/09)

2009        Sep 14, In Australia energy giants Chevron, Shell and ExxonMobil agreed to develop the massive Gorgon field, giving the final go-ahead to a liquefied natural gas (LNG) project worth hundreds of billions of dollars.
    (AP, 9/14/09)

2009        Sep 17, Spanish oil major Repsol YPF said it had discovered oil off the coast of Sierra Leone, its first find in the west African nation, along with its Australian, American and British partners.
    (AFP, 9/17/09)

2009        Sep 18, Canada-based oil producer Verenex Energy Inc. agreed to be sold to the Libyan Investment Authority for about $314.1 million Canadian ($293.7 million) in cash, after a better deal with a Chinese firm fell through.
    (AP, 9/20/09)

2009        Sep 23, Saudi Arabia opened a new multibillion dollar coed university outside the coastal city of Jeddah. The King Abdullah Science and Technology University, or KAUST, boasted state-of-the-art labs, the world's 14th fastest supercomputer and one of the biggest endowments worldwide. 817 students representing 61 different countries were currently enrolled, with 314 beginning classes this month. It was run by Saudi Aramco, the national oil company, and was the kingdom’s first mixed-gender university.
    (http://tinyurl.com/m7gs6fo)(AP, 9/23/09)

2009        Sep 27, In Venezuela Pres. Hugo Chavez proposed that South American and African nations unite to create a cross-continental mining corporation to keep control of their resources. Chavez made diplomatic inroads in Africa at a summit of South American and African leaders where he offered Venezuela's help in oil projects, mining and financial assistance. Venezuela signed agreements to work together on oil projects with South Africa, Mauritania, Niger, Sudan and Cape Verde.
    (Reuters, 9/27/09)(AP, 9/28/09)

2009        Oct 9, Stephen Pechenik (78), the president of a San Antonio company, pleaded guilty to charges that he conspired to receive and sell petroleum stolen from Mexico's oil giant, Petroleos Mexicanos, or Pemex. He was the 4th Texas oil executive to plead guilty to felony charges of conspiring to receive and sell stolen petroleum condensate. Much of the Mexican oil rustling was traced to the Zetas, a criminal group founded by former military commandos.
    (SFC, 12/15/09, p.A26)(http://tinyurl.com/yjs42ms)

2009        Oct 19, Energy group Chevron announced a new natural gas discovery off Western Australia that will help support the massive Gorgon liquefied natural gas (LNG) project.
    (AFP, 10/19/09)
2009        Oct 19, Nigeria reported plans to offer inhabitants of its oil-producing Niger Delta region 10% of oil and gas ventures in a bid to end a rebellion that has hampered output for years.
    (AFP, 10/19/09)

2009        Oct 23, In Puerto Rico an earthshaking explosion at the Caribbean Petroleum Corp. in the suburb of Bayamon, just west of the capital of San Juan, led to the evacuation of more than 1,500 people. Authorities wee concerned about those downwind of the fire.
    (AP, 10/25/09)

2009        Oct 24, In China a Belgian cargo vessel leaked oil into waters at the Caofeidian port in northeastern Hebei province, after a Chinese ship crashed into it at a refueling dock.
    (AP, 10/25/09)

2009        Oct 25, Energy giant BP signed a deal with Jordan to explore for natural gas reserves in the Risheh field near the border with Iraq in an investment that could reach billions of dollars.
    (AFP, 10/25/09)

2009        Oct 29, In India a huge fire at an oil depot near Jaipur killed at least six people and injured 150. Officials said it would be allowed to burn out as firefighters had little hope of dousing it. The blaze was visible from over 25km (16 miles) away.
    (AP, 10/30/09)

2009        Oct 30, In the San Francisco Bay the tanker Dubai Star began leaking fuel oil after a tank overflowed during refueling. Coast Guard officials later estimated that some 400-800 gallons of toxic oil leaked into the SF Bay killing at least 37 birds along the Alameda coastline.
    (SFC, 10/31/09, p.A1)(SFC, 11/3/09, p.C3)(SFC, 11/17/09, p.C2)
2009        Oct 30, Indonesian officials and fishermen said thousands of dead fish and clumps of oil have been found drifting near the coastline more than two months after an Australian underwater well began leaking in the Timor Sea on Aug 21.
    (AP, 10/30/09)

2009        Nov 1, PTTEP Australasia attempted to plug a leaking well of the West Atlas drilling rig when a fire then broke out on the rig. The operation to stem the leak has involved the Thai-based operator towing the West Triton rig from Singapore, which took five weeks, to drill down some 2.6km under the seabed to the source of the emissions. The leak has dumped thousands of barrels of oil into the Timor Sea since it began on August 21. The blaze was brought under control on Nov 3 when experts managed to plug the leak that has spewed tons of crude over the past 10 weeks.
    (AP, 11/1/09)(AFP, 11/2/09)(AP, 11/3/09)

2009        Nov 5, A consortium grouping US and European oil giants Exxon Mobil Corp. and Royal Dutch Shell PLC signed a $50 billion deal to develop one of Iraq's most prized oil fields, as the OPEC nation looks to revamp its battered energy sector. The deal to develop the 8.6 billion West Qurna Stage 1 field is the third such agreement in less than a week between a foreign oil consortium and Iraq, which sorely needs foreign company expertise and funding to revive an oil sector hammered by years of neglect, sanctions and, most recently sabotage.
    (AP, 11/5/09)

2009        Nov 29, Somali pirates seized the Greece-flagged Maran Centaurus, a tanker carrying more about $150 million of crude oil from Saudi Arabia to the US, in the waters off East Africa.
    (AP, 11/30/09)(AP, 12/4/09)

2009        Dec 1, Pirates off Oman attacked the oil tanker, Sikinos. Using flares and hoses, the crew of the Greek oil tanker fought off the pirate attack in the Arabian Sea.
    (AP, 12/1/09)

2009        Dec 11, Iraq struck deals with consortiums led by Anglo-Dutch and Chinese giants Shell and CNPC over massive southern oil fields, as part of a two-day auction that seeks to dramatically boost the country's crude output.
    (AP, 12/11/09)

2009        Dec 12, Iraq sold Russian firm Lukoil rights to the West Qurna-2 oil field, one of the world's biggest untapped oil fields, on the 2nd day of an auction. Lukoil will work with junior partner StatoilHydro of Norway.
    (AP, 12/12/09)

2009        Dec 14, Exxon Mobil Corp. said it will buy XTO Energy Inc in an all-stock transaction valued at about $30 billion, in a bid that thrusts the oil giant to the forefront of North America's fast-growing natural gas industry.
    (AP, 12/14/09)

2009        Dec 17, Iranian forces took control of Well 4, a southern Iraqi oil well on a disputed section of the border in Maysan province. Well 4 lies in the Fauqa Field, part of a cluster of fields Iraq unsuccessfully put up for auction to oil majors in June. The field has estimated reserves of 1.55 million barrels. There have been a number of meetings in recent years aimed at reaching agreement on border fields, so far without success.
    (AFP, 12/18/09)(AP, 12/19/09)

2009        Dec 19, Iraqi troops massed near an oil well on the border in a standoff with Iranian forces that seized control of the site in a sudden flare up of tension between the two uneasy neighbors.
    (AP, 12/19/09)
2009        Dec 19, Nigerian militants said they had carried out their first attack on an oil pipeline since an amnesty offer because the absence of Pres. Yar'Adua was delaying peace talks. A truck carrying bags of cement crushed and killed at least 55 people when the driver lost control and ran into a crowd on a road in Dekina, in central Kogi state.
    (Reuters, 12/19/09)(AFP, 12/20/09)

2009        Dec 20, Iraqi oil workers returned to the disputed oil well No. 4 in southern Iraq that was seized by Iranian forces Dec 17. Baghdad also confirmed that Iranian troops left the well.
    (AP, 12/20/09)

2009        Dec 21, In Alaska an oil spill was discovered coming from a 6-inch pipeline in the Prudhoe Bay oil field.
    (SFC, 12/23/09, p.A8)

2009        Dec 28, Slovakia said that Russia had warned it might halt oil supplies through Ukraine to three European Union countries over a price dispute.
    (AFP, 12/28/09)

2009        Dec 30, An unknown amount of oil poured from a China National Petroleum Corp. pipeline into the Wei River in Shaanxi province following a construction accident. The pipeline links the capitals of northwest Gansu province and central Henan province. Shaanxi TV later said 20 miles (33 km) along the Wei were polluted by the leak, estimated at 40,000 gallons.
    (AP, 1/2/10)
2009        Dec 30, An Iraqi official said the Angolan national oil company Sonangol has signed preliminary deals to develop two small oil fields in northern Iraq.
    (AP, 12/30/09)

2009        Bryan Burrough authored “The Big Rich: The Rise and Fall of the Greatest Texas Oil Fortunes." It entered on H.L Hunt, Sid Richardson, Clint Murchinson and Hugh Roy Cullen, known as the Big Four of Texas oil.
    (WSJ, 2/4/09, p.A11)
2009        Peter Maas authored “Crude World: The Violent Twilight of Oil."
    (SSFC, 10/4/09, Books p.F3)
2009        The average price of oil this year was $62 a barrel.
    (Econ, 4/14/12, p.65)
2009        A new oil pipeline allowed Kazakhstan to export oil to China.
    (Econ, 7/27/19, p.18)
2009        Russia-based Sistema Oil Co., part of a conglomerate run by Vladimir Yevtushenko, bought Bashneft Oil Co. for $2.5 billion from the son of a regional boss in Bashkortostan, who had allegedly expropriated it from the state.
    (Econ, 9/20/14, p.50)

2010        Jan 8, In Nigeria a crude-oil pipeline operated by Chevron was attacked by unknown gunmen in the Niger Delta region.
    (AFP, 1/9/10)

2010        Jan 12, Texas-based Apache Corp. said it made its sixth oil and gas discovery in the Faghur Basin play in Egypt's far Western Desert near the Libyan border.
    (AP, 1/12/10)

2010        Jan 13, The head of Algeria's national oil corporation Sonatrach was suspended from his job and ordered to appear before investigators probing corruption. Mohamed Meziane was replaced in his job by vice-president Abdelhafid Feghouli.
    (AFP, 1/15/10)

2010        Jan 23, In Texas an 800-foot oil tanker and towing vessel collided spilling oil in the southeast port of Port Arthur. The spill, estimated at 462,000 gallons, was contained to a 2-mile area along the Sabine Neches Waterway.
    (AP, 1/24/10)(SSFC, 1/24/10, p.A10)(SFC, 1/26/10, p.A8)

2010        Jan, Angola at this time produced about 1.9 million barrels of oil per day. Its reserves were estimated at 13 billion barrels.
    (Econ, 1/30/10, p.55)

2010        Feb 4, Dubai's government, under pressure to repay billions of dollars in debt, said it has discovered a new offshore oil field, the first such find by the city-state in decades.
    (AP, 2/4/10)

2010        Feb 16, Argentina’s Pres. Cristina Fernandez issued a decree seeking to control all shipping to and from the Falkland Islands, escalating her fight with Britain over drilling for oil and gas in the South Atlantic.
    (SFC, 2/17/10, p.A2)

2010        Feb 22, Latin American and Caribbean nations backed Argentina's claim of sovereignty to the Falkland Islands in a growing dispute with Britain over plans to drill for oil off the islands in the Atlantic. British exploration company Desire Petroleum PLC said it started drilling for oil about 62 miles north of the disputed islands.
    (AP, 2/23/10)(SFC, 2/23/10, p.A2)

2010        Feb 23, In Italy an oil spill began and spread south down the Lambro to Piacenza and Cremona overnight, despite efforts to contain it. By the next day if reached the Po River, with officials warning of an ecological disaster as they scrambled to contain the sludge before it contaminated Italy's longest and most important river. Milan regional officials said the cause was certainly sabotage at a former refinery turned oil depot, since the cisterns were opened and the oil allowed to flow unimpeded into the Lambro River near Monza.
    (AP, 2/24/10)

2010        Feb 24, French oil giant Total said it is to invest seven billion dollars (5.16 billion euros) in Nigerian oil and gas exploration and production over the next four to five years.
    (AFP, 2/24/10)

2010        Mar 2, In southeast New Mexico two employees at a Navajo oil refinery were killed and two others critically injured after a storage tank exploded into flames.
    (AP, 3/2/10)
2010        Mar 2, In Nigeria planted explosives in the Niger Delta damaged the Kokori oil flow station operated by Royal Dutch Shell PLC, marking the latest attack in a region supposedly brought under control by a government amnesty program.
    (AP, 3/3/10)

2010        Mar 8, In Australia Royal Dutch Shell and PetroChina joined forces for a 2.96 billion US dollar bid for Australia's Arrow Energy, hoping for a bigger slice of the country's booming liquefied natural gas (LNG) sector.
    (AP, 3/8/10)

2010        Mar 16, Pakistan and Iran signed a $7.6 billion deal in Turkey paving the way for the construction of a much-delayed pipeline pumping Iranian natural gas to the energy-starved South Asian country.
    (AP, 3/17/10)

2010        Mar 19, A Nigerian armed rebel group claimed to have blown up an oil facility in the restive oil-producing Niger Delta region and threatened to step up attacks in coming days.
    (AFP, 3/19/10)

2010        Mar 24, Australia and China signed a multibillion dollar natural gas deal, pushing ahead with business as the trial of four employees of mining giant Rio Tinto ended in Shanghai with a verdict still to be announced.
    (AP, 3/24/10)

2010        Mar 30, Chevron said the Permanent Court of Arbitration in The Hague has ruled in favor of its claim against Ecuador related to past operations of its Texaco unit. The tribunal ruled that Ecuador’s courts delayed rulings on a contract dispute and awarded Chevron about $700 million as of Dec 22, 2006. A separate case over a $27 billion pollution claim remained pending.
    (SFC, 3/31/10, p.A2)

2010        Mar 31, President Barack Obama announced an expansive new policy that could put oil and natural gas platforms in waters along the southern Atlantic coastline, the eastern Gulf of Mexico and part of Alaska.
    (AP, 3/31/10)

2010        Apr 2, In Washington state an explosion at a Tesoro Corp. refinery killed 4 people in Anacortes, about 70 miles north of Seattle.
    (SFC, 4/3/10, p.A5)

2010        Apr 6, Louisiana authorities said a pipeline has spilled some 18,000 gallons of crude oil into a canal in the Delta National Wildlife Refuge about 60 miles southeast of New Orleans.
    (SFC, 4/7/10, p.A8)

2010        Apr 19, Algeria's Energy Minister Chakib Khelil said 11 major natural gas exporting countries have decided to work towards a long term plan to index prices with oil.
    (AFP, 4/20/10)

2010        Apr 20, An explosion and fire damaged an oil rig and critically injured 7 people off the coast of Louisiana leaving 11 workers missing in the Gulf of Mexico. The Deepwater Horizon rig sank 2 days later. Officials feared as much as 336,000 gallons of crude oil a day could be rising from the sea floor nearly 5,000 feet below. On April 23 no oil appeared to be leaking from the well head at the ocean floor, nor was any leaking at the water's surface. On April 25 it was reported that some 1000 barrels per day were leaking from 2 conduit sources related to the sunken oil rig. An internal investigation later said the deadly blowout was triggered by a bubble of methane gas that escaped from the well and shot up the drill column, expanding quickly as it burst through several seals and barriers before exploding. In June it was reported that BP had been trying to seal cracks in the Macondo well more than 2 months before the explosion.
    (AFP, 4/21/10)(AFP, 4/23/10)(AP, 4/25/10)(AP, 5/8/10)(SFC, 6/18/10, p.A13)

2010        Apr 21, The presidents of Ukraine and Russia agreed to extend the stay of Russia's Black Sea Fleet in the Ukrainian port of Sevastopol to 2042 after the existing lease expires in 2017. Russian President Dmitry Medvedev said that Kiev will receive large discounts on gas shipments in return for certainty over the base's future, $100 for every 1,000 cubic meters of gas or 30 percent if the benchmark price falls below $330.
    (AP, 4/21/10)(SFC, 4/22/10, p.A2)

2010        Apr 26, The oil spill off the coast of Louisiana, due to April 20 sinking of the Deepwater Horizon oil rig, extended over some 1,800 square miles. Robot submarines were in use to close valves atop the well. Officials said engineers have begun constructing a giant dome to place over the leaking oil well.
    (SFC, 4/27/10, p.A6)(AFP, 4/27/10)

2010        Apr 28, Coast Guard Rear Adm. Mary Landry was emphatic at a hastily called news conference that a new leak was discharging 5,000 barrels a day of sweet crude, not the 1,000 barrels officials had estimated for days since the Deepwater Horizons drilling rig exploded and sank 50 miles off the Louisiana Coast. Shrimpers in Louisiana filed a class-action lawsuit against oil giant BP Plc and owners of the drilling platform that exploded in the Gulf of Mexico, as claims for economic losses anticipated from the disaster began to mount.
    (AP, 4/29/10)(Reuters, 4/29/10)

2010        Apr 30, Oil from a leaking well in the Gulf of Mexico began washing ashore in the southern US state of Louisiana, threatening an ecological disaster.
    (AP, 4/30/10)
2010        Apr 30, A Nigerian court sentenced six Ghanaians and a Nigerian to 8 years in prison each after they were found guilty of stealing 4,000 tons of oil products. Rebels in the restive Niger Delta claimed to have blown up a Shell pipeline in the creeks of the southern oil producing region and threatened further attacks.
    (AFP, 4/30/10)

2010        May 1, The worst US oil spill in decades reached into precious shoreline habitat along the Gulf Coast as documents emerged showing British Petroleum downplayed the possibility of a catastrophic accident at the offshore rig that exploded.
    (AP, 5/1/10)
2010        May 1, Nigeria's navy seized a Greek-flagged vessel carrying more than 80 tons of stolen crude oil and arrested its crew in a crackdown on a multi-million dollar smuggling racket.
    (AFP, 5/5/10)

2010        May 3, Energy giant BP vowed to pay "all necessary and appropriate clean-up costs" from the US oil pollution disaster in the Gulf of Mexico. Oil has been spewing into the Gulf of Mexico since a deepwater oil rig operated by BP exploded and sank on April 20 killing 11 men.
    (AP, 5/3/10)
2010        May 3, Egypt's oil ministry said it has signed a memorandum of understanding in Beijing with two Chinese companies to build a $2 billion refinery that would be its largest such plant.
    (AP, 5/3/10)

2010        May 4, British Petroleum said efforts to contain a giant oil leak in the Gulf of Mexico are costing nearly four million pounds a day. Winds pushed a giant slick towards fragile wetlands on the US coast as efforts intensified to bottle up a ruptured oil well causing the growing environmental disaster.
    (AFP, 5/4/10)
2010        May 4, Royal Dutch Shell said it spilled nearly 14,000 tons of oil into the creeks of the Niger Delta in 2009 and blamed thieves and militants for the environmental damage.
    (SFC, 5/5/10, p.A2)

2010        May 5, The US Coast Guard said BP PLC has managed to cap one of three leaks at a deepwater oil well, but the work is not expected to reduce the overall flow of oil into the Gulf of Mexico. The well has been spewing at least 210,000 gallons per day since an April 20 explosion at a rig 50 miles off Louisiana.
    (AP, 5/5/10)

2010        May 7, Anglo-Dutch oil giant Shell said it had deferred crude shipments from its Bonny Light terminal in the Niger Delta for two months due to a fire that has hampered production.
    (AFP, 5/7/10)

2010        May 8, BP’s first attempt to divert a major crude spill was foiled and it could be at least a day before another attempt at putting a lid on the well could be made. Meanwhile, thick blobs of tar washed up on Alabama's white sand beaches, yet another sign the spill was worsening.
    (AP, 5/9/10)

2010        May 11, The Obama administration announced plans to reorganize the Mineral Management Services, the federal Interior Dept. agency that regulates offshore drilling.
    (SFC, 5/12/10, p.A4)

2010        May 13, In Abuja, Nigeria, the Nigerian National Petroleum Corporation (NNPC) and China State Construction Engineering Corporation Limited (CSCEC) sealed a $23 billion deal to build three refineries and a petrochemical complex.
    (AFP, 5/14/10)
2010        May 13, The Venezuelan government said the Aban Pearl offshore natural gas platform has sunk into the sea, and 95 workers have been safely rescued.
    (AP, 5/13/10)

2010        May 15, Oil leaking from the ruptured well pipe in the Gulf of Mexico washed ashore in two new locations, as BP’s latest attempt to contain the spill faltered. Experts warned that the spill may be growing more than ten times faster than previous Coast Guard estimates of 5,000 barrels (210,000 gallons) a day.
    (AFP, 5/15/10)

2010        May 16, Scientists said oil from a blown-out well is forming huge underwater plumes as much as 10 miles long below the visible slick in the Gulf of Mexico, as BP wrestled for a third day with its latest contraption for slowing the nearly month-old gusher.
    (AP, 5/16/10)

2010        May 17, BP said it was siphoning more than one-fifth of the oil that has been spewing into the Gulf for almost a month, as worries escalated that the ooze may reach a major ocean current that could carry it through the Florida Keys and up the East Coast. The US Coast Guard said 20 tar balls have been found off Key West, Fla., but the agency stopped short of saying whether they came from a massive oil spill in the Gulf of Mexico.
    (AP, 5/17/10)(AP, 5/18/10)

2010        May 18, A discovery of tar balls on Florida's Key West fanned fears that a massive Gulf of Mexico oil spill was spreading through ocean currents, as energy giant BP Plc worked to capture more of the crude leaking from its gushing deep-water well.
    (Reuters, 5/18/10)

2010        May 19, Royal Dutch Shell PLC announced it will spend more than $2 billion to sharply reduce the burning off of natural gas at its oil wells in Nigeria, gases that when burned contribute to global warming and sicken people living nearby.
    (AP, 5/19/10)

2010        May 20, BP conceded that more oil than it estimated is gushing into the Gulf of Mexico as heavy crude washed into Louisiana's wetlands for the first time, feeding worries and uncertainty about the massive monthlong spill.
    (AP, 5/20/10)

2010        May 23, The US government threatened to remove BP from efforts to seal a blown-out oil well in the Gulf of Mexico if it doesn't do enough to stop the leak, though it acknowledged only the company and the oil industry have the needed know-how. Louisiana Gov. Bobby Jindal said the state is not waiting for federal approval to begin building sand barriers to protect the coastline from the Gulf of Mexico oil spill.
    (AP, 5/23/10)

2010        May 25, The US EPA barred Texas from issuing an operating permit to a refinery on Corpus Christi and said it would do the same to dozens in other cases in which it believes the state is violating the Clean Air Act.
    (SFC, 5/26/10, p.A4)
2010        May 25, In Alaska several thousand barrels of crude spilled from the trans-Alaska pipeline and overflowed a storage tank. The spill was in a containment area with an impermeable liner.
    (SFC, 5/27/10, p.A8)
2010        May 25, In the Singapore Strait emergency teams scrambled to contain thousands of tons of crude oil that spilled into waters near one of the world's busiest ports after two ships collided. Singapore's Maritime and Port Authority (MPA) said in its latest update that 5,000 tons of crude had leaked from the Malaysian-registered tanker MT Bunga Kelana 3.
    (AFP, 5/25/10)

2010        May 27, BP Plc wrestled to plug its gushing deepwater Gulf of Mexico well in the latest attempt to control the source of a catastrophic five-week-old oil spill. Pres. Obama extended a moratorium on new deepwater oil drilling and ordered floating rigs to stop work on 33 exploratory wells. The government gave the go-ahead for an ambitious plan to construct several barrier islands to reduce the amount of oil from the giant Gulf of Mexico spill from coming ashore. Officials raised estimates of the spill from 210,000 to at least half a million gallons a day.
    (Reuters, 5/27/10)(AFP, 5/28/10)(SFC, 5/28/10, p.A8)

2010        May 28, BP made progress toward plugging its Gulf of Mexico oil spill with mud but said it won't know for two more days if the fix will really work.
    (AP, 5/28/10)

2010        May 29, The worst oil spill in US history hit its 40th day with Gulf residents clinging to the tenuous hope that BP's complicated "top kill" operation will plug the gushing well.
    (Reuters, 5/29/10)
2010        May 29, A fire at an Iranian oil well at the Naft Shahr border region near the Iraq border killed three people and injured 10 more.
    (Reuters, 5/29/10)

2010        May 30, With BP declaring failure in its latest attempt to plug the uncontrolled gusher feeding the worst oil spill in US history, the company is turning to yet another mix of risky undersea robot maneuvers and long shot odds to keep crude from flowing into the Gulf. White House energy czar Carol Browner said oil might keep leaking into the Gulf of Mexico for months until relief wells are completed.
    (AP, 5/30/10)
2010        May 30, Algeria's President Abdelaziz Bouteflika, amid a growing corruption scandal, fired the CEO and all top managers at Sonatrach, the state-owned oil firm that dominates the North African country's economy.
    (AP, 5/31/10)

2010        Jun 2, BP Plc forged ahead with its latest effort to curb the flow of oil spewing into the Gulf of Mexico as the British energy giant's shares fell anew as the US government launched criminal and civil probes into the disaster.
    (Reuters, 6/2/10)

2010        Jun 3, BP sliced off a pipe with giant shears in the latest bid to curtail the worst spill in US history, but the cut was jagged and placing a cap over the gusher will now be more challenging. BP's top executive acknowledged the global oil giant was unprepared to fight a catastrophic deepwater oil spill as engineers were forced yet again to reconfigure plans for executing their latest gambit to control the Gulf of Mexico gusher. Robots a mile beneath the Gulf positioned a cap over the main pipe on the leaking well Thursday night and an inverted funnel-like system, wrapped in hoses and more sophisticated than previous devices, started pumping oil and gas to a tanker on the surface. A very rough estimate of current collection was estimated at about 42,000 gallons a day. An estimated 500,000 to 1 million gallons of crude was believed to be leaking daily. The federal government slapped BP with a $69 million bill to cover initial costs of responding to the oil spill.
    (AP, 6/3/10)(AP, 6/4/10)(AP, 6/4/10)

2010        Jun 5, President Barack Obama on his 3rd visit to Louisiana said that he will stand with Gulf Coast residents "until they are made whole" from the oil spill catastrophe.
    (AP, 6/5/10)

2010        Jun 7, A natural gas explosion in northern Texas killed one member of a crew installing utility poles. Authorities the next day were trying to determine if the gas line had been marked before digging started.
    (AP, 6/8/10)
2010        Jun 7, Turkey and Azerbaijan signed a long-awaited deal on the transit of gas to Europe seen as crucial to plans to reduce the continent's dependence on Russian gas.
    (AFP, 6/7/10)

2010        Jun 8, A report by the European Coalition on Oil in Sudan (ECOS) charged that a consortium led by Swedish Lundin Petroleum is partly to blame for war crimes committed in Sudan between 1997 and 2003.
    (AFP, 6/8/10)

2010        Jun 10, BP shares fell in London as US politicians pressed the British oil company to halt its dividend payments and fork out greater compensation for American workers and companies devastated by the massive Gulf of Mexico oil spill.
    (AP, 6/10/10)

2010        Jun 11, In Salt Lake City an underground pipeline broke sending oil into a creek that ultimately flows into the Great Salt Lake. The pipeline was shut off the next day as the 21,000 gallon spill coated some 300 birds at area creeks. Chevron said it would pay for cleanup.
    (SFC, 6/14/10, p.A6)
2010        Jun 11, A Credit Suisse analyst, briefed by BP’s Chief of Staff, said in a research note that BP expects the total bill for the clean up of the Gulf of Mexico oil spill to be $3-6 billion.
    (Reuters, 6/11/10)

2010        Jun 12, Yemeni tribesmen blew up an oil pipeline outside the provincial capital, Marib, after the government recently bombed the area in retaliation for an attack on a military convoy.
    (AP, 6/12/10)

2010        Jun 14, US authorities gave BP permission to start burning oil and gas piped up from its broken seafloor well as part of a pledge to more than triple how much crude it stops from spewing into the Gulf of Mexico.
    (AP, 6/15/10)

2010        Jun 15, Iran signed contracts worth 21 billion dollars with local firms to develop six gas fields, some of them awarded to the elite Revolutionary Guards.
    (AFP, 6/15/10)

2010        Jun 16, BP under pressure from Pres. Obama agreed to set aside $20 billion in a spill recovery escrow program to compensate Gulf Coast fishermen and others who have lost work and wages from the 8-week old massive oil spill.
    (SFC, 6/17/10, p.A8)

2010        Jun 17, European Union leaders agreed tighter sanctions against Iran, including measures to block oil and gas investment and curtail its refining and natural gas capability.
    (Reuters, 6/17/10)
2010        Jun 17, Royal Dutch Shell PLC warned Nigeria that $40 billion of planned investments in the oil-rich nation could be in jeopardy if lawmakers pass a proposed bill to overhaul the petroleum industry. Government officials say the bill would allow more oil money  to return to Nigeria's people. The bill also would require the government-run Nigerian National Petroleum Corp., which partners with all foreign oil firms, to seek profits like a private business and not rely on government subsidies.
    (AP, 6/17/10)
2010        Jun 17, Russia PM Putin agreed to support a $1 billion joint US-Russian venture to drill for oil in the Black Sea. San Ramon, Ca., based Chevron and Russia’s state-owned Rosneft signed the agreement to develop the Val Shatsky deposit, which could contain up to 860 million tons of crude.
    (SFC, 6/18/10, p.D3)

2010        Jun 21,  The US White House slapped BP with a new 51-million-dollar bill, the third sent to the British energy giant and its partners for government expenses incurred in efforts to halt the Gulf of Mexico oil spill. BP revealed it has so far spent two billion dollars on the Gulf of Mexico oil spill, after an internal BP document suggested the gusher might be spewing far faster than initially feared.
    (AFP, 6/21/10)
2010        Jun 21, Egypt's government confirmed that oil has leaked from one of several rigs operating off the coast of the Red Sea resort Hurghada and has polluted about 100 miles (160 km) of coastline including tourist beach resorts. The government has kept quiet about the leak for days.
    (AP, 6/21/10)
2010        Jun 21, Russia started cutting most natural gas supplies to ex-Soviet neighbor Belarus over what it claims is a debt of nearly $200 million, threatening to rekindle political disputes in the region over energy policy.
    (AP, 6/21/10)

2010        Jun 22, In New Orleans US District Judge Martin Feldman struck down the Obama administration’s 6-month ban on deep-water drilling.
    (SFC, 6/23/10, p.A6)
2010        Jun 22, Belarussian President Alexander Lukashenko ordered the shutdown of transit of Russian gas to Europe, escalating a new "gas war" after Moscow slashed supplies to Minsk in a debt dispute. Belarus said Gazprom owes it 217 million dollars in transit fees.
    (AFP, 6/22/10)

2010        Jun 23, Embattled BP CEO Tony Hayward handed over the handling of the Gulf of Mexico oil spill to Bob Dudley (54), an American executive brought up in Mississippi, one of the states affected by the disaster. BP reinstalled an oil containment system sucking up crude from a ruptured pipe in the Gulf of Mexico, which had been removed following a collision with a robotic submarine.
    (AP, 6/23/10)(AFP, 6/24/10)
2010        Jun 23, Lithuania said its Russian gas supplies, which transit through Belarus, had been cut by 30 percent as a result of Russia's energy dispute with Belarus.
    (AP, 6/23/10)
2010        Jun 23, Venezuela said it will nationalize a fleet of oil rigs belonging to US company Helmerich and Payne. The 11 drilling rigs have been idled for months following a dispute over $49 million in pending payments by the state oil company PDVSA. On June 26 the oil minister said Venezuela will pay Helmerich and Payne for the fleet of seized oil rigs, warning that five drills at a Chevron venture were also at risk of nationalization.
    (Reuters, 6/24/10)(Reuters, 6/26/10)

2010        Jun 25, In Venezuela it was reported that fish and birds covered with tar-like oil are washing up on the eastern shores of Lake Maracaibo, angering fishermen who fear their livelihood is at stake because of the country's state-run oil company.
    (AP, 6/26/10)

2010        Jul 3, In the Gulf of Mexico a Taiwanese converted tanker, dubbed "A Whale" and billed as the world's largest oil skimmer, arrived from Portugal in the Gulf of Mexico for testing. Officials hoped it would scrub 21 million gallons of oil-tainted seawater per day. The US Coast Guard later said it was too big to maneuver around the smaller patches and ribbons of oil.
    (AP, 7/03/10)(SSFC, 7/4/10, p.A8)(AP, 7/17/10)

2010        Jul 5,  BP's costs for the Gulf of Mexico oil spill climbed nearly half a billion dollars in the past week, raising the oil giant's tab to just over $3 billion for work on cleaning and capping the gusher and payouts to individuals, businesses and governments. Tar balls from the Gulf oil spill found on a Texas beach were the first evidence that gushing crude from the Deepwater Horizon well has reached all the Gulf states.
    (AP, 7/6/10)

2010        Jul 6, In New Orleans, Louisiana, oil from the ruptured well was reported to be seeping into Lake Pontchartrain, threatening another environmental disaster for the huge body of water that was rescued from pollution in 1990s.
    (AP, 7/6/10)

2010        Jul 7, An Associated Press investigation showed that more than 27,000 abandoned oil and gas wells lurked in the hard rock beneath the Gulf of Mexico, an environmental minefield that has been ignored for decades.
    (AP, 7/7/10)
2010        Jul 7, Royal Dutch Shell said it has begun production at a major project in Nigeria that should eventually provide up to 70,000 barrels of oil per day and help boost electricity for the power-starved nation.
    (AFP, 7/8/10)

2010        Jul 10, In the Gulf of Mexico hundreds of thousands of gallons of oil were allowed to spew into the fouled waters while BP engineers prepared to install a new containment system they hope will catch it all in the coming days.
    (AP, 7/11/10)

2010        Jul 12, BP Engineers worked to replace a cap over a gushing oil well in the Gulf of Mexico after reporting good progress in attempts to contain the worst environmental disaster in US history. Expected to take between four and seven days, the round-the-clock work began at midday on July 10 when the old, less efficient cap was ripped off a fractured pipe a mile down on the sea floor by robotic submarines.
    (AFP, 7/12/10)
2010        Jul 12, A Canada Steamship Lines vessel ran aground near the Cote Sainte-Catherine canal lock south of Montreal. The Montreal Gazette newspaper said the accident punctured the ship's fuel tank, leaking between 50 and 200 tons of oil into the surrounding waters.
    (Reuters, 7/13/10)

2010        Jul 13, After securing a new, tight-fitting cap on top of the leaking well in the Gulf of Mexico, BP prepared to begin tests to see if it will hold and stop fresh oil from polluting the waters for the first time in nearly three months.
    (AP, 7/13/10)
2010        Jul 13, Iraqi Oil Minister Hussain al-Shahristani said the cabinet had decided to summon representatives of the Kurdish regional government to discuss oil smuggling to Iran and "to put an end to it, as it harms Iraq's national and economic interests." Reports about the oil smuggling surfaced just over a week after the US imposed new sanctions barring the export of refined fuels to Iran.
    (AP, 7/13/10)
2010        Jul 13, Kazakhstan’s cabinet approved a crude-oil export tax of $20 per metric ton. Chevron, based in San Ramon, Ca., owns 50% of Tengiz Chevroil, which operates the biggest field in Kazakhstan.
    (SFC, 7/14/10, p.D2)
2010        Jul 13, In Nigeria the junior finance minister said the country’s corruption-ridden giant state oil firm NNPC is insolvent with debts of five billion dollars.
    (AFP, 7/13/10)

2010        Jul 14, After days of progress on the Gulf of Mexico oil leak, BP said that delays have temporarily stopped work beneath the water on both a stopgap solution and a permanent fix to the gusher.
    (AP, 7/14/10)

2010        Jul 15, BP finally stopped oil from spewing into the sea, for the first time since an April 20 explosion on the BP-leased Deepwater Horizon oil rig killed 11 workers and unleashed the spill 5,000 feet beneath the water's surface.
    (AP, 7/16/10)
2010        Jul 15, French oil firm Total SA said it has signed a deal to acquire Chevron Corp.'s stake in an offshore oil block near Nigeria's coastline.
    (AP, 7/15/10)

2010        Jul 19, The US federal government allowed BP to keep the cap shut tight on its busted Gulf of Mexico oil well for another day despite a seep in the sea floor after the company promised to watch closely for signs of new leaks underground, settling for the moment a rift between BP and the government.
    (AP, 7/19/10)
2010        Jul 19, One of China's biggest ports, Dalian, shut down after a pipeline explosion triggered a major offshore oil spill, forcing a refinery to cut processing and importers to divert cargoes elsewhere. The government later said 1,500 tons of oil were spilled. Others later estimated as much as 60-90 thousand tons.
    (Reuters, 7/19/10)(SFC, 7/31/10, p.A4)
2010        Jul 19, Egypt signed a significant agreement with BP to develop 2 offshore gas fields in the largest deal for the beleaguered oil giant since its drilling rig disaster in the Gulf of Mexico.
    (AFP, 7/19/10)

2010        Jul 21, China's largest reported oil spill had more than doubled, closing beaches on the Yellow Sea and prompting an environmental official to warn the sticky black crude posed a "severe threat" to sea life and water quality. The oil was spread over 165 square miles (430 square km) of water five days since a pipeline at a busy northeastern port exploded.
    (AP, 7/21/10)

2010        Jul 23, Work to permanently choke off BP's broken oil well stalled as Tropical Storm Bonnie raced toward the Gulf of Mexico and dozens of ships evacuated the area.
    (AP, 7/23/10)

2010        Jul 25, Ships and workers moved back into BP Plc's Gulf of Mexico oil spill site as seas calmed, and BP could begin pumping mud into the blown-out well later this week in a bid to plug the gusher.
    (Reuters, 7/25/10)
2010        Jul 25, Iran's official news agency said an explosion at a petrochemical factory at tis Kharg island oil terminal has killed four people.
    (AP, 7/25/10)

2010        Jul 26, In Michigan an oil pipeline, owned by Canada-based Enbridge Inc., leaked over 800,000 gallons into Talmadge Creek and flowed to the Kalamazoo River coating fish and birds in Battle Creek and Emmet Township. The US government estimated the leak at over 1 million gallons.  Enbridge later estimated cleanup costs at about $1.2 billion. In 2014 a settlement between the company and residents and landowners was said to be $6.25 million. On May 13, 2015, officials said Enbridge Energy and its affiliates will pay $75 million to settle the case.  
    (SFC, 7/28/10, p.A4)(SFC, 7/30/10, p.A7)(SFC, 12/25/14, p.A10)(Reuters, 5/13/15)

2010        Jul 27, An audit by the US Special Investigator for Iraq Reconstruction said the US Defense Department is unable to properly account for over 95 percent of $9.1 billion in Iraqi oil money tapped by the US for rebuilding the war ravaged nation.
    (AP, 7/27/10)
2010        Jul 27, BP said its much-criticized CEO Tony Hayward will be replaced by American Robert Dudley on Oct. 1, as it reported a record quarterly loss and set aside $32.2 billion to cover costs of the devastating Gulf of Mexico oil spill.
    (AP, 7/27/10)

2010        Jul 29, The X Prize foundation offered up a new $1.4 million prize for anyone who can come up with a faster way to clean oil spills from the ocean.
    (Econ, 8/7/10, p.79)

2010        Jul 31, A senior Iranian official said China has invested around 40 billion dollars in the Islamic republic's oil and gas sector.
    (AFP, 7/31/10)

2010        Aug 2, The US government said BP's ruptured well in the Gulf of Mexico gushed an estimated 4.9 million barrels of oil, making it the largest accidental oil spill of all time.
    (AFP, 8/3/10)

2010        Aug 3, British oil giant BP said it will sell its Colombian business for a total of 1.9 billion dollars (1.4 billion euros) to national oil company Ecopetrol and Talisman of Canada.
    (AFP, 8/3/10)

2010        Aug 4, BP PLC reached what it called a significant milestone overnight when mud that was forced down the well held back the flow of crude. A government report said much of the spilled oil is gone, though what's left is still at least quadruple the amount that poured from the Exxon Valdez.
    (AP, 8/4/10)

2010        Aug 9, BP made its first deposit, $3 billion, into the Gulf of Mexico oil disaster fund, while top executives were summoned to the White House to pledge their long-term commitment to restoring the region.
    (AFP, 8/9/10)

2010        Aug 11, Turkey said it will support petrol sales by Turkish companies to Iran, despite US sanctions that aim to squeeze the Islamic Republic's fuel imports.
    (Reuters, 8/11/10)

2010        Aug 15, In Nigeria Royal Dutch Shell PLC warned that thieves in the oil-rich and restive southern delta are increasingly targeting the company's crude pipelines, including at least three incidents of sabotage this month alone.
    (AP, 8/15/10)

2010        Aug 16, The US Interior Dept. announced new rules for offshore drilling.
    (SFC, 8/17/10, p.A4)

2010        Aug 17, American oil company Anadarko said it has discovered offshore oil deposits in northern Mozambique, but it is unclear if the find will prove commercially viable.
    (AFP, 8/17/10)

2010        Aug 18, Shell in Nigeria said it has warned it may not meet contractual obligations on Bonny Light crude, after oil thieves sabotaged two pipelines in the country's south.
    (AFP, 8/18/10)

2010        Aug 22, Thousands of fish turned up dead at the mouth of Mississippi River, prompting authorities to check whether oil was the cause of mass death. Crabs, sting rays, eel, drum, speckled trout and red fish were among the species that turned up dead.
    (AFP, 8/24/10)

2010        Aug 25, Cosan, Brazil’s biggest sugar and ethanol producer, signed a $12 billion joint venture with Royal Dutch Shell, the world’s largest energy company.
    (Econ, 9/4/10, p.41)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Royal_Dutch_Shell)

2010        Aug, Cairn Energy, a British petrochemicals company, announced the discovery of worthwhile oil deposits off the coast of Greenland. Its licensed acreage was estimated to hold some 4 billion barrels of oil.
    (Econ, 8/28/10, p.43)

2010        Sep 1, In western India wave after wave of tar balls floated ashore on the renowned Goa beaches after a ship dumped tons of waste oil, about three days after officials believe a ship dumped burnt oil at sea.
    (AP, 9/1/10)

2010        Sep 3, BP Plc successfully replaced a failed blowout preventer from atop its ruptured Gulf of Mexico oil well.
    (Reuters, 9/4/10)
2010        Sep 3, Brazil's state-run oil company Petrobras unveiled a huge share offering which could raise 64 billion dollars to help finance new exploration projects in the country.
    (AFP, 9/3/10)

2010        Sep 8, BP issued a report on the causes of the Deepwater Horizon catastrophe and listed the unfolding of the tragedy in 4 acts, each containing several errors.
    (Econ, 9/11/10, p.74)

2010        Sep 9, A senior southern Sudan official said northern Sudan has resolved an angry dispute with the south by returning the payment of crucial oil revenues to hard currency.
    (AFP, 9/9/10)

2010        Sep 10, A US federal appeals court in San Francisco upheld a jury verdict clearing the Chevron Corp. of alleged human rights abuses during a violent 1998 protest on a company oil platform in Nigeria.
    (AP, 9/11/10)

2010        Sep 11, In southern Egypt a barge leaked some 100 tons of gasoline into the Nile River. Captain Yasser Hussein told police that low water levels caused the boat to tilt and partially submerge  allowing the fuel to leak.
    (AP, 9/12/10)

2010        Sep 13, US EPA officials said that a leak in an oil pipeline in Reomeoville, Illinois, has stopped. The volume spilled in the Chicago suburb was unknown. The pipeline was owned by Enbridge Energy Partners.
    (SFC, 9/14/10, p.A4)

2010        Sep 15, The United States ordered oil and gas firms to permanently plug nearly 3,500 unused wells and dismantle hundreds of idle platforms in the Gulf of Mexico, in a bid to shore up industry safety after the disastrous BP spill.
    (AFP, 9/15/10)
2010        Sep 15, Russia and Norway ended a 40-year dispute in signing an Arctic border treaty which opens the door to offshore oil and gas exploration. President Dmitry Medvedev and Norway's PM Jens Stoltenberg presided over the signing in Murmansk.
    (AP, 9/15/10)

2010        Sep 17, Chevron Corp. rejected new estimates of damages in the jungles of Ecuador that rose to a range of $40 to $90 billion. The suit stemmed from operations by Texaco from 1972-1990 when it managed a drilling consortium. Chevron bought Texaco in 2001.
    (SFC, 9/18/10, p.D3)

2010        Sep 19, US officials finally declared BP's broken well in the Gulf  of Mexico "dead", following a successful “bottom kill," five months after a deadly oil rig blast sparked one of the costliest and largest environmental disasters ever.
    (AFP, 9/20/10)(SFC, 9/20/10, p.A16)
2010        Sep 19, Iraq signed a deal with Turkey to extend for 15 years the use of the main pipeline linking its northern oilfields to the Mediterranean port of Ceyhan. 3 car bombs tore through Baghdad and the former insurgent stronghold of Fallujah, killing at least 36 people. Al-Qaida's front group in Iraq later claimed responsibility for the two Baghdad bombings that killed at least 31 people at a government security agency and what it called an "evil" mobile phone provider.
    (AFP, 9/19/10)(AP, 9/19/10)(AP, 9/24/10)

2010        Sep 20, Libya's daily Oea newspaper reported that Douglas O'Reilly, a Canadian man, was detained after meeting a US diplomat suspected of being a CIA agent. He was detained on suspicion of spying on a planned BP offshore drilling project. O'Reilly claimed to be an archaeologist seeking to warn of the BP project's potential impact on archaeological sites. O'Reilly was given freedom to leave Libya on Sep 22.
    (AP, 9/21/10)(AP, 9/22/10)

2010        Sep 21, Greenpeace said that its activists have climbed aboard a Chevron-operated ship to protest drilling operations in the deep waters off Britain's Shetland Islands.
    (AP, 9/21/10)

2010        Sep 23, Brazilian President Luiz Inacio Lula da Silva officially launched the sale of new shares in the state-run oil company Petrobras seen as the world's biggest capitalization, worth 67 billion dollars. This raised the government’s stake from 40% to 48%.
    (AP, 9/24/10)(Econ, 10/2/10, p.31)

2010        Sep 24, European coastal nations agreed to review rules for offshore drilling, but said each country should decide individually on how to improve safety oil rig safety to avoid disasters like the Gulf of Mexico spill.
    (AP, 9/24/10)

2010        Oct 1, European oil majors resisted pressure from the US to stop all business with Iran, in spite of Washington's drive to isolate Tehran over a nuclear program the West suspects is aimed at making bombs.
    (Reuters, 10/1/10)
2010        Oct 1, Spanish energy giant Repsol announced the sale of 40 percent of its Brazilian affiliate to China's Sinopec for 7.1 billion dollars, securing funding for the development of oil fields in Brazil.
    (AP, 10/1/10)

2010        Oct 1, Pirates off the coast of Nigeria's southern delta kidnapped two foreign sailors from the MV Eckhardt tanker. A naval spokesman later suggested the crew worked in the black market trade of stolen crude from the region.
    (AP, 10/3/10)

2010        Oct 6, Documents were released in which the national oil spill commission's staff described "not an incidental public relations problem" by the White House in the wake of the April 20 accident. The report said, the administration made erroneous early estimates of the spill's size, and President Barack Obama's senior energy adviser went on national TV and mischaracterized a government analysis by saying it showed most of the oil was "gone." The analysis actually said it could still be there. The explosion in the Gulf of Mexico killed 11 workers, spewed 206 million gallons of oil from the damaged oil well, and sank the Deepwater Horizon drilling rig.
    (AP, 10/7/10)

2010        Oct 10, Norwegian oil firm Statoil is expanding further its shale gas operations in the United States, saying it has created a joint venture with Canada's Talisman to acquire acreage on the Eagle Ford prospect in Texas for $1.325 billion.
    (Reuters, 10/10/10)

2010        Oct 12, The Obama administration lifted the deep-water drilling ban in the Gulf of Mexico. Actual resumption was still weeks to months away.
    (SFC, 10/13/10, p.A6)

2010        Oct 15, Russia agreed to help build Venezuela's first nuclear power plant and buy $1.6 billion of oil assets, reinforcing ties with President Hugo Chavez, who shares Moscow's opposition to US global dominance.
    (Reuters, 10/15/10)

2010        Oct 16, In Belarus visiting Pres. Chavez of Venezuela promised that Belarusian refineries, the backbone of the country's economy, would see no oil shortages for the next 200 years.
    (AP, 10/16/10)

2010        Oct 19, In Iran Venezuela’s President Hugo Chavez held talks with leaders expected to focus on boosting cooperation between the countries' oil, gas and petrochemical industries.
    (AP, 10/19/10)

2010        Oct 20, Venezuelan President Hugo Chavez left Iran after signing 11 deals focused on energy cooperation between the two major oil producers who are foes of the United States.
    (AFP, 10/20/10)

2010        Oct 22, In Canada Alberta Provincial Court Judge Ken Tjosvold found Syncrude, one of Canada's largest oil sands producers, guilty in the deaths of the 1,600 ducks in a toxic waste pond last June. Syncrude accepted the C$3 million sentencing proposal.
    (Reuters, 10/22/10)

2010        Oct 24, A quarter of French petrol stations were short on fuel as refinery strikes over pension reform continued to drain supply, and one official said several holiday spots were likely to be particularly hard-hit.
    (Reuters, 10/24/10)

2010        Oct 26, A Southern Sudan official said that northern Sudan leaders are holding an oil-rich region "hostage" in negotiations being held before a January independence referendum.
    (AP, 10/26/10)

2010        Oct 28, A White House panel said that Halliburton Co. used flawed cement in BP Plc's doomed Gulf of Mexico well, which could have contributed to the blowout that sparked the worst offshore oil spill in US history. Halliburton had run a series of tests that showed the material was unstable in the weeks before the April 20 explosion on the Deepwater Horizon rig. An interim report BP issued in September said Halliburton used an "unstable" cement mixture that allowed hydrocarbons to flow up the drill pipe and onto the floor of the rig, where they ignited.
    (Reuters, 10/29/10)

2010        Oct 29, In Nigeria Italian oil firm Eni SpA said a pipeline carrying some of its crude out of Nigeria's oil-rich southern delta has erupted after an "act of sabotage."
    (AP, 10/29/10)

2010        Nov 1, Britain's BG Group announced it will spend 15 billion US dollars on a liquefied natural gas (LNG) project in Australia, an investment Canberra hailed as a boost for the national economy.
    (AFP, 11/1/10)
2010        Nov 1, ExxonMobil in Nigeria announced the discovery of rich gas condensate off the West African country's coast as the government seeks to boost gas supply to help solve electricity shortages.
    (AFP, 11/1/10)

2010        Nov 2, BP lifted its estimate of the likely cost of its Gulf of Mexico oil spill to $40 billion, denting profits, but its underlying performance beat all expectations on higher refining margins and a lower tax rate.
    (Reuters, 11/2/10)

2010        Nov 9, Chevron Corp. said it will buy Atlas Energy for $4.3 billion giving it a big stake in natural gas from underground shale formations.
    (SFC, 11/10/10, p.D1)

2010        Nov 22, Venezuela's oil minister, Rafael Ramirez, said that the latest exploratory drilling has confirmed "extraordinary results": about 15 trillion cubic feet of gas under the sea floor in a place where experts once thought there was only a fraction of that amount. An event launched a separate $17 billion oil project involving Italy’s Eni SpA and state oil company Petroleos de Venezuela SA, or PDVSA.
    (AP, 11/23/10)

2010        Nov 23, A BP executive, James Patrick Black (58), helping to guide recovery from the Gulf of Mexico oil spill died with two others when a small plane crashed in waters off the Florida Panhandle.
    (AP, 11/24/10)

2010        Nov 24, Australia said that a Thai-owned oil firm's "widespread and systematic shortcomings" caused the worst offshore drilling accident in the country's history, which created a massive oil slick. Thousands of barrels of oil gushed into the sea from a damaged well after a blow out on the West Atlas rig on August 21, 2009, prompting the evacuation of workers.
    (AFP, 11/24/10)

2010        Nov 28, BP said it has agreed to sell its 60 percent stake in Pan American Energy to Argentina-based oil and gas firm Bridas Corporation, as part of asset sales to pay for the Gulf of Mexico oil spill.
    (AFP, 11/28/10)
2010        Nov 28, Iran's Pres. Ahmadinejad and Turkmen Pres. Berdymukhamedov inaugurated the last section of the Sarakhs-Tehran pipeline to export Turkmen gas to northeast Iran.
    (AFP, 11/28/10)

2010        Nov 29, Nigerian union leaders ordered their tanker drivers to halt the supply of petrol nationwide for 7 days in protest at alleged maltreatment and killing of their members by the military.
    (AFP, 11/30/10)

2010        Dec 1, President Barack Obama reversed a March decision to expand offshore oil exploration to the Atlantic Ocean and eastern Gulf of Mexico, but said deepwater drilling could continue in the part of the Gulf hit by the BP disaster.
    (AFP, 12/1/10)

2010        Dec 2, Nigeria's anti-corruption police said they planned to file charges against former Vice President Dick Cheney in a $180 million bribery case involving a former unit of oil services firm Halliburton.
    (Reuters, 12/2/10)
2010        Dec 2, ExxonMobil said management staff in Nigeria have begun an indefinite strike after dozens of local employees were sacked, but that oil production has not been affected.  A military taskforce (JTF) comprising the army, navy and air force began raiding three camps which are believed to belong to a notorious gang leader in Delta state. The next day local residents said several civilians were killed and scores displaced during the raids against armed gangs in the Niger Delta. At least 9 people were reported killed and houses were found burned after the military raids. Activists and witnesses said as many as 150 people were killed around the village of Ayakoromo.
    (AFP, 12/2/10)(Reuters, 12/3/10)(AFP, 12/4/10)(SFC, 12/4/10, p.A3)

2010        Dec 4, In Jamaica an oil spill was discovered in Kingston Harbor. Authorities were still investigating a Nov 22 spill in the capital's harbor, the 7th-largest natural harbor in the world.
    (AP, 12/5/10)

2010        Dec 6, In Nigeria's Niger Delta a militant faction said it had ruptured an oil pipeline in response to what it said was the killing of innocent civilians during a military offensive last week.
    (Reuters, 12/6/10)

2010        Dec 11, Turkmenistan signed broad agreements with Afghanistan, India and Pakistan at a summit in its capital Ashgabat on the 1,700-km (1,050-mile) TAPI pipeline. Afghanistan the next day said it will deploy up to 7,000 troops to secure the major transnational gas pipeline, slated to run through some of the most dangerous parts of the war-torn country.
    (AFP, 12/12/10)

2010        Dec 13, A classified US document, dated Feb 26, 2010, released by WikiLeaks said Venezuela’s government sold China oil for as little as $5 a barrel and was upset that China apparently profited by selling the fuel to other countries. Another embassy report on Sept. 23, 2009, said Venezuela has been manipulating its oil price index. Other cables indicated significant problems at PDVSA.
    (AP, 12/14/10)

2010        Dec 14, A Nigerian official said Nigeria has negotiated a 250 million dollar settlement deal that would see it drop charges against US ex-vice president Dick Cheney and others over a bribery scandal.
    (AFP, 12/14/10)

2010        Dec 15, The US filed suit for the first time against BP and eight other companies for uncounted billions of dollars in damages from a massive oil spill in the Gulf of Mexico, the worst in US history.
    (AFP, 12/15/10)
2010        Dec 15, British-based explorer Tullow Oil PLC led a consortium and started producing 55,000 barrels per day from rigs off Ghana's Atlantic Ocean coast in the Jubilee Field, which was discovered three years ago and holds an estimated 1.8 billion barrels of oil.
    (AP, 12/14/10)

2010        Dec 17, Nigerian NDLF militants attacked three pipelines operated by the US oil giant Chevron and Italian firm Agip in the key oil producing state of Delta.
    (AFP, 12/18/10)
2010        Dec 17, Nigeria dropped charges against US ex-vice president Dick Cheney and others over a bribery scandal allegedly involving Halliburton after a settlement of 250 million dollars.
    (AFP, 12/17/10)

2010        Dec 19, In Mexico a massive oil pipeline explosion lay waste to parts of in San Martin Texmelucan, incinerating people, cars, houses and trees as gushing crude turned streets into flaming rivers. At least 29 people were killed, 14 of them children. Authorities blamed oil thieves after investigators found a hole in the pipeline and equipment for extracting crude. On Jan 10 a police officer died of his injuries bringing the death toll to 30.
    (AP, 12/19/10)(AP, 12/22/10)(AP, 1/10/11)

2010        Dec 22, Afghan officials said Iran has banned fuel exports to Afghanistan, stranding about 3,000 fuel trucks at the border and driving up wholesale prices for the refined products ahead of what many Afghans fear will be a blistery winter in their oil-poor nation.
    (AP, 12/22/10)
2010        Dec 22, Nigeria’s state oil firm said it has shut down three of its four refineries because of sabotage of pipelines leading to them. It called on the military to increase security.
    (AFP, 12/22/10)

2010        Dec 29, A payments dispute between India and Iran escalated after Tehran refused to sell oil to India under New Delhi's prohibitive new rules. Last week, the Reserve Bank of India said deals with Iran must be settled outside the Asian Clearing Union (ACU) system, used by central banks of member nations to settle bilateral trades.
    (Reuters, 12/30/10)

2010        Dec 30, Brazil's state-run Petrobras confirmed that oil fields recently discovered offshore contained 8.3 billion barrels of recoverable crude and gas, and said the biggest field was being renamed "Lula."
    (AFP, 12/30/10)

2010        Tom Bower, English historian, authored “Oil, Money, Politics and Power in the 21st Century."
    (SSFC, 5/30/10, p.F8)
2010        Ethane concentrations in the atmosphere began increasing after decades of decline. In 2016 researchers said gas fields in the Bakken Formation in Montana and North Dakota were responsible for the increases in the air pollutant.
    (SSFC, 5/1/16, p.A10)

2011        Jan 5, A US panel spread blame for the deadly Gulf of Mexico oil spill beyond BP to Halliburton and Transocean, accusing all three of "systemic" management failures that could happen again. A full report was due in a week.
    (AFP, 1/6/11)

2011        Jan 7, In southern Afghanistan a Taliban suicide bomber  in Spin Boldak assassinated a police commander named Ramazan and killed 16 others at a public bath. Criminal investigation police chief Farid Ahmad was killed in a drive-by shooting in Kandahar. Hundreds of Afghans demonstrated outside the Iranian Embassy in Kabul to protest Iran's blocking of thousands of fuel trucks at the border with Afghanistan, a step that has sent domestic fuel prices soaring as the country's harsh winter sets in.
    (AFP, 1/7/11)

2011        Jan 10, North Carolina-based Duke Energy announced that it would buy Progress Energy for $13.7 billion.
    (Econ, 2/12/11, p.39)

2011        Jan 12, Yemen's president suspended his oil minister and the head of the national oil company over a fuel shortage that has forced people to queue at petrol stations.
    (AFP, 1/12/11)

2011        Jan 13, In eastern Afghanistan a bomb in a marketplace killed a child outside a music cassette shop in Jalalabad. The Afghan fuel ministry said that Iran currently was allowing 1,000 tons of fuel to enter Afghanistan at three border crossings each day, compared with 3,000 to 4,000 tons daily before the trucks were blocked.
    (AP, 1/13/11)

2011        Jan 14, BP and Russian state-run firm Rosneft unveiled an agreement to swap shares and launch a joint venture to exploit the Arctic's vast untouched energy resources. BP’s share in Rosneft would increase to 10.8% and Rosneft would get 5% of BP.
    (AFP, 1/15/11)(Econ, 1/22/11, p.74)

2011        Jan 18, In western India a major fire on the outskirts of Mumbai burned nearly 10,500 gallons (40,000 liters) of lubricant oil at a depot of state-owned Indian Oil Corporation.
    (AP, 1/18/11)
2011        Jan 18, Iran’s semi-official Mehr news agency said that the ration of gasoline costing just 1,000 rials per liter (about 10 US cents, or $0.38 per US gallon) would be zero from the next Iranian month, which starts on January 21.
    (Reuters, 1/18/11)

2011        Jan 26, Environmental groups accused Anglo-Dutch oil giant Shell of destroying lives and the environment in the Niger Delta, and urged Dutch MPs to intervene as the company defended its record.
    (AFP, 1/26/11)

2011        Feb 1, According to the "Keystone XL Assessment," a new study commissioned by the US Department of Energy, a proposed pipeline from Canada's oil sands to refineries along the Gulf of Mexico would help "essentially eliminate" US oil imports from the Middle East in a decade or two.
    (Reuters, 2/1/11)
2011        Feb 1, Chevron Corp. filed a racketeering lawsuit against a team of lawyers, who have been fighting the company over oil field pollution in Ecuador, for conspiring to extort up to $113 billion relating to an 18-year-old lawsuit.
    (SFC, 2/2/11, p.D1)
2011        Feb 1, BP reported its first annual loss ($4.9 billion) since 1992, as a result of the Gulf of Mexico oil spill disaster, and outlined plans to shift its focus away from the United States. BP also announced it is resuming dividend payouts for the first time since the Gulf of Mexico well disaster.
    (AP, 2/1/11)(Econ, 2/5/11, p.73)

2011        Feb 5, Unknown saboteurs attacked an Egyptian pipeline supplying gas to Jordan, forcing authorities to switch off gas supply from a twin pipeline to Israel. Egypt supplies about 40 percent of Israel's natural gas. The attack came after Israel expressed concern that its natural gas supplies from Egypt could be threatened if a new regime takes power in Cairo.
    (AFP, 2/5/11)

2011        Feb 8, Iran's oil ministry's reported that daily oil output rose by around 100,000 barrels with the opening of the second phase of Darkhovin field in the southeast of the country.
    (AFP, 2/8/11)

2011        Feb 9, Pirates seized the Irene SL, a Greek-flagged supertanker, off the coast of Oman bound for the US carrying a crew of 25 and a load of more than 1.9 million barrels of oil.
    (AFP, 2/9/11)

2011        Feb 10, The US computer security firm McAfee Inc said in a report that hackers working in China over the last 2-4 years broke into the computer systems of 6 European and US energy companies to steal bidding plans and other critical proprietary information.
    (Reuters, 2/10/11)(SFC, 2/25/11, p.D5)
2011        Feb 10, PetroChina said it is purchasing half of a prolific shale gas project from Canada's Encana Corp for C$5.4 billion ($5.4 billion), marking the largest Chinese investment yet in a foreign natural gas asset.
    (Reuters, 2/10/11)
2011        Feb 10, Tullow Oil announced a new discovery off Ghana, raising the possibility of further potential off the West African nation which only recently began large-scale production.
    (AFP, 2/10/11)

2011        Feb 14, An Ecuadorean judge ruled that Chevron Corp. was responsible for oil contamination in a wide swath of Ecuador's northern jungle. The plaintiffs' attorney says the company was fined $8 billion. The company said that it would appeal, and called the judge's decision "illegitimate and unenforceable."
    (AP, 2/14/11)

2011        Feb 17, Chevron and a US aid agency announced a $50 million plan aimed at improving conditions in Nigeria's main oil-producing region, where pollution and poverty have led to years of unrest.
    (AFP, 2/17/11)

2011        Feb 21, British energy giant BP and India's Reliance Industries announced a massive investment deal which could be worth up to $20 billion with later investment in key Indian oil and gas assets.
    (AFP, 2/21/11)
2011        Feb 21, Spreading unrest in Libya shut down 6 percent of oil output in Africa's No.3 producer and prompted a host of energy firms to pull out international staff, sending oil prices to above $105 a barrel. Al Jazeera television said military aircraft fired live ammunition at crowds of anti-government protesters in Tripoli.
    (Reuters, 2/21/11)

2011        Feb 24, In Libya forces loyal to Muammar Gaddafi launched a counter-attack, fighting fierce gun battles with rebels who have threatened the Libyan leader by seizing important towns close to the capital. A doctor at a mosque in Zawiya said 10 people were killed. Key Libyan oil and oil product terminals to the east of the capital were in the hands of rebels.
    (AP, 2/24/11)(Reuters, 2/24/11)

2011        Feb 26, In Iraq gunmen before dawn attacked the Baiji Refinery, Iraq's largest oil refinery, killing one engineer and forcing a shutdown that threatened to exacerbate acute electricity shortages that have prompted violent protests. The bodies of three protesters turned up in Kirkuk. Police said all three took part in a Feb 25 demonstration. They were shot in the head and their hands bound.
    (AP, 2/26/11)(SSFC, 2/27/11, p.A8)(AP, 3/8/11)

2011        Feb 27, Joule Unlimited, a Massachusetts biotechnology company, said it has invented a genetically-engineered organism that it says simply secretes diesel fuel or ethanol wherever it finds sunlight, water and carbon dioxide.
    (AP, 2/28/11)

2011        Mar 1, Pakistan hiked oil prices by 9.9%, a move that threatens the stability of the fragile, US-allied civilian government at a time of economic turmoil in the impoverished country.
    (AP, 3/1/11)

2011        Mar 7, A US federal judge extended his temporary order banning collection of an $18 billion judgment by the courts in Ecuador against Chevron, saying the oil company could face irreparable harm because it appeared that lawyers for Ecuadoreans who sued over rainforest contamination were going to try to quickly collect the award.
    (AP, 3/7/11)

2011        Mar 8, Trading sources said Libyan oil trade has been paralyzed as banks decline to clear payments in dollars due to US sanctions. An official with a subsidiary of Libya's national oil company said that production has dropped by about 90 percent.
    (Reuters, 3/8/11)(AP, 3/8/11)

2011        Mar 11, Norway rejected oil drilling in ecologically sensitive waters just above the Arctic circle, partly because of worries over a disaster like the Gulf of Mexico oil spill.
    (AP, 3/11/11)

2011        Mar 13, Libyan rebels abandoned Brega, another key town under heavy shelling from advancing government forces, as international backing grew only slowly for a no-fly zone over the country. In Benghazi, 240km east of Brega, all mobile telephone services were suddenly cut for an unknown reason. State television said Libya has asked foreign firms to resume oil exports, saying its ports are safe despite a deadly month-long conflict. Libya's de facto oil minister said the country's crude production has fallen "drastically" and that he has reached out to Italian oil giant Eni SpA for help in extinguishing a blaze at Ras Lanouf.
    (AFP, 3/13/11)(AP, 3/13/11)

2011        Mar 16, The Malta-registered MS Olivia was grounded on Nightingale Island in the Tristan da Cunha chain. All 22 crew were rescued by 17th March. The ship broke in two and some 20,000 penguins became coated in oil. There was a risk rats from the ship could come ashore and eat the chicks and eggs of native seabirds.
    (AP, 3/22/11)(www.tristandc.com/newsmsoliva.php)

2011        Mar 25, Croatia arrested Bojan Milkovic, head of the INA, the country’s national oil company, on corruption charges.
    (Econ, 4/23/11, p.56)(http://tinyurl.com/3tnzyqm)

2011        Mar 30, President Barack Obama set an ambitious goal to cut US oil imports by a third over 10 years, focusing on a source of anxiety for Americans as high gasoline prices threaten economic recovery.
    (Reuters, 3/30/11)
2011        Mar 30, A new study in the journal Conservation Letters by an American and Canadian research team suggested that the discovery of more than 100 dead dolphins on Gulf of Mexico shores likely reflects only a small fraction of the total killed by the BP oil spill last year.
    (AFP, 3/30/11)
2011        Mar 30, Libya's government warned that it would sue any international company that concluded energy deals with rebels who control some of the country's oil infrastructure. Rebels retreated from the key Libyan oil port of Ras Lanouf along the coastal road leading to the capital Tripoli after they came under heavy shelling from ground forces loyal to leader Moammar Gadhafi.
    (Reuters, 3/30/11)(AP, 3/30/11)

2011        Apr 1, A Libyan rebel official said a plan to sell rebel-held oil to buy weapons and other supplies has been reached with Qatar.
    (AP, 4/1/11)
2011        Apr 1, Norway announced an oil find some 120 miles north of its mainland in the Barents Sea. The Skrugard find was believed to contain some 500 million barrels of oil.
    (SFC, 5/2/11, p.D2)(http://tinyurl.com/44ljesw)

2011        Apr 16, A Qatari state-controlled gas producer said it has agreed to send Japan more than 60 extra tanker shipments of liquefied natural gas to help power the Asian nation in the wake of its tsunami disaster.
    (AP, 4/16/11)

2011        Apr 20, BP marked the first anniversary of the massive Gulf of Mexico oil spill by suing its business partners for billions of dollars, as Gulf residents held somber vigils and relatives flew over the waters where 11 oil rig workers died.
    (AP, 4/21/11)

2011        Apr 25, Chinese oil refining giant Sinopec said it has demoted Lu Guangyu, a top executive, who bought 1.6 million yuan (148,463 pounds) of wine and spirits after details of the purchase leaked onto the Internet and sparked an uproar over extravagance at the state-owned firm.
    (Reuters, 4/25/11)

2011        Apr 27, In Egypt masked gunmen blew up a natural gas terminal near the border with Israel, sending flames shooting into the air in the early hours of the morning and forcing the shutdown of the country's gas export pipeline to Israel and Jordan. Suspicion immediately fell on Sinai Bedouins angered by what they see as the neglect of their areas by the central government or Muslim militants opposed to the export of natural gas to Israel.
    (AP, 4/27/11)

2011        Apr 28, France based Total SA announced plans to buy a 60% stake in SunPower Corp. of San Jose, Ca.
    (SFC, 4/29/11, p.D1)

2011        May 9, In Libya NATO planes pounded government weapons depots southeast of the town of Zintan, in a sign of widening conflict in the Western Mountains region as rebels battled to unseat Muammar Gaddafi. Rebels were reported to have found a way to access badly needed cash, selling oil worth $100 million paid for through a Qatari bank in US dollars.
    (Reuters, 5/9/11)

2011        May 11, The French government imposed a moratorium on fracking, the blasting of fissures in subterranean rock and pumping in water and sand to extract shale gas.
    (Econ, 6/25/11, p.79)

2011        May 14, President Barack Obama, under pressure from Republicans and the public to bring down gasoline prices, announced new measures to expand domestic oil production in Alaska and the Gulf of Mexico.
    (Reuters, 5/14/11)

2011        May 20, BP said that it had recovered more than $1.0 billion in costs linked to last year's devastating Gulf of Mexico oil spill from a US subsidiary of Japanese trading house Mitsui & Co. MOEX USA Corporation held a 10-percent stake in the Macondo well project.
    (AP, 5/20/11)
2011        May 20, Iranian news reported that the state constitutional watchdog body has ruled that the president cannot serve as the country's caretaker oil minister.
    (AP, 5/20/11)

2011        May 21, Russia's oil pipeline monopoly said it would appeal a court ruling ordering it to release board meeting minutes, saying an anti-corruption blogger wanted the information as part of a conspiracy against Russia.
    (Reuters, 5/21/11)

2011        May 24, In Nigeria a fire engulfed a pipeline belonging to a subsidiary of state-owned oil company Nigerian National Petroleum Corporation in the town of Amukpe.
    (AP, 5/25/11)

2011        May 25, In Venezuela red-clad oil workers rallied to denounce "imperialist" US sanctions over its Iran ties, but the rising anger seemed unlikely to sink the OPEC member's huge oil trade with the United States.
    (Reuters, 5/25/11)

2011        May 31, In northeastern Japan an oil spill and a small explosion caused limited damage, but no further radiation leaks. TEPCO said damage to a gas cylinder caused a loud noise outside a reactor building at the Fukushima nuclear plant as rubble was being cleared away.
    (AP, 5/31/11)(Reuters, 5/31/11)

2011        Jun 2, In Britain an explosion at a Chevron oil refinery in Pembroke, Wales, killed four contractors.
    (SFC, 6/3/11, p.A2)

2011        Jun 4, Greenpeace said 18 of its members have climbed a 53,000-ton oil rig in the Arctic waters off Greenland to protest deepwater drilling by a Scottish oil company there. The activists demanded Cairn Energy release a plan for how to manage a potential oil spill.
    (AP, 6/4/11)

2011        Jun 8, At meetings in Vienna, Austria, OPEC failed to come to an agreement to boost oil production, as a majority of the members voted not to do so. The vote disappointed western nations, which had hoped an increase in production would help to lower high oil prices.
            (AFP, 6/8/11)

2011        Jun 23, The Paris-based International Energy Agency (IEA) said 28 countries have agreed to release 60 million barrels of crude to the market to offset disruptions prompted by Libya's war. The countries will make 2 million barrels a day available from their emergency stocks over a period of 30 days.
    (AP, 6/23/11)

2011        Jun 24, India’s government announced a hike in the price of some petroleum products, increasing inflationary pressures in the fast-growing economy.
    (AFP, 6/25/11)

2011        Jun, Chad’s President Idriss Deby Itno inaugurated the Djarmaya refinery, located 40 km (25 miles) north of the Chadian capital Ndjamena. He described it as a "gift from China" that would offer energy independence to his land-locked nation. China’s state-owned China National Petroleum Corporation International (CNPCI) owned 60%.
    (AFP, 2/7/12)
2011        Jun, In Colombia 3 Chinese staff of the Emerald Energy, a British subsidiary of China’s Sinochem, were kidnapped along with their translator by FARC guerrillas from the Ombu field in Caqueta. The company had refused to pay $10 per barrel in extortion.
    (Econ, 3/17/12, p.44)

2011        Jul 1, Hundreds of barrels of crude oil spilled into Montana's Yellowstone River after an ExxonMobil pipeline beneath the riverbed ruptured, sending a plume 25 miles downstream and forcing temporary evacuations. About 63,000 gallons of oil leaked into the river near the city of Laurel. On June 12, 2015 the US Dept. of Transportation ordered ExxonMobil to pay a $1 million penalty. In 2019 Exxon Mobil Corp. agreed to pay a $1.05 million penalty to settle alleged violations related to the spill.
    (AP, 7/3/11)(SFC, 7/23/11, p.A4)(SFC, 1/3/13, p.A6)(SSFC, 6/14/15, p.A8)(SFC, 4/29/19, p.A5)
2011        Jul 1, China confirmed that an oil spill had occurred in waters around Nanhuangcheng Island in Shandong province. US oil company ConocoPhillips operated the Penglai 19-3 oil field where the leak originated. Leaking oil was first detected on June 4, and then again on June 17. The state maritime bureau said that an area in the mouth of the Bohai Sea, measuring 840 square km (336 square miles), had been badly polluted due to the spill.
    (AFP, 7/5/11)(SFC, 7/6/11, p.A4)
2011        Jul 1, In central Iraq the Al-Ahdab oil field, operated by China National Petroleum Corp, began production with 60,000 barrels per day. The contract with CNPC, signed in 2008, allows the Chinese company to develop the field for 23 years.
    (AFP, 7/1/11)

2011        Jul 4, In Egypt saboteurs bombed a gas pipeline in the Sinai peninsula, sending flames into the sky and cutting supplies to Israel and Jordan. 7 policemen charged with killing protesters were ordered released on bail. Angry families stormed a station where the suspects from Ezbet Abu Qarn were being held, triggering clashes with security forces in which an 18-year-old boy was killed.
    (AFP, 7/4/11)(AP, 7/5/11)(AFP, 7/5/11)

2011        Jul 9, Nigerian special military forces in Niger Delta arrested four suspects after troops raided sites where stolen oil was illegally being "refined." More than 1,000 the sites were destroyed during the operation.
    (AFP, 7/9/11)

2011        Jul 16, The Greek oil tanker 'Aegean Star' belonging to the Endeavour Marine Agency company and flying a Liberian flag was hijacked, 30 nautical miles off the coast of Nigeria. The ship was released on July 18.
    (AFP, 7/18/11)(Reuters, 7/18/11)

2011        Jul 19, Iran issued a new warning that it will halt supplies of crude to India unless the issue of billions of dollars in overdue payments is resolved. New Delhi has been struggling for more than six months to pay Tehran due to international banking sanctions imposed on the Islamic republic over its nuclear program.
    (AFP, 7/19/11)

2011        Jul 24, Pirates seized the Rbd Anema e Core, an Italian tanker with a crew of 23, off Benin in the Gulf of Guinea.
    (AFP, 7/24/11)

2011        Aug 4, In India a 740-foot (225-meter) vessel, which had been transporting coal from Indonesia to the western Indian state of Gujarat, sank off Mumbai. The navy rescued 30 crew members. The ship was estimated to be carrying 325 tons of fuel oil and 56 tons of diesel. By Aug 7 oil had spread over an area of 7 nautical miles and cleanup efforts were underway.
    (AP, 8/7/11)
2011        Aug 4, A UN report was released that described oil destroying crops and seeping into drinking water supplies in Ogoniland, Nigeria, a region of the Niger Delta. In one case, the UN found one village where drinking water was polluted with benzene 900 times more than the international limit.
    (AP, 8/5/11)

2011        Aug 5, Sudan’s foreign ministry said it has blocked a shipment of southern oil after Juba refused to pay customs fees, escalating a row between the two sides, with the south accusing Khartoum of sabotaging its economy.
    (AFP, 8/5/11)

2011        Aug 8, Sudan said it has granted a petroleum exploration license to China after visiting Foreign Minister Yang Jiechi and President Omar al-Bashir held talks in Khartoum.
    (AFP, 8/8/11)

2011        Aug 12, Royal Dutch Shell PLC said it is trying to stop oil leaking from a flow line at one of its drilling platforms in the North Sea off the coast of Scotland. On Aug 15 Shell estimated that 54,600 gallons had leaked from the Gannet Alpha oil rig. On Aug 16 Shell said a 2nd smaller leak had been found at the rig.
    (AP, 8/13/11)(SFC, 8/16/11, p.A4)(SFC, 8/17/11, p.A3)

2011        Aug 16, Norway’s Statoil said that the North SEa Aldous and Avaldsnes oil discoveries together contain between 500 million and 1.2 billion barrels of oil, significantly more than previously thought.
    (SFC, 8/31/11, p.A4)(http://tinyurl.com/3u5v3zp)

2011        Aug 22, Royal Dutch shell said sabotage in Nigeria has led to six oil spills from one Shell pipeline since the start of the month, while damage to another line has caused a temporary production halt.
    (AFP, 8/22/11)

2011        Aug 30, Ethiopian ONLF rebels reportedly killed 25 soldiers protecting a Chinese oil exploration company called PetroTrans.
    (AP, 9/2/11)

2011        Aug 31, Nebraska governor Dave Heineman urged Pres. Obama's administration to deny a key permit for TransCanada's Keystone XL crude oil pipeline from Alberta, Canada to the Gulf Coast of Texas on the grounds that the line could put the Ogallala Aquifer at risk.
    (AP, 8/31/11)
2011        Aug 31, Russian bailiffs raided the offices of BP in Moscow to uncover documents over its failed deal with Rosneft. The search came less than a day after Rosneft and ExxonMobil agreed to a stunning Arctic exploration deal overseen by Prime Minister Vladimir Putin.
    (AFP, 8/31/11)

2011        Sep 1, Ukraine opened shale gas development to Western giants, assigning its first exploration contract to the Anglo-Dutch firm Shell in a deal worth up to $800 million (555 million euros).
    (AFP, 9/1/11)

2011        Sep 2, The EU banned oil imports from Syria in a move that will cost the embattled regime millions of dollars each day as it uses deadly force to try to crush a 5-month-old uprising. Activists said at least six people were killed in the crackdown.
    (AP, 9/2/11)

2011        Sep 9, Anglo Dutch Shell announced that it had discovered oil in deep waters around 150 km (90 miles) off the coast of French Guiana following a joint venture drilling project with venture energy partners Total, Tullow and Northpet.
    (AFP, 9/9/11)

2011        Sep 11, Iraq's autonomous Kurdistan region halted crude exports, nearly a week after it rejected a new oil and gas law approved by the central government.
    (AFP, 9/11/11)

2011        Sep 14, Armed pirates raided a tanker off the West African coast and kidnapped 23 sailors, 62 nautical miles from Benin's capital of Cotonou, as the Cyprus-flagged vessel tried to transfer its cargo of crude oil to a Norwegian-registered ship. Analysts believed many of the pirates come from Nigeria, where corrupt law enforcement allows criminality to thrive. The tanker and crew were released on Oct 24 after the oil was unloaded.
    (AP, 9/14/11)(AP, 9/24/11)

2011        Sep 19, Turkey escalated a dispute with Cyprus over oil and gas drilling in the eastern Mediterranean, saying that it would send warships to protect its claims to resources off the coast of the divided island. US energy firm, Nobel Energy, had just exploratory drilling for oil and gas off the coast of Cyprus despite strong warnings from Turkey not to do so.
    (AP, 9/19/11)

2011        Sep 21, Turkey’s Pres. Erdogan signed a deal with Turkish-controlled north Cyprus to begin drilling for oil and gas.
    (Econ, 9/24/11, p.63)

2011        Sep 23, French oil giant Total said it had restarted production from an offshore oil platform off Libya, making it the first major to return to work since the fall of Kadhafi.
    (AFP, 9/26/11)

2011        Sep 26, Anglo-Dutch oil group Shell said it has shut in 25,000 barrels per day of crude in a southern Nigerian oil field due to spills caused by sabotage and theft.
    (AFP, 9/26/11)
2011        Sep 26, Italian oil giant ENI said it has resumed oil production in Libya more than six months after civil unrest brought oil and gas output in the country to a near standstill.
    (AFP, 9/26/11)

2011        Sep 27, Kyrgyzstan officials said Gazpromneft-Aero Kyrgyzstan, a Russian-controlled company, will soon start supplying 20 percent of the aviation fuel to the Manas Transit Center, strategically vital US air base, and it could eventually increase that share. Family members of the two previous Kyrgyz presidents, both of whom were overthrown in popular uprisings, have been accused of profiting from dealings with the base.
    (AP, 9/27/11)
2011        Sep 27, In Egypt assailants in two pickup trucks struck a pumping station on a gas pipeline to Israel about 15 miles (25 km) west of the region's main city of el-Arish before, causing a loud explosion and fire.
    (AP, 9/27/11)

2011        Oct 3, The Tanzanian navy foiled a pirate attack on an offshore oil drilling ship and captured all seven bandits. The attack on the Ocean Rig Poseidon, owned by Ocean Rig of Norway, took place as it was carrying out exploration drilling for Brazilian firm Petrobras.
    (AFP, 10/4/11)

2011        Oct 4, British company Heritage Oil PLC said that it has acquired a controlling interest in a Libyan company licensed to provide oil field services including offshore and land-based drilling. Heritage said it paid $19.5 million for a 51% stake in Sahara Oil Services Holdings Ltd.
    (AP, 10/4/11)

2011        Oct 5, In New Zealand the 47,000 ton Liberian-flagged container vessel "Rena" ran aground on the Astrolabe reef about 12 nautical miles (22 km) off the North Island. Maritime New Zealand soon declared the vessel a hazardous ship as an oil slick more than doubled in size in just a few hours on the Bay of Plenty. The ship had 1,368 containers on board. On Feb 29, 2012, the captain and the navigating officer, both Filipino, pleaded guilty to mishandling the vessel and altering ship documents. On May 25, 2012, they were each sentenced to seven months in jail.
    (AP, 10/6/11)(AP, 10/12/11)(SFC, 11/14/11, p.A2)(AP, 2/29/12)(AP, 5/25/12)

2011        Oct 8, Production at Iraq's biggest oil field was partially halted after two bombs at the Rumaila field damaged a pipeline transporting crude. Iraq currently produces around 2.9 million bpd, and says it will be capable of output of 12 million by 2017.
    (AFP, 10/8/11)(SSFC, 10/9/11, p.A4)

2011        Oct 11, New Zealand declared its worst maritime pollution disaster, as oil gushed into a pristine bay from the Rena, a stranded container ship being pounded in heavy seas.
    (AP, 10/11/11)

2011        Oct 12, India and Vietnam signed an accord to promote oil exploration in Vietnamese waters that could escalate long-standing tensions with China as it presses territorial claims to much of the South China sea.
    (AP, 10/12/11)

2011        Oct 16, Houston-based Kinder Morgan agreed to buy El Paso Corp. for $21.1 billion. This will make Kinder the nation’s largest operator of natural gas pipelines.
    (SFC, 10/17/11, p.A5)
2011        Oct 16, Guinea’s government announced an increase in the price of diesel and petrol from 7,500 to 9,500 francs ($1.37) per liter, double the price from 10 months ago. An overwhelming majority of the Guinean population lives in poverty despite the country's rich mineral wealth from bauxite, iron and gold.
    (AFP, 10/17/11)

2011        Oct 18, Nigeria's military said it had arrested 50 suspected oil thieves in the past three months and destroyed some 2,000 illicit refineries this year in the oil-producing Niger Delta region.
    (AFP, 10/18/11)
2011        Oct 18, A Nigerian tribal king filed a lawsuit in a US court in Detroit, Michigan, seeking $1 billion from Royal Dutch Shell to compensate for decades of pollution that sickened his people and damaged their lands. The suit was brought on behalf of the people of Ogale in the Eleme local government area, where the UN team found the most serious groundwater contamination and people drinking water laced with cancer-causing benzene at 900 times World Health Organization guidelines.
    (AFP, 10/20/11)

2011        Oct 20, Italian energy giant ENI announced a giant natural gas discovery off the coast of Mozambique, which could be the largest in company's history.
    (AFP, 10/20/11)
2011        Oct 20, Nigeria's military arrested 46 suspects and seized a vessel laden with stolen refined petroleum products in the oil-producing Niger Delta.
    (AFP, 10/23/11)

2011        Oct 25, Nigeria’s anti-graft agency said a court has jailed 7 Nigerians and 2 Ghanaians for dealing in illegal petroleum products.
    (AFP, 10/25/11)
2011        Oct 25, The UAR said a ship carrying 450 tons of diesel fuel sank off the coast of Umm al-Quwain emirate.
    (SFC, 10/26/11, p.A2)

2011        Oct 26, The US government gave BP approval to drill at its Kaskida field, some 192 miles of the Louisiana coast. This would be BP’s first deep-water operation since the Deepwater Horizon Macondo well blowout on April 20, 2010.
    (SFC, 10/27/11, p.A8)

2011        Oct 27, Tens of thousands of Syrians held a mass rally in Latakia in support of embattled President Bashar Assad, but the regime's crackdown on dissent continued in opposition areas as security forces killed at least four people. Oil Minister Sufian Allaw acknowledged Damascus was having difficulty selling its oil after the European Union banned oil imports from Syria. Syrian troops were seen planting mines along a region bordering northern Lebanon in a bid to stem weapons smuggling.
    (AP, 10/27/11)(AFP, 10/27/11)

2011        Oct 28, In southern Iran an explosion at a state-run oil field killed a worker and injured three others. A refinery in central Iran was hit by a fire.
    (AFP, 10/28/11)

2011        Oct 29, Iranian media reported a blast at a southwest oil field, the third such explosion in the country in 24 hours attributed to accidents.
    (AFP, 10/29/11)

2011        Oct 28, Nigeria's military seized a ship laden with 5,000 tons of stolen oil amid rising cases of crude theft in one of the world's main oil producing regions.
    (AFP, 10/31/11)

2011        Oct 30, Pirates off the coast of Nigeria seized an oil tanker with over 20 crew.
    (AFP, 11/3/11)

2011        Nov 2, UK shale gas firm Cuadrilla Resources said exploration work triggered small tremors at its drill site near Blackpool in northwest England earlier this year, as activists scaled a rig protesting against its gas recovery methods.
    (Reuters, 11/2/11)

2011        Nov 5, In Oklahoma a 5.6-magnitude earthquake hit the state with the epicenter located 44 miles east of Oklahoma City. It was felt as far away as Wisconsin and South Carolina, but there were no serious injuries. The largest earthquake previously recorded in Oklahoma was a 5.5-magnitude tremor in 1952. In 2013 geologists said the Oklahoma quake and other seismic activity in the central US was linked to the disposal of wastewater from fracking operations for oil extraction.
    (Reuters, 11/6/11)(SFC, 3/27/13, p.D3)

2011        Nov 7, Chevron experienced an oil spill offshore from Rio de Janeiro at its N560 drilling operations. Chevron reportedly stopped the leakage in about 4 days.
    (http://tinyurl.com/6reqagd)(Econ, 12/31/11, p.23)(SSFC, 5/20/12, p.F7)

2011        Nov 9, Shell said a pipeline fire in southern Nigeria has caused a cut in oil production in the country, with a spill also reported in connection with the incident.
    (AFP, 11/9/11)

2011        Nov 10, The US government delayed approval of a Canada-to-Texas oil pipeline until after the 2012 US election, bowing to pressure from environmentalists and sparing President Barack Obama a damaging split with liberal voters he may need to win reelection. The State Department was considering rerouting TransCanada Corp.'s proposed $7 billion Keystone XL pipeline to avoid ecologically sensitive areas of Nebraska.
    (Reuters, 11/11/11)
2011        Nov 10, In Egypt 2 explosions a gas pipeline halting supplies to Israel and Jordan.
    (AP, 11/10/11)

2011        Nov 13, Kuwait said it has boosted its oil output to above three million barrels per day. The oil minister warned that any cut in crude production would send world prices soaring.
    (AFP, 11/13/11)
2011        Nov 13, Anglo-Dutch oil giant Shell reported a fresh spill from a key delivery pipeline in southern Nigeria, but said it has contained the leak.
    (AFP, 11/13/11)
2011        Nov 13, In Qatar energy ministers of the Gas Exporting Countries Forum (GECF) met to prepare for a first summit of the 12-member group which is to discuss prices and coordination. The meeting welcomed Oman as the newest member of the forum. Other members included Algeria, Bolivia, Egypt, Equatorial Guinea, Iran, Libya, Nigeria, Qatar, Russia, Trinidad and Tobago, and Venezuela. Kazakhstan, Norway and the Netherlands were observers.
    (AFP, 11/13/11)

2011        Nov 14, Maritime New Zealand said salvage crews have finished pumping 1,454 tons of oil from the Rena, grounded on Oct 5, and were removing the last of 1,280 containers that remained on board.
    (SFC, 11/14/11, p.A2)

2011        Nov 16, The Nebraska legislature voted 45-0 to advance a proposed law that would reroute the $7 billion TransCanada Keystone XL pipeline, avoiding the SandHills and Ogallala aquifer that environmental groups and many residents fear could be polluted by a spill.
    (Reuters, 11/16/11)

2011        Nov 17, Algerian President Abdelaziz Bouteflika sacked Noureddine Cherouati, the managing director of state energy giant Sonatrach and gave his job to another senior official in the firm. Abdelhamid Zerguine, the head of Sonatrach's subsidiary at Lugano in Switzerland," was named to replace him.
    (AFP, 11/17/11)
2011        Nov 17, Brazilian authorities began investigating an offshore oil spill. Chevron says that between 400 and 650 barrels of oil have leaked from a well it was drilling off the coast of Rio de Janeiro. The leak totaled no more than 3,000 barrels.
    (AP, 11/17/11)(Econ, 12/31/11, p.23)
2011        Nov 17, Sudan’s government blocked South Sudanese oil exports through its Red Sea port due to a dispute over transit fees. The pipeline was not been shut down, but the south was not being allowed to ship its oil cargo out of Port Sudan.
    (AFP, 11/28/11)

2011        Nov 18, Brazil's environmental protection agency said nearly 110,000 gallons of oil may have spilled into the Atlantic Ocean because of a leak at an offshore Chevron drilling site. Chevron had said that only 16,800 to 27,300 gallons in total leaked into the ocean.
    (AP, 11/19/11)
2011        Nov 18, India's Reliance Industries and British giant BP announced the creation of an equal joint venture firm to source and market natural gas in India.
    (AFP, 11/18/11)

2011        Nov 21, The US approved extra curbs on Iran’s banking system and oil industry in an ongoing effort to thwart the country’s nuclear program.
    (SFC, 12/1/11, p.A3)
2011        Nov 21, Brazil’s Ministry of the Environment, IBAMA, said it will fine Chevron Corp. nearly $28 million for the Nov 7 oil spill off the coast of Rio de Janeiro state. In December an additional $5.6 million was added for poor contingency planning.
    (SSFC, 11/27/11, p.A10)(Econ, 12/31/11, p.23)

2011        Nov 23, Turkmenistan signed an agreement with China to boost natural gas deliveries. This will see the central Asian nation supply about half of China's gas needs. The gas agreement was one of 14 signed following talks in Beijing between Turkmen President Gurbanguli Berdymukhamedov and Chinese President Hu Jintao.
    (AP, 11/23/11)

2011        Nov 24, Uganda ruled that Heritage Oil must pay a $404 million tax bill, dismissing an appeal by the UK-listed company. Heritage argues it is not liable to pay tax in the country on the $1.45 billion sale last year of stakes in two oil blocks in western Uganda to Anglo-Irish firm Tullow Oil. Uganda in March allowed Tullow to sell two-thirds of its Uganda interests to France's Total and China's CNOOC in a $2.9 billion deal, after Tullow agreed to pay over $300 million as security against Heritage's unpaid taxes.
    (AFP, 11/24/11)

2011        Nov 25, In Egypt masked gunmen blew up a gas pipeline which supplies Egyptian gas to Israel, in the eighth such attack this year.
    (AFP, 11/25/11)

2011        Nov 28, Niger officially became an oil producer with the opening of a refinery run by the state and a Chinese company.
    (AFP, 11/28/11)

2011        Nov 30, Sudan said it will take 23% of the south's vital oil exports as payment in kind, after talks in Addis Ababa failed, but will not block Juba's exports. Sudan was looking to charge the south $36 per barrel for the use of its oil infrastructure, in contrast to a southern offer of 70 cents. Southern oil minister Stephen Dhieu Dau rejected the north's fee as "extortionate."
    (AP, 11/30/11)

2011        Dec 2, The Environmental Rights Action (ERA)/Friends of the Earth Nigeria (FoEN) visited Kalaba community, Bayelsa state, and observed five spill points on the pipeline which was spewing oil into the environment. The pipeline was operated by Agip, the local subsidiary of Italian oil group Eni.
    (AFP, 12/3/11)

2011        Dec 6, Taiwan's state-owned CPC Corporation signed a 20-year contract with Qatar's RasGas to buy 1.5 million tons of liquefied natural gas a year.
    (AP, 12/6/11)

2011        Dec 7, In South Africa an investigation commissioned by the government into the UN oil-for-food program in Iraq cleared Deputy President Kgalema Motlanthe of corruption. The probe was ordered in 2006 by then president Thabo Mbeki, into what has become known in the country as "Oilgate," to look at allegations of kickbacks sourced by senior members of the ruling party from the State Oil Marketing Organization of Iraq (SOMO). The UN oil-for-food program ran from 1996 until 2003.
    (AFP, 12/7/11)

2011        Dec 8, Syrian activists launched a campaign of civil disobedience to pile pressure on President Bashar al-Assad, after he drew a stinging rebuke from the US for denying he ordered a deadly crackdown. A major Syrian pipeline carrying oil to a refinery in the restive Homs province was blown up.
    (AFP, 12/8/11)(AP, 12/8/11)

2011        Dec 13, In Iraq pumping from the southern Rumaila field fell following two explosions to 700,000 barrels per day, down from 1.4 million barrels. Oil exports were not affected. The pipelines were expected to be repaired in about a week.
    (AP, 12/14/11)

2011        Dec 18, Russia’s Kolskaya oil drilling platform capsized and later sank amid fierce storms off the coast of Sakhalin Island, plunging dozens of workers into the churning, icy waters. Of the 67 men aboard, 14 were plucked alive immediately after the accident.
    (AP, 12/18/11)(AP, 12/19/11)
2011        Dec 18, Iranian state media reported that Russia’s Tatneft has signed a preliminary accord valued at $1 billion with the Persian Gulf country to develop the Zagheh oil field located in southwestern Iran. The next day Tatneft said no accord has been signed.
    (SFC, 12/18/11, p.A2)(http://tinyurl.com/7j78scn)

2011        Dec 19, Mauritania said it has signed an agreement with French oil group Total to explore for oil at sea and to extract any oil discovered.
    (AFP, 12/19/11)

2011        Dec 21, Shell, the major oil producer in Nigeria, said an oil spill a day earlier likely occurred as workers tried to offload oil onto a waiting tanker. Shell estimated the Bonga spill likely was less than 40,000 barrels, or 1.68 million gallons. The oil slick affected 115 miles (185 km) of ocean along Nigeria's coast.
    (AP, 12/22/11)(AFP, 7/17/12)

2011        Dec 29, Industry sources said Saudi Arabia's state oil company Aramco was seeking to buy fuel in order to donate about 500,000 tons of products to Yemen in January.
    (Reuters, 12/31/11)

2011        The National Commission on the BP Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill and Offshore Drilling authored “Deep Water: The Gulf Oil Disaster and the Future of Offshore Drilling.
    (Econ, 4/23/11, p.87)
2011        Daniel Yergin authored “The Quest: Energy, Security and the Remaking of the Modern World."
    (Econ, 9/17/11, p.89)
2011        The average price of oil this year was $111 a barrel.
    (Econ, 4/14/12, p.65)

2012        Jan 1, In Myanmar gas prices unexpectedly rose more than 30 percent for the new year and sparked fears of other goods costing more as well.
    (AP, 1/1/12)
2012        Jan 1, Nigeria, Africa's most populous nation and largest oil producer, announced immediate ends to subsidies on petrol, a policy that had held pump prices at 65 naira per liter ($0.40, 0.30 euros).
    (AFP, 1/2/12)

2012        Jan 2, In Nigeria prices at many stations more than doubled to 140 naira or more per liter in a country where most of the population lives on less than two dollars a day. The country's main labor unions threatened mass action.
    (AFP, 1/2/12)
2012        Jan 2, Pakistani protesters clashed with police and major cities were paralyzed as thousands of people demonstrated over severe gas shortages and price hikes.
    (AFP, 1/2/12)

2012        Jan 3, Nigerian police fired tear gas and detained protesters while crowds blocked petrol stations amid rising anger over a controversial measure that has led to skyrocketing fuel prices. A top trade union accused police of shooting dead a protester. Two suspected Boko Haram gunmen shot dead the head of the Shehuri neighborhood in Maiduguri. Suspected sect members also killed the leader of a neighborhood in Damaturu during a simultaneous attack. A girl was killed in the crossfire after suspected sect members attacked a police station in the northern state of Jigawa.
    (AFP, 1/3/12)(AP, 1/4/12)
2012        Jan 3, Pakistanis angry at gas shortages blocked a major highway and clashed with police for the second day, adding pressure on a government bogged down by scandal, near economic collapse and militant violence.
    (AP, 1/3/12)

2012        Jan 4, An Ecuadoran appeals court upheld last year’s landmark $9.5 billion judgement against Chevron Corp. over oil contamination in the Amazon rain forest.
    (SFC, 1/5/12, p.D1)

2012        Jan 9, Nigerian police and protesters clashed and three people were shot dead as tens of thousands demonstrated nationwide over fuel price hikes and a general strike shut down the country.
    (AFP, 1/9/12)

2012        Jan 12, In Nigeria a national strike entered its fourth day with oil workers threatening to halt production.
    (AFP, 1/12/12)

2012        Jan 13, Japan's PM Yoshihiko Noda said the government has yet to decide on whether it will reduce oil imports from Iran in line with US sanctions, saying businesses implications need to be considered.
    (AP, 1/13/12)
2012        Jan 13, Japanese energy firm Inpex and French giant Total announced a huge $34 billion gas project in Australia, as Tokyo looks for alternatives to nuclear power in the wake of the Fukushima disaster.
    (AFP, 1/13/12)
2012        Jan 13, South Sudan signed its first oil deals with foreign nations since it won independence last July, inking agreements with Chinese, Indian and Malaysian firms.
    (AFP, 1/13/12)

2012        Jan 15, In Sudan international oil companies gathered in Khartoum to study six exploration blocks that Sudan opened for bidding ahead of talks aimed at resolving a long-running oil fee dispute with South Sudan.
    (AFP, 1/15/12)

2012        Jan 16, Nigerian unions ended a week-old nationwide strike after President Goodluck Jonathan agreed to lower petrol prices, while security forces shot into the air and fired tear gas to disperse protesters. An unidentified gunmen shot dead three Chadian builders and stole their mobile phones in the northeastern city of Damaturu. 2 people were killed when gunmen invaded their homes in Borno state.
    (AFP, 1/16/12)(AFP, 1/17/12)(AP, 1/17/12)

2012        Jan 17, India said it was continuing to buy oil from Iran, despite an intensifying US campaign to smother Tehran's vital oil exports until it abandons its nuclear program.
    (AFP, 1/17/12)

2012        Jan 18, The Obama Administration rejected the Keystone oil pipeline because there was not enough time to review an alternate route that would avoid a sensitive aquifer in Nebraska within a 60-day window set by Congress. Republicans decried the move for sacrificing jobs and energy security in order to shore up the president's environmental base before elections. TransCanada quickly said it would re-apply for the permit, which it first sought in 2008.
    (Reuters, 1/19/12)

2012        Jan 20, South Sudan ordered the shutdown of oil production that provides some 98 percent of its revenue, amid a deepening row with Khartoum over pipeline fees. Shutting down production would not be immediate, and that South Sudanese President Salva Kiir would meet with Sudanese President Omar al-Bashir before it was stopped.
    (AFP, 1/20/12)

2012        Jan 23, The EU and Iran raised the stakes in their test of wills over the Islamic republic's nuclear program, with the bloc banning the purchase of Iranian oil and Iran threatening to retaliate by closing the Strait of Hormuz.
    (AP, 1/23/12)
2012        Jan 23, South Sudanese President Salva Kiir accused Sudan of stealing $815 million of the crude oil that makes up the new nation's economic lifeblood, as it began a production shutdown in protest. At least one Sudanese refugee boy was injured and 14 others left missing following an air raid in South Sudan.
    (AFP, 1/23/12)(AFP, 1/24/12)

2012        Jan 24, The Coryton refinery in Essex, one of Britain's largest oil refineries halted sales, casting doubt over the future of 1,000 jobs and putting petrol supplies at risk. Petroplus, its Swiss owner, said it would file for insolvency. It had bought the refinery from BP in 2007.
    (AFP, 1/24/12)

2012        Jan 28, Sudan agreed to free ships with South Sudanese oil as a goodwill gesture to ease negotiations aimed at resolving a furious row over pipeline transit fees.
    (AFP, 1/28/12)

2012        Jan 29, Sudan released three oil tankers held in a dispute with breakaway South Sudan, which has accused Khartoum of theft.
    (AFP, 1/30/12)

2012        Feb 3, Uganda signed production agreements with Anglo-Irish firm Tullow Oil, allowing the company to finalize a long-delayed $2.9 billion asset sale to France's Total and China's CNOOC.
    (AP, 2/3/12)
2012        Feb 3, Ukraine's government blamed Russia for natural gas shortages in some European countries as a severe cold spell grips the region. Germany, Italy and Austria have reported cutbacks in Russian gas supplies, but Russia's energy giant Gazprom has blamed them on Kiev, accusing Ukraine of siphoning off gas destined for European consumers.
    (AP, 2/3/12)

2012        Feb 4, In Venezuela a pipe transporting crude oil to a processing plant ruptured and blackened Guarapiche River in Monagas state. The spill forced officials to halt normal water distribution to parts of the city of Maturin.
    (AP, 2/11/12)

2012        Feb 6, Chad announced it was reopening a major oil refinery it had earlier ordered shut because of a price dispute with its Chinese part-owners. The Djarmaya refinery was ordered closed on January 19.
    (AFP, 2/6/12)

2012        Feb 7, South Korean President Lee Myung-Bak arrived in Riyadh at the start of a two-day visit to the OPEC kingpin which comes as Seoul seeks to diversify its oil sources. Lee Myung-Bak held talks with Oil Minister Ali al-Naimi and the head of Saudi state oil giant Aramco, Khalid al-Faleh. Saudi Arabia pledged to ensure a stable supply of oil to South Korea.
    (AFP, 2/7/12)(AFP, 2/8/12)

2012        Feb 9, Uganda said it will set up a national oil company to handle commercial interests in its emerging oil sector after the government tabled a long-delayed bill in parliament.
    (AFP, 2/9/12)

2012        Feb 17, In Louisiana two barges collided near Laplace spilling oil and leading officials to close a 5-mile stretch of the Mississippi River.
    (SFC, 2/18/12, p.A5)

2012        Feb 20, The US and Mexico agreed to work together when drilling for oil and gas below their maritime border in the Gulf of Mexico.
    (SFC, 2/21/12, p.D3)

2012        Feb 21, A Shell oil official said oil companies in Nigeria are battling against a rising theft that is costing them an estimated 150,000 barrels of crude each day.
    (AFP, 2/21/12)

2012        Feb 22, Nigeria said it has renewed oil licenses which will let US energy giant ExxonMobil operate 3 big fields that produce about 500,000 barrels of crude a day for 20 years.
    (AFP, 2/23/12)

2012        Feb 24, Angola's state oil company Sonangol announced it is withdrawing from a natural-gas project in Iran due to international sanctions over Tehran's nuclear program.
    (AFP, 2/24/12)
2012        Feb 24, In New Zealand actress Lucy Lawless and six other protesters boarded the ship Noble Discoverer in a bid to prevent it sailing to the Arctic, where it has been contracted by Anglo-Dutch energy giant Shell to conduct exploratory drilling.
    (AFP, 2/24/12)

2012        Feb 29, Heavily armed gunmen fired on an oil tanker off the coast of Nigeria. The Panamanian-flagged, Nigerian-owned vessel thwarted an attempted boarding by taking evasive action.
    (AFP, 3/1/12)
2012        Feb 29, A Pakistani official said Iran has offered to supply Pakistan with 80,000 barrels of crude oil per day and a $250 million loan to help build a gas pipeline from the Iranian border.
    (AFP, 2/29/12)
2012        Feb 29, The Philippines said it would push ahead with plans to expand oil and gas exploration in waters also claimed by China, as it brushed off a fresh Chinese warning.
    (AFP, 2/29/12)

2012        Mar 2, BP reached a partial settlement in the Gulf of Mexico oil spill trial in which tens of billions are at stake. Terms of the settlement with a committee representing thousands of private claimants such as fishermen and coastal businesses were not released. There was no word on the status of BP's negotiations with the US government.
    (AFP, 3/3/12)

2012        Mar 13, In Colombia oil tankers carrying oil from the Ombu field in Caqueta came under fire from guerrillas leaving 2 civilians dead.
    (Econ, 3/17/12, p.44)

2012        Mar 21, Brazil charged 17 Chevron and Transocean executives with environmental crimes for an oil leak at the Frade field off Rio de Janeiro’s coast last November.
    (SFC, 3/22/12, p.D1)

2012        Mar 22, Russia’s Lukoil signed a $1 billion deal with South Korea's Samsung Engineering to develop Iraq's second-biggest oil field, in which the energy giant has a majority stake.
    (AFP, 3/22/12)

2012        Mar 23, In Britain a group of 35 Nigerian villages sued Royal Dutch Shell PLC claiming that the company’s slow response to two spills in 2008 left their delta region soaked in crude oil.
    (SFC, 3/24/12, p.A2)
2012        Mar 23, Egyptian officials reached an agreement with Israel to permit the transfer of fuel to enable Gaza's sole power plant to function. Some 450,000 liters of fuel were delivered to the crisis-hit Gaza Strip through Israel's Kerem Shalom border crossing.
    (AFP, 3/23/12)

2012        Mar 26, Kenya’s President Mwai Kibaki said oil has been struck in the northwestern Turkana region after exploratory drilling by Anglo-Irish firm Tullow Oil. Commercial viability was yet to be established.
    (AFP, 3/26/12)
2012        Mar 26, Saudi King Abdullah ordered the donation of petroleum products to neighboring Yemen that should cover the impoverished country's needs for two months.
    (AFP, 3/27/12)

2012        Mar 27, In Indonesia thousands protested nationwide to reject the government's plan to hike the subsidized fuel price, with sporadic violence breaking out and injuring several people.
    (AFP, 3/27/12)
2012        Mar 27, A cloud of explosive natural gas boiling out of the North Sea from a leak at Total's abandoned Elgin platform forced wider evacuations off the Scottish coast as the French firm warned it may take six months to halt the flow.
    (Reuters, 3/27/12)
2012        Mar 27, South Sudan said Sudan's military bombed oil fields in the town of Bentiu.
    (AP, 3/27/12)

2012        Mar 29, Thousands of Indonesians rallied nationwide against a planned fuel price hike they say will cause great hardship. Parliament was expected on March 30 to approve raising the fuel price by a third.
    (AFP, 3/29/12)

2012        Mar 30, A flare on Total's Elgin platform off Scotland's east coast was extinguished, diminishing the looming threat of an explosion. Total said it is preparing to sink two relief wells to stop the gas leak at the North Sea platform in parallel with a plugging operation.
    (AFP, 3/30/12)(Reuters, 3/31/12)

2012        Apr 2, Iraq’s Kurdish region said it has halted oil exports over a payment quarrel with the central government, which reportedly has failed to send any money since May even as the region has been exporting 50,000 barrels per day.
    (SFC, 4/3/12, p.A2)

2012        Apr 3, The Palestinian Authority government in the West Bank agreed to supply Gaza with fuel purchased from Israel for so long as the Hamas-controlled Gaza electricity authority pays for it.
    (AFP, 4/4/12)

2012        Apr 5, In south-eastern Turkey overnight blasts temporarily shut down a pipeline pumping oil from Iraq. Kurdish rebels were suspected to be behind the explosions.
    (AFP, 4/5/12)

2012        Apr 10, South Sudanese troops moved into Heglig, an oil-rich border town claimed by Sudan, as fighting intensified between the countries over who controls the area.
    (AFP, 4/11/12)

2012        Apr 11, The Nebraska Legislature approved a bill that would provide support for an expected new route for TransCanada Corp's Canada-to-Texas Keystone XL crude oil pipeline that would bypass an environmentally sensitive region in the state. Governor Dave Heineman has said he will sign.
    (Reuters, 4/11/12)
2012        Apr 11, Shell Oil reported a 10-square-mile oil slick between two major production sites in the Gulf of Mexico, 130 miles southeast of New Orleans. A response vessel was sent.
    (SFC, 4/12/12, p.A6)
    Apr 13, In Nigeria the Movement for the Emancipation of the Niger Delta (MEND) attacked oil installations belonging to Italian firm ENI.
    (AFP, 4/13/12)
2012        Apr 13, Spanish officials warned Argentina that the country risks becoming "an international pariah" if it follows through on its threats to nationalize Spanish-owned energy company Repsol's majority stake in its South American YPF unit. concern" YPF represents 42 percent of Repsol's total reserves, estimated at 2.1 billion barrels of crude.
    (AP, 4/13/12)

2012        Apr 14, French energy giant Total said it had made progress on plans to fix the gas leak at well G4 on its Elgin platform, 150 miles (240km) off Aberdeen on Scotland's east coast.
    (AFP, 4/14/12)

2012        Apr 16, Argentina’s President Cristina Fernandez pushed forward a bill to renationalize the country's largest oil company despite fierce criticism from abroad and the risk of a major rift with Spain.
    (AP, 4/17/12)

2012        Apr 17, UK authorities gave approval to drill for shale gas onshore after a temporary ban on the controversial extraction technique known as hydraulic fracturing, or fracking. Energy experts believed Britain may have enough offshore shale gas to catapult it into the top ranks of global producers.
    (Reuters, 4/17/12)

2012        Apr 18, ExxonMobil finalized the terms of a deal with Russia’s Rosneft to invest up to $500 billion in developing offshore reserves, including in Russia’s Arctic Kara Sea.
    (Econ, 6/16/12, SR p.5)

2012        Apr 20, The European Union parliament condemned Argentina's move to seize control of the YPF division of Spanish oil and gas giant Repsol and demanded that EU takes action against Buenos Aires at the World Trade Organization.
    (AP, 4/20/12)

2012        Apr 22, Egypt said it had scrapped the 2005 gas export deal with Israel, which generates 40 percent of its electricity from natural gas, with Egypt providing 43 percent of its gas supplies. The balance comes from Israel's own Yam Thetis offshore gas field. East Mediterranean Gas Company (EMG), which exports the gas to Israel, said it was cancelled because the Israeli company failed to respect conditions stipulated in the contract.
    (AFP, 4/23/12)
2012        Apr 22, Iran's principal oil terminal on Kharg island in the Gulf was disconnected from the Internet. A voracious virus attack hit computers running key parts of Iran's oil sector, forcing authorities to unplug the oil export terminal from the Internet and to set up a cyber crisis team.
    (AFP, 4/23/12)

2012        Apr 24, The Philippines said it was hoping to help secure its energy future by developing a natural gas field in Reed Bank, an area of the South China Sea also claimed by China.
    (AFP, 4/24/12)

2012        May 1, In Togo a Singapore-managed product tanker with valuable gasoline cargo was reported missing and suspected to have been hijacked by pirates while at anchor off Lome.
    (AFP, 5/1/12)

2012        May 4, In India a Reliance company executive said the government has asked the energy giant to pay a $1.25 billion penalty for a fall in gas production from its main oil fields.
    (AFP, 5/4/12)
2012        May 4, Shell announced a significant cut in its Nigerian oil production due to pipeline damage caused by theft, and warned that it might not meet contractual obligations as a result.
    (AFP, 5/4/12)

2012        May 7, Nigeria's military arrested 21 Ghanaians and five Nigerians for alleged oil theft as they operated two vessels in the country's main crude-producing region. Oil giant Shell said two new leaks had occurred on one of its pipelines in southern Nigeria after similar incidents in recent days blamed on crude theft.
    (AFP, 5/8/12)(AFP, 5/7/12)
2012        May 7, Sudan's finance minister told parliament that failure to agree with South Sudan on oil fees has cost the Sudanese economy $2.4 billion dollars.
    (AFP, 5/7/12)

2012        May 15, French energy giant Total said it has begun the operation to plug a gas leak under one of its North Sea platforms by pumping it full of mud at high pressure.
    (AFP, 5/15/12)
2012        May 15, India said it would cut purchases of Iranian oil by 11% following pressure from the US to join a drive to isolate the Islamic republic over its disputed nuclear program.
    (AFP, 5/15/12)

2012        May 16, French energy giant Total said it had plugged a gas leak under the North Sea Elgin platform that cost the firm hundreds of millions of dollars and threatened to trigger a major explosion off the coast of Scotland.
    (AFP, 5/16/12)

2012        May 17, Argentina’s President Cristina Kirchner arrived in Angola for a short state visit to push for a deal to exchange her country's food for Angolan oil.
    (AFP, 5/17/12)

2012        May 18, Spanish company Repsol said an exploratory oil well off the northern coast of Cuba has proved a failure and will be capped and abandoned, a disappointment for a cash-strapped nation hoping for an economic lifeline.
    (AP, 5/18/12)

2012        May 20, In northeast Italy a 6.0 earthquake rattled the region around Bologna, killing at least 7 people, collapsing factories and sending residents running out into the streets. A report in 2014 linked this and a May 29 earthquake to high-pressure water pumped by Padana Energia into the nearby Cavone oilfield in 2011 to squeeze out more oil.
    (AP, 5/20/12)(Reuters, 5/20/12)(SFC, 5/22/12, p.A4)

2012        May 23, Syria's oil minister acknowledged the heavy toll international sanctions have taken on the country's oil sector, saying that they had sucked about $4 billion from the economy.
    (AP, 5/23/12)

2012        May 30, Brazilian prosecutors said that they asked a court to force oil company Shell and the world's largest chemical company, BASF, to immediately pay $500 million into a compensation fund for hundreds of workers who may have been contaminated at an agricultural chemicals plant. The chemical plant at Paulinia operated from 1977 until it was closed in 2002. Shell originally owned it, but sold the operation to American Cyanamid in 1995. Germany-based BASF bought American Cyanamid in 2000 and took over the chemicals plant. At least 61 former workers at the plant have died in recent years.
    (AP, 5/30/12)
2012        May 30, Ecuadorans sued Chevron in Canada in an attempt to seize $18 billion in assets after the company refused to pay a verdict against it in Ecuador.
    (SFC, 5/31/12, p.A13)
2012        May 30, A senior Iranian military official said Iran's key oil industry was briefly affected by the powerful computer virus known as "Flame" that has unprecedented data-snatching capabilities and can eavesdrop on computer users.
    (AP, 5/30/12)
2012        May 30, Iraq kicked off a two-day auction of a dozen energy exploration blocks, but hopes that the sale would up reserves and boost its role as a key producer were dampened when just one deal was agreed with a consortium led by a Kuwaiti energy company.
    (AFP, 5/30/12)(AP, 5/30/12)

2012        May 31, Iraq closed a landmark auction of energy exploration blocks with just three contracts awarded out of a potential 12, dampening hopes the sale would cement its role as a key global supplier. Pakistan Petroleum and a partnership between Russian energy giant Lukoil and Japan's Inpex won contracts today.
    (AFP, 5/31/12)

2012        Jun 1, BP said it was ready to offload its stake in troubled Russian joint venture TNK-BP after the shock resignation of the partnership's chief executive earlier this week. Russian tycoon Mikhail Fridman resigned on May 28 as TNK-BP head and threw one of BP's most profitable overseas operations into turmoil.
    (AFP, 6/1/12)

2012        Jun 4, Argentina declared British oil exploration off the Falklands "illegal" and immediately set about suing five companies for pursuing activities around the contested islands.
    (AFP, 6/4/12)

2012        Jun 11, British workers from Coryton oil refinery marched on a fuel terminal in the southeast of the country and disrupted the supply of fuel heading to petrol stations to protest against the plant's closure. Coryton is currently being wound down as crude supplies run out, and 900 jobs were threatened.
    (Reuters, 6/11/12)(Reuters, 6/14/12)

2012        Jun 13, Carlos Slim, Mexican telecommunications billionaire, acquired an 8.4% stake in Argentina's newly state-controlled oil and gas producer, YPF S.A. A filing with the US Securities and Exchange Commission said Slim and members of his family acquired 32.9 million shares of YPF Class D shares on June 12 and 13.
    (AP, 6/15/12)

2012        Jun 14, Apache Corp said it has made what it believes may be one of the world's largest shale-gas discoveries in a remote corner of northeastern British Columbia, a massive field containing as much as 48 trillion cubic feet of recoverable natural gas.
    (Reuters, 6/15/12)

2012        Jun 24, In Norway a pension dispute led to an industry-wide strike by the nation’s energy workers. The government intervened on July 10 after the oil industry threatened to halt all output. Energy professionals in Norway averaged $180,300 per year.
    (SFC, 7/11/12, p.A2)

2012        Jun 27, Lawyers representing Amazon rain forest residents in Ecuador filed a 2nd lawsuit in Brazil to seize assets of Chevron Corp. as part of their effort to collect an $18.2 billion judgement they won in Ecuador in 2011.
    (SFC, 6/28/12, p.A2)
2012        Jun 27, In eastern Turkey an explosion targeting a pipeline cut off Iranian natural gas shipments to the country. The pipeline was expected to be back in operation within 4 to 5 days. Turkey received 27 million cubic meters of gas a day via the Iranian pipeline.
    (AFP, 6/28/12)

2012        Jul 1, An EU embargo on Iranian oil went into effect, provoking anger in Tehran which said the measure will hurt talks with world powers over its sensitive nuclear activities.
    (AFP, 7/2/12)

2012        Jul 2, Nigeria's Trade and Investment Ministry said Nigeria has signed a Memorandum of Understanding with US-based Vulcan Petroleum Resources Ltd. to build six oil refineries, in a project worth 4.5 billion dollars.
    (AFP, 7/3/12)

2012        Jul 3, Sudan inked oil exploration and production-sharing agreements with companies from Australia, Brazil, Canada, Egypt, France-Belgium and Nigeria.
    (AFP, 7/4/12)

2012        Jul 4, In Thailand an explosion at an oil refinery in an industrial area of Bangkok sparked a massive fire. There were no reported injuries, but it prompted the government to close the 120,000 barrels-a-day refinery for at least 30 days.
    (AFP, 7/4/12)

2012        Jul 6, In Libya militias shut down three oil refineries, in Ras Sedr, Brega and Sedra, in the country's east on the eve of national elections to press the transitional government to cancel the vote. They want the July 7 vote for a 200-member national assembly canceled because they say the vote will marginalize the oil-rich east, which has been allocated less than a third of the parliamentary seats.
    (AP, 7/6/12)

2012        Jul 8, Iraqi Kurdistan said it has begun sending oil produced in its three-province autonomous region out of the country without the express permission of the central government. It was being exported to Turkey so it could be refined into various products before being brought back to Kurdistan.
    (AFP, 7/8/12)

2012        Jul 9, A spokeswoman for Italian oil major Eni SpA said in a statement that repair work was ongoing on its Nembe-Obama pipeline and blamed sabotage for the spill from one of its pipelines in Nigeria's oil-rich southern delta.
    (AP, 7/9/12)

2012        Jul 15, Iraq signed a gas exploration deal with Pakistan Petroleum.
    (AFP, 7/15/12)
2012        Jul 15, Officials in the United Arab Emirates inaugurated a key overland oil pipeline bypassing the Strait of Hormuz, giving the OPEC member insurance against Iranian threats to block the strategic waterway.
    (AP, 7/15/12)

2012        Jul 16, Iraq signed an initial deal with a Kuwait-led consortium made up of Kuwait Energy, Dubai-based Dragon Oil and Turkey's TPAO. A contract was awarded to a Russia-led group to drill for energy, part of Baghdad's efforts to strengthen its role as a major producer.
    (AFP, 7/16/12)
2012        Jul 16, Nigeria fined Shell $5.0 billion over a December 2011 oil spill at the Bonga oilfield in the Gulf of Guinea. The next day Shell spokesman Tony Okonedo said the fine was unwarranted as the company had acted quickly to contain the spill.
    (AFP, 7/17/12)

2012        Jul 19, Chevron made public a deal to hunt for oil in the Kurdish region of northern Iraq.
    (SFC, 7/20/12, p.A1)

2012        Jul 20, In Turkey an explosion and fire shut down twin pipelines that carry oil from Iraq to the Mediterranean.
    (AP, 7/21/12)

2012        Jul 22, In Egypt attackers blew up a gas pipeline in the Sinai used to export fuel to Israel and Jordan, the 15th such attack since 2011.
    (AFP, 7/22/12)

2012        Jul 23, China’s State-controlled CNOOC Ltd launched a takeover bids by agreeing to buy Canadian oil producer Nexen Inc for $15.1 billion, forcing Ottawa to decide whether national security concerns outweigh its desire for foreign investment in its energy resources.
    (Reuters, 7/23/12)
2012        Jul 23, China Petroleum and Chemical Corp. (Sinopec) agreed to purchase a 49% stake in the North Sea assets of Talisman Energy, a Canadian firm, for $1.5 billion.
    {China, Canada, Oil}
    (Econ, 7/28/12, p.56)(http://tinyurl.com/c9v3ypx)

2012        Jul 24, Sierra Leone's government said it has issued provisional offshore oil prospecting awards to nine companies.
    (AFP, 7/24/12)

2012        Jul 31, Malawi vowed to press on with oil and gas exploration on Lake Malawi, dismissing a demand by Tanzania, which claims half of the lake, to halt prospecting. Mozambique also owns part of the lake.
    (AFP, 7/31/12)

2012        Aug 1, Italian oil company Eni SpA said it discovered more natural gas off the coast of Mozambique, expanding the yield of a major field off the southeast African nation that's the company's largest find.
    (AP, 8/1/12)
2012        Aug 1, Tanzania called for an amicable resolution to a dispute with Malawi over oil and gas exploration in Lake Malawi.
    (AFP, 8/1/12)

2012        Aug 2, Iraq's Kurdistan region said it will resume oil exports during the first week of August as a confidence-building measure, after stopping them for more than four months following a row with Baghdad. Kurdistan halted oil exports to the federal government on April 1 over $1.5 billion it said is owed to foreign oil companies working in the region, that Baghdad has allegedly withheld.
    (AFP, 8/2/12)

2012        Aug 4, Off the coast of Nigeria gunmen attacked a barge belonging to oil services company Sea Trucks Group, kidnapping four foreigners and killing two Nigerian sailors. The 4 foreign oil workers were released on Aug 22.
    (AFP, 8/4/12)(AFP, 8/23/12)
2012        Aug 4, Landlocked South Sudan said it has a struck a deal with Sudan over the exportation of oil through Sudan's pipelines. In a statement South Sudan's government said that it will pay approximately $9.48 a barrel to transport its fuel through Sudan's pipelines.
    (AP, 8/4/12)

2012        Aug 6, In the San Francisco Bay Area a series of explosions and fires tore through Chevron’s Richmond refinery. In 2018 Chevron agreed to pay $5 million to the city of Richmond to settle a lawsuit stemming from the fire that hospitalized thousands of Bay Area residents and prompted new state workplace safety laws.
    (SFC, 8/7/12, p.A1)(SFC, 5/4/18, p.D2)
2012        Aug 6, In southeastern Turkey an overnight blast interrupted oil flow from Iraq. Kurdish rebels were suspected to be behind the explosions. The blast hit the Kirkuk-Ceyhan pipeline in Mardin province close to the border with Syria. Repairs were expected to take up to 10 days.
    (AFP, 8/6/12)

2012        Aug 10, Zanzibar's Vice President Seif Ali Iddi told the island's parliament the authorities had investigated and confirmed "that 36 crude oil tankers and container ships flying the Tanzania flag are indeed from Iran."
    (AFP, 8/13/12)

2012        Aug 13, US Interior Sec. Ken Salazar announced the first comprehensive plan to manage the national petroleum reserve in Alaska, allowing new drilling on half of the nearly 23-million-acre reserve, while putting the rest off limits.
    (SFC, 8/14/12, p.A4)
2012        Aug 13, British energy group BP said that it has agreed to sell its Carson refinery in California to US peer Tesoro Corporation for $2.5 billion (2.02 billion euros) as part of its ongoing restructuring. BP also said that Eagle Rock Energy Partners is paying $227.5 million in cash for the Sunray and Hemphill gas processing plants in Texas.
    (AFP, 8/13/12)
2012        Aug 13, A government spokesman says Iraq has asked French oil giant Total S.A. to choose between working with the self-ruled northern Kurdish region or to quit developing one of the major oil fields in southern Iraq.
    (AP, 8/13/12)
2012        Aug 13, Abdallah Kombo, the director of the Zanzibar Maritime Authority (ZMA), said it was "cheated" by its Dubai-based agent Philtex Corporation, which is alleged to have reflagged the Iranian vessels. Maritime Transport Minister Rashid Suleiman Seif said The government in Zanzibar, a semi-autonomous part of Tanzania, will deregister Iranian oil tankers flying its flag to dodge sanctions.
    (AFP, 8/13/12)

2012        Aug 15, A person with privileged access to the Saudi state-owned oil company’s computers, unleashed a computer virus to initiate what is regarded as among the most destructive acts of computer sabotage on a company to date. The virus erased data on three-quarters of Aramco’s corporate PCs — documents, spreadsheets, e-mails, files — replacing all of it with an image of a burning American flag.
    (NYT, 10/23/12)(http://tinyurl.com/8mc4pom)

2012        Aug 19, The New York Times reported that Iraq is helping its neighbor Iran skirt international sanctions by smuggling oil and letting Tehran secretly move large amounts of cash through bank auctions.
    (AFP, 8/19/12)

2012        Aug 21, In Yemen suspected Al-Qaeda militants blew up a pipeline pumping liquefied gas to the southern Balhaf export terminal. The early morning attack caused a complete halt in operations.
    (AFP, 8/21/12)

2012        Aug 24, Greenpeace activists were first offered hot soup, then sprayed with blasts of cold water after they stormed a floating Russia oil platform and erected climbing tents on the side of the rig to protest drilling in the Arctic.
    (AP, 8/24/12)

2012        Aug 25, In Venezuela a huge explosion rocked the Amuay refinery in Los Taques, killing 42 people. It injured more than 150 and was the deadliest disaster in memory for the country's key oil industry. It took 3-days to extinguish the fire.
    (AP, 8/25/12)(AP, 8/26/12)(AP, 8/28/12)(Economist, 9/1/12, p.39)

2012        Aug 27, Curacao conservationists and residents said an extensive fuel spill has fouled a stretch of shoreline and oiled pink flamingos and other wildlife in a nature preserve on the tiny Dutch Caribbean island.
    (AP, 8/28/12)

2012        Sep 3, Valero Energy Corp. announced that it will convert its shuttered oil refinery on the southern Caribbean island of Aruba into a fuel storage facility, leaving hundreds of employees jockeying for positions at the downsizing operation.
    (AP, 9/3/12)

2012        Sep 4, Pirates attacked and seized the MT Abu Dhabi Star, an oil tanker off the coast of Lagos, Nigeria, kidnapping an unknown number of sailors who were trying to hide from their assailants.
    (AP, 9/5/12)

2012        Sep 5, Nigeria's navy retook the MT Abu Dhabi Star oil tanker, hijacked a day earlier off Lagos, freeing 23 Indian sailors held hostage by pirates who fled as the navy arrived.
    (AP, 9/5/12)

2012        Sep 7, South Africa said it will allow fracking to explore for shale gas in the semi-desert Karoo region known for its vast plains and tender lamb.
    (AP, 9/7/12)

2012        Sep 11, Russia’s Gazprom accused the European Commission of pressuring the Russian firm into slashing gas prices for its customers soon after President Vladimir Putin signed a decree that could hinder the EU probe. Putin signed a decree barring strategic Russian enterprises from disclosing information to foreign regulators, changing contracts and selling property abroad without government permission.
    (AP, 9/11/12)

2012        Sep 21, Royal Dutch Shell PLC said it is suing Greenpeace International in Dutch court in an attempt to end protests against its plans to drill for offshore oil in the Artic Sea.
    (AP, 9/21/12)

2012        Sep 23, In northern Nigeria a suicide car bomber blew himself up outside a Catholic church, killing himself and at least two other people. In the southeast 20 people died when a broken gasoline pipeline caught fire, burning alive those gathering the fuel in Abia state.
    (Reuters, 9/23/12)(AP, 10/1/12)

2012        Sep 22, Demonstrators in the US and other countries took part in the “Global Frackdown," in protests against the natural gas drilling process known as fracking.
    (SSFC, 9/23/12, p.A10)

2012        Sep 27, Brazil’s National Petroleum Agency said Chevron has paid a $17.3 million fine for 24 of 25 irregularities detected in the spill of some 155,000 gallons of crude oil in Nov, 2011.
    (SFC, 9/29/12, p.D2)
2012        Sep 27, Venezuelan and Russian officials signed eight agreements to boost cooperation in energy projects. Igor Sechin, the CEO of Russia's state-controlled Rosneft oil company, was quoted by Russian news agencies as saying he also gave Chavez a 3-month-old black terrier puppy as a present from Putin.
    (AP, 9/27/12)

2012        Sep 30, In Nigeria Royal Dutch Shell PLC shut down a pipeline in the oil-rich southern delta after a fire and a suspected attempt to steal crude from one of its lines.
    (AP, 9/30/12)

2012        Oct 5, Mexico's President Felipe Calderon announced that the state-owned oil company has found possible reserves of as much as 125 million barrels of oil at a deep-water well in the Gulf of Mexico. Petroleos Mexicanos  said the area known as the Perdido belt contains prospective reserves that could amount to as much as 13 billion barrels of crude equivalent.
    (AP, 10/5/12)

2012        Oct 11, Nigerian farmers asked a Dutch court to rule that oil company Shell is liable for poisoning their fish ponds and farmland with leaking pipelines. Royal Dutch Shell PLC long argued that the case, which was launched in 2008, should be heard in Nigeria.
    (AP, 10/11/12)

2012        Oct 12, The government of Puerto Rico formally withdrew plans to build a natural gas pipeline after investing more than $50 million in a project that provoked strong opposition from islanders and environmentalists.
    (AP, 10/12/12)

2012        Oct 11, A former US government official said US authorities believe that Iranian-based hackers were responsible for cyberattacks that devastated Persian Gulf oil and gas companies. Just hours later, Defense Secretary Leon Panetta said the cyberthreat from Iran has grown, and he declared that the Pentagon is prepared to take action if American is threatened by a computer-based assault.
    (AP, 10/12/12)

2012        Oct 14, Iranian officials denied any role in recent online attacks against oil and gas companies in the Persian Gulf and denounced American allegations of an Iranian link to the Shamoon virus that hit Saudi state oil company Aramco and Qatari natural gas producer RasGas.
    (SFC, 10/15/12, p.A2)

2012        Oct 15, Azerbaijan's top energy official urged further scrutiny of the international consortium developing the Caspian Sea nation's main oil field amid mounting irritation at a slump in output.
    (AP, 10/15/12)
2012        Oct 15, In Nigeria gunmen attacked a ship operated by a French oil and gas services company off the coast of the oil-rich southern delta, kidnapping six Russian sailors and an Estonian in the assault.
    (AP, 10/17/12)

2012        Oct 18, Rosneft, Russia’s state-controlled oil giant, offered British Petroleum $28 billion for its half of the TNK-BP joint venture. A day earlier AAR, a consortium of Russian billionaires, had agreed to sell its half of the TNK-BP joint venture for the same amount.
    (Econ, 10/20/12, p.57)
2012        Oct 18, South Sudan ordered oil companies to restart production and officials said oil export could resume in about 90 days, ending a nearly nine-month shutdown following a dispute with Sudan over borders and oil.
    (AP, 10/18/12)

2012        Oct 19, British engineers at Air Fuel Synthesis (AFS) in Teeside, northern England, said they have produced 5 liters of synthetic petrol over a period of three months. AFS said it has developed a way to create petrol from air and water.
    (AP, 10/19/12)

2012        Oct 14, Nicholas Mockford (60), a British national and executive for ExxonMobil living in Belgium, was shot dead as he left an Italian restaurant in Neder-over-Heembeek. Helmeted assailants escaping on a motorcycle.
    (AP, 10/26/12)

2012        Oct 15, In Nigeria gunmen attacked a ship operated by a French oil and gas services company off the coast of the oil-rich southern delta, kidnapping six Russian sailors and an Estonian in the assault. The kidnapped sailors were freed on Oct 31.
    (AP, 10/17/12)(AP, 11/1/12)

2012        Oct 18, Rosneft, Russia’s state-controlled oil giant, offered British Petroleum $28 billion for its half of the TNK-BP joint venture. A day earlier AAR, a consortium of Russian billionaires, had agreed to sell its half of the TNK-BP joint venture for the same amount.
    (Econ, 10/20/12, p.57)

2012        Nov 1, Lawyers for Amazonian Indians said they are seeking the seizure of $2 billion of Chevron Corp.'s assets in Argentina as they tried to collect an $18.7 billion environmental judgment won in Ecuador last year.
    (AP, 11/1/12)

2012        Nov 11, Royal Dutch Shell PLC said it has shut down a pipeline in Nigeria's oil-rich southern delta after finding leaks it blamed on oil thieves.
    (AP, 11/11/12)

2012        Nov 13, Indonesia’s Constitutional Court said parts of the country’s 2001 oil-and-gas law were unconstitutional. The court dissolved BPMgas, the state regulator.
    (Econ, 11/24/12, p.72)

2012        Nov 15, BP announced it was paying $4.5 billion in a settlement with the US government over the April 2010 Deepwater Horizon drilling rig disaster. Hours later 2 men who worked for BP during the 2010 Gulf oil spill disaster were charged with manslaughter and a third with lying to federal investigators.
    (AP, 11/15/12)

2012        Nov 16, An oil platform of Texas-based Black Elk Energy caught fire in the Gulf of Mexico critically injuring 4 men with left 2 missing. A body of one of the missing was recovered the next day. In 2017 Houston-based Wood Group PSN was ordered to pay $9.5 million in penalties in cases arising from the fire that left three workers dead.
    (SFC, 11/17/12, p.A7)(SSFC, 11/18/12, p.A11)(SFC, 2/24/17, p.A6)

2012        Nov 19, French oil firm Total SA said it has sold a stake in an offshore oil field in Nigeria for $2.5 billion to Chinese state oil company Sinopec Corp. The cash deal required approval by Nigerian authorities.
    (AP, 11/19/12)

2012        Nov 20, A Nigerian official says the government owes its state-run oil firm more than $8.1 billion in gasoline subsidy payments.
    (AP, 11/20/12)

2012        Nov 28, The US government banned BP Plc from new federal contracts over its "lack of business integrity" in the 2010 Deepwater Horizon oil spill.
    (Reuters, 11/29/12)

2012        Dec 4, Vietnam said it would begin new patrols in the South China Sea after it accused a Chinese fishing boat of cutting a seismic cable attached to one of its vessels exploring for oil and gas. India also said it would consider sending navy vessels to protect its interests in the area.
    (SFC, 12/5/12, p.A3)

2012        Dec 7, Canada’s PM Stephen Harper approved China's biggest ever foreign takeover, a $15.1 billion bid by state-controlled CNOOC Ltd for energy company Nexen Inc., but drew a line in the sand against future buys by state-owned enterprises. He also approved a smaller deal for a Canadian gas producer by Petronas, Malaysia’s state energy company.
    (Reuters, 12/7/12)(Econ, 12/15/12, p.38)

2012        Dec 17, Brazilian prosecutors said Chevron Corp. has offered to pay $150 million to settle two civil lawsuits stemming from a Nov 2011 offshore oil spill. The lawsuits sought $20 billion in damages.
    (AP, 12/17/12)
2012        Dec 17, In Nigeria a pipeline explosion took place in Ije Ododo, in a swampy mangrove forest in the western fringe of Lagos when locals tapped into the pipeline to steal the refined gasoline moving through it. Flames continued thru Dec 20.
    (AP, 12/21/12)

2012        Dec 19, Argentina's cash-strapped state energy company signed a partnership deal with Chevron Corp. for a "massive development" of the South American country's vast nonconventional oil and gas resources.
    (AP, 12/19/12)
2012        Dec 19, British oil company BP said it is selling its stake in a South China Sea gas field to Kuwait Foreign Petroleum Exploration Company for $308 million in cash.
    (AP, 12/19/12)
2012        Dec 19, Norwegian energy company Statoil ASA said it has bought 70,000 acres of land rich in gas and liquid gas in West Virginia and Ohio.
    (AP, 12/19/12)

2012        Dec 21, Kyrgyzstan's state-owned natural gas company said it is to be sold to Russia's energy monopoly Gazprom, raising hopes of an end to debilitating energy shortages in the impoverished Central Asian nation.
    (AP, 12/21/12)

2012        Dec 25, An Iraqi-Kurd officials said the northern Kurdish region has suspended oil exports over a payment dispute with baghdad.
    (SFC, 12/26/12, p.A5)

2012        Steve Coll authored “Private Empire: ExxonMobil and American Power."
    (SSFC, 4/29/12, p.F1)

2013        Jan 9, A fuel shortage has hit Sierra Leone, causing rationing and long lines at gas stations and hampering the movement of vehicles and goods in the West African nation.
    (AP, 1/9/13)

2013        Jan 17, British, Norwegian and Spanish oil companies evacuated workers from Algerian energy facilities following the hostage-taking by Islamic militants in the Sahara desert and Algeria's attempt to free them.
    (AP, 1/17/13)

2013        Jan 22, Nebraska Gov. Dave Heineman approved a revised route for the Keystone XL pipeline through Nebraska.
    (SFC, 1/23/13, p.A6)

2013        Jan 24, Ukraine sealed a deal with Shell allowing the company to probe for shale gas.
    (Econ, 2/2/13, p.53)

2013        Jan 25, Calgary-based Griffiths Energy International will pay a C$10.35 million ($10.26 million) fine after a Canadian court accepted a settlement between the company and prosecutors. The company had admitted to bribing the wife of a Chadian diplomat.
    (AP, 1/26/13)

2013        Jan 27, A barge laden with 80,000 gallons of oil struck a railroad bridge in Vicksburg, Miss., spilling light crude into the Mississippi River and closing the waterway for miles each way. A second barge was damaged.
    (AP, 1/28/13)

2013        Jan 30, In Argentina an attempt by Chevron Corp. to unfreeze its assets was dismissed by an appeals court. Winners of a $19 billion environmental judgment in Ecuador have filed suits in Canada, Brazil and Argentina.
    (AP, 1/30/13)

2013        Jan, Jack Gerard, CEO of the American Petroleum Institute, said in a speech in Washington, D.C. that in the western US alone the volume of oil shale is estimated at 800 billion barrels — three times the proven crude reserves of Saudi Arabia. At current prices this much shale oil would be worth a staggering $65 trillion.
    (AP, 5/30/13)

2013        Feb 4, In Lithuania it was reported that the retail cost of natural gas pumped from Siberia has spiked 450 percent in the past seven years, from $169 to $769 per 1,000 cubic meters.
    (AP, 2/4/13)

2013        Feb 13, In Washington DC celebrities and activists were arrested after tying themselves to the White House gate to protest the Keystone XL oil pipeline from Canada. Sierra Club Director Michael Brune was also arrested, the first time in the group’s history that club leader was arrested in an act of civil disobedience.
    (SFC, 2/14/13, p.A8)
2013        Feb 13, Ukraine reached a tentative agreement with Turkmenistan to resume imports of natural gas from the energy-rich Central Asian nation. Completion of the deal would require the consent of Kazakhstan and Russia as transit nations.
    (AP, 2/13/13)

2013        Feb 17, Thousands of protesters gathered on Washington's National Mall calling on Pres. Obama to reject the controversial Keystone XL oil pipeline proposal and honor his inaugural pledge to act on climate change.
    (AP, 2/18/13)

2013        Feb 21, An Iranian semi-official news agency said Iran is planning to build a $4 billion oil refinery in Gwadar, Baluchistan province. Iran will reportedly sell products from the refinery to Pakistan in return of food, especially wheat, meat and rice.
    (AP, 2/21/13)(SSFC, 2/24/13, p.A4)

2013        Feb 27, Pakistani President Asif Ali Zardari visited Tehran where he worked to finalize a gas pipeline deal with Iran that is being opposed by the United States.
    (AP, 2/27/13)

2013        Mar 4, Royal Dutch Shell PLC said its Nigerian subsidiary lost some 150,000 barrels of oil a day over several days in late February after safety systems shut down its Nembe Creek Trunkline. Shell said the shutdowns came after thieves cut into the line.
    (AP, 3/4/13)

2013        Mar 10, Bahamas’ environmental minister said offshore oil exploration will be allowed.
    (AP, 3/10/13)

2013        Mar 15, In Brazil a new oil law that gives a greater share of royalty revenues from the country’s oil fields to non-producing states went into effect and producing states filed appeals against it with the Supreme Court.
    (AP, 3/16/13)

2013        Mar 18, In Utah Willard Bay State Park officials closed down the facility on the northeastern edge of the Great Salt Lake and evacuated two campers and the park manager’s family after around 4,200 to 6,300 gallons of diesel fuel leaked from the pipeline just north of the park.

2013        Mar 25, In Canada waste water from Suncor's oil sands operation north of Fort McMurray, Alberta, escaped when a pipe broke after freezing. An estimated 350 cubic meters of contaminated water was released into the river over a 10-hour period, the company said, adding that it did not contain tar-like bitumen.
    (Reuters, 3/27/13)
2013        Mar 25, Peru's government declared an environmental state of emergency in a remote Amazon jungle region it says has been affected by years of contamination at the country's most productive oil fields, which are currently operated by Argentina-based Pluspetrol.
    (AP, 3/25/13)

2013        Mar 27, It was reported the Ecuador planned to auction off 7.4 million acres of Amazon rain forest to Chinese oil companies. 7 indigenous groups said they had not consented to the projects.
    (SSFC, 3/31/13, p.A4)

2013        Mar 28, Canadian Pacific Railway Ltd reopened a rail line in western Minnesota, a day after a mile-long train hauling crude oil from Alberta, Canada, derailed in the area, spilling up to 30,000 gallons of oil.
    (Reuters, 3/28/13)

2013        Mar 29, In Mayflower, Arkansas, an ExxonMobil pipeline sprang a leak. Crews soon recovered some 12,000 barrels of oil and water. The Pegasus pipeline, capable of carrying more than 90,000 barrels per day (bpd) of crude from Patoka, Illinois to Nederland, Texas, was carrying Canadian Wabasca Heavy crude at the time of the leak. In June the US Justice Dept. and the state of Arkansas filed suit against ExxonMobil for the 210,000 gallons spilled. In 2016 the US Pipeline and Hazardous Safety Administration upheld its $2.6 million fine against ExxonMobil.
    (SSFC, 3/31/13, p.A8)(Reuters, 4/1/13)(SFC, 6/15/13, p.A6)(SSFC, 4/3/16, p.A6)

2013        Mar 31, Syria's state news said rebels have set fire to 3 oil wells. SANA said that the fires would cause a daily loss of 4,670 barrels of oil and 52 cubic meters of natural gas. SANA said rebels have set fire to a total of nine wells in recent months.
    (AP, 3/31/13)

2013        Apr 3, Canadian Pacific Railway Ltd suffered its second oil spill in a week, but said just four barrels of light crude leaked from tanker cars in a morning derailment in a remote area of northern Ontario. BP’s estimate of the spill was raised the next day to 400 barrels.
    (Reuters, 4/3/13)(Reuters, 4/4/13)

2013        Apr 7, In California it was made public that a federal magistrate has ruled that federal authorities broke the law when they leased land to oil drillers without studying the possible risks of hydraulic fracturing.
    (SFC, 4/9/13, p.A1)
2013        Apr 7, South Sudan resumed production of oil following an agreement with n orthern Sudan.
    (Econ, 5/4/13, p.48)

2013        Apr 20, Florida filed a lawsuit in Panama City against BP and Halliburton over the 2010 Deepwater Horizon oil spill.
    (SSFC, 4/21/13, p.A9)

2013        Apr 26, In southern California a fuel tanker overturned on Route 38 spilling some 4,000 gallons of gas and 1,200 gallons of diesel into a creek that leads to the Santa Ana River.
    (SSFC, 4/28/13, p.A7)

2013        Apr 30, UAE state news agency WAM said that Abu Dhabi National Oil Co. (ADNOC) would own 60% of the Bab joint venture's equity and Royal Dutch Shell would hold the rest.
    (AP, 4/30/13)

2013        May 14, The European Union's executive arm, the Commission, said it had raided the offices of a number of oil industry companies for possible price-fixing.
    (AP, 5/15/13)

2013        May 15, In Libya protesters and disgruntled job seekers forced the closure of the eastern Zueitina oil terminal for the second time in six months, disrupting exports.
    (AP, 5/15/13)

2013        May 16, In southern China more than 2,000 people unfurled banners in Kunming and shouted "Protest! Protest!" to oppose plans for a petroleum refinery. Local authorities allowed the large environmental rally to go forward in order to let the public vent frustration.
    (AP, 5/16/13)

2013        May 21, A Canadian Pacific derailment spilled 575 barrels of crude oil near Jansen, Saskatchewan. The line reopened the next day as clean up continued.
    (Reuters, 5/22/13)

2013        May 25, Gunmen boarded the fuel tanker MT Matrix I, some 40 nautical miles off the coast of Nigeria's Bayelsa state, taking a number of the crew hostage.
    (AP, 5/28/13)

2013        May 30, It was reported that Estonia, a country of 1.3 million people, gets more than 90% of its electricity needs from oil shale — by far the world's most shale-dependent country. A board member at Eesti Energia said the country has 100 years' experience working with oil shale.
    (AP, 5/30/13)

2013        Jun 4, Argentina's Supreme Court suspended a freeze on the local assets of Chevron Corp. that had been ordered late last year following a suit by the winners of a $19 billion environmental judgment in Ecuador. Chevron and  state energy company YPF were working out a deal to jointly develop the vast Vaca Muerta shale oil and natural gas reserves in southwestern Argentina.
    (AP, 6/4/13)
2013        Jun 4, Ecuador's state oil company resumed pumping through the country's main pipeline, four days after it was damaged by a landslide. But crude spilled by the accident reached tributaries of the Amazon River and polluted drinking water for a regional capital far downstream.
    (AP, 6/4/13)

2013        Jun 5, China’s Pres. Xi Jinping spoke to Mexico’s Senate on the 2nd day of his 3-day visit. He announced $1 billion in credit to Petroleos Mexico and another $1 billion in trade deals.
    (SFC, 6/6/13, p.A4)

2013        Jun 8, Sudan's President Omar al-Bashir ordered the closure of pipelines exporting South Sudanese oil. Al-Bashir said that the move was in response to South Sudan's funding of rebels fighting his regime.
    (AP, 6/8/13)

2013        Jun 10, BP PLC said the Coast Guard has concluded cleanup operations in Mississippi, Alabama and Florida from the April  2010 oil well blowout. Work continued along 84 miles of Louisiana’s shoreline.
    (SFC, 6/11/13, p.A4)

2013        Jun 18, US oil giant Chevron said it has signed a deal with Iraq's Kurdish regional government to expand its oil exploration territory in the northern self-rule region.
    (AP, 6/18/13)

2013        Jun 19, Norway's Parliament opened up a new area on the fringe of the Arctic Ocean to offshore oil drilling despite protests from opponents who fear catastrophic oil spills in the remote and icy region.
    (AP, 6/20/13)

2013        Jun 20, Shell Nigeria said an explosion and fire caused by oil theft have forced it to shut down its Trans Niger Pipeline that carries 150,000 barrels of crude a day.
    (AP, 6/20/13)

2013        Jun 26, The board of Spanish energy giant Repsol rejected a $5 billion offer of compensation from Argentina for the company's YPF unit that the country seized last year. In December Repsol accepted the government offer of $5 billion to avoid arbitration.
    (AP, 6/26/13)(Econ, 11/30/13, p.36)

2013        Jun 28,  BP, at an official ceremony in Baku, Azerbaijan, confirmed that a new pipeline to bring gas to Europe from the Caspian Sea will go through Greece and then under the sea to Italy, a defeat for a rival project to bring gas through Bulgaria and into Austria.
    (AP, 6/28/13)

2013        Jul 5, Colombia’s state-controlled oil company Ecopetrol said two explosions over the last 24 hours have shut down the 80,000 barrel-per-day Cano Limon-Covenas oil pipeline. A military source describing them as attacks carried out by leftist rebels.
    (AP, 7/6/13)

2013        Jul 6, In Canada 5 tanker cars of petroleum products exploded after a train derailed in the middle of the small town of Lac Megantic, Quebec province. The blast destroyed many buildings and sent flames hundreds of feet into the air. 47 people were killed. On October 9, 2015, a US judge approved a $338 million settlement fund for the victims.
    (AP, 7/6/13)(Reuters, 7/10/13)(AP, 7/20/13)(SFC, 10/10/15, p.A2)
2013        Jul 6, In Egypt an explosion hit a gas pipeline in the lawless Sinai peninsula following a spate of attacks on security checkpoints.
    (Reuters, 7/7/13)

2013        Jul 16, Argentina's state-controlled YPF oil company persuaded Chevron Corp. to sign a long-sought deal to invest $1.24 billion in developing the Vaca Muerta shale oil deposits.
    (AP, 7/16/13)(Econ, 11/30/13, p.36)

2013        Jul 23, An Iraqi government spokesman said Baghdad has signed a 4-year deal with Iran to import natural gas for power generation, further intertwining the economies of the two Shiite-dominated countries.
    (AP, 7/23/13)

2013        Jul 25, The US Justice Dept. said Halliburton has agreed to plead guilty to destroying evidence after the 2010 Gulf of Mexico oil spill.
    (SFC, 7/26/13, p.A7)

2013        Jul 27, In Thailand about 50,000 liters (13,200 gallons) of oil, about the amount contained in one and a half tanker trucks, spilled into Prao Bay on the west coast of Samet Island from a leak in a pipeline operated by PTT Global Chemical Plc., a subsidiary of state-owned oil and gas company PTT Plc.
    (AP, 7/30/13)

2013        Jul 29, China National Petroleum Corporation (CNPC) said it has switched on a pipeline bringing natural gas from Myanmar. The project has raised concerns in Myanmar's nascent civil society about whether its giant neighbor's resource grabs will benefit local people.
    (AP, 7/29/13)

2013        Jul 31, Officials and bankers said  Iran and Syrian authorities signed a deal this week to activate a $3.6 billion credit facility to buy oil products with long term payment terms.
    (Reuters, 7/31/13)

2013        Aug 2, In Iraq an explosion and fire disabled a pipeline carrying gas from northern oilfields to power stations early today.
    (Reuters, 8/2/13)

2013        Aug 3, In Yemen tribesmen blew up the main oil export pipeline late today, halting the flow of crude.
    (Reuters, 8/4/13)

2013        Aug 6, It was reported that Somalia's government has signed an oil and gas exploration deal with Soma Oil and Gas, a newly formed British company, the first such agreement by a central government in Somalia following decades of conflict.
    (AP, 8/6/13)

2013        Aug 13, A bomb attack stopped oil flows through the Kirkuk-Ceyhan pipeline linking Iraq to Turkey.
    (Reuters, 8/13/13)

2013        Aug 19, Anti-fracking protesters scuffled with police outside an oil exploration site in rural England and broke into the headquarters of the energy company which is pioneering shale gas exploration in Britain.
    (Reuters, 8/19/13)

2013        Aug 21, In Iraq two bomb attacks halted the flow of crude oil through a pipeline running from the Kirkuk oil fields to the Mediterranean port of Ceyhan in Turkey, causing severe damage.
    (Reuters, 8/21/13)

2013        Aug 26, Greenpeace said that Russian authorities have boarded their ship which is in the Arctic to protest against oil drilling. The Greenpeace ship entered the waters of the Kara Sea on Aug 24.
    (AP, 8/26/13)

2013        Sep 1, In Romania thousands of people took to the streets to protest against shale gas exploration and a controversial Canadian gold mine project using cyanide.
    (AFP, 9/1/13)

2013        Sep 14, Yemeni tribesmen bombed the main oil pipeline in the central Maarib province, the fourth attack on the pipeline in a month.
    (Reuters, 9/14/13)

2013        Sep 18, Russian coast guards fired warning shots and arrested two Greenpeace activists who scaled the Prirazlomnaya Arctic oil platform in a protest over the potential threat to the environment from operations slated to start this year.
    (Reuters, 9/18/13)

2013        Sep 19, The Russian Coast Guard began towing a Greenpeace ship to Murmansk after armed officers stormed it following a protest against oil drilling in Arctic waters.
    (AP, 9/20/13)

2013        Sep 26, Dubai said that it has signed a memorandum of understanding with China Sonangol to build a crude oil refinery aimed at meeting rising domestic demand.
    (AFP, 9/26/13)
2013        Sep 26, Norwegian oil group Statoil said it had made a big oil find off the coast of Newfoundland in Canada with 300 million to 600 million barrels of recoverable crude.
    (AFP, 9/26/13)

2013        Sep 27, A Uganda official said China's state-owned CNOOC has secured a $2-billion deal to develop a petroleum field in Uganda and help propel the east African nation into the club of oil-producing countries.
    (AFP, 9/27/13)

2013        Sep 29, In North Dakota a leak was discovered in a Tesoro Logistics LP pipeline. It leaked an estimated 20,600 barrels of crude oil into a wheat field, the biggest leak in the state since it became a major US producer.
    (Reuters, 10/10/13)

2013        Sep 30, Canadian oil company Pacific Rubiales said it is acquiring Colombia’s Petrominerales for around 1.6 billion Canadian dollars ($1.55 billion).
    (AFP, 9/30/13)

2013        Oct 1, In western Libya a gas pipeline supplying several power stations was cut for the third day running by Berber activists demanding constitutional rights.
    (AFP, 10/1/13)

2013        Oct 2, Russian investigators charged 14 Greenpeace campaigners with piracy over an open-sea protest against Arctic oil drilling.
    (AFP, 10/2/13)(AP, 10/3/13)

2013        Oct 7, Colombia's state oil company Ecopetrol said its second most important oil pipeline, the Cano Limon-Covenas, has been temporarily shut down after three bomb attacks. Security forces attributed the attacks to leftist guerrillas.
    (Reuters, 10/7/13)

2013        Oct 9, Shell Nigeria said new leaks have forced it to close the Trans-Niger Pipeline that carries 150,000 barrels of crude daily, 10 days after the pipeline was reopened following repairs for leaks.
    (AP, 10/10/13)

2013        Oct 10, Iraq's prime minister said his country has signed a $6 billion contract with Swiss company Satarem to build and run an oil refinery in the southern province of Maysan.
    (AP, 10/11/13)
2013        Oct 10, The Venezuelan navy detained the crew of an oil exploration vessel operated by US-based Anadarko Petroleum in waters disputed by the Guyana and Venezuela. The RV Teknik Perdana and its crew were released on Oct 15.
    (AP, 10/11/13)(Reuters, 10/15/13)

2013        Oct 11, France's constitutional council upheld a ban on the energy extraction process known as fracking, two days after the European Parliament voted to require full environmental reports from companies that want to establish hydraulic fracturing sites.
    (AP, 10/11/13)

2013        Oct 15, In Louisiana former Halliburton employee Anthony Badalamenti (62) pleaded guilty to destroying evidence in the aftermath of the 2010 deadly rig explosion that spawned BP’s oil spill in the Gulf of Mexico.
    (Econ, 10/5/13, p.A5)

2013        Oct 17, Canadian police arrested at least 40 protesters opposed to shale gas development in New Brunswick after vehicles were set ablaze and a shot was fired.
    (AFP, 10/17/13)

2013        Oct 19, In Canada a train carrying crude oil and liquefied petroleum gas derailed west of Edmonton, Alberta, causing a fire, but no injuries.
    (Reuters, 10/19/13)
2013        Oct 19, Thousands of Romanians protested against plans by US energy group Chevron to explore for shale gas in a poor eastern region and a Canadian company's project to set up Europe's biggest open cast gold mine in a Carpathian town.
    (Reuters, 10/19/13)

2013        Oct 21, Brazil said a consortium including Shell, Total, two Chinese firms and Brazil's state-run petroleum company Petrobras won the right to develop an offshore field that could hold up to 12 billion barrels of oil.
    {Brazil, Oil}
    (AP, 10/21/13)
2013        Oct 21, Spain's oil company Repsol announced a high quality light oil find in Libya's Sahara Desert.
    (AP, 10/21/13)

2013        Oct 23, Swiss-based petrochemical firm Ineos said it would close its Grangemouth plant in Scotland with the loss of hundreds of jobs after failing to resolve a bitter labor dispute.
    (AFP, 10/23/13)

2013        Oct 26, Algeria's energy minister said a new oil field containing an estimated 1.3 billion barrels has been discovered in the southern region of Hassi Messaoud. He said state oil company, Sonatrach, will rely on unconventional techniques to extract 50 percent of the reserves, including hydraulic fracturing (fracking).
    (AP, 10/26/13)

2013        Oct 29, Russian PM Dmitry Medvedev says Russia will ask Ukraine to start pre-paying for gas supplies in case Ukraine doesn't settle outstanding debts. He was reacting to a complaint of Alexei Miller, chief executive of Russian gas giant Gazprom, who said Ukraine owes Russia $882 million for the August deliveries and was due to pay for it by Oct 1.
    (AP, 10/29/13)

2013        Oct 30, In Brazil oil giant OGX, once the jewel in the EBX crown, was forced to file for bankruptcy protection after debt-restructuring talks with its creditors failed. Eike Batista's debt-ridden EBX empire appeared to be on its last legs as the Brazilian magnate desperately tried to sell assets and lure investment to keep his sinking ship afloat.
    (AFP, 11/2/13)

2013        Oct 31, Venezuela seized control of two oil rigs owned by a unit of Houston-based Superior Energy Services after the company shut them down because the state oil monopoly was months behind on payments.
    (AP, 11/2/13)

2013        Nov 2, An Iranian media website said China has agreed to finance $20 billion in development projects in Iran using oil money not transferred to the Islamic Republic because of international sanctions.
    (AP, 11/2/13)
2013        Nov 2, In northern Iraq militants bombed a major oil pipeline in Nineveh province, disabling it and forcing pumping to be suspended.
    (AFP, 11/2/13)

2013        Nov 4, Yemeni Shi'ite and Sunni Muslims fighters agreed to a ceasefire after days of clashes in Damaj killed at least 100 people. Saboteurs blew up an oil pipeline in southern Yemen that pumps crude oil to an export terminal on the Gulf of Aden.
    (Reuters, 11/4/13)(AFP, 11/4/13)

2013        Nov 6, British energy firm Centrica said it has signed a deal to supply British homes with Qatari liquefied natural gas in a tie-up worth £4.4 billion and lasting until 2018.
    (AFP, 11/6/13)

2013        Nov 8, Libyan protesters prevented a tanker from loading 600,000 barrels of crude bound for Italy at the eastern port of Hariga, blocked by a strike for more than two months.
    (Reuters, 11/8/13)

2013        Nov 10, In Libya supporters of a federal system have set up a company to sell oil from terminals they have seized in the east, in the latest challenge to the government. The announcement was made by the Cyrenaica Political Bureau, an autonomous group that set up in October its own government in the east in a move that angered the central authorities.
    (AFP, 11/11/13)

2013        Nov 15, The British government gave the green light for oil firm EnQuest to invest £4.0 billion in a North Sea oil field scheme that will support an estimated 20,000 jobs.
    (AFP, 11/15/13)

2013        Nov 16, Libya's National Oil Company said Berber protesters have ended their occupation of a gas terminal in western Libya that prompted the shutdown of an export pipeline to Italy.
    (AFP, 11/16/13)

2013        Nov 20, Tunisia signed a $500 million loan agreement with energy-rich Qatar to help bolster its currency reserves.
    (AFP, 11/23/13)

2013        Nov 27, Turkey and Iraqi Kurdistan signed a package of landmark contracts that will see the semi-autonomous region's oil and gas exported via pipelines through Turkey.
    (Reuters, 11/29/13)

2013        Dec 3, Netherlands-based Royal Dutch Shell PLC said it has completed building the hull of the world's largest floating facility, which has been constructed to process natural gas off the coast of western Australia.
    (AP, 12/3/13)

2013        Dec 4, OPEC leaders meeting in Austria agreed to hold its crude production ceiling at 30 million barrels per day despite oversupply concerns and competition from cheaper shale oil.
    (AP, 12/4/13)

2013        Dec 6, The Norwegian oil company Statoil announced the discovery of a major gas deposit with its US partner ExxonMobil off the coast of Tanzania.
    (AFP, 12/6/13)

2013        Dec 7, In northeastern Romania Chevron Oil Co. suspended exploration for shale gas after hundreds of anti-fracking protesters tore down fences.
    (SSFC, 12/8/13, p.A4)

2013        Dec 8, Chevron said it has resumed activities to build its first shale gas exploration well in Romania, a day after protests forced the US energy giant to suspend work.
    (AFP, 12/9/13)

2013        Dec 12, Mexico's Congress overwhelmingly voted to open up the country's oil and gas sector to private investment in the biggest overhaul of the industry since it was nationalized in 1938.
    (AP, 12/13/13)

2013        Dec 14, Iran said it has canceled a planned $500 million loan to Pakistan to build part of a pipeline to bring natural gas from the Islamic Republic.
    (AP, 12/14/13)

2013        Dec 16, British Petroleum said it has won official approval to develop a key shale gas project in Oman at a cost of $16 billion (11.6 billion euros).
    (AP, 12/16/13)
2013        Dec 16, More than 50 top European and US scientists wrote to the European Commission President urging him to press ahead with a plan to label tar sands as more polluting than other forms of oil, in defiance of intensive lobbying from Canada.
    (Reuters, 12/20/13)
2013        Dec 16, In Mexico hundreds of people were evacuated after an explosion and fire that was caused by thieves trying to tap into a natural gas pipeline of state oil and gas company Pemex on the outskirts of Mexico City. Seven people were reported injured.
    (Reuters, 12/16/13)

2013        Dec 18, A New Orleans jury convicted Kurt Mix (52), a BP drilling engineer, of obstruction of justice in the 2010 Gulf of Mexico oil spill. Mix had deleted a string of text messages to and from his supervisor.
    (SFC, 12/19/13, p.A14)

2013        Dec 23, The Moroccan-flagged fuel tanker "Silver" hit rocks near the Atlantic port of Tan Tan during a storm, and there were fears of an ecological disaster. Over the next two weeks the cargo was offloaded to fuel trucks.
    (AP, 1/5/14)

2013        Dec 25, Syria’s government signed a major oil and gas exploration deal with a Russian company in Damascus, which will allow for exploration in a section of Syrian waters.
    (AFP, 12/25/13)

2013        Dec 27, An oil platform belonging to Saudi oil giant Aramco sank as it was being used to carry out maintenance work at an oil well in Safaniya. The bodies of 3 Asian workers who went missing were recovered over the next 24 hours.
    (AFP, 12/28/13)

2013        Dec 28, Yemeni tribesmen blew up a pipeline in the eastern Hadramout province, disrupting oil flow two days after they seized an oil ministry building in the region.
    (Reuters, 12/28/13)

2013        Dec 30, In North Dakota a mile-long train carrying crude oil derailed 5 miles from Casselton. As many as 20 cars caught fire.
    (SFC, 12/31/13, p.A6)

2013        Dec 31, In Egypt unknown assailants attacked a natural gas pipeline in the Sinai.
    (Reuters, 12/31/13)

2013        Michael Levi authored “The Power Surge: Energy, Opportunity and the Battle for America’s Future."
    (Econ, 6/15/13, p.82)
2013        Kazakhstan began producing oil from the Kashagan oilfield in the northern Caspian Sea. The project was eight years behind schedule and at $43 billion was $30 billion over budget. Production lasted only a few weeks due to leaks of poisonous gas. A restart was hoped for in 2016.
    (Econ, 10/11/14, p.73)

2014        Jan 2, Iraqi security forces arrested a controversial Shiite cleric who leads an Iranian-backed militia, a move apparently aimed at bolstering Sunni support as the Shiite-led government and allied tribes battled Islamic militants who rose up in multiple Sunni-dominated cities. A truck packed with explosives blew up in Balad Ruz, killing at least 19 people. Militants bombed a major oil pipeline in the north, causing a fire and forcing pumping to be suspended.
    (AP, 1/2/14)(AFP, 1/2/14)

2014        Jan 5, Libya's navy blocked an oil tanker from illegally loading crude at an eastern port that has been held for months by armed protesters demanding more autonomy from Tripoli.
    (AP, 1/6/14)

2014        Jan 6, In Yemen tribesmen in Hadramawt province blew up a major oil pipeline in retaliation for the killing by the army of one of their men.
    (AFP, 1/6/14)

2014        Jan 7, In Canada a freight train carrying crude oil and propane derailed in New Brunswick province. One locomotive and 17 cars derailed. 5 cars carried oil and 4 carried propane.
    (AP, 1/8/14)(SFC, 1/9/14, p.A2)
2014        Jan 7, In eastern Yemen tribesmen Hadramawt province blew up an oil pipeline for the second time in two days, disrupting an important source of revenue for the impoverished state. Gunmen shot dead an army colonel and a car bomb injured a senior intelligence officer in Aden.
    (Reuters, 1/7/14)

2014        Jan 8, Iraq's self-ruled northern Kurdish region said it has unilaterally started sending its crude to Turkey and is going ahead with plans to export oil despite objections by the central government in Baghdad. The flow of oil to Turkey started in early January.
    (AP, 1/9/14)
2014        Jan 8, Libya's PM Ali Zeidan warned oil tankers trying to reach ports seized by armed protesters must stay away or they could be sunk by the navy. Libya said it will sue any foreign firms trying to buy oil from eastern ports seized by armed protesters and stop doing business with them.
    (Reuters, 1/8/14)

2014        Jan 13, France's Total said it has agreed to explore for shale gas in Britain, making it the first major oil company to enter the country's market in the face of widely publicized environmental protests.
    (AP, 1/13/14)

2014        Jan 18, The 75,000 deadweight ton Liberian-flagged fuel tanker MT Kerala lost contact with its Greece-based owner Dynacom  off the coast of Angola. A pirate attack was suspected making it the most southerly attack to date by pirates off West Africa. On Jan 26 Angola's navy said the crew of the oil tanker had turned off communications to fake an attack.
    (Reuters, 1/22/14)(Reuters, 1/26/14)
2014        Jan 18, Turkmenistan's Pres. Gurbanguli Berdymukhamedo said his government will begin installing gas meters in households, ending the unlimited supply of free gas to citizens. The nation is estimated to have the world's fourth-largest natural gas reserves, and gas, electricity and water have been supplied free to households since 1993.
    (AP, 1/18/14)

2014        Jan 22, TransCanada began delivering oil from Cushing, Oklahoma, to customers in Nederland, Texas, through the southern portion of the proposed Keystone XL pipeline.
    (SFC, 1/23/14, p.A6)

2014        Jan 27, In Peru a long-contested expansion of the Camisea natural gas filed won regulatory approval, despite UN concerns that it could endanger Amazon tribes living in voluntary isolation in the area.
    (SFC, 2/1/14, p.A2)(http://tinyurl.com/pqw2xl2)

2014        Jan 30, Royal Dutch Shell said it will suspend drilling in offshore Alaska after a US court decision and as the oil major streamlines operations following a slump in annual profits.
    (AFP, 1/30/14)

2014        Feb 1, Turkmenistan’s President Gurbanguli Berdymukhamedov said in a resolution published in the official government newspaper that each person would still be allowed up to 50 cubic meters of gas for free, but anything over that amount would cost $7 per thousand cubic meters.
    (AP, 2/1/14)
2014        Feb 1, In Yemen a battle, that began a day earlier, between Shiite and Sunni tribesman over land in the northwest left more than 65 dead. Armed tribesmen bombed Yemen's main oil pipeline, halting crude flow to the country's main export terminal less than a month after it was repaired.
    (AP, 2/1/14)(Reuters, 2/1/14)

2014        Feb 3, Libyan PM Ali Zeidan said he has ordered the army to lift the blockade imposed by protesters on the main oil terminals in the east of the country.
    (AFP, 2/3/14)

2014        Feb 13, Nigeria's Senate said it is ordering a forensic audit to track down billions of missing petrodollars after the Senate Committee heard that the amount of unaccounted petrodollars has grown to $20 billion.
    (AP, 2/14/14)

2014        Feb 19, A Nebraska judge struck down a 2011 law that allowed the Keystone XL pipeline to proceed through the state.
    (SFC, 2/20/14, p.A6)

2014        Feb 22, A barge ran into a towboat on the Mississippi River near Vancherie, La. A 65-mile stretch of the river was closed to traffic for a day as crews cleaned up some 31,500 gallons of spilled oil.
    (SFC, 2/24/14, p.A5)(SFC, 2/25/14, p.A5)

2014        Feb 23, Shell Nigeria closed a 6,000-km (3,700-mile) oil pipeline to repair leaks from oil theft.
    (AP, 2/27/14)

2014        Feb 25, Pakistan said that work on a pipeline to import gas from Iran cannot proceed because of sanctions imposed by the United Sates and the European Union on Tehran.
    (AFP, 2/25/14)

2014        Mar 4, A federal judge in New York ruled that a 2011 $9.5 billion judgement against Chevron Corp. in Ecuador was the result of fraud, committed by lawyers who sued the company for allegedly poisoning part of the Amazon rain forest.
    (SFC, 3/5/14, p.A1)
2014        Mar 4, Nigeria said it has released fuel from its reserves to ease a crippling shortage that has caused long queues of vehicles at petrol stations across the country.
    (AFP, 3/4/14)

2014        Mar 8, In Libya armed protesters controlling eastern ports said they had started independently exporting oil, bypassing the central government in a major escalation of their blockade to demand a share of the nation's petroleum wealth.
    (Reuters, 3/8/14)

2014        Mar 9, Libya's Defense Ministry said it has authorized the military to use force to stop a North Korean-flagged tanker from loading crude oil at a rebel-held port, bypassing the Tripoli government.
    (Reuters, 3/9/14)

2014        Mar 11, In Libya angry MPs ousted PM Ali Zeidan after the North Korean-flagged Morning Glory, a tanker laden with oil from a rebel-held terminal, broke through a naval blockade and escaped to sea. Zeidan flew to Malta on a Libyan state plane, but then switched to a private jet after a brief stopover before departing for Germany. Libyan commander Ibrahim Jedran, whose militia took over vital oil terminals in the country's east, said he is seeking help from the United States in a standoff with the government over the seizure.
    (AP, 3/11/14)(AP, 3/12/14)(AFP, 3/12/14)

2014        Mar 12, Nigeria’s President Goodluck Jonathan ordered a forensic audit by international firms into some $20 billion allegedly missing from petroleum sales, following weeks of public outrage and demands by a Senate committee and the finance minister.
    (AP, 3/13/14)

2014        Mar 14, The Nigerian Navy said it has destroyed 260 illegal oil refineries and burned 100,000 tons of contraband fuel, but critics say this targeting of small-time criminals fails to confront the biggest culprits in oil thefts — the politically-connected criminal cartels who sell on the international market.
    (AP, 3/16/14)

2014        Mar 15, Russian forces seized a natural gas distribution station in Strelkova, about 10 km outside Crimea.
    (AP, 3/15/14)

2014        Mar 16, US special forces seized the commercial Morning Glory tanker that fled with a cargo of oil from a Libyan port controlled by anti-government rebels, halting their attempt to sell petroleum on the global market.
    (Reuters, 3/17/14)
2014        Mar 16, Israel allowed the resumption of diesel deliveries into Gaza, a day after the territory's sole power plant stopped working due to a lack of fuel.
    (AFP, 3/16/14)

2014        Mar 22, The US Navy handed over to Libyan authorities the M/T Morning Glory oil tanker it intercepted after the vessel took to sea with crude illegally loaded at a rebel-held port.
    (AFP, 3/22/14)
2014        Mar 22, In Texas a barge began leaking oil into the Houston Ship Channel after colliding with a bulk carrier near Texas City at the mouth of Galveston Bay.
    (Reuters, 3/23/14)
2014        Mar 22, Yemeni tribesmen bombed Yemen's main crude export pipeline, forcing oil flows to be stopped. In the north 12 people were reported killed in clashes between government forces and Shiite rebels on the outskirts of the northern city of Amran.
    (Reuters, 3/22/14)(AFP, 3/22/14)

2014        Mar 24, Major Texas shipping channels that deliver crude oil for more than one-tenth of the nation's refining capacity were shut for a third day, as the cleanup from a spill threatened to last through the week.
    (Reuters, 3/24/14)

2014        Mar 25, The US Coast Guard partially reopened the Houston Ship Channel following the March 22 collision between an oil barge and a bulk carrier near Texas City. 170,000 gallons of tar-like coal were spilled.
    (SFC, 3/26/14, p.A6)

2014        Mar 26, Myanmar’s Energy Ministry said major oil companies including Total, Chevron, Woodside Energy and Shell have won bids for offshore oil and gas exploration blocks off its western and southern coasts.
    (AP, 3/26/14)
2014        Mar 26, Ukraine’s Naftogaz officials said the price of gas will rise for domestic consumers by more than 50 per cent from May 1. Further rises will be implemented under a fixed timetable until 2018. The step were in response to demands by the International Monetary Fund.
    (AP, 3/26/14)

2014        Mar 28, Nigeria’s military said they have arrested two Britons and 10 local citizens on charges of trying to bribe a military officer to facilitate oil theft. Security sources have said the sheer scale of oil theft would not be possible without systematic collusion by various security agencies.
    (Reuters, 3/28/14)

2014        Mar 29, In southern Iraq commercial production on one of the biggest undeveloped oilfields in the world. Russian energy giant Lukoil was the principal firm developing the enormous West Qurna-2 field.
    (AFP, 3/29/14)

2014        Apr 3, Texas-based Anadarko Petroleum said it has agreed to pay the US government over $5.1 billion to thousands of sites polluted by toxins and compensate thousands of personal-injury claimants. The case originated with claims against Kerr-McGee, an Oklahoma energy company that went bankrupt and was bought by Anadarko nearly a decade ago.
    (SFC, 4/4/14, p.A6)
2014        Apr 3, Russia’s gas giant Gazprom urged Ukraine to pay its debt, and announced a 70 percent rise in the charge for future supplies.
    (AP, 4/3/14)

2014        Apr 4, Ukraine's Western-backed leaders scrambled to find new sources of energy after Russia hiked its gas price by 81 percent in response to the overthrow of Kiev's pro-Kremlin regime.
    (AFP, 4/4/14)(AFP, 4/5/14)

2014        Apr 5, Ukraine rejected Russia's latest gas price hike and threatened to take its energy-rich neighbor to arbitration court over a dispute that could imperil deliveries to western Europe.
    (AFP, 4/5/14)

2014        Apr 6, A key Libyan militia in the east agreed to hand back control of four oil terminals it captured and shut down last summer in its demand for a share in oil revenues.
    (AP, 4/7/14)

2014        Apr 7, Kuwait agreed to supply Egypt with 85,000 barrels of oil daily and 1.5 million tons of fuel for three years as part of a newly agreed commercial deal. The supplies would be valued at market prices and delivered by the end of 2016.
    (AFP, 4/8/14)

2014        Apr 9, Libya’s army announced it has taken control of Al-Hariga and Zueitina ports under a deal to end a crippling nine-month blockade by rebels seeking autonomy in the country's east.
    (AFP, 4/10/14)

2014        Apr 10, Libya's National Oil Co (NOC) lifted a force majeure on a crude export terminal recovered from rebel hands, opening the way for renewed exports.
    (AFP, 4/10/14)
2014        Apr 10, President Vladimir Putin warned European leaders Russia would cut natural gas supplies to Ukraine if it did not pay its bills and said this could lead to a reduction of onward deliveries to Europe.
    (Reuters, 4/10/14)

2014        Apr 11, The United States imposed sanctions on a Crimea-based gas company, Chernomorneftegaz, effectively putting it off limits to Russia's state-controlled Gazprom. The move, along with penalties on six Crimean separatists and a former Ukrainian official, is the third round of US sanctions since the Ukraine crisis erupted.
    (Reuters, 4/11/14)

2014        Apr 15, German utility company RWE said it has started sending natural gas to Ukraine, a move that could support the country if Russia acts on its threat to cut off supplies because of a massive debt for past deliveries.
    (AP, 4/15/14)

2014        Apr 16, The ultra-deep Angolan offshore oil project called Kaombo generated the third huge contract in three days when French group Total picked two firms to carry out underwater engineering worth $3.5 billion.
    (AFP, 4/16/14)

2014        Apr 18, In Sudan the Darfur Justice and Equality Movement attacked the Kunar oil field, operated by the Sudanese Greater Nile Petroleum Operating Company in the West Kordofan State, abducting three engineers, two of them Chinese and one Sudanese. On May 2 Xinhua media service said the two Chinese engineers have been released.
    (Reuters, 5/4/14)

2014        Apr 21, Turkey's energy minister said an oil pipeline carrying crude from Iraq's Kirkuk oil fields to Turkey's Mediterranean port of Ceyhan is unusable because of persistent militant attacks.
    (Reuters, 4/21/14)

2014        Apr 22, Armed pirates raided an oil tanker off the coast of Malaysia and took three crew members with them.
    (Reuters, 4/23/14)

2014        Apr 25, Iran announced petrol price hikes as high as 75 percent to take immediate effect, in a long-awaited attempt to regulate energy prices in the country's flatlining, sanctions-hit economy.
    (AFP, 4/25/14)

2014        Apr 29, The US targeted companies from China and Dubai for allegedly helping Iran evade weapons and oil sanctions, a signal Washington will keep pressure on Tehran over its nuclear program.
    (Reuters, 4/29/14)
2014        Apr 29, In Indonesia Rudi Rubiandin, the former head of energy regulator SKKMigas, was sentenced to seven years in prison for his role in a major graft scandal that reached the top levels of the oil ministry.
    (Reuters, 4/29/14)
2014        Apr 29, Moldova's PM Iurie Leanca said neighboring Romania will export gas to his country this year, reducing the former Soviet republic's dependence on Russia for gas.
    (AP, 4/29/14)

2014        Apr, Russia-based Gasprom took over Kyrgyzstan’s gas network, pledging a stable gas supply. Days later Uzbekistan stopped exporting gas to Kyrgyzstan saying it had no contract to sell to Gasprom.
    (Econ, 7/26/14, p.35)

2014        May 1, China deployed a $1 billion deep sea rig near the Paracel Islands and the flotilla of escort ships, some armed, in a gradual campaign of asserting its sovereignty in the South China Sea. After China stationed the oil rig, Vietnam immediately dispatched marine police and fishery protection vessels but they were harassed as they approached.
    (AP, 5/7/14)
2014        May 1, Dutch police stormed a Greenpeace ship and ended environmentalists' attempts to block a Russian tanker carrying oil from the Arctic Ocean from mooring at Rotterdam Port. 31 activists were detained.
    (AP, 5/1/14)

2014        May 4, A Chinese vessel intentionally rammed two Vietnamese Sea Guard vessels in a part of the disputed South China Sea where Beijing has deployed a giant oil rig, sending tensions spiraling in the region.
    (Reuters, 5/7/14)

2014        May 5, Vietnam demanded China stop oil drilling operations in a disputed patch of the South China Sea, saying that Beijing's decision to deploy a deep sea rig over the weekend was illegal.
    (AP, 5/514)

2014        May 6, Ecuador’s electoral council rejected as insufficient a petition drive calling for voters to decide whether to proceed with oil drilling in the pristine Yasuni nature reserve.
    (SFC, 5/8/14, p.A7)

2014        May 8, China accused Vietnam of intentionally colliding with its ships in the South China Sea, but called for talks to end a bitter row sparked by Beijing's parking of a giant oil rig in contested waters.
    (Reuters, 5/8/14)

2014        May 9, In Colorado a crude oil train derailed spilling some 6,500 gallons of oil near LaSalle.
    (SSFC, 5/11/14, p.A16)

2014        May 15, In California an estimated 50,000 gallons of crude oil spilled over a half-mile area due to a break in an above-ground pipeline in Atwater Village, Los Angeles. The spill was soon downgraded to 10,000 gallons.
    (Reuters, 5/15/14)(SFC, 5/16/14, p.A6)
2014        May 15, Prime ministers from central European countries backed Polish plans for close energy cooperation and agreed to draft joint crisis management plans for the possibility of a cut in natural gas from Russia in the coming months.
    (Reuters, 5/15/14)
2014        May 15, Russia ratcheted up pressure on Ukraine, with President Vladimir Putin saying in a letter released today that it only will deliver gas to its struggling neighbor next month if it pays in advance.
    (AP, 5/15/14)

2014        May 21, China signed a landmark deal to buy Russian natural gas worth about $400 billion, giving a boost to diplomatically isolated President Vladimir Putin and expanding Moscow's ties with Asia.
    (AP, 5/21/14)

2014        May 23, Iraq took legal action against Turkey after Ankara announced that oil from Iraq's autonomous Kurdish region was being exported to international markets.
    (AFP, 5/23/14)

2014        May 26, Mexico's state-owned Pemex oil company arrested four its employees for stealing fuel from the company's pipelines.
    (AP, 5/28/14)

2014        May 29, Norwegian police removed Greenpeace activists from a platform operated by Statoil, which they boarded two days ago in a protest against drilling in Arctic waters.
    (AP, 5/29/14)

2014        May 30, Ukraine told Russia a $786 million partial payment on a bill that Russia says could exceed $5 billion by next week was on its way to Moscow. That averted an immediate threat that Russia would stop supplying the former Soviet republic with gas if it fails to make advance payments.
    (Reuters, 5/31/14)

2014        Jun 2, Russia granted Ukraine another week before it will start demanding prepayment for gas, without which it has threatened to cut off supplies.
    (AP, 6/2/14)

2014        Jun 3, The European Union told Bulgaria to suspend preparatory work on the Russian gas pipeline South Stream, which will bypass Ukraine to bring supplies into the heart of Europe. The EU said that work on the line should not proceed until the Bulgarian government gives clear answers on antitrust concerns over ownership.
    (AP, 6/3/14)

2014        Jun 4, The Liberia-flagged MT Fair Artemis lost contact with its owners off Ghana's capital Accra. The Greek tanker with 24 crew aboard was believed to have been hijacked.
    (AFP, 6/6/14)

2014        Jun 8, US Sen. John M McCain visited Sofia, Bulgaria, and warned PM Plamen Oresharski over the danger of proceeding with the South Stream gas pipeline from Russia.
    (Econ, 6/21/14, p.52)

2014        Jun 11, Russia offered to restore the discounted prices it granted Ukraine under the ousted pro-Russian president, but Ukraine demanded an even better deal and called for arbitration to settle the dispute.
    (AP, 6/11/14)

2014        Jun 12, Jordan said it has reached an agreement with Enefit, an Estonian firm, and its partners on a $2.1 billion contract to build a 540 MW shale-fuelded power station.
    (Econ, 6/28/14, p.58)
2014        Jun 12, The Lithuanian government said Russian gas giant Gazprom plans to sell its stake in Lithuanian companies for some 417 million litas ($164 million).
    (AP, 6/12/14)

2014        Jun 13, Ukraine said it was ready to pay a compromise price for Russian natural gas for 18 months to avert the threat of Moscow cutting off supplies and allow time to reach a long-term pricing agreement.
    (Reuters, 6/13/14)

2014        Jun 16, Russia cut gas supplies to Ukraine as a payment deadline passed and negotiators failed to reach a deal on gas prices and unpaid bills amid continued fighting in eastern Ukraine. Gazprom announced that it is suing Ukraine's state energy company Naftogaz in an international court for the $4.5 billion. Naftogaz said it has also filed a suit against Gazprom, seeking a "fair and market-based price" for gas, as well as a repayment of $6 billion for what it said were overpayments for gas from 2010.
    (AP, 6/16/14)

2014        Jun 17, Canada’s government approved a proposed pipeline to the Pacific Coast that would allow oil to be shipped to Asia.
    (SFC, 6/18/14, p.A2)
2014        Jun 17, In central Ukraine an explosion rocked the main pipeline carrying Russian natural gas to the rest of Europe but a source at Russian gas producer Gazprom said the blast has not disrupted the gas flow.
    (Reuters, 6/17/14)

2014        Jun 18, Iraqi security forces battled insurgents targeting the country's main oil refinery and said it had regained partial control of Tal Afar, a city near the Syrian border. Fighting shut the Baiji refinery.
    (AP, 6/18/14)(Econ, 6/21/14, p.71)

2014        Jun 19, China said it is moving a second oil rig closer to Vietnam's coast, showing its determination to press its territorial claims and continue searching for resources in disputed waters despite a tense confrontation with Vietnam over another oil rig to the south.
    (AP, 6/19/14)
2014        Jun 19, In Iraq Col. Ali al-Qureishi told state-run Iraqiya television by telephone that the Beiji oil facility remained under his control. He said his forces had killed nearly 100 militants since June 17. The Beiji refinery accounts for just over a quarter of the country's entire refining capacity.
    (AP, 6/19/14)

2014        Jun 20, Iraqi Kurdistan looked set to unload in Israel a first cargo of disputed crude oil from its new pipeline after weeks of seeking an outlet as Iraq's central government has threatened legal action against any buyer.
    (Reuters, 6/20/14)

2014        Jun 24, Spain's Supreme Court approved a $7-billion oil exploration project off the Canary Islands.
    (Reuters, 6/24/14)

2014        Jun 30, In China a leaking oil pipeline caught fire in the northeastern port city of Dalian, forcing the evacuation of nearly 20,000 residents.
    (AP, 7/1/14)

2014        Jul 4, In Syria Islamic militants seized an eastern oil field near Iraq and inched closer to the Turkish border in an attempt to consolidate their control of an area along the length of the Euphrates river stretching through Syria and Iraq.
    (AP, 7/4/14)

2014        Jul 5, In Afghanistan militants set fire to 200 oil tanker trucks supplying fuel for NATO forces near Kabul.
    (Reuters, 7/5/14)

2014        Jul 8, Libya restarted production at the Sharara oilfield, one of the country’s largest oilfields, pumping at more than 90 percent of its capacity.
    (AP, 7/9/14)

2014        Jul 11, Kurdish forces seized two oilfields in north Iraq and took over operations from a state-run oil company, while Kurdish politicians formally withdrew from PM Nuri al-Maliki's government.
    (Reuters, 7/11/14)

2014        Jul 12, Libya’s state firm National Oil Corp (NOC) said protesters have shut down the eastern oil port Brega.
    (Reuters, 7/12/14)
2014        Jul 12, Yemeni tribesmen blew up the country’s main oil pipeline, halting deliveries from oilfields in the interior to the Ras Isa export terminal on the Red Sea.
    (AP, 7/12/14)

2014        Jul 16, Vietnam said China has moved an oil rig out of waters claimed by Hanoi. Two months of drilling had triggered a near-breakdown in ties between the neighbors and led to deadly protests in Vietnam.
    (AP, 7/16/14)

2014        Jul 17, Iraq's autonomous region of Kurdistan pumped an experimental 20,000 barrels of light crude from an oilfield recently seized from the federal authorities. It was the first time the Kurds pumped oil from Bai Hassan field -- 55 km (35 miles) northwest of Kirkuk. The field used to average 190,000 barrels per day.
    (AFP, 7/17/14)

2014        Jul 18, The Obama administration approved the use of sonic cannons to discover oil deposits under the ocean floor of the Eastern seaboard. The sounds posed real danges for whales, fish and sea turtles.
    (SFC, 7/19/14, p.A4)

2014        Jul 23, Ukrainian Energy Minister Yuri Prodan said reverse gas flows from the EU to Ukraine had fallen because of opposition from Russian gas producer Gazprom.
    (Reuters, 7/23/14)

2014        Jul 27, A tanker carrying crude oil from Iraqi Kurdistan was cleared by the US Coast Guard to unload its cargo at sea off Texas. Iraq's central government, in a court filing the next day, laid claim to the cargo that it says was sold by the regional government of Kurdistan without permission from Baghdad. In response a US judge signed an order telling the US Marshals Service to seize the cargo. On July 29 federal magistrate Nancy K. Johnson said that because the tanker was some 60 miles (100 km) offshore, and outside territorial waters, an order she issued to seize the cargo could not be enforced.
    (Reuters, 7/28/14)(Reuters, 7/29/14)

2014        Jul 28, The international Permanent Court of Arbitration ordered Russia to pay over $50 billion in compensation to the former majority shareholder of now-defunct oil producer Yukos over the expropriation of the company more than 10 years ago. Russia planned to appeal.
    (AP, 7/28/14)

2014        Jul 31, The European Court of Human Rights awarded awarded fhe shareholders of now-defunct oil producer Yukos $2.6 billion in compensation for Russia’s seizure of its assets in 2006.
    (Econ, 8/2/14, p.51)

2014        Aug 7, An oil company owned by Israeli billionaire Dan Gertler said it had discovered reserves of around 3 billion barrels in the Democratic Republic of Congo.
    (Reuters, 8/7/14)

2014        Aug 11, It was revealed that Serbian police were investigating the 2008 privatization of NIS, Serbia’s main oil company. Russia was said to have gotten fantastic terms for the deal after siding with Serbia over Kosovo. Russia’s Gazprom Neft held a 51% stake in NIS.
    (Econ, 8/23/14, p.51)

2014        Aug 18, In Ohio an estimated 5-8 thousand gallons of fuel oil spilled into the Ohio River from the Duke Energy power plant in New Richmond. A 15-mile section of the river was closed for cleanup.
    (SFC, 8/20/14, p.A8)
2014        Aug 18, China’s CNOOC discovered a gas field at a depth of about 1,500 meters, about 150 km south of Hainan island. It was unclear whether the discovery would become commercially viable.
    (AP, 9/16/14)

2014        Aug 20, Siluria Technologies of California said a $30 million fundraising round was led by Saudi Aramco. Siluria said it can make gasoline from gas for about $1 per gallon.
    (SFC, 8/21/14, p.C1)

2014        Aug 21, Lithuania signed a deal with Norway's Statoil to supply natural gas to the country's new terminal starting 2015, as the Baltic state strives to cut its dependence on Russian energy.
    (AFP, 8/21/14)
2014        Aug 21, Russian natural gas exporter Gazprom said that Ukraine's outstanding debt for gas supplies stood at $5.3 billion as of Aug. 1 and called on Kiev to ensure that gas continues to transit without disruption to Europe.
    (Reuters, 8/21/14)

2014        Aug 27, Moldova and Romania inaugurated a new pipeline that will pump gas from Romania to Moldova in an attempt to reduce the former Soviet republic's dependence on Russian energy. However, 43-km (28-mile) pipeline will provide only five percent of its gas needs.
    (AP, 8/27/14)

2014        Aug 28, In northern Iraq retreating jihadists set three wells ablaze at the Ain Zalah oil field as they battled Kurdish forces who launched a major attack nearby. Iraqi security forces backed by volunteer militiamen retook several villages located on the way to the town of Amerli.
    (AFP, 8/28/14)

2014        Sep 3, US giant Noble Energy said Israel is to supply Jordan with natural gas from its vast Leviathan offshore gas field over a period of 15 years in a deal valued at $15 billion.
    (AFP, 9/3/14)

2014        Sep 10, Poland's PGNiG gas utility said its gas deliveries from Russia's Gazprom had been cut by 24 percent, amid heightened tensions over the Ukraine crisis.
    (AFP, 9/10/14)

2014        Sep 12, The US imposed sanctions on Gazprom, Gazprom Neft, Lukoil, Surgutneftegas and Rosneft, banning Western firms from supporting their activities in exploration or production from deep water, Arctic offshore or shale projects.
    (Reuters, 9/13/14)

2014        Sep 16, Russia’s Investigative Committee placed Vladimir Yevtushenkov (65), the head of Sistema, under house arrest. His sprawling conglomerate included MTS, Russia’s largest mobile operator, and Bashneft, a profitable oil company. Yevtushenkov was charged with money laundering. Market watchers saw this as an attempt by the government and state-owned Rosneft to take over Bashneft.
    (SFC, 9/18/14, p.A5)
2014        Sep 16, Romania's energy minister said Russia was playing games with gas supplies to cause concerns in EU states, after analysts warned that Moscow could use the flows to retaliate against sanctions imposed over its role in Ukraine.
    (Reuters, 9/16/14)
2014        Sep 16, Slovak gas importer SPP reported a 25 percent reduction in gas supplies from Russia via Ukraine, the biggest drop since a decline in deliveries was first reported last week.
    (Reuters, 9/16/14)

2014        Sep 23, Brazil’s prosecutor's office said in a statement that tycoon Eike Batista and seven former directors of oil company OGX Petroleo e Gas Participacoes have been charged with deceiving investors with false information regarding the company's production potential. Prosecutors said the stock manipulation caused the market to lose more than $6 billion.
    (AP, 9/24/14)

2014        Sep 25, Hungary unexpectedly cut off natural gas shipments to Ukraine. Hungary had been sending an estimated 3 million cubic meters of natural gas a day to Ukraine, which has not received any from Russia since June.
    (AP, 9/26/14)

2014        Sep 28, In Syria airstrikes likely carried out by the US-led coalition struck an oil refinery held by the Islamic State group, shaking buildings and sending flames shooting into the air near the Turkish border.
    (AP, 9/28/14)

2014        Sep 29, Mexico said it has nabbed five suspected members of a ring believed to have stolen over 1 million gallons (4 million liters) of oil per month in Tamaulipas state.
    (AP, 9/29/14)

2014        Oct 2, A Vietnamese oil tanker went missing after pirates stormed the ship and siphoned off some of its cargo. It was released after a week. The deputy captain of the Sunrise 689, Pham Van Hoang, said a group of more than 10 men, who he thought were Indonesian, armed with guns and knives in two speedboats boarded the tanker shortly after it left Singapore for Vietnam.
    (AP, 10/9/14)

2014        Oct 7, Cyprus' president suspended talks on reunifying the ethnically divided island in response to Turkey's plans to search for oil and gas in waters where the Cypriot government has already licensed Italy's Eni and South Korea's Kogas to drill.
    (AP, 10/7/14)

2014        Oct 14, The price of Brent crude oil fell $4 to $85 a barrel. Its price had peaked in June at $105 per barrel. Crude oil prices fell sharply in the fourth quarter.
    (http://tinyurl.com/ya8nz3v2)(Econ, 10/18/14, p.73)

2014        Oct 17, Meeting in Milan, Italy, Russia and Ukraine made progress towards resolving a row over gas supplies, but European leaders said Moscow had to do much more to prop up a fragile ceasefire and end fighting in eastern Ukraine.
    (Reuters, 10/17/14)

2014        Oct 18, Ukraine’s President Petro Poroshenko said in a television interview that Russia has agreed to supply Ukraine with gas through March 31 at a price of $385 per 1,000 cubic meters.
    (AP, 10/19/14)

2014        Oct 20, In Russia Christophe de Margerie, the charismatic CEO of Total SA, was killed at a Moscow airport late today when his private jet collided with a snowplow whose driver, Vladimir Martynenko, was reportedly drunk. 3 French crew members also died when the Dassault Falcon 50 burst into flames after it hit the snowplow. Relatives said Martynenko was sober in the morning and that he doesn't drink at all due to chronic heart disease. On July 28, 2016, Martynenko and the engineer in charge of snow clearing, Vladimir Ledenev, admitted in a Moscow court to causing the deaths through safety breaches and negligence.
    (AP, 10/21/14)(Reuters, 10/21/14)(AFP, 7/28/16)

2014        Oct 22, French oil giant Total SA named Patrick Pouyanne as chief executive to replace Christophe de Margerie, who was killed Oct 20 in a plane crash in Moscow.
    (AP, 10/22/14)

2014        Oct 23, The US Treasury Department said Islamic State militants are earning about $1 million a day just from black market oil sales.
    (AP, 10/23/14)

2014        Oct 24, In Nigeria gunmen on a speedboat in the oil-producing south killed 4 policemen and kidnapped six Nigerian employees of the Agip energy firm in the Nembe Creek area of Bayelsa state.
    {Nigeria, Oil}
    (AFP, 10/28/14)

2014        Oct 27, A floating natural gas terminal, built by South Korea, arrived in the Lithuanian port of Klaipeda, in a move by the Baltic country to further reduce its reliance on energy supplies from Russia. The $330 million "Independence", owned by Norway's Hoegh LNG and leased to Lithuania's SC Klaipedos Nafta terminal operator, will be able to provide 4 billion cubic meters (141 billion cubic feet) of gas a year when it becomes operational in January.
    (AP, 10/27/14)

2014        Oct 29, A ship carrying 52 tons of oil in the Baltic Sea ran aground off Stockholm’s sprawling archipelago and began leaking its cargo.
    (SFC, 10/30/14, p.A2)

2014        Oct 30, Moscow, Kiev and the European Union clinched an agreement to resume supplies of Russian gas to Ukraine over the winter and secure transit of gas via Ukraine to Europe.
    (Reuters, 10/31/14)

2014        Oct 31, Russia’s Gazprom said it may restart gas supply to Ukraine as soon as next week if Kiev pays $2.2 billion worth of debt and pre-payments, under a deal that is also vital to ensure deliveries to Europe.
    (Reuters, 10/31/14)
2014        Oct 31, Ukrainian PM Arseny Yatseniuk said Ukraine would guarantee deliveries of gas through its territory to Europe to make sure Moscow had no room for "blackmailing".
    (Reuters, 10/31/14)

2014        Nov 4, Texas voters approved a ban on hydraulic fracturing in the town of Denton, making it the first city in the Lone Star State to outlaw the oil and gas extraction technique behind the US energy boom. Texas voters also agreed to steer $1.7 billion of oil and gas production taxes toward the highway fund.
    (Reuters, 11/5/14)(Econ, 11/22/14, p.27)

2014        Nov 6, Yemeni tribesmen blew up the country's main oil export pipeline, forcing crude flows to stop.
    (Reuters, 11/6/14)

2014        Nov 8, Libyan state security guards started a protest at the 120,000 barrels a day Hariga oil port in the east, halting any oil exports.
    (Reuters, 11/8/14)

2014        Nov 9, Chinese President Xi Jinping and his Russian counterpart Vladimir Putin promised ever-closer cooperation as they met for the 10th time in less than two years. They signed agreements to boost energy cooperation, including an understanding to develop a second major route to supply the Chinese side with Russian gas following an initial $400 billion deal in May.
    (AP, 11/9/14)

2014        Nov 12, South Korea's Hyundai Heavy Industries said it had signed a $1.94 billion deal to build offshore oil and gas processing platforms in the United Arab Emirates.
    (AFP, 11/12/14)

2014        Nov 14, Police in Brazil arrested Renato Duque, the former director of services of the state-run oil company Petrobras, for his alleged role in a money-laundering scheme as authorities conduct a widening probe of corruption involving the company.
    (AP, 11/14/14)

2014        Nov 17, The president of Brazil’s Petrobras announced the creation of a compliance department to deal with the unfurling corruption scandal that has shaken the state-owned oil giant.
    (SFC, 11/18/14, p.A2)

2014        Nov 20, Britain's first bus powered entirely by human and food waste took to the road in Bristol. The Wessex Water subsidiary GENeco's Bristol sewage treatment plant became the first in the UK to start providing gas generated from food waste and sewage to the national gas grid network.
    (AFP, 11/20/14)

2014        Nov 21, Malaysia's government said it will completely withdraw fuel subsidies from next month following the plunge in global oil prices.
    (AP, 11/21/14)

2014        Nov 26, In Yemen saboteurs blew up the country’s main oil export pipeline, halting crude flows. Five people were killed in clashes between Shi'ite Houthi fighters and Sunni tribal opponents in Sanaa.
    (Reuters, 11/26/14)

2014        Nov 27, Saudi Arabia led the 12-member OPEC oil ministers meeting in Austria. OPEC opted to keep their production target at 30 million barrels a day, despite an oversupply of crude and plunging prices.
    (AP, 11/27/14)

2014        Dec 1, Mexico’s gas market plugged into the rest of North America for the first time as gas began to flow from Texas to Los Ramones along stage one of the Los Ramones pipeline.
    (Econ, 11/15/14, p.65)
2014        Dec 1, Ukraine landed a 150 million euro ($187 million) loan from the European Investment Bank to modernize its section of the pipeline used to deliver natural gas from Russia to Europe.
    (AP, 12/1/14)

2014        Dec 2, The Iraqi government reached a deal with the Kurdish local authorities in the country's north to exchange oil from the autonomous region for a nearly 20 percent share of the national budget.
    (AP, 12/2/14)

2014        Dec 9, In Bangladesh an oil tanker carrying more than 350,000 liters (92,500 gallons) of bunker oil sank on a major river flowing through the Sundarbans after being hit by a cargo vessel.
    (AP, 12/12/14)
2014        Dec 9, Russia resumed shipments of natural gas to Ukraine.
    (Reuters, 12/9/14)

2014        Dec 10, Israeli ecologists said it could take years to clean up a massive oil spill that flooded the Evrona desert reserve with up to five million liters of crude and threatened to spread to the Red Sea shore and neighboring Jordan. The breached pipeline started spewing oil a week ago.
    (AP, 12/10/14)

2014        Dec 14, Egypt's stock market plunged by 22 billion Egyptian pounds (just over $3 billion) in a single day of trading as low oil prices dragged down regional economies.
    (AP, 12/14/14)
2014        Dec 14, The minister of oil in Libya's Tripoli-based government said the Sidra terminal, the country's largest oil shipping terminal, has been shut down due to clashes between rival militias.
    (AP, 12/14/14)

2014        Dec 17, The United States slapped sanctions on Dutch and Swiss oil trading firms for their dealings with the Syrian government. This put Netherlands-based Staroil B.V. as well as two Swiss-based firms, Rixo International Trading Ltd and Bluemarine SA, on its list of sanctioned entities, which effectively cuts them off from the US financial system.
    (AP, 12/17/14)

2014        Dec 19, In Brazil a federal investigation into a kickback scheme at state-owned Petrobras ensnared 30 executives. In Sao Paulo prosecutors accused 33 businessmen of running a “cartel" to profit from the city’s subway system.
    (SFC, 12/20/14, p.A2)
2014        Dec 19, Israel was asked by the UN General Assembly to compensate Lebanon for $856.4 million in oil spill damages it caused during its 2006 war with Hezbollah. The US, Australia, Canada and Israel were among the six states that voted against the UN text.
    (AFP, 12/20/14)

2014        Dec 22, Pennsylvania's Department of Environmental Protection (DEP) said it imposed a $999,900 fine on US oil and natural gas company Vantage Energy Inc, one of the largest given to a driller by DEP this year, for several environmental regulations violations.
    (Reuters, 12/23/14)

2014        Dec 24, A leak on a major Russian oil pipeline caused a spill in the Black Sea near the port of Tuapse where officials said stormy weather was hampering efforts to assess and respond to the mishap.
    (Reuters, 12/24/14)

2014        Dec 27, Libya said it has called on Italy to send firefighters to prevent a fire spreading out of control at Es Sider, the country's biggest oil port. The fire had spread to a total of five oil tanks. The fire was reported extinguished on Jan 2.
    (Reuters, 12/27/14)(Reuters, 1/2/15)

2014        Russell Gold authored “The Boom: How Fracking Ignited the American Energy Revolution and Changed the World.
    (SSFC, 4/6/14, p.F1)
2014        California officials this summer abruptly shut down 11-waste injection wells in Kern County, fearing they would taint groundwater supplies feeding homes and farms. The state had allowed oil companies to drill over 170 waste disposal wells into aquifers suitable for drinking or irrigation.
    (SSFC, 2/1/15, p.A1,10)
2014        Gabon’s oil exports accounted for up to four-fifths of its export revenues.
    (Econ, 8/6/16, p.38)

2015        Jan 6, In Algeria protests in the remote and sparsely populated south over efforts to exploit the country's vast shale gas reserves spread to the regional capital Tamanrasset. Algeria has the third-largest estimated shale gas reserves in the world, after China and Argentina.
    (AP, 1/6/15)

2015        Jan 7, In North Dakota a leak from a saltwater collection line owned by Summit Midstream Partners LP was reported to state officials. Nearly 3 million gallons of saltwater, a byproduct of the hydraulic fracturing process, and an unknown quantity of crude oil had leaked from a pipeline into a creek that feeds the Missouri River approximately 15 miles north of Williston.
    (AP, 1/22/15)
2015        Jan 7, It was announced that Royal Dutch Shell will pay more than $80 million to people in Bodo, a Nigerian fishing community "devastated" by two serious oil spills in 2008. The clean-up could take years.
    (AFP, 1/7/15)

2015        Jan 15, US Secretary of State John Kerry pledged to support Bulgaria's efforts to wean itself off dependence on Russian energy at the launch of an annual strategic dialogue between the two NATO allies.
    (Reuters, 1/15/15)
2015        Jan 15, A US federal judge in Louisiana ruled that more oil than BP estimated spilled into the Gulf of Mexico following a rig explosion in 2010.
    (SFC, 1/16/15, p.A6)

2015        Jan 17, In Montana some 50,000 gallons of oil spilled from a pipeline into the Yellowstone River near Glendive. Residents of Glendive were soon told not to use municipal water after elevated levels of benzene were found downstream from the spill.
    (SFC, 1/19/15, p.A4)(SFC, 1/21/15, p.A6)

2015        Jan 20, Schlumberger Ltd. said it will spend about $1.7 billion for a minority stake in a big Russian energy company at a time when that country's relations with the West are under strain and as energy prices hit multiyear lows.
    (AP, 1/20/15)

2015        Jan 28, Myanmar opened trial operations of a deep sea port off its western coast, part of a $2.45 billion port and pipeline project that will carry crude oil from the Middle East to China.
    (AP, 1/30/15)

2015        Feb 3, In Libya new clashes erupted between rival factions fighting for control of the country's biggest oil port Es Sider, killing several people. Gunmen attacked a partly French-owned al-Mabrouk oil field and shot to death 3 guards.
    (Reuters, 2/3/15)(AP, 2/4/15)

2015        Feb 4, Embattled Brazilian oil giant Petrobras said that Maria das Gracas Foster, the company's chief executive officer, and five other top figures stepped down amid a long-running and massive kickback scandal at the firm.
    (AP, 2/4/15)(Econ, 2/7/15, p.60)

2015        Feb 5, Police in Brazil issued 62 arrest, search and other legal orders in the investigation into a massive kickback scheme at the state-run oil company Petrobras. This included a warrant compelling the treasurer of Brazil's ruling Workers' Party to testify.
    (AP, 2/5/15)

2015        Feb 7, Libya's eastern oil export port Hariga shut down due to a strike of security guards, closing the country's last functioning export port apart from two offshore fields. Only Brega port was still open, but it is used to supply the 120,000 bpd-Zawiya refinery with crude.
    (Reuters, 2/8/15)

2015        Feb 14, In Libya a bomb exploded at an oil pipeline from the El Sarir field, halting flows to Hariga port as the country struggles to restore crude exports battered by factional fighting.
    (Reuters, 2/14/15)

2015        Feb 15, A Canadian National train loaded with crude oil derailed  in northern Ontario. At least seven cars burst into flames.
    (SFC, 2/17/15, p.A5)

2015        Feb 16, In West Virginia a CSX train carrying crude oil derailed east of Charleston. At least 12-15 cars derailed and at least one tank car fell into the Kanahwa River.
    (SFC, 2/17/15, p.A5)

2015        Feb 17, In Hungary PM Viktor Orban hosted Russian Pres. Vladimir Putin and reached a political agreement on a new gas deal.
    (SFC, 2/18/15, p.A2)
2015        Feb 17, In India police arrested three men for allegedly stealing classified documents from the ministry of petroleum and natural gas and selling them to energy companies. Four other men, including two energy consultants, were arrested soon after.
    (AP, 2/19/15)
2015        Feb 17, Mexico’s state oil company said it will no longer ship finished, usable gasoline or diesel through its network of ducts due to increasing illegal pipeline taps.
    (SFC, 2/18/15, p.A2)

2015        Feb 18, The Dutch Safety Board said Royal Dutch Shell, Exxon Mobil Corp and the Dutch government ignored the danger of earthquakes caused by gas extraction at the massive Groningen gas field for decades.
    (Reuters, 2/18/15)

2015        Feb 22, Libya resumed oil exports from the eastern port of Zueitina after an almost year-long suspension and is also testing a pipeline to restart exports from Hariga port. Zueitina is under the control of troops loyal to the internationally recognized Libyan government.
    (Reuters, 2/22/15)

2015        Feb 25, The EU unveiled a vast plan to boost coordination between its 28 national energy markets to wean Europe off unstable Russian gas supplies and provide cheaper energy for consumers.
    (AP, 2/25/15)

2015        Mar 1, Guyana's foreign affairs ministry said that Caracas objects to plans for an exploratory well to be drilled in an area it contends is within Guyana's territorial waters.
    (AP, 3/1/15)

2015        Mar 3, Regulators said California officials have ordered oil companies to shut down 12 more wells that injected oil-field wastewater into drinkable aquifers in the Central Valley.
    (SFC, 3/4/15, p.A1)
2015        Mar 3, Rival Libyan forces carried out tit-for-tat air strikes on oil terminals and an airport, escalating their battle for control of the oil-producing country days before UN peace talks are to resume in Morocco.
    (Reuters, 3/3/15)

2015        Mar 4, France, Portugal and Spain sealed the agreement on boosting energy cooperation in Madrid as a major step toward breaking Europe's dependence on Russian gas supplies.
    (AP, 3/5/15)
2015        Mar 4, Libya's National Oil Co declared force majeure at 11 oil fields after attacks by Islamists, a legal step protecting it from liability if it cannot fulfill contracts for reasons beyond its control.
    (AFP, 3/4/15)
2015        Mar 4, Romania began transporting natural gas to Moldova, as the former Soviet republic moves toward the European Union and becomes less dependent on Russia.
    (AP, 3/4/15)

2015        Mar 5, Energy-rich Kazakhstan suspended Russian fuel and gas imports to protect its domestic market from a surplus due to a weakened ruble which has sent ripples of economic uncertainty through Central Asia.
    (AP, 3/5/15)
2015        Mar 5, Mexico's President Enrique Pena Nieto ended his three-day state visit to Britain by overseeing the signing of deals that boost ties between the two countries in energy, including a $1 billion oil agreement.
    (AFP, 3/5/15)

2015        Mar 6, Libya's oil security forces said they had retaken control of the Al-Ghani oilfield after militants attacked the facility. An employee watched the beheadings of the 8 oil guards and subsequently died of a heart attack. Nine foreign workers, including a Czech, an Austrian, four Filipinos, two Bangladeshis and a Ghanaian, were missing after gunmen attacked the oilfield. In 2017 Austria said it had evidence that all nine workers were killed the same year.
    (Reuters, 3/7/15)(SSFC, 3/8/15, p.A3)(AP, 3/9/15)(Reuters, 9/20/17)

2015        Mar 8, The European Union said it has imposed sanctions on Syrian businessman George Haswani, who it says bought oil for the Syrian government from Islamic State militants who have seized wide areas of the country including its oil-producing regions.
    (Reuters, 3/8/15)

2015        Mar 16, Brazilian police launched a new round of arrests in the corruption scandal at state oil giant Petrobras, a day after massive nationwide demonstrations against leftist President Dilma Rousseff.
    (AFP, 3/16/15)

2015        Mar 20, The Obama administration issued the first federal mandates governing hydraulic fracturing on public land.
    (SFC, 3/21/15, p.D1)

2015        Mar 24, Brent crude oil fell towards $55 a barrel in choppy trading after the dollar firmed, adding pressure to a market grappling with signs of slowing Chinese growth and Saudi Arabian oil production close to an all-time high.
    (Reuters, 3/24/15)
2015        Mar 24, Venezuela said it is launching a probe into large offshore bank deposits amid a spate of reports that at least $2 billion was siphoned off by corrupt, top-level officials at state-run oil company PDVSA.
    (AP, 3/24/15)

2015        Mar 26, Italian police and Europol said eight people have been arrested in a half-dozen European countries for allegedly operating a diesel import scam that avoided taxes by disguising the fuel as it transited across the continent.
    (AP, 3/26/15)
2015        Mar 26, In Mexico an attempt to take gasoline from a crashed tanker truck led to deaths and injuries when the vehicle exploded. The death toll rose to 17 as more victims died of burn injuries at hospitals.
    (AP, 3/28/15)(AP, 4/3/15)

2015        Mar 31, In southern California Andrew Getty (47), heir to the Getty family oil fortune, was found dead at his home in the Hollywood Hills.
    (SFC, 4/2/15, p.D1)

2015        Apr 1, An explosion and fire struck Mexico’s Abkatun A-Permanente platform. Eight firefighting vessels with water cannon battled the blaze on the offshore oil platform for hours. The inferno killed 4 workers and forced 300 to be evacuated.
    (AFP, 4/2/15)

2015        Apr 3, In Nigeria gunmen stormed two communities in the southern oil state of Rivers, killing at least 9 people and injuring two others. Militants of the Urhobo minority ethnic group blew up a natural gas pipeline in Delta state.
    (AFP, 4/4/15)(Reuters, 4/4/15)

2015        Apr 4, Libya’s PM Thinni announced late today that he had authorized his government's oil corporation to open a separate bank account in the United Arab Emirates for oil revenues, and to seek independent oil sales.
    (Reuters, 4/5/15)

2015        Apr 8, Royal Dutch Shell said it will pay the equivalent of 13.67 pounds in cash and stock for each share of British rival BG Group, 50 percent more than the April 7 closing price.
    (AP, 4/8/15)

2015        Apr 10, In Brazil firefighters extinguished the fires that for 10 days engulfed six fuel storage tanks at a liquid bulk storage facility in the port city of Santos.
    (AP, 4/11/15)

2015        Apr 11, In Iraq Islamic State militants launched suicide attacks against the Baiji oil refinery, the largest in the country. 20 jihadist fighters were reported killed in raids by the Iraqi air force.
    (AFP, 4/11/15)

2015        Apr 14, The Russian fishing trawler Oleg Naydenov sank off of the Canary Islands. It had caught fire in an island port and was towed out to sea where it sank carrying some 1,400 metric tons of fuel oil. Greenpeace later spotted a 3-mile oil slick and called on Spain’s government for more resources to clean the oil spill.
    (SFC, 4/27/15, p.A2)
2015        Apr 14, In southern Yemen operations were suspended at the Gulf of Aden Balhaf plant, the country’s only gas export terminal, after armed tribesmen drove out soldiers guarding the site, accusing them of links to rebel forces.
    (AFP, 4/14/15)

2015        Apr 17, Phillips 66 said it has discovered a diesel fuel leak from a company-operated pipeline between a terminal in Hartford, Illinois, and the terminal's barge dock on the Mississippi River. The volume of the spill was not yet determined.
    (Reuters, 4/17/15)

2015        Apr 19, The mayor of Haifa, Israel's third largest city, ordered the closure of five petrochemical plants following a health ministry warning linking high cancer rates to air pollution.
    (AFP, 4/19/15)

2015        Apr 20, Chinese customs authorities said they have detained over 250 members of two gangs earlier this month involved in smuggling in 440,000 tons of fuel using retooled fishing boats or vessels done up to look like boats that carry out cleaning work on oil tankers.
    (Reuters, 4/20/15)

2015        Apr 22, The US Justice Dept. said Exxon Mobil Corp has agreed to pay $5.07 million to resolve allegations it violated the federal Clean Water Act and state environmental laws in connection with a March 29, 2013, oil spill in Arkansas.
    (Reuters, 4/22/15)
2015        Apr 22, Margrethe Vestager, the EU’s competition commissioner, sent Russia’s Gazprom a charge sheet alleging market abuses.
    (Econ., 4/25/15, p.59)

2015        May 4, A report on drinking water in Bradford County, Pa., revealed traces of a compound commonly found in Marcellus Shale drilling fluids.
    (SFC, 5/5/15, p.A6)

2015        May 6, Hawaii lawmakers passed a bill that puts an end to a requirement that a corn-based additive be mixed into fuel sold in the state. A 10% ethanol blend in its gas has been required since 2006.
    (SFC, 5/7/15, p.A8)

2015        May 7, In Iraq the Islamic State jihadist group launched a fresh offensive against the Baiji refinery, the largest in the country.
    (AFP, 5/7/15)

2015        May 9, In New York state a transformer fire at the Indian Point nuclear power plant caused oil to leak into the Hudson River and forced an automatic shutdown of the plant.
    (SFC, 5/11/15, p.A6)

2015        May 11, The Obama administration approved plans for Shell Oil to drill in the Arctic Chukchi Sea. Shell still needed to secure seven other permits.
    (SFC, 5/12/15, p.A9)

2015        May 16, In Washington state hundreds of activists in kayaks and small boats fanned out on a Seattle bay to protest plans by Royal Dutch Shell to resume oil exploration in the Arctic and keep two of its drilling rigs stored in the city's port.
    (Reuters, 5/17/15)

2015        May 18, Texas Gov. Greg Abbott signed a law preventing cities from banning fracking.
    (Econ, 5/30/15, p.30)

2015        May 19, In central California an estimated 101,000 gallons of oil leaked from a broken pipeline next to Refugio State Beach in Santa Barbara County before it was shut off. About 21,000 gallons flowed into a storm drain, sullied the beach and washed out to sea. Estimates of the spill were later raised to 143,000 gallons. In 2016 Texas-based Plains All American Pipeline and one employee faced 46 counts of state law violations related to the spill. On Sept. 7, 2018, a jury found the company guilty of nine criminal charges. On April 26, 2019, the company was fined nearly $3.35 million. In 2020 the company said it will pay $60 million to settle allegations that it violated safety laws.
    (SFC, 5/20/15, p.A10)(SFC, 5/21/15, p.A1)(SSFC, 6/21/15, p.A9)(SFC, 8/6/15, p.D6)(SFC, 5/17/16, p.A6)(SFC, 9/8/18, p.A6)(SFC, 4/27/19, p.A6)(SSFC, 3/15/20, p.A5)

2015        May 20, In New Orleans lawyers announced a $211 million settlement with Transocean Ltd, owner of the Deepwater Horizon drilling rig where an explosion in April, 2010, killed 11 workers and sent oil spilling into the Gulf of Mexico for 87 days.
    (SFC, 5/21/15, p.A10)

2015        May 24, Warplanes from Libya's official government attacked the Anwar Afriqya oil tanker off the coast near the city of Sirte, wounding two people. The tanker had been unloading gasoil for Sirte's power plant when it came under attack.
    (Reuters, 5/24/15)

2015        May 25, Nigerian fuel marketers agreed to resume distribution after weeks of disruption led to chronic fuel shortages, bringing phone companies, banks and airlines to a standstill days before the inauguration of the country's new president.
    (Reuters, 5/25/15)

2015        May 27, In southern California a seven-mile stretch of coastline was shut down after tar ball and tar patties began washing up on Santa Monica Bay.
    (SFC, 5/30/15, p.A7)
2015        May 27, Serbian PM Aleksandar Vucic said his country will accept US calls to reduce dependency on Russian gas by adding an American-backed pipeline that would bring gas to Europe from Azerbaijan.
    (AP, 5/28/15)

2015        Jun 6, South Sudan's rebels claimed they had seized control of key oilfields in the north of the country after weeks of heavy fighting with government forces.
    (AFP, 6/6/15)

2015        Jun 10, British NGO Global Witness said British oil company Soco International paid off an army officer accused of silencing critics of exploration in Democratic Republic of Congo's Virunga National Park. Global Witness published scans of four checks totaling $15,600 (14,000 euros) allegedly issued by Soco's Congolese subsidiary to the major posted to the park. Two receipts for the checks signed by the officer were dated May 15, 2014 and April 30, 2014.
    (AFP, 6/10/15)

2015        Jun 11, The Malaysian tanker MT Orkim Harmony, loaded with 7.5 million liters (2 million gallons) of gasoline belonging to national oil company Petronas, was believed hijacked as it headed to northern Kuantan near Singapore. The crew consisted of 16 Malaysians, five Indonesians and a Myanmar national.
    (AP, 6/15/15)

2015        Jun 19, In Brazil oil spilled from a pipeline linking a main Atlantic Ocean terminal with a refinery near Rio de Janeiro. Petrobras said 600 liters (3.77 barrels) of oil leaked from the pipeline, 50 liters of which reached the ocean.
    (AP, 6/20/15)

2015        Jun 22, Colombia's FARC rebels reportedly killed 4 soldiers and wounded six others in an attack in the northeast of the country, as the Marxist group steps up attacks amid unraveling peace talks. 10,000 barrels of oil spilled into the Mira River, leaving some 150,000 people without drinking water following a rebel attack on a pipeline. On June 26 President Juan Manuel Santos called this the worst environmental disaster in Colombia's history. An army helicopter was downed in the northern department of Norte de Santander and 8 troops were killed. The National Liberation Army (ELN) later claimed responsibility.
    (AFP, 6/23/15)(AP, 6/26/15)(AFP, 6/27/15)

2015        Jun 27, Argentina said Lilian Herraez, a federal judge in Tierra del Fuego, has ordered the seizure of assets of oil drilling companies operating in the Falklands Islands, including property held by US firm Noble Energy.
    (Reuters, 6/28/15)

2015        Jun 29, Canada announced economic sanctions against Russian energy firms including natural gas producer Gazprom over Moscow's role in the Ukraine crisis.
    (Reuters, 6/30/15)

2015        Jul 1, The Russian gas company Gazprom halted supplies to neighboring Ukraine after the collapse of pricing talks. An EU official said the dispute would not affect the flow of Russian gas to Europe.
    (AP, 7/1/15)

2015        Jul 2, The US Department of Justice said BP Plc has reached a settlement with US authorities and will pay about $18.7 billion in damages for water pollution caused by the 2010 Gulf of Mexico oil spill. The agreement settles claims against BP by the government and the states of Louisiana, Mississippi, Alabama, Texas and Florida.
    (Reuters, 7/2/15)

2015        Jul 3, The Trans-Adriatic Pipeline project, or TAP, said it has started investing in Albania's infrastructure to prepare for starting construction of the pipeline next year. The 870 km (540 miles) pipeline from the Shah Deniz II field in Azerbaijan will cross Turkey, Greece and Albania and undersea to Italy, and deliver Caspian gas to Europe in early 2020.
    (AP, 7/3/15)

2015        Jul 9, In Nigeria an accidental explosion on an oil pipeline operated by Italian energy giant Eni left 12 people dead and three injured in the southern Niger delta region.
    (AFP, 7/10/15)

2015        Jul 14, In western Virginia two trains collided, leaving two crewmembers hurt and more than 20,000 gallons of lubricant oil seeping onto the ground near Dublin.
    (CSM, 7/15/15)

2015        Jul 15, Mexico opened its energy sector with an auction  of oil exploration rights ending the 77-year monopoly of Pemex. In the first round only two of fourteen blocks on offer were sold, to a Mexican-British-American consortium.
    (Econ, 7/18/15, p.8)

2015        Jul 16, In northeastern Montana 4 tank cars of a Burlington Northern Santa Fe train derailed and leaked an estimated 35,000 gallons of oil that was being hauled from North Dakota.
    (SFC, 7/18/15, p.A5)

2015        Jul 22, The Obama administration issued permits with conditions clearing the way for Royal Dutch PLC to begin limited exploratory drilling in Chukchi Sea off Alaska’s northwest coast.
    (SFC, 7/23/15, p.A5)
2015        Jul 22, The United Arab Emirates said it is ending gas price subsidies effective Aug 1. Current prices were about $1.78 per gallon.
    (SSFC, 7/26/15, p.A4)

2015        Jul 26, Saudi Arabian gas prices were reported to be about 60 cents per gallon.
    (SSFC, 7/26/15, p.A4)

2015        Jul 27, A US federal judge in New Orleans ordered BP to begin paying up to $1 billion in settlements to compensate local governments across the Gulf Coast for lost tax revenue and other damages for the company’s 2010 oil spill. The judge said all payment s must be made within 30 days.
    (SFC, 7/28/15, p.A6)

2015        Jul 28, Kuwait National Petroleum Co said it has awarded four contracts worth $11.5 billion (10.5 billion euros) to international consortia to build a 615,000 barrel per day refinery.
    (AFP, 7/28/15)

2015        Jul 31, Brazil's state-owned oil company received the equivalent of more than $20 million that was recovered as a result of an investigation into a corruption-kickback scandal engulfing Petrobras. This represented about 80 percent of the nearly $29 million repatriated in April from a Swiss bank account opened by former Petrobras executive Pedro Barusco. He's charged with receiving bribes from some of the country's top construction firms.
    (AP, 7/31/15)
2015        Jul 31, Britain's Serious Fraud Office (SFO) said it has opened a criminal investigation into Soma Oil and Gas following allegations of corruption in Somalia. On August 3 Soma, a private company chaired by Lord Michael Howard, denied paying more than half a million dollars to Somali government officials to protect an oil exploration deal signed in 2013.
    (AFP, 8/6/15)

2015        Aug 3, Oklahoma regulators imposed new restrictions on energy companies injecting wastewater underground, in the latest effort to stem a sharp increase in earthquakes.
    (Reuters, 8/4/15)
2015        Aug 3, In Iraq North Oil Company (NOC) chief engineer Saad Ali Hussain was driving to his office in the northern oil city of Kirkuk when gunmen in a sports utility vehicle opened fire, killing him and his driver.
    (AP, 8/3/15)

2015        Aug 4, Two Turkish soldiers and an armed guard were killed in a blast from a homemade mine planted by Kurdish militants in Sirnak province. Turkish warplanes pounded suspected Kurdish rebel targets near Daglica, Hakkari province, in retaliation to a rebel mortar attack at a military base which wounded a 6-year-old girl. Kurdish militants attacked Turkey's Shah Deniz pipeline carrying natural gas from Azerbaijan, but the blast did not impact supply as flow had already been halted for maintenance.
    (Reuters, 8/4/15)(AP, 8/4/15)

2015        Aug 14, The price of crude oil hit its lowest level in 6½ years amid concerns over a slowing economy in China.
    (AP, 8/14/15)

2015        Aug 20, Kazakhstan currency plunged by over 20 percent against the dollar after the government decided to move to a free float to cope with big swings in global currencies and commodity prices. The policy change came a day after President Nursultan Nazarbayev ordered a reduction in the deficit to prepare for a possible further crash in the price of oil, which he said could drop as low as $30 a barrel.
    (AP, 8/20/15)

2015        Aug 30, Italian energy giant ENI announced the discovery of the "largest ever" offshore natural gas field in the Mediterranean inside Egypt's territorial waters. The find would meet Egypt's own natural gas demands for decades.
    (AFP, 8/30/15)

2015        Sep 3, Part of the Mississippi River was closed after two tow boats collided near Paducah, Kentucky, damaging at least one barge carrying clarified slurry oil. The coast Guard said as much as 250,000 gallons may have spilled.
    (SFC, 9/4/15, p.A8)

2015        Sep 10, The prime ministers of Slovakia and Ukraine condemned a recent deal to expand a pipeline that delivers natural gas directly from Russia to Germany. An agreement signed earlier this month between Russian giant Gazprom and energy companies from Western EU countries, including E.ON, OMV, Royal Dutch Shell and others, is meant to expand the current Nord Stream pipeline under the Baltic Sea that directly links Germany with Siberia's natural gas reserves.
    (AP, 9/10/15)

2015        Sep 16, Libya's coast guard intercepted a Russian-flagged tanker suspected of carrying an illegal shipment of petrol and detained 12 crew members from Russia.
    (AFP, 9/17/15)

2015        Sep 18, The Oklahoma Corporation Commission (OCC), which regulates the state's oil and gas industry, ordered companies to shut or reduce usage of five saltwater disposal wells around the north-central Oklahoma city of Cushing. Days later an earthquake with a magnitude of 4.5 struck near the crude oil hub of Cushing.
    (Reuters, 11/19/15)

2015        Oct 2, Iran's state TV is reported that Royal Dutch Shell and France's Total will be the first foreign companies to be allowed to operate gasoline stations inside Iran.
    (AP, 10/2/15)

2015        Oct 5, The Justice Department and five US states finalized a settlement of more than $20 billion arising from the 2010 Deepwater Horizon oil spill in the Gulf of Mexico. An agreement was first announced in July.
    (AP, 10/5/15)   

2015        Oct 6, Nigeria reported the arrest of Atlantic Energy chairman Olajide Omokore on corruption and money laundering charges, as part of a widening graft investigation in Africa's biggest petroleum producer that has also netted former oil minister Diezani Alison-Madueke.
    (Reuters, 10/6/15)

2015        Oct 12, Russia’s Gazprom resumed gas supplies to Ukraine after receiving prepayment of $234 million from Kiev, assuaging European fears about a new energy crisis ahead of the winter heating season.
    (AFP, 10/12/15)

2015        Oct 15, Poland signed a landmark $636 million deal to build the first EU gas pipeline to Lithuania, Latvia and Estonia, reducing their uneasy reliance on Russian supplies. Construction is set to begin next year on the GIPL (Gas Interconnection Poland-Lithuania) pipeline
    (AFP, 10/15/15)

2015        Oct 16, The US Interior Department announced it is canceling future oil lease sales and will not extend current leases in Arctic waters off Alaska's northern coast.
    (AP, 10/17/15)
2015        Oct 16, In France executives of ten of the world's largest oil and gas companies decided not to take a common position on the price of carbon because of differences among the groups' members.
    (Reuters, 10/16/15)

2015        Oct 17, Venezuela announced that its state-owned oil company will buy a 25 percent stake in West Indies Oil Co. and that it will establish a regional bank with the Antigua and Barbuda government to fund a new resort.
    (AP, 10/17/15)

2015        Oct 25, China said it will provide Nepal with 1.3 million liters (340,000 gallons) of gasoline to help it cope with severe fuel shortages as a result of restricted supplies from neighboring India.
    (AP, 10/2515)

2015        Oct 27, Nigeria's state oil firm NNPC started auctioning annual crude grades on live television and vowed to cut contract holders by a third as part of a drive to boost transparency at an institution hit by corruption.
    (Reuters, 10/27/15)

2015        Oct 30, Chevron Corp. said it will layoff 6,000 to 7,000 employees worldwide because of the sustained slump in world oil prices.
    (SFC, 10/31/15, p.D1)
2015        Oct 30, A Chinese court ordered ConocoPhillips to pay 1.68 million yuan ($265,000) to 21 fishermen who said their livelihoods suffered from oil spills in northern China in 2011.
    (AP, 10/30/15)
2015        Oct 30, In Nigeria seven were jailed for 10 years after being arrested with nearly 1,500 tons of contraband petrol. They were among the crew of the MT Good Success, which was stopped by a navy patrol boat off the coast of Lagos in February last year.
    (AFP, 10/31/15)

2015        Nov 2, TransCanada asked the United States to suspend its review of the proposed Keystone XL pipeline in a move that might delay a decision until the US presidential election.
    (AFP, 11/3/15)

2015        Nov 5, In Oklahoma some 1,000 barrels of crude oil spilled from a rural pipeline owned by magellan Midstream Partners.
    (SFC, 11/7/15, p.A5)

2015        Nov 6, President Barack Obama killed the proposed Keystone XL pipeline, declaring it would have undercut US efforts to clinch a global climate change deal at the center of his environmental legacy.
    (AP, 11/6/15)

2015        Nov 7, Turkmenistan media said President Gurbanguly Berdymukhamedov has ordered the start of construction on a pipeline carrying gas from the former Soviet state to India, Pakistan and Afghanistan.
    (AFP, 11/7/15)

2015        Nov 24, A Scottish court handed oil major Royal Dutch Shell a 22,500 pound ($33,919) fine by for a spill of more than 200 tons of oil into the central North Sea in August 2011.
    (Reuters, 11/24/15)

2015        Nov 25, Russia's natural gas giant Gazprom said it would stop shipping fuel supplies to Ukraine because Kiev had failed to make the required pre-payments on time.
    (AFP, 11/25/15)
2015        Nov 25, Ukraine decided to stop buying gas from Russia and closed its airspace to its giant eastern neighbor's airlines. The Ukrainian military said another soldier was killed in a new bout of clashes across the shattered war zone in the past 24 hours.
    (AFP, 11/25/15)

2015        Nov 26, Ten European governments signed a letter to the European Commission calling for a summit-level debate on the Nord Stream II project, Russia's plans to extend its gas link to Germany.
    (Reuters, 11/27/15)

2015        Nov 27, Slovakia's economy minister said his country will join forces with other Central and Eastern members of the European Union to protest a recent deal to expand a pipeline that delivers natural gas directly from Russia to Germany.
    (AP, 11/27/15)

2015        Nov 28, Iran unveiled a new model of oil contracts aimed at attracting foreign investment once sanctions are lifted under a landmark nuclear deal reached earlier this year.
    (AP, 11/28/15)

2015        Nov 30, US District Judge Carl Barbier in New Orleans ordered Anadarko Petroleum Corp to pay a $159.5 million civil fine reflecting its stake in the 2010 Gulf of Mexico oil spill.
    (Reuters, 12/1/15)

2015        Dec 2, Kuwaiti MPs called on the government to refer 24 ex-oil officials to the public prosecutor over a scrapped deal with US firm Dow Chemical that resulted in a $2.2 billion fine.
    (AFP, 12/2/15)
2015        Dec 2, Russia's defense ministry said it had proof that Turkish President Tayyip Erdogan and his family were benefiting from the illegal smuggling of oil from Islamic State-held territory in Syria and Iraq.
    (Reuters, 12/2/15)

2015        Dec 3, Russian Energy Minister Alexander Novak told reporters work on Turkish Stream, a pipeline intended to pump Russian gas into southeastern Europe via Turkey while bypassing Ukraine, had been suspended.
    (Reuters, 12/3/15)
2015        Dec 3, Turkey said it has agreed with Azerbaijan to accelerate the Trans-Anatolian Pipeline (TANAP), with an aim to have the gas projected completed before the planned 2018.
    (Reuters, 12/3/15)

2015        Dec 4, In Azerbaijan 29 workers were missing after a platform in Azerbaijan’s Guneshli oil field, operated by state energy company SOCAR, caught fire in the Caspian Sea. 33 people were rescued.
    (AFP, 12/5/15)(AP, 12/6/15)
2015        Dec 4, British bombers made their second round of strikes on Islamic State targets in Syria late today, again hitting oil fields.
    {Britain, Syria, Oil}
    (Reuters, 12/5/15)

2015        Dec 5, Guyana's Government Information Agency said British petroleum giant Tullow Oil PLC will be awarded an exploration license near an offshore basin where Exxon Mobil found large quantities of oil and gas in May.
    (AP, 12/5/15)

2015        Dec 14, Mexican authorities said illegal taps drilled into government pipelines by fuel thieves have risen 55% this year reaching almost 500 per month.
    (SFC, 12/15/15, p.A2)

2015        Dec 16, British lawmakers voted in favor of the use of fracking to extract shale gas under national parks, weakening a decision against fracking in national parks made earlier this year and giving shale gas explorers access to more resources.
    (Reuters, 12/16/15)
2015        Dec 16, Ukraine accused Russia of looting two of its oil rigs after Crimea-based oil and gas firm Chornomornaftogaz moved the equipment off the coast of the annexed peninsula into Russian waters.
    (Reuters, 12/16/15)

2015        Dec 17, Israeli PM Benjamin Netanyahu signed a major natural gas deal with a consortium, that includes US firm Noble Energy, aimed at tapping large deposits in the Mediterranean, but a court challenge was expected over the contentious agreement.
    (AFP, 12/17/15)

2015        Dec 18, A Dutch appeals court ruled that Royal Dutch Shell may be held liable for oil spills at its subsidiary in Nigeria, potentially opening the way for other compensation claims against multinationals in the Niger Delta and elsewhere.
    (Reuters, 12/18/15)

2015        Dec 21, Azerbaijan let its currency float freely, leading to its sharp depreciation as global oil prices hit new lows. Following the move, the manat fell by 32 percent.
    (AP, 12/21/15)

2015        Dec, In Texas three former officials at Petroleos de Venezuela S.A. (PDVSA) pleaded guilty under seal to conspiracy to commit money laundering. They were charged with violating the US Foreign Corrupt Practices Act.
    (Reuters, 3/23/16)
2015        Dec, Sibur, a Russian petrochemical firm co-owned by Gennady Timchenko, sold 10% of its shares to Sinopec, China’s largest state-owned oil refinery, for $1.3 billion. In 2016 Sibur sold another 10$ to China’s state-backed Silk Road Fund.
    (Econ 7/29/17, p.36)

2015        Blake Clayton authored “Market Madness: A Century of Oil Panics, Crises and Crashes."
    (Econ, 11/26/16, SR p.5)
2015        Leif Wenar authored “Blood Oil: Tyrants, Violence and the Rules that Run the World."
    (Econ, 12/12/15, p.80)

2016        Jan 1, In Saudi Arabia the price of petrol rose by 50%.
    (Econ, 1/9/16, p.17)

2016        Jan 6, California Gov. Jerry Brown declared a Los Angeles-area natural gas leak that has been sickening nearby residents for more than two months an emergency, calling for alternatives to stop the underground leak if existing efforts fail. The leak was discovered on Oct. 23 at a well-used for natural gas storage in Aliso Canyon just outside Los Angeles' Porter Ranch neighborhood.
    (Reuters, 1/7/16)
2016        Jan 6, Libya’s National Oil Company said at least four petroleum storage tanks were set ablaze during deadly fighting as the Islamic State group tries to seize coastal export terminals. The fighting, which began Jan 4, has killed 10 security guards.
    (AFP, 1/6/16)

2016        Jan 19, Vietnam said China has moved an oil rig into disputed waters in the South China Sea, in a possible repeat of a 2014 stand-off between the communist neighbors.
    (AP, 1/20/16)

2016        Jan 20, In Saudi Arabia Chinese President Xi Jinping and Saudi King Salman attended a ceremony to mark the opening of the YASREF joint-venture refinery, a symbol of Beijing's deepening involvement in the Middle East.
    (AFP, 1/20/16)

2016        Jan 21, Guyana said it has awarded British-based petroleum company Tullow Oil PLC a 10-year exploration license in an offshore basin near the South American country believed to contain large amounts of oil and gas.
    (AP, 1/21/16)
2016        Jan 21, In northern Libya oil facilities were set ablaze as the Islamic State group launched fresh attacks to seize key export terminals, renewing concerns over the jihadists' growing influence.
    (AFP, 1/21/16)

2016        Jan 22, The Obama administration said it will overhaul 30-year-old regulations for oil and gas operations on public and tribal lands to limit the "wasteful release" of natural gas and curb methane emissions.
    (Reuters, 1/22/16)
2016        Jan 22, In northern Libya firefighters battled a blaze at an oil facility for a second day, after an assault by jihadists aiming to seize export terminals.
    (AFP, 1/22/16)

2016        Jan 29, In Iraq a pipeline for gas used to generate around half the electricity for the northern Kurdistan region was blown up, knocking out power. It was not immediately clear who was behind the attack.
    (Reuters, 1/29/16)

2016        Jan, Russia called off all purchases of gas from Turkmenistan.
    (Econ, 12/17/16, p.36)

2016        Feb 2, British energy giant BP posted the company's biggest loss in at least 20 years, ravaged by tumbling oil prices, and axed another 3,000 jobs.
    (AFP, 2/2/16)

2016        Feb 3, The ministers of Sudan and South Sudan at a meeting in Juba agreed to tie the fee to oil prices after slumps in global prices made Juba effectively pay to export crude. Exact details were yet to be settled.
    (AFP, 2/4/16)

2016        Feb 16, Russia's energy minister said that his country has agreed with OPEC members Saudi Arabia, Qatar and Venezuela to freeze oil production levels if other producers do the same.
    (AP, 2/16/16)

2016        Feb 17, Iran snubbed a proposal agreed to by four influential oil producers to cap their crude output if others do the same, with a senior Oil Ministry official saying Tehran has no intention of freezing oil output levels.
    (AP, 2/17/16)

2016        Feb 18, California state regulators said an underground natural gas pipeline rupture at the Aliso Canyon natural gas storage field, that caused the state’s largest-ever methane leak, has been permanently capped, paving the way for thousands of displaced Los Angeles residents to return home. In 2018 Southern California Gas Co. said a neqarly $120 million settlement was reached stemming from the nearly four-month leak.
    (Reuters, 2/18/16)(SFC, 8/9/18, p.A6)
2016        Feb 18, The United Arab Emirates threw its support behind a plan by major oil producers to freeze output levels in an attempt to halt a slide in crude prices.
    (AP, 2/18/16)

2016        Feb 22, Peru’s oil operator Petroperu said said ruptures in the main oil pipeline in late January and early February have spilled 3,000 barrels of crude in an Amazonian region, and the oil has polluted two rivers native villages rely on for water.
    (Reuters, 2/23/16)

2016        Feb 23, Nigerian President Muhammadu Buhari met with Saudi Arabia’s King Salman before traveling on to Qatar. Analysts forecasted Nigeria’s eventual support for an output freeze to stabilise oil prices.
    (AFP, 2/23/16)

2016        Mar 2, In Oklahoma City Aubrey McClendon (56), co-founder of Chesapeake Energy and a part-owner of the NBA’s Oklahoma City Thunder, drove his SUV into a wall a day after he was indicted for conspiring to rig bids to buy oil and natural gas leases in northwest Oklahoma.
    (SFC, 3/3/16, p.C2)(Econ, 3/5/16, p.58)
2016        Mar 2, In Russia some 15 tons (110 barrels) of oil spilled off from an idled pipeline on the Pacific island of Sakhalin according to oil producer Rosneft. Local ecologists said the scale of disaster was far larger.
    (Reuters, 3/3/16)

2016        Mar 3, Brazil’s Supreme Court voted to charge Eduardo Cunha, speaker of the federal Chamber of Deputies, with accepting bribes linked to the award of Petrobras of contracts for building two oil-drilling ships.
    (Econ, 3/12/15, p.33)

2016        Mar 5, The Georgian government announced that it had signed a deal with neighboring Azerbaijan to increase gas supplies enough to fully cover demand.
    (AP, 3/6/16)

2016        Mar 6, Thousands of Georgians formed a human chain stretching for about 7 km (4 miles) through the capital to protest negotiations between their government and Russian natural gas monopoly Gazprom.
    (AP, 3/6/16)

2016        Mar 8, In Brazil Marcelo Odebrecht, former head of the country’s biggest construction company, was sentenced to more than 19 years in prison for corrupt dealings with Petrobras.
    (Econ, 3/12/15, p.12)
2016        Mar 8, The South African government said that exploration for shale gas will begin in the next 12 months, ending years of speculation over the project.
    (AFP, 3/8/16)

2016        Mar 11, The International Energy Agency (IEA) said oil price may have finally bottomed out after an unprecedented drop over the past 18 months.
    (AP, 3/11/16)

2016        Mar 16, Royal Dutch Shell PLC and Saudi Arabian Oil Co. said they will split up the assets of their joint US venture, which will see the kingdom's state-owned producer take full ownership of America's biggest oil refinery. The Port Arthur, Texas, refinery, had been part of a 50-50 joint venture between the two companies called Motiva Enterprises LLC, which formed in 1998.
    (AP, 3/17/16)

2016        Mar 18, In Algeria suspected jihadists launched a rocket attack on the In Salah gas asset in Krechba jointly run by Britain's BP, Norway's Statoil and Algerian company Sonatrach.
    (AFP, 3/18/16)

2016        Mar 23, China and Nepal said they have agreed to conclude a commercial deal on the supply of petroleum products from China to Nepal. This followed a visit to Beijing by Nepali PM K.P. Oli.
    (Reuters, 3/23/16)

2016        Mar 28, Dubai-based Dodsal Group said it has discovered 2.7 trillion cubic feet of gas deposits in Tanzania's Ruvu Basin Coast Region valued at around $8 billion.
    (AP, 3/28/16)

2016        Mar 27, In Nigeria 3 people were killed and several wounded when an oil pipeline belonging to Italy's ENI exploded during repair works in the southern Delta region. Workers had been repairing the pipeline when it caught fire.
    (Reuters, 3/29/16)

2016        Mar 30, The Obama administration announced a new partnership with 41 energy companies that have agreed to voluntarily reduce methane emissions from natural gas operations to help combat climate change.
    (SFC, 3/31/16, p.A7)
2016        Mar 30, Kuwait inked a $2.93 billion contract with three South Korean firms for the construction of the largest Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG) import facility in the oil-rich country.
    (AFP, 3/30/16)

2016        Apr 2, Iraq's PM Haider al-Abadi ordered an investigation into corruption allegations against senior oil officials following an expose into bribe-taking published in international media outlets.
    (AP, 4/2/16)
2016        Apr 2, Libya's National Oil Corporation said it was working with the U.N.-backed unity government, which arrived in Tripoli this week, to coordinate future oil sales.
    (Reuters, 4/2/16)

2016        Apr 5, In Nigeria angry motorists queued overnight at petrol stations across the country and lines of cars blocked traffic in the commercial capital Lagos as the worst fuel shortages for years hit Africa's top oil producer.
    (Reuters, 4/5/16)

2016        Apr 7, Vietnam demanded China move a controversial oil rig on and abandon plans to start drilling in waters where jurisdiction is unclear, the latest sign of festering unease among the two communist neighbors.
    (Reuters, 4/7/16)

2016        Apr 17, Italians voted in a referendum on the duration of offshore drilling concessions in territorial waters, as nine regional governments sought to wrestle some influence over energy policy from the central government in Rome.
    (AP, 4/17/16)
2016        Apr 17, Thousands of Kuwait's oil workers began an open-ended strike in protest at plans to cut their wages, action which saw the emirate's crude production plunge.
    (AFP, 4/17/16)
2016        Apr 17, In Qatar major oil producers began talks to try to reach a deal on capping production to boost prices, despite Iran's absence. Saudi Arabia blocked an agreement between OPEC and non-OPEC producers to shore up global oil prices by freezing production at January’s levels.
    (AFP, 4/17/16)(Econ, 4/23/16, p.64)

2016        Apr 22, In Australia Greens MP Jeremy Buckingham posted a video on Facebook showing him set fire to the Condamine River in Queensland, to draw attention to methane gas he says is seeping into the water due to fracking. The dramatic video quickly attracted more than two millions views.
    (AFP, 4/24/16)

2016        Apr 23, Landlocked Uganda announced plans to export its future crude oil production via a new pipeline to be built to a Tanzanian port rather than via Kenya.
    (AFP, 4/23/16)

2016        May 4, In southern Nigeria militants used explosives to blow up the Okan platform, a collection facility for offshore oil and gas that feeds the Escravos terminal. This caused Chevron to lose 35,000 barrels per day (bpd) of net crude oil production.
    (AFP, 5/7/16)

2016        May 8, In Canada cogeneration power plants in the fire-ravaged oil town of Fort McMurray were operating at about 18 percent of capacity early today, down from around 30 percent on May 6, as oil sands producers in the area continue to shut their operations. 2,400 buildings were lost when the fire surrounded Fort McMurray. The fire was expected to burn for at least a few more weeks.
    (Reuters, 5/8/16)(SSFC, 5/15/16, p.A4)

2016        May 9, In Nigeria 3 soldiers guarding an oil installation were shot and killed when they came under fierce attack. The Niger Avengers claimed responsibility.
    (SFC, 5/12/16, p.A2)

2016        May 11, In Nigeria Shell closed the terminal exporting the country’s benchmark Bonny Light crude oil as was evacuating workers as renewed militant attacks cut production.
    (SFC, 5/12/16, p.A2)

2016        May 12, The Obama administration unveiled its latest action aimed at reducing methane emissions in the oil and gas industry. The EPA ruling would reduce methane emissions from oil and gas drilling by 40 to 45% by 2025 compared with 2012 levels.
    (Reuters, 5/12/16)(SFC, 5/13/16, p.A8)

2016        May 15, In Iraq Jihadist suicide attackers broke into a gas plant north of Baghdad, killing at least 11 people and setting fire to gas tanks. The Islamic State (IS) group claimed responsibility for the attack on the Taji plant.
    (Reuters, 5/15/16)

2016        May 16, French energy giant Total officially opened the Shetland Gas Plant in Britain's northernmost outpost, which cost $5 billion (4.4 billion euros) to build.
    (AFP, 5/16/16)

2016        May 17, In Greece a ceremony marked the beginning of construction on a new pipeline project bringing Azeri gas through northern Greece and Albania to Italy, reducing Europe's energy dependency on Russia. The Trans Adriatic Pipeline will run for 878 km (550 miles), from Greece's border with Turkey to southern Italy, and includes a 105-kilometer (65-mile) stretch under the Adriatic Sea.
    (AP, 5/17/16)

2016        May 18, Norway awarded 10 new licenses for offshore oil and gas exploration in the Barents Sea, including three in previously untouched waters near the Russian border. The 13 companies awarded participating interests in the licensing round included Statoil, Chevron, ConocoPhillips and Lukoil.
    (AP, 5/18/16)

2016        May 25, The French oil industry federation said France has started using its strategic oil reserves for the first time since 2010 to counter union blockades of its refineries. The industry said it has been using the strategic reserves for two days. Workers at the hardline CGT union voted for a 24-hour strike at Nogent-sur-Seine nuclear plant.
    (Reuters, 5/25/16)

2016        May 26, In Nigeria a bomb attack forced US-based oil major Chevron to halt onshore activities at its 160,000-barrel a day Escravos export terminal. Participants in a stakeholders' meeting in Warri accused the government of a heavy-handed military response and warned such a campaign will not stop attacks that have cut oil production by more than 40 percent.
    (AP, 5/27/16)

2016        May 27, A French transport ministry spokesman said the fuel supply situation in the country is improving after a week of disruption and shortages caused by strikes and all but one of the country's fuel depot blockades has been cleared. Union activists disrupted the Marseille airport and halted activity at half of the country's oil refineries in protests over changes to France's labor system, but nationwide gasoline shortages eased slightly after government intervention.
    (Reuters, 5/27/16)(AP, 5/27/16)
2016        May 27, In Nigeria militants attacked the Nembe pipeline in the Delta region, hours after the Niger Delta Avengers militant group claimed a strike on the facility.
    (Reuters, 5/28/16)

2016        May 28, In Nigeria militants blew up strategic gas and crude pipelines belonging to Shell and Agip in an increasingly fierce campaign that has chopped Nigeria's oil production in half.
    (AP, 5/28/16)

2016        May 31, French company Technip signed a preliminary $500 million deal to upgrade a key Libyan oil facility, along with Italy's Eni and Libya's state oil company.
    (AP, 5/31/16)

2016        Jun 2, In Geneva OPEC oil ministers ended a meeting without reaching any kind of consensus on regulating the price and supply of crude, a result that triggered an immediate drop in energy markets. The OPEC oil cartel said that it has appointed Nigeria's Mohammed Barkindo as its new secretary general.
    (AP, 6/2/16)(AFP, 6/2/16)

2016        Jun 3, In Oregon 16 of 96 tank cars of a Union Pacific train derailed near Mosier in the Columbia River Gorge and an unknown amount of oil was leaked. Mosier’s wastewater treatment plant and sewer system were left inoperative. A fire in four of the cars was extinguished the next day.
    (SFC, 6/4/16, p.A5)(SFC, 6/6/16, p.A6)

2016        Jun 7, Russia's gas monopolist Gazprom says it will resume selling gas to Ukraine, following an official request from Kiev.
    (AP, 6/7/16)

2016        Jun 8, In Nigeria the Niger Delta Avengers (NDA) militant group rejected a truce offer to end attacks on key oil infrastructure and claimed another strike. The Nigerian Navy said nine suspected militants blamed for previous attacks around the port city of Warri had been arrested.
    (AFP, 6/8/16)

2016        Jun 10, In Nigeria the Niger Delta Avengers militant group claimed responsibility for an attack on a trunk line owned by Agip ENI.
    (Reuters, 6/10/16)

2016        Jun 11, Citgo Aruba announced it will invest $450 million to $650 million to reactivate an oil refinery in Aruba that has been idle since 2012.
    (AP, 6/11/16)

2016        Jun 21, A federal judge in Wyoming set aside new regulations for hydraulic fracturing on public lands that were vehemently opposed by oil and gas producers.
    (Reuters, 6/22/16)
2016        Jun 21, Nigeria said it has agreed a one-month ceasefire with militants behind recent attacks on oil facilities in its southern Niger Delta, as efforts continue to end the unrest that has pushed crude output to 30-year lows.
    (Reuters, 6/21/16)

2016        Jun 23, In southern California as much as 29,400 gallons of oil spilled from a pipeline operated by Crimson Pipeline LLC and flowed down a ravine.
    (SFC, 6/23/16, p.A5)

2016        Jun 24, Germany imposed limits on fracking, dealing a blow to efforts to develop shale gas. Under legislation passed by its lower house of parliament, fracking will be banned in clay formations, which typically lie between 1,000 and 2,500 meters deep.
    (Reuters, 6/24/16)

2016        Jun 29, Indonesia's Pres. Joko Widodo ordered an expansion of offshore oil exploration and commercial fishing in the waters near the Natuna Islands, the latest in a new campaign to assert sovereignty over the area in the South China Sea.
    (Reuters, 6/29/16)

2016        Jul 3, Israeli firms announced that a consortium led by US firm Noble Energy has approved a $265-million project to sink a new well in the Tamar natural gas field off Israel.
    (AFP, 7/3/16)

2016        Jul 4, In Nigeria suspected militants blew up a pipeline in the southern Batan and Makarava areas of Delta State. Militants from the Niger Delta Avengers said in a short statement on their website that they carried out the attacks.
    (AFP, 7/5/16)

2016        Jul 5, Chevron, Exxon Mobil and its other partners said they will spend $36.8 billion to develop more oil in Kazakhstan in a venture called Tengizchevroil.
    (AP, 7/5/16)

2016        Jul 7, The Niger Delta Avengers attacked more oil infrastructure in southern Nigeria, ignoring a call for unity from Pres. Muhammadu Buhari.
    (AFP, 7/7/16)

2016        Jul 8, Nigerian oil militants said they have blown up a crude oil pipeline belonging to Italian oil company Agip in Bayelsa state.
    (AP, 7/8/16)

2016        Jul 20, A Michigan TV station reported that the US Justice Department and Environmental Protection Agency will fine Enbridge Inc $62 million for a 2010 oil spill that released crude oil into the Kalamazoo River in Michigan.
    (Reuters, 7/20/16)

2016        Jul 21, In Canada a heavy oil and diluent leaked from Husky's Saskatchewan Gathering System pipeline, flowing into the North Saskatchewan River, which supplies drinking water to several communities in the western province.
    (Reuters, 7/25/16)

2016        Jul 28, Libya's UN-brokered presidency council announced the reopening of the country's vital oil terminals after 18 months of closure despite threats by a rival military commander that his forces could target tankers entering Libya's territorial waters.
    (AP, 7/29/16)

2016        Jul 31, In northern Iraq militants attacked a gas facility and oil field in Dibbis killing 5 people. 3 attackers were killed but firefighters were still trying to extinguish a fire.
    (AP, 7/31/16)(AFP, 7/31/16)

2016        Aug 10, In Nigeria a previously unknown group called Delta Greenland Justice Mandate said it had attacked a crude pipeline belonging to state oil firm NNPC and local firm Shoreline Natural Resources in Urhobo in Delta state.
    (Reuters, 8/11/16)

2016        Aug 11, In Nigeria protesters continued to block the entrance to a Chevron oil depot in the restive southern region for a third day. A youth and protest leader said militants blew up another crude pipeline in the Niger Delta.
    (Reuters, 8/11/16)

2016        Aug 16, In Lousiana ExxonMobil Corp shut a crude distillation unit at its 502,500 barrel per day (bpd) Baton Rouge refinery as flooding disrupted operations at a liquefied petroleum gas (LPG) storage facility.
    (Reuters, 8/17/16)

2016        Aug 17, In Nicaragua a fire began when one of four huge fuel tanks exploded at the Puma Energy plant in the port of Puerto Sandino, some 70 km (40 miles) northwest of Managua. A second tank ignited he next day. The oil spilled contaminated sensitive nearby coastal habitat.
    (AFP, 8/20/16)

2016        Aug 20, Georgia’s State Security Service detained five people who were planning to bomb a section of an oil pipeline carrying Russian gas to Armenia. A sixth person was detained for failure to report the crime.
    (AP, 8/22/16)

2016        Aug 23, Iraqi special forces led an operation aimed at retaking the jihadist-held town of Qayyarah, a key staging base for operations to attack Mosul. Islamic State militants abandoned Qayyarah after setting fire to many of the region's oil wells.
    (AFP, 8/23/16)(Reuters, 8/30/16)

2016        Aug 31, Cyprus and Egypt signed an agreement that paves the way for the supply of gas to the Arab nation via an undersea pipeline that officials hope will create a regional energy hub. The first gas through the new pipeline was expected to reach Egypt sometime between 2020 and 2022.
    (AP, 8/31/16)

2016        Sep 3, Argentina's richest man according to Forbes, energy mogul Carlos Bulgheroni (71), died in the United States, where he was hospitalized following a surgical procedure in June. Bulgheroni, along with his brother Alejandro, owned Pan American Energy, Argentina's second-biggest oil company, behind state-run YPF.
    (Reuters, 9/3/16)

2016        Sep 6, The US Coast Guard said a south Louisiana pipeline has been secured after some 5,300 gallons of crude oil leaked near Bay Long. The pipeline had been struck by a dredge doing excavation.
    (SFC, 9/7/16, p.A4)

2016        Sep 28, OPEC members met informally in Algiers and agreed to cut oil output for the first time since 2008.
    (Econ, 10/1/16, p.68)

2016        Oct 9, The Russian government announced that Rosneft’s 330 billion ruble ($5.3 billion) bid for Bashneft, a state-controlled oil firm. Igor Sechin, head of Rosneft, orchestrated the deal which had been rejected by Bashneft’s former owner Vladimir Yevtushenko.
    (Econ, 10/22/16, p.45)

2016        Oct 10, Royal Dutch Shell confirmed that it had signed an initial deal with Iran's National Petrochemical Company, paving the way for its return to the Islamic republic.
    (AFP, 10/10/16)

2016        Oct 24, A leak prompted the Seaway Crude Pipeline Company LLC to shut one of the largest pipeline systems feeding crude from the US oil storage hub in Cushing, Oklahoma to Gulf coast refineries. Enterprise said much of it was contained in a retention pond at Enbridge's facility.
    (Reuters, 10/24/16)

2016        Nov 4, Some of the world's biggest oil companies, including Saudi Aramco and Royal Dutch Shell, pledged to invest $1 billion to develop climate-friendly technologies as a global deal to wean the world off oil came into force.
    (Reuters, 11/4/16)

2016        Nov 6, In central Oklahoma a 5.0 magnitude earthquake struck near Cushing. The state recorded 19 earthquakes in the past week. Scientists have linked the sharp increase to the underground disposal of wastewater from oil and gas production.
    (SFC, 11/7/16, p.A5)

2016        Nov 7, A group of investors representing more than 5 trillion euros ($5.53 trillion) in assets under management have called on oil and gas companies to observe an unlimited moratorium on activity in the Arctic high seas.
    (Reuters, 11/7/16)

2016        Nov 8, In Nigeria a blast rocked a pipeline operated by the state-run oil firm NNPC that feeds the Forcados terminal in the southern Niger Delta energy hub. The explosion occurred while the pipeline was being repaired following an attack last week.
    (Reuters, 11/8/16)

2016        Nov 9, Nigerian militants said they have again blown up an oil pipeline carrying crude oil for export from Shell’s Forcados terminal. This was the third attack in eight days on the Trans Forcados pipeline network.
    (SFC, 11/10/16, p.A2)

2016        Nov 15, The companies behind the Dakota Access Pipeline asked a US court to intervene in the fight over its completion as demonstrators fanned out across North America to protest the controversial project.
    (Reuters, 11/15/16)
2016        Nov 15, Russian President Vladimir Putin dismissed Economy Minister Alexei Ulyukayev over allegations he extorted a $2 million bribe from top oil producer Rosneft, a case that could expose fault lines in the Russian leader's inner circle.
    (Reuters, 11/15/16)

2016        Nov 16, The US Geological Survey said the Wolfcamp Shale geologic formation in the Midland area of West Texas could yield 20 billion barrels of oil.
    (SFC, 11/17/16, p.A8)

2016        Nov 17, In Mozambique a tanker truck carrying petrol exploded in Tete province. 43 people were killed on the spot. The death toll soon rose to 80 with 35 in critical condition.
    (AFP, 11/18/16)(SFC, 11/17/16, p.A2)(AFP, 11/21/16)

2016        Nov 18, The Obama administration announced a 5-year Arctic offshore drilling plan that blocks the planned sale of new oil and gas drilling rights in the Chukchi and Beaufort seas north of Alaska.
    (SFC, 11/19/16, p.A7)

2016        Nov 20, In North Dakota months-long protests over an oil pipeline came to a head in sub-freezing temperatures this evening, as hundreds of protesters tried to push past a police barricade on Backwater Bridge. They were met with what appeared to be tear gas, water cannon spray, and rubber bullets.
    (CSM, 11/21/16)

2016        Nov 26, In North Dakota organizers of the protest against the Dakota Access pipeline said they will not follow a government directive to leave the federal land at the Oceti Sakowin camp. A day earlier they receiving a letter from the US Army Corps of Engineers that said all lands north of the Cannonball River will be closed to public access on Dec 5 for safety concerns.
    (SSFC, 11/27/16, p.A10)

2016        Nov 30, OPEC agreed its first limit on oil output since 2008, with Saudi Arabia accepting "a big hit" on its production and agreeing to arch-rival Iran freezing output at pre-sanctions levels.
    (Reuters, 11/30/16)

2016        Dec 4, The US Army Corps of Engineers turned down the request for an easement for the Dakota Access Pipeline to build under the Missouri River, after months of protests from Native American and climate activists. ETP said it will continue to fight for the line.
    (Reuters, 12/5/16)

2016        Dec 5, Mexico struck a deal with Australia’s BHP Billiton to develop the Trion oil field in Mexico with state-oil firm Pemex.
    (Econ, 12/10/16, p.62)

2016        Dec 7, Iran struck a preliminary memorandum of understanding with Royal Dutch Shell to develop prospective oil fields.
    (Econ, 12/10/16, p.62)
2016        Dec 7, Kazakhstan's state security service said it has detained several people suspected of stealing oil and fuel from a refinery in Aktobe and being linked to radical Islamists.
    (Reuters, 12/7/16)
2016        Dec 7, The CEO of Rosneft, Russia’s state-controlled oil company, said that it had agreed to sell a 19.5 percent stake to Swiss commodities giant Glencore and Qatar's sovereign wealth fund.
    (AP, 12/8/16)

2016        Dec 9, In Peru an indigenous federation opposed to a recently approved plan for oil drilling in the Peruvian Amazon said that native communities will physically block any attempt by oil companies to operate on their lands.
    (Reuters, 12/9/16)
2016        Dec 9, Saudi Arabia told its US and European customers it would reduce oil deliveries from January, signaling it had already started implementing cuts.
    (Reuters, 12/10/16)

2016        Dec 10, OPEC and non-OPEC producers reached their first deal since 2001 to curtail oil output jointly and ease a global glut after more than two years of low prices that overstretched many budgets and spurred unrest in some countries.
    (Reuters, 12/10/16)

2016        Dec 12, Italian energy company Eni said it would sell a 30 percent stake in an offshore Egyptian gas field to Rosneft. The Russian company will pay $1.125 billion for the holding in the Shorouk concession, which contains the giant Zohr gas field, and $450 million to cover past expenditures on the project.
    (AP, 12/12/16)

2016        Dec 17, BP PLC signed a $2.22-billion deal restoring its share of an onshore oil block in Abu Dhabi by agreeing to give the emirate stock in the company worth 2 percent of the oil giant's overall value.
    (AP, 12/17/16)

2016        Dec 20, Pres. Obama designated the bulk of US owned waters in the Arctic Ocean and certain areas in the Atlantic Ocean as indefinitely off limits to future oil and gas leasing.
    (SFC, 12/21/16, p.A8)

2016        Dec 25, In Israel a fire erupted in a fuel tank at Oil Refineries Ltd in Haifa, sending thick black smoke into the sky above the northern port city.
    (Reuters, 12/25/16)

2016        Dec 27, Russia activated a pipeline carrying Russian gas to Crimea with President Vladimir Putin hailing it as a step that would power economic growth on a peninsula Moscow annexed from Ukraine in 2014.
    (Reuters, 12/27/16)

2016        Dec 28, Oil company BP said it has agreed to buy the fuel business of Australian supermarket chain Woolworths Ltd for $1.3 billion as part of its efforts to rebuild itself.
    (AP, 12/28/16)
2016        Dec 28, Mexico’s federal consumer protection agency announced that it was investigating whether some gas stations may be hoarding fuel until January, as is widely rumored. Gasoline shortages in many parts of the country have forced grumbling customers to contend with hours-long lines.
    (AP, 12/31/16)

2016        Dec, In North Dakota a rupture of the Belle Fourche Pipeline near Belfield was later believed to have been caused by a slumping hillside. On March 24, 2017, estimates of the spill were tripled to about 530,000 gallons.
    (SFC, 3/25/17, p.A5)

2016        Guyana's natural resources minister Raphael Trotman signed a deal with ExxonMobil. It entitled Guyana to a 2% royalty and just 50% of "profit oil," i.e. after deducting the operator's costs. In 2020 Global Witness said the government's take should be at least 69%.
    (Econ., 2/29/20, p.26)
2016        Iraq’s oil production reached record lows this year. The IMF extended a $5.3 billion loan.
    (Econ, 1/7/17, p.40)
2016        In Mexico the number of illegal taps into the national oil pipeline network operated by Pemex jumped to more than 6,800 as compared to 213 in 2006.
    (Econ 5/13/17, p.29)

2017        Jan 1, Hundreds of irate Mexicans marched in Mexico City to protest a steep rise in gasoline prices. The protests erupted into looting in several parts of the country.
    (AFP, 1/2/17)(SFC, 1/5/17, p.A2)

2017        Jan 3, In Iran two pipelines were reportedly bombed in Khuzestan province. The next day the Arab Struggle Movement for the Liberation of Ahwaz claimed responsibility. Iranian Interior Ministry spokesman Salman Samani denied the claim.
    (AP, 1/4/17)
2017        Jan 3, Turkmenistan said that it has restricted natural gas deliveries to Iran over unpaid debts. Iranian state media have put the figure demanded by Turkmenistan at around $2 billion.
    (AP, 1/3/17)

2017        Jan 13, Canada must "phase out" Alberta's oil sands and end the country's dependence on hydrocarbons, PM Justin Trudeau said.
    (AFP, 1/13/17)

2017        Jan 16, Fuel from Qatar arrived in the Gaza Strip, helping ease a crippling power shortage that has sparked rare demonstrations against the territory's Hamas rulers who responded with a crackdown on protesters.
    (AP, 1/16/17)

2017        Jan 24, Pres. Trump signed executive actions to accelerate the Keystone XL and Dakota Access pipeline projects and to decree that American steel should be used for pipelines built in the United States. Trump invited Keystone builder TransCanada  to resubmit its application to the State Department for a presidential permit to construct and operate the pipeline.
    (Reuters, 1/24/17)(SFC, 1/25/17, p.A5)

2017        Jan 26, Britain’s High Court ruled that Royal Dutch Shell cannot be sued in London over oil spills in Nigeria, in a setback to attempts to hold British multinationals liable at home for their subsidiaries' actions abroad. The court also said the claimants should be able to use Nigerian courts.
    (Reuters, 1/26/17)
2017        Jan 26, German geologist Kay Holtzmann, contracted by the Dutch-British multinational Royal Dutch Shell's Nigeria subsidiary, wrote a letter to the Bodo Mediation Initiative saying the company "fiercely opposed" environmental testing and is concealing data showing thousands of Nigerians are exposed to health hazards from a stalled cleanup of the worst oil spills in the West African nation's history.
    (AP, 3/24/17)

2017        Jan 28, In India the BW Maple, with a total capacity of 82,000 cubic meters of liquefied petroleum gas, was half full when it collided near Chennai with the Indian ship Dawn Kanchipuram. Days later port authorities impounded the two ships and detained their crews after the collision caused an oil spill affecting marine life and local fishing.
    (Reuters, 2/3/17)

2017        Jan 31, US federal energy regulators approved construction of Energy Transfer Partners LP's Rover natural gas pipeline from Pennsylvania to Ontario.
    (Reuters, 2/3/17)

2017        Jan, Nigeria seized OPL 245 oil block, labelling it the proceeds of a crime. In 2011 Eni and Shell had paid $1.3 billion for the block. Prosecutors alleged that over $500 million ended up in front companies for former Pres. Goodluck Jonathan.
    (Econ, 3/4/17, p.54)

2017        Feb 1, The US Army Corp of Engineers said it had taken initial steps to review requests to approve the final permit to finish the controversial Dakota Access pipeline, which has been the focus of protests for months.
    (Reuters, 2/1/17)

2017        Feb 7, The US Army said that it will allow the $3.8 billion Dakota Access oil pipeline to cross under a Mississippi River reservoir in North Dakota.
    (SFC, 2/8/17, p.A6)

2017        Feb 9, The Native American Standing Rock Sioux Tribe filed a last-ditch legal challenge to block the $3.8 billion Dakota Access oil pipeline project after the company constructing it won federal permission to tunnel under the Missouri River.
    (Reuters, 2/9/17)

2017        Feb 18, In Saudi Arabia one person was killed and three others injured as a result of an Aramco oil pipeline leak in the east of the kingdom.
    (AP, 2/19/17)

2017        Feb 19, The United Arab Emirates' main state oil company said it has signed a deal giving China National Petroleum Company an 8 percent stake in a major onshore oil project. The Abu Dhabi National Oil Company said CNPC will pay an initial $1.77 billion for the concession operated by the Abu Dhabi Company for Onshore Petroleum Operations, also known as ADCO.
    (AP, 2/19/17)

2017        Feb 27, Malaysian PM Najib Razak said that oil major Saudi Aramco will invest $7 billion in a mammoth oil processing hub in Malaysia, making it the single largest investor in the Southeast Asian country.
    (AP, 2/27/17)

2017        Feb 28, In Malaysia oil giant Saudi Aramco signed a $7 billion deal to take a 50 percent stake in a mega Malaysian oil refinery project, in a pact expected to help Saudi Arabia increase trade in Southeast Asia.
    (AP, 2/28/17)

2017        Feb, Russia’s state-owned Rosneft signed a cooperation agreement with Libya’s National Oil Corp.
    (Econ, 3/18/17, p.53)

2017        Mar 2, Kurdish forces seized an oil facility in Kirkuk to send a message to the Iraqi government to build a refinery.
    (Reuters, 3/2/17)

2017        Mar 2, Nigeria filed criminal charges of corruption against oil multinationals Royal Dutch Shell and Eni over the $1.1 billion sale of one of Africa's richest oil blocks. Malabu Oil, secretly set up by former Oil Minister Dan Etete, was awarded OPL 245 while he was oil minister. Nigeria's government got only $210 million from the deal.
    (AP, 3/4/17)

2017        Mar 13, Pirates operating off the coast of Somalia hijacked the Aris 13 oil tanker, marking the first time since 2012 that a commercial vessel has been captured by Somali pirates.
    (CSM, 3/14/17)

2017        Mar 16, In China Saudi Arabia's King Salman oversaw the signing of deals worth as much as $65 billion on the first day of a visit to Beijing.
    (Reuters, 3/16/17)
2017        Mar 16, The European Parliament rejected a call to ban Arctic oil and gas exploration, in a symbolic vote seen as a barometer for future moves by Brussels to regulate to protect the region.
    (Reuters, 3/16/17)
2017        Mar 16, Somali pirates who seized an oil tanker opened fire on naval troops from the semiautonomous state of Puntland, sparking clashes between the two sides. The pirates were continuing to receive reinforcements while regional forces mobilizing nearby.
    (AP, 3/16/17)

2017        Mar 23, California air quality officials approved rigorous curbs on methane emissions at oil and gas production plants.
    (SFC, 3/24/17, p.A1)

2017        Mar 24, US President Donald Trump's administration approved TransCanada Corp's Keystone XL pipeline, cheering the oil industry and angering environmentalists who had sought for years to block it.
    (Reuters, 3/24/17)

2017        Mar 27, French energy company Total announced the launching a multi-billion-dollar petrochemical joint venture in Texas as it tries to profit from the "business-friendly environment" under the current US administration.
    (AP, 3/27/17)
2017        Mar 27, Saudi Arabia cut taxes on oil companies in a major move that could attract investments in its energy giant Aramco, expected to be offered to investors in 2018.
    (AFP, 3/27/17)

2017        Apr 1, In Alaska workers of Hilcorp Alaska LLC discovered an oil sheen and bubbling from under the company’s Anna platform on the west side of Cook Inlet. It was not clear how much oil had spilled into the inlet southwest of Anchorage.
    (SFC, 4/3/17, p.A4)

2017        Apr 5, Britain said it would help Saudi Arabia to diversify its oil-dependent economy as PM Theresa May visited the Gulf kingdom.
    (AFP, 4/5/17)
2017        Apr 5, Kuwait said it has signed a new a multi-billion-dollar deal to supply Egypt with crude oil and petroleum products for the next three years.
    (AFP, 4/5/17)

2017        Apr 12, Nigeria's military destroyed 13 illegal refineries in the restive Niger Delta oil hub, in an operation in which two soldiers died in clashes with "sea robbers".
    (AP, 4/13/17)

2017        Apr 21, In North Korea car users in Pyongyang scrambled to fill up their tanks as gas stations began limiting services or even closing amid concerns of a spreading shortage. Beijing has reportedly been tightening its enforcement of international sanctions aimed at getting Pyongyang to abandon its development of nuclear weapons and long-range missiles.
    (AP, 4/21/17)

2017        Apr 22, Emergency teams in the Canary Islands raced to contain a three-kilometer oil slick caused by a ferry crashing into underwater fuel pipes.
    (Reuters, 4/22/17)

2017        Apr 27, Officials said Poland has signed its first deal to purchase liquefied natural gas from a US supplier, a step that will help the country's efforts to cut its dependence on deliveries from Russia.
    (AP, 4/27/17)

2017        Apr 28, Pres. Donald Trump signed an executive order seeking to expand offshore oil and gas drilling in areas that Pres. Obama put off-limits.
    (SFC, 4/29/17, p.A1)
2017        Apr 28, Libya seized two foreign-flagged oil tankers and detained their crews for allegedly smuggling fuel after an hours-long gunbattle off the west coast.
    (AFP, 4/30/17)

2017        May 1, The US Supreme Court ruled against Oklahoma-based Helmerich & Payne International Drilling Company that claimed Venezuela unlawfully seized 11 drilling rigs in 2010. The justices ruled 8-0 to throw out a 2015 decision by the US Court of Appeals for the District of Columbia Circuit that allowed one of the claims to move forward.
    (Reuters, 5/1/17)

2017        May 3, Ten environmental and Alaskan Native groups filed suit to maintain the ban on oil and gas exploration, a key part of former Pres. Obama’s environmental legacy.
    (SFC, 5/4/17, p.C4)

2017        May 9, A Dutch appeals court ruled that Russian authorities knowingly plunged oil giant Yukos into bankruptcy in 2006 by ordering it to pay huge tax bills, the latest ruling in a long-running battle over the assets of a Dutch Yukos subsidiary.
    (AP, 5/9/17)

2017        May 10, Tunisia's President Beji Caid Essebsi ordered the army to protect phosphate, gas and oil production facilities after protests aimed at disrupting output broke out in the south of the country.
    (Reuters, 5/10/17)

2017        May 24, Iran signed a deal worth $615 million, €550 million, with a Spanish-Iranian consortium under which the group will provide pipes used in Iran's oil industry.
    (AP, 5/24/17)

2017        May 25, Meeting in Vienna OPEC and other oil nations extended their production cuts in an effort to shore up prices. US shale producers with crude prices above $50 a barrel from lows of last year were increasingly moving back into the market.
    (AP, 5/25/17)   

2017        May 28, The Wall Street Journal reported that the Goldman Sachs Group has bought $2.8 billion in bonds from Venezuela’s state-run oil company PDVSA at a steeply discounted price. Opposition leaders immediately accused the bank of getting in bed with a deeply unpopular administration, the target of two months of near-daily protests.
    (AP, 5/30/17)   

2017        May 30, Kazakhstan's energy ministry said that the Tengizchevroil project has suspended operations at Tengiz oilfield after a toxic substance was released.
    (AP, 5/30/17)   

2017        Jun 5, Saudi Arabia, the United Arab Emirates, Bahrain, Yemen, the Maldives and Egypt cut ties with Qatar, the world's top seller of liquefied natural gas (LNG), stoking concern over any supply disruptions to neighboring countries spilling over into global gas markets. They accused Qatar of supporting extremism.
    (Reuters, 6/5/17)

2017        Jun 15, Guyana said it has issued an operating license and environmental permit to ExxonMobil, which has said it made "significant" oil discoveries off the South American country's coast. Reserves of around 2 billion barrels have been found over the last two years.
    (AP, 6/16/17)(Econ 7/1/17, p.30)
2017        Jun 15, Israeli PM Benjamin Netanyahu promised to promote plans for an ambitious Mediterranean undersea natural gas pipeline project, in a bid by his country to become a key European energy supplier. Israel hoped to export much of its newly discovered natural gas to Europe by a proposed 2,200-km (1,350-mile) undersea pipeline to Cyprus and Greece.
    (AP, 6/15/17)

2017        Jun 21, Iran began exporting gas to neighboring Iraq through a pipeline straight to Baghdad.
    (AP, 6/22/17)

2017        Jun 25, In eastern Pakistan an overturned oil tanker burst into flames, killing 157 people who had rushed to the scene of the highway accident to gather leaking fuel outside the city of Bahawalpur. The death toll continued to rise in south Punjab as many suffered extensive burns. The death toll later climbed to 215.
    (AP, 6/25/17)(AP, 6/26/17)(AP, 6/30/17)(Reuters, 7/4/17)(AP, 7/7/17)

2017        Jun 29, The UN Security Council extended sanctions on illegal oil exports from Libya to cover refined petroleum products as well, in a bid to stem rampant smuggling of subsidized fuel by sea.
    (Reuters, 6/30/17)

2017        Jul 2, In southwest China at least eight people died and another 35 were injured in a natural gas pipeline explosion in Guizhou Province.
    (Reuters, 7/2/17)

2017        Jul 3, French energy giant Total signed a $4.9 billion agreement to develop an Iranian offshore gas field, in the biggest foreign deal since sanctions on Iran were eased.
    (AFP, 7/3/17)

2017        Jul 9, Iraq’s oil minister said drilling has started at the first well in the Huwaiza oil field near the Iranian border, which may contain one billion barrels in reserves.
    (Reuters, 7/9/17)

2017        Jul 10, State-owned Qatar Petroleum and French energy giant Total said they will formally launch a 25-year joint venture to develop the Al Shaheen oil field this week.
    (AFP, 7/10/17)

2017        Jul 11, A Pakistani subsidiary of Royal Dutch Shell agreed to pay a fine of about 257 million rupees ($2.4 million) in compensation for a tanker truck explosion that killed more than 200 people on June 25.
    (Reuters, 7/11/17)

2017        Jul 12, A consortium of Mexican and foreign private companies says a well drilled in shallow water has found between 1.4 and 2 billion barrels of crude oil equivalent in the Gulf of Mexico.
    (AP, 7/12/17)

2017        Jul, Drilling by the Deepsea Metro I ship was suspended in Vietnam's Block 136/3 after pressure from China, which said the concession operated by Spain's Repsol overlaps the vast majority of the waterway that it claims as its own. Co-owners of the block included Vietnam's state oil firm and Mubadala Development Co of the UAE.
    (Reuters, 8/14/17)

2017        Aug 3, Nigeria’s state-run oil firm said it has signed financing deals with oil majors Shell and Chevron to develop projects that would boost reserves and revenue.
    (AFP, 8/3/17)

2017        Aug 10, The Danish environmental protection agency (DEPA) said it had reported Maersk Oil, the oil unit of A.P. Moller-Maersk, to the police for discharging chemicals into the North Sea in connection with oil production.
    (Reuters, 8/10/17)

2017        Aug 13, Kuwait said it will finish cleaning up a crude oil spill in its southern waters near the Ras al-Zour area this week. The spill began days ago and activists informed authorities about it on August 10. Kuwaiti media quoted local oil experts as saying the spill originated from an old 50-km (31-mile) pipeline from Al-Khafji. On August 16 an analysis of satellite imagery by a US-based nonprofit organization suggested at least 34,000 gallons of oil have leaked out during a spill off the coast of Kuwait.
    (Reuters, 8/13/17)(AFP, 8/13/17)(AP, 8/16/17)

2017        Aug 21, An early morning collision off Singapore between the USS John S. McCain and an oil tanker, the merchant vessel Alnic MC, left 10 US sailors missing. Singapore and Malaysia both said the incident took place in their territorial waters. Divers soon found the remains of two of the 10 sailors in sealed compartments of the ship. On May 25, 2018, Cmdr. Alfredo Sanchez pleaded guilty to dereliction of duty.
    (AP, 8/21/17)(Reuters, 8/21/17)(AFP, 8/22/17)(AP, 8/25/17)(SFC, 5/26/18, p.A6)
2017        Aug 21, French oil company Total agreed to buy Danish conglomerate AP Moller-Maersk's oil business for $7.45 billion, in a deal to strengthen its position in the North Sea.
    (AP, 8/21/17)

2017        Aug 23, Two Harvard University researchers in a study published today said they had collected scientific data proving Exxon Mobil Corp made "explicit factual misrepresentations" in newspaper ads it purchased to convey its views on the oil industry and climate science.
    (Reuters, 8/23/17)

2017        Aug 27, The Libyan navy seized an oil tanker near the maritime border with Tunisia and detained the 20-member Filipino crew on suspicion of fuel smuggling.
    (AFP, 8/28/17)

2017        Aug 30, Libya’s state-owned National Oil Company said oil production has been suspended for several days at three oil fields after an armed militia shut off pipelines.
    (AFP, 8/30/17)

2017        Aug, The Singapore subsidiary of Royal Dutch Shell Plc contacted authorities about oil theft at its Pulau Bukom industrial site. Court documents later listed two vessels used in the transfer of stolen oil products on Nov. 11 and Dec. 31 at two wharfs at Pulau Bukom. In January 2018 a Singapore court charged 11 men including eight Shell employees and two Vietnamese nationals related to the theft following a weekend raid arresting 17 people.
    (Reuters, 1/13/18)

2017        Sep 1, In Vietnam Ninh Van Quynh (59), the deputy head of the country’s largest oil firm, state-run PetroVietnam, was arrested as part of a massive fraud case involving dozens of bankers and businessmen, according to the government.
    (AFP, 9/1/17)

2017        Sep 2, It was reported that Australia and East Timor have reached a breakthrough agreement on a maritime border, ending a decade-old row between the two nations that has stalled a $40 billion offshore gas project.
    (Reuters, 9/2/17)

2017        Sep 6, France's government unveiled a law to ban all production and exploration of oil and natural gas by 2040 on the country's mainland and overseas territories.
    (AP, 9/6/17)

2017        Sep 7, In southwestern Denmark some 200,000 liters (52,00 gallons) of diesel fuel spilled into a harbor. The oil spill reportedly came from a tank at the harbor belonging to hydrocarbon storage and shipping company Dan-Balt.
    (AP, 9/8/17)

2017        Sep 8, Swiss commodities trader Glencore said that it and Qatar Investment Authority, the rich Persian Gulf emirate's sovereign wealth fund, have agreed to jointly sell a 14.16 percent stake in Rosneft to CEFC China Energy Company Ltd.
    (AP, 9/8/17)

2017        Sep 10, In Greece the 45-year-old vessel Agia Zoni II sank near the island of Salamis while under anchor. Oil soon spilled from the sunken tanker and drifted to other parts of the Saronic Gulf in Athens.
    (AP, 9/13/17)

2017        Sep 12, Syria's government signed a contract with an Iranian company to import five gas-fired power plants to the war-battered city of Aleppo.
    (AP, 9/12/17)

2017        Sep 15, Greek authorities banned swimming along a long line of popular Athens beaches following extensive sea pollution from the sinking of a small oil tanker five days ago, which prompted a large containment and cleanup operation.
    (AP, 9/15/17)

2017        Sep 19, Oil and gas pipeline company Energy Transfer Partners LP said it has received approval from US energy regulators to resume drilling along its $4.2 billion Rover pipeline project. The Rover project from Pennsylvania to Ontario is the biggest gas pipeline under construction in the United States.
    (Reuters, 9/19/17)

2017        Sep 22, China’s commerce ministry said it will limit exports of refined petroleum products to North Korea starting October 1, confirming Beijing's participation in new UN sanctions intended to rein in its rogue neighbor.
    (AP, 9/23/17)

2017        Sep 29, Iran’s semi-official Tasnim news agency said Iran has banned the transportation of refined crude oil products by Iranian companies to and from Iraq's Kurdistan region, after Tehran vowed to stand by Baghdad following the region's vote for independence.
    (Reuters, 9/29/17)
2017        Sep 29, Shareholders in Rosneft, a Russia energy giant, appointed Germany’s ex-chancellor Gerhard Schroder as a board director.
    (http://tinyurl.com/y7srpcpj)(Econ, 9/16/17, p.64)

2017        Oct 5, Pipeline company TransCanada said it's cancelling a 2013 plan to build a pipeline that would ship 1.1 million barrels of oil per day from Western Canada to the Atlantic coast.
    (AP, 10/5/17)
2017        Oct 5, Environment Minister Vidar Helgesen said Norway will study ways to make its economy greener and reduce dependence on oil and gas reserves that are likely to lose value amid efforts to slow climate change.
    (Reuters, 10/5/17)

2017        Oct 10, Iraq's Oil Ministry ordered the restoration of an oil pipeline from the city of Kirkuk to Turkey that would bypass the country's northern Kurdish region in the wake of the area's pro-independence referendum.
    (AP, 10/10/17)

2017        Oct 13, On four voyages between Oct. 13, 2017, and May 7, 2018, the Russian Tantal tanker gave its destination as the Chinese port of Ningbo when it set sail. It then met up in international waters with a North Korean vessel to which it transferred its cargo of fuel.
    (Reuters, 2/26/19)

2017        Oct 14, US federal authorities responded to an oil spill off the coast of Louisiana. As much as 9,350 barrels of oil were released from an underwater pipe before the spill was halted.
    (SSFC, 10/15/17, p.A5)

2017        Oct 16, Trading sources said Iraq's Kurdistan has shut down some 350,000 barrels per day (bpd) of production from major fields Bai Hassan and Avana due to security concerns after a flare-up in tensions with the central government. Iraq said it was considering using security forces to prevent Kurdistan from shutting down output from the oil area of Kirkuk.
    (Reuters, 10/16/17)

2017        Oct 22, In Syria US-backed militias captured the al-Omar oil field, the largest in the country, pressing their assault against Islamic State in the east of the country.
    (Reuters, 10/22/17)

2017        Oct 29, In southern Iran a fire broke out at an oil rig, killing at least two workers near the town of Omideih just days after another fire at an oil refinery in Tehran killed seven workers.
    (AP, 10/29/17)

2017        Oct 31, The US Treasury's Office of Foreign Assets Control published an amendment which bans US entities from helping sanctioned Russian oil companies in exploration or production for deepwater, Arctic offshore, or shale projects anywhere in the world.
    (Reuters, 11/2/17)

2017        Nov 2, Iraqi forces captured the Akkas gas field from Islamic State.
    (Reuters, 11/2/17)

2017        Nov 4, In Sri Lanka thousands of motorists waited in long lines near fuel stations across the country to buy gasoline for a second straight day amid a fuel shortage. The distribution of gasoline to pumping stations was reportedly decreased because an imported shipment had to be rejected because it was substandard.
    (AP, 11/4/17)

2017        Nov 7, In Sri Lanka tens of thousands of motorists formed long lines at gasoline stations, as the country's fuel shortage continued for a fifth day.
    (AP, 11/7/17)

2017        Nov 10, In Bahrain an explosion late today caused a fire at its main oil pipeline. The government said it was caused by "terrorist" sabotage, linking the unprecedented attack to its arch-foe Iran, which denies any role in the Gulf island kingdom's unrest.
    (Reuters, 11/11/17)

2017        Nov 13, Saudi oil giant Aramco said it had resumed operations at its Bahrain pipeline, days after it was shut down over a fire which Manama called a "terrorist" act.
    (AFP, 11/13/17)

2017        Nov 16, In South Dakota TransCanada Corp. shut down its Keystone pipeline after a drop in pressure was detected from a leak. An estimated 210,000 gallons of oil spilled onto agricultural land.
    (SFC, 11/17/17, p.A6)(SFC, 11/18/17, p.A6)

2017        Nov 20, Nebraska regulators approved a Keystone XL oil pipeline route through the state, but chose an alternate pathway to the one preferred by the pipeline operator. More time could be required to study the changes in the delayed $8 billion project.
    (SFC, 11/21/17, p.A6)

2017        Nov 22, BP, Italy's Eni, Exxon, Spain's Repsol, Shell, Norway's Statoil, Total and Wintershall said they have “committed to further reduce methane emissions from the natural gas assets".
    (Reuters, 11/22/17)
2017        Nov 22, Venezuelan President Nicolas Maduro said that Venezuelan-American executives at refiner Citgo who were arrested in a corruption sweep this week would be tried as "corrupt, thieving traitors" despite a request by the United States to free them. Maduro named Asdrubal Chavez -- a cousin of late leader Hugo Chavez -- to lead Citgo, the state oil company's US affiliate.
    (Reuters, 11/23/17)(AFP, 11/23/17)

2017        Nov 26, Iraq’s oil ministry said Iraq is to build a new pipeline to allow oil exports to resume from the northern province of Kirkuk to neighboring Turkey.
    (AFP, 11/26/17)

2017        Nov 30, Denmark passed a law that could allow it to ban Russia's Nord Stream 2 gas pipeline from going through its waters on grounds of security or foreign policy.
    (Reuters, 11/30/17)
2017        Nov 30, Venezuelan authorities said they have detained two once-powerful officials who had run the oil ministry and state energy company PDVSA. Engineer Eulogio Del Pino was thought to have participated in a $500 million corruption and sabotage scheme at the Petrozamora joint venture, while chemist Martinez was suspected of allowing a poor refinancing deal for US-based refiner Citgo Petroleum Corp, which he used to lead, to go ahead without government approval.
    (Reuters, 11/30/17)

2017        Dec 1, An Associated Press investigation found that US oil refineries that are unable to sell a dirty fuel waste product at home are exporting vast quantities of it to India instead.
    (AP, 12/1/17)

2017        Dec 4, A US federal judge ordered Energy Transfer Partners LP to coordinate with local tribes and the Army Corps of Engineers to create an oil-spill response plan for the controversial Dakota Access Pipeline by next April, a decision he said will allow oil to keep flowing and prevent spills.
    (AP, 12/4/17)

2017        Dec 9, Vietnam’s government website said two more former officials at the scandal-hit state energy firm PetroVietnam, Phung Dinh Thuc and Do Van Hau, will be prosecuted over financial losses incurred while they were in office.
    (Reuters, 12/9/17)

2017        Dec 20, In Italy the current and former CEOs of oil giant Eni were ordered to face trial on corruption charges for the alleged payment of bribes over the $1.1 billion sale of one of Africa's richest oil blocks in Nigeria. CEO Claudio Descalzi and his predecessor Paolo Scaroni were among 15 defendants who will face trial in Milan.
    (AP, 12/20/17)

2017        Dec 22, Angola continued to suffer a week of fuel shortages, a bitter irony for one of Africa's leading oil producers, and a hardship that some people blame on opponents of President Joao Lourenco.
    (AFP, 12/22/17)

2017        Dec 26, Data from China’s General Administration of Customs showed that China did not export any gasoline, jet fuel, diesel or fuel oil to North Korea last month.
    (Reuters, 12/26/17)
2017        Dec 26, Libyan oil firm Waha Oil stopped pumping crude to the Es Sider terminal after a feeder pipeline was blown up.
    (AP, 12/26/17)

2017        Dec 28, President Donald Trump criticized China following reports that Chinese ships transferred oil to North Korean vessels at sea in violation of UN sanctions over the North's nuclear weapons program.
    (AP, 12/29/17)
2017        Dec 28, China blocked a US effort at the United Nations to blacklist six foreign-flagged ships following reports of illicit sales of oil products to North Korea.
    (Reuters, 12/31/17)

2017        Dec 29, China denied reports it had been illicitly selling oil products to North Korea in violation of UN sanctions, after US President Donald Trump said he was not happy that China had allowed oil to reach the isolated nation.
    (Reuters, 12/29/17)

2017        Dec 30, Two senior Western European security sources said Russian tankers have supplied fuel to North Korea on at least three occasions in recent months by transferring cargoes at sea. The Russian Foreign Ministry denied claims that UN sanctions against North Korea had been breached by Russian tankers transferring fuel to North Korean tankers at sea.
    (Reuters, 12/30/17)(AP, 12/30/17)
2017        Dec 30, In Iran a Sunni jihadist group claimed to have blown up an oil pipeline in southern Khuzestan province, the scene of other attacks by Arab separatists.
    (AP, 12/30/17)

2017        Dec 31, South Korean authorities said they have seized a Panama-flagged oil tanker suspected of evading international sanctions by trading with North Korea. The 5,100-ton KOTI was detained two weeks ago at the South's port of Pyeongtaek-Dangjin and its crew were being investigated over the alleged ship-to-ship transfers.
    (AFP, 12/31/17)

2017        In Mexico fuel thieves drilled 10,363 illegal taps into state-owned pipelines this year according to a 2018 Pemex report. This was about a 50% increase over 2016.
    (SFC, 2/8/18, p.A2)

2018        Jan 1, Qatar’s two state-owned firms, Qatargas and RasGas, running the country's natural gas business, announced a merger to form a new Qatargas in a move aimed at cutting costs and creating a global energy giant.
    (AFP, 1/3/18)

2018        Jan 2, Nigeria's electricity grid was shut down late today by a fire on a gas pipeline, the Escravos Lagos Pipeline System near Okada in the southern state of Edo.
    (Reuters, 1/3/18)

2018        Jan 3, Brazil’s oil giant Petrobras said it has agreed to pay $2.95 billion to settle a class action suit in New York brought on behalf investors harmed by a huge corruption scandal.
    (AFP, 1/3/18)

2018        Jan 4, A court in Norway said that the government can hand out oil drilling licenses in the Arctic, dealing a blow to two environmental groups that had filed a lawsuit against further drilling in the Barents Sea. The court also said Nature and Youth and Greenpeace Nordic should pay legal expenses worth 580,000 kroner ($71,435).
    (AP, 1/4/18)

2018        Jan 5, Exxon Mobil Corp. and Hess Corp. reported another significant oil discovery in an area known as the Stabroek Block in deep Atlantic Ocean waters off Guyana.
    (AP, 1/5/18)

2018        Jan 6, The Sanchi tanker carrying Iranian oil and run by the country's top oil shipping firm was ablaze and spewing cargo into the East China Sea after colliding with the Chinese CF Crystal freight ship, leaving the tanker's 32 crew members missing. The Panama-registered tanker was sailing from Iran to South Korea, carrying 136,000 tons of condensate, an ultra light crude, equivalent to just under 1 million barrels.
    (Reuters, 1/7/18)

2018        Jan 8, It was reported that Bahrain has lifted some subsidies on gasoline, raising prices a week after introducing a tax on cigarettes and soft drinks as state revenues continue to face pressure from lower oil prices.
    (AP, 1/8/18)

2018        Jan 9, US Interior Secretary Ryan Zinke said President Donald Trump's administration will not allow drilling for oil and gas off the coast of Florida after urging from the state's governor.
    (Reuters, 1/10/18)
2018        Jan 9, The tanker Sanchi, run by Iran's top oil shipping operator, National Iranian Tanker Co, continued burning for a 3rd day in the East China Sea. The body of one of 32 crew members was found a day earlier in the water near the tanker.
    (Reuters, 1/9/18)

2018        Jan 10, Rescue crews were forced to retreat from the stricken Sanchi, an Iranian oil tanker in the East China Sea, following an explosion on the ship as a fire raged for a fourth day after a dramatic collision.
    (Israel, 1/10/18)

2018        Jan 13, A Chinese salvage team recovered two bodies from the stricken Sanchi Iranian oil tanker, still blazing a week after it caught fire and was left adrift following a collision in the East China Sea. 30 Iranians and two Bangladeshis remained missing.
    (Reuters, 1/13/18)

2018        Jan 14, Chinese state media said the Sanchi, an Iranian oil tanker, has sunk after burning for more than a week following a collision on Jan. 6 in the East China Sea, adding that a large amount of oil was burning in the surrounding waters.
    (Reuters, 1/14/18)

2018        Jan 16, BP said it would take a new charge over the 2010 Deepwater Horizon spill after again raising estimates for outstanding claims, lifting total costs to around $65 billion.
    (Reuters, 1/16/18)

2018        Jan 18, Iraq signed a contract with British energy giant BP aimed at more than doubling production from oil fields in the northern province of Kirkuk that were retaken from the Kurds last year.
    (AFP,  1/18/18)
2018        Jan 18, In Nigeria five oil workers from local firm Sahara Energy were kidnapped in the southern Niger Delta region.
    (Reuters, 1/20/18)

2018        Jan 19, Chinese officials said the sunken Iranian oil tanker Sanchi may be leaking heavy bunker fuel as well as light oil off the east coast of China and the best remedy was to recover the vessel.
    (Reuters, 1/19/18)
2018        Jan 19, India's environment ministry placed restrictions on the use of imported petroleum coke in the capital Delhi and its surrounding region, in the latest effort to curb rising air pollution.
    (Reuters, 1/20/18)

2018        Jan 21, Top oil exporter Saudi Arabia called for extending cooperation between OPEC and non-OPEC producers beyond 2018, after a deal to cut output succeeded in shoring up prices.
    (AFP, 1/21/18)

2018        Jan 22, Iraq signed a deal with US company Orion Gas Processors to tap natural gas in one of its southern oil fields, a step toward exploiting a natural resource that has been neglected for decades.
    (AP, 1/22/18)
2018        Jan 22, In Vietnam Trinh Xuan Thanh, an ex-chairman of PetroVietnam's construction arm, was sentenced to life in prison. Former PetroVietnam chairman Dinh La Thang received a 13 year prison term. Thanh was also ordered to pay compensation of $1.5 million and Thang $1.3 million at the end of a major corruption trial. 22 defendants in the case, mostly current or former executives at PetroVietnam, were convicted of mismanagement, embezzlement or both in their tenures at the state energy giant.
    (AP, 1/22/18)

2018        Jan 20, The North Korean-flagged tanker "Rye Song Gang 1" - blacklisted by the UN last month for carrying banned cargo - was spotted by a Japanese Maritime Self Defence Force patrol plane with the Dominican-flagged tanker "Yuk Tung" tied up beside it in the East China Sea.
    (Reuters, 1/24/18)

2018        Jan 25, Britain’s government said it is tightening controls on firms hoping to carry out hydraulic fracking in parts of the country by adding a financial health check to the application process.
    (Reuters, 1/25/18)

2018        Jan 29, Iran oil ministry said it said it is ready to file a case with the International Court of Arbitration (ICA) over the quality and price of gas it receives from Turkmenistan, as a dispute between the two nations over payments escalates.
    (Reuters, 1/29/18)

2018        Jan 31, British energy major BP announced oil and gas discoveries in the North Sea, in a boost for the company and local industry.
    (AFP, 1/31/18)
2018        Jan 31, Israeli Defence Minister Avigdor Lieberman described Lebanon's offshore oil and gas licensing process as "very provocative" and urged international firms not to bid. Lebanon's President Michel Aoun said Israeli comments urging firms not to bid on a Lebanese offshore energy tender were "a threat to Lebanon".
    (Reuters, 1/31/18)

2018        Jan, The oil tanker MT Barret went missing off the coast of Benin. Pirates released the crew of 22, mostly Indians, within days after a ransom was paid.
    (SFC, 2/6/18, p.A2)

2018        Feb 1, A mining watchdog advised the Dutch government to significantly reduce the amount of gas extracted from the Groningen region, saying a cut is necessary to lower the risk of damage from subsequent earthquakes.
    (AP, 2/1/18)

2018        Feb 2, UN experts said North Korea is flouting UN sanctions on oil and gas, engaging in prohibited ballistic missile cooperation with Syria and Myanmar, and illegally exporting commodities that brought in nearly $200 million in just nine months last year.
    (AP, 2/3/18)

2018        Feb 5, In Norway environmental groups launched an appeal after an Oslo court rejected their arguments that Norway's oil and gas exploration in the Arctic violates citizens' right to a clean environment.
    (Reuters, 2/5/18)

2018        Feb 6, It was reported that India is seeking the help of the navies of Benin and Nigeria to find the Marine Express oil tanker that has gone missing in the Gulf of Guinea with 22 Indian crew members.
    (SFC, 2/6/18, p.A2)

2018        Feb 7, California officials sent a formal letter to the Bureau of Ocean Energy Management demanding that the Pacific coast be removed from a program to vastly increase offshore oil drilling in the United States.
    (AP, 2/8/18)

2018        Feb 8, Cyprus’ energy minister said that exploratory drilling off the southern shore has shown indications of a potentially sizeable gas deposit that raises hopes for more discoveries.
    (AP, 2/8/18)

2018        Feb 9, Hungary's PM Viktor Orban said a forthcoming deal to import natural gas from neighboring Romania means that the "age of the Russian gas monopoly in Hungary is ending."
    (AP, 2/9/18)
2018        Feb 9, Turkish warships stopped a rig belonging to the Italian energy firm ENI as it headed toward an area southeast of Cyprus.
    (AP, 2/11/18)

2018        Feb 13, Turkish President Recep Tayyip Erdogan issued a warning to neighboring Greece, Cyprus and international companies exploring for gas in the eastern Mediterranean not to "step out of line" and encroach on Turkey's rights.
    (AP, 2/13/18)

2018        Feb 14, The Court of Appeal in London ruled that two Nigerian communities cannot pursue Royal Dutch Shell in English courts over oil spills in Nigeria's Delta region.
    (Reuters, 2/14/18)

2018        Feb 19, Israel’s PM Benjamin Netanyahu announced a "historic" $15 billion contract for sales of natural gas to Egypt.
    (AFP, 2/19/18)

2018        Feb 20, Venezuela became the first country to launch its own version of bitcoin, a move it hopes will provide a much-needed boost to its credit-stricken economy. The so-called petro is backed by Venezuela's crude oil reserves, the largest in the world. The US Treasury Department has thrown a damper on the release, warning US citizens and companies who buy the petro that they could be violating sanctions.
    (AP, 2/20/18)

2018        Feb 22, The US District Court for the Northern District of California granted the states of California and New Mexico's bid for a preliminary injunction and denied the Trump administration's request to move the trial to another court venue in Wyoming. The court temporarily blocked the Trump administration from delaying or ending an Obama-era rule aimed at preventing oil and gas leaks during production.
    (AP, 2/23/18)
2018        Feb 22, Turkey said it will not allow Cyprus' government to carry out a "unilateral" gas search off the east Mediterranean island as long as breakaway Turkish Cypriots don't also reap the benefits.
    (AP, 2/22/18)

2018        Feb 23, Afghanistan's Pres. Ashraf Ghani and Pakistan's PM Shahid Khaqan Abbasi launched a 1,814 km (1,130 mile) gas pipeline that will feed Turkmenistan gas to Afghanistan, as well as Pakistan and eventually to India.
    (AP, 2/23/18)
2018        Feb 23, Libya's National Oil Corporation (NOC) declared force majeure on the 70,000 barrels per day (bpd) El Feel oilfield after a protest by guards closed the field. (Force majeure is a common clause in contracts that essentially frees both parties from liability or obligation when an extraordinary event or circumstance beyond the control of the parties.) El Feel was shut after guards withdrew from the field to push demands over pay and other benefits earlier this week.
    (Reuters, 2/24/18)

2018        Feb 24, A Japanese surveillance plane spotted the North Korean-flagged tanker "Chon Ma San", designated by the United States as a sanction target, with the Maldivian-flagged tanker "Xin Yuan 18" some 250 km (156 miles) east of Shanghai in defiance of UN Security Council resolutions.
    (Reuters, 2/27/18)

2018        Feb 26, In Papua New Guinea a magnitude 7.5 earthquake in the remote highlands region cut roads and damaged buildings. At least 14 people were killed. ExxonMobil Corp shut its liquefied natural gas (LNG) plant in the wake of the quake.
    (Reuters, 2/26/18)(Reuters, 2/27/18)

2018        Feb 28, Maldives denied a Japanese foreign ministry statement that said a Maldives-flagged vessel was used to illegally transfer goods from a North Korean-flagged tanker in defiance of UN Security Council resolutions.
    (Reuters, 2/28/18)

2018        Mar 3, Russia’s state natural gas monopoly Gazprom said it is beginning efforts to end its contract to supply gas to Ukraine, raising concerns about downstream gas supply to European countries. The move comes after the Stockholm international arbitration court ruled that Gazprom should pay Ukraine more than $2 billion for failure to deliver the agreed-upon volumes of so-called "transit gas".
    (AP, 3/3/18)

2018        Mar 4, A Libyan landlord said he has closed a valve and shut down the giant El Sharara oilfield in protest against pollution near a pipeline crossing his land in the western Zintan area.
    (Reuters, 3/4/18)

2018        Mar 6, Australia and East Timor signed a historic treaty drawing their maritime boundary, ending years of bitter wrangling over billions of dollars of oil and gas riches lying beneath the Timor Sea and opening a new chapter in relations.
    (AP, 3/7/18)

2018        Mar 10, In Canada thousands of demonstrators marched in Burnaby, British Columbia, against a pipeline expansion project that would nearly triple the flow of oil from Alberta's tar sands to the Vancouver area.
    (SSFC, 3/11/18, p.A4)

2018        Mar 13, Qatar and the United Arab Emirates each extended a concession to an offshore oil field they share to a Japanese consortium despite a diplomatic crisis between the two of them tearing at the region.
    (AP, 3/13/18)

2018        Mar 15, Brazil's troubled national oil company Petrobras posted net losses of 446 million reais ($139.7 million) for 2017, reflecting continued fallout from the "Car Wash" corruption scandal, but sharply improving on the previous year.
    (AFP, 3/15/18)

2018        Mar 18, Abu Dhabi state energy company ADNOC said it had awarded French oil giant Total stakes in two offshore oil concessions. Abu Dhabi National Oil Co. said it has signed a deal worth $1.45 billion with French oil giant Total SA granting it stakes in offshore fields.
    (AFP, 3/18/18)(AP, 3/18/18)

2018        Mar 20, The US Department of Interior auctioned off more than 51,000 acres (21,000 hectares) in southeastern Utah for oil and gas development, over objections from conservationists.
    (Reuters, 3/20/18)

2018        Mar 21, The state-owned Abu Dhabi National Oil Co. said it has signed a deal with China's state-run national petroleum company worth $1.18 billion for stakes in two oil and natural gas concessions in the United Arab Emirates' capital of Abu Dhabi.
    (AP, 3/21/18)
2018        Mar 21, The US announced sanctions on 15 South Sudanese oil operators. They will require companies and government bodies to apply for special licenses to do business in the United States, an action designed to increase pressure on President Salva Kiir to end the conflict and humanitarian crisis in South Sudan.
    (Reuters, 3/22/18)

2018        Mar 22, In the Czech Rep. an explosion killed six people at Unipetrol's plant in Kralupy nad Vltavou during cleaning of the storage tank.
    (Reuters, 3/22/18)

2018        Mar 23, It was reported that Vietnam has halted an oil drilling project in the "Red Emperor" block off its southeastern coast licensed to Spanish energy firm Repsol following pressure from China.
    (Reuters, 3/23/18)

2018        Mar 26, Pennsylvania environmental regulators issued another notice of violation to Energy Transfer Partners LP's Sunoco Mariner East 2 natural gas liquids pipeline for releasing drilling fluids into a wetland.
    (Reuters, 3/27/18)

2018        Mar 27, Cypriot President Nicos Anastasiades hailed as "unprecedented" the EU's condemnation of Turkey for blocking his government's search for offshore oil and gas.
    (AFP, 3/27/18)

2018        Mar 31, In Indonesia four people died after fuel from an oil spill caught fire, filling skies around Balikpapan city on Borneo island with choking black smoke. A cracked underwater pipeline was later said to have caused the oil spill (see April 5).
    (AP, 4/4/18)(Reuters, 4/4/18)

2018        Apr 2, A cyberattack hobbled the electronic communication system used by Energy Transfer Partners LP, a major US pipeline network. The EDI platform, provided by Energy Services Group, was shut down, but there was no effect on the flow of natural gas.
    (SFC, 4/3/18, p.D2)

2018        Apr 5, An Indonesian energy ministry official said a coal ship that dropped anchor off the coast of the port city of Balikpapan on Borneo island was likely to blame for an oil spill, after dragging a pipeline more than 100 meters and causing it to crack. The spill and fire killed five fishermen.
    (Reuters, 4/5/18)

2018        Apr 10, Saudi national company Aramco and French oil giant Total announced that they have signed an agreement to build a $9 billion petrochemical complex in Jubail, Saudi Arabia.
    (AP, 4/10/18)

2018        Apr 11, Saudi Aramco announced a $44-billion deal to build a giant refinery complex in India with three Indian firms that will become a crucial new outlet for the world's biggest supplier.
    (AFP, 4/11/18)

2018        Apr 12, Canada's PM Justin Trudeau cut short a visit to Peru to try defuse a threatened constitutional crisis over expanding a 1,150-km (715-mile) pipeline to move 890,000 barrels of oil per day from landlocked Alberta's oil sands to the Pacific coast.
    (AFP, 4/15/18)
2018        Apr 12, New Zealand said it will stop issuing permits for offshore oil and gas exploration as it moves to combat climate change.
    (SFC, 4/13/18, p.A2)

2018        Apr 17, California-based Chevron Corp. said that two of its Venezuela-based employees were arrested by local authorities, in what appeared to be the first such detentions of a private oil company's workers amid a growing anti-corruption purge.
    (AP, 4/18/18)

2018        Apr 20, Saudi Energy Minister Khaled al-Faleh said the global market has the capacity to absorb higher oil prices, drawing a swift reaction from US President Donald Trump who accused OPEC of inflating prices.
    (AFP, 4/20/18)

2018        Apr 25, In western Indonesia a newly drilled unregulated oil well exploded into flames, burning 18 people to death and injuring dozens of others in Pasir Putih village, eastern Aceh province.
    (AP, 4/25/18)

2018        Apr 29, Austria's OMV signed a deal worth $1.5 billion for a 20 percent stake in two offshore concessions in the United Arab Emirates' capital, Abu Dhabi.
    (AP, 4/29/18)
2018        Apr 29, Saudi national oil giant Aramco said that five new members had been appointed to its board of directors, including the first woman in the firm's history. Lynn Laverty Elsenhans (60) is the former head of US oil company Sunoco Inc. and has been director of oil services company Baker Hughes since July last year.
    (AFP, 4/29/18)

2018        Apr 30, The US Supreme Court rejected Constitution Pipeline Co's bid to challenge New York state's refusal to issue a needed water permit for a proposed natural gas pipeline running from Pennsylvania to New York.
    (Reuters, 4/30/18)
2018        Apr 30, Iraqi Oil Minister Jabar al-Luaibi said that the last well on fire at Ajil, an oilfield torched by Islamic State north of Baghdad, has been extinguished. IS militants torched the field, located near Tikrit, in 2015.
    (Reuters, 4/30/18)

2018        May 5, In Sudan black market fuel prices surged in Khartoum and other towns as petrol and diesel shortages forced residents to queue for hours outside gas stations. An acute shortage of foreign currency has also aggravated the situation.
    (AFP, 5/5/18)

2018        May 7, Andeavor, one of the largest US refining companies, reported saving $100 million over the past two years due to lower compliance costs related to the US Renewable Fuel Standard, which requires refiners to mix biofuels like ethanol into the nation's fuel or purchase credits from rivals that do. The US Environmental Protection Agency had granted the company a financial hardship waiver that freed its smallest refining facilities from the regulation.
    (AP, 5/8/18)

2018        May 8, The leaders of Cyprus, Israel and Greece said they're determined to push ahead with plans for a pipeline that would supply east Mediterranean gas to Europe as the continent seeks to diversify its supplies.
    (AP, 5/8/18)

2018        May 10, Police in Vietnam arrested the chairman and the chief accountant of Binh Son Refining and Petrochemical Co. Ltd. on suspicion of embezzlement as the communist-led government widens a crackdown on corruption.
    (Reuters, 5/10/18)

2018        May 16, Canada pledged to compensate Kinder Morgan, the builder of the controversial Trans Mountain pipeline (TMX) in British Columbia, for any losses that may result from political delays.
    (AFP, 5/16/18)
2018        May 16, French oil and gas giant Total said it has decided to cancel a multi-billion-dollar project in Iran unless it is granted a waiver by US authorities.
    (AP, 5/17/18)
2018        May 16, In the presence of the British ambassador in Tehran officials from Britain's Pergas International Consortium and the National Iranian South Oil Co. signed a preliminary deal on a partnership to develop the 55-year-old Karanj oil field.
    (AP, 5/17/18)   

2018        May 17, China's Foreign Ministry said that no country, organization, company or individual can carry out oil and gas exploration or exploitation in Chinese waters without permission from Beijing.
    (Reuters, 5/17/18)
2018        May 17, Russian state oil firm Rosneft said in a statement that its drilling in the South China Sea is within Vietnamese territorial waters, two days after its Vietnamese subsidiary began drilling in Vietnamese waters claimed by China.
    (Reuters, 5/17/18)

2018        May 20, In Kenya a train carrying 250,000 liters of petrol derailed at Mombasa and dumped part of its cargo into the Indian Ocean and onto a major highway.
    (Reuters, 5/21/18)

2018        May 23, Exxon Mobil Corp said it was targeting a 15 percent cut in methane emissions by 2020, the latest effort by an oil major to reduce its carbon footprint and address climate change concerns.
    (AP, 5/23/18)

2018        May 24, The European Union imposed obligations on Russian state-owned energy giant Gazprom to improve the flow of gas at competitive prices in eastern EU nations, but did not fine the company.
    (AP, 5/24/18)
2018        May 24, A Japanese warship spotted a North Korean tanker and another ship with a Korean name apparently transferring fuel on the open seas in violation of UN sanctions.
    (AP, 6/1/18)

2018        May 29, Brazil's environmental agency rejected for a fourth time a Total license application to drill for oil in the amazon basin.
    (Reuters, 6/1/18)
2018        May 29, Canada's federal government said it is buying the controversial 68-year-old Kinder Morgan Trans Mountain pipeline from the Alberta oil sands to the Pacific Coast to ensure it gets built. Kinder Morgan faced legal hurdles to expand the 1,150-km (715-mile) line running from Alberta to the British Columbia coast. The pipeline assumed greater importance for the oil sector after the 2021 cancellation of rival Keystone XL reduced future options to carry crude.
    (AP, 5/29/18)(Reuters, 1/24/21)

2018        May 30, Iran's oil minister gave French energy giant Total 60 days to win a sanctions waiver from Washington or it would lose its stake in a multi-billion-dollar gas project.
    (AFP, 5/30/18)

2018        May 31, It was reported that the US Environmental Protection Agency has awarded tens of millions of dollars worth of biofuel blending credits for this year to refiners HollyFrontier and Sinclair Oil after they argued the agency had wrongly denied them waivers from the country's biofuels law as far back as 2014.
    (Reuters, 5/31/18)

2018        Jun 5, President Donald Trump abandoned an overhaul of biofuels policy aimed at reducing costs for the oil industry. US lawmakers in farming states argued the overhaul would have cut into domestic demand for ethanol.
    (Reuters, 6/6/18)

2018        Jun 8, In Mozambique a US embassy alert warned of an imminent attack on the regional gas hub Palma. Since October, more than 30 people have been killed in brazen assaults on unarmed villagers.
    (AFP, 6/24/18)

2018        Jun 9, Pope Francis spoke to top oil company executives at the end of a two-day conference in the Vatican and warned that climate change risked destroying humanity. He called on energy leaders to help the world to convert to clean fuels to avert catastrophe.
    (Reuters, 6/9/18)

2018        Jun 13, US President Donald Trump accused the Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries of driving up oil prices, in a fresh swipe at the cartel's agreement to cap production.
    (AFP, 6/13/18)

2018        Jun 14, EU negotiators agreed to phase out the use of palm oil in transport fuels from 2030, setting up a clash with producer countries such as Malaysia and Indonesia.
    (Reuters, 6/14/18)
2018        Jun 14, The major Libyan oil ports of Ras Lanuf and Es Sider were closed and evacuated due to attacks by armed brigades opposed to the powerful eastern commander Khalifa Haftar, causing a production loss of 240,000 barrels per day.
    (Reuters, 6/14/18)

2018        Jun 16, Egypt announced steep increases in fuel and cooking gas prices as part of the country's economic reforms and austerity measures designed to overhaul the country's ailing economy.
    (AP, 6/16/18)

2018        Jun 17, Libyan forces late today carried out airstrikes against a militia attacking key oil ports in the east. The next day Libya's national oil firm warned of further damage to oil infrastructure as well as environmental contamination.
    (AP, 6/18/18)

2018        Jun 21, East Libyan forces said they had retaken the shuttered oil ports of Es Sider and Ras Lanuf, hours after clashes resumed south of Ras Lanuf during a counter-attack by rival factions.
    (Reuters, 6/21/18)

2018        Jun 22, In Iowa the Sioux County Sheriff's Office ordered evacuations near Doon, after a BNSF train derailed and spilled oil being transported from Canada. An estimated 230,000 gallons of crude oil was dumped into floodwaters with some making its way to nearby rivers. Ten oil tank cars were breached in the derailment on washed out tracks.
    (http://tinyurl.com/ychga7nu)(SSFC, 6/24/18, p.A8)(SFC, 8/11/18, p.A6)
2018        Jun 22, Saudi-led OPEC oil cartel members meeting in Vienna agreed to a new oil output level that effectively increases production by almost 1 million barrels per day.
    (AP, 6/22/18)

2018        Jun 23, Russia and other oil-producing allies said they would endorse a nominal output increase of 1 million barrels crude oil per day after their meeting in Vienna with OPEC countries.
    (AP, 6/23/18)

2018        Jun 25, A US federal judge tossed out two groundbreaking lawsuits by San Francisco and Oakland that sought to hold some of the wolrd's largest oil companies liable for climate change.
    (SFC, 6/26/18, p.D1)

2018        Jun 26, Libya's UN-backed government based in Tripoli urged the UN Security Council to block what it described as "illegal" oil sales by a rival administration based in the country's east.
    (AP, 6/26/18)

2018        Jun 28, Industry sources said India, the biggest buyer of Iranian oil after China, will be forced to take action to protect its exposure to the US financial system. They said India's oil ministry has asked refiners to prepare for a 'drastic reduction or zero' imports of Iranian oil from November.
    (Reuters, 6/28/18)

2018        Jun 30, US President Donald Trump said that Saudi Arabia's King Salman had agreed to his request to ramp up oil production, a week after OPEC already announced an output rise, because of the turmoil & dysfunction in Iran and Venezuela.
    (AFP, 6/30/18)

2018        Jul 2, Libya's crucial oil exports from its production heartland ground to a halt in a financial showdown between the country's rival political administrations.
    (AFP, 7/2/18)

2018        Jul 7, Iran's oil minister accused US President Donald Trump of insulting OPEC by ordering it to increase production and reduce prices, adding that Iranian output and exports had not changed as a result of US pressure.
    (Reuters, 7/7/18)

2018        Jul 12, The Irish parliament passed a bill to force the Ireland Strategic Investment Fund (ISIF) to divest from fossil fuel companies, in a move intended to encourage other countries to withdraw public money invested in oil, gas and coal.
    (Reuters, 7/12/18)

2018        Jul 19, The Abu Dhabi National Oil Company said it has awarded contracts worth AED 5.88 billion ($1.6 billion) to China's largest state-owned oil company to conduct what is says is the world's largest continuous 3D offshore and onshore seismic survey.
    (AP, 7/19/18)

2018        Jul 21, Egypt raised natural gas prices for households and businesses by between 33.3 and 75 percent, the latest among tough austerity measures aimed at rebuilding the country's economy battered by years of unrest since a 2011 uprising.
    (AP, 7/21/18)

2018        Jul 24, Iran said it will react with equal countermeasures if Washington tries to block its oil exports, while the Islamic Republic's armed forces chief said US threats would draw an "unimaginable and regrettable" reaction.
    (Reuters, 7/24/18)

2018        Jul 25, Yemen's Houthis attacked a Saudi oil tanker in the Red Sea, causing slight damage. The Houthis' Al Masirah TV said earlier on Twitter that it had targeted a warship named the Dammam off the western coast of Yemen.
    (AP, 7/25/18)

2018        Jul 26, Authorities in Canada's easternmost province said they had reached a tentative agreement with Norwegian oil giant Equinor to develop a major oil field discovered off Newfoundland in the North Atlantic.
    (AFP, 7/30/18)
2018        Jul 26, Saudi Arabia said it was suspending oil shipments through a strategic Red Sea lane after Yemen's Iran-aligned Houthis attacked two tankers in the waterway, underscoring the risk of an escalation in tensions in the region.
    (Reuters, 7/26/18)

2018        Aug 1, Indonesia's Renewable Energy Director General Rida Mulyana said the use of biodiesel blended fuels will be compulsory for all vehicles and heavy machinery from Sept. 1, amid efforts to reduce the current account deficit.
    (AP, 8/1/18)

2018        Aug 4, Saudi Arabia said that it was resuming oil shipments through the Bab al-Mandab Strait, ending a 10-day suspension triggered by rebel attacks off the coast of Yemen.
    (AFP, 8/4/18)

2018        Aug 8, Oil giant Saudi Aramco said it will buy out the other 50-percent stake in a joint chemical venture in the Netherlands in a deal valued at 1.5 billion euros, or $1.7 billion.
    (AP, 8/8/18)

2018        Aug 10, Colombia's state-run oil company Ecopetrol SA halted pumping on its Cano Limon-Covenas pipeline because of a bomb attack late today. The pipeline has been attacked nearly 60 times this year by the National Liberation Army (ELN), the country's remaining active guerrilla group.
    (Reuters, 8/11/18)

2018        Aug 12, Azerbaijan, Iran, Kazakhstan, Russia and Turkmenistan agreed in principle how to divide up the potentially huge oil and gas resources of the Caspian Sea.
    (Reuters, 8/12/18)

2018        Aug 13, Venezuela's President Nicolas Maduro announced that from now on dirt-cheap fuel will be available only to people with a special government aid card that the opposition has denounced as a tool for controlling people.
    (AFP, 8/14/18)

2018        Aug 28, A Swiss court sentenced Pascal Collard to an 18-month suspended prison term for corruption related to Congolese oil contracts. The former Gunvor employee said he paid bribes to the president of the Republic of Congo via a presidential aide and Belgian firm Semlex to win the contracts. Collard said managers at Gunvor knew about the payments and approved them to win the deals between 2009 and 2011.
    (Reuters, 9/26/18)

2018        Aug 30, South Sudan said it will resume oil production in northern Unity State for the first time since the fields were destroyed in late 2013.
    (SFC, 8/31/18, p.A2)

2018        Sep 4, President Hassan Rouhani announced that Iran is to move its main oil export terminal from the Gulf to the Oman Sea, sparing its tankers from using the strategic Strait of Hormuz.
    (AFP, 9/4/18)

2018        Sep 7, In Sri Lanka a leak occurred late today in a pipeline carrying oil from tankers to a storage facility on land, releasing about 25 tons of furnace oil. The leak occurred off Uswetakeiyawa, a town about 14 km (9 miles) north of Colombo.
    (AP, 9/10/18)

2018        Sep 19, Cyprus and Egypt signed an agreement paving the way for the Mediterranean’s first subsea pipeline to carry Cypriot natural gas to the Arab country for re-export to Europe.
    (AFP, 9/19/18)

2018        Sep 24, The US and China officially put new tariffs on each other's goods. China also reportedly pulled out of a meeting to discuss trade. Oil prices jumped after OPEC decided not to produce more oil.
    (AP, 9/24/18)

2018        Sep 27, The US Justice Department announced that US and Brazilian authorities have fined Brazil's state oil giant Petrobras more than $853 million for covering up a massive bribery scheme involving Brazilian politicians and political parties. Brazil will receive 80 percent and the other 20 percent will be divided between the US Dept. of Justice and the SEC.
    (AP, 9/27/18)(SFC, 9/28/18, p.A2)

2018        Sep 29, It was reported that the Trump administration has completed its plan to roll back major offshore-drilling safety regulations that were put into place after the 2010 Deepwater Horizon oil rig disaster. The revisions will take effect Dec. 27.
    (SFC, 9/28/18, p.A6)

2018        Oct 8, Baker-Hughes, a subsidiary of General Electric Co., said it has agreed to purchase a 5-percent stake in the drilling arm of Abu Dhabi's state oil company for $550 million. This marks the first time Abu Dhabi has sold a stake in its businesses to a foreign interest.
    (AP, 10/8/18)

2018        Oct 9, In Bosnia a powerful blast rocked the Brod oil refinery late today leaving one worker dead and nine people injured.
    (Reuters, 10/10/18)

2018        Oct 15, British protesters gathered near a shale gas exploration site in northwestern England, as fracking began in the UK for the first time since 2011.
    (AP, 10/15/18)

2018        Oct 23, Saudi Energy Minister Khalid al-Falih said the OPEC kingpin was ready to boost its crude production and spare capacity to help maintain a balance in the global oil market.
    (AFP, 10/23/18)

2018        Oct 24, Israel allowed a resumption of Qatari-financed fuel deliveries to Gaza after a 12-day halt it imposed over heavy border clashes.
    (AFP, 10/24/18)

2018        Oct 28, Iran sold oil to private buyers through its energy exchange for the first time, as part of its efforts to counter the imminent return of US sanctions.
    (AFP, 10/28/18)
2018        Oct 28, In Italy former party sympathizers set fire to the 5-Star flag in the southern town of Melendugno to protest at the government's decision to endorse the Trans Adriatic Pipeline (TAP) that will bring Azeri gas into Italy via their coastline.
    (Reuters, 10/29/18)
2018        Oct 28, It was reported that traces of oil have been found along Pakistan's coastline near Karachi. Leakage from an underwater pipeline was suspected and a nearby refinery was ordered to suspend operations.
    (SFC, 10/29/18, p.A2)

2018        Oct, In Ethiopia the secessionist Ogaden National Liberation Front group declared a unilateral ceasefire this month in the Somali Region in the wake of reforms. The province holds four trillion cubic feet of oil and gas reserves, government estimates show. China’s GCL-Poly Petroleum Investments has been developing two gas fields there since 2013.
    (AP, 10/19/18)

2018        Nov 2, The United States said it will temporarily allow eight importers to keep buying Iranian oil when it re-imposes sanctions on Nov. 5 to try to force Iran to curb its nuclear, missile and regional activities.
    (Reuters, 11/3/18)

2018        Nov 5, The Trump administration's tough new sanctions on Iran took effect, but eight major importers of Iranian oil were spared from immediate penalties. They included China, India, Italy, Greece, Japan, South Korea, Taiwan and Turkey.
    (AP, 11/5/18)(AFP, 11/5/18)

2018        Nov 6, Colorado voters rejected a measure that could have sharply reduced oil and gas drilling, including the method known as fracking, by requiring new oil and gas wells to be farther from occupied buildings than allowed under current law.
    (AP, 11/7/18)
2018        Nov 6, President Tayyip Erdogan said Turkey would not abide by the renewed US sanctions on Iran's oil and shipping industries, adding that they were aimed at "unbalancing the world".
    (Reuters, 11/6/18)

2018        Nov 13, Angry Ukrainians took to the streets and blocked roads as hundreds of thousands remain without heating at a time when temperatures are plunging because of a dispute between the national gas company and regional utility providers. Bills for hot water and heating were expected to increase by another 15% on December 1.
    (AP, 11/13/18)

2018        Nov 16, Iraq's central government said it has agreed with Kurdish authorities to resume oil exports from Kirkuk, a year after federal forces seized the lucrative fields.
    (AFP, 11/16/18)

2018        Nov 18, Turkey warned energy companies against working with the Greek Cypriot government in carrying out exploratory drilling in the eastern Mediterranean, saying such activities could damage regional stability.
    (Reuters, 11/18/18)

2018        Nov 19, In Turkey Russian President Vladimir Putin and Turkish President Recep Tayyip Erdogan marked the completion of a key phase of TurkStream, a natural gas pipeline connecting the two countries. The last part of the offshore pipe was laid on live broadcast, reaching Turkish shores at Kiyikoy near Istanbul.
    (AP, 11/19/18)

2018        Nov 20, In Libya eight gunmen attacked a substation of the National Oil Corporation's southwestern Sharara oilfield but no employees were hurt and production was unaffected. The attackers stole three company vehicles and mobile phones.
    (AP, 11/21/18)

2018        Nov 26, Saudi energy giant Aramco said it has signed 31 agreements and memoranda of understandings worth $27.5 billion with local and international suppliers.
    (AFP, 11/26/18)

2018        Dec 3, Qatar announced it will withdraw from OPEC in January, a rebuke of the Saudi-dominated cartel as the kingdom's boycott of Doha continues unabated and a crucial meeting of the group looms this week. This would make Qatar the first Middle East nation to leave the cartel since its founding in 1960.
    (AP, 12/3/18)

2018        Dec 5, US President Donald Trump urged OPEC members not to slash production at their upcoming meeting, saying global oil prices should remain low.
    (AFP, 12/5/18)
2018        Dec 5, Mexico's new Pres. Andres Manuel Lopez Obrador said he will take a three-year break from awarding new oil exploration contracts in order to judge the results of contracts already awarded.
    (AP, 12/5/18)

2018        Dec 6, OPEC countries were gathered in Austria to find a way to support the falling price of oil, with analysts predicting the cartel and key ally Russia would agree to cut production by at least 1 million barrels per day.
    (AP, 12/6/18)

2018        Dec 7, Meeting in Austria OPEC and non-OPEC countries agreed to cut oil production 1.2 million barrels a day in January for 6 months. Oil prices spiked sharply higher in response.
    (AP, 12/7/18)

2018        Dec 8, In Brazil a major oil leak in Rio de Janeiro was caused by fuel thieves who punctured a pipeline in the Guanabara Bay. About 15,850 gallons (60,000 liters) were released into the bay.
    (AP, 12/10/18)

2018        Dec 9, In southwestern Libya an armed group seized the Sharara oilfield, one of the country's largest oilfields. The National Oil Corporation (NOC) declared a state of force majeure at the Akakus-operated field.
    (AFP, 12/10/18)

2018        Dec 10, A Kenyan court charged senior officials from the state-run oil pipeline and others from the state health insurance fund for abuse of office and economic crimes that led to the loss of billions of shillings from the two institutions.
    (Reuters, 12/10/18)

2018        Dec 15, Mexican President Andres Manuel Lopez Obrador detailed plans to "rescue" the national oil industry by boosting crude production at the state-owned oil company by 45 percent before 2025.
    (AP, 12/16/18)

2018        Dec 18, World oil prices tumbled to strike the lowest levels in more than a year, hit by fears over the outlook for the global economy.
    (AFP, 12/18/18)
2018        Dec 18, Lithuanian lawmakers voted to buy a floating liquefied natural gas terminal that has been providing gas to the Baltic nation as it tries to reduce its reliance on Russian energy. The vessel is estimated to cost some 308 million euros ($349 million). Lithuania plans to buy it by 2025.
    (AP, 12/18/18)
2018        Dec 18, Vietnam's state media reported the arrest of Do Van Khanh, a former senior executive of a state-owned oil company, for "abusing power to appropriate property".
    (Reuters, 12/18/18)

2018        Dec 20, Spain's Supreme Court ruled that the captain and the insurer of the Prestige oil tanker must pay more than 1.5 billion euros ($1.7 billion) in compensation for Spain's biggest environmental disaster, when the vessel sank in 2002.
    (AP, 12/20/18)

2018        Dec 21, US Federal prosecutors said that Hongjin Tan (35), a Chinese national employed by an Oklahoma petroleum company, has been charged with stealing trade secrets from his unnamed US-based employer that operates a research facility in the Tulsa area.
    (AP, 12/22/18)

2018        Dec 22, Venezuela's navy "intercepted" a ship exploring for oil on behalf of Exxon Mobil Corp in Guyanese waters. An Exxon spokeswoman said seismic explorations in the western portion of Guyana's Stabroek Block "have been paused until they can be safely continued," and that the vessel was operating in Guyana's exclusive economic zone.
    (Reuters, 12/23/18)

2018        Dec, Nigeria's Department of Petroleum Resources (DPR) began collaborating with French data firm Kpler to help it ferret out the smugglers from the thousands of ships plying Nigerian waters.
    (Reuters, 4/30/19)

2019        Jan 4, Afghan officials said Taliban fighters are threatening major oil wells near the northern city of Sar-e Pul following days of fighting in which dozens of members of the security forces have been killed and wounded.
    (Reuters, 1/4/19)
2019        Jan 4, In Nigeria the Koluama Seven Brothers militant group carried out an unconfirmed warning strike on an oil facility owned by local energy firm Conoil in the southern state of Bayelsa. The group soon threatened a production shut-down and demanded action from Conoil and a traditional ruler called King Solomon Eddy on issues such as job creation.
    (Reuters, 1/6/19)

2019        Jan 6, In Pakistan government talks with the United Arab Emirates on setting up an oil refinery in Pakistan "reached their final stage" during the visit of the crown prince of Abu Dhabi.
    (AP, 1/6/19)

2019        Jan 8, Off Hong Kong one man was killed and two others declared missing after a Vietnamese-listed oil tanker caught fire while it was being refueled.
    (AFP, 1/8/19)
2019        Jan 8, In western Mexico motorists lined up for a fourth straight day at gas stations as the government continued to restrict pipeline deliveries to combat illegal fuel taps.
    (AP, 1/8/19)

2019        Jan 9, Mexico's President Andres Manuel Lopez Obrador issued an emotional appeal to his countrymen to help battle against fuel thefts, as long lines spread to gas stations in Mexico City.
    (AP, 1/9/19)
2019        Jan 9, Saudi Arabia's energy ministry said proven oil reserves stood at 263.2 billion barrels at the end of last year, up from the figure of 261 billion barrels that has been used for almost three decades. The kingdom has another 2.9 billion barrels of crude in a border zone shared with neighboring Kuwait, bringing total oil reserves to 266.1 billion barrels. Saudi oil remains among the cheapest in the world to extract, at only $4 a barrel.
    (AFP, 1/9/19)

2019        Jan 10, Belarus Pres. Alexander Lukashenko sternly warned Russia that it could lose its ally if it fails to offer compensation for higher oil prices.
    (AP, 1/10/19)   
2019        Jan 10, Norway's Aker Energy said it had discovered oil in commercial quantities off Ghana, which the government welcomed as a potential boost to the economy. Exploratory drilling indicated an "estimated 450-550 million barrels of oil equivalent (mmboe)" in the Pecan field.
    (AFP, 1/10/19)

2019        Jan 11, In Nigeria an overturned oil tanker exploded while dozens of people were scooping up the leaking fuel and many were killed. About 60 people were inside a pit scooping fuel when the explosion occurred.
    (AP, 1/12/19)

2019        Jan 12, In Yemen a fire at a refinery in the southern port city of Aden spread to a second storage tank, injuring six people.
    (Reuters, 1/12/19)
2019        Jan 12, Zimbabwe's President Emmerson Mnangagwa said prices of petrol and diesel would more than double to tackle a shortfall caused by increased demand and "rampant" illegal trading. Despite the price hike, diplomats and tourists would be able to access cheaper fuel at certain pumping stations.
    (AFP, 1/13/19)

2019        Jan 13, Zimbabweans reacted with outrage to a sharp rise in fuel prices announced by President Emmerson Mnangagwa in a move to improve supplies as the country struggles with its worst gasoline shortages in a decade.
    (AFP, 1/13/19)

2019        Jan 18, In central Mexico at least 66 people were killed after a pipeline ruptured by suspected fuel thieves exploded near the town of Tlahuelilpan, Hidalgo state. More than 85 other people were listed as missing. The death toll later rose to 134 after more injured people died at hospitals.
    (Reuters, 1/19/19)(AP, 1/19/19)(AP, 1/28/19)(AP, 3/1/19)

2019        Jan 19, A new UN report said fuel is being shipped illegally for Iran to Houthi Shiite rebels in Yemen to finance their war against the government.
    (SSFC, 1/20/19, p.A8)

2019        Jan 27, The state-owned Abu Dhabi National Oil Co. said it has signed agreements worth $5.8 billion with Italy's Eni and Austria's OMV for a share in the firm's refining unit and for the creation of a new trading venture.
    (AP, 1/27/19)

2019        Jan 28, The US imposed restrictions on Venezuelan state-oil company PDVSA with the goal of curbing some $11 billion of crude exports from the OPEC member to the United States this year.
    (Reuters, 1/29/19)

2019        Jan 29, Venezuela's Pres. Nicolas Maduro sought OPEC support against US sanctions imposed on his country's oil industry in a letter sent to OPEC Secretary-General Mohammad Barkindo.
    (Reuters, 2/11/19)

2019        Jan 31, Texas-based Valero Energy Corp. said it has stopped taking deliveries of Venezuelan crude oil after the Trump administration slapped sanctions on Venezuela's state-owned oil company, Petroleos de Venezuela S.A.
    (AP, 2/1/19)
2019        Jan 31, In Mexico a message allegedly from the leader of a fuel theft ring in Guanajuato threatened Lopez Obrador and was found hung some distance from a refinery. Soldiers destroyed explosives found near the refinery.
    (AP, 2/1/19)

2019        Feb 5, Exxon Mobil and Qatar Petroleum announced that they will go ahead with a $10 billion project to export liquified natural gas from a plant on Texas Gulf Coast.
    (SFC, 2/6/19, p.D3)
2019        Feb 5, In the Solomon Islands the MV Solomon Trader ran aground on a reef off Rennell Island, near the largest raised coral atoll in the world, a UNESCO World Heritage site, and soon began leaking oil. Experts later estimated that over 8 tons of oil had leaked into the sea and that more than 660 tons of oil remained onboard. The ship was refloated on May 11 after leaking a huge amount of oil into the sea.
    (SFC, 3/2/19, p.A2)(AFP, 5/11/19)

2019        Feb 6, In Missouri an oil leak attributed to the Keystone pipeline was discovered near St. Louis. Sections of both the Keystone pipeline and the Enbridge Inc.'s Platte pipeline were closed as crews sought the source of the leak. TransCanada later said at least 1,800 gallons had leaked.
    (SSFC, 2/10/19, p.A8)
2019        Feb 6, India's Petroleum Minister Dharmendra Pradhan said that imports of liquefied petroleum gas (LPG) grew 12.5 percent over the past five years to 12 million metric tons (13 million tons) in 2018-19, surpassing Japan and putting India in second place behind China.
    (AP, 2/6/19)
2019        Feb 6, Lebanese Parliament Speaker Nabih Berri said Israel has breached Lebanon's waters by licensing a company to "exploit an area" for oil and gas near disputed borders.
    (Reuters, 2/6/19)

2019        Feb 7, Lebanon's parliament speaker said an Israeli move to license energy exploration near a disputed maritime boundary threatened to drain Lebanese oil wealth before its own drilling had started.
    (Reuters, 2/7/19)

2019        Feb 8, European Union member states adopted a Franco-German compromise allowing Berlin to remain the lead negotiator with Russia on the Nord Stream 2 gas pipeline to Europe.
    (AFP, 2/8/19)

2019        Feb 11, East Libyan military forces were in talks with protesting state guards to take over the nation's largest oilfield El Sharara peacefully and pass it to the state oil firm.
    (Reuters, 2/11/19)

2019        Feb 12, Global oil cartel OPEC said it sharply reduced crude oil production last month, after heavyweight Saudia Arabia slashed output and exports fell in crisis-hit Venezuela.
    (AFP, 2/12/19)

2019        Feb 16, Mexico's Pres. Manuel Lopez Obrador announced a $3.9 billion bailout for Pemex, the country's state-owned oil company, and promised it an additional $1.6 billion in revenue.
    (SSFC, 2/17/19, p.A4)

2019        Feb 28, Cyprus said ExxonMobil has made the world's third-biggest gas find in the last two years off its coast.
    (AP, 2/28/19)

2019        Mar 1, In southern Nigeria more than 50 people were left missing after a leaking oil pipeline exploded and caused a stampede in Bayelsa state. The Nembe Creek Trunk pipeline exploded, but no fatalities were reported. It runs from an oil terminal in Bonny to the state of Bayelsa with capacity of 150,000 barrels per day.
    (AP, 3/2/19)(AFP, 3/3/19)
2019        Mar 1, Venezuela's Vice President Delcy Rodriguez said President Nicolas Maduro has ordered state oil company PDVSA's office in Lisbon to be relocated to Moscow, a move she said was designed to help safeguard her country's assets.
    (Reuters, 3/1/19)

2019        Mar 7, Iranian naval forces intervened to repel pirates who attacked an Iranian oil tanker in the Gulf of Aden.
    (AP, 3/8/19)

2019        Mar 8, Norway's $1 trillion wealth fund, the biggest of its kind in the world, said it will begin dumping shares in oil and gas companies, but stopped short of barring major producers like ExxonMobil and Chevron.
    (AP, 3/8/19)
2019        Mar 8, A World Bank arbitration panel ruled that Venezuela must pay US oil giant ConocoPhillips more than $8 billion as compensation for a decade-old expropriation dispute. The Venezuelan government and its state-owned entities currently owe around $150 billion to creditors around the world, while the country's foreign currency reserves have fallen to just $8 billion.
    (AP, 3/8/19)

2019        Mar 17, Iran's President Hassan Rouhani inaugurated a new phase in the development of a massive natural gas field. The development will allow Iran to overtake Qatar in the production of natural gas.
    (AP, 3/17/19)

2019        Mar 24, In Sri Lanka work began on a $3.9 billion oil refinery to be funded by a Singapore-Oman joint venture next to a Chinese-run port in what will be Sri Lanka's largest foreign investment ever. The refinery is expected to be up and running in 2023.
    (AP, 3/24/19)

2019        Apr 1, Fitch Ratings said Saudi Aramco, the world's largest oil company, posted $224 billion in earnings before tax last year, as the secretive giant opens its accounts for the first time.
    (AFP, 4/1/19)

2019        Apr 3, A South Korean coast guard official said the 5,160-ton P-PIONEER has been prevented from leaving Busan port since October over allegations that it was used to supply diesel to North Korea through two ship-to-ship transfers in September 2017 in international waters in the East China Sea.
    (AP, 4/3/19)
2019        Apr 3, The Ukrainian PM Volodymyr Groysman said the government has banned state-run gas producer Naftogaz from raising consumer gas prices. The ban was announced as President Petro Poroshenko, a Groysman ally, tries to boost his chances ahead of the second and final round of a presidential election on April 21.
    (Reuters, 4/3/19)

2019        Apr 5, US Vice President Mike Pence stepped up efforts to force Venezuelan President Nicolas Maduro from office by imposing new sanctions on its oil shipments, and promising "stronger action" against Cuba for helping to keep the regime afloat.
    (Reuters, 4/6/19)

2019        Apr 11, It was reported that Chevron Corp will put a focus on human rights in Myanmar under an agreement with an investor group that had urged it to pay more attention to violence in the Asian nation where the US oil company has operations.
    (Reuters, 4/11/19)

2019        Apr 12, California-based Chevron said it is buying Anadarko Petroleum for $33 billion.
    (SFC, 4/13/19, p.D1)

2019        Apr 12, In Colombia a bombing damaged a section of the Trasandino pipeline. State-run company Ecopetrol soon began investigating crude spillage from the Cano Limon pipeline to determine if it was also caused by an attack.
    (Reuters, 4/13/19)

2019        Apr 15, Saudi Aramco said it has reached an agreement to acquire a $1.25 billion stake in South Korean refiner Hyundai Oilbank that would provide Saudi Arabia's state-run oil company with a dedicated outlet for its crude to South Korea.
    (AP, 4/15/19)

2019        Apr 22, The Trump administration said that it will no longer exempt any countries from US sanctions if they continue to buy Iranian oil, stepping up pressure on Iran. The decision means sanctions waivers for five nations, including China and India and US treaty allies Japan, South Korea and Turkey, won't be renewed when they expire on May 2. China, one of Iran's largest customers, slammed the step, calling it more evidence of US "unilateral sanctions and long-arm jurisdiction." Iran's commander of the Revolutionary Guards' navy said Iran would close the Strait of Hormuz if Tehran is barred from using it.
    (AP, 4/22/19)(Reuters, 4/22/19)

2019        Apr 23, A UN panel overseeing compensation claims by countries and organizations affected by Iraq's 1990-1991 invasion of Kuwait said it has paid $240 million to the Gulf state's national oil company.
    (AP, 4/23/19)

2019        Apr 25, In Nigeria two Royal Dutch Shell oil workers were kidnapped, and their police escorts killed, in the restive Delta region.
    (Reuters, 4/26/19)

2019        Apr 26, In Ecuador an indigenous Amazon tribe won an early court victory in its fight to stop oil extraction in its ancestral territory. A judge in a provincial court determined that the Waorani people have a right to be consulted before any oil drilling takes place.
    (AP, 4/27/19)

2019        Apr 28, US sanctions came into effect to block Venezuela's economic lifeline of oil exports, in what Washington hopes will be a major blow in its fledgling campaign to topple leftist President Nicolas Maduro.
    (AFP, 4/28/19)

2019        Apr 29, Linda Garcia of Vancouver, Washington, was awarded the Goldman Environmental Prize. She rallied local communities to successfully prevent the construction of North America's largest oil terminal.
    (AP, 4/29/19)

2019        May 1, Iran's oil minister hit out against the use of oil sanctions "as a weapon" by the United States and the damage it was doing to OPEC.
    (Reuters, 5/1/19)

2019        May 8, It was reported that China Petroleum Engineering and Construction Corporation has been awarded a contract to recover natural gas from Iraq's Halfaya oil field to fuel power stations in the country's underserved Maysan province.
    (AP, 5/08/19)

2019        May 12, The UAE said that four commercial vessels were sabotaged near Fujairah emirate, one of the world's largest bunkering hubs lying just outside the Strait of Hormuz, but did not describe the nature of the attack or say who was behind it. Two Saudi oil tankers were targeted in the attack.
    (Reuters, 5/13/19)

2019        May 14, Saudi Arabia said armed drones had struck two oil pumping stations in the kingdom in what it called a "cowardly" act of terrorism two days after Saudi oil tankers were sabotaged off the coast of the United Arab Emirates. Houthi-run Masirah TV earlier said the group had launched drone attacks on "vital" Saudi installations in response to "continued aggression and blockade" on Yemen.
    (Reuters, 5/14/19)

2019        May 16, In northern Germany activists occupied a building site to protest against the ongoing Nord Stream 2 pipeline project with Russia.
    (AP, 5/16/19)

2019        May 22, Bulgaria and Greece launched the construction of a pipeline to transport Azeri gas to Bulgaria to ease its almost total dependence on Russian gas supplies. Prime Ministers Boyko Borissov and Alexis Tsipras, oversaw the formal start to construction of the 182-km (114 miles) link
    (AP, 5/22/19)

2019        Jun 3, It was reported that British petrochemicals maker Ineos is investing $2 billion to build three plants in Saudi Arabia.
    (AP, 6/3/19)

2019        Jun 6, The US Treasury Department tightened its pressure on Venezuela's state-owned oil company by making clear that exports of diluents by international shippers could be subject to US sanctions.
    (Reuters, 6/7/19)
2019        Jun 6, Brazil's Supreme Court approved an 8.6 billion dollar deal allowing state oil company Petrobras to sell its TAG pipeline network in a big win for the firm and the ruling party.
    (AFP, 6/7/19)

2019        Jun 7, The United States placed sanctions on Iran’s largest petrochemical holding group for indirectly supporting the Islamic Revolutionary Guard Corps (IRGC), a step it said aimed to dry up revenues to the elite Iranian military force but that analysts called largely symbolic.
    (Reuters, 6/8/19)
2019        Jun 7, Cyprus renegotiated a contract with a consortium made up of Shell, Texas-Based Noble Energy and Israel's Delek that paves the way for the exploitation of an offshore field that is estimated to hold 4.1 trillion cubic feet of gas. Turkish President Recep Tayyip Erdogan says his country is determined to protect Turkish Cypriots' rights to gas deposits in the eastern Mediterranean.
    (AP, 6/7/19)
2019        Jun 7, Papua New Guinea PM James Marape installed a reformer as petroleum minister, handing him a mandate to overhaul the sector.
    (AP, 6/7/19)

2019        Jun 13, Two oil tankers near the strategic Strait of Hormuz were damaged in suspected attacks. The MT Front Altair, a Marshall Islands-flagged crude oil tanker owned by Norway-based Frontline, and Kokuka Courageous, managed by a Singapore company were attacked in the Gulf of Oman.
    (AP, 6/13/19)

2019        Jun 14, President Donald Trump publicly accused Iran of responsibility for recent attacks on oil tankers near the strategic Strait of Hormuz. The US military released a video it said showed Iran's Revolutionary Guard removing an unexploded limpet mine from one of the oil tankers targeted near the strategic Strait of Hormuz, suggesting Tehran wanted to hide evidence of its alleged involvement.
    (AP, 6/14/19)

2019        Jun 15, Turkey criticized southern European Union nations for urging the EU to consider action against Turkey over its bid to drill for gas in waters where Cyprus has exclusive economic rights.
    (AP, 6/15/19)

2019        Jun 18, Greek PM Alexis Tsipras demanded that the European Union issue a reprimand to Turkey for its "illegal" gas exploration in Cyprus, after Ankara defied calls for it to cease drilling in the region.
    (AFP, 6/18/19)

2019        Jun 20, Turkey launched a second drillship that will drill for gas off neighboring Cyprus' east coast despite European Union warnings to refrain from such illegal actions or face sanctions.
    (AP, 6/20/19)

2019        Jun 28, The US special envoy for Iran said the United States will sanction any country that imports Iranian oil and there are no exemptions in place.
    (Reuters, 6/28/19)

2019        Jun 30, Two people were killed as a result of an incident at Royal Dutch Shell's Auger Tension Leg Platform in the deep-water US Gulf of Mexico. The accident occurred morning during a routine and mandatory test of a lifeboat launch and retrieval capabilities at the platform.
    (Reuters, 7/1/19)
2019        Jun 30, China promised to allow more foreign ownership of gas pipelines, call centers and some other businesses in the latest of a series of market-opening measures.
    (AP, 6/30/19)
2019        Jun 30, Japanese PM Shinzo Abe praised Saudi Arabia's efforts to reduce its dependence on oil and promised Crown Prince Mohammed bin Salman that Japan will help the kingdom with a sweeping reform plan.
    (Reuters, 6/30/19)

2019        Jul 1, Meeting in Vienna member nations of the Organization of the Petroleum Exporting Countries agreed to extend a production cut for another nine months in a bid to shore up prices at a time of waning demand. The next day 10 non-OPEC nations supported the extension.
    (AP, 7/2/19)
2019        Jul 1, It was reported that Iraq is establishing a financial "loophole" to continue buying vital gas and electricity from Iran despite US sanctions, mirroring a European mechanism that came into effect on June 28.
    (AFP, 7/1/19)
2019        Jul 1, In central Nigeria at least 45 people were killed and more than 100 injured when a petrol tanker crashed off the road and exploded as people gathered fuel in Benue state.
    (AFP, 7/2/19)
2019        Jul 1, In Turkey an explosion on an LPG tanker killed an Italian crew member and injured 15 others at the port of Aliaga in western Izmir province.
    (Reuters, 7/2/19)

2019        Jul 2, Meeting in Vienna the OPEC bloc of oil producers formally signed a new charter of cooperation with other major producers -- including Russia -- a day after thrashing out the document at a marathon meeting.
    (AFP, 7/2/19)

2019        Jul 4, The supertanker Grace 1 was halted in the early hours by Gibraltar police and customs agencies, aided by a detachment of British Royal Marines. The tanker was believed to be carrying oil from Iran to the Banyas Refinery in Syria.
    (Telegraph, 7/4/19)

2019        Jul 5, The Egyptian government hiked up fuel and cooking gas prices in another round of subsidy cuts designed to overhaul the country's ailing economy and meet the requirements of a large bailout from the International Monetary Fund.
    (AP, 7/5/19)

2019        Jul 11, Iran's Revolutionary Guards said that the United States and Britain will "strongly regret" the seizure of a tanker off Gibraltar.
    (AFP, 7/11/19)

2019        Jul 12, Iran demanded the British navy release an Iranian oil tanker seized last week off Gibraltar, accusing London of playing a "dangerous game" and threatening retribution, while London announced it was sending a destroyer to the Persian Gulf.
    (AP, 7/12/19)

2019        Jul 14, Syrian state media reported that militants targeted a gas pipeline in government-controlled central Homs province, putting it out of order.
    (AP, 7/14/19)

2019        Jul 13, The Riah, a 58-meter (190-foot) oil tanker from the United Arab Emirates traveling through the Strait of Hormuz, entered Iranian waters and turned off its tracker. Foreign Ministry spokesman later said the Islamic Republic helped an oil tanker in the Strait of Hormuz amid US concern that Tehran seized one there. On July 18 Iranian Revolutionary Guards said they had seized a foreign oil tanker in the Strait of Hormuz. Its 12 crew members were arrested.
    (AP, 7/16/19)(The Telegraph, 7/18/19)

2019        Jul 15, The EU imposed sanctions on Turkey over its drilling for gas in waters around Cyprus.
    (Econ, 7/27/19, p.46)

2019        Jul 19, Chevron said an 800,000-gallon oil spill in Central California may have started when crews tried to recap an abandoned well. Chevron said the oil has only fouled about an acre of land and 90 percent of the spilled material has been recaptured.
    (AP, 7/19/19)

2019        Jul 19, Iran's Revolutionary Guard seized the Stena Impero, a British-flagged oil tanker. Iran says it intervened because the British-flagged tanker hit an Iranian fishing boat. A second Liberian-flagged ship was briefly detained.
     (AP, 7/20/19)
2019        Jul 19, Panama's maritime authority began the process of withdrawing the registration of an oil tanker called MT Riah, which was towed to Iran after it disappeared from ship tracking maps in the Strait of Hormuz on July 14. The authority said an investigation has determined the tanker had "deliberately violated international regulations" by not reporting any unusual situation,
    (Reuters, 7/20/19)

2019        Jul 20, Libya's National Oil Corporation confirmed that production at its 290,000 barrels per day El Sharara oilfield was currently offline.
    (Reuters, 7/20/19)

2019        Jul 22, It was reported that tankers are offloading millions of barrels of Iranian oil into storage tanks at Chinese ports, creating a hoard of crude sitting on the doorstep of the world’s biggest buyer.
    (Bloomberg, 7/22/19)

2019        Jul 26, A US appeals court invalidated a permit that deals with threatened species for the 600-mile Atlantic Coast Pipeline, designed to carry natural gas from West Virginia into Virginia and North Carolina.
    (SSFC, 7/28/19, p.A6)

2019        Jul 27, Mining company CAP reported a 40,000-liter diesel oil spill on an island on the far southern coast of Chilean Patagonia at its onshore terminal on Guarello Island.
    (Reuters, 7/27/19)

2019        Jul 31, Egypt's foreign minister said hydrocarbon finds in the eastern Mediterranean have bolstered an already "strong partnership" with neighboring Cyprus.
    (AP, 7/31/19)
2019        Jul 31, Iran said that European nations still party to the 2015 nuclear deal are "obliged" to allow it to sell and ship oil, amid a standoff with Britain over the seizure of tankers.
    (AFP, 7/31/19)

2019        Aug 1, In Kentucky a regional gas pipeline ruptured early today causing a massive explosion that killed one person, hospitalized five others, destroyed railroad tracks and forced the evacuation of a nearby mobile home park.
    (AP, 8/1/19)

2019        Aug 12, Saudi Arabia’s Aramco oil company, the world’s most profitable company, held an earnings call, its first interaction with public investors. India-based Reliance industries said Aramco would pay $15 billion or so for a 20% stake in its refining and petrochemicals business.
    (Econ, 8/17/19, p.48)

2019        Aug 15, The United States moved to halt the release of an Iranian supertanker detained in Gibraltar for breaching EU sanctions on oil shipments to Syria, thwarting efforts by authorities in London and the British overseas territory to defuse tensions with Tehran.
    (AP, 8/15/19)
2019        Aug 15, The British overseas territory of Gibraltar released a seized Iranian supertanker over last-minute objections from the US, potentially easing tensions between London and Tehran, which still holds a British-flagged vessel.
    (AP, 8/15/19)

2019        Aug 16, In northern Peru a building in El Alto was set on fire in a protest against China National Petroleum Corp that devolved into clashes between police and demonstrators who want the company to make pledges to help the local community.
    (Reuters, 8/16/19)
2019        Aug 16, The US justice department issued a warrant for the seizure of an Iranian oil tanker, a day after a Gibraltar judge allowed the release of the detained vessel.
    (AFP, 8/17/19)

2019        Aug 17, In eastern Saudi Arabia a drone attack launched by Yemen's Houthi group on the Shaybah oil field caused a limited fire at a gas plant but had no impact on oil production.
    (Reuters, 8/17/19)

2019        Aug 18, The Iranian supertanker Adrian Darya 1, previously named Grace 1, with $130 million worth of light crude oil that the US suspects is tied to a sanctioned organization, left Gibraltar late today and headed east into the Mediterranean Sea, with its next destination reported to be Greece.
    (AP, 8/19/19)

2019        Aug 22, Nebraska's highest court lifted one of the last major hurdles for the Keystone XL pipeline when it rejected another attempt to derail the project by opponents who wanted to force the developer to reapply for state approval.
    (AP, 8/23/19)
2019        Aug 22, It was reported that Russian state oil major Rosneft has become the main trader of Venezuelan crude, shipping oil to buyers in China and India and helping Caracas offset the loss of traditional dealers who are avoiding it for fear of breaching US sanctions.
    (Reuters, 8/22/19)

2019        Aug 23, The Iranian-flagged Adrian Darya 1 switched its destination to the Turkish port city of Mersin, located just 150 km from the border with Syria this evening. The ship had previously stated its destination as being Kalamata in Greece, a port that is too small to accommodate a ship of that size.
    (Bloomberg, 8/24/19)

2019        Aug 26, British shale gas exploration firm Cuadrilla said another earth tremor has occurred near its fracking site in northwest England, bigger than a 2011 quake which suspended operations at the site for seven years.
    (Reuters, 8/26/19)

2019        Aug 27, Nigeria said it will not relinquish assets to a firm registered in the British Virgin Islands following a court ruling related to a $9 billion gas project dispute. Earlier this month a judge in London granted Process and Industrial Developments Ltd (P&ID) the right to attempt to seize some $9 billion in assets from the Nigerian government over an aborted gas project.
    (Reuters, 8/27/19)

2019        Aug 30, In Beijing Philippine President Rodrigo Duterte’s much-touted meeting with Chinese leader Xi Jinping yielded no agreement on the South China Sea territorial dispute between the two nations or a plan to explore the area for oil and gas. Xi and Duterte agreed to form committees to advance oil exploration talks, with the goal of lifting a Philippine moratorium on existing contracts.
    (Bloomberg, 8/30/19)
2019        Aug 30, The United States blacklisted the Iranian tanker Adrian Darya, saying it had "reliable information" it was transporting oil to Syria in defiance of wide-ranging sanctions on the regime of Bashar al-Assad. Federal agents in Brazil exchanged gunfire with illegal miners in the Amazon state of Para on Friday, according to Reuters witnesses, in a dramatic example of how Brazil has stepped up environmental enforcement in the wake of rainforest fires.
    (AP, 8/31/19)

2019        Aug, Kenya entered the club of oil producers with a symbolic shipment of 200,000 barrels.
    (Econ, 3/14/20, p.35)

2019        Sep 1, The Iranian tanker Adrian Darya slowed to a near stop off the coast of Syria. the ship carried 2.1 million barrels of crud oil worth about $130 million.
    (SFC, 9/2/19, p.A2)

2019        Sep 3, Iranian oil tanker Adrian Darya, pursued by the US, turned off its tracking beacon, leading to renewed speculation that it will head to Syria.
    (AP, 9/3/19)

2019        Sep 6, The Iranian oil tanker Adrian Darya 1, at the center of a dispute between Tehran and Western powers, was photographed by satellite off the Syrian port of Tartus.
    (AP, 9/7/19)
2019        Sep 6, It was reported that Libya's state oil firm has restricted kerosene supplies to areas controlled by eastern commander Khalifa Haftar in what diplomats and oil officials said was an attempt to prevent his troops using them in their five-month-old battle to take the capital.
    (Reuters, 9/6/19)

2019        Sep 7, Iran said it has seized a boat and arrested 12 Filipino crewmen as it busted a suspected fuel-smuggling ring in the Strait of Hormuz waterway.
    (AP, 9/7/19)

2019        Sep 8, Iran's state news agency IRNA reported that the Iranian tanker Adrian Darya 1, at the center of a dispute between Tehran and Western powers, has delivered its cargo after docking somewhere on the Mediterranean coast. The tanker went dark off Syria last week.
    (Reuters, 9/8/19)
2019        Sep 8, Norwegian energy company Equinor said it will clean up the onshore oil spill discovered this week at its Bahamas storage terminal in the aftermath of hurricane Dorian.
    (Reuters, 9/8/19)
2019        Sep 8, Saudi Arabia's king appointed his son, Prince Abdulaziz bin Salman, as energy minister, replacing Khalid al-Falih and for the first time handing the portfolio in the world's top oil exporter to a member of the royal family.
    (Reuters, 9/8/19)

2019        Sep 10, New Hampshire Gov. Chris Sununu signed a bill to bar oil and gas drilling from the state's coastal waters. Sununu, a Republican, has opposed a Trump administration proposal to expand offshore drilling in the area.
    (AP, 9/10/19)
2019        Sep 10, The European Union said limits on Gazprom's access to the Opal gas pipeline will apply after Europe's top court rejected a later decision that lifted curbs on flows via Opal from Russia's Nord Stream pipeline to Germany.
    (Reuters, 9/10/19)

2019        Sep 12, The US Coast Guard closed part of the Houston Ship Channel to vessel traffic near Baytown, Texas, after 11 Greenpeace USA protesters suspended themselves by cables over the key oil export waterway.
    (Reuters, 9/12/19)
2019        Sep 12, OPEC agreed to trim oil output by asking over-producing members Iraq and Nigeria to bring production in line with their targets as the group strives to prevent a glut amid soaring US production and a slowing global economy. Oil prices have dropped below $60 per barrel in recent weeks from their 2019 peaks of $75.
    (Reuters, 9/12/19)

2019        Sep 14, Iranian state television reported that Iran has signed a $440 million contract with local company Petropars to develop the Belal gas field in the Gulf, saying the country's vital energy sector was active despite US sanctions.
    (Reuters, 9/14/19)
2019        Sep 14, Saudi Arabia's oil production and exports were disrupted after drone attacks on two Aramco plants, including the world's biggest oil processing facility.
    (Reuters, 9/14/19)
2019        Sep 14, US Secretary of State Mike Pompeo accused Iran of leading attacks on Saudi oil plants that have cut the kingdom's output roughly in half, as he ruled out Yemeni involvement and denounced Tehran for engaging in false diplomacy. Yemen's Iran-aligned Houthi group claimed credit for the attacks on two plants at the heart of Saudi Arabia's oil industry, including the world's biggest petroleum processing facility.
    (AP, 9/14/19)

2019        Sep 15, President Donald Trump said the US is "locked and loaded" to respond to a weekend drone assault on Saudi Arabia's energy infrastructure that his aides blamed on Iran. The attack on Saudi Arabia triggered the biggest surge in oil prices since 1991.
    (AP, 9/16/19)(Reuters, 9/16/19)

2019        Sep 16, Oil prices soared after attacks on crude facilities in Saudi Arabia sparked worries over the impact of an oil shock on economic growth, halting a positive run in world stocks as investors reached for less risky assets.
    (Reuters, 9/16/19)
2019        Sep 16, An Iranian naval patrol of the Islamic Revolutionary Guard Corps intercepted a vessel carrying 250,000 liters of fuel near the Strait of Hormuz. The boat was suspected of being used to smuggle fuel. 11 crew members were arrested.
    (AFP, 9/16/19)

2019        Sep 18, Russian President Vladimir Putin discussed weekend attacks on Saudi Aramco's oil infrastructure by phone with Saudi Crown Prince Mohammed bin Salman in Moscow.
    (AP, 9/18/19)

2019        Sep 20, It was reported that theft from Brazil's Petrobras pipelines soared to a record high 261 incidents in Rio de Janeiro and Sao Paulo states last year, up from just one case in 2014.
    (Reuters, 9/20/19)

2019        Sep 24, The US Treasury targeted four additional maritime companies and tankers they own or operate for transporting Venezuelan oil to Cuba in violation of sanctions.
    (AP, 9/24/19)

2019        Sep 25, The United States announced new sanctions to stop Iran from selling its oil, casting a cloud over last-minute European efforts to arrange a tension-reducing encounter between the adversaries' presidents. The United States announced sanctions on Chinese companies for buying Iranian oil.
    (AFP, 9/25/19)
2019        Sep 26, Brazil's main environmental agency said it has detected 105 crude oil spills from an undetermined source polluting waters off its northeast coast.
    (SFC, 9/27/19, p.A2)

2019        Sep 27, Iran released the British-flagged oil tanker held since July 19. The Stena Impero left Iran and was heading to the United Arab Emirates.
    (AP, 9/27/19)

2019        Oct 4, The Trump administration said it will lift the annual blending mandate for biofuels starting in 2020 and ensure more than 15 billion gallons of ethanol is blended into the US fuel pool, a move to retain the support of American farmers.
    (Reuters, 10/4/19)
2019        Oct 4, Britain's National Theater said it has decided to end its partnership with energy group Royal Dutch Shell as part of a broader "climate emergency" initiative to reduce its carbon impact.
    (Reuters, 10/4/19)

2019        Oct 5, Russian PM Dmitry Medvedev said in an interview broadcast today that Russia will find ways to help Cuba secure supplies of oil and petroleum products.
    (Reuters, 10/5/19)

2019        Oct 8, Egypt, Cyprus, and Greece condemned an "unlawful and unacceptable" bid by Turkey to drill inside waters where Cyprus has exclusive economic rights.
    (AP, 10/8/19)

2019        Oct 11, Iran claimed that one of its oil tankers had been struck with missiles off the coast of Saudi Arabia, however the incident was shrouded in mystery. There was no independent evidence to suggest the vessel had been hit.
    (The Telegraph, 10/11/19)

2019        Oct 14, Greenpeace activists boarded two Royal Dutch Shell oil platforms in the British North Sea in protest against plans to leave parts of the giant structures in place after production shuts down.
    (Reuters, 10/14/19)
2019        Oct 14, Saudi Arabia and Russia signed a key deal to bolster cooperation among the world's oil giants. Visiting President Vladimir Putin and Saudi King Salman, penned a string of multi-million-dollar investment contracts targeting the aerospace, culture, health, advanced technology and agriculture sectors.
    (AFP, 10/14/19)

2019        Oct 15, In the SF Bay Area an explosion at a NewStar Energy fuel storage facility in Crockett started a 7-hour blaze that trapped thousands in their homes for hours because of potentially unhealthy air. A 4.5 magnitude earthquake earlier in the day caused malfunctions at two nearby oil refineries operated by Shell and Marathon oil.
    (AP, 10/16/19)   
2019        Oct 15, Benghazi-based PM Abdullah al-Thani, the head of Libya's parallel government in the east, said rival, UN-backed authorities in Tripoli have restricted oil revenues to areas under its control, as eastern-allied militias battle to seize control of the capital.
    (AP, 10/16/19)

2019        Oct 24, A federal watchdog agency said the US government has lost billions of dollars of oil and gas revenue to fossil-fuel companies because of a loophole in a decades-old law. The loophole dates from an effort in 1995 to encourage drilling in the Gulf of Mexico by offering oil companies a temporary break from paying royalties on the oil produced.
    (NY Times, 10/25/19)
2019        Oct 24, Chief executive Igor Sechin said Rosneft, Russia's largest oil company, has fully switched the currency of its contracts to euros from US dollars in a move to shield its transactions from US sanctions.
    (Reuters, 10/24/19)

2019        Oct 25, US Defense Secretary said the US will strengthen its military presence in Syria with "mechanized forces" to prevent Islamic State fighters seizing oil fields and revenue.
    (Reuters, 10/25/19)

2019        Oct 26, A US convoy of over a dozen vehicles was seen driving south of the northeastern city of Qamishli, likely heading to the oil-rich Deir el-Zour area or another base before it. Russia's Defense Ministry harshly criticized the United States decision to send armored vehicles and combat troops into eastern Syria to protect oil fields.
    (AP, 10/26/19)

2019        Oct 29, In North Dakota an oil leak was detected late today in the Keystone pipeline near Edinburg, a tiny community northwest of Grand Forks. An estimated 9,120 barrels of crude oil spilled from a leak.
    (Good Morning America, 11/1/19)
2019        Oct 29, In Brazil the chief executive of state-run oil giant Petrobras said oil slicks washing up on beaches along more than 2,000 km (1,240 miles) of the northeast coastline could be the worst environmental "attack" in the country's history.
    (Reuters, 10/29/19)

2019        Oct 30, Former Exxon Mobil Corp Chief Executive Officer Rex Tillerson answered questions about the oil major's methods of measuring potential costs of climate change, as he testified in a closely watched civil lawsuit accusing the company of hiding the costs from investors.
    (Reuters, 10/30/19)
2019        Oct 30, Denmark said it will allow the controversial Nord Stream 2 pipeline to pass through its territory. The decision removed a major hurdle for the $11 billion project slated for commissioning by the end of this year to bring even more gas from Siberia into Germany. The link has drawn sanctions threats from US President Donald Trump, who wants Europe to buy his country’s liquefied natural gas.
    (Bloomberg, 10/30/19)
2019        Oct 30, Hungary's PM Viktor Orban, after hosting a meeting with Russian President Vladimir Putin, said that good relations with Russia are a necessity because of his country's geographical location. Putin said that Russia expects to complete construction of the TurkStream pipeline to Turkey this year and build extensions to Bulgaria and Serbia the following year.
    (AP, 10/30/19)

2019        Oct 31, The US military says its first batch of mechanized armored vehicles have arrived in southeast Syria, where they are to take part in securing oil fields and fighting remnants of the Islamic State group. The speaker in the audio also confirmed the death of Abu Hassan al-Muhajir, a close aide of al-Baghdadi and a spokesman for the group since 2016.
    (AP, 11/1/19)

2019        Nov 1, Brazilian police raided the offices of a Greek company as they investigate an oil tanker carrying heavy Venezuelan crude that was allegedly spilled at sea, tarring thousands of kilometers of Brazil's coastline over the past two months. Police said oceanographic and geolocation data showed that the Greek ship was the only one navigating near the origin of the spill between July 28 and 29, after docking in Venezuela on July 15. The next day Delta Tankers, which manages the Greek-flagged Bouboulina ship, reiterated the vessel sailed from Venezuela in laden condition on July 19, heading directly, with no stops at other ports, for Melaka, Malaysia, where the tanker discharged its entire cargo without any shortage.
    (Reuters, 11/1/19)(Reuters, 11/2/19)

2019        Nov 2, The British government announced that it will impose an immediate moratorium on fracking, saying the controversial gas extraction technique risked causing too much disruption to local communities through earth tremors.
    (Reuters, 11/2/19)

2019        Nov 3, Saudi Arabia's giant state oil company finally kick-started its initial public offering (IPO), announcing its intention to float on the domestic bourse in what could be the world's biggest listing as the kingdom seeks to diversify its economy away from oil.
    (Reuters, 11/3/19)

2019        Nov 7, Major global oil firms snubbed a second Brazilian oil auction in a row, passing up promising offshore blocks and forcing officials to reconsider a bidding system that gives a privileged position to state-run Petroleo Brasileiro SA.
    (Reuters, 11/7/19)
2019        Nov 7, It was reported that Russian businessman Arkady Rotenberg, who has been under US sanctions since 2014, has sold his gas pipeline construction firm Stroygazmontazh to construction company Gazstroyprom for some 75 billion rubles ($1.18 billion). Russian gas giant Gazprom owns a 49% stake in Gazstroyprom.
    (AP, 11/7/19)

2019        Nov 9, Saudi state oil giant Aramco unveiled the prospectus for its initial public offering (IPO), laying out the main material risks that may adversely affect the company's business or its financial position.
    (Reuters, 11/10/19)

2019        Nov 10, Iran's President Hassan Rouhani said a new oilfield has been discovered in the southwest of the country that has the potential to boost its reserves by about a third.
    (Reuters, 11/10/19)

2019        Nov 11, It was reported that two political supporters of US Energy Secretary Rick Perry secured a potentially lucrative oil and gas exploration deal from the Ukrainian government earlier this year soon after Perry proposed one of the men as an adviser to the country's new president.
    (AP, 11/11/19)   

2019        Nov 13, In Egypt a pipeline for oil products caught fire when thieves tried to tap into it to siphon off gasoline in the Nile Delta province of Beheira. At least seven people were killed.
    (AP, 11/13/19)

2019        Nov 15, Iran imposed petrol rationing and raised pump prices by at least 50 percent, saying the move aims to help the needy with cash handouts and is not due to a budget deficit. One person was killed and others injured in Sirjan as protesters tried to set a fuel depot ablaze but were thwarted by security forces. Demonstrations broke out in Tehran hours after it was announced the price of petrol would be increased by 50 percent for the first 60 liters and 300 percent for anything above that each month. The government later estimated that up to 225 people were killed in the protests that followed. Amnesty International put the number at more than 300.
    (AFP, 11/15/19)(AP, 11/16/19)(AFP, 11/16/19)(AFP, 5/31/20)

2019        Nov 16, In Iran protests spread across the country after a surprise decision to impose petrol price hikes and rationing in the sanctions-hit country.
    (AP, 11/16/19)

2019        Nov 17, Saudi Aramco is worth up to $1.7 trillion at the price range set by the oil giant, below the $2 trillion sought by Saudi's crown prince but putting it in the running to become the world's biggest IPO.
    (Reuters, 11/17/19)

2019        Nov 25, Retail subscription for Saudi Aramco's initial public offering (IPO) reached 21.77 billion Saudi riyals ($5.8 billion). The last day of subscription for the retail tranche of the share sale is Nov. 28. Aramco launched the IPO on Nov. 3. Aramco said it plans to sell 1.5% of the company, or about 3 billion shares, at an indicative price range of 30 riyals to 32 riyals, valuing the IPO at as much as 96 billion riyals ($25.6 billion) and giving the company a potential market value of between $1.6 trillion and $1.7 trillion.
    (Reuters, 11/25/19)

2019        Dec 2, Russia and China launched the Power of Siberia gas pipeline, one of three major projects aimed at cementing Moscow's role as the world's top gas exporter. The 3,000-km (1,850-mile) pipeline will supply China with 38 billion cubic meters (1.3 trillion cubic feet) of gas annually when fully operational in 2025. The Gazprom-operated pipeline in Eastern Siberia, transports natural gas from Yakutia to Primorsky Krai and China.
    (https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Power_of_Siberia)(AFP, 12/2/19)

2019        Dec 3, Pirates kidnapped 19 crew members from a crude oil tanker off Nigeria in an area where acts of piracy are on the rise. The Nave Constellation was attacked 77 nautical miles off Bonny Island and 18 Indians and one Turk from the crew were seized.
    (Reuters, 12/5/19)

2019        Dec 4, Oil prices surged 4% on expectations that OPEC and allied producers would extend production curbs, and as US government data showed a large drop in domestic crude stockpiles.
    (Reuters, 12/4/19)
2019        Dec 4, Russian President Vladimir Putin accused Bulgaria of deliberately delaying the implementation of Russia's TurkStream natural gas pipeline on its territory and said that Moscow could find ways to bypass Bulgaria if needed.
    (Reuters, 12/4/19)

2019        Dec 6, Saudi Arabia and Russia spearheaded a deal in which OPEC and its allies committed to some of the deepest oil output cuts this decade aiming to avert oversupply and support prices.
    (Reuters, 12/6/19)

2019        Dec 8, Belarus state news agency Belta reported that the government is seeking about $70 million in compensation because of disruption in flows in a pipeline on its territory caused by contaminated Russian oil. The Russian Druzhba pipeline, which pumps 1 million barrels per day of oil to eastern and western Europe, was found in mid-April to be contaminated.
    (Reuters, 12/8/19)

2019        Dec 5, The Silvana III, an oil tanker managed by a Chinese company under US sanctions, anchored off Kuala Kurau on Malaysia's west coast. It did not follow instructions to drop its ladder to allow maritime authorities to conduct checks. After several attempts to instruct the ship to drop ladder were not heeded, the ship lifted anchor and left the location.
    (Reuters, 12/11/19)

2019        Dec 11, Saudi Aramco shares surged the maximum permitted 10% above their IPO price to $9.39 per share on their Riyadh stock market debut, in a move hailed by the government as a vindication of its towering $2 trillion valuation of the state oil company.
    (Reuters, 12/11/19)(SFC, 12/12/19, p.D3)

2019        Dec 12, The Trump administration gave the go-ahead to new oil-drilling leases on federal land in 8 California counties, mostly in the Bakersfield area.
    (SFC, 12/13/19, p.C1)
2019        Dec 12, New US Energy Secretary Dan Brouillette slammed New York state regulators for blocking pipelines that would bring natural gas from Appalachia to New England, but did not specify whether the Trump administration could do anything to push the projects forward.
    (Reuters, 12/12/19)
2019        Dec 12, Germany pushed back on President Donald Trump’s moves to impose sanctions on the controversial Nord Stream 2 natural gas pipeline, with Angela Merkel’s top diplomat rejecting outside meddling.
    (Bloomberg, 12/12/19)

2019        Dec 15, Saudi Aramco shares gained for a third consecutive day, rising 1.63% to 37.4 Saudi riyal ($9.97), pushing the company's value back toward the $2 trillion level it topped last week.
    (Reuters, 12/15/19)

2019        Dec 16, US-based WPX Energy Inc said it would buy privately held Felix Energy in a $2.5 billion deal, as the Permian basin operator looks to add oil-rich acreage in the Delaware region of West Texas and southern New Mexico, sending its shares up more than 9%.
    (Reuters, 12/16/19)

2019        Dec 24, Kuwait and Saudi Arabia said they are ending a long-running dispute over an oil-rich strip of land between the two countries. The move will allow as much as 500,000 barrels of crude per day to return to the world market. Shared fields in the neutral zone were shut down in 2015 following a feud over land use and environmental issues.
    (SFC, 12/25/19, p.D4)

2019        Dec 27, Russian Energy Minister Alexander Novak said in an interview broadcast on Russian state television that Russia and Ukraine are withdrawing all of their lawsuits against each other after they agreed on a gas transit deal last week.
    (The Telegraph, 12/27/19)

2019        Dec 30, Iran’s paramilitary Revolutionary Guard seized a ship in the Persian Gulf suspected of carrying smuggled fuel. All 16 crew members, who are Malaysian nationals, were also detained.
    (AP, 12/30/19)

2020        Jan 1, United Nations shipping agency the International Maritime Organization (IMO) banned ships from using fuels with a sulphur content above 0.5%, compared with 3.5% previously, in the biggest shake up for the oil and shipping industries in decades.
    (Reuters, 1/22/20)

2020        Jan 3, American oil workers began fleeing Iraq, as fears grew of war between the United States and Iran.
    (NY Times, 1/4/20)
2020        Jan 3, Belarus suspended its oil exports after Moscow stopped supplying crude until contracts for this year are drawn up. A day later Belarus reached an agreement for limited oil supplies to ensure refinery operations for January.
    (SFC, 1/4/20, p.A2)(SSFC, 1/5/20, p.A4)

2020        Jan 12, State-owned oil company Saudi Aramco said it had exercised its "greenshoe option" to sell an additional 450 million shares, raising the size of its initial public offering (IPO) to a record $29.4 billion.
    (Reuters, 1/12/20)

2020        Jan 16, Cyprus, Greece, Israel, Italy, Jordan and Palestine established a bloc called the East Mediterranean Gas Forum.
    (https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/EastMed_Gas_Forum)    (Econ., 8/22/20, p.50)

2020        Jan 18, Forces loyal to Libyan military strongman Khalifa Haftar blocked oil exports from the war-ravaged country's main ports, raising the stakes on the eve of an international summit aimed at bringing peace to the North African nation.
    (AFP, 1/18/20)

2020        Jan 19, Jordan's parliament approved a draft law to ban imports of Israeli gas to the country just days after they started under a multibillion-dollar deal struck in 2016 which is opposed by much of the population. The government has previously said it was a deal between companies rather than a political matter.
    (Reuters, 1/19/20)
2020        Jan 19, Turkey called for the European Union to end what it said was the bloc's prejudice against Turkish Cypriots, defending its launch of a fresh round of hydrocarbons drilling off the Mediterranean island.
    (Reuters, 1/19/20)

2020        Jan 22, The US Federal Energy Regulatory Commission approved Kinder Morgan Inc's Dec. 13 request to start construction of its proposed Lockridge natural gas pipeline in the Permian basin in West Texas.
    (Reuters, 1/22/20)

2020        Jan 25, Libya's national oil company said the closure of major oil fields and production facilities has resulted in losses of more than $255 million in the six-day period ending Jan. 23.
    (AP, 1/25/20)

2020        Jan 27, Bombs planted underwater off Syria's coast exploded, damaging oil facilities used to pump oil into one of Syria's two petroleum refineries. Oil production in Syria is down to around 24,000 barrels a day, covering only a fraction of domestic needs.
    (AP, 1/27/20)

2020        Jan 31, An Indian diplomat said two Indian sailors were killed and two remain missing after the Zoya 1 oil tanker caught fire earlier this week off the UAE's sheikhdom of Sharjah.
    (AP, 1/31/20)
2020        Jan 31, US Secretary of State Mike Pompeo visited Belarus and said that the United States is willing and able to provide Belarus with 100% of its oil and gas, taking a slap at Russia which recently cut off supplies. Russia stopped supplying oil to Belarus after Dec. 31. The two nations had failed to renegotiate an agreed oil price for this year during drawn-out negotiations on deepening the integration of their economies.
    (AP, 2/1/20)

2020        Jan, The International Maritime Organization banned the use of high-sulfur "bunker oil," a variety processed in Mexico's outmoded refineries.
    (Econ., 5/23/20, p.24)

2020        Feb 1, It was reported that Exxon Mobil Corp and Total have asked Mozambique to send more troops to guard their operations in the far north after a surge of attacks by Islamist militants.
    (Reuters, 2/1/20)

2020        Feb 2, In Egypt suspected Islamic militants blew up a natural gas pipeline in the restive norther part of Sinai Peninsula.
    (AP, 2/3/20)

2020        Feb 7, Norway, western Europe's largest oil and gas producer, announced it was increasing its ambition to cut carbon emissions and would put an implementation plan before parliament later this year.
    (Reuters, 2/7/20)

2020        Feb 9, Libya's Azzawiya Oil Refining Company said that it was forced to stop refining operations due to a lack of crude supplies and no inventory. Oil output in Libya has fallen sharply since Jan. 18 because of a blockade of ports and fields by groups loyal to eastern-based commander Khalifa Haftar.
    (Reuters, 2/9/20)

2020        Feb 11, The US Attorney's Office in Philadelphia said five men have been arrested and charged with trying to trade in Iranian oil in violation of US trade sanctions.
    (AP, 2/11/20)

2020        Feb 12, BP set one of the oil sector's most ambitious targets for curbing carbon emissions as new chief executive Bernard Looney began the biggest revamp in its 111-year history.
    (Reuters, 2/12/20)

2020        Feb 14, It was reported that Washington has begun following through on threats to squeeze Baghdad's fragile economy with delays to crucial cash deliveries and shortened sanctions waivers. Every month or so, Iraq's Central Bank flies in $1 billion to $2 billion in cash from the Federal Reserve in New York, where all its oil revenues are kept, to pay for official and commercial transactions.
    (AFP, 2/14/20)
2020        Feb 14, It was reported that oil operations in South Sudan are the dirtiest and poorest managed on the planet. Reports have shown that contamination from drilling could be causing severe health problems with mercury levels seven times what is permissible under US Environmental Protection Agency standards.
    (SFC, 2/14/20, p.A4)

2020        Feb 16, Kuwait and Saudi Arabia started trial oil production from the jointly-operated Wafra and Khafji oilfields. Trial production from the two fields in the Neutral Zone will increase gradually till it reaches its normal levels.
    (Reuters, 2/16/20)

2020        Feb 18, The Trump administration announced significant new sanctions targeting Rosneft, Russia’s largest oil company, for helping Venezuelan leader Nicolás Maduro circumvent US sanctions.
    (Miami Herald, 2/18/20)
2020        Feb 18, Iran said it has had to reduce oil production projects because of a lack of funds as income from oil exports has decreased.
    (AP, 2/18/20)
2020        Feb 18, A Dutch appeals court reinstated an international arbitration panel's order that Russia should pay $50 billion compensation to shareholders in former oil company Yukos. The Hague court of Appeals had ruled in 2016 that the decision was not correct. Russia said it would appeal the verdict.
    (SFC, 2/19/20, p.A3)

2020        Feb 24, The captain of the Stellar Banner cargo ship ran his vessel agound of the coast of Brazil to prevent it from sinking. Days later oil was detected leaking from the partially submerged ship. The ship was carrying iron ore destined for China.
    (SSFC, 3/1/20, p.A4)

2020        Feb 25, Libya's National Oil Corporation said financial losses over a protracted blockade of its vital oil fields and ports have rapidly swelled, surpassing $2 billion.
    (AP, 2/25/20)

2020        Feb 27, Oil prices fell for a fifth straight day, plunging to their lowest levels since January 2019 as more new coronavirus cases outside China fanned fears that a pandemic could slow the global economy.
    (Reuters, 2/27/20)

2020        Mar 3, Chevron Corp said it would keep its spending in check and return up to $80 billion to shareholders over the next five years, with Chief Executive Mike Wirth making the case that his company is the oil major best able to produce oil and generate profits at the lowest cost.
    (Reuters, 3/3/20)

2020        Mar 5, In Vienna OPEC members agreed to cut oil output by an extra 1.5 million barrels per day (bpd) in the second quarter of 2020 to support prices that have been hit by the coronavirus outbreak, but made its action conditional on Russia and others joining in. Russia and Kazakhstan, both members of the broader and informal group known as OPEC+, said they had not yet agreed to a deeper cut.
    (Reuters, 3/5/20)

2020        Mar 6, Liberia suspended the licenses of all fuel importers, including France's Total, to conduct performance reviews after some of the companies overdrew from reserves in state-run facilities, leading to gasoline shortages.
    (Reuters, 3/6/20)

2020        Mar 9, Crude oil prices tumbled by as much as a third after Saudi Arabia launched a price war with Russia, sending investors already spooked by the coronavirus outbreak fleeing for the safety of bonds and the Japanese yen.
    (Reuters, 3/9/20)

2020        Mar 19, The US slapped sanctions on five companies based in the United Arab Emirates for allegedly shipping oil from Iran in defiance of Pres. Donald Trump's unilateral sanctions.
    (AP, 3/19/20)
2020        Mar 19, Saudi Arabia said the government will cut spending by 5%, or about $13.3 billion, to offset the impact of plunging oil prices and the effects of the new coronavirus on its economic outlook and deficit. The kingdom has reported a total of 238 coronavirus cases identified so far.
    (AP, 3/19/20)

2020        Mar 28, Russia's state-controlled Rosneft oil company said that it is ceasing operations and selling its assets in Venezuela. Rosneft said that it’s turning over its Venezuelan projects to an unnamed state-owned company in what it called an effort to protect its shareholders’ interests.
    (SSFC, 3/29/20, p.A3)(Bloomberg, 3/28/20)

2020        Mar 29, Angola's finance minister said the country's economy will contract by 1.21% in 2020, marking a fifth year of recession, as the coronavirus and a slump in oil prices batter its finances.
    (Reuters, 3/29/20)

2020        Mar 31, TC Energy Corp. gave the go-ahead for construction of its $8 billion Keystone XL Pipeline project with assistance from the Alberta government. The pipeline would transport up to 35 million gallons of crude oil daily from western Canada to terminals on the US Gulf Coast.
    (SFC, 4/1/20, p.A2)
2020        Mar 31, In eastern Turkey an explosion damaged a natural gas pipeline and halted gas flows from Iran. Authorities suspected the Kurdistan Workers' Party.
    (SFC, 4/1/20, p.A2)

2020        Apr 1, Saudi Arabia started the month by boosting its oil supply to more than 12 million barrels a day, the most ever. Riyadh has insisted that it will only back away from a decision to flood the global market if all the world’s leading producers, including the US, agree to cut output.
    (Bloomberg, 4/1/20)

2020        Apr 2, US Pres. Donald Trump in a phone call told Saudi Crown Prince Mohammed bin Salman that unless the Organization of the Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC) started cutting oil production, he would be powerless to stop lawmakers from passing legislation to withdraw US troops from the kingdom. Production cuts were announced ten days later.
    (Reuters, 4/30/20)
2020        Apr 2, Wall Street bounced up as hints of a deal between Russia and Saudi Arabia drove a record 30% surge in oil prices, outweighing the shock of a jump in US jobless claims past 6 million.
    (Reuters, 4/2/20)

2020        Apr 3, California issued 24 hydraulic fracturing permits to Aera Energy for wells in Kern County following a review by the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory.
    (SFC, 4/6/20, p.A4)
2020        Apr 3, Kuwait said it will ramp up oil output in April until it reaches about 3.15 million barrels per day. The increase in output will come from the Neutral Zone, an area Kuwait shares on the border with Saudi Arabia.
    (Reuters, 4/3/20)
2020        Apr 3, Russian President Vladimir Putin said he supports cutting oil production by about 10 million barrels a day to shore up falling prices.
    (AP, 4/3/20)
2020        Apr 3, Venezuela said it was formulating a “special fuel supply plan" to restore stockpiles of oil in the “shortest possible time," allowing the nation to combat the coronavirus. In recent days, gas lines have popped up across Caracas, which is typically immune from days' long waits common in the rest of the country. Most stations had closed as supplies ran out.
    (AP, 4/3/20)

2020        Apr 7, Exxon Mobil Corp throttled back investment in shale, natural gas and deep water production, cutting planned capital spending by 30% this year as the coronavirus pandemic saps energy demand and oil prices tumble.
    (Reuters, 4/7/20)

2020        Apr 8, Ecuador's Energy Ministry said that it had placed barriers around an oil spill in an area home to several indigenous communities and near the source of drinking water for the city of El Coca, with some 45,000 residents. Two parallel pipelines broke when the Quijos River flooded. Oil exports were soon suspended.
    (Reuters, 4/9/20)(SSFC, 4/12/20, p.A3)

2020        Apr 9, Russia and all but one member of the Organization of the Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC) reached an agreement late today to cut 10 million barrels a day in production, which amounts to a 23 percent reduction from the group’s baseline of about 44 million barrels a day. Mexico rejected OPEC’s proposal that it cut production by 400,000 barrels a day, proposing a cut of one-quarter of that amount instead.
    (NY Times, 4/10/20)
2020        Apr 9, The United States agreed to make 250,000 barrels per day in additional cuts to oil output to help Mexico make its contribution to global reductions.
    (Reuters, 4/10/20)
2020        Apr 9, Pantheon Resources PLC reported the discovery of an oil field in Alaska's North Slope region with a potential of 1.8 billion barrels of oil.
    (SFC, 4/10/20, p.A3)

2020        Apr 10, The OPEC oil cartel and other nations including Russia and Mexico agreed to boost oil prices by cutting as much as 10 million barrels a day in production until July, then 8 million barrels per day through the end of the year.
    (SFC, 4/11/20, p.A2)

2020        Apr 12, OPEC, Russia and other oil producers agreed to reduce output by 9.7 million barrels a day in May and June, close to 10 percent of the world’s production. Demand for oil is down about 35 percent since the start of the crisis.
    (NY Times, 4/13/20)

2020        Apr 20, The benchmark price for crude oil in the US fell below zero for the first time. It was the result of a quirk in the market.
    (NY Times, 4/21/20)

2020        Apr 21, Global stocks fell, a day after US crude oil prices turned negative for the first time ever, as dismal corporate earnings underlined worries about economic damage from the coronavirus pandemic. Reported cases of the coronavirus have crossed 2.46 million globally and 169,863 people have died.
    (Reuters, 4/21/20)
2020        Apr 21, The Trump administration ordered Chevron Corp. to "wind down" operations in Venezuela by Dec. 1, barring the California-based oil giant in the meantime from drilling or exporting. Chevron's investments in Venezuela were estimated at $2.6 billion.
    (SFC, 4/22/20, p.A2)

2020        Apr 22, Oklahoma's energy regulator said that oil producers could close wells without losing their leases, the first victory for struggling US companies seeking relief from states after the market crash.
    (Reuters, 4/22/20)

2020        Apr 23, In Venezuela a 2nd flight arrived from Iran delivering key chemical components for producing gasoline. 14 more flights were expected in the coming days.
    (SFC, 4/25/20, p.A2)

2020        Apr 26, The US granted Iraq a month-long sanctions waiver enabling the government to continue importing gas and electricity from Iran. A previous waiver expired on April 26.
    (https://tinyurl.com/ydgckckx)(SFC, 4/28/20, p.A2)

2020        Apr 27, Oil prices slumped again on concerns over scarce storage capacity, especially in the United States, and global economic doldrums from the coronavirus pandemic.
    (Reuters, 4/27/20)
2020        Apr 27, It was reported that 30 workers at an offshore oil platform in Equatorial Guinea have tested positive.
    (Reuters, 4/27/20)

2020        Apr 29, It was reported that BP is donating 3 million gallons of jet fuel to FedEx and Alaska Airlines to help with the distribution of personal protective equipment in the battle against the new coronavirus.
    (Reuters, 4/29/20)

2020        Apr 30, The United States said that cash-strapped Venezuela is paying Iran in gold to rebuild its troubled oil industry as it denounced what it saw as growing cooperation between its two adversaries.
    (AFP, 4/30/20)

2020        May 1, Iran rejected US claims it is helping Venezuela to rebuild its oil industry, saying the accusations are designed to increase pressure and disrupt the two countries' trade ties.
    (AFP, 5/1/20)

2020        May 9, Syria's oil and mineral resources ministry announced a reduction in automobile fuel subsidies, the latest government measure to tackle a deepening economic crisis.
    (AP, 5/9/20)

2020        May 17, It was reported that five Iranian tankers likely carrying at least $45.5 million worth of gasoline and similar products are now sailing to Venezuela, part of a wider deal between the two US-sanctioned nations amid heightened tensions between Tehran and Washington.
    (AP, 5/18/20)

2020        May 18, It was reported that the US has sent an 80,000-ton shipment of oil to Belarus, as the country seeks to diversify its supplies following a price dispute with Russia.
    (SFC, 5/18/19, p.A2)

2020        May 23, The first of five tankers carrying much-needed Iranian fuel and oil products entered Venezuelan waters.
    (AFP, 5/23/20)

2020        May 26, The third cargo of an Iranian tanker flotilla carrying fuel for gasoline-thirsty Venezuela was approaching the nation's exclusive economic zone as the previous two were preparing to discharge.
    (Reuters, 5/26/20)

2020        May 28, It was reported that Chevron Corp., based in San Ramon, Ca., will lay off up to 15% of tis 45,000-person global workforce amid the economic havoc wrought on the energy sector by the coronavirus.
    (SFC, 5/28/20, p.C1)

2020        May 29, Russian mining company Norilsk Nickel spilled more than 20,000 tons of oil into a river in the Arctic Circle. President Vladimir Putin soon declared a state of emergency and expressed anger that officials only learned about the spill two days after it happened.
    (Business Insider, 6/4/20)

2020        Jun 6, The OPEC alliance extended production cuts by a month as world demand for oil fell amidst lockdowns to fight the COVID-19 pandemic. OPEC controlled about 70% of the world's oil reserves.
    (Econ., 6/13/20, p.57)

2020        Jun 15, The US Supreme Court decided that the federal government has the authority to allow a proposed $7.5 billion natural gas pipeline to cross under the popular Appalachian Trail in rural Virginia.
    (Reuters, 6/15/20)

2020        Jun 24, Minnesota AG Keith Ellison filed a lawsuit against the American Petroleum Institute, Exxon Mobil and Koch Industries for violating state laws barring consumer fraud, deceptive trade practices and false advertising.
    (Reuters, 6/25/20)

2020        Jun 25, The attorney general for the District of Columbia filed a lawsuit against Exxon Mobil Corp, BP Plc, Chevron Corp, and Royal Dutch Shell Plc for "systematically and intentionally misleading" consumers about the role their products play in causing climate change.
    (Reuters, 6/25/20)
2020        Jun 25, The UN said the abandoned FSO Safer oil tanker moored off the coast of Yemen loaded with more than 1 million barrels of crude oil is at risk of rupture or exploding, causing massive environmental damage to Red Sea marine life, desalination factories and international shipping routes. The ship has been in the hands of the Houthis since 2015.
    (AP, 6/25/20)(Econ., 10/3/20, p.39)

2020        Jun 28, Oklahoma-based Chesapeake Energy, American oil and gas producer, filed for bankruptcy protection. The company was nearly 9 billion in debt.
    (https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Chesapeake_Energy)(Econ., 7/4/20, p.62)

2020        Jun 29, Libyan tribes loyal to military commander Khalifa Hifter offered to end their blockade of the country’s oil production, which has cost Libya over $6 billion since January, as part of a political settlement in the war-torn country.
    (AP, 6/29/20)

2020        Jun, Nigeria's government announced that it would phase out petrol subsidies. When ten days of protests followed along with 12 deaths, the government backed down and reduced subsidies instead of eliminating them.
    (Econ., 10/10/20, p.42)
2020        Jun, Saudi Aramco, the world's largest oil firm, completed its $69.1 billion acquisition of a 70% stake in SABIC, Saudi Arabia's chemicals giant.
    (https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/SABIC)(Econ., 6/27/20, p.53)

2020        Jul 1, US federal prosecutors sought to seize four tankers sailing toward Venezuela with gasoline supplied by Iran. The four tankers named in a complaint filed today — the Bella, Bering, Pandi and Luna — are currently transporting to Venezuela 1.1 million barrels of gasoline obtained via risky ship-to-ship transfers.
    (AP, 7/2/20)

2020        Jul 5, It was reported that European Space Agency satellites last fall detected huge plumes of methane gas leaking from Russia's Yamal pipeline. One Siberian leak was reportedly gushing 93 metric tons of methane each hour. Another leak nearby was gushing at a rate of 17 tons an hour. The find had not been reported before now.
    (Reuters, 6/25/20)(SSFC, 7/5/20, p.B10)
2020        Jul 5, The Dominica-flagged MT Gulf Sky oil tanker, sought by the US over allegedly circumventing sanctions on Iran, was hijacked off the coast of the United Arab Emirates. 26 of the Indian sailors on board soon made it back to India, while two remained in Tehran. On July 19 a UN agency acknowledged that the ship, allegedly smuggling Iranian crude oil, is back in Iranian waters.
    (AP, 7/15/20)(AP, 7/19/20)

2020        Jul 6, A US District Court ordered Energy Transfer LP to shut and empty the largest pipeline from the North Dakota shale oil fields within 30 days, in a big win for the Native American tribes who have fought the line's route across a crucial water supply. In August a federal appeals court reversed the order.
    (Reuters, 7/6/20)(SFC, 8/7/20, p.A6)

2020        Jul 11, In Libya Ahmed al-Mosmari, a spokesman for Khalifa Hifter's forces, called for oil revenues to flow into a bank account in a foreign country with a “clear mechanism" to distribute funds fairly among Libya’s regions.
    (AP, 7/12/20)

2020        Jul 14, In Egypt a ruptured crude oil pipeline set off a monstrous blaze on a desert highway, injuring at least 17 people.
    (AP, 7/15/20)

2020        Jul 15, The United Nations Security Council heard that up to 1.1 million barrels of oil could spill into the Red Sea causing a disaster four times worse than the 1989 Exxon Valdez spill. The Yemeni-government owned tanker, FSO Safer, started taking on water in May.
    (NBC News, 7/16/20)

2020        Jul 20, It was reported that Chevron will take over Houston-based Noble Energy for $5 billion and assume Noble's debt. The total enterprise value of the deal was put at $13 billion.
    (SFC, 7/21/20, p.C1)

2020        Jul 25, The Japanese ship MV Wakashio ran aground on a coral reef off the Indian Ocean island of Mauritius and its crew was evacuated. The large bulk carrier later began leaking tons of fuel into the surrounding waters. The ship was empty when it ran aground, but had some 4,000 tons of fuel aboard. On August 7 PM Pravind Jugnauth declared a state of emergency. Mitsui O.S.K. Lines later said the accident occurred after the ship shifted its course two miles closer to shore than planned so its crewmembers could get cellphone signals.
    (AP, 8/8/20)(AP, 12/18/20)

2020        Jul 28, Turkey said it will suspend research for oil and gas exploration in disputed waters in the Eastern Mediterranean that abruptly raised military tensions with neighboring Greece.
    (AP, 7/28/20)

2020        Jul, The French firm oil firm Total secured $15 billion in loans for its liquified natural gas operations in Mozambique. This was the biggest project finance deal in African history.
    (Econ., 8/29/20, p.33)

2020        Aug 6, Egypt and Greece signed a maritime deal that sets the sea boundary between the two countries and demarcates an exclusive economic zone for oil and gas drilling rights. The deal is a response to a similar agreement between Turkey and Libya’s Tripoli-based government last year that has spiked tensions in the East Mediterranean region.
    (AP, 8/6/20)

2020        Aug 11, Turkey vowed to press ahead with searching for oil and gas in the eastern Mediterranean Sea, saying it plans to issue new exploration licenses for the area despite an escalating dispute with Greece over drilling rights.
    (AP, 8/11/20)

2020        Aug 12, Mauritius PM Pravind Jugnauth said authorities have finished pumping out the fuel oil from the Japanese-owned ship that has caused a huge oil spill off the island's coast. The fuel was transferred to shore by helicopter and to another ship owned by Nagashiki Shipping.
    (BBC, 8/12/20)

2020        Aug 13, The Trump administration formally weakened a major climate change regulation, effectively freeing oil and gas companies from the need to detect and repair methane leaks.
    (SFC, 8/14/20, p.A4)
2020        Aug 13, It was reported that the US has seized the cargo of four vessels, called Luna, Pandi, Bering and Bella, on the high seas in recent days and that they are now en route to Houston. US prosecutors filed a lawsuit last month to seize the gasoline aboard the four tankers that Iran is trying to ship to Venezuela.
    (Reuters, 8/13/20)(SFC, 8/14/20, p.A4)
2020        Aug 13, Steven Donziger, the American lawyer who spent more than two decades suing Chevron Corp over pollution in the Ecuadorian rain forest, was disbarred in New York by a state appeals court. Nine years ago, Donziger had won a $9.5 billion judgment against Chevron in an Ecuador court, but was unable to enforce it after a US judge found it had been obtained through fraud.
    (Reuters, 8/14/20)
2020        Aug 13, It was reported that an oil spill in Venezuela has coated a stretch of the country's Caribbean coastline. Fishermen and locals living around Morrocoy National Park began reporting oil washing ashore last week.
    (SFC, 8/13/20, p.A2)

2020        Aug 15, Officials said grounded Japanese ship that leaked tons of oil near protected areas off the Indian Ocean island nation of Mauritius has split apart, with remaining fuel spreading into the turquoise waters.
    (AP, 8/15/20)

2020        Aug 17, The Trump administration issued final approval to allow oil and gas drilling in Alaska's Arctic National Wildlife Refuge, a 19 million acre (7.7 million hectares) refuge that has been off-limits to drilling for decades.
    (Reuters, 8/17/20)

2020        Aug 18, Sunil Kumar Nandeshwar, the Indian captain of a ship that spilled about 1,000 metric tons of oil into the Indian Ocean, endangering world-renowned coral reefs and lagoons in Mauritius, was arrested alongside the chief officer of the ship, Tilak Ratna Suboda, a Sri Lankan.
    (NY Times, 8/19/20)(SSFC, 8/23/20, p.B10)

2020        Aug 24, Exxon Mobil Corp, Pfizer Inc. and Raytheon Technologies Corp. were kicked out of the Dow Jones Industrial Average, making way for Salesforce.com, Amgen Inc. and Honeywell International to enter the 124-year old equity gauge a week from today. ExxonMobil was ejected from the DJIA, having been a member since 1928.
    (https://tinyurl.com/y5udfaal)(Econ., 9/19/20, p.13)

2020        Aug, President Recep Tayyip Erdogan announced a major natural gas discovery off Turkey’s other coast, in the Black Sea. The finding was estimated at 320 billion cubic meters, and there is a strong expectation that the figure will be revised upwards as a result of additional exploratory drilling.
    (Bloomberg, 9/2/20)

2020        Sep 3, A Filipino crew member was killed aboard the tanker ship MT New Diamond when a boiler exploded in the engine room. The ship was drifting off the coast of Sri Lanka as fire fighting efforts continued. After 2 days the fire was brought under control and the tanker, carrying nearly 2 million barrels of crude oil, was towed further out to sea. The owner of the ship later agreed to pay Sri Lanka $2.3 million for its help in extinguishing the blaze.
    (SFC, 9/5/20, p.A2)(SSFC, 9/6/20, p.A6)(SSFC, 9/27/20, p.A6)

2020        Sep 7, In Sri Lanka firefighters began battled a new blaze on the tanker ship MT New Diamond. A patch of diesel fuel was reported near the ship.
    (SFC, 9/9/20, p.A4)

2020        Sep 8, It was reported that President Donald Trump has instructed that dozens of oil refiner requests for retroactive waivers from US biofuel laws be denied amid concerns the issue could cut into his support in the Farm Belt.
    (AP, 9/8/20)
2020        Sep 8, Gasoline shortages have returned to Venezuela, sparking mile-long lines in the capital as international concerns mounted that Iran yet again may be trying to come to the South American nation's rescue.
    (AP, 9/8/20)

2020        Sep 10, BP entered the offshore wind market with a $1.1 billion deal to buy 50% stakes in two US developments from Norway's Equinor, a significant step by the oil firm towards its energy transition goals.
    (Reuters, 9/10/20)

2020        Sep 12, Thousands of people protested in Mauritius again over the government’s handling of an offshore oil spill that has become the Indian Ocean island nation’s worst environmental disaster in years.
    (AP, 9/12/20)

2020        Sep 13, Tanzania and Uganda signed an agreement allowing for the construction of a 1,445 km (898 miles) crude oil pipeline.
    (BBC, 9/13/20)

2020        Sep 14, California and 19 other states filed a lawsuit challenging the Trump administration’s decision to weaken curbs on methane emissions from the oil and gas industry, saying the widespread West Coast wildfires should be a reminder of the dangers posed by climate change.
    (Reuters, 9/14/20)

2020        Sep 30, The second of three ships loaded with gasoline from Iran approached fuel-starved Venezuela amid simmering social unrest over a lack of goods and services that's sparked protests across the South American nation. The Iranian tanker Forest arrived a day earlier carrying 275,000 barrels of gasoline. The Faxon — the third Iranian tanker en route — is expected to reach port this weekend. The flotilla is delivering an estimated 815,000 total barrels of fuel. Venezuela’s domestic consumption is around 100,000 barrels a day.
    (AP, 9/30/20)

2020        Oct 10, It was reported that Egypt’s Pres. Abdel-Fattah el-Sissi has ratified a maritime deal setting its Mediterranean Sea boundary with Greece and demarcating an exclusive economic zone for oil and gas drilling rights, in a move that has angered Turkey.
    (AP, 10/10/20)

2020        Oct 19, An oil spill was detected at Broadkill Beech in Delaware. Over the next weeks crews removed an estimated 75 tons of oily sand and debris. The source of the spill was under investigation.
    (SFC, 11/10/20, p.A4)

2020        Nov 13, A federal court judge for the second time in two years blocked drilling on more than 300,000 acres in Wyoming because the government failed to adequately consider its impact on climate change.
    (Reuters, 11/13/20)

2020        Nov 16, The Trump administration announced that it would begin the formal process of selling leases to oil companies in a last-minute push to achieve its long-sought goal of allowing oil and gas drilling in the Arctic National Wildlife Refuge in Alaska.
    (NY Times, 11/16/20)

2020        Nov 25, A mine in the Red Sea off Saudi Arabia's coast near Yemen exploded and damaged an oil tanker near Shuqaiq.
    (AP, 11/25/20)

2020        Nov 30, Exxon Mobil Corp said it would write down the value of natural gas properties by $17 billion to $20 billion, its biggest ever impairment, and slash project spending next year to its lowest level in 15 years.
    (Reuters, 11/30/20)
2020        Nov 30, Algeria's energy minister said OPEC members have reached a consensus on the need to extend existing oil production cuts for three months from January and will work on convincing their allies in the wider OPEC+ group to support such a move.
    (Reuters, 11/30/20)

2020        Nov, The UAE said it had found 24 billion barrels-worth of oil beneath Abu Dhabi.
    (Econ., 12/12/20, p.72)

2020        Dec 3, Denmark's Parliament voted to end all oil and gas activities in the North Sea by 2050. The county had started its North Sea gas and oil extraction in 1972.
    (SFC, 12/5/20, p.A3)
2020        Dec 3, OPEC agreed to lift production in January by a modest 500,000 barrels a day.
    (Econ., 12/12/20, p.72)

2020        Dec 4, In South Africa seven people were hospitalized after an early-morning explosion and fire at an oil refinery near the harbor in the city of Durban.
    (AP, 12/4/20)

2020        Dec 10, The Trump administration sold oil and gas leases on federal land in California for the first time in eight years despite widespread opposition to the auction in the Democratic state, including from its governor. Seven parcels covering 4,100 acres (16.6 square km) brought in just over $46,000 in high bids. All of the acreage sold with the average price per acre was $11.
    (Reuters, 12/10/20)

2020        Dec 11, Construction of Nord Stream 2, a German-Russian pipeline that the United States has vehemently opposed, resumed after nearly a year.
    (AP, 12/11/20)

2020        Dec 14, ExxonMobil pledged to cut carbon emissions from operations by as much as 20% in five years.
    (Econ., 12/19/20, p.93)

2020        Dec 18, In a last-minute change, the Trump administration cut about 30 percent of the Arctic National Wildlife Refuge territory that it plans to auction off for oil exploration.
    (Reuters, 12/21/20)

2020        Dec 27, Iran informed Iraq’s electricity ministry that it plans to cut gas shipments further to three million cubic meters. Iran reduced gas exports to Iraq to five million cubic meters from 50 million cubic meters two weeks ago citing unpaid bills.
    (AP, 12/27/20)

2020        Dec 28, Cambodia's long-awaited first commercial extraction of oil was begun by KrisEnergy, a Singapore-based oil and gas company, from a well in offshore Block A in the Gulf of Thailand.
    (AP, 12/29/20)
2020        Dec 29, Iran said it will resume normal gas flows to Iraq on Dec. 30 after reaching an agreement with Iraq over unpaid bills.
    (Reuters, 12/29/20)
2020        Dec 29, It was reported that the UAE has emerged as hub for companies helping Venezuela avoid US oil sanctions.
    (Reuters, 12/29/20)

2021        Jan 4, US President Donald Trump's administration announced that it has made final its plan to open up vast areas of once-protected Arctic Alaska territory to oil development.
    (Reuters, 1/4/21)

2021        Jan 5, Saudi Arabia, the world's biggest oil exporter, said it would voluntarily reduce its production by 1 million barrels per day (bpd) in February and March, after Russia pushed to increase output, worried about US shale capitalizing on the group's cuts.
(Reuters, 1/9/21)

2021        Jan 6, The US government held its first oil and gas lease sale for Alaska's Arctic National Wildlife Refuge. Major oil companies stayed on the sidelines and the sale garnered bids on just half the tracts that were listed. The state of Alaska and two small local companies were the only bidders.
    (SFC, 1/7/21, p.A3)(Econ., 1/9/21, p.56)

2021        Jan 10, Syria’s petroleum ministry blamed US sanctions for forcing it to cut by up to 24% its distribution of fuel and diesel because of delays in arrival of needed supplies.
    (AP, 1/10/21)

2021        Jan 14, The Trump administration added China's CNOOC to a US economic blacklist, accusing the oil giant of helping Beijing intimidate neighbors in the South China Sea and ratcheting up tension days before US President-elect Joe Biden takes office.
    (Reuters, 1/14/20)

2021        Jan 15, French oil and gas company Total said it has decided to withdraw from energy association American Petroleum Institute because it disagrees on climate-related policies.
    (AP, 1/15/21)
2021        Jan 15, German authorities gave permission for work to resume on a subsea pipeline bringing natural gas from Russia that's been the target of US sanctions threats.
    (AP, 1/15/21)

2021        Jan 19, The Trump administration issued a parting shot to Venezuela's Pres. Nicolas Maduro with stiff financial sanctions on three individuals, 14 business entities and six ships accused of assisting oil firm PDVSA of outmaneuvering earlier US sanctions.
    (SFC, 1/20/21, p.A4)

2021        Jan 20, The Canadian company behind the Keystone XL oil pipeline said it has suspended work on the pipeline in anticipation of Pres. Joe Biden's revoking its permit to carry oil from Alberta to the Texas Gulf Coast.
    (SFC, 1/21/21, p.A5)

2021        Jan 24, Indonesian authorities said that they have seized an Iranian tanker and Panamanian tanker suspected of carrying out the illegal transfer of oil in their country's waters. 36 Iranian and 25 Chinese crew members were detained.
    (AP, 1/24/21)(AP, 1/27/21)

2021        Jan 29, Michigan's environmental agency said it has approved construction of an underground tunnel to house a replacement for a controversial oil pipeline in a channel linking two of the Great Lakes in the Straits of Mackinac.
    (AP, 1/29/21)
2021        Jan 29, A Dutch appeals court ruled that the Nigerian branch of oil giant Shell is responsible for damage caused by leaks in the Niger Delta.
    (AP, 1/29/21)

2021        Feb 3, The US Justice Department filed a forfeiture claim, in the US District Court for the District of Columbia targeting all the oil aboard a Liberian-flagged vessel, the M/T Achilleas. The US had seized the MT Achilleas off the coast of the Emirati port city of Fujairah under American anti-terrorism statues as Iran's paramilitary Revolutionary Guard tried to use it to sell crude oil to China.. The US government brought the Achilleas to Houston, Texas, where it sold the just over 2 million barrels of crude oil within it for $110 million, or at around $55 a barrel.
    (https://tinyurl.com/dtvfkfcp)(AP, 5/31/21)

2021        Feb 6, Work on the disputed Nord Stream 2 pipeline, a Russian-German underwater gas pipeline that’s been the target of US sanction threats, was resumed..
    (AP, 2/7/21)

2021        Feb 11, Royal Dutch Shell predicted that its oil production had peaked and would never again reach its 2019 level.
    (NY Times, 2/11/21)

2021        Feb 12, The US Interior Department said that it is postponing onshore and offshore oil lease sales planned for next month in line with Pres. Joe Biden's Jan. 27 executive order on climate change.
    (AP, 2/13/21)
2021        Feb 12, Britain’s Supreme Court ruled that a group of Nigerian farmers and fishermen can sue Royal Dutch Shell PLC in English courts over pollution in a region where the Anglo-Dutch energy giant has a subsidiary.
    (AP, 2/12/21)

2021        Feb 13, A fuel tanker exploded at the Islam Qala crossing in Afghanistan's western Herat province on the Iranian border, injuring at least seven people and causing a massive fire that consumed more than 500 trucks carrying natural gas and fuel.
    (AP, 2/13/21)

2021        Feb 15, Oil prices soared to their highest in about 13 months as vaccine rollouts promised to revive demand and producers kept supply reined in.
    (Reuters, 2/15/21)
2021        Feb 15, A massive fire at a major crossing in Afghanistan’s western Herat province on the Iranian border was brought under control, after three days of efforts by firefighters from both countries. At the time of the blaze the crossing point was overcrowded with more than 2,500 trucks.
    (AP, 2/15/21)

2021        Feb 20, The US Department of the Interior said plans for seismic surveys to help find oil in the Arctic National Wildlife Refuge have fizzled due to a lack of protection for polar bears.
    (Reuters, 2/21/21)
2021        Feb 20, Hundreds of volunteers took part in a cleanup operation of the Israeli shoreline as investigations are underway to determine the cause of an oil spill that threatens the beach and wildlife.
    (AP, 2/20/21)

2021        Feb 21, Israel closed all its Mediterranean beaches until further notice, days after an offshore oil spill deposited tons of tar across more than 100 miles (160 km) of coastline in what officials are calling one of the country's worst ecological disasters.
    (AP, 2/21/21)

2021        Feb 23, It was reported that Israeli, Palestinian, Qatari and European interests have converged in recent weeks with the aim of getting gas flowing to Gaza in 2023.
    (AP, 2/23/21)

2021        Feb 24, It was reported that ExxonMobil is selling most of its drilling and exploration assets off the coast of the UK in the North Sea for more than $1 billion.
    (AP, 2/24/21)

2021        Feb 25, Qatar pledged $60 million to help construct a natural gas pipeline running from Israel into the Gaza Strip. The project aims to ease the energy crisis that long has afflicted the impoverished Palestinian enclave.
    (AP, 2/25/21)

2021        Feb 26, Pakistan signed a landmark deal with Qatar for liquefied natural gas. The lower rates will save Islamabad a total of about $3 billion over the next 10 years.
    (AP, 3/1/21)

2021        Mar 2, The Cyprus-flagged oil tanker Berlina was physically spotted loading crude oil in Venezuela despite US sanctions against such trading. Off-ship agents at the same time were using distant computers to show the ship near the Caribbean island of Dominica.
    (https://tinyurl.com/3pdhs4xs)(SFC, 5/31/21, p.A2)

2021        Mar 3, Israeli authorities said that a Libyan-owned tanker suspected of smuggling oil from Iran to Syria was responsible for spilling tons of crude into the eastern Mediterranean last month, causing one of Israel's worst environmental disasters.
    (AP, 3/3/21)

2021        Mar 4, Chevron Corp said it is partnering with Microsoft Corp, oilfield services firm Schlumberger NV and privately held Clean Energy Systems to build a carbon capture plant in Mendota, California, as the US oil major expands investments in renewable technology.
    (Reuters, 3/4/21)

2021        Mar 5, In northern Syria a suspected missile strike on an oil-loading facility used by Turkey-backed opposition forces sparked a massive blaze across a large area where oil tankers are normally parked. Opposition groups and at least one war monitor blamed Russia for the strike The massive blaze killed at least four people and left 24 wounded.
    (AP, 3/6/21)

2021        Mar 8, The French oil company Total said it will limit its work to extract oil from a Ugandan national park to less than 1% of the protected area, seeking to assuage the concerns of activists who oppose the project. Total also announced that it would take steps to minimize damage to the lives of people disrupted by a pipeline that will run from Uganda to Tanzania.
    (AP, 3/8/21)

2021        Mar 11, The Wall Street Journal reported that since 2019, Israel has been targeting ships carrying Iranian oil and other cargo. At least a dozen ships were bombed, the newspaper added, citing US and regional officials.
    (The Telegraph, 3/12/21)

2021        Mar 12, In southern Iran protesters attacked a coast guard station after a patrol from the force shot and killed a fuel smuggler. The coast guard has confiscated more than 10 million liters (2.6 million gallons) of fuel from smugglers over the past 11 months.
    (AP, 3/13/21)

2021        Mar 17, In Italy Eni SpA, Royal Dutch Shell Plc and several of their current and former executives were acquitted of corruption charges related to a Nigerian oil deal by a court in Milan. Sentences in Italy aren’t definitive until appeals are exhausted. It could take years before a final decision.
    (Bloomberg, 3/17/21)

2021        Mar 19, In Saudi Arabia a drone attack struck an oil installation in of Riyadh, igniting a blaze at the facility deep in the kingdom's territory. A few hours earlier, Houthi military spokesman Brig. Gen. Yehia Sarie reported the group had fired six drones at an Aramco facility in Riyadh.
    (AP, 3/19/21)

2021        Mar 21, Saudi Arabian state oil giant Aramco reported a steep slide in net profit for 2020 on Sunday and scaled back its spending plans. The company said it is betting on an Asian-led rebound in energy demand this year.
    (Reuters, 3/21/21)

2021        Mar 24, Thirteen Republican-leaning states, led by Louisiana Attorney General Jeff Landry, sued the Biden administration to end a suspension of new oil and gas leases on federal land and water and to reschedule canceled sales of leases in the Gulf of Mexico, Alaska waters and western states. Wyoming filed a its own lawsuit in federal court.
    (AP, 3/24/21)(Reuters, 3/24/21)

2021        Apr 1, The OPEC oil cartel and allied countries said that they have decided to add gradually add back some 2 million barrels per barrel per day of oil production from May to July, moving cautiously in pace with the recovery of the global economy from the COVID-19 pandemic.
    (AP, 4/1/21)

2021        Apr 9, Iran freed the MT Hankuk Chemi, a South Korean oil tanker it had held for months amid a dispute over billions of dollars seized by Seoul. The seizure was widely seen as an attempt to pressure Seoul to release some $7 billion in Iranian assets tied up in South Korean banks amid heavy American sanctions on Iran.
    (AP, 4/9/21)

2021        Apr 11, Tanzania, Uganda and French oil company Total signed agreements on building a heated pipeline to carry crude oil from western Uganda to the Indian Ocean coast. Construction of the pipeline, which would be the world’s longest at 897 miles, is expected to begin this year.
    (AP, 4/11/21)

2021        Apr 12, New York's state pension fund said it is restricting investment in six Canadian oil sands companies because they have not shown they are prepared for a transition to a low-carbon future.
    (Reuters, 4/12/21)

2021        Apr 19, Libya's National Oil Corporation said it had interrupted crude oil production and exportation from Marsa Al Hariga port, citing the Central Bank of Libya’s refusal to pay out money set aside for the oil sector for several months.
    (AP, 4/22/21)

2021        Apr 23, California's Gov. Gavin Newsom directed the state to stop issuing permits for oil fracking by January 2024 and to draw up plans to end all fossil-fuel drilling in the state by 2045.
    (SFC, 4/24/21, p.A1)

2021        Apr 26, The French energy firm Total announced hat it has halted all operations on its $20 billion investment in a liquified natural gas project in northern Mozambique as a result of the extremist rebel insurgency there..
    (AP, 4/26/21)
2021        Apr 26, Delek Drilling, owned by the Israeli billionaire Yitzhak Tshuva, said that it signed a memorandum of understanding with Mubadala Petroleum, part of a conglomerate owned by the government of Abu Dhabi.
    (AP, 4/26/21)

2021        Apr 28, Government data published by the green group Environmental Integrity Project showed that 13 US oil refineries released the cancer-causing chemical benzene in concentrations that exceeded federal limits last year, three more than in 2019.
    (Reuters, 4/28/21)

2021        May 7, Colonial Pipeline shut down its 5,500 miles of pipeline, which it says carries 45 percent of the US East Coast’s fuel supplies, in an effort to contain A ransomware attack. Colonial Pipeline, based in Alpharetta, Ga., is owned by several American and foreign companies and investment firms, including Koch Industries and Royal Dutch Shell. It was later reported that Colonial Pipeline paid nearly $5 million to Eastern European hackers soon after the crippling cyberattack.
    (NY Times, 5/8/21)(Bloomberg, 5/8/21)(Reuters, 5/13/21)

2021        May 11, US environmental regulators issued an emergency fuel waiver to help alleviate any shortages in reformulated gasoline in the Mid-Atlantic states as supplies tighten five days after a cyberattack shuttered the nation's biggest pipeline.
    (Reuters, 5/11/21)

2021        May 12, Drivers in the US Southeast formed lines to fill up tanks from the dwindling number of retail gas stations with fuel to sell, disregarding government pleas for people not to hoard supplies as the shutdown of the main regional fuel pipeline entered its sixth day.
    (AP, 5/12/21)

2021        May 14, It was reported that the Biden administration has granted oil refiner Citgo Petroleum a Jones Act shipping waiver allowing it to move fuel between US ports on a foreign flagged vessel, making it the second company to secure one this week.
    (Reuters, 5/14/21)

2021        May 15, The Colonial Pipeline resumed full operations, eight days after it was shut down by a ransomware attack.
    (NY Times, 5/15/21)

2021        May 18, It was reported that the Biden administration will waive sanctions on the corporate entity and CEO overseeing the construction of Russia’s Nord Stream 2 pipeline into Germany.
    (Axios, 5/18/21)

2021        May 26, The Biden administration defended a huge Trump-era oil and gas project in the North Slope of Alaska designed to produce more than 100,000 barrels of oil a day for the next 30 years, despite President Biden’s pledge to pivot the country away from fossil fuels.
    (NY Times, 5/26/21)
2021        May 26, A Dutch court ordered Royal Dutch Shell to cut its carbon emissions by net 45% by 2030 compared to 2019 levels in a landmark case brought by climate activism groups, which hailed the decision as a victory for the planet.
    (AP, 5/26/21)

2021        May 28, It was reported that Texas-based Exxon Mobil's three largest refineries - two in Texas and one in Louisiana - are the nation's top three emitters of small particulate matter.
    (Reuters, 5/28/21)
2021        May 28, Indonesian authorities released two oil tankers — the Iranian-flagged MT Horse and Panamanian-flagged MT Freya — after a four-month detention for illegally transferring oil in Indonesian waters.
    (AP, 5/29/21)

2021        Jun 1, The Biden administration suspended oil drilling leases in the Arctic National Wildlife Refuge.
    (NY Times, 6/1/21)
2021        Jun 1, The Biden administration gave Chevron Corp. and several other American companies six more months to wind down their operations in Venezuela.
    (SFC, 6/2/21, p.B2)

2021        Jun 2, In Iran a fire, caused by a leak in two waste tanks, erupted late today at the state-owned Tondgooyan Petrochemical Co. to the south of Tehran. It was extinguished after more than 20 hours.
    (AP, 6/3/21)

2021        Jun 3, Denmark said it has withdrawn permission for a planned pipeline that was designed to bring Norwegian gas to Poland, citing the need to assess if the project would harm the habitats of certain mice and bat species. Baltic Pipe was designed to bring Norway’s offshore natural gas from the North Sea through Denmark to Poland.
    (AP, 6/4/21)

2021        Jun 7, In Minnesota police made mass arrests as hundreds of protesters chanting "Stop Line 3!" and "Water is life!" gathered at the headwaters of the Mississippi vowing to stop Canada-based Enbridge Energy's plan to rebuilt the Line 3 pipeline that carries oil from Alberta to Wisconsin.
    (SFC, 6/8/21, p.A4)

2021        Jun 9, TC Energy, the Canadian pipeline company that had long sought to build the Keystone XL pipeline, announced that it had terminated the embattled project, which would have carried petroleum from Canadian tar sands to Nebraska.
    (NY Times, 6/9/21)

2021        Jun 14, The Minnesota Court of Appeals affirmed a state regulator's decision that there is sufficient need for Enbridge Inc to replace its Line 3 pipeline.
    (Reuters, 6/14/21)

2021        Jun 15, A federal judge in Louisiana blocked the Biden administration’s suspension of new oil and gas leases on federal lands and waters, saying that the power to pause offshore oil and gas leases “lies solely with Congress" because it was the legislative branch that originally made federal lands and waters available for leasing..
    (AP, 6/15/21)

2021        Jun 29, The US Supreme Court ruled 5-4 in favor of a consortium of energy companies including Enbridge Inc seeking to seize land owned by New Jersey to build a federally approved natural gas pipeline despite the state's objections. Hurdles remained for the $1 billion project.
    (Reuters, 6/29/21)
2021        Jun 29, Lebanon's energy ministry increased gasoline and fuel prices by 35%, a move that could lead to a sharp increase in prices of most commodities in the crisis-hit country.
    (AP, 6/29/21)

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