Timeline of Artists

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Met Museum TL:  https://www.metmuseum.org/toah/chronology/

100000BC    In 2008 scientists unearthed human-made paint “toolkits" from the Blombos Cave in South Africa dating to about this time.
    (SFC, 10/14/11, p.A5)

33000BC    Av ivory carving dating to about this time depicted a busty woman. It was found in 2008 in a German cave and was unveiled in 2009 by archaeologists who believed it to be the oldest known sculpture of the human form. The carving found in six fragments in Germany's Hohle Fels cave depicts a woman with a swollen belly, wide-set thighs and large, protruding breasts.
    (AP, 5/14/09)

28000BC    In 2012 archaeologist Bryce Barker dated the oldest piece of rock art in Australia and one of the oldest in the world: an Aboriginal work created about this time in the Northern Territory rock shelter known as Nawarla Gabarnmang.
    (AP, 6/18/12)

12500BC-10500BC Paleolithic era cave drawings were created at the Atxurra cave in the northern Basque region during this period. Some 70 drawings in the cave were found in 2016 on ledges 1,000 feet underground.
    (SFC, 5/28/16, p.A2)

c2500BC    In Egypt Pharaoh Chephren is considered to have been the builder of the Great Sphinx of Giza, which is believed to show his face. In 2002 Christine Zivie-Coche authored "Sphinx: History of a Monument."
    (SFC, 5/26/98, p.A8)(WSJ, 1/10/03, p.W7)

967        Li Cheng (b.919), Chinese artist of the song Dynasty, died.
    (SFC, 6/28/08, p.E1)

1090        Guo Xi (b.~1001), Chinese artist of the song Dynasty, died about this time.
    (SFC, 6/28/08, p.E1)

1178        A Chinese colored scroll from this time depicted Buddhist guardians washing their clothes in a mountain stream. Buddha (d.483BCE) was said to have entrusted 16 disciples with the task of guarding the faith.
    (SFC, 12/5/03, p.D7)

c1255        Duccio di Buoninsegna (d.1319), Sienese painter, was born.
    (Econ, 1/17/04, p.75)

1260-1555    In 2004 Diana Norman covered this period in her book: "Painting in the Late Medieval and Renaissance Siena."
    (Econ, 1/17/04, p.75)

1267        Giotto (d.1337), Italian painter, was born about this time.
    (V.D.-H.K.p.128)(WSJ, 11/113/00, p.A24)(www.mediacult.com/art/giotto/chrono.html)

1278-1477    In 2004 Tim Hyman covered this period in his book: "Sienese Painting: "The Art of a City-Republic."
    (Econ, 1/17/04, p.75)

1303        The Padova Chapel was completed. Giotto began painting a fresco cycle there with scenes from the Old and New Testaments.
    (SFC,11/18/97, p.E7)

1305        Giotto finished a cycle of frescoes inside the Scrovegni Chapel in Padua.
    (SFC, 11/17/01, p.D4)

1322        Zhao Mengfu (b.1254), Chinese calligrapher, died. His work included a hand scroll of “The Sutra on the Lotus of the Sublime Dharma." Chao Meng-fu was a prince and descendant of the Song Dynasty's imperial family, and a Chinese scholar, painter and calligrapher during the Yuan Dynasty.
    (SFC, 11/10/12, p.F1)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Zhao_Mengfu)

1327        Chinese artist Ren Renfa (b.1254) died. His work included the 6.6 foot scroll title "Five Drunken Princes Returning on Horseback." In 2020 the scroll sold for $41.8 million at a Sotheby's auction in Hong Kong.
    (https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ren_Renfa)(SFC, 10/9/20, p.A2)

1337        Jan 8, Giotto (b.c.1267), Italian artist, died. His frescoes showed a new realism and vitality. Art historians later held that the Renaissance dawned in Florence with Giotto's paintings. He cracked the formal stylization of Byzantine painting and reinvented the ancient art of creating depth on a flat surface. In 2000 art historians found evidence that Pietro Cavallini re-introduced depth in his paintings in Rome around 1190.
    (V.D.-H.K.p.128)(WSJ, 11/113/00, p.A24)(www.mediacult.com/art/giotto/chrono.html)

1348        Jun 9, Ambrogio Lorenzetti (b.1290), Italian painter of the Sienese school, died. His work included the 3 murals titled “War," “Peace" and “Good Government," in the Chamber of Peace of Siena’s town hall.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ambrogio_Lorenzetti)(WSJ, 12/1/07, p.W14)(Econ, 7/10/10, p.80)

1350        Chinese landscape artist Huang Gongwang (1269-1354) painted "Dwelling in the Fuchun Mountains" about this time. The Yuan Dynasty painting was torn into two pieces some 360 years later by a private collector who tried to burn it as he was dying, but a relative quickly saved it from the flames Since 1949 one part has been stored in Taipei's Palace Museum, after the two sides separated during a civil war. In 2011 an exhibit in Taiwan reunited the two pieces.
    (AP, 4/22/11)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Huang_Gongwang)

1363         In Italy a portrait of St. Ambrose was believed to have been created by Giusto de' Menabuoi. In 2018 it was stolen from the National Pinacoteca of Bologna. The thief was soon identified and three stolen paintings were recovered.
    (AP, 5/4/18)

1370        Andrei Rublev, Russian icon painter, was born about this time.
    (DVD, Criterion, 1998)

1387        The Italian painter Fra Angelico (d.1455), Giovanni da Fiesole, was born about this time. His work included the "Annunciation." The 1997 book "Fra Angelico" by John T. Spike was hailed as the art book of the year.
    (WUD, 1994, p.57)(SFEC,12/797, Par p.6)

1400        Roger Van Der Weyden (d.1464), Flemish painter, was born.
    (AAP, 1964)(WUD, 1994, p.1624)(Econ, 10/3/09, p.107)

1401        In Florence Filippo Brunelleschi and Lorenzo Ghiberti entered a competition to create a set of new bronze doors for the baptistery of the cathedral.
    (Econ, 3/30/13, p.83)

1405        Andrei Rublev, Russian icon painter, painted the iconostasis of the Cathedral of the Gospel with Theophan the Greek; this was the 1st work executed in the classical Russian style, distinguished from the Byzantine by its great height and width and organization of multiple, varied icons along axes.
    (DVD, Criterion, 1998)

1410        Andrei Rublev, Russian icon painter, painted the icon “The Old Testament Trinity," which showed Abraham’s 3 angels. This is the only work known to be entirely his own.
    (DVD, Criterion, 1998)

1417        Donatello used central point perspective in his scene of St. George fighting the dragon.
    (Econ, 3/30/13, p.83)

1419        The marble Fonte Gaia in Siena was sculpted by Jacopo della Quercia.
    (WSJ, 4/29/03, D5)

1425        Donatello created his hollow bronze statue of St. Louis of Toulouse.
    (Econ, 3/30/13, p.83)

1426        Hubert van Eyck (1385-1426) began work on “The Adoration of the Mystic Lamb," later known as the Ghent Altarpiece. The 12-panel work was completed in 1432 by his younger brother Jan van Eyck. It was the first major oil painting in history.
    (SSFC, 2/16/14, p.E6)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ghent_Altarpiece)

1427        Gentile De Fabriano (b.~1378), Italian painter, died about this time. His work included “The Adoration of the Kings" (1423).
    (WSJ, 12/19/08, p.W9A)( http://www.newadvent.org/cathen/06421a.htm)

1428        Fra Angelico (c.1387-1455), Italian painter and Dominican friar, created his “Madonna of Humility."
    (Econ, 12/17/11, p.148)

1428-1430    Andrei Rublev, Russian icon painter, took part in painting the frescoes of the Andronikov Monastery’s Church of the Savior.
    (DVD, Criterion, 1998)

1430        Jan 29, Andrei Rublev, Russian icon painter, died and was buried in the Andronikov Monastery. In 1966 the Russian film “Andrei Rublev" was made by Andrei Tarkovsky.
    (DVD, Criterion, 1998)

1430        Hans Memling (d.1494), painter of the Flemish school, was born in Seligenstadt, Germany.
    (AAP, 1964)(WUD, 1994, p.894)

1431        Andrea Mantegna (d.1506), Italian painter and engraver, was born.
    (WUD, 1994, p.1534)(WSJ, 6/6/96, p.A12)(SFEC, 7/13/97, p.T11)

1432        The Flemish "Adoration of the Mystic Lamb" was completed brothers Jan and Hubert van Eyck. The work is an altarpiece of 12 detailed panels that is widely considered one of the most important pieces of early Renaissance art. In 2021 it emerged from a decade of restoration in a new exhibition space in Belgium's Ghent cathedral, with updated technology to plunge visitors into an intricate work with a troubled past.
    (Reuters, 3/26/21)

1438        Jan van Eyck (1385-1441) painted his "Portrait of Cardinal Niccols Albergati."
    (SFC, 1/5/01, p.C9)

1439-1440    Donatello (1386-1466), Florentine artist, completed his bronze statue of David about this time. It was commissioned by Cosimo de Medici.
    (WSJ, 1/11/99, p.R53)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/David_%28Donatello%29)

1441        Jun, Jan/Johannes van Eyck (b.1395), Flemish painter (Lamb Gods), died in Brugge.

1445-1510    Sandro Botticelli, Italian painter, was born in Florence as Alessandro di Mariano Filipepi. His work included "The Birth of Venus" "Madonna of the Eucharist" (c1472-1475) and "Portrait of a Man with a Medal." His work "Venus and Mars" is at the London National Gallery. He belongs to the era of the Quattro cento, when artists were still struggling to break free of the rigid outlines of the Middle Ages. His solution was the use of curved lines. Vasari later claimed that Botticelli was a follower of Savonarola, the religious zealot.
    (AAP, 1964)(WUD, 1994, p.173)(WSJ, 2/5/97, p.A16)(SFEC, 2/1/98, p.T8)

1446        Apr 16, Filippo Brunelleschi (69), architect, sculptor and goldsmith, died and was buried in the Cathedral of St. Mary of the Flower in Florence. In the 1490s Antonio di Tuccio Manetti authored "The Life of Brunelleschi." In 1974 Isabelle Hyman authored "Brunelleschi in Perspective."
    (ON, 9/00, p.8)(MC, 4/16/02)

c1450-1516    Hieronymus Bosch, painter was born. Hieronymous van Aken was born in the small Dutch Brabant city of ‘s-Hertogenbosch in Flanders.
    (AAP, 1964)(WUD, 1994, p.172)(WSJ, 8/25/98, p.A12)(WSJ, 10/11/01, p.A19)

1452        Apr 15, Leonardo da Vinci (d.1519), Italian painter, sculptor, scientist and visionary, was born in Vinci near Florence. He apprenticed to the painters Verrocchio and Antonio Pollaiuolo and was accepted to the Florentine painters' guild at twenty. Only seventeen surviving paintings can be attributed to him. These include: "The Last Supper" in Milan, the "Mona Lisa" and "The Virgin and Child with St. Anne" in the Louvre. He tried to express his immense knowledge of the world by simply looking at things. The secret he said was "saper vedere," to know how to see. His final "Visions of the End of the World" was a sketchbook in which he tried to depict his sense of the forces of nature, which in his imagination he conceived of as possessing a unity that no one had ever seen before. His use of a smoky atmosphere (sfumato) helped create an impression of lifelikeness.
    (V.D.-H.K.p.137)(WSJ, 2/5/97, p.A16)(HN, 4/15/98)

1453        Piero della Francesca (1415/1420-1492) began work on the "Legenda della Vera Croce" (The Legend of the True Cross) at the church of San Francesco in Arezzo. He was commissioned by the Bacci family of Arezzo to complete the work begun by Bicci de Lorenzo.
    (WSJ, 6/02/97, p.A20)(WSJ, 2/2/08, p.W14)

1455        Mar 18, Fra Angelico, Italian monk and Renaissance painter born around 1387 as Guido di Pietro, died. Fra Angelico gained a reputation as a painter under that name before joining the Dominicans in the 1420s. However, much of the influence found in his work is thought to come from Dominican teachings. He stayed at Dominican monasteries in Florence for most of his life doing a variety of religious painting until being called to Rome in 1445 by Pope Eugene IV, where he completed several chapel frescoes. Returning to Florence in the early 1450s, he died on a return visit to Rome in 1455 and is entombed at the church of Santa Maria della Minerva. In 1984 Fra Angelico was beatified by Pope John Paul II.
    (HNQ, 3/6/01)(http://gallery.euroweb.hu/bio/a/angelico/biograph.html)(WSJ, 11/9/05, p.D16)

1464        Jun 18, Roger Van Der Weyden (b.1400), Flemish painter, died. He had mastered the new technique of oil painting and served as the official painter to the city of Brussels.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Rogier_van_der_Weyden)(Econ, 10/3/09, p.107)

1464        Desiderio da Settignano (b.~1439), Renaissance sculptor, died in Florence.
    (WSJ, 9/11/07, p.D6)

1469        May 19, Giovanni della Robbia, Italian sculptor, was born.
    (MC, 5/19/02)

1470        The earliest documented work by Botticelli was made. "Fortitude" was an allegory portraying a woman who embodies the virtue of inner strength.
    (SFC, 6/20/97, p.A9)

1472        Mar 28, Fra Bartolommeo (d.1517), Florentine Renaissance painter, was born.

1472        Apr 15, Leon Battista Alberti (b.1404), Italian humanist, architect (Philodoxis), died. He wrote the 1st Italian grammar, the 1st theory of painting as an art, and the treatise "On the Art of Building." In 1970 Joan Gadol authored a biography. In 2000 Anthony Grafton authored the biography "Leon Battista Alberti."
    (WSJ, 11/30/00, p.A20)(MC, 4/15/02)

1472        Hans Memling painted “The Virgin and Child With St. Anthony Abbot and Donor."
    (SFC, 10/18/05, p.D2)

1473        Aug 5, Leonardo da Vinci (21) made his detailed drawing “Landscape drawing for Santa Maria Della Nave." This was later recognized as his earliest known drawing.
    (SFC, 8/5/16, p.A2)

1475        Mar 6, Michelangelo Buonarroti (d.1564), painter, sculptor and architect, was born. His early mentor was Bertoldo di Giovanni, a pupil of Donatello. His work included "The Creation of Adam" and the "Pieta Rondanini." He at one time proposed to sculpt the 5,000 foot Monte Sagro in Carrara into the statue of a giant.
    (WUB, 1994, p. 904)(WSJ, 2/29/96, p.A-14)(AAP, 1964) (SFEC, 7/13/97, p.T11)(SFEC,10/19/97, p.T4)(HN, 3/6/98)

1475-1476    Petrus Christus (b. c1415), Netherlandish painter, died in Brugge.

1478        Sandro Botticelli (1445-1510) painted "La Primavera" about this time.
    (WSJ, 4/14/07, p.P11)

c1478        Giorgione (d.1510), Italian painter, was born.
    (T&L, 10/80, p. 58)(WSJ, 12/4/97, p.A20)

1480        Sandro Botticelli painted "The Birth of Venus."
    (WSJ, 2/5/97, p.A16)

1481        Sandro Botticelli painted "The Annunciation."
    (SFC, 10/7/03, p.D8)

1483        Mar 28, Raphael, painter (School of Athens), was born in Urbino, Italy. [see Apr 6]
    (MC, 3/28/02)

1483        Apr 6, Raphael (Raffaello Sanzio, d.1520), Dutch painter (Sistine Madonna), was born to an unremarkable painter in the Duchy of Urbino. He went on to paint works in the Vatican. After an apprenticeship in Perugia, he went to Florence, having heard of the work da Vinci and Michelangelo were doing. His last 12 years were spent on numerous commissions in Rome. He died on his 37th birthday, his funeral mass being celebrated in the Vatican. [see Mar 28]
    (HN, 4/6/98)(HNQ, 11/17/00)

1484        Bartolomeo di Giovanni Corradini, Italian painter who joined the Dominican order as Fra Carnevale, died.
    (Econ, 12/11/04, p.82)

1485        Sandro Botticelli (1445-1510) painted "Venus and Mars" about this time.
    (WSJ, 6/16/07, p.P16)

1487        Hans Memling (c.1440-1494), Flemish painter, painted the diptych “Virgin and Child" and “Maarten van Nieuwenhove" (1463-1500), who was his patron.
    (SFC, 10/18/05, p.D2)(SFC, 12/23/06, p.E12)

1489        Giuliano da Sangallo made his wooden model of the Strozzi palace in Florence.
    (Econ, 3/30/13, p.83)
1489        A sculpture St. George and the Dragon, created by Bernt Notke, was unveiled in Stockholm, Sweden. He composed the dragon entirely of elk horns.
    (SSFC, 8/19/07, p.G4)

1490        Leonardo da Vinci painted “Lady with an Ermine" about this time. It featured Cecilia Gallerani (1473-1536), the favorite mistress of Lodovico Sforza, the Duke of Milan.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Lady_with_an_Ermine)(Econ, 10/29/11, IL p.27)

1492        Oct 12, Pierro della Francesca (b.~1415), Tuscany-born artist, died in Florence. He was later called the Father of the Renaissance. His work included “Virgin and Child Enthroned with Four Angels."
    (Econ, 2/16/13, p.82)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Piero_della_Francesca)

c1492        Andrea Montegna, Italian painter, created his "Descent Into Limbo," a depiction of Christ descending into limbo to liberate the souls of the righteous. In 2003 the work sold for $28 million.
    (SFC, 1/24/03, p.D2)

1494        May 25, Jacopo Pontormo (d.1557), Italian painter (Sepulture of Christ), was born. He represented what Vasari called the terza maniera, the third or modern manner of painting.
    (WUD, 1994, p.1118)(WSJ, 10/29/96, p.A21)(SC, 5/25/02)

1494        Aug 11, Hans Memling (b.1435), German-born master of Flemish painting, died in Brugge.

1495          Italian artist Andrea Mantegna painted an “Adoration of the Magi" about this time in which one of the three kings is seen offering the Christ child a cup filled with gold coins. The blue and white, Ming-style cup in the painting was the first time that a Ming work of art appeared in a European painting.
    (Econ, 9/13/14, p.92)
1495        Leonardo da Vinci sketched a design of a parachute. Da Vinci also painted “La Belle Ferroniere in Milan about this time.
    (SFEC, 9/8/96, zone 1 p.6)(Econ, 10/16/10, p.104)

1496        Juan de Flandes painted “Christ Calming the Storm," a commission by Spain’s Queen Isabel.
    (WSJ, 12/16/04, p.D8)

1497        Jul 22, Francesco Botticini (c52), Italian painter, died.
    (MC, 7/22/02)

1497        Hans Holbein the Younger (d.1543), painter, was born in Augsburg, Bavaria.
    (WSJ, 12/30/06, p.P10)(www.ibiblio.org/wm/paint/auth/holbein/)

1497        Sandro Botticelli painted "The Calumny." It showed King Midas with donkey ears.
    (SFC, 10/7/03, p.D8)

1500        Albrecht Durer (1471-1528) of Nuremburg painted a self-portrait later described as the most gorgeous portrait ever painted.
    (WSJ, 3/15/08, p.W16)

1501        Michelangelo was commissioned by Florence, his native home, to carve the colossal statue "David." The work had been by Agostino di Duccio around 1465. Michelangelo finished it in 1504. It was placed at the front of the Palazzo Signoria. In 1873 it was cleaned and moved indoors.
    (TL-MB, 1988, p.8)(WSJ, 4/29/03, D5)

1503        Parmigianino (d.1540), painter and master draftsman, was born. His paintings included "Madonna of the Long Neck."
    (WSJ, 2/12/00, p.A25)

1503        Leonardo Da Vinci began painting the "Mona Lisa." The husband of Lisa del Giocondo commissioned Leonardo da Vinci to paint the "Mona Lisa," The model was Lisa Gheradini whose relatives had emigrated to Ireland in the 12th century and translated their surname to Fitzgerald, an ancestral name of later US president John F. Kennedy. Lisa Gherardini (b.1479) was originally identified as the subject of the world's most famous painting by Leonardo's first biographer, the 16th-century Italian writer Giorgio Vasari. In 2001 Donald Sassoon authored "Becoming Mona Lisa: The Making of a Global Icon."
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Lisa_del_Giocondo)(SFC, 4/26/97, p.E4)(SFC, 3/21/98, p.E3)(WSJ, 12/7/01, p.W16)(AP, 9/13/04)
1503        Leonardo da Vinci was commissioned to decorate a hall in the Palazzo Vecchio in Florence. For some 18 months he worked on a mural for the 1440 Battle of Anghiari but abandoned the work in 1506. The mural was later lost when Georgio Vasari was hired to remodel the hall.
    (WSJ, 11/9/07, p.W4)

1504        Apr 18, Fra Filippo Lippi (~52), painter, died.
    (MC, 4/18/02)

1505        Pope Julius II summoned Michelangelo to Rome to design the pope’s tomb. The contract was revised 5 times and only 3 of 40 large figures were executed.
    (TL-MB, 1988, p.9)(OG)

1505        Leonardo da Vinci painted “The Battle of Anghiari" on a wall in Florence’s Palazzo Vecchio. It commemorated a victory of Florentine forces over the ruling Medici. In 1563 the Medici, having regained power, hired Giorgio Vasari to cover up Leonardo’s work with a painting celebrating one of their own martial successes. It was later thought that Vasari hid the original behind his new work.
    (WSJ, 4/10/08, p.D7)

1505        Giorgione painted "The Concert."
    (WSJ, 7/16/02, p.D6)

1505        Raphael painted his “Madonna of the Goldfinch" about this time for the wedding of a friend, Lorenzo Nasi. The painting was shredded in 1548 when Nasi’s palace collapsed. The work was pieced together and modern restoration, which began in 1999, was completed in 2008.
    (SFC, 10/31/08, p.E7)

1506        Leonardo da Vinci began work on “Salvador Mundi," a painting commissioned by King Louis XII of France. The painting was completed by 1513. In 2013 it was sold for $127.5 million to Russian billionaire Dmitry Rybolovlev.
    (SFC, 10/12/17, p.D3)

1506        Albrecht Durer painted his "Portrait of a Young Woman."
    (SFEC, 12/26/99, p.C17)

1506        Giorgione painted “The Three Philosophers" about this time.
    (WSJ, 8/3/06, p.D5)

1506        Andrea Mantegna (b.1431), Italian painter and engraver, died. His paintings included a dead Christ, “Christo Morto," whose bare feet seem to stick out of the picture. He also painted "Virgin and Child in Glory."
    (WSJ, 6/6/96, p.A12)(SFEC, 7/13/97, p.T11)(WSJ, 11/10/07, p.W14)

1507        Giorgione painted his “Sunset Landscape" about this time.
    (WSJ, 8/3/06, p.D5)

1508        Giorgione painted "The Tempesta," a landscape of a stormy setting with a town in the background, a soldier lower left and a woman nursing to the right. It is at the Academia Gallery in Venice. His work “the Three Philosophers" also dated to about this time.
    (T&L, 10/80, p. 58)(WSJ, 12/4/97, p.A20)(SFC, 10/29/11, p.E2)

1509        Fra Bartolommeo, Italian artist, painted "The Holy Family with the Infant St. John." It was purchased by the Los Angeles County Museum of Art (LACMA) for close to $4 million. His work "The Holy Family with the Infant St. John," was purchased by the John Paul Getty Museum in Malibu for $22.5 mil.
    (WUD, 1994, p.123)(SFC, 5/13/96, p.D-5)(WSJ, 10/29/96, p.A21)(SFEC, 1/11/98, p.A23)

1510        May 17, Sandro Botticelli (b.1445), Florentine artist born as Alessandro di Mariano di Vanni Filipepi, died.

1510        Bernard Pallissy (d.1590), French ceramicist, painter and writer, was born.

1510        Giovanni Bellini painted “Virgin With the Blessing Child."
    (WSJ, 8/3/06, p.D5)

1510        Raphael painted "The Triumph of Galatea," a fresco on the wall of the Farnesina, the villa of Agnostino Chigi.
    (TL-MB, 1988, p.10)

1510        Giorgione (b.~1478), Italian painter, died of the plague. He was a top student of Bellini and excelled in the paragone: a competition between painting an poetry, where painters sought to rival poets in conveying beauty. Titian finished Giorgione’s “Sleeping Venus."
    (T&L, 10/80, p. 58)(WSJ, 12/4/97, p.A20)(Econ, 7/29/06, p.77)

1511        Jul 30, Giorgio Vasari (d.1574), Italy, painter, architect and art historian (Vasari's Lives), was born. He wrote "Lives of the Artists."
    (WUD, 1994, p.1582)(MC, 7/30/02)

1511        Fra Bartolomeo painted "The Mystic Marriage of St. Catherine." He emphasizing his mastery in the display of draperies.
    (TL-MB, 1988, p.10)

1512        Nov 1, Michelangelo completed his paintings on the ceiling of the Sistine Chapel and the work was first exhibited to the public. In 2020 the Vatican released "The Sistine Chapel," a 3-volume set documenting every inch of Michelangelo's 4 years of work. 1,999 copies were printed at $22,000 per set.
    (TL-MB, 1988, p.10)(AP, 11/1/97)(HN, 11/1/98)(Econ., 11/7/20, p.74)

1514        Giovanni Bellini painted “Feast of the Gods." The painting depicts Ovid’s tale of how Vesta, goddess of virginity is approached while sleeping by Priapus, god of fertility, who begins to twitch up her tunic. At that moment a donkey sneezes and awakens Vesta, who quickly awakes and runs away. It is now on exhibit at the National Gallery of Art in Wa., DC.
    (T&L, 10/1980, p.66)(WSJ, 8/3/06, p.D5)

1515        Giovanni Bellini (b.~1430-1516), Italian artist, painted his masterpiece “Lady With a Mirror.
    (Econ, 7/29/06, p.77)

1515        Hans Holbein the Younger arrived in Basel, the European center of book publishing. The city in 1997 owned 340 prints by Holbein.
    (WSJ, 6/24/97, p.A20)

1516        Hans Holbein in Basel painted a wooden shingle as a sort of advertisement for the schoolmaster Oswald Geishüsler. It marked the beginning of "profane" painting in the West.
    (WSJ, 6/24/97, p.A20)
1516        Titian began "The Assumption of the Virgin," a monumental altarpiece in the Church of the Frari, Venice.
    (TL-MB, 1988, p.11)
1516        Giovanni Bellini (b.~1430), Italian artist, died in Venice. Giorgione and Titian had graduated from his workshop.
    (Econ, 7/29/06, p.77)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Giovanni_Bellini)

1517        Oct 6, Fra Bartolommeo (b.1472), Florentine Renaissance painter, died. He was a Dominican monk nicknamed Baccio della Porta. His work included a portrait of Savonarola.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Fra_Bartolommeo)(SFC, 5/13/96, p.D-5)

1517-1518    Giovanni Battista Cima (b.~1459), aka Cima da Conegliano, Italian artist, died about this time.
    (Econ, 4/21/12, p.99)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cima_da_Conegliano)

1518        Sep 29, Jacopo Tintoretto (d.1588), Italian artist, was born.
    (Econ, 2/10/07, p.90)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Tintoretto)

1518        Raphael painted a portrait of Leo X which showed spectacles with concave lenses for short-sightedness.
    (TL-MB, 1988, p.11)
1518        Raphael began painting the nude model “La Fornarina" (the Little Baker Girl). It was completed about 1519.    

1518        Titian painted "Offering to Venus."
    (NH, 6/01, p.47)

1519        May 2, Artist Leonardo da Vinci (67) died at the Chateau du Clos-Luce, France, where he had lived since 1516. In 1994 A. Richard Turner wrote "Inventing Leonardo," a history of Leonardo legends. In 2004 Bulent Atalay authored “Math and the Mona Lisa: The Art and Science of Leonardo da Vinci." In 2004 Charles Nicholl authored “Leonard da Vinci: The Flights of the Mind."
    (AP, 5/2/97)(NH, 5/97, p.58)(Econ, 5/15/04, p.80)(Econ, 12/11/04, p.81)(SSFC, 10/9/11, p.C6)

1520        Apr 6, Raphael (b.1483), [Sanzio], Italian painter (Sistine Madonna), died on his 37th birthday. His work included "The Veiled Lady" and a set of cartoons that were woven into 10 tapestries titled "The Acts of the Apostles" (1544-1557).
    (WSJ, 4/11/02, p.D7)(www.abcgallery.com/R/raphael/raphaelbio.html)

1522        Apr 12, Florentine artist Piero di Cosimo (b.1462), aka Piero di Lorenzo, died of plague. His work included “Cart of Death."
    (Econ, 1/31/15, p.76)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Piero_di_Cosimo)

1522        Aug 27, Giovanni A. Amadei (75), Amadeo, Italian sculptor, architect, died.
    (MC, 8/27/02)

1522-1524    Titian painted "Bacchanal of the Andrians" during this period.
    (WSJ, 8/3/06, p.D5)

1523        Titian painted "Bacchus and Ariadne," a heroic mythological composition for Alfonso d’Este, Duke of Ferrara. It is now at the London National Gallery.
    (TL-MB, p.12)(SFEC, 2/1/98, p.T8)

1523        Hans Holbein completed the first of several portraits of Erasmus in Basel. He also began the design of 51 plates on the "Dance of Death," which reflected ideas of the Reformation.
    (TL-MB, 1988, p.12)(WSJ, 6/24/97, p.A20)

1524        Hans Holbein the Elder (b. c1460), German-born artist, died in Eisenheim.

1526        Zhu Duan (b.1464), Chinese artist, died. His work included the hanging scroll “Looking at a Misty River at Dusk."
    (http://wwar.com/masters/z/zhu_duan.html)(SFC, 6/28/08, p.E1)
1526        Vittore Carpaccio (b.~1465), an Italian painter of the Venetian school, died about this time. In 2014 Jan Morris authored “Ciao, Carpaccio: An Infatuation."
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Vittore_Carpaccio)(Econ, 8/23/14, p.77)

1527        Giuseppe Arcimboldi (d.1593), Italian painter [Arcimboldo], was born.
    (WUD, 1994, p.78)(WSJ, 7/10/97, p.A13)

1528        Apr 6, Albrecht Durer (b.1471), German painter, graphic artist, died in Germany.
    (SFEC, 2/9/97, DB p.6)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Albrecht_D%C3%BCrer)

1530        Sep, Andrea del Sarto (b.1486), Italian painter, died in Florence about this time during an outbreak of Bubonic Plague.

1530        Titian, Italian artist and chief master of the Venetian school, painted Cardinal Ippolito de’Medici. He became court painter in Bologna.
    (TL-MB, 1988, p.14)

1533        Hans Holbein the Younger (1497-1543) painted "The Ambassadors," a brilliant portrait of two French ambassadors to England.
    (TL-MB, 1988, p.14)(WSJ, 12/30/06, p.P10)

1533        Titian painted "Charles V."
    (TL-MB, 1988, p.14)

1534        Mannerism, influenced by Michelangelo, developed in painting and architecture. Francesco Parmigianino (1503-1540), painter of the "Madonna with the Long Neck," was a leading exponent.
    (TL-MB, 1988, p.14)(Econ, 1/26/08, p.82)

1534-1536    Titian’s “Portrait of Isabella d’Este, Marchioness of Mantua," dated to about this time.
    (SFC, 10/29/11, p.E2)

1536        Titian painted the "Portrait of Francesco Maria della Rovere, Duke of Urbino."
    (WSJ, 3/9/98, p.A16)

1538        Titian painted his "Urbino V."
    (TL-MB, 1988, p.15)
1538        Benvenuto Cellini (1500-1571), Florentine artist, was imprisoned for about a year in the dungeon beneath the papal fortress of Castel Sant’Angelo for killing his brother’s murderer.
    (SSFC, 7/22/07, p.G2)

1540        Renaissance artist Lucas Cranach the Elder (1472-1553) created his painting "Suffer the Little Children to Come Unto Me" about this time In 2009 it was stolen from a Lutheran church in the southern Norway town of Larvik. It’s value was estimated at 15-20 million kroner ($2.1-$2.8 million).
    (AP, 3/8/09)
1540        Francesco Mazzola Parmigianino (b.1503), Italian painter and master draftsman, died. His paintings included "Antea."
    (Econ, 1/26/08, p.82)

1541        El Greco (d.1614), artist, was born in Crete. He settled in Toledo, Spain, in 1577 and died there.
    (WSJ, 6/18/01, p.A16)

1541        Lorenzo Lotto, Italian artist, painted the "Portrait of a Man With a Felt Hat."
    (WSJ, 1/15/98, p.A17)

1541        Jean Clouet (b.1480), French Renaissance artist, died. He was the chief painter of King Francis I. Clouet’s work included a 1519 portrait of Francis I as Saint John the Baptist.
    (Econ, 10/16/10, p.104)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Jean_Clouet)

1544-1545    Titian painted "Danaë."
    (WSJ, 5/8/03, p.D8)

1546        Titian painted his great family portrait of Paul III and his Grandsons Ottavio and Cardinal Alessandro Farnese.
    (TL-MB, 1988, p.17)

1548        Tintoretto, Italian Renaissance artist, painted his work "St. Mark Rescuing the Slave."
    (TL-MB, 1988, p.17)
1548        Jacopo Tintoretto (1518-1594), Venetian school Italian artist, established his fame with the painting “Miracle of the Slave."
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Tintoretto)(Econ, 2/10/07, p.90)
1548        Titian painted his portrait of Charles V at Muhlberg.
    (TL-MB, 1988, p.17)

1557        Jan 2, Jacopo da Pontormo (b.1494), aka Jacopo Carucci, died. He was an Italian Mannerist painter and portraitist from the Florentine School.
    (Econ, 2/23/13, p.82)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pontormo)

1561        Simon Bening, Flemish painter, died. He was known as the best illuminator of his time.
    (Econ, 1/3/04, p.62)

1563        Francesco Salviati (b.1510), Italian Mannerist painter from Florence, died. His work included frescoes on the walls of the Palazzo Farnese.

1563        Italian painter Paolo Veronese (1528-1588) completed his giant work “The Wedding at Cana."
    (Econ, 11/10/12, p.88)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/The_Wedding_at_Cana)

1565        Sep 20, A Spanish fleet under Pedro Menendez de Aviles wiped out the French at Fort Caroline, in Florida. Spanish forces under Pedro Menendez massacred a band of French Huguenots that posed a potential threat to Spanish hegemony in the area. They also took advantage of the local Timucuan Indian tribe. Artist Jacques Le Moyne de Morgues managed to escape and return to France, where he painted watercolors depicting the French colony and Indians living nearby.
    (WSJ, 8/3/95, p.A-8)(HN, 9/20/98)(Arch, 1/05, p.47)(WSJ, 7/18/08, p.W8)(Arch, 5/05, p.28)

1565        Dec 9, Pius IV (66), [Gianangelo de' Medici], Italian Pope (1559-65), died.
    (MC, 12/9/01)

1565        Tintoretto (c.1518-1594) created his “Crucifixion," later considered the single best example of Italian Renaissance religious art.
    (WSJ, 9/22/07, p.W10)

1566-1572    Pius V (b. 1504) led the Catholic Church.
    (HN, 1/17/99)

1567        May 1, Michiel Jansz van Mierevelt, Dutch royal painter, was born.
    (MC, 5/1/02)

1571        Feb 14, Benvenuto Cellini (b.1500), Florentine goldsmith and sculptor, writer (Perseus), died. His 1545 autobiography greatly influenced the Renaissance.
    (www.boglewood.com/cornaro/xcellini.html)(HN, 11/1/00)(WSJ, 2/14/00, p.A20)

1572        Nov 23, Agnolo di Cosimo (b.1503), Italian Renaissance painter and poet (aka Bronzino), died. He had worked as the court artist to Cosimo de’ Medici, Duke of Florence. His work included a portrait of "Eleonora of Toledo and her son."
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bronzino)(MT, Spring 02, p.23)(Econ, 10/2/10, p.92)

1576        Aug 27, The Venetian painter Titian (Tiziano Vecelli), born about 1488, died of the plague. His handling of color and mastery of new oil techniques made him one of the greatest painters of the Renaissance. In 2012 Sheila Hale authored “Titian: His Life."
    (Reuters, 8/28/01)(www.metmuseum.org/toah/hd/tita/hd_tita.htm)(Econ, 7/28/12, p.72)

1577        Jun 28, Pietro Paul Rubens (d.1640), Flemish painter, was born in Germany, the child of protestants exiled from Antwerp. His work included "Helene Fourment" and "The Abduction of the Daughters of Leucippus."
    (AAP, 1964)(WUD, 1994, p.1250)(HN, 6/28/01) (Econ, 5/15/04, p.81)

1577        Painter El Greco (36), born in Crete as Domenikos Theotokopoulos, went to Spain and settled there permanently in Toledo.
    (TL-MB, 1988, p.22)(WSJ, 6/18/01, p.A16)

1580        Paolo Veronese (1528-1588), Italian painter, completed about this time his oil on canvas “Judith With the Head of Holofernes."
    (SFC, 10/29/11, p.E1)

1581        May 6, Frans Francken, the Younger, painter, was born.
    (MC, 5/6/02)

1583        The painting “Newborn Baby in a Crib" by Lavinia Fontana (1552-1614), Italian artist, was completed about this time.
    (WSJ, 12/23/08, p.D7)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Lavinia_Fontana)

1584        Lavinia Fontana of Bologna painted her "Portrait of the Gozzadini Family."
    (SFC, 3/30/98, p.D1)

1585        Luca Cambiaso (b.1527), Genovese Renaissance painter, died in San Lorenzo de El Escorial, Spain, where he was working under commission for King Phillip II.

1586        El Greco began to paint "The Burial of Count Orgaz." This depicted the miracle of the saintly count’s funeral, where St. Augustine and St. Stephen personally descend from heaven to bury the corpse with their own hands.
    (TL-MB, p.24)(WSJ, 11/6/03, p.D10)

1588        Apr 9, Paolo Veronese (b.1528), Italian painter, died in Venice. His paintings included “The Choice Between Virtue and Vice." He was the son of sculptor Gabriele Caliari.
    (WSJ, 6/15/06, p.D7)(http://cgfa.sunsite.dk/veronese/veronese_bio.htm)

1591        Giuseppe Arcimboldo painted a portrait of Emperor Rudolf II as Vertumnus, the Roman god of seasons.
    (WSJ, 9/9/06, p.P9)

1592        Mar 10, Michiel Coxcie, Flemish court painter, carpet designer, died.
    (MC, 3/10/02)

1593        Mar 19, Georges de la Tour (d.1652), French painter, was born. His night painting "The Penitent Magdelene" features a seated woman contemplating a flame with one hand resting on a skull.
    (NH, 10/96, p.39)(MC, 3/19/02)

1593        Jul 11, Giuseppe Arcimboldo (b.1527), Italian painter, died. Arcimboldo painted representations of objects, such as fruits and vegetables, on the canvas arranged in such a way that the whole collection of objects formed a recognizable likeness of the portrait subject. He painted a portrait of Holy Roman Emperor Rudolf II composed entirely of vegetables.
    (WUD, 1994, p.78)(WSJ, 7/10/97, p.A13)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Giuseppe_Arcimboldo)

1594        Apr 15, Flemish painter Pieter Stevens was appointed royal painter of Rudolf II in Prague.
    (MC, 4/15/02)

1594        May 31, Jacopo Tintoretto (b.1518), Italian artist, died.

1596          Italian artist Jacopo Ligozzi (1547-1627) painted “The Abduction of the Sabine Women."
    (http://tinyurl.com/gt9sxvs)(Econ, 1/30/15, p.53)

1597        Cardinal Odoardo Farnese, the nephew of Pope Paul III, commissioned Annibale Carracci and his workshop to decorate the barrel-vaulted gallery on the piano nobile of the family palace. Work was started in 1597 and was not entirely finished until 1608, one year before Annibale's death.

1597        El Greco (1541-1614), Spanish artist, completed his visionary “View of Toledo" about this time.
    (WSJ, 6/28/08, p.W12)

1599        Mar 22, Sir Anthony Van Dyck, Flemish artist, was born. He gave his name to the Vandyke beard. [See Feb 22]
    (AP, 3/22/99)

1599        Jun 6, Velazquez (d.1660), Diego Rodriguez de Silva, Spanish painter of Portuguese ancestry, was born. He painted "Count Duke of Olivares" and "Rokeby Venus" (1647-51) The Venus is at the London National Gallery.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Diego_Vel%C3%A1zquez)(SFEC, 2/1/98, p.T8)(WSJ, 1/5/07, p.W12)

1599        Jul 23, Caravaggio received his 1st public commission for paintings.
    (MC, 7/23/02)

1600        A sculptor, later known as Furienmeister (master of the furies), worked in Florence, Vienna and perhaps Dresden about this time. In 2006 only about 25 works were attributed to the artist who carved in ivory.
    (Econ, 5/13/06, p.96)

1601        Mar 19, Alonzo Cano, Spanish painter, sculptor (Cathedral Granada), was born.
    (MC, 3/19/02)

1601        Adriaen de Vries, Dutch sculptor, supplied Augsburg, Germany, the cast the "Man Pouring Water From a Conch Shell."
    (WSJ, 1/8/99, p.C13)

1601        Caravaggio painted "Supper at Emmaus."
    (WSJ, 8/4/04, p.D8)

1601        Dutch artist Joachim Wtewael painted "Mars and Venus Discovered by Vulcan."
    (SFEM, 8/31/97, p.8)

1602        Caravaggio painted "The Taking of Christ." In 2005 Jonathan Harr authored “The Lost Painting: The Quest for a Caravaggio Masterpiece."
    (WSJ, 5/13/99, p.A28)(SSFC, 12/11/05, p.M6)

1605        Apr 8, Louis de Vadder, Flemish painter, was born.
    (MC, 4/8/02)

1605        The painting "Death of Samson," attributed to Peter Paul Rubens, may have been done by a student and completed as late as 1650. The work was later purchased by the Getty Museum for $6 million through Italian art dealers from the Corsini family and contested whether or not it was a national treasure.
    (WSJ, 4/2/99, p.W12)

1606        May 6, Lorenzo Lippi, [Perlone Zipoli], poet, painter, was born.
    (MC, 5/6/02)

1608        Italian artist Caravaggio was expelled from the Knights of Malta after he murdered one young man and got into a brawl that left a knight seriously injured.
    (AP, 2/5/13)

1606        Jul 15, The painter Rembrandt (d.1669) Harmenszoom van Rizn (Rijn), was born in Leiden, Netherlands. His paintings included "Old Woman Cutting Her Nails," "Night Watch," "Self Portrait Leaning Forward" (1628), "Two Studies of Saskia Asleep" (1635-1637), "Jupiter and Antiope" (1659) and "Aristotle Contemplating the Bust of Homer." He started making etchings in the 1620s when the medium was barely a 100 years old.
    (WSJ, 10/1/96, p.A20)(SFC, 10/12/96, p.E3)(SFC, 5/17/97, p.E1)(AP, 7/15/97)

c1606    Caravaggio painted "St. John the Baptist."
    (WSJ, 4/28/98, p.A16)
1606        Caravaggio fled Rome after he accidentally killed a man.
    (Econ, 2/26/05, p.82)

1609        Jul 15, Annibale Carracci (b.1560), Italian Baroque painter, died.

1609        Caravaggio (1571-1610) completed his "Adoration of the Shepherds," during a brief stay in Messina, Sicily.
    (AP, 10/7/09)
c1609    Peter Paul Rubens painted “Samson and Delilah."
    (SFC, 3/5/05, p.E1)
c1609    Rubens painted "The Head of St. John the Baptist." In 1998 it sold for $5.5 mil to Alfred Bader.
    (SFC, 2/3/98, p.E3)

1610        Jul 18, Michelangelo Merisi da Caravaggio (b.1571), Italian artist, died in Porto Ercole at age 38. His paintings included “David With the Head of Goliath," in which he used his own image for Goliath. In 1999 Helen Langdon authored the biography: "Caravaggio: A Life." In 2000 Peter Robb authored the biography: "M: The Man Who Became Caravaggio." In 2010 Andrew Graham-Dixon authored “Caravaggio: A Life Sacred and Profane."
    (Econ, 2/26/05, p.82)(WSJ, 5/4/05, p.D8)(http://tinyurl.com/8jjs6)(SFC, 7/22/10, p.79)

1610        Ustad Mansur, a seventeenth century Mughal painter, painted a picture depicting the Dodo bird. As a court artist of Jehangir (1605-1627) Mansur specialized in depicting plants and animals.

1611        Apr 1, Gillis van Valkenborch (~72), Flemish painter, was buried.
    (MC, 4/1/02)

1613        Apr 7, Gerard Dou, Dutch painter (Night School), was born.
    (MC, 4/7/02)

1614        Apr 7, El Greco (b.1541), born in Crete as Domenikos Theotocopoulos, died in Toledo, Spain. His paintings included "The Resurrection" (1597) and “View and Plan of Toledo" (1610-1614).
    (WSJ, 6/18/01, p.A16)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/El_Greco)

1619        Apr 16, Denijs Calvaert (Caluwaert), [Dionisio Fiamingo], Flemish painter, died.
    (MC, 4/16/02)

1624        Velasquez painted a portrait of King Philip IV.
    (WSJ, 12/16/04, p.D8)

1626        Apr 5, Jan van Kessel (d.1679), Flemish painter, was born. He was the grandson of Jan Breughel. He is known for his small paintings on copper and wood. His "Study of Butterflies, Spiders, Lizards, a Beetle, an Ant, a Grasshopper and Other Insects" sold at a Sotheby’s auction in 2000 for $1,655,750.
    (WSJ, 6/9/00, p.W10)(MC, 4/5/02)

1626        Rembrandt van Rijn depicted part of himself in his painting "History Piece."
    (WSJ, 8/11/99, p.A16)

c1626        Peter Paul Rubens painted “The Succession of the Popes (Allegory of Eternity)."
    (SFC, 3/5/05, p.E1)

1628        Mar 10, Constantine Huygens Jr., Dutch poet, painter, cartoonist, was born.
    (MC, 3/10/02)

1628        Oct 14, Iacopo Nigreti (b.~1548-50), prolific and facile Venetian Mannerist painter, died. He is best known as Jacopo Palma il Giovane or simply Palma Giovane ("Young Palma"). His paintings included “Yael Killing Sisera," a depiction of the Book of Judges Biblical story of the heroine, Yael of Jael, who killed Sisera to deliver Israel from the troops of king Jabin. She was the wife of Heber the Kenite.

1628        Rembrandt Harmenszoom van Rizn (Rijn)(1606-1669), Dutch painter, painted "Self Portrait Leaning Forward."
    (AAP, 1964)(WUD, 1994, p.1213)(WSJ, 10/1/96, p.A20)

1628        Peter Paul Rubens, Flemish painter, was called upon to broker a peace between Catholic Spain and Protestant England.
    (Econ, 5/15/04, p.81)

1629        Peter Paul Rubens, Flemish painter, created an allegorical design depicting "Honor and Virtue." The painting was commissioned in this year and in 1998 was part of the collection of the Prince of Liechtenstein. A separate small oil sketch for the painting was first made and made public in 1998. Rubens also made a copy of Titian’s "The Rape of Europa," and he painted the portrait of "Thomas Howard, Earl of Arundel."
    (SFC, 2/19/98, p.E4)(WSJ, 3/9/98, p.A16)

1629-1684    Pieter de Hooch, Dutch painter of contemplative scenes of everyday life.
    (WSJ, 2/2/99, p.A20)

1631        French artist Jean Lhomme painted “Pardon in Assisi." In 2016 the work was stolen from a village church in Nottoria, Italy, after it was damaged by a series of powerful earthquakes.
    (SFC, 11/8/16, p.A2)

1632        Rembrandt van Rijn painted his work "Europa" and "Portrait of a Lady Aged 62." The portrait sold for $28.7 million in 2000. Rembrandt also painted "The Anatomy Lesson of Dr. Nicolaes Tulp" in this year.
    (WSJ, 3/9/98, p.A16)(SFC, 12/15/00, p.C15)(Econ, 6/23/07, p.96)
1632        The "Portrait of a Young Woman" was created in the studio of Remrandt. In 1961 the portrait was bequethed to Pennsylvania's Allentown Art Museum. In 2020 art experts declared it to be an authentic Rembrandt.
    (SFC, 2/18/20, p.A6)

1632        Pope Urban VIII's nephew stole two altar paintings from a provincial church and smuggled them to Rome. The clandestine move from the central Italian city of Urbino on the back of a mule, hid the link between the two paintings and their creator, Dominican friar Fra Carnevale.
    (AP, 10/30/04)

1632-1635    Velazquez painted "The Jester Pablo de Vallodolid."
    (WSJ, 4/16/03, p.D10)

1633        Dec 18, Willem van de Velde the Younger, Dutch marine painter, was baptized.

1633        Rembrandt van Rijn painted the "Portrait of a Bearded Man in a Red Coat." It sold for $9.1 million in 1998.
    (SFC, 2/3/98, p.E3)

1633        Francisco de Zurbaran (1598-1644), Spanish artist, painted his “Still Life With Lemons Oranges and a Rose," later described as symbolic objects to the Virgin Mary. It was the work that Zurbaran ever signed and dated. In 1998 it was held by the Los Angeles Norton Simon Museum of Art.
    (SFEC, 1/11/98, p.D7)(WSJ, 2/21/09, p.W7)

1634        Rembrandt van Rijn painted "Portrait of a Woman." It hangs in the Speed Museum of Louisville, Ky.
    (WSJ, 12/18/97, p.A20)

1635        Apr 16, Frans van Mieris, the Elder, Dutch painter, was born.
    (MC, 4/16/02)

1635-1637    Rembrandt Harmenszoom van Rizn (Rijn)(1606-1669), Dutch painter, painted "Two Studies of Saskia Asleep."
    (AAP, 1964)(WUD, 1994, p.1213)(WSJ, 10/1/96, p.A20)

1636        Rembrandt van Rijn made his etching "Self-portrait with Saskia."
    (HT, 5/97, p.60)

1636        Peter Paul Rubens painted “Aurora and Cephalus."
    (SFC, 3/5/05, p.E1)

c1637-1638    Peter Paul Rubens painted “The Elevation of the Cross."
    (SFC, 3/5/05, p.E1)

1638        Rembrandt van Rijn painted the "Portrait of Willem Bartolsz Ruyter," a Dutch actor.
    (SFC, 10/12/96, p.E3)

1640        May 30, Peter Paul Rubens (b.1577), Flemish painter, died in Antwerp.
    (www.newadvent.org/cathen/13214c.htm)(Econ, 5/15/04, p.81)

1640        Rembrandt van Rijn painted his "Portrait of a Man Seated in an Armchair" about this time.
    (WSJ, 11/3/95, p.A-12)

1642        May 6, Frans Francken, the Younger, Flemish painter, died on 61st birthday.
    (MC, 5/6/02)

1642        Rembrandt van Rijn painted "Night Watch."
     (WSJ, 3/904, p.D8)

1648        Van Ruisdael painted "Dunes at Haarlem." His work this year also included his print "Christ Preaching (The Hundred Guilder Print).
    (SFEC, 9/3/00, p.T7)(WSJ, 3/904, p.D8)

1648        The French Royal Academy of Painting and Sculpture was founded.
    (AM, 7/05, p.54)

1649        Salomon van Ruysdael (1602-1670), Dutch landscape artist, created his painting “Ferry on a River."
    (WSJ, 7/2/08, p.D7)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ruisdael)

1649        Alessandro Turchi (b.1578), Italian painter, died in Rome. His work included “The Lamentation Over the Dead Christ" (1617).

1653        Rembrandt painted his "Aristotle With a Bust of Homer."
    (WSJ, 11/3/95, p.A-12)

1654        Oct 12, Carel Fabritius (b.1622), Dutch painter, died in a gunpowder explosion in Delft. He was one of Rembrandt’s most gifted pupils.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Carel_Fabritius)(WSJ, 7/20/01, p.W11)(Econ, 10/26/13, p.93)

1654        Jacob van Loo painted "An Allegory of Venus and Cupid as Lady World and Homo Bulla." It hangs in the Speed Museum of Louisville, Ky.
    (WSJ, 12/18/97, p.A20)

1654        Rembrandt van Rijn painted a portrait of poet-businessman Jan Six, one of the richest Amsterdammers of his time. His work this year also included "A Woman Bathing in a Stream" and "Flora." His work this year also included the etching and drypoint “The Descent From the Cross by Torchlight."
    (WSJ, 6/19/00, p.A42)(WSJ, 3/904, p.D8)(SFC, 1/28/06, p.E4)(Econ, 6/23/07, p.96)

1654-1656    Rembrandt van Rijn painted a medallion portrait of Muhammed Adil Shah of Bijapur.
    (SFEM, 2/1/98, p.16)(SFC, 2/7/98, p.E8)

1655        Rembrandt painted "Polish Rider."
    (WSJ, 12/5/96, p.A16)

1655        Jan Steen painted "A Burgher of Delft and His Daughter." In 2004 it sold for $14.6 million to the Dutch National Museum.
    (SFC, 4/4/01, p.C1)(SFC, 8/21/04, p.E12)

1655        Vermeer painted his Saint Praxedis. [see Vermeer, 1632-1675]
    (WSJ, 11/15/95, p.A-20)

1655        Pieter de Hooch moved to Delft and painted there for 5 years.
    (WSJ, 7/20/01, p.W11)

1655-1660    Rembrandt painted his picture called "The Auctioneer."
    (WSJ, 11/3/95, p.A-12)

1656        Jul 26, Rembrandt declared he is insolvent.
    (MC, 7/26/02)

1656        Vermeer created his painting "The Procuress."
    (WSJ, 11/15/95, p.A-20)

1658        Vermeer (1632-1675), Dutch artist, completed his painting “The Milkmaid" about this time.
    (Econ, 9/19/09, p.98)

1659        Rembrandt Harmenszoom van Rizn (Rijn) (1606-1669), Dutch painter, made "Jupiter and Antiope" (1659).
    (AAP, 1964)(WUD, 1994, p.1213)(WSJ, 10/1/96, p.A20)

1660        Aug 6, Diego Rodriguez de Silva Velazquez (b.1599), Spanish court painter, died in Madrid. In 1906 C. Lewis Hind authored “Days with Velazquez." In 1986 Jonathan Brown authored “Velazquez: Painter and Courtier." In 2016 Laura Cumming authored “The Vanishing Man: In Pursuit of Velazquez."
    (https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Diego_Vel%C3%A1zquez)(Econ, 1/23/16, p.79)

1660        Rembrandt painted "The Old Woman Cutting Her Nails" about this time.
    (WSJ, 11/3/95, p.A-12)

1662        Apr 20, Gerard Terborch, the elder, painter, died.
    (MC, 4/20/02)

1662        Rembrandt depicted himself in a painting as the fifth-century Greek painter Zeuxis. His work this year also included “The Syndics of the Clothmakers' Guild."
    (WSJ, 8/11/99, p.A16)(Econ, 6/23/07, p.96)

1663        Rembrandt depicted himself as a bit player in his painting "The Raising of the Cross."
    (WSJ, 8/11/99, p.A16)

1664        Apr 4, Adam Willaerts, Dutch seascape painter, died.
    (MC, 4/4/02)

1665        Feb 20, Michel Dorigny (b.1617), French painter, died.

c1665    Gerrit Dou, Dutch artist, painted "Woman at the Clavichord" and a "Self-Portrait" in which he resembled Rembrandt.
    (WSJ, 5/24/00, p.A24)
1665        Jacob van Ochtervelt (1634-1682), Dutch artist, painted his “Street Musicians in the Doorway of a House."
    (WSJ, 1/30/09, p.W2)(http://wwar.com/masters/o/ochtervelt-jacob.html)
1665        Dutch artist Johannes Vermeer painted his "Girl With a Pearl Earring" about this time. [see Vermeer, 1632-1675] In 1999 Tracy Chevalier authored the novel "Girl With a Pearl Earring," a fictionalization based on one of Vermeer's models.
    (WSJ, 11/15/95, p.A-20)(SFEC, 1/2/00, BR p.3)(SFC, 1/24/13, p.E1)

1666        Franz Hals (b.1581?), painter, died in the Oudemannenhuis almshouse in Haarlem. The almshouse later became the Frans Hals Museum.
    (SFEC, 9/3/00, p.T7)

1666        Pier Francesco Mola (b.1612), Italian Baroque artist, died in Rome.

1667        Apr 9, 1st public art exhibition (Palais Royale, Paris).
    (MC, 4/9/02)

1668        Charles Alphonse Dufresnoy (b.1611), French artist, died. His work included the painting “The Death of Socrates" (1650).
    (WSJ, 11/24/07, p.W8)

1669        Oct 4, Rembrandt H. van Rijn (b.1606), painter and etcher (Steel Masters, Night Watch), died. In 1999 Simon Schama published the biography "Rembrandt's Eyes."
    (WSJ, 11/24/99, p.A16)(MC, 10/4/01)

1673        Mar 28, Adam Pijnacker (51), Dutch landscape painter, etcher, was buried.
    (MC, 3/28/02)

1674        Mar 6, Johann Paul Schor (58), German baroque painter, died.
    (MC, 3/6/02)

1676        Jeong Seon (d.1759), Korean landscape painter, was born.

1679        Apr 17, John van Kessel (53), Flemish painter, died.
    (MC, 4/17/02)

1682        Apr 3, Esteban Murillo (b.1617), Spanish painter, died. Some of his mid-century work in Seville portrayed the effects of the Plague that killed 50% of the population in 4 months.
    (WSJ, 4/9/02, p.D19)(MC, 4/3/02)

1682        Nov 23, Claude Lorrain, French painter (also known as Claude Gelée), died. His birth is variously noted from 1600-1604.
    (WSJ, 11/6/02, p.D8)(www.britannica.com/eb/article-9024243/Claude-Lorrain)

1683-1707    Adriaen Coorte (b.1665), a Dutch Golden Age painter of still lifes, signed his work during this period. His work included “Still Life With Sea Shells" (1698).

1696        Mar 5, Giambattista Giovanni Battista Tiepolo (d.1770), Venetian Rococo painter (Isaac's Sacrifice), was born. He painted for the Dolfin family in the 1720s. His work included: "The Annunciation" (c1765-1770), "Apelles Painting a Portrait of Campaspe," "Martyrdom of St. Agatha," "Sacrifice of Isaac," "The Finding of Moses," "Nobility and Virtue" (1743), "Satyress with a Putto," "Satyress With Two Putti and a Tambourine," and "Halberdier in a Landscape." His contemporaries included Francesco Fontebasso, Allesandro Longhi, and Louis-Joseph Le Lorrain.
    (AAP, 1964)(WUD, 1994, p.1483)(WSJ, 10/14/96, p.A14)(SFC, 3/25/97, p.E3)(MC, 3/5/02)

1702        Omori Yoshikiyo, Japanese ehon artist, created his work “Trailing Willows," which depicted the working women in the government sanctioned pleasure quarter of Kyoto.
    (WSJ, 1/4/07, p.B11)

1703        Francois Boucher, French painter, was born. He painted "Diana."
    (AAP, 1964)(WUD, 1994, p.174)

1707        Apr 6, Willem Van de Velde (b.1633) the Younger, Dutch marine painter, died. His work included “fishing Boats by the Shore in a Calm" (1660-1605).
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Willem_van_de_Velde_the_Younger)(SFC, 7/9/11, p.E1)

1709        Jul 5, Etienne de Silhouette, French minister of finance, outline portrait artist, was born.
    (HN, 7/5/98)

1710        French artist Jean-Antoine Watteau (1684-1721) painted "The Fortune Teller" about this time.
    (https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Jean-Antoine_Watteau)(SFC, 5/26/18, p.E2)

1720        Giovanni Battista Piranesi (d.1778), Italian master printmaker, was born in Veneto. His fame rests on fantastic and often nightmarish etchings of ruins and prisons. He restored the church of Santa Maria in Aventino.
    (WSJ, 3/31/98, p.A20)(Econ, 3/1/14, p.87)

1721        Jul 18, Jean Antoine Watteau (b.1684), French rococo painter, died. His work included "Le Mezzetin."
    (WUD, 1994 p.1614)(MC, 10/10/01)(MC, 7/18/02)

1721        Aug 3, Grinling Gibbons (b.1648), Dutch-British sculptor and wood carver, died. He was known for his work in England.

1723        Zanabazar (b.1635), Mongolia’s greatest sculptor, died.
    (SSFC, 3/27/05, p.F4)

1727        May 14, Thomas Gainsborough (d.1788), English painter, was baptized. His work included "The Blue Boy" (1770).
    (HN, 5/14/01)(AAP, 1964)(WUD, 1994, p.579)(SSFC, 9/23/18, p.A11)

1727        Aug 30, Giandomenico Tiepolo (d.1804), Venetian painter, was born. His subjects included troupes of traveling players from northern Italy.
    (Econ, 4/10/04, p.72)(www.britannica.com)

1731        Luis Berrueco, Mexican painter, painted “The Martyrs of Gorkum," a detailed work depicting the 1572 martyrdom of 19 Catholics in Gorinchem, Netherlands, during the Dutch war for independence.
    (SFC, 3/5/11, p.E2)(http://tinyurl.com/5s8wnz2)

1732        Apr 5, Jean Honore Fragonard (d.1806), France, painter, was born. He painted "The Shady Grove." Hubert Robert was a painter friend and the painting "La Jardinaire" was painted by one or the other.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Jean-Honor%C3%A9_Fragonard)(AAP, 1964)(WSJ, 2/19/99, p.W12)

1732        William Hogarth published his engravings of “The Harlot’s Progress." They were wildly popular.
    (Econ, 2/11/12, p.83)

1737        The French annual art exhibition known as the Salon was inaugurated.
    (WSJ, 11/19/03, p.D12)

1738        William Hogarth painted “Strolling Actresses Dressing in a Barn."
    (SSFC, 4/3/05, p.F3)

1741        Apr 15, Charles Willson Peale (d.1827), American portrait painter and inventor, was born. His 2nd teacher was John Singleton Copley.
    (SFC, 1/25/97, p.E3)(HN, 4/15/98)

1742-1803    Thomas Jones, Welsh landscapist. He traveled to Italy in 1776 and spent 7 years there filling sketchbooks. He later authored his "Memoirs."
    (Econ, 7/12/03, p.77)

1743        Sep 14, Nicolas Lancret, French artist, died. He was a brilliant depicter of light comedy which reflected the tastes and manners of French society under the regent Orleans. His work included “Study of a Woman Seated on the Ground" and “Study of a Man."
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Nicolas_Lancret)(SFC, 7/13/13, p.E3)

1744        Mar 13, David Allan, Scottish painter, was born.
    (MC, 3/13/02)

1746        Nicholas de Largilliere (b.1656), French painter, died.
    (WSJ, 10/30/03, p.D10)

1748        Aug 30, Jacques-Louis David (d.1825), Neoclassical painter (Death of Marat), was born. He painted “Madame Hamelin." He also painted a portrait of Napoleon crossing the St. Bernard Pass on a rearing horse. Jean Ingres began his career as a pupil of David.
    (AAP, 1964)(WUD, 1994, p.369)(WSJ, 5/19/97, p.A16)(WSJ, 5/28/99, p.W12)(MC, 8/30/01)

1748        In Germany an oil painting by Elias Gottlob Haussmann showed bewigged composer Johann Sebastian Bach aged around 60 holding the score to one of his canons.
    (AFP, 6/12/15)

1751        Sep 13, Henry Kobell, Dutch painter and cartoonist, was born.
    (MC, 9/13/01)

1751        Pietro Longhi painted “Exhibition of a Rhinocerous at Venice." It depicted Clara, a touring Indian rhinoceros owned by Dutch sea captain Douwemout Van der Meer.
    (SSFC, 3/27/05, p.E1)

1752        May 4, Pieter Snyers (71), Flemish painter, engraver, died.
    (MC, 5/4/02)

1753        Aug 12, Thomas Bewick, artist (British Birds, Aesop's Fables) was born in England.
    (SC, 8/12/02)

1755        Jul 6, John Flaxman, the English sculptor who designed much of Wedgewood's original pottery, was born.
    (MC, 7/6/02)

1757        Nov 1, Antonio Canova (d.1822), Italian sculptor, was born.

1759-1761      Jean-Honore Fragonard painted "The Lost Forfeit or Captured Kiss."
    (WSJ, 11/19/03, p.D12)

1760s        George Stubbs created a painting of a thoroughbred horse. In 2003 it was sold at auction for $3.15 million.
    (AP, 7/10/03)

1767        Fragonard (1732-1806) painted "The Swing."
    (SFC, 2/7/03, p.D2)

1768        Apr 19, Canaletto (b.1697), Venetian printmaker and landscape painter, died.
    (Economist, 10/13/12, p.101)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Canaletto)

1760        Oct 21, Katsushika Hokusai (d.1849), Japanese printmaker, was born. Hokusai was a master designer of color woodblock prints. His paintings included 36 views of Mt. Fuji done when he was 70.
    (SFC, 9/24/98, p.E3)(WSJ, 11/3/98, p.A20)(Econ, 6/4/11, p.54)

1770        Mar 27, Giovanni B. Tiepolo (73), Italian painter (Banquet of Cleopatra), died.

1770        May 30, Francois Boucher (b.1703), French painter, died. He painted "Diana."
    (https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Fran%C3%A7ois_Boucher)(Econ, 10/9/04, p.79)

1770        Thomas Gainsborough (1727-1788), English painter, exhibited his "Portrait of a Young Gentleman", soon dubbed "Blue Boy," at the Royal Academy Exhibition.
    (SSFC, 9/23/18, p.A11)
1770        George Stubbs, Britain’s finest painter of animals, did a portrait of the Duke of Richmond’s imported yearling bull moose. It was commissioned by anatomist William Hunter (1718-1783) to see if the moose was related to the fossil Irish giant deer.
    (NH, 8/96, p.17)
1770        Benjamin West painted “The Death of General Wolfe." It depicts the Sep 13, 1759, Battle of the Plains of Abraham, outside Quebec City. West’s painting was the first by an American artist to gain international renown.
    {Canada, Britain, USA, Artist}
    (NY Times, 11/25/20)

1771        Fedot Ivanovich Choubine, Russian sculptor and painter, carved a bust of Catherine the Great.
    (Econ, 12/23/06, p.126)(http://tinyurl.com/y4ydna)

1775        Apr 23, Joseph Mallord William Turner (d.1851), landscape painter, was born in England.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/J._M._W._Turner)(SFC, 6/20/15, p.E3)

1776        Jun 11, John Constable (d.1837), English landscape painter (Hay Wain), was born.
    (SFC, 4/29/97, p.B5)(SC, 6/11/02)

1777        John Webber (1751-1793), English artist, painted his protrait of Poedua. She had been hostage together with her father, brother, and husband during the third voyage of James Cook in exchange of two sailors that deserted onto the island of Raiatea, the second largest of the Society Islands (later part of French Polynesia).

1778        John Singleton Copley, American artist, painted "Watson and the Shark." The work was based on a real life incident from 1749 in Cuba’s Havana Harbor, where Brook Watson (14) lost half a leg to a shark. Watson went on to become the Lord Mayor of London.
    (WSJ, 4/9/99, p.W16)

1779        Dec 6, Jean Baptiste Simeon Chardin (b.1699), French painter, died.

1779        Richard Samuel (d.1787), British painter, sent the Royal Academy exhibition his “Nine Living Muses of Great Britain." The 1778 painting featured a group of female writers and artists that included the Swiss-Austrian painter Angelica Kauffman (1741-1807).
    (Econ, 3/22/08, p.97)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Angelica_Kauffmann)

1780        May 4, American Academy of Arts & Science was founded.
    (MC, 5/4/02)

1780        Aug 29, Jean-Auguste-Dominique Ingres (d.1867), French painter, was born. His work included the "Portrait of Monsieur de Norvins" and "Valpincon Bather."
    (WUD, 1994, p.731)(WSJ, 7/1/96, p.A11)(MC, 8/29/01)

1780        George Stubbs, British painter, created his portrait of a poodle.
    (SFC, 6/25/99, p.A3)

1783        Apr 29, David Cox (d.1857), English watercolorist, was born. He books included “Treatise on Landscape Painting" (1813).
    (SFC, 4/29/97, p.B5)(www.chrisbeetles.com/pictures/artists/Cox_David/Cox_David.htm)

1786        Andres Lopez of Mexico painted "Sacred Heart of Jesus."
    (WSJ, 3/3/98, p.A16)

1786        George Morland painted "The Wreck of the Haswell."
    (WSJ, 9/3/98, p.A20)

1786        Tiepolo painted "The Third Temptation of Jesus."
    (SSFC, 12/17/06, p.M6)

1788        Apr 5, Franz Pforr, German painter, cartoonist (Lukasbund), was born.
    (MC, 4/5/02)

1788        Apr 15, Mary Delany (b.1700), English artist and writer, died. She became known for her “Flora Delanica," a collection of 985 botanically accurate portraits of flowers in bloom. In 2011 Molly Peacock authored “"The Paper Garden: An Artist Begins Her Life’s work at 72."
    (Econ, 6/11/11, p.86)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mary_Delany)

1788        Aug 2, Thomas Gainsborough (61), English painter, died. His work included the 1771 portraits of the Viscount and Viscountess Ligonier and "Blue Boy" (1770).
    (HN, 5/14/01)(AAP, 1964)(WSJ, 12/19/02, p.D10)(SSFC, 9/23/18, p.A11)

1791        Mar 6, Anna Claypoole Peale, painted miniatures, was born.
    (MC, 3/6/02)

1791        Apr 27, Samuel Finley Breece Morse (d.1872), inventor and painter, was born in Boston. Morse was a well-known painter who gained a wide reputation as a portrait artist. He graduated from Yale in 1810 and then studied painting in England for several years. Morse painted two notable portraits of Lafayette, was a founder of the National Academy of Design in 1826 and became professor of painting and sculpture at New York University in 1832-a position he held until his death in 1872. Morse invented the first practical recording telegraph in America and developed the Morse code, revolutionizing communication.
    (HN, 4/27/99)(HNQ, 2/26/00)

1792-1793    Francisco Jose de Goya y Lucientes (1746-1828), Spanish painter, went deaf from an unexplained illness.
    (WSJ, 5/10/02, p.W8)(Econ, 10/18/03, p.81)

1793        Jan 1, Francesco Guardi (b.1712), Venetian painter, died.
    (Economist, 10/13/12, p.101)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Francesco_Guardi)

1793        William Blake (1757-1827) produced his "Labors of the Artist, the Poet, and the Musician." He painted "Aged Ignorance." Blake’s work “The Complaint of Job" was also done about this time.
    (LSA, Spring 1995, p.17)(NH, 4/97, p.6)(SFC, 7/16/15, p.C6)

1794        William Blake painted "The Ancient of Days." "He formed golden com-passes / And began to explore the Abyss." From the epic "The First Book of Urizen." Urizen is a pun and stands for "Your Reason." On display at the Whitworth Art Gallery, Manchester, England.
    (T&L, 10/1980, p.42)(WSJ, 4/2397, p.A16)

1794        Spanish painter Goya completed his painting “Yard With Lunatics," the last in a series of uncommissioned small paintings executed during his convalescence from an illness that left him deaf.
    (WSJ, 6/18/08, p.D7)

1796        Jul 16, Jean-Baptiste-Camille Corot (d.1875), French painter, was born. His work included "Madame Corot" (1833-1835) and "Interrupted Reading" (1870-1873). He led the way toward new forms of perspective and composition that was later mined by impressionism and photography.
    (SFC, 6/4/96, p.E5)(WSJ, 10/25/96, p.A15)(WSJ, 3/25/97, p.A16)(MC, 7/16/02)

1796        Jul 26, George Catlin, American artist and author, was born.
    (HN, 7/26/01)

1798        Apr 26, Ferdinand Eugene Delacroix (d.1863), French painter, lithograph, etcher (Journal), was born.

1799        Jacques-Louis David created his painting “Rape of the Sabines."
    (WSJ, 4/6/05, p.D11)

1799        Goya (1746-1828) made his famous etching "The Sleep of Reason Produces Monsters," in which fluttering bats hover darkly above a man dozing at his desk.
    (WSJ, 11/3/95, p.A-12)

1801        French artist Girodet depicted Ossian, the mythical 3rd century blind Scottish poet, before the story was exposed as a fraud.
    (WSJ, 7/26/08, p.W8)

1801-1848    Thomas Cole, English born US painter. He and Asher B. Durand became fathers of the Hudson River School of painting and founded the National Academy of Design.
    (WUD, 1994, p.288)(WSJ, 8/10/99, p.A22)

1805        Jul 26, Constantine Brumidi, artist (Myrtle Murdock), was born.
    (MC, 7/26/02)

1805        Joseph Mallord William Turner (1775-1851), English painter and printmaker, created his painting “The Shipwreck."

1806        Feb 22, James Barry (b.1741), Irish-born Neoclassical painter, died.
    (www.artnet.com/library/00/0065/T006539.asp)(Econ, 2/18/06, p.78)

1806        George Stubbs (b.1724), British artist, died. His work included the publication “Anatomy of the Horse" (1766).
    (WSJ, 4/28/05, p.D8)(www.abcgallery.com/S/stubbs/stubbsbio.html)

1806        Apr 13, Jean-Jacques Bachelier (~82), French painter, died.
    (MC, 4/13/02)

1806        George Stubbs (b.1724), British artist, died. His work included the publication “Anatomy of the Horse" (1766).
    (WSJ, 4/28/05, p.D8)(www.abcgallery.com/S/stubbs/stubbsbio.html)

1806        Aug 22, Jean-Honore Fragonard (74), French painter, engraver, died.
    (MC, 8/22/02)

1809        William Cave created his painting "The Trusty Servant," a uniformed pig with a padlocked mouth.
    (WSJ, 11/26/03, p.D10)

1810        May 9, Louis Gallait, historical painter, was born.
    (MC, 5/9/02)

1811        Mar 20, George Caleb Bingham (d.1879), Missouri painter, was born in Virginia. His paintings included "Fur Traders on the Missouri."
    (WUD, 1994, p.149)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/George_Caleb_Bingham)

1812        Apr 15, Pierre-Etienne-Theodore Rousseau, painter, was born.
    (MC, 4/15/02)

1813        Mar 27, Nathaniel Currier, lithographer for Currier and Ives, was born.
    (HN, 3/27/98)

1814        Oct 4, Jean Francois Millet (d.1875), French painter, was born.

1814        Jacques-Louis David created his painting “Leonidas at Thermopylae."
    (WSJ, 4/6/05, p.D11)

1815        Sep 9, John Singleton Copley (b.1737), American artist, died in London.

1815        J.M.W. Turner made paintings in this summer renowned for their red skies. The coloration was due to the April 5 eruption of Mt. Tambora in Indonesia.
    (SFEC, 7/9/00, Z1 p.2)

1816        May 24, Emanuel Leutze, US painter, was born. His work included  "Washington Crossing the Delaware" (1851).
    (MC, 5/24/02)

1818        Caspar David Friedrich (1774-1840), German Romantic landscape artist, creating his painting “Wanderer Above a Sea of Clouds."
    (Econ, 10/29/11, IL p.25)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Caspar_David_Friedrich)

1819        Jun 10, J.D. Gustave Courbet (d.1877), French realist painter (Demoiselles the la Seine), was born. His realistic landscapes were marked by bold shadows and compositions fragmented by the play of natural light. This technique was pursued more fully by the impressionists. His work included "Rock at HautePierre."
    (DPCP, 1984)(WSJ, 3/10/00, p.W16)(MC, 6/10/02)

1819        Theodore Chasseriau (d.1856), artist, was born in Semana, Dominican Republic. He was the son of a French diplomat and French-Creole mother.
    (WSJ, 11/26/02, p.D8)

1819        J.M.W. Turner (44), English artist (1775-1851), visited Venice for the 1st time. He returned in 1833 and 1840. His 1st oil painting with a Venetian setting was done in 1833.
    (WSJ, 3/17/04, p.D4)

1822        Mar 16, Rosa Bonheur, French painter and sculptor, was born.
    (HN, 3/16/01)

1822        Sep 6, John Constable, English painter, painted his “Cloud Study, 6 September 1822." He painted some 100 studies of the sky between 1821-1822.
    (MC, 3/31/02)(WSJ, 6/9/04, p.D8)

1822        Oct 13, Antonio Canova (b.1757), Italian sculptor, died at age 64. His work included a sculpture of Napoleon’s sister Pauline, as a semi-naked Venus Victrix.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Antonio_Canova)(Econ, 11/10/07, p.105)

1824-1860    Yanagawa Shigenobu II, Japanese printmaker, was active. His work included the color woodcut “Kuroho" (1832-1836).

1825        Apr 16, John Henry Fuseli (aka Johan Heinrich Fussli b.1741), Swiss born British Romantic painter, died. His paintings included “Nightmare" (1782).
    (www.artnet.com/library/03/0302/T030268.asp)(Econ, 2/18/06, p.78)

1825        May 1, George Inness, US landscape painter (Delaware Water Gap), was born.
    (MC, 5/1/02)

1825        Camille Corot created his painting "View of Rome."
    (WSJ, 9/9/03, p.D6)

1826        Apr 6, Gustave Moreau, French painter, was born.
    (MC, 4/6/02)

1826        May 4, Frederick Church, US romantic landscape painter (Hudson River School), was born.
    (MC, 5/4/02)

1827        Apr 2, William Holdman Hunt, English painter (Light of the World), was born.
    (MC, 4/2/02)

1827        Aug 12, William Blake (b.1757), English visionary engraver and poet, died. In 2001 G.E. Bentley Jr. authored "The Stranger From Paradise: A Biography of William Blake."
    (SSFC, 5/27/01, DB p.73)(MC, 8/12/02)

1828        Apr 16, Francisco Jose Goya y Lucientes (b.1746), Spanish painter, cartoonist, died at age 82 in France. He had served 3 generations of Spanish kings as court painter. In 2002 Julia Blackburn authored "Old Man Goya." In 2003 Robert Hughes authored "Goya." See link for Goya timeline.
    (WSJ, 5/10/02, p.W8)(Econ, 10/18/03, p.81)(http://tinyurl.com/ngxt7)

1828        May 12, Dante Gabriel Rossetti (d.1882), English poet and painter, was born. He helped found the Pre-Raphaelite Brotherhood.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Dante_Gabriel_Rossetti)(WSJ, 7/25/95, p.A-10)

1828        Jul 27, Gilbert Charles Stuart, painter, died.
    (MC, 7/27/02)

1828        Boston artist Sarah Goodrich (1788-1853) painted “Beauty Revealed: Self Portrait."
    (Econ, 12/19/15, p.112)

1829        Jun 8, John Everett Millais, painter (Order of Release), was born in England.
    (MC, 6/8/02)

1830        Jul 10, Camille Pissarro (d.1903), French impressionist painter, was born on the island of St. Thomas in the West Indies. He studied as a child in Paris but spent his early years as an artist in Caracas, Venezuela. In Paris he became a devotee of the neo-Impressionist technique.
    (WUD, 1994, p.1097)(DPCP 1984)(HN, 7/10/01)

1830        Katsushika Hokusai (1760-1849), Japanese artist, created his famous woodblock print “Beneath the Wave of Kanagawa" about this time.
    (Econ, 6/4/11, p.54)

1830-1840    Hokusai (1760-1849) made his "Thirty-Six Views of Mount Fuji during this decade. The wood blocks included "Under the Wave of Kanagawa," "The Back of Mt. Fuji from Minobu River," and "Winter Loneliness." The last was inspired by a poem of Minamoto no Muneyuki Ason. Another series was titled "A Tour of Japanese Waterfalls.
    (SFC, 9/24/98, p.E3)

1832        Jan 23, Edouard Manet (d.1883), French impressionist painter, was born. His work was a major influence on the young artists who created the Impressionist movement. His style was influenced by the Spanish masters, particularly Velasquez. His work included the "Execution of Maximilian," "Luncheon on the Grass," the pastel "Portrait of Mademoiselle Lemaire," "In the Boat," "La Promenade" and "Le Journal Illustre" (ca. 1878-79).
    (WUD, 1994, p.871)(WSJ, 7/1/96, p.A11)(SFC, 8/21/96, p.A9)(AAP, 1964) (WUD, 1994, p.871)(WSJ, 2/13/97, p.A16)(DPCP 1984)

1832        Mar 26, Famed western artist George Catlin began his voyage up the Missouri River aboard the American Fur Company steamship Yellowstone.
    (HN, 3/26/99)

1832        Apr 15, Wilhelm Busch, German artist, was born. He created the precursor to the cartoon strip.
    (HN, 4/15/02)

1833        Aug 28, Edward Burne-Jones, British painter, was born.
    (RTH, 8/28/99)

1833        J.M.W. Turner completed his 1st oil painting "Bridge of Sighs and the Ducal Palace," his 1st exhibited painting of Venice.
    (WSJ, 3/17/04, p.D4)

1834        Apr 2, Frederic-Auguste Bartholdi, sculptor, was born.
    (HN, 4/2/01)

1834        Apr 15, The Honore Daumier painting "Rue Transnonain, le 15 Avril 1834" showed the ghastly aftermath of a civilian massacre by French government forces.
    (WSJ, 5/9/00, p.A24)

1834        Jul 10, James Abbott McNeil Whistler (d.1903), expatriate painter famous for painting his mother, was born.
    (HN, 7/10/98)(WUD, 1994 p.1628)

1834        Jul 19, Hilaire Germain Edgar Degas (d.1917), French impressionist painter, was born. His mother was a Creole and he journeyed to New Orleans in the 1870s. His work included "The Millinery Shop," "Combing the Hair," "Nude Fixing Her Hair," "Two Dancers" (c1890-1898), "Frieze of Dancers" (1893-1898), "Self Portrait" (c1863-1865 & c1895-1900) and "Blue Dancers" (1895). He also collected art and by the time of his death had amassed more than 500 paintings and 5,000 prints. The collection was auctioned off in Paris from Mar 1918 to Jul 1919. His time in New Orleans is covered in the 1997 book "Degas in New Orleans: Encounters in the Creole World of Kate Chopin and George Washington Cable" by Christopher Benfey.
    (WUD, 1994, p.380)(WSJ, 10/2/96, p.B5)(SFC, 10/22/96,p.E8)(WSJ,10/21/97,p.A20)(SFEC, 1/4/98, BR p.9)(HN, 7/19/98)

1834        Oct 16, In London the Houses of Parliament caught fire and many historic documents were burned. J.M.W. created two oil paintings of the burning of the Houses of Parliament.
    (www.bluffton.edu/~sullivanm/england/london/parliament/barry.html)(Econ, 9/29/07, p.90)

1836        Aug 22, Archibald M. Willard, US, artist (Spirit of '76), was born.
    (MC, 8/22/02)

1836        Thomas Cole, Hudson River School painter, painted "The Course of Empire," a series of 5 paintings chronicling the rise and fall of a great civilization.
    (WSJ, 9/19/02, p.D12)

1837        Mar 31, John Constable (60), English painter, water colors painter, died. His work included some 100 studies of the sky done between 1821-1822. In 2009 Martin Gayford authored “Constable in Love: Love, Landscape, Money and the Making of a Great Painter."
    (WSJ, 6/9/04, p.D8)(Econ, 3/21/09, p.92)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/John_Constable)

1837        Feb 12, Thomas Moran (d.1926), American painter, was born in Bolton, England. His paintings of Yellowstone helped persuade Congress to designate it a national park.
    (WSJ, 5/11/95, p. A-14)(SFC,10/15/97, p.D3)

1837        Artist Alfred Jacob Miller (1810-1874) accompanied British Capt. William Drummond Stewart on a hunting expedition to the Rocky Mountains. In October 1840 Miller traveled with his paintings to Stewart's Murthly Castle in Scotland, where a collection of his commissioned work was ultimately hung. Miller later settled in Baltimore, Md., painting portraits.
    (ON, 4/2011, p.8)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Alfred_Jacob_Miller)

1839        Oct 30, Alfred Sisley (d.1899), impressionist artist, was born in Paris of English parents. He studied in London and then in Paris in the studio of Charles Gleyre. He painted landscapes almost exclusively. His work included “A Turn in the Road" (1873).
    (DPCP 1984)(HN, 10/30/00)

1839        J.M.W. Turner (1775-1851) painted "The Fighting Temeraire," a portrait of the ship, which had gained fame in the Battle of Trafalgar (1805), as it was towed for demolition.
    (WSJ, 8/21/03, p.D8)

1840        May, 7 Caspar David Friedrich (b.1774), German Romantic landscape painter, died in Dresden. His primary interest as an artist was the contemplation of nature.

1840        May 29, Hans Makart, Austrian painter (Plague in Florenz), was born.
    (SC, 5/29/02)

1840        J.M.W. Turner (1775-1851) painted "Rockets and Blue Lights (Close at Hand) to Warn Steamboats of Shoal Water."
    (WSJ, 8/21/03, p.D8)

1841        Jan 14, Berthe Morisot (d.1895) French impressionist painter, was born in Bourges.
    (NMWA, 12/04, p.10)

1841        Barend Cornelis Koekkoek, Dutch artist, authored "Thoughts and Recollections of a Landscape Artist."
    (WSJ, 12/10/99, p.W16)
1841        Theodore Chasseriau (1819-1856), Dominican-born artist, created his portrait "Comtesse de LaTour-Mauberg."
    (WSJ, 11/26/02, p.D8)
1841        J.M.W. Turner painted his watercolor “The Blue Rigi: Lake of Lucerne, Sunrise" following a visit to Switzerland. In 1942 it sold for 1,500 guineas (about $94,000 in 2006 money). In 2006 it sold at auction for $11 million.
    (SFC, 6/6/06, p.D4)

1842        Mar 30, Elisabeth Viglee Le Brun (b.1755), French artist, died in Paris. She had served as the portrait painter to Marie Antoinette.
    (https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Louise_%C3%89lisabeth_Vig%C3%A9e_Le_Brun)(Econ, 2/20/15, p.76)

1842        Joseph Mallord William Turner (1775-1851), English painter and printmaker, created his painting “Snow Storm."

1844        May 21, Henri Rousseau (d.1910), French painter (Dream), was born in Laval.
    (HN, 5/21/01)

1844        Jul 25, Thomas Eakins (d.1916), American painter, was born.
    (SFC, 5/6/97, p.E4)(WUD, 1994, p.447)(HN, 7/25/02)

1845        May 22, Mary Cassatt (d.1926), American impressionist painter and printmaker, was born in Alleghany, Pa. Much of Cassatt’s early life was spent in Europe with her wealthy family. She attended the Pennsylvania Academy of the Fine Arts from 1861 to 1865 and worked briefly with Charles Joshua Chaplin in Paris, but preferred working her own way and copying old masters. She was a close friend of and greatly influenced by Edgar Degas. He admired her entry in the Salon of 1874, and at his invitation she joined the Impressionists and afterward showed her works at their exhibits. Degas’ influence is apparent in Cassatt’s mastery of drawing and in her unposed, asymmetrical compositions. Initially, Cassatt was a figure painter whose subjects were groups of women drinking tea or on outings with friends. After the great exhibition of Japanese prints held in Paris in 1890, she brought out her series of 10 colored prints, such as "Woman Bathing," and "The Coiffure," in which the influence of the Japanese masters Utamaro and Toyokuni is apparent. Cassatt urged her wealthy American friends and relatives to buy Impressionist paintings, and in this way, more than through her own works, she exerted a lasting influence on American taste. She was largely responsible for selecting the works that make up the H.O. Havemeyer Collection in the Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York.
    (HFA, ‘96, p.30)(AHD, p.209)(FAMSF, Mar, 98)

1845        William Sidney Mount (1807-1868), American genre painter, created his work “Eel Spearing at Setauket."
    (WSJ, 1/13/06, p.P9)

1846        Mar 17, Kate Greenway, painter and illustrator (Mother Goose), was born.
    (HN, 3/17/01)

1846        May 30, Peter Carl Faberge (d.1920), Russian master jeweler and goldsmith was born. His work includes the Imperial Coronation Easter Egg (1896-1908), an enameled, diamond-studded golden egg about 5 inches long that opens to reveal a 3-inch-long replica of the carriage that took the czarina to her coronation in 1896; the rococo Imperial Catherine the Great Easter Egg (1908-1917) and the Rectangular Box with a monogram of tiny diamonds (1896-1908).
    (MC, 5/30/02)(SFC, 5/234/96, p.D1,10)

1846        Henry Inman (b.1801), American artist, died. He copied portraits of American Indian leaders made by Charles Bird King.
    (WSJ, 3/15/06, p.D16)

1847        Jul 20, Max Liebermann, German impressionist painter, was born.
    (MC, 7/20/02)

1847        Felix-Joseph Barrias created his painting "Gallic Soldier and his Daughter Imprisoned in Rome."
    (WSJ, 9/9/03, p.D6)

1847        Thomas Cole created his painting "Prometheus Unbound."
    (SFC, 1/1/01, p.A1)

1848        Alexandre Cabanel painted his erotic portrait “Albayde."
    (SFC, 1/22/05, p.E1)

1848        Delacroix painted “Women of Algiers in Their Apartment."
    (SFC, 1/22/05, p.E1)

1848        Charles B. Gillespie (1821-1907) traveled to California from Pennsylvania during the gold rush and made a number of sketches, including depictions of Sutter’s Mill, some of which he turned into paintings upon returning to Freeport in 1851. In 2008 119 pen-and-ink sketches and 5 oil paintings were put up for auction.
    (SSFC, 11/23/08, p.B9)

1848        Edward Hicks (b.1780) painted "An Indian Summer View of the Farm & Stock of James C. Cornell."
    (WSJ, 11/16/99, p.A28)

1848        Edouard Manet (1832-1883) at age 16 failed the French naval exam and after 3 months at sea became convinced that he would rather be a painter.
    (WSJ, 12/3/03, p.D12)

1848        The Pre-Raphaelite Brotherhood was founded. A group of artists led by William Holman Hunt, John Everett Millais, and Dante Gabriel Rosetti, fought against corrupt academic art based on the work of the Renaissance.
    (WSJ, 2/19/97, p.A15)(Econ, 9/20/03, p.82)

1849        May 6, Wyatt Eaton, artist, was born.
    (MC, 5/6/02)

1849        Gustave Boulanger (1824-1888), French artist, painted “Ulysses Recognized by Eeurycleia."
    (WSJ, 12/28/05, p.D8)

1849        Asher B. Durand of the Hudson River School created his painting “Kindred Spirits." In 2005 Alice B. Walton, Wal-Mart heiress, purchased it from the NY Public Library for $35 million.
    (WSJ, 12/26/06, p.D8)

1849        Katsushika Hokusai (b.1760), Japanese printmaker, died.
    (SFC, 9/24/98, p.E3)(WSJ, 11/3/98, p.A20)(HN, 10/21/00)

1850        Jan 29, Luigi Sabatelli (b.1772), Italian artist, died in Milan.

1850        Mar, In Belgium artist Antoine Wiertz (1806-1865) wrote to the government offering to swap his largest paintings in exchange for the construction of a new studio. Interior Minister Charles Rogier soon agreed to provide money for a new studio that would display the artist’s work, following his death, to perpetuity. In 1865 the state was stuck with 220 of his works.
    (Econ, 7/11/09, p.53)(www.bc.edu/bc_org/avp/cas/fnart/art/wiertz.html)

1850        Apr 16, Marie [Gresholtz] Tussaud (89), Swiss-born maker of wax figures, died.
    (MC, 4/16/02)

1850        Apr 20, Daniel Chester French (d.1931), sculptor of the Concord Minuteman, was born at Exeter, New Hampshire. He had his estate in Stockbridge, Mass. His work also included the Lincoln Memorial. His Chesterwood estate became a museum with an annual 6-month summer season. [Ph. 413-298-3579]
    (HN, 4/20/98)(WSJ, 5/4/99, p.A20)

1850        Gustave Courbet (1819-1877), French artist, painted "Burial at Ornans."
    (WSJ, 11/28/06, p.D8)

1851        Dec 19, Joseph Mallord William Turner (b.1775), English painter and printmaker, died. In 2016 Franny Moyle authored “The Extraordinary Life and Momentous Times of J.M.W. Turner.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/J._M._W._Turner)(SFC, 6/20/15, p.E3)

1851        Thomas Wilmer Dewing (d.1938), American artist, was born.
    (SFC, 4/11/01, p.E1)
1851        Cabanel created his painting "The Death of Moses."
    (WSJ, 9/9/03, p.D6)
1851        John Everett Millais began to paint his work "Ophelia," completed in 1852.
    (WSJ, 2/19/97, p.A15)
1851        John Everett Millais (1829-1896) English painter and member of the a Pre-Raphaelite Brotherhood, created his work "Mariana."
    (https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/John_Everett_Millais)(SFC, 6/30/18, p.E1)
1851        Matthew Coates Wyatt created his dog sculpture of the Earl of Dudley’s Newfoundland Bashaw. It was a star exhibit at the British Great Exhibition.
    (WSJ, 12/6/01, p.A19)
1851        Emanuel Gottlieb Leutze (b.1816) painted "Washington Crossing the Delaware." It was later acquired by the NY Metropolitan Museum of Art.
    (SFC, 9/30/97, p.A7)(WSJ, 4/9/99, p.W16)

1852        Apr 1, Edward Austin Abbey, US, painter (Quest of the Holy Grail), was born.
    (MC, 4/1/02)

1853        Mar 30, Vincent Van Gogh (d.1890), Dutch artist, was born in Zundert, Neth. His work included "The Drawbridge and Sunflowers in a Vase," and "Harvest in Prevance," which was done both in oil and as a watercolor. The watercolor sold in 1997 for $14.7 mil. He produced an estimated 900 paintings and 1200 drawings but sold virtually none of them. In 1997 it was reported that more than 100 of his paintings and drawings might be fakes. 300 of his canvasses were painted in the last 15 months of his life.
    (AAP,1964)(WUD,1994, p.606)(SFC, 6/26/97, p.A21)(SFC, 7/5/97, p.A8)(SFEC, 1/4/98, Z1p.8)(HN, 3/30/98)

1852        May 30, George Chinnery (b.1774), painter of Asian scenes, died in Macau. The English painter spent most of his life in Asia, especially India and southern China.
    (Econ, 6/18/11, p.91)

1854        Gustave Courbet painted "The Meeting [Bonjour, Monsieur Courbet!]." It depicted a meeting with his patron, art collector Alfred Bruyas (1821-1877).
    (SFC, 1/22/05, p.E1)

1854        Eugene Delacroix painted "Arabs Stalking a Lion."
    (WSJ, 9/24/98, p.A16)

1854        Franz Xaver Winterhalter painted a portrait of Empress Eugenie, wife of Napoleon III.
    (WSJ, 4/3/03, p.D8)

1855        Apr 18, Jean-Baptiste Isabey, painter, died.
    (MC, 4/18/02)

c1855        Alexandre Marie Colin painted a portrait of Napoleon III.
    (WSJ, 4/3/03, p.D8)

1855        Gustave Courbet, French artist, painted "The Studio of the Painter."
    (WSJ, 11/28/06, p.D8)

1855        Camille Pissarro (1830-1903), French impressionist, moved to France from his native St. Thomas in the Virgin Islands.
    (WSJ, 1/14/97, p.A16)(Hem., 1/97, p.124)(WUD, 1994, p.1097)

1856        May 13, Peter Henry Emerson, 1st to promote photography as an independent art, was born.
    (MC, 5/13/02)

1856        May 20, Henri E. Cross (d.1910), French painter, was born. His real surname was Delacroix but was changed in 1881.
    (MC, 5/20/02)

1856        Francois Flameng (d.1923), French painter, was born. He painted imagined scenes from the domestic life of Napoleon Bonaparte.
    (MT, Fall/03, p.13)

1856        Theodore Chasseriau (b.1819), Dominican-born artist, died in Paris. His paintings included "The Toilette of Esther."
    (WSJ, 11/26/02, p.D8)

1858        Jun 15, Ary Scheffer (b.1795), Dutch-born French Academic painter, died.

1858        Utagawa Hiroshige (b.1797), one of the greatest Japanese artists, died of cholera in Edo. His "53 Stages on the Tokaido" Road, first published in 1863-4 as an accordion-like album, influenced French and American painters from Paul Cezanne to James McNeill Whistler.
    (AP, 6/28/05)(http://tinyurl.com/92q4b)

1859        Mar 21, The Scottish National Gallery opened in Edinburgh.
    (MC, 3/21/02)

1859        Leon Benouville (b.1821), French painter, died. His paintings included “The Wrath of Achilles" (1847).

1860        Apr 6, Rene Lalique (d.1945), French goldsmith, jeweler, glassmaker and artist, was born. He helped mold the shape of 20th century art nouveau, art deco and architectural ornamentation.
    (SFC, 3/26/97, z1 p.7)(Hem., 6/98, p.134)(MC, 4/6/02)

1860        Apr 13, James Ensor (d.1949), Belgian painter, was born. He became a master at dredging disturbing, uncensored images from the depths of the unconscious.
    (WSJ, 6/5/01, p.A23)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/James_Ensor)

1860        Apr 29, Lorado Taft, US sculptor (Black Hawk), was born.
    (MC, 4/29/02)

1860        Sep 7, Anna Mary Robertson Moses (d.1961), American folk painter, was born in Greenwich, NY. She began painting at the age of 78. She won worldwide fame in the 1950s with her paintings of rural American farm life.
    (AP, 4/19/11)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Grandma_Moses)

1860        Frederic Edwin Church created his painting "Twilight in the Wilderness."
    (WSJ, 9/19/02, p.D12)

1861        Oct 4, Frederic Remington (d.1909), American Western painter and sculptor, was born.
    (AAP, 1964)(WUD, 1994, p.1213)(HN, 10/4/00)

1862        Mar 19, F. Wilhelm von Schadow (73), German painter (Modern Vasari), died.
    (MC, 3/19/02)

1862        Jun 30, Julian Scott (16) sustained a hip injury during the Battle of White Oak Swamp. During his nine-month convalescence he developed a friendship with millionaire Henry Clark, who encouraged Scott to develop his artistic talent. After he obtained an honorable discharge from the army, Scott returned to the front to record the war through his art.
    (HNQ, 12/20/02)

1862        Jul 10, Helene Schjerfbeck (d.1946), Finnish painter, was born.

1862        Claude Monet (22) began studying painting with Charles Gleyre, a retired artist in Paris.
    (ON, 9/06, p.6)
1862        Sanford Robinson Gifford painted "Kauterskill Clove, in the Catskills." The 9x8 inch painting was auctioned in 1999 for $475,500 in NYC.
    (WSJ, 7/9/99, p.W12)
1862        James Whistler painted his: "Symphony in White, No. 1: The White Girl," a portrait of his Irish mistress Joanna Hiffernan.
    (WSJ, 1/2/06, p.D8)
1862        The painting "Stańczyk" by Polish artist Jan Matejko depicts a court jester sitting forlornly in a bedroom as a party goes on in the background.
    (Reuters, 2/12/21)

1863        Aug 13, Eugene Delacroix (b.1798), French artist, died.

1863        Albert Bierstadt created his painting "Rocky Mountains, Landers Peak."
    (SSFC, 8/4/02, p.M2)

1863        Johan Barthold Jongkind created his painting " Port of Honfleur at Evening."
    (WSJ, 12/3/03, p.D12)

1863        George Richmond, R.A., painted the portrait "Maharani ‘Chund Kowr’ alias Rani Jindan" in India.
    (SFEM, 2/1/98, p.14)(SFC, 2/7/98, p.E1)

1863        George Frederic Watts painted "Choosing."
    (WSJ, 2/19/97, p.A15)

1863        The Paris Salon des Refuses was a group show of artists rejected by the mavens of the official salon. The hit and scandal of the show was Edouard Manet’s "Le Dejeuner sur l’Herbe" which depicted a happy foursome picnicking in the woods with the two women undressed. One of the women was Victorine Meurent, a professional model. Other refused artists included Cezanne, Pissarro, and other impressionists.
    (WSJ, 6/14/95, p.A-14)(Econ, 1/26/13, p.76)

1863-1874    This decade in France was covered in the 2006 book “The Judgement of Paris: The Revolutionary Decade That Gave the World Impressionism," by Ross King. He focused on the period between two famous exhibitions, the scandalous Salon des Refuses in 1863 and the first Impressionist showing in 1874.
    (SSFC, 2/5/06, p.M6)

1864        Mar 19, Alexandre Calame (b.1810), Swiss painter, died in Menton, France.

1864        May 18, Jan P. Veth Bayern, Dutch painter, etcher, lithographer, art historian, was born.
    (SC, 5/18/02)

1864        Nov 24, Henri Toulouse-Lautrec (d.1901), French post-impressionist painter, was born.

1864        Nov 25, David Roberts (b.1796), Scottish painter, died. He toured Egypt and the Holy Land from 1838-1840. His work there made him a prominent Orientalist painter.
    (SSFC, 7/24/11, p.F7)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/David_Roberts_%28painter%29)

1865        Jun 26, Bernard Berenson, art critic (Italian Painters of the Renaissance), was born.
    (MC, 6/26/02)

c1865/6    Edouard Manet painted "The Tragic Actor (Rouviere as Hamlet)."
    (WSJ, 4/16/03, p.D10)

1866        Albert Bierstadt created his painting "Storm in the Rocky Mountains: Mt. Rosalie."
    (WSJ, 9/19/02, p.D12)

1866        Gustave Courbet, French artist, painted "The Waterspout" and “Origin of the World."
    (WSJ, 11/28/06, p.D8)

1866        Edouard Manet painted "Young Lady in 1866." The painting helped pave the way for Impressionism.
    (WSJ, 8/3/01, p.W2)

1866        Jean-Francois Millet painted "Flight of Crows."
    (WSJ, 7/12/99, p.A26)

1866        Monet created his painting "Jar of Peaches."
    (WSJ, 12/12/01, p.A16)

1867        Mar 23, Charles Deas (b.1818), American painter, died in NYC. He was noted for his oil paintings of Native Americans and fur trappers of the mid-19th century. At age 29, he went insane and lived out the rest of his life in mental institutions.

1867        Mar 25, Gutzon Borglum, sculptor of Mount Rushmore, was born.
    (HN, 3/25/01)

1867        May 13, Frank Brangwyn, painter, muralist, cartoonist (Willam Morris), was born in Wales.
    (MC, 5/13/02)

1867        Oct 3, Pierre Bonnard (d.1947), French painter and illustrator, was born. He wrote that he wanted to “show what one sees when one enters a room all of a sudden." He married Marthe de Meligny in 1925 and during his life painted some 384 images of her. In 1998 John Elderfield  and Sarah Whitfield published “Bonnard."
    (WSJ, 6/24/98, p.A16)(SFEC, 8/2/98, BR p.9)(www.youtube.com/watch?v=o_H_AseJpss)

1867        Francesco Hayez (1791-1882), Italian Romantic artist, painted his conception of the 70AD sacking of the Temple in Jerusalem.
    (Econ, 1/20/07, p.90)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Francesco_Hayez)

1867        Claude Monet painted "The Beach at Sainte Adresse" and "Road by Saint-Simeon Farm Winter" while living in Normandy.
    (DPCP 1984)(SFC, 1/29/99, p.D6)(SFC, 6/17/06, p.E10)

1868        Nov 19, William Sidney Mount (b.1807), American genre painter, died. His work included: “Eel Spearing at Setauket" (1845).

1868        French painter Jean-Leon Gerome completed his work “Bonaparte before the Sphinx."
    (Econ, 12/21/13, p.128)
1868        Martin Johnson Heade painted "Thunderstorm Over Narragansett Bay."
    (SFC, 9/20/97, p.E1)
1868        Jean-Francois Millet painted "Path Lined With Trees Near Vichy."
    (WSJ, 7/12/99, p.A26)
1868        Claude Monet painted "The River." It shows the water of the Seine and was an early attempt by the artist to depict shimmering light on water.
    (DPCP 1984)

1869        Dec 31, Henri Matisse (d.1954), French artist best known for his paintings "Woman with a Hat" and "The Red Studio," was born. His work included the "Dance II," now at the Hermitage in Moscow. In 1998 Hilary Spurling authored "The Unknown Matisse: A Life of Henri Matisse, Vol 1: 1869-1908."
    (WSJ, 7/5/96, p.A5)(SFEC, 12/13/98, BR p.9)(HN, 12/31/98)

1869        Johann Friedrich Overbeck (b.1789), German Nazarene artist, was born.
    (SSFC, 1/27/02, p.C7)

1869        Gustave Courbet painted "The Rock of Hautepierre."
    (DPCP 1984)

1869        Edgar Degas painted "Madame Camus at the Piano."
    (SFC,11/19/97, p.E6)

1869        Jules-Elie Delaunay created his painting "The Plague in Rome."
    (WSJ, 9/9/03, p.D6)

1869        Claude Monet painted "The Seine at Bougival, Evening."
    (SFC, 7/11/01, p.D1)

1869        Renoir and Monet sat side by side and painted views of the bathing house, La Grenouillleres and its patrons.
    (WSJ, 9/10/96, p.A16)(SFC, 10/30/96, p.E2)

1869        Camille Pissarro painted "The Versailles Road at Louveciennes."
    (SFEM, 1/31/99, p.18)

1871        Emily Carr (d.1945), Canadian artist and author, was born in Victoria. "You come into the world alone and you go out of the world alone yet it seems to me you are more alone while living than even going and coming."
    (AP, 7/11/98)(SSFC, 9/23/01, p.T2)

1871        Mary Edmonia Lewis, African-American sculptress, created her marble work "Hiawatha’s Marriage."
    (WSJ, 8/8/00, p.A20)

1871        Degas painted "Racehorses at Longchamp."
    (SFEC, 6/21/98, BR p.8)

1871        Edouard Manet made his lithograph "Civil War."
    (LSA, fall/96, p.21)

1871        Thomas Moran of England was the artist on a US government expedition to Yellowstone and painted "Nearing Camp, Evening on the Upper Colorado River." The painting sold for $2.2 million in 1999 to the municipal art gallery in Bolton, Lancashire.
    (SFC, 1/18/99, p.B2)
1871        French artist Jules Tavernier arrived in New York and was commissioned by Harper's Weekly to travel across the US to make artistic renderings of the country. At the end of his expedition he settled in San Francisco and spent two years visiting the Elem Pomo Indian village at Clear Lake where he created "Dance in a Subterranean Roundhouse" (1878).
    (SFC, 8/28/21, p.D4)

1871        In France James McNeill Whistler completed his best known work: "Arrangement in Grey and Black: Portrait of the Painter's Mother," aka “Whistler's Mother." His mother, Anna McNeill Whistler (d.1881), had moved into his apartment displacing his Irish model and sweetheart, Jo Heffernan. When his mother died Whistler borrowed £50 to get her portrait back from a pawn shop.
    (WSJ, 5/31/95, p. A-14)(SFEC, 5/10/98, p.C6)

1871        The San Francisco Art Association was founded. This was the first art school in the West.
    (SFEM, 11/24/96, p.8)(SFC, 5/30/03, p.E7)(SFC, 2/2/17, p.E6)

1872         Mar 7, Piet Mondrian (d.1944), Dutch abstract painter, was born. He was born in Amersfoort, near Amsterdam. His two principal styles date from before and after 1907. His Red Tree in 1908 reflects the stance of a Van Gogh.  In 1911 he went to Paris and quickly changed his style in response to Cubism. He emigrated to New York in 1940. His Broadway Boogie Woogie was done in 1942-1943. He was labeled as a degenerate by the Nazis and was sent to New York to continue working. He went through a number of styles i.e. fauvist, neoimpressionist Dutch landscapes, to total abstractions in a manner of his own that he called neoplasticism. He was a pioneer of abstract painting.
    (WSJ, 6/6/95, p.A-14)(WSJ, 10/3/95, p.A-18)(SFC, 10/4/97, p.E1)(HN, 3/7/98)

1872        Mar 25, Vito Pardo, Italian sculptor (Columbus monument in Argentina), was born.
    (MC, 3/25/02)

1872        Aug 21, Aubrey Beardsley (d.1898), English artist (Salome), was born in Brighton.
    (SC, 8/21/02)

1872        Prussian-born American artist John Gast (1842-1896) painted “American Progress," a seminal example of American Western art.
1872        Claude Monet created his painting: “Impression Sunrise." In 1985 it was stolen at gunpoint from the Marmottan Museum in Paris. In 1990 French police found it in an abandoned villa in southern Corsica.
    (ON, 9/06, p.8)
1872        Camille Pissarro, French artist, painted "Louveciennes" and “The Fence."
    (SFC, 1/20/99, p.E1)(SFC, 3/29/14, p.E5)
1872        Dante Gabriel Rosetti (1828-1882), English painter and founder of the a Pre-Raphaelite Brotherhood created his work "Veronica Veronese."
    (https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Dante_Gabriel_Rossetti)(SSFC, 7/1/18, p.E2)

1873        Degas painted “Degas Blanchisseuses souffrant des dent" (Laundry women with toothache). It was stolen in 1973 while on loan from the Louvre and recovered at a NYC Sotheby’s auction in 2010.
    (Econ, 11/27/10, p.83)
1873        Repin created his painting "The Volga Barge."
    (SSFC, 11/3/02, p.M6)

1874        Mar, By the spring of this year Claude Monet, Pierre Auguste-Renoir, Albert Sisley, Frederic Bazille and others formed the world’s first independent artistic association: the “Societe anonyme des peintres, sculpteurs, et graveurs." They gathered at Argenteuil on the banks of the Seine to relax and paint.
    (WSJ, 12/11/98, p.W16)(ON, 9/06, p.7)

1874        Apr 15, Members of the “Societe anonyme des peintres, sculpteurs, et graveurs" opened their first show, The First Exhibition of Independent Artists" on the Boulevard des Capucines in Paris.
    (ON, 9/06, p.7)

1874        Winslow Homer (1836-1910), son of a local whaler, took up painting in East Hampton, NY.
    (SSFC, 7/18/04, p.M2)

1874        Kramskoi created his painting "The Peasant Ignatii Pirogov."
    (SSFC, 11/3/02, p.M6)

1874        Edward Troye (b.1808), Swiss-born Kentucky artist, died. He portrayed horses and spent time in the Middle East in search of Arab breeding stock.
    (WSJ, 7/16/03, p.D8)

1875        Jan 20, Jean Francois Millet (b.1814), French painter, died.

1875        Sep 10, M.K. Ciurlionis (d.1911), Lithuanian artist and composer, was born. Sep 22 is also given as a birth date.
    (LC, 1998, p.12,24)

c1876        Rodin made the original plaster for "Age of Bronze," the figure of a naked youth.
    (SFEM, 11/24/96, p.46)(WSJ, 1/9/97, p.A8)

1876        Edward Mitchell Bannister, African-American artist, won a 1st place prize at the Centennial Exposition in Philadelphia, but was turned away from the exhibition hall when he went to collect his medal.
    (WSJ, 8/8/00, p.A20)

1876        Degas painted "Absinthe."
    (WSJ, 1/22/99, p.W8)

1876        Jean-Leon Gerome painted "Solomon's Wall, Jerusalem."
    (WSJ, 2/5/99, p.W12)

1876        Winslow Homer (1836-1910) painted "Gloucester Harbor." In 1997 it hung at the Nelson Atkins Museum of Art in Kansas City. He also did "The Cotton Pickers" in this year and completed “Breezing Up (A Fair Wind)."
    (WSJ, 11/10/97, p.B6)(SFC, 8/18/01, p.B1)(WSJ, 8/12/06, p.P14)

1876        Monet painted "Dans La Prairie." It was expected to sell for $16-20 million in 1999. He also did "La Repos Dans le Jardin" this year.
    (WSJ, 11/5/99, p.W16)(WSJ, 5/3/02, p.W12)

1876        Pierre-Auguste Renoir painted "The Garden of the Rue Cortot" at what is now the Montmartre museum in Paris. He also did a portrait of Alfred Sisley about this time. His work "At the Theater" (La Premiere Sortie) was also begun and completed the next year.
    (SFEC, 6/22/97, p.T11)(DPCP 1984)(WSJ, 8/13/99, p.W10)

1876        The 2nd Impressionist exhibition opened in Paris featuring Claude Monet, Pierre-Auguste Renoir, Edgar Degas and Berthe Morisot.
    (NMWA, 12/04, p.9)

1877        Jun 3, Raoul Dufy, French Fauvist painter (Palm), was born.
    (MC, 6/3/02)

1877        Harrison Fisher, illustrator, was born in Brooklyn. In 1895 he began working as a staff artist for the SF Morning Call. He later became known as "The Father of a Thousand Girls." In 1908 he published the 1st of his 9 books illustrating idealized women.
    (SSFC, 5/25/03, p.I4)

1877        Cezanne painted "Mme. Cezanne in a Red Armchair."
    (WSJ, 2/20/96, p.A-14)
1877        Gustave Caillebotte French impressionist painter, painted his "Paris Street: Rainy Day." [see 1848-1894, Caillebotte]
    (WSJ, 2/23/95, p.A-10)(SSFC, 11/16/03, BR p.6)
1877        Celestino Gilardi painted "A Visit to the Gallery." It was a scene of young women viewing a nude sculpted goddess.
    (MT, Spg. ‘97, p.20)
1877        Winslow Homer painted "Backgammon," a watercolor genre scene.
    (SFC, 6/18/97, p.E4)
1877        Claude Monet painted "Old St. Lazare Station, Paris." He did a series of these and captured the atmospheric effects of steam and light through the glass roof of the train shed.
    (DPCP 1984)
1877        Evelyn De Morgan created her painting "Cadmus and Marmonia."
    (WSJ, 10/16/02, p.D8)
1877        John Roddam Spencer Stanhope, member of Britain’s Aesthetic Movement, painted "Love and the Maiden." Stanhope (1829-1908) is often regarded as a second-wave pre-Raphaelite.
    (https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/John_Everett_Millais)(SFC, 2/4/03, p.D2)(SFC, 6/30/18, p.E2)

1877        The Grosvenor Gallery opened in London as an alternative showplace for painters ignored by the Royal Academy.
    (SFC, 2/4/03, p.D2)

1877        James McNeil Whistler completed his interior room “Harmony in Blue and Gold" better known as the Peacock Room. The 2-year project was his transformation of the London dining room of shipping magnate Frederick Leyland. The room was later transported to the Smithsonian’s Freer Gallery. In 1998 Linda Merrill authored “The Peacock Room: A Cultural Biography."
    (WSJ, 9/15/07, p.W16)

1878        Feb 19, Charles Francois Daubigny (b.1817), French painter of the Barbizon school, died.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Charles-Fran%C3%A7ois_Daubigny)(SFC, 6/1/13, p.E2)

1878        Nov 25, In London a trial opened to hear the suit of James McNeill Whistler (1834-1903) against critic John Ruskin for libel. After a 2-day hearing the jury found Ruskin guilty and awarded Whistler one farthing, a quarter of a penny. Whistler later authored “The Gentle Art of Making Enemies" (1890).
    (www.abcgallery.com/W/whistler/whistlerbio.html)(ON, 4/03, p.9)

1878        In San Francisco French artist Jules Tavernier completed "Dance in a Subterranean Roundhouse" (1878), a scared ritual of the Elem Pomo tribe in Clear Lake. The work was commissioned by banker Tiburcio Parrott y Ochoa as a gift for business partner Baron Edmond de Rothschild. In 2016 the painting was purchased by New York's Metropolitan Museum of Art.
    (SFC, 8/28/21, p.D4)
1878        The Thomas Eakins (1844-1916) painting "The Gross Clinic" was bought for $200 by Thomas Jefferson University, a medical and health sciences school in Philadelphia. In 2006 The National Gallery of Art agreed to buy the painting for a record $68 million, however the deal was matched by local institutions and the painting remained in Philadelphia.
    (AP, 11/11/06)(WSJ, 12/26/06, p.D8)

1879        Jul 7, George Caleb Bingham (b.1811), artist and legislator, died in Kansas City, Mo. His paintings included “The Jolly Flatboatmen," which became a best-seller in 1846 after it was chosen by the American Art Union for its annual engraving.
    (WSJ, 11/3/07, p.W16)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/George_Caleb_Bingham)

1879        Sep, James McNeill Whistler (1834-1903), artist, arrived in Venice following a lawsuit against critic John Ruskin that awarded him a single farthing.
    (SFC, 2/15/03, p.D5)

1879        Dec 18, Paul Klee (d.1940), Swiss abstract painter best known for The Mocker Mocked, was born.
    (HN, 12/18/98)

1879        Cezanne, French painter, painted his Self-Portrait. He also began work on "Auvers-Sur-Oise" (The Fence), which was completed in 1882. On Jan 1, 2000, the $4.8 million Auvers painting was stolen from the Ashmoleum Museum in Oxford.
    (WSJ, 9/28/95, p.A-16)(SFEC, 1/2/00, p.A2)
1879        Edgar Degas, while in New Orleans, painted "Miss La La at the Cirque Fernando."
    (SFEC, 1/4/98, BR p.9)
1879        Monet painted "Lavacourt in Winter."
    (SFC, 1/29/99, p.D6)
1879        Camille Pissarro painted "Rabbit Warren at Pontoise, Snow."
    (SFC, 1/29/99, p.D6)
1879        In Paris Pierre-Auguste Renoir painted "Two Little Circus Girls," a picture of Francisca and Angelina Wartenberg, jugglers in the Spanish Cirque Fernande.
    (DPCP 1984)
1879        French artist Renoir painted “Paysage bords de Seine." It was seized in 2012 by the FBI. A Virginia woman claimed to have bought it at a flea market for $7. In 2014 a federal judge cited evidence that it had been stolen over 60 years ago from the Baltimore Museum of Art.
    (SFC, 1/11/14, p.A4)
1879        John Singer Sargent began painting "The Spanish Dance."
    (WSJ, 2/23/99, p.A20)

1880        Oct 28, San Francisco held a referendum on whether "The Awakening" by French artist Gabriel Guay (1848-1923) should be open for public view. An exhibit of a nude painting at the 15th Mechanic’s Fair triggered the referendum and 12,808 people bought tickets to the fair on the day of the vote, which passed in favor in a landslide.
    (SFC, 3/7/15, p.C2)(http://tinyurl.com/p5g2v8v)

1880        Hans Hofmann (d.1966), abstract artist, was born and raised in Munich, Germany. He lived in Paris from 1904-1914 and moved to the US in 1931.
    (SFC, 7/31/01, p.B5)(WSJ, 1/15/04, p.D8)

1881        May 24, Samuel Palmer (b.1805), English painter and printmaker, died. He was a leading light in a brotherhood of painters called the “Ancients," for their preference of archaic Gothic architecture. In 2011 Rachel Campbell-Johnston authored “Mysterious Wisdom: the Life and Work of Samuel Palmer."
    (Econ, 6/25/11, p.98)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Samuel_Palmer)

1881        Oct 25, Pablo Picasso (d.1973), painter and sculptor, was born in Malaga, Spain. He worked in France and a painter and sculptor. Francoise Gilot was the mother of 2 of his children. His work includes “Gilot," and “Self-Portrait with a Palette" (1906). He immortalized the French apéritif Pernod by including it in many paintings. “Picasso and Dora" was written by James Lord.
    (SFC, 7/14/96, p.C11)(SFC, 8/14/96, zz-1 p.4) (WSJ, 9/30/96, p.A14)(HN, 10/25/98)

1881        Dec, German-born illustrator Thomas Nast made his familiar illustration of "Merry Old Santa Claus" in Harper's Weekly.
    (HNPD, 12/25/99)

1881        Claude Monet painted his landscape "Paysage Dans L’Ile Saint Martin." It later ended up in the corporate collection of Reader’s Digest.
    (WSJ, 11/13/98, p.W16)

1881        Pierre-Auguste Renoir painted "On the Terrace," a picture of a young woman and a pink-cheeked child with the Seine in the background.
    (DPCP 1984)

1881        Rodin sculpted his "Eve."
    (SFEM, 11/24/96, p.46)

1881        Anton Romako (Vienna) painted "Girl on a Swing (Olga van Wassermann)."
    (SFC, 8/29/01, p.E5)

1881        In Japan Shibata Zeshin made a book of lacquer paintings on paper, a medium that he alone mastered.
    (WSJ, 2/5/98, p.A20)

1881-1882    Although Pierre-Auguste Renoir embraced Impressionism early on. His travels to Algeria, Italy, and Provence from 1881-82 led him to reject the style. Renoir came from a family of artisans, who soon noticed and encouraged his aptitude for painting. When Renoir decided to study painting in earnest, he found himself stifled by the conventions and traditions of the day. Renoir and some of his fellow students (Frédéric Bazille, Claude Monet and Alfred Sisley) began meeting with young painters Paul Cézanne and Camille Pissarro and a style developed. Although critical and financial success did not come to the group with the first Impressionist exposition of 1874, Renoir’s interest in the human figure (as opposed to landscapes) led him to receive several portrait commissions. The trips in the early 1880s exposed him to elements of classicism that he felt drawn to in terms of both color and brushstrokes. However, despite his newfound interest, he retained the use of vibrant coloration and a bucolic view of nature.
    (HNQ, 5/23/01)

1882        Mar 19, Gaston Lachaise (d.1935), Franco-American sculptor (Standing Woman), was born.
    (SFC, 2/2/02, p.D1)(MC, 3/19/02)

1882        May 13, Georges Braque (d.1963, French cubist painter, was born in Argenteuil, near Paris. He said of his work that: "The aim is not to reconstitute an anecdotal fact, but to constitute a pictorial fact." He was shot in the head during WW I and had his head drilled to relieve the pressure. His "Billiard Tables" series was painted between 1944 and 1949.
    (V.D.-H.K.p.359-360)(AHD, 1971, p.160)(WSJ, 5/7/97, p.A16)(MC, 5/13/02)

1882        Jul 22,    Edward Hopper (d.1967), American artist (Nighthawks), born in Nyack, N.Y.

1882        Elie Nadelman (d.1946), Polish-born sculptor, was born. He moved to Paris in 1904 and to the US in 1914 with the support of Helena Rubenstein. His work included "The Dancer" (1920-1924).
    (WSJ, 5/15/03, p.D8)
1882        Paul Cezanne completed his painting “The Three Bathers." Matisse saw it in a gallery in 1899. He and his wife soon agreed to pawn her emerald ring in order to purchase it, which they held for 37 years.
    (https://www.wikiart.org/en/paul-cezanne/three-bathers)(Econ, 7/9/16, p.73)
1882        Claude Monet painted "The Cliff Walk (Pourville)." His series of seaside cliff scenes are among his most dramatic paintings. The series included "Fisherman's Cottage on the Cliffs at Varengeville."
    (DPCP 1984)
1882        John Singer Sargent (26) painted "The Sulphur Match" and "The Daughters of Edward Boit." He also completed "El Jaleo," the mural-scale depiction of a Spanish dancer.
    (WSJ, 2/23/99, p.A20)(WSJ, 8/5/99, p.A16)

1882        Vincent Van Gogh painted "The Wounded Veteran.'
    (WSJ, 3/14/00, p.A28)

1883        Mar 30, Jo Davidson, American sculptor, was born.
    (HN, 3/30/98)

1884        Jul 12, Amadeo Modigliani, painter and sculptor (Reclining Nude), was born in Italy.
    (HN, 7/12/01)(MC, 7/12/02)

1884        Chauncy Bradley Ives created his sculpture "Undine."
    (SFC, 4/11/01, p.E8)

1884        Claude Monet painted "Corniche of Monaco."
    (WSJ, 8/26/97, p.A1)

1884        Claude Monet painted "Bordighera." It was done on the French Riviera to which he returned after a visit there with Renoir in late 1883. The paintings were marked by bold, pure color in contrast to his earlier subdued pastels.
    (DPCP 1984)

1884        Berthe Morisot (1841-1895) painted the impressionist work "En Bateau sur le Lac de Boulogne." It was valued in 1998 at $600-800 thousand.
    (SFC, 2/14/98, p.A1)(SFC, 5/23/98, p.A19)

1884        French artist Paul Philippoteaux (1846-1923) and team of 20 created in Paris the massive Cyclorama painting titled “The Battle of Gettysburg." It was originally 377 feet in circumference. They then shipped it to the US, where it was first displayed in Boston. The US National Park Service acquired it in 1942. In 2008 a 5-year, $15 million restoration project was completed and it was reopened to the public at the Gettysburg National Military Park in Gettysburg, Pa.
    (SSFC, 9/28/08, p.E2)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Paul_Philippoteaux)

1884        John Singer Sargent painted "Madame X." It was a portrait of Mme. Pierre Gautreau. The painting was initially called monstrous and prompted Sargent to move from Paris to the US.
    (WSJ, 2/23/99, p.A20)(WSJ, 4/9/99, p.W16)

1884        Georges Seurat, French artist, painted "Bathers at Asnieres." He also began his 7x10 foot painting “Study for A Sunday Afternoon on La Grande Jatte." The work was completed in 1886 and heralded as a milestone of art theory.
    (WSJ, 6/19/00, p.A44)(WSJ, 7/20/04, p.A1)(SFC, 9/24/10, p.F5)
1884         Vincent Van Gogh painted the work, "Spring Garden." It depicts the garden of the parsonage where his father lived as pastor.
    (The Week, 3/31/20)

1884        The Salon des independents in France had no jury and gave no prizes, but all the entries were exhibited. This salon marked the last formal exhibition of Impressionist paintings.
    (Calg. Glen., 1996)

1885        May, Henri Rousseau (1844-1910), a self-taught artist, exhibited two of his paintings at the Salon of French Art in Paris without bothering to obtain permission. One painting was cut with a knife and authorities removed them as soon as they were noticed. That same month he exhibited his work at the Salon of the Independents.
    (ON, 8/08, p.8)

1885        Cezanne painted his watercolor of "Madame Cezanne with hydrangeas." His painting “the Bather" (Le Grand Baigneur) was also done about this time.
    (WSJ, 2/20/96, p.A-14)(WSJ, 3/29/08, p.W18)

1885        Berthe Morisot (d.1895), French Impressionist, painted her self portrait.
    (NMWA, 12/04, p.29)

1885        Charles Rollo Peters painted “Italian Fisherman’s Wharf," a scene of the congested SF harbor.
    (SFC, 5/30/01, p.E3)

1885         Russian artist Ilya Repin created his painting "Ivan the Terrible and His Son Ivan on November 16, 1581," which depicts Russian czar Ivan the Terrible cradling his dying son after striking him in a fit of rage. It became the first painting in the Russian empire in 1885 to be officially banned from being displayed. It was allowed back into Moscow's Tretyakov Gallery several months later. In 1913, a mentally unstable man attacked the painting with a knife. The then-curator of the gallery was so distressed by the vandalism that he threw himself a under a train. In 2018 Igor Podporin damaged the painting. In 2019 Podporin was sentenced to 2½ years in prison for vandalizing the painting.
    (AP, 4/30/19)   

1886        Dec 8, Diego Rivera (d.1957), Mexican painter, was born in Guanajuato.
    (SSFC, 8/19/12, p.P2)

1886        The last impressionist exhibition was held in France.
    (SFC, 10/22/96, p.E8)
1886        French artist Jean-Leon Gerome painted "The First Kiss of the Sun."
    (WSJ, 2/5/99, p.W12)
1886        Henri Fantin-Latour painted "Vase With Autumn Asters."
    (SFC, 1/18/99, p.B1)
1886        French sculptor Auguste Rodin created his marble sculpture "The Kiss."
    (WSJ, 7/5/96, p.A5)
1886        Paul Durand-Ruel, a Paris art dealer, packed his bag with 300 Impressionist paintings and took them to sell in America.
    (Econ, 11/28/09, SR p.13)
1886        Emile Zola (1840-1902), French author, wrote "The Masterpiece," the story of an artist in pursuit of his vision. Zola described the horror felt by much of the general public when presented with the work of the new Impressionists.
    (WSJ, 4/29/06, p.P10)(Econ, 5/2/09, p.85)
1886        Rene Lalique, a pioneer of Art Nouveau style, set up his own jewelry workshop in Paris, France. He had already apprenticed under Louis Aucoq and worked for Cartier, Boucheron and other established houses.
    (SSFC, 2/4/07, p.C4)

1886-1888    Vincent Van Gogh made his Paris sojourn.
    (WSJ, 3/14/00, p.A28)

1887        Feb 5, Peder Balke (b.1804), Norwegian painter, died. He was known for portraying the nature of Norway in a positive manner and influenced a dramatic and romantic view of Norwegian landscape.

1887        Mar 23, Juan Gris, cubist painter (Still Life Before an Open Window), was born in Spain.
    (SS, 3/23/02)

1887        Jul 7, Marc Chagall (d.1985), French painter and designer, was born in Vitebsk, Belarus, Russia, as Moishe Shagal. He left there in 1907 to attend art school in St. Petersburg. He was sent to Paris by a benefactor and befriended Chaim Soutine and Alexander Archipenko and stayed until 1914. "From late cubism he adopted a manner of making forms and space interpenetrate." His work included "Les Amoureux" (The Lovers - 1916), a portrait of himself and his wife. In 1996 it sold for $4.2 mil. In 1997 Mikhail Guerman published "Marc Chagall: The Land of My Heart - Russia."
    (SFC,7/2/96,p.E3)(WSJ,10/8/96,p.A20)(SFEC,12/797,Par p.6)(HN, 7/7/01)

1887        Jul 28, Marcel Duchamp (d.1968), French artist, was born. He is known best for "Nude Descending a Staircase," (1912) featured in the 1913 Armory Show in New York. Arturo Schwarz published his complete works in 1969 with a new edition in 1997. In 1996 Calvin Tompkins wrote "Duchamp: A Biography."
    (V.D.-H.K.p.361)(WSJ, 12/18/96, p.A18)(HN, 7/28/01)

1887        Van Gogh painted "The Courtesan." It was inspired by an 1820 work by the Japanese artist Keisai Eisen who pictured an intricately coifed woman that later appeared on the cover of a French magazine
    (SFC, 11/16/98, p.E3)(WSJ, 12/1/98, p.A20)

1887        Aloys Zötl (b.1831), Austrian naïve artist, died. Zotl’s paintings included "The Rhinoceros."
    (WSJ, 4/9/03, p.D10)

1888        Oct-1888 Dec, Vincent van Gogh shared a 4-room house in Arles, France, with Paul Gauguin. In December Van Gogh cut off his ear with a razor during a quarrel with painter Paul Gauguin, who then fled to Paris. They never saw each other again.
    (Econ, 4/29/06, p.89)

1888        McKendree Robbins Long (d.1976), Southern gothic painter and evangelical preacher, was born in Statesville, NC.
    (SFC, 7/6/02, p.D6)
1888        James Ensor, Belgian artist, painted "Christ's Entry into Brussels in 1889." It was later acquired by the Getty Museum.
    (WSJ, 4/9/99, p.W16)(SFEM, 10/17/99, p.11)
1888        Vincent van Gogh painted the "Portrait of a Young Man in a Cap." The painting later went up for auction for as much as $8 mil. Van Gogh also painted his "Boats at Saintes-Maries," "The Bedroom," "Self Portrait as an Artist," "Postman Joseph Roulin," and "Le Pont de Trinquetaille" in this year. In 1990 Robert Altman directed a film titled "Vincent and Theo" about Van Gogh and his brother.
    (WSJ, 4/27/95, p.C-18)(WSJ, 11/10/95, p. A-10)(SFC, 4/13/96, p.E3)(SFC, 1/14/98, p.D3)(SFEC, 10/25/98, Z1 p.12)(WSJ, 9/3/99, p.W10)(WSJ, 9/24/99, p.W9)
1888        Henri de Toulouse-Lautrec painted the portrait “Madame Lili Grenier."
    (SFC, 9/15/12, p.E1)
1888        John Singer Sargent painted the portrait of Isabella Stewart Gardner titled "Mrs. Jack."
    (WSJ, 8/5/99, p.A16)
1888        Rudolph Swoboda painted "The Munshi Abdul Karim," a portrait of Queen Victoria's favorite servant after the death of Hohn Brown.
    (WSJ, 11/26/03, p.D10)

1889        Apr 15, Thomas Hart Benton (d.1975), painter, muralist, was born in Missouri.
    (HN, 4/15/98)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Thomas_Hart_Benton_%28painter%29)

1889        Jul 13, Vincent van Gogh painted "Moonrise." The exact date was determined in 2003 by a physicist using a computer and moon data from the painting.
    (SFC, 7/16/03, p.D2)

1889        Dec 23, Vincent van Gogh sliced his left ear in reaction to Gauguin’s announcement that he was leaving Arles for Paris.
    (Econ, 11/5/11, p.103)

1889        Van Gogh painted "The Gardener," while a patient in St. Remy-de-Provence as well as “Starry Night." He also did "Wheatfield with a Reaper" and "Crab on Its Back" in this year.
    (SFC, 5/21/98, p.A14)(SFC, 1/18/99, p.B1)(WSJ, 8/14/01, p.A12)(WSJ, 10/18/08, p.W12)

1890        cJun, Van Gogh painted his Portrait of Dr. Gachet. He described the painting in detail to his brother and sister. A 2nd portrait of Dr. Gachet, held by the Musee d'Orsay is a variant of the first and is suspected to be unfinished by Van Gogh and completed by someone else.
    (WSJ, 2/16/99, p.A20)

1890        Jul 27, Artist Vincent van Gogh shot himself in Auvers-sur-Oise, France. He survived the impact, but not realizing that his injuries were to be fatal, he walked back to the Ravoux Inn. He died 2 days later.
    (Econ, 10/31/09, p.95)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Vincent_van_Gogh)

1890        Jul 29, Artist Vincent van Gogh died 2 days following a self-inflicted gunshot wound in Auvers-sur-Oise, France, while painting "Wheatfield with Crows." He spent his last 70 days in the care of Dr. Gachet and 78 paintings have been attributed to this period. Earlier in the year he painted his "Garden at Auvers." In 2009 his letters were published in a 6-volume edition titled: Vincent Van Gogh: The Letters." Earlier editions had appeared in 1914 and 1958. In 2011 Steven Naifeh and Gregory White Smith authored “Van Gogh: The Life."
    (WSJ, 2/8/96, p.A-12)(SFC, 5/26/96, Z1 p.2)(WSJ, 2/16/99, p.A20)(AP, 7/29/07)(Econ, 10/31/09, p.95)(Econ, 11/5/11, p.102)

1890        Aug 27, Man Ray (d.1976) was born as Emmanuel Radinski in Philadelphia, Pa. A painter and photographer, he and Marcel Duchamp founded the Dadaism movement.
    (Reuters, 8/28/01)

1890        Oct, Ludovic Napoleon Lepic (b.1839), French Impressionist painter, died. His work included “Boats on the Beach at Berck" (1876).
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ludovic-Napol%C3%A9on_Lepic)(SFC, 6/1/13, p.E2)

1890        French artist Cezanne began his still-life painting "Still Life with a Ginger jar and Eggplants." He also created his watercolor "Tree Study."
    (WSJ, 6/4/97, p.A16)(WSJ, 2/6/00, p.A16)
1890        Claude Monet painted his celebrated "Meules" (Haystacks) series. In 2019 one of four from this series fetched $110.7 million in a Sotheby’s auction, a record for the French Impressionist master.
    (AFP, 5/15/19)(SFC, 6/12/19, p.A6)
1890        French artist Claude Monet painted "Field of Poppies."
    (SFC, 7/11/01, p.D1)
1890        French artist Henri Rousseau (1844-1910) brought to the Salon of the Independents his full-length self-portrait entitled: Myself, Portrait-Landscape.
    (ON, 8/08, p.8)
1890        Paul Signac (1863-1935), French neo-impressionist pointillist painter, began his work "Portrait of Felix Feneon, Opus 217" (1890-1891).
    (WSJ, 11/6/01, p.A24)
1890        French foreign legionnaires massacred the amazonian army of Dahomey (Benin).
    (Econ, 12/18/04, p.62)

1890-1891    Paul Gauguin created his painting "Loss of Virginity."
    (WSJ, 4/12/04, p.D8)

1891        Jan 31, Jean-Louis-Ernest Meissonier (b.1815), French academic painter, died. His painting “Friedland, 1807," begun in 1863, was completed in 1875.

1891        Mar 29, Georges-Pierre Seurat (31), French painter (Pointillism), died.
    (MC, 3/29/02)

1891        Apr 1, Painter Gauguin left Marseille for Tahiti.
    (MC, 4/1/02)

1891        Apr 2, Max Ernst, German painter and sculptor, founder of surrealism, was born. [see Jan 24]
    (HN, 4/2/98)

1891        Jun 9, Painter Paul Gauguin arrived in Papeete, Tahiti.
    (MC, 6/9/02)

1891        Aug 22, Jacque Lipchitz (d.1973), sculptor, was born in Poland.
    (HN, 8/22/00)

1891        Madison Square Garden opened to the public. At the request of architect Stanford White, Augustus Saint-Gaudens (1848-1907) created a revolving finial to surmount the tower of White's Madison Square Garden. The 18-foot-high Diana was disproportionately large for White's tower and that the figure could not revolve in the wind, as intended, because it was too heavy.
1891        Painter Paul Gauguin painted his landscape “Haere Mai," which means “Come here!" in Tahitian.
    (SSFC, 10/23/11, p.M5)(http://tinyurl.com/3qex6r3)

1892        Feb 13, Grant Wood, painter (American Gothic), was born in Eldon, Iowa. Wood studied at the University of Iowa, taught there and made Iowa the focus of his paintings.  His is considered one of America's first 'regionalist' painters. His most famous work 'American Gothic', often spoofed, is a painting of the puritanical farmer and his wife or daughter.
    (HN, 2/13/01)(SSFC, 7/3/05, p.E3)

1892         French artist Paul Gauguin painted a picture of two Tahitian gilrs titled “Nafea Faa Ipoipo (When Will You Marry?). In 2015 it sold at auction to a Qatari buyer for close to $300 million.
    (SFC, 2/6/15, p.A2)

1892        E.F. Holt painted "A Farmyard Scene."
    (SFEM, 10/18/98, p.14)

1892        Thomas Moran painted his geological extravaganza "Grand Canyon of the Colorado."
    (WSJ, 9/19/02, p.D12)

1892        John Singer Sargent, artist, began his painting of "Lady Agnew of Locknaw." It was completed in 1893.
    (SFC, 3/31/97, p.E6)

1892        Alfred Sisley painted "View of the Village of Moret."
    (WSJ, 2/29/00, p.B16)

1892        In Fort Worth, Texas, 20 women founded the state’s 1st art museum with $50,000 from Andrew Carnegie.
    (WSJ, 12/17/02, p.D8)

1893        Mar 9, Edgar Scauflaire, Belgian muralist, decorator, was born.
    (MC, 3/9/02)

1893        Apr 20, Joan Miró, Spanish painter, was born.
    (HN, 4/20/01)

1893        Jul 26, George Grosz (d.1959), German satiric artist and illustrator, was born. He arrived in Berlin in 1911 and began drawing what he saw in a style of expressionism and the journalistic style of Heinrich Zille. A collection of his work was published in 1997 based on an exhibition catalog titled: "The Berlin of George Grosz: Drawings, Watercolors and Prints, 1912-1930."
    (SFEC, 7/13/97, BR p.10)(HN, 7/26/01)

1893        Oct 6, Ford Madox Brown (b.1821), English painter, died in London. In 2010 Angela Thirlwell authored “Into the Frame: The Four Loves of Ford Madox Brown."
    (Econ, 3/13/10, p.87)(http://tinyurl.com/yhpg5ut)

1893        Gustave Caillebotte (1848-1894), French Impressionist painter, completed “Regatta at Argenteuil," in oil on canvas.
    (SFC, 6/1/13, p.E1)
1893        Chaim Soutine (d.1943), artist, was born in Minsk. He studied art in Vilnius and moved to Paris. His work is seen in 3 distinct ways: as a crude primitive, as a master continuing in the French tradition, and as a prophet who helped form later painters.
    (WSJ, 5/14/98, p.A20)

1893        Edvard Munch (1863-1944), Norwegian artist, painted "The Scream." The red sky in the painting was later said to have resulted from his views of the red skies over Norway during the 1883 volcano explosion at Krakatoa. In 2012 an 1895 version sold for a record $119,922,500 at auction in New York City.
    (AP, 12/10/03)(AP, 5/3/12)

1894        Feb 21, Gustave Caillebotte (b.1848), French Impressionist painter, died and left nearly 70 of his friend’s painting to the French state. He was noted for his early interest in photography as an art form.
    (https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Gustave_Caillebotte)(Econ, 3/18/17, p.84)

1894        Ferdinand Hodler (1853-1918), Swiss painter, created a painting 10 meters high for the Exposition in Antwerp. It depicted the story of the 1865 descent of Edward Whymper (1840-1911) after he became the first man to climb the Matterhorn. Four of his party died. Hodler allowed the painting to be cut up and it’s now in a museum in Berne.
    (Econ, 2/18/12, ILp.26)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Edward_Whymper)
1894        Edouard Vuillard (1868-1940), French artist, painted his “Landscape of the Ile-de-France" about this time.
    (SFC, 3/29/14, p.E5)

1894-1895    Edvard Munch (1863-1944), Norwegian artist, painted "Madonna." In 2004 it was stolen from the Oslo Munch Museum.
    (WSJ, 8/24/04, p.D8)

1895        Mar 2, Berthe Morisot (b.1841) French impressionist painter, died of pneumonia.
    (NMWA, 12/04, p.10)

c1895        Elizabeth Jane Gardner, American artist, painted “The Shepherd David" and exhibited it at the Paris Salon of 1895. She was the 1st American woman to exhibit in the Paris Salon.
    (NMWA, 12/04, p.28)

1895        Paul Cezanne began his oil painting “Gustave Geffroy." It was completed in 1896.
    (SFC, 9/24/10, p.F5)

c1895         Degas painted "Jockeys."
    (SFEC, 6/21/98, BR p.8)

1895        Henri de Toulouse-Lautrec, French artist, painted “The Lady Clown Cha-U-Kao."
    (SFC, 9/24/10, p.F5)

1896        Apr 2, Theodore Robinson (b.1852), American Impressionist painter, died in NYC.
    (WSJ, 10/1/04, p.W2)(http://97.1911encyclopedia.org)

1896        Aug 13, John Everett Millais (67), English painter, died.
    (MC, 8/13/02)

1896        Oct 3, William Morris (b.1834), English artist and writer, died. “Have nothing in your house that you do not know to be useful of believe to be beautiful." In 1995 Fiona MacCarthy authored the biography: “William Morris."
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/William_Morris)(Econ, 1/4/14, p.50)(WSJ, 1/21/07, p.P9)

1897        Apr 3, The Vienna Secession was founded by artists Gustav Klimt (1862-1918), Koloman Moser, Josef Hoffmann, Joseph Maria Olbrich, Max Kurzweil, and others. Klimt was chosen as its 1st president. Although Otto Wagner is widely recognized as a fundamental member of the Vienna Secession he was not a founding member. The movement rebelled against the sentimental academic painting of the 19th century.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Vienna_Secession)(WSJ, 10/22/99, p.W14)(WSJ, 7/11/01, p.A15)

1897        Camille Pissarro (1830-1903) created his painting “Rue St.-Honore, Apres-Midi, Effet de Pluie." In 1939 the family of Lilly Cassirer gave it up in exchange for visas allowing them safe passage to England ahead of the Holocaust. It was later acquired by Spain’s Thyssen-Bornemisza Museum and was appraised at more than $30 million.
    (SFC, 12/5/16, p.A4)

1897-1898    Paul Gauguin created his painting "D'ou venons-nous? Que sommmes-nous? Ou allons-nous?" (Where do we come from? What Are We? Where are we going?)
    (WSJ, 4/12/04, p.D8)

1898        Jun 17, Sir Edward Burne-Jones (b.1833), British painter and member of the Pre-Raphaelite Brotherhood, died. In 2011 Fiona MacCarthy authored “The Last Pre-Raphaelite: Edward Burne-Jones and the Victorian Imagination."
    (Econ, 8/20/11, p.77)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Edward_Burne-Jones)

1898        Jul 22,    Alexander Calder (d.1976), American artist. He is considered the inventor of the mobile as a sculpture. In 1998 Marla Prather, Alexander Rower and Arnauld Pierre published the Calder retrospective: "Alexander Calder."
    (SFEM,11/30/97, p.10)(HN, 7/22/02)

1898        Aug 24, Ernest Narjot (b.1826), French-born painter, died in SF. He came to California with the Gold Rush in 1849 and became one of the state’s foremost artists. Much of his work was destroyed in the 1906 earthquake.
    (SFCM, 10/28/01, p.20)

1898        Sep 12, Ben Shahn (d.1969), American painter (1964 Arts & Letters), was born In Kaunas, Lithuania.
    (WSJ, 12/1/98, p.A20)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ben_Shahn)

1898        A painting titled "Golden Carriage," by Nicolaas van der Waay, was given to Queen Wilhelmina from the people of Amsterdam as a gift. The painting  was intended to recreate the style of the country's 17th-century "Golden Age," in which Amsterdam became wealthy as the hub of a naval empire. The work depicts half-naked, brown-skinned women and men in servile poses bearing gifts to an enthroned white woman.
    (AP, 9/16/11)

1899        May 25, Marie-Rosalie "Rosa" Bonheur (68), French painter, died.
    (SC, 5/25/02)

1899        Paul Cezanne (1839-1906) painted “Man with Crossed Arms."
    (SSFC, 10/23/11, p.M5)

1900        May 18, Sarah Miriam Peale, US portrait painter (General Lafayette-1825), was born.
    (SC, 5/18/02)

1900        Pierre Bonnard (1867-1947), French artist, painted "Siesta."
    (WSJ, 6/24/98, p.A16)(www.abcgallery.com/B/bonnard/bonnardbio.html)

1900        Edouard Vuillard, French artist, painted a portrait of painter “Felix Valloton."
    (SFC, 9/24/10, p.F5)

1901        Feb 17, Carles Casagemas (b.1881), Spanish painter and close friend of Picasso, shot himself in front of Germaine Pichot.
    (Econ, 2/16/13, p.84)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Carlos_Casagemas)

1901        Jun 24, The 1st exhibition by Pablo Picasso (19) opened in Paris.
    (MC, 6/24/02)

1901        Jul 4, Julian Scott (b.1846), American artist, died alone and penniless. He had achieved fame for his paintings of Civil War events. His work included “The Death of General Kearny" (1884) and “The Death of General Sedgwick" (1887). In 1997 Robert J. Titterton authored “Julian Scott: Artist of the Civil War and Native America."
    (AH, 2/03, p.40)(http://catalogue.nla.gov.au/Record/2943183)

1901        Jul 31, Jean Dubuffet, French sculptor and painter, was born.
    (HN, 7/31/01)

1901        Sep 9, Henri de Toulouse-Lautrec, French painter, died at 36.
    (MC, 9/9/01)

1901        Oct 10, Alberto Giacometti (d.1966), sculptor and painter, was born in Borgonovo, Switzerland. He was later quoted saying "there is less reality in the work of contemporary sculptors than in tin soldiers in toy shop windows." His biography was written by David Sylvester and titled: "Looking At Giacometti." Another biography by James Lord was titled: "Giacometti: A Biography."
    (SFC, 5/12/96, p.BR-4)(WSJ, 9/30/96, p.A14)(HN, 10/10/01)(WSJ, 12/19/01, p.A16)

1902        May 12, Heinrich Kirchner, German sculptor, was born.
    (MC, 5/12/02)

1902        Aug 8, Jean Y.Y. Tissot, French painter, illustrator, died.
    (MC, 8/8/02)

1902        Paul Gauguin created his painting "Primitive Tales."
    (WSJ, 4/12/04, p.D8)

1903        Mar 20, Henri Matisse exhibited at the Salon des Independants.
    (HN, 3/20/98)

1903        May 8, Paul Gauguin (b.1848), French born painter, died at his home on the Marquesas Islands. He was buried at Atuona on Hiva Oa Island. Gauguin had infected three child brides and a string of adolescents with syphilis.
    (SFEC, 8/25/96, p.T6)(SSFC, 6/2/02, p.C9)

1903        Jul 17, James Abbott McNeil Whistler (b.1834), expatriate painter famous for painting his mother (1872), died.
    (www.artrenewal.org/asp/database/art.asp?aid=652)(ON, 4/03, p.9)

1903        Sep 25, Mark Rothko (d.1970), [Marcus Rothkovich] US émigré painter (Green on Blue), was born in Dvinsk, Russia, later Daugavpils, Latvia. His family moved to Portland, Ore. in 1913. His work included "Subway" (1936/1939), "Street Scene" (1936/1938), "Untitled" (1942), "Untitled" (1942/1943), "Phalanx of the Mind" (1945), "The Source" (1946), "Sacrificial Moment" (1946), "Number 18" (1948), and "Untitled" (1945-1946).
    (V.D.-H.K.p.362)(SFC,1/21/97, p.B1,2)(AP, 11/11/03)

1904        Jul 1, George Frederic Watts (b.1817), British painter and sculptor associated with the Symbolist movement, died. His work included the bronze equestrian statue called "Physical Energy" (1902) erected in Hyde Park.
    (https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/George_Frederic_Watts)(Econ., 5/30/20, p.70)

1904        Apr 15, Arshile Gorky (d.1948), artist, was born as Vostanig Adoian of Armenian parents in Eastern Turkey. (The actual year was between 1902 and 1905). He came to the US in 1920 and assumed a new name in admiration of Russian writer Maxim Gorky.
    (WSJ, 5/12/99, p.A20)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Arshile_Gorky)

1904        Apr 24, Willem de Kooning (d.1997), abstract impressionist artist, was born in Rotterdam.
    (SFC, 3/20/97, p.A1,6,E1)(HN, 4/24/01)

1904        May 11, Salvador Dali (d.1989), surrealist painter, was born in Figueres, Spain.
    (HN, 5/11/98)(WSJ, 1/25/99, p.A16)(SFEC, 7/16/00, p.T4)

1905        Jan 18, Edward Henry Corbould (b.1815), English artist, died.
    (WSJ, 11/22/08, p.W11)(www.corbould.com/artists/ehc/ehc.html)

1905        Picasso painted his "Boy in a Collar." In 1995 it sold for $12.1 mil. He also painted his "Sitting Harlequin." He also painted "Boy with a Pipe" in this Rose Period. The etching "la Toilette de la Mere" was made. In 2004 Sotheby started auction bidding at $70 million for "Boy with a Pipe."
    (WSJ, 11/21/95, p.A-12)(SFC, 3/29/97, p.E1)(SFC, 7/29/99, p.E6)

1905        The expressionist art group "Die Bruecke" (the Bridge) was formed by German painters that included Erich Heckel and Ernst Ludwig Kirchner.
    (SSFC, 4/21/02, p.A17)

1906        Mar, Matisse first exhibited his 6x8 foot untraditional, pastoral canvas “Le Bonheur de vivre" at the Salon des Independants in Paris. It was purchased from the salon by Leo and Gertrude Stein.
    (WSJ, 12/2/06, p.P12)

1906        Oct 22, Paul Cezanne (b.1839), French post-impressionist painter, died in Aix-en-Provence. In 2012 Alex Danchev authored “Cezanne: A Life."
    (AP, 10/22/06)(SSFC, 11/4/12, p.F1)

1906        Andre Derain (1880-1954), French artist, created his painting “Bridge Over the Riou."
    (SFC, 9/15/12, p.E1)
1906        Pablo Picasso painted the corpulent "Portrait of Gertrude Stein" and the landscape "Gosol." In 1996 the landscape sold for $3.4 million. In 1947 it was acquired by the New York Met. He also did "Head of a Peasant (Joseph Fontdevila)," "Woman Combing Her Hair," and "Self-Portrait With Palette." His colossal female nude predecessors to the 1907 "Demoiselles d’Avignon" were also done. In this year Picasso hooked up with Georges Braque to launch Cubism.
    (SFC, 6/4/96, p.E5)(SFC, 11/15/96, p.C5)(SFC, 3/29/97, p.E1)(WSJ, 4/9/97, p.A12)(WSJ, 4/9/97, p.A12)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Gertrude_Stein)
1906        W.D. McKay authored “The Scottish School of Painting."
    (McKay, 1906, 369pp)
1906        Boris Schatz (d.1932) founded a visionary art school in Jerusalem and became known for his trademark white robe and pet peacock. Born in Lithuania and trained in Paris he was a Jewish artist and occasional boxer who discovered Zionism and abandoned the European art scene for Jerusalem, then a Mideastern backwater.
    (AP, 5/23/10)

1907        Ricardo Anckermann (b.1842), ethnic German artist who painted in Mallorca, Spain, died.
    (WSJ, 12/27/07, p.D7)

1907        Marc Chagall painted his "Self Portrait with Seven Fingers."
    (WSJ, 5/11/95, p. A-14)

1907        Arthur Wesley Dow painted "Rain in May."
    (SFC, 9/11/99, p.C12)

1907        Gustav Klimt (1862-1918) painted the portrait "Adele Bloch-Bauer I." The painting was stolen in 1938 when the Nazis took Austria. Her niece, Maria Altman (1917-1994), fought for the recovery of family paintings and won their return. In 2006 the portrait sold for a record $135 million to cosmetics magnate Ronald S. Lauder. Adele Bloch-Bauer (d.1925) was the wife of  a Jewish sugar industrialist in Vienna. In 2012 Anne-Marie O’Connor authored “The Lady in Gold: The Extraordinary Tale of Gustav Klimt’s Masterpiece, Portrait of Adele Bloch-Bauer."
    (SFC, 6/19/06, p.E2)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Gustav_Klimt)(Econ, 2/19/11, p.96)(SSFC, 3/18/12, p.F5)

1907        Matisse painted his "Red Madras Headdress" which featured his wife as the model. The painting later became part of the Albert C. Barnes collection. [see 1925, Barnes] Matisse also painted "Blue Nude" in this year.
    (WSJ, 11/28/95, p.A-12)(WSJ, 7/9/01, p.A26)

1907        Adolph Hitler (18) applied to study art in Vienna but was rejected. A pair of his watercolor paintings were reported in 1999 to be in Dubai, UAR, under the ownership of the Bonyad Mostazafan foundation.
    (SFC, 7/6/99, p.C3)

1908        Feb 29, The artist known as Balthus was born in Paris.
    (AP, 2/29/08)

1908        Victor Vasarely, the father of op art, was born in Pecs, Hungary.
    (Hem., 6/98, p.128)

1908        Gutzon Borglum, American sculptor, unveiled a marble bust of Pres. Lincoln and an equestrian statue of Civil War Gen. Philip Sheridan.
    (ON, 2/11, p.10)

1908        Braque and Picasso began vying with one another in their artwork and ended up by teaching everyone to see the world in an entirely new way. Picasso created his oil painting "Three Women" this year.
    (V.D.-H.K.p.361)(SFC, 10/30/01, p.B1)

1908        Kees Van Dongen painted his seated nude "The Maid’s Bed."
    (WSJ, 2/8/96, p.A-12)

1908        Natalia Goncharova, Russian artist, painted "Bleaching Linen."
    (WSJ, 5/2/03, p.W6)

1908        Claude Monet made his last trip abroad to Venice with his wife Alice and made a number of paintings.
    (WSJ, 8/26/97, p.A14)

1908        Rene Lalique was making glass perfume bottles for Francois Coty.
    (SFC, 3/26/97, z1 p.7)

1909        Feb 20, F.T. Marinetti (1876-1944), Italian poet, published the 1st Futurist Manifesto in the Paris newspaper Le Figaro. It included statements such as “We want to glorify war - the only cure for the world…" and We intend to sing the love of danger, the habit of energy and fearlessness."
    (www.unknown.nu/futurism/)(SFEC, 1/3/99, DB p.27)(WSJ, 10/23/08, p.A15)(Econ, 2/22/14, p.71)

1909        May 21, Sister Maria Innocentia Hummel, artist, was born.
    (HN, 5/21/01)

1909        Oct 28, Francis Bacon (d.1992), English artist who painted expressionist portraits, was born in Dublin to English parents. He had no formal training as an artist. After earning a modest reputation in the 1920s as a modernist interior designer, he began oil painting in 1929. He first established himself as a major in 1944, when his now-famous triptych Three Studies for Figures at the Base of a Crucifixion was exhibited at London’s Tate Gallery.
    (https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Francis_Bacon_(artist))(SFEC, 5/30/99, DB p.29)

1909        Dec, Frederic Remington (b.1861), American Western painter and sculptor, died. His work included "The Fight for the Water Hole," "The Call for Help" (1908), and "Shotgun Hospitality" (1908).
    (AAP, 1964)(WUD, 1994, p.1213)(HN, 10/4/00)

1909        Matisse made his bronze "Head of Fernande."
    (WSJ, 1/9/97, p.A8)

1909        George Bellows (1882-1925) painted "Stag at Sharkeys," depicting a pair of boxers. He also did "Pennsylvania Station Excavation."
    (WSJ, 8/21/02, p.D8)(WSJ, 9/24/02, p.D8)

1909        Marc Chagall painted "The Red Nude," an early work with touches of Fauvism.
    (WSJ, 5/11/95, p. A-14)

1909        Adolf Hitler painted a series of views around Linz, Austria, including the watercolor "Mountain Chapel."
    (WSJ, 7/24/02, p.D12)

1909        Henri Matisse painted “Dance," commissioned for the stairwell of a Moscow mansion.
    (WSJ, 12/7/04, p.D11)

1909        Italian futurists distributed their first manifesto. F.T. Marinetti (1876-1944) published the 1st Futurist Manifesto.
    (SFEC, 1/3/99, DB p.27)(SFC, 12/27/99, p.E1)

1909        The Musicalist movement in art began with the work of Russian artist Wassily Kandinsky.
    (Exc, 6/96, p.118)

1909        Picasso sculpted the head "Fernande," the first cubist sculpture. His paintings this year included "Femme Nue," which featured his lover Fernande Olivier and “Houses on the Hill" (Horta de Ebro).
    (SFEM, 11/24/96, p.42)(WSJ, 2/12/99, p.W9)(WSJ, 5/13/04, p.D10)

1909        John Sloan, American painter, painted Chinese Restaurant.
    (WSJ, 6/6/95, p.A-14)

1910        May 23, Franz Kline (d.1962), American painter of abstract expressionist style, was born in Wilkes-Barre, Pa.

1910        Sep 2, Henri "le Douanier" Rousseau (b.1844), French customs officer and painter, died in Paris. He had recently completed his masterpiece “The Dream."
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Henri_Rousseau)(WSJ, 9/13/06, p.D10)

1910        Nell Sinton, American artist, was born. Her work included the abstract oil "Greenhouse" (1961).
    (SFC, 6/27/97, p.C3)

1910        George Bellows painted his sporting scene "Polo Crowd." In 1999 it sold for $27.5 million.
    (SFC, 12/3/99, p.W16)

1910        Marc Chagall in his pre-Paris period painted "The Workshop and Death."
    (WSJ, 5/11/95, p. A-14)

1910        Winslow Homer (b.1836), American painter, died. His work "Breezing Up (A Fair Wind)" was done between 1873-1876. His sea painting from the rocky coast of New England captured the power of the sea on the people who confronted it and depended on it. In 2002 Patricia Junker and Sarah Burns authored "Winslow Homer: Artist and Angler."
    (WSJ, 4/2/96, p.A-12)(HN, 2/24/99)(WSJ, 7/21/00, p.W2)(WSJ, 1/10/03, p.W7)

1910        Alexei von Jawlensky, Russian painter, created the portrait "Schokko." In 2003 it was auctioned for $8.2 million.
    (SFC, 11/12/03, p.D4)

1910        Vasily Kandinsky painted his first three compositions at the age of 44, however they were destroyed in WW II.
    (WSJ, 2/8/95, p.A-12)

1911        Aug 21, Leonardo da Vinci’s “Mona Lisa" was stolen from the Louvre Museum. It had hung there for more than 100 years. Vincenzo Perugia, a former Louvre employee, stole the painting. It turned up in Italy two years later. In 2009 R.A. Scotti authored “Vanished Smile: The Mysterious Theft of Mona Lisa."
    (AP, 8/21/06)(SSFC, 5/10/09, Books p.H5)

1911        Vasily Kandinsky (45) and Franz Marc (31) formed Der Blaue Reiter (The Blue Rider), a Munich artist group that included Paul Klee, Alexei Jawlensky, August Macke and Gabriele Munter.
    (Econ, 5/25/13, p.87)
1911        Mikhail Larionov and Natalia Goncharova developed rayonism (rayonnism), a style of abstract art, after hearing a series of lectures about Futurism by Marinetti in Moscow. The Rayonists sought an art that floated beyond abstraction, outside of time and space, and to break the barriers between the artist and the public.
1911        Edmonia Lewis (b.1843), American sculptor, died. Her work included “The Death of Cleopatra."
    (SSFC, 2/27/05, p.B1)

1912        Jan 28, Jackson Pollock (d.1956), "Jack the Dripper", expressionist painter (Lavender Mist), was born in Cody, Wyoming. Leader of the abstract expressionist school of art. He filled two sketchbooks between 1937-1939 and another from 1938-1941.
    (AHD, 1971, p.1015)(WSJ, 11/5/97, p.A20)

1912        Aug 13, Jan Peeters, Dutch water colors painter, monumental artist, was born.
    (MC, 8/13/02)

1912        Gustav Klimt (1862-1918) painted "Adele Bloch-Bauer II." An earlier portrait Adele Bloch-Bauer was made in 1907. In 2012 Anne-Marie O’Connor authored “The Lady in Gold: The Extraordinary Tale of Gustav Klimt’s Masterpiece, Portrait of Adele Bloch-Bauer."
    (SSFC, 3/18/12, p.F5)
1912        Valentine de Saint-Point (1875-1953), French artist, authored “Manifesto of Futurist Woman."

1913        Kazimir Malevich (1878-1935), Ukraine born artist, designed the costumes for the opera “Victory Over the Sun."
    (Econ, 10/26/13, p.96)(Econ, 12/21/13, SR p.5)
1913        Phillip Malyavin, Russian artist, painted the portrait "Dancing woman."
    (WSJ, 5/2/03, p.W6)

1914        Feb 25, John Tenniel (b.1820), English illustrator, died. He is best remembered for his illustrations in Lewis Carroll's “Alice's Adventures in Wonderland" and “Through the Looking-Glass."

1914        Marc Chagall returned to Vitebsk and a year later married his muse, Bella Rosenfeld. He founded a fine arts academy in his birthplace and later moved to Moscow where he painted decorative murals for the Yiddish theater. He later moved to Berlin.
    (WSJ, 5/11/95, p. A-14)

1914        The sculpture "Large Horse" was made by Duchamp-Villon.
    (WSJ, 1/9/97, p.A8)

1914        Henri Gaudier-Brzeska (1891-1915) made the sculpture "Hieratic Head of Ezra Pound."
    (WSJ, 1/9/97, p.A8)

1914        Raymond Duchamp-Villon made his sculpture: "Large Horse," an abstract vision of horsepower.
    (SFC, 10/26/96, p.B6)

1914        Andre Favory painted his cubist "Woman with a Fan."
    (WSJ, 2/8/96, p.A-12)

1914        Ernst Ludwig Kirchner (1880-1938), German Expressionist painter, created his “Potsdamer Platz."
    (WSJ, 5/25/04, p.d8)

1914        Gustav Klimt, Austrian modernist, painted "The Villa at Attersee." In 2003 Sotheby's auctioned it for $29.1 million.
    (SFC, 11/12/03, p.D4)

1914        Ludwig Meidner (1884-1966), German expressionist artist, published his sequence of drawings titled “Krieg," a grotesque taste of the ghastliness of war to come.
    (Econ, 1/5/08, p.80)

1914        Jean Metzinger created his cubist tabletop Still Life in muted shades of brown, blue and yellow.
    (WSJ, 2/8/96, p.A-12)   

1914        Stanley Spencer painted "The Centurion’s Servant."
    (SFC, 6/5/98, p.C1)

1914        Egon Schiele (b.1990), Viennese artist, made his "Reclining Woman With Raised Chemise."
    (WSJ, 11/19/97, p.A20)

1915        Feb 20, In San Francisco a 49-foot-long mural by William de Leftwich Dodge, title Atlantic and Pacific," graced the 43-story Tower of Jewels for the Panama-Pacific Expo. After the expo it was put into storage until 2015 when the de Young Museum unrolled it for public viewing.
    (SSFC, 7/26/15, p.C1)

1915        Jun 5, Henri Gaudier-Brzeska (23), French sculptor, died on the Western Front. In 1931 H.S. Ede authored “Savage Messiah: Gaudier Brzeska. In 2004 Paul O’Keeffe authored “Gaudier-Brzeska: An Absolute Case of Genius."
    (www.britannica.com/eb/article-9036204/Henri-Gaudier-Brzeska)(Econ, 3/6/04, p.76)

1915        Gutzon Borglum (1867-1941) signed on about this time with the United Daughter of the Confederacy to carve a memorial at Stone Mountain in Georgia and soon rose to the high ranks of the newly resurgent KKK. The project started in 1918 but was postponed by WWI and resumed in 1922. He was fired from the project in 1925. His carving was later removed and replaced by sculptor Augustus Lukeman. In 1927 Borglum began the Mount Rushmore presidential memorial.
    (SSFC, 9/9/07, p.C4)(ON, 2/11, p.10)

1915        Kasimir Malevich (1878-1935), a Russian pioneer of abstract art, painted "Suprematist Cross in Black Square." It featured a dark black square against a white background and was "emblematic of the avant-garde belief that abstraction penetrated to the essence of things, on which basis the world could be reinvented."
    (SFC, 5/28/98, p.E5)(WSJ, 10/5/05, p.D14)(Econ, 10/26/13, p.96)

1915        William Wendt (1865-1946), called the "Dean of Southern California landscape painters, painted his impressionist work "Summer Sea."
    (SFC, 3/18/99, p.C1)(https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/William_Wendt)

1915-1991    Robert Motherwell, painter of the New York School. In 1997 Daiv Rosand edited: "Robert Motherwell on Paper: Drawings, Prints, Collages."
    (SFEC, 3/16/97, BR p.8)

1916        Feb 13, Vilhelm Hammershoi (b.1864), Danish painter, died. He is most celebrated for his interiors, many of which he painted at his residence in Copenhagen.
    (Econ, 7/5/08, p.94)

1916        May 20, The Saturday Evening Post cover featured a Norman Rockwell painting.
    (MC, 5/20/02)

1916        Jul 6, Odilon Redon (b.1840), French symbolist painter, died.
    (SFC, 7/13/13, p.E3)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Odilon_Redon)

1916        Aug 17, Umberto Boccioni (b.1882), Italian painter and sculptor, died. He was thrown from his horse and trampled during a cavalry training exercise. He helped shape the revolutionary aesthetic of the Futurism movement as one of its principal figures.
    (Econ, 2/22/14, p.71)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Umberto_Boccioni)

1916        Marcel Duchamp displayed a plastic typewriter cover as finished work of art, a dadaist still-life with the logo "Underwood."
    (WSJ, 6/4/97, p.A16)

1916        A glass mural, "Dream Garden," was made by Maxfield Parrish and Louis Tiffany. the 15 x 49 foot work was commissioned by Cyrus Curtis and sold for over $5 million in 1998.
    (SFC, 7/24/98, p.C11)

1916        Albert Gleizes painted his ethereal Florent Schmidt at the Piano.
    (WSJ, 2/8/96, p.A-12)   

1916        Egon Schiele, Viennese artist, made his "Reclining Woman Exposing Herself."
    (WSJ, 11/19/97, p.A20)
1916        Egon Schiele painted a view of Krumau, Bohemia. In 2003 it sold for £12.6 million.
    (Econ, 8/23/03, p.55)

1916        Henry Tonks (1862-1937), English surgeon and artist, painted “The Birth of Plastic Surgery." It depicted the operating theater of Harold Gillies, the pioneer of facial reconstructive surgery.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Henry_Tonks)(Econ, 11/1/14, p.80)
1916        Henry Tonks, artist, did Studies of Facial Wounds. It was inspired by the shrapnel horrors of WW I.
    (WSJ, 6/15/95, p.A-14)

1917        Jan 18, Philip Boileau (b.1863), Canada-born artist, died in the US. He was known for his portraits of beautiful women, the “Boileau Girls."
    (SFC, 3/12/08, p.G3)(www.thephilipboileausociety.com/)

1917        Jul 12, Andrew Wyeth, painter who focused on the northeastern United States, was born in Chadds Ford, Pa. In 1998 Beth Venn and Adam Weinberg published "Unknown Terrain," a companion piece to a Whitney Museum exhibition of his art.
    (HN, 7/12/98)(MC, 7/12/02)(www.wyethcenter.com)

1917        Sep 27, Hilaire Germain Edgar Degas (b1834), French impressionist painter died in Paris. His fascination with horses was covered in the 1998 book "Degas at the Races" by Jean Sutherland.
    (WSJ, 10/2/96, p.B5)(SFEC, 6/21/98, BR p.8)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Edgar_Degas)

1917         Nov 17, The French Sculptor Rodin (77) froze to death in an unheated attic in Meudon, France. He had applied to the government for quarters as warm as those wherein his statues were stored, but the government turned him down. His studio was called La Villa des Brillants. He worked with sculptor A.-E. Carrier-Belleuse and for years spent a considerable amount of time on decorative work for public monuments. His work included several versions of a "Monument to Victor Hugo," "The Kiss," "The Burghers of Calais" and "The Thinker." His famous "Balzac" wasn’t cast in bronze until 1939. The film "Camille Claudel" told the story of Rodin’s mistress, a brilliant sculptress who went mad after their love affair.
    (SFC, 12/4/94, p. S-8)(SFEC, 8/25/96, p.T10)(AP, 11/17/97)

1917        In France Marcel Duchamp christened his supine “readymade" urinal as a work of art, "Fountain," and signed it with the fictitious name R. Mutt. The original was lost but he authorized an edition of 8 replicas in 1964.
    (SFC, 6/5/98, p.A17)(WSJ, 2/18/05, p.A10)

1917        Emil Nolde, German expressionist, created his painting "Blumengarten (Utenwarf)." In 2009 it was sold to a European art collector for an undisclosed amount to the heirs of Otto Nathan Deutsch, a Jewish businessman who lost it when he fled Germany to escape Nazi persecution in 1939. The was estimated to be worth between $4-6 million. A Swedish museum had bought the artwork from a Swiss gallery in 1967, unaware of its history.
    (AP, 9/9/09)

1917        Auguste Moreau (b.1834), French sculptor, died. He and 4 other members of his family designed light fixtures based on sculptured figures.
    (SFC, 1/16/08, p.G4)(www.aspireauctions.com/auction30/details/4195.html)

1918        Feb 6, Gustav Klimt (b.1862), Austrian Symbolist artist, died. He helped found the Vienna Secessionist art movement (1897) and was chosen as its 1st president.
    (WSJ, 7/11/01, p.A15)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Gustav_Klimt)

1918        Jul 22, Florine Stettheimer painted "Heat," wherein she captured the relations between mothers and daughters with deft satire. The date is on the birthday cake in the painting.
    (WSJ, 7/18/95, p.A-12)

1918        Oct 11, Archibald M. Willard (b.1836), American artist, died in Ohio. His paintings included “Spirit of ’76" (1876).

c1919        Jose Clemente Orozco, David Alfaro Siqueiros (d.1974) and Diego Rivera, Mexican painters in Paris, decided that the revolution must be expressed in a public art that all could understand.
    (SFEC, 11/8/98, p.T5)

1920        Jan 24, Amedeo Modigliani (b.1884), Italian sculptor, painter, died in Paris. His mistress Jeanne Hebuterne, pregnant with his child, committed suicide 2 days later rather than live without him. In 2006 Jeffrey Meyers authored “Modigliani: A Life." In 2011 Meryle Secrest authored “Modigliani: A Life."
    (http://tinyurl.com/4l4ocml)(WSJ, 10/16/98, p.W14)(WSJ, 3/21/06, p.D8)(SSFC, 3/13/11, p.G5)

1920        Jan 26, Jeanne Hebuterne (b.1898), the mistress of Amadeo Modigliani, killed herself 2 days following Modigliani’s death while carrying his child.

1920        Aug 22, Swedish artist Anders Zorn (b.1860) died. His work included “the Thorn Bush" (1886).
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Anders_Zorn)(SFC, 11/9/13, p.E1)

1920-1950    In 2003 Bram Dijkstra authored "American Expressionism: Art and Social Change 1920-1950."
    (SSFC, 8/10/03, p.M1)

1921        Jun, Pablo Picasso completed his painting “Nature Morte." In 2020 it was raffled off for charity from the collection of David Nahmad, who owned some 300 works by Picasso.
    (AP, 3/10/20)

1921        Jul, Juan Miro (1893-1983), Spanish artist, began working on his painting titled “The Farm." He completed it 9 months later. Ernest Hemingway, one of his sparring partners in Paris, purchased the painting in 1925. In 1987 the Hemingway family donated the painting to the National Gallery of Art.
    (WSJ, 12/13/08, p.W8)

1922        The second largest equestrian statue in the world, located in Washington, D.C., is of General and later President Ulysses S. Grant. The statue of Grant, sculpted by Henry Merwin Shrady and dedicated in 1922, stands at head of the reflecting pool in front of the U.S. Capitol Building. The only equestrian statue larger is of Victor Emmanuel in Italy.
    (HNQ, 11/21/98)

1922        Pierre Bonnard painted "Woman With Dog."
    (WSJ, 11/17/99, p.A20)

1922        Marc Chagall (1887-1985), Belarus-born Russian artist, authored a memoir.
    (SFC, 11/19/08, p.E8)

1922        The Constructivist group of artists in Russia issued a manifesto calling for the defeat of art, which they regarded as the enemy of technology. Alexander Rodchenko (1891-1956), a painter turned photographer, was founding member of the group.
    (Econ, 2/9/08, p.91)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Alexandr_Rodchenko)

1922        Paul Klee painted his watercolor "Little Regata." It was stolen from the Phillips Collection in Washington DC in 1963 and returned in 1997.
    (WSJ, 6/24/97, p.A20)

1922         Fernand Leger painted his "Mother and Child."
    (WSJ, 2/8/96, p.A-12)   

1922        Maxfield Parrish painted his oil "Daybreak." It was auctioned off at Sotheby’s in 1996 for $4,292,500.
    (SFC, 6/12/96, p.C1)

1922        Picasso painted "Mother and Child." [also dated 1921] Picasso originally used his wife's body and the face of another woman and included himself. He later cut himself out after his marriage deteriorated and began painting his wife with a long ugly neck and angry teeth.
    (WSJ, 4/27/95, p.C-1)(WSJ, 4/9/99, p.W16)

1922        Reginald Arthur Borstel (b.1875), Australian artist, died. He was known for his ship portraits.
    (SSFC, 3/27/05, p.B5)

1923        May 29, Adolf Oberländer German painter, died.
    (SC, 5/29/02)

1923        Aug 10, Joaquin Sorolla y Bastida (b.1863), Spanish impressionist painter, died in Cercedilla. His work included “A View of Malaga."
    (WSJ, 10/29/04, p.A15)(www.britannica.com)

1923        Aug 17, Larry Rivers (d.2002), painter and sculptor, was born in Bronx, NY, as Yitzroch Grossberg.
    (HN, 8/17/00)(SC, 8/12/02)(NW, 8/26/02, p.9)

1923        Francois Flameng (b.1856), French painter, died. He painted imagined scenes from the domestic life of Napoleon Bonaparte.
    (MT, Fall/03, p.13)

1924        Isaac Brodsky, Soviet Realist, completed the monumental depiction: "The Second Congress of the Comintern," which took place in the Uritsky Palace.
    (Econ, 10/11/03, p.85)

1925        Apr 15, John Singer Sargent (b.1856), US portrait painter, died in London.
    (WSJ, 8/5/99, p.A16)( www.artfact.com/features/viewArtist.cfm?aID=3117)

1925        Jul 26, Tyeb Mehta, painter and film maker, was born in Gujarat, India. In 2005 one of his paintings fetched $1.58 million.
    (Econ, 9/16/06, p.75)(www.iloveindia.com/indian-heroes/tyeb-mehta.html)

1925        Dr. Albert C. Barnes (1872-1951) built a mansion to house his collection of French impressionist and post-impressionist masterpieces in Merion, Pennsylvania. The collection grew to some 2,500 objects and their setup and access was highly restricted by Dr. Barnes’ trust indenture. Barnes had made his fortune with a pediatric antibiotic called Argyrol. By 2000 his foundation was broke. In 2003 John Anderson authored ""Art Held Hostage," an account of the Barnes collection.
    (WSJ, 11/28/95, p.A-12)(WSJ, 7/18/03, p.W18)

1925        Chiura Obata (1885-1975), Japanese American artist, created his scroll painting “Setting Sun: Sacramento Valley." He was a faculty member in the Art Department at the University of California at Berkeley from 1932 to 1953, interrupted by World War II, when he spent over a year in internment camps.
    (SFC, 11/12/08, p.E1)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Chiura_Obata)

1926        Aug 25, Thomas Moran (b.1837), English-born American painter, died. His paintings of Yellowstone helped persuade Congress to designate it a national park. Moran painted "The Valley of the Cuernavaca." The painting was stolen around 1975 from the National Museum of American Art in Washington DC. It was recovered in 1995 at an auction house not far from the museum. Moran was best known for works on the Grand Canyon and Yellowstone National Park. Steven Good in Denver compiled a catalogue raisonne on Moran and verified the above work.
    (WSJ, 5/11/95, p. A-14)(SFC,10/15/97, p.D3)

1926        Oct 24, Charlie Russell (b.1864), Western artist, died in Great Falls, Montana. He produced some 4,000 works of art including a 12-by-25 foot “Lewis and Clark Meeting Indians at Ross’ Hole," which was hung in Montana’s Capitol.
    (Arch, 7/02, p.6)(www.globalgallery.com)(WSJ, 3/16/06, p.A1)

1926        Dec 5, Claude [Oscar] Monet (b.1840), French painter (impressionist), died at Giverny, where he’d painted since 1883. Monet was one of the original proponents of Impressionism and--despite failing eyesight--painted fervently until his death. He was born in Paris, but grew up observing nature on the Normandy coast near Le Havre. While studying under Charles Gleyre, Monet met fellow students Fridiric Bazille, Pierre-Auguste Renoir and Alfred Sisley. They broke with their teacher and his conventions of painting that included, among other traditions, the painting of outdoor landscapes in a studio. Although he began to experiment with "series" in the late 1870s, his trademark method only appeared in earnest in the 1890s. This involved a series of paintings of the same subject under different lighting and weather conditions. Monet remained committed to Impressionism long after many of his contemporaries had abandoned the style. In 2006 over 1000 letters to Monet were auctioned.
    (SSFC, 5/20/01, p.T8)(HNQ, 5/25/01)(SFC, 12/9/06, p.E2)

1926        English artist and book illustrator E.H. Shepard (1879-1976) sketched a map of the Hundred Acre Wood, home to Winnie-the Pooh. His illustrations helped cement the popularity of A.A. Milne's "bear of very little brain" and his woodland friends. In 1970 the map sold at auction for 1,700 pounds.
    (https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/E._H._Shepard)(AP, 5/31/18)
1926        Newell Convers Wyeth created his painting “The Duel on the Beach." In 2012 it sold at auction for $1.1 million.
    (SSFC, 12/9/12, p.A1)

1927        Aug 10, Pres. Calvin Coolidge took part in the formal dedication of Mount Rushmore. Gutzon Borglum began work and the Mount Rushmore project was completed in 1941. When South Dakota officials invited Gutzon Borglum (1867-1941) to design a sculpture on the face of the Black Hills, he declared, "American history shall march along that skyline." Bor-glum’s son Lincoln (d.1986) led the completion of the project created by some 400 workers.
    (www.englisch-hilfen.de/en/texte/mount_rushmore.htm)(SSFC, 9/9/07, p.C4)(ON, 2/11, p.10)

1928        Feb 9, Frank Frazetta, American fantasy and science fiction artist, was born in Brooklyn. He became noted for work in comic books, paperback book covers, paintings, posters, record-album covers, and other media. In 2003, a feature film documenting the life and career of Frazetta was released, entitled: “Frank Frazetta: Painting With Fire."

1928        Nov 26, US Justice Byron S. Waite ruled in Brancusi v. United States that Brancusi’s abstract sculpture, “Bird in Space," qualified as part of a new school of art and that Edward Steichen should receive a refund for a tariff he had paid when customs officials classified it under the heading “Table, household, kitchen utensils and hospital supplies." Brancusi (1876-1957) ended up producing 16 different versions of Bird in Space, one of which was donated the New York’s Museum of Modern Art in 1934. In 2005 an early marble version of Bird in Space sold for $27,456,000 in a Christie’s auction to an anonymous bidder.
    (ON, 8/09, p.6)

1929        Marc Chagall (1887-1985) painted "The Rooster."
    (SFC, 7/26/03, p.D1)
1929        Picasso painted "Large Nude in a Red Armchair."
    (Econ, 11/17/07, p.99)
1929        British artist and surgeon Henry Tonks (1862-1937) authored a memoir describing artists who had studied under him at the Slade School of Art.
    (Econ, 6/22/13, p.86)
1929        The Academy of Advertising Art was founded in San Francisco by Richard S. Stephens. It grew to become the largest private art and design college in the US. By 2007 close to 10,000 students were enrolled. Stephens, art director for Sunset Magazine, founded the academy with his wife Clara and $2000. In 2004 it changed its name to the Academy of Art University.
    (SFC, 5/22/98, p.B2)(SFC, 10/22/99, p.C14)(SFC, 3/10/04, p.B2)(SFCM, 9/30/07, p.12)

1930        May 15, Jasper Johns, Jr., painter, leader of the Pop Art movement, was born in Augusta, Ga. He grew up in South Carolina.
    (www.artsy.net/artist/jasper-johns)(SFC, 3/8/07, p.E3)

1930        Sep 29, Ilya Repin (b.1944), Ukrainian born Russian artist and sculptor, died.

1930        John Steuart Curry, American artist, painted "Hogs Killing a Snake (Hogs Killing a Rattlesnake)."
    (SFC, 6/13/98, p.E1)
1930        Edward Hopper painted "Early Sunday Morning."
    (WSJ, 4/9/98, p.A21)
1930        Georgia O’Keeffe painted "White Rose, New Mexico."
    (SFEC, 8/10/97, p.T7)

1930        Piet Mondrian painted his "Composition No. 1; Composition 1A."
    (WSJ, 2/14/96, p.A-1)

1930        Picasso painted "Seated Bather," a picture of his wife seated on the beach like a kind of sea monster.
    (WSJ, 4/26/96, p.A-13)

1930        Gino Severini, Italian artist, published Fleurs et Masques in London.
    (SFEM, 2/1/98, p.6)

1930        Tchelichew, a Russian artist, painted a pastel of a beautiful, muscular dancer. For years it was kept by writer Julien Green in Paris.
    (SFEC, 9/6/98, BR p.2)

1930        Grant Wood, American painter, completed his "American Gothic." His sister and a Cedar Rapids, Iowa dentist were his models. It is at the Art Institute of Chicago. Wood’s biography, "Artist in Overalls: The Life of Grant Wood" by John Duggleby, was published in 1996. He also painted "Dinner for Threshers" now at the de Young Museum in SF. In 2005 Steven Biel authored “American Gothic, A Life of America’s Most Famous Painting."
    (T&L, 10/80, p. 58)(SFC, 6/9/96, DB p.11)(WSJ, 11/5/96, p.A20)(SSFC, 7/3/05, p.E3)

1931        Jun 13, Santiago Rusinol (b.1861), Spanish Catalan post-impressionist painter, author, and playwright., died.

1931        Pierre Bonnard painted his Self-Portrait, "The Boxer" and "Still Life in front of a Window."
    (WSJ, 2/8/96, p.A-12)(WSJ, 6/24/98, p.A16)
1931        Jean de Brunhoff (d.1937), French painter, published “Histoire de Babar, le petit elephant" (The Story of Babar, the Little elephant). He illustrated the Babar stories which were invented by his wife Cecille (d.2003).
    (SFC, 4/15/03, p.A16)(WSJ, 10/11/08, p.W12)
1931        Salvador Dali painted "La Solitude." This became the first Dali painting to enter an American public collection.
    (WSJ, 2/2/99, p.A20)
1931        Arthur G. Dove painted his: "Ferry Boat Wreck."
    (WSJ, 4/9/98, p.A21)
1931        Frida Kahlo painted "Frida and Diego Rivera." It is on exhibit at the SF Museum of Modern Art.
    (SF E&C, 1/15/1995, SFE Mag. p.21)
1931        Matisse made his bronze "Head of Marie-Theresa."
    (WSJ, 1/9/97, p.A8)
1931        Georgia O’Keeffe painted "Horse’s Skull With White Rose."
    (SFC, 7/16/97, p.E3)
1931        Man Ray created his painting "Observatory Time – The Lovers." It featured the lips of Lee Miller hovering over a landscape almost like a UFO.
    (SFC, 7/14/12, p.E2)
1931        Diego Rivera, Mexican muralist, arrived in SF. He painted "Allegory of California" for the Pacific Stock Exchange.
    (SFEC, 5/18/97, SF p.2)(SFC, 8/30/03, p.D10)

1931-1932    Rockwell Kent (1882-1971), American artist, illustrator and printmaker, spent his first Arctic winter painting and exploring in the settlement of Igdlorssuit, Greenland. In 1935 he authored “Salamina," a memoir of his first Arctic winter in Greenland.

1932        Toshio Asaeda made his watercolors of Galapagos fishes.
    (NH, 5/97, p.12)
1932        Alexander Calder (1898-1976) made his "Half-Circle, Quarter-Circle and Sphere."
    (SFC,11/15/97, p.C6)
1932        Isaac Friedlander made his wood engraving "The Accordion Player."
    (SFC, 2/5/97, p.E1)
1932        Alberto Giacometti made his sculpture "Femme Egorgee," (Woman With Her Throat Cut).
    (SFEC, 9/14/97, BR p.10)
1932        Arshile Gorky created his "Nightmare, Enigma and Nostalgia" series.
    (SFEM, 6/29/97, p.4)
1932        Edward Hopper painted his "Room in New York."
    (SFEC, 5/11/97, BR p.1)
1932        Lois Mailou Jones, Harlem Renaissance artist, painted "The Ascent of Ethiopia."
    (SFEM, 2/1/98, p.18)
1932        Georgia O’Keeffe painted "Jimson Weed."
    (SFEC, 8/10/97, p.T5)
1932        Han van Meegeren sold his Vermeer forgery “Lady and Gentleman at the Spinnet" for 40 thousand guilders. In 2007 this would represent about $225,000.
    (ON, 12/07, p.10)
1932        Picasso (1881-1973) painted "The Mirror." In 1989 it sold for $26.4 mil. and in 1995 for $20 mil. He also painted "Bather With a Beach Ball" later at New York’s MOMA. His work "The Dream" sold for $48.4 mil in 1997. His painting "Nu au fauteuil noir" (nude on a black armchair), a nude portrait of Maria-Theresa Walter, was auctioned for $45.1 million in 1999. His work "Compotier et Guitare" sold for $8.9 million in 2000. A painting titled “La Lecture," depicting his young lover Maria-Theresa Walter (17), sold in 2011 for $40.7 million.
    (WSJ, 11/21/95, p.A-12)(SFC, 6/4/96, p.E5)(WSJ, 11/25/97, p.A20)(SFC, 11/6/99, p.B1)(WSJ, 11/10/99, p.A4)(WSJ, 5/12/00, p.W16)(SFC, 2/9/11, p.A2)
1932        Picasso’s created his painting “Nude, Green Leaves and Bust." In 2010 it sold for a record $106.5 million to an unidentified buyer at a Christie’s auction in NYC.
    (SFC, 5/5/10, p.A6)
1932        Mexican artist Diego Rivera arrived in Detroit, Michigan with his artist wife Frida Kahlo. He had been commissioned by William Valentiner, a German art historian and director of the Detroit Institute of Arts (DIA), to create murals at the DIA under a grant from Edsel Ford.
    (SFC, 5/1/15, p.77)
1932        David Alfaro Sigueiros, Mexican artist, arrived in Los Angeles to teach at the LA Art School and spent seven months there. He experimented with new industrial tools and created large outdoor murals. His 80x18 foot mural, “La America Tropical," on City Hall on Olvera Street, commissioned by Christine Sterling, was painted over following completion. Soon thereafter his request for a visa renewal was denied. In 2006 LA and the Getty Foundation began a $7.7 million project to restore the work.
    (SFC, 8/4/06, p.E7)(Econ, 9/25/10, p.103)

1933        Dec, In San Francisco Walter Heil, head of the de Young Museum, and other officials chose 25 artists to create murals at the new Coit Tower. They would be paid $25 to $45 per week.
    (SFC, 7/7/17, p.C1)

1933        Sargent Johnson (1888-1967), a successful African-American artist in SF, made his sculpture "Forever Free."
    (SFEC, 2/8/98, DB p.31)(SFEM, 3/22/98, p.8)
1933        Marc Chagall (1887-1985) painted "Nude Above Vitebsk."
    (SFC, 7/26/03, p.D1)
1933        David Park painted "Violinists."
    (SFEC, 12/1/96, DB p.21)
1933        Eugene Marioton (b.1854/57), French sculptor, died. Some sources date his death to 1925. Some 400 bronzes are attributed to him, including one titled “Diogenes" (c.1885).
    (SFC, 10/29/08, p.G2)(http://bullrichgaonawernicke.com/R64/pag64-escultura.htm)
1933        Stanley Spencer, English artist, painted his botanical "Gypsophilia."
    (SFC, 6/5/98, p.C4)
1933        Cao Yu (1910-1996), Chinese realist playwright, published his first play "Thunderstorm." In 1935 he wrote "Sunrise."
    (SFEC, 12/15/96, p.C16)

1934        Apr 11, Richard A. Garland, artist, photographer, was born.
    (MC, 4/11/02)

1934        Sep 10, John Fery (b.1859), Austrian-born American wildlife artist, died in Washington state. His works were large format, often over 100 sq. ft. and his largest customer was the Great Northern Railway. Fery's paintings were hung in train stations and other places, promoting travel, particularly to Glacier National Park, Montana.

1934        Oct 12, In San Francisco the new Coit Tower in Pioneer Park on Telegraph Hill opened to the public. At least 8 frescoes, painted by 27 artists employed by the WPA, were washed out and eliminated because they were “architecturally inharmonious." The July 7 opening date had been cancelled due to controversy over the new frescoes. Victor Arnautoff (1896-1979), Russian-born social realist, was in charge.
    (SSFC, 10/4/09, p.50)(SFC, 7/8/17, p.C2)(SFC, 9/7/17 p.D5)

1934        In the SF Bay Area Victor Arnautoff (1896-1979), Russian-born social realist, created a 13-foot painting of port workers in Richmond for the city’s post office. “Richmond: Industrial City" disappeared in 1976 when the post office was remodeled. It was found in 2014 and in 2017 a copy was displayed as the centerpiece of a retrospective of the artist.
    (SFC, 9/7/17 p.D5)
1934        Salvadore Dali painted "The Persistence of Memory." It attracted worldwide attention that led to his first one man show in New York. [2nd source says 1931]
    (SFEM, 1/25/98, p.30)(WSJ, 1/25/99, p.A16)
1934        Jerry Siegal and artist Jose Shuster created "Superman," the Man of Steel, in Cleveland, Ohio.
    (SFC, 6/2/96, p.T-11)

1935        Feb 8, Max Liebermann (b.1847), German impressionist painter, graphic artist, died in Berlin. He was associated with several artists’ organizations including the Berlin Secession.

1935        May 15, Kasimir Malevich (b.1878), Ukraine-born Cubist painter, died. He was a leader of the Suprematist movement in Russian painting. He pioneered the use of abstract geometrical elements and limited colors to demonstrate the supremacy of expressing feelings.
    (WSJ, 6/21/99, p.B14)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Kazimir_Malevich)

1935        Jul 24, Mel Ramos, pop artist, was born in Sacramento, Ca.

1935        A new marble frieze at the Supreme Court included an image of Mohammed. In 1997 a Muslim group complained because Islamic tradition forbids images of the prophet.
    (WSJ, 3/13/97, p.A1)
1935        Sargent Johnson (1888-1967), African-American artist in SF, made his sculpture "Negro Woman."
    (SFEC, 4/12/98, DB p.43)
1935        Matisse painted "The Dream."
    (WSJ, 10/22/98, p.A20)
1935        Piet Mondrian made his abstract "Composition No. 3. White-Yellow." It was first painted in Paris and then repainted in New York City in 1942.
    (SFC, 6/5/98, p.A17)
1935        Picasso made his etching "Minotauromachie."
    (WSJ, 9/13/96, p.A8)
1935        A.G. Rizzoli, SF architectural visionary, created his work "Mrs. Geo. Powleson Symbolically Portrayed."
    (SFEC, 4/12/98, DB p.43)
1935        Stanley Spencer, English artist, painted a portrait of his 2nd wife "Nude (Patricia Preece)."
    (SFC, 10/14/97, p.B5)(SFC, 6/5/98, p.C1)

1935        Gaston Lachaise (b.1882), Franco-American sculptor, died. He was a modernist and obsessed with his wife, who inspired much of his work.
    (SFC, 2/2/02, p.D1)

1936        Mar 1, Giulio Bargellini (b.1869), Italian artist, died in Rome.

1936        Mar 13, William Alexander Coulter (b.1849), Irish-born maritime artist, died, in Ca.
    (SFC, 7/4/05, p.B1)(www.edanhughes.com/biography.cfm?ArtistID=145)

1936        May 12, Frank Stella, painter, was born in Massachusetts.
    (HN, 5/12/01)(SFC, 6/17/04, p.E5)

1936        Aug 12, Hans Haacke, artist (Right to Life, Dripper Boxes), was born in Cologne, Germany.
    (SC, 8/12/02)

1936        Aaron Douglas, a Harlem Renaissance painter, created his work "Into Bondage."
    (SFC, 1/16/98, p.D1)
1936        Helen Lundeberg painted "Plant and Animal Analogies" done in the Dada-Surrealist style.
    (SFE Mag., 2/12/95, p. 8)
1936        Georgia O’Keeffe painted "Red Hills with Pedernal" and ""Gerald’s Tree I."
    (SFEC, 8/10/97, p.T5,7)
1936        Ben Shahn painted his gouache "East Side Soap Box."
    (WSJ, 12/1/98, p.A20)
1936        Raphael Soyer painted "Office Girls."
    (WSJ, 4/9/98, p.A21)
1936        Stanley Spencer, English artist, painted "Self-Portrait With Patricia Preece."
    (SFC, 10/14/97, p.B5)
1936        The first comprehensive catalogue of Cezanne’s work was published in Paris by Italian scholar Lionello Venturi.
    (WSJ, 2/10/96, p.A16)
1936        Dorothy Lange took her photo "Migrant Mother" for the Farm Security Administration. The shot featured Florence Thompson (d.1983) of Modesto with her 3 daughters. In Sep, 1998 the photo was used on a postal stamp as 1 of 15 honoring the 1930s.
    (SFC, 10/6/98, p.B10)
1936        "New Directions in Prose & Poetry" was published by James Laughlin (d.1997 at 83). It was an anthology of experimental writing and the first work from the New Directions publishing house.
    (SFC,11/15/97, p.A21)
1936        Eugene O’Neill wrote his play "A Touch of the Poet." He later wrote: "The Iceman Cometh," "Moon for the Misbegotten," and "Long Day’s Journey Into Night."
    (WSJ, 5/22/96, p.A-18)
1998        George Orwell wrote the novel "Keep the Aspidistra Flying." The 1998 film A Merry War was based on the novel.
    (SFC, 9/18/98, p.C10)
1936        An edited version of the diary of Nijinsky (1889-1950) was published by his wife, Romola. The dancer went mad at age 29 and began his diary. In 1998 complete versions were published.
    (WSJ, 9/21/98, p.A26)
1936        Dawn Powell wrote her novel "Turn, Magic Wheel."
    (WSJ, 10/19/98, p.A24)
1936        Terence Rattigan (1911-1977) wrote his play "French Without Tears."
    (SFC, 6/23/97, p.E3)
1936        John Maynard Keynes published "The General Theory of Employment, Interest and Money." It taught that the classic model of Adam Smith was a special case and only applied in times of full employment. At other times he asserted that the economy needed a large and activist government to steer it on the road of full employment. His theories played a part in Roosevelt's New Deal which helped revive the US economy.
    (WSJ, 10/9/97, p.A18)(WSJ, 1/11/99, p.R20)
1936        Life Magazine began publishing.
    (SFC, 2/17/98, p.B8)
1936        Phyllis Pearsall printed 10,000 copies of her "A to Z Maps of London." She had walked more than 3,000 miles of roads throughout the city to compile the maps which were a great success.
    (SFC, 8/31/96, p.A23)
1936        Walter D. Edmonds (d.1998 at 94) published his novel "Drums Along the Mohawk." It was made into a film in 1939.
    (SFC, 1/29/98, p.B2)
1936        Halldor Laxness, Iceland novelist, published "Salka Valka".
    (SFC, 2/11/98, p.A24)
1936        Margaret Mitchell published "Gone with the Wind." She wrote the work from a house on Peachtree St. in Atlanta where she lived from 1925-1932.
    (TMC, 1994, p.1936)(SFC, 7/10/96, p.A4)
1936        Kate O’Brian published her novel "Talk of Angels." It was set in 1922 Spain and was banned in Ireland due to a sympathetic lesbian character and an adulterous romance. A film based on the book was set to open in 1997. O’Brian authored 11 books between 1931 and 1963.
    (SFEC, 8/10/97, BR p.10)
1936        John Steinbeck published his novel "In Dubious Battle."
    (SFEC, 6/21/98, p.D6)
1936        The New York Drama Critics’ Circle began to pick the year’s best play from those put on anywhere in New York City. The choice in this year was "Winterset" by Maxwell Anderson.
    (WSJ, 5/13/96, p. A-16)
1936        George S. Kaufman and Edna Ferber co-wrote the Broadway comedy "Stage Door." Kaufman and Moss Hart co-wrote the family-farce "You Can’t Take It With You." Kaufman also helped out, uncredited on Claire Booth’s catty, all gal "The Women."
    (WSJ, 2/9/96, p.A-10)
1936        "Ten Million Ghosts" by Sidney Kingsley starred Orson Welles on Broadway.
    (SFC, 12/25/96, p.A22)
1936        The opera "Lady Macbeth of Mtsensk" by Shostokovich was banned by Soviet authorities. Pravda called it "muddle instead of music."
    (WSJ, 1/24/96, p.A-12)(WSJ, 4/30/96, p.A-12)
1936        Antony Tudor (d.1987) choreographed the ballet "Jardin aux lilas."
    (SFC, 9/22/96, DB p.31)
1936        Hennie Youngman, comedian, began appearing on the Kate Smith radio show.
    (SFEM, 1/25/98, p.67)
1936        Richard Strauss composed a stately hymn for the Olympics in Berlin.
    (WSJ, 4/30/96, p.A-12)
1936        Webern composed his "Variations for Piano."
    (WSJ, 6/16/98, p.A17)
1936        Basie’s small group recorded "Lady Be Good."
    (SFC, 8/22/96, F4)
1936        Bing Crosby recorded "I Got Plenty o’ Nuthin" and "It Ain’t Necessarily So" from "Porgy and Bess" on the Decca label.
    (SFEM, 5/11/97, p.30)
1936        Marion Sumner (d.1997 at 77), mountain fiddler, made his radio debut at station WCPO in Cincinnati playing with the Haley Brothers.
    (SFC, 8/21/97, p.C4)
1936        The Palestine Orchestra was formed. It grew to become the Israeli Philharmonic.
    (SFC, 1/8/98, p.E1)

1937        May 25, Henry O. Tanner, artist, died. 
    (SC, 5/25/02)

1937        Jul 9, David Hockney, painter, was born in Bradford, England. He moved to LA in 1978.
    (HN, 7/9/01)(SFC, 8/18/01, p.B3)

1937        John Steuart Curry, American painter, began his work "Wisconsin Landscape," and completed it in 1938.
    (SFC, 6/13/98, p.E1)

1937        In San Francisco painter Reuben Kadish (1913-1992), under the auspices of the WPA, created “A Dissertation on Alchemy" in the science wing of San Francisco State Normal School at 55 Laguna. In 2013 the site was scheduled for demolition, but his mural was saved.
    (SFC, 8/1/13, p.E1)

1937        William Gropper painted "The Hunt." He used a setting by Breughel to depict a white posse’s pursuit of a black mother and child.
    (SFC, 2/5/97, p.E3)

1937        Rene Magritte painted "Not to be Reproduced."
    (SFC, 8/14/97, p.E4)

1937        Henri Matisse created his painting “L’Odalisque, Harmonie Bleue." In 2007 it was auctioned by Christie’s in NYC for a record $33.6 million.
    (SFC, 11/8/07, p.E3)

c1937        The painting "Dangers of the Mail" was created by Frank Albert Mechau of Colorado for the display in the Ariel Rios building of the Federal Triangle complex. The painting depicted the slaughter of Western settlers by native Indians and was later claimed as racist.
    (SFC, 12/4/00, p.A3)

1937        Edvin Ohrstrom (1906-1994), artist and sculptor, and 2 others developed the Ariel technique at Orrefors in Orrefors, Sweden. This technique created a design by trapping air bubbles between two layers of glass. In 1990 Orrefors merged with Kosta Boda AB, which in turn became part of the New Wave Group in 2005.
    (SFC, 11/19/08, p.G6)

1937        Pablo Picasso painted the black-and-white "Guernica" mural for the 1937 International Exposition in Paris. The Republican government commissioned the mural painting as part of the Spanish pavilion at the 1937 World’s Fair in Paris. Picasso managed to complete the huge work (11.5 by 25.5 feet) in just over three weeks, with the assistance of Dora Maar. Picasso never returned to his native Spain (he had last been there in 1934). Before his death in 1973, he directed that "Guernica" not be returned to Spain until the restoration of democracy there. Francisco Franco, leader of the Nationalist forces that overthrew the Republican government in the Spanish Civil War, remained the head of the Spanish government until 1973, dying in 1975. Economic initiatives and other reforms begun in the 1960s helped transform Spain into a democratic constitutional monarchy in the three years following his death. The painting "Guernica" was returned from New York City in 1981 and is now on exhibit, along with other 19th and 20th century works, at the Buen Retiro Palace in Madrid.
    (SFC, 4/26/00, p.C5)(HNQ, 7/18/01)
1937        Picasso painted his "Weeping Woman With Handkerchief."
    (SFC, 10/10/98, p.E8)

1937        Walter Gay (b.1856), American painter, died. He painted jewel-box-like interior scenes of French homes.
    (WSJ, 3/26/03, p.D8)

1938        Apr, Louis J. Caldor, NYC engineer and art collector, began purchasing the art work of Anna Mary Moses (77), a widow living in Eagle Bridge, NY.
    (ON, 8/20/11, p.11)

1938        Jun 15, Ernst Ludwig Kirchner (b.1880), German Expressionist painter, died by his own hand.

1938        Thomas Hart Benton painted "Susanna and the Elders."
    (SFEM, 5/4/97, p.6)
1938        Brancusi, sculptor, had three of his greatest works inaugurated in the Tirgu Jiu Park, Romania.
    (TL, 1988, p.111)
1938        John Steuart Curry, American artist, painted "Parade to War."
    (SFC, 6/13/98, p.E1)
1938        Frida Kahlo painted "What the Water Showed Me."
    (SFEC, 9/28/97, BR p.5)
1938        Lois Mailou Jones (d.1998 at 92), American artist and teacher, painted her "Les Fetiches," an image of 5 African masks.
    (SFC, 6/13/98, p.A21)
1938        Juan Miro, Spanish painter, completed a set of 8 etchings titled the "Black and Red Series."
    (SFEC, 1/10/99, p.T3)
1938        Stanley Spencer, English artist, painted "Cookham, Flowers in a Window."
    (SFC, 10/14/97, p.B5)

1939        Jul 14, Alphonse Mucha (b.1860), Moravia born artist, died in Czechoslovakia. He created the 20 canvasses which make up his Slav Epic from 1912-1926. In 1928 he and American millionaire Charles Crane presented the work as a gift to the city of Prague.

1939        Jul 20, Judy Chicago, artist, was born.
    (HN, 7/20/01)
1939        Jul 20, Joseph Mendes da Costa, sculptor, died.
    (MC, 7/20/02)

1939        Aug 13, Saul Steinberg, American artist (The Art of Living, New Yorker Magazine), was born in Romania.
    (MC, 8/13/02)

1939        In France Pierre Bonnard painted "The Garden."
    (WSJ, 6/24/98, p.A16)
1939        A handful of Spanish artists, including Eugenio Granell and Jose Vela Zanetti, immigrated to Santo Domingo of the Dominican Republic and introduced the modern art idiom.
    (WSJ, 6/18/96, p.A14)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Eugenio_Granell)
1939        Edward Hopper painted his "New York Movie."
    (WSJ, 6/28/95, p.A-16)
1939        Sargent Johnson (1888-1967), African-American artist in SF, made his glazed ceramic "Hippopotamus."
    (SFEC, 4/12/98, DB p.43)
1939        Picasso painted "The Yellow Sweater." It later became the trademark of the Berggruen collection. He also painted "Night Fishing at Antibes."
    (WSJ, 9/13/96, p.A8)(SFC, 10/10/98, p.E8)
1939        Ben Shahn painted his "Myself Among the Churchgoers."
    (WSJ, 12/1/98, p.A20)
1939        Chaim Soutine painted "Return From School After the Storm."
    (WSJ, 5/14/98, p.A20)
1939        Hale Woodruff painted a mural on the 1839 Amistad mutiny.
    (SFEM, 3/8/98, p.8)
1939        The Salon des Realites Nouvelles was held in France and featured abstract painters.
    (Calg. Glen., 1996)

1940        Jun 29, Paul Klee (b.1879), Swiss-German painter, tutor (Modern Art), died in Switzerland. In 2005 the Klee Center, designed by Renzo Piano, opened in Bern.
    (www.ibiblio.org/wm/paint/auth/klee/)(Econ, 7/23/05, p.79)

1940        Oct 9, Otto Kallir, owner of the Galerie St. Etienne in Manhattan, opened a show featuring the art work of Anna Mary Moses (77). A reported embellished her name as Grandma Moses. Three paintings of 34, priced from $20-250, were sold. Her popularity rose rapidly following a Thanksgiving show at Gimbels department store.
    (ON, 8/20/11, p.11)

1940        San Francisco commissioned artist Anton Refregier (1905-1979) to paint murals depicting the city's history at the Rincon Annex post office as part of a New Deal federal arts program. In 1953 Congress opened a debate on whether to destroy the 27 murals. The murals stayed, but were again threatened when the post office closed in 1979. Preservationists organized a campaign and saved them.
    (SFC, 6/15/19, p.C1)

1941        Feb 6, Maximilien Luce (b.1858), French anarchist and Neo-Impressionist painter, died.

1941        Mar 6, John Gutzon de la Mothe Borglum (73), sculptor (Mount Rushmore), died.
    (MC, 3/6/02)

1941        Mar 17, The National Gallery of Art opened in Washington, DC.
    (AP, 3/17/98)(HN, 3/17/98)

1941        May 11, London’s Bridgewater House was bombed. A major work by French painter Paul Delaroche, "Charles I Insulted by Cromwell's Soldiers" (1837) depicting the British monarch shortly before his execution in 1649, was thought to have been virtually destroyed. In 2009 it was unrolled and found to be in good condition.
    (Reuters, 11/24/09)

1941        Georges Braque, master of color, painted "Mandolin and Score."
    (WSJ, 3/3/97, p.A16)
1941        British artists Duncan Grant and Vanessa Bell, sister of novelist Virginia Woolf, stirred local passions with a commission to decorate an English village church in Berwick, East Sussex.
    (Reuters, 2/15/21)
1941        Juan Miro created his painting “Ciphers and Constellations in Love With a Woman."
    (SSFC, 12/19/04, p.E1)
1941        Piet Mondrian moved to the US and painted "New York City I" in rhythmic and cheerful color and lines.
    (WSJ, 6/6/95, p.A-14)
1941        Pablo Picasso painted "Woman Seated in an Armchair," "Head of a Woman" and "Still Life with Blood Sausage."
    (SFEC, 9/20/98, DB p.39)(SFC, 10/10/98, p.E8)

1942        Feb 12, Painter Grant Wood (b.1892), creator of "American Gothic" (1930), died in Iowa City, Iowa, a day before his 51st birthday.
    (AP, 2/12/02)

1942        Sep 2, Eric Ravilious (b.1903), English painter, died when the aircraft he was on was lost off Iceland.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Eric_Ravilious)(Econ., 4/18/15, p.76)

1942        Henri Matisse created his painting “Danseuse dans le fauteuil." It sold for $22 million at a Sotheby’s auction in 2007.
    (SFC, 11/8/07, p.E3)

1942        Maxfield Parrish painted “The Study for the River at Ascutney." It was stolen in 1984 and turned up un 2004 valued at around $50,000.
    (SFC, 9/9/04, p.A1)

1943        Jan 13, Artist Sophie Taeuber-Arp (b.1889) died of carbon monoxide poisoning from a badly installed stove in the Swiss home of a fellow artist. Her husband Hans Arp, also an artist, died in 1966.
    (https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sophie_Taeuber-Arp)(Econ., 5/30/20, p.70)

1943        May 29, Norman Rockwell’s portrait of "Rosie the Riveter" appeared on the cover of "The Saturday Evening Post." Rockwell’s model was Mary Keefe (19) of Arlington, Vermont. In 2002 the painting sold at auction for $4,959,500.
    (AP, 5/29/97)(AH, 10/02, p.10)

1943        Aug 9, Chaim Soutine (b.1893), Jewish expressionist painter, died in Paris of a perforated ulcer.
    (WSJ, 5/14/98, p.A20)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Chaim_Soutine)

1943        Jackson Pollock (1912-1956) created his 500-pound work titled “Mural," a canvas nearly 8x20 feet. It was made for collector Peggy Guggenheim and marked a transition from his modestly sized easel paintings to his drip paintings. Pollock also created this year his work titled “The She-Wolf."
    (WSJ, 7/30/08, p.D7)(SFC, 10/1/10, p.F4)(SFC, 3/12/14, p.F5)
1943        American artist Norman Rockwell painted “Four Freedoms," a series of four oil paintings: Freedom of Speech, Freedom of Worship, Freedom from Want, and Freedom from Fear, referring to their mention in President Franklin D. Roosevelt's January 6, 1941, speech to Congress.
    (http://tinyurl.com/y9mt3yy6)(Econ 7/29/17, p.28)
1943        Gustav Vigeland (b.1869), Norwegian sculptor, died. His major life's work was the creation of 212 sculptures of 600 figures in an Oslo park named Vigeland Park.
    (SSFC, 6/22/03, p.A1)

1944        Jan 23, Edvard Munch (b.1863), Norwegian painter and hopeless alcoholic, died. His work included “Kiss by the Window" (1892), “The Scream" (1893) and “Self Portrait With Cigarette" (1895). He had a breakdown in 1908 and retreated to Ekely, where he painted for his remaining years. He left behind a collection 1,008 paintings at his estate outside Oslo. In 2005 Sue Prideaux authored “Edvard Munch: Behind the Scream."
    (WSJ, 4/16/02, p.D7)(SSFC, 12/18/05, p.M2)(Sm, 3/06, p.60)(WSJ, 2/25/09, p.D7)

1944        Feb 1, Piet Mondrian (b.1872), Dutch artist, died in NYC of pneumonia. To create an art of harmony and order he used straight lines exclusively. "His trademark paintings of black lines forming a grid and primary colors are a calculated, mathematical blueprint for an organized life." A leading abstract artist in the early half of the 20th century, Dutch painter Piet Mondrian was also a leading proponent of De Stijl ("The Style"). Born to an educator and amateur artist in 1872, Mondrian pursued a career as a painter from an early age. He was influenced by the Post-Impressionists, but gravitated towards Cubism after seeing an exhibition of works by Picasso and others.
    (Hem, Dec. 94, p.131)(WSJ, 5/25/01, p.W10)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Piet_Mondrian)

1944        Dec 2, Filippo Tommaso Emilio Marinetti (b.1876), Italian ideologue, poet, and editor, died in Bellagio, Italy. He was main founder of the Futurist movement [see 1909]. In 2006 Gunter Berghaus edited “Critical Writings by F.T. Marinetti," translated by Doug Thompson.
    (http://tinyurl.com/y7v7f3)(SFC, 10/24/06, p.E2)

1944        Dec 13, Wassily Kandinsky (b.1866), Russian artist credited with the invention of abstract art, died in France. He held that shapes and colors in art, like notes in music, should represent feelings and emotions, not actual objects.
    (WSJ, 8/13/99, p.W10)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Wassily_Kandinsky)

1944        Odd Nerdrum, Norwegian figurative artist, was born. He made haunting oils of eerily incandescent nudes.
    (WSJ, 3/19/97, p.A16)(www.oddnerdrum.com)

1945        May 29, Dutch police arrested and imprisoned Hans van Meegeren (1889-1947) for collaborating with the enemy. His name had been traced to a sale made during the second world war of what was then believed to be an authentic Vermeer to Nazi Field-Marshal Hermann Goering. On July 12, in order to prove his innocence, Meegeren revealed that he had forged the painting.
    (WSJ, 10/14/06, p.P10)(ON, 12/07, p.12)

1945        Dec 5, Petras Kalpokas (b.1880), Lithuanian painter, died in Kaunas.

1946        Jan 28, Helene Schjerfbeck (b.1862), Finnish painter, died. Her work included a 5 painting series of self-portraits that represented herself at various ages.
    (Econ, 11/24/07, p.91)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Helene_Schjerfbeck)

1945-1946    Picasso painted his purposely unfinished "Charnel House."
    (SFC, 10/10/98, p.E8)(www.abcgallery.com/P/picasso/picasso45.html)

1946        Jul 6, Jamie Wyeth, artist (An American Vision-Boston), was born in Pennsylvania.
    (MC, 7/6/02)

1946        Pablo Picasso began designing pottery in Vallauris, France. The area had been a pottery center since Roman times.
    (SFC, 12/10/08, p.G4)

1946        Elie Nadelman (b.1882), Polish-born sculptor, died. He moved to Paris in 1904 and to the US in 1914 with the support of Helena Rubenstein. His work included "The Dancer" (1920-1924).
    (WSJ, 5/15/03, p.D8)

1947        Jun 8, Selden Gile (b.1877), SF Bay Area plein-air painter, died. He was one of the Society of Six, who took their cue from the post-Impressionist painters they saw at the 1915 Panama Pacific Int’l. Exposition.
    (SFC, 5/4/09, p.E3)(http://lawrencebeebe.com/seldengilebiography.html)

1947        Nov 12, Hans van Meegeren (1889-12947), Dutch painter and forger, was tried for forgery and convicted of “obtaining money by deception" and “appending false names and signatures with the intent to deceive." He was given the minimum sentence of one year and then the court petitioned Queen Wilhelmina that he be pardoned, but he died 6 weeks later.
    (ON, 12/07, p.12)

1947        Dec 29, Hans van Meegeren (b.1889), Dutch painter and forger, died. In 2006 Frank Wynne authored “I Was Vermeer."
    (WSJ, 10/14/06, p.P10)(http://denisdutton.com/van_meegeren.htm)

1948        May 14, In San Francisco the longshoremen’s union joined local artists and Anton Refrigier in a protest outside the Rincon Annex against a government decision to cloak murals painted by Refrigier in the 1940s as part of the Public Works of Art Project.
    (SFC, 6/1/19, p.C3)

1948        Jun 3, Korczak Ziolkowski (1908-1982), a self-taught sculptor, began blasting a figure of Crazy Horse into rock in the Black Hills of South Dakota under an invitation by the Lakota Sioux. Ziolkowski had worked under Gutzon Borglum at the Mount Rushmore site. The face of Crazy Horse, at the site known as Thunder Mountain, was completed and dedicated in 1998.
    (SSFC, 7/28/02, Par p.11)(SSFC, 9/9/07, p.C4)

1948        Jul 21, Arshile Gorky (b.1904/5), artist, (born as Vostanig Adoian of Armenian parents in Eastern Turkey) died of suicide. He came to the US in 1920 and assumed a new name in admiration of Russian writer Maxim Gorky. His works included "Gray Drawing for Pastoral" (1946). His last paintings were described as "imaginary erotic cosmologies." In 1999 Matthew Spender published the biography "From a High Place: A Life of Arshile Gorky."
    (WSJ, 1/28/04, p.D6)(www.legacy-project.org/artists/display.html?ID=5)

1949        Aug 8, Joaquin Torres-Garcia (b.1874), Uruguayan artist, died. As a theoretician he published "more than one hundred and fifty books, essays and articles written in Catalan, Spanish, French, English.
    (http://tinyurl.com/ju4k6kk)(Econ, 10/22/16, p.30)

1949        Nov 19, James Ensor (b.1860), Belgian artist, died. His paintings included “"The Scandalized Masks" (1883), "Ensor and General Leman Discussing Painting" (1890), and “Skeletons Fighting Over a Pickled Herring" (1891).
    (WSJ, 6/5/01, p.A23)(Econ, 7/4/09, p.82)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/James_Ensor)

1949        Willem de Kooning (1904-1997) painted the abstract image "Two Standing Women." In 1997 it sold for 4.1 million. He also painted "Attic" in this year and “Sail Cloth," which later sold for $13.1 mil. His abstract painting “Woman" done this year, sold in 1997 for $15.6 mil.
    (WSJ, 11/21/96, p.A8)(http://tinyurl.com/5rs5ct)(WSJ, 7/22/08, p.D8)(http://tinyurl.com/5woaq9)
1949        Georgia O’Keeffe gave an art collection, that included the work of her late husband, Alfred Steiglitz, to Fisk Univ. in Tennessee. In 2012 a judge approved a deal for Fisk to sell a 50% stake to the Crystal Bridges Museum of Art in Arkansas created by Walmart heiress Alice Walton.
    (SFC, 11/9/13, p.A10)
1949        Henry Salem Hubbell (b.1870), artist and member of the Giverny Circle of American Impressionists, died in Florida. His paintings included “The Samovar" 1906-1907.
1949        Bill Traylor (b.1854), self-taught artist and laborer by trade, died. He gained recognition for his primitive drawings in the 1930s.
    (WSJ, 7/28/05, p.D8)

1949-1950    David Park painted his classic "Rehearsal."
    (SFC, 10/22/98, p.E6)

1950        Dec 27, Max Beckmann (b.1884), German painter, died in New York. The Nazis had branded him a degenerate artist in 1937 and he moved to the US in 1946. His work included the triptychs Departure (1932-1935) and Beginning (1946-1949), and the Self-Portrait in Tails (1937). He was a figurative painter in an age of abstraction.
    (SSFC, 1/27/02, p.C7)(WSJ, 7/16/03, p.D8)(WSJ, 9/17/05, p.P20)

1950        Willem de Kooning, leading light of the New York School, painted "Excavation," maelstroms of weaving and careening lines and roiling forms.
    (WSJ, 12/5/96, p.A16)(SFC, 3/20/97, p.A6)(SFC, 6/28/02, p.D1)
1950        By this year Americans broke off in gestural and coloristic directions under the broad umbrella called abstract expressionism also called the New York School. Norman Lewis was the only Black artist to take part in the discussions that founded abstract expressionism at Studio 35 in NYC. Others include William de Kooning and Robert Motherwell.
    (WSJ, 9/10/96, p.A16)(Econ, 9/24/16, p.79)

1951        Sep 13, Arthur Szyk (b.1894), Poland-born American-Jewish artist, died of a heart attack in Connecticut after being Investigated by the House Un-American Activities Committee for being an assumed member of a Communist front organization. In 2017 a collection of his work was acquired by the Magnes Collection Jewish Art and Life at UC Berkeley. The acquisition was made possible by a donation from the Taube Philanthropies.
    (https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Arthur_Szyk)(SFC, 4/3/17, p.C2)

1951        William Edmondson (b.1874), self-taught artist and laborer by trade, died. He gained recognition for his limestone sculptures in the 1930s.
    (WSJ, 7/28/05, p.D8)

1952        Nov 26, Helen Frankenthaler (b.1928), New York artist, created her painting “Mountains and Sea." It was later recognized as her arrival as a major artist and a work that changed the course of abstract art.
    (WSJ, 11/8/08, p.W11)

1952        Eduardo Paolozzi (1924-2005), sculptor and printmaker, helped form an association of British artists called The Independent Group. They included Richard Hamilton, William Turnbull and Peter Blake. Paolozzi, born in Scotland of Italian parents, became known as a key contributor to British pop art.
    (SSFC, 5/1/05, p.A23)
1952        Stefan Norblin, Polish-born artist, committed suicide in the US after going blind. His wife, former actress Lena Zelichowska, died in 1958. The had left  Poland following the Nazi invasion in 1939 and moved to Iraq and then to India before arriving to the US in 1946.
    (SFC, 10/11/12, p.A8)

1953        Mar 23, Raoul Dufy, French fauve painter, died.
    (WSJ, 5/4/99, p.A20)(MC, 3/23/02)

1953        May 31, V.I. Tatlin (b.1885), Ukrainian-born painter and sculptor, died in Moscow.

1953        George Braque created his painting “La Treille." In 2010 it sold for $10.2 million.
    (Econ, 5/8/10, p.85)
1953        Ralph Fasanella, American artist, created his painting “Welcome Home Boys." In 1990 it was acquired by the city of Oakland, Ca., as a gift from union workers for $53,000.
    (SFC, 3/4/11, p.C7)
1953        W. de Kooning (1904-1997) completed his "Woman V" painting. In 1974 it was acquired by the Austria National Gallery for $850,000.
1953        Folk artist Grandma Moses (1860-1961) achieved global fame for her paintings. Her real name was Anna Mary Robertson. Plates with her scenes were given out as gas station premiums in 4 limited editions: "Out for the Christmas Tree," "Checkered House," "Jack and Jill," and "Catching the Thanksgiving."
    (TMC, 1994, p.1953)(SFC, 3/26/97, Z1 p.7)

1954        Jul 13, Frida Kahlo (b.1907), artist, died in Mexico City. Her final painting was an incomplete portrait of Joseph Stalin. Hayden Herrera authored her biography in 1983. Raquel Tibol later authored "Frido Kahlo: An Open Life."
    (SFC, 4/22/01, p.D3)(WSJ, 7/6/01, p.W11)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Frida_Kahlo)

1954        Sep 8, Andre Derain (b.1880), French painter, died. He and Henri Matisse co-founded the Fauvist movement, marked by vivid, unnatural colors.
    (SFC, 9/15/12, p.E1)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Andr%C3%A9_Derain)

1954        Nov 3, Henri E.B. Matisse (b.1869), French painter and sculptor (Dance II), died. In 1998 Hilary Spurling published "The Unknown Matisse," a work that covered the years 1869-1908. An end volume was planned. In 1999 John Russell published "Matisse: Father and Son" and John O'Brian published "Ruthless Hedonism: The American Reception of Matisse." In 2005 Hilary Spurling authored “Matisse the Master: A Life of Henry Matisse, Volume Two.
    (WSJ, 7/5/96, p.A5)(WSJ, 10/27/98, p.A20)(SFEC, 8/8/99, BR p.6)(Econ, 3/12/05, p.79)

1954        Areogun (b.1880), Yoruba sculptor, died. He was a native of the Ekiti region of Nigeria.

1954        Japanese painter Jiro Yoshihara (1905-1972) founded the Gatai movement. He encouraged followers to challenge conformity.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Jiro_Yoshihara)(Econ, 5/2/15, p.75)

1955        May 18, Edwin Scharff (68), German painter, sculptor (Rossebändiger), died.
    (SC, 5/18/02)

1955        Paint-by number kits, created by Dan Robbins (1926-2019), peaked at 20 million. Robbins worked for the Palmer Paint Co. in Detroit.
    (SFC, 4/5/19, p.C4)
1955        In Germany art professor Arnold Bode launched Documenta by to draw attention to works banned by the Nazis as degenerate. The "documenta x" art show, an exhibition of contemporary art began in Kassel under Werner Haftmann. It began a tradition with new shows every 4-5 years.
    (WSJ, 7/7/97, p.A12)(SFC, 7/30/99, p.D8)(AFP, 4/8/17)

1956        Jan 13, Lyonel Feininger (b.1871), American-German painter, died. His work included the woodcut "Kreuzende Segelschiffe" (1919) and the pen and ink wash "Three Ghosts" (1953). A catalog of his prints was made by Leona Prasse (1897-1984), late curator of prints at the Cleveland Museum of Art. Feininger published comics for the Chicago Tribune from 1906-1907.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Lyonel_Feininger)(HT, 5/97, p.60)(WSJ, 1/10/07, p.D10)

1956        Apr 13, Emil Nolde (b.1867 as Emil Hansen), German Expressionist painter, died. He was a member of the artist group Die Brucke.
    (Econ, 10/11/08, p.116)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Emil_Nolde)

1956        Aug 11, Abstract artist Jackson Pollock (b.1912) died at age 44 in an automobile accident in East Hampton, N.Y. He was born in Wyoming and became a leader of the abstract expressionist school of art.
    (AHD, 1971, p.1015)(AP, 8/11/97)

1957        Mar 16, Constantin Brancusi (b.1876), Romanian-born French sculptor, died. He willed his studio and work to France.
    (WSJ, 3/30/00, p.A28)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Constantin_Br%C3%A2ncu%C5%9Fi)

1957        May 9, Heinrich Campendonk (b.1889), German-born Dutch artist and a member of the Der Blaue Reiter group (1911-1912), died.

1957        Sep 16, Qi Baishi (b.1864), Chinese artist, died in Beijing. In 2011 one of his ink paintings was auctioned for $65 million.
    (Econ, 10/22/11, p.82)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Qi_Baishi)

1957        In San Francisco abstract painter Dmitri Grachis (1932-2021) opened his Spatsa Gallery on Filbert Street at Fillmore. Over the next four years it served as a gathering place for Beat artists. In 1990 the Natsoulas Gallery published "The Spatsa Gallery 1958-1961".
    (https://tinyurl.com/y3bfgemj)(SFC, 1/27/21, p.B1)
1957        German artist Heinz Mack founded the Zero magazine. Mack and Otto Piene invited artists like Günther Uecker to exhibit in their studio, and the three friends became the founding fathers of the Zero movement, seeking to overcome the pessimism of the postwar period and embrace technical progress, experimenting with light, high-tech materials and motion. In 2015 an exhibition at Berlin's Martin-Gropius-Bau museum featured work from  co-founders Mack and Piene as well as Jean Tinguely, Lucio Fontana and Jef Verheyen.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Zero_%28art%29)(AP, 3/20/15)

1958        Mar 1, Giacomo Balla (b.1871), Italian composer and painter, died.  He was a signatory to the 1910 Futurist Manifesto, and designed and painting Futurist furniture. He also created Futurist "antineutral" clothing.
    (Econ, 2/22/14, p.71)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Giacomo_Balla)

1958        H.C. Westermann (1922-1981), sculptor, created "Memorial to the Idea of Man if He Was an Idea." His work was laced with dark humor.
    (WSJ, 4/18/02, p.D7)

1958        John Diebenkorn, California figurative painter, made his " Woman and Mirror."
    (SFEC, 3/16/97, DB p.33)

1958        Jasper Johns had his debut show at the Castelli Gallery in New York and became an overnight success. This year he painted his work "Tennyson."
    (WSJ, 10/17/96, p.A20)

1958        Georgia O'Keeffe created her oil on canvas painting "Ladder to the Moon."
    (SFEC, 8/10/97, p.T7)(SSFC, 6/22/03, p.C8)

1958        David Park, American artist, painted: "Man in a T-Shirt" and "Untitled".
    (SFEC, 12/1/96, DB p.21)(SFC, 8/23/97, p.A20)

1958        Picasso made his sketch "Femme Nue Assise."
    (SFC, 7/5/96, DB, p.36)

1958        Stanley Spencer, English artist, painted "The Crucifixion."
    (SFC, 10/14/97, p.B1)(SFC, 6/5/98, p.C1)

1958-1966    Jay DeFeo (d.1989), SF artist, created her massive painting "The Rose." She was married to artist Wally Hedrick.
    (SFEC, 8/25/96, BR p.39)(SSFC, 1/25/04, p.E5)

1959        Aug 19, Jacob Epstein (78), US-English sculptor, painter, died.
    (MC, 8/19/02)

1959        Attorney Thomas Blanchard (d.2000 at 88) convinced Avery Brundage, a Chicago millionaire, to donate his 6,000 piece Asian art collection to an Asian Art Museum in SF. Marjorie Bissinger (d.2003) helped in the process.
    (SFC, 4/22/00, p.A19)(SFC, 1/10/03, p.A25)

1960        Sep 20, David Park (b.1911), a SF Bay Area figurative painter, died at 49. His work included: "Man in a T-Shirt" and  "Untitled" (1958), "Torso" (1959). He made the 1st serious break with Abstract Expressionism in his 1950  painting "Kids of Bikes." In 2012 Nancy Boas authored “David Park: A Painter’s Life."
    (SFEC, 12/1/96, DB p.21)(SFC, 8/23/97, p.A20)(SFEM, 9/21/97, p.31)(WSJ, 12/3/01, p.A17)(SSFC, 5/6/12, p.F7)

1961        Mar 13, Pablo Picasso (79) married his model Jacqueline Rocque (37).
    (MC, 3/13/02)

1961        Oct 31, Augustus Edwin John (b.1878), Welsh painter, draughtsman, and etcher, died. For a short time around 1910, he was an important exponent of Post-Impressionism in England. In 1974 Michael Holroyd authored the biography: “Augustus John."
    (WSJ, 1/21/07, p.P9)

1961        Dec 13, Anna Mary Robertson Moses (b.1860), US painter and folk artist known as Grandma Moses, died in Hoosick Falls, New York.
    (SFC, 3/26/97, z1 p.7)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Grandma_Moses)

1961        Gerhard Richter (b.1932), German artist, defected to the West. By 2011 he was considered the world’s foremost living painter.
    (Econ, 10/8/11, p.104)

1962        May 13, Franz Kline (b.1910), American painter of abstract expressionist style, died of a heart attack in NYC. He was known for dramatic, easy-to-recognize pictures of big black slashes  against snowy backgrounds. His early work was as a cartoonist and bar decorator. His portraits sketches of patrons still line the walls of the Minetta Tavern in Greenwich Village, N.Y. Kline’s hot brush stroke was parodied in Roy Lichtenstein’s pixilated "Brushstroke" series, where RL provided a cool version of Kline’s hot stroke.
    (www.guggenheimcollection.org/site/artist_bio_77.html)(WSJ, 12/16/94, A-12)

1962        Jun 6, Yves Klein (b.1928), French artist, died of a heart attack.
    (Econ, 5/29/10, p.85)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Yves_Klein)

1962        Jul 9, Andy Warhol opened his first solo show at the Ferus Gallery in Los Angeles. It consisted of 32 paintings of Campbell’s Soup Cans. He also created his "Red Liz" work this year.
    (WSJ, 11/21/96, p.A8)(WSJ, 11/13/98, p.W16)(Econ, 10/29/11, IL p.14)

1962        The 1st edition of “History of Art" by H.W. Janson was published.
    (WSJ, 3/11/05, p.W7)

1962        Morris Louis (b.1912), artist, died.
    (SFC, 7/31/01, p.B5)

1963        Feb 7, The "Mona Lisa" was unveiled at the Metropolitan Museum of Art in New York.
    (HN, 2/7/99)

1963        Mar 20, The 1st "Pop Art" exhibition was held in NYC.
    (MC, 3/20/02)

1963        Aug 31, George F. Braque (81), cubist painter, died in Paris.
    (MC, 8/31/01)

1963        Konrad Fischer (1939-1996) founded the Capital Realism art movement in Germany. It was a figurative painting style that was a response to American Pop Art.
    (SFC, 11/27/96, p.B2)
1963        Lucien Freud painted "Man’s Head (Self-Portrait III)."
    (SFEC, 12/1/96, BR p.1)
1963        Japanese artist Yayoi Kusama (b.1929) led in the creation of installation art with her show: “Aggregation: One thousands Boats Show," at the Gertrude Stein gallery in NYC. It featured a rowing boat filled with phallic sculptures installed in a room papered with 999 black-and-white photographic reproductions of the work.
    (Econ, 2/4/12, p.84)
1963        Pan Tianshou, a traditional-style Chinese painter, created "Red Lotus."
    (WSJ, 2/19/98, p.A20)
1963        Andy Warhol created his image "Large Triple Elvis."
    (NH, 6/01, p.48)
1963        Andy Warhol painting created his painting “Silver Car Crash (Double Disaster)." In 2013 it sold for $105 million at an auction in NYC. This was a new record for a Warhol painting.
    (SFC, 11/14/13, p.A9)

1964        Jun 18, Georgio Morandi (b.1890), reclusive Italian painter, died in Bologna.
    (WSJ, 11/11/08, p.D7)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Giorgio_Morandi)

1964        Francis Bacon painted his triptych “Three Studies for a Portrait of Lucian Freud." In 2011 the work sold for $37 million at a London auction.
    (SFC, 2/11/11, p.A2)(http://tinyurl.com/2b8c44m)
1964        Francis Bacon painted the triptych "Three Figures in a Room."
    (WSJ, 2/3/00, p.A24)
1964        Jasper Johns created his painting "Souvenir."
    (SFC, 12/4/00, p.B3)
c1964        Willem de Kooning (1904-1997), abstract artist, painted "Woman."
    (SFC, 4/9/98, p.E1)
1964        Helen Frankenthaler (b.1929) created her painting "Interior Landscape." She won a National Medal of the Arts in 2002.
    (SFC, 3/19/02, p.D6)
1964        Roy Lichtenstein created his works "Good Morning Darling" and “Ohhh, Alright." The 2nd sold for $42.6 million in 2010.
    {Artist, USA}
    (SFC, 1/16/99, p.E1)(Econ, 2/18/12, ILp.10)
1964        Robert Rauschenberg won the Golden Lion, the grand prize of the Venice Biennale. This established him in the art world with his idea that art is reality reshuffled.
    (SFC, 8/20/98, p.E1)(Econ 5/20/17, p.75)
1964        Carolee Schneeman preformed "Meat Joy," an orgy-like work at New York's Judson Memorial Church. Participants cavorted nude or nearly so in a human pile with animal carcasses and blood.
    (SFEC, 3/12/00, p.D5)
1964        Andy Warhol produced his pop art "Brillo Boxes." It was later considered a pivotal example of the turning point to post-historical art by Prof. Arthur C. Danto.
    (SFEC, 2/23/97, BR p.9)
1964        Andy Warhol, made his silkscreen "Orange Marilyn." It sold for $17.3 mil in 1998.
    (SFC, 5/15/98, p.A3)
1964        Francis Harvey Cutting (b.1872), California artist, died.
    (SSFC, 4/18/04, p.J5)
1964        Jean Fautrier (b.1898), French modernist, died. He was considered a precursor to the American Abstract Expressionists.
    (WSJ, 12/11/02, p.D8)
1964        Leon Shulman Gaspard (b.1882), Russian-born American artist, died in Taos, New Mexico. His work included “The Finish of the Kermesse."
    (WSJ, 12/1/07, p.W3)(www.askart.com/AskART/artists/biography.aspx?artist=5968)

1965        May 23, David Smith (b.1906), American sculptor, died in Albany NY. His farm in upstate New York was named the Terminal Iron Works. His work included "Circle and Box," "XI Books, III Apples," "Lunar Arc," "Becca" and "Rebecca Circle."

1965        Jul 9, Adelaide Hiebel (b.1879), American artist, died. Many of her paintings were used for advertising and calendar prints.

1965        Salvador Dali donated a sketch depicting Jesus Christ to the prison at Riker's Island, NYC, in lieu of a planned visit. On Mar 1, 2003, 4 prison officials staged a fake fire drill, stole the sketch and replaced it with a fake. The guards were caught by June and claimed the original was destroyed.
    (SFC, 10/6/03, p.A2)

1965        Jay DeFeo’s painting "The Rose" weighed a ton and was moved out of a house and later to the SF Art Institute where it languished for 26 years.
    (SFEC, 10/13/96, DB p.8)

1965        Sedona, Arizona, artists Joe Beeler, Charlie Dye, John Hampton and George Phippen founded The Cowboy Artists of America at the local Cowboy Club, which was then called the Oak Creek Tavern.
    (SSFC, 2/8/04, p.C6)

1965        Leon Ferrari, Argentine sculptor, created his work “The Western Christian Civilization." It depicted Jesus crucified on an American bomber.
    (Econ, 3/26/15, p.96)

1965        Werner Tubke, German artist, created his painting “Reminiscences of Schulze, JD III."
    (WSJ, 2/10/09, p.D7)

1966        Jan 11, Albert Giacometti (64), Swiss-French painter and sculptor, died in Switzerland.
    (WSJ, 12/19/01, p.A16)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Alberto_Giacometti)

1966        Feb 8, In Malaysia the Tugu Negara (national monument) was completed and officially opened by the Sultan Ismail Nasiruddin Shah, the head of state. The sculpture was designed by Austria-born American sculptor Felix de Weldon (1907-2003). It was proclaimed a memorial park dedicated to the 11,000 people who died during the 12-year Malayan Emergency (1948-1960). Thereafter, a wreath-laying ceremony takes place at the monument every July 31 on Warriors Day.

1966         May 14, Ludwig Meidner (b.1884), German expressionist artist, died.

1966        Hans Hofmann (b.1880), abstract artist, died. He was born and raised in Munich, Germany, and lived in Paris from 1904-1914. He moved to the US in 1931. His work included "Furioso," (1963).
    (SFC, 7/31/01, p.B5)(WSJ, 1/15/04, p.D8)

1967        Jan 10, American artist Charles Birchfield (b.1893) died.
    (SFC, 10/20/12, p.E2)( http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Charles_E._Burchfield)

1967        May 15, Edward Hopper (b.1882), US painter (House by Railroad), died in NYC. He studied in Paris but never painted in the abstract. He often used his wife, artist Josephine Nivison (d.1968), as his model. He was the first artist to paint the American scene as a desolate, vacant place. A biography of Mr. Hopper and his 44 years with Josephine was published in 1995 by Gail Levin titled “Edward Hopper." In 1998 the Whitney Museum published: "Edward Hopper: A Journal of His Work."
    (www.fact-index.com)(WSJ, 10/4/95, p.A-12)(SFEC, 3/15/98, BR p.7)(HN, 7/22/02)

1967        Oct 10, Sargent Johnson (b.1888), Boston-born and SF-based African-American painter and sculptor, died.
    (SFC, 5/4/09, p.E3)(http://www.aaregistry.com/detail.php?id=1195)

1967        David Burliuk, Russian artist, died. His work included "A Cup of Sake" (1921), which fetched $60,375 for the IRS in a 2003 auction.
    (SSFC, 2/2/03, Par p.A19)

1968        Jan 29, Leonard Tsuguharu Foujita (b.1886), painter and engraver born in Tokyo, Japan, died in Zurich, Switz. He applied French oil techniques to Japanese-style paintings. In 2006 Phyllis Birnbaum authored “Glory in a Line: A Life of Foujita – The Artist Caught Between East and West."
    (SSFC, 11/26/06, p.M1)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Tsuguharu_Foujita)

1968        Jun 3, Valerie Solanas, founder of the Society for Cutting Up Men (SCUM), and author of the "SCUM Manifesto," shot Andy Warhol with a .32 automatic in his New York film studio, known as The Factory. Warhol survived but Solanas was judged insane and served three years in a psychiatric prison. She died in 1988 at 52 in a welfare hotel in San Francisco of bronchial pneumonia and emphysema. The 1996 film "I Shot Andy Warhol" was made by Mary Harron and featured Lili Taylor as Solanas.
    (SFC, 5/15/96, p.E-1)(AP, 6/3/98)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Valerie_Solanas)

1968         Jul 13, Christoforos Savva (b.1924), Cyprus’ most avant-garde artist, died of a heart attack in Sheffield, England.
    {Cyprus, Britain, Artist}
    (https://tinyurl.com/yxolkqub)(AP, 1/31/21)

1968        Sep 14, Al Frueh (b.1880), American caricature artist (New Yorker magazine), died.
    (WSJ, 8/21/01, p.A17)(www.britannica.com/EBchecked/topic/221010/Al-Frueh)

1968        Oct 2, Marcel Duchamp (b.1887), French painter, died. He was known best for his 1915 "Nude Descending a Staircase."

1968        Edward Kienholz (1927-1994) created his "Portable war memorial," a bizarre tableaux including a hot dog stand and a coke dispenser.
    (TL, 1988, p.117)(http://artchive.com/artchive/K/kienholz/war_memorial.jpg.html)
1968        Henry Moore, English artist and sculptor, made his "Three Piece No. 3: Vertebrae."
    (SFC, 10/26/96, p.B1)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Henry_Moore)
1968        Pablo Picasso (1881-1973) created his Suite 347, a series of aquatints and etchings.
    (Econ, 4/24/10, p.83)

1968        Cecile Nelken (1917-2009), sculptor and publisher, founded Artweek, the first US West Coast weekly art newspaper.
    (SFC, 7/17/09, p.D5)

1968        Architects Doug Michels (1943-2003) and Chip Lord founded the Ant Farm in SF. In 1974 they created "Cadillac Ranch," a sculpture of 10 planted Cadillacs, in Amarillo, Texas. In 1975 they created the performance work "Media Burn," in which Michels drove a Cadillac through a pyramid of burning television sets. Ant Farm disbanded in 1978.
    (SSFC, 6/22/03, p.A1)

1969        Feb 8, Mexican graphic artist Leopoldo Mendez (b.1902) died. His work mostly focused on engraving for illustrations and other print work generally connected to his political and social activism.

1969        Mar 14, Ben Shahn (1898), Lithuanian-born American painter and photographer, died in NYC. Much of his photography of done in New York’s Lower East Side and Greenwich Village.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ben_Shahn)(WSJ, 12/1/98, p.A20)(WSJ, 2/1/00, p.A24)

1969        Jun 12, Alexander Deyneka (b.1899), Soviet Russian artist, died. he came from a family of railroad workers and started out as a police photographer after graduating from art school. He made mosaics in the 1930s for Mayakovskaya metro station in central Moscow.
    (AFP, 2/17/11)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Alexander_Deyneka)

1969        Oct 18, The painting "Nativity" by Caravaggio was stolen from the Oratory of San Lorenzo in Palermo, Sicily. Peter Watson, English novelist, later wrote "The Caravaggio Conspiracy," an account of his 1981-1982 attempt to recover the work.
    (www.guardian.co.uk/artanddesign/2008/dec/22/caravaggio-art-mafia-italy)(WSJ, 12/11/96, p.A20)

1969        Nov, Interview magazine was founded by artist Andy Warhol and Gerard Malanga. It was dedicated to the cult of celebrity which fascinated Warhol, and featured cutting-edge graphics and interviews of celebrities.

1969        Fernando Botero (b.1932), surrealist Colombian painter, created "The Butcher's Table," a pig's head laughing at his own slaughter.
    (WSJ, 3/17/00, p.W12)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Fernando_Botero)
1969        Artists Douglas Huebler (1924-1997), Robert Barry (b.1936) and Lawrence Weiner (b.1942) held an exhibition in NYC that was credited by a critic in 1971 as originating the conceptual art movement. This was an emphasis on art as an idea rather than an object in a reaction to the pop and op art of the 1960s.
    (SFC, 7/15/97, p.A18)
1969        Dorothy Miller (d.2003) retired as curator of the NYC Museum of Modern Art.
    (SSFC, 7/13/03, p.A27)
1969        Robert Rauschenberg (1925-2008) created his "Carnal Clock" series of collages.
    (WSJ, 9/25/97, p.A20)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Robert_Rauschenberg)
1969        Artist Sol LeWitt (1928-2007) wrote his seminal article "Sentences on Conceptual Art" and stated that "Ideas can be works of art."
    (SFC, 1/29/98, p.C5)
1969        London artists Gilbert Proesch and George Passmore wrote their four “Laws of Sculptors." They later became known simply as Gilbert and George.
    (SFC, 2/16/08, p.E1)
1969        Clifford Irving (b.1930), American writer, published "Fake," the story of Hungarian art forger Elmyr de Hory (1906-1976). The int'l. de Hory scam became public in 1967. Irving and De Hory were featured in the 1975 Orson Welles film "F" for Fake.
    (SFC, 7/29/99, p.E6)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Clifford_Irving)
1969        John Altoon (b.1925), American painter, died of a heart attack at age 43. He painted in an abstract expressionist style with later surrealist undercurrents. Hs works included "Untitled" (1959), "Untitled (Harper Series)" (1964), and "Untitled ANI-42" (1968).
    {Artist, USA}
    (SFC, 1/15/98, p.E1,5)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/John_Altoon)

1970        Feb 25, Mark Rothko (b.1903), painter, committed suicide in NYC. He was born in Dvinsk, Russia, which is now Daugavpils, Latvia, and his family moved to Portland, Ore., in 1913. His work moved to abstraction in the 1940s. The execution of his will provoked a long drawn out court case. His daughter charged the executors and the owner of Rothko’s gallery with conspiracy and conflict of interest, and won. A 1998 show was accompanied by the book "Mark Rothko" by Jeffrey Weiss with contributions by John Cage, Carol-Mancusi-Ungaro, Barbara Novak, Brian O’Doherty, Mark Rosenthal and Jessica Stewart.
    (WSJ, 6/4/98, p.A16)(SFEC, 6/7/98, BR p.4)(AP, 11/11/03)(http://slate.msn.com/?id=2923)

1970        Jul 4, Barnett Newman (b.1905), American artist of the abstract expressionist movement, died. His "zips" consisted of fields of flat color punctuated by vertical stripes.
    (SFC,11/22/97, p.D5)(SFC, 3/30/02, p.D1)(NW, 4/22/02, p.66)

1970        Aug 16, Benny Bufano (b.1898), California-based Italian-American sculptor, died. He was known for his late-career bullet-shaped public sculptures.
    (SFC, 12/8/00, p.C1)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Benny_Bufano)

1970        NY performance artist Joan Jonas in “Mirror Check" stood naked before an audience inspecting her body with a small round mirror in a silent commentary on women’s fixation with self-image.
    (Econ, 10/4/14, p.92)
1970        Roy Lichtenstein (1923-1997), American pop artist, created his color lithograph, screen print: "Peace Through Chemistry II."
    (SFEC, 10/1/00, DB p.42)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Roy_Lichtenstein)
1970        Frank Stella (b.1936), American painter, created his abstract acrylic painting “Firuzabad."
    (SFC, 6/17/04, p.E1)

1971        Mar 13, Rockwell Kent (b.1882), artist, illustrator and printmaker, died in New York. He was a member of the rugged realist school of landscape painters. In the 1930s he created a set of illustrations for "Moby Dick." In 1935 he authored “Salamina," a memoir of his first Arctic winter (1931–32) painting and exploring while based in the settlement of Igdlorssuit, Greenland. In 1960 he donated 80 paintings and 800 watercolors to the people of the Soviet Union.
    (WSJ, 8/15/00, p.A24)(SFC, 8/25/01, p.D12)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Rockwell_Kent)

1971        In SF a 30-foot-tall sculpture by Peter Voulkos was installed outside the “Hall of Justice." In 2011 it underwent a $35,000 refurbishment.
    (SFC, 7/16/11, p.A1)
1971        Sidney Nolan (1917-1992), Australia’s best known modernist, created a piece called “Snake." It was composed of 1,620 individual panels.
    (www.brittenpears.org/gallery/album07/rumours19Snake)(Econ, 1/29/11, p.84)

1972        Vito Acconci (b.1940), Brooklyn-based artist, created his work "Seed Bed," in which the artist masturbated under the raised gallery floor.
    (WSJ, 4/15/98, p.A20)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Vito_Acconci)
1972        Artist Michael Heizer (b.1944) began work in Nevada on his monumental earth art titled City, one of the largest sculptures ever created.
    (https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/City_%28artwork%29)(SFC, 6/12/15, p.A12)
1972        Pablo Picasso (1881-1973) drew his chilling crayon self-portrait as a skull.
    (SFC, 6/4/96, p.E5)(SFC, 7/14/96, p.C11)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pablo_Picasso)
1972        Chen Yifei (b.1946), Shanghai born artist, painted "Eulogy of the Yellow River," as China’s Yellow River dried up for the 1st time in history before reaching the Yellow Sea. From 1980 to 1996 he worked in the US and became known as the Norman Rockwell of China.
    (WSJ, 1/6/97, p.A10)(SFC, 3/4/02, p.A3)
1972        In Fort Worth, Texas, the Kimbell Museum, designed by Louis Kahn, opened.
    (WSJ, 12/17/02, p.D8)

1973        Mar 23, Yoko Ono was granted permanent residence in US.
    (SS, 3/23/02)

1973        Apr 8, Pablo Picasso (b.1881), Spanish artist, died at his home near Mougins, France, at age 91. He left some 50,000 works that included 1,885 paintings, 1,228 sculptures, 2,880 ceramics, 18,095 engravings, 6,112 lithographs, 3,181 linocuts, 7,089 drawings plus 4,669 drawings and sketches in 149 notebooks, 11 tapestries and 8 rugs. Two books of a planned 4-volume biography were published by John Richardson, who then interrupted the series in 2000 with "The Sorcerer’s Apprentice: Picasso, Provence, and Douglas Cooper." Picasso’s estate owed so much in death duties that many of his works fell into government hands. In 2007 John Richardson authored “A Life of Picasso: The Triumphant Years, 1917-1932."
    (AP, 4/8/97)(SFEC, 1/30/00, BR p.6)(SSFC, 5/20/01, p.T8)(Econ, 11/17/07, p.99)

1973        May 26, Jacques Lipchitz (b.1891), Lithuanian-born, French-US cubist sculptor, died on Capri and was buried in Jerusalem.

1973        Jul 20, Robert Smithson (b.1938), minimalist land artist, died in a plane crash in Texas while surveying a site for his Amarillo Ramp project. His work included the “Spiral Jetty" (1970) on Utah’s Great Salt Lake.
    (WSJ, 10/29/05, p.P16)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Robert_Smithson)

1973        Antonio Berni (1905-1981), Argentine artist, made his mixed media piece "La Gallina Ciega," (The Blind hen). In 1997 it sold for $607,500.
    (SFC,11/26/97, p.A9)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Antonio_Berni)
1973        In San Francisco a 27-foot-tall statue of St. Francis, created by artist Ruth Wakefield Cravath, was installed at the bus zone of Candlestick Park.
    (SFC, 1/26/15, p.A1)
1973        Salvador Dali (1904-1989), Spanish artist, painted "Portrait of Alice Cooper's Brain."
    (WSJ, 1/26/00, p.A20)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Salvador_Dal%C3%AD)
1973        Henry Darger (81), "outsider artist" and janitor, died in Chicago. He created art to illustrate his unpublished novel "The Story of the Vivian Girls, in What Is Known as the Realms of the Unreal, of the Glandeco-Angellinian War Storm." In 2002 John MacGregor authored a 720-page study of Darger. In 2003 Jessica Wu premiered her documentary film on Darger, “In the Realms of the Unreal," at Sundance.
    (SFC, 1/15/02, p.A14)(SFC, 12/18/04, p.E1)

1974        Jan 6, David Alfaro Siqueiros (b.1896), Mexican artist (muralist), died. His work included the 1933 mural "Ejercicio Plastico" (Plastic Exercise), completed in Argentina at the home of newspaper magnate Natalio Botana (d.1941). In 1994 the 650-square-foot work fell into a legal limbo.
    (SFC, 2/13/99, p.A24)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/David_Alfaro_Siqueiros)

1974        May 20, Ian Fairweather (b.1891), Scotland-born Australian artist, died. He lived for much of his life as a recluse on Bribie Island, north of Brisbane. In Murray Bail authored “Fairweather," a biography with color reproductions. The book was expanded in 2009.
    (Econ, 4/18/09, p.91)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ian_Fairweather)

1974        Oct 28, David Jones, English artist and modernist poet, died In Middlesex. In 2017 Thomas Dilworth authored “David Jones: Engraver, Soldier, Painter, Poet."
    (https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/David_Jones_(artist-poet))(Econ, 4/1/17, p.77)

1974        Antonio Henrique Amaral of Brazil painted his "Battlefield," a phalanx of menacing forks with shreds of banana.
    (WSJ, 3/17/00, p.W12)

1974        Joseph Beuys (1921-1986), German artist, created his performance piece: "I like America, and America likes Me," in which he lived with a coyote in a New York gallery for 5 days.
    (SFEC, 8/31/97, BR p.8)

1974        Jasper Johns painted his "Corpse and Mirror." In 1997 it sold for $8.3 million.
    (WSJ, 11/25/97, p.A20)

1974        Sol LeWitt (b.1928), pioneer of the Conceptual Art Movement, created his "Incomplete Open Cube."
    (WSJ, 2/28/00, p.A38)

1974        Architects Doug Michels (1943-2003) and Chip Lord, founders of the San Francisco-based Ant Farm, created "Cadillac Ranch," a sculpture of 10 planted Cadillacs, near Amarillo, Texas.
    (SSFC, 6/22/03, p.A1)(SFC, 1/9/21, p.E1)

1974        Otis Kaye (b.1885), Michigan born artist, died. He was an American artist during the early 20th century. He was known for trompe l'oeil paintings of US currency, similar to the work of William Harnett before him. In 2009 a study of his 1937 work “D’JIA-VU? (Stock Market) was published under the title “Déjà vu All Over Again: the Riddle of Otis Kaye’s Masterpiece."

1975        Jan 19, Thomas Hart Benton (b.1889), US artist, died in Kansas City, Missouri. In 2009 Henry Adams authored “Tom and Jack: The Intertwined Lives of Thomas Hart Benton and Jackson Pollock.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Thomas_Hart_Benton_(painter))(Econ, 12/12/09, p.94)

1975        Feb 24, Hans Bellmer (b.1902), German surrealist artist, died in Paris. He made paper-mache female dolls and photographed them in skewed configurations.
    (NW, 2/18/02, p.70)(www.artnet.com/Magazine/reviews/oisteanu/oisteanu3-14-05.asp)

1975        May 13, Jonas Rimsa (b.1903), Lithuania-born artist, died in Santa Monica.

1975        Jul 4, Architects Doug Michels (1943-2003) and Chip Lord, founders of the Ant Farm in SF, created the performance work "Media Burn," in which Michels drove a 1959 Cadillac Eldorado through a pyramid of 40 burning television sets. Ant Farm disbanded in 1978. In 2019 art curator Steve Seid authored "Media Burn: Ant Farm and the making of an Image."
    (SSFC, 6/22/03, p.A1)(SFC, 1/9/21, p.E1)

1975        Sep 13, Shiko Munakata (b.1903), renowned Japanese artist and printmaker, died in Tokyo from liver cancer.
    (SFC, 8/8/02, p.D9)(www.britannica.com/EBchecked/topic/397376/Munakata-Shiko)

1975        Sep 14, Rembrandt's "Nightwatch" was slashed and damaged in Amsterdam.

1975        Sep 15, Feng Zikai (b.1898), influential Chinese painter and pioneering manhua artist popular in the 1920s and 1930s, died.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Feng_Zikai)(Econ, 12/20/14, p.66)

1975        Sep 18, Fairfield Porter (b.1907), American artist, died. Much of his work was done along the Maine coastline.
    (WSJ, 9/4/03, p.D8)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Fairfield_Porter)

1975        Oct 8, Chiura Obata (b.1885), Japanese American artist, died in Berkeley, Ca. He was a faculty member in the Art Department at the University of California at Berkeley from 1932 to 1953, interrupted by World War II, when he spent over a year in internment camps.
    (SFC, 11/12/08, p.E1)(http://tinyurl.com/yzykwlg)

1976        Mar 3, Pierre Moliniere (b.1900), French artist and photographer, shot himself to death rather than face prostate surgery and a reduced sex life.
    (WSJ, 11/22/96, p.A14)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pierre_Molinier)

1976        Apr 1, Max Ernst (b.1891), German-French surrealist painter, sculptor, died in Paris.

1976        May 8, McKendree Robbins Long (b.1888), Southern gothic painter and evangelical preacher, died in North Carolina. His work included: "Apocalyptic Scene With Philosophers and Historical Figures," and "The Fifth Angel Opens the Bottomless Pit."
    (SFC, 7/6/02, p.D6)(www.tfaoi.com/aa/3aa/3aa457.htm)

1976        May 9, Harvey Fite, professor of art at Bard College, died in Saugerties, NY, while working on his multi-acre Opus 40 landscape sculpture. In 2010 the 37-year project was listed for sale for $3.5 million.
    (SFC, 3/22/10, p.A4)

1976        Nov 11, Alexander Calder (78), US sculptor, died. He invented the mobile as a new format for sculpture. He also designed toys, jewelry, some wallpaper and decorated DC-8s for Braniff Airlines. David Bourdon (d.1998 at 63) wrote a study of Calder in 1980.
    (SFC, 11/15/97, p.C1,6)(SFC, 4/4/98, p.A24)(MC, 11/11/01)

1976        Nov 18, Man Ray (b.1890), American Dada artist, died in Paris. He was born as Emmanuel Radnitzky in Philadelphia and spent much of his time in France.  He fled to the United States from France during World War II and returned to Paris in the early 1950s where he lived until his death. His relationship with photographer Lee Miller inspired both his painting and her photography.
    (WSJ, 12/2/96, p.A16)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Man_Ray)(SFC, 7/14/12, p.E2)

1976        Romare Bearden created the monotype "Vampin (Piney Brown Blues)," with watercolor additions. A monotype refers to a painting made on a nonabsorbent surface that is transferred by a press onto a one time print.
    (SFEC, 6/15/97, BR p.7)
1976        In California Bulgarian artist Christo Javacheff created his artwork "Running Fence," a 24.5-mile-long white nylon fence/curtain draped across Marin and Sonoma counties. The fence cost $3 million and lasted for 2 weeks.
    (SFEC, 3/1/98, p.A16)(SFC, 3/13/99, p.A24)

1976        Claes Oldenburg (b.1929), Swedish-born American artist, constructed a 41-foot "Trowel I" for the Kroller-Muller Museum in the Netherlands by. He also made "Typewriter Eraser."
    (Smith., Aug. 1995, p.82)(SFC, 10/26/96, p.B1)

1976        A 45-foot-tall, giant steel "Clothespin" was constructed at the Plaza of the City Hall of Philadelphia by Claes Oldenburg. He made his graphic "Soft Screw in Waterfall."
    (Smith., Aug. 1995, p.83)(SFC, 9/1/97, p.E4)(SFEC, 10/5/97, BR p.4)

1976        Ernst Kitzinger (1912-2003), a foremost historian of Byzantine, early Christian and early medieval art, authored "Byzantine Art in the Making."
    (SFC, 2/10/03, p.B4)

1977        Apr 29, Donald Evans (b.1945), American artist, died in a fire in the Netherlands. His work included the creation of postage stamp series for imaginary countries.
    (WSJ, 2/5/03, p.D10)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Donald_Evans_(artist))

1977        Jul 22, The Chinese painter, Pan Yu-liang (b.1895), died in Paris. The 1997 biographical film "The Painter" (La Peintre) was based on her biography by Shi Nan.
    (www.chinadaily.com.cn/photo/2006-11/14/content_732470.htm)(SFC, 8/20/97, p.A1)

1977        Jul 27, Lee Miller (b.1907), American photographer, died of cancer in Sussex, England. As a young woman in Paris she moved in with Man Ray, American-born surrealist painter and photographer. In 2005 Carolyn Burke authored “Lee Miller: A Life."
    (Econ, 12/3/05, p.81)(http://tinyurl.com/9zcyr)

1977        Oct 26, James Castle (b.1899), Idaho-born self-taught deaf artist, died in Boise.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/James_Charles_Castle)(SFC, 2/27/10, p.E3)

1977        Artist Walter De Maria (1935-2013) created “The Lightning Field," a land-art piece in New Mexico consisting of 400 polished stainless steel poles arranged in a rectangular array 1 km long and 1 mile wide. It was later considered a key creation in the Earthworks movement.
    (SFC, 7/29/13, p.C3)

1978        May 31, Hanna Hoch (b.1889), German photomontage artist of the Berlin Dada movement, died. Her work included "Cut With the Kitchen Knife Dada Through the Last Weimar Beer-Belly Epoch of Germany," (1919-1920).
    (SFC, 3/25/97, p.E3)(SSFC, 1/27/02, p.C7)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hannah_H%C3%B6ch)

1978        Aug 21, Charles Eames (1907-1978), an American polymath artist, died. Together with his wife he designed numerous objects, furniture and made more than 75 films.
    (SFC, 6/6/96, E1)(www.eamesoffice.com/index2.php?mod=intro)

1978        Nov 8, Norman Rockwell (b.1894), American artist, died. He had created nearly 4,000 illustrations that included 321 covers for the Saturday Evening Post. In 2013 Deborah Solomon authored “American Mirror: The Life and Art of Norman Rockwell."
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Norman_Rockwell)(SFEC, 9/29/96, T10,11)(SSFC, 11/17/13, p.F5)

1978        The "Seated Woman" by American artist John De Andrea (b.1941) was nude, made of polyvinyl and utterly realistic.
    (TL, 1988, p.119)(www.artmolds.com/ali/halloffame/john_deandrea.htm)

1978        Hannah Wilke (1940-1993), NYC-born American artist, began creating her performance art piece "So Help Me Hannah." It featured her nude before a camera in a variety of dance-like poses.
    (WSJ, 10/21/96, p.A18)(www.artnet.com/artist/17886/hannah-wilke.html)

1978        Italian artist Luigi Serafini, after 30 months of work, completed his Codex Seraphinianus, an illustrated encyclopedia dealing with a parallel world and written in an unintelligible alphabet.

1978        Edwin Dickinson (b.1891), American painter, died in Wellfleet, Mass. His work included "The Cello Player" (1924-1926).
    (SFC, 12/4/00, p.B1)

1979        May, Peter Ompir (b.1904), American folk artist born as Charles Burns, died.
    (SFC, 1/17/07, p.G2)(http://tinyurl.com/32co6m)

1979        Chris Burden (b.1946) made his work "The Big Wheel," in which a motorcycle powers a huge flywheel that enacts the artist’s drive to magnify himself. This was after he had shot, shocked, impaled and cut himself for attention.
    (SFC, 2/10/98, p.E4)

1979        Richard Diebenkorn (1922-1993) painted his "Ocean Park No. 116."
    (SFC, 10/9/97, p.E1)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Richard_Diebenkorn)

1979        Roy Lichtenstein (1923-1997), American pop artist, began his "Double Glass" sculpture and finished it in 1980.
    (SFEM, 11/24/96, p.46)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Roy_Lichtenstein)

1979        Marta Minujin (b.1943), Argentine artist, made her monumental "The Obelisk of Raising Bread." It was made of 40,000 panetone and was later distributed to the crowd.
    (WSJ, 4/15/98, p.A20)

1980        May 29, J. Turner’s 1836 painting "Juliet & Her Nurse" sold for $6,400,000 in NYC.

1980        Jun 7, Philip Guston (b.1913), painter and printmaker, died. He was born in Montreal as Phillip Goldstein became recognized as a lesser master of the first generation New York School of abstraction. He quit abstract painting in 1967 and confined himself to drawing. His work included "Back View" (1977).
    (SFC, 1/15/98, p.E5)(SFC, 6/28/03, p.D1)(Econ, 5/10/08, p.96)

1980        Jun 23, Clifford Still (b.1904), abstract expressionist artist, died. In 2011 a museum dedicated to his work opened in Denver.
    (SFC, 3/30/02, p.D1)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Clyfford_Still)(SFC, 11/22/11, p.A8)

1980        Lyman Byxbe (b.1886), print maker, died. He established a reputation in Old Estes, Colorado, with his copperplate etchings of western scenes.
    (SSFC, 4/23/05, p.E7)(http://tinyurl.com/bwvvn)

1981        Sep 5, Aime Maeght (b.1906), French painter and art dealer, died. In 1964 he and his wife founded the Marguerite and Aime Maeght Foundation in honor of a son lost to leukemia in the 1950s.
    (http://tinyurl.com/kqt5ow2)(Econ, 7/26/14, p.71)

1981        Nov 3, H.C. Westermann (b.1922), sculptor, died. His work, which included "Memorial to the Idea of Man if He Was an Idea" (1958), was laced with dark humor.
    (WSJ, 4/18/02, p.D7)(http://tinyurl.com/3dxl4t)

1981        Nov 18, Achilles G. Rizzoli (b.1896), SF architectural visionary, died. He created a 2,600 page illustrated philosophical tract. The first book on his art by Jo Farb Hernandez, John Beardsley and Roger Cardinal was published in 1997: "A.G. Rizzoli: Architect of Magnificent Visions." His apparent architectural drawings were "symbolizations" of people he knew.
    (www.popsubculture.com/pop/bio_project/a_g_rizzoli.html)(SFEC, 3/22/98, DB p.9)(SFEC, 4/12/98, p.D5)(SFC, 9/7/13, p.C1)

1981        Willem de Kooning (1904-1997), Netherlands born artist, painted his work Pirate (Untitled II). In 1995 he created his work "Untitled XLII," a time when his mental facilities began to waiver.
    (www.moma.org/exhibitions/1997/dekooning/selected/pirate.html)(SFC, 11/12/02, p.D1)

1982        Jul 29, It was announced that the painting "Gallery of the Louvre" by Samuel Morse (1791-1872) had sold for $3,250,000.

1982        Sep 11, Wilfredo Lam (b.1902), Cuban artist, died in Paris, France. He is best known for “The Jungle" (1943), later acquired by NYC’s MOMA.
    (WSJ, 4/29/08, p.D7)

1983        Jasper Johns painted his autobiographical picture "Racing Thoughts." It was done from the vantage point of inside a bathtub inspired by a 1938 painting by Frida Kahlo.
    (WSJ, 10/17/96, p.A20)(SFEC, 9/28/97, BR p.5)

1983        Willem de Kooning painted his "Untitled II." It is on display at the SF Museum of Modern Art. [2nd source puts the date at 1986] he also created his work "Untitled XLII" this year, a time when his mental facilities began to waiver.
    (SF E&C, 1/15/1995, SFE Mag. p.21)(SFC, 11/12/02, p.D1)

1983        Eugene Von Bruenchenhein (b.1910), commercial bakery worker, died In Milwaukee, Wis. He was also a prolific artist but never exhibited any of his work.
    (NYT, 10/8/04, p.B35)

1983        Zhang Daqian (b.1899), Chinese painter, died. He had imitated the style of the old masters.
    (SFC, 2/6/04, p.D2)

1984        Apr 22, Ansel Adams (b.1902), US photographer, died in Monterey, Ca. He was best known for his black and white photographs of California's Yosemite Valley. He founded the group f/64 and redefined the aesthetic standards and possibilities of landscape photography.

1984        A tapestry depicting Pablo Picasso's "Guernica," commissioned in 1955 by Nelson A. Rockefeller, was loaned to the UN and adorned the wall at the entrance to the 15-nation Security Council chamber at the UN's New York headquarters. In 2021 Rockefeller's son, Nelson A. Rockefeller Jr. "notified the UN of his intention to retrieve it," and said the tapestry was returned in early February.
    (CBS News, 2/26/21)
1984        A 60-by-13-foot tile mural was created by Romare Beardon for a Pittsburgh subway station. In 2008 the mural was valued at $15 million as the station faced demolition.
    (WSJ, 4/25/08, p.A2)
1984        The Turner Prize in art was initiated by the Tate Gallery's Patrons of New Art. The members included Charles Saatchi. Malcolm Morley was the first winner. It established in honor of 19th-century J. M. W. Turner, who had long wished to set up an award for younger artists.
    (WSJ, 12/1/99, p.A24)(AFP, 12/3/13)

1985        Mar 28, Marc Chagall (b.1887), Belarus-born French painter, died. In 2008 Jackie Wullschlager authored “Chagall: A Biography."
    (www.artelino.com/articles/marc_chagall.asp)(Econ, 9/20/08, p.101)

1985        Christo wrapped the 12 arches of Pont-Neuf in Paris with some 450,000 square-feet of fabric. The project cost some $3.5 million.
    (SFC, 3/2/97, p.E4)(SSFC, 2/13/05, p.A10)

1986        Jan 23, Joseph Beuys (b.1921), German artist, died. In 1997 an English edition of "The Essential Joseph Beuys" by Alain Borer was published.
    (http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/Joseph_Beuys)(SFEC, 8/31/97, BR p.8)

1986        Mar 6, Georgia O'Keefe (98), US painter (Flowers), died in Santa Fe, NM.
    (SSFC, 6/22/03, p.C8)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Georgia_O'Keeffe)

1986        Aug 5, It was revealed that Andrew Wyeth secretly created 240 drawings and paintings of his neighbor Helga Testorf, in Chadds Ford, Pa.

1986        Aug 31, Henry Moore (b.1898), English sculptor and cartoonist, died. In 1998 John Hedgecoe published "A Monumental Vision: The Sculpture of Henry Moore."
    (SFEC, 7/19/98, BR p.9)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Henry_Moore)

1986        Francis Bacon (1909-1992), Anglo-Irish painter, made his painting "Portrait of George Dyer Talking."
    (SFC, 6/11/99, p.C3)

1986        Lazar Khidekel (b.1904), Russian artist and architect, died. He sustained a radical utopian vision and avant-garde aesthetic during decades of Soviet control of cultural production.
    (SFC, 2/22/05, p.E1)

1987        Feb 22, Pop artist Andy Warhol (b.1928) died at a New York City hospital at age 58. His parents belonged to the Carpatho-Rusyns ethnic group. David Bourdon wrote a study of Warhol in 1989. In 1994 the Andy Warhol Museum opened in Pittsburgh, where he was born.
    (WSJ, 4/26/96, p.A-1)(SFC, 4/4/98, p.A24)(AP, 2/22/99)(SFEC, 8/13/00, p.T11)

1987        Mar 30, Vincent Van Gogh's "Sunflowers" was bought for $39.85 million. The Vincent van Gogh painting "Sunflowers" was presented by art teacher Claude-Emile Schuffenecker at a 1901 Paris exhibition. It sold in 1987 for $40.3 million to the Yasuda Fire and Marine Insurance Co. and was reported in 1997 to be a possible fake. Van Gogh’s letters refer to only 6 paintings of sunflowers, and the Yasuda painting is a seventh.
    (SFC, 10/27/97, p.D4)(HN, 3/30/98)

1988        Mar 12, Romare Bearden (b.1911), North Carolina-born African American artist, died in NY. He depicted black culture and history and transferred his collages to prints using a variety of techniques. In 2004 Jan Greenberg authored "Romare Bearden: Collage of Memories."
    (SFC, 3/24/04, p.E1)(www.courses.vcu.edu/ENG-mam/bio5.htm)

1988        Apr 17, Louise Nevelson, the Russian-born sculptor who became one of the world's best-known women artists, died in New York at the age of 88.
    (AP, 4/17/98)

1988        Apr 25, Lygia Clark (b.1920), Brazilian artist, died in Rio de Janeiro. She was often associated with the Brazilian Constructivist movements of the mid-20th century and the Tropicalia movement.
    (https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Lygia_Clark)(Econ, 10/22/16, p.75)

1988        May 2, Jackson Pollock's "Search" sold for $4,800,000.
    (MC, 5/2/02)

1988        May 10, Edgar Degas' "Danseresie of 14" sold for $10,120,000.
    (MC, 5/10/02)

1988        Oct 5, Grandma Prisbrey, born as Thresie (Tressa) Luella Schaefer (1896), died in California. During her life she constructed her bottle village in Simi Valley including 3 bottle structures to house her collection of 17,000 pencils. In 1981 the site was named a California State Historical Landmark and in 1996 was added to the National Register of Historic Places.
    (WSJ, 10/21/08, p.D9)(www.agilitynut.com/h/prisbrey.html)

1988        Dec 30, Isamu Noguchi (b.1904), Japanese-American sculptor, died. Noguchi designed sets for choreographer Martha Graham for 40 years. “We are a landscape of all we have seen." In 1997 Hiro Narita made a film of the artist for PBS: "Isamu Noguchi: Stones and Paper."
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Isamu_Noguchi)(http://tinyurl.com/l5yw4ov)(WSJ, 1/4/05, p.D8)

1988        Wilys de Castro (b.1926), Brazilian artist, died in Sao Paulo.
1988        Margaret Mee, artist and naturalist, died. She had recently completed her painting of the night-bloomer Selenicereus within in the Amazon jungle. In 1999 an exhibit of her 30 years of jungle artwork was put on display at the Smithsonian National Museum of Natural History.
    (SFC, 5/29/99, p.A7)
1988        In Brazil Mira Schendel (b.1919), a Swiss-born artist and the mother of Brazil’s minimalist geometric tradition, died.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mira_Schendel)(Econ, 6/7/14, p.89)

1989        Bruce Conner (1933-2008) created his lithograph collage "Bombhead."
    (SFEM, 5/28/00, p.17)(SFC, 5/4/09, p.E3)
1989        A painting of the US flag by Jasper Johns (b.1930) sold at auction for $12.1 million. This was one of a series that he began in 1954. In 2010 another of his “Flag" paintings, owned since 1974 by writer Michael Crichton (1942-2008), went on auction.
    (www.metmuseum.org/toah/hd/john/hd_john.htm)(SFC, 2/9/10, p.E45)
1989        Jay DeFeo, SF artist, died. Her work "The Rose" weighed a ton and in 1965 was moved out of a house and later to the SF Art Institute where it languished for 26 years.
    (SFEC, 10/13/96, DB p.8)
1989        Artist Louis Bassi Siegriest (b.1889), died. He was a member of the Oakland-based Society of Six, known for their plein air paintings. The other members included Maurice George Logan (1886-1971), William Henry Clapp (1879-1954), August Francois Gay (1891-1949), Selden Conner Gile (1877-1947) and Bernard James von Eichman (1899-1970).
    (SFC, 1/20/11, p.C6)(www.tfaoi.com/aa/2aa/2aa660.htm)
1988        In Brazil Mira Schendel (b.1919), a Swiss-born artist and the mother of Brazil’s minimalist geometric tradition, died.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mira_Schendel)(Econ, 6/7/14, p.89)

1990        Feb 7, Judith Clancy (b.1950), artist, died of cancer.
    (FineArts, Fall, 04/05)

1990        Mar 18, There was a theft of art work from the Isabella Stewart Gardner Museum in Boston. 2 men dressed as policemen made off with masterworks that included Rembrandt’s "The Storm on the Sea of Galilee," Vermeer’s "The Concert," Manet’s "Chez Tortoni," and 5 paintings and drawings by Edgar Degas and a 1200 BC Chinese bronze beaker valued at $300 million. The theft led Sen. Edward Kennedy to sponsor the museum theft provision of the 1994 Omnibus Crime Act. In 2009 Ulrich Boser authored “The Gardner Heist." In 2013 the FBI said it knows who stole the artwork but withheld the identity of the thieves.
    (WSJ, 8/9/96, p.A8)(WSJ, 5/13/97, p.A21)(SFC, 8/26/97, p.A3)(SFC, 12/15/97, p.A3)(WSJ, 2/20/09, p.W10)(SFC, 2/19/13, p.A6)

1990        Aug 13, Alejandro Otero (b.1921), Venezuelan painter of Geometric abstraction, a sculptor, a writer and a cultural promoter, died in Caracas.

1990        Nov 3, The Kryptos sculpture, created by sculptor Jim Sanborn, was dedicated in the courtyard of the CIA headquarters in Virginia.
    (SSFC, 11/21/10, p.A16)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Kryptos)

1991        Feb 13, Arno Breker (90), German sculptor (Third Reich), died in Dusseldorf.

1991        Jun 24, Rufino Tamayo (b.1899), a Zapotecan Indian artist born in the Mexican state of Oaxaca, died in Mexico City. His painting “Tres Personajes," sold in 1977 to a Houston couple for $55,000, was stolen in 1987. In 2003 it was found amongst street trash on Manhattan’s Upper West Side.
    (SFC, 10/24/07, p.E3)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Rufino_Tamayo)

1991        Jul 16, Robert Motherwell (76), US painter (Elegies to Spanish Rep), died.
    (MC, 7/16/02)

1991        Jul 16, Robert Motherwell (b.1915), US painter (Elegies to Spanish Rep), died.

1991        Magdalena Abakanowicz made her sculpture: "Bronze Crowd," 36 headless, hollow, life-size men in a double file.
    (WSJ, 1/9/97, p.A8)(www.abakanowicz.art.pl/bibliog.html)
1991        Christo created his "Umbrellas" sculpture that lasted 3 weeks. 1,760 yellow umbrellas were unfurled north of Los Angeles and another 1,340 blue ones in Ibaraki, Japan.
    (SFC, 3/2/97, p.E4)(SSFC, 2/13/05, p.A10)
1991        Russian sculptor Zurab Tsereteli built a colossal statue of Christopher Columbus, titled "Birth of a New World," to commemorate the 500th anniversary of Columbus' 1492 arrival in the Western Hemisphere. Several US cities including New York, Miami and Baltimore refused to accept it for reasons ranging from cost to appearance. Puerto Rico accepted the statue as a gift in 1998, using $2.4 million in public funds to bring it to the island after a former mayor envisioned it as the main attraction for Catano, a seaside suburb of San Juan. But officials said it would block airplane flight paths while residents protested plans to demolish homes to make room for it. In 2008 it was placed in storage in Mayaguez. In 2011 San Juan Mayor Jorge Santini said he would consider setting up the statue somewhere in Puerto Rico’s capital. It was unveiled in 2016.
    (AP, 8/20/11)(Econ, 9/10/16, p.45)

1992        Jul 22, David Wojnarowicz (b.1954), American painter, photographer, writer, filmmaker, performance artist, and AIDS activist, died AIDS. He was prominent in the New York City art world.
    (https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/David_Wojnarowicz)(Econ, 3/19/15, p.91)

1992        Oct 30, Joan Mitchell (b.1925), American pastel artist, died. In 2011 Patricia Albers authored “Joan Mitchell: Lady Painter, A Life."
    (SFC, 3/31/97, p.E6)(SSFC, 5/29/11, p.G5)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Joan_Mitchell)

1992        In NYC the first annual Outsider Art Fair was held at the Puck Building.

1992        Robert Arneson (b.1930), Bay Area ceramic artist and sculptor, died. His "Yin and Yang" was installed across from the SF Ferry Building in 2003.
    (SFEM, 2/23/97, p.6)(SFC, 2/23/02, p.D1)

1992        Francis Bacon (b.1909), British artist, died. In 1997 his biography was written by Michael Peppiatt: Francis Bacon: Anatomy of an Enigma. Bacon’s studio was later dismantled and replicated in Dublin. In 2001 John Edwards, Bacon’s companion, wrote a brief memoir accompanied by photos of the studio: "7 Reece Mews: Francis Bacon’s Studio."
    (SFEC, 8/17/97, BR p.6)(SSFC, 10/28/01, p.R6)

1993        Mar, 30, Richard Diebenkorn (b.1922), SF Bay Area artist, died. He moved between figuration and abstraction when the two modes were widely thought to be inimical. In 2012 his 1971 painting “Ocean Park #48" fetched $13.5 million.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Richard_Diebenkorn)(SFEC, 9/28/97, DB p.36)(SFC, 10/9/97, p.E1,6)(Econ, 11/24/12, p.69)

1993        May 10, A Paul Cezanne still life sold for $28,600,000 in NYC.
    (MC, 5/10/02)

1993        May 20, Max Klein (77), inventor of paint by numbers, died.
    (MC, 5/20/02)

1994        Feb 5, Ben Enwonwu (b.1917), Nigeria's most celebrated 20th Century visual artist, died in Lagos.
    (https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ben_Enwonwu)(AP, 10/9/20)

1994        May 7, Norway's most famous painting, "The Scream," by Edvard Munch, was recovered almost three months after it was stolen from an Oslo museum.
    (AP, 5/7/99)

1995        In Germany Christo and his wife, Jeanne-Claude, wrapped the Reichstag with over 1 million square feet of silvery polypropylene fabric, secured with over 51,000 feet of polypropylene rope. The project cost some $13 million.
    (SFC, 11/17/98, p.E5)(SSFC, 2/13/05, p.A10)

1995        Lucian Freud created his painting “Benefits Supervisor Sleeping." In 2008 it was auctioned for $33.6 million, making him the most expensive living artist.
    (WSJ, 5/17/08, p.W2)

1995        Bob Ross (52), American landscape artist, died. His TV show "The Joy of Painting" was taped for 11 years until 1993. Reruns continued through 2004.
    (WSJ, 4/2/04, p.A1)

1996        Jan 9, Felix Gonzalez-Torres (b.1957), Cuba-born artist, died in Miami of AIDS related complications. He was known for his quiet, minimal installations and sculptures. He was selected posthumously to be the official American representative to the 2007 Venice Bienalle.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/F%C3%A9lix_Gonz%C3%A1lez-Torres)(Econ, 9/24/11, p.105)

1996        Jul 20, A new sculpture museum was scheduled to open in Copan National Park, Honduras, with exhibits of Mayan work.
    (Nat. Hist., 4/96, p.25)

1996        David Flavin (b.1933), artist, died.
    (SFC, 11/8/03, p.D10)

1997        Feb, In Italy Klimt’s “Portrait of a Lady" went missing from Ricci-Oddi modern art gallery. In 2019 the painting was found stashed within the walls of the gallery. The painting gained notoriety the year before its disappearance when a young art student discovered that it was Klimt's only 'double' portrait, with the visible painting completed on top of another, 'Portrait of a Young Lady', which had not been seen since 1912.
    (The Telegraph, 12/11/19)

1997        Mar 6, A gunman stole "Tete de Femme," a million-dollar Picasso portrait, from a London gallery. A week later, the painting was recovered and two suspects arrested.
    (AP, 3/6/98)

1997        Mar 7, In Australia it was disclosed that the reputed Aboriginal painter Eddie Burrup was actually 82-year-old Elizabeth Durack.
    (SFC, 3/8/96, p.A11)

1997        Mar 15, An art show that featured 13 oil paintings by Dr. Kevorkian opened in Royal Oak, Mich. They depicted severed heads, moldering skulls and rotting corpses.
    (SFC, 3/17/97, p.A2)

1997        Mar 19, Willem de Kooning (b.1904), Dutch-born abstract painter, considered to be one of the 20th century's greatest painters, died in East Hampton, N.Y. He had arrived in America as a stowaway in 1926. In 2004 Mark Stevens and Annalyn Swan authored “de Kooning: An American Master."
    (SFC, 3/20/97, p.A1,6,E1)(AP, 3/19/98)(WSJ, 11/23/04, p.D11)

1997        Sep 29, Roy Lichtenstein (b. 10/28/23), American pop artist, died at age 73 in New York.
    (SFC, 9/30/97, p.A7)

1997        Dec 16, Ralph Fasanella (b.1914), American artist, died. His work focused on 20th century immigration and labor themes.
    (SFC, 3/4/11, p.C7)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ralph_Fasanella)

1997        Robert Colescott painted his aquatint "Pontchartrain."
    (SFC, 1/29/98, p.C1)
1997        San Francisco artist Brian Goggin created his work “Defenstration," featuring furniture hung as if falling form the Hugo Hotel at Sixth and Howard. The hotel, built in 1909, had closed in 1988 due to a fire. The project was deconstructed in 2014 to make way for new housing.
    (SFC, 4/4/13, p.D1)(SFC, 6/4/14, p.E1)
1997        Gordon Newell, sculptor (92), completed his 9-ton granite that depicts the "flowing waters of the fountain of life" in Darwin, CA. near Death Valley.
    (SFEC, 6/8/97, Z1 p.5)
1997        Frank Stella painted "Telepilus Laestrygonia II."
    (SFC, 3/5/96, p.E5)

1998        Feb 16, The 66-foot “Angel of the North" sculpture by Antony Gormley was completed in Gateshead, Tyne and Wear, England.
    (Econ, 6/6/15, p.46)

1998        Mar 12, Beatrice Wood, ceramist, died at age 105. She was called "Mama of Dada" for her liaisons with Marcel Duchamp, Henri-Pierre Roche and others associated with the Dada movement of the early 20th century. A 1993 documentary was made titled: "Beatrice Wood: The Mama of Dada."
    (SFC, 3/14/98, p.A19)

1998        May 3, "The Sevres Road," by landscape painter Jean-Baptiste Camille Corot, was stolen from the Louvre.
    (AP, 5/3/99)

1998        Jun 20, Hanna “Kali" Weynerowska (100), a San Francisco-based Polish artist, died. In 1988 she had bequeathed 78 artworks to a Polish government museum in Switzerland, but they soon disappeared. In 2014 75 of her original works were found in Santa Rosa and shipped to Rapperswil, Switzerland.
    (SFC, 4/12/14, p.A1)(http://tinyurl.com/mzjt2v3)

1999        May 16, The 1956 Picasso painting, "Woman Nude Before Garden," was slashed by a mental patient in Amsterdam's Stedelijk Museum.
    (WSJ, 2/16/99, p.A20)

1999        The "Pax Jerusalem" sculpture by Mark di Suvero was acquired by SF and set outside the California Palace of the Legion of Honor.
    (SFC, 12/23/02, p.D1)

1999        Louise Bourgeois (87), French-born English artist, created his nine meter (30 feet) high and wide spider. It was made of bronze, stainless steel and marble and named Maman in tribute to the artist's mother. It initially went on display at the Tate Modern art gallery.
    (Reuters, 10/3/07)

2000        Feb 19, Friedensreich Hundertwasser (b.1928), Austrian architect and artist, died. "If man walks in nature's midst, then he is nature's guest and must learn to behave as a well-brought-up guest," shortened a bit in popular literature to “You are a guest of Nature. Behave."

2000        Jun 3, Leonard Baskin (b.1922), American artist, writer and teacher, died. His work included paintings, sculptures, woodcuts and etchings.
    (SFEC, 7/23/00, DB p.36)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Leonard_Baskin)

2000        Jun 9, George Segal (b.1924), sculptor and painter, died at his home in south Brunswick, N.J., at age 75.
    (SFC, 6/10/00, p.A23)

2000        German artist Wolfgang Tillmans (b.1968) won the Turner Prize, becoming the first non-British artist to do so.
    (https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Wolfgang_Tillmans)(Econ, 2/11/17, p.73)
2000        Johnnie Lee Gray (58), self taught African-American painter from Spartanburg SC, died. His paintings included "The Revolution: We Shall Overcome."
    (WSJ, 12/3/02, p.D4)

2001        Feb 18, Balthus (b.1908), painter aka Count Balthazar Klossowski de Rola, died at age 92 in Switzerland. In 2002 His memoir "Vanished Splendors," as told by Alain Vircondolet, was published.
    (SFC, 2/21/01, p.A18)(AP, 2/18/02)(SSFC, 1/12/03, p.M3)

2001        Apr 21, Claude Clark (b.1915), African American painter and printmaker, died in Oakland, Ca., following a long illness. He was a nationally renowned artist and teacher. Clark wrote the first curriculum for African and African American art, shortly after he began a 13-year stint at Merritt College in Oakland.
    (SFC, 2/4/08, p.D1)(www.highbeam.com/doc/1P1-79520788.html)

2001        E.H. Gombrich, art historian, died. His work included "The Story of Art." In 2002 his work "The Preference for the Primitive" was published.
    (WSJ, 11/26/02, p.D8)

2002        Feb 15, Peter Voulkos (b.1924), ceramic artist, died in bowling Green, Ohio.

2002        Apr 16, Paul Georges (77), American artist, died in Normandy, France. His work included "Diana and Actaeon" (1987-1988).
    (SFC, 4/30/02, p.A24)

2002        Aug 14, Larry Rivers (78), pop artist pioneer, died in Southampton, N.Y.
    (AP, 8/14/03)

2002        Sep 8, Pop Zhao, a SF artist, organized volunteers to drape 3 miles of US flags along the SF coastline in an artistic display of patriotism, remembrance and strength.
    (SFC, 9/9/02, p.A12)

2002        Nov 22, “Cupid’s Span," a sculpture by Claes Oldenburg and his wife Coosje van Bruggen (d.2009 at 66), was set on the Embarcadero at the foot of the Bay Bridge.
    (SFC, 11/23/02, p.A1)(SFC, 1/20/09, p.B5)
2002        Nov 22, Amilcar de Castro (82), Brazilian sculptor, died. His work was composed from massive sheets of iron.
    (SFC, 12/3/02, p.A24)

2002        Nov 23, Chilean artist Roberto Echaurren Matta (91), a master of surrealist painting and sculpture, died at a hospital near Rome. His work included “Mirror of Cronos" (1998).
    (AP, 11/24/02)(Econ, 7/19/14, p.32)

2002        Dec 8, Painter and sculptor Keith Tyson, whose playful artwork is inspired by scientific theories and often ponders the role of computers in the modern world, won Britain's prestigious Turner Prize.
    (AP, 12/9/02)

2002        In Fort Worth, Texas, the Modern Art Museum, designed by Tadao Ando, opened.
    (WSJ, 12/17/02, p.D8)

2003        Jan 19, Alfredo Zalce (b.1908), Mexican revolutionary artist, died.

2003        Apr 25, Lynn Chadwick (88), British sculptor, died. He created expressionistic works in welded iron and bronze.
    (SFC, 5/9/03, p.A22)

2003        Jun 2, Felix de Weldon (b.1907), Austria-born American sculptor, died in Virginia. His most famous piece is the Marine Corps War Memorial at Arlington cemetery of five U.S. Marines and one sailor raising the flag of the United States on Iwo Jima during World War Two.

2003        Jun 20, Moshe Kupferman (77), leading Israeli abstract artist, died in Tel Aviv.
    (SFC, 6/24/03, p.A21)

2003        Nov 9, Gordon Onslow (90), abstract painter, died in Inverness, Ca.
    (SFC, 11/13/03, p.A19)

2003        Nov 28, It was reported that British artist Damien Hirst, winner of the 1995 Turner Prize, had paid Charles Saatchi some $15 million to buy back about 12 of his earlier works.
    (SFC, 11/28/03, p.I21)

2003        Dec 7, Grayson Perry (43), British artist, was named winner of the 20th annual Turner Prize. He decorated ceramic vases with disturbing images and texts.
    (SFC, 12/9/03, p.D8)

2004        Jan 31, Harold Shapinsky (b.1925), abstract expressionist painter, died in Rockville.
    (SFC, 2/9/04, p.B4)

2004        May 5, A 1905 painting by Pablo Picasso titled 'Garcon a la pipe' (Boy with a Pipe) sold for a record $104 million at Sotheby's in NYC.
    (AP, 5/5/04)(WSJ, 5/11/04, p.A18)

2004        May 15, Yang Shen-sum (92), a Chinese artist who was a master of the Lingnan school of painting, died in Hong Kong. He had moved to Canada in 1988 and was in Hong Kong on a visit.
    (AP, 5/16/04)

2004        May 24, A fire in London hit an art storage warehouse and is believed to have destroyed works by some 100 contemporary Young British artists (YBAs) worth millions of dollars, including part of a collection owned by former advertising guru Charles Saatchi.
    (AP, 5/26/04)(Econ, 5/29/04, p.58)

2004        Aug 22, In Oslo, Norway, armed men stormed into the Munch Museum, threatened staff at gunpoint and stole 2 of Edvard Munch's famous paintings, "The Scream" and "Madonna" before the eyes of stunned museum-goers. Another of 4 versions of “The Scream" was stolen in 1994. Police recovered both paintings in 2006. In 2007 3 men were sentenced to prison for their roles in the heist. The 3 were ordered to pay a total of $262 million in compensation.
    (AP, 8/22/04)(WSJ, 8/24/04, p.A1)(SFC, 9/1/06, p.A2)(SFC, 4/24/07, p.D6)

2004        Dec 17, Tom Wesselman (73), NYC pop artist, died. He was known for his “bedroom still lifes."
    (SFC, 12/21/04, p.B7)

2004        Elena Votsi, Greek artist, designed the 2004 Olympic medal. It was the 1st re-design in 76 years.
    (AM, 7/04, p.25)(http://olympic-museum.de/w_medals/wmed2004.htm)

2004        Scott Greene, Albuquerque artist, created his painting “Stay the Course," a not-so-veiled reference to the US ship of state.
    (SFC, 1/15/05, p.E10)

2005        Feb 12, Christo and Jeanne-Claude opened their NYC Central Park Gates project. The $20 million, 16-day exhibit featured 7,532 fabric draped steel gates spanning 23 miles.
    (SSFC, 2/13/05, p.A1)

2005        Apr 22, Eduardo Paolozzi (b.1924), sculptor and printmaker, died. In 1952 he helped form an association of British artists called The Independent Group. Paolozzi, born in Scotland of Italian parents, became known as a key contributor to British pop art.
    (SSFC, 5/1/05, p.A23)(Econ, 4/30/05, p.82)

2005        In Japan the Chim Pom collective of 6 artists began creating guerrilla art, blurring the distinction between art and activism. The majority of their work has been documented on a series of popular and bestselling DVDs.
    (Econ, 3/10/12, p.98)(www.virtualjapan.com/wiki/Chim_Pom)

2006        Jan 29, Nam June Paik (74), avant-garde Korean-American artist, died in Miami, Florida. He is credited with inventing video art in the 1960s by combining multiple TV screens with sculpture, music and live performers. In a 1974 report commissioned by the Rockefeller Foundation, Paik wrote of a telecommunications network of the future he called the "Electronic Super Highway," predicting it "will become our springboard for new and surprising human endeavors."
    (AP, 1/30/06)(http://americanart.si.edu/collections/search/artist/?id=3670)

2006        Jun 13, Luis Jimenez (b.1940), Chicago sculptor, was killed in Hondo, New Mexico, while hoisting pieces of a massive mustang for final assembly. The work was installed at the Denver Airport in February, 2008.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Luis_Jim%C3%A9nez_(sculptor))(SFC, 6/27/06, p.E2) (WSJ, 2/7/08, p.A1)

2006        Aug 26, Vladimir Tretchikoff (92), Manchurian-born artist, died in Cape Town. In 2013 his iconic painting "Chinese Girl," said to be one of the most reproduced in the world, sold at auction for 982,050 British pounds (nearly $1.5 million).
    (AP, 3/21/13)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Vladimir_Tretchikoff)

2006        Sep 2, In Nevada’s Black Rock Desert the Burning Man art festival culminated with the burning of a 40-foot wooden man. It included a Belgian art installation titled “Uchronia" (aka the Belgian Waffle), a 250,000, 15-story wooden cavern funded by Jan Kriekels and constructed by 90 Belgium artists.
    (SSFC, 9/3/06, p.B1)

2006        Sep 11, The memorial statue titled, 'To the Struggle Against World Terrorism', by Russian artist Zurab Tsereteli, was dedicated in Bayonne, N.J. The 100-foot-tall bronze monument with a 40-foot steel teardrop at its center, a gift from the Russian government and Tsereteli, is dedicated to victims of terrorism.
    (AP, 9/11/06)

2006        Oct 30, Mose Tolliver (b.1915), American folk artist, died in Montgomery, Ala.
    (WSJ, 11/1/06, p.A1)(www.antonart.com/bio-mose.htm)

2006        Nov 2, The Jackson Pollock painting “No. 5 1948" was reportedly sold for a record $140 million. David Geffen, entertainment mogul sold the work to David Martinez, a Mexican financier.
    (SFC, 11/3/06, p.A10)

2006        Dec 4, Tomma Abts (38) became the first female painter in the 22-year history of Britain's $ 49,000 Turner Prize to win the controversial modern art award.
    (AFP, 12/4/06)(SFC, 12/5/06, p.F8)

2006        The installation of Cloud Gate, a public sculpture by Indian-born British artist Anish Kapoor, was completed as the centerpiece of AT&T Plaza at Millennium Park in the Loop community area of Chicago. The sculpture was nicknamed The Bean because of its shape.
2006        Richard Serra created his monumental sculpture “Band." In 2007 Eli Broad, real estate magnate, gave $10 million to have it installed at the Broad Contemporary Art Museum in Los Angeles.
    (SFC, 2/18/08, p.E1)

2007        Mar 27, Swedish artist Hans Hedberg (89), known for his outsized fruit and egg ceramic sculptures and, died.
    (AP, 3/29/07)

2007        Apr 8, Sol LeWitt (b.1928), Connecticut-based artist, photographer and sculptor, died in NY. He was known for his dynamic wall paintings and as a founder of minimal and conceptual art styles. “LeWitt brought about a fundamental shift in taste with sculptures and drawings that put thought rather than feeling, ideas rather than aesthetics at the forefront."
    (SFC, 4/10/07, p.D9)(WSJ, 4/21/07, p.P16)(SFC, 3/26/11, p.E1)

2007        May 28, Joerg Immendorff (b.1945), German artist, died. He was best known for his “Café Deutschland" series begun in 1978.
    (SFC, 5/29/07, p.B3)

2007        Jun 21, In London, England, Damien Hirst’s “Lullaby spring" sold for $19.1 million, the highest price paid at auction for a work by a living artist. The work consisted of a stainless steel cabinet containing 6,136 hand-crafted and painted pills. It was purchased by Sheikha al-Mayassa al-Thani, the daughter of the emir of Qatar.
    (SFC, 6/23/07, p.E4)(Econ, 9/11/10, p.99)

2007        Aug 5, A group of armed, masked men burst into a museum in the southern French city of Nice and made off with a painting by French master Claude Monet and two others by Flemish artist Pieter Brueghel. The paintings were recovered on June 4, 2008.
    (AP, 8/5/07)(AP, 6/5/08)

2007        Oct 21, Ronald Brooks Kitaj, Ohio-born artist, died in Los Angeles. He had spent much of his career working in London. His work included “Desk Murder," a 14-year effort.
    (Econ, 11/3/07, p.102)(http://tinyurl.com/2myah5)(Econ, 3/2/13, p.81)

2007        Nov 14, A sculpture by Jeff Koons of a stainless steel heart hanging from a golden bow sold for $23.6 million, becoming the most expensive piece by a living artist ever auctioned.
    (AP, 11/15/07)

2007        Dec 3, Artist Mark Wallinger won Britain's prestigious Turner Prize for a fiercely anti-war exhibit based on a lone protester's six-year vigil outside British parliament.
    (AP, 12/3/07)

2007        The painting “White Canoe," by British artist Peter Doig, sold for $11.2 million, a record for a living European artist.
    (Econ, 2/9/08, p.91)

2008        Feb 6, In eastern Switzerland 2 paintings by Pablo Picasso (1881-1973) worth nearly five million Swiss francs (4.5 million dollars, 3.1 million euros) were stolen from a museum. The two oil paintings, "Tete de Cheval" from 1962 and "Verre et pichet" from 1944, were stolen from a cultural centre in the eastern town of Pfaeffikon.
    (AFP, 2/8/08)

2008        Mar 12, In Austria a dispute began with the opening of "Religion, Flesh and Power," a collection of about 50 paintings, drawings and sculptures, some with homo-erotic themes, by Austrian artist Alfred Hrdlicka (80). Among them is Hrdlicka's rendition of the Last Supper: a large, loosely rendered black and white etching that shows Jesus and his disciples engaging in sex acts on the table where they shared their final meal before Christ's crucifixion.
    (AP, 4/12/08)

2008        Apr 10, Berlin police found a body that is probably that of Anna Mikhalchuk (52), a missing Russian artist, who had been condemned by the Orthodox Church for an exhibit in her homeland. The death was an apparent suicide.
    (AP, 4/11/08)

2008        Apr 12, Investigators in Turkey found the body of Giuseppina Pasqualino di Marineo (33), an Italian artist known as Pippa Bacca. She was last seen on March 31 hitchhiking in a wedding gown. Police detained a man suspected of killing her.
    (AP, 4/12/08)

2008        May 12, Robert Rauschenberg (b.1925), Texas-born artist, died of heart failure in Florida. His use of odd and everyday articles earned him regard as a pioneer in pop art, first gaining fame in the 1950s.
    (AP, 5/13/08)

2008        May 14, A triptych by Francis Bacon (1909-1992), titled “Triptych 1976," sold for $86.3 million in NYC, a record for contemporary art auctions.
    (Econ, 5/17/08, p.79)

2008        Jun 10, In NYC a million pieces of stainless steel toy parts assembled into a nearly seven-story model skyscraper glimmered under the hot sun. It was created by American artist Chris Burden (b.1946). The 16,000-pound (7,250-kg) "poetic interpretation" of the 30 Rock Building at Rockefeller Center was made of replicated Erector set pieces from the toy created by A.C. Gilbert in 1912.
    (Reuters, 6/11/08)

2008        Jul 7, Bruce Conner (b.1933), SF-based artist, died. His collages and prints looked back to classics of surrealism. His work was later said to look like a bridge between the Beat generation and postmodernism.
    (http://daily.greencine.com/archives/006353.html)(SFC, 7/8/08, p.B5)(SFC, 5/4/09, p.E3)

2008        Aug 2, Perez Celis (b.1939), a prestigious Argentine muralist, painter and sculptor, died in Buenos Aires.
    (AP, 8/3/08)

2008        Sep 4, Albanian artist Saimir Strati in Tirana glued 229,764 corks of various shapes and colors over a plastic banner measuring 12.94 meters by 7.1 meters to make the art piece "Romeo with a crown of grapes playing the guitar while dancing with the sea and the sun". He worked 14 hours a day for 28 days to complete his project.
    (Reuters, 9/4/08)

2008        Sep 15, In London the sale of pickled sharks, butterfly paintings and other pieces by Damien Hirst (43), the provocative British artist, raised some US$127 million. The sale continued the next day. Total sales reached $199 million. In 2009 his total auction sales shrunk to $19 million. Hirst had taken over Sotheby’s London headquarters for his two-day show “Beautiful Inside My Head Forever."
    (AP, 9/16/08)(Econ, 9/20/08, p.73)(Econ, 9/11/10, p.99)(Econ, 4/15/17, p.72)

2008        Sep 17, In SF the large “Wall Drawing #935" and “Wall Drawing #936," conceived by Sol LeWitt (1928-2007) and painted by his assistants in 1999, were painted over at the SF Museum of Modern Art. The museum retained the sole right for their reproduction.
    (SFC, 9/19/08, p.E1)

2008        Oct 5, Iba Ndiaye (b.1928), Senegalese modernist painter, died in Paris.
    (SSFC, 10/19/08, p.B6)

2008        Oct 18, UC Berkeley dedicated the new sculpture “Berkeley Big People" by Emeryville artist Scott Donohue. It was erected just off I-80 at a cost of $196,000.
    (SFC, 10/17/08, p.A16)

2008        Oct 28, In California Bill Martin (65), Mendocino realist painter and art teacher, died. His 3 books included “Paintings “1969-1979."
    (SFC, 11/13/08, p.B4)

2008        Nov 12, Walter Gabrielson (1935), California artist, died, His 1993 self-published autobiography was titled “Persistence."
    (SSFC, 11/16/08, p.B6)

2008        Nov 17, Guy Peellaert (b.1934), Belgian painter and collagist, died. His work included the book “Rock Dreams" (1974), published in collaboration with British rock journalist Nik Cohn.
    (SSFC, 11/23/08, p.B8)

2008        Nov 18, Spanish artist Miquel Barcelo unveiled his lavish, $23 million ceiling painting at the European headquarters of the United Nations in Switzerland, a project that has evoked controversy over its hefty price tag.
    (AP, 11/18/08)

2008        Dec 7, Francois-Xavier Lalanne (81), French sculptor, died at his home in Ury. For 40 years he and his wife worked in tandem, producing some works jointly, others independently.

2008        Dec 27, Sculptor Robert Graham (b.1938) died in Santa Monica, Ca. His massive bronze works mark civic monuments across America, included the Franklin Delano Roosevelt Memorial in Washington.
    (AP, 12/28/08)(SFC, 12/29/08, p.A2)

2008        Dec 29, In India Manjit Bawa 67), a leading Indian artist, died. His work had highlighted peaceful coexistence.
    (AP, 12/29/08)

2008        Dennis Avery, heir to the Avery labels fortune, commissioned artist Ricardo Arroyo Breceda to produce life-size sculptures on private property located in California’s 937-square-mile Anza Borrega Desert State Park, the 2nd largest state park in the US.
    (SSFC, 3/11/12, p.N6)

2009        Jan 12, In Nigeria Susanne Wenger (93), Austrian-born sculptress, died. She had been initiated as a Yoruba traditional priestess and was responsible for towering works of art in one of Nigeria's two World Heritage sites.
    (AFP, 1/13/09)

2009        Jan 16, Artist Andrew Wyeth (b.1917), American artist, died at his home in the Philadelphia suburb of Chadds Ford. He had portrayed the hidden melancholy of the people and landscapes of Pennsylvania's Brandywine Valley and coastal Maine in works such as "Christina's World."
    (AP, 1/16/09)

2009        Jan 20, In Belgium the “Entropa" art installation at the EU headquarters, by Czech artist David Cerny, covered up the part that showed Bulgaria as a squat toilet after protests from the aggrieved nation.
    (AP, 1/20/09)

2009        Mar 20, Walter Kuhlman (90), SF Bay Area artist and teacher, died. He was a noted figure in the postwar Bay Area abstract expressionist movement.
    (SFC, 3/30/09, p.B3)

2009        May 17, David Ireland, American sculptor, conceptual artist and Minimalist architect, died in San Francisco. In 2016 the David Ireland House at the corner of 20th and Capp streets opened as a museum to the public.
    (https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/David_Ireland_(artist))(SFC, 5/21/09, p.B6)

2009        Jun 20, The SF Chronicle displayed a picture of a 9x7x2 foot, miniature, toothpick construct of San Francisco, created over the last 34 years by Scott Weaver of Rohnert Park, Ca. Weaver spent some 3,000 hours creating the work.
    (SFC, 6/20/09, p.B1)

2009        Jul 1, In India Tyeb Mehta (b.1925), a celebrated modernist painter, died in Mumbai.
    (SSFC, 7/5/09, p.C8)

2009        Jul 7, Ron Nicolino (b.1939), artist and former resident of Point Richmond, Ca., died of cancer. He had attempted to string a collection of bras across the Grand Canyon in the mid-1990s, but was unable to get federal permission. Instead he and Ellen Duffy concocted the creation of a bra ball. A dispute led each one to create their own versions. Nicolino’s 1,600 pound “Big Giant Bra Ball" was left with his mother in Washington state.
    (SFC, 7/16/09, p.D7)

2009        Jul 10, Earl Haig (91), Scottish artist and son of WWI Field Marshal Douglas Haig, died. He developed his gift for painting as a prisoner of war in World War II.
    (AP, 7/15/09)

2009        Jul 28, Tony Rosenthal (b.1914), American artist and abstract sculptor, died in Southampton, NY. He created the Regent’s Cube located in the Regent’s Plaza at the Univ. of Michigan, his alma mater. Commissioned by the Class of 1965 and officially titled “Endover," the revolving cube is one of three designed Rosenthal. It was installed on Regents’ Plaza (the open space bounded by the LS&A Building, Michigan Union and Fleming Building) in 1968. The others are at home in New York City and Miami.

2009        Jul 29, In South Africa a ceremony was held for “Fire Walker," a new four-story sculpture in Johannesburg. A plaque was unveiled with the names of the South African artists who created it: William Kentridge and Gerhard Marx. The three-dimensional steel conception by Marx was of a Kentridge watercolor.
    (AP, 7/29/09)

2009        Sep 24, Emile Norman (b.1918), pioneering gay artist, died in Monterey, Ca..
    (SFC, 9/26/09, p.A12)

2009        Nov 18, Artist Jean-Claude Denat de Guillebon (b.1935), the Morocco-born wife of environmental artist Christo, died in NYC. Her Bulgarian-born husband was born that same day as she was. They had met in Paris in 1958.
    (SFC, 11/21/09, p.C3)

2009        Dec 5, Austrian artist Alfred Hrdlicka (81) died. His controversial works in metal, paint and pencil alienated as much as attracted the public.
    (AP, 12/5/09)

2009        Philip Hook authored “The Ultimate Trophy: How the Impressionist Painting Conquered the World."
    (Econ, 5/2/09, p.85)

2010        Feb 3, "L'homme qui marche I" (Walking Man I), a 1961 life-size bronze statue of a man by Swiss artist Alberto Giacometti (1901-1966), smashed the world record for an art work at auction, selling in London for £65,001,250.
    (AFP, 2/4/10)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Alberto_Giacometti)

2010        Feb 25, In India a Hindu newspaper said India's best-known painter M.F. Husain (94), who went into exile after death threats from Hindu hardliners, has been granted Qatari citizenship, sparking new soul-searching about his persecution at home. Husain, known as the "Picasso of India," had angered hardline Hindus by portraying Hindu deities in the nude or in a sexually suggestive manner.
    (AFP, 2/25/10)

2010        Apr 29, Avigdor Arikha (b.1929), Holocaust surviving artist, died in Paris. He was perhaps the best painter from life in the last decades of the 20th century.
    (Econ, 5/15/10, p.94)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Avigdor_Arikha)

2010        May 12, In San Francisco Mayor Newsom presided over the official dedication of a 3-story, 15-ton Buddha sculpture, “Three heads Six Arms" by artist Zhang Huan, to mark the city’s 30th anniversary sister city relationship with Shanghai. The one year lease expired and the work was dismantled on Feb 15, 2011, for return to Zhang Huan.
    (SFC, 5/13/10, p.C1)(SFC, 2/14/11, p.C1)

2010        May 31, Louise Bourgeois (1911), Paris-born artist, died in NYC. The figures in her 1984 “Nature Study" lacked heads but had multiple breasts, phalluses and claws. Her “Crouching Spider" sculpture was installed at Pier 14 in San Francisco and stayed there from 2003 to 2009.
    (SFC, 6/2/10, p.C4)(Econ, 6/12/10, p.97)

2010        May 3, Karl Kasten (b.1916), painter,  printmaker and UC Berkeley professor, died.
    (SFC, 6/3/10, p.C5)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Karl_Kasten)

2010        Sep 8, Michael Lassen (61), English stained-glass artist, died in a hospital after falling from a ladder on Sep 3, while working on a widow at the Durham cathedral.
    (Econ, 10/9/10, p.124)

2010        In San Francisco stealth artist Banksy spray painted an image that became known as the “Haight Street Rat" on the side of the Red Victorian Bed and Breakfast. Brian Greif later raised $10,000 to have the work removed and restored for display, promising never to sell it.
    (SFC, 1/20/15, p.E1)

2011        Jan 26, In South Korea an art exhibition by North Korean defector Song Byeok opened in Seoul. One work featured the head of North Korean leader Kim Jong Il, smiling beneath his trademark sunglasses and wall of black hair, atop the body of Marilyn Monroe, pushing down her white dress in an updraft.
    (AP, 1/26/11)

2011        Apr 14, Augusto Marin (b.1921), one of Puerto Rico's best-known painters and muralists, died. He was best known for large paintings and murals in the modern style that blended Caribbean and religious elements.
    (AP, 4/14/11)

2011        Jul 5, Cy Twombly (83), American painter, died in Rome. The Cy Twombly Gallery in Houston, designed by Renzo Piano, opened in 1995.
    (SFC, 7/6/11, p.C7)

2011        Jul 20, Lucian Freud (b.1922), Berlin-born realist painter, died in London. The grandson of psychoanalyst Sigmund Freud was widely seen as Britain's top contemporary artist. In 2013 Geordie Greig authored “Breakfast with Lucian: The Astounding Lie and Outrageous Times of Britain’s Great Modern Painter." 
    (AFP, 7/22/11)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Lucian_Freud)(Econ, 10/26/13, p.94)d

2011        Jul 26, Australian painter Margaret Olley (88), one of Australia's most important and respected artists, was found dead at her Sydney home. She was best known for her colorful still life paintings.
    (AP, 7/26/11)

2011        Aug 6, Roman Opalka (b.1931), French-born Polish painter, died in France. In 1965 in his studio in Warsaw, Opalka began painting a process of counting – from one to infinity.
    (Econ, 8/20/11, p.79)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Roman_Opa%C5%82ka)

2011        Sep 5, Cambodian painter Van Nath (65) died. He had been forced to paint portraits of Pol Pot while interned at S-21 from 1978-1979. From 1980-1981 he painted from memory somber oils of what had happened at S-21 under the Khmer Rouge.
    (Econ, 9/17/11, p.93)

2011        Sep 13, British pop art pioneer Richard Hamilton (b.1922) died. His work ranged from images of consumer culture to parodies of political leaders. One of his best-known works was the plain white cover for the Beatles’ "White Album" of 1968.
    (AFP, 9/14/11)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Richard_Hamilton_%28artist%29)

2011        Sep 27, In Germany an artist identified as Wolfgang B. (60), admitted in court that he faked 14 modern paintings that sold for millions of dollars. 4 people were accused of fraud totaling $22 million in the case in Cologne.
    (SFC, 9/28/11, p.A4)

2011        Dec 5, Scottish artist Martin Boyce (44), whose works include a modernist reworking of a library table and artificial trees, won Britain's Turner Prize at a ceremony in Gateshead, north-east England.
    (AFP, 12/5/11)

2011        Dec 30, Ronald Searle (b.1920, British artist and satirical cartoonist, died in France. He survived the notorious Death Railway while a prisoner of war of the Japanese during World War II. He is perhaps best remembered as the creator of St Trinian's School and for his collaboration with Geoffrey Willans on the Molesworth series.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ronald_Searle)(Econ, 1/14/12, p.94)

2012        Jan 31, Mike Kelley (b.1954), Michigan-born artist, committed suicide in southern California.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mike_Kelley_%28artist%29)(Econ, 1/4/14, p.66)

2012        Mar 3  Ralph McQuarrie (b.1929), movie artist, died in Berkeley, Ca. He helped envision the Star Wars films of George Lucas.
    (SFC, 3/7/12, p.C3)

2012        Mar 10, In Los Angeles, Ca., a 340 ton granite boulder arrived at the LA County Museum of Art under the direction of earth artist Michael Heizer.
    (Econ, 3/17/12, p.38)

2012        Mar 30, Australian artist Tim Storrier won the 91st Archibald Prize at the Art Gallery of NSW in Sydney for his painting “The Histrionic Wayfarer (after Bosch)." The Archibald Prize is one of Australia’s oldest and most prestigious art prizes.
    (AFP, 3/30/12)

2012        Apr 2, Sculptor and printmaker Elizabeth Catlett (b.1915), a US expatriate renowned for her dignified portrayals of African-American and Mexican women, died in Cuernavaca, Mexico. She was barred from her home country for political activism during the McCarthy era. In 1962 the US State Department banned her from returning to the United States for nearly a decade because of her political affiliations.
    (AP, 4/3/12)

2012        Apr 6, California artist Thomas Kinkade (54) died. His brushwork paintings of idyllic landscapes, cottages and churches were big sellers for dealers across the country.
    (AP, 4/6/12)

2012        Oct 27, William Harsh, California painter, died at his home in Benicia.
    (SFC, 11/10/12, p.E2)(http://tinyurl.com/bkxccly)

2013        Jan 10, In Brazil Chilean artist Jorge Selaron (b.1947), a symbol of his adopted city of Rio de Janeiro, was found dead in front of his house. In 1990 he began a staircase project in the Lapa neighborhood tiling steps and collecting old porcelain bathtubs to use as planters along the sides.
    (AP, 1/10/13)

2013        Mar 5, The San Francisco Bay Bridge lit up with 25,000 LED lights in the debut of Leo Villareal’s $8 million “Bay Lights" installation. The 1.8 mile light show will continue for 2 years.
    (SFC, 2/6/13, p.A1)(SSFC, 2/10/13, p.A1)

2013        Aug 5, Ruth Asawa (b.1926), San Francisco-based sculptor, died at her home of natural causes.
    (SFC, 8/7/13, p.A1)

2013        Aug 28, Russian police said they have raided an exhibition and confiscated a painting that portrayed President Vladimir Putin and PM Dmitry Medvedev lounging together in women's lingerie. Artist Konstantin Altunin left Russia in fear of being arrested after the show's closure.
    (AFP, 8/28/13)

2013        Oct 10, A retrospective of the art of Damien Hirst opened in Doha, Qatar featuring 93 works.
    (Econ, 10/19/13, p.86)

2013        Oct 23, British sculptor Anthony Caro (89), whose abstract metal sculptures were shown around the world, died of a heart attack.
    (AFP, 10/24/13)(Econ, 11/9/13, p.98)

2013        Nov 12, In NYC a 1969 painting by Francis Bacon set a world record for the most expensive artwork ever sold at a Christie’s auction. “Three Studies of Lucian Freud" sold for $142,405,000.
    (SFC, 11/13/13, p.A6)

2013        Dec 2, At a ceremony in Londonderry, Northern Ireland, French artist Laure Prouvost won Britain's Turner prize for contemporary art for her video installation set among a mock-tea party setting entitled "Wantee."
    (AFP, 12/3/13)

2013        T.J. Clark authored “Picasso and Truth: From Cubism to Guernica."
    (SSFC, 9/1/13, p.F6)

2014        Feb 24, In Uruguay Carlos Paez Vilaro (90), a self-trained painter, sculptor, screenwriter, musician and architect, died. He championed Afro-Uruguayan Candombe music and dance, created colorful murals in dozens of cities around the world, and built a huge "living sculpture" that became an iconic 50-room hotel.
    (AP, 2/24/14)

2014        Mar 27, Mark Stock (62), a realist figure painter, died in Oakland, Ca. He was known for a series of butlers in tuxedos including “"The Butler’s in Love" (1989).
    (SFC, 3/28/14, p.D3)

2014        May 5, A Paris court found a South African artist guilty of sexual exhibitionism after a performance in Paris that saw him dance with a rooster tied to his penis. But the criminal court imposed no penalty on the artist Steven Cohen (51), noting that no complaint had been filed against him and that he had not engaged in sexual acts.
    (AFP, 5/514)

2014        May 6, Pablo Picasso’s 1932 oil painting “Portrait of Dora Maar" sold for $22.6 million at a Christie’s auction in NYC.
    (SFC, 5/9/14, p.A8)(http://tinyurl.com/mmhox85

2014        May 8, Pablo Picasso’s 1932 oil painting “The Rescue" sold for $31.5 million at a Sotheby auction in NYC.
    (SFC, 5/9/14, p.A8)

2014        Jun 17, Anthony Goldschmidt (b.1942), American designer of posters for top movies, died in Los Angeles.
    (SSFC, 7/6/14, p.C9)

2015        Jun, British-Indian artist Anish Kapoor installed his "Dirty Corner" sculpture in the gardens of France's Palace of Versailles. Kapoor has described the piece as "the vagina of a queen who is taking power." The piece was soon sprayed with yellow paint.
    (AFP, 9/6/15)

2014        Jul, Japanese artist Megumi Igarashi was arrested after she mailed 3-D data of a kayak in the shape her vagina to supporters. She was interrogated for 23 days and then released. In December Igarashi was arrested again for suspicion of displaying an obscene object. Her trial opened in April, 2015.
    (https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Megumi_Igarashi)(Econ, 6/13/15, p.41)

2015        Mar 21, Swiss artist Hans Erni (b.1909) died. His prolific work ranged from tiny postage stamps to enormous frescoes.
    (AP, 3/22/15)

2015        Mar 31, In Buffalo, NY, a reclining statue of a homeless and blanket shrouded Jesus by Canadian sculptor Timothy Schmalz, was unveiled outside St. Paul’s Episcopal Cathedral. People soon began to leave money, food and other items for the homeless at the statue.

2015        Sep 19, In France a judge ruled that anti-Semitic graffiti must be removed from Anish Kapoor’s funnel-like sculpture at the Palace of Versailles. The ten-meter high structure, dubbed the "queen's vagina" but officially called "Dirty Corner," was first vandalized in June and then cleaned.
    (AFP, 9/23/15)

2016        Sep 29, In China Dutch artist Daan Roosegaarde opened what he calls the world's largest air purifier in Beijing, beginning the first leg of a China tour to raise awareness of environmental problems. The seven-meter-high (7.66-yard-high) Smog Free Tower, part of the Smog Free Project started by the artist, creates a bubble of clean air enabling citizens to experience clean air for free.
    (Reuters, 9/29/16)

2015        Nov 9, Austrian painter Ernst Fuchs (85), whose works combined a love of color and texture with clear lines, mysticism and religious themes, died.
    (AP, 11/9/15)

2015        Dec 14, Ales Vesely (80), a Czech artist known for his monumental sculptures, was found dead in his Prague apartment.
    (AP, 12/16/15)

2015        Dec 27, Ellsworth Kelley (b.1923), American abstract painter, sculptor and printmaker, died in Spencertown, NY.

2015        Jed Rasula authored “Destruction Was My Beatrice: Dada and the Unmaking of the Twentieth Century."
    (Econ, 6/20/15, p.83)

2015        New York-based muralist Matthew Willey began his project of hand-painting 50,000 individual bees on buildings around the world. By 2021 he rendered more than 5,500 of the insects in 30 murals and installations.
    (Reuters, 2/4/21)

2016        May 9, Japanese artist Megumi Igarashi (44), who makes objects shaped like her vagina, was convicted after a high-profile obscenity trial. The Tokyo District Court slapped her with a 400,000 yen ($3,700) fine. The court  fined her for distributing digital data of her genitals but said her figurines, decorated with fake fur and glitter, could be considered "pop art".
    (AFP, 5/9/16)(Reuters, 5/9/16)

2016        May 13, In Lithuania local artist Mindaugas Bonanu adorned a barbecue restaurant in Vilnius with a poster showing Donald Trump locking lips with Vladimir Putin along with the text "Make Everything Great Again".
    (AP, 5/14/16)

2016        Aug 9, Ernst Neizvestny (91), Russian-American sculptor, artist, philosopher and defier of the Soviet regime, died in New York.
    (Econ, 8/20/16, p.78)

2016        Dec 1, Senegalese sculptor Ousmane Sow (b.1935) died in Dakar. His work celebrated African tribes along with historical icons such as Nelson Mandela and Martin Luther King Jr. Sow was admitted to France's Academy of Fine Arts in 2013.
    (AP, 12/1/16)

2016        Dec 6, In Israel Sculptor Itay Zalait placed a four meter (13 foot) tall effigy of Netanyahu on a white pedestal in Tel Aviv's Rabin Square, adjacent to city hall, to test the limits of freedom of expression. The gilded statue was toppled by an onlooker after a brief public appearance.
    (Reuters, 12/6/16)

2017        Feb 16, Dutch artist and illustrator Dick Bruna (89), creator of beloved children's character Miffy the white rabbit, died in Utrecht. Miffy, the white bunny with two dots for eyes and a cross for her mouth, was inspired by a rabbit seen hopping around the garden during a family seaside holiday in 1955.
    (AFP, 2/17/17)

2017        Mar 1, Gustav Metzger, Germany-born British inventor of auto-destruct art, died in London.
    (Econ, 3/18/17, p.90)

2017        Mar 31, Pop artist James Rosenquist (83) died in NYC. “F-111" his best known work was made in 1964-1965 as a protest against US militarism.
    (SSFC, 4/2/17, p.C11)

2017        Apr 8, In Greece Documenta 14, one of the world's premier art events opened in Athens, bringing a much-needed spotlight, artistic inspiration and visitor boost to crisis-hit Greece's run-down capital. The contemporary art exhibition is held every five years in Kassel, Germany. The opening in Germany was set for June.
    (AFP, 4/8/17)(Econ, 4/8/17, p.76)

2017        Apr 21, Magdalena Abakanowicz (86), Poland's leading visual artist, renowned sculptor and fiber artist, died.
    (AP, 4/21/17)

2017        May 4, It was reported that France has granted political asylum to Russian artist Pyotr Pavlensky (33), who once memorably nailed his scrotum to Red Square to denounce state power.
    (AFP, 5/4/17)

2017        Jul 3, Mexican artist Luis Cuevas (b.1934) died in Mexico City. He had worked mainly in ink drawings depicting the wretched of the earth in an unblinking expressionist manner.
    (SSFC, 7/9/17, p.C11)

2017        Sep 5, Authorities in Germany said they've recovered 15 stolen paintings and drawings by German artist Georg Baselitz worth around 2.5 million euros ($2.9 million). A man (51) was arrested last month for selling the art after returning from a trip abroad.
    (AP, 9/5/17)

2017        Sep 14, In France the "secret" art collection amassed by Claude Monet, the father of Impressionism, went on display for the first time in Paris, 90 years after the great painter's death.
    (AFP, 9/14/17)

2018        May 19, American pop artist Robert Indiana (89), born in Indiana as Robert Clark, died at his island home off the coast of Maine. His "LOVE" print, first created for the Museum of Modern Art's Christmas card in 1965, was the basis for his 1970 Love sculpture and the widely distributed 1973 United States Postal Service "LOVE" stamp.
    (SFC, 5/23/18, p.D6)

2018        Jul 19, President Emmanuel Macron presented a distinctively modern face for Marianne, France's traditional symbol of its revolutionary values. Macron chose the Abidjan-based French-British street artist Yseult Digan, more widely known as YZ (pronounced 'Eyes').
    (AFP, 7/19/18)

2018        Jul 30, Israel expelled Italian artists Jorit Agoch and Salvatore De Louise for their painting of a mural depicting formerly imprisoned Palestinian teenager Ahed Tamini.
    (SFC, 7/31/18, p.A3)

2018        Aug 3, Chinese authorities began razing the Beijing studio of artist Ai Weiwei. The studio in the northeast suburbs has been Ai's primary work space since 2006, although his has mostly been based in Europe in recent years.
    (AP, 8/4/18)

2018        Oct 5, British street artist Banksy stunned the art world with arguably his most audacious prank yet, self-destructing one of his best-known works moments after it fetched more than a million pounds at auction in London.
    (AFP, 10/6/18)

2018        Nov 12, Qatar's Sidra Medicine Hospital officially opened in Doha. It featured 14 giant bronze sculptures by British artist Damien Hirst graphically charting the moment of conception to birth greet patients arriving at the $8-billion hospital. The sculptures were originally unveiled in October 2013 but then covered from public view until recent weeks.
    (https://www.sidra.org/media/news-room/)(AP, 11/18/18)

2018        Oct 14, Mel Ramos (b.1935), pop art pioneer, died in Oakland, Ca.
    (SFC, 10/18/18, p.C3)

2018        Nov 15, In NYC a 1972 painting by David Hockney, "Portrait of an Artist (Pool with Two Figures), fetched $90.3 milliion at Christie's. This easily broke the record for a work by a living artist sold at auction.
    (SFC, 11/17/18, p.A6)

2018        Nov 17, In Romania a painting believed to be "Tête d’Arlequin" by Pablo Picasso, stolen in 2012 from Rotterdam’s Kunsthal museum, was found in Tulcea county. It was valued at roughly 800,000 euros ($913,440). A Romanian ringleader and his accomplices were convicted of the theft in 2013, but none of the artworks had been recovered. Romanian prosecutors the next day said they were trying to verify the work's authenticity. Dutch media soon reported that the work is more likely a forgery created as a publicity stunt.
    (Reuters, 11/18/18)(AP, 11/19/18)

2018        Nov 20, The MUDEC museum in Milan said it is hosting the first exhibit of street-artist Banksy's works in an Italian public museum, just weeks after the artist grabbed international attention by partially shredding one of his works at a London auction. The exhibition will open to visitors Nov. 21, 2018 through to April 14, 2019.
    (AP, 11/20/18)

2018        Nov 30, Spanish police said they have arrested art dealer Oswaldo Aulestia (72), accused of selling fake works by Picasso, Dali, Warhol and other 20th century masters to unsuspecting US buyers, and evading arrest for years.
    (Reuters, 11/30/18)

2018        Dec 7, In Cuba Decree 349, which was published in July, theoretically came into force. It gave government inspectors the right to shut down exhibits and performances deemed to violate Cuba's revolutionary values and to confiscate artists' belongings. The government said it would seek artists' backing for how it will be implemented, a move those who had protested against the decree hailed as a victory.
    (Reuters, 12/8/18)

2019        Apr 1, Dan Robbins (93), the artist who created the first paint-by-numbers pictures, died in Sylvania, Ohio. Robbins worked for the Palmer Paint Co. in Detroit and sales of his Craft Master kits peaked at 20 million in 1955.
    (SFC, 4/5/19, p.C4)

2019        May 15, In NYC Christie's auctioned a 1986 stainless steel sculpture of "Rabbit" by Jeff Koons for over $91 million. This became the most expensive work ever sold at auction by a living artist.
    (SFC, 5/17/19, p.A5)

2019        Jul 27, Carlos Cruz-Diez (b.1923), a Venezuelan artist who shaped the field of kinetic and optical art during the 20th century, died in Paris. He moved to France in 1960 after studying at Caracas' School of Fine Arts.
    (Reuters, 7/30/19

2019        Aug 9, Greek sculptor Takis (93), whose kinetic artworks were admired at major art museums around the world in a career spanning over 70 years, died. Panagiotis Vassilakis used technology, magnetism and light to create his pioneering art which also drew on influences from classical sculpture and modernist abstraction.
    (Reuters, 8/9/19)

2019        Aug 13, The San Francisco school board reversed course and voted to obscure art panels at George Washington High School that depicted slavery and white settlers stepping over a dead Native American. They were painted in 1936 by Russian artist Victor Arnautoff as part of the Works Progress Administration public art program under President Franklin Roosevelt’s New Deal employment projects.
    (SFC, 8/14/19, p.C1)

2019        Sep 5, Francisco Toledo (b.1940), Mexican artist, died. He shook up the 1960s Mexican art scene with his fresh approach to painting, sculpting, printing, tapestry weaving and preserving the cultural heritage that inspired him.
    (https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Francisco_Toledo)(Reuters, 9/8/19)

2019        Sep 24, It was reported that Turkish artist Vahit Tuna has mounted 440 pairs of high heels on the facade of a building on a busy Istanbul street, to symbolize the number of women murdered in domestic or sexual violence in Turkey in 2018.
    (Reuters, 9/24/19)

2019        Oct 27, French auction house Acteon said "Christ Mocked," a long-lost painting by 13th century Italian master Cimabue, found earlier this year in the kitchen of an elderly French woman, was sold for 24 million euros ($26.6 million), more than four times the pre-auction estimate.
    (Reuters, 10/27/19)

2019        Nov 10, In the SF Bay Area Russell Chatham (b.1939), a West Marin landscape painter and printer, died. His grandfather, Gottardo Piazzoni had painted the murals that had lined the halls of the former San Francisco Main Library.
    (SFC, 11/27/19, p.C6)

2019        Dec 2, In Kyrgyzstan Mira Djangaracheva resigned as director of the national arts museum after receiving death threats from supporters of right-wing nationalist movements who saw the exhibition as offensive to traditional Kyrgyz values. An art exhibition that featured a woman undressing in front of an audience was censored by the government.
    (Reuters, 12/3/19)

2020        Jan 4, John Baldessari (88), California artist, died in his sleep. In 2010 he was cited as "arguably America's most influential Conceptual artist".
    (SFC, 1/10/20, p.C2)

2020        Jan 23, In Denmark an eight-meter copper statue by Jens Galschioet, entitled "Pillar of Shame," was erected in front of parliament in central Copenhagen to express solidarity with pro-democracy protesters in Hong Kong.
    (Reuters, 1/23/20)

2020        Jan 24, Wes Wilson (82), a San Francisco artist who helped define the visual style of the psychedelic rock era, died at his home in Missouri.
    (SFC, 1/31/20, p.C5)

2020        May 22, Acclaimed Egyptian artist Adam Henein (b.1929) died. He joined ancient pharaonic themes with sleek modernism in sculptures that often portrayed birds and other animals.
    (AP, 5/22/20)

2020        Jun 11, Italian police unveiled a Banksy artwork that they found stashed in a farmhouse attic after it was stolen from Paris in January, 2019. It was painted in 2018 on the side of the Bataclan concert hall as a tribute to the 90 victims killed in the 2015 Islamist terrorist attack.
    (The Telegraph, 6/11/20)

2020        Sep 24, California-based photorealist painter Robert Bechtle (b.1932) died at a hospice in Berkeley.
    (SFC, 9/25/20, p.B1)

2020        Oct 18, Father Bill Moore (71), a Catholic priest and prominent abstract expressionist who spent decades spreading spiritualism through his paintings, died at a Southern California hospice.
    (AP, 10/19/20)

2020        Oct 27, London's Metropolitan Police said thousands of prints by popular London street artist STIK that he wanted to give to his local community as a gesture of solidarity during the COVID crisis have been stolen. STIK, known internationally for his distinctive stick figures, had arranged for 100,000 prints of a work entitled "Holding Hands" to be distributed to residents of Hackney, the east London neighborhood where he lives and works.
    (AP, 10/27/20)

2020        Nov 26, "Henri’s Armchair," a painting by famed Australian artist Brett Whiteley (1939-1992) sold at auction for A$6.25 million ($4.6 million), setting a new record in the country and underscoring the appeal of art investments amid the uncertainties of the coronavirus pandemic.
    (Reuters, 11/27/20)

2020        Nov 22, Helen LaFrance (101), a self-taught artist whose vibrant and intimate “memory paintings" of scenes from her childhood in rural Kentucky brought her renown late in life, died at a nursing home in Mayfield, Ky.
    (NY Times, 12/8/20)

2021        Feb 19, Arturo Di Modica (80), the sculptor of Wall Street's "Charging Bull" statue (1989), died in his home town of Vittoria, Sicily.
    (Reuters, 2/20/21)

2021        Mar 1, Toko Shinoda, one of the foremost Japanese artists of the 20th century, died at a hospital in Tokyo. Her work married the ancient serenity of calligraphy with the modernist urgency of Abstract Expressionism.
    (NY Times, 3/3/21)

2021        Mar 11, A digital artwork sold for $69,346,250 at Christie's, in the first ever sale by a major auction house of a piece of art that does not exist in physical form. "Everydays - The First 5000 Days," a digital work by American artist Mike Winkelmann, known as Beeple, is a collage of 5,000 individual images, which were made one-per-day over more than thirteen years. It is authenticated by blockchain, which certifies its originality and ownership.
    (Reuters, 3/11/21)

2021        Mar 23, A Banksy painting showing a boy playing with a toy nurse as a superhero sold for more than $20 million, setting an auction record for the elusive British street artist.
    (Reuters, 3/23/21)

2021        Mar 25, In Belgium an exhibition of work by British street artist Banksy opened in Brussels with 17 original artworks brought together for the first time.
    (Reuters, 3/25/21)
2021        Mar 25, In France an 1887 Vincent Van Gogh painting of a Paris street scene, held in a private collection for over a century, sold for 14 million euros ($16.50 million) at a Sotheby auction in Paris.
    (Reuters, 3/25/21)

2021        Mar 28, It was reported that a digital illustration by a prominent Chinese propaganda artist mocking Western governments, media and businesses critical of labor conditions in Xinjiang has gone viral on China's social media. The digital art by Wuheqilin, named after a one-horned Chinese mythical beast, shows two figures with white pointed hoods interviewing a scarecrow in a field of cotton and Black slaves.
    (AP, 3/28/21)

2021        Apr 17, It was reported that 27 paintings by three generations of Wyeths have been donated to Maine's Farnsworth Art Museum, thanks to the late Betsy Wyeth.
    (AP, 4/17/21)

2021        Apr 25, William T. Wiley (83), founder of the San Francisco Bay Area Funk art movement, died at Marin General Hosp.
    (SSFC, 5/2/21, p.F1)

2021        Jul 14, French installation artist Christian Boltanski (76) died in Paris. 
    (SFC, 7/16/21, p.B6)

2021        Aug 3, Russia blocked DeviantArt, an online community for artists and designers that is popular with Russians, over its failure to remove prohibited content. Roskomnadzor said certain pages contained child pornography, pro-drug and pro-Nazi content, as well as other prohibited images. Founded in 2000, LA-based DeviantArt was bought by Israel-based Wix.com in 2017 for $36 million.
    (Reuters, 8/4/21)

2021        Aug 27, An exhibition at a Polish state museum opening featured the works of provocative artists in what organizers describe as a celebration of free speech, and a challenge to political correctness and “cancel culture" on the political left. Some critics accused organizers of giving a platform to antisemitic and racist messages under the pretense of defending freedom of expression.
    (AP, 8/27/21)

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