Timeline Alabama

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Alabama is about the same size as Greece.
(SSFC, 10/9/05, Par p.27)
  The Choctaw phrase "Alba Ayamule" translates as "I open the thicket" and is the listed origin of the state's name.
 (SFC, 10/31/98, p.D4)

77Mil BC    In 2005 it was reported that paleontologists had identified a new dinosaur species, an early relative of Tyrannosaurus rex that roamed what is now the Southeastern US about this time. The scientists made the identification from hundreds of fossilized fragments collected mostly in Montgomery County, Ala., and southwestern Georgia. They named the new dinosaur Appalachiosaurus montgomeriensis, which means "the Appalachian lizard from Montgomery County." The 25-foot-long creature roamed the earth 10 million years before T. rex and was smaller and more primitive, with a narrower snout.
    (AP, 4/16/05)

1540        Oct 19, Hernando de Soto fought native Indians at the bloody battle of Mabila in present day Alabama.
    (WSJ, 8/5/05, p.W2)(www.floridahistory.com/inset91.html)

1807        Feb 19, Former Vice President Aaron Burr was arrested in Alabama. He was subsequently tried for treason and acquitted. [see May 22, Sep 1]
    (HN, 2/19/98)(AP, 2/19/98)

1813        Apr 15, U.S. troops under James Wilkinson sieged the Spanish-held city of Mobile in future state of Alabama.
    (HN, 4/15/99)

1813        Aug 30, Creek Indians massacred over 500 whites at Fort Mims Alabama.
    (HN, 8/30/98)

1813        Nov 3, American troops destroy the Indian village of Tallushatchee in the Mississippi Valley. US troops under Gen Coffee destroyed an Indian village at Talladega, Ala.
    (HN, 11/3/99)(MC, 11/3/01)

1814        Mar 27, General Jackson led U.S. soldiers who killed 700 Creek Indians at Horseshoe Bend, La. [in Northern Alabama] Jackson lost 49 men. In 2001 John Buchanon authored "Jackson’s Way" and Robert V. Remini authored "Andrew Jackson and His Indian Wars."
    (SFEC, 2/16/97, BR p.4)(HN, 3/27/99)(WSJ, 7/26/01, p.A12)

1814        Mar 29, In the Battle at Horseshoe Bend, Alabama, Andrew Jackson beat the Creek Indians. [see Mar 27]
    (MC, 3/29/02)

1817        Mar 3, Mississippi Territory was divided into Alabama Territory and Mississippi.
    (SC, 3/3/02)

1819        Dec 14, Alabama was admitted as the 22nd state, making 11 slave states and 11 free states.
    (AP, 12/14/97)(HN, 12/14/98)

1821        Jul 6, Edmund Pettus (d.1907), for whom the civil rights landmark Edmund Pettus Bridge was named, was born in Alabama. He earned his fame as a Confederate brigadier general. Pettus was a lawyer and judge and served throughout the western theater during the Civil War. He resumed his law practice after the war and went on to serve in the U.S. Senate. Pettus died while in his second term in Congress. The Edmund Pettus Bridge in Selma, Alabama, became a civil rights landmark when on March 7, 1965, a band of civil rights marchers on their way to Montgomery crossed the bridge, only to be attacked by state troopers on the other side.
    (HNQ, 10/21/01)

1834        Apr 1, South Carolina Congressman James Blair shot himself at his lodgings in Washington DC after reading part of an affectionate letter from his wife, to Governor Murphy, of Alabama.

1839        A law banning the carrying of concealed weapons was passed in Alabama.

1841        Dec 31, Alabama became the 1st state to license dental surgeons.
    (MC, 12/31/01)

1845        Henry Lehman, an immigrant from Germany, opened a dry goods store in Montgomery, Alabama. He was joined by his two brothers in 1850. The family often accepted raw cotton instead of cash for merchandise, which resulted in a successful cotton business on the side. In 1862, the brothers formed Lehman, Durr & Co. with cotton merchant John Durr, and in 1870, helped to form the New York Cotton Exchange.

1860        Jul, In Alabama Captain William Foster scuttled the slave ship Clotilda after it delivered 110 slaves to Mobile, destined for the cotton growing plantations in the Mobile-Tensaw River Delta. This was the last ship to bring slaves to the US. In 2019 the Alabama Historical Commission announced that wreckage of the ship was found on a a muddy stretch of the Mobile River. Alabama steamship owner Timothy Meaher had financed the last slave vessel that brought African captives to the US, and he came out of the Civil War a wealthy man.
    (SFC, 1/24/18, p.A6)(SFC, 5/24/19, p.A10)(AP, 10/5/19)(SFC, 12/27/21, p.A6)

1860         Nov, Abraham Lincoln won the US presidential elections with a majority of the electoral votes in a 4-way race. Following his election South Carolina seceded from the Union followed by Mississippi, Florida, Alabama, Georgia, Louisiana and Texas.
    (WSJ, 9/19/97, p.A13)

1861        Jan 5, Alabama troops seized Forts Morgan & Gaines at Mobile Bay.
    (MC, 1/5/02)

1861        Jan 11, Alabama became the 4th state to secede from the Union.
    (AP, 1/11/98)(HN, 1/11/99)

1861        Feb 4, Delegates from six southern states met in Montgomery, Ala., to form the Confederate States of America. They included Mississippi, Florida, Alabama, Georgia, Louisiana and Texas. They elected Jefferson Davis as president of Confederacy.
    (AP, 2/4/97)(ON, 11/00, p.1)

1861        Feb 8, Delegates from seceded states adopted a provisional Confederate Constitution in Montgomery, Ala.
    (HN, 2/7/97)(MC, 2/8/02)

1861        Feb 9, The Confederate Provisional Congress, meeting in Alabama, declared all laws under the US Constitution were consistent with constitution of Confederate states. The Congress elected Jefferson Davis of Mississippi as president and Alexander H. Stephens vice president. Jefferson Davis' Mexican War exploits led him to the Confederate White House. In 2001 William C. Davis authored "The Union That Shaped the Confederacy: Robert Toombs and Alexander H. Stephens."
    (HN, 2/9/97)(AP, 2/9/99)(WSJ, 6/13/01, p.A18)(AH, 2/06, p.15)

1861        Feb 18, Jefferson F. Davis was inaugurated as the Confederacy’s provisional president at a ceremony held in Montgomery, Ala., where the Confederate constitutional convention was held. Davis was sworn in on Feb 22 in Virginia.
    (AP, 2/18/98)(HN, 2/18/98)(AH, 10/04, p.60)

1861        Mar 11, The Confederate convention in Montgomery, Ala., adopted a constitution. Representatives from the 7 Confederate states ratified the constitution of the Confederate states of America.
    (AP, 3/11/98)(Econ, 12/1/12, p.34)

1861        May 21, The Confederate Congress, meeting in Montgomery, Ala., voted to move the capital of the Confederacy from Montgomery to Richmond, Va.
    (AP, 5/21/07)

1861        Leaders of Alabama’s Winston County called for a meeting of area citizens. The meeting was be held at a Double Springs tavern owned by William Bauck "Bill" Looney. The date of the meeting is controversial. Some say it was held on July 4, 1861. Others say the meeting took place in April, 1862. The second of three resolutions said: "We agree with Jackson that no state can legally get out of the Union… But if we are mistaken in this, and a state can lawfully or legally secede or withdraw, being only a part of the Union, then a county, any county, being a part of the state, by the same process of reasoning, could cease to be a part of the State. In 1987 “The Incident at Looney's Tavern" was made into a play and in 1993 it became the Alabama Musical Drama by Act no. 93-110.

1862        Oct 2, An Army under Union General Joseph Hooker arrived in Bridgeport, Alabama to support the Union forces at Chattanooga.
    (HN, 10/2/98)

1862        The US battleship Monticello crashed trying to get past the US Navy and into Mobile Bay during the Civil War after sailing from Havana. In 1969 Hurricane Camille uncovered wreckage near Fort Morgan, Alabama, that some believed to be the Monticello, though others thought it was a schooner that ran aground in 1933.
    (AP, 9/20/08)

1863        Apr 27, Battle of Streight's raid: Tuscumbia to Cedar Bluff, AL.
    (MC, 4/27/02)

1863        Jul 27, William Lowndes Yancey (b.1814), former Alabama state senator, and advocate of states’ rights and slavery, died at his home near in Montgomery, Alabama. In 2006 Eric H. Walther authored “William Lowndes Yancey and the Coming of the Civil War."

1864        Feb 16, Battle of Mobile, Al., operations by Union Army.
    (MC, 2/16/02)

1864        Aug 3, Federal gunboats attacked but did not capture Fort Gains, at the mouth of Mobile Bay, Alabama.
    (HN, 8/3/98)

1864        Aug 4, Federal troops fail to capture Fort Gaines on Dauphin Island, one of the Confederate forts defending Mobile Bay. [see Aug 3]
    (HN, 8/4/99)

1864        Aug 5, During the Civil War, Union Adm. David G. Farragut is said to have given his famous order, "Damn the torpedoes, full speed ahead!" as he led his fleet against Mobile Bay, Ala. The Union Navy captured Mobile Bay in Alabama.
    (AP, 8/5/97)(HN, 8/5/98)

1864        Aug 6, Rebels evacuated Ft. Powell, Mobile Bay.
    (MC, 8/6/02)

1864        Aug 8, Union troops and fleet occupied Fort Gaines, Alabama.
    (MC, 8/8/02)

1864        Aug 23, Union troops and fleet occupied Fort Morgan, Alabama.
    (MC, 8/23/02)

1864        Sep 4, Bread riots took place in Mobile, Alabama.
    (MC, 9/4/01)

1864        Sep 16, Confederate General Nathan Bedford Forrest led 4,500 men out of Verona, Miss., to harass Union outposts in northern Alabama and Tennessee.
    (HN, 9/16/98)

1864        Oct 25, Skirmishes took place at Mine Creek, Ka., and Turkeytown, Al.
    (MC, 10/25/01)

1864        Nov 19, Confederate commander Nathan Bedford Forrest joined Gen. Hood at Gunter’s Landing on the Tennessee River in northern Alabama.
    (AH, 10/02, p.41)

1864        Nov 21, Confederate General John Bell Hood launched the Franklin-Nashville Campaign into Tennessee from northern Alabama. Hood led the Confederate Army of Tennessee in its offensive into Tennessee, which was decisively broken in the battles of Franklin and Nashville. Hood, a graduate of West Point, had been in the U.S. Cavalry until the Civil War broke out. He was seriously wounded attacking Little Round Top during the Battle of Gettysburg and later lost a leg at Chickamauga in September of that year. In 1864, he was appointed a Lieutenant General under Joseph E. Johnston‘s command in defense of Atlanta. In July, Confederate president Jefferson Davis put Hood in command who promptly attacked Sherman‘s Union army and was repulsed. Hood then attempted a long march to the north and west to assault Sherman‘s rear and ran into Union Army of the Cumberland. The November Battle of Franklin and December Battle of Nashville decisively defeated Hood‘s Army which was harassed and almost destroyed in its retreat. Hood‘s own request to end his command was granted the following month. After the war he lived in New Orleans.
    (HNQ, 11/4/00)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Franklin-Nashville_Campaign)

1865        Mar 18, Battle of Wilson's raid to Selma, AL.
    (MC, 3/18/02)

1865        Mar 22, Raid at Wilson's: Chickasaw, AL, to Macon, GA.
    (MC, 3/22/02)

1865        Mar 25, Battle of Mobile, AL (Spanish Fort, Fort Morgan, Fort Blakely).
    (MC, 3/25/02)

1865        Mar 27, Siege of Spanish Fort, AL. It was captured by Federals.
    (MC, 3/27/02)

1865        Apr 1-9, Battle at Blakely, Alabama.
    (MC, 4/1/02)

1865        Apr 2, Battle of Ft. Blakely, AL. and Selma, AL.
    (MC, 4/2/02)

1865        Apr 9, Federals captured Ft. Blakely, Alabama.
    (MC, 4/9/02)

1865        Apr 11, Battle of Mobile, AL., evacuated by Confederates.
    (MC, 4/11/02)

1865        Apr 14, Mobile, Alabama, was captured.
    (MC, 4/14/02)

1865        Apr 23, Union cavalry units continued to skirmish with Confederate forces in Henderson, North Carolina and Munsford Station, Alabama.
    (HN, 4/23/99)

1865        May 4, Battle of Mobile, AL. [see Apr 11,14]
    (MC, 5/4/02)

1866        Apr 2, Pres. ended war in Ala, Ark, Fla, Ga, Miss, La, NC, SC, Ten & Va.
    (MC, 4/2/02)

1867        Apr 1,  Blacks voted in the municipal election in Tuscumbia, Alabama.

1868        Feb 24, The 1st US parade with floats was at the Mardi Gras in Mobile,  Alabama.
    (MC, 2/24/02)

1868        Jun 25, Florida, Alabama, Louisiana, Georgia, North Carolina and South Carolina were re-admitted to the Union.
    (AP, 6/25/97)

1873        Nov 16, William Christopher Handy, W.C. Handy, father of the blues famous for "St. Louis Blues," was born in Alabama.
    (HN, 11/16/98)(MC, 11/16/01)

1881        Jul 4, In Alabama Tuskegee Institute enrolled 30 students. It was founded by former slave Booker T. Washington as a "normal" school and industrial institute  where "colored" people with little or no formal schooling could be trained as teachers and skilled workers.
    (NH, 2/97, p.82)(WSJ, 2/24/98, p.A22)(IB, Internet, 12/7/98)

1884        Feb 19, A series of tornadoes left an estimated 800 people dead in 7 US states (Miss, Ala, NC, SC, Tenn., Ky & In).
    (WSJ, 9/13/01, p.B11)(MC, 2/19/02)

1886        Feb 27, Hugo L. Black (d.1971) was born in Alabama. He became the 78th Supreme Court Justice (1937-71) and wrote opinions forbidding prayer in schools (Sen-D-Ala).

1887        Mar 3, Anne Mansfield Sullivan arrived at the Alabama home of Capt. and Mrs. Arthur H. Keller to become the teacher of Helen, their blind and deaf 6-year-old daughter.
    (AP, 3/3/00)

1887        Apr 5, In Tuscumbia, Ala., teacher Anne Sullivan taught her blind and deaf pupil, Helen Keller, the meaning of the word "water" as spelled out in the manual alphabet.
    (AP, 4/5/97)

1887        Alabama businessman Henry Bessemer founded Bessemer city in the hope that it would become a steel-industry center.
    (NY Times, 4/12/21)

1894        Jul 16, Many negro miners in Alabama were killed by striking white miners.
    (MC, 7/16/02)

1898        Sep 10, Waldo Lonsbury Semon (d.1999 at 100) was born in Demopolis. He later became a chemist for B.F. Goodrich and invented polyvinyl chloride in 1928. He received a patent for PVC in 1933. In 1940 he invented the synthetic rubber named Ameripol.
    (SFC, 5/29/99, p.A23)

1901        The Alabama Department of Archives and History was founded by Marie Bankhead Owen. The Archives and History opened with Owen's husband, Thomas Owen, as its first director. It focused on gathering Confederate records and artifacts and cataloged a version of the past that was favored by many Southern whites and all but excluded Black people.
    (AP, 9/21/20)
1901        The Alabama state constitution was enacted to reverse gains made by blacks after the Civil War. It included a prohibition on marriages between blacks and whites. In 1999 steps were taken to repeal the ban. As of 2020 the white supremacist constitution was still in effect.
    (SFC, 11/7/98, p.A11)(SFC, 4/17/99, p.A4)(WSJ, 4/3/02, p.A1)(AP, 9/21/20)
1901        Confederate Memorial Day was made a state holiday in Alabama.
    (AP, 4/26/21)

1905        Mary Anderson of Alabama received a patent for a streetcar windshield wiper. Her effort was the result of a trip to NYC in 1903 where she watched drivers coping with the weather.
    (WSJ, 5/9/05, p.R10)

1910        Tennessee passed a Prohibition law that gave distillers one year to dismantle their operations. George Dickel's operations moved to Kentucky and Jack Daniel's to Missouri and Alabama. Prohibition knocked both out of business in 1920.
    (SFC, 2/04/04, p.D2)

1913        Feb 14, Mel Allen, sportscaster (voice of NY Yankees), was born in Birmingham, Alabama.
    (MC, 2/14/02)

1913        In Alabama a white man was executed for murdering a black man.
    (SFC, 6/6/97, p.A3)

1914        May 13, Joe Louis, world heavyweight boxing champion from 1937 to 1949, was born in Lafayette, Ala. His boxing record was 63-3 with 49 knock-outs.
    (AP, 5/13/97)(HN, 5/13/99)

1914        Oct 28, Fayard Nicholas (d.2006), the elder half of the Nicholas Brothers tap dancing duo, was born in Mobile, Ala.
    (SSFC, 1/29/06, p.B7)(news.independent.co.uk/people/obituaries/article341244.ece)

1915        Nov 14, Booker T. Washington (b.1856), Black American educator, died in Tuskegee, Alabama. The former slave later founded the Tuskegee Institute (1881). Booker Taliaferro Washington later became the 1st black on a US postage stamp. His autobiography "Up From Slavery" was listed in 1999 as the 3rd best work of non-fiction in the English language in the 20th century by the Modern Library. In 2009 Robert J. Norrell authored “Up From History: The Life of Booker T. Washington." 
    (AP, 5/5/97)(HN, 4/5/99)(SFC, 4/29/99, p.C5)(WSJ, 1/23/09, p.W10)

1915-1998    Margaret Walker Alexander, black author, was born in Birmingham. She died Nov 30, 1998 at age 83. Her work included the 1942 poem "For My People," and the 1966 novel "Jubilee."
    (SFC, 12/1/98, p.B2)

1917        Flooding in Mobile, Ala., reached 11 feet.
    (SFC, 8/31/05, p.A11)

1919        Aug 25, George C. Wallace, governor of Alabama and presidential candidate who led the fight to keep segregation in the South, was born in Clio, Ala.
    (HN, 8/25/98)(MC, 8/25/02)

1920        Apr 20, Tornadoes struck northern Alabama and Mississippi. The final Alabama death toll reached 92 people. As many as 219 people were reportedly killed.
    (www.srh.noaa.gov/bmx/significant_events/climate/top10.php)(SFC, 4/20/09, p.D8)

1921        Jun 19, Howell Heflin, senator from Alabama, was born.
    (HN, 6/19/98)

1922        The Ebenezer Baptist Church in Atlanta was constructed. Martin Luther King Sr. became co-pastor in 1927. His son Martin Luther King Jr. became co-pastor in 1960.
    (AH, 6/02, p.6)

1924        Aug 29, Dinah Washington (d.1963), singer, was born as Ruth Jones in Tuscaloosa, Alabama. She was known in the 50s as "Queen of the Harlem Blues."
    (HN, 8/29/00)(SSFC, 8/22/04, p.M1)

1927        In Alabama and many other states sheriffs and other county office holders were paid fixed fees for services performed and were allowed to keep whatever was left over. In 2008 all but 12 of Alabama’s 67 counties remained on the fee system with a $1.75-a-day allowance for feeding prisoners. Some sheriffs still profited with no accounting to auditors.
    (SFC, 5/20/08, p.A4)

1930        Dec 31, Odetta, [Holmes], folk singer (Sanctuary), was born in Birmingham, Ala.
    (MC, 12/31/01)

1931        Mar 25, In Alabama 9 young black men, arrested at Paint Rock after riding a freight train, were taken to Scottsboro. Victoria Price (21) and Ruby Bates (17), who had worked as prostitutes in Huntsville, were also found on the train dressed as boys. The 9 men were soon charged with raping the 2 white woman, while riding on the freight train.
    (WSJ, 6/20/07, p.A17)(www.law.umkc.edu/faculty/projects/FTrials/scottsboro/SB_chron.html)

1931        Mar 30, In Scottsboro, Ala., 9 young black men were indicted for rape. By the end of April all were tried, convicted and sentenced to death, except for one age 13, who was sentenced to life in prison. The US Supreme Court later overturned the convictions, but they were convicted at a 2nd trial, even though one of the accused said no rape had occurred. Five convictions were overturned in 1937 after one alleged victim recanted her story. Clarence Norris received a pardon before his death in 1976. In 2013 Alabama’s parole board approved posthumous pardons for the “Scottsboro Boys" during a hearing for three black men whose convictions were never overturned.
    (WSJ, 6/20/07, p.A17)(SFC, 11/22/13, p.A15)

1931        Apr 6, The 1st Scottsboro (Ala) trial began for 9 blacks accused of rape.

1932        The US government began its 40-year Tuskegee Syphilis Study on 623 black men in rural Macon County, Ala. It ended in 1972 after Health Service investigator Peter Buxton exposed the study's unethical procedures.
    (SSFC, 1/25/04, p.A27)

1934        Jul 18, Cotton-mill workers in the US south went on strike. The UTW locals in the northern part of Alabama launched a strike in Huntsville, Alabama, then spread to Florence, Anniston, Gadsden, and Birmingham. While the strike was popular, it was also ineffective: many employers welcomed it as a means of cutting their expenses, since they had warehouses full of unsold goods. A documentary called the "Uprising of ‘34" was made in 1995 and scheduled for PBS on 6/27/95.
    (WSJ, 6/13/95, p.A-1)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Textile_workers_strike_%281934%29)

1934        Sep 9, Sonia Sanchez, poet, was born in Birmingham, Alabama.
    (HN, 9/9/00)

1934        Alabama’s last Confederate veteran living at the Mountain Creek Confederate Soldiers' Home died. The hospital, which was converted into apartments for widows, closed in 1939 and the five women who lived there were moved to Montgomery. In 2011 residential property taxes, initiated in 1901, continued to support Confederate Memorial Park.
    (AP, 7/20/11)

1935        Monsanto began producing PCB in Indiana and Anniston, La. PCBs were banned in 1979. Tons of PCBs were released into the environment and hidden from the public for over 40 years.
    (SFC, 2/23/02, p.A7)

1937        Jul 2, Polly Holliday, actress (Flo-Alice, Flo-Flo), was born in Jasper, Ala.
    (SC, 7/2/02)

1937        Jul 24, The state of Alabama dropped charges against 4 black men accused of raping two white women in the so-called Scottsboro case.
    (AP, 7/24/97)(www.law.umkc.edu/faculty/projects/FTrials/scottsboro/SB_chron.html)

1937        Aug 19, Hugo Black (1886-1971), US Senator from Alabama, was sworn in as associate US Supreme Court Justice.
    (AP, 10/21/97)(www.oyez.org/oyez/resource/legal_entity/76/)

1939        Arthur Davis Shores became the first black attorney licensed in Alabama.
    (SFEC, 3/1/98, Z1 p.4)

1941        Jan, The US War Dept. formed an all-black flying unit that achieved fame as the Tuskegee Airmen. On June 20 the Tuskegee program officially began with the formation of the 99th Fighter Squadron at the Tuskegee Institute in Alabama. Their 1st mission was in June 1943. African-Americans were barred from the Air Corps until this year, and then were shunted to all-black squadrons.
    (SFC, 9/22/99, p.A24) (WSJ, 8/17/99, p.A1)(NPub, 2002, p.14)

1942        May 5, Tammy Wynette, country singer (Stand by your Man), was born in Redbay, Alabama.
    (MC, 5/5/02)

1943        Jan 5, George Washington Carver, Educator and scientist, died at age 81 at Tuskegee, Alabama. Carver was born the son of a slave woman in the early 1860s, went to college in Iowa and then headed to Alabama in 1896. There, at the Tuskegee Institute, Carver served as an agricultural chemist, experimenter, teacher and administrator, working to improve life for African Americans in the rural South by teaching them better agricultural skills. One of the farming methods Carver devised, using peanut and soybean crops to enrich soil depleted by cotton crops, revolutionized Southern farming. Carver became somewhat of a benevolent example of the potential of black intellectuals. He was well-respected by people such as President Franklin D. Roosevelt, Mahatma Gandhi, Josef Stalin and Thomas Edison, whose offer of a job for more than $100 a year Carver refused. Carver worked at Tuskegee until his death.
    (AP, 1/5/98)(HNPD, 1/5/99)

1943        May 25, There was a riot at Mobile, Al., shipyard over upgrading 12 black workers.
    (SC, 5/25/02)

1943        Jul 2, The U.S. Army Air Corps 99th Fighter Squadron, the first of the all-black Tuskegee Airmen to see combat, had been based in Africa for four months when they were assigned to escort 16 B-25 Mitchell bombers on a routine mission over Sicilian targets. Lieutenant Charles B. Hall of Brazil, Indiana became the first Tuskegee Airman to score a confirmed kill when he shot down a German fighter plane. The United States would not allow black airmen to fight for their country until 1943, when the first of a contingent trained at Tuskegee, Alabama, were formed as the 99th Fighter Squadron and shipped out to North Africa. That unit and the 332nd Fighter Group that followed (which comprised the 99th) would prove their worth in the last two years of World War II. Besides establishing an outstanding record for not losing a single bomber they escorted to enemy fighters, several of the Tuskegee Airmen went on to distinguished postwar careers in the U.S. Air Force.
    (HNPD, 7/5/98)

1944        Feb 17, Oil was discovered in commercial quantities in Alabama.
    (HN, 2/17/98)

1944        Aug 10, Race riots took place in Athens, Alabama.
    (MC, 8/10/02)

1946        Jim Folsom, aka "Big Jim," was elected governor of Alabama. He pledged to spend more on schools and pensions and end the unfair competition of convict labor.
    (SFC, 4/3/00, p.B2) (Econ, 2/11/17, p.25)

1947-1963    The Louvin Brothers of Alabama, born Ira (1924-1965) and Charlie Loudermilk (1927-2011), recorded their country music, a mix of bluegrass, gospel, blues and antique folk ballads. A boxed set of their recordings called "Close Harmony" was put together by Richard Weize of Bear Family Records, Hamburg, Germany.
    (https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/The_Louvin_Brothers)(WSJ, 9/11/98, p.W3)

1948        May 1, Glenn Taylor, Idaho Senator, was arrested in Birmingham Alabama for trying to enter a meeting through a door marked "for Negroes."
    (MC, 5/1/02)

1949        George Wallace asked for and received an appointment to the Board of Trustees of the Tuskegee Institute.
    (WSJ, 4/17/00, p.A30)

1950        German physicist and engineer Wernher von Braun and a team of some 118 German scientists, described as “prisoners of peace," began arriving in Huntsville, Alabama, to work on the US space program at Redstone Arsenal.
    (WSJ, 11/10/04, p.A1)(Econ, 3/13/10, p.34)

1951        Oct 25, Ransom Wilson, flutist and conductor, was born in Tuscaloosa, Alabama.

1952        Aug 17, Kathryn C. Thornton, PhD, astronaut, was born in Montgomery, Alabama.
    (SC, 8/17/02)

1952        Dec 30, Tuskegee Institute reported 1952 as the 1st yr in the last 71 with no US lynchings.
    (MC, 12/30/01)

1953        Oct 8, Birmingham, Alabama, barred Jackie Robinson's Negro-White All-Stars from playing there. Robinson gave in and dropped white players from his group.
    (MC, 10/8/01)

1954        Jun 18, Albert Patterson was assassinated in Phenix, Ala. He had recently been elected as attorney general on a platform to crack down on vice. His murder led the governor to call in the National Guard to replace local law enforcement and cleanup the vice. Patterson’s son John filled the attorney general position and soon became the subject of the movie “The Phenix City Story." He was elected governor in 1958.
    (USAT, 6/29/04, p.7A)

1954         Jul 4, WMSL (WYUR, now WAFF) TV channel 48 in Huntsville, AL (ABC) began.

1954        Sep 1, Martin Luther King Jr. (1929-1968) became pastor at the Dexter Avenue Baptist Church in Montgomery, Alabama.
    (SFEM, 2/2/97, p.8)(ON, 4/2011, p.2)

1954        Nov 30, A meteorite struck Mrs. Elizabeth Hodges of Alabama as she was sleeping on a couch. The space rock was a sulfide meteorite weighing 8.5 pounds and measuring seven inches in length. Mrs. Hodges was not permanently injured but suffered a nasty bruise along her hip and leg.  This was the 1st modern report of a Meteorite striking a human.
    (MC, 11/30/01)

1955        Jan 17, James Elisha Folsom Sr. (1908-1987), aka Big Jim Folsom, began serving a second term as governor of Alabama.

1955        Mar 2, Claudette Colvin refuses to give up her seat in Montgomery, Alabama, nine months before Rosa Parks' famous arrest for the same offense.
    (HN, 3/2/00)

1955        Nov 3, An Alabama woman was bruised by a meteor.
    (MC, 11/3/01)

1955        Dec 1, Rosa Parks (42), a seamstress and secretary of the Montgomery NAACP, was arrested in Montgomery, Alabama, as she sat in a section of a bus just behind the area reserved for whites. She refused to move to the back the bus, to accommodate a white male passenger, as ordered by driver James F. Blake (d.2002 at 89) and defied the South’s segregationist laws. This prompted the Dec. 5 bus boycott, a year-long boycott of the buses by blacks, and launched the Civil Rights movement in the United States. Virginia Durr (d.1999 at 95) helped a black civil rights leader bail Parks out of jail. In 1985 Durr wrote her memoir: "Outside the Magic Circle." In 1999 Pres. Clinton authorized a Congressional Gold Medal for Rosa Parks.
    (SFC, 5/12/96, p.A-6)(SFEC, 9/15/96, p.A2)(SFEM, 2/2/97, p.8)(AP, 12/1/97)(SFC, 3/10/99, p.A23)(SFC, 5/5/99, p.A3)(SFC, 3/26/02, p.A24)

1955        Dec 5, The Montgomery, Alabama, bus boycott began in an effort to overturn the city’s bus segregation law. It was organized in part by Jo Ann Robinson (1912-1992) following the Dec 1 arrest of Rosa Parks, who had refused give up her seat to a white male passenger and move to the back.
    (ON, 4/2011, p.2)

1956        Feb 3, Autherine Lucy (b.1929) arrived at the Tuscaloosa branch of the Univ. of Alabama and became the first black person to enroll there. She had been accepted in 1952 and then was denied because of her race.

1956        Feb 6, The Univ. of Alabama board of trustees voted to suspend Autherine Lucy, the 1st black admitted to school, on the grounds that the campus was no longer safe for her.

1956        Feb 21, A Grand Jury in Montgomery, Ala., indicted 115 in a Negro bus boycott.
    (HN, 2/21/98)

1956        Feb 22, The US Montgomery Boycott sparked arrests that included Martin Luther King. He was found guilty on March 22 and ordered to pay a $500 fine.
    (HFA, ‘96, p.22)(SFEM, 1/19/97, BR p.1)(Sm, 3/06, p.44)

1956        Apr 11, Singer Nat Cole was attacked on stage of Birmingham theater by whites.
    (MC, 4/11/02)

1956        Nov 13, The U.S. Supreme Court struck down the Alabama bus segregation law. The Supreme Court struck down laws calling for racial segregation on public buses.
    (AP, 11/13/97)(HN, 11/13/98)

1956        Dec 20, The Supreme Court affirmed the Jun 5 decision against segregation on buses in Montgomery, Alabama. Montgomery removed race-based seat assignments on its buses.
    (SFEM, 1/19/97, BR p.8)(SFEM, 2/2/97, p.12,13)(ON, 4/2011, p.4)

1957        Jun 17, The Tuskegee boycott began as Blacks boycotted city stores.
    (MC, 6/17/02)

1957        Jul 17, Lila Bliss found her daughter, Juliette Hampton Morgan (b.1914), dead next to an empty bottle of sleeping pills. In 1936 Juliette had signed a pledge with other women in Montgomery, Alabama, to no longer remain silent in the face of crime done in their name. In 2007 Mary Stanton authored “Journey Toward Justice," a biography of Juliette Hampton Morgan.
    (WSJ, 2/17/07, p.P13)

1958        Jun 29, A bomb exploded at the Bethel Baptist Church in Birmingham, Ala.; there were no injuries.
    (AP, 6/29/08)

1958        Sep 5, Martin Luther King was arrested in an Alabama protest for loitering and fined $14 for refusing to obey police.
    (HN, 9/5/98)

1958        George Wallace ran for governor of Alabama but was defeated by John Patterson, a rabid racist with ties to the Klan. Patterson was the son of lawyer Albert Patterson, assassinated in 1954.
    (WSJ, 4/17/00, p.A30)(USAT, 6/29/04, p.7A)

1960        Feb 17, Martin Luther King Jr. was arrested in the Alabama bus boycott.
    (HN, 2/17/98)

1960        Feb 25, In Alabama 35 black men and women, mostly students from Alabama State Univ., launched the state's first sit-in against racial segregation at the Montgomery County Courthouse snack bar.
    (SFC, 2/25/20, p.A5)

1960         Mar 1, 1,000 Black students prayed and sang the national anthem on the steps of the old Confederate Capitol in Montgomery, Ala.
    (HN, 3/1/98)

1960        Sep 8, NASA’s Marshall Space Flight Center in Huntsville, Ala., was dedicated by President Dwight D. Eisenhower. This followed the activation of the facility in July of that year, when a key element of the U.S. Army’s Ballistic Missile Agency was transferred from the Department of Defense to NASA.  The Marshall Center is named in honor of General George C. Marshall, who was the Army Chief of Staff during World War II, U.S. Secretary of State, and a Nobel Prize winner for his post-World War II "Marshall Plan."
    (NASA PR, 8/22/00)

1961        May 14, Bus with 1st group of Freedom Riders was bombed and burned in Alabama.
    (MC, 5/14/02)

1961        May 20, A white mob led by Claude Henley attacked a busload of "Freedom Riders" in Montgomery, Ala., prompting the federal government to send in U.S. marshals to restore order.
    (AP, 5/20/97)(HN, 5/20/98)(SFEC, 9/19/99, p.A3)

1961        May 21, Governor Patterson declared martial law in Montgomery, Alabama.
    (HN, 5/21/98)

1961        Oct 31, A US Federal judge ruled that Birmingham, Alabama, laws against integrated playing fields were illegal.
    (MC, 10/31/01)

1963        Jan 14, George C. Wallace was sworn in as governor of Alabama with a pledge of "segregation forever."
    (AP, 1/14/98)

1963        Apr 12, Police used dogs and cattle prods on peaceful civil rights demonstrators in Birmingham, Alabama.
    (HN, 4/12/98)

1963        May 3, In Birmingham, Alabama, police Commissioner Bull Connor unleashed dogs and high-powered fire hoses on boycott-bound school children.
    (SFEC, 3/16/97, p.T5)(SFEC, 3/1/98, Z1 p.1)

1963        May 11, Racial bomb attacks took place in Birmingham, Alabama.
    (MC, 5/11/02)

1963        May 12, There was a race riot in Birmingham, Alabama.
    (MC, 5/12/02)

1963        Jun 11, Federal troops were used to force Alabama Gov. George Wallace to accept black students, Vivian Malone Jones and James Wood, at the Univ. of Alabama. In 1996 George Wallace apologized in a formal ceremony. Gen'l. Henry V. Graham (d.1999 at 82) of the National Guard escorted Wallace from the doorway at Foster Auditorium.
    (WSJ, 5/13/96, p.A-16)(SFC, 10/11/96, p.A3)

1963        Sep 2, Alabama Gov. George C. Wallace prevented the integration of Tuskegee High School by encircling the building with state troopers. 
    (AP, 9/2/97)(HN, 9/2/98)

1963        Sep 9, Alabama Gov George Wallace served a federal injunction to stop orders of state police to bar black students from enrolling in white schools.
    (MC, 9/9/01)

1963        Sep 10, 20 black students entered public schools in Birmingham, Tuskegee and Mobile, Ala., following a standoff between federal authorities and Gov. George C. Wallace.
    (AP, 9/10/97)

1963        Sep 15, The Ku Klux Klan bombed the 16th St. Baptist Church in Birmingham, Alabama. Four young black girls (Denise McNair, Carole Robertson, Addie Collins, and Cynthia Wesley) were killed in the bombing as they prepared their Sunday school lesson on "The love that forgives." Later on the same day James Ware (16) and his brother Virgil (14) were shot at while bicycling home. Virgil was killed. Another James Ware went on to become a US district judge and falsely used the James and Virgil Ware story for self promotion. Judge Ware withdrew from a new appointment to the SF 9th Circuit Court of Appeals in 1997 after he admitted that he was not the same James Ware. In Birmingham, Alabama, police dogs were set on peaceful, Black demonstrators. The 1997 film "Four Little Girls" by Spike Lee was a documentary of the church burning in Alabama. In 1977 Robert Chambliss (d.1985) was tried and convicted of murder. Suspect Herman Cash died in 1994. In 2000 Thomas E. Blanton Jr. and Bobby Frank Cherry (d.2004) turned themselves in after they were indicted by a state grand jury. In 2001 Thomas Blanton was convicted of murder and sentenced to life in prison. Cherry was convicted May 22, 2002, and sentenced to life in prison.
    (SFC, 4/14/96, p.Z1, p.1)(SFC, 8/16/96, p.D11)(SFEC, 3/16/97, p.T5)(SFEC, 5/18/97, DB p.45)(SFC, 11/6/97, p.A9)(AP, 9/15/97)(SFC, 5/18/00, p.A1)(SFC, 5/2/01, p.A1)(SFC, 5/23/02, p.A1)(NW, 5/27/02, p.43)

1965        Jan 2, The New York Jets signed University of Alabama quarterback Joe Namath for a reported $427,000.
    (AP, 1/2/08)

1965        Feb 1, In Selma, Alabama, Reverend Martin Luther King Jr. and 770 of his followers were arrested on their civil rights march. They protested against voter discrimination in Alabama.
    (SFEC, 3/16/97, p.T1)(HN, 2/1/99)

1965        Feb 18, Alabama police were sent to Marion as some 500 people marched from a church toward the city jail to protest the jailing of a civil rights worker. Street lights went out and troopers began swinging clubs on the marchers. Jimmie Lee Jackson (26) was shot while aiding his grandfather (82) and mother. Jackson died 2 days later. In 2007 trooper James Bonard Fowler was indicted for the shooting death of Jackson. In 2010 Fowler (77) pleaded guilty to 2nd degree manslaughter and was sentenced to 6 months in jail.
    (SFC, 5/10/07, p.A3)(SFC, 11/16/10, p.A17)

1965        Mar 7, A march by some 600 civil rights demonstrators was broken up in Selma, Ala., by state troopers and posse under Sheriff Jim Clark (d.2007). The Black community of Marion, Ala., marched to protest the earlier killing of a demonstrator by a state trooper. John Lewis, later US Representative, led the march and was hit in the head by a state trooper.
    (AP, 3/7/98)(SFC, 3/8/99, p.A9)(SFC, 11/27/99, p.C3)(Econ, 6/16/07, p.99)

1965        Mar 11, The Rev. James J. Reeb (65), a white minister from Boston, died after whites beat him during civil rights disturbances in Selma, Ala.
    (AP, 3/11/98)(MC, 3/11/02)

1965        Mar 20, Lyndon B. Johnson ordered 4,000 troops to protect the Selma-Montgomery civil rights marchers.
    (HN, 3/20/98)

1965        Mar 25, Martin Luther King Jr. led a group of 25,000 to the state capital in Montgomery Ala. to protest the denial of voting rights to blacks. Civil Rights pressures increased in the US and blacks and whites marched in Selma and Montgomery.
    (TMC, 1994, p.1965)(AP, 3/25/97)(HN, 3/24/98)
1965        Mar 25, Viola Liuzzo (b.1925), a white civil rights worker from Detroit, was shot and killed by the Ku Klux Klan on a road near Selma, Ala. The later trial of Collie Leroy Jenkins, one of 3 men charged in the killing, ended in a hung jury. Jenkins was also acquitted at a 2nd trial but was later convicted along with Eugene Thomas of civil rights violations in federal court and sentenced to 10 years in prison.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Viola_Liuzzo)(SSFC, 7/20/08, p.B6)

1965        Mar 28, In San Francisco the Rev. Martin Luther King said that his Southern Christian Leadership Conference would soon call for a massive economic withdrawal program against the State of Alabama.
    (SSFC, 3/29/15, DB p.42)

1956        Apr 10, In Alabama singer Nat Cole was attacked on stage at the Birmingham Municipal Auditorium by a small group of white supremacists. Six local men were arrested for the attack.
    (http://findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_qa4113/is_200401/ai_n9350991/)(NYT, 4/11/1956, p.1)

1965        May 30, Vivian Malone (later Vivian Malone Jones) became the first black graduate of the University of Alabama with a degree in Business Management.
    (NYT, 10/14/2005, p.C15)

1966        Jul 31, Alabamans burned Beatle products due to John Lennon's remark that the Beatles are more popular than Jesus.
    (MC, 7/31/02)

1966        Lurleen Wallace, the wife of George Wallace, was elected governor with 63% of the vote.
    (WSJ, 4/17/00, p.A30)

1968        Feb 8, George Wallace, the pro-segregation governor of Alabama, entered the US presidential race. Wallace ran as a third-party candidate. He was mainly popular in the deep south, but he was able to attract 14% of the popular vote in the November election.
    (HN, 2/7/97)(www.answers.com/topic/george-wallace)

1968        Feb 16, America’s first 911 emergency telephone system was inaugurated in Haleyville, Ala.
    (AP, 2/16/98)

1968        Oct 3, American Independent Party presidential candidate George Wallace tapped retired Air Force Gen. Curtis E. LeMay to be his running mate.
    (AP, 10/3/08)

1970        Sep 12, The Univ. of Alabama under coach Bear Bryant football team played against an integrated opponent for the 1st time losing to the Univ. of Southern California 42-21.
    (WSJ, 9/8/05, p.D10)

1971        Morris Dees founded the Southern Poverty Law Center. It developed the legal strategy of suing white supremacist groups for monetary damages on behalf of victims of hate crimes.
    (SFEC, 9/19/99, p.A3)

1972        May 15, Alabama’s Gov. George Wallace was shot by Arthur Bremer while campaigning in Laurel, Maryland, for the Democratic presidential primary. Wallace was left paralyzed. In 2007 Bremer was released from jail after serving 35 of his 53 year sentence.
    (HFA, '96, p.30)(SFC, 8/16/96, p.D11)(AP, 5/15/97)(AP, 11/9/07)

1972        Jul 25, US health officials conceded that blacks were used as guinea pigs in the 40 year Tuskegee Syphilis Study in Macon County, Ala. By this time 28 participants had died of syphilis, 100 were dead of related complications, at least 40 wives had been infected and 19 children had contracted the disease at birth [see 1932].
    (SC, 7/25/02)(SSFC, 1/25/04, p.A27)

1972        Aug 4, Arthur Bremer (b.1950) was sentenced to 63 years for shooting Alabama  Gov. Wallace and 3 bystanders on May 15, 1972, in Laurel, Maryland. An appeal reduced the sentence to 53 years. After 35 years of incarceration, Bremer was released from prison on parole on November 9, 2007. He remains on probation until 2025 and resides in a halfway house in Cumberland, Maryland.

1972        Nov 10, Three black men successfully hijacked a Southern Airways DC-9 after a stopover in Birmingham, Ala., and flew to multiple locations in the United States and one Canadian city and finally to Cuba with $2 million (actual cash, Presidential "grant" totaled $10 million) and 10 parachutes. Co-pilot Halroyd was wounded; they threatened to crash the plane into one of the Oak Ridge nuclear installations; at McCoy Air Force Base, Orlando, the FBI shot out the tires; they forced pilot William Haas to take off. The plane finally landed in Havana; two were sentenced in Cuba to 20 years, one to 15 years. They returned to Alabama in 1980 and received 20-25 year sentences.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_Cuba-US_aircraft_hijackings)(USAT, 6/11/03, p.2B)(http://cuban-exile.com/doc_176-200/doc0180.html)

1972        Monsanto ceased producing PCBs in Anniston, Alabama. In 2001 Monsanto agreed to a $40 million settlement for toxic pollution.
    (SFC, 4/25/01, p.A5)

1974        Apr 3, A series of 148 deadly tornadoes struck wide parts of the South and Midwest before jumping across the border into Canada; some 330 people were killed in 13 states: Alabama, Georgia, Illinois, Indiana, Kentucky, Michigan, Mississippi, North Carolina, Ohio, South Carolina, Tennessee, Virginia, and West Virginia. Total property damage was estimated at $600 million. In 2007 Mark Levine authored “F5: Devastation, Survival, and the Most Violent Tornado Outbreak of the 20th Century."
    (AP, 4/3/99)(WSJ, 9/13/01, p.B11)(SSFC, 9/4/05, p.A7)(WSJ, 6/16/07, p.P10)

1974        The Bellefonte nuclear power plant was begun by the TVA in Hollywood, Ala. Construction was halted in 1988 amid soaring costs.
    (WSJ, 7/18/01, p.B1)

1975        Mar 22, In Alabama a fire at the Browns Ferry Unit 1 nuclear power plant caused $10 million in damage and knocked the reactor out of service for over a year. A worker checking for air leaks with a candle ignited insulation near the control room. The reactor was mothballed in 1985. It was scheduled to reopen in 2007 following a 5 year, $1.8 billion restoration.
    (SFC, 5/5/07, p.A6)(http://tinyurl.com/33l4hc)

1976        Oct 16, In Alabama Sheryl Lynn Payton (24) was abducted, raped and murdered. In 1977 Thomas Whisenhant (29) was convicted after he confessed to her murder and that of 2 other convenience store clerks. Whisenhant's original conviction was overturned by the Alabama Court of Criminal Appeals. He was convicted again at a retrial in 1981. On May 27, 2010, Whisenhant was executed by lethal injection.
    (http://tinyurl.com/39dbsea)(SFC, 5/28/10, p.A8)

1976        Oct 25, Gov. Wallace of Alabama granted full pardon to Clarence Norris, the last known survivor of 9 Scottsboro Boys who were convicted in a 1931 rape.

1979        In Brookwood Alabama, the Blue Creek No.5 mine opened. The mine is the deepest in North America at 2,140 feet below the surface.
    (SFC, 9/25/01, p.A14)

1981        Mar 20, Michael Donald (b.1962), a black teenager in Mobile, Alabama, was abducted, tortured and killed in what prosecutors charged was a Ku Klux Klan plot. Henry Hays (d.1997) murdered Michael Donald in a random abduction. Donald was beaten, cut, strangled and his body was strung up a tree. Hays was convicted and sentenced to death. He was executed Jun 6, 1997. In 1987 A wrongful death suit filed by Donald’s mother, Beulah Mae Donald, gave a $7 million verdict against the United Klans of America, led by Robert Shelton (d.2003 at 73).
    (SFC, 6/6/97, p.A3)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Michael_Donald)(SFC, 1/21/02, p.A21)

1981        Nov 28, Bear Bryant of the Univ. of Alabama won his 315th game to out distance Alonzo Stagg & become college football's winningest coach.

1982        Dec 29, Coach Paul "Bear" Bryant ended his career with Alabama. He logged 323 wins (http://bryantmuseum.ua.edu/direction.cfm?dir=bio). In 1996 Keith Dunnavant authored “COACH: The Life of Paul "Bear" Bryant."

1982        George Wallace ran for governor for a 5th time and was elected. During his term he elected a record number of black Alabamans and depended on a coalition of blacks and whites for legislative support.
    (WSJ, 4/17/00, p.A30)

1982        Troy Wicker of Muscle Shoals, Ala., was shot to death. Judy Wicker later testified that she had had sex with Thomas Arthur and paid him $10,000 to kill her husband. Arthur was convicted and sentenced to death. His execution, set for Dec 6, 2007, was delayed because of a pending Supreme Court case involving lethal injections. Arthur escaped execution seven times with legal challenges, but was finally executed on May 26, 2017.
    (AP, 11/26/07)(SFC, 5/26/17, p.A8)

1983        Jan 17, Alabama Gov George C. Wallace (1919-1998), became governor for a record 4th time.

1983        Jan 26, Paul Bryant (Bear Bryant), former Univ. of Alabama football coach, died at age 69. In 1975 he authored his autobiography “Bear."

1983        May, The mysterious Jack Smith invited a number of Blacks and Whites to have supper together at the Piccadilly Cafeteria. 35 people convened and the Friendly Supper Club thus was born and continued to convene.
    (WSJ, 12/17/98, p.A1,10)

1984        Richard Scrushy founded HealthSouth. It went public in 1986.
    (SFC, 6/29/05, p.C1)(WSJ, 6/29/05, p.A8)

1984        A rural store owner was slain. Robert Lee Traver Jr., was convicted and sentenced to death.
    (SFC, 2/5/00, p.A2)

1985        Jun 4, The Supreme Court upheld a lower court ruling striking down an Alabama law providing for a daily "moment of silence" in public schools.
    (AP, 6/4/97)(http://tinyurl.com/2lqt4u)

1985        In Alabama two fast food restaurant managers were murdered in two separate restaurant hold-ups. Anthony Ray Hinton (29) was arrested and charged with the murders despite being at work in a locked warehouse 15 minutes away during a 3rd shooting in which a survivor identified him as the gun man. Hinton was freed from prison in 2015.  
    (AFP, 4/2/15)

1986        Apr 2, George Corley Wallace (1919-1998), Governor of Alabama (Dem.), announced his retirement.

1986        Apr 13, Phillip Hallford forced his daughter (15) to lure her boyfriend Eddie Shannon (16) to an isolated area in Daly County, Alabama, where he shot and killed the boy and threw his body off a bridge. Melinda Hallford was pregnant at the time of the killing and had been sexually abused by her father. In 2010 Hallford (63) was executed.
    (http://off2dr.com/modules/extcal/event.php?event=256)(SFC, 11/5/10, p.A9)

1987        May 10, President Reagan visited Tuskegee University, one of the nation's oldest black educational institutions, where he told graduating seniors his administration "won't be satisfied until every American who wants a job has a job and is earning a decent living."
    (AP, 5/10/97)

1987        Nov 21, James E. Folsom (79), former 2-term governor of Alabama (1947-1951 and 1955-59), died.

1988        Feb 8, Jimmy Lee Dill fatally shot and killed Leon Shaw in Birmingham, Alabama, and robbed him of cocaine and about $200. Dill (49) was executed in 2009.
    (SFC, 4/17/09, p.A6)(www.wsfa.com/Global/story.asp?S=10197524&nav=0rde)

1988        Mar 18, In Alabama Elizabeth Dorleen Sennett (45), the wife of a preacher, died after she was brutally beaten and stabbed in a contract killing. A week after becoming a suspect in the case, the victim's husband, Charles Sennett, shot and killed himself in his son's backyard. Sennett had contracted Bill Gray Williams to kill his wife for $3,000. According to court documents, Williams paid Kenneth Eugene Smith and John Forrest Parker $1,000 each to commit the murder. Parker was convicted in 1989 and executed for the murder in 2010.
    (http://tinyurl.com/2696ump)(SFC, 6/11/10, p.A6)

1988        The first gathering of Airstream enthusiasts was held in Huntsville, Ala., and attracted 2,741 trailers. The Airstream was born when Wally Byam (d.1962)  riveted shiny aluminum to a steel frame on wheels in the 1930s.
    (SFEC, 6/29/97, p.A12)

1989        Dec 16, US Federal appeals court judge Robert S. Vance was killed by a mail bomb at his Alabama home. Walter Leroy Moody Junior was later sentenced to death for killing Vance, and received seven life terms on federal charges in that killing and the death of civil rights attorney Robert E. Robinson.
    (AP, 12/16/99)

1989        Bart Chamberlain (1914-2007, Alabama oil man, fled to Switzerland following court ordered penalties of $25 million for oil sales that circumvented price controls.
    (WSJ, 6/2/07, p.A5)

1990        Jul 31, Shoal Creek, a private club in Birmingham, Alabama, that drew criticism for being all-white, announced it had accepted a black businessman as an honorary member.
    (AP, 7/31/00)

1991        Oct 27, In Alabama Sharma Ruth Johnson (22) was  kidnapped and murdered. Willie B. Smith III was later convicted of the murder. On Oct 21, 2021, Smith (52) was executed by lethal injection.
    (SFC, 10/22/21, p.A4)(https://tinyurl.com/shbjm546)

1991        Dec 22, In Alabama Christopher Lee Price used a sword and a dagger to fatally stab a pastor. In 2019 his April execution was postponed after attorneys argued that the state's lethal drug combination had led to botched executions. Price was executed on May 30, 2019.
    (SFC, 4/12/19, p.A4)(SFC, 5/31/19, p.A2)

1992        Oct 9, In Alabama Jack Trawick abducted and killed college student Stephanie Gach (21) in Birmingham. Trawick (62), a serial murderer, was executed in 2009.
    (SFC, 6/12/09, p.A6)(www.prodeathpenalty.com/Pending/09/jun09.htm)

1992        The Birmingham Civil Rights Institute was begun.
    (SFEC, 3/1/98, Z1 p.4)

1992        Governor Guy Hunt was indicted for looting his tax-exempt inaugural fund to pay off personal debts.
    (SFC, 6/12/97, p.A2)

1992        Autherine Lucy Foster (b.1929), wife of Rev. Hugh Foster, finally got a degree from the Univ. of Alabama, when she received a Master's in Education. She had been suspended from the school in 1956 due to campus safety issues relating to her race. Also in that graduating class was her daughter Grazia, who received a Bachelor's Degree in Corporate Finance.
    (NYT, 4/26/1992, p.43)

1993        Jul 13, Race car driver Davey Allison died in Birmingham, Ala., of injuries suffered in a helicopter crash.
    (AP, 7/13/98)

1993        Sep 22, Forty-seven people were killed when an Amtrak passenger train derailed and crashed into Bayou Canot near Mobile, Ala.
    (AP, 9/22/98)

1993        Alabama Gov. Guy Hunt, halfway through his 2nd term, was convicted and forced to resign. He was sentenced to 5 years probation, 1,000 hours of community service, and a $212,000 fine. In 1997 a parole board, partly appointed by Hunt, voted to pardon him. (SFC, 6/12/97, p.A2)
1993        Alabama Governor James E. Folsom Jr. (b.1948) led an offer to Mercedes-Benz of $253 million in incentives to build its 1st auto plant in Vance.
    (WSJ, 4/3/02, p.A1)(http://politicalgraveyard.com/bio/folsom.html)
1993        The $13 million Civil Rights Institute opened in Birmingham. It was dedicated to research on civil rights around the world with focus on the Deep South.
    (SSFC, 5/12/02, p.C12)
1993        The Alabama Board of Education voted to prohibit yoga, hypnosis and meditation in public schools. The ban was pushed by conservative groups.
    (SFC, 3/9/20, p.A4)
1993        Mobile, Ala., became sister cities with Havana, Cuba.
    (Econ, 8/1/09, p.26)
1993        Deborah Spivey Barton (39) and her mother Eloise Powell Spivey (59) of Georgia were found beaten to death in a camper at a campground in northern Alabama. Mark O. Barton, Deborah's husband was a suspect, but never charged. [see Georgia Jul 29, 1999]
    (SFC, 7/30/99, p.A3)

1994        Mar 27, More than 40 people were killed as violent thunderstorms tore across the Southeast. A church in Piedmont, Alabama, collapsed in a tornado and 19 were killed.
    (AP, 3/27/99)

1994        Aug 6, In Wedowee, Ala., an apparent arson fire destroyed Randolph County High School. It had been the focus of tensions over the principal's stand against interracial dating.
    (AP, 8/6/99)

1994        Sep 17, Heather Whitestone of Alabama was crowned "Miss America," the first deaf woman to win the title.
    (AP, 9/17/97)

1994        Apr, Jean-Damascene Bizimana, Rwanda’s UN ambassador, blamed the killings in Rwanda first on public anguish over the president's death, then on the Tutsi-led RPF. He also called on the UN Security Council to persuade the Tutsis to agree to a comprehensive cease-fire. Weeks later, he wrote to the UN secretary general blaming the Tutsi "war machine" for "large-scale massacres." At the end of the summer Bizimana ended his tenure as ambassador and moved to Alabama. In 2010 Rwanda’s government began an investigation of Bizimana (51) for possible prosecution.
    (AP, 4/24/10)

1995        Feb 16, Four people were killed when tornadoes tore through rural north Alabama.
    (AP, 2/16/00)

1995        Apr 17, An Air Force jet exploded and crashed in a wooded area in eastern Alabama, killing eight people, including an assistant Air Force secretary and a two-star general.
    (AP, 4/16/00)

1995        Sep 27-Oct 6, Hurricane Opal caused at least 50 deaths in Guatemala and Mexico and 20 deaths in the United States. The storm hit Central America before striking Florida, Alabama, Georgia, and North Carolina.
    (AP, 9/11/04)(www.wunderground.com)

1995        The Fort McClellan Army base in Louisiana was closed.
    (SFC, 9/15/02, p.A5)

1996        Jan 31, Felicia Scott (29) shot and killed Carethia Curry (17), who was pregnant, then performed a crude cesarean section to remove Curry’s baby for herself. Scott was sentenced to life in prison in 1998.
    (SFC, 12/15/98, p.A3)

1996        Jul 3, The Clinton administration awarded a $1 mil grant to the Univ. of Alabama for an experiment that would test for illicit drug use of everyone arrested in Birmingham.
    (SFC, 7/4/96, p.A3)

1997        Jul 5, An editorial stated that Governor Fob James had declared Alabama to be a rights-free zone. In a letter to a federal judge Gov. James stated that the Constitution’s Bill of Rights does not apply to the states.
    (SFC, 7/5/97, p.A16)

1997        Federal Judge Ira DeMent ordered public schools in DeKalb County to stop evangelizing students. Gov. Fob James vowed to resist the order. Negotiator Charles Haynes was brought in and helped settle the dispute with a program that taught about religions and their value systems with no preaching.
    (WSJ, 3/23/98, p.A1)

1997        Community Newspaper Holdings was formed in Birmingham, Alabama. By 2006 it published papers in over 200 US communities.
    (SFC, 10/28/06, p.C3)

1997        Mercedes-Benz began producing SUVs in Vance.
    (WSJ, 4/3/02, p.A1)

1997        Monsanto spun off its chemical operations and created Solutia Inc. In 2002 an Alabama jury found Monsanto and its corporate successors guilty of releasing tons of PCBs in Anniston between 1935-1979.
    (SFC, 2/23/02, p.A7)

1997        Randy McCullar was shot in the back of the head by Timothy Richards, who did so at the urging of his wife, Shonda Nicole Johnson, so she could be cleared of a bigamy charge. In 1999 Johnson, later married to Bill McIntyre, was convicted in the murder of McCullar.
    (SFC, 10/23/99, p.A3)

1998        Jan 29, In Birmingham, Ala., the New Woman, All Woman Health Care [abortion] Clinic was bombed. Robert Sanderson (35), a moonlighting police officer, was killed and Emily Lyons, a nurse, was critically injured. A note was later received claiming the "Army of God" was responsible. Suspect Eric Robert Rudolph (31) of North Carolina was arrested May 31,2003. Rudolph was convicted and sentenced to life in prison in 2005.
    (SFC, 1/30/98, p.A3)(SFC, 2/3/98, p.A2)(SSFC, 6/1/03, p.A1)(SFC, 7/19/05, p.A9)

1998        Feb 14, Authorities officially declared Eric Rudolph a suspect in the bombing of a Birmingham, Ala., abortion clinic and offered a $100,000 reward.
    (AP, 2/14/03)

1998        Mar 9, A vast storm caused deadly flooding in the South and heavy snows in the Midwest. In Elba, Alabama, the Pea River broke its levee and put the town under 5 feet of water.
    (SFC, 3/10/98, p.A3)

1998        Mar 10, A teenager killed his parents with an ax and a sledgehammer. Jeffery Franklin (17) also wounded 3 siblings and led police on a "wild car chase" before being captured.
    (SFC, 3/11/98, p.A3)

1998        Apr 8, A line of storms struck the southeast and killed at least 41 people. 32 were left dead in Alabama, 8 in Georgia and 1 in Mississippi.
    (SFC, 4/9/98, p.A3)(SFC, 4/10/98, p.A1)(WSJ, 4/10/98, p.A1)

1998        Jul 14, Flash floods hit Tennessee and Alabama and 2 people were reported killed. Meanwhile hot weather in Texas was responsible for some 23 deaths where temperatures hit over 100 for the last 26 days.
    (SFC, 7/15/98, p.A3)

1998        Jul 20, A report on political trouble in Greene Ct. noted that the population was 80% black, while over 90% of the land belonged to whites.
    (WSJ, 7/20/98, p.A1)

1998        Sep 13, George Wallace (79), former governor of Alabama, died in Montgomery. Dan Carter authored Wallace’s biography: "The Politics of Rage."
    (WSJ, 9/15/98, p.A1)(WSJ, 4/17/00, p.A30)

1998        Sep 15-Oct 1, Hurricane Georges caused 602 deaths in the Caribbean and four in the United States. The storm hit the Dominican Republic, Haiti, Cuba, Puerto Rico, Antigua, Guadeloupe, St. Kitts and Nevis, Anguilla and British and U.S. Virgin Islands before striking Alabama, Mississippi, Louisiana, and Florida.
    (AP, 9/11/04)(www.wunderground.com)

1998        Nov 18, At the Holyland Commune in Emelle 4 preschoolers died after a fire started from an upset electrical lamp.
    (SFC, 11/19/98, p.A2)

1998        Nov, Gov. Fob James was defeated. He had recently signed a law that prohibited nude dancing in night clubs and banned the sale of sex toys including vibrators. Women challenged the law in 1999.
    (SFC, 2/18/99, p.A4)

1999        Jan, Most of the state's public libraries acquired computers and internet access through the Gates Learning Foundation. The foundation planned to cover all 50 states.
    (SFEC, 2/21/99, p.A1)

1999        Feb 19, In Sylacauga, Alabama, Billy Jack Gaither (39), a textile warehouse worker, was abducted, beaten to death with an ax handle and burned on a pyre of tires due to a sexual advance. Steven Eric Mullins (25) and Charles Monroe Butler Jr. (21) were later arrested and charged with murder. Butler was convicted in 1999 and sentenced to life in prison without parole.
    (SFC, 3/5/99, p.A1)(SFC, 6/25/99, p.A3)(SFC, 8/6/99, p.A3)

1999        Mar 29, A federal judge overturned Alabama's 1998 ban on sex toys.
    (SFC, 3/30/99, p.A3)

1999        Apr 20, A Mobile jury decided that waitress Tonda Dickerson (28) would have to share her $10 million lottery jackpot with 4 co-workers due to a share-the wealth agreement, which she denied.
    (SFC, 4/21/99, p.A7)

1999        Aug 1, In Alabama Tracie Hawlett (17) and J.B. Beasley (17) disappeared after setting off for a party. In 2019 authorities accused Coley McCraney (45), a truck-driving preacher, with killing the two girls. Law enforcement ran crime scene DNA through a genealogy database to identify McCraney.
    (http://tinyurl.com/y55tpqnw)(SFC, 3/20/19, p.A5)

1999        Aug 5, In Alabama Alan Eugene Miller (34) killed 3 people at 2 firms in Pelham. Miller pleaded not guilty by reason of diminished mental capacity. He was convicted and sentenced to death. On July 31, 2000, he was assigned to death row at Holman CF.
    (SFC, 8/6/99, p.A3)(www.users.on.net/~bundy23/wwom/miller2.htm)

1999        Don Siegelman began serving as governor of Alabama.
    (SFC, 5/28/04, p.A3)
1999        Cecil Jackson founded the Hank Williams Museum in Montgomery, Alabama. Country singer Hank Williams (1923-1953) grew up in Montgomery and died enroute to a gig in Ohio.
    (SFC, 10/26/06, p.E3)

2000        Feb 3, The US Supreme Court granted a stay of execution for Robert Lee Traver Jr., who was to be electrocuted in Alabama.
    (SFC, 2/5/00, p.A2)

2000        May 17, Two former Ku Klux Klansmen were arrested on murder charges in the 1963 church bombing in Birmingham, Alabama, that killed four black girls. Thomas Blanton Junior was convicted and sentenced to life in prison May 1, 2001. Bobby Frank Cherry was indicted in 2000 and later convicted and sentenced to life in prison.
    (AP, 5/17/01)(AP, 5/17/05)

2000        Sep 12, Selma elected James Perkins as its 1st black mayor. He defeated Joe Smitherman, who was seeking his 10th straight term.
    (SFC, 9/13/00, p.A10)

2000        Oct 2, James Perkins took office as the mayor of Selma.
    (SSFC, 1/21/01, p.D8)

2000        Oct 7, A statue to Confederate Gen. Nathan Bedford Forrest was erected in Selma and opposed by civil rights activists.
    (SSFC, 1/21/01, p.D8)

2000        Dec 1, In Montgomery Rosa Parks (87) attended the dedication of the Rosa Parks Museum and Library.
    (SSFC, 1/21/01, p.T14)

2000        Dec 16, Tornadoes hit the state and 10 people were killed at a Tuscaloosa trailer park. 12 people were killed and 50 injured.
    (SSFC, 12/17/00, p.A7)(WSJ, 12/18/00, p.A1)

2001        Sep 23, Four coal miners were killed in an explosion at the Blue Creek Mine Number Five in Brookwood, Ala. 9 miners who rushed to their aid also died. The mine is the deepest in North America at 2,140 feet below the surface.
    (SFC, 9/25/01, p.A14)(AP, 9/23/06)

2001        Alabama’s chief justice Roy S. Moore placed a monument to the Ten Commandments in the rotunda of the state Supreme Court building. A federal judge ruled the monument unconstitutional in 2002.
    (SFC, 11/19/02, p.A4)

2002        Jan 3, A judge in Alabama ruled that former Ku Klux Klansman Bobby Frank Cherry was mentally competent to stand trial on murder charges in the 1963 Birmingham church bombing that killed four black girls. Cherry was later convicted, and served a life sentence until his death in November 2004.
    (AP, 1/3/07)

2002        Feb 1, The NCAA placed Alabama on five years' probation, jolting the football program with a two-year bowl ban and heavy scholarship reductions.
    (AP, 2/1/03)

2002        Feb 22, An Alabama jury found Monsanto and its corporate successors (Solutia Inc.) guilty of releasing tons of PCBs in Anniston between 1935-1979. In 2004 some 18,447 plaintiffs were scheduled to an average of $7,725, while 27 lawyers were scheduled to receive over $4 million each.
    (SFC, 2/23/02, p.A7)(SFC, 3/24/04, p.A5)

2002        Mar 25, The Bush administration filed an agreement for an immediate study and eventual clean-up of PCBs in Anniston.
    (SSFC, 3/24/02, p.A12)

2002        Mar 28, It was reported that the US government planned to distribute safety hoods and training to some 35,000 state residents in an eastern county prior to the incineration of nerve-gas weapons in the fall.
    (WSJ, 3/28/02, p.A1)

2002        Apr 1, Hyundai Motor Co. picked a site near Montgomery for its 1st US assembly plant.
    (WSJ, 4/3/02, p.A1)

2002        May 10, In Alabama Linda Lyon Block (54), a political extremist, was put to death in an electric chair. She had been convicted of murdering a police officer in 1993.
    (SFC, 5/11/02, p.A6)

2002        May 22, Bobby Frank Cherry (71), former Alabama Klansman, was convicted for the Sep 14, 1963, murder of 4 Black girls at the 16th Street Baptist Church. The jury sent him to prison for life.
    (SFC, 5/23/02, p.A1)
2002        May 22, Robert Rhodes (68), former Florida dog track security guard, was charged in Alabama with cruelty to animals after the remains of some 3,000 greyhounds were found on his property.
    (SFC, 5/23/02, p.A6)

2002        Nov 6, Alabama Gov. Don Siegelman called for a state recount following his loss to GOP Rep. Bob Riley by 3,195 votes. Siegelman conceded Nov 18.
    (SFC, 11/9/02, p.A4)(WSJ, 11/19/02, p.A1)

2002        Nov 10, A series of pulverizing storms barreled through more than a half-dozen US states including Tennessee, Ohio, Alabama, Mississippi and Pennsylvania, killing at least 36 people. More than 100 were injured.
    (SFC, 11/12/02, p.A4)(AP, 11/10/07)

2002        Alabama’s William E. Donaldson Correctional Facility began a meditation program. The Vispassana program had been successfully used in India for decades, but was soon shut down over concerns by Christians that it was some sort of evangelical Buddhism. The program was re-instated in 2006 and by had 2007 led to 20% fewer disciplinary actions at the prison.
    (SFC, 2/3/11, p.A12)

2003        Jan 1, A US Army incineration at the Anniston Army Depot in Alabama, scheduled to begin destroying stockpiled chemical weapons in Oct 2002, was postponed to at least Jan 1, 2003. A global treaty called for complete destruction by 2004.
    (SFC, 9/15/02, p.A5)

2003        Jan, Susan Pace Hamill, tax-law professor, launched an effort for state tax reform with her paper: An Argument for Tax Reform Based on Judeo-Christian Ethics." Alabama had the lowest income tax threshold at $4,600.
    (WSJ, 2/12/03, p.A1)

2003          Feb 25, In Alabama 4 job seekers were killed at an employment agency following an argument over a CD player.
    (WSJ, 2/25/03, p.A1)

2003        Mar 19, The SEC filed a civil suit claiming that HealthSouth Corp. and its chairman Richard M. Scrushy had committed massive accounting fraud to overstate earnings by some $1.4 billion since 1999. Weston Smith, the former finance chief, later pleaded guilty to 4 charges.  HealthSouth fired Scrushy as chairman and CEO. He was indicted in November.
    (WSJ, 5/20/03, p.A1)(WSJ, 1/2/04, p.R8)(WSJ, 6/29/05, p.A8)

2003        Aug 9, The US Army fired up its first chemical weapons incinerator located near a residential area, outside Anniston, Ala., to destroy two rockets loaded with enough sarin nerve agent to wipe out a city.
    (SSFC, 8/10/03, p.A4)(AP, 8/9/08)

2003        Aug 14, Roy Moore, Alabama's chief justice, said that he would refuse to move a Ten Commandments monument from the state judicial building in Montgomery.
    (SFC, 8/15/03, p.A4)

2003        Aug 27, A moving crew rolled a massive Ten Commandments monument out of the rotunda of the Alabama Judicial Building to comply with a federal court order as protesters knelt, prayed and chanted, "Put it back!"
    (AP, 8/27/04)

2003        Sep 9, Alabama voters rejected Amendment One by a margin of 2 to 1. The liberal tax measure was endorsed by Gov. Bob Riley and based on Judeo-Christian ethics.
    (SSFC, 12/12/04, p.A14)

2003        Oct 22, Christina Mae Watson (26) died as she and her new husband dove off the tropical coast of Queensland. In 2009 David Gabriel Watson, of Birmingham, Alabama, pleaded guilty to manslaughter. He was expected to serve just one year of the four-and-a-half-year sentence in the death of his wife of 11 days. Watson served an 18-month sentence in Australia and was deported to the US in 2010 where he faced 2 murder counts in Alabama. On Feb 23, 2012, Watson was acquitted of murder charges after a Birmingham judge ruled that prosecutors lacked sufficient evidence.
    (AP, 6/5/09)(SFC, 11/26/10, p.A7)(SFC, 2/24/12, p.A5)

2004        Jan 4, Jake Hess (b.1927), Gospel music star, died at an Opelika, Alabama, hospital after suffering a heart attack. With a career spanning six decades, Hess came to national prominence as a member of the Statesmen Quartet and founder of the Imperials. The four-time Grammy winner performed on several of Elvis Presley albums and sang at Presley's funeral in 1977. Hess also sang at Hank Williams' funeral in 1953. He was buried in Columbia, Georgia. Hess was born Sept 6, 1927, in Columbia, Georgia.

2004        May 17, The Alabama Legislature approved a 26 cent increase for a pack of cigarettes. This increased the tax from 16.5 cents to 42.5 cents.
    (USAT, 5/18/04, p.17A)

2004        May 27, Former Alabama Gov, Don Siegelman was indicted on bid-rigging charges.
    (SFC, 5/28/04, p.A3)

2004        Aug 5, Alabama executed James Hubbard (74) by lethal injection for the 1977 murder of Lillian Montgomery (62). The 2-time killer was the oldest inmate executed in the US since 1941, when James Stephens of Colorado was executed at age 76. The oldest person executed in the 20th century was 83-year-old Joe Lee of Virginia in 1916.
    (www.clarkprosecutor.org/html/death/US/hubbard922.htm)(WSJ, 8/6/04, p.A1)(SFC, 8/6/04, p.A2)

2004        Sep 16, Hurricane Ivan slammed ashore in Alabama with winds of 130 mph, packing deadly tornadoes and a powerful punch of waves and rain that threatened to swamp communities from Louisiana to the Florida Panhandle. At least 23 people were killed.
    (AP, 9/16/04)(SFC, 9/17/04, p.A1)

2004        Sep 17, The violent remains of Hurricane Ivan pounded a large swath of the eastern United States, drenching an area from Georgia to Ohio. Ivan left 70 dead in the Caribbean and 40 dead in the US including 4 in Alabama, 16 in Florida, 4 in Georgia, 4 in Louisiana, 3 in Mississippi, and 8 in North Carolina.
    (AP, 9/17/04)(SFC, 9/18/04, p.A16)

2004        Sep 18, Miss Alabama Deidre Downs, an aspiring medical student, won the Miss America contest.
    (AP, 9/19/04)

2004        Nov 18, Former Ku Klux Klansman Bobby Frank Cherry (74), who was convicted of killing four black girls in a racially motivated bombing of a Birmingham, Ala., church in 1963, died in prison.
    (AP, 11/18/05)

2005        Mar 29, Howell Heflin (83), former Democrat senator from Alabama (1978-1996), died. "It has been publicly stated by black leaders that I was the first senator from my state who believed in and supported the civil rights movement," Mr. Heflin said in his farewell speech. "I worked to secure the extension of the Voting Rights Act; to appoint African-Americans and women to the federal bench and other federal offices; to support historically black colleges; to ensure passage of the civil rights restoration bill; to help pass the fair housing bill; and to establish a national holiday honoring the late Martin Luther King Jr."
    (WSJ, 3/30/05, p.A1)(NYT, 3/30.05)

2005        May 30, Natalee Holloway disappeared on the last night of a trip to Aruba to celebrate her graduation from Alabama high school. On Jan 12, 2012, an Alabama judge declared Natalee dead.
    (AP, 6/3/05)(SFC, 1/13/12, p.A4)

2005        Jun 28, In Alabama a jury acquitted former CEO Richard Scrushy of federal corporate corruption charges in a $2.7 billion accounting fraud at HealthSouth. The SEC soon announced that it would press a civil fraud case seeking $800 million from Scrushy.
    (SFC, 6/29/05, p.C1)(SFC, 7/6/05, p.C1)

2005        Jul 10, Hurricane Dennis swamped homes, ripped off roofs and felled power lines and trees when it hurtled into northwest Florida and Alabama with 120-mph (190-kph) winds. The storm left at least 16 dead in Haiti. Dennis killed at least 16 people in Cuba, damaged or destroyed 15,000 homes and caused an estimated $1.4 billion in property damage.
    (Reuters, 7/11/05)(WSJ, 7/11/05, p.A1)(AP, 7/12/05)

2005        Jul 18, In Alabama Eric Rudolph was sentenced to life in prison without parole for a 1998 abortion clinic bombing in Birmingham. On Aug 22 he was sentenced to 4 life terms for the 1996 Olympics bombing in Atlanta, and 1997 attacks on an abortion clinic and gay nightclub.
    (SFC, 7/19/05, p.A3)(WSJ, 8/23/05, p.A1)

2005        Aug 19, An Alabama gas station owner was run over and killed when he tried to stop a driver from leaving without paying a $52 gas bill.
    (SFC, 8/22/05, p.A3)

2005        Aug 29, An oil rig tore free of its moorings as Hurricane Katrina lashed the Alabama coast, before surging downriver and smashing into a suspension bridge. 92% of crude and 83% of natural gas production were shut down, as Gulf of Mexico rigs were evacuated.
    (AFP, 8/30/05)

2005        Aug 30, The death toll in Mississippi from Hurricane Katrina passed 100. Flooding reached 11 feet in Mobile, Ala. Breaches in at least 2 levees from Lake Pontchartrain put parts of New Orleans under 20 feet of water. Mayor Ray Nagin estimated that 80% of New Orleans was flooded. Tourists snapped pictures of looters in the French Quarter.
    (AP, 8/30/05)(SFC, 8/31/05, p.A10)

2005        Sep 2, Pres. Bush made a tour of damages from Hurricane Katrina in Alabama, Mississippi and New Orleans. He acknowledged that current relief results were not acceptable.
    (SFC, 9/3/05, p.A1)

2005        Alabama Gov. Bob Riley announced a $10 million pilot program called Alabama Connecting Classrooms Educators and Students Statewide (Access). The idea was use the Internet and videoconferencing to link students in one town to teachers in another.
    (Econ, 7/18/09, p.30)

2005        South Korea’s Hyundai Motor Co. opened a site near Montgomery, Alabama, for its 1st US assembly plant.
    (WSJ, 4/3/02, p.A1)(SFC, 3/14/06, p.D3)

2006        Feb 3, In Alabama 5 small Baptist churches were found burned to the ground in Bibb County. 4 of the churches had white congregations, one was black. On Dec 20 three former college students, aged 19-20, pleaded guilty to burning 9 churches over 2 nights. In 2007 Benjamin N. Moseley and Matthew L. Cloyd were sentenced to 8 years in prison. Russell L. DeBusk Jr., who only took part in the 1st burnings, was sentenced to 7 years [see Feb 7].
    (SFC, 2/4/06, p.A3)(SFC, 12/21/06, p.A3)(SFC, 4/10/07, p.A5)

2006        Feb 7, Alabama state officials reported four more rural Baptist churches following rash of suspected arsons that burned five others south of Birmingham last week [see Feb 3].
    (AP, 2/7/06)

2006        Feb 11, In northwest Alabama an arson fire severely damaged the Beaverton Freewill Baptist Church. This was the 10th in a recent string of blazes.
    (SFC, 2/13/06, p.A3)

2006        Mar 8, US federal law enforcement officials arrested 3 college students, Matthew Lee Cloyd (20), Benjamin Nathan Moseley (19) and Russell Lee DeBusk Jr. (19), for the string of church arsons that destroyed or damaged nine rural churches in Alabama last month.
    (AP, 3/8/06)(SFC, 3/9/06, p.A4)

2006        Mar 13, The US Agriculture Dept. confirmed that a cow in Alabama had tested positive for mad cow disease. The animal had not entered the food supply for people of animals. This case of the disease, as well as one from Texas in 2005, was later reported as atypical.
    (SFC, 3/14/06, p.A3)(SFC, 6/12/06, p.A6)

2006        May 24, In Alabama Regions Financial Corp. and rival AmSouth Bancorp struck a $10 billion deal to merge.
    (WSJ, 5/25/06, p.A1)

2006        Aug 25, The Alabama Supreme Court ruled that Richard Scrushy, the fired CEO of HealthSouth Corp., must repay $47.8 million in bonuses he received during a massive financial fraud at the medical services chain.
    (WSJ, 8/26/06, p.A9)

2006        Nov 20, A bus crash in Huntsville, Alabama, killed 3 teenage girls and left at least 30 students injured. A 4th student died the next day.
    (SFC, 11/21/06, p.A3)(SFC, 11/22/06, p.A3)

2006        Dec 5, In Alabama Geontae Glass, a 5-year-old boy who was asleep in the back of a car when it was stolen from a parking lot a day earlier, was found dead in a neighboring county.
    (AP, 12/5/06)

2006        The US Navy planned to launch 2 versions of its new Littoral Combat Ships (LCS), currently under construction in Wisconsin and Alabama.
    (SFC, 6/16/06, p.A24)

2007        Mar 1, A violent storm system ripped apart an Alabama high school as students hunkered inside and later tore through Georgia, hitting a hospital and raising the death toll to at least 20 across the Midwest and Southeast. Eight students died when a tornado struck Alabama’s Enterprise High School.
    (AP, 3/1/07)

2007        May 3, In Alabama Jamison Stone (11) killed a wild pig weighing 1,051 pounds with a .50 caliber revolver. The pig measured 9 feet, 4 inches from snout to tail. The animal's former owner later said the not-so-wild pig, named Fred, had been raised on an Alabama farm and was sold to the Lost Creek Plantation just four days before it was shot there in a 150-acre fenced area.
    (SFC, 5/25/07, p.A3)(AP, 6/1/07)

2007        May 11, Germany’s steelmaker ThyssenKrupp AG said it will build a new $4.19 billion steel plant in Alabama. Deutsche Telekom employees began an open-ended strike in protest at restructuring measures at Europe's biggest telecoms operator.
    (AP, 5/11/07)(AFP, 5/11/07)

2007        May 24, The Alabama Legislature passed a resolution that expressed profound regret for the state’s role in slavery. Gov Bob Riley was expected to sign it. In recent months Maryland, North Carolina and Virginia made formal apologies.
    (SFC, 5/26/07, p.A3)

2007        Jun 4, Jim Clark (84), sheriff and segregationist from Alabama, died. He turned back the march 7, 1965, civil rights march at the Edmund Pettus Bridge leaving 57 people injured. National revulsion led to the Voting Rights Act later that year.
    (Econ, 6/16/07, p.99)

2007        Jun 28, In Alabama a district judge ordered Richard M. Scrushy, former head of HealthSouth to immediately begin serving an 82-month prison sentence for bribery. Former Alabama Gov. Don Siegelman was sentenced to over 7 years in prison. In 2008 he was released on bond after serving 9 months in prison.
    (WSJ, 6/28/07, p.A3)(WSJ, 3/28/08, p.A1)

2007        Sep 11, In northeast Alabama a US Army helicopter on a training flight in foggy weather struck a power line and crashed, killing all three soldiers on board.
    (AP, 9/12/07)

2008        Jan 7, In Alabama Lam Luong (37), a shrimp fisherman and drug addict, threw his 4 young children into the Intracoastal Waterway from the Dauphin Island bridge. He initially reported the children missing and then confessed. On March 5, 2009, Luong pleaded guilty and asked to be put to death. On April 30 he was sentenced to death. In 2013 an appeals court ordered a new trial.
    (SFC, 1/10/08, p.A3)(SFC, 3/6/09, p.A6)(SFC, 5/1/09, p.A8)(SSFC, 2/17/13, p.A12)

2008        Feb 5, Storms swept across southeast US as Super Tuesday primaries were ending. At least 31 people were killed in Tennessee, 13 in Arkansas, 7 in Kentucky and four in Alabama. It was one of the 15 worst tornado death tolls since 1950, and the nation's deadliest barrage of tornadoes since 76 people were killed in Pennsylvania and Ohio on May 31, 1985. The death toll rose to 59.
    (AP, 2/6/08)(AP, 2/7/08)(WSJ, 2/8/08, p.A1)

2008        Jul 1, An Alabama jury found Glaxo and Novartis guilty of drug-price fraud and ordered them to pay $114 million.
    (WSJ, 7/2/08, p.A1)

2008        Jul 28, Police in Alabama arrested Anthony Hopkins (37), a part-time evangelist, after finding a body in his home freezer. Police believed it was the body of his wife, Arletha Hopkins, who had not been heard of for 3 years.

2008        Aug 20, In Alabama five men were found killed, execution style in Shelby County. The killings were soon identified as a retaliation hit over drug money with ties to Mexico's notorious Gulf Cartel.
    (AP, 4/19/09)

2008        Oct 3, In Alabama a collision on a rural highway between an 18-wheeler and a state van killed 6 applicants for prison jobs and their driver.
    (SFC, 10/4/08, p.A3)

2008        Dec 1, In Alabama mayor Larry Langford of Birmingham was arrested on charges of steering millions of dollars of bond work to a friend in exchange for over $230,000 in bribes. The 101-count indictment also charged Montgomery banker Bill Blount and lobbyist Al LaPierre.
    (SFC, 12/2/08, p.A2)

2008        Dec 22, In Tennessee a dam broke at the Kingston Fossil Plant spilling some 5.4 million cubic yards of toxic coal ash sludge near the Emory River. TVA officials later said the spill does not threaten water in the Tennessee River, which is fed in part by the Emory River. On Jan 2 federal data showed arsenic levels over 100 times the acceptable amount in the Emory River. In February the TVA estimated cleanup costs of up to $825 million. In May the estimate for cleanup was raised to $975 million. In 2010 state regulators hit the TVA with penalties totaling $11.5 million for the coal ash spill. The sludge was shipped to a landfill outside Uniontown, Alabama.
    (SFC, 12/25/08, p.A6)(WSJ, 12/26/08, p.A2)(SFC, 12/27/08, p.A2)(SFC, 1/3/09, p.A3)(WSJ, 2/13/09, p.A1)(SFC, 5/2/09, p.A4)(SFC, 6/15/10, p.A4)(Econ, 12/4/10, p.44)

2009        Jan 11, Marcus Schrenker's plane went down en route to Destin, Fla., from Anderson, Ind. Schrenker (38), an Indiana investment manager, had reported that the windshield imploded and that he was bleeding profusely. Federal marshals believe he faked a distress call before parachuting from his plane over Alabama and disappearing on a motorcycle he had stashed in advance. US Marshals apprehended Schrenker on Jan 13 at a northern Florida campground. Officers had to tend to Schrenker's self-inflicted gash to the wrist before he was airlifted to Tallahassee Memorial Hospital. In August Schrenker pleaded guilty was sentenced in Florida to 4 years and 3 months in federal prison.
    (AP, 1/13/09)(AP, 1/14/09)(SFC, 8/20/09, p.A4)

2009        Feb 14, In Alabama suspicious fires destroyed 2 churches and damaged a third near the Georgia border.
    (SFC, 2/18/09, p.A6)

2009        Mar 8,    Country singer Hank Lochlin (b.1918) died at his home in Brewston, Alabama. His 70 charted singles included “Send Me the Pillow You Dream On" (1949 & 1958) and “Please Help Me, I’m Falling" (1960).
    (SFC, 3/12/09, p.B6)

2009        Mar 10, In Alabama Michael McLendon (28) set off on a rampage of 10 slayings across two rural counties and then killed himself.
    (AP, 3/11/09)(SFC, 3/12/09, p.A6)

2009        Apr 7, In Alabama authorities found the body of Kevin Lee Garner (45) near his burned home in Priceville. The home had burned overnight. Garner's body was found following a day of searching for him in several north Alabama counties following the murders of four of his family members in the Greenhill community of Lauderdale County.
    (http://news.yahoo.com/s/ap/20090408/ap_on_re_us/alabama_four_dead)(SFC, 4/8/09, p.A5)

2009        May 20, In Alabama 5 Birmingham police officers were fired for beating an unconscious suspect ejected from a car after a chase. The attack was captured on a patrol car videotape but didn't surface publicly for a year. The video shows police pursuing Anthony Warren's van on Jan. 23, 2008. One officer on foot was hurt when the van swerved through traffic. It overturned on a ramp, ejecting Warren, who lay motionless as officers ran toward him. The video shows them beating him with their fists, feet and a billy club.
    (AP, 5/21/09)

2009        May 25, In Alabama prisoners Joshua Southwick (26) and Ashton Mink (22) were mistakenly allowed outside a prison by a worker who thought they were kitchen trusties. On June 6 they were arrested after a nearly 14-hour standoff on a ranch in North Dakota. Also taken into custody were two women who authorities said helped the men escape: Angela Diana Mink (25) and Jacquelin Rae Kennamer Mink (25) Mink's sister and wife.
    (AP, 6/7/09)

2009        Jun 18, An Alabama state judge ordered former HealthSouth CEO Richard Scrushy to pay nearly $2.9 billion to shareholders who sued over a massive accounting fraud that nearly sent the rehabilitation chain into bankruptcy.
    (AP, 6/19/09)

2009        Jul 18, In southern Tennessee 5 people were found dead in two neighboring rural homes near Fayetteville, and a sixth body was discovered at a business about 30 miles away in Huntsville, Ala. Jacob Shaffer (30) of Fayetteville was charged later that day with homicide.
    (AP, 7/19/09)

2009        Jul 30, Bill Leigon, president of Hahn Family Wines in Soledad, Calif., said that visits to the company's Web site have increased tenfold since news of an Alabama ban on his Cycles Gladiator wine broke late last week. Callers from across the country have been asking where they can buy the wine. It was reported that the Alabama Alcoholic Beverage Control Board had recently told stores and restaurants to quit serving Cycles Gladiator wine because of a label that features a nude nymph. The wine's label is copied from an 1895 French advertising poster for Cycles Gladiator bicycles. It shows a side view of a full-bodied nymph flying alongside a winged bicycle.
    (AP, 7/31/09)

2009        Aug 14, Real estate lender Colonial BancGroup Inc. was shut down by federal officials in the biggest US bank failure this year. The FDIC, which was appointed receiver of the Montgomery, Ala.-based Colonial and its about $25 billion in assets, said the failed bank's 346 branches in Alabama, Florida, Georgia, Nevada and Texas will reopen at the normal times starting on Aug 15 as offices of Winston-Salem, N.C.-based BB&T. Regulators also closed four other banks: Community Bank of Arizona, based in Phoenix; Union Bank, based in Gilbert, Ariz.; Community Bank of Nevada, based in Las Vegas; and Dwelling House Savings and Loan Association, located in Pittsburgh. The closures boosted to 77 the number of federally insured banks that have failed in 2009.
    (AP, 8/15/09)

2009        Aug 21, Guaranty Bank became the 2nd-largest US bank to fail this year after the Texas lender was shut down by regulators and most of its operations sold at a loss of billions of dollars for the US government to a major Spanish bank. Guaranty's failure, along with those of three small banks in Georgia and Alabama, brought to 81 the number of US bank failures this year.
    (AP, 8/22/09)

2009        Oct 28, In Alabama a federal jury convicted Birmingham Mayor Larry Langford on charges of accepting bribes in exchange for funnelling $7.1 million in bond business to an investment banker.
    (SFC, 10/29/09, p.A6)

2009        Dec 12, Alabama running back Mark Ingram won this year’s Heisman trophy.
    (AP, 12/13/09)

2009        Dec 22, Parker Griffith (b.1942), a Democratic congressman from Alabama, announced that he was switching parties to become a Republican.
    (Econ, 1/9/10, p.32)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Parker_Griffith)

2009        Silly Bandz, rubber band bracelets of various shapes, became a fad among kids in Alabama and then across the nation. Robert Croak of Ohio began manufacturing and marketing the product after seeing a similar item from Japan in 2007. A pack of 24 was priced at around $5.
    (SSFC, 7/11/10, Par p.12)(http://tinyurl.com/3ac3cm6)

2010        Jan 17, In Hoover, Alabama, a fire at a Days Inn motel killed 4 college students from Mississippi Univ. for Women in Columbus, Miss.
    (SFC, 1/18/10, p.A6)

2010        Feb 5, The US White House increased its criticism of Republican Senators following reports that Sen. Richard Shelby of Alabama had placed a blanket hold on more than 70 administration nominees in order to secure funding for home-state projects. On Feb 9 Shelby’s office said he will stop blocking Senate confirmation of some 70 nominees.
    (SFC, 2/6/10, p.A6)(AP, 2/9/10)
2010        Feb 5, In Alabama a boy (14) was shot by another student inside a middle school in Madison. The victim died at a hospital.
    (SFC, 2/6/10, p.A6)

2010        Feb 12, In Alabama Amy Bishop (42), a biology professor at the University of Alabama in Huntsville, gunned down three of her colleagues during a faculty meeting in an apparent tenure dispute. On Sep 11, 2012, Bishop pleaded guilty to killing her colleagues. On Sep 24 she was sentenced to life in prison.
    (AP, 2/13/10)(SFC, 9/12/12, p.A8)(AP, 9/24/12)

2010        Mar 5, In Alabama Larry Langford (63), the former mayor of Birmingham, was sentenced to 15 years in prison for taking $241,000 in bribes.
    (SFC, 3/6/10, p.A5)

2010        Apr 24, In Mississippi a devastating tornado sliced through the state killing 10 people including 3 children. Tornadoes also were reported in Louisiana, Arkansas and Alabama with 2 deaths in Alabama.
    (AP, 4/25/10)(AP, 4/26/10)

2010        Apr 29, Alabama shrimpers filed a class-action lawsuit against oil giant BP Plc and owners of the drilling platform that exploded in the Gulf of Mexico, as claims for economic losses anticipated from the disaster began to mount.
    (Reuters, 4/30/10)

2010        May 8, BP’s first attempt to divert a major crude spill was foiled and it could be at least a day before another attempt at putting a lid on the well could be made. Meanwhile, thick blobs of tar washed up on Alabama's white sand beaches, yet another sign the spill was worsening.
    (AP, 5/9/10)

2010        Jun 30, In Alabama a grand jury indicted Joran van der Sloot on charges that he tried to extort $250,000 from Beth Holloway, the mother of Natalee Holloway, a teenager who disappeared during a 2005 trip to Aruba.
    (SFC, 7/1/10, p.A4)

2010        Aug 5, US federal indictments were unsealed in Alabama, California and Minnesota charging 14 people with terrorism offenses for allegedly aiding the radical Islamist al-Shaba organization in Somalia.
    (SFC, 8/6/10, p.A8)

2010        Oct 4, US federal agents spread out across Alabama to arrest 11 people on charges of conspiracy, bribery and honest services fraud related to attempts to legitimize bingo halls in 2009 and 2010.
    (SFC, 10/5/10, p.A6)

2011        Jan 17, Alabama Gov. Robert Bentley was inaugurated. After the official inaugural ceremony he said "Anybody here today who has not accepted Jesus Christ as their savior, I'm telling you, you're not my brother and you're not my sister, and I want to be your brother."
    (AP, 1/18/11)

2011        Apr 6, In Alabama a parking lot shooting in Opelika left one woman dead. The estranged wife of Thomas Franklin May (34) and another woman were wounded. It was all related to a domestic problem and was preplanned. The next day May was arrested after he walked up to journalists and said he was the man authorities were after.
    (AP, 4/7/11)

2011        Apr 16, Vicious storms and howling winds smacked the deep South, killing at least 7 people in Alabama including three family members whose homes were tossed into nearby woods. Combined with earlier reported fatalities in Arkansas and Oklahoma, the confirmed death toll over 3 days rose to 16.
    (AP, 4/16/11)

2011        Apr 17, A furious storm system that kicked up tornadoes, flash floods and hail as big as softballs has left at least 45 people dead on a rampage that stretched for days as it barreled from Oklahoma to North Carolina and Virginia. 11 people were confirmed dead in Bertie County, NC, bringing the state's death toll to at least 18 people. Authorities have said 7 died in Arkansas; 7 in Alabama; 2 in Oklahoma; one in Mississippi and at least 5 in Virginia.
    (AP, 4/17/11)(AP, 4/18/11)

2011        Apr 19, A Virginia jury convicted Lee Farkas (58), the majority owner of what had been one of the nation's largest mortgage companies, on all 14 counts in a $2.9 billion fraud trial. Prosecutors said Farkas led a fraud scheme of staggering proportions for roughly eight years as chairman of Florida-based Taylor Bean & Whitaker. The fraud not only caused the company's 2009 collapse and put its 2,000 employees out of work, but also contributed to the collapse of Alabama-based Colonial Bank, the sixth-largest bank failure in US history.
    (AP, 4/20/11)

2011        Apr 27, Dozens of tornadoes spawned by a powerful storm system wiped out neighborhoods across a wide swath of the South, killing at least 350 people in the deadliest outbreak in nearly 40 years. Alabama had 254 deaths, 34 in Mississippi, 34 in Tennessee, 15 in Georgia, 8 in Arkansas, 5 in Virginia and one in Kentucky.
    (AP, 4/28/11)(AP, 4/29/11)(AFP, 4/30/11)

2011        Apr 28, Pres. Obama declared a major disaster in Alabama. Declarations for Mississippi followed on Apr 29,  Georgia on Apr 30, and soon followed for Tennessee and Arkansas.
    (Econ, 5/7/11, p.28)

2011        Jun 9, Robert Bentley, the Republican governor of Alabama, signed a harsh new anti-immigration law. Among the provisions in the legislation, schools will be required to check the immigration status of their students, and landlords will be expected to do the same when renting an apartment; it will be a crime to knowingly give a ride to a person who illegal, and when police conduct a traffic stop, they  can  arrest any person suspected of being in the country illegally.
             (AP, 6/9/11)

2011        Aug 1, The Obama administration sued to block enforcement of Alabama's new immigration law, widely considered to be the toughest measure in the United States to try to crack down on illegal immigrants.
    (Reuters, 8/1/11)

2011        Aug 29, A US federal judge blocked enforcement of Alabama’s new law cracking down on illegal immigration.
    (SFC, 8/30/11, p.A6)

2011        Oct 5, Rev. Fred Shuttlesworth (89), a dynamic leader of the civil rights movement, died in Birmingham, Alabama.
    (SFC, 10/6/11, p.A7)(Econ, 10/15/11, p.100)

2011        Oct 20, Alabama executed Christopher Johnson (38) by lethal injection for the 2005 murder of his infant son.
    (SFC, 10/21/11, p.A7)

2011        Nov 9, Alabama's Jefferson County, with debts of $4.2 billion, filed for bankruptcy court protection in the biggest municipal bankruptcy in US history.
    (Reuters, 11/10/11)(Econ, 12/3/11, p.89)

2011        Nov 16, At least six people were killed and dozens more injured as a storm system that spawned several possible tornadoes moved across the Southeast. Suspected tornadoes were reported in Louisiana, Mississippi, Alabama and South Carolina.
    (AP, 11/17/11)

2011        Dec, In Alabama a district judge struck down a section of the state anti-immigration law forbidding illegal immigrants from doing business with the state. Other provisions were blocked in September and October.
    (Econ, 1/28/12, p.30)

2012        Jan 23, Severe storms and possible tornadoes pounded the South, injuring more than 100 people and killing at least two in Alabama, including a man who lived in an area devastated by a deadly twister outbreak in the spring.
    (AP, 1/23/12)

2012        Jan 29, In Alabama police investigating a possible robbery at a Birmingham home instead found five people dead inside. 3 suspects were arrested the next day.
    (AP, 1/29/12)(SFC, 1/31/12, p.A6)

2012        Feb 1, A Univ. of Alabama study said the state’s crackdown on illegal immigrants, widely seen as the toughest in the United States, has cost the state's economy up to $10.8 billion.
    (Reuters, 2/1/12)

2012        Feb 10, In Alabama Uzbekistan-born Ulugbek Kodirov (22) pleaded guilty to plotting to kill Pres. Obama with a rifle. He claimed to be acting on behalf of a terror group in his home country.
    (SFC, 2/11/12, p.A5)

2012        Feb 15, Alabama state officials said they will shut down most of the state’s mental health hospitals by the spring of 2013 in an effort to cut costs and change patient treatment.
    (SFC, 2/17/12, p.A5)

2012        Feb 20, In Alabama Savannah Hardin (9) died at Children's Hospital in Birmingham from dehydration and low sodium. On Feb 22 her stepmother and grandmother, Joyce Hardin Garrard, were accused of murder for allegedly killing the young girl by forcing her to run for three hours without stopping as punishment for lying about eating candy bars.
    (Reuters, 2/23/12)(SFC, 3/2/12, p.A8)

2012        Mar 1, A US Coast Guard helicopter crashed in Mobile Bay near Point Clear, Alabama. 4 crew members were killed and one remained missing.
    (SFC, 3/3/12, p.A5)

2012        Mar 2, A string of violent storms scratched away small towns in the South and Midwest as an early season tornado outbreak left 39 people in 5 states, including 14 in Indiana, 19 in Kentucky, 3 in Ohio and one each in Alabama and Georgia.
    (AP, 3/3/12)(http://tinyurl.com/6u9f2bp)(SFC, 3/5/12, p.A9)

2012        Mar 13, Republican presidential primaries were held in Alabama and Mississippi. Rick Santorum won both state. Newt Gingrich placed second in both contests with narrow leads over Mitt Romney.
    (SFC, 3/14/12, p.A6)

2012        May 10, In Alabama Katelynn Arnold (9) was found hanged to death. The next day a boy (14) was charged with her murder.
    (SFC, 5/12/12, p.A5)

2012        Jun 9, In Alabama several people were shot at an apartment complex near Auburn Univ. when a fight broke out during a pool party. 2 former Auburn football players were among 3 people killed. Suspect Desmonte Leonard (22) turned himself over to police on June 12.
    (AFP, 6/11/12)(SFC, 6/12/12, p.A6)(SFC, 6/13/12, p.A8)

2012        Jun 24, At least one person was killed by a tornado spun off by Tropical Storm Debby as it approached Florida and Alabama.
    (SFC, 6/26/12, p.A5)

2012        Jul 2, Europe’s Airbus said it would open its first jet assembly line in America in Mobile, Alabama.
    (Econ, 7/7/12, p.63)

2012        Jul 13, A federal judge in Birmingham, Alabama, sentenced Ulugbek Kodirov (22) of Uzbekistan to 15 years in prison for plotting to kill Pres. Obama.
    (SFC, 7/14/12, p.A4)

2012        Aug 3, Ex-Alabama Gov. Don Siegelman (66), convicted in 2006, was sentenced to 6½ years in prison for bribery and other convictions.
    (SFC, 8/4/12, p.A5)

2012        Sep 24, A federal appeals court reversed itself ruling that the US Army Corps of Engineers is not liable for devastation caused in Hurricane Katrina from a government-built navigation canal. The same court had ruled in march that the government was liable for some of the flooding, affirming a 2009 ruling.
    (SFC, 9/26/12, p.A5)

2012        Oct 11, In Alabama River Falls Mayor Mary Ella Hixon (91) pleaded guilty to transferring $201,610 of town money to other people in the past three years. She was sentenced to 5 years in prison, which was suspended because of her age, and ordered to repay the money.
    (SFC, 10/12/12, p.A4)

2012        Nov 16, The US National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration issued a "heads up" directive putting officials on alert for an increase in human interaction with dolphins in the waters across Louisiana, Mississippi and Alabama. Authorities were investigating several attacks on dolphins in the northern Gulf of Mexico after some were found with gunshot wounds, cuts and missing jaws.
    (AP, 11/17/12)

2012        Nov 23, In Alabama Michael Jansen shot and killed a sheriff's deputy and critically wounded another when they went to his home near Fairhope on a report that he was acting aggressively toward family members. Jansen was also killed in the exchange of gunfire.
    (AP, 11/25/12)

2012        Dec 11, In Georgia Mohammad Abdul Rahman Abukhdair (28) and Randy Lamar Wilson (25) were charged with conspiring to kill persons or damage property outside the US. FBI agents arrested Wilson at the Atlanta airport as he boarded a flight to Mauritania. Abukhdair was arrested at a bus station in Augusta. On April 19 Wilson pleaded guilty in Mobile, Ala., to one charge of conspiracy to provide material support to terrorists. On Dec 20, 2013, both men were sentenced to 15 years in prison.
    (SFC, 12/12/12, p.A5)(SFC, 4/19/13, p.A4)(SFC, 12/20/13, p.A6)

2012        Dec 15, Alabama police shot and killed an assailant armed with an AK-47 assault rifle following a pursuit after 3 people were killed at a trailer home in Cleburne County.
    (SSFC, 12/16/12, p.A12)

2013        Jan 30, In Alabama Jimmy Lee Dykes (65) holed up in a bunker with a 5-year-old hostage kept law officers at bay in an all-night, all-day standoff that began when he killed a school bus driver and dragged the boy away. Bus driver Charles Albert Poland Jr. (66) was hailed by locals as a hero who gave his life to protect 21 students.
    (AP, 1/30/13)(AP, 2/1/13)

2013        Feb 4, In Alabama police officers stormed the underground bunker where Jimmy Lee Dykes held a 5-year-old boy hostage. The boy, taken hostage on Jan 30, was rescued and Dykes was left dead.
    (SFC, 2/5/13, p.A5)

2013        Mar 22, In Alabama Luke Bresette (10) was killed at the Birmingham-Shuttlesworth Int’l. Airport when a flight information panel fell on a family from Kansas.
    (SSFC, 3/24/13, p.A8)

2013        Apr 4, Alabama lawmakers voted to allow posthumous pardons to the Scottsboro Boys, 9 black teens who were wrongly convicted of raping two white women over 80 years ago.
    (SFC, 4/5/13, p.A5)

2013        May 24, Pres. Obama signed legislation awarding the Congressional Medal fo Honor posthumously to the 4 girls killed in the Sep 15, 1963, Alabama church bombing.
    (SFC, 5/25/13, p.A6)

2013        May, Alabama lifted the threat of prosecution for making beer at home. Home brewing remained illegal in the state’s dry counties.
    (Econ, 7/20/13, p.29)

2013        Jun 10, BP PLC said the Coast Guard has concluded cleanup operations in Mississippi, Alabama and Florida from the April  2010 oil well blowout. Work continued along 84 miles of Louisiana’s shoreline.
    (SFC, 6/11/13, p.A4)

2013        Aug 14, In Alabama a UPS plane crashed near the Birmingham airport killing two pilots and scaterring wreckage over a rural area. Reliance on computer automation appeared to contribute to the crash.
    (SFC, 8/15/13, p.A6)(SFC, 2/21/14, p.A8)

2013        Nov 15, In Alabama the Southern Museum of Flight opened in Birmingham. It featured prints of artworks that were only displayed at CIA headquarters in McLean, Virginia.
    (SFC, 11/29/13, p.A15)

2013        Dec 28, In Alabama Kimberle Johnson (21) and Glenn Thomas (22) died in an early morning shooting in Montgomery. Six others were wounded. Thomas was an up-and-coming rapper known as Doe B. Jason Quan Williams (25) was arrested after turning himself in to police.
    (SSFC, 12/29/13, p.A14)(SFC, 12/31/13, p.A5)

2014        Jan 29, A rare winter storm gripped the US South, killing five people in Alabama, stranding children overnight at their schools, gnarling traffic across many states and canceling flights at the world's busiest airport.
    (Reuters, 1/29/14)

2014        Apr 9, An Alabama prosecutor said Jose Manuel Martinez (51), arrested a year ago in Arizona, has confessed to carrying out up to 40 slayings since 1980 as an enforcer for a drug cartel. Martinez was charged a day earlier with murdering 9 people in Central California.
    (SFC, 4/10/14, p.A9)

2014        Apr 28, One of several twisters to tear across Mississippi struck Tupelo, damaging hundreds of homes and businesses, downing power lines and shredding trees. At least one person was killed in Tupelo. 6 people were killed in Winston County, Miss. The storm system later pushed into parts of Alabama, where at least 2 people were killed at a trailer park near Athens. At least 9 people were killed in the Louisville area of Kentucky.
    (Reuters, 4/29/14)(SFC, 4/29/14, p.A6)(SFC, 4/30/14, p.A6)

2014        Sep 9, In Alabama the bodies of five children aged between 1 and 8 were found stuffed into garbage bags near a logging road after their father, Timothy Ray Jones (32), confessed to killing them and led police to the scene. Jones had been stopped at a sobriety checkpoint on Sep 6 in Mississippi. The children were last seen on Aug 28 and reported missing from their home near Lexington, SC, by their mother on Sept. 3.
    (Reuters, 9/9/14)(SFC, 9/11/14, p.A12)

2014        Sep 23, In Alabama Joe Tesney of Trussville shot and killed two coworkers at a UPS shipping center and then killed himself.
    (SFC, 9/24/14, p.A5)

2014        Oct 7, An Alabama jury convicted Desmonte Leonard of murder in the June 9, 2012, shooting deaths of two former Auburn Univ. football players and a third man.
    (SFC, 10/8/14, p.A6)

2014        Oct 20, Alabama House Speaker Mike Hubbard was arrested on felony ethics charges after being indicted by a grand jury of 23 charges accusing him of misusing his speaker’s office and previous post as chairman of the Alabama Republican Party.
    (SFC, 10/21/14, p.A6)

2015        Jan 21, It was reported that an Alabama man was cited by police in Georgia for eating a cheeseburger whilte driving issued under the state’s distracted driving law.
    (SFC, 1/21/15, p.A6)

2015        Jan 23, A US federal court ruled that the Alabama ban on gay marriage is illegal.
    (SFC, 1/24/15, p.A4)

2015        Feb 9, Alabama became the 37th sate where gays can legally wed. State chief justice Roy Moore told judges not to let gays marry. At least seven of 67 counties issued gay marriage licenses. By Feb 13 47 of the state’s 67 counties were issuing licenses.
    (SFC, 2/10/15, p.A4)(SFC, 2/14/15, p.A7)

2015        Mar 3, The Alabama Supreme Court ordered the state’s probate judges to stop issuing marriage licenses to gay couples.
    (SFC, 3/4/15, p.A6)

2015        Apr 2, In Alabama Jefferson County Circuit Court Judge Laura Petro dismissed all charges against Anthony Ray Hinton after he spent close to three decades in jail over the 1985 murder of two men in two separate restaurant hold-ups.
    (AFP, 4/2/15)

2015        Jul 2, The US Department of Justice said BP Plc has reached a settlement with US authorities and will pay about $18.7 billion in damages for water pollution caused by the 2010 Gulf of Mexico oil spill. The agreement settles claims against BP by the government and the states of Louisiana, Mississippi, Alabama, Texas and Florida.
    (Reuters, 7/2/15)

2015        Dec 25, A tornado struck Birmingham, Alabama, damaging houses, uprooting trees and injuring at least three people in the state's largest city.
    (Reuters, 12/26/15)

2016        Jan 21, Alabama executed Christopher Eugene Brooks (43) for the 1992 rape and beating death of Jo Deann Campbell (23).
    (SFC, 1/22/16, p.A7)

2016        Feb 25, In Alabama Greg Gunn (58), a black man was shot multiple times by white police officer Aaron Smith following an altercation that occurred when Gunn was stopped while walking home around 3 a.m. from a neighborhood card game. On March 2 Officer Aaron Smith (23) was charged with murder. On Nov 18 a grand jury indicted Smith on murder charges.
    (http://tinyurl.com/jybajzv)(SFC, 3/3/16, p.A4)(SSFC, 11/20/16, p.A10)

2016        Mar 11, In Alabama inmates at William C. Holman Correctional seized control of a dormitory and stabbed two correctional officers, including warden Carter Davenport. Three emergency response teams brought the dorm under control and the prison was placed under lockdown.
    (SSFC, 3/13/16, p.A13)

2016        Mar 25, The Alabama Supreme Court refused to overturn the life sentence of Willie Lee Comer, convicted of taking a roofing nailer from  a Lowe’s store in 2012.
    (SFC, 3/25/16, p.A4)

2016        Mar 26, In Alabama a medical helicopter crashed killing all 4 people onboard near the town of Enterprise.
    (SFC, 4/12/16, p.A4)

2016        May 6, Alabama’s Judicial Inquiry Commission filed ethics charges against the state’s Chief Justice Roy Moore over his effort to block same-sex marriages.
    (SSFC, 5/8/16, p.A6)

2016        Jun 7, In Alabama former astronaut James Halsell Jr. (59) was charged with murder following an early morning car crash that killed two girls (11&13). Police said alcohol and speed may have been factors in the crash.
    (SFC, 6/8/16, p.A4)

2016        Jun 10, Alabama House Speaker Mike Hubbard was convicted by a jury on 12 charges of violating state ethics law. On July 8 Hubbard was sentenced to four years in prison and another eight on probation. Hubbard began serving his prison sentence on Sept. 11, 2020.
    (SFC, 6/11/16, p.A5)(SFC, 7/9/16, p.A11)(SFC, 9/14/20, p.A5)

2016        Nov 30, In Alabama an early morning tornado tore through the state destroying infrastructure and power lines. At least three people were reported killed in Alabama and two in Tennessee. Up to 27 tornadoes were reported in Texas, Mississippi, Tennessee, and Alabama, amid hail and heavy downpours.
    (Reuters, 11/30/16)

2016        Dec 8, In Alabama Ronald Bert Smith Jr. (45) was executed for killing a convenience store clerk more than two decades ago. This was the state’s 2nd execution this year. Smith heaved and coughed for 13 minutes of the 30 minute ordeal.
    (SFC, 12/9/16, p.A6)

2017        Jan 2, A powerful storm across the US south left four people dead when a tree fell on their mobile home in Rehobeth, Alabama. A woman in Georgia and a man in Florida were also killed.
    (SFC, 1/3/17, p.A4)(SFC, 1/4/17, p.A12)

2017        Feb 7, Massachusetts Sen. Elizabeth Warren (D) was rebuked by the Senate for a reading a 1986 letter by Coretta Scott King that dated to Alabama Sen. Jeff Sessions’ failed judicial nomination. The Senate was debating Sessions’ nomination for attorney general.
    (SFC, 2/8/17, p.A5)

2017        Feb 8, Former Alabama Gov. Don Siegelman (70) was released from a federal prison where he was serving a six-year sentence for bribery and obstruction of justice. He will serve the remainder of his sentence on house arrest.
    (SFC, 2/9/17, p.A4)

2017        Feb 9, Alabama’s attorney general Luther Strange was sworn in as the new interim Republican senator and will serve until November 2018, when a special election will be held to fill the seat for the remainder of Jeff Sessions’ term, which ends in January of 2020.
    (SFC, 2/10/17, p.A6)

2017        Apr 10, Alabama Gov. Robert Bentley (74) resigned rather than face impeachment and pleaded guilty to two misdemeanor campaign violations that arose during an investigation of his alleged affair with a top aide. Lt. Gov. Kay Ivey was hastily sworn in as his successor.
    (SFC, 4/11/17, p.A12)(Econ, 4/15/17, p.27)

2017        May 26, In Alabama inmate Tommy Arthur (75) was executed for the 1982 murder-for-hire shooting of Troy Wicker. Arthur had escaped seven previous execution dates as a pro bono legal team fought his sentence.
    (SFC, 5/26/17, p.A8)

2017        Jun 8, Marcus Flowers (50) of Enterprise, Alabama, a contracting representative for the US Army, pleaded guilty in Los Angeles to a federal bribery charge involving fraudulent invoices submitted by South Korean contractors.
    (AP, 6/9/17)
2017        Jun 8, Alabama executed Robert Melson (46) by lethal injection. He had been convicted of killing three people during a 1994 robbery of a fast-food restaurant.
    (SFC, 6/9/17, p.A4)

2017        Jun 22, California’s Attorney General Xavier Becerra added four more US states subject to its state-sponsored travel ban for alleged discrimination against the LGBT community. Alabama, Kentucky, South Dakota and Texas joined Kansas, Mississippi, North Carolina and Tennessee.
    (SFC, 6/23/17, p.D1)

2017        Jul 12, In Alabama three people were shot to death in a mobile home park in Gardendale, a suburb of Birmingham. Kenneth Dion Lever (52), wanted for killing his ex-wife and two others, killed himself in the Florida Panhandle after being spotted by police.
    (SFC, 7/13/17, p.A4)

2017        Jul 30, In Alabama 12 inmates escaped from jail in Jasper. Six were captured shortly after and five more were captured the next day. The last remaining escapee was arrested on August 1 in Florida.
    (SFC, 8/1/17, p.A5)(SFC, 8/3/17, p.A5)

2017        Sep 22, Speaking in Alabama Pres. Donald Trump said National Football League owners should fire players who kneel during the national anthem and encouraged spectators to walk out in protest.
    (SFC, 9/23/17 p.A9)

2017        Sep 26, In Alabama jurist Roy Moore won the state Republican primary runoff over Sen. Luther Strange to take the GOP nomination for the seat previously held by Attorney General Jeff Sessions. Strange had been backed by Pres. Trump and deep-pocketed allies of Sen. Mitch McConnell.
    (SFC, 9/27/17, p.A12)

2017        Oct 8, Tropical Storm Nate rapidly weakened to become a tropical depression over Alabama, although the fast-moving former hurricane left roads and buildings flooded in Mississippi after coming ashore there. Nate killed at least 30 people in Central America before entering the warm waters of the Gulf of Mexico.
    (AFP, 10/8/17)

2017        Oct 19, Swedish steel production company SSAB Americas said it is moving its Unites States division headquarters from Lisle, Illinois, to Mobile, Alabama. The move will unfold over the course of next year. The company has operated a mill north of Mobile in Axis since 2001.
    (AP, 10/20/17)

2017        Oct 26, A US federal judge blocked Alabama laws that tried to restrict abortion clinics near schools and to ban a common 2nd-trimester procedure.
    (SFC, 10/28/17, p.A4)

2017        Dec 4, US President Donald Trump endorsed Roy Moore, Alabama’s candidate for the US Senate. Moore has been accused of making unwanted sexual advances on teenage girls. Beverly Young Nelson, one of the women who accused Moore of groping her when she was sixteen, later admitted to adding notes to her yearbook beneath Moore’s inscription to remind herself of where and when Moore signed her yearbook. She was one of nine women who claimed Moore had made unwanted advances when they were teenagers.
    (SFC, 12/5/17, p.A5)(SFC, 12/9/17, p.A6)

2017        Dec 12, Alabama voters elected Democrat Doug Jones in a narrow victory over Judge Roy Moore in a special election for a US Senate seat. The election cut the Republican margin in the US Senate to 51-49
    (SFC, 12/13/17, p.A1)

2018        Jan 11, Alabama landed a coveted $1.6 billion joint venture plant by Japanese car giants Toyota and Mazda that will eventually employ 4,000 people.
    (AP, 1/11/18)

2018        Jan 25, The US Supreme Court halted the execution of Alabama inmate Vernon Madison (67). Attorneys had argued that Madison suffers from dementia and does not remember killing police Officer Julius Schulte in 1985 or understand his looming execution.
    (SFC, 1/27/18, p.A6)

2018        Feb 20, In Alabama an hours long standoff ended with both suspect Robert Hollie and police Officer Justin Billa dead. Earlier in the day officers responding a report of domestic violence found Fonda Poellnitz dead and identified her ex-husband as a person of interest.
    (SFC, 2/22/18, p.A4)

2018        Mar 7, In Alabama a girl (17) was killed in a shooting at Huffman High School in Birmingham. A male student was also injured. Police the next day said they had one person of interest in custody. On March 9 authorities charged Michael Jerome Barber (17) in the death of Courtlin Arrington.
    (SFC, 3/8/18, p.A8)(SFC, 3/9/18, p.A7)(SFC, 3/10/18, p.A6)

2018        Mar 15, Alabama executed Michael Wayne Eggers (50) for killing his employer at a traveling carnival in 2000.
    (SFC, 3/16/18, p.A5)

2018        Apr 19, Alabama executed Wallace Leroy Moody Jr. (83). He had been convicted of the mail-bomb slaying of a federal judge in 1989.
    (SFC, 4/20/18, p.A5)

2018        May 26, Alabama, Florida and Mississippi declared states of emergency as Subtropical Storm Alberto drove north toward the US Gulf Coast.
    (Reuters, 5/26/18)

2018        May 29, Subtropical storm Alberto fizzled into a subtropical depression as it rolled into Alabama but forecasters warned of potentially dangerous flash floods even as winds dropped to 30 miles per hour.
    (Reuters, 5/29/18)

2018        Jul 10, Alabama Gov. Kay Ivey said the state will no longer give jail food funds to sheriffs personally after some profited large sums by skimping on jailhouse meals. A 2008 state policy called for paying prisoner food service allowances directly to sheriffs.
    (SFC, 7/12/18, p.A10)

2018        Aug 2, In Alabama a toddler with blood-stained clothes  led police to a home where an adult male and female were found dead.
    (SFC, 8/4/18, p.A5)

2018        Nov 22, In Alabama a gunman shot another man (18) during a fight at the Riverchase Galleria in Hoover. Emantic Bradford (21), who had a legal permit to carry a gun, was fatally shot by a police officer. Police later said that it was unlikely that Bradford had done the initial shooting. A forensic examination showed that Bradford was shot three times in the back side of his body.
    (SFC, 11/24/18, p.A8)(SFC, 11/26/18, p.A4)(SFC, 12/4/18, p.A6)

2019        Jan 7, In Alabama the Birmingham Civil Rights Institute in Alabama received withering criticism on social media after rescinding its decision to honor political activist and scholar Angela Davis with the Fred Shuttlesworth Human Rights Award.
    (AP, 1/7/19)

2019        Jan 13, In Alabama Birmingham police Sergeant Wytasha Carter (44) was killed and another officer critically wounded in a shooting as they questioned two people suspected of trying to break into cars. Two suspects were taken into custody.
    (SFC, 1/14/19, p.A4)

2019        Jan 19, In Alabama tornadoes struck Autauga county an d the town of Wetumpka. At least 25 homes were seriously damaged or destroyed.
    (SFC, 1/21/19, p.A4)

2019        Jan 25, In Alabama the Birmingham Civil Rights Institute said that its board has reversed course and voted to reaffirm an award for political activist Angel Davis.
    (SFC, 1/26/19, p.A6)

2019        Mar 3, A tornado registering EF4 hit southeastern Alabama killing 23 people. At least 18 tornadoes struck in Alabama, Florida, Georgia and South Carolina.
    (SFC, 3/4/19, p.A6)(SFC, 3/6/19, p.A6)

2019        Apr 18, In the southern US strong storm system left three people dead in Mississippi and one person in Alabama.
    (SFC, 4/20/19, p.A4)

2019        May 13, Alabama Public Television chose not to air the PBS children's show "Arthur" because it showed Arthur attending the wedding of his teacher with a same-sex partner.
    (SFC, 5/22/19, p.A4)

2019        May 14, The Alabama senate voted 25-6 to pass the most restrictive abortion bill in the US, which places a near-total ban on the termination of pregnancy -- even in cases of rape and incest -- and could punish doctors who perform the procedure with life in prison. Governor Ivey has not yet said whether she will sign the bill.
    (AFP, 5/15/19)

2019        May 15, Alabama's governor signed a bill making the performance of an abortion a felony in nearly all cases.
    (SFC, 5/18/19, p.A4)

2019        May 16, Alabama executed Michael Brandon Samra (41) for his role in a quadruple killing that followed a dispute over a pickup truck.
    (SFC, 5/17/19, p.A5)

2019        May 18, In France actress Eva Longoria said restrictive abortion laws passed in Alabama and Missouri are a threat to women, with stars set to protest against the bans on the Cannes red carpet.
    (AFP, 5/18/19)

2019        May 19, Alabama police Officer William Buechner was killed and two others were wounded after responding to a call of domestic violence in Auburn. Grady Wayne Wilkes (29) was arrested the next day and charged with capital murder.
    (SFC, 5/21/19, p.A6)

2019        May 21, Alabama's House of Representatives voted 66-18 to approve a bill that would see doctors face 20-year prison sentences if they fail to treat babies "born alive" after an attempted abortion. Democrats said called it an attempt to demonize abortion providers and argued that there was no record of such instances in the state.
    (SFC, 5/23/19, p.A6)

2019        May 30, In Alabama Christopher Lee Price (46) was executed for the 1991 killing of Bill Lynn, a Church of Christ minister in Fayette County.
    (SFC, 5/31/19, p.A4)

2019        Jun 14, In Alabama David Abston, the sheriff of Pickens County, was arrested and agreed to plead guilty to federal charges of scamming a food bank and his own small town church to pocket thousands. Abston had written checks totaling some $80,000 over four years to purchase cut-rate food meant for the poor and wrongly used it to feed prisoners.
    (SFC, 6/18/19, p.A5)

2019        Jun 20, Potent thunderstorms left more than 200,000 people with power in Arkansas, Alabama, Louisiana and Texas.
    (SFC, 6/21/19, p.A6)

2019        Aug 14, A federal appeals court halted an execution in Alabama scheduled for Aug. 15 of Dexter Johnson (31), a man convicted of raping a woman and then killing her and her boyfriend with the help of a group of friends 13 years ago. His attorneys argued Johnson was intellectually disabled and previously lacked sufficient legal representation.
    (Reuters, 8/15/19)

2019        Aug 15, A shooting on the edge of Alabama State Univ. in Montgomery killed a student and another man and wounded three others.
    (AP, 8/16/19)

2019        Aug 28, Alabama inmate Alvin Kennard (58) was ordered to be released from prison after serving 36 years and was set to be processed out by the Alabama Department of Corrections. He had been sentenced to life in prison for stealing $50.75.
    (AP, 8/29/19)

2019        Aug 30, In Alabama a shooting at a high school football game in Mobile wounded at least 10 people. Authorities arrested a bou (17) on nine counts of attempted murder.
    (SSFC, 9/1/19, p.A10)

2019        Sep 3, Alabama deputies found one adult and two minors dead at a scene in Elkmont. Another adult and minor were hospitalized with critical injuries and later died. A teenager (14) admitted to killing five members of his family. He had called 911 about hearing gunshots.
    (AP, 9/3/19)

2019        Sep 4, It was reported that an Alabama couple has been sentenced to prison on charges related to producing child porn. Kenneth Earl Hooks (36) got two life sentences and 120 years, to run consecutively. Sarah Pauline Morris (28) was sentenced to about 16 years.
    (AP, 9/4/19)

2019        Sep 16, FBI agents in Alabama took Nayef Qashou into custody. He was apprehended as part of a yearslong terrorism probe in which the FBI says he told agents he would execute a US soldier if ordered to do so by the Islamic State group. Qashou arrived in the US through Atlanta's airport in 2015, planning to study nursing at an Opelika, Alabama, community college.
    (AP, 9/18/19)

2019        Sep 26, In Alabama Dana Fletcher was fatally wounded by police responding to a report of a suspicious person outside a gymnasium in Madison. His wife later posted publicly on Facebook that she and their 8-year-old daughter were with her husband in a van when officers approached them.
    (AP, 11/5/19)

2019        Oct 3, US scientists said more than 45 million people across 14 Southern states are now in the midst of what’s being called a “flash drought" that’s cracking farm soil, drying up ponds and raising the risk of wildfires. The weekly US Drought Monitor report showed extreme drought conditions in parts of Texas, Alabama, Georgia, Kentucky, South Carolina and the Florida panhandle.
    (AP, 10/3/19)

2019        Oct 8, Montgomery, Alabama, elected Judge Steven Reed as its first African American mayor.
    (SFC, 10/9/19, p.A6)

2019        Oct 22, Alabama police said they recovered what appeared to be the body of Kamille McKinney (3) in a Birmingham dumpster not far from where she disappeared nine days ago. Police planned to charge suspects Patrick Stallworth (39) and Derick Irisha Brown (29), arrested last week on unrelated charges, with capital murder and kidnapping in connection to the case.
    (ABC News, 10/23/19)

2019        Oct 23, Aniah Blanchard (19), a student at Alabama's Southern Union State Community College, went missing. Blanchard, the stepdaughter of Ultimate Fighting Championship (UFC) fighter Walt Harris, was last seen at a convenience store in Auburn. Her car was found abandoned near an apartment complex in Montgomery on October 25. On Nov. 8 Ibraheem Yazeed (30) of Montgomery, was taken into custody in Florida's Escambia County. Authorities later said shot her when she "went for the gun." Her body was found on Nov. 25, approximately 36 miles away in a wooded area in Shorter.
    (The Independent, 10/31/19)(Good Morning America, 11/8/19)(Good Morning America, 12/21/19)

2019        Oct 26, Remnants of Tropical Storm Olga caused soggy conditions in Mississippi and Alabama and dozens of flights were canceled or delayed at New Orleans' main airport after two power outages.
    (AP, 10/26/19)

2019        Oct 29, A federal judge blocked Alabama from enforcing the strictest abortion laws in the country, which were due to come into effect next month and would ban all abortions unless a mother's health was in danger.
    (Reuters, 10/29/19)

2019        Nov 22, A mostly white Alabama jury convicted white police officer Aaron Cody Smith of manslaughter in the fatal shooting of Gregory Gunn (58), an unarmed black man, in 2016.
    (AP, 11/22/19)

2019        Nov 23, In Alabama Lowndes County Sheriff John Williams was “tragically killed" in the line of duty at a QV gas station. A suspect in custody was identified as William Chase Johnson (18).
    (AP, 11/24/19)

2019        Nov 27, The Alabama Supreme Court upheld a 2017 state law barring cities from moving or altering Confederate monuments.
    (SFC, 11/28/19, p.A7)

2019        Dec 6, An Alabama police officer was killed during a drug-related shooting. The suspect was captured after a short foot chase.
    (SFC, 12/7/19, p.A5)

2019        Dec 16, Three people were confirmed dead, two in Alabama and one in Louisiana, and a dozen more injured as a powerful storm front packing suspected tornadoes smashed into buildings, downed trees and left a trail of destruction around the Deep South. a 4th person died the following day following flooding in Kentucky.
    (AP, 12/16/19)(SFC, 12/18/19, p.A9)

2019        Dec 20, In Alabama Paighton Houston (29) texted a coworker saying she might be in trouble. She was last seen at a Birmingham bar leaving with two men. On Jan. 3 Alabama police announced they found her body. The cause of death was later determined to be morphine and methamphetamine toxicity, and the manner of the death was accidental. On Jan. 29 members of the US Marshals Service's Northern Ohio Violent Fugitive Task Force arrested Frederick Hampton (50) at a relative's home in Cleveland. He had reportedly disposed of her body after she died.
    (Business Insider, 1/4/20)(Good Morning America, 1/31/20)

2020        Jan 10, Cryptocurrency expert Virgil Griffith (36), charged with violating economic sanctions against North Korea, was released on $1 million bond despite federal prosecutors' concerns he might flee the United States before trial. Griffith was placed on house arrest with electronic monitoring at his parents' home outside Tuscaloosa, Alabama. He is known for creating WikiScanner, a tool that aimed to unmask people who anonymously edited entries in Wikipedia.
    (AP, 1/10/20)

2020        Jan 21, In Alabama Landon Durham (16) allegedly stabbed his mother and 13-year-old twin brothers to death before going to school in Munford as if it were a normal day. Durham was apprehended the next morning at a grocery store approximately seven miles outside Gadsden.
    (The Independent, 1/23/20)

2020        Jan 27, In Alabama a fire consumed at least 35 vessels docked along the Tennessee River early today. At least eight people were killed.
    (AP, 1/27/20)(SFC, 1/28/20, p.A8)

2020        Feb 6, Severe weather left one dead in Alabama as more than six dozen damaging storms are reported in the South from Louisiana to Tennessee -- including 12 reported tornadoes in Mississippi alone.
    (Good Morning America, 2/6/20)

2020        Feb 7, More than 300,000 homes and businesses were without power early today as a weather system blamed for five deaths in the South moved into the northeastern United States. Authorities confirmed five storm-related fatalities, in Alabama, South Carolina, North Carolina and Tennessee.
    (AP, 2/7/20)

2020        Feb 27, In Alabama Dannielle Nicole Martin (32) and grandmother, Vickie Seale Higgenbotham (58) were given maximum sentences of 20 years in prison after pleading guilty to aggravated child abuse. The 13-year-old boy had been found naked and chained to a door.
    (AP, 2/28/20)

2020        Mar 5, Alabama put an inmate to death for the 2004 slayings of three police officers who were shot by another man at a suspected drug house. Nathaniel Woods received a lethal injection at the state prison in Atmore. Woods had been convicted as an accomplice of the gunman, Kerry Spencer. Both were convicted of capital murder and sentenced to die.
    (CBS News, 3/5/20)

2020        Mar 30, US federal judges temporarily blocked bans on abortion imposed in Texas, Ohio, and Alabama during the coronavirus pandemic.
    (The Week, 3/31/20)

2020        Apr 4, Alabama issued Stay-at-Home Orders due to the coronavirus pandemic.
    (Bloomberg, 4/4/20)

2020        Apr 10, The Alabama Supreme Court overturned five of the ethics convictions against former House Speaker Mike Hubbard (58), while upholding six others. Hubbard was sentenced to four years in prison in 2016 but remained free on appeal.
    (SFC, 4/11/20, p.A3)
2020        Apr 10, In Alabama Kanisha Nicole Fuller was found fatally shot inside an unmarked police car assigned to Detective Mario Theodore White. Detective Alfreda Fluker (39) was soon arrested and charged with Fuller's murder. The three were involved in a "love triangle" dispute.
    (SFC, 4/16/20, p.A3)

2020        Apr 18, In Alabama Derrick Hightower (32) was arrested in Birmingham. He was suspected of killing as many as four people across the state and robbing seeral others.
    (SFC, 4/21/20, p.A3)

2020        Apr 19, Suspected tornadoes killed at least two people in Alabama and Mississippi as severe weather blasted a wide area across the Deep South.
    (AP, 4/20/20)

2020        May 3, Longtime Alabama newspaper publisher H. Brandt Ayers (85) died. He had made The Anniston Star a voice for progressive politics during the civil rights era.
    (AP, 5/5/20)

2020        May 31, In Alabama three women and four men were found shot dead in a home set on fire in what police described as a “horrific" scene in Morgan County. The incident was being treated as a homicide.
    (The Independent, 6/5/20)(SFC, 6/6/20, p.A4)

2020        Jun 2, In Alabama police Sgt. Stephen Williams (50) was fatally shot late today when responding to a call at a Super 8 motel in Moody. Two people were arrested.
    (AP, 6/2/20)

2020        Jun 5, Alabama's port city of Mobile, under orders from mayor Sandy Stimpson, removed a statue of Confederate naval officer Adm. Raphael Semmes, which had stood on the waterfront for 120 years.
    (SSFC, 6/7/20, p.A6)

2020        Jun 15, Houston-based engineering company KBR Inc said it was awarded a $570.3 million contract by NASA to develop and execute spaceflight operations at Marshall Space Flight Center in Huntsville, Alabama. KBR, until April 2007, was the engineering and construction arm of oilfield services giant Halliburton Co.
    (Reuters, 6/15/20)

2020        Jun 20, Alabama had more than 29,000 confirmed cases of COVID-19, with more than a quarter of the cases reported in the last two weeks. Over the past two weeks, Alabama had the second highest number of new cases per capita in the nation.
    (AP, 6/21/20)

2020        Jun 23, A “statement of recommitment" issued by the Alabama Department of Archives and History said the state agency was founded in 1901, the year Alabama's current Constitution was approved, to both preserve records and promote “lost cause" ideals favored by Southern whites.
    (AP, 6/24/20)

2020        Jun 26, Thomas Edwin Blanton Jr. (82), the last of three one-time Ku Klux Klansmen convicted in the Sept. 15, 1963, Alabama church bombing, died at Donaldson prison. The bombing killed four Black girls and was the deadliest single attack of the civil rights movement.
    (AP, 6/26/20)

2020        Jul 2, The US Supreme Court in a 5-4 decision blocked a lower court ruling allowing curbside voting in Alabama and waiving some absentee ballot requirements during the COVID-19 pandemic.
    (AP, 7/2/20)

2020        Jul 3, In Hoover, Alabama, a shooting at the Riverchase Galleria left Royta Giles Jr. (8) dead and three other people injured. Police soon arrested Montez Coleman (22).
    (SFC, 7/7/20, p.A4)

2020        Jul 11, It was reported that employees of a Five Guys restaurant in Daphne, Alabama were fired for refusing to serve a group of police officers earlier this week.
    (Insider, 7/11/20)

2020        Jul 23, The US Department of Justice announced that Alabama prisons have a pattern of using excessive force against male inmates, as it again accused the state of keeping prisoners in unconstitutional conditions.
    (AP, 7/23/20)

2020        Aug 24, The University of Alabama said that 531 cases had been identified among students, faculty and staff since classes resumed at its Tuscaloosa campus last week.
    (NY Times, 8/25/20)

2020        Sep 16, Hurricane Sally strengthened overnight and made landfall in Alabama this morning as a Category 2 storm. It weakened to a still-dangerous Category 1, with winds of 80 mph, by mid-morning. The hurricane left at least two people dead in Alabama.
    (AP, 9/16/20)(SFC, 9/19/20, p.A5)

2020        Sep 17, Winston Groom (b.1943), author of "Forrest Gump," died in Fairhope, Alabama. His work included 16 books of fiction and nonfiction. Forrest Gump was made into a 1994 movie and won six Oscars in 1995.
    (https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Winston_Groom)(SFC, 9/19/20, p.A5)

2020        Oct 19, In Alabama Ruthie Brown (36), a mother of four boys from Jasper, died after being mauled by a pack of five dogs.
    (Miami Herald, 10/20/20)

2020        Oct 21, The five US Republican-appointed Supreme Court justices blocked curbside voting in Alabama; the three Democratic-appointed justices dissented.
    (AP, 10/22/20)

2020        Oct 23, In Alabama a 115-year-old Confederate monument that was the subject of protests this year was removed from outside a county courthouse in Huntsville early today. The monument was first erected in 1905 by the United Daughters of the Confederacy. It is expected to be moved to a cemetery.
    (AP, 10/23/20)
2020        Oct 23, A US Navy training plane that took off from Florida crashed in an Alabama residential neighborhood near the Gulf Coast, killing both people in the plane.
    (AP, 10/23/20)

2020        Oct 29, Hurricane Zeta sped across the southeastern US, leaving a trail of damage and more than 2.5 million homes and businesses without power in Atlanta and beyond after pounding New Orleans with winds and water that splintered homes. Zeta left six people dead. A man was electrocuted in New Orleans, and four people died in Alabama and Georgia when trees fell on homes. In Biloxi, Mississippi, a man drowned when he was trapped in rising seawater.
    (AP, 10/29/20)(AP, 10/29/20)

2020        Nov 3, Alabama voters reversed themselves from a few years ago and removed racist vestiges of segregation from the state constitution that courts long ago ruled unconstitutional.
    (AP, 11/8/20)

2020        Nov 23, Bruce Carver Boynton (83), a civil rights pioneer from Alabama who inspired the landmark “Freedom Rides" of 1961, died.
    (AP, 11/24/20)

2020        Dec 29, It was reported that Alabama, long one of the unhealthiest and most impoverished states in America, has emerged as one of the nation's most alarming coronavirus hot spots. The coronavirus has killed over 4,700 in the state.
    (AP, 12/29/20)

2021        Jan 5, DeVonta Smith, the wide receiver whose speed and acrobatics electrified Alabama’s offense and helped the Crimson Tide to reach next week’s national championship game against Ohio State, won the Heisman Trophy.
    (NY Times, 1/6/21)

2021        Jan 21, Alabama's Gov. kay Ivey announced an extension of a statewide ordnance requiring facemasks in public through March 5 to help slow the spread of the coronavirus.
    (SFC, 1/22/21, p.A5)

2021        Jan 25, A tornado barreled through a suburb of Birmingham, Ala. late today, trapping people in their homes and setting off frantic rescue efforts. At least one person was killed.
    (NY Times, 1/26/21)

2021        Feb 19, In Alabama a military plane crashed near Montgomery Regional Airport this evening killing two people aboard.
    (SSFC, 2/21/21, p.A8)

2021        Mar 4, Alabama Gov. Kay Ivey extended her state's mask order for another month.
    (SFC, 3/5/21, p.A7)

2021        Mar 25, Tornadoes swept through the Southeast US killing at least five people in Alabama and causing extensive damage. Officials in Georgia and Tennessee were also trying to assess the damage.
    (NY Times, 3/26/21)

2021        Apr 9, Efforts to unionize Amazon.com warehouse workers in Alabama were defeated by a more than 2-to-1 margin in a major win for the online retailer, but the union trying to organize workers said it will challenge the results, citing election interference. The final tally was 1,798 "no" votes and 738 "yes" votes.
    (Reuters, 4/9/21)(NY Times, 4/9/21)

2021        Apr 26, State offices were closed in Alabama and Mississippi for Confederate Memorial Day.
    (AP, 4/26/21)

2021        May 6, Alabama lawmakers dropped their resistance to medical marijuana and sent legislation for GOP Gov. Kay Ivey to sign.
    (SFC, 5/8/21, p.A6)

2021        May 7, Alabama jurors convicted police Officer William Darby of murder in the 2018 shooting of Jeffrey Parker, who was threatening to kill hilmself as he held a gun to his own head.
    (SFC, 5/8/21, p.A4)

2021        May 16, In Alabama a man suspected in two morning murders in Birmingham shot four police officers who were executing a search warrant on an apartment where they believed he was hiding. The officers returned fire, killing the unidentified man. The shootings appeared related to an altercation over a dog.
    (CNN, 5/16/21)

2021        May 21, In Alabama thousands of revelers in Mobile marched in a Mardi Gras style parade, dubbed Tardi Gras, as COVID-19 hospitalizations and vaccinations ebbed.
    (SFC, 5/24/21, p.A4)

2021        May 24, Alabama's Gov. Kay Ivey signed legislation banning vaccine passports in the state. No penalties were specified for violations.
    (SFC, 5/25/21, p.A4)

2021        Jun 19, Tropical Storm Claudette dumped heavy rain across the US Gulf Coast from Louisiana to Florida as it chugged inland, triggering flash floods and tornado warnings along its soggy course across the Southeast. Tropical storm warnings were in effect for parts of Louisiana, Alabama, and Florida. Claudette left 14 dead as the storm continued to batter and flood parts of the US Southeast as it moved toward the Atlantic Coast and a predicted re-strengthening. A suspected tornado demolished or badly damaged at least 50 homes near the Alabama towns of Brewton and East Brewton.
    (SFC, 6/19/21, p.A5)(USA Today, 6/20/21)(AP, 6/20/21)(SSFC, 6/26/21, p.B8)

2021        Jul 13, In Alabama retired Army Sgt. Kenneth Paschal was elected to fill a legislative seat in Shelby County, becoming the only Black Republican in the state legislature.
    (SFC, 7/15/21, p.A6)

2021        Jul 27, Alabama police Officer Marquis Moorer, on break at the apartment complex where he lived, was shot to death early today and a woman was wounded in what a prosecutor described as an ambush.
    (AP, 7/27/21)

2021        Aug 5, The White House said seven US states with the lowest COVID-19 vaccination rates account for half of the country's new cases and hospitalizations in the last week. They included Alabama, Arkansas, Florida, Louisiana, Missouri, Mississippi and Texas. The CDC said COVID cases are up about 43% over the previous week and that daily deaths are up more than 39%.
    (AP, 8/5/21)

2021        Aug 7, It was reported that more than 65,000 doses of COVID-19 vaccines have expired in Alabama due to low demand for inoculations. The state ranks last (34%) for the percentage of people fully vaccinated.
    (AP, 8/7/21)

2021        Aug 13, Alabama Gov. Kay Ivey issued a limited state of emergency aimed at giving medical providers flexibiity as hospitals faced a surge in COVID-19 cases. She stressed that no closure orders or mask mandates would be issued.
    (SSFC, 8/15/21, p.A7)

2021        Aug 25, In Alabama six smokestacks at a decommissioned power plant crashed to the ground in a controlled implosion at the Colbert Fossil Plant. TVA said the project was part of its move away from coal toward cleaner fuel options.
    (AP, 8/25/21)

2021        Oct 6, Heavy rain flooded parts of Alabama near Birmingham late today, killing at least one person, closing roads and prompting several water rescues after a flash-flood emergency was issued for several counties. By the next day at least 4 people reported killed.
    (Reuters, 10/7/21)(SFC, 10/8/21, p.A6)

2021        Oct 14, In Alabama Christopher Henderson (46) was sentenced to death for killing his estranged wife, her unborn child and three other people six years ago.
    (SFC, 10/15/21, p.A5)

2021        Dec 11, Bryce Young became the second consecutive Alabama player to win the Heisman Trophy.
    (NY Times, 12/12/21)

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