Timeline of Black History

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743        Mar 1, Slave export by Christians to heathen areas was prohibited.
    (SC, 3/1/02)

1444        Slaves from Africa were first carried to Portugal. Europe’s first modern-era slave market was established in Portugal.
    (WSJ, 12/1/97, p.A20)(SSFC, 2/19/17, p.F6)

1526        Jul 6, King Afonso of Kongo (1509-1542) sent a letter of complaint to Portugal regarding the impact of slave trade in his country.

1526        Nov, The 1st American slave revolt occurred in SC at the Spanish settlement of San Miguel de Gualdape near the mouth of the Pee Dee River in South Carolina.

1526        The 1st Africans to the US arrived at a Spanish settlement South Carolina.

1533        Cartagena de Indias (Colombia) was founded by Spain and served as a major port for the trade of slaves, gold and cargo.
    (SSFC, 5/18/03, p.C12)

1619        Aug 20, The 1st African slaves arrived to North America aboard a Dutch privateer. It docked in Jamestown, Virginia, with twenty human captives among its cargo. Two privateer ships had raided a Spanish slave vessel in the Gulf of Mexico. The privateers sailed to Virginia and traded more than 30 Africans for food and supplies. English colonists then took the slaves to properties along the James River, including Jamestown.
    (SFC, 12/18/96, p.A25)(HN, 8/20/98)(PC, 1992, p.224)(SFC, 8/29/18, p.A5)
1621         Jan 3, William Tucker was born. He is believed to be first American born African-American. [1624 date also given]
    (HN, 1/3/99)(MC, 1/3/02)

1632        Olivier Le Jeune (7), a black boy born in Madagascar, was sold to a clerk in the future province of Quebec. He was later considered the first known black enslaved in Canada.
    (SFC, 2/12/10, p.A18)

1641        Dec 1, Massachusetts became the 1st colony to give statutory recognition to slavery. It was followed by Connecticut in 1650 and Virginia in 1661.
    (MC, 12/1/01)(HNQ, 5/20/02)

1652        May 10, John Johnson, a free black, was granted 550 acres in Northampton, Va.
    (MC, 5/10/02)

1652        May 18, A law was passed in Rhode Island banning slavery in the colonies but it caused little stir and was not enforced. More than 1,000 slave voyages were mounted from Rhode Island, mostly in the 18th century, carrying more than 100,000 Africans into slavery.
    (HN, 5/18/99)(Reuters, 3/29/07)

1654        Nov 21, Richard Johnson, a free black, was granted 550 acres in Virginia.
    (MC, 11/21/01)

1660        Mar 13, A statute was passed limiting the sale of slaves in the colony of Virginia.
    (HN, 3/13/99)

1660        The Royal African Company, an English mercantile company, was set up by the royal Stuart family and City of London merchants to trade along the west coast of Africa. It shipped more African slaves to the Americas than any other institution in the history of the Atlantic slave trade. Under the tenure of Edward Colston it trafficked some 84,000 people to slavery. The company was dissolved by the African Company Act 1750.
    {Britain, USA, Black History, Slavery}
    (https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Royal_African_Company)(Econ., 6/13/20, p.44)

1688        Feb 18, At a Quaker meeting in Germantown, Pa, German Mennonites penned a memorandum stating a profound opposition to Negro slavery. Quakers in Germantown, Pa., adopted the fist formal antislavery resolution in America.
    (HN, 2/18/99)(www.germanheritage.com/Publications/cronau/cronau4.html)

1695        Nov 20, Zumbi, a Brazilian leader of a hundred-year-old rebel slave group, was killed in an ambush in Palmares. He was later honored by a National Day of Black Consciousness.
    (SFC, 8/16/01, p.A8)(SSFC, 11/18/12, p.G3)

1700        May 7, William Penn began monthly meetings for Blacks advocating emancipation.
    (MC, 5/7/02)

1701          The English slave ship Henrietta Marie sank 35 miles off Key West, Florida, on its way back to Europe. It had delivered 188 captured Africans to a slave broker in Jamaica in exchange for sugar and other goods bound for England. The wreck was found in 1972.
    (SFC, 8/12/96, p.C5)(WSJ, 6/2/98, p.A20)(SSFC, 2/8/04, p.C12)

1704        May 20, Elias Neau formed a school for slaves in NY.
    (MC, 5/20/02)

1708        Feb 28, A slave revolt in Newton, Long Island, NY, left 11 dead.
    (MC, 2/28/02)

1712        Apr 7, There was a slave revolt in New York City. A slave insurrection in New York City was suppressed by the militia and ended with the execution of 21 blacks. [see Jul 4]
    (HN, 4/7/97)(HNQ, 6/10/98)

1716        Jun 6, The 1st slaves arrived in Louisiana.
    (MC, 6/6/02)

1734        In Canada a black slave named Marie-Joseph Angelique was hanged for setting fire to the Montreal home of her master. She became the title character in a 1999 play by Lorena Gale.
    (WSJ, 6/22/99, p.A24)(SFC, 2/12/10, p.A18)

1739        Sep 9, A slave revolt in Stono, SC, led by an Angolan slave named Jemmy, killed 20-25 whites. Three slave uprisings occurred in South Carolina in 1739. Whites soon passed black codes to regulate every aspect of slave life.
    (SFC, 12/18/96, p.A25)(www.pbs.org/wgbh/aia/part1/1p284.html)(AH, 2/05, p.66)

1741        A slave revolt in New York caused considerable property damage but left people unharmed. Rumors of a conspiracy among slaves and poor whites in New York City to seize control led to a panic that resulted in the conviction of 101 blacks, the hanging of 18 blacks and four whites, the burning alive of 13 blacks and the banishment from the city of 70. In 2005 Anne Farrow, Joel Lang and Jennifer Frank authored “Complicity: The North Promoted, Prolonged and Profited from Slavery," which included a chapter on the 1941 NYC slave revolt.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/New_York_Conspiracy_of_1741)(SFC, 12/18/96, p.A25)(SSFC, 10/2/05, p.F3)

1742        Sep, Boston’s Faneuil Hall, a public market house gifted to the city by merchant and slave owner Peter Faneuil (1700-1743), opened to the public. On January 14, 1761, the building burned completely, leaving only its brick shell standing.  It was rebuilt by the town in 1762.  
    (https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Faneuil_Hall)(SFC, 6/19/18, p.A7)

1758        Apr 17, Frances Williams, the first African-American to graduate for a college in the western hemisphere, published a collection of Latin poems.
    (HN, 4/17/99)

1759        Aug 24, William Wilberforce (d.1833), was born in Hull, Yorkshire, England. He became best known for his efforts relating to the abolition of slavery in the British Empire.
    (www.nndb.com/people/824/000049677/)(HNQ, 12/6/02)

1760        Feb 14, Richard Allen (d.1831), 1st black ordained by a Methodist-Episcopal church, was born in Philadelphia.
    (HN, 2/14/98)

1761        Jul 31, The French ship L’Utile, hit  a coral reef near the Ile de Sable in the Indian Ocean. Nearly half of 160 slaves were killed. The French crew of 163 survived. On Sep 27 a white crew of 123 set sail on the Providence, built from the remains of L’Utile, and managed to reach Madagascar with just one death in four days. Fifteen years later a rescue ship found seven female survivors.
    (Econ, 12/19/15, p.94)

1765        More than 100 Africans perished on the slave ship Sally in the voyage from Africa. Some hanged themselves or starved to death. Some rebelled and were shot dead or drowned. In 2007 the ship's log book, detailing the deaths of slaves that occurred almost daily aboard the ship, was encased in glass in an exhibit at Brown University.
    (Reuters, 3/29/07)

1767        English slave traders captured 2 native nobles, Little Ephraim Robin John and Ancona Robin John on the west coast of Africa and took them in chains to Dominica. They soon escaped but were resold into slavery in Virginia. Some 4 years later they were taken to England and again resold and returned to Virginia. They later made it back to their home on the Calabar River (SE Nigeria) and became slave merchants themselves. In 2004 Randy J. Sparks authored “The Princes of Calabar."
    (WSJ, 5/21/04, p.W4)

1772        Jun 22, Slavery was in effect outlawed in England by Chief Justice William Murray, First Earl of Mansfield, following the trial of James Somersett. In 2005 Steven Wise authored “Though the Heavens May Fall: The Landmark Trial that Led to the End of Human Slavery."
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Somersett%27s_Case)(Econ, 2/5/05, p.76)(ON, 12/08, p.9)

1773        Thomas Day, English abolitionist, wrote a poem with his friend John Bicknell called “The Dying Negro."
    (Econ, 2/16/13, p.83)

1774        Jun 13, Rhode Island became the 1st colony to prohibit importation of slaves.
    (MC, 6/13/02)

1775        Apr 14, The first American society for the abolition of slavery was organized by Benjamin Franklin and Benjamin Rush in Philadelphia.
    (AP, 4/14/97)(HN, 4/14/98)

1775        Jul 10, Gen Horatio Gates, issued an order excluding blacks from Continental Army. [see Oct 8]
    (MC, 7/10/02)

1775        Oct 8, Officers decided to bar slaves and free blacks from Continental Army. [see Jul 10, Oct 23, Nov 12, Dec 31]
    (MC, 10/8/01)

1775        Nov 12, General Washington forbade the enlistment of blacks.
    (MC, 11/12/01)

1775        Dec 9, Lord Dunmore (1730-1809), governor of Virginia, lost decisively at the American Revolution Battle of Great Bridge. Following that defeat, Dunmore loaded his troops, and many Virginia Loyalists, onto British ships. Smallpox spread in the confined quarters, and some 500 of the 800 members of his Ethiopian Regiment died.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/John_Murray,_4th_Earl_of_Dunmore)(Econ, 8/10/13, p.26)

1775        Lord Dunmore, Royal Governor of Virginia, called on local slaves to join the British side to suppress the American Revolution: “When we win we will free you from your shackles." The British issued similar proclamations throughout their North American colonies and enticed thousands of indentured servants and slaves, known as Black Loyalists, to the British side.
    (MT, summer 2003, p.8)

1776        Jan 16, Continental Congress approved the enlistment of free blacks. This led to the all-black First Rhode Island Regiment, composed of 33 freedmen and 92 slaves, who were promised freedom if they served to the end of the war. The regiment distinguished itself at the Battle of Newport.
    (SFEC,11/23/97, Par p.19)(MC, 1/16/02)

1776        The Quakers of Pennsylvania abolished slavery within the Society of Friends and then took their crusade to society at large by petitioning the state legislature to outlaw the practice.
    (AH, 10/02, p.50)

1777        Jul 8, Vermont became the 1st American colony to abolish slavery.

1778        Feb 28, Rhode Island General Assembly authorized the enlistment of slaves.
    (MC, 2/28/02)

1779        Nov 12, A group of 20 slaves who had fought in the war submitted a petition to the New Hampshire General Assembly, while the war was still being fought. Lawmakers decided the time was not right. 6 of the slaves were later freed. In 2013 a state Senate committee recommended that the state posthumously emancipate 14 of the slaves who died in bondage. On June 7, 2013, they were granted posthumous emancipation when Gov. Maggie Hassan signed a largely symbolic bill that supporters hope will encourage future generations to pursue social justice.
    (SFC, 3/7/13, p.A5)(AP, 6/7/13)

1780         Mar 1, Pennsylvania became the first U.S. state to abolish slavery (for new-borns only). It was followed by Connecticut and Rhode Island in 1784, New York in 1785, and New Jersey in 1786. Massachusetts abolished slavery through a judicial decision in 1783 (see July 8 1777).

1781        The French Marquis de Condorcet authored his pamphlet “Reflections on Negro Slavery."
    (Econ, 12/19/15, p.94)

1783        Dec 31, Import of African slaves was banned by all of the Northern American states.
    (MC, 12/31/01)

1783        Some 3,000 Blacks, who had obtained British certificates of freedom for their loyalty in the American Revolution, arrived in Nova Scotia and spent some miserable years there. In 1785 a delegation sailed to Britain where they were offered passage to Africa in return for establishing a British colony in Sierra Leone. In 2017 a UN human rights working group criticized Canada and Nova Scotia for failure to ensure that the descendants of the loyalists have clear title to land they inherited.
    (MT, summer 2003, p.8)(Econ, 9/30/17, p.34)

1786        Sep 9, George Washington called for the abolition of slavery.
    (HN, 9/9/98)

1787        Apr 12, Philadelphia's Free African Society formed.
    (MC, 4/12/02)

1787        Sep 17, The US Constitution included the Connecticut, or "Great," Compromise in which every state was conceded an equal vote in the Senate irrespective of its size, but representation in the House was to be on the basis of the "federal ratio," an enumeration of the free population plus three fifths of the slaves.
    (SSFC, 11/2/03, p.M6)

1787        Dec, William Wilberforce, on the suggestion of PM William Pitt, introduced a motion in British Parliament for the abolition of the slave trade.
    (ON, 4/05, p.2)

1787        Rev. Richard Allen and Absalom Jones decided to form the Free African Society, a non-denominational religious mutual aid society for the black community. Eventually this society grew into the African Church of Philadelphia.

1787        Granville Sharp, English abolitionist, formed the Society for Effecting the Abolition of the Slave Trade.
    (ON, 12/08, p.9)
1787        Thomas Clarkson, deacon in the Church of England, led the formation of the original abolitionist committee, the interdenominational “Committee to Effect the Abolition of the Slave Trade." His committee distributed 1,000 copies of “A Letter to our Friends in the Country, to inform them of the state of the Business." This was later considered as possibly the 1st direct-mail fund-raising letter. In 2004 Adam Hochschild authored “Bury the Chains: Prophets and Rebels in the Fight to Free an Empire’s Slaves."
    (SSFC, 1/23/05, p.F1)(ON, 4/05, p.1)

1787        British settlers bought land from African tribal leaders in Sierra Leone and used it as a haven for freed African slaves. The indigenous community, dominated by the Mende, wiped out the first settlers. A 2nd group followed in 1792. The settlers intermarried but held themselves aloof, monopolized power and discriminated against the original population. In 2005 Simon Schama authored “Rough Crossings: Britain, the Slaves and the American Revolution."
    (SFC, 3/11/98, p.A10)(SFC, 2/14/98, p.A8)(WSJ, 5/31/00, p.A26)(Econ, 8/27/05, p.66)(MT, summer 2003, p.8)

1788        Jan 20, The pioneer African Baptist church was organized in Savannah, Ga.
    (MC, 1/20/02)

1789        May 12, In England William Wilberforce laid out his case for the abolition of slavery to the House of Commons. This speech directly led to Britain’s abolition of slavery in 1807.
    (WSJ, 5/12/07, p.P14)

1790        Feb 11, The first petition to Congress for emancipation of the slaves was made by the Society of Friends.
    (HNQ, 1/11/99)

1791        Aug 22, A Haitian slave revolution began under voodoo priest Boukman.
    (MC, 8/22/02)(SFCM, 5/30/04, p.9)

1791        Apr, William Wilberforce again introduced a motion in British Parliament for the abolition of the slave trade, but lost by a vote of 163 to 88.
    (ON, 4/05, p.2)

1791        In St. Domingue Toussaint L’Ouverture joined the slave rebellion against plantation owners and later led a colonial revolt against France. In 1995 Madison Smart Bell authored "All Souls Rising," a novel set in this period.
    (SFEC, 1/26/97 BR, p.10)(SSFC, 4/8/01, BR p.4)(SFCM, 5/30/04, p.10)

1792        Jan 28, Rebellious slaves in Santo Domingo launched an attack on the city of Cap.
    (HN, 1/28/99)

1792        Apr 4, American abolitionist Thaddeus Stevens, U.S. Radical Republican congressional leader, was born in Danville, Vt.
    (AP, 4/4/98)(HN, 4/4/98)

1792        May 16, Denmark abolished slave trade.
    (MC, 5/16/02)

1792        William Wilberforce introduced a new motion in British Parliament for the gradual abolition of the slave trade. The “gradual" wording, proposed by home office minister Henry Dundas, led to passage of the bill in the House of Commons 230 to 85.
    (ON, 4/05, p.2)

1792        The British St. George’s Bay Company transported a 2nd group of settlers to Freetown. This included 1,196 Blacks from Nova Scotia, 500 Jamaicans and dozens of rebellious slaves from other colonies.
    (MT, summer 2003, p.8)

1793        Feb 12, The US federal government passed its first fugitive slave law. This gave slave holders the right to reclaim their human property in free states.
    (HN, 2/12/97)(WSJ, 1/30/03, p.D8)

1793        Aug 29, Slavery was abolished in the French colony of Santo Domingo (Haiti).
    (HN, 8/29/98)(MC, 8/29/01)

1794        Mar 22, Congress passed laws prohibiting slave trade with foreign countries, although slavery remained legal in the United States. Congress banned US vessels from supplying slaves to other countries.
    (HN, 3/22/01)(MC, 3/22/02)

1794        May, Richard Allen purchased a blacksmith shop in Philadelphia and had it moved near St. Thomas. There he founded an African Methodist Episcopal (AME) church he called Bethel, "House of God." The Mother Bethel African Methodist Episcopal Church in Philadelphia was founded by Richard Allen after he was pulled from his knees one Sunday by a white usher while praying at St. George Methodist Episcopal Church. It later stood as the oldest parcel of land continuously owned by African Americans. The Richard Allen Museum contains 19th century artifacts from the church. In 1997 it was the world’s oldest AME church. The church elected its first female bishop in 2000.
    (SFC, 6/24/96, p.A19)(SFC, 7/12/00, p.A3)(www.pbs.org)

1794        Jul 17, In Philadelphia the African Episcopal Church of St. Thomas, one of the first black churches in the country, opened its doors.

1795        Feb 4, France abolished slavery in her territories and conferred slaves to citizens.
    (HN, 2/4/99)

1797        Mar 4, Vice-President John Adams, elected President on December 7, to replace George Washington, was sworn in. Adams soon selected Timothy Pickering as his secretary of state. Pickering extended aid to Haitian slaves in their ongoing revolt against French colonists. This policy was reversed under Jefferson.
    (HN, 3/4/99)(SSFC, 11/2/03, p.M6)

1798        May 2, The black General Toussaint L'Ouverture forced British troops to agree to evacuate the port of Santo Domingo.
    (HN, 5/2/99)

1799        Mar 28, NY state abolished slavery.
    (MC, 3/28/02)

1800        Jan 30, US population was reported at 5,308,483; Black population 1,002,037 (18.9%).
    (MC, 1/30/02)

1800        May 9, John Brown, American abolitionist, was born. His adventures came to an end at Harper's Ferry, where he tried to start a revolution against slavery.
    (HN, 5/9/99)

1800        Oct 2, Nat Turner, slave and the property of Benjamin Turner, was born in Southampton county, Va. He was sold in 1831 to Joseph Travis from Jerusalem, Southampton county, Va.

1801        Jan 28, Francis Barber (ca. 1735 – 1801), the Jamaican manservant of Samuel Johnson (1752-1784), died at the Staffordshire General Infirmary.

1802        Aug 7, Napoleon ordered the re-instatement of slavery on St. Domingue (Haiti).
    (MC, 8/7/02)

1803        The Pinkster Ode was Dedicated To Carolus Africanus, Rex: Thus Rendered in English: King Charles, Capital-General and Commander in Chief of the Pinkster Boys in Albany, NY. Despite Pinkster’s Dutch origins, Africans in New York and New Jersey were so successful at incorporating their own cultures into the celebration that by the early 1800s Pinkster was actually considered an African-American holiday.
1803        In Virginia the Alexandria Baptist Society was formed when members split from another church. A slave was soon baptized as its first black member. In 1818 the Alfred Street Baptist Church in Alexandria was founded.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Alfred_Street_Baptist_Church)(SFC, 4/6/15, p.A6)

1804        Jan 5, Ohio legislature passed the 1st laws restricting free blacks movement. [see Mar 28]
    (MC, 1/5/02)

1804        Feb 15, New Jersey became the last northern state to abolish slavery.
    (HN, 2/15/98)

1804        Mar 28, Ohio passed law restricting movement of Blacks. [see Jan 5]
    (MC, 3/28/02)

1804        Jul 21, Victor Schoelcher, abolished French slavery, was born in Guadeloupe.
    (MC, 7/21/02)

1804        A motion in British Parliament for abolition of the slave trade passed in the House of Commons 124 to 29, but was defeated in the House of Lords.
    (ON, 4/05, p.2)

1805        May 1, The state of Virginia passed a law requiring all freed slaves to leave the state, or risk either imprisonment or deportation.
    (HN, 5/1/99)

1805        The slave ship Tryal, under Captain Don Benito Cereno, was taken over in a slave insurrection led by a man named Babo. The rebellion failed and the slaves were tried and executed in Concepcion, Chile. In 1854 Herman Melville’s authored his novella “Benito Cereno," based on the Tryal revolt. In 2014 Greg Grandin authored “The Empire of Necessity: Slavery, Freedom and Deception in the New World," also covering the Tryal story.
    (SSFC, 1/26/14, p.F3)

1806        Jun 10, James Fox, British foreign minister, introduced a bill to ban British ships from transporting slaves to foreign countries. Parliament passed the bill.
    (ON, 4/05, p.3)

1806        Dec 6, The African Meeting House was dedicated in Boston. It was later used by Frederick Douglass and other prominent abolitionists to rail against slavery. In 1974 it was named as a National History Landmark. In 2011 a $9 million restoration was completed.
    (SFC, 11/28/11, p.A5)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/African_Meeting_House)

1807        Jan 2, Lord Grenville presented to British Parliament a “Bill for the Abolition of the Slave Trade," effective May 1. He introduced it directly to the House of Lords. It passed the House of Lords by 64 votes and cleared the House of Commons on March 25.
    (ON, 4/05, p.3)

1807        Mar 2, Congress banned slave trade effective January 1, 1808. The further importation of slaves was abolished but an inter-American slave trade continued.
    (V.D.-H.K.p.276)(WSJ, 12/16/97, p.A18)(WSJ, 10/19/98, p.A24)(SC, 3/2/02)

1807        Mar 25, William Wilberforce (1759-1833), evangelical member of Parliament, piloted a slave-trade abolition bill through the British House of Commons. This led to a labor problem in South Africa. In 1833 Britain abolished slavery throughout the British Empire when the Slavery Abolition Bill was read a third time. The British government eventually paid £20 million to slavers for the loss of their human property.
    (www.anti-slaverysociety.addr.com/huk-wilberforce.htm)(WSJ, 5/26/04, p.A8)(Econ., 11/14/20, p.75)

1807        After Britain outlawed the slave trade people called “Recaptives," those freed from slave ships, were sent to join the settlers in Sierra Leone. The settlers formed a new tribe called the Kri and created a language called Krio.
    (MT, summer 2003, p.8)

1807-1808    In South Carolina some 700 black people froze to death this winter in a warehouse near Charleston’s Gadsden Wharf.
    (Econ, 1/7/17, p.24)

1808        Jan 1, A law banning the import of slaves came into effect, but was widely ignored.
    (HN, 1/1/99)

1811        Jan 8, Charles Deslondes led several hundred poorly armed slaves towards New Orleans in the largest slave rebellion in US history.
    (AH, 2/06, p.14)

1811        Jan 10, An uprising of over 400 slaves was put down in New Orleans. Sixty-six blacks were killed and their heads were strung up along the roads of the city.
    (HN, 1/10/99)

1811-1843    Some 500,000 slaves arrived at Valongo, Brazil’s main landing stage for African slaves. This port area of Rio de Janeiro was re-discovered in 2010 as the city prepared for the 2016 Olympics.
    (Econ, 1/28/12, p.35)

1813        Jul 6, Granville Sharp (b.1735), biblical scholar and English abolitionist, died.
    (ON, 12/08, p.9)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Granville_Sharp)

1814        Aug 13, Treaty of London-Netherland was signed to stop the transport of slaves. By agreement Britain paid the Dutch £6 million in compensation for the Cape of Good Hope. [see May 30]
    (EWH, 4th ed, p.884)(MC, 8/13/02)

1816        Saartjie Baartman (26), taken from S. Africa in 1810, fell sick and died penniless and friendless in France after being exhibited as the "Hottentot Venus." Her body was dissected, her brain and genitals were bottled, and her skeleton was wired and exhibited in the Musee de l’Homme in Paris. In 1994 Nelson Mandela requested that she be returned home. In 2002 her remains were returned to S. Africa. In 2003 Barbara Chase-Ribaud authored the novel "Hottentot Venus" based on the Baartman story. In 2007 Rachel Holmes authored “African Queen: The Real Life of the Hottentot Venus."
    (SFC, 5/4/02, p.A8)(SSFC, 11/9/03, p.M6)(SFC, 1/1/07, p.D2)(Econ., 2/28/15, p.31)

1817        Feb 14, Frederick Douglass (d.1895), "The Great Emancipator," was born in Maryland as Frederick Augustus Washington Bailey. He was the son of a slave and a white father who bought his own freedom and published “The Narrative Life of Frederick Douglass" (1845) a memoir of his life as a slave. "The life of the nation is secure only while the nation is honest, truthful, and virtuous."
    (AHD, 1971, p.394)(HN, 2/14/99)(AP, 2/20/99)(ON, 12/09, p.12)

1818        Feb 11, In Louisiana sugar plantation owner Levi Foster sold to his in-laws the slaves named Kit (28) for $975 and Alick (9) for $400. In 2000 Gwendolyn Midlo Hall and LSU Press published a CD-ROM database on Louisiana slave transactions: "Databases for the Study of Afro-Louisiana History and Genealogy, 1699-1860: Computerized Information from Original Manuscript Sources."
    (SFEC, 7/30/00, p.)(www.afrigeneas.com)

1820        Feb 6, The American Colonization Society sent its 1st organized emigration of blacks back to Africa from NY to Sierra Leone.
    (AH, 2/05, p.17)
1820        Feb 6, US population announced at 9,638,453 including 1,771,656 blacks (18.4%).
    (MC, 2/6/02)

1820        Mar 3, The Missouri Compromise was passed by Congress. It allowed Missouri to enter the Union as a slave state and Maine to enter as a free state. [see Mar 6]
    (PCh, 1992, p.389)(SC, 3/3/02)

1820        May 15, The US Congress designated the slave trade to a form of piracy.
    (HN, 5/15/99)

1821        Mar 14, African Methodist Episcopal Zion Church founded in NY.
    (MC, 3/14/02)

1821        Jun 21, African Methodist Episcopal Zion (AMEZ) Church was organized in NYC as a national body. [see Mar 14]
    (MC, 6/21/02)

1821        Mexico outlawed slavery.
    (Econ, 1/25/14, p.69)

1822        Feb 4, Free American Blacks settled Liberia, West Africa. The first group of colonists landed in Liberia and founded Monrovia, the colony's capital city, named in honor of President James Monroe.
    (HNPD, 7/26/98)(MC, 2/4/02)

1822        May 30, In South Carolina slave revolt leaders Denmark Vesey (aka Telemaque) and Peter Poyas were arrested for planning a slave revolt.

1822        Jul 2, Denmark Vesey (b.1767) was executed in Charleston, South Carolina, for planning a massive slave revolt.
    (https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Denmark_Vesey)(HN, 7/2/01)

1823        John Rankin, Presbyterian minister, moved to Ripley, Ohio, and soon established the Ripley Line of the underground railroad. In 2003 Ann Hagedorn authored "Beyond the River: The Untold Story of the Heroes of the Underground Railroad." In 2005 Fergus M. Bordewich authored “Bound for Canaan," a look at the people involved in the UR operations.
    (WSJ, 1/30/03, p.D8)(WSJ, 3/29/05, p.D6)

1824        Aug 15, Freed American slaves formed the country of Liberia.
    (MC, 8/15/02)

1825        Seneca Village began in New York City and eventually spanned from 82nd Street to 89th Street along what later became the western edge of Central Park. The are became a refuge for African Americans, but was finally razed in 1857 to make way for Central Park.

1827        Jan 15, At Monticello, Va., 130 slaves and other possessions of Thomas Jefferson were sold at auction. Sally Hemmings and 5 members of the Hemings family were freed shortly thereafter.
    (SFEC, 5/16/99, p.A9)

1827        Mar 16, The first Afro-American newspaper edited for and by blacks, Freedom's Journal, was published in New York City.
    (HFA, '96, p.26)(AP, 3/16/97)

1827        Jul 4, New York state law emancipated adult slaves.
    (SFEC, 12/1/96, BR p.5)(Maggio, 98)

1827        Aug 10, There were race riots in Cincinnati and some 1,000 blacks left for Canada.
    (MC, 8/10/02)

1827        Dec, The Guerrero, a ship crewed by Cuban pirates, sped through the waters south of Florida to Havana, where they aimed to trade their precious cargo: 561 people who had been kidnapped from their homes in West Africa. A British warship called the HMS Nimble engaged the Guerrero, and the two ships battled with cannon and musket fire. The Guerrero crashed into the Florida reef, ripping open its hull. Forty-one African souls died there in bondage.
    (Good Morning America, 9/9/20)

1828        Pres. John Quincy Adams helped Abdul Rahman Ibrahima, a former prince from Timbuktu, gain freedom following 40 years of enslavement on a cotton plantation.
    (Econ, 9/26/15, p.32)

1829        Jul 4, In Boston, Mass., abolitionist William Lloyd Garrison (1805-1879) gave a passionate antislavery sermon at the Park Street Church and was attacked by a white supremacist mob who dragged him from the pulpit and beat him nearly to death. Garrison published the anti-slavery newspaper, the Liberator, from 1831-1865.
    (www.pbs.org/wgbh/aia/part4/4p1561.html)(AH, 10/07, p.72)

1829         Mexico abolished slavery, but it granted an exception until 1830 to Texas. In following years a southern US network helped thousands of American Black slaves escape to Mexico.
    (AP, 9/16/20)

1830        Sep 20, The National Negro Convention convened in Philadelphia with the purpose of abolishing slavery.
    (HN, 9/20/98)

1831        Jan 1, William Lloyd Garrison (1805-1879), 24-year-old reformer of Massachusetts, began publishing his newspaper The Liberator, dedicated to the abolition of slavery. Garrison's stridency and uncompromising position on both the institution of slavery and slave owners offended many in the North and South, but he vowed to continue the fight until slavery was abolished. In the first issue of his newspaper, he wrote, "I am aware that many object to the severity of my language; but is there not cause for severity? I will be as harsh as truth, and as uncompromising as justice. On this subject I do not wish to think, or speak, or write, with moderation. No! No!" Garrison once burned a copy of the U.S. Constitution, condemning it as "a covenant with death and an agreement with hell" because it did not forbid slavery. The Liberator ceased publication in 1865 after the 13th Amendment was passed, outlawing slavery. [see 1830]
    (HNPD, 12/31/98)

1831        Aug 21-22, Nat Turner led a rebellion in Southampton county, Va. This became known as "Nat Turner's Rebellion" or the "Southampton Slave Revolt." Turner and about seven followers murdered 55 white people, including the entire family of his owners, the Joseph Travis's. Turner had been taught to read by the Travis children and his studies of the bible led him to have visions of insurrection. A 1998 play by Robert O’Hara "Insurrection: Holding History" centered on the event.
    (www.pbs.org/wgbh/aia/part3/3p1518.html)(SFC, 1/16/98, p.D1)

1831        Oct 31, Nat Turner, rebel slave, was caught by Mr. Benjamin Phipps and locked up in Jerusalem, Va. Thomas Gray, his court appointed attorney, spent 3 days talking to Turner and compiled his notes into "The Confessions of Nat Turner," which were published in 1969.
    (ON, 10/99, p.10)

1831        Nov 5, Nat Turner, rebel slave, was tried in Southampton county, Va.

1831        Nov 11, Nat Turner was hanged and skinned in Southampton county, Va. Hysteria surrounded this rebellion and over 200 slaves, some as far away as North Carolina, were murdered by whites in fear of a generalized uprising. A martyr to the anti-slavery cause, Turner's actions had the adverse effect of virtually ending all abolitionist activities in the south before the Civil War.
    (www.pbs.org/wgbh/aia/part3/3p1518.html)(HN, 11/11/98)

1833        Jun 16, Lucie (Ruthy) Blackburn (30), a fugitive slave, escaped from jail in Detroit and made her way to Canada. The next day a riot erupted, “The Blackburn Riots," as her husband, Thornton Blackburn (21), was escorted for return to slavery. Thornton escaped to Canada to join his wife. The first extradition case between the US and Canada over the issue of fugitive slaves soon followed. Canada ruled it could not extradite people to a jurisdiction that imposed harsher penalties then they would have received for the same offense in Canada and the Blackburns remained in Ontario.
    (AH, 4/07, p.43)

1833        Jul 29, William Wilberforce (b.1759), English abolitionist, died. He was best known for his efforts relating to the abolition of slavery in the British Empire. A politician and philanthropist, Wilberforce was prominent from 1787 in the struggle to abolish the slave trade and slavery itself in British overseas possessions. He was an ardent and eloquent sponsor of anti-slavery legislation in the House of Commons until his retirement in 1825. Wilberforce University in Ohio, an African Methodist Episcopal Church institution (f.1856), was named for William Wilberforce. In 2008 William Hague authored “William Wilberforce: The Life of the Great Anti-Slave Trade Campaigner." In 2010 Stephen Tomkins authored “The Clapham Sect: How Wilberforce’s Circle Transformed Britain."
    (www.nndb.com/people/824/000049677/)(WSJ, 7/25/08, p.A13)(Econ, 8/28/10, p.74)

1833        Aug 23, The British Parliament ordered the abolition of slavery in its colonies by Aug 1, 1834. This would free some 700,000 slaves, including those in the West Indies. The Imperial Emancipation Act also allowed blacks to enjoy greater equality under the law in Canada as opposed to the US. Some 46,000 people were paid a total of 20 million pounds in compensation for freeing their slaves.
    (V.D.-H.K.p.276)(MT, 3/96, p.14)(PC, 1992, p.412)(AH, 10/02, p.54)(SFC, 2/28/13, p.A2)

1833        Oct 2, The NY Anti-Slavery Society was organized.
    (MC, 10/2/01)

1833        Dec 4, American Anti-Slavery Society was formed by Arthur Tappan in Phila.
    (MC, 12/4/01)

1833        Richard Allen (73) published his autobiography: "The Life, Experience, and Gospel Labors of the Rt. Rev. Richard Allen."

1833        John Anderson, a Kentucky-based slave trader, was one of 10 dealers who, during a cholera epidemic, petitioned to move the Natchez, Miss., slave market outside the city limits.
    (WSJ, 12/2/04, p.D12)

1834        Jun 2, The 5th national black convention met in NYC.
    (SC, 6/2/02)

1834        Aug 1, England ended slavery in the West Indies and all its Caribbean holdings effective on this date. Slavery was abolished throughout the British Empire with compensation to the owners. Some 35,000 salves were freed in the Cape Colony. [see 1833]
    (NH, 7/98, p.29)(HN, 8/1/98)(EWH, 4th ed, p.885)

1834        In South Carolina all Black churches were banned. Members worshipped underground until 1865.
    (SFC, 12/13/16, p.A12)
1834        Tennessee withdrew the right to vote from free blacks.
    (Econ, 8/27/16, p.19)

1834-1861    The Citizens Bank of Louisiana, a predecessor of J.P. Morgan Chase & Co., secured loans with mortgages and thousands of slaves. Bernard de Marigny, plantation owner and one of the richest men of the epoch, put 62 slaves into the banks books as collateral for borrowed money to support his gambling habit.
    (WSJ, 5/10/05, p.A1)

1835        May 26, A resolution was passed in the U.S. Congress stating that Congress has no authority over state slavery laws.
    (HN, 5/26/99)

1835        Aug 10, Mob of whites and oxen pulled a black school to a swamp outside of Canaan, NH.
    (MC, 8/10/02)

1835        Jul 29, In South Carolina some 3,000 white supremacists in Charleston gathered in Post Office Square to destroy anti-slavery materials and burn three abolitionists in effigy. This followed after the American Anti-Slavery Society (AASS) launched a great postal campaign to flood the South with abolitionist literature.
    {South Carolina, USA, Black History, Slavery}

1835        Oct 6, The people of Michigan approved a new state constitution by a vote of 6,299 to 1,359. The constitution repudiated slavery and safeguarded personal liberty.
    (AH, 4/07, p.45)(www.michigan.gov/formergovernors/0,1607,7-212--56877--,00.html)

1836        Isaac Wade Ross, Revolutionary war hero, died in Mississippi. His will stipulated that his slaves should be emancipated upon his death, but only if they agreed to go to Liberia. The 1st of almost 200 were finally set free in 1848. In 2004 Alan Huffman authored "Mississippi in Africa: The Saga of the Slaves of Prospect Hill Plantation and Their Legacy in Liberia Today."
    (SSFC, 2/1/04, p.M1)

1837        Mar 24, Canada gave blacks the right to vote.

1837        May 27, Legendary gunfighter James Butler "Wild Bill" Hickok was born in Troy Grove, IL. As a youth, Hickok helped his father operate an Underground Railroad stop for runaway slaves and during the Civil War became a daring Union scout. After the war Hickok's fame as a skilled marksman, Indian fighter and frontier marshal grew, leading to a stint as a featured attraction with Buffalo Bill Cody's Wild West Show. On August 2, 1876, Hickok was shot from behind and killed while playing poker in Saloon No. 10 in Deadwood, Dakota Territory. Contrary to his custom, Hickok was sitting with his back to the door.
    (HNPD, 5/28/99)(MesWP)

1837        Nov 7, A mob attack on the Alton, Illinois, office newspaper editor Elijah P. Lovejoy and the subsequent killing of Lovejoy was inspired by the editor’s anti-slavery writings. Several persons were indicted in the killing, but they were found not guilty. Lovejoy was killed while defending a newly arrived printing press.  People opposed to Lovejoy‘s mission had already destroyed three previous presses.
    (HNQ, 3/18/99)(HNQ, 6/26/00)

1838        Aug, Some 12,000 Cherokee Indians in 13 ragtag parties followed the Trail of Tears on a 116-day journey west 800 miles to eastern Oklahoma. Estimates have placed the death toll in camps and in transit as high as 4,000. They followed the trail already set by the Choctaw out of Mississippi, the Creek from Alabama, the Chickasaw from Arkansas and Mississippi, and the Seminole from Florida. The Cherokee brought with them enslaved Black people. Native American nations in the South had purchased slaves as laborers in the 18th and 19th centuries.
    (NG, 5/95, p.82)(www.crystalinks.com/cherokee2.html)(SFC, 2/25/21, p.A6)

1838        Maryland’s Jesuits sold 272 slaves to pay off debts for Georgetown Univ. located in Washington DC. In 2016 the school introduced a set of measures that included an initiative offering preferential admission status to descendants of those held in slavery by the university.
1838        Frederick Augustus Washington Bailey escaped from slavery in Maryland and traveled to new England where he changed his name to Frederick Douglass.
    (AHD, 1971, p.394)(ON, 7/02, p.6)

1839        Apr 5, Robert Smalls, black congressman from South Carolina, 1875-87, was born.
    (HN, 5/5/97)

1839        Jun 27, The Spanish coasting vessel La Amistad (The Friendship) set sail from Cuba to Porta Prince with a load of African slaves. Cinque, originally Senghbe, and over 50 other Africans had been kidnapped in Sierra Leone and sold into slavery in Cuba. They were carried on a Spanish ship, the Tecora, to Cuba. Cinque and 49 other slaves and 4 children were placed on the ship La Amistad destined for Haiti. They revolted, killed the captain, and ordered the crew back to Africa but the ship sailed north and ran aground. It was captured by the US Navy on August 26. A legal battle ensued in New London, Conn., that went to the Supreme court where former Pres. John Quincy Adams argued for their freedom and won. An 1855 novella by Herman Melville, "Benito Cereno" looked at the rebellion through the eyes of an American interloper. Barbara Chase-Ribaud later wrote "Echo of Lions," a novel based on the Amistad. In 1996 Steven Spielberg announced plans to direct a film based on the incident titled "Amistad." The film was to be released in 1997. A 1997 opera production, "Amistad," by Anthony Davis premiered in Chicago.
    (http://law2.umkc.edu/faculty/projects/ftrials/amistad/AMI_BCIN.HTM)(SFEC, 10/26/97, DB p.57)(USAT, 11/19/97, p.2D)(WSJ, 12/5/97, p.A16)(SFEC, 12/797, DB p.44)(SFC, 12/26/97, p.C6)(HN, 6/28/99)

1839        Jul 2, African slaves, led by Joseph Cinque, killed Ramon Ferrer, and took possession of his ship, La Amistad. Cinque ordered the navigator to take them back to Africa but after 63 days at sea the ship was intercepted by Lieutenant Gedney, of the United States brig Washington, half a mile from the shore of Long Island.

1839        Aug 26, The slave ship La Amistad was captured off Long Island. The USS Washington, an American Navy brig, seized the Amistad, and escorted it to New London, Connecticut.

1839        Jacob D. Green (b.1813), a slave in Queen Anne’s County, Md., escaped from the plantation of Judge Charles Earle after his wife and 2 children were sold in his absence. In 1842 he was caught and returned to Judge Earle, who sold him to a new master in Tennessee. Green escaped and was captured a few more times before he finally reached Canada. In 1851 he emigrated to England and in 1964 published a 43-page account of his adventures.
    (ON, 7/05, p.11)

1840        The US state of Georgia by this time had over 280,000 slaves with many working as field hands. By the start of Civil War slaves made up over 40% of the state’s population.
    (SFC, 1/4/11, p.E2)

1841        Mar 1, John Quincy Adams (74), former US president, concluded his defense of "the Mendi people," a group of Africans who had rebelled and killed the crew of the slave ship Amistad, while enroute from Cuba to Haiti. They faced mutiny charges upon landing on Long Island, but Adams won their acquittal before the Supreme Court. In thanks they bestowed to him an 1838 English Bible. In 1996 the Bible was stolen from the Adams National Historic Site in Quincy, Mass.
    (http://law2.umkc.edu/faculty/projects/ftrials/amistad/adamsarg.html)(WSJ, 1/3/97, p.A7)

1841        Mar 9, The rebel slaves who seized a Spanish slave ship, the Amistad, two years earlier were freed by the US Supreme Court despite Spanish demands for extradition.
    (WSJ, 1/3/97, p.A7)(HN, 3/9/99)

1841        Apr 3, From Nassau, Bahamas, a British magistrate wrote that 193 shipwrecked African slaves from the ship Trouvadore were found naked on the shores of the East Caicos Island. The slaves were then quarantined in a jail and given food and clothing. The accident set free the slaves who became ancestors of many later residents of the islands. In 2004 the wreck was found and in 2008 marine archaeologists identified it as the remains of the slave ship.
    (AP, 8/21/04)(AP, 11/26/08)

1841        Nov, Freed African survivors of the slave ship Amistad returned to Sierra Leone, Africa. Abolitionists had raised money to help the freed slaves of the Amistad return home. When Cinque, the leader of the revolt, reached home, he found that his family had been captured and sold into slavery.
    (http://law2.umkc.edu/faculty/projects/ftrials/amistad/AMI_CHR.HTM)(SFEC, 12/797, DB p.44)

1841        Dentist Joseph Wilson authored “Sketches of the Higher Classes of Coloured Society in Philadelphia."
    (Econ, 8/6/16, p.67)
1841        William A. Leidesdorff, originally from the Virgin Islands, arrived in San Francisco. He became a prominent businessman, built the city’s first hotel, became a member of the first SF City Council and served as the city’s first treasurer.
    (SFC, 2/16/09, p.B2)

1842        Nov 17, A grim abolitionist meeting was held in Marlboro Chapel, Boston, after the imprisonment under the Fugitive Slave Bill (1793) of a mulatto named George Latimer, one of the first fugitive slaves to be apprehended in Massachusetts. Four hundred dollars was collected to buy his freedom, and plans to storm the jail were prepared as an alternative to secure his release.
    (HN, 11/17/98)

1843        Aug 15, A national black convention met in Buffalo, NY.
    (MC, 8/15/02)

1843        Norbert Rillieux (1806-1894) received US patent # 3,237 for a double-effect evaporator, while overseeing the building of the device for plantation owner Theodore Packwood.

1844        May 2, Elijah McCoy, black inventor, held over 50 patents, was born.
    (MC, 5/2/02)

1845        Frederick Douglass, African-American statesman, published “The Narrative Life of Frederick Douglass." He then traveled to Ireland where he received a hero’s welcome. Irish nationalist Daniel O’Connell saw common cause between Ireland’s quest for self-rule and the plight of American slaves. British admirers raised money to buy his freedom and he was officially manumitted after Hugh Auld, his alleged owner, received a payment of $711.66.
    (WSJ, 3/13/09, p.W2)(ON, 12/09, p.12)

1846        Dec 10, Norbert Rillieux (1806-1894), African-American engineer, received a patent for the Rillieux Process for refining sugar. He won several patents for a way to refine sugar in a process that later came to be called multiple-effect distillation.
    (Econ, 6/7/08, p.24)(www.aalbc.com/books/black7.htm)

1847        Dec 3, Frederick Douglass and Martin R. Delaney established the North Star, an anti-slavery paper.
    (HN, 12/3/98)

1848        Feb 15, Sarah Roberts was barred from a white school in Boston.
    (440 Int’l., 2/15/99)

1848        Apr 27, Slave trade was abolished in the French colonies.
    (AFP, 3/24/10)

1848        Apr 28, The last slaves in French colonies were freed.
    (MC, 4/28/02)

1848        Jul 3, The slaves were freed in Danish West Indies (now US Virgin Islands).
    (MC, 7/3/02)

1849        Feb, Thomas Carlyle (1795-1881), Scottish essayist, anonymously authored the article: "Occasional Discourse on the Negro Question," in which he 1st used the phrase "the dismal science" to describe political economics: It is “not a gay science… no, a dreary, desolate, and indeed quite abject and distressing one; what we might call, by way of eminence, the dismal science." Carlyle himself argued in this essay for the reintroduction of slavery into the West Indies. In 2001 David M. Levy authored "How the Dismal Science Got Its Name."
    (WSJ, 12/10/01, p.A15)(http://cepa.newschool.edu/het/texts/carlyle/carlodnq.htm)

1849        Dec 6, Harriet Tubman (~1822-1913), born as Araminta Ross, escaped from her Maryland owner to Pennsylvania and soon undertook a series of rescues ushering slaves to freedom as a “conductor" of the Underground Railroad.
    (https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Harriet_Tubman)(Econ, 4/16/15, p.23)

1850        Mar 31, The US population hit 23,191,876, with the Black population at 3,638,808 (15.7%).
    (MC, 3/31/02)

1850        Sep 18, The US Congress passed the second Fugitive Slave Bill into law (the first was enacted in 1793) as part of Compromise of 1850. It allowed slave owners to reclaim slaves who had escaped to other states. The Fugitive Slave Act of 1850 set fines up to $1,000 for facilitating a slave’s flight. The act authorized federal commissioners to receive a $10 fee if they decided for a slaveholder, but only a $5 fee for deciding for a fugitive.
    (https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Fugitive_Slave_Act_of_1850)(AP, 9/18/97)(WSJ, 1/30/03, p.D8)(AH, 10/02, p.53)

1850        Sep 20, The slave trade in Washington, D.C., was abolished as a provision of Henry Clay’s Compromise of 1850. Because each state had its own slavery code when the District of Columbia was founded in 1800, Washington had adopted Maryland’s laws. Although the 1850 legislation made the slave trade illegal, slavery itself was still legal. Nevertheless, Washington became a haven for free blacks. By 1860, free blacks outnumbered slaves almost four-to-one. President Abraham Lincoln put an end to Washington’s slavery altogether in 1862, freeing about 2,989 African Americans who were then slaves according to the slavery code.
    (HNPD, 9/20/98)(HN, 9/20/98)

1850        In the Netherlands Zwarte Piet (Black Pete), a Dutch version of St. Nicholas, made his debut as an African servant in a book. By 2012 he was being described as a racist caricature of a black person. In 2013 Amsterdam officials were asked to revoke a permit for a children’s festival that featured the caricature.
    (AP, 12/4/12)(SFC, 10/18/12, p.A2)

1851        Jan 25, Sojourner Truth addressed the 1st Black Women's Rights Convention in Akron. [see May, 1851]
    (MC, 1/25/02)

1851        Feb 15, Black abolitionists invaded a Boston courtroom to rescue a fugitive slave.
    (440 Int’l., 2/15/99)

1851        May, Freed slave and abolitionist Sojourner Truth attended a national women's convention in Akron, Ohio, where the female delegates were heckled by men in the audience who claimed that men were superior to women. Frances Gage, president of the convention, recorded Sojourner Truth's words that day. "Dat man ober dar say dat women needs to be helped into carriages and lifted ober ditches, and to hab de best place everywhar. Nobody eber helps me into carriages, or ober mud-puddles, or gibs me any best place! And ain't I a woman! Look at me! Look at my arm! I have ploughed, and planted and gathered into barns, and no man could head me! And ain't I a woman? I could work as much and eat as much as a man--when I could get it--and bear de lash as well! And ain't I a woman? I have borne thirteen chilern, and seen 'em mos' all sold into slavery, and when I cried out with my mother's grief, none but Jesus heard me! And ain't I a woman?" Sojourner Truth's words, according to Gage, "turned the sneers and jeers of an excited crowd into notes of respect and admiration."
    (HN, 7/13/99)

1851        Jun 5, Harriet Beecher Stow published the first installment of Uncle Tom’s Cabin in The National Era.
    (HN, 6/5/99)

1851        Sep 11, Edward Gorsuch, a wealthy slave owner from Maryland, confronted William Parker and accused him of harboring 4 runaway slaves near the abolitionist town, Christiana, Pennsylvania. This was one year after the second fugitive slave law (first law was on February 12, 1793) was passed by Congress, requiring the return of all escaped slaves to their owners in the South. Gorsuch was killed during the skirmish and Parker was forced to flee to Canada.
    (AH, 10/02, p.49)

1851        Dec 11, In Philadelphia 37 men, on trial in federal court for defying the Fugitive Slave Law, were deemed not guilty by a jury with 15 minutes of deliberation.
    (AH, 10/02, p.54)

1852        Mar 20, Harriet Beecher Stowe's (1811-1896) "Uncle Tom's Cabin" was first published in book form after being serialized. It was based on the theme that slavery is incompatible with Christianity. In 2011 David S. Reynolds authored “Mightier Than the Sword: Uncle Tom’s Cabin and the Battle for America."
    (SFC, 3/30/97, Z1. p.6)(AP, 3/20/08)(SSFC, 7/3/11, p.G4)

1852        Jul 5, In Rochester, New York, Frederick Douglass gave the speech “What to the Slave is the Fourth of July," in which he called the celebration of liberty a sham in a nation that enslaves and oppresses its Black citizens. In 2006 James A. Colaiaco authored "Frederick Douglass and the Fourth of July".
    (WSJ, 7/1/06, p.P6)(AP, 7/6/20)

1853        Apr 14, Harriet Tubman began her Underground Railroad, helping slaves to escape.
    (MC, 4/14/02)

1853        Solomon Northrup (b.1807) and Henry W. Derbu authored "Twelve Years a Slave, Narrative of Solomon Northrup, a Citizen of New York, Kidnapped in Washington in 1841, and Rescued in 1853 from a Cotton Plantation Near the Red River in Louisiana." In 2013 Rachel Seligman, David Fiske and Clifford authored “Solomon Northrup: The Complete Story of the Author of Twelve Years a Slave." A film based on the 1853 book won the Best Picture Oscar in 2014.
    (ON, 11/99, p.7)(SFC, 3/17/14, p.A8)

1853        In Boston Sarah Parker Remond was thrown out of a theater for refusing to be seated in an area reserved for blacks. She fell and filed suit and was awarded monetary compensation. The theater was later desegregated.
    (SFEC, 4/5/98, BR p.5)

1854        May 24, Anthony Burns (1834-1862), an escaped slave from Virginia, was arrested in Massachusetts under the Fugitive Slave Act of 1850 and returned to bondage. He was eventually ransomed from slavery, with his freedom purchased by Boston sympathizers.
    (https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Anthony_Burns)(SSFC, 3/5/17, p.E6)

1854        May 26, In Massachusetts a crowd of abolitionists of both races, including Thomas Wentworth Higginson and other Bostonians outraged at the arrest of escaped slave Anthony Burns, stormed the court house to free the man. In the melee, Deputy US Marshal James Batchelder was fatally stabbed, the second US Marshal to be killed in the line of duty.

1854        In NYC teacher Elizabeth Jennings Graham (1827-1901) helped desegregate public transportation. She filed a lawsuit after being thrown off a streetcar that barred black riders. Her case was decided in her favor in 1855, and it led to the eventual desegregation of all New York City transit systems by 1865.
    (SFC, 3/8/19, p.A6)

1855        May 3, Macon B. Allen became the first African American to be admitted to the Bar in Massachusetts.
    (HN, 5/3/99)

1856        Apr 5, Booker T. Washington, Black American educator, was born in Franklin County, Va. The former slave later founded the Tuskegee Institute. Booker Taliaferro Washington later became the 1st black on US stamp.
    (AP, 5/5/97)(HN, 4/5/99)(MC, 4/5/02)

1856        May 19, Senator Charles Sumner spoke out against slavery.
    (HN, 5/19/98)

1856        May 21, Lawrence, Kansas, was captured and sacked by pro-slavery forces.
    (HN, 5/21/98)

1856        May 24, The Potawatomi Massacre took place in Kansas. John Brown, American abolitionist and horse thief, presided over the hacking to death with machetes of five unarmed pro-slavery Border Ruffians in Potawatomi, Kansas.
    (WSJ, 4/10/95, A-16)(WSJ, 3/16/98, p.A20)(MC, 5/24/02)

1856        James Pierson Beckwourth (1798-1866, a mountain man born as a slave, authored his autobiography: “The Life and Adventures of James P. Beckwourth, Mountaineer, Scout, and Pioneer, and Chief of the Crow Nation of Indians."
    (SSFC, 7/18/04, p.14)(www.beckwourth.org/)

1857        Mar 6, After years in litigation, the Supreme Court, headed by Chief Justice Roger Taney, ruled that Dred Scott did not gain his freedom by living in a free territory. Taney wrote that African Americans could not have rights of their own and were inferior to white people. The essence of the decision was that as a slave, Dred Scott was not a citizen and therefore could not sue in a federal court. The opinion also stated that Congress could not exclude slavery in the territories and that blacks could not become citizens. That ruling further increased the tension already simmering between the North and the South. Dred Scott was a slave who accompanied his owner, army surgeon John Emerson, to military posts in Wisconsin and Illinois in 1834-35. In 1846 Scott, backed by abolitionists, sued for his freedom on the grounds that he became free when he lived in an area where slavery was outlawed. Montgomery Blair (b.1813) was one of the lawyers in the Scott vs. Sanford case. In this case the Supreme Court invalidated the 1820 Missouri Compromise. In 2017 Charles Taney IV apologized to the family of Dred Scott for the words of his great-great-grand-uncle.
    (https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Roger_B._Taney)(AP, 3/6/98)(SFC, 11/30/00, p.A3)(SFC, 3/8/17, p.A5)

1857        The California Savings and Land Association at 465 California St. was built. Henry Collins, one of California’s wealthiest black leaders, served as president of the first African-American owned bank in the country.
    (www.afrigeneas.com/forum-west/index.cgi?md=read;id=43)(SFC, 2/16/09, p.B2)
1857        Seneca Village in New York City, a refuge for African Americans, was razed to make way for Central Park.

1858        Mar 5, In San Francisco advocates of civil rights rescued Archy Lee, a slave held by Charles Stovall of Mississippi, from being taken from the city aboard the ship Orizaba. The story was later told by Rudolph Lapp (1915-2007) in “Archy Lee: A California Fugitive Slave Case" (1969).
    (SFC, 1/11/14, p.C2)

1858        May 8, John Brown held an antislavery convention.
    (MC, 5/8/02)

1858        May 19, A pro-slavery band led by Charles Hameton executed unarmed Free State men near Marais des Cygnes on the Kansas-Missouri border.
    (HN, 5/19/99)

1858        Jun 20, Charles Chesnutt, African-American novelist, was born in Cleveland. In 2002 Werner Sollors edited "Chesnutt: Stories, Novels, and Essays."
    (HN, 6/20/01)(WSJ, 1/22/02, p.A11)

1858        Aug 24, Richmond "Daily Dispatch" reported 90 blacks arrested for learning.
    (MC, 8/24/02)

1858        Cyprian Clamorgan authored “The Coloured Aristocracy of St. Louis."
    (http://tinyurl.com/gslleta)(Econ, 8/6/16, p.67)

1859        Sep 5, Harriot E. Wilson's “Our Nig," was published, the first U.S. novel by an African American woman.
    (HN, 9/5/98)

1859        Pres. Buchanan ordered a blockade of Cuba to intercept American-owned slave ships.
    (SSFC, 2/8/04, p.C12)

1860        Feb 29, George Bridgetower (b.1778), African-Polish violinist, died in Peckham, south London. He was born in Biała, Poland, where his father worked for Hieronimus Wincenty Radziwill. Bridgetower lived in England for much of his life.

1860        Jul, In Alabama Captain William Foster scuttled the slave ship Clotilda after it delivered 110 slaves to Mobile, destined for the cotton growing plantations in the Mobile-Tensaw River Delta. This was the last ship to bring slaves to the US. In 2019 the Alabama Historical Commission announced that wreckage of the ship was found on a a muddy stretch of the Mobile River. Alabama steamship owner Timothy Meaher had financed the last slave vessel that brought African captives to the US, and he came out of the Civil War a wealthy man.
    (SFC, 1/24/18, p.A6)(SFC, 5/24/19, p.A10)(AP, 10/5/19)(SFC, 12/27/21, p.A6)

1860        William Craft authored “Running a Thousand Miles for Freedom." He and his wife Ellen had escaped under disguise from Macon, Georgia, to Philadelphia in 1848.
    (ON, 10/04, p.10)
1860        US sailors intercepted 3 American slave ships on their way to Cuba. The Wildfire, the William and the Bogota carried some 1,432 African slaves from the area of Benin and Congo to be sold in Cuba. The slaves were taken to Key West for 3 months and then returned to Africa.
    (SSFC, 2/8/04, p.C12)
1860        California’s Legislature decreed that “Negroes, Mongolians and Indians shall not be allowed into public schools."
    (SFC, 4/15/17, p.C2)
1860        The total value of US slaves was $3.5 billion, the equivalent of $68.4 billion in 2006. The US gross national product was only about 20% above the value of the nation’s slaves.
    (WSJ, 3/24/06, p.W4)
1860        The number of slaves in Mississippi numbered over 400,000.
    (Econ, 2/13/10, p.85)

1861        Jan 25, Pres. Lincoln picked Ferdinand Schavers, a black man, as his first bodyguard.
    (Hem., 5/97, p.18)(WSJ, 9/19/97, p.A13)

1861        Feb 11, The US House unanimously passed a resolution guaranteeing noninterference with slavery in any state.
    (MC, 2/11/02)

1861        Mar 13, Jefferson Davis signed a bill authorizing slaves to be used as soldiers for the Confederacy.
    (HN, 3/13/98)

1861        Mar 27, Black demonstrators in Charleston staged ride-ins on street cars.
    (MC, 3/27/02)

1861        May 24, General Benjamin Butler, Union commander of Fort Monroe, Va., declared slaves to be the contraband of war in order to avoid returning them to their owners under the 1850 Fugitive Slave Act.
    (ON, 2/12, p.1)(www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Butler_Benjamin_F_1818-1893)

1861        Sep 17, Mary Smith Peake, the daughter of a white Englishman and a free woman of color, began teaching the runaway slaves under an oak tree near Fort Monroe, Va., thus founding the first American school for freed slaves. The tree became known as the Emancipation Oak after Pres. Lincoln’s Emancipation Proclamation was read there in 1863.
    (ON, 2/12, p.2)

1861        Dec 5, In the U.S. Congress, petitions and bills calling for the abolition of slavery were introduced.
    (HN, 12/5/98)

1861        Harriet Jacobs (1813-1897) authored “Incidents in the Life of a Slave Girl" under the pseudonym Linda Brent. Jacobs grew up in North Carolina and later escaped to NY. In 2004 Jean Fagan Yellin (73) authored “Harriet Jacobs: A Life."
    (SFC, 6/23/04, p.E1)

1861        Samuel F.B. Morse, inventor of the telegraph, authored a pamphlet titled: "An Argument on the Ethical Position of Slavery in the Social System."
    (WSJ, 10/28/03, p.D10)

1862        Feb 22, Mary Smith Peake (1823-1862), American teacher and humanitarian, died of tuberculosis. She is best known for teaching runaway slaves under an oak tree, the Emancipation Oak, near Fort Monroe, Va.
    (ON, 2/12, p.2)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mary_S._Peake)

1862        Mar 8, Nat Gordon, last pirate, was hanged in NYC for stealing 1,000 slaves.
    (MC, 3/8/02)

1862        Mar 13, The US Congress passed a bill prohibiting the military from returning slaves to their masters.

1862        Mar 24, Abolitionist Wendell Phillips spoke to a crowd about emancipation in Cincinnati, Ohio and was pelted by eggs.
    (HN, 3/24/00)

1862        Apr 3, A bill was passed to abolish slavery in Washington, D.C. [see Apr 16]
    (HN, 4/3/98)

1862        Apr 12, Union Gen. David Hunter (1802-1886) formed the first official African-American regiment during the Civil War. The First South Carolina Volunteer Infantry was first organized in the Department of the South by Gen. David Hunter at Hilton Head, SC, in May of 1862.
    (AH, 4/07, p.14)(http://johnib.wordpress.com/category/abraham-lincoln/)

1862        Apr 16, President Lincoln signed a bill, passed on April 3, ending slavery in the District of Columbia.
    (HN, 4/16/98)(AP, 4/16/08)

1862        Jun 19, Slavery was outlawed in US territories. President Abraham Lincoln outlined his Emancipation Proclamation. On June 19, 1865 General Gordon Granger informed Texas slaves that they were free.
    (https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Emancipation_Proclamation)(HN, 6/19/99)

1862        Jul 16, Ida Bell Wells, first president of the American Negro League, was born.
    (HN, 7/16/98)
1862        Jul 16, Two Union soldiers and their servant ransacked a house and raped a slave in Sperryville, Virginia.
    (HN, 7/16/99)

1862        Jul 17, US army was authorized to accept blacks as laborers.
    (MC, 7/17/02)

1862        Aug 25, US Secretary of War authorized Gen. Rufus Saxton to arm 5,000 slaves.
    (chblue.com, 8/25/01)

1862        Sep 22, President Lincoln announced at a cabinet meeting that he intended to issue the Emancipation Proclamation, declaring all slaves in rebel states should be free as of Jan. 1, 1863. President Abraham Lincoln brought the issue of freedom to the forefront of the Civil War when he delivered the Emancipation Proclamation to his cabinet, a few days after the bloody Battle of Antietam. The proclamation stated that slaves in any of the states in rebellion against the Union would be freed if the states had not returned to the Union by January 1, 1863. After that, nearly 180,000 black soldiers enlisted to fight the Confederates until the end of the war.
    (SFE Mag., 2/12/95, p. 30)(AP, 9/22/97)(HNPD, 9/22/98)

1862        Sep, Pres. Lincoln warned the South that he would free all slaves in Southern territory if the rebellion continued. Unlike some others, Lincoln always promoted a voluntary colonization, rather than forcing blacks to leave. In 2011 the book "Colonization After Emancipation," by Philip Magness and Sebastian Page made the case that Lincoln was even more committed to colonizing blacks than previously known.
    (AP, 3/4/11)
1862        Sep, The troops of the 1st Louisiana Native Guards were free black men who lived in New Orleans. When President Abraham Lincoln issued his preliminary Emancipation Proclamation he invited black men in Confederate territory to join the Union army. Union Major General Benjamin Butler immediately mustered the 1st Louisiana Native Guards into Federal service, making them the Union’s first black soldiers. They had volunteered for state service in the Civil War, and served as a home guard unit. When New Orleans fell to Union forces in April 1862, the black troops remained in the city and offered their services to Butler.
    (HNQ, 2/21/02)

1862        Pres. Lincoln spoke to a White House audience of free blacks, urging them to leave the US and settle in Central America.
    (AP, 3/4/11)
1862        Mary Jane Patterson (1840-1894) received a degree from Oberlin College, Ohio, becoming the 1st black female college graduate in the US.
    (SSFC, 2/15/04, p.C6)

1863        Jan 31, The 1st South Carolina Volunteers, later called the 33rd U.S. Colored Troops was officially recognized. Components of the regiment had been in training since early 1962.
    (Smith., 4/95, p.14)(MC, 1/31/02)

1863        Mar 26, Voters in West Virginia approved the gradual emancipation of slaves.
    (SS, 3/26/02)

1863        May 1, Confederate congress passed a resolution to kill black Union soldiers.
    (HN, 5/1/98)

1863        May 22, The US War Dept. established the Bureau of Colored Troops.
    (MC, 5/22/02)

1863        May 28, The 54th Massachusetts, the first black regiment from the North, left Boston headed for Hilton Head, South Carolina, to fight in the Civil War.
    (AP, 5/28/97)(HN, 5/28/99)

1863        Jul 13, Rioting against the Civil War military draft erupted in New York City; about 1,000 people died over three days. Antiabolitionist Irish longshoremen rampaged against blacks in the deadly Draft Riots in New York City in response to Pres. Lincoln’s announcement of military conscription. Mobs lynched a black man and torched the Colored Orphan Asylum. The 2003 film "Gangs of New York" focused on this event. In 2006 Barnet Schecter authored “The Devil’s Own Work," an account of the riots. The NY Times borrowed three Gatling guns from the army to protect its head office.
    (WSJ, 3/19/96, p.A-12)(AP, 7/13/97)(HN, 7/13/98)(WSJ, 8/2100, p.A14)(WSJ, 1/18/06, p.D13)(Econ, 9/2/17, p.28)

1863        Sep 23, Mary Church Terrell, educator, political activist, and first president of the National Association of Colored Women, was born in Memphis, Tennessee. An 1884 graduate of Oberlin College, America's first college to admit women and amongst the first to admit students of all races, Terrell was one of the first American women of African descent to graduate from college. She earned her master's degree from Oberlin in 1888.

1863        Pres. Lincoln granted a British agent permission to recruit volunteers for a Belize colony.
    (AP, 3/4/11)
1863        Abraham Lincoln sent 450 newly freed slaves to Haiti’s Ile-à-Vache to found a colony, though most gave up and returned home a year later.
    (Reuters, 4/6/14)

1864        Jan 10, George Washington Carver (d.1943), American botanist and a former slave who became a scientist and inventor, gave the world peanut butter, was born. "Ninety-nine percent of the failures come from people who have the habit of making excuses."
    (AP, 9/20/98)(HN, 1/10/99)

1864        Feb 21, The 1st US Catholic parish church for blacks was dedicated in Baltimore.
    (MC, 2/21/02)

1864        Mar 1, Rebecca Lee (1831-1895) became the first black woman to receive an American medical degree, from the New England Female Medical College in Boston.
    (AP, 3/1/00)(www.nlm.nih.gov/changingthefaceofmedicine/physicians/biography_73.html)

1864        Apr 12, Confederate forces under Gen. Nathan Bedford Forrest captured Fort Pillow, Tennessee, and killed an estimated 200 to 300 black Union troops. Charged with ruthless killing, Forrest argued that the soldiers had been killed trying to escape; however, racial animosity on the part of his troops was undoubtedly a factor.
    (http://www.civilwarweb.com/articles/05-99/ftpillow.htm)(AP, 6/19/21)

1864        Missionaries settled in Zanzibar following a call by David Livingstone for volunteers to fight the slave trade and help spread Christianity across Africa.
    (SSFC, 6/9/02, p.C13)

1865        Jan 31, The House of Representatives approved a constitutional amendment (121-24) abolishing slavery. It would become the 13th amendment to the US Constitution. It was ratified on December 6.
    (www.loc.gov/rr/program/bib/ourdocs/13thamendment.html)(WSJ, 7/16/01, p.A10)

1865        Feb 1, Lincoln's home state of Illinois became the first to ratify the Thirteenth Amendment abolishing slavery throughout the United States. President Abraham Lincoln had issued the Emancipation Proclamation two years earlier, but it had not effectively abolished slavery in all of the states--it did not apply to slave-holding border states that had remained with the Union during the Civil War. After the war, the sentiment about blacks was mixed even among anti-slavery Americans: some considered Lincoln's address too conservative and pushed for black suffrage, arguing that blacks would remain oppressed by their former owners if they did not have the power to vote. After the amendment was passed, the Freedmen's Bureau was created to help blacks with the problems they would encounter while trying to acquire jobs, education and land of their own.
    (HNPD, 2/1/99)

1865        Feb 8, Martin Robinson Delany became the 1st black major in US army.
    (MC, 2/8/02)

1865        Feb 12, Henry Highland Garnet, became the 1st black to speak in US House of Reps.
    (MC, 2/12/02)

1865        Mar 2, Freedman's Bureau was founded for Black Education.
    (SC, 3/2/02)

1865        Mar 3, US Bureau of Refugees, Freedmen, and Abandoned Lands was established to help destitute free blacks.
    (SC, 3/3/02)

1865        Mar 4, President Lincoln was inaugurated for his 2nd term as President. It was held at the Patent Office, the site of a military hospital. Four companies of African-American troops and lodges of African-American Masons and African-American Odd-Fellows joined the procession to the Capitol.
    (WSJ, 2/12/04, p.D12)(SSFC, 1/20/13, Par p.4)

1865        Mar 13, Confederate Pres. Jefferson Davis signed a measure allowing black slaves to enlist in the Confederate States Army with the promise they would be set free.
    (BG, 3/13/16, p.B6)

1865        Apr 23, Dedicated Massachusetts abolitionist Silas Soule (b.1838) was shot and killed near his home in Colorado by a soldier named Charles Squires. It is thought that Squires was hired by men loyal to Col. John Chivington to kill Soule. Soule's testimony against Chivington about the 1864 massacre at Sand Creek led, in part, the United States Congress to refuse the Army's request for thousands of men for a general war against the Native Americans of the Plains States.

1865        Jun 19, Emancipation Day, also known as Juneteenth, was the day that Union General Granger informed Texas slaves that they were free. Blacks came to celebrate the day as Juneteenth Freedom Day.
    (https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Gordon_Granger)(SFEC, 6/21/98, p.D3)(SFC, 6/18/04, p.B2)

1865        Dec 18 The Thirteenth Amendment to the US Constitution, abolishing slavery, was declared in effect.
    (V.D.-H.K.p.276)(AP, 12/18/07)

1866        Apr 9, A Civil Rights Bill passed over Pres Andrew Johnson's veto to secure for former slaves all the rights of citizenship intended by the 13th Amendment. The president was empowered to use the Army to enforce the law. This formed the basis for the 14th Amendment to the U.S. Constitution.
    (MC, 4/9/02)(PC, 1992, p.502)

1866        Jun 18, Both Houses of the US Congress passed the 14th Amendment. The Radical Republicans were satisfied that they had secured civil rights for blacks, but were disappointed that the amendment would not also secure political rights for blacks; in particular, the right to vote. Secretary of State William H. Seward issued an unconditional certificate of ratification, dated July 28, 1868, declaring the Fourteenth Amendment to have been duly ratified by the requisite three-fourths of the states.

1866        Aug 8, African-American Matthew Alexander Henson was born in Maryland. He and four Inuits accompanied U.S. Naval Commander Robert E. Peary when he planted the U.S. flag at the North Pole on April 6, 1909. Henson became an Arctic expert during Peary's first two failed expeditions. By the third attempt, which began in July 1908, Henson's strength, knowledge of the Eskimo language and dog driving skills made him an essential member of the team. Whether Peary's party actually reached the North Pole or missed it by as much as 60 miles due to a navigational miscalculation remains controversial to this day.
    (HNPD, 8//99)(Internet)

1866        Sep 6, Frederick Douglass became the 1st US black delegate to a national convention.
    (MC, 9/6/01)

1866        Freed Cherokee slaves were adopted into the tribe under a treaty with the US government. In 2007 the Cherokee Nation voted to revoke citizenship to descendants of the slaves. In 2017 a US district judge ruled that Cherokee Freedmen have a right to tribal citizenship under the 1866 treaty.
    (SFC, 3/5/07, p.A2)(SFC, 9/1/17, p.A6)
1866        Mary Ellen Pleasant was kicked off a streetcar in San Francisco and began arguing against laws prohibiting black people from riding them.
    (SFC, 2/16/09, p.B2)

1866-1886    Dr. John Kirk, a Scottish botanist, served as the British representative on the island of Zanzibar. He made great effort to abolish the local slave trade. In 2011 Alastair Hazell authored “The Last Slave Market: Dr John Kirk and the Struggle to End the African slave Trade.
    (Econ, 8/6/11, p.72)

1867        Jan 8, Legislation gave suffrage to DC blacks, despite Pres. Johnson's veto.
    (MC, 1/8/02)

1867        Apr 1, Blacks voted in the municipal election in Tuscumbia, Alabama.

1867        Apr 24, Black demonstrators staged ride-ins on Richmond, Va., streetcars.
    (MC, 4/24/02)

1867        May 1, Reconstruction in the South began with black voter registration.
    (HN, 5/1/98)

1867        Sep 13, Gen. E.R.S. Canby ordered South Carolina courts to impanel blacks as jurors.
    (MC, 9/13/01)(www.tsha.utexas.edu)

1868        Jul 28, The 14th Amendment to the Constitution, guaranteeing due process of law, was certified in effect by Secretary of State William H. Seward. It gave freed slaves full citizenship and equal protection under the laws, however it did not spell out the extent of integration with white America. Framers expected the amendment’s Privileges or Immunities clause would protect US citizens’ rights against state infringement.
    (www.americaslibrary.gov/cgi-bin/page.cgi/jb/recon/revised_1)(AP, 7/28/08)(WSJ, 3/14/09, p.W3)

1868        Nov 24, Scott Joplin was born in Texas. By the time he was a teenager, Joplin could play the banjo and the piano, and had begun to work as a saloon musician. In the late 1890s, he was performing and composing at the Maple Leaf Club in Sedalia, Missouri, and in 1899 his "Maple Leaf Rag" made ragtime popular. Ragtime was a mixture of classical European and African-American styles of music, and it influenced the later development of jazz. Joplin was not considered a serious composer until ragtime resurfaced in the 1970s, when his composition "The Entertainer" was the theme to the movie The Sting. The first grand opera composed by an African American was Joplin's Treemonisha (1911), which was not very successful at the time. In 1976, however, more than 50 years after Joplin died, Treemonisha won the Pulitzer Prize.
    (HNPD, 11/24/98)(WSJ, 7/5/00, p.A20)

1868        John Davidson and Franklin Hargo became the 1st African American students admitted to the Univ. of Michigan.
    (LSA, Spring/04, p.53)

1869        Feb 20, Tenn. Gov. W.C. Brownlow declared martial law in Ku Klux Klan crisis.
    (MC, 2/20/02)

1869        Mar 3, University of South Carolina opened to all races.
    (SC, 3/3/02)

1869        Mar 13, Arkansas legislature passed anti-Klan law.
    (MC, 3/13/02)

1869        Apr 12, North Carolina legislature passed an anti-Klan Law.
    (MC, 4/12/02)

1869        Iowa’s Supreme Court ordered the state’s schools to be desegregated.
    (Econ, 4/11/09, p.31)

1870        Feb 3, 15th Amendment on Black suffrage was passed. [see Mar 30]
    (MC, 2/3/02)

1870        Feb 25, Hiram Revels (Sen-R-MS) was sworn in as the 1st black member of Congress.
    (MC, 2/25/02)

1870        Feb 26, Wyatt Outlaw, black leader of Union League in North Carolina, was lynched.
    (SC, 2/26/02)

1870        Apr 9, The American Anti-Slavery Society dissolved.
    (MC, 4/9/02)

1870        Aug 6, White conservatives suppressed the black vote and captured Tenn. Legislature.
    (MC, 8/6/02)

1870        Dec 12, Joseph H. Rainey became the first black lawmaker sworn into the U.S. House of Representatives. Rainey, a Republican from South Carolina, filled the seat made vacant by the expulsion of Representative Benjamin F. Whittemore. Rainey served for 10 years.
    (AP, 12/12/97)(MC, 12/12/01)

1870        California’s state school law was again changed and stipulated that only blacks and Indians need be educated in separate schools.
    (SFC, 4/15/17, p.C2)
1870        George Grant (d.1910) became the 1st black graduate from Harvard Dental School. He got the 1st patent for a golf tee in 1899.
    (ST, 2/20/04, p.C1)

1871        May 12, Segregated street cars were integrated in Louisville, Ky.
    (MC, 5/12/02)

1871        Nov 28, Ku Klux Klan trials began in Federal District Court in SC.
    (MC, 11/28/01)

1871        Brazil’s parliament passed the law of free womb, which stated that children born to slave mothers would not themselves be slaves.
    (Econ, 12/21/13, p.52)

1872        May 10, Victoria Woodhull became the first woman nominated for U.S. president. Thomas Nast depicted her as "Mrs. Satan." Woodhull adhered to a diet prescribed by Sylvester Graham, known for his ginger-colored crackers. Sylvester preached against demon rum and died at age 57 after administering himself a medicinal treatment with considerable liquor. Frederick Douglas, African-American statesman, was nominated as vice president on the Equal Rights Party ticket.
    (SFEC, 3/8/98, Par p.14-16)(SFC, 10/17/98, p.E5)(HN, 5/10/98)(WSJ, 3/13/09, p.W2)

1872        Dec 9, Pinckney Benton Stewart Pinchback (1837-1921) became acting governor of Louisiana following impeachment charges against the incumbent Republican governor, Henry Clay Warmoth. Pinchback continued as the state's 24th governor to Jan. 13, 1873. He was one of the most prominent African-American officeholders during the Reconstruction Era.

1873        Mar 22, Slavery was abolished in Puerto Rico.
    (MC, 3/22/02)

1873        Jun 5, Sultan Bargash closed the slave market of Zanzibar. Missionaries bought the site and began building an Anglican cathedral.
    (SSFC, 6/9/02, p.C13)(MC, 6/5/02)

1874        Mar 11, Charles Sumner (63), a white civil rights leader, died.
    (MC, 3/12/02)

1874        The California state Supreme Court in Ward vs. Flood upheld a law authorizing racial segregation in public schools. Blacks and Indians were granted the right to establish separate schools.
    (SSFC, 5/16/04, p.E5)(SFC, 4/15/17, p.C2)

1875         Mar 1, Congress passed the Civil Rights Act, which was invalidated by the Supreme Court in 1883.
    (HN, 3/1/98)

1875        Jul 4, White Democrats killed several blacks in terrorist attacks in Vicksburg, Miss.
    (Maggio, 98)

1875        Jul 10, Mary McLeod Bethune (d.1955), American educator, reformer and founder of the Bethune-Cookman College in Florida and the National Council of Negro Women, was born. "Invest in the human soul. Who knows, it might be a diamond in the rough."
    (AP, 7/9/97)(HN, 7/10/98)

1875        Aug 4, The first Convention of Colored Newspapermen was held in Cincinnati, Ohio.
    (HN, 8/4/98)

1876        Jul 8, White terrorists attacked Black Republicans in Hamburg, SC, and killed 5.
    (MC, 7/8/02)

1876        Sep 6, A race riot took place in Charleston, SC.
    (MC, 9/6/01)

1877        Aug 2, Sir James Douglas (b.1803), the first provincial governor of British Columbia (1858-1864), died. He was the son of a black woman from Barbados and a Scottish planter.
    (SFC, 2/12/10, p.A18)

1878        Jan 14, In Hall v. Decuir, 95 U.S. 485, the United States Supreme Court ruled that common carriers (rail, ferry, riverboat, and other modes of transportation) could not discriminate based on race (13th Amendment) in interstate travel. US Supreme court ruled that race separation on trains was unconstitutional. The decision did not, however, stop railroad companies from discriminating.

1878        Apr 21, Ship Azor left Charleston with 206 blacks for Liberia.
    (MC, 4/21/02)

1878        Mary Thomas, a plantation slave, led an uprising on St. Croix, a colony of Denmark.
    (SFC, 4/5/18, p.A2)

1879        Feb 28, In the "Exodus of 1879" southern blacks fled political and economic exploitation.
    (MC, 2/28/02)

1879        May 24, William Lloyd Garrison (73), abolitionist (Liberator), died.
    (MC, 5/24/02)

1879        Cinque (b.~1813), the leader of the 1839 Amistad revolt, died in Sierra Leone.

1880        California politicians integrated the state’s public schools.
    (SSFC, 5/16/04, p.E5)
1880        John Ballard, a blacksmith and former slave, bought land on a mountain in the Santa Monica range of southern California. In 2010 the 2,031 peak, previously known as Negrohead Mountain, was renamed to Ballard Mountain.
    (SFC, 2/22/10, p.A6)

1880        Richard Etheridge was promoted to Keeper of the North Carolina Life-Saving Station #17. He was the 1st black man to be appointed a Station Keeper in the US Life-Saving Service.
    (ON, 1/02, p.1)

1881        May 17, Frederick Douglass was appointed recorder of deeds for Washington, D.C.
    (HN, 5/17/98)

1881        Jul 4, In Alabama Tuskegee Institute enrolled 30 students. It was founded by former slave Booker T. Washington as a "normal" school and industrial institute where "colored" people with little or no formal schooling could be trained as teachers and skilled workers.
    (NH, 2/97, p.82)(WSJ, 2/24/98, p.A22)(IB, Internet, 12/7/98)

1882-1968    According to records at Tuskegee Univ. 4,743 people were killed by lynch mobs in the US during this period. 3,446 of these people were black.
    (Econ, 6/18/05, p.29)

1883        Nov 3, Race riots took place in Danville, Virginia, and 4 blacks were killed.
    (MC, 11/3/01)

1883        Nov 13, J. Marion Sims (b.1883), American physician and a pioneer in the field of surgery, died in NYC. He known as the "father of modern gynecology" for work to develop a surgical technique for the repair of vesicovaginal fistula, a severe complication of obstructed childbirth. Sims used enslaved black women, unanesthetized, as experimental subjects in the development of this surgical breakthrough. In 2018 a statue of Sims in Central Park was removed and relocated to Brooklyn's Greenwood Cemetery.
    (https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/J._Marion_Sims)(AP, 4/18/18)

1883        Nov 26, Sojourner Truth, former slave and abolitionist, died in Battle Creek, Mich.
    (AP, 11/26/08)

1883        Dec 22, Arthur Wergs Mitchell, first African-American to be elected to the U.S. House of Representatives, was born.
    (HN, 12/22/98)

1883        J.A. Rogers, writer, was born in Jamaica. He later moved to the US and then Europe and authored the 3-volume work "Sex and Race."
    (SSFC, 6/16/02, p.M2)

1884        Nov 16, William Wells Brown (b~1814),  African-American abolitionist lecturer, novelist, playwright, and historian, died in Massachusetts. His novel “Clotel" (1853) is considered the first novel written by an African American. In 2014 Ezra Greenspan authored “William Wells Brown: An African American Life."
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/William_Wells_Brown)(SSFC, 12/14/14, p.Q7)

1885        Brazil passed a law freeing slaves between the ages of 60 and 65 in exchange for three final years of service. By the following year slaves began running away from their masters in large numbers.
    (Econ, 12/21/13, p.52)

1886        Mar 17, The Carrollton Massacre in Mississippi occurred and 20 African Americans were killed.
    (HN, 3/17/98)

1886        Sep 13, Alain Locke, writer and first African-American Rhodes scholar, was born.
    (HN, 9/13/98)

1886        Arthur Wharton (1865-1930), Accra, Gold Coast (now Ghana)-born athlete, won the British Amateur Athletics Association 100 yards sprint in a world record time of exactly 10 seconds. He is believed to have been the world's first black professional footballer.
    (AP, 6/30/11)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Arthur_Wharton)

1887        Aug 17, Marcus Garvy (d.1940), Black Nationalist and Jamaican leader who promoted the departure of African-Americans back Africa, was born. He was active in the US from 1916-1925 and advocated racial separation and emigration of American Negroes to Africa. He was deported in 1925. He was the founder of the Universal Negro Improvement Association. He also founded the Black Star Line, a steamship company owned and operated by blacks to link black communities around the world.
    (AHD, p.544)(Civilization, July-Aug, 1995, p. 36)(WSJ, 2/7/96, p.A-12)(HN, 8/17/98)

1888        Jan 20, Leadbelly, blues 12 string guitarist (Rock Island Line), was born in Louisiana.
    (MC, 1/20/02)

1888        May 13, Slavery was abolished in Brazil. Some 4 million slaves had been imported, the most of any nation in the western hemisphere.
    (WSJ, 8/6/96, p.A1)(SS, Internet, 5/13/97)(HN, 5/13/98)

1888        Abolitionist John Langston (1829-1897) became the first Black person to be elected to Congress from Virginia. He was the first dean of the law school at Howard University (1868) and helped create the department. He was the first president of what is now Virginia State University, a historically black college.
    (https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/John_Mercer_Langston)(AP, 6/12/21)

1890        Dec 4, Ben Tillman (1847-1918) began serving as the 84th governor of South Carolina and continued to 1894. From 1895 he served as a United States Senator until his death. Tillman led a paramilitary group of Red Shirts during South Carolina's violent 1876 election. On the floor of the US Senate, he frequently ridiculed blacks, and boasted of having helped to kill them during that campaign.

1890        The Louisiana state Legislature passed the Louisiana Separate Car Act, which called for railroad companies to provide equal but separate accommodations for white and colored races.
    (SFC, 5/12/96, p.A-6)(ON, 11/03, p.5)

1890        Mississippi passed a new racist constitution and set the pattern for Black disenfranchisement “based on the perception of blacks as by nature inferior and ignorant and hence unfit to vote." An arsenal of Jim Crow-style measures -- from literacy tests to poll taxes -- ultimately erased recently gained Black political power.
    (SFCM, 2/11/01, p.12)(Econ 7/15/17, p.28)(Good Morning America, 9/27/20)

1890        William Sheppard (b.1865 in Virginia) left the US for missionary work in Congo. In 2002 Pagan Kennedy authored "Black Livingstone: A True Tale of African Adventure."
    (SSFC, 2/3/02, p.M1)

1892        Jun 7, Homer Plessy was arrested in New Orleans for violating the Separate Car Act. His case went all the way to the US Supreme Court, which upheld the law on May 18, 1896.
    (ON, 11/03, p.5)

1892        Aug 5, Harriet Tubman received a pension from Congress for her work as a nurse, spy and scout during the Civil War.
    (HN, 8/5/98)

1892        Aug 13, The first issue of the "Afro American" newspaper was published in Baltimore, Maryland.
    (HN, 8/13/98)

1892        William Sheppard, US missionary in Congo, set out to find the hidden kingdom of Kuba and eventually made contact with King Kot Amweeky.
    (SSFC, 2/3/02, p.M1)

1893        Jan 26, Bessie Coleman, first black airplane pilot, was born.
    (HN, 1/26/99)

1893        Jul 7, In Bardwell, Ky., C.J. Miller, a black man accused of murdering two white girls, was mutilated, torched and left hanging from a telegraph pole. Ida Wells (1862-1931) was commissioned to investigate the story by the Chicago Inter-Ocean newspaper and published her findings under the title “History Is a Weapon."
    (www.historyisaweapon.com/defcon1/wellslynchlaw.html)(WSJ, 3/8/08, p.W8)

1893        In San Francisco a 2-story wooden building was built about this time at 1690 Post St. It was owned by black businessman Charles Sullivan, who later rented the downstairs storefront to James “Jimbo" Edwards, who  then started selling chicken and waffles. From 1950 to 1965 it became Jimbo’s Bop City, a late-night hangout for jazz musicians. In 1980 the building was moved to 1712-1716 Filmore St. and became home to Marcus Books. In 2014 Jimbo’s Bop City and Marcus Books were named SF historic landmarks.
    (SFC, 1/30/14, p.D3)

1894        Feb 8, The US Enforcement Act was repealed making it easier to disenfranchise blacks.
    (MC, 2/8/02)

1894        Feb 14, Mary Lucinda Cardwell Dawson, was born. She founded the National Negro Opera Company (NNOC) and was appointed to President John F. Kennedy's National Committee on Music.
    (HN, 2/14/99)

1894        Jul 16, Many negro miners in Alabama were killed by striking white miners.
    (MC, 7/16/02)

1894        Louisiana extended the Separate Car Act to include train station waiting rooms. The Legislature in this year also passed a law prohibiting interracial marriage.
    (ON, 11/03, p.5)

1894        Wheeling Gaunt, a former slave, bequeathed 9 acres of land to the village of Yellow springs, Ohio, with the stipulation that the "poor worthy widows" of the town receive 25 lbs. of flour every Christmas.
    (WSJ, 12/4/96, p.B1)

1895        Feb 20, Frederick Douglass (77), Abolitionist and escaped slave, died in Washington, D.C. In 1881 Douglass authored "The Life and Times of Frederick Douglass."
    (AP, 2/19/98)(MC, 2/20/02)(ON, 7/02, p.8)

1895        Feb 21, The NC Legislature adjourned for the day to mark the death of Frederick Douglass.
    (MC, 2/21/02)

1895        Mar 18, Some 200 blacks left Savannah, Ga., for Liberia.
    (MC, 3/18/02)

1895        May 11, William Grant Still was born. He is considered the Dean of black African composers.
    (HN, 5/11/99)

1895        Jun 10, Hattie McDaniel was born in Wichita, Kansas. She was the first African-American actress to win an Oscar which she won for her role as a maid in Gone With the Wind.

1896        May 18, The US Supreme Court upheld the State of Louisiana Separate Car Act in Plessy vs. Ferguson. The Plessy v. Ferguson decision allowed that as long as accommodation existed, segregation did not constitute discrimination, establishing the doctrine of "separate but equal." The decision gave legitimacy to the segregationist policies known as Jim Crow laws. The ruling that was overturned in the 1954 Brown case, which involved elementary education. The Court ruled unanimously that segregation in public education was a denial of the equal protection of the laws.
    (www.ferris.edu/jimcrow/links/misclink/plessy/)(SFC, 5/12/96, p.A-6)(Econ, 4/2/11, p.24)(AP, 5/18/03)

1896        Jul 21, Mary Church Terrell founded the National Association of Colored Women in Washington, D.C.
    (HN, 7/21/98)

1897        Feb 27, Miriam Anderson, was born. She became a world renown opera singer and civil rights pioneer, and is best remembered for singing "My Country Tis of Thee" in front of the Lincoln Memorial.
    (HN, 2/27/02)

1897        Dec 12, Lillian Smith, Southern writer and civil rights activist, was born.
    (HN, 12/12/00)

1898        Feb 22, In South Carolina Frazier B. Baker, a black postmaster chosen by Pres. McKinley in July 1897, was fatally shot along with his baby daughter in Lake City after his home was set on fire. His wife and five other children barely escaped. In 2019 the state's entire congressional delegation co-sponsored a bill to rename the Lake City post office after Baker.
    (http://tinyurl.com/ycjuydxm)(SFC, 1/10/19, p.A6)

1898        Apr 9, Paul Robeson (d.1976), black athlete, actor and singer, was born. He is best remembered for his role in Othello. Lloyd L. Brown later wrote the biography "The Young Paul Robeson: On My Journey Now."
    (SFC, 3/26/98, p.A26)(HN, 4/9/99)

1898        May 12, Louisiana adopted a new constitution with a "grandfather clause" designed to eliminate black voters. The new constitution allowed a non-unanimous jury to convict a defendant of a felony.
    {Louisiana, USA, Black History}
    (http://tinyurl.com/yaud9vzk)(SSFC, 4/15/18, p.A13)

1898        Nov 9, Some white people in Wilmington, NC, issued a White Declaration of Independence, proclaiming "that we will no longer be ruled ... by men of African origin.
    (AP, 11/28/09)

1898            Nov 10, A "race riot" in Wilmington, NC, left many blacks killed. A vigilante group of armed supremacists forcibly removed the Republican city leaders (both black and white) from office, and took control, burning buildings and shooting blacks. Reports vary from a coroner’s total of 14 to unconfirmed eyewitness reports claiming scores of deaths. White Democrats overthrew the fusion government of legitimately elected blacks and white Republicans. The Democrats burned and killed their way to power in what's viewed as a flashpoint for the Jim Crow era of segregation and the only successful coup d'etat in American history. William Rand Kenan Sr. was reportedly in charge of the machine gun used during the coup.
    (http://statelibrary.dcr.state.nc.us/nc/bio/afro/riot.htm)(WSJ, 1/22/02, p.A11)(AP, 11/8/19)

1899        Apr 23, In Georgia some 2000 people gathered to watch the lynching Sam Hose, a black man questionably accused of murdering a white planter and raping his wife. His ears, fingers, and genitals were cut off and his face was skinned before he was burned in kerosene soaked wood. His and other stories were later told in the 1998 book: "Trouble in Mind: Black Southerners in the Age of Jim Crow" by Leon F. Litwack.
    (SFEC, 4/19/98, BR p.4)

1899        Jun 2, Black Americans observed a day of fasting to protest lynchings.
    (SC, 6/2/02)

1899        Charles Chesnutt (b.1858), African-American writer, authored 2 collections of short stories and a biography of Frederick Douglass.
    (WSJ, 1/22/02, p.A11)
1899        W.E.B. Du Bois (1868-1963) published "The Philadelphia Negro," a sociological study of African Americans in Philadelphia.
    (https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/The_Philadelphia_Negro)(Econ., 12/19/20, p.43)
1899        Frederick Bruce Thomas (1872-1928), an American-born black businessman, moved to Moscow and renamed himself Fyodor Fyodorovich Tomas. He became one of the city’s richest owners of variety theaters and restaurants. The Bolshevik Revolution ruined him. He escaped with his family to Constantinople in 1919. In 2012 Vladimir Alexandrov authored “The Black Russian," a biography of Thomas.
    (SSFC, 2/10/13, p.F2)

1900        Jan 30, John P. Parker (b.1827), Ohio-based inventor and conductor on the Underground Railway, died. His autobiography “His Promised Land: The Autobiography of John P. Parker, Former Slave and Conductor on the Underground Railway" was recounted in a series of interviews and later edited by Stuart Seely Sprague and published in 1996.
    (ON, 12/11, p.5)(www.ohiohistorycentral.org/entry.php?rec=2466&nm=John-P-Parker)

1900        May 23, Civil War hero Sgt. William H. Carney became the first African American to receive the Medal of Honor, thirty-seven years after the Battle of Fort Wagner.
    (HN, 5/23/99)

1900        Aug 23, Booker T. Washington formed the National Negro Business League in Boston, Massachusetts.
    (HN, 8/23/98)

1900        Charles Chesnutt (b.1858), African-American writer, authored his novel "The House Behind the Cedars."
    (WSJ, 1/22/02, p.A11)

1901        Mar 7, Blacks were found to be still enslaved in certain parts of South Carolina.
    (HN, 3/7/98)

1901        Aug 19, In Missouri three men were lynched in Pierce City following an attack that occurred when a white woman was slain after she left church walking home alone. Black residents were blamed, and an angry white mob hanged them and then burned the homes of five Black families, sending 30 other families to scatter into the woods.
    (Tribune Publ., 5/29/21)

1901        Dec 24, Clarence King (b.1842), explorer and geologist, died in Arizona. He lived a double life as James Todd, the husband of a black woman named Ada (d.1964 at 103). In 2009 Roger K. Miller authored “Passing Strange: A Gilded Age Tale of Love and Deception Across the Color Line."
    (http://encyclopedia.jrank.org/KHA_KRI/KING_CLARENCE_18421901_.html)(SFC, 2/24/09, p.E3)

1901        Charles Chesnutt (b.1858), African-American writer, authored his novel "The Marrow of Tradition."
    (WSJ, 1/22/02, p.A11)

1901        The Alabama state constitution was enacted to reverse gains made by blacks after the Civil War. It included a prohibition on marriages between blacks and whites. In 1999 steps were taken to repeal the ban. As of 2020 the white supremacist constitution was still in effect.
    (SFC, 11/7/98, p.A11)(SFC, 4/17/99, p.A4)(WSJ, 4/3/02, p.A1)(AP, 9/21/20)
1901        The Alabama Department of Archives and History was founded by Marie Bankhead Owen. The Archives and History opened with Owen's husband, Thomas Owen, as its first director. It focused on gathering Confederate records and artifacts and cataloged a version of the past that was favored by many Southern whites and all but excluded Black people.
    (AP, 9/21/20)

1902        Feb 1, Langston Hughes (d.1967), African-American poet. was born. (author: Way Down South)
    (440 Int'l, 2/1/1999)(HN, 2/1/99)

1903        Zora Neale Hurston (d.1960), black author, was born.
    (SFC, 4/5/96, p.D-1)(SFC, 12/13/96, p.C8)

1903        W.E.B. Du Bois published "The Souls of Black Folk."
    (Wired, 10/96, p.134)(WSJ, 4/29/03, A16)

1904        Jan 4, Mary Ellen Pleasant (89), abolitionist and SF businesswoman, died  after years of work on the Underground Railroad and in civil rights. She was buried in Napa, Ca. Her monument reads “Mother of Civil Rights in California." She had built a mansion at 1661 Octavia, where Gov. elect Newton Booth boarded. In 1902 Pleasant authored her autobiography.
    (https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mary_Ellen_Pleasant)(SFC, 7/18/98, p.A15,18)(SFC, 6/10/04, p.B4)

1904        Aug 7, Ralph Bunche, U.S. diplomat and the first African-American Nobel Prize winner (1950), was born.
    (HN, 8/7/98)(MC, 8/7/02)

1904        Dec 24, German SW Africa abolished the slavery of young children.
    (MC, 12/24/01)

1906        Feb 9, Poet Paul Laurence Dunbar (33), son of former slaves, died of TB in his hometown of Dayton, Ohio.
    (AH, 2/06, p.15)

1906        Aug 13, At Fort Brown, Texas, some 10-20 armed men engaged an all-Black Army unit in a shooting rampage that left one townsperson dead and a police officer wounded. A 1910 inquiry placed guilt on the soldiers and Pres. Roosevelt ordered all 167 discharged without honor. In 1970 John Weaver (d.2002) authored "The Brownsville Raid," an account of the incident that led the Army to exonerate all 167 men.
    (SFC, 12/7/02, p.A25)

1906        Sep 3, Joe Gans (1874-1910), born as Joseph Gant, defended his lightweight boxing title against Battling Nelson in Goldfield, Nevada. He was the first African-American World Boxing Champion, reigning continuously as World Lightweight Champion from 1902 to 1908. In 2012 William Gildea authored “The Longest Fight: In the Ring with Joe Gans, Boxing’s First African-American Champion."
    (Econ, 7/14/12, p.75)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Joe_Gans)

1906        Sep 22, Race riots in Atlanta, Georgia, killed 21 people. In 2001 Mark Bauerlein authored “Negrophobia," an account of the riots.
    (HN, 9/22/98)(WSJ, 6/12/01, p.A20)

1906          In SF Purcell’s Negro dance hall opened at 550 Pacific St. and Sid LeProtti began playing there. It w3as one of the first buildings erected following the earthquake and fire.
    (SFEC, 4/12/98, p.D7)(SFC, 2/16/09, p.B2)

1906        Gov. James Kimble of Mississippi denounced black men as fiends and argued that lynching was the only way to control a barbarous race.
    (WSJ, 1/14/02, p.A16)

1907        Dec 29, Robert C. Weaver (d.1997), the first African American to serve on a president’s cabinet, was born. He advised Pres. Franklin D. Roosevelt on Housing, Education and Employment. [see Jan 13,18, 1966]
    (HN, 12/29/00)

1907        The 1st Black American was elected a Rhodes scholar.
    (WSJ, 7/11/03, p.A1)

1908        Jun 13, Thomas Greene Wiggins (b.1849), a blind African-American piano player born into slavery, died in New Jersey. “Blind Tom" had become well known for his piano virtuosity. In 2014 Jeffery Renard Allen authored “Song of the Shank: A Novel," based on the life of Wiggins.
    (SSFC, 7/13/14, p.N1)(http://tinyurl.com/qhhzca6)

1908        Jul 2, Thurgood Marshall (d.1993), first African-American US Supreme Court Justice, was born in Baltimore. He served on the US Supreme Court from 1967-1991. As a civil rights lawyer in the 1950s he maintained a confidential relationship with the FBI.
    (SFC, 12/3/96, p.A3)(HN, 7/2/98)(AP, 7/2/08)

1908        Aug 3, Col. Allan Allensworth (1842-1914) filed the site plan for the first African-American town, Allensworth, California. Allensworth had purchased 800 acres in Tulare County along the Sante Fe rail line and planned a settlement to be governed, financed and operated by black people. The town flourished for a decade and then began to crumble. In 1976 it was transformed into a 240-acre state park.
    (HN, 8/3/98)(SFC, 1/8/07, p.A1)

1908        Aug 14, A race war broke out in Springfield, Illinois. Angry over reports that a black man had sexually assaulted a white woman, a white mob wanted to take a recently arrested suspect from the city jail and kill him. Most blacks had fled the city, but as the mob swept through the area, they captured and lynched a black barber, Scott Burton, who had stayed behind to protect his home. Rioting continued the next day leaving a total of two blacks and 5 whites dead and hundreds of thousands of dollars worth of property destroyed. Some 4,000 state militiamen were required to quell the riot, which helped inspire the creation of the NAACP the following year.
    (www.lib.niu.edu/1996/iht329622.html)(AP, 8/14/08)(WSJ, 1/20/08, p.A12)

1908        Aug 25, The National Association of Colored Nurses was formed.
    (chblue.com, 8/25/01)

1908        Oct, Georgia’s nearly all-white electorate voted by a 2 to 1 margin to abolish its system of peonage as of March 1909.
    (WSJ, 3/29/08, p.W8)

1908        Dec 26, Jack Johnson (1878-1946) of Texas knocked out Tommy Burns in Australia to become the 1st black world heavyweight boxing champion. He was not officially given the title until 1910 when he beat Jim Jeffries in Las Vegas. In 1913 Johnson fled the US because of trumped up charges of violating the Mann Act's stipulations against transporting white women across state lines for prostitution. Johnson held the title until 1915. In 1920 he returned to the US, was arrested and served a one year sentence in Leavenworth in Kansas, where he was appointed athletic director of the prison.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Jack_Johnson_(boxer))(ON, 4/09, p.7)

1909        Feb 12, The National Association for the Advancement of Colored People (NAACP) was founded by 60 people gathered in NYC to discuss recent race riots and how to fight discrimination. They were initially known as the National Negro committee and signed a proclamation known as “The Call." It was based on the Niagara movement of 1905. Mary White Ovington (1865-1951) was one of the founders.
    (SFC, 5/12/96, p.A-6)(SFEC,12/797, BR p.6)(AP, 2/12/98)(SFC, 2/12/09, p.A1)

1909        Feb 23, Shrove Tuesday. The Zulu Social Aid and Pleasure Society, the 1st African-American Mardi Gras organization, first marched in the New Orleans Mardi Gras parade. Members had marched in the Mardi Gras as early as 1901, but their first appearance as Zulus came in 1909, with William Story as King.

1909        May 17, White firemen on Georgia RR struck to protest the hiring of blacks.
    (MC, 5/17/02)

1909        May 31, The National Association for the Advancement of Colored People (NAACP) held its first conference at the United Charities Building in NYC.
    (HN, 5/31/98)(MC, 5/31/02)

1909        Aug 10, George W. Crockett, first African-American lawyer with the U.S. Department of Labor, was born.
    (HN, 8/10/98)

1910        Jul 4, African-American Jack Johnson knocked out Jim Jeffries in the 15th round of a heavyweight boxing match in Reno, Nevada. As Johnson entered the ring a band played “All Coons Look Alike to Me." Johnson’s victory prompted race riots in major cities across the United States leaving as many as 26 people dead. Jack London covered the match and coined the phrase "The great white hope" in his story.
    (SFEC, 10/3/99, p.B10)(Econ, 6/21/08, p.104)(ON, 4/09, p.7)

1911        Jan 3,  Joseph Rauh civil rights activist: cofounded Americans for Democratic Action; member: executive board of NAACP; general counsel: Leadership Conference on Civil Rights, was born.
    (440 Int'l. 1/3/99)

1911        Scott Joplin (1868-1917) wrote his opera "Treemonisha." The 1st full professional staging was done in 1975 by the Houston Grand Opera.
    (WSJ, 7/5/00, p.A20)(SFC, 6/21/03, p.D1)

1912        In southern California two parcels were purchased Willa and Charles Bruce, who built the first West Coast resort for Black people at a time when segregation barred them from many beaches. They built a lodge, café, dance hall and dressing tents with bathing suits for rent. Initially it was known as Bruce’s Lodge. The Manhattan Beach City Council finally used eminent domain to take the land away from the Bruces in the 1920s, purportedly for use as a park. The land was transferred to the state of California in 1948 and in 1995 it was transferred to Los Angeles County for beach operations and maintenance. In 2021 state lawmakers moved to return the prime beachfront property to descendants of the Black couple.
    (AP, 4/9/21)(SFC, 9/11/21, p.A5)

1913        Feb 4, Rosa Lee Parks, civil rights activist, was born. Her refusal to give up her seat on a segregated bus in Alabama started the Civil Rights Movement.
    (HN, 2/4/99)

1913        Mar 10, Harriet Tubman, abolitionist, conductor on Underground RR, died in NY. In 2004 Catherine Clinton authored "Harriet Tubman: The Road to Freedom."
    (MC, 3/10/02)(SSFC, 2/1/04, p.M1)

1913        May 13, An all-white jury in Chicago convicted Black heavyweight champion Jack Johnson of federal charges of transporting a white woman across state lines, a case that would later be held up as a deplorable example of institutional racism in early 20th century America. Johnson was posthumously pardoned by President Donald Trump in 2018. In 2021 paperwork — along with images of some of the handwritten documents from Johnson’s trial — were officially entered into the court’s electronic court docketing system.
    (Chicago Tribune, 1/20/21)

1913        May 15, In Texas a lynch mob attacked the county jail in Fort Worth late today intent on seizing Tommie Lee, an African American accused of murder and attempted murder. Earlier that day Lee had stalked through the south end of town, killing two men, one of them a white police officer, and wounding three others. The mob failed to seize Lee and then rampaged through the town's Black business district looting, setting fires, and beating up any black person they could get their hands on. Officials later set damage to black-owned property at a conservative $15,000.
    (Fort Worth Star-Telegram, 6/19/21)

1913        In South Africa the Native Lands Act reserved 90 percent of the country's land for the white minority. This made it illegal for Africans to acquire land outside of rural reserves, which became known as "Homelands". It was subsequently revised down to 87 percent. Blacks were not allowed to own, or even rent, land outside special black reserves. While blacks account for 80 percent of South Africa's population, the homelands comprise just 13 percent of the land.
    (Econ, 7/25/05, p.38)(Econ, 6/5/10, SR p.9)(AFP, 2/14/15)(Reuters, 3/14/18)

1914        May 13, Joe Louis, world heavyweight boxing champion from 1937 to 1949, was born in Lafayette, Ala. His boxing record was 63-3 with 49 knock-outs.
    (AP, 5/13/97)(HN, 5/13/99)

1915        Feb 22, The San Francisco Chronicle reported that Negroes from plantations in Alabama, Georgia and Louisiana are now performing under the name Dixie Land in a theater near the Van Ness end of the Joy Zone.
    {SF, USA, Black History}
    (SSFC, 1/22/15, DB p.38)

1915        Apr 5, Jack Johnson (1878-1946), African-American heavyweight champion boxer since 1908, lost the heavyweight championship in Cuba to Jess Willard in the 26th round.
    (SFC, 1/17/05, p.D6)(www.hickoksports.com/biograph/johnsonjack.shtml)

1915        Jul 28, 10,000 blacks marched on 5th Ave in NYC to protest lynchings.
    (SC, 7/28/02)

1915        Nov 14, Booker T. Washington (b.1856), Black American educator, died in Tuskegee, Alabama. The former slave later founded the Tuskegee Institute (1881). Booker Taliaferro Washington later became the 1st black on a US postage stamp. His autobiography "Up From Slavery" was listed in 1999 as the 3rd best work of non-fiction in the English language in the 20th century by the Modern Library. In 2009 Robert J. Norrell authored “Up From History: The Life of Booker T. Washington." 
    (AP, 5/5/97)(HN, 4/5/99)(SFC, 4/29/99, p.C5)(WSJ, 1/23/09, p.W10)

1915        Dec 4, Ku Klux Klan received a charter from Fulton County, Ga.
    (MC, 12/4/01)

1916        Jul 25, An explosion at the Cleveland Waterworks tunnel project trapped 12 men and 18 would-be rescuers. 8 men were saved and 10 bodies were recovered by a team led by black inventor Garrett A. Morgan (d.1963) dressed in his new Safety Hood.
    (ON, 3/02, p.12)

1916        Anthony Crawford, black farmer and father of 13 children, was beaten and lynched In Abbeyville, South Carolina, following an argument with a white storekeeper.
    (Econ, 6/18/05, p.29)

1917        Apr 1, Scott Joplin (b.1868), ragtime composer (Sting), died of syphilis in a NY mental hospital. His work included the opera "Treemonisha."
    (MC, 4/1/02)(SFC, 6/21/03, p.D3)

1917        May 5, Eugene Jacques Bullard became the first African-American aviator when he earned a flying certificate with the French Air Service.
    (HN, 5/5/99)

1917        Jul 2, Race riots erupted in East St. Louis, Illinois. The official death toll was put at 48, but as many as 200 were believed killed. In 1964 Elliott M. Rudwick authored Race Riot at East St. Louis, July 2, 1917." In 2008 Harper Barnes authored “Never Been a Time: The 1917 Race Riot That Sparked the Civil Rights Movement."
    (SFC, 7/18/08, p.E3)(www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=54020510)

1917        Aug 14, The US War Department said Filipinos may be enlisted in all branches of the military as white troops, provided it is established that applicants have no Negro blood.
    (SSFC, 8/13/17, DB p.50)

1917        Sep 8, Eugene Bullard, aviator, was born in Columbus, Georgia. He emigrated to France and became the first African-American combat aviator when he flew a reconnaissance mission over the city of Metz, France. He was credited with one confirmed "kill," a German Pfalz he shot down over Verdun.
    (MC, 9/8/01)

1917        Nov 5, The US Supreme Court decision (Buchanan vs. Warley) struck down a Louisville, Ky., ordnance requiring blacks and whites to live in separate areas (race-based zoning).
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Buchanan_v._Warley)(Econ, 2/11/12, p.34)

1918        May 19, In Georgia Mary Turner, a married black woman and mother of two was lynched by a white mob in Lowndes County for having protested the lynching death of her husband Hazel "Hayes" Turner the day before in Brooks County. 13 people were lynched this year in Brooks and Lowndes counties.
    (https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mary_Turner)(SFC, 12/31/18, p.A5)

1918        Jul 25, A race riot in Chester, Pennsylvania, left 3 blacks and 2 whites dead.
    (SC, 7/25/02)

1919        Jan 19, John H. Johnson (d.2005), editor and publisher of Ebony and Jet magazines, was born Arkansas.
    (HN, 1/19/99)(SFC, 8/8/05, p.B4)

1919          Jan 31, Jackie Robinson, first black major league baseball player, was born.
     (HN, 1/31/99)

1919        May 25, Madame C.J. Walker (b.1867 as Sarah Breedlove), black, wealthy cosmetics manufacturer, died at age 51. In 2003 Beverly Lowry authored "Her Dream of Dreams: The Rise and Triumph of Madame C.J. Walker."
    (WSJ, 4/22/03, D7)(SSFC, 10/24/04, Par p.4)

1919        Jul 19-1919 Jul 22, In Washington DC, white mobs — many made up of members of the military — rampaged over the weekend, beating any black they could find after false rumors of a white woman being assaulted by black men spread.
    (AP, 7/23/19)

1919        Jul 24, A race riot in Washington, DC, left 6 killed and 100 wounded.
    (MC, 7/24/02)

1919        Jul 27, In a Chicago race riot 15 whites and 23 blacks were killed with 500 injured.
    (MC, 7/27/02)

1919        Oct 1, Black sharecroppers gathered at Elaine, Arkansas, to secure a more equitable price for their products. When a white deputy sheriff and a railroad detective, arrived at the church, a fight broke out between them and the guards in which the railroad detective was killed and the deputy sheriff was wounded. This led to 3 days of fighting and the killing of 5 white men and close to 200 black men, women and children. The Arkansas state court later sentenced 12 sharecroppers to death and a 5-year legal battle ensued. In 2008 Robert Whitaker authored “"On the Laps of Gods: The Red Summer of 1919 and the Struggle for Justice That Remade a Nation." In April 2019 a tree was planted in remembrance of the victims. In August it was chopped down at its base and a memorial tag was stolen.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Elaine_Race_Riot)(SSFC, 7/27/08, Books p.1)(AP, 8/26/19)

1919         In a span of 10 months, more than 250 African Americans were killed in at least 25 riots across the US by white mobs that never faced punishment. In 2014 David Krugler authored "1919, The Year of Racial Violence: How African Americans Fought Back".
    (AP, 7/23/19)
1919        The US FBI released “Radicalism and Sedition Among the Negroes as Reflected in Their Publications." This was the bureau’s “first major work of book-talk" and an early survey of the Harlem Renaissance.
    (SSFC, 2/8/15, p.N4)

1920        Feb 13-1920 Feb 14, Andrew “Rube" Foster (1879-1930) formed the 1st black baseball league, the Negro National League, at a meeting at the Colored YMCA, Kansas City, Mo.
    (AH, 2/05, p.17)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Rube_Foster)

1920        Jun 15, Three African Americans were lynched in Duluth, Minnesota, by a white mob of 5,000. Max Mason, who was in Duluth with a traveling circus, was one of several black men accused of raping a white woman in the city. Three men -- Isaac McGhie, Elmer Jackson and Elias Clayton -- were lynched as a result. Mason was the only one convicted and sentenced to 30 years in prison. However, the doctor who examined the accuser never found evidence of rape. He was released from prison in 1925 on the condition that he not return to Minnesota for the next 16 years.
    (HN, 6/15/98)(CBS News, 6/12/20)

1920        Aug 2, Marcus Garvey presented his "Back To Africa" program in NYC.
    (MC, 8/2/02)

1920        Sep, African American boxer Jack Johnson (1878-1946) was imprisoned at Fort Leavenworth for ten months following a plea bargain after an all-white jury convicted him of violating the Mann Act. Johnson was arrested in 1912 on charges of violating the Mann Act, forbidding one to transport a woman across state lines for "immoral purposes," a racially motivated charge that embroiled him in controversy for his relationships with white women. Johnson had skipped bail and lived in Europe for seven years.
    (https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Jack_Johnson_%28boxer%29)(SFC, 4/24/18, p.A10)

1921        May 31, A 2-day major race riot broke out in Tulsa, Oklahoma. Greenwood, the black section of town, was burned. In 1997 Jewell Parker Rhodes wrote the novel “Magic City" based on this event. As many as 10,000 white men and boys attacked the black community and 35 blocks of the black business district were burned with participation by police officers and a local unit of the National Guard. Some 200-300 people were believed to have been killed. In 2000 the Tulsa Race Riot Commission recommended that reparations be paid to survivors of the riots. In 2001 a final state commission recommended that reparations be paid to survivors and their descendants.
    (NPR, 5/31/96)(SFEC, 6/29/97, BR p.3)(SFC, 8/10/99, p.A2)(SFC, 2/5/00, p.A3)(SFC, 3/1/01, p.A4)

1921        The film “Sport of the Gods" featured an all-star cast of colored artists. It was based on a book by Paul Laurence Dunbar.
    (SFC, 7/16/08, p.E3)

1922        Mar 4, Bert Williams (b.1874), Antigua-born black actor, mime and singer, died after collapsing onstage in Detroit. In 2005 Caryl Phillips authored “Dancing in the Dark," a novel based on Bert Williams. His recordings included “Nobody."
    (www.duboislc.org/ShadesOfBlack/BertWms.html)(SFC, 2/11/08, p.E1)

1922        Nov 13, Black Renaissance began in Harlem, NY.
    (MC, 11/13/01)

1922        Carter G. Woodson (1875-1950), black historian, authored “The Negro in Our History."
    (WSJ, 5/19/05, p.D8)

1923        Feb 16, Betsy Smith makes her first recording "Down Hearted Blues," her music reflected the Depression era.
    (HN, 2/16/99)

1923        Jun 21, Marcus Garvey was sentenced to 5 years for using mail to defraud.
    (MC, 6/21/02)

1924        Mar 20, The Virginia Legislature passed two closely related eugenics laws: SB 219, entitled "The Racial Integrity Act" and SB 281, "An ACT to provide for the sexual sterilization of inmates of State institutions in certain cases", henceforth referred to as "The Sterilization Act". The Racial Integrity Act required that a racial description of every person be recorded at birth, and felonized marriage between "white persons" and non-white persons. The law was the most famous ban on miscegenation in the US, and was overturned by the US Supreme Court in 1967, in Loving v. Virginia. Virginia repealed the sterilization in 1979. In 2001 the House of Delegates voted to express regret for the state’s selecting breeding policies that had forced sterilizations on some 8,000 people. The Senate soon followed suit.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Racial_Integrity_Act_of_1924)(SSFC, 2/4/01, p.A3)(SFC, 2/15/01, p.C16)

1924        Nov 30, Shirley Chisholm (d.2004), first African-American congresswoman (1968), was born as Shirley St. Hill in NYC.
    (SFC, 1/3/05, p.A3)

1925          Jan 31, Benjamin Hooks, civil rights leader, was born.
     (HN, 1/31/99)

1925        Feb 8, Marcus Garvey entered federal prison in Atlanta.
    (MC, 2/8/02)

1925        May 19, Malcolm X, (Malcolm Little) militant black Muslim leader, was born in Omaha, Neb. He spoke of racial pride and black nationalism and was assassinated in 1965. "You can't separate peace from freedom because no one can be at peace unless he has his freedom."
    (AP, 2/21/99)(HN, 5/19/99)(SFC, 9/8/99, p.A7)

1925        Aug 8, The first national congress of the Ku Klux Klan opened. 200,000 members marched in Washington, DC.
    (HN, 8/8/98)(MC, 8/8/02)

1925        Harvard-trained historian Carter G. Woodson, known as the "Father of Black History," had a bold idea. He announced "Negro History Week" -- a celebration of a people that many in this country at the time believed had no place in history. The event was first celebrated in February 1926, a month that included the birthdays of Abraham Lincoln and Frederick Douglass, and the response was overwhelming.
    (Good Morning America, 2/8/20)
1925        Ossian Sweet, a black doctor who had moved into a white neighborhood of Detroit, was indicted on murder charges after defending his property and life against a mob attack. In 2004 Phyllis Vine authored "One Man's Castle: Clarence Darrow in Defense of the American Dream."
    (SSFC, 4/18/04, p.M4)
1925        Golden State Mutual Life Insurance Co. was founded to give blacks access to life insurance. In the 1940s architect Paul R. Williams was hired to design its headquarters in LA.
    (WSJ, 5/12/04, p.B10)

1925-1926    Edward Christopher Williams (1871-1929), black playwright, teacher and librarian, published "When Washington Was in Vogue," a serialized novel in The Messenger, a socialist magazine.
    (WSJ, 1/23/04, p.W5)

1926        Jan 29, Violette Neatley Anderson became the first African-American woman admitted to practice before the U.S. Supreme Court.
    (HN, 1/29/99)

1926        Feb 7, Negro History Week, originated by Carter G. Woodson, was observed for the first time. The 2nd week in February was declared Negro History Week.
    (USAT, 2/14/97, p.15A)(HN, 2/7/99)

1926        Mar 11, Ralph David Abernathy, civil rights leader, was born.
    (HN, 3/11/98)

1926        Jul 2, Medgar Evers, American civil rights leader in Mississippi, was born. He was murdered in front of his house by Byron DeLa Beckwith.
    (HN, 7/2/99)

1926        Sep 25, The Convention to Suppress the Slave Trade and Slavery, an international treaty created under the auspices of the League of Nations, was first signed in Geneva to be effective March 9, 1927.

1927        Mar 1, Harry Belafonte, calypso singer (Buck and the Preacher), was born in Harlem, NYC.
    (SC, 3/1/02)

1927        Mar 7, A Texas law that banned Negroes from voting was ruled unconstitutional by the Supreme Court.
    (HN, 3/7/98)

1927        Jul 10, David Dinkins, first African-American mayor of New York City, was born.
    (HN, 7/10/98)

1927        Aug 21, The 4th Pan-African Congress met in NYC.
    (SC, 8/21/02)

1927        Aug 25, Althea Gibson (d.2003), Wimbledon's 1st black tennis champion (1957), was born in Silver, SC.
    (HN, 8/25/98)(WSJ, 9/29/03, p.A1)

1927        Dec, In Nashville, Ten., after harmonica wizard DeFord Bailey played his "Pan American Blues," WSM Announcer Judge Hay got the idea to change the name of the show from the "Barn Dance" to the "Grand Ole Opry."

1927        Texas Southern Univ. (TSU) was founded to educate black scholars who had little access to higher education. By 2017 its share of Latino students had doubled to 8% over the last six years.
    (Econ, 2/18/17, p.23)
1927        Alonzo Herndon, black Atlanta businessman, died. In 2002 Carole Merritt authored "The Herndons: An Atlanta Family."
    (WSJ, 8/28/02, p.D8)

1928        Feb 24, In its first show to feature a Black artist, the New Gallery of New York exhibited works of Archibald Motley.
    (HN, 2/24/98)

1928        Mar 10, James Earl Ray, alleged assassin of Martin Luther King Jr, was born.
    (MC, 3/10/02)

1928        Apr 4, Maya Angelou (d.2014), American poet and writer, was born.
    (HN, 4/4/98)(Econ, 6/7/14, p.98)

1928        Frederick Bruce Thomas (b.1872), an American-born black businessman, died in Constantinople. Thomas had made Moscow his home in 1899 where he renamed himself Fyodor Fyodorovich Tomas and became one of the city’s richest owners of variety theaters and restaurants. The Bolshevik Revolution ruined him. He escaped with his family to Constantinople in 1919. He made a second fortune by opening nightclubs that introduced jazz to Turkey. The long arm of American racism, the xenophobia of the new Turkish Republic, and Frederick’s own extravagance landed him in debtor’s prison. In 2012 Vladimir Alexandrov authored “The Black Russian," a biography of Thomas.
    (SSFC, 2/10/13, p.F2)

1929        Feb 23, Elston Howard, Yankee catcher (1st black NY Yankee/1963 AL MVP), was born.
    (MC, 2/23/02)

1929        The film “Hallelujah," released by MGM, featured an all black cast. It was produced and directed by King Vidor.
    (SFC, 7/16/08, p.E3)

1930        Jun 7, NY Times agrees to capitalize the n in "Negro."
    (SC, 6/7/02)

1930        Aug 7, In Marion, Indiana, a mob broke into a jail and beat to death 2 young black men and hung them from a tree in the courthouse square. Tommy Shipp and Abe Smith and a 3rd teenager had just been arrested for a botched robbery that left Claude Deeter, a white man. dead. James Cameron (16) was saved from hanging, even as a noose was on his neck. In 2006 Cynthia Carr authored “Our Town: A Heartland Lynching, a Haunted Town and the Hidden History of White America."
    (SSFC, 3/26/06, p.M3)

1931        Mar 25, In Alabama 9 young black men, arrested at Paint Rock after riding a freight train, were taken to Scottsboro. Victoria Price (21) and Ruby Bates (17), who had worked as prostitutes in Huntsville, were also found on the train dressed as boys. The 9 men were soon charged with raping the 2 white woman, while riding on the freight train.
    (WSJ, 6/20/07, p.A17)(www.law.umkc.edu/faculty/projects/FTrials/scottsboro/SB_chron.html)
1931        Mar 25, Ida Wells-Barnett (b.1862), black journalist, died. In 1893 she investigated the Kentucky lynching of a black man accused of murdering 2 white girls. In 2008 Paula J. Giddings authored “Ida: A Sword among Lions."
    (WSJ, 3/8/08, p.W8)(www.spartacus.schoolnet.co.uk/FWWwells.htm)

1931        Mar 30, In Scottsboro, Ala., 9 young black men were indicted for rape. By the end of April all were tried, convicted and sentenced to death, except for one age 13, who was sentenced to life in prison. The US Supreme Court later overturned the convictions, but they were convicted at a 2nd trial, even though one of the accused said no rape had occurred. Five convictions were overturned in 1937 after one alleged victim recanted her story. Clarence Norris received a pardon before his death in 1976. In 2013 Alabama’s parole board approved posthumous pardons for the “Scottsboro Boys" during a hearing for three black men whose convictions were never overturned.
    (WSJ, 6/20/07, p.A17)(SFC, 11/22/13, p.A15)

1931        Apr 6, The 1st Scottsboro (Ala) trial began for 9 blacks accused of rape.

1931        Aug 15, Roy Wilkins joined NAACP as asst. secretary.
    (MC, 8/15/02)

1931        Aug 20, Donald King, American promoter of boxing, was born.
    (MC, 8/20/02)

1931        In Detroit, Mich., Wallace D. Fard started a movement that later became the Nation of Islam. He was succeeded by Elijah Muhammad, who stressed the evil of white people and the need for black self-sufficiency.
    (WSJ, 10/24/03, p.A8)

1931        Slavery was officially abolished in Ethiopia (1930 by the Ethiopian calendar).

1932        Jan 6, Julius Rosenwald (b.1862), president of Sears, Roebuck & Co., died in Highland Park, Ill. By 1931 he had financed the construction of 5,295 schools throughout the South in association with Booker T. Washington and William Baldwin Jr., a Boston railway executive and founder of the Urban League. In 2015 Aviva Kemper directed the film documentary “Rosenwald".
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Julius_Rosenwald)(WSJ, 2/24/98, p.A22)(WSJ, 4/23/02, p.D7)(SFC, 9/11/15, p.E4)

1932        The US government began its 40-year Tuskegee Syphilis Study on 623 black men in rural Macon County, Ala. It ended in 1972 after Health Service investigator Peter Buxton exposed the study's unethical procedures.
    (SSFC, 1/25/04, p.A27)

1933        Mar 15, The NAACP began a coordinated attack on segregation and discrimination.
    (MC, 3/15/02)

1933        Mar 18, Unita Blackwell, 1st black mayor in Mississippi, was born.
    (MC, 3/18/02)

1933        May 11, Louis Farrakhan, leader of the black Nation of Islam, was born.
    (HN, 5/11/98)

1933        Dec 8, Flip Wilson (d.1998), the fist successful black host of a TV variety show, was born in Jersey City. He hosted the Flip Wilson Show from 1970-1974.
    (SFC, 11/26/98, p.B9)

1933        Dec 19, Cicely Tyson, actress, best remembered for her role in The Autobiography of Ms. Jane Pittman, was born.
    (HN, 12/19/98)

1933        Arthur Raper (1899-1979), sociologist, authored “The Tragedy of Lynching." He was at this time working for the US federal agency: Commission on Interracial Cooperation, which had been created after WW I to help black veterans in the segregated South.
    (WSJ, 2/17/07, p.P13)

1934        Feb 2, The SF Police Commission promulgated a set of regulations regarding dance permits to Barbary Coast nightclubs. These included a prohibition against colored and white people dancing together.
    (SSFC, 2/1/09, DB p.50)

1934        Mar 17, Thousands of blacks battled the police in New York in protest of the Scottsboro trial.
    (HN, 3/17/98)

1935        May 5, American Jesse Owens set the long jump record at 26 ft. 8 inch.
    (HN, 5/5/98)(MC, 5/5/02)

1935        Aug 31, Eldridge Cleaver, political activist and author of "Soul on Fire," was born.
    (HN, 8/31/98)

1935        Nov 5, Maryland Court of Appeals ordered the Univ. of Maryland to admit (black) Donald Murray.
    (MC, 11/5/01)

1935        "Black Reconstruction in America: An Essay Toward a History of the Part Which Black Folk Played in the Attempt to Reconstruct Democracy in America, 1860–1880" by W. E. B. Du Bois, was first published. It marked a significant break with the standard academic view of Reconstruction at the time, the Dunning School, which contended that the period was a failure and downplayed the contributions of African Americans.
    (https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Black_Reconstruction_in_America)(Econ., 12/19/20, p.111)
1935        Zora Neale Hurston published her folk tale collection: "Mules and Men." In 2001 the collection was reprinted as "Every Tongue Got to Confess: negro Folk Tales From the Gulf States."
    (SSFC, 12/23/01, p.M1)
1935        The film “Princess Tam Tam" starred Josephine Baker.
    (SFC, 7/16/08, p.E3)

1936        Mar 6, Marion S. Barry, (Mayor-D-Wash DC), was born.
    (MC, 3/6/02)

1936        Jun 20, Jesse Owens of US set a 100 meter record at 10.2 sec.
    (MC, 6/20/02)

1936        Dec 8, NAACP filed suit to equalize the salaries of black and white teachers.
    (MC, 12/8/01)

1936        Victor Hugo Green published "The Green Book: The Negro Traveler's Guide to Travel and Vacations."
    (SSFC, 3/3/19, p.A2)

1937        Apr 5, Colin Powell, U.S. Army general, was born in Bronx, New York. He later became the Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff during the Persian Gulf War and first African American to serve in the position. In 2000 Pres.-elect Bush appointed him to be Sec. of State.
    (HFA, '96, p.28)(HN, 4/5/99)(SSFC, 12/17/00, p.A14)

1937        Jul 24, The state of Alabama dropped charges against 4 black men accused of raping two white women in the so-called Scottsboro case.
    (AP, 7/24/97)(www.law.umkc.edu/faculty/projects/FTrials/scottsboro/SB_chron.html)

1937        Aug 25, Pullman signed a contract with the Brotherhood of Sleeping Car Porters, one of the first substantive victories for black workers. [see Oct 10]
    (SFC, 12/3/98, p.A3)

1937        Zora Neale Hurston (1903-1960) wrote her novel: "Their Eyes were Watching God." It is about a young black woman from Florida who survives a bad marriage and finds true love with a younger man named Tea Cake. Cassette recordings were made in 1991. She made some films during research trips on life in the South in 1928 and 1929.
    (SFC, 4/5/96, p.D-1)(SFC, 12/13/96, p.C8)
1937        Able Meeropol authored the poem "Bitter Fruit," an anti-lynching anthem, under the pen name Lewis Allan. He later added music. Billie Holiday 1st sang it as "Strange Fruit" at the Café society nightclub in Greenwich Village.
    (SFC, 1/8/03, p.D1)
1937        Wickliffe Preston Draper (d.1972), heir to a Massachusetts manufacturing fortune, helped found the Pioneer Fund, a private, tax-exempt foundation in Maryland, devoted to supporting eugenics. The initial charter directed support for research aimed at race betterment. In 1985 the charter was amended to support programs aimed at "human race betterment." John Marshall Harlan II, appointed to the US Supreme Court in 1957, was one of the original fund directors.
    (WSJ, 6/11/99, p.A8)(WSJ, 8/17/99, p.A1)(AP, 8/24/18)

1938        Nov 8, Crystal Bird Fauset of Pa., became the first African American woman to be elected to a state legislature.
    (HN, 11/6/98)

1938        Jack and Jill of America, an African-American society, was founded. It is devoted to shaping children into leaders in business, society and politics.
    (Econ., 8/22/20, p.24)

1939        Apr 9, On Easter Sunday Marion Anderson, at the invitation of Secretary of the Interior Harold L. Ickes, sang a triumphant outdoor concert at the Lincoln Memorial before a crowd of 75,000 and a radio audience of millions. In early 1939, the Daughters of the American Revolution denied the internationally famed contralto the opportunity to sing at Constitution Hall in Washington, D.C., because of her race. First Lady Eleanor Roosevelt was so dismayed by the injustice that she resigned her own D.A.R. membership in protest.
    (AP, 4/9/97)(WSJ, 7/24/98, p.W11)(HNPD, 4/9/99)

1939        Oct 16, Charlotte Maxeke (b.1871), South African social worker and activist, died in Johannesburg. She was the first black South African woman to receive a college degree (Ohio’s Wilberforce University, 1901).

1940        Mar 1, "Native Son" by Richard Wright (1908-1960) was published. It was a narrative about the poor young Black Chicagoan, Bigger Thomas, who in a state of panic murders a rich white girl, later murders his Black girlfriend and is tried and sentenced to death.  This launched him as America’s 1st best-selling black author. Wright soon began work on “The Man Who Lived Underground," a short novel that was never published in full until the spring of 2021.
    (AP, 3/1/00)(SSFC, 8/12/01, DB p.61)(AP, 5/13/21)

1940        Jun 10, Marcus Garvey (b.1887), US black leader (Back to Africa Movement), died. In 2008 Colin Grant authored “Negro With a Hat: The Rise and Fall of Marcus Garvey."
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Marcus_Garvey)(SSFC, 5/11/08, Books p.5)

1940        Oct 25, Col. Benjamin O. Davis Sr. (1877-1970), commander of the 369th Infantry of New York, was promoted to brigadier general. In 1955 his son became the first black brigadier general in the Air Force. In 1989 Biographer Marvin Fletcher authored “America's First Black General, Benjamin O. Davis, Sr., 1880-1970." Fletcher presented evidence of Davis’ birth records indicating that he was born in May 1880 and later lied about his age so that he could enlist in the Army without the permission of his parents.

1940        Nov 13, U.S. Supreme Court ruled in Hansberry v. Lee that African Americans cannot be barred from white neighborhoods.
    (HN, 11/13/98)

1940        Nov 15, In San Francisco Negro singer Paul Robeson and eight other men and women filed suit in Superior Court asking $22,500 in damages from Vanessi Inc. for being denied service at Vanessi’s, a restaurant at 498 Broadway following his concert at the Opera House.
    (SSFC, 11/15/15, DB p.50)

1941        Jan 16, The US War Dept formed the 1st Army Air Corps squadron for black cadets.
    (MC, 1/16/02)

1941        Dec 19, US Attorney General Francis Biddle issued Circular No. 3591 to all federal prosecutors to drop references to peonage and label such files as “Involuntary Servitude and Slavery." This was in response to Pres. Roosevelt’s fear that mistreatment of blacks would be used in propaganda by Japan and Germany.
    (WSJ, 3/29/08, p.W8)

1941        Lulu Merle Johnson (d.1995) became the first Black women in Iowa to earn a doctorate and the first Black woman in the US to earn a doctorate in history. In 2021 the Board of Supervisors of Iowa's Johnson County voted to have her as its official eponym replacing Richard Mentor Johnson, the 9th US vice-president from Kentucky.
    (SSFC, 7/4/21, p.A12)

1942        Feb 28, There was a riot at the new Sojourner Truth Homes in Detroit. There was a great deal of racial fighting with 40 injuries, but no deaths. Police called off the entry of blacks to their homes and, by the end of the day, arrested 220 – 217 blacks and 3 whites.

1942        Mar 5, In San Francisco Nelson A. Eckart, the acting manager of utilities, ordered grumbling motormen to train Audley Cole (21), a young black man, in the operation of a streetcar or face dismissal. Union members several months earlier had voted to fine any member instructing Cole $100.
    (SSFC, 3/5/17, DB p.54)

1942        May 20, US Navy 1st permitted black recruits to serve.
    (MC, 5/20/02)

1942        Aug 20, Isaac Hayes (d.2008), American singer and composer (Shaft), was born in Covington, TN.

1942        Dec 28, In the SF Bay Area shore leaves for 1,800 Negro sailors were cancelled as the Navy began investigations of weekend riots in Vallejo.
    (SSFC, 12/24/17, DB p.54)

1943        Jan 5, George Washington Carver, Educator and scientist, died at age 81 at Tuskegee, Alabama. Carver was born the son of a slave woman in the early 1860s, went to college in Iowa and then headed to Alabama in 1896. There, at the Tuskegee Institute, Carver served as an agricultural chemist, experimenter, teacher and administrator, working to improve life for African Americans in the rural South by teaching them better agricultural skills. One of the farming methods Carver devised, using peanut and soybean crops to enrich soil depleted by cotton crops, revolutionized Southern farming. Carver became somewhat of a benevolent example of the potential of black intellectuals. He was well-respected by people such as President Franklin D. Roosevelt, Mahatma Gandhi, Josef Stalin and Thomas Edison, whose offer of a job for more than $100 a year Carver refused. Carver worked at Tuskegee until his death.
    (AP, 1/5/98)(HNPD, 1/5/99)

1943        May 25, Leslie Uggams, singer, actress (Leslie Uggams Show, Roots), was born in NYC.
    (SC, 5/25/02)
1943        May 25, There was a riot at Mobile, Al., shipyard over upgrading 12 black workers.
    (SC, 5/25/02)

1943        Jun 4, Race riots took place in LA.
    (MC, 6/4/02)

1943        Jun 20, Race-related rioting erupted in Detroit; federal troops were sent in two days later to quell the violence that resulted in 34 deaths and 600 wounded.
    (AP, 6/20/97)(SSFC, 12/17/00, Par p.5)

1943        Jun 21, Federal troops put down a race riot in Detroit that left 30 dead. [see Jun 20]
    (MC, 6/21/02)

1943        Jul 2, The U.S. Army Air Corps 99th Fighter Squadron, the first of the all-black Tuskegee Airmen to see combat, had been based in Africa for four months when they were assigned to escort 16 B-25 Mitchell bombers on a routine mission over Sicilian targets. Lieutenant Charles B. Hall of Brazil, Indiana became the first Tuskegee Airman to score a confirmed kill when he shot down a German fighter plane.
    (HNPD, 7/5/98)

1943        Jul 10, Arthur Ashe, first black tennis player to win the U.S. Championship and Wimbledon, was born.
    (HN, 7/10/98)

1943        Jul 13, Aubrey Grossman, chairman of the Bay Area Council Against Discrimination reported that Camp Mather, San Francisco's city-operated vacation spot in the Sierra, did not accept Negroes or Oriental patronage.
    (SSFC, 7/8/18, DB p.50)

1943        Aug 1, Race-related rioting erupted in New York City's Harlem section, resulting in several deaths.
    (AP, 8/1/97)

1943        Nov 23, Andrew Goodman (d.1964), murdered civil rights worker, was born.
    (MC, 11/23/01)

1943        Dec 2, A US federal judge ordered officials at the Boilermakers' Union to issue temporary work permits for 160 Negro employees at Marin ship. The SF Bay Area employees had been discharged when they refused to join a "Jim Crow" auxiliary, which gave them no voice in the union.
    (SSFC, 12/2/18, DB p.46)

1943        The film "Stormy Weather," an all-black musical, featured the tap dancing of the Nicholas Brothers. Benny Carter (1907-2003) wrote arrangements and played on the sound track.
    (WSJ, 4/21/98, p.A21)(SFC, 7/5/00, p.A19)(SFC, 7/14/03, p.B4)

1943        Coast Guard Lt. Carlton Skinner (d.2004) took command of the weather ship Sea Cloud, the 1st fully integrated US naval warship.
    (SSFC, 8/29/04, p.B7)
1943        The American Bar Association (ABA) opened its ranks to black lawyers
    (WSJ, 8/14/02, p.A1)
1943        In San Francisco the Westside Courts, a public housing project for African Americans, opened at Bush and Baker streets.
    {SF, USA, Black History}
    (SFC, 8/6/16, p.C2)

1944        Jan 26, Angela Davis, American revolutionary and black militant, was born.
    (HN, 1/26/99)

1944        Feb 9, Alice Walker, Pulitzer prize winning author, was born. Her books include "The Autobiography of Malcolm X" and "The Color Purple."
    (HN, 2/9/99)

1944        Apr 3, The U.S. Supreme Court ruled that black citizens are eligible to vote in all elections, including primaries. The Smith vs. Allwright decision ruled "white primaries" unconstitutional.
    (HN, 4/3/01)(MC, 4/3/02)

1944        Apr 13, South Carolina rejected black suffrage.
    (MC, 4/13/02)

1944        Jul 17, An explosion at Port Chicago, now the Concord Naval Weapons Station in Ca., killed 320 seamen when a pair of ammunition ships exploded. 10,000 tons of ammunition exploded. 202 of the victims were black enlisted men. The Navy court-martialed 50 black sailors for refusing to go back to work after the catastrophe. They were released from prison in 1946 with dishonorable discharges and reductions in rank. The story was later described by Robert Allen in his 1989 "The Port Chicago Mutiny." In 1999 Pres. Clinton issued a pardon to Freddie Meeks, one of the last living convicted African American sailors.
    (SFEC, 3/2/97, z1 p.3)(SFC, 2/24/98, p.A15)(SFC, 12/24/99, p.A1)(SSFC, 2/6/05, Par p.6)

1944        Aug 10, Race riots took place in Athens, Alabama.
    (MC, 8/10/02)

1944        Aug 14, In Seattle, Wa., a riot took place at Fort Lawton, following a scuffle between  an Italian prisoner and a black soldier. POW Guglielmo Olivotto was found hanged the next day. In an ensuing trial 28 men were convicted. In 2005 Jack Hamann and his wife Leslie authored “On American Soil,“ which covered the riot and the subsequent events. The convictions of the soldiers were overturned based largely on shortcomings in the prosecution described in the book.
    (SFC, 7/28/08, p.A4)(www.historylink.org/essays/output.cfm?file_id=7378)

1944        Nov 1, Gen. Patton greeted the 761st Tank Battalion, an all black unit, near Nancy, France. They had no day off until linking Russian allies on May 5, 1945.
    (SSFC, 5/30/04, p.B4)

1944        Gunnar Myrdal, Swedish sociologist hired by the Carnegie Foundation, published his work: "An American Dilemma: The Negro Problem and Modern Democracy." This book shaped intellectual thought over the next four decades. It was later criticized by authors Roberts and Stratton in their work: "The new Color Line: How Quotas and Privilege Destroy Democracy."
    (WSJ, 10/26/95, p.A-20)

1944        Adam Clayton Powell (1908-1972) was elected as a Democrat to the US House of Representatives, representing the 22nd congressional district, which included Harlem. He was the first black Congressman from New York, and the first from any Northern state other than Illinois in the Post-Reconstruction Era.

1944        The NAACP meeting in Detroit held a symbolic funeral for Jim Crow.
    (SFC, 7/10/07, p.A3)

1945        Jan 2, The California Supreme Court ruled that demands by the Boilermakers' union of Marinship for blacks to join auxiliaries without full union privileges was "discriminatory and unequal." The case of James vs. Marinship was led by Joseph James, a welder and leader of the San Francisco Committee Against Segregation and Discrimination.
    (SFC, 4/4/20, p.B4)

1945        Mar 8, Phyllis Mae Daley received a commission in the U.S. Navy Nurse Corps. She was the first African-American nurse to serve duty in World War II.
    (HN, 3/8/99)

1945        Mar 12, NY became the 1st state to prohibit discrimination by race and creed in employment.
    (MC, 3/12/02)

1945        Nov 1, John H. Johnson (1919-2005) published the 1st issue of Ebony magazine. His weekly Jet magazine was founded in 1951 and Ebony Man began in 1985.
    (HN, 11/1/98)(SFC, 8/8/05, p.B4)

1945        The US Navy was officially desegregated.
    (SFC, 5/17/04, p.B4)
1945        African-American paratroopers, as part of the 555th battalion (the Triple Nickle), were assigned to Operation Firefly as smoke jumpers to disarm explosives and extinguish fires in the Pacific Northwest.
    (SSFC, 2/23/14, Par, p.18)
1945        The 6888th Central Postal Directory Battalion, the only Black battalion of women to serve in Europe during WWII, was sent to England to process millions of pieces of undelivered mail. In 2021 the US Senate passed legislation to award members of the unit the Congressional Gold Medal. Only seven of 855 members were believed to be surviving.
    (SFC, 7/14/21, p.A6)

1945        Chester Himes authored "If He Hollers Let Him Go," an exploration of work-place racism.
    (SFC, 5/9/03, p.E7)

1946        Feb 26, A race riot in Columbia, TN, killed 2 people and 10 wounded.
    (SC, 2/26/02)

1946        Jun 3, A Supreme Court decision struck down Virginia's segregation statute on interstate buses. The case stemmed from the 1944 incident where Irene Morgan was jailed for refusing to give up her bus seat.
    (https://encyclopediavirginia.org/entries/morgan-v-virginia-1946/)(SFC, 8/4/00, p.D2)

1946        Jun 10, Jack Johnson (b.1878), 1st black heavyweight champion (1908-1915), died in car accident. In 2004 Geoffrey C. Ward authored “Unforgivable Blackness: The Rise and Fall of Jack Johnson." In 2005 Ken Burns premiered the PBS documentary: “Unforgivable Blackness: The Rise and Fall of Jack Johnson."
    (SSFC, 11/7/04, p.M1)(SFC, 1/17/05, p.D6)

1946        Jun 24, Mary McLeod Bethune was named director of the Division of Minority Affairs for the National Youth Administration by President Franklin D. Roosevelt. The well-known educator thus became the first Black woman ever to head a US government agency.

1946        Jul 14, In Monroe, Georgia, Roger Malcom, a black man, stabbed farmer Barnette Hester during an argument and fight.
    (SSFC, 12/31/17, p.A21)

1946        Jul 25, In Monroe, Georgia, 2 black couples were killed by Ku Klux Klansmen near Moore’s Ford Bridge in Walton County. Roger Malcom had just been given bail after stabbing a white farmer 11 days earlier. Pres. Truman ordered an FBI investigation and 55 suspects were named in the lynching of Roger and Dorothy Malcom and George and Mae Murray Dorsey, but no one was ever charged. Dorothy Malcom was pregnant. In 2019 a US appeals court considered whether federal judges can order the unsealing of grand jury records in cases with historical significance.
    (SFC, 7/26/05, p.A5)(Econ., 2/21/15, p.32)(SSFC, 12/31/17, p.A21)(AP, 10/22/19)

1946        Jul 26, President Truman ordered the desegregation of all US forces.
    (MC, 7/26/02)

1946        Nov 8, In Canada Viola Desmond (1914-1965) rejected racial discrimination by sitting in a whites-only section of a New Glasgow, Nova Scotia, movie theatre. She was arrested and fined. In 2010 she was granted a posthumous pardon, the first to be granted in Canada.
    (https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Viola_Desmond)(AP, 12/8/16)

1946        Dec 18, Stephen Biko, South African anti-apartheid activist, was born.
    (MC, 12/18/01)

1946        A US court case ruled that race-based housing restrictions were illegal. Restrictions after WW I had confined blacks in LA to the south and east sides creating near-ghettos in areas such as Watts, Inglewood and Compton.
    (Econ, 7/23/05, p.29)

1947        Jan 20, Josh Gibson (35), Negro League slugger, died of a brain tumor.
    (MC, 1/20/02)

1947        Feb 3, Percival Prattis became the 1st black reporter in Congressional press gallery.
    (MC, 2/3/02)

1947        Feb 23, Shakira Caine, actress (Man Who be King), Miss Guyana (1967), was born in Guyana.
    (MC, 2/23/02)

1947         Apr 10, Brooklyn Dodgers president Branch Rickey announced he had purchased the contract of Jackie Robinson from the Montreal Royals. John Sengstacke, black publisher of the Chicago Defender, was instrumental in persuading Mr. Rickey in his decision. In spite of intense pressure and hostility, Robinson's athletic abilities earned him the Rookie of the Year Award in 1947.
    (AP, 4/10/97)(SFC, 1/12/98, p.A1)(HN, 4/10/01)

1947        Prof. John Hope Franklin (1915-2009) authored “From Slavery to Freedom."
    (SSFC, 11/13/05, p.M6)(SFC, 3/26/09, p.B5)
1947        The National Urban League published the first issue of its comic: "Negro Heroes." This issue included scientist George Washington Carver, freedom fighter Harriet Tubman, boxer Joe Louis and North Pole explorer Matthew Henson.
    (Econ., 12/19/20, p.42)
1947        US Major Gen. James M. Gavin made the Triple Nickel unit of African Americans a part of the 3rd Battalion of the 505th parachute Infantry Regiment in the 82nd Airborne Division, creating what became recognized as the first black unit to be permanently integrated into the army.
    (SSFC, 2/23/14, Par. p.18)
1947        Walter S. Mack, president of Pepsi-Cola, hired an all-black sales force led by Edward F. Boyd to sell Pepsi directly to blacks.
    (WSJ, 1/9/07, p.B1)
1947        In Nevada singer-actress Lena Horne opened at the Flamingo. She and other African American performers would not be allowed to dine or stay at hotels in las Vegas until 1955.
    (SSFC, 3/12/17, p.F4)

1948        Jan 12, The Supreme Court ruled that states could not discriminate against law-school applicants because of race. The case involved a black woman, Ada Lois Sipuel (1924-1995), and she earned the right to attend law school in previously segregated Oklahoma. Her lawyer was Thurgood Marshall.
    (AP, 1/12/98)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sipuel_v._Board_of_Regents_of_Univ._of_Okla)

1948        Feb 2, President Truman urged congress to adopt a civil rights program.
    (MC, 2/2/02)

1948        Feb 12, 1st Lt. Nancy Leftenant became the 1st black in the army nursing corps.
    (MC, 2/12/02)

1948        Mar 11, Reginald Weit became the 1st black to play in the US Tennis Open.
    (MC, 3/12/02)

1948        May 1, Glenn Taylor, Idaho Senator, was arrested in Birmingham Alabama for trying to enter a meeting through a door marked "for Negroes."
    (MC, 5/1/02)

1948        May 3, The US Supreme Court in Shelly v. Kraemer ruled that covenants prohibiting the sale of real estate to blacks and other minorities were legally unenforceable. The Supreme Court had allowed the practice in 1926.
    (AP, 5/3/97)(Econ, 7/7/12, p.74)(SFC, 1/14/15, p.A11)

1948        Aug 24, Edith Mae Irby became the University of Arkansas' first African-American student.
    (HN, 8/24/98)

1948        Oct 1, The California Supreme Court in Perez v. Sharp voided a state statue banning interracial marriages.

1949        Jan 14, There was a Black-Indian race rebellion in Durban, South Africa; 142 died.
    (MC, 1/14/02)

1949        Jan 28, NY Giants signed their 1st black players, Monte Irvin & Ford Smith.
    (MC, 1/28/02)

1949        Mar 1, Joe Louis retired as heavyweight boxing champion.
    (SC, 3/1/02)

1949               Apr 1,  "Happy Pappy" premiered on WENR-TV in Chicago. It was the first televised all-black-cast variety show.

1949        Jun 3, Wesley Anthony Brown became the 1st negro to graduate from US Naval Academy.
    (MC, 6/3/02)

1949        Jul 16, In Florida Norma Padgett (17) and her husband were reportedly assaulted by four black men near Okahumpka after their car broke down. Willie Padgett was robbed and Norma claimed she was raped. Samuel Shepherd (22), Walter Irvin (22) and Charles Greenlee (16) were beaten in a jail after their arrests. Ernest Thompson (26) was killed by a posse days after the alleged crime. Thompson was shot more than 400 times. Three years later Sheriff Willis McCall shot Irvin and Shepherd as he drove them from prison to a 2nd trial. The case was later documented by Gilbert King in "The Devil in the Grove" and by Gary Corsair in "The Groveland Four: The Sad Saga of a Legal Lynching". In 2019 Florida Gov. Ron DeSantis granted posthumous pardons to the four men. In 2021 a circuit court judge in Lake County cleared the charges against the men and issued a ruling that effectively exonerated them of the crime.
    (SFC, 1/11/19, p.A10)(SFC, 1/12/19, p.A6)(NBC News, 11/22/21)

1949        Nov 13, Whoopi Goldberg, [Caryn Johnson], actress (Color Purple, Burglar, Ghost), was born in NYC.
    (MC, 11/13/01)

1949        The interracial drama film "Pinky" starred Jeanne Crain and Bert Conway (d.2002 at 87). It was directed by Elia Kazan. It was banned in Marshall, Texas, but the censoring ordnance was declared unconstitutional by the US Supreme Court.
    (SFEC, 3/14/99, p.D5)(SFC, 2/18/02, p.B6)(SFC, 12/15/03, p.A24)

1950        Jan 24, Jackie Robinson signed highest contract ($35,000) in Dodger history.
    (MC, 1/24/02)

1950        Feb 6, Natalie Cole, vocalist (Pink Cadillac, Miss You Like Crazy, Mona Lisa), was born in LA, Calif.
    (MC, 2/6/02)

1950        Apr 3, Carter G. Woodson (b.1875), black historian, died. Woodson is best known for is the creation of what became "Black History Month," begun in 1926 as "Negro History Week." The idea of learning more about black history caught on in schools all over the country. Many scholars recognize him as the “Father of Black History." His work included “The Negro in Our History" (1922).
    (WSJ, 5/19/05, p.D8)(www.biography.com/articles/Carter-G.-Woodson-9536515)

1950        Apr 25, Chuck Cooper became the 1st black to play in the NBA.
    (SS, 4/25/02)

1950        Apr 27, South Africa passed the Group Areas Act, formally segregating races.
    (HN, 4/27/98)(SFEC, 10/15/00, p.T8)

1950        May 1, Gwendolyn Brooks became the first African American to win the Pulitzer Prize for her book of poetry called "Annie Allen."
    (HN, 5/1/99)

1950        May 13, Steveland Morris Hardaway (AKA Stevie Wonder) was born prematurely, on this day in Saginaw, Mi. Too much oxygen in the incubator caused the baby to become permanently blind.  At the age of ten, Little Stevie Wonder, as he was called by Berry Gordy at Motown, was discovered singing and playing the harmonica. He had many hits during his teens including "Fingertips" and as an adult he has earned an Oscar and at least sixteen Grammy Awards. He has stood up for civil rights, campaigns against cancer, AIDS, drunk driving and the plight of Ethiopians.
    (MC, 5/13/02)

1950        Aug 22, Althea Gibson became the first black tennis player to be accepted in competition for the national championship.
    (AP, 8/22/00)

1950        Oct 3, "The Beulah Show" starred Ethel Waters (1896-1977), American singer and actress, as a maid. The TV series continued to 1953.
    (https://www.imdb.com/title/tt0042081/)(SSFC, 10/6/19, p.B10)

1950        Dec 4, University of Tennessee defied court rulings by rejecting five Negro applicants.
    (HN, 12/4/98)
1950        Dec 4, In North Korea the US Navy's first black pilot, Ensign Jesse Brown, was downed in his fighter plane in the Jangjin Reservoir. Wing man Lt. j.g. Thomas Hudner crashed landed his plane in a failed attempt to save Brown. In 2013 Hudner returned to the site of the crash.
    (AP, 7/19/13)

1950        Dec 10, Dr. Ralph J. Bunche (b.1904) became the first African-American to receive the Nobel Peace Prize.
    (AP, 12/10/97)(HN, 12/10/98)

1950        The Univ. of Missouri admitted its first black student.
    {Missouri, Black History}
    (SFC, 11/9/15, p.A6)

1951        Feb 16, NYC passed a bill prohibiting racism in city-assisted housing.
    (MC, 2/16/02)

1951        May 24, Racial segregation in Washington D.C. restaurants was ruled illegal.
    (HN, 5/24/98)

1951        Jul 12, A mob tried to keep a black family from moving into all-white Cicero, Ill.
    (MC, 7/12/02)

1951        Jul 14, The George Washington Carver National Monument in Joplin, Missouri became the first national park honoring an African American.
    (HN, 7/14/98)

1951        Aug 22, Harlem Globetrotters played in Olympic Stadium at Berlin before 75,052.
    (MC, 8/22/02)

1951        Oct 4, Henrietta Lacks, a black woman, died of cancer in Baltimore. Cells from her body,  later known as HeLa cells, were cultivated for research. In 1974 Dr. Nelson-Rees (d.2009 at 80), a UC Berkeley geneticist, reported that the HeLa cells had contaminated other cell cultures in laboratories around the world. In 1986 Michael Gold authored “A Conspiracy of Cells," a chronicle of the Nelson-Rees study. In 2010 Rebecca Skloot authored “The Immortal Life of Henrietta Lacks."
    (SFC, 1/28/09, p.B10)(SSFC, 2/14/10, p.F3)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Henrietta_Lacks)

1951        South Carolina passed an anti-lynching law in response to the mob murder of Willie Earle, who was dragged from jail and gunned down in retaliation for the death of a cabbie.
    (SSFC, 5/18/03, p.A6)

1951        Oliver W. Hill (1907-2007), a black lawyer, argued on behalf of students protesting deplorable conditions at a high school for African Americans in Farmville, Va. The case became one of 5 that were decided in the 1954 Supreme Court Brown vs. Board of Education decision.
    (SFC, 8/6/07, p.A2)

1952        Mar 24, Great demonstrations took place against apartheid in South Africa.
    (MC, 3/24/02)

1952        Oct 2, Superior Judge Melvyn I. Cronin ruled that the SF Housing Authority’s policy of barring blacks from all but one permanent low-rent public housing project was unconstitutional.
    (SFC, 9/27/02, p.E2)

1952            Oct 26, Hattie McDaniel (b.1895) actress (Gone With the Wind), died in Woodland Hills, Ca., of breast cancer. She was the first black actor/actress to receive an Academy Award. In 2005 Jill Watts authored “Hattie McDaniel: Black Ambition, White Hollywood."
    (www.imdb.com/name/nm0567408/)(SSFC, 10/30/05, p.M3)

1952        Dec 30, Tuskegee Institute reported 1952 as the 1st yr in the last 71 with no US lynchings.
    (MC, 12/30/01)

1953        Jun 7, Four civics groups demanded that the SF Housing Authority give up its insistence on racial segregation.
    (SFC, 6/6/03, p.E2)

1953        Aug 4, Black families moved into the Trumbull Park housing project in Chicago.
    (MC, 8/4/02)

1953        Rev. T.J. Jemison organized a bus boycott in Baton Rouge, Louisiana. It was the 1st of its kind and became a model for the 1955 Martin Luther King rebellion in Montgomery, Ala.
    (NW, 6/9/03, p/14)
1953        Thomas Watson Jr., the son of IBM chief Thomas Watson, threatened to cancel plans for plants in Kentucky and North Carolina if they could not be fully racially integrated. State governors backed down and the plants opened 3 years later.
    (Econ, 6/11/11, p.66)

1954        Jan 29, Oprah Winfrey, actress, TV host (Color Purple, Oprah), was born in Mississippi.
    (MC, 1/29/02)

1954        May 17, The US Supreme Court unanimously ruled for school integration in the landmark initiative of Brown vs. Board of Education of Topeka. It helped abolish de facto and de jure segregation that persisted throughout the US. The Supreme Court ruled that racial segregation in public schools is unconstitutional. The 12-page historic opinion was written by Chief Justice Earl Warren. The result overturned the 1896 decision of Plessy vs. Ferguson that proclaimed a doctrine of separate but equal. The Plessy decision had allowed that as long as accommodation existed, segregation did not constitute discrimination, establishing the doctrine of "separate but equal." In the Brown case, which involved elementary education, the Court ruled unanimously that segregation in public education was a denial of the equal protection of the laws.
    (www.nationalcenter.org/brown.html)(SFC, 5/12/96, p.A-6)(SFEC, 6/8/97, BR p.8)
1954        May 17, Blacks hailed the Brown vs. Board of Education of Topeka decision. Whites in the Deep South called the day "Black Monday." A movement called Citizens’ Councils, led by Mississippi Circuit Court Judge Tom P. Brady, grew to encompass virtually the state's entire white business class. Council members published a book entitled “Black Monday" which outlined their simple beliefs: African Americans were inferior to whites and the races must remain separate. "If in one mighty voice we do not protest this travesty on justice, we might as well surrender," Brady wrote.
    (www.pbs.org/wgbh/amex/till/peopleevents/e_councils.html)(MT, summer 2003, p.19)

1954        Jul 17, The 1st major league baseball game was played where a majority of a team was black (Dodgers).
    (MC, 7/17/02)

1954        Aug 23, The small community of Charleston, Arkansas, became the first in the South to end segregation in its schools. This was in response to the May 17 US Supreme Court ruling on Brown vs. Board of Education.
    (Econ, 9/22/07, p.44)(http://ideas.aetn.org/productions/virtualtours/lrcentral/10)

1954        Sep 1, Martin Luther King Jr. (1929-1968) became pastor at the Dexter Avenue Baptist Church in Montgomery, Alabama.
    (SFEM, 2/2/97, p.8)(ON, 4/2011, p.2)

1954        Sep 7-8, Integration of public schools began in Washington DC and Baltimore, Md.
    (HN, 9/7/98)(www.courtinfo.ca.gov/presscenter/timeline.htm)

1954-1963    This period of the civil rights era was covered in Taylor Branch’s book: "Parting the Waters: American in the King Years, 1954-1963."
    (SFC, 3/26/02, p.A24)

1955        Mar 2, Claudette Colvin (15) refused to give up her seat in Montgomery, Alabama, nine months before Rosa Parks' famous arrest for the same offense. She was arrested and charged violating the city’s segregation law, disorderly conduct and assaulting an officer. The first two charges were dropped, but the assault charge remained on her record until 2021.
    (HN, 3/2/00)(NBC News, 12/16/21)

1955        Mar 21, Walter White (b.1893), African American leader, died. As executive secretary (1931-1955) he built the NAACP into America’s most influential civil rights organization. In 2008 Thomas Dyja authored “Walter White: The Dilemma of Black Identity in America."
    (WSJ, 10/18/08, p.W8)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Walter_Francis_White)

1955        May 18, Mary McLeod Bethune (79), educator & civil rights leader, died.
    (SC, 5/18/02)

1955        Aug 28, Emmett Till (14), a black teenager from Chicago, was abducted from his uncle's home in Money, Miss., by white men after he had supposedly whistled at Carolyn Bryant, a white woman. Till’s beaten body was found three days later. His left eye and an ear were missing, as were most of his teeth. His nose was rushed and there was a hole in his right temple. Eyewitnesses linked Carolyn’s husband Roy Bryant and half-brother J.W. Milam to the murder. Bryant and Milam were indicted Sep 10 for a trial on Sep 19. Both were acquitted by an all-white jury. Bryant and Milan later confessed to the killing in a magazine interview. The area was a cotton-trading center where the white Citizens Councils maintained their regional headquarters. In 2004 the US Justice Dept. opened a criminal investigation into the case. In 2005 the US Senate acknowledged a share in the boy’s death. In 2017 Timothy Tyson authored "The Blood of Emmett Till." In 2018 the federal government reopened its investigation in the case.
    (AP, 8/28/99)(SFC, 5/11/04, p.A4)(SFC, 6/14/05, p.A2)(SFC, 9/9/05, p.F5)(SFC, 3/17/06, p.A5)(SFC, 7/25/13, p.A20)(SFC, 7/13/18, p.A7)

1955        Nov 20, The Maryland National Guard was ordered desegregated.
    (HN, 11/20/98)

1955        Dec 1, Rosa Parks (42), a seamstress and secretary of the Montgomery NAACP, was arrested in Montgomery, Alabama, as she sat in a section of a bus just behind the area reserved for whites. She refused to move to the back the bus, to accommodate a white male passenger, as ordered by driver James F. Blake (d.2002 at 89) and defied the South’s segregationist laws. This prompted the Dec. 5 bus boycott, a year-long boycott of the buses by blacks, and launched the Civil Rights movement in the United States. Virginia Durr (d.1999 at 95) helped a black civil rights leader bail Parks out of jail. In 1985 Durr wrote her memoir: "Outside the Magic Circle." In 1999 Pres. Clinton authorized a Congressional Gold Medal for Rosa Parks.
    (SFC, 5/12/96, p.A-6)(SFEC, 9/15/96, p.A2)(SFEM, 2/2/97, p.8)(AP, 12/1/97)(SFC, 3/10/99, p.A23)(SFC, 5/5/99, p.A3)(SFC, 3/26/02, p.A24)

1955        Dec 5, The Montgomery, Alabama, bus boycott began in an effort to overturn the city’s bus segregation law. It was organized in part by Jo Ann Robinson (1912-1992), Fred D. Grey, E.D. Nixon, Rev. Martin Luther King Jr. and others, following the Dec 1 arrest of Rosa Parks, who had refused give up her seat to a white male passenger and move to the back. Black residents chose Mr. King to head The Montgomery Improvement Association, formed to sustain the protest against segregation policies on the municipal buses.
    (ON, 4/2011, p.2)(SFEM, 2/2/97, p.8)

1955        Dec 9, Sugar Ray Robinson won the middle-weight boxing crown for the third time when he knocked out Carl "Bobo" Olson.
    (SFC, 6/29/96, p.E4)(HN, 12/9/98)

1955        San Francisco hired Earl Gage (1926-2017) its first black firefighter. Gage remained the city’s only black firefighter up to 1967.
    (SSFC, 8/13/17, p.C1)

1956        Feb 3, Autherine Lucy (b.1929) arrived at the Tuscaloosa branch of the Univ. of Alabama and became the first black person to enroll there. She had been accepted in 1952 and then was denied because of her race.

1956        Feb 6, The Univ. of Alabama board of trustees voted to suspend Autherine Lucy, the 1st black admitted to school, on the grounds that the campus was no longer safe for her.

1956        Apr 11, Singer Nat Cole was attacked on stage of Birmingham theater by whites.
    (MC, 4/11/02)

1956        Apr 23, US Supreme court ended race segregation on buses.
    (MC, 4/23/02)

1956        May 2, US Methodist church disallowed race separation.
    (MC, 5/2/02)

1956        Aug 30, A white mob prevented the enrollment of blacks at Mansfield HS, Texas.
    (MC, 8/30/01)

1956        Nov 13, The U.S. Supreme Court struck down the Alabama bus segregation law. The Supreme Court struck down laws calling for racial segregation on public buses.
    (AP, 11/13/97)(HN, 11/13/98)

1956        Dec 6, Nelson Mandela and 156 others were arrested for political activities in South Africa. They were charged with treason for supporting the Freedom Charter, which called for a non-racial and socialist-based economy.
    (MC, 12/6/01)(SFC, 12/6/13, p.A18)

1956        Dec 20, The Supreme Court affirmed the Jun 5 decision against segregation on buses in Montgomery, Alabama. Montgomery removed race-based seat assignments on its buses.
    (SFEM, 1/19/97, BR p.8)(SFEM, 2/2/97, p.12,13)(ON, 4/2011, p.4)

1956        Dec 24, African Americans defied a city law in Tallahassee, Fla., and occupied front bus seats.
    (HN, 12/24/98)

1956        Kenneth Stampp (1913-2009), US Berkeley historian, authored “The Peculiar Institution: Slavery in the Antebellum South."
    (SFC, 7/22/09, p.D5)

1957        Jan 10, Rev. Martin Luther King Jr. organized the Southern Christian Leadership Conference (SCLC) to fight facial segregation by means of nonviolent protests. In 1986 David J. Garrow authored “Bearing the Cross: Martin Luther King Jr. and the Southern Christian Leadership Conference."
    (ON, 4/2011, p.4,5)

1957        Jan 23, Willie Edwards (25), US black, was murdered by KKK.
    (MC, 1/23/02)

1957        Feb 14, The Georgia Senate approved Sen Leon Butts' bill barring blacks from playing baseball with whites.
    (HN, 2/14/98)(MC, 2/14/02)
1957        Feb 14, The “Southern Leadership Conference" was formed in New Orleans, Louisiana. Officers were elected which included: Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr. as President, Dr. Ralph David Abernathy as Financial Secretary-Treasurer, Rev. C. K. Steele of Tallahassee, Florida as Vice President, Rev. T. J. Jemison of Baton Rouge, Louisiana as Secretary, and Attorney I. M. Augustine of New Orleans, Louisiana as General Counsel. In August the name was changed to "Southern Christian Leadership Conference" at its first convention in Montgomery, Alabama.

1957        May 22, South Africa government approved race separation in universities.
    (MC, 5/22/02)

1957        Jun 17, The Tuskegee boycott began as Blacks boycotted city stores.
    (MC, 6/17/02)

1957        Aug 29, Congress passed the Civil Rights Act of 1957. South Carolina Sen. Strom Thurmond (then a Democrat) ended a filibuster against a civil rights bill after talking for 24 hours and 18 minutes. Arnold Aronson (d.1998 at 86) help to lobby for the bill. [see Aug 30]
    (AP, 8/29/97)(SFC, 2/20/98, p.A23)(SSFC, 12/17/00, Par p.15)(MC, 8/29/01)

1957        Aug 30, In an effort to stall the Civil Rights Act of 1957 from passing, Senator Strom Thurmond (D-S.C.) filibustered for over 24 hours. The bill passed, but Thurmond’s filibuster becomes the longest in Senate history. [see Aug 29]
    (HN, 8/30/00)

1957        Sep 4, Arkansas National guardsmen turned away Black students from Central High School in Little Rock. 9 students made it into the school on September 24 under the protection of federal troops sent by Pres. Eisenhower. In 2007 Elizabeth Jacoway authored “Turn Away Thy Son: Little Rock, the Crises That Shocked the Nation."
    (AH, 10/07, p.61)

1957        Sep 23, Nine black students who had entered Little Rock Central High School in Arkansas were forced to withdraw because of a white mob outside. Pres. Eisenhower signed Executive Order 10730 to send Federal troops to maintain order and peace while the integration of Central High School in Little Rock, AR, took place.
    (AP, 9/23/97)(www.ourdocuments.gov/doc.php?flash=true&doc=89)

1957        Sep 24, President Dwight D. Eisenhower sent federal troops into Little Rock, Arkansas, to protect nine black students entering its newly integrated high school.
    (HN, 9/24/98)

1957        Sep 25, With 300 members of the U.S. Army's 101st Airborne Division standing guard, nine black children forced to withdraw from Central High School in Little Rock, Ark., because of unruly white crowds, were escorted to class. Vice principle Elizabeth Huckaby (d.1999 at 93) escorted the children and in 1980 published "Crisis at Central High."
    (SFC, 3/26/99, p.D5)(AP, 9/25/07)

1958        May 27, Ernest Green and 600 whites graduated from Little Rock's Central High School. Green became the first black Central High graduate.

1958        Jun, Richard Loving, a white man, and Mildred Jeter, of African American and American Indian ancestry, traveled from Caroline County, Va., to marry in Washington, DC. Upon returning home they were arrested for violating the state’s 1924 Racial Integrity Act. Their one year sentenced was suspended on condition that they leave the state.
    (SFC, 2/14/12, p.E4)

1958        Aug 4, Mary Decker Stanley, winner of seven track and field records, was born.
    (HN, 8/4/98)

1958        Aug 29, Michael Jackson, pop singer, entertainer, was born.
    (HN, 8/29/98)

1958        Sep 20, Rev. Martin Luther King was stabbed by Izola Curry, a deranged woman, during a book signing on 125th St. in Harlem. Dr. Aubre De Lambert Maynard (d.1999 at 97) performed a successful operation on King who had a knife embedded in his sternum. Curry was later found mentally incompetent.
    (SFC, 3/25/99, p.C3)(AP, 9/20/08)

1958        Oct 5, Racially desegregated Clinton High School in Clinton, Tenn., was mostly leveled by an early morning bombing.
    (AP, 10/5/08)

1958        Caryl Phillips, writer, was born in the West Indies. He later authored "The Atlantic Sound," a look at 3 major ports of the slave trade.
    (SSFC, 6/16/02, p.M2)
1958        Charles Harrison (1931-2018), an African-American designer, was put in charge of redesigning the 3-D View-Master, first introduced in 1939. He made it lighter, more durable and easy enough to be used by a child. In 1961 he was hired by Sears and became the company's first black executive.
    (SFC, 12/7/18, p.C12)

1959        Jun, Supervisors of Prince Edward County, Va., passed a $210,654 budget that provided no money for public schools and cut the property tax in half rather than comply with school desegregation. The public schools closed down for 5 years. The county whites opened a tuition-free, private academy for white children.
    (WSJ, 5/17/04, p.A1)

1959        In San Francisco Dorothy and Art Adams, a black couple, purchased a house in the Westwood Park area of San Francisco, but were not allowed to move in for six months due to Article XIII of the neighborhood’s declaration of Covenants, Codes and Restrictions, despite the 1948 Supreme Court ruling declaring them unenforceable.
    (SFC, 1/14/15, p.A11)

1959-1963    S. Ernest Vandiver served as governor of Georgia. His campaign motto was "No, not one," meaning not one black child in a white school.
    (SSFC, 12/22/02, p.A3)

1960        Feb 1, Four black North Carolina A&T students staged a sit-in in a dime store in Greensboro, NC, lunch counter, where they'd been refused service, to begin the first of the historic 1960s sit-ins.
    (AP, 2/1/97)(AH, 2/05, p.16)

1960        Feb 25, In Alabama 35 black men and women, mostly students from Alabama State Univ., launched the state's first sit-in against racial segregation at the Montgomery County Courthouse snack bar.
    (SFC, 2/25/20, p.A5)

1960        Mar 9, Roslyn Pope published “An Appeal for Human Rights." She had just come home from Europe to a segregated South and channeled her frustrations into writing the appeal which announced the formation of the Atlanta Student Movement, whose campaign of civil disobedience broke a suffocating stalemate over civil rights in Atlanta and hastened the end of racist Jim Crow laws and policies across the region.
    (AP, 3/8/20)

1960         Mar 1, 1,000 Black students prayed and sang the national anthem on the steps of the old Confederate Capitol in Montgomery, Ala.
    (HN, 3/1/98)

1960        Mar 21, A police massacre in Sharpeville, South Africa, left 69 black protestors dead as people gathered to protest the pass books that the apartheid government required them to carry at all times. The ANC was outlawed.
    (SFC, 12/5/96, p.C2)(SFEC, 2/9/97, Z1 p.7)(AP, 3/21/08)

1960        Apr 10, The US Senate passed a landmark Civil Rights Bill.
    (HN, 4/10/98)

1960        Jul 31, Elijah Muhammad, leader of Nation of Islam, called for a black state.
    (MC, 7/31/02)

1960        Aug 7, Students staged kneel-in demonstrations in Atlanta churches.
    (MC, 8/7/02)

1960        Aug 9, There was a race riot in Jacksonville Florida.
    (MC, 8/9/02)

1960        Aug 25,  The 17th summer Olympics opened in Rome. Wilma Rudolph (1940-1994), was the first African American to win three gold medals in a single Olympiad. Her athleticism was remarkable since Rudolph contracted polio as a small child and spent six years in a steel brace. With therapy and hard work, Rudolph overcame her handicap to excel in basketball and track. As a celebrity, she worked to break many gender and racial barriers. Rudolph died of brain cancer.
    (WSJ, 7/19/96, p.R6)(HN, 6/23/98)(chblue.com, 8/25/01)

1960        Aug, Rafer Johnson (1934-2020) carried the American flag into Rome’s Olympic Stadium as the first Black captain of a United States Olympic team. He went on to win gold in a memorable decathlon duel, bringing him acclaim as the world’s greatest all-around athlete.
    (NY Times, 12/3/20)

1960        Oct 19, Martin Luther King Jr. was arrested in Atlanta after asking to be served at a whites-only dining room at Rich's Department Store.
    (SFC, 4/4/20, p.A3)

1960        Nov 13, Sammy Davis Jr. married Swedish actress May Britt.
    (MC, 11/13/01)

1960        Nov 14, New Orleans integrated two all white schools. Ruby Bridges, a 6-year-old black girl, entered a previously all-white school flanked by 4 federal marshals before a phalanx of angry racists. A 1998 Disney movie "Ruby Bridges" portrayed the event, which was captured by Norman Rockwell in his painting: "The Problem We all Live With."
    (WSJ, 1/8/98, p.A7)(HN, 11/14/98)

1960        Zora Neale Hurston (b.1903), black author, died. Her 1942 autobiography was titled "Dust Tracks on a Road." In 1977 Robert Hemenway authored a biography of Hurston. In 2002 Cora Kaplan edited "Zora Neale Hurston: A Life in Letters." In 2002 Valerie Boyd authored the biography "Wrapped in Rainbows."
    (WSJ, 12/20/02, p.W8)(SSFC, 12/29/02, p.M1)

1961        Jan 11, There was a race riot at the University of Georgia.
    (MC, 1/11/02)

1961        Jan 31, In South Carolina 10 black men were arrested for ordering lunch from a whites-only counter at McCrory’s variety store in Greensboro. One man paid a fine and the rest became known as the “Friendship Nine." In 2015 prosecutors sought to vacate their arrests and convictions.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Friendship_Nine)(SFC, 1/28/15, p.A10)

1961        Mar 27, In San Francisco the hiring of the city’s first Negro milk route driver precipitated name calling an argument between Mayor George Christopher and Terry Francois, head of the local NAACP. The mayor said Teamsters Local 226 would not let Negroes into the union. Christopher, owner of Christopher Dairy Farms, had hired William Garrick (24) to run a route in South San Francisco serving schools and restaurants.
    (SSFC, 3/27/11, DB p.42)
1961        Mar 27, In Mississippi nine students of Tougaloo College participated in a peaceful "read-in" at Jackson's white-only publicly funded library. Police were called and the "Tougaloo Nine" were charged with breach of the peace. This was later considered the first student protest of segregation at a public institution in Mississippi.
    (SFC, 1/14/21, p.A4)

1961        Mar 29, In South Africa Nelson Mandela was acquitted on a treason charge after a 4 year trial .
    (MC, 3/29/02)

1961        May 4, A group of 13 CORE civil rights activists, dubbed "Freedom Riders" left Washington, D.C., for New Orleans to challenge racial segregation on buses and in bus terminals.
    (AP, 5/4/97)(HN, 5/4/98)(MC, 5/4/02)

1961        May 13, Dennis Rodman, NBA forward (Chicago Bulls), was born.
    (MC, 5/13/02)

1961        May 14, Bus with 1st group of Freedom Riders was bombed and burned in Alabama.
    (MC, 5/14/02)

1961        May 20, A white mob attacked a busload of "Freedom Riders" in Montgomery, Ala., prompting the federal government to send in U.S. marshals to restore order.
    (AP, 5/20/97)(HN, 5/20/98)

1961        May 24, The 27 Freedom Riders, civil rights activists, were arrested in Jackson, Mississippi.
    (HN, 5/24/98)(MC, 5/24/02)

1961        May 26, Civil rights activist group Freedom Ride Coordinating Committee was established in Atlanta.
    (HN, 5/26/98)

1961        May 28, SF lawyer Willie Brown (27) charged that he has been rebuffed by salesmen while trying to look at a model home in the Forest Knolls tract of San Francisco.
    (SSFC, 5/29/11, DB p.46)

1961        Aug 16, Martin Luther King protested for black voting rights in Miami.
    (MC, 8/16/02)

1961        Dec 12, Martin Luther King Jr & 700 demonstrators were arrested in Albany, Ga.
    (MC, 12/12/01)

1961        In Chicago the DuSable Museum of African American History was founded by Margaret Burroughs.
    (Econ, 9/12/15, p.31)
1961        Dorothy Butler Gilliam (23) made history by becoming the first black female reporter for The Washington Post. Gilliam later co-founded the Institute for Journalism Education, now renamed the Maynard Institute. She also guided the National Association of Black Journalists as a vice president and president. Her autobiography "Trailblazer: A Pioneering Journalist's Fight to Make the Media Look More Like America" was published in 2019.
    {DC, USA, Black History, Journalism, Women}
    (AP, 3/5/20)
1961        W.E.B. Du Bois (93), Black American writer and reformer, renounced his American citizenship and spent his last remaining years in the West African country of Ghana. He came to live in Ghana at the invitation of President Kwame Nkrumah. Born in Massachusetts on February 23, 1868, Du Bois earned three degrees at Harvard, including a Ph.D., and taught history at Atlanta University from 1896-1910. He took a militant position on race relations, founded the Niagara Movement, edited the Crises magazine, was a longtime official in the NAACP and author of numerous important works. Du Bois died in Accra on August 27, 1963.
    (HNQ, 5/11/99)(BBC, 10/13/21)
1961        In South Africa Nelson Mandela helped establish the ANC guerrilla wing, Umkhonto we Sizwe (Spear of the nation).
    (SFC, 12/6/13, p.A18)

1962        Jan 23, Jackie Robinson (1919-1972) became the first African-American elected to Baseball Hall of Fame.

1962        Feb 26, US Supreme court disallowed race separation on public transportation.
    (SC, 2/26/02)

1962        Mar 10, The Phillies baseball club left the Jack Tar Harrison Hotel due to its no black policy and moved to Rocky Point Motel, 20 miles outside Clearwater, Florida.

1962        Jul 10, Martin Luther King Jr. was arrested during a demonstration in Georgia.
    (MC, 7/10/02)

1962        Jul 21, 160 civil right activists were jailed after demonstration in Albany, Ga.
    (MC, 7/21/02)

1962        Jul 27, Martin Luther King Jr. was jailed in Albany, Georgia.
    (MC, 7/27/02)

1962        Aug 5, In South Africa Nelson Mandela was arrested near Howick and charged with illegally leaving the country and incitement to strike. He was later sentenced to five years of hard labor.
    (SFC, 12/6/13, p.A18)

1962        Aug 15, Shady Grove Baptist Church was burned in Leesburg, Georgia.
    (MC, 8/15/02)

1962        Sep 20, Black student James Meredith was blocked from enrolling at the University of Mississippi by Governor Ross R. Barnett. Meredith was later admitted. A Life Magazine photograph around this time showed 7 sheriffs gathered at Ole Miss to keep Meredith out. In 2003 Paul Hendrickson authored "Sons of Mississippi: A Story of Race and Its Legacy," in which he uncovered the lives of the 7 sheriffs.
    (AP, 9/20/97)(SSFC, 4/6/03, p.M1)

1962        Sep 30, Black student James Meredith succeeded on his fourth try in registering for classes at the University of Mississippi. He became the first black to enroll at Old Miss Univ. and 13,500 Federal troops were required to back him up. U.S. Marshals escorted James H. Meredith into the University of Mississippi; two died in the mob violence that followed. Meredith was also noted for starting the "March Against Fear" to encourage voter registration by Southern African Americans. While on the march he was hit with a snipers bullet. Other Civil Rights leaders including MLK continued the march. Meredith was able to complete the march in Jackson, Mississippi.
    (TMC, 1994, p.1962)(AP, 9/30/97)(HN, 9/30/98)

1962        Nov 6, Saudi Arabia abolished slavery.

1962        Ralph Ginzburg (1929-2006), NYC journalist, authored “100 Years of Lynchings," a chronicle of racist hangings in the South.
    (SFC, 7/7/06, p.B9)

1962        William Matney Jr. (d.2001 at 76) became the 1st black reporter and writer for the Detroit News. In 1963 he was recruited by NBC News as their 1st black correspondent.
    (SSFC, 6/17/01, p.A27)

1962        Augustus F. Hawkins (1907-2007) of south Los Angeles became the first black person from California to be elected to the US Congress.
    (SFC, 11/13/07, p.D9)

1963        Jan 14, George C. Wallace was sworn in as governor of Alabama with a pledge of "segregation forever."
    (AP, 1/14/98)

1963        Mar 18, Vanessa L. Williams, 1st black Miss America (1983), singer, was born in Millwood, NY.
    (MC, 3/18/02)

1963        Apr 2, Reverend Dr. Martin Luther King began the first non-violent campaign in Birmingham, Alabama.
    (AP, 4/2/99)

1963        Apr 12, Police used dogs and cattle prods on peaceful civil rights demonstrators in Birmingham, Alabama.
    (HN, 4/12/98)

1963        Apr 27, San Francisco real estate developer Marvin L. Sheldon said he wants no negroes in any of the homes he has built in Golden Gate Heights. He recently rejected a $39,950 offer by Wilt Chamberlain, star of the San Francisco Warriors, for a home.
    (SSFC, 4/28/13, p.50)

1963        May 3, In Birmingham, Alabama, police Commissioner Bull Connor unleashed dogs and high-powered fire hoses on boycott-bound school children.
    (SFEC, 3/16/97, p.T5)

1963        May 11, Racial bomb attacks took place in Birmingham, Alabama.
    (MC, 5/11/02)

1963        May 12, There was a race riot in Birmingham, Alabama.
    (MC, 5/12/02)

1963        Jun 11, JFK said segregation is morally wrong & that it is "time to act."
    (SC, 6/11/02)

1963        Jun 12, Medgar Evers (37), leader (field director) of the NAACP in Mississippi, was fatally shot in front of his home in Jackson by the KKK. An informant in the KKK, Delmar Dennis (1940-1996), later served as a key prosecution witness in convicting Byron De La Beckwith (d.2001 at 80) for the slaying. A book by Bill McIlhany titled "Klandestine" recounts the story. In 1996 Whoopi Goldberg starred in the film "Ghosts of Mississippi" as the widow of Medgar Evers. In 1998 Willie Morris wrote "The Ghosts of Medgar Evers: A Tale of Race, Murder, Mississippi, and Hollywood."
    (SFC, 6/5/96, p.C5)(NYT, 6/7/96, p.B14)(AP, 6/12/97)(SFEC, 2/1/98, BR p.5)(SFC, 1/22/01, p.A22)

1963        Jun 18, 3,000 blacks boycotted Boston public school.
    (MC, 6/18/02)

1963        Jun 23, Byron De La Beckwith VI (1920-2001) was initially arrested for the June 12 death of Medgar Evers.  He was thereafter twice tried for this offense in 1964. The first trial ended in a hung jury and mistrial on February 7, 1964. The second trial ended in a hung jury and mistrial on April 17, 1964.  In 1994, he was tried by the state in a new trial based on new evidence, convicted of the murder by a mixed jury, and sentenced to life in prison.

1963        Jun, Martin Luther King led the “Walk to Freedom" in Detroit, Mi.
    (Econ, 10/10/15, p.84)

1963        Aug 11, The Metropolitan Life Insurance Co. said San Francisco’s Parkmerced community, with a population of some 8,000, will be open to negroes.
    (SSFC, 8/11/13, DB p.42)

1963        Aug 19, NAACP Youth Council began sit-ins at lunch counters in Oklahoma City.
    (MC, 8/19/02)

1963        Aug 27, William Edward Burghardt Du Bois (b.1868), sociologist, influential leader of black Americans, founder of the National Negro Committee which eventually became the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People, died in Accra, Ghana at the age of 95. He coined the phrase "double consciousness" to describe the black survival skill of moving between the black and white American cultures.
    (WUD, 1994, p.439)(SFEC, 3/22/98, BR p.5)(HNPD, 2/23/99)(HNQ, 5/11/99)

1963        Aug 28, The civil rights March on Washington for Jobs and Freedom drew 200-250,000 demonstrators and was the occasion for King’s "I Have a Dream" speech in front of the Lincoln Memorial. It was organized by Bayard Rustin (1912-1987). In 1997 a biography of Rustin by Jervis Anderson was published: "Bayard Rustin: The Troubles I’ve Seen." The 1997 play "Civil Sex" by Brian Freeman was based on Rustin’s life. Rev. Thomas Kilgore Jr. (d.1998 at 84) helped organize the march on Washington. Martin Luther King led marches on Washington and Selma, Alabama. His chief lieutenant was Andrew Young who in 1996 wrote: "An Easy Burden: The Civil Rights Movement and the Transformation of America." Activist and later congressman John Lewis (1940-2020) was the youngest speaker.
    (WSJ, 11/6/96, p.A21)(SFEC, 1/26/97 BR, p.4)(WSJ, 1/30/97, p.A14)(AP, 8/28/97)(SFC, 2/7/98, p.21)(HN, 8/28/98)(Econ., 7/25/20, p.74)

1963        Sep 2, Alabama Gov. George C. Wallace prevented the integration of Tuskegee High School by encircling the building with state troopers.
    (AP, 9/2/97)(HN, 9/2/98)

1963        Sep 10, 20 black students entered public schools in Birmingham, Tuskegee and Mobile, Ala., following a standoff between federal authorities and Gov. George C. Wallace. President John F. Kennedy federalized Alabama's National Guard to prevent Governor George C. Wallace from using guardsmen to stop public-school desegregation.
    (AP, 9/10/97)(HN, 9/10/98)

1963        Sep 15, The Ku Klux Klan bombed the 16th St. Baptist Church in Birmingham, Alabama. Four young black girls (Denise McNair, Carole Robertson, Addie Collins, and Cynthia Wesley) were killed in the bombing as they prepared their Sunday school lesson on "The love that forgives." Later on the same day James Ware (16) and his brother Virgil (14) were shot at while bicycling home. Virgil was killed. Another James Ware went on to become a US district judge and falsely used the James and Virgil Ware story for self promotion. Judge Ware withdrew from a new appointment to the SF 9th Circuit Court of Appeals in 1997 after he admitted that he was not the same James Ware. In Birmingham, Alabama, police dogs were set on peaceful, Black demonstrators. The 1997 film "Four Little Girls" by Spike Lee was a documentary of the church burning in Alabama. In 1977 Robert Chambliss (d.1985) was tried and convicted of murder. Suspect Herman Cash died in 1994. In 2000 Thomas E. Blanton Jr. and Bobby Frank Cherry (d.2004) turned themselves in after they were indicted by a state grand jury. In 2001 Thomas Blanton was convicted of murder and sentenced to life in prison. Cherry was convicted May 22, 2002, and sentenced to life in prison.
    (SFC, 4/14/96, p.Z1, p.1)(SFC, 8/16/96, p.D11)(SFEC, 3/16/97, p.T5)(SFEC, 5/18/97, DB p.45)(SFC, 11/6/97, p.A9)(AP, 9/15/97)(SFC, 5/18/00, p.A1)(SFC, 5/2/01, p.A1)(SFC, 5/23/02, p.A1)(NW, 5/27/02, p.43)

1963        Sep 20, California’s legislature passed the Rumford Fair Housing Act, the state’s first law prohibiting racial discrimination in housing. It was authored by Assemblyman Byron Rumford (d.1986) of Oakland. The Proposition 14 referendum on November 3, 1964, saw a 2-to-1 vote in favor of repeal of the Rumford Act. It was restored in 1966 when the California Supreme Court ruled that Proposition 14 was illegal.
    {California, USA, Black History, Real Estate}
    (http://tinyurl.com/oe2tz73)(SFEM, 11/17/96, p.20)(SFC, 7/27/15, p.E2)

1963        Oct 9, In South Africa indictments began for the Rivonia trial and resulted in the jailing of Nelson Mandela and Govan Mbeki. In 1999 Glenn Frankel authored "Rivonia's Children." White activists (Joe Slovo and his wife Ruth First, Rusty and Hilda Bernstein, and Anna Marie and Harold Wolpe) of the South African Communist Party, involved in the trial, fled into exile. The trial was named after the area where the ANC members were arrested.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Rivonia_Trial)(WSJ, 10/4/99, p.A40)(SFC, 7/18/02, p.A26)(SFC, 12/6/13, p.A18)

1963        Nov 3, San Francisco police arrested 48 protesters at Mel’s Drive-In at 3355 Geary Blvd. They claimed that Mel’s, owned by Supervisor Harold Dobbs, refuses to hire Negroes for non-menial jobs.
    (SSFC, 11/3/13, DB p.42)

1964        Jan 26, Eighty-four people were arrested in a segregation protest in Atlanta.
    (HN, 1/26/99)

1964        Feb 24, Cassius Clay defeated Sonny Liston for the heavyweight boxing title.
    (TMC, 1994, p.1964)(MC, 2/24/02)

1964        Mar 1, In San Francisco demonstrations began at the Sheraton-Palace Hotel over racial hiring practices.
    (SFC, 3/1/14, p.A1)

1964        Mar 3, In San Francisco two days after protests at the Palace Hotel, demonstrators gathered to protest the hiring practices of the Cadillac salesroom on Van Ness. Student activist, Terence Hallinan, was arrested in a 2-day of protest against racial discrimination in hiring at the Sheraton Palace Hotel.
    (SFEC, 10/20/96, BR, p.6)(SFEM, 11/17/96, p.27)

1964        Mar 8, Malcolm X left the Black Muslim Movement. [see Mar 12]
    (MC, 3/8/02)

1964        Mar 12, Malcolm X resigned from Nation of Islam. [see Mar 8]
    (MC, 3/12/02)

1964        May 2, In Mississippi Charles Moore (19) and Henry Dee (19) were beaten and killed by local members of the Ku Klux Klan. Their mutilated bodies were later found in the Mississippi River while federal authorities searched for civil rights workers Goodman, Chaney and Schwerner. Charles Marcus Edwards and James Ford Seale were arrested for the crime, but neither was tried. In 2007 James Ford Seale (71) was arrested and charged with two counts of kidnapping and one count of conspiracy to commit kidnapping. In 2008 an appeals court ruled that the statue of limitations had expired overturning Seale’s conviction.
    (SFC, 7/15/05, p.A5)(AP, 1/25/07)(AP, 1/26/07)(www.msnbc.msn.com/id/26633038/)

1964        Jun 21, Three civil rights workers, Andrew Goodman (20), Michael Schwerner (24), and James Chaney (21) disappeared near Meridian, Mississippi. Their car was found burning late in the day. 40 days later their bodies were found buried in an earthen dam near Philadelphia, Miss. 8 Klansman went to prison on federal conspiracy charges but none served more than 6 years, and murder charges were never filed. The event inspired the 1988 film Mississippi Burning. In 2005 Edgar Ray Killen (80) was arrested in Philadelphia, Miss., and convicted of manslaughter in the abduction and killing of the 3 voter-registration volunteers. He was sentenced to three 20-year terms. Billy Wayne Posey (73), a key suspect in the killings, died in 2009. In 2016 federal prosecutors closed their investigation into the killings that remained unsolved. In 2021 sealed materials, dating from 1964 to 2007, became available for viewing by the public at William F. Winter Archives and History Building in Jackson.
    (SFEC, 2/16/97, p.A12)(AP, 6/21/97)(HN, 6/21/01)(SFC, 6/22/05, p.A1)(WSJ, 6/24/05, p.A1)(SSFC, 8/16/09, p.A9)(SFC, 6/22/16, p.A1)(AP, 6/27/21)

1964        Jun 29, Civil Rights Act of 1964 was passed after 83-day filibuster in Senate. [see Jul 2]
    (MC, 6/29/02)

1964        Jun, Some 700 young Americans began descending on Mississippi to teach in “freedom schools" and register black voters. In 2010 Bruce Watson authored “Freedom Summer: The Savage Season that made Mississippi Burn and Made America a Democracy."
    (Econ, 6/12/10, p.92)

1964        Jul 18, Riots erupted in the African American communities of NYC and Rochester, NY. The NYC race riot began in Harlem and spread to Bedford-Stuyvesant in Brooklyn.
    (SSFC, 6/9/02, p.F5)(MC, 7/18/02)

1964        Jul 24-27, A race riot took place in Rochester, New York, and 4 people were killed.
    (MC, 7/24/02)

1964        Jul 25, There was a race riot in Rochester, NY.
    (SC, 7/25/02)

1964        Aug 2, There was a race riot in Jersey City, NJ.
    (MC, 8/2/02)

1964        Aug 11, There was a race riot in Paterson, NJ.
    (MC, 8/11/02)

1964        Aug 12, There was a race riot in Elizabeth, NJ.
    (SC, 8/12/02)

1964        Aug 15, A race riot took place in Dixmoor, a suburb of Chicago, Ill.
    (MC, 8/15/02)

1964        Aug 28, Race riots took place in Philadelphia.
    (MC, 8/28/01)

1964        Dec 1, M.L. King spoke to J. Edgar Hoover about his slander campaign.
    (MC, 12/1/01)

1964        Roger Abrahams (1933-2017), American folklorist, authored “Deep Down in the Jungle: Negro Narrative Folklore from the Streets of Philadelphia."
    (SSFC, 7/2/17, p.C8)
1964        H. Rep Brown 1st signed up with the Student Nonviolating Coordinating Committee and registering voters.
    (SSFC, 1/6/02, p.A13)

1965        Jan 2, Dr. Martin Luther King Jr began a drive to register black voters.
    (MC, 1/2/02)

1965        Feb 1, In Selma, Alabama, Reverend Martin Luther King Jr. and 770 of his followers were arrested on their civil rights march. They protested against voter discrimination in Alabama.
    (SFEC, 3/16/97, p.T1)(HN, 2/1/99)

1965        Feb 14, Malcolm X’s home was firebombed. No injuries were reported.
    (HN, 2/14/98)

1965        Feb 18, Alabama police were sent to Marion as some 500 people marched from a church toward the city jail to protest the jailing of a civil rights worker. Street lights went out and troopers began swinging clubs on the marchers. Jimmie Lee Jackson (26) was shot while aiding his grandfather (82) and mother. Jackson died 2 days later. In 2007 trooper James Bonard Fowler was indicted for the shooting death of Jackson. In 2010 Fowler (77) pleaded guilty to 2nd degree manslaughter and was sentenced to 6 months in jail.
    (SFC, 5/10/07, p.A3)(SFC, 11/16/10, p.A17)

1965        Feb 21, Former Black Muslim leader El-Hajj Malik El-Shabazz, aka Malcolm X (born as Malcolm Little, 39), was shot to death in front of 400 people in New York by assassins identified as Black Muslims. He was murdered at the Audubon Ballroom in Manhattan. His wife, Betty Shabazz, was pregnant with twins and sat in the audience along with his 4-year-old daughter Quibilah. Three men, Norman 3X Butler (Abdul Aziz), Khalil Islam, and Thomas Hagan, connected to the Nation of Islam were convicted for the assassination. Aziz was paroled in 1985 and in 1998 was appointed by Louis Farrakhan to head a Harlem mosque. In 1992 James H. Cone authored a book about Malcolm X and Martin Luther King. In 2011 Manning Marable authored “Malcolm X: A Life of Reinvention." In 2021 Khalil Islam (d.2009) and Muhammad Aziz (83) were cleared of killing Malcolm X.
    (SFC, 6/24/97, p.A3)(AP, 2/21/98)(SFC, 3/26/98, p.A3)(SFC, 9/8/99, p.A7)(Econ, 4/9/11, p.94)(SFC, 11/18/21, p.A7)

1965        Feb 26, Jimmie Lee Jackson, civil rights activist, died of injuries.
    (SC, 2/26/02)

1965        Mar 7, A march by some 600 civil rights demonstrators was broken up in Selma, Ala., by state troopers and  posse under Sheriff Jim Clark (d.2007). The Black community of Marion, Ala., marched to protest the earlier killing of a demonstrator by a state trooper. John Lewis, later US Representative, led the march and was hit in the head by a state trooper.
    (AP, 3/7/98)(SFC, 3/8/99, p.A9)(SFC, 11/27/99, p.C3)(Econ, 6/16/07, p.99)

1965        Mar 11, The Rev. James J. Reeb (65), a white minister from Boston, died after whites beat him during civil rights disturbances in Selma, Ala.
    (AP, 3/11/98)(MC, 3/12/02)

1965        Mar 21, Martin Luther King Jr. led more than 3,000 civil rights demonstrators on the 50-mile march from Selma to Montgomery.
    (SFEC, 3/16/97, p.T1)(AP, 3/21/97)

1965        Mar 25, Martin Luther King Jr. led a group of 25,000 to the state capital in Montgomery Ala. to protest the denial of voting rights to blacks. Civil Rights pressures increased in the US and blacks and whites marched in Selma and Montgomery.
    (TMC, 1994, p.1965)(AP, 3/25/97)(HN, 3/24/98)
1965        Mar 25, Viola Liuzzo (b.1925), a white civil rights worker from Detroit, was shot and killed by the Ku Klux Klan on a road near Selma, Ala. The later trial of Collie Leroy Jenkins, one of 3 men charged in the killing, ended in a hung jury. Jenkins was also acquitted at a 2nd trial but was later convicted along with Eugene Thomas of civil rights violations in federal court and sentenced to 10 years in prison.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Viola_Liuzzo)(SSFC, 7/20/08, p.B6)

1965        Mar 28, In San Francisco the Rev. Martin Luther King said that his Southern Christian Leadership Conference would soon call for a massive economic withdrawal program against the State of Alabama.
    (SSFC, 3/29/15, DB p.42)

1965        Apr 2, Rodney King, black motorist brutally beaten by LA cops, was born in Sacramento, Calif.
    (MC, 4/2/02)

1965        Apr 13, Lawrence Wallace Bradford Jr. (16) was appointed by New York Republican Jacob Javits to be the first black page of the US Senate.
    (AP, 4/13/02)

1965        May 30, Vivian Malone (later Vivian Malone Jones) became the first black graduate of the University of Alabama with a degree in Business Management.
    (NYT, 10/14/2005, p.C15)

1965        Aug 12, There was a race riot in West Side of Chicago.
    (SC, 8/12/02)

1965        Aug, In Kentucky Alberta Jones (34), a civil rights pioneer and Louisville’s first black prosecutor, was brutally beaten and thrown into the Ohio River to drown.
    (http://nkaa.uky.edu/nkaa/items/show/1454)(SFC, 9/20/17 p.A6)

1965        Dec 1, South Africa government said children of white fathers are white.
    (MC, 12/1/01)

1965        Morrie Turner (1923-2014) unveiled his “Wee Palls" (1965) cartoon strip. He was the first African American cartoonist to draw a nationally syndicated strip exploring racial themes during the peak of the civil rights movement and beyond.
    (SFC, 1/29/14, p.E1)

1965        Ron Karenga founded US, a black power movement in Southern California shortly after the Watts riots. In 2003 Scot Brown authored "Fighting for US: Maulana Karenga, the US Organization and Black Cultural Nationalism."
    (SSFC, 8/3/03, p.M6)

1965        Daniel Patrick Moynihan (1927-2003), while employed under Pres. Kennedy at the Dept. of Labor,  authored a report that attributed problems among blacks to the deterioration of the family structure. In this year 8% of children were born to unmarried parents. By 2006 a third of all US children were born to unmarried parents as well as nearly 70% of black children.
    (SFC, 3/27/03, p.A15)(WSJ, 11/20/06, p.A1)

1966        Jan 10, In Mississippi Vernon Dahmer, a revered civil rights leader, was killed in a firebombing. In 1998 Klansmen Sam Bowers (73), Deavours Nix (72) and Charles Noble (55) were arrested for the murder. 8 men in 2 cars loaded with shotguns and 12 gallons of gasoline attacked Dahmer’s home. Billy Roy Pitts participated and later testified how Bowers had called meetings and presided over the planning of the bombing. Bowers was convicted in his 5th trial and sentenced to life in prison.
    (SFC, 5/29/98, p.A5)(SFC, 8/17/98, p.A5)(SFC, 8/20/98, p.A12)(WSJ, 8/24/98, p.A1)

1966        Jan 13, Robert C. Weaver became the first black Cabinet member as he was appointed Secretary of Housing and Urban Development by President Johnson.
    (AP, 1/13/98)

1966        Jan 18, Robert Clifton Weaver (1907-1997), the 1st African-American to hold a post in the presidential cabinet, was sworn in as head of the newly created Department of Housing and Urban Development under Pres. Johnson.
    (MC, 1/18/02)

1966        Mar 11, Three men were convicted of the murder of Malcolm X.
    (HN, 3/11/98)

1966        Apr 6, Emmett Ashford became the first African-American major league umpire. The highly regarded umpire was known for his dynamic and distinctive style of calling balls and strikes.
    (HN, 4/12/99)(HNQ, 4/15/00)(http://netscape.net/picassoaustin/homepage)

1966        May 13, Federal education funding was denied to 12 school districts in the South because of violations of the 1964 Civil Rights Act.
    (MC, 5/13/02)

1966        May 16, Stokely Carmichael was named chairman of Student Nonviolent Coordinating.
    (MC, 5/16/02)

1966        Jun 6, Stokely Carmichael launched the "Black Power" movement.
    (MC, 6/6/02)

1966        Jul 12, There were race riots in Chicago.
    (MC, 7/12/02)

1966        Jul 19, Gov. James Rhodes declared a state of emergency in Cleveland due to a race riot.
    (MC, 7/19/02)

1966        Aug 5, Martin Luther King Jr. was stoned during a march in Chicago.
    (MC, 8/5/02)

1966        Aug 7, There was a race riot in Lansing, Michigan.
    (MC, 8/7/02)

1966        Aug 27, There was a race riot in Waukegan, Illinois.
    (MC, 8/27/02)

1966        Sep 6, A race riot took place in the Summerhill neighborhood of Atlanta, Ga., from Sep 6-11. Blacks rioted after a suspected car thief is shot escaping a white cop and 138 people were arrested with 35 injured. Student Non-Violent Coordinating Committee's (SNCC's) Stokely Carmichael is indicted for inciting a riot, and Julian Bond resigns from SNCC.

1966        Oct 15, The Black Panthers wrote their Ten Point Program at the Office of Economic Development Corp. in Oakland, Ca. It called for adequate housing, jobs, education and an end to police brutality. The Black Panther Party was founded by Merritt College students Huey Newton and Bobby Seale. In 2006 Flores A. Forbes authored “Will You Die With Me: My Life and the Black Panther Party."
    (SFC,10/24/97, p.A15)(SFEC, 3/1/98, p.W31)(SSFC, 7/9/06, p.M1)

1966        Nov 8, Republican Edward Brooke (1919-.2014) of Massachusetts became the first African-American elected to the Senate by popular vote in 85 years.
    (AP, 11/8/97)(HN, 11/6/98)(SSFC, 1/4/15, p.C9)

1966        Jerry Varnado and Jimmy Garrett organized the first Black Student Union at San Francisco State Univ.
    (SFC, 2/1/10, p.A10)

1967        Jan 10, Edward W. Brooke, R-Mass., the first black elected to the U.S. Senate by popular vote, took his seat.
    (AP, 1/10/98)

1967        Jan 12, The Louisville, Ky, draft board refused an exemption for boxer Muhammad Ali.
    (MC, 1/12/02)

1967        Feb 6, Muhammad Ali TKO’d Ernie Terrell in 15 for the heavyweight boxing title.
    (MC, 2/6/02)

1967        Feb 28, In Mississippi 19 were indicted in the slayings of three civil rights workers in 1964. Samuel H. Bowers and 6 others were convicted on federal charges in 1970. Bowers was released in 1976.
    (HN, 2/28/98)(SFC, 8/18/98, p.A5)

1967        Mar 6, Muhammad Ali was ordered by selective service to be inducted.
    (MC, 3/6/02)

1967        Apr 11, Harlem, NYC, voters defied Congress and reelected Adam Clayton Powell Jr. (1908-1972). In January, 1967, the House Democratic Caucus had stripped Powell of his committee chairmanship following allegations that Powell had misappropriated Committee funds for his personal use and other charges. In June, 1969, the Supreme Court ruled that the House had acted unconstitutionally when it excluded Powell, a duly elected member. He returned to the House, but without his seniority.

1967        May 2, In California two dozen legally gun-toting members of the Black Panther Party marched in the state Capitol in Sacramento to oppose a Republican gun control bill and expose the hypocrisy of politicians who only invoked the Second Amendment when it applied to white people. On July 28 Gov. Reagan signed the Milford Act, crafted with the goal of disarming members of the Black Panther Party who were conducting armed patrols of Oakland neighborhoods.
    (SSFC, 10/24/21, p.E1)(https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mulford_Act)

1967        May 12, H. Rap Brown (b.1943) replaced Stokely Carmichael (1941-1968) as chairman of Student Nonviolating Coordinating Committee and announced that the organization will continue its commitment to black power.

1967        Jun 2, Race riots took place in the Roxbury section of Boston.

1967        Jun 11, There was a race riot in Tampa Florida and the National Guard was mobilized. Martin Chambers (19) was suspected of robbing a camera store. Chambers ran from police near Nebraska and Harrison Streets and was shot in the back and died. Several days of riots around Central Avenue followed.

1967        Jun 12, The US Supreme Court, in Loving v. Virginia, struck down state laws prohibiting interracial marriages. Mildred Loving (1940-2008) and her white husband, Richard (d.1975), married in 1958, had been arrested in Virginia within weeks of arriving from Washington DC and convicted on charges of "cohabiting as man and wife. At this time interracial marriages were illegal in  16 American states.
    (AP, 6/12/97)(SFEC, 8/3/97, p.B1)(AP, 5/5/08)(Econ, 5/17/08, p.105)(Econ., 7/6/20, p.7)

1967        Jun 27, There was a race riot in Buffalo, NY, and 200 were arrested.

1967        Jun 28, Fourteen people were shot in race riots in Buffalo, New York.

1967        Jul 12, Race-related rioting broke out in Newark, NJ, and continued to July 17. Over the next four days 26 people were killed, 1500 injured and over 1000 arrested. Large swathes of the 26-square-mile city were wrecked during the unrest sparked by the police beating of a black cab driver.
    (https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/1967_Newark_riots)(AP, 7/13/97)(Econ, 9/23/17, p.26)

1967        Jul 17, Race riots took place in Cairo, Illinois.
    (MC, 7/17/02)

1967        Jul 19, Race riots took place in Durham, NC.
    (MC, 7/19/02)

1967        Jul 20, Race riots took place in Memphis, Tenn.
    (MC, 7/20/02)

1967        Jul 23, In Michigan the 12th Street Riot erupted in Detroit after police busted an unlicensed drinking and gambling joint.
    (https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Algiers_Motel_incident)(Econ 7/29/17, p.27)

1967        Jul 23-1967 Jul 30, Racial riots in the city of Detroit left 43 dead, 2,000 injured and 5,000 homeless in the worst riot of the summer. The rioting, looting and burning was quelled with the arrival of 4,700 paratroops dispatched by President Lyndon Johnson. Nearly all of America's large cities were wracked by racial violence during the 1965-'68 period. The event inspired Rev. William Cunningham (d.1997 at 67) to found Focus: Hope, a volunteer project that grew to become one of the largest programs in the country dedicated to feeding and teaching job skills to the urban poor.
    (SFC, 5/29/97, p.C4)(HNQ, 7/11/98)(Econ 7/29/17, p.27)

1967        Jul 24, Race riots took place in Cambridge, Maryland.
    (MC, 7/24/02)
1967        Jul 24, Race riots in Detroit forced the postponement of a Tigers-Orioles baseball game. [see Jul 23-30]
    (MC, 7/24/02)

1967        Jul 26, In Michigan three civilians were killed early today and nine others abused by a riot task force composed of the Detroit Police Department, the Michigan State Police, and the Michigan Army National Guard. Among the casualties were three black teenage boys killed at the Algiers Motel.

1967        Jul 27, In the wake of urban rioting, President Johnson appointed the Kerner Commission to assess the causes of the violence. The same day, black militant H. Rap Brown said violence was "as American as cherry pie."
    (AP, 7/27/97)

1967        Jul 30, There was a race riot in Milwaukee and 4 people were killed.
    (MC, 7/30/02)

1967        Aug 30, The U.S. Senate confirmed the appointment of Thurgood Marshall as the first black justice on the U.S. Supreme Court.
    (AP, 8/30/97)

1967        Oct 2, Thurgood Marshall, the first African-American Supreme Court justice, was sworn in as an associate justice of the U.S. Supreme Court. Marshall had previously been the solicitor general, the head of the legal staff of the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People (NAACP), and a leading American civil rights lawyer.
    (TMC, 1994, p.1967)(AP, 10/2/97)(HN, 10/2/98)

1967        Oct 29, In Oakland, Ca., police made a traffic stop on Black Panther leader Huey Newton (d.1989). In a gun battle Newton was wounded and police officer John Frey was killed. Newton was convicted of voluntary manslaughter but the conviction was overturned. Gene McKinney (d.2000 at 58) and Newton had driven out for takeout feed following a Black Panther Party fundraiser when they were pulled over. McKinney commandeered a passing car to get Newton to a hospital.
    (SFC,10/24/97, p.A15)(SFC, 9/23/00, p.A19)

1967        Nov 7, Richard Hatcher (1933-2019), a black activist, lawyer and City Council president, was elected mayor of Gary, Indiana. He went on to serve five terms. Hatcher attracted hundreds of millions of dollars in federal money to Gary in his 20 years in office, some of which was used to build low-cost housing and the first public housing units in the city in nearly two decades.
    (AP, 12/14/19)
1967        Nov 7, Carl Stokes (1927-1996) was elected the first black mayor of a major city -- Cleveland, Ohio. He served two terms as mayor from 1967 to 1971 and was a leading advocate for increased federal aid to American cities. After serving as mayor, Stokes became a television commentator and later a judge in Cleveland.
    (AP, 11/7/97)(HNQ, 1/9/03)

1967        Dec 22, In San Francisco Bobby Seale, chairman of the Black Panthers, spoke at Hunters Point atop the sound truck of the Peace and Freedom Party and urged Negroes to buy guns.
    (SSFC, 12/17/17, p.50)

1968        Feb 8, At South Carolina State 3 black students were killed in a confrontation with highway patrolmen in Orangeburg, during a civil rights protest against a whites-only bowling alley. Nearly 50 were injured in the Orangeburg Massacre during confrontations with the National Guard. In 2001 Gov. Jim Hodges voiced his regret over the massacre.
    (SFEC, 2/22/98, BR p.8)(AP, 2/8/99)(SFC, 2/9/01, p.A3)

1968        Feb 12, "Soul on Ice" by Eldridge Cleaver (full name: Leroy Eldridge Cleaver), a militant activist and Black Panther, was first published. Cleaver spent much of his early life in and out of prison on charges ranging from drug possession to assault. It was in prison that he began the essays that would become Soul on Ice. Shortly after being paroled in 1966, Eldridge Cleaver met Huey Newton and Bobby Seale, the founders of the Black Panther party. Cleaver quickly became the party’s minister of information. Faced with further prison time after a shootout with police in April 1968, Cleaver jumped bail and fled the country, first to Cuba, then to Algeria. He returned voluntarily in 1975 having broken with the Panthers and disillusioned with communism. His change in thinking is reflected in his 1978 book Soul on Fire. He died on May 1, 1998, in Pomona, California.
    (AP, 2/12/98)(HNQ, 2/2/01)

1968        Mar 4, Martin Luther King Jr. announced plans for Poor People's Campaign. In late March and early April 1968, Reverend Martin Luther King, Jr. devoted his organizing talents to a drive to bring the nation's poor people to Washington, D.C. for a series of massive nonviolent demonstrations. King's "Poor People's Campaign" would attempt to unify African Americans, Latinos, and lower-income whites in pressing the Johnson Administration and Congress in an election year to enact a $30 billion-a-year domestic "Marshall Plan" to alleviate poverty.
    (SC, 3/4/02)(http://hnn.us/articles/49016.html)

1968        Mar 9, Black Panther Party Chairman Bobby Seale (31) spoke to some seven hundred college students at San Francisco State College and said ghetto negroes “must unify around the gun" urged students fight to free Huey Newton.
    (SSFC, 3/4/18, DB p.50)

1968        Mar 28, In Memphis a riot erupted during a protest march in support of striking sanitation workers led by Martin Luther King. One African-American marcher was killed and King urged calm as National Guard troops are called to Memphis to restore order. King subsequently departed Memphis, but vowed to return on April 4 to attend another march.
    (SFC, 12/1/97, p.A3)(http://tinyurl.com/atrl3z)

1968        Apr 3, Less than 24 hours before he was assassinated in Memphis, Tenn., civil rights leader Martin Luther King Jr. delivered his "mountaintop" speech to a rally of striking sanitation workers, "It really doesn't matter with me now, because I've been to the mountain top, and I don't mind."
    (AP, 4/3/98)

1968        Apr 4, Civil rights leader Martin Luther King, 39, was assassinated while standing on the balcony of the Lorraine Motel in Memphis, Tenn. James Earl Ray (d.1998) confessed and pleaded guilty in Mar, 1969, but later tried to recant and said he was a fall guy. In 1993 Lloyd Jowers (d.2000), a Memphis businessman, said on ABC-TV that he had hired King's killer as a favor to an underworld figure who was a friend. Jowers said he received $100,000 from Memphis produce merchant Frank Liberto to arrange King’s murder. In 1997 Ray identified an arms smuggler named "Raoul" as the real killer. In 1998 a former FBI agent produced documents from Ray’s car with the name Raul. In 1999 a civil trial jury in Memphis ruled that the 1968 killing of Rev. Martin Luther King was a conspiracy. The jury concluded that Lloyd Jowers, a former café owner, had conspired with elements of the Memphis Police Dept., the federal government and organized crime to kill King. In 2000 a Justice Dept. report rejected allegations of conspiracy. In 2002 Rev. Ronald Denton Wilson (61) said that his father, Henry Clay Wilson (d.1990), had shot King. In 2003 Stewart Burns authored "To the Mountaintop: Martin Luther King's Sacred Mission to Save America."
    (SF E&C, 1/15/1995, A-15)(WUD, 1994, p.1687)(SFC, 12/26/96, p.A3)(AP, 4/4/97)(SFC, 4/7/97, p.A10)(SFC, 3/25/98, p.A3)(SFC, 4/24/98, p.A1)(SFEC, 11/21/99, p.A12)(SFC, 11/23/99, p.A9)(SFC, 12/9/99, p.A1)(SFC, 12/10/99, p.A15)(SFC, 5/24/00, p.C5)(SFC, 6/10/00, p.A3)(SFC, 4/4/02, p.A2)(SSFC, 1/11/04, p.M1)
1968        Apr 4, Bobby Kennedy spoke at a black ghetto in Indianapolis just after hearing of the assassination of Martin Luther King. His speech registered the enormity of the event and began the work of healing. Riots over the next few days hit 76 American cities, but Indianapolis remained quiet.
    (Econ, 4/22/06, p.79)
1968        Apr 4, Five days of race riots erupted in Washington, D.C. following assassination of Martin Luther King, Jr. Civil unrest affected at least 110 U.S. cities; Washington, along with Chicago and Baltimore, were among the most affected.

1968        Apr 6, Black Panther member Bobby Hutton (17) was killed in a gun battle with police in West Oakland, Ca., and Eldridge Cleaver was arrested.
    (SFC,10/24/97, p.A15)(SFC, 4/25/98, p.A13)

1968        Apr 11, President Johnson signed into law the Civil Rights Act of 1968, a week after the assassination of Martin Luther King Jr. This included a Fair Housing Act and the Indian Civil Rights Act, which limited sentences that tribes could hand down on any charge to six months. In 1968 Congress increased the maximum to one year. The Federal National Mortgage Association (Fannie Mae - FNMA), established by the government in 1938, became a private, shareholder-owned company as part of the Fair Housing Act.
    (http://tinyurl.com/2o3p2q)(AP, 4/11/98)(SFC, 2/20/98, p.A23)(http://tinyurl.com/ldx765)

1968        Apr 21, The First Baptist Church of Oxford Mississippi voted to exclude black people from their congregation.
    (Econ, 10/24/15, p.29)

1968        Apr 27, In San Francisco Muhammad Ali spoke in front of some 15,000 anti-war and anti-racist demonstrators at Civic Center Plaza saying: "any intelligent white woman and white man" doesn't want a "Kinky haired Negro" marrying into his or her family. Neither, he added, did any intelligent "so-called Negro" want his children marrying whites.
    (SSFC, 4/22/18, DB p.50)

1968        Apr 29, Dr. Ralph Abernathy led The Poor People's Campaign in Washington D.C., less than a month after the assassination of King. It concluded on June 23. The campaign was for reforms in welfare, employment and housing policies. Abernathy was the successor to Rev. Martin Luther King as head of the Southern Christian Leadership conference.
    (HNQ, 1/19/99)

1968        May 8, William Styron (1925-2006), a white author, received the Pulitzer Prize for Fiction for “The Confessions of Nat Turner" (1967). The book was based on the true story of an 1831 slave revolt in Virginia. Some black intellectuals, including Cornell historian John Henrik Clarke, published a critical response to the book.

1968        May 12, "March of Poor" under Rev. Abernathy reached Washington, DC.
    (MC, 5/12/02)

1968        Jun 17, The US Supreme Court in Jones v. Mayer banned racial discrimination in the sale and rental of housing.

1968        Jul 27, A 3-day race riot began in Gary, Indiana.

1968        Jul 30, In Gary, Indiana, policemen took aim at snipers after the third night of racial unrest. 64 people were taken into custody. Mayor Richard G. Hatcher, the first Negro mayor in a city with a Negro majority, said that he now believes that gangs realize they will not be allowed to use violence to get what they want.

1968        Aug 8, In Florida a riot broke out in several neighborhoods of Miami, Florida, including one community just 10 miles from the Republican Convention. 3 negroes were killed by gunfire.

1968        Sep 9, Arthur Ashe (1943-1993) became the 1st black to win the US Open men’s tennis singles championship.

1968        Sep 10, Two Oakland, Ca., police officers fired a barrage of rifle shots into the national headquarters of the Black Panther party at 4421 Grove St. Officers William V. Williams and Robert W. Farrell were arrested shortly after the incident. Both uniformed and on duty officers were said to be heavily intoxicated.
    (SSFC, 9/9/18, DB p.50)

1968        Sep 17, The TV series "Julia" began airing with Diahann Carroll (1935-2019) as a nurse with a young son whose husband was killed in Vietnam. Carroll was the first black woman to star in a non-servant role in a TV series. "Julia"  contined to 1971.
    (https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Julia_(TV_series))(SSFC, 10/6/19, p.B10)

1968        Oct 16, American athletes Tommie Smith and John Carlos sparked controversy at the Mexico City Olympics by giving "black power" salutes during a victory ceremony after they'd won gold and bronze medals in the 200-meter race.
    (AP, 10/16/08)

1968        Oct 18, The US Olympic Committee suspended two black athletes, Tommie Smith and John Carlos, for giving a black power salute as a protest during a victory ceremony in Mexico City. Bob Beamon soared 29 feet, 2 inches, to set a world record in the long jump. In 1976 Dick Schaap authored “The Perfect Jump."
    (AP, 10/18/98)(WSJ, 8/9/08, p.W8)

1968        Nov 5, Shirley Chisholm (1924-2004) of Brooklyn, New York, became the first black woman elected to serve in the US House of Representatives.
    (HN, 11/5/98)(SFC, 1/3/05, p.A3)

1968        Nov 19, Three San Francisco police officers were wounded in a shootout with a vanload of Black Panthers on Seventh Street near Folsom. The eight militants were captured unharmed.
    (SSFC, 11/18/18, DB p.46)

1968        Nov 24, Eldridge Cleaver fled the US with his wife rather face assault charges from 1958. He returned to the US in 1975.

1968        Nov 6, At SF State on the one year anniversary of the Gator incident, the Black Student Union issued a list of 10 "nonnegotiable" demands and called for a one day strike. The strike lasted 167 days.
    (SFEC, 3/1/98, p.W3)(http://userwww.sfsu.edu/~runamuck/PACEPAPER.htm)

1968        Dec 18, Carolyn Olsen was murdered during a robbery that netted $18 on a Santa Monica tennis court. Black Panther leader Geronimo Pratt was accused of the murder though he maintained that he was in Oakland on the night the 27-year old teacher was shot to death. He was arrested in 1970 and convicted in 1972 and sentenced to a life term in prison. Julius "Buffo" Butler, a police informant who spied on the Black Panther Party, told police that he believed Pratt killed Olsen. In 1997 a judge ruled to reverse Pratt’s conviction based on the credibility of Butler. He was released on $25,000 bail on 6/10/97. In 2000 Pratt was awarded $4.5 million to be paid by Los Angeles and the FBI.
    (SFC, 4/18/96, C-1)(SFC, 6/7/97, p.A5)(SFC, 6/11/97, p.C2)(SFC, 7/15/00, p.A3)

1968        William Grier and Price Cobbs authored "Black Rage," in which they argued that psychological functioning is the same in all races, but that the experiences of Black people make them different.
    (SFEC, 7/20/97, BR p.3)

1968        Dr. Price Cobbs (1928-1918) and Dr. William H. Grier co-authored "Black Rage," a portrayal of the psychological trauma that racism and the legacy of slavery inflicts on black people.
    (SFC, 7/11/18, p.D5)
1968        The Association of Black Psychologists was founded.
    (WSJ, 7/8/96, p.C1)(Civilization, July-Aug, 1995, p. 36)
1968        Ruth Whitney (1928-1999), editor of Glamour Magazine, put a black model on the cover for the first time in the magazine's history.
    (SFC, 6/8/99, p.A22)(http://tinyurl.com/ov9m59)

1969        Jan 2, The play "To be Young, Gifted & Black," by Lorraine Hansberry (1930-1965) premiered in NYC.

1969        Feb 13, In North Carolina the Afro-American Society students of Duke Univ. led a black student takeover of the Allen Building to spark University action on the concerns of Black students. The takeover brought attention to issues such as establishment of an Afro-American studies program, a black cultural center, and increasing the number of black faculty and students.

1969        Mar 10, James Earl Ray pleaded guilty to the murder of Dr. Martin Luther King in Memphis, Tenn., and was sentenced to 99 years in jail. Ray later repudiated that plea.
    (AP, 3/10/98)(HN, 3/10/98)

1969        Apr 14, In NYC the student Afro-American Society seized Columbia College.

1969        Apr 19, In Ithaca N.Y. some 80 armed, militant black students at Cornell Univ. took over Willard Straight Hall. They demanded a black studies program and cut a deal with frightened administrators for total amnesty. In 1999 Donald Alexander Downs described the events in his book: "Cornell '69."
    (WSJ, 5/20/99, p.A18)

1969        May 20, In Connecticut Warren Kimbro (d.2009 at 74), a member of the Black Panthers, fatally shot Alex Rackley (19), another member of the Black Panthers, who was believed to be an FBI informant. The shooting was ordered by George Sams, a local Black Panther leader. Prosecutors later alleged that Bobby Seale had ordered the murder.
    (AP, 2/11/09)

1969         Jul, "Black power" civil rights leader Stokely Carmichael (1941-1998) moved from the US to Guinea, with his wife, the singer Miriam Makeba, becoming a life-long proponent of pan-Africanism.
    (https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Stokely_Carmichael)(SFC, 11/16/98, p.A7)

1969        Sep, Marvel Comics introduced Falcon, the first African-American superhero, in an issue of its Captain America comics. In 2014 Sam “The Falcon" Wilson took over as the new patriotic avenger Captain America.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Falcon_(comics))(SFC, 7/18/14, p.D4)

1969        Oct 29, The US Supreme Court ordered immediate desegregation, superseding the previous "with all deliberate speed" ruling.
    (HN, 10/29/98)

1969        Nov 5, In Chicago Judge Hoffman ordered that the trial of Bobby Seale be separated from 7 others in the Chicago 8 trial.
    (SFEC, 11/7/99, p.A5)
1969        Nov 5, In Chicago Judge Hoffman ordered that the trial of Bobby Seale be separated from 7 others in the Chicago 8 trial. Seale, the founder of the Black Panther Party for Self-Defense and one of the Chicago Eight, was later sentenced to four years in prison on sixteen counts of contempt of court.
    (www.law.umkc.edu/faculty/projects/ftrials/Chicago7/chronology.html)(SFEC, 11/7/99, p.A5)

1969        Dec 4, In Chicago police stormed an apartment on the West Side and killed 2 Black Panthers, Fred Hampton and Mark Clark. Panther defense minister Bobby Rush had left the site just hours earlier.
    (SFC, 12/15/99, p.AA4)

1969        Dec 8, Police made a surprise attack on Black-Panthers in LA.
    (MC, 12/8/01)

1969        Grace Halsell (1923-2000) authored "Soul Sister: The Journal of a White Woman Who Turned Herself Black and Went to Live and Work in Harlem and Mississippi."
    (SFC, 8/18/00, p.D8)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Grace_Halsell)

1970        Jan 12, In Biafra (Nigeria) the Ibos surrendered after nearly a million died of starvation.
    (HNQ, 5/9/00)

1970        May 12, In Augusta, Georgia, an overnight riot left 6 black men dead. Autopsies confirmed that the six men killed were all shot in the back with police-issued shotguns.

1970        Jul 29, Six days of race rioting began in Hartford, Ct.

1970        Aug 7, At a hearing for the "Soledad Brothers," Jonathon P. Jackson (17), the younger brother of George L. Jackson, attempted an armed rescue attempt at the Marin Civic Center. A shootout in the parking lot followed and 4 people were killed and 5 injured. Assistant DA Gary Thomas (d.2017) grabbed a pistol from one of the convicts and shot dead three of them. Among the dead were Jackson, Judge Harold Haley, Black Panther James McClain, and convict William A. Christmas. Angela Davis was charged with murder, kidnapping and conspiracy, but was acquitted in 1972 after spending a year in jail.
    (SFEC, 3/1/98, p.W21)(SFC, 8/19/98, p.A18)(AP, 8/7/00)(SSFC, 4/23/17, p.C2)

1970        Aug 19, George Wright and three other men escaped from the Bayside State Prison farm in Leesburg, New Jersey. He became affiliated with an underground militant group, the Black Liberation Army, and lived for a while in a "communal family" with several of its members in Detroit.
    (AP, 9/28/11)

1970        Essence Magazine, marketed to African Americans, was founded.
    (WSJ, 6/9/99, p.B10)
1970        Cheryl Brown, Miss Iowa, became the first African-American finalist in the Miss America beauty pageant.
1970        Algeria's Socialist government permitted American writer and activist Eldridge Cleaver to open a local office of the Black Panther Movement.
    (AP, 9/28/11)

1971        Jan 5, Sonny Liston (b.1932), World Champion boxer (1962-64), was found dead in his Las Vegas home.

1971        Feb 6, In Wilmington, NC, Mike's Grocery, a white-owned business, was firebombed. When firefighters arrived to put out the flames, they were fired upon by snipers positioned on the roof of Gregory Congregational Church. The National Guard was mobilized to quell rioting. The violence resulted in two deaths. Reverend Benjamin Chavis, Jr. of Oxford, North Carolina, and nine others, eight African American men and one white woman, were arrested and tried and convicted for arson and conspiracy in connection with the firebombing. They were sentenced to nearly 28 years in prison. Chavis Muhammad (b.1948), a member of the Wilmington 10, was sentenced in 1972 to 34 years in prison. He spent 4 years in prison before his conviction was overturned on appeal. In 1980 a federal appeals court threw out the convictions.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Wilmington_Ten)(SFC, 2/25/97, p.A10)(SFC, 1/1/13, p.A4)(www.notablebiographies.com/Ch-Co/Chavis-Muhammad-Benjamin.html)

1971        Feb 11, Whitney Young Jr. (b.1921), National Urban League director, drowned in Nigeria.

1971        Apr 20, The US Supreme Court, in Swann v. Charlotte-Mecklenburg Board of Education, upheld the use of busing to achieve racial desegregation in schools. The ruling allowed Charlotte, NC., and other cities nationwide to use mandatory busing and student assignment based on race to attempt to further integrate schools. The case arose in 1965 when a black parent, James E. Swann, challenged the system that kept Charlotte's black students apart from the white majority. In 2001 an appeals court ruled that the dual school system was dismantled and busing could end. A failed appeal to the Supreme Court ended the case in 2002.
    (http://tinyurl.com/6lntd5)(SFEC, 7/13/97, p.D1)(AP, 4/20/07)(SFC, 4/16/02, p.A3)

1971        May 5, There was a race riot in Brownsville section of Brooklyn, NYC.
    (MC, 5/5/02)

1971        May 18, President Nixon rejected the 60 demands of Congressional Black Caucus.

1971        May 25, Jo Etha Collier (18), a black woman, was killed by 3 drunken white males in Drew, Miss.

1971        Aug 29, In SF 2 men burst into the Ingleside Police Station and fired through a hole in a bullet-proof glass window killing Sgt. John Young (45). A civilian clerk was wounded. Black Panthers were suspected. 3 men were charged in 1975 but charges were dismissed in 1976. In 2005 a SF judge jailed 4 men for contempt after refusing to answer questions from a grand jury. In 2007 police charged 9 former members of the Black Liberation Army with waging a campaign of “chaos and terror" that left at least 3 officers dead from 1968-1973. 8 of the men were charged with murder in the Ingleside slaying.
    (SFC, 9/1/05, p.B1)(SFC, 10/8/05, p.B2)(SFC, 1/26/07, p.A1)

1971        Oct 2, “Soul Train," an American musical variety TV program premiered and continued to 2006. It was created by  Don Cornelius, who also served as its first host and executive producer.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Soul_Train)(SSFC, 5/18/14, Par p.2)

1971        Oct 16, H. Rap Brown (b.1943) was captured following a shootout with police in NYC. He was charged with inciting a riot and carrying a gun across state lines. Brown converted to Islam in jail and became Jamil Abdullah Al-Amin.
    (SSFC, 1/6/02, p.A13)(http://americanascherrypie.tripod.com/id3.html)

1971        Dec 18, Reverend Jesse Jackson announced in Chicago the founding of Operation PUSH (People United to Save Humanity).
    (AP, 12/18/99)

1971        Robin Winks authored “The Blacks in Canada."
    (SFC, 2/12/10, p.A18)
1971        H. Rap Brown was captured following a shootout with police in NYC. He was charged with inciting a riot and carrying a gun across state lines. Brown converted to Islam in jail and became Jamil Abdullah Al-Amin.
    (SSFC, 1/6/02, p.A13)
1971        Justin Herman, executive director of the San Francisco Redevelopment Agency since 1959, died of a heart attack. He was responsible for razing much of the Fillmore district and disappearing thousands of its black residents, in the name of urban renewal.
    {SF, USA, Black History}
    (SFC, 5/2/17, p.C1)
1971        A 29-year litigation began over a federal and state suit to de-segregate Mississippi's public universities. In 2004 a federal appeals court upheld a settlement to allocate $503 million over 17 years  toward balanced integration. Continued litigation was denied.
    (SFC, 1/28/04, p.A3)
1971        Rev. Leon Sullivan, a noted Philadelphia minister, became GM’s 1st black board member. In 1998 Sullivan authored “Moving Mountains."
    (SFC, 6/8/04, B7)
1971        In South Carolina James French (1926-2021) founded the Charleston Chronicle to serve the area's Black communities.
    (SSFC, 8/8/21, p.F10)

1972        Jan 25, Shirley Chisholm, the first African American woman elected to U.S. Congress, announced her candidacy for president as Democrat.
    (HN, 1/25/01)

1972        Jan 27, Mahalia Jackson (b.1911), Grammy Award winning gospel singer, died.

1972        Feb 23, Black activist Angela Davis was released from jail where she was held for kidnapping , conspiracy and murder.
    (HN, 2/23/99)

1972        Mar 1, Wilt Chamberlain became the 1st NBA player to score 30,000 points.
    (SC, 3/1/02)

1972        Mar 17, Nixon asked Congress to halt busing in order to achieve desegregation.
    (HN, 3/17/98)

1972        Apr 4, Adam Clayton Powell Jr. (b.1908), American politician, died in Florida. He was elected to the US House of Representatives from Harlem in 1945 and became chair of the Education and Labor Committee in 1961. He was the first black Congressman from New York.

1972        Jul 25, US health officials conceded that blacks were used as guinea pigs in the 40 year Tuskegee Syphilis Study in Macon County, Ala. By this time 28 participants had died of syphilis, 100 were dead of related complications, at least 40 wives had been infected and 19 children had contracted the disease at birth [see 1932].
    (www.npr.org/programs/morning/features/2002/jul/tuskegee/)(SSFC, 1/25/04, p.A27)

1972        Oct 12, On the US aircraft carrier Kitty Hawk a series of incidents broke out wherein a group of blacks, armed with chains, wrenches, bars, broomsticks and other dangerous weapons, went marauding through sections of the ship disobeying orders to cease, terrorizing the crew, and seeking out white personnel for senseless beating with fists and with weapons which resulted in extremely serious injury to three men and the medical treatment of many more, including some blacks.

1972        Oct 24, Jackie Robinson, 1st black baseball player (Brooklyn Dodgers), died at 53 of complications from diabetes. In 1983 Prof. Jules Tygiel (1949-2007) authored "Baseball’s Great Experiment: Jackie Robinson and His Legacy." In 1997 Arnold Rampersad published the biography "Jackie Robinson."
    (WSJ, 10/17/97, p.A20)(SFEC, 4/2/00, BR p.1)(SFC, 7/3/08, p.B5)

1972        Alfred McKenzie (d.1998 at 80), a former Tuskegee Airman and current pressman for the Washington DC Government Printing Office, filed suit contending that he and fellow black employees had long been passed over for promotions that went to whites. After many appeals the suit was won and in 1987 the office agreed to pay $2.4 million in back wages to several hundred employees.
    (SFC, 4/11/98, p.A15)(www.arlingtoncemetery.net/mckenzie.htm)

1973        Feb 27, U.S. Supreme Court ruled that a Virginia pool club could not bar residents because of color.
    (HN, 2/27/98)

1973        May 29, Tom Bradley was elected the first black mayor of Los Angeles, defeating incumbent Sam Yorty.
    (AP, 5/29/97)

1973        Oct 16, Maynard Jackson (1938-2003) was the elected 1st black mayor of Atlanta.

1973        Nov 6, Coleman Young (1918-1997) was elected the first African American mayor of Detroit, Mich. He served 5 consecutive terms and chose not to seek re-election in 1993. During WW II he served with the Tuskegee Airmen and after the war founded the National Negro Labor Council. One of his major accomplishments was the integration of the Detroit police force.
    (SFEC,11/30/97, p.C10)(http://findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_m1355/is_23_98/ai_67185237)

1973        Richard and Christina Milner authored “Black Players: The Secret World of Black Pimps." The book was the product of an anthropological study regarding both the lifestyles and subculture of San Francisco Bay Area pimps and their prostitutes.

1973        In South Africa Eugene Terre’Blanche (1941-2010) founded the Afrikaner Resistance Movement, with an ideology that blacks were not only inferior but also a mortal threat to the Afrikaner volk.
    (Econ, 4/10/10, p.88)

1974        Jun 30, Alberta King (b.1903), mother of Martin Luther King Jr., was assassinated in Ebenezer Baptist Church in Atlanta, Georgia by Marcus Chenault, a twenty-one year old from Ohio who claimed that "all Christians are my enemies."

1974        Sep 12, The start of court-ordered busing to achieve racial integration in Boston's public schools was marred by violence in South Boston.
    (AP, 9/12/99)

1974        Nov 5, Walter Washington (1915-2003) was elected mayor of Washington DC, the 1st black mayor there in 104 years. He had been appointed mayor-commissioner in 1967.
    (WSJ, 10/28/03, p.A1)(www.narpac.org/ITXDCHIS.HTM)

1975        Feb 25, Elijah Muhammad (b.1897 as Elijah Poole), US leader of the Detroit-based Nation of Islam and Black Muslims, died in Chicago.
    (USAT, 2/13/97, p.6D)(SFC, 2/28/00, p.A3)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Elijah_Muhammad)

1975        Sep 2, Joseph W. Hatcher of Tallahassee, Florida, became the state's first African-American supreme court justice since Reconstruction.
    (HN, 9/2/98)

1975        Nov 18, Black Panther leader Eldridge Cleaver (1935-1998) returned to US to face assault charges from 1958.

1976        Jan 23, Paul Robeson (b.1898), black athlete, lawyer, singer, died in Philadelphia. Lloyd L. Brown later wrote the biography "The Young Paul Robeson: On My Journey Now." His granddaughter Susan Robeson in 1981 wrote "The Whole World in His Hands: A Pictorial Biography of Paul Robeson."
    (SFC, 3/26/98, p.A26)(WSJ, 4/9/98, p.A21)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Paul_Robeson)

1976        Jun 16, In South Africa white police gunned down teenagers Hector Pieterson and Hastings Ndhlovu and caused a nationwide riot that left 700 people dead. Students at Morris Isacson High School in Soweto had marched to protest a new rule that called for Afrikaans as the medium of instruction. Photographer Sam Nzima (1934-2018) took an iconic image of a black high school student carrying a fatally wounded fellow pupil away from the gunfire of apartheid police.
    (https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sam_Nzima)(SFC, 6/15/96, p.C12)(USAT, 7/9/04, p.10D)

1976        The children’s fiction "Roll of Thunder, Hear My Cry" by Mildred Taylor (b.1943) was published.
    (SFEC, 2/27/00, BR p.12)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mildred_Taylor)

1976        Britain adopted sweeping anti-racial laws, but the laws did not extend to Northern Ireland.
    (SFC, 6/30/96, A11)
1976        The British Commission for Racial Equality was formed.
    (Econ, 5/15/04, p.57)

1977        Mar 14, Fannie Lou Hamer (b.1917), Mississippi civil rights champion, died. She had helped register black voters when doing so put her own life in danger. She was instrumental in organizing Mississippi Freedom Summer for the Student Nonviolent Coordinating Committee (SNCC), and later became the Vice-Chair of the Mississippi Freedom Democratic Party.
    (SFC, 10/6/12, p.A5)( http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Fannie_Lou_Hamer)

1977        Apr 27, Bloody riots took place in Soweto, South Africa.
    (MC, 4/27/02)

1977        Jul 28, Roy Wilkins turned over leadership of the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People (NAACP) to Benjamin L. Hooks (d.2010 at 85). Hoods continued as executive director to 1992. He was awarded the Presidential Medal of Honor in 2007.
    (AP, 7/28/00)(SFC, 4/16/10, p.C8)

1977        Aug 31, Ian Smith, espousing racial segregation, won the Rhodesian general election with 80% of overwhelmingly white electorate's vote.
    (MC, 8/31/01)

1977        Sep 1, Ethel Waters (76), actress (Beulah)/singer (Stormy Weather), died.
    (SC, 9/1/02)

1977        Dec 4, Jean-Bedel Bokassa, ruler of the Central African Empire [later Central African Republic], crowned himself emperor in a ceremony believed to have cost more than $100 million. Bokassa was deposed in 1979; he died in November 1996 at age 75.
    (AP, 12/4/97)

1977        Lawrence Levine (1933-2006), professor of history at UC Berkeley, authored “Black Culture and Black Consciousness: African American Folk Thought from Slavery to Freedom."
    (SFC, 10/28/06, p.B6)

1978        Jan 16, NASA named 35 candidates to fly on the space shuttle, including Sally K. Ride, who became America's first woman in space, and Guion S. Bluford Jr., who became America's first black astronaut in space. Six women, out of some 3,000 original applicants, graduated from NASA's rigorous training program to become the 1st female astronauts in the space program.
    (AP, 1/16/98)(www.astronautix.com/astrogrp/nas81978.htm)

1978        Feb 1, Harriet Tubman became the 1st black woman honored on a US postage stamp.

1978        May 1, Ernest Morial was inaugurated as the first black mayor of New Orleans.
    (AP, 5/1/97)

1978        May 25, Most of SF's 18,000 black students, 28% of the public school enrollment, stayed away from classes in honor of a one-day boycott called by Pastor Amos Brown.
    (SFC, 5/23/03, p.E8)

1978        Jun 8, Utah leaders of the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints struck down a 148-year-old policy of excluding black men from the Mormon lay priesthood, going on missions or getting married in temples. Prophet Spencer Kimball opened the Mormon priesthood to blacks.
    (http://tinyurl.com/y8ts747g)(SFC, 6/2/18, p.A7)

1978        Jun 23, Joseph Freeman Jr. became the 1st black priest in Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-Day Saints (LDS).

1978        Jun 28, The US Supreme Court ordered the medical school at the University of California at Davis to admit Allan Bakke, a white man who argued he had been a victim of reverse racial discrimination. The US court’s Bakke decision allowed universities to consider race in their decisions only if other factors were equal. This was raised as an issue of reverse discrimination. Justice Lewis Powell broke a 4-4 tie with the formulation that Davis’ program was unconstitutional, but that colleges and universities could still use race as one of several factors to create a diverse student body.
    (WSJ, 7/18/96, p.A10)(AP, 6/28/97)(SFC, 6/27/98, p.A16)

1978        Sep 30, Huey Newton (1942-1989) was convicted in Oakland, Ca., on weapons charges and launched into a 40 minute harangue calling SF Superior Court Judge Joseph Koresh (1909-1996) "a renegade Jew."
    (SFC, 6/21/96, p.E2)(www.lib.berkeley.edu/MRC/pacificapanthers.html)

1978        Dec 3, William Grant Still (b.1895), the first important black symphonic composer, died.
    (WSJ, 12/9/98, p.A20)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/William_Grant_Still)

1978        Stokely Carmichael (1941-1998), American civil rights and black power advocate, changed his name to Kwame Ture in honor of Kwame Nkrumah and Ahmed Sekou Toure, 2 African socialist leaders in Guinea.
    (SFC, 11/16/98, p.A7)

1979        Jan 17, Gov. Brown named  former Congresswoman Yvonne Brathwaite Burke to the California Board of Regents. She was the 1st black person ever appointed to the board.
    (SFC, 1/16/04, p.E5)

1979        Feb 18, The miniseries "Roots: Next Generations" premiered on ABC TV.

1979        May 16, Asa Philip Randolph (b.1889), black labor leader and civil rights pioneer, died in NYC. Randolph brought the word of trade unionism to millions of African American households.

1979        Nov 3, Five radicals were killed when gunfire erupted during an anti-Ku Klux Klan demonstration in Greensboro, N.C., after a caravan of Klansmen and Nazis had driven into the area. Named 'The Greensboro Massacre', the five marchers were shot to death in broad daylight and another 8 were wounded.
    (AP, 11/3/97)(MC, 11/3/01)

1979        Dec 17, In a case that aggravated racial tensions, Arthur McDuffie, a black insurance executive, was fatally beaten after a police chase in Miami. Four white police officers were later acquitted of charges stemming from McDuffie's death.
    (AP, 12/17/99)

1979-1981    In Georgia a string of homicides terrorized the black community of Atlanta. At least 25 African American children and several adults were killed in the late 70s and early 80s. In 1982 Wayne Williams was convicted in the deaths of two adults.
    (http://tinyurl.com/y6xbnhz6)(SFC, 3/25/19, p.A5)

1980        Feb, Mohammed Ali (b.1942) toured Africa as Pres. Carter's envoy.

1980        Mar 28, Jesse Owens (b.1913), (Oly-gold-36), died.

1980        Apr 16, Arthur Ashe (1943-1993) retired from professional tennis following quadruple bypass surgery. He contracted the HIV virus from a blood transfusion after a second bypass operation in 1983.

1980        May 17, Rioting that claimed 18 lives erupted in Miami's Liberty City neighborhood after an all-white jury in Tampa acquitted four former Miami police officers of fatally beating black insurance executive Arthur McDuffie.
    (AP, 5/17/97)

1980        May 29, There was an attempted assassination of Vernon Jordan Jr, National Urban League president.
    (SC, 5/29/02)

1980        Jun 16, Huey P. Newton (1942-1989), co-founder of the Black Panther Party, received his doctoral degree from UC Santa Cruz. His doctoral thesis was titled “War Against the Panthers: A Study of Repression in America."
    (SFC, 6/10/05, p.F2)

1980        Oct 10, The Martin Luther King, Jr. Historic Site, a 23 acre area in Atlanta, Ga., listed as a National Historic Landmark on May 5, 1977, was made a National Historic Site by the US Department of the Interior. The area where Dr. King was entombed is located on Freedom Plaza and surrounded by the Freedom Hall Complex of the Martin Luther King, Jr. Center for Nonviolent Social Change, Inc.

1980        Nov 17, WHHM Television in Washington, D.C. became the first African American public-broadcasting television station.
    (HN, 11/17/98)

1980        Dec 1, The US Justice Dept sued Yonkers, NY, citing racial discrimination.

1981        Mar 4, A jury in Salt Lake City convicted Joseph Paul Franklin, an avowed racist, of violating the civil rights of two black men who were shot to death.
    (AP, 3/4/01)

1981        Mar 13, Pres. Reagan granted Atlanta $1.5 million to search for the murderer of some 20 black children.

1981        Mar 20, Michael Donald (b.1962), a black teenager in Mobile, Alabama, was abducted, tortured and killed in what prosecutors charged was a Ku Klux Klan plot. Henry Hays (d.1997) murdered Michael Donald in a random abduction. Donald was beaten, cut, strangled and his body was strung up a tree. Hays was convicted and sentenced to death. He was executed Jun 6, 1997. In 1987 A wrongful death suit filed by Donald’s mother, Beulah Mae Donald, gave a $7 million verdict against the United Klans of America, led by Robert Shelton (d.2003 at 73).
    (SFC, 6/6/97, p.A3)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Michael_Donald)(SFC, 1/21/02, p.A21)

1981        Jun 27, The African States members of the Organization of African Unity, meeting in Liberia, adopted a Charter on Human and People’s Rights. Article 5 specifically prohibited slavery. It became effective as of October 21, 1986.

1981        Aug 10, Coca-Cola Bottling Co agreed to pump $34 million into black businesses.

1981        Aug 26, Roger Nash Baldwin (97), founder (ACLU), died.
    (MC, 8/26/02)

1981        Sep 3, California Gov. Jerry Brown signed a law making Martin Luther King’s birthday a state holiday. The legislation was the result of 4 years of efforts by students at Oakland Tech High School. 
    (SFC, 7/16/08, p.E1)(http://tinyurl.com/5lc58v)

1981        Sep 8, Civil rights activist Roy Wilkins (80), former head of the NAACP, died in NYC.
    (AP, 9/8/01)

1982        Feb 6, Civil rights workers began a march from Carrolton to Montgomery, Alabama.
    (HN, 2/6/99)

1982        Jun 30, Federal Equal Rights Amendment failed with 3 states short of ratification.

1982        Aug 17, A jury in South Bend, Ind. acquitted self-avowed racist Joseph Paul Franklin, for the 1980 attempted assassination of Vernon Jordan Jr, National Urban League president.

1982        Nov 20, South Africa backed down on a plan to install black rule in neighboring Namibia.
    (HN, 11/20/98)

1982        Dec 28, Nevell Johnson Jr., a black man, was mortally wounded by a police officer in a Miami video arcade, setting off 3 days of race-related disturbances that left another man dead.
    (AP, 12/28/97)

1983        Feb 26, Michael Jackson's "Thriller" album went to #1 and stayed #1 for 37 weeks.
    (SC, 2/26/02)

1983        Apr 29, Harold Washington was sworn in as the first black mayor of Chicago.
    (AP, 4/29/98)(HN, 4/29/98)

1983        May 24, The US Supreme Court ruled, in Bob Jones University v. United States, that the government can deny tax breaks to schools that racially discriminate against students. This upheld a 1970 ruling.

1983        Aug 30, Lieutenant Colonel Guion S. Bluford Jr. became the first black American astronaut to travel in space, blasting off aboard the Challenger.
    (AP, 8/30/97)(HN, 8/30/98)

1983        Sep 15, New York City Cops beat to death Michael Stewart for graffiting the subway.

1983          Oct 19, The US Senate established the Dr. Martin Luther King Jr. federal holiday as the 3rd Monday in January each year. Dr. King was born on January 15, 1929. It was not until 2000 that it was recognized in all 50 US states.
    (www.infoplease.com/spot/mlkhistory1.html)(Econ, 9/16/17, p.16)

1984        Feb 26, Reverend Jesse Jackson acknowledged that he had called NYC: "Hymietown."
    (SC, 2/26/02)

1984        Mar 15, The acquittal of a Miami police officer on charges of negligently killing a ghetto youth sparked a rampage by angry blacks in Miami; 550 people were arrested.

1984        Mar, William Potts, on a Miami-bound Piedmont Airlines flight that originated in Newark, N.J., pushed his call button and gave the flight attendant a note saying he had two accomplices aboard with explosives. He hijacked the plane to Cuba, where he was arrested and served 13½ years in prison. In 2013 he returned to the US to face piracy charges.
    (http://tinyurl.com/oayj9do)(Reuters, 11/6/13)

1984        Wallace Terry (d.2003 at 65), journalist, authored "Bloods: An Oral History of the Vietnam War by Black Veterans. It detailed the experiences of 20 black soldiers and was made into a 1986 PBS documentary.
    (SFC, 6/2/03, p.B4)

1985        May 13, Police in Philadelphia dropped a bomb on the headquarters of the radical group MOVE. A fire resulted that killed 11 people, 5 of them children. Ramona Africa and her 13 year old son were the only two people to escape the inferno at 6221 Osage St. Africa was charged with rioting and conspiracy, was convicted and served 7 years in state prison. No charges have ever been filed against any city officials or employee. The lawsuit was re-opened in 1996. On Jun 24, 1996, a jury in Philadelphia awarded $1.5 mil to the survivors of the MOVE cult. In 2013 the documentary “Let the Fire Burn," directed by Jason Osder, covered the MOVE story with archival footage.
    (SFC, 4/3/96, p.A-4)(USAT, 6/25/96, p.3A)(AP, 5/13/97)(SFC, 11/1/13, p.E7)

1985        Mar 31, In San Diego 2 white police officers stopped a pickup truck driven by Sagon Penn (d.2002). A scuffle ensued and Penn killed officer Thomas Riggs with the officer’s gun. Penn was acquitted under allegations of police brutality and racism.
    (SFC, 7/5/02, p.A24)

1985        Nov 19, Stepin Fetchit (83), born as Lincoln Perry, 1st black film star, died of pneumonia. His films included “Miracle in Harlem" (1948). In 2005 Mel Watkins authored “Stepin Fetchit: The Life and Times of Lincoln Perry."

1985        Nov 21, Yonkers, NY, was found guilty of intentional discrimination in its housing and schools.

1985        Dr. William F. Gibson (d.2002) was elected head of the NAACP. He had led the South Carolina chapter for 18 years. His tenure ended in 1995 under accusations of abusing his expense account.
    (SFC, 5/4/02, p.A21)

1986        Jan 20, The United States observed the first federal holiday in honor of slain civil rights leader Martin Luther King Jr.
    (AP, 1/20/98)

1986        Feb 4, The U.S. Post Office issued a commemorative stamp featuring Sojourner Truth.
    (HN, 2/4/99)

1986        Jul 2, The US Supreme Court upheld affirmative action in 2 rulings.
    (SC, 7/2/02)

1986        Sep 8, Oprah Winfrey began her syndicated TV talk show.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/The_Oprah_Winfrey_Show)(SSFC, 2/11/01, BR p.1)

1986        Naomi Sims (1948-2009) authored “All About Health and Beauty for the Black Woman." Her 1968 cover shot on the Ladies’ Home Journal was a breakthrough for black fashion models.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Naomi_Sims)(SFC, 8/7/09, p.D5)

1987        Jan 24, About 20,000 civil rights demonstrators marched through predominantly white Forsyth County, Ga., a week after a smaller march was disrupted by Ku Klux Klan members and supporters.
    (AP, 1/24/98)

1987        Feb 12, Surviving relatives of a black man murdered by KKK members were awarded $7 M damages.
    (MC, 2/12/02)

1987        Feb 25, US Supreme Court upheld affirmative action with a 5-4 vote.
    (MC, 2/25/02)

1987        Feb 26, NBA's Michael Jordan's scored 58 points for a Chicago Bull record.
    (SC, 2/26/02)

1987        Aug 24, Bayard Rustin (b.1912), gay civil rights activist, died of cardiac arrest. In 2003 a documentary of his life by Nancy Kates: "Brother Outsider: The Life of Bayard Rustin," was aired on PBS TV. He was the chief architect of the 1963 march on Washington. In 2003 John D'Emilio authored "Lost Prophet: The Life and Times of Bayard Rustin."
    (SFC, 1/16/03, p.E1)(SSFC, 8/31/03, p.M3)

1987        Nov 25, Harold Washington, the first black mayor of Chicago (1983-1987), died at age 65 after suffering a heart attack in his City Hall office.
    (AP, 11/25/97)

1987        Nov 30, Author James Baldwin died in St. Paul de Vence, France, at age 63. His work included "Notes of a Native Son," "Nobody Knows My Name," and "The Fire Next Time." In 1991 James Campbell published the biography: "Talking at the Gates: A Life of James Baldwin."
    (AP, 11/30/97)(SFC, 12/30/98, p.A2)

1987        Dec 8, Kurt Schmoke became the first African-American mayor of Maryland when he was elected the mayor of Baltimore. He was a Rhodes scholar and Harvard Law School graduate. He served 3 terms and decided to run for the Senate.
    (SFC, 12/4/98, p.A12)(HN, 12/8/98)

1987        First Friday, an African American networking organization, began in New Jersey as a happy hour for people in their 30s.
    (SSFC, 8/18/02, p.E1)

1988        Jan 16, Jimmy "The Greek" Snyder was fired as a CBS Sports commentator one day after telling a TV station in Washington, D.C., that, during the era of slavery, blacks had been bred to produce stronger offspring. He was fired because he claimed blacks were superior to whites in athletics, and he traced it back to how blacks were bred. To make matters worse, he also said "if blacks take over coaching like everybody wants them to, there is not going to be anything left for the white people."
    (AP, 1/16/98)(http://sportsillustrated.cnn.com/almanac/video/1988/)

1988        Mar 12, Rev. Jesse Jackson won the Democratic precinct caucuses in his native South Carolina.
    (AP, 3/12/98)

1988        Apr 6, Black pole explorer M. Henson was buried next to R. Peary in Arlington.
    (MC, 4/6/02)

1988        May 5, The Rev. Eugene Antonio Marino became the nation's first black Roman Catholic archbishop during an installation Mass in the Atlanta Civic Center. He stepped down in July 1990 because of a two-year affair with Columbus resident Vicki Long.
    (AP, 5/5/98)

1988        Jun 5, Clarence Pendleton (57), chairman of the US Civil Rights Commission, died.
    (AP, 6/5/98)

1988        Aug 27, Tens of thousands of civil rights marchers gathered in Washington, D.C., on the eve of the 25th anniversary of Martin Luther King's "I Have a Dream" speech.
    (AP, 8/27/98)

1988        Aug 31, In South Africa the Khotso House was bombed. Police chief Johan van der Merwe was instructed to blow up the Johannesburg headquarters of the South African Council of Churches, called Khotso House, for harboring anti-apartheid groups. The bombing injured 21 people. He said in 1996 that the instructions came from Law and Order Minister Adriaan Vlok, who told him that the order came directly from Pres. P.W. Botha. In 1997 a document submitted by Vlok said the order to destroy the headquarters came from Pres. Botha. Col. Eugene de Kock testified in 1998 that he was called in by a police general to blowup Khotso House. Vlok testified in 1998 that Botha dictated the bombing. Vlok and van der Merwe were given amnesty in 1999.
    (SFC, 11/23/96, p.A9)(SFC, 6/21/97, p.A10)(SFC, 6/4/98, p.A12)(SFC, 7/22/98, p.A11)(SFC, 8/6/99, p.A14)

1988        Romare Bearden (b.1911), North Carolina-born African American artist, died. He depicted black culture and history and transferred his collages to prints using a variety of techniques. In 2004 Jan Greenberg authored "Romare Bearden: Collage of Memories."
    (WSJ, 11/19/96, p.A20)(SFC, 3/24/04, p.E1)
1988        Bill Spiller (b.1913), African-American golfer, died in Los Angeles. He made history by leading the fight against the 1943 "Caucasian-only clause" instituted by the PGA Tour.
    (https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bill_Spiller)(SFC, 12/27/18, p.A1)

1989        Feb 5, Kareem Abdul-Jabar became the 1st NBA player to score 38,000 points.
    (MC, 2/5/02)

1989        Feb 10, Ron Brown was elected chairman of the Democratic National Committee, becoming the first black to head a major U.S. political party.
    (AP, 2/10/99)

1989        Apr 12, Sugar Ray Robinson (b.1921), former middleweight boxing champion, died in Culver City, Ca., after suffering from Alzheimer’s disease. In 2009 Wil Haygood authored “Sweet Thunder: The Life and Times of Sugar Ray Robinson."
    (AP, 4/12/99)(Econ, 10/24/09, p.96)

1989        May 9, VP Quayle said in United Negro College Fund speech: "What a waste it is to lose one's mind" instead of "a mind is terrible thing to waste."

1989        Jun 14, Congressman William Gray, an African American, was elected Democratic Whip of the House of Representatives.
    (HN, 6/14/02)

1989        Aug 22, Black Panther co-founder Huey P. Newton (47) was shot to death in Oakland, Calif., by a drug dealer. On Dec 11, 1991, gunman Tyrone Robinson (25) was sentenced to 32 years to life in prison.
    (AP, 8/22/97)(SFC, 10/24/97, p.A15)(SSFC, 11/27/16, DB p.50)

1989        Aug 23, In a case that inflamed racial tensions in New York City, Yusuf Hawkins, a black teen-ager, was shot dead after he and his friends were confronted by white youths in a Brooklyn neighborhood.
    (AP, 8/23/99)

1989        Nov 1, Sadie Tanner Mossell Alexander (b.1898), the first African-American to earn a PhD in economics (1921), died in Philadelphia. She was also the first woman to receive a law degree from the University of Pennsylvania Law School.
    (https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sadie_Tanner_Mossell_Alexander)(Econ., 12/19/20, p.42)

1989        Nov 7, NYC elected its 1st black mayor, David N. Dinkins, and female comptroller, Elizabeth Holtzman.
    (AP, 11/7/97)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/David_Dinkins)

1990        Jan 8, In San Francisco Doris Ward (1932-2018) was worn in as president of the board of Supervisors, becoming the first African-American to serve in that position.
    (SFC, 4/17/18, p.C1)

1990        Jan 12, Civil Rights activist Rev. Al Sharpton was stabbed in Bensonhurst, Brooklyn.
    (MC, 1/12/02)

1990        Feb 10, South African President F.W. de Klerk announced that black activist Nelson Mandela would be released the next day after 27 years in captivity.
    (AP, 2/10/00)

1990        Mar 3, Carole Gist (20) of Michigan was 1st black crowned 39th Miss USA.
    (SC, 3/3/02)

1990        Apr 17, The Rev. Ralph D. Abernathy, the civil rights activist and top aide to Rev. Martin Luther King Jr., died in Atlanta at age 64.
    (AP, 4/17/00)

1990        May 9, NY Newsday reporter Jimmy Breslin was suspended for a racial slur.
    (MC, 5/9/02)

1990        Aug 17, Phyllis Polander sued Mike Tyson for sexual harassment.
    (SC, 8/17/02)

1991        Jan 2, Sharon Pratt Dixon was sworn in as mayor of Washington, D.C., becoming the first black woman to head a city of Washington's size and prominence.
    (AP, 1/2/98)

1991        Feb 2, In a dramatic concession to South Africa’s black majority, President F.W. de Klerk lifted a ban on the African National Congress and promised to free Nelson Mandela.
    (AP, 2/2/01)

1991        Mar 3, In Los Angeles police arrested ex-convict Rodney King after an 8-mile chase. King resisted arrest and the police used force to subdue him. A local resident captured part of the arrest and beating on video tape. The incident led to a police trial and acquittal that sparked a violent riot. In 1998 Lou Cannon published "Official Negligence: How Rodney King and the Riots Changed Los Angeles and the LAPD" documenting the whole affair.
    (WSJ, 2/5/98, p.A20)(SFEC, 2/8/98, BR p.1)(AP, 3/3/98)

1991        Mar 15, An indictment was unsealed in Los Angeles, charging four police officers with beating black motorist Rodney King.
    (HN, 3/15/98)(AP, 3/15/01)

1991        Jul 4, In Memphis, Tenn., the $9.7 million National Civil Rights Museum opened at the former Lorraine Hotel where Dr. Martin Luther King was assassinated in 1968. It was founded by Judge D’Army Bailey (1941-2015).
    (SFC, 7/15/15, p.D3)

1991        Jul 20, Mike Tyson was accused of raping a Miss Black America contestant.
    (MC, 7/20/02)

1991        Nicholas Lemann authored “The Promised Land: The Great Black Migration and How It Changed America," and account of the 20th century move north by African Americans. The book established Lemann as a sought-after commentator on race relations and other fundamental aspects of American society.
    (Econ, 8/28/10, p.73)(www.theatlantic.com/past/docs/about/people/nlbio.htm)

1992        Jan 27, Boxer Mike Tyson went on trial for rape. He was found guilty.
    (MC, 1/27/02)

1992        Jan 29, Willie Dixon (76), blues composer (Backdoor Man), died.
    (MC, 1/29/02)

1992        Feb 7, Former heavyweight boxing champion Mike Tyson testified at his rape trial in Indianapolis that his accuser, a Miss Black America contestant, had consented to having sex with him.
    (AP, 2/7/02)

1992        Feb 9, Magic Johnson returned to professional basketball by playing in the NBA All-Star game. Johnson was named most valuable player as his side, the Western Conference, defeated the Eastern Conference 153-to-113.
    (AP, 2/9/02)

1992        Feb 10, Boxer Mike Tyson was convicted in Indianapolis of raping Desiree Washington, a Miss Black America contestant.
    (AP, 2/10/97)
1992        Feb 10, Alex Haley, author of "Roots" and co-writer of "The Autobiography of Malcolm X," died in Seattle at age 70. Much of his work was donated to the Univ. of Tennessee, Knoxville.
    (SFC, 12/6/96, p.C15)(AP, 2/10/97)

1992        Mar 26, A judge in Indianapolis sentenced former heavyweight boxing champion Mike Tyson to six years in prison for raping a Miss Black America contestant. Tyson ended up serving three years.
    (AP, 3/26/02)

1992        Apr 29, Deadly rioting erupted in Los Angeles after a jury in Simi Valley  acquitted four Los Angeles police officers of almost all state charges in the videotaped beating of Rodney King. White truck driver Reginald Denny was beaten by a mob in south Central LA angered by the acquittal of 4 police officers caught on video tape in the beating of black motorist Rodney King. Three days of violence ensued with 55 people killed, 2,300 injured and an estimated $1 billion [$717 million] in property damages. Rioters tore through the city following the not guilty verdicts on state charges for Los Angeles Police Department Sergeant Stacey C. Koon and officer Laurence M. Powell for beating Rodney King. 1093 buildings were damaged or destroyed. Of these, 764 retail stores were owned by Koreans. The US Congress later authorized $1 billion to revitalize south central Los Angeles.
    (TMC, 1994, p.1992)(SFC, 6/14/96, p. A4)(SFC, 1/1/97, p.A16)(SFC, 4/29/97, p.A8)(WSJ, 6/4/97, p.CA1)(AP, 4/29/98)(SFC, 2/5/00, p.A3)

1992        May 15, A judge in Los Angeles ordered police officer Laurence Powell retried on a charge of excessive force in the beating of Rodney King. The charge was eventually dropped.
    (AP, 5/15/97)

1992        Jul 12, In an emotional farewell speech, Benjamin Hooks, outgoing executive director of the NAACP, urged the group's convention in Nashville, Tenn., to show the world that it remained vital.
    (AP, 7/12/97)

1992        Autherine Lucy Foster (b.1929), wife of Rev. Hugh Foster, finally got a degree from the Univ. of Alabama, when she received a Master's in Education. She had been suspended from the school in 1956 due to campus safety issues relating to her race. Also in that graduating class was her daughter Grazia, who received a Bachelor's Degree in Corporate Finance.
    (NYT, 4/26/1992, p.43)

1993        Jan 24, Thurgood Marshall (b.1908) died in Bethesda, Md., at age 84. He served on the US Supreme from 1967-1991. As a civil rights lawyer in the 1950s he had maintained a confidential relationship with the FBI. In 1997 Mark V. Tushnet published the book: "Making Constitutional Law: Thurgood Marshall and the Supreme Court."
    (SFC, 12/3/96, p.A3)(WSJ, 7/24/97, p.A16)(AP, 1/24/98)

1993        Feb 6, Tennis Hall-of-Famer and human rights advocate Arthur Ashe died of AIDS in New York at age 49. He was the first black man to win the Wimbledon tennis match.
    (SFC, 7/4/96, p.A3)(AP, 2/6/97)

1993        Apr 9, The Rev. Benjamin Chavis was chosen to head the NAACP, succeeding Benjamin Hooks.
    (AP, 4/9/98)

1993        Apr 16, A jury reached guilty verdict in the Federal case against cop who beat Rodney King, but the verdict was not read until April 17th.
    (MC, 4/16/02)

1993        Apr 17, A federal jury in Los Angeles convicted two former police officers of violating the civil rights of beaten motorist Rodney King; two other officers were acquitted. [see Apr 16]
    (AP, 4/17/98)

1993        Jul 4, Pilar Fort was crowned 25th Miss Black America.
    (Maggio, 98)

1993        Jul 15, Authorities in Los Angeles announced eight arrests in connection with an alleged plot by white supremacists to ignite a race war by bombing a black church and killing prominent black Americans. Christopher Fisher, leader of the Fourth Reich Skinheads, was later sentenced to more than 8 years in federal prison while defendant Carl Daniel Boese was sentenced to nearly 5 years in prison; both had pleaded guilty to arson and conspiracy charges.
    (AP, 7/15/03)

1993        Toni Morrison (b.1931, American novelist, won the Nobel Prize in Literature. Her novels are known for their epic themes, vivid dialogue, and richly detailed black characters. Among her best known novels are “The Bluest Eye," “Song of Solomon," and “Beloved," which won the Pulitzer Prize for Fiction in 1988.
    (AP, 10/8/09)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Toni_Morrison)

1994        Apr 16, Ralph Ellison (b.1914), author of "Invisible Man" (1952), died in New York of pancreatic cancer at age 80. His unfinished novel "Juneteenth" was published in 1999. His books also included "Living With Music." In 2002 Lawrence Jackson authored "Ralph Ellison: Emergence of Genius."
    (AP, 4/16/99)(WSJ, 6/18/99, p.W13)(WSJ, 6/14/02, p.W11)

1994        Apr 19, A Los Angeles jury awarded $3.8 million to beaten motorist Rodney King.
    (AP, 4/19/99)

1994        Apr 27, South Africa began its first democratic elections.
    (SFC,10/24/97, p.D6)

1994        May 1, South Africa's first all-race elections ended.
    (SFC, 11/30/96, p.A12)

1994        May 29, Khallid Abdul Muhammad, a former spokesman for the Nation of Islam, was shot and wounded after delivering a speech at the University of California, Riverside; a defrocked Nation of Islam minister, James Edward Bess, was charged. Bess was later convicted of attempted murder and assault and sentenced to life in prison.
    (AP, 5/29/04)

1994        Jul 20, OJ Simpson offered a $500,000 reward for evidence of ex-wife's killer.
    (MC, 7/20/02)

1994        Aug 20, Benjamin Chavis Junior was fired as head of the NAACP after a turbulent 16-month tenure.
    (AP, 8/20/99)

1994        Aug 30, Rosa Parks, who helped touch off the civil rights movement in 1955 by refusing to give up her bus seat to a white man in Montgomery, Ala., was robbed and beaten in her Detroit apartment. Joseph Skipper later pleaded guilty to assault and robbery and was sentenced to prison.
    (AP, 8/30/99)

1995        Jan 8, The Inner City Church in Knoxville, Tenn., burned down. Arson was suspected and investigations by the FBI and ATF were later begun.
    (SFC, 6/11/96, p.A16)

1995        Jan 12, The murder trial against OJ Simpson, began in LA.
    (MC, 1/12/02)
1995        Jan 12, Qubilah Shabazz, the daughter of Malcolm X, was arrested in Minneapolis on charges that she had tried to hire a hitman to kill Nation of Islam leader Louis Farrakhan; the charges were later dropped.
    (AP, 1/12/00)

1995        Jan 31, The Mt. Calvary Baptist Church in Hardeman Co., Tenn., burned down. Arson was suspected and investigations by the FBI and ATF were later begun.
    (SFC, 6/11/96, p.A16)

1995        Feb 18, The National Association for the Advancement of Colored People replaced veteran chairman William Gibson with Myrlie Evers-Williams, the widow of slain civil rights leader Medgar Evers, after the rank-and-file declared no confidence in Gibson's leadership.
    (AP, 2/18/00)

1995        Feb 19, A day after being named the new chairwoman of the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People, Myrlie Evers-Williams outlined her plans for revitalizing the civil rights organization, saying she intended to take the group back to its roots.
    (AP, 2/19/00)

1995        Mar 16, Mississippi formally abolished slavery and ratified 13th Amendment.
    (MC, 3/16/02)

1995        May 1, Charges that Qubilah Shabazz, the daughter of Malcolm X, had plotted to murder Nation of Islam leader Louis Farrakhan were dropped as jury selection for her trial was about to begin in Minneapolis.
    (AP, 5/1/00)

1995        May 14, Myrlie Evers-Williams was sworn in to head the NAACP, pledging to lead the civil rights group away from its recent troubles and restore it as a political and social force.
    (AP, 5/14/00)

1995        Aug 29, At the O.J. Simpson murder trial in Los Angeles, without the jury present, tape recordings of police detective Mark Fuhrman were played in which Fuhrman could be heard spouting racial invectives.
    (AP, 8/29/00)

1995        Aug 31, At the O.J. Simpson trial in Los Angeles, Judge Lance Ito ruled the defense could play only two examples of police detective Mark Fuhrman’s racist comments from taped conversations with a screenwriter.
    (AP, 8/31/00)

1995        Oct 9, Nation of Islam leader Louis Farrakhan and former NAACP exec. Benjamin Chavis propose to lead a march of black men, "the million man march," on Washington DC on Oct. 16.
    (WSJ, 10/10/95, p.A1)(SFC, 2/25/97, p.A10)

1995        Dec 9, Rep. Kweisi Mfume (the Swahili name means conquering son of kings), D-Md., was chosen to head the NAACP.
    (WSJ, 12/11/95, p.A-1)(AP, 12/9/97)

1996        Jan 11, The Little Mt. Zion Baptist Church in Green Co., Ala., burned down. Arson was suspected and investigations by the FBI and ATF were later begun.
    (SFC, 6/11/96, p.A16)
1996        Jan 11, The Mt. Zoar Baptist Church in Green Co., Ala., burned down. Arson was suspected and investigations by the FBI and ATF were later begun.
    (SFC, 6/11/96, p.A16)

1996        Feb 1, The Cypress Grove Baptist Church, St. Paul’s Free Baptist Church, and Thomas Chapel Benevolent Society Church in East Baton Rouge Parish, La., burned down. Arson was suspected and investigations by the FBI and ATF were later begun.
    (SFC, 6/11/96, p.A16)
1996        Feb 1, The Sweet Home Baptist Church in Baker, La., burned down. Arson was suspected and investigations by the FBI and ATF were later begun.
    (SFC, 6/11/96, p.A16)

1996        Feb 20, Kweisi Mfume began his job as President and CEO of the NAACP.
    (SFEC, 1/5/97, Z1 p.3)

1996        Mar 5, The St. Paul AME Church in Hatley, Miss., burned down. Arson was suspected and investigations by the FBI and ATF were later begun.
    (SFC, 6/11/96, p.A16)

1996        Apr 3, Carl Stokes died of cancer AT 68. He was elected mayor of Cleveland in 1967, the first black mayor of a major US city. He had been on medical leave from his post since 1994 as ambassador to the Seychelles.
    (WSJ, 4/4/96, A-1)(AP, 4/3/97)

1996        Aug 30, In Libya, Louis Farrakhan said that he could not accept a $250,000 human rights award until US courts give him permission.
    (SFC, 8/31/96, p.A4)

1996        Sep 12, The first African-American civil War memorial was dedicated in Washington DC.
    (SFC, 9/11/96, p.C1)

1996        Nov 13, A grand jury in St. Petersburg, Fla., declined to indict a white policeman, Jim Knight, who had shot black motorist TyRon Lewis to death the previous month; the decision prompted angry mobs to return to the streets.
    (SFC, 11/14/96, p.A3)(AP, 11/13/97)

1996        Nov 15, Texaco Corp. agreed to pay [$176.1] $176.9 million dollars to settle a two-year-old race discrimination suit. Executive Richard Lundwall had taped himself along with others that belittled African Americans and scoffed at a lawsuit that accused Texaco of racial bias.
    (SFC, 11/16/96, p.A11)(AP, 11/15/97)(SFC, 4/23/98, p.A9)

1996        Kennell Jackson (1941-2005), Stanford Univ. history professor, authored “America Is Me: The Most Asked and Least Understood Questions About Black American History."
    (SFC, 11/29/05, p.B7)

1997        Jan 16, Ennis Cosby (27), son of Bill Cosby, was murdered in Los Angeles while changing a tire in an apparent roadside robbery. A Ukrainian émigré teenager, Mikail Markhasev, was picked up and charged for the murder in March. Eli Zakaria and girlfriend Sara Peters were in a car with Markhasev. Markhasev was convicted and sentenced to life in prison. Markhasev admitted his guilt in 2001 and made a public apology.
    (SFC, 2/1/97, p.E4)(WSJ, 3/14/97, p.A1)(SFC, 3/15/97, p.A3)(AP, 1/16/98)(SFC, 6/27/98, p.A5)(WSJ, 8/12/98, p.A1)(WSJ, 2/12/00, p.A1)

1997        Jan 28, Five former police officers in South Africa admitted to killing anti-apartheid activist Stephen Biko, who died in police custody in 1977. His death had been officially listed as an accident.
    (MC, 1/28/02)

1997          Jan 31, Three days of deliberations in the O.J. Simpson civil trial in Santa Monica, Calif., were scrapped after the only black woman on the panel was replaced because of misconduct. The jury started over.
     (AP, 1/31/98)

1997        Feb 10, A civil jury in Santa Monica heaped $25 million in punitive damages on O.J. Simpson for the slayings of his ex-wife and her friend, on top of $8.5 million in compensatory damages awarded earlier.
    (USAT, 2/11/97, p.A1)(AP, 2/10/97)
1997        Feb 10, The city of Cincinnati revealed plans for a new $80-million museum for its role in the Underground Railroad during the Civil War. The museum and freedom center were scheduled to open in 2002.
    (USAT, 2/11/97, p.D1)

1997        Feb 23, Former NAACP leader Benjamin Chavis announced that he had joined the Nation of Islam led by ailing Louis Farrakhan.
    (SFC, 2/25/97, p.A10)
1997        Feb 23, In Philadelphia a group of white men attacked a black family in the Grays Ferry section. Nine men were tried in 1998 and 6 were convicted on a variety of felony accounts.
    (SFC, 2/10/98, p.A3)

1997        Feb 27, A jury in Fayetteville, N.C., convicted former Army paratrooper James N. Burmeister of murdering a black couple so he could get a skinhead tattoo. He was later sentenced to life in prison.
    (AP, 2/27/98)

1997        Mar 9, In Los Angeles the 24-year-old black Gangsta rapper The Notorious B.I.G. (Christopher G. Wallace or aka Biggie Smalls) was shot and killed in a drive-by shooting. He had been accused of being involved in a 1994 robbery in which Tupac Shakur was shot and robbed of $40,000.
    (SFC, 3/10/97, p.A8) (AP, 3/9/98)

1997        Mar 21, In  Chicago 3 white teenagers attacked and severely injured a 13-year-old black boy. Lenard Clark (13) was left brain damaged. The suspects, Frank Caruso (18), Victor Jasas (17), and Michael Kwidzinski (19) were released on bonds of $150,000 with charges of attempted murder, aggravated battery and a hate crime. Caruso was convicted in 1998 and was sentenced to 8 years in prison. The other 2 pleaded guilty to reduced charges and were let off with probation and community service.
    (SFC, 3/25/97, p.A7)(SFC, 10/20/98, p.A6)

1997        Apr 12, The new $38.4 million Museum of African American History was scheduled to open in Detroit at 315 E. Warren Ave. with a 16,000-sq.-foot core exhibit. The building was paid for by a city-backed bond issue but the collection was started by Dr. Charles Wright.
    (Sky, 4/97, p.28)(SFEC, 2/23/97, p.T7)(WSJ, 9/30/97, p.A20)

1997        Apr 14, Some 500 black demonstrators marched in the Grays Ferry section of Philadelphia in response to a Feb 23 beating of Annette Williams, her son and nephew by a mob of white men. In March two black men shot and killed the 16-year-old son of a white police officer in a drugstore robbery.
    (SFC, 4/15/97, p.A3)

1997        Jun 1, Betty Shabazz (61), the widow of Malcolm X, was severely burned in a fire set by her grandson (12) in her Yonkers, N.Y., apartment. She died of the burn wounds on Jun 23.
    (SFC, 6/24/97, p.A3)(SFC, 6/26/97, p.A15)(AP, 6/1/98)

1997        Jul 17, Dr. Robert C. Weaver (b.1907), the first African American to serve on a president’s cabinet, died in NYC. He was the administrator of the federal Housing and Home Finance Agency, the predecessor to HUD, under President John F. Kennedy. He was named national chairman of the NAACP in 1960 and in 1962 he was awarded the NAACP Spingarn Medal. Weaver wrote more than 175 articles and four books on housing and urban issues. [see Jan 18,1966]

1997        Oct 25, The Million Woman March was in Philadelphia to revitalize black families and communities drew an estimated 300,000 to one million people.
    (SFC, 10/10/97, p.A3)(SFEC,10/26/97, p.A1)(AP, 10/25/98)

1997        Nov 19, In Denver Oumar Dia, a black man, was gunned down at a bus stop, and a nurse, Jeannie Vanvelkinburgh, who tried to help him, was shot in the back and left paralyzed. One of 2 suspects was arrested and described himself as a skinhead and said that he shot Dia because he was black.
    (SFC, 11/29/97, p.A3)

1997        Nov 27, In Denver five skinheads beat up a 26-year-old black woman who was shopping at a 7-Eleven. All 5 were captured and arraigned in court.
    (SFC, 11/29/97, p.A3)

1998        Jan 19, This was the Martin Luther King Jr. federal holiday. During a ceremony in Atlanta commemorating the Martin Luther King Jr. holiday, Vice President Gore announced that the Clinton administration would propose increasing spending on civil rights by $86 million.
    (AP, 1/19/98)(AP, 1/19/99)

1998        Feb 21, Julian Bond was elected chairman of the 64-member board of the NAACP.
    (SFEC, 2/22/98, p.A5)

1998        Mar 17, In Mississippi after a 21-year court fight the state unsealed over 124,000 pages of secret files of the State Sovereignty Commission that revealed numerous illegal methods to thwart the civil rights workers of the ‘50s, ‘60s and ‘70s.
    (SFC, 3/18/98, p.A1)

1998        Apr 23, Two New Jersey troopers fired 11 shots into a van carrying African American and Latino men from the Bronx. They admitted to racial profiling and pleaded guilty to misdemeanor charges in 2002.
    (SFC, 1/15/02, p.A3)
1998        Apr 23, James Earl Ray died at a Nashville hospital at age 70. He was the ex-convict who confessed to assassinating the Rev. Martin Luther King Jr. in 1968 and then insisted he was framed.
    (AP, 4/23/99)

1998        May 1, Eldridge Cleaver, ex-Black Panther who later renounced his past and became a Republican, died at age 62 in Pomona, Ca. He wrote the book "Soul On Ice" in 1965 while in Folsom Prison. The book was published in 1968. He jumped bail after a 1968 shooting and returned to the US in 1975.
    (SFC, 5/2/98, p.A1,13)(AP, 5/1/99)

1998        Jun 7, James Byrd Junior, a 49-year-old black man, was chained to a pickup truck and dragged to his death in Jasper, Texas. Three white men were soon arrested; 2 of the men were sentenced to death and the 3rd received life in prison [see Jun 9].
    (SFC, 6/9/98, p.A3)(AP, 6/7/00)

1998        Jun 9, In Texas three white men, Shawn Allen Berry (23), Lawrence Russell Brewer (31) and John William King (23), were charged for the June 7 murder of James Byrd Jr. (49). King was convicted of murder Feb 23, 1999, and was executed in 2019. Brewer was found guilty of capital murder on Sep 20, 1999 and was excuted in 2011. Berry was sentenced to life in prison.
    (SFC, 6/10/98, p.A3)(SFC, 2/24/99, p.A1)(SFC, 9/14/99, p.A10)(SFC, 9/21/99, p.A3)(SFC, 9/24/99, p.A3)(SFC, 11/19/99, p.A3)(SFC, 4/25/19, p.A8)

1998        Jul 13, A jury in Poughkeepsie, N.Y., ruled that the Rev. Al Sharpton and two others had defamed a former prosecutor by accusing him of raping Tawana Brawley. Steven Pagones won a $345,000 judgment.
    (AP, 7/13/08)(www.cnn.com/US/9807/13/brawley.verdict.02/)

1998        Aug 26, Attorney General Janet Reno reopened the investigation of the assassination of civil rights leader Martin Luther King Jr., focusing on two allegations of a conspiracy beyond James Earl Ray. A Justice Department investigation later rejected allegations that conspirators had aided or framed James Earl Ray in King's assassination.
    (AP, 8/26/08)

1998        Aug 31, In Gaithersburg, Md., Boxer Mike Tyson assaulted 2 motorist following a minor chain-reaction collision. In 1999 he was convicted of assault and sentenced to one year in jail.
    (SFC, 2/6/99, p.A1)

1998        Sep 7, In Atlanta the 4-day Million Youth Movement ended with a march of less than 10,000 black youths.
    (SFC, 9/8/98, p.A3)

1998        Nov 25, Flip Wilson (64), the fist successful black host of a TV variety show, the Flip Wilson Show from 1970-1974, died in Malibu, Calif.
    (SFC, 11/26/98, p.B9)(AP, 11/25/99)

1998        Nov 30, Margaret Walker Alexander, black author, died at age 83. Her work included the 1942 poem "For My People," and the 1966 novel "Jubilee."
    (SFC, 12/1/98, p.B2)

1999        Jan 7, The new Encarta Africana contained 3,000 scholarly articles on black culture and history as part of a 2-CD ROM set by Microsoft. It included a timeline that combines events in Africa and America.
    (SFC, 1/7/99, p.A13)

1999        Jan 20, The Malcolm X postage stamp, the 22nd in the Black heritage series, went on sale.
    (SFC, 1/21/99, p.A3)

1999        Feb 4, In NYC plainclothes police officers fired 41 shots at Amadou Daillo (22), a Bronx street peddler and immigrant from Guinea, who was unarmed in front of his Bronx home. Police were searching for a rapist and Daillo was killed with 19 gunshot wounds. Officers Kenneth Boss, Sean Carroll, Edward McMellon and Richard Murphy were later indicted for 2nd degree murder.
    (SFC, 2/5/99, p.A3)(SFC, 2/6/99, p.A3)(SFC, 3/26/99, p.A3)

1999        Feb 19, President Clinton posthumously pardoned Henry O. Flipper, the first black graduate of West Point, whose military career was tarnished by a racially motivated discharge.
    (AP, 2/19/00)

1999        Feb 23, A jury in Jasper, Texas convicted white supremacist John William King of murder in the gruesome dragging death of a black man, James Byrd Jr.; King was sentenced to death two days later.
    (SFC, 2/24/99, p.A1)(AP, 2/23/00)

1999        Feb 25, A jury in Jasper, Texas, sentenced white supremacist John William King to death for chaining James Byrd Jr., a black man, to a pickup truck and dragging him to pieces in 1998.
    (SFC, 2/26/99, p.A3)(AP, 2/25/00)

1999        Mar 31, A federal judge was expected to approve a settlement by black United Parcel Service (UPS) workers for over $8 million for racial discrimination.
    (SFEC, 3/7/99, p.D2)
1999        Mar 31, Four New York City police officers were charged with murder for killing Amadou Diallo, an unarmed African immigrant, in a hail of bullets. The officers were later acquitted.
    (AP, 3/31/00)

1999        Jul 14, Race-based school busing in Boston came to an end after 25 years.
    (AP, 7/14/00)

1999        Sep 4, In NYC the 2nd Million Youth March headed by Khalid Abdul Muhammad was attended by 1-2 thousand people and watched over by 1,400 police officers.
    (SFEC, 9/5/99, p.A2)

1999        Nov 23, Defense Secretary William Cohen called for a military-wide review of conduct after a Pentagon study said up to 75 percent of blacks and other ethnic minorities reported experiencing racially offensive behavior.
    (AP, 11/23/00)

1999        David Duke published his book "My Awakening," a plan for revolution to preserve the Aryan way of life. The book asserted that blacks are inferior to whites and included a supporting foreword by FSU Prof. Glayde Whitney (d.2002 at 62).
    (SFEC, 3/7/99, p.A10)
1999        Lawrence Otis Graham authored "Our Kind of People," an insider account of the habits, clubs and lifestyles of America's wealthiest black families.
    (Econ., 8/22/20, p.24)

2000        Feb 4, Singer Doris Kenner-Jackson of the Shirelles died in Goldsboro, North Carolina, at age 58.
    (AP, 2/4/01)

2000        Feb 27, Minister Louis Farrakhan of the Nation of Islam ended 2 decades of bitter rivalry and embraced W. Deen Mohammad, son of the late Elijah Mohammad (d.1975), onetime leader of the black Muslims.
    (SFC, 2/28/00, p.A3)

2000        Mar 4, On the AIDS crises it was reported that 1 in every 50 black men in the US was HIV positive. It was also reported that 1 in 300 of all people in the US were HIV positive.
    (SFEC, 3/5/00, Z1 p.1)

2000        Mar 15, In Michigan 4 teens beat to death and robbed Willie Jones (66) as he left the Michigan Lanes Bowling Alley in Grand Rapids. The teens then stuffed Jones into their car trunk and drove around town to show him off.
    (SFC, 3/20/00, p.A11)

2000        Mar 16, In Georgia a gunman shot and wounded 2 sheriff's deputies while being served a warrant in Atlanta at the home of Jamil Abdullah Al-Amin, formerly known as H. Rap Brown. The gunman was later identified as Brown. Deputy Ricky Kinchen (35) died the next day. Al-Amin (56) was arrested in Alabama on Mar 20.
    (SFC, 3/17/00, p.A5)(SFC, 3/18/00, p.A3)(SFC, 3/21/00, p.A3)

2000        May 17, Two former Ku Klux Klansmen were arrested on murder charges in the 1963 church bombing in Birmingham, Alabama, that killed four black girls. Thomas Blanton Junior was convicted and sentenced to life in prison this past May first. Bobby Frank Cherry was indicted last year, but his trial was delayed after evaluations raised questions about his mental competency.
    (AP, 5/17/01)

2000        Aug 2, In SF a jury awarded 17 bakery workers of Interstate Brands Corp. $120 million for racial discrimination.
    (SFC, 8/3/00, p.A1)

2000        Dec 3, Gwendolyn Brooks, African-American poet, died at age 83. Brooks won a 1949 Pulitzer Prize for her 2nd book of poetry, "Annie Allen." She was the poet laureate of Illinois since 1968.
    (SFC, 12/4/00, p.E3)

2000        Cornelia Bailey (1945-2017) with Christena Bledsoe authored “God, Dr. Buzzard, and the Bolito Man: A Saltwater Geechee Talks about Life on Sapelo Island, Georgia."
    (http://tinyurl.com/y8wkemb4)(SFC, 10/20/17, p.D4)

2001        Jan 15, President-elect Bush marked the Martin Luther King Jr. holiday at an elementary school in Houston, where he promised wary black Americans: "My job will be to listen not only to the successful, but also to the suffering."
    (AP, 1/15/02)

2001        Apr 7, In Cincinnati Timothy Thomas (19), an unarmed black man wanted on 14 misdemeanor warrants, was fatally shot by a white police officer. The shooting led to city-wide riots. Officer Stephen Roach was later charged with negligent homicide and obstructing official business.
    (SFC, 4/11/01, p.A10)(SFC, 5/8/01, p.A3)(AP, 4/7/02)

2001        Apr 24, The Rev. Leon Sullivan, a pioneering civil rights crusader credited with helping end South Africa's system of apartheid, died in Scottsdale, Ariz., at age 78.
    (AP, 4/24/02)

2001        May 1, Thomas Blanton Jr. became the second ex-Ku Klux Klansman to be convicted in the 1963 bombing of a church in Birmingham, Ala., that claimed the lives of four black girls.
    (AP, 5/1/02)

2001        Aug, Alan Brian Bond, one of the 1st African Americans to become established as a money manager, was indicted for a 2nd time, this time on charges that he cherry picked over $50 million in unprofitable trades to client accounts and profitable ones to his own account. In 1999 he was indicted and charged with taking $6.9 million in a kickback.
    (SFC, 5/17/02, p.C1)

2001        Sep 9, The US pulled out of the World Conference Against Racism objecting to hateful language in a preliminary declaration.
    (SFC, 12/30/01, p.D5)

2001        Dec 27, Thomas Berkley (86), founder and publisher of the Post Newspaper Group, died in Oakland.
    (SFC, 12/29/01, p.A26)

2001        Ama: A Story of the Atlantic Slave Trade by Manu Herbstein paperback - 450 pages; published by [e-reads]; ISBN: 1585869325  companion web-site: 

2002        Feb 19, Virginia Esther Hamilton, award winning black author, died in Dayton, Ohio, at age 65. Her 35 children’s books "Zeely" (1967) and "M.C. Higgins, the Great" (1973).
    (SFC, 2/25/02, p.B6)

2002        Mar 9, Jamil Abdullah al-Amin, aka H. Rap Brown (58), was convicted by an Atlanta jury of murdering Fulton County sheriff's Deputy Ricky Kinchen on March 16, 2000, and wounding Kinchen's partner, Deputy Aldranon English. Brown was sentenced to life in prison without parole on Mar 13.  In 2019 a federal appeals court found that a prosecutor had violated the constitutional rights of the 1960s black militant during his trial for the killing of a sheriff's deputy, but it's unlikely that substantially affected the verdict.
    (SSFC, 3/10/02, p.A6)(SFC, 3/13/02, p.A4)(AP, 3/9/07)(AP, 7/31/19)

2002        Apr 1, Hugh Davis Graham (d.2002 at 65) author, died. His work included "Collision Course" (2002) a look at affirmative action and immigration and "The Civil Rights Era: Origins and Development of National Policy: 1960-1972," a work on the legislative history of civil rights.
    (WSJ, 3/27/02, p.A16)(SFC, 4/1/02, p.B5)

2002        May 1, California’s Dept. of Insurance released a list of former slaves and slaveholders. Records of 613 salves and 433 slaveholders were made public.
    (SFC, 5/1/02, p.A1)(SFC, 5/2/02, p.A17)

2002        May 2, Dr. William F. Gibson (69), former head of the NAACP, died.
    (SFC, 5/4/02, p.A21)

2002        May 6, Otis Blackwell (70), songwriter, died in Nashville. His 1950s songs included "Don’t Be Cruel," "All Shook Up," "Return to Sender," and "Great Balls of Fire."
    (SFC, 5/10/02, p.A31)

2002        May 22, Bobby Frank Cherry (71), former Alabama Klansman, was convicted for the Sep 14, 1963, murder of 4 Black girls at the 16th Street Baptist Church. The jury sent him to prison for life.
    (SFC, 5/23/02, p.A1)

2002        Jun 14, June Jordan (65), black radical and UC Berkeley poet and professor, died of cancer. Her work included 28 books of poems, political essays and children’s fiction. She was one of the most published African American writers in history.
    (SFC, 9/7/02, p.A17)(SFC, 6/15/02, p.A19)

2002        Jul 4, General Benjamin Oliver Davis, Jr. (b.1912), the first black general in the US Air Force and commander of the World War II Tuskegee Airmen, died in Washington. In 1991 he published his autobiography “Benjamin O. Davis, Jr., American: An Autobiography."
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Benjamin_O._Davis,_Jr.)(AP, 7/4/03)

2002        Oct 4, In Barbados delegations from Russia, Cuba, South Africa, Colombia and France's overseas territories abandoned an anti-racism conference that voted to exclude whites saying they'll have no part in discrimination. The walkout, on the fourth day of the six-day African and African Descendants World Conference Against Racism, came after a day of negotiations failed. Some 200 delegates had voted Wednesday for whites and Asians to leave the deliberations, saying slavery was too painful a subject to discuss in front of non-Africans.
    (AP, 10/5/02)

2002        Dec 5, Trent Lott, Senate Republican leader from Mississippi, made remarks that supported Sen. Strom Thurmond’s 1948 segregationist platform. A political furor soon erupted.
    (SFC, 12/13/02, p.A4)

2002        Dec 18, Robert Johnson became the 1st African American to own a major sports team. The NBA awarded him rights to the expansion franchise in Charlotte.
    (SFC, 12/19/02, p.A2)

2002        Philip Dray authored "At the Hands of Persons Unknown," a chronicle of race-based lynchings from the 1830s to the 1960s.
    (WSJ, 1/14/02, p.A16)

2002        Randall Kennedy authored "Nigger: The Strange Career of a Troublesome Word."
    (SSFC, 2/3/02, p.M2)

2002        Darryl Pinckney authored "Out There: Mavericks of Black Literature," a look at the work of J.S. Rogers, Vincent O. Carter and Caryl Phillips.
    (SSFC, 6/16/02, p.M2)

2003        Jan 21, The US Census Bureau reported that Hispanics had passed Blacks as the biggest US minority group.
    (WSJ, 1/22/03, p.A1)

2003        Jan, Prof. John U. Ogbu (d.2003) of UC Berkeley, Nigerian-born anthropologist, authored "Black American Students in an Affluent Suburb: A Study of Academic Engagement."
    (SFC, 8/23/03, p.A21)

2003        Sep 28, Althea Gibson (76), Wimbledon's 1st black tennis champion (1957), died in New Jersey.
    (WSJ, 9/29/03, p.A1)

2003        Dec 16, Pres. Bush signed legislation to curb unsolicited commercial e-mails and a bill to establish a national museum devoted to black history. The National Museum of African American History and Culture (NMAAHC), a Smithsonian Institution museum located on the National Mall in Washington, D.C., was established. It opened its permanent home in September 2016 with a ceremony led by President Barack Obama.
    (WSJ, 12/17/03, p.A1)(AP, 12/16/04)(https://tinyurl.com/hzvdvzb)

2003        Todd Boyd, Univ. S. Cal. professor, authored "The New H.N.I.C. – The Death of Civil Rights and the Reign of Hip Hop. HNIC stands for "head niggasa in charge."
    (SSFC, 2/2/03, p.M6)
2003        David L. Chappell authored "A Stone of Hope: Prophetic Religion and the Death of Jim Crow," in which he reasoned that black religious faith sustained their efforts to overcome segregation.
    (WSJ, 1/14/04, p.D10)
2003        Chicago passed the Business, Corporate and Slavery Era Insurance Ordnance that required companies doing business with the city to disclose any ties to slavery.
    (WSJ, 5/10/05, p.A1)
2003        Niger made slavery a crime with a penalty of up to 30 years in jail, but continued to turn a blind eye to the practice.
    (Econ, 11/1/08, p.57)

2005        Jan 1, Shirley Chisholm (80), advocate for minority rights, died. She became the first black woman elected to Congress and later the first black person to seek a major party's nomination for the US presidency.
    (AP, 1/3/05)

2005        Jan 3, Victor Hill, the newly elected Clayton County Sheriff, fired 27 mostly white officers from his staff as the Georgia county opened the year with its 1st black-majority government.
    (SFC, 1/10/05, p.A6)

2005        Aug 8, John H. Johnson (b.1919) founding publisher of Ebony (1945), Jet (1951), and Ebony Man (1985), died in Chicago.
    (HN, 11/1/98)(SFC, 8/8/05, p.B4)(AP, 8/8/06)

2005        Lisa E. Farrington authored “Creating Their Own Image: The History of African-American Women Artists."
    (SSFC, 2/27/05, p.B1)

2005        Adam Hochschild authored “Bury the Chains: Prophets and Rebels in the Fight to Free an Empire’s Slaves."
    (Econ, 2/5/05, p.76)

2006        Jun 10, James Cameron (92), who survived an attempted lynching and went on to found America's Black Holocaust Museum, died in Milwaukee.
    (AP, 6/11/07)

2006        Dec 4, In Jena, La., six black students (the Jena Six) beat a white schoolmate in an altercation that stemmed from the hanging of nooses in August in a tree on school grounds under which white students regularly gathered. The black teenagers were initially charged with attempted murder, but later dropped to aggravated second-degree battery in 4 cases. In September, 2007, charges against Mychal Bell were moved to juvenile court following huge civil rights protests. It was later reported that 7 black students were involved in the Dec 4 beating. On Dec 3, 2007, Bell pleaded guilty to a juvenile charge of 2nd degree battery in return for an 18-month sentence. On June 26, 2009, 5 members of the Jena 6 pleaded no contests to misdemeanor simple battery with no jail time.
    (SFC, 9/21/07, p.A3)(SFC, 9/28/07, p.A3)(Econ, 9/29/07, p.33)(SFC, 12/4/07, p.A3)(SFC, 6/27/09, p.A5)

2006        Tavis Smiley authored “Covenant With Black America," a call for African Americans to start addressing real problems.
    (SFC, 2/17/07, p.A1)

2007        Jul 9, The NAACP at its 98th annual meeting held a public burial for the N-word (nigger) racial slur in Detroit. In 1944 the NAACP held a symbolic funeral in Detroit for Jim Crow.
    (SFC, 7/10/07, p.A3)

2007        Jul 18, Sekou Sundiata (b.1948), black poet and activist born as Robert Franklin Feaster, died of heart failure in Westchester, NY.
    (SFC, 7/28/07, p.B5)

2007        Aug 2, In Oakland, Ca., Chauncey Bailey (57), editor of the Oakland Post and former reporter for the Oakland Tribune, was shot and killed on his way to work by a masked gunman. In 2009 an indictment accused Yusuf Bey IV (23), the leader of Your Black Muslim Bakery, of murder for allegedly telling two of his followers to kill Bailey. In 2009 Devaughndre Broussard (21) pleaded guilty to 2 counts of voluntary manslaughter as part of a deal to secure testimony against Yusuf Bey IV and Antoine Mackey, another bakery figure. In 2012 Thomas Peele authored “Killing the Messenger: A Story of Radical Faith, Racism’s Backlash, and the Assassination of a Journalist."
    (SFC, 8/3/07, p.A1)(SFC, 4/30/09, p.A1)(SFC, 5/8/09, p.B1)(SSFC, 2/26/12, p.F1)

2007        Oct 15, Ernest Withers (b.1922), African American freelance photographer, died. In 2012 the FBI admitted that had served as an informant, revealing a 14-year history between the noted civil rights photographer and the agency.
    (SFC, 7/5/12, p.A6)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ernest_Withers)

2007        Charleston, South Carolina, opened a slavery museum.
    (Econ, 10/1/11, p.34)

2008        Douglas A. Blackmon authored “Slavery by Another Name: The Re-Enslavement of Black Americans from the Civil War to World War II." In 2009 Blackmon, an editor at the Wall Street Journal, won a Pulitzer Prize for the book.
    (WSJ, 4/21/09, p.B6)
2008        Mary Lefkowitz authored “History Lesson: A Race Odyssey," an account of what she experienced after questioning the veraity of Afrocentrism and the motives of its advocates.
    (WSJ, 4/15/08, p.D9)

2009        Jan 20, In Washington DC some 2 million people packed the National Mall to celebrate the inauguration of Barack Obama as America's 44th and first black president. “The Question we ask today is not whether government is too big or too small, but whether it works." Obama's new administration ordered all federal agencies and departments to stop any pending regulations until they can be reviewed by incoming staff, halting last-minute Bush orders.
    (AP, 1/20/09)(Reuters, 1/20/09)(SFC, 1/21/09, p.A8)

2009        Jan 30, The Republican Party chose former Maryland Lt. Gov. Michael Steele as the first black national chairman in its history.
    (AP, 1/31/09)

2009        Feb 2, Eric Holder won US Senate confirmation as the nation's first African-American attorney general, after supporters from both parties touted his dream resume and easily overcame Republican concerns over his commitment to fight terrorism and his unwillingness to back the right to keep and bear arms.
    (AP, 2/2/09)

2009        Mar 15, Richard Masato Aoki (b.1938), former Japanese-American FBI informant and early member of the Black Panthers (1967), died in Oakland, Ca., from complications relating to diabetes. He had given the Panthers some of their first guns.
    (SFC, 8/20/12, p.A1)(http://tinyurl.com/9g5u4zn)

2009        Mar 25, John Hope Franklin (b.1915), revered Duke Univ. historian and scholar of the African American experience, died in North Carolina. His books included “From Slavery to Freedom" (1947).
    (SFC, 3/26/09, p.B5)

2009        Jul 23, E. Lynn Harris (b.1955), pioneer of gay black fiction, died while promoting his latest book in Los Angeles. Long before the secret world of closeted black gay men came to light in America, Harris introduced a generation of black women to the phenomenon known as the "down low." His debut "Invisible Life" (1994) was a coming-of-age story that dealt with the then-taboo topic.
    (AP, 7/24/09)

2009        Jul 24, President Barack Obama conceded his words, that a white police officer "acted stupidly" when he arrested a black university scholar in his own home, were ill-chosen. He invited both men to visit him at the White House, but stopped short of publicly apologizing for his remark. Obama said he had personally telephoned the two men, Harvard professor Henry Louis Gates Jr. and Cambridge, Mass., police Sgt. James Crowley, in an effort to end the rancorous back-and-forth over the issue. The case began on July 20, when word broke that Gates (58) had been arrested five days earlier at the 2-story home he rents from Harvard.
    (AP, 7/25/09)

2009        Aug 11, North Carolina Gov. Beverley Purdue signed the Racial Justice Act into law.
    (Econ, 4/28/12, p.34)(http://tinyurl.com/yj8xuzw)

2009        Nov 28, The government of Peru apologized to its Afro-Peruvian population for the first time for centuries of abuse, exclusion and discrimination. Peru was the first country in Latin America to make such an apology.
    (AP, 11/28/09)(SSFC, 7/21/13, p.A5)

2010        Jan 12, Kenn Allan Davis (78), newspaper illustrator and mystery novel writer, died at his home in Placer County, Ca. His 8 detective novels featured Carver Bascombe, an African American private eye. The first in the series was titled “The Dark Side" (1976), co-written with John Stanley.
    (SFC, 1/19/10, p.C3)

2010        Mar 23, Senegal's national assembly adopted a bill declaring slavery and the slave trade crimes against humanity, moving closer to becoming the first African nation to pass such legislation.
    (AFP, 3/24/10)

2010        Apr 20, Dorothy Height (98), a longtime leader of the US civil rights movement and the chairwoman of the National Council of Negro Women, died in Washington, DC.
    (Reuters, 4/20/10)

2010        Apr 21, In Mississippi Richard Barrett (67), a white supremacist lawyer, was fatally stabbed and beaten at his home in Pearl. The next morning the house was set on fire and Vincent McGee (22), a black neighbor, was charged with murder. On April 23 three others were charged with accessories after the fact and arson. In 1966 Barrett had founded a supremacist group called the Nationalist Movement, but it never amounted to much.
    (SFC, 4/24/10, p.A7)

2010        May 24, The US Supreme Court ruled that a group of African Americans may sue the city of Chicago for discriminatory use of an application test that kept them from being hired as firefighters.
    (SFC, 5/25/10, p.A4)

2010        Oct 22, Ephren Taylor resigned from City Capital and has since been replaced by Jeff M. Smuda. Taylor allegedly took one million dollars from members at New Birth Missionary Baptist Church near Atlanta. Smuda was elected chairman of the failing company shortly after Taylor’s resignation. According to their SEC, filing Jeff M. Smuda is an expert in restructuring companies to profitability. Taylor was soon dubbed “the black Bernie Madoff."
    (Econ, 1/28/12, p.63)(http://tinyurl.com/8a6vrqw)

2010        Nov 24, In California Rep. steve Cooley conceded defeat to Dem. Kamala Harris for the office of attorney general. Harris became the state’s first woman, the first African American and the first Indian American in California history to be elected as state attorney general.
    (SFC, 11/25/10, p.A1)

2010        Dec 6, Poland's parliament got notice of its first ever African lawmaker, a teacher and Christian pastor from Nigeria who has lived in Poland for 17 years and proven himself a popular local leader. John Abraham Godson (40), a councilman in the central city of Lodz, will fill a seat in the national parliament vacated by a fellow lawmaker from the Civic Platform party.
    (AP, 12/7/10)

2010        Dec 8, Pres. Obama signed legislation to pay American Indians and black farmers some $4.6 billion for government mistreatment over many decades. The legislation settled 4 long-standing Native American water rights in Arizona, New Mexico and Montana.
    (SFC, 12/9/10, p.A18)

2010        Ira Berlin authored “The Making of African America: The Four Great Migrations."
    (Econ, 2/13/10, p.84)

2011        Feb 23, Allen Willis (b.1916), African American filmmaker, died in Oakland, Ca. His work included “Have You Sold Your Dozen Roses" (1955), produced with San Francisco poet Lawrence Ferlinghetti, and “Stagger Lee" (1970), a documentary interview with incarcerated Black Panther leader Bobby Seale.
    (SFC, 3/7/11, p.C3)

2011        Mar 17, The US Justice Dept. accused the New Orleans Police Dept. of systematic misconduct that violated the Constitution. A report said officers had engaged in racial profiling against the city’s black majority from January 2009 to May 2010 and used deadly force against 27 people.
    (SFC, 3/18/11, p.A4)

2011        May 25, The final segment of Oprah Winfrey’s TV talk show, taped a day earlier, aired after a 25 year run.
    (SFC, 5/26/11, p.A8)

2011        Jun 3, In Tanzania former Black Panther Party leader Elmer "Geronimo" Pratt (63), died. Pratt was convicted in 1972 of being one of two men who robbed and fatally shot schoolteacher Caroline Olsen on a Santa Monica tennis court in December 1968. The conviction was overturned after he spent 27 years in prison for a crime he maintained he did not commit.
    (AP, 6/3/11)

2011            Jun 14, At its annual conference in Phoenix, the Southern Baptist Convention, until thirty years ago a nearly all-white organization, elected an African-American pastor, Rev. Fred Luter Jr. of New Orleans, to the position of first vice president. This is the highest position ever held by a black minister, and was seen by members as further proof that the Convention is committed to ethnic diversity. 
            (NYT, 6/15/11)

2011        Jun 26, In Mississippi James Craig Anderson (49), a black man, was run over a killed by Deryl Dedmon, a white teenager, in a pickup truck in Jackson. The event fueled anger and an FBI investigation after a surveillance tape of the incident was made public. Dedmon was later charged with capital murder. On March 21, 2012, Dedmon pleaded guilty received two concurrent life sentences for the racially motivated murder of Anderson.
    (SFC, 8/18/11, p.A8)(SFC, 8/20/11, p.A6)(Reuters, 3/21/12)

2011        Aug 22, The Cherokee nation, the USA’s second-largest Indian tribe, formally booted from membership thousands of descendants of black slaves who were brought to Oklahoma more than 170 years ago by Native American owners.
    (Reuters, 8/23/11)

2011        Sep 13, A federal order for one of the nation's largest American Indian tribes to restore voting rights and benefits to about 2,800 descendants of members' former slaves threw plans for a special election for a new Cherokee Nation chief into turmoil. The tribe said that it would not be dictated to by the US government over its move to banish African Americans from its citizenship rolls.
    (AP, 9/13/11)(Reuters, 9/13/11)

2011        Sep 21, In Texas white supremacist and gang member Lawrence Russell Brewer (44) was executed for the infamous June 7, 1998, dragging death slaying of James Byrd Jr.
    (AP, 9/22/11)

2011        Sep 26, In Portugal George Wright (68), named as one of the hijackers of a Delta flight in 1972, was taken into custody by local police. The US government sought his extradition for escaping from a New Jersey jail after being convicted of murder. Wright was convicted of the 1962 murder of gas station owner Walter Patterson, a decorated World War II veteran shot during a robbery at his business in Wall, New Jersey. In November a Lisbon court denied the US request for his extradition.
    (AP, 9/28/11)(AP, 11/17/11)

2011        Oct 5, Rev. Fred Shuttlesworth (89), a dynamic leader of the civil rights movement, died in Birmingham, Alabama.
    (SFC, 10/6/11, p.A7)(Econ, 10/15/11, p.100)

2011        Oct 16, In Washington DC thousands of people spanning all ages and races honored the legacy of the nation's foremost civil rights leader during the formal dedication of the new Martin Luther King Jr. Memorial.
    (AP, 10/17/11)

2012        Feb 1, Don Cornelius (75), the man who created Soul Train (1971-1993), was reportedly found dead at his Los Angeles home.
    (ABCNews, 2/1/12)

2012        Feb 22, Pres. Obama and others took part in the formal groundbreaking for the National Museum of African American History and Culture on the National Mall, scheduled to open in 2015.
    (SFC, 2/23/12, p.A9)

2012        Feb 26, In Florida Trayvon Martin (17) of Miami was shot dead by George Zimmerman (28), a white Neighborhood Watch captain, after he took a break from watching NBA All-Star game television coverage to walk 10 minutes to a convenience store to buy snacks. He was visiting his father and stepmother in a gated townhome community called The Retreat at Twin Lakes in Sanford, 20 miles north of Orlando. On April 11 Zimmerman was charged with second-degree murder.
    (Reuters, 3/7/12)(http://tinyurl.com/74n7rwe)(AP, 4/11/12)

2012        Apr 26, In Michigan the Jim Crow Museum of Racist Memorabilia held its grand opening at Ferris State Univ. in Big Rapids. David Pilgrim, the founder and curator, started building the collection as a teenager.
    (AP, 4/19/12)

2012        May 19, The NAACP passed a resolution endorsing same-sex marriage as a civil right and opposing any efforts "to codify discrimination or hatred into the law."
    (AP, 5/19/12)

2012        Jul 24, Sherman Hemsley (b.1938), African-American actor best know for his role as George Jefferson, died in El Paso, Texas. He debuted as George Jefferson in 1973 in the “All in the Family" sitcom. From 1975-1985 he continued in “The Jeffersons." From 1986 to 1991 he played Deacon Ernest Frye in “Amen."
    (SFC, 7/25/12, p.C5)

2012        Yuval Taylor and Jake Austen authored “Darkest America: Black Minstrelsy From Slavery to Hip-op."
    (SSFC, 8/26/12, p.G5)

2013        Apr 4, Alabama lawmakers voted to allow posthumous pardons to the Scottsboro Boys, 9 black teens who were wrongly convicted of raping two white women over 80 years ago.
    (SFC, 4/5/13, p.A5)

2013        Jul 16, The police chief of Oakland, Ca., said his force was understaffed and that officers have struggled to cope with 3 nights of protests in the wake of the acquittal of George Zimmerman in Florida. The local protests left many downtown businesses vandalized.
    (SFC, 7/17/13, p.A1)

2013        Aug 18, Albert Murray, American jazz critic, poet and novelist, died in Harlem. His books included "The Omni-Americans" (1970), "South to a Very Old Place" (1971), "Train Whistle Guitar" (1974) and "Stomping the Blues" (1976).
    (https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Albert_Murray_(writer))(Econ., 8/22/20, p.67)

2013        Joshua Bloom authored “Black Against Empire: The History and Politics of the Black Panther Party."
    (SSFC, 2/24/13, p.F1)

2014        Jan 9, Amiri Baraka (b.1934), poet, playwright and black nationalist, died in New Jersey.  He was born as Everett LeRoi Jones and changed his name in 1965 following the assassination of Malcolm X. His play “Dutchman" won the 1964 Obie Award for best American play.
    (SFC, 1/10/14, p.D5)

2014        Jan 25, Morrie Turner (b.1923), cartoonist and the creator of the “Wee Palls" (1965) cartoon strip, died in Sacramento, Ca. He was the first African American cartoonist to draw a nationally syndicated strip exploring racial themes during the peak of the civil rights movement and beyond.
    (SFC, 1/29/14, p.E1)

2014        Apr 27, President Barack Obama said  that comments reportedly made by Donald Sterling, the owner of the LA Clippers pro basketball team, are "incredibly offensive racist statements," before casting them as part of a continuing legacy of slavery and segregation that Americans must confront.
    (AP, 4/27/14)

2014        Apr 29, NBA Commissioner Adam Silver announced that Donald Sterling (80), the owner of the LA Clippers, would be banned from the NBA for life and fined $2.5 million for his recent racist comments. Additional punishment included barring Sterling from any NBA games or practices.
    (SFC, 4/30/14, p.A1)

2014        May 11, In Los Angeles members of the Big Hazard Latino street gang firebombed the apartments of some 23 Black families in the Ramona Gardens housing project. No one was injured in the Mother's Day attack. In 2018 three men pleaded guilty for the roles in the attacks.
    (SFC, 4/7/18, p.A7)

2014        May 28 Maya Angelou (b.1928), American poet, writer and civil rights activist, died at her home in Winston-Salem, NC. Her 1969 memoir “I Know Why the Caged Bird Sings" was the first of her seven memoirs.
    (SFC, 5/29/14, p.A11)(Econ, 6/7/14, p.98)

2014        Jun 11, Ruby Dee (b.1922), acclaimed actress and civil rights advocate, died at her home in New Rochelle, NY. She had become famous for her supporting role in the stage play “A Raisin in the Sun" (1959). She also starred in the film version (1961).
    (SFC, 6/13/14, p.A16)

2014        Jul 3, In the Netherlands an Amsterdam court ruled that the traditional figure known as Black Pete, the sidekick to the Dutch equivalent of Santa Claus, is a negative stereotype of black people and the city must rethink its involvement in holiday celebrations involving him.
    (AP, 7/3/14)

2014        Jul 24, The first archive dedicated to the culture and experiences of black people in Britain opened in Brixton, south London, with the aim of shining a light on a long overlooked history.
    (AFP, 7/25/14)

2014        Sep 20, J. California Cooper (82), author and playwright, died in Seattle. Her 1991 novel “Family" told a multigenerational story that began with a woman born as a slave. Her 1978 play “Stranger" earned her the Black Playwright of the Year award.
    (SFC, 9/25/14, p.D5)

2014        Nov 12, A Swedish official in Kiruna said a bus driver has been sacked for forcing black people off her bus, highlighting lingering xenophobia in a country traditionally known for tolerance.
    (AFP, 11/12/14)

2014        Allyson Hobbs authored “A Chosen Exile: A History of Racial Passing in American Life."
    (SSFC, 11/9/14, p.N4)
2014        The Movement for Black Lives, a coalition of groups across the United States which represent the interests of black communities, was formed. On July 24, 2015 individuals from across the country gathered at Cleveland State University in response to incidents of police brutality targeting the African-American community.

2015        Jan 3, Edward Brooke (b.1919), former Massachusetts senator (1966-1978) died at his home in Coral Gables, Florida. Brooke was the first black person to be elected as senator in any state since Reconstruction.
    (SSFC, 1/4/15, p.C9)

2015        Mar 4, The US Justice Dept. released a report concluding that Missouri’s Ferguson Police Dept. was routinely violating the constitutional rights of its black residents. The DOJ said police in Ferguson engaged in something like extortion to plug a hole in the city’s finances with traffic fines and court fees.
    (SFC, 3/4/15, p.A6)(Econ, 8/8/15, p.25)

2015        Jun 15, In Washington state Rachel Dolezal (aka Nkechi Diallo) resigned as president of Spokane’s chapter of the NAACP just days after her parents said she is a white woman posing as a black. In 2018 Dolezal was charged with welfare fraud. In 2019 she reached an agreement to avoid trial on charges of welfare fraud. Prosecutors said she had failed to report income from her book "In Full Color: Finding My Place in a Black and White World" (2017) in order to collect food and child care assistance.
    (SFC, 6/16/15, p.A6)(SFC, 5/26/18, p.A6)

2015        Jul 11, The NAACP passed a resolution lifting its 15-year economic boycott of South Carolina after the state took down a Confederate battle flag flying near its State House.
    (SFC, 7/13/15, p.A6)

2015        Jul 24, Individuals from across the country gathered at Cleveland State University in response to incidents of police brutality targeting the African-American community.

2015        Oct 18, In Florida black drummer Corey Jones was shot and killed near his broken down vehicle by police Officer Nouman Raja on I-95 in Palm Beach Gardens. Raja was fired on Nov 11 and charged with attempted murder and manslaughter on June 1, 2016. On March 8, 2019, Raja was found guilty of manslaughter and attempted murder. On Aprtil 25, 2019, Raja was sentenced to 25 years in prison.
    (SFC, 10/23/15, p.A10)(SFC, 11/13/15, p.A7)(SFC, 6/2/16, p.A6)(SFC, 3/8/19, p.A9)(SFC, 4/26/19, p.A5)

2015        Eric Foner authored “Gateway to Freedom: The Hidden History of the Underground Railroad."
    (SSFC, 2/8/15, p.N5)
2015        William J. Maxwell authored “F.B. Eyes: How J. Edgar Hoover’s Ghostreaders Framed African American Literature."
    (SSFC, 2/8/15, p.N4)
2015        Black people in America, numbering 13% of the country’s population, represented 52% of Americans slain this year.
    (Econ 7/1/17, p.23)

2016        Jan 18, California Highway Patrol officers arrested 25 demonstrators who chained themselves and their vehicles across all five west-bound lanes of the SF Bay Bridge. The protesters used the Martin Luther King holiday to call for racial equity.
    (SFC, 1/19/16, p.A1)

2016        Apr 14, In Kentucky eight black men won a $5.3 million jury award in a lawsuit over claims that they endured a hostile work environment at a UPS in Lexington.
    (SFC, 4/15/16, p.A7)

2016        Apr 20, US Treasury Secretary Jack Lew announced that abolitionist and women’s rights crusader Harriet Tubman (~1822-1913) will replace Andrew Jackson on the front of the $20 bill.
    (SFC, 4/20/16, p.A1)

2016        Jul 5, In Louisiana about 200 protestors took to the streets of Baton Rouge after a Louisiana police officer shot and killed Alton Sterling (37), a black man, outside of a Baton Rouge convenience store. In 2017 the Dept. of Justice under Attorney General Jeff Sessions said it will not file charges in the case. Toxicology results later showed that Sterling had a number of drugs in his system at the time of confrontation. In 2018 the state's attorney general ruled out criminal charges against the two white officers involved in the case.
    (SFC, 7/7/16, p.A8)(SFC, 5/3/17, p.A4)(SFC, 3/28/18, p.A6)

2016        Sep 24, Pres. Barack Obama opened National Museum of African-American History & Culture in Washington, DC.
    (Econ, 1/14/17, p.77)

2016        Dec 15, In South Carolina Dylann Roof (22) was convicted in the slaughter of nine black church members on June 17, 2015, at Charleston’s Emanuel African Methodist Episcopal Church.
    (SFC, 12/16/16, p.A10)

2017        Aug 14, Simone Askew (20) became the first black woman to captain the 4,400 member Corps of Cadets at West Point.
    (SFC, 8/1517, p.A5)

2017        Aug 19, Dick Gregory (b.1932), pioneering black satirist and civil rights campaigner, died in Washington, DC.
    (SSFC, 8/20/17, p.A6)(Econ, 9/9/17, p.86)

2017        Sep 22, In South Africa the Zeitz Museum of Contemporary Art Africa opened in Cape Town. It was billed as the world's biggest museum dedicated to contemporary art from Africa and its diaspora.
    (AP, 9/22/17)

2017        Oct 21, Derrick Johnson (49) of Jackson, Miss., was hired as the 19th president and CEO of the NAACP after having served as interim leader since July.
    (SSFC, 10/22/17, p.A8)

2017        Nov 21, Joseph L. White (b.1932), known among colleagues as the “father of black psychology," died of a heart attack while on a flight to St. Louis to see his daughter.
    (SSFC, 12/3/17, p.C10)

2017        Richard Rothstein authored “The Color of Law: A Forgotten History of How Our Government Segregated America."
    (SFC, 1/19/18, p.D2)

2018        Apr 2, In South Africa anti-apartheid activist Winnie Madikizela-Mandela (81), wife to Nelson Mandela during his decades of imprisonment, died in a Johannesburg hospital after a long illness.
    (AFP, 4/2/18)

2018        May 24, Pres. Donald Trump granted a posthumous pardon to Jack Johnson (1878-1946), boxing's first black heavy-weight champion (1908).
    (SFC, 5/25/18, p.A10)

2018        May 29, More than 8,000 Starbucks stores closed for employee antibias training as a direct result of the April 12 incident when two black men were arrested at a Starbucks store in Philadelphia.
(SFC, 5/30/18, p.C1)

2018        Jun 5, US historian Ira Berlin died in Washington, DC. His books included "Slaves Without Masters: The Free Negro in the Antebellum South " (1974) and "Many Thousands Gone: The First Two Centuries of Slavery in North America" (1998).
    (SSFC, 6/10/18, p.C10)

2018        Jul 11, In San Francisco London Breed was sworn in as the city's 45th mayor. She became the first African American woman to lead the city.
    (SFC, 7/12/18, p.A1)

2018        Aug 23, American composer George Walker (96) died in Montclair, NJ. He was the first black composer to win the Pulitzer Prize for music (1996).
    (SFC, 8/29/18, p.D5)

2018        Sep 6, Thad Mumford (b.1951), EmmyAward-winning African-American writer and producer for "M.A.S.H." and other hit television shows, died in Silver Spring, Md.
    (SFC, 9/20/18, p.D2)

2018        Sep 30, Tennis superstar Serena Williams caused an internet sensation by posing topless for a video while singing "I Touch Myself" to raise awareness for breast cancer. The song was co-written by Divinyls Australian vocalist Chrissy Amphlett who died of breast cancer five years ago aged 53.
    (AFP, 9/30/18)

2019        Jan 7, In Alabama the Birmingham Civil Rights Institute received withering criticism on social media after rescinding its decision to honor political activist and scholar Angela Davis with the Fred Shuttlesworth Human Rights Award.
    (AP, 1/7/19)

2019        Feb 22, Chicago police raided the home of Anjanette Young, who was not allowed to put on clothes before being handcuffed. Police had the wrong house. On Dec. 15, 2021, Chicago’s City Council approved a $2.9 million settlement for Young.
    (https://tinyurl.com/yde3dypj)(SFC, 12/21/20, p.A6)(NY Times, 12/16/21)

2019        Mar, Arizona banned prisoners from reading "Chokehold: Policing Black Men," by Paul Butler, a former federal prosecutor. The book discusses the impack of the criminal justice system on black men. In May the American Civil Liberties Union called on the Arizona Dept. of Corrections to rescind the ban.
    (SFC, 5/22/19, p.A6)

2019        Apr 2, In Chicago Lori Lightfoot (56), a former federal prosecutor, was elected mayor, becoming the city's first black woman and openly gay person to lead the city.
    (SFC, 4/3/19, p.A6)

2019        Apr 4, Pope Francis named Atlanta Archbishop Wilton Gregory (71) as the new archbishop of Washington DC, choosing a moderate, and the first African-American, to lead the archdiocese.
    (AP, 4/4/19)

2019        May 16, In Chicago Lori Lightfoot was sworn in as city mayor, becoming the first black woman and the first openly gay person to hold that post in the city's history.
    (SFC, 5/21/19, p.A8)

2019        Jul 3, California became the first state in the US to ban discrimination against black employees based on their natural hairstyles.
    (SFC, 7/4/19, p.A1)

2019        Jul 26, Hampton University, a historically black university in Virginia said that it has fired nine of its police officers for sharing "misogynistic, racist and other offensive remarks via social media".
    (AP, 7/26/19)

2019        Aug 5, Toni Morrison (88), the iconic author known best for her 1987 novel “Beloved," died in NYC. Morrison was awarded the Nobel Prize in Literature in 1993, making her the first black woman to win the award.

2019        Aug 24, Virginia Gov. Ralph Northam announced a new state commission to review educational standards for teaching black history in the state.
    (SSFC, 8/25/19, p.A10)

2019        Oct 4, Diahann Carroll, black actress and singer,died in Los Angeles. Carroll was the first black woman to star in a non-servant role in a TV series. "Julia" aired from 1968-1971.
    (SSFC, 10/6/19, p.B10)

2019        Oct 8, Montgomery, Alabama, elected Judge Steven Reed as its first African American mayor.
    (SFC, 10/9/19, p.A6)

2019        Nov 5, In Missouri voters in Kansas City overwhelmingly approved removing Dr. Martin Luther King's name from one of the city's most historic boulevards, less than a year after the city council decided to rename The Paseo for the civil rights icon. A group of residents intent on keeping The Paseo name began collecting petitions to put the name change on the ballot and achieved that goal in April.
    (AP, 11/6/19)

2019        Nov 7, South Carolina restaurant owner Bobby Paul Edwards was sentenced to 10 years in prison for abusing Chris Smith, a mentally disabled African-American employee, and forcing him to work with no pay for years.
    (AP, 11/8/19)

2019        Dec 30, Danielle Outlaw was announced as the first female black police commissioner in Philadelphia.
    (The Independent, 12/31/19)

2019        Nikole Hannah-Jones, a NY Times Pulitzer Prize-winning journalist, launched the 1619 Project to coincide with the 400th anniversary of the arrival of African slaves on America's shores. The project would place the consequences of slavery and the contributions of African-Americans at the center of US history.
    (AP, 7/27/20)

2020        Jan 18, In Pennsylvania Delbert Orr Africa, a member of the Move 9 group who has been imprisoned for 42 years for a crime he says he did not commit, was released from prison. He is the eighth of the nine Move members – five men and four women – to be released or to have died while in prison. The nine were arrested and sentenced to 30 years to life following a dramatic police siege of their communal home in Philadelphia which culminated with a shootout on 8 August 1978.
    (The Guardian, 1/18/20)

2020        Jan 19, Democratic presidential candidate Michael Bloomberg pledged to narrow the wealth gap between black and white Americans by boosting black ownership of homes and businesses and investing in poor neighborhoods.
    (Reuters, 1/19/20)

2020        Feb 10, Maryland unveiled statues of abolitionists Harriet Tubman and Frederick Douglass in the Old House Chamber, the room where slavery was abolished in Maryland in 1864.
    (AP, 2/10/20)

2020        Feb 22, In New York Barbara "B." Smith (70), a model, restaurateur and lifestyle tastemaker, died at her Long Island home. Her hme products line was the first from a black woman to be sold at a nationwide retailer when it debuted in 2001 at Bed Bath and Beyond.
    (SFC, 2/24/20, p.A7)

2020        Feb 24, Katherine Johnson (101), a mathematician who calculated rocket trajectories and earth orbits for NASA’s early space missions, died in Virginia. She was portrayed in the 2016 hit film “Hidden Figures," about pioneering black female aerospace workers.
    (AP, 2/24/20)

2020        Feb 26, The US House of Representatives approved legislation designating lynching as a hate crime under federal law. The bill was named after Emmet Till, sixty-five years after the 14-year-old was lynched in Mississippi.
    (AP, 2/26/20)

2020        Mar 8, The Rev. Darius L. Swann (95), whose challenge to the notion of segregated public schools helped spark the use of busing to integrate schools across the country, died at his Virginia home. In 1964 Swann wrote a letter to the Charlotte-Mecklenburg school board, asking that his son James be allowed to attend Seversville School, two blocks from his home. In 1971 the US Supreme Court upheld court-ordered busing in the Charlotte-Mecklenburg school district, clearing the way for the use of busing as a means of desegregation.
    (AP, 3/25/20)

2020        Mar 27, Civil rights leader and MLK aide Rev. Joseph E. Lowery (98) died in Atlanta. In 2009, Pres. Barack Obama awarded Lowery the Presidential Medal of Freedom, the nation’s highest civilian honor.
    (AP, 3/27/20)(Economist, 4/4/20, p.74)

2020        May, Charles R. Saunders (73), copy editor and writer for The Daily News of Halifax, died in Nova Scotia. Saunders had reimagined the white worlds of Tarzan and Conan with Black heroes and African mythologies in books that spoke especially to Black fans eager for more fictional champions with whom they could identify. His first novel, “Imaro," was published in 1981.
    (NY Times, 1/21/21)

2020        Jun 16, Virginia Gov. Ralph Northam announced that Juneteenth, a day that commemorates the end of slavery in the US, will become an official state holiday to be celebrated annually on June 19.
    (SFC, 6/17/20, p.A4)

2020        Jun 17, PepsiCo, the owner of the Quaker Oats Company, announced that Aunt Jemima, the more than 130-year-old breakfast brand that has faced criticisms for being based on a racial stereotype, will be removed from its packaging.
    (Good Morning America, 6/17/20)

2020        Jun 18, It was reported that Reed Hastings, the co-founder of Netflix, and his wife, Patty Quillin, have donated $120 million to the United Negro College Fund, Spelman College and Morehouse College to support scholarships at the historically black colleges and universities.
    (SFC, 6/18/20, p.C5)

2020        Jun 27, Princeton University announced plans to remove the name of former President Woodrow Wilson from its public policy school because of his segregationist views, reversing a decision the Ivy League school made four years ago to retain the name. Wilson served as governor of New Jersey from 1911 to 1913. He then served as the 28th US president from 1913 to 1921, supported segregation and imposed it on several federal agencies not racially divided up to that point. He also barred Black students from Princeton while serving as university president and spoke approvingly of the Ku Klux Klan.
    (AP, 6/27/20)

2020        Jul 5, In Rochester, NY, a statue of Frederick Douglass was taken from Maplewood Park, a site along the Underground Railroad where Douglass and Harriet Tubman helped shuttle slaves to freedom. The statue was found at the brink of the Genesee River gorge about 50 feet (15 meters) from its pedestal.
    (AP, 7/5/20)

2020        Aug 11, Joe Biden selected Senator Kamala Harris of California as his running mate. She is the first Black woman, and the first person of Indian descent, to be nominated for national office by a major party.
    (NY Times, 8/12/20)

2020        Aug 28, Film star Chadwick Boseman (43), an actor whose work celebrated African-American pioneers and culture, died in Los Angeles after a four-year battle with colon cancer. His films included "42" (2013) in which he played Jackie Robinson; "Get on Up" (2014) and "Black Panther" (2018).  
    (https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Chadwick_Boseman)(Econ., 9/5/20, p.78)

2020        Sep 1, Fabiana Pierre-Louis (40) was sworn in as the first Black female justice for the New Jersey Supreme Court.

2020        Sep 16, Stanley Crouch (74), the fiercely iconoclastic social critic who elevated the invention of jazz into a metaphor for the indelible contributions that Black people have made to American democracy, died at a hospital in the Bronx.
    (NY Times, 9/17/20)

2020        Sep 1, Fabiana Pierre-Louis (40) was sworn in as the first Black female justice for the New Jersey Supreme Court.

2020        Nov 23, Bruce Carver Boynton (83), a civil rights pioneer from Alabama who inspired the landmark “Freedom Rides" of 1961, died.
    (AP, 11/24/20)

2020        Dec 2, Rafer Johnson (b.1934), the first Black captain of a US Olympic team (1960), died at his home in the Sherman Oaks, Ca. He is remembered especially for helping to wrestle the Sen, Robert F. Kennedy's assassin to the ground in Los Angeles in 1968.
    (NY Times, 12/3/20)

2020        Dec 12, Charley Pride, described as "the first Black superstar in country music," died due to complications from COVID-19 in Dallas, Texas.
    (The Week, 12/13/20)

2020        Dec 16, Major League Baseball said it will add seven Negro leagues that operated from 1920 to 1948 to its official records, granting recognition to more than 3,400 players and shaking up the game’s record books.
    (NY Times, 12/16/20)

2020        Dec 18, The Utah-based Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints added new language to the faith's handbook imploring members to root out prejudice and racism, adding significance and permanence to recent comments by top leaders on one of the most sensitive topics in the church's history. The faith’s past ban on Black men in the lay priesthood, which stood until 1978, was disavowed in a 2013 essay. The church never issued a formal apology.
    (AP, 12/18/20)

2020        Dec 20, In Missouri the Kansas City Star's top editor apologized for past decades of racially biased coverage and the newspaper has posted a series of stories examining how it ignored the concerns and achievements of Black residents and helped keep Kansas City segregated.
    (AP, 12/21/20)

2020        Dec 21, DC officials said a statue of Black civil rights activist Barbara Johns, who played a key role in the desegregation of the public school system, will be installed in the US Capitol Rotunda, replacing one of General Robert E. Lee, a leader of the pro-slavery Confederacy.
    (Reuters, 12/21/20)

2020        Dec 31, SF Bay Area poet Q.R. Hand (83) died of cancer in Vallejo. He had chronicled the Black experience in America  while working for many years as a mental health councilor in the Mission district of San Francisco.
    (SFC, 1/5/21, p.B4)

2020        Peniel Joseph authored "The Sword and the Shield," a twin biography of Martin Luther King and Malcolm X.
    (Econ., 5/23/20, p.73)

2021        Jan 18, The NAACP Legal Defense and Educational Fund (LDF) launched a $40 million scholarship program to support a new generation of civil rights lawyers, dedicated to pursuing racial justice across the South, following a gift from a single anonymous donor.
    (AP, 1/18/21)
2021        Jan 18, In Tennessee the National Museum of African American Music opened with a virtual ribbon-cutting on Martin Luther King Jr. Day in the heart of Nashville’s musical tourism district.
    (AP, 2/5/21)

2021        Jan 22, The US Senate (90-2) confirmed President Joe Biden's nominee, retired Army General Lloyd Austin, to serve as Secretary of Defense - the first Black American in the role.
    (Reuters, 1/22/21)

2021        Jan 28, American actress Cicely Tyson (96) died. She broke ground for Black actors by refusing to take demeaning parts. She won three Emmys, an honorary Oscar, and at 88 she became the oldest person to win a Tony.
    (NY Times, 1/28/21)

2021        Feb 1, The American Civil Liberties Union announced the election of Deborah Archer, a professor at New York Univ. School of Law, as president. She became the first Black person to lead the 101-year old organization.
    (SFC, 2/2/21, p.A3)

2021        Feb 12, Frederick K.C. Price (89), televangelist, died after being hospitalized due to complications from COVID-19. He built his Los Angeles ministry into one of the nation's first Black megachurches.
    (AP, 2/13/21)

2021        Feb 20, Members of Malcolm X's family made public what they described as a letter written by a deceased police officer stating that the New York Police Department and FBI were behind the 1965 killing of the famed Black activist and civil rights advocate.
    (Reuters, 2/21/21)

2021        Feb 28, Irv Cross (81), a Pro Bowl defensive back with two N.F.L. teams who later made history as the first Black full-time television analyst for a network television sports show, died in a hospice in North Oaks, Minn.
    (NY Times, 3/1/21)

2021        Feb, The Virginia Theological Seminary began handing out cash payments to the descendants of Black Americans who were forced to work there during the time of slavery and Jim Crow.
    (NY Times, 5/31/21)

2021        Mar 1, Vernon Jordan (85), who grew up in the segregated South to become an influential leader in the American civil rights movement, Washington politics and Wall Street, died in Washington, DC.
    (https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Vernon_Jordan)(AP, 3/2/21)

2021        Mar 15, It was reported that the US-based branch of the Jesuits has unveiled plans for a "truth and reconciliation" initiative in partnership with descendants of people once enslaved by the Roman Catholic order. The Jesuits planned to raise $1 billion within five years in pursuit of racial justice and racial healing.
    (NY Times, 3/17/21, p.A4)

2021        Mar 22, Boston Mayor Marty Walsh resigned to become Pres. Joe Biden's labor secretary. City Council Pres. Kim Janey became the city's first female and first person of color to take office as acting mayor.
    (SFC, 3/24/21, p.A7)

2021        May 7, It was reported that Evanston, Illinois, plans to pay reparations to eligilble Black residents for past racist housing practices. Grants of $25,000 would be provided this year for down payments, repairs or existing mortgages.
    (SFC, 5/7/21, p.A4)

2021        May 8, It was reported that Maryland Gov. Larry Hogan will posthumously pardon 34 victims of racial lynching in the state who were denied legal due process in the allegations against them between 1854 and 1933.
    (AP, 5/8/21)

2021        May 13, Philadelphia's top health official was compelled to resign after the city's mayor learned partial human remains from the 1985 bombing of the headquarters of a Black organization had been cremated and disposed of without notifying family members.
    (AP, 5/13/21)

2021        May 14, The Underground Railroad, a 10-part series, was released on Amazon Prime Video. "Moonlight" director Barry Jenkins switched to the small screen for the adaptation of the Pulitzer Prize-winning novel.
    (AP, 5/10/21)

2021        May 19, Lee Evans (74), the Black American runner who won two gold medals at the racially charged 1968 Summer Olympic Games in Mexico City, died. At a presentation ceremony he wore a Black Panther-style beret and raised his fist to protest racism in the US.
    (AP, 5/20/21)

2021        Jun 15, Oprah Winfrey's next book club pick is a debut novel set in Georgia at the end of the Civil War: Nathan Harris' “The Sweetness of Water." Harris (29) has said he wanted to show what it was like in the South after slaves were emancipated.
    (AP, 6/15/21)

2021        Jun 17, President Joe Biden signed a bill that was passed by Congress to set aside Juneteenth, or June 19th, as a federal holiday. Union Maj. Gen. Gordon Granger and his troops arrived at Galveston on June 19, 1865, with news that the war had ended and that the enslaved were now free. The next year, the now-free people started celebrating Juneteenth in Galveston.
    (AP, 6/17/21)

2021        Jun 21, In Massachusetts the Town Council of Amherst voted 12-1 to create a fund to pay reparations to Black residents.
    (SFC, 6/25/21, p.A7)

2021        Jul 8, Zaila Avant-garde, a 14-year-old from Louisiana, became the first Black American to win the Scripps National Spelling Bee. The winning word: murraya. (Zaila has also set Guinness world records for her basketball skills.
    (AP, 7/9/21)

2021        Jul 25, Bob Moses (86), a pioneer of the civil rights movement, died at his home in Hollywood, Fla. He gained a reputation for extraordinary calm in the face of violence as he helped register voters and trained a generation of civil rights activists in Mississippi in the early 1960s.
    (NY Times, 7/25/21)

2021        Aug 13, Kaycee Moore (77), whose nuanced acting documented Black American life in movies by a group of young, Black independent directors in Los Angeles in the 1970s and ’80s, died at her home in Kansas City. Her films included “Killer of Sheep" (1978) and “Bless Their Little Hearts" (1983).
    (NY Times, 9/13/21)

2021        Sep 21, Filmmaker Melvin Van Peebles (89), praised as the godfather of modern Black cinema, died at his home in Manhattan. He called himself “the Rosa Parks of Black cinema." His work spanned books, theater and music, but he was most famous for his 1971 film “Sweet Sweetback’s Baadasssss Song."
    (NY Times, 9/22/21)

2021        Sep 22, Richmond, Va., unveiled a new monument commemorating the end of slavery. The Emancipation and Freedom Monument, designed by Oregon sculptor Thomas Jay Warren, comprises two 12-foot bronze statues depicting a man and a woman carrying an infant, newly freed from slavery.
    (AP, 9/22/21)

2021        Oct 18, Colin Powell (84), the first Black US secretary of state and top military officer during decades as one of America's most prominent leaders, died from complications of COVID-19 despite being fully vaccinated. His reputation was tainted in 2003 when he touted spurious intelligence at the United Nations to make the case for war with Iraq despite deep misgivings.
    (Reuters, 10/18/21)

2021        Oct 21, Prof. Quandra Prettyman (88) died at her home in Manhattan. She had developed some of the country’s first courses in Black women’s literature as the first Black full-time faculty member at Barnard College.
    (NY Times, 11/12/21)

2021        Nov 13, Ed Bullins (86), among the most significant Black playwrights of the 20th century, died at his home in Roxbury, Mass. He was a leading voice in the Black Arts Movement of the 1960s and ’70s and produced nearly 100 plays that reflected the Black urban experience.
    (NY Times, 11/16/21)(SSFC, 11/21/21, p.F7)

2021        Nov 28, Lee Elder (87), the first African American to take part in the Masters tournament (1975), died in in Escondido, Ca.
    (NY Times, 11/30/21)

2021        Nov 30, Rev. C. Herbert Oliver (96), a civil rights apostle who confronted the segregationist police commissioner Bull Connor in Birmingham, Ala., and challenged the way the public school system in New York City educated Black children, died in Brooklyn.
    (NY Times, 12/11/21)

2021        Dec 6, The US Justice Department said it has closed its investigation into the 1955 murder of Emmett Till, without charges.
    (NY Times, 12/7/21)

2021        Dec 15, Black writer bell hooks (69) died at her home in Berea, Ky. She insisted on using all lowercase letters in her name. Her writing on gender and race helped push feminism beyond its white, middle-class worldview to include the voices of Black and working-class women. Her books included “Ain’t I a Woman? Black Women and Feminism" (1981).
    (NY Times, 12/15/21)

2021        Dec 17, It was reported that the US Postal Service (USPS) and NAACP have reached a settlement to resolve a 2020 lawsuit over election mail that the Justice Department said would ensure prioritizing delivering ballots in future elections.
    (Reuters, 12/17/21)

2021        Dec 22, Franklin Thomas (87), former head of the Ford Foundation (1967-1996), died at his home in Manhattan. He was the first Black person to run a major American philanthropic group.
    (SSFC, 12/26/21, p.F6)

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