Today in History - October 28

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For Asian History: http://www.asiaobserver.org/2019/10/28

306        Oct 28, Marcus Aurelius Valerius Maxentius was proclaimed emperor of Rome.
    (MC, 10/28/01)

312          Oct 28, Constantine the Great defeated Marcus Aurelius Valerius Maxentius at the Mulvian Bridge. Constantine’s smaller army (about 50,000 strong) won a decisive victory there; while fleeing, Maxentius drowned in the river. Constantine was instantly converted when he saw a cross in the sky, with the inscription "In hoc signo vincit" ("In this sign you shall conquer"). [see Oct 27]
    (HN, 10/28/98)(DoW, 1999, P.398)

969        Oct 28, After a prolonged siege, the Byzantines ended 300 years of Arab rule in Antioch.
    (HN, 10/28/98)

1017        Oct 28, Henry III, Roman Catholic German emperor (1046-56), was born.
    (MC, 10/28/01)

1216        Oct 28, Henry III of England (9) was crowned. Regent William Marshal led him to agree to the demands made by the barons at Runnymede. Prince Louis, repudiated by the barons, returned to France.
    (HN, 10/28/98)(ON, 7/04, p.2)(Econ, 12/20/14, p.35)

1492        Oct 28, Christopher Columbus discovered Cuba and claimed it for Spain.
    (http://tinyurl.com/dfzzk)

1510        Oct 28, Francisco Borgia was born. He was the grandson of debauched Pope Alexander VI, and became a theologian and saint.
    (MC, 10/28/01)

1595        Oct 28, Battle at Giurgevo: Zsigmond Bathory of Transylvania beat the Turks.
    (MC, 10/28/01)

1627        Oct 28, Djehangir (Jahangir), great mogul of India, died.
    (MC, 10/28/01)

1628        Oct 28, After a fifteen-month siege, the Huguenot town of La Rochelle surrendered to Cardinal Richelieu's Catholic forces. John Tradescant, an English gardener who accompanied Duke George Villiers to rescue the Huguenots, had designed siege trenches prior to the surrender. 
    (HN, 10/28/98)(MC, 10/28/01)(WSJ, 4/3/08, p.B19)

1636        Oct 28, The General Court of Massachusetts passed a legislative act establishing Harvard College in Cambridge, Mass. It was the first corporation in the US. Harvard Univ. was named after John Harvard who bequeathed books to the Univ. that included “The Christian Warfare Against the Devil World and Flesh" by John Downame. Englishman George Downing was the first graduate. London’s Downing St. was named after him. [see Sep 8]
    (SFEC, 6/28/98, Z1 p.8)(HN, 10/28/98)(SFEC, 12/6/98, Z1p.10)(AP, 10/28/07)

1646        Oct 28, The 1st Protestant church assembly for Indians took place in Massachusetts.
    (MC, 10/28/01)

1701          Oct 28, William Penn presented a Charter of Privileges for the Province of Pennsylvania during his 2nd and last visit to the colony. Among its provisions was one establishing total religious freedom and tolerance to those who wanted to live in peace in the colony. It remained as Pennsylvania's constitution until the outbreak of the American Revolution (1775-1783).
    (www.yale.edu/lawweb/avalon/states/pa07.htm)

1704          Oct 28, John Locke (b.1632), English philosopher, Oxford academic and medical researcher, died. He authored 2 treatises on government.
    (www.utm.edu/research/iep/l/locke.htm#Life)

1746        Oct 28, A tsunami caused by the Lima–Callao earthquake destroyed the entire port of Callao. Lima was almost completely destroyed by the earthquake that killed 1,141. The tsunami killed 5-6 thousand people.
    (https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/1746_Lima%E2%80%93Callao_earthquake)

1768        Oct 28, Germans and Acadians joined French Creoles in their armed revolt against the Spanish governor of New Orleans.
    (HN, 10/28/98)
1768        Oct 28, Michel Blavet (68), French court flautist and composer, died.
    (MC, 10/28/01)

1776        Oct 28, The Battle of White Plains was fought during the Revolutionary War, resulting in a limited British victory. Washington retreated to NJ.
    (AP, 10/28/06)(www.u-s-history.com/pages/h1283.html)

1790        Oct 28, NY gave up claims to Vermont for $30,000.
    (MC, 10/28/01)

1793        Oct 28, Eliphalet Remington, US gun maker, was born.
    (MC, 10/28/01)
1793        Oct 28, Eli Whitney applied for a patent on the cotton gin, a machine which cleaned the tight-clinging seeds from short-staple cotton easily and effectively--a job which was previously done by hand. The patent was granted the following March.
    (AP, 10/28/97)(HN, 10/28/98)

1802        Oct 28, The 34-gun Spanish frigate Juno, enroute back to Spain from Mexico [Puerto Rico], ran into a storm off the coast of Virginia. Captain Don Juan Ignacio Bustillo perished along with 425 men, women and children and an estimated half-billion dollars in treasure. A boy from the wreck survived on Assateague Island and was named James Alone. He later changed his name to James Lunn. Many Chincoteague islanders later traced their descent to James.
    (USAT, 5/7/98, p.9A)(WSJ, 7/17/98, p.A1)(SFC, 8/14/00, p.A3)

1818        Oct 28, Abigail Adams, wife of former Pres. John Adams, died. In 1975 some 200 letters of Abigail Adams were published as “The Book of Abigail and John."
    (WSJ, 2/10/07, p.P8)(www.findagrave.com/cgi-bin/fg.cgi?page=gr&GRid=4)
1818        Oct 28, Ivan Turgenev (d.1883), Russian novelist, poet, playwright (Fathers & Sons), was born. [see Nov 9]
    (MC, 10/28/01)

1846        Oct 28, Auguste Escoffier, king of chefs and chef of kings, was born.
    (MC, 10/28/01)

1858        Oct 28, Rowland Hussey Macy opened his first New York store at Sixth Avenue and 14th Street in Manhattan.
    (AP, 10/28/08)

1863          Oct 28-29, In a rare night attack, Confederates under Gen. James Longstreet attacked a Federal force near Chattanooga in the Battle of Wauhatchie, Tennessee. Longstreet hoped to cut the Federal supply line, the “cracker line," but failed. The principal commanders were: Maj. Gen. Joseph Hooker [US] and Brig. Gen. Micah Jenkins [CS]. Estimated causalities: 828 total (US 420; CS 408).
    (HN, 10/28/98)(http://www2.cr.nps.gov/abpp/battles/tn021.htm)

1864        Oct 28, Battle at Fair Oaks, Virginia, ended after 1554 casualties.
    (MC, 10/28/01)

1875        Oct 28, Gilbert Grosvenor, editor, was born. He turned the National Geographic Society’s irregularly published pamphlet into a periodical with a circulation of nearly two million.
    (HN, 10/28/00)

1880        Oct 28, San Francisco held a referendum on whether "The Awakening" by French artist Gabriel Guay (1848-1923) should be open for public view. An exhibit of a nude painting at the 15th Mechanic’s Fair triggered the referendum and 12,808 people bought tickets to the fair on the day of the vote, which passed in favor in a landslide.
    (SFC, 3/7/15, p.C2)(http://tinyurl.com/p5g2v8v)

1886        Oct 28, The Statue of Liberty on Liberty Island, formerly Bedloe's Island, in New York Harbor, a gift from the people of France, was dedicated by President Cleveland. It was designed by Frederic Auguste Bartholdi and originally named Liberty Enlightening the World. It was erected at the entrance of New York harbor as a symbol of freedom to welcome immigrants and others from around the world and became a monument to republicanism and to the amity between the French and American nations. The 225-ton statue arrived in 214 packing cases in June 1885 and was assembled on an American-built pedestal, the money for which was largely raised by Joseph Pulitzer. Lady Liberty, holding up her torch at the entrance of the harbor, remains one of America's most recognized monuments. Later the poem “New Colossus" by Emma Lazarus was placed at the base. The island was renamed by Pres. Eisenhower.
    (WUD, 1994, p.1389)(WSJ, 7/26/96, p.A9)(THC, 4/10/97)(AP, 10/28/97) (HNPD, 10/28/98)(HN, 10/28/98)(MC, 10/28/01)

1891        Oct 28, An earthquake struck Mino-Owari, Japan, and killed 7,300.
    (MC, 10/28/01)

1893        Oct 28, Peter Ilyich Tchaikovsky conducted the first public performance of his Symphony Number Six in B minor ("Pathetique") in St. Petersburg, Russia, just nine days before his death.
    (AP, 10/28/98)

1896        Oct 28, Howard Hansen, composer, was born in Wahoo, Nebraska. He became the director of the Eastman School of music.
    (HN, 10/28/00)(MC, 10/28/01)

1897        Oct 28, Hans Speidel, Nazi chief-staff and NATO-supreme commander, was born.
    (MC, 10/28/01)

1901        Oct 28, Race riots, sparked by Booker T. Washington's visit to the White House, killed 34.
    (HN, 10/28/98)

1903        Oct 28, Evelyn Waugh (d.1966), English novelist, was born in London. Waugh served in WWII as a SAS Commando. He wrote "Decline and Fall" and "Brideshead Revisited." "News is what a chap who doesn't care much about anything wants to read. And it's only news until he's read it. After that it's dead."
    (AP, 3/29/99)(HN, 10/28/99)(MC, 10/28/01)

1904        Oct 28, In NYC the City Hall station subway station opened. The station closed in 1945 when subway cars moved their doors to the center, because this created a dangerous gap between the exit point on the train and the platform.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/City_Hall_%28IRT_Lexington_Avenue_Line%29)
1904        Oct 28, The St. Louis, Missouri, police tried a new investigation method--fingerprints.
    (HN, 10/28/98)

1907        Oct 28, Edith Head, fashion designer for MGM, was born.
    (MC, 10/28/01)

1909        Oct 28, Francis Bacon (d.1992), English artist who painted expressionist portraits, was born in Dublin to English parents. He had no formal training as an artist. After earning a modest reputation in the 1920s as a modernist interior designer, he began oil painting in 1929. He first established himself as a major in 1944, when his now-famous triptych Three Studies for Figures at the Base of a Crucifixion was exhibited at London’s Tate Gallery.
    (https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Francis_Bacon_(artist))(SFEC, 5/30/99, DB p.29)

1912        Oct 28, Richard Doll, English epidemiologist, was born. He established a link between tobacco smoke and cancer.
    (HN, 10/28/00)

1913        Oct 28, The "Krazy Kat" comic strip by George Herriman (1880-1944) debuted as a daily comic strip in the New York Evening Journal.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Krazy_Kat)

1914        Oct 28, Jonas Salk, US physician and virologist, was born in NYC. He developed the first safe and effective vaccine against polio.
    (HN, 10/28/98)(AH, 10/04, p.15)
1914        Oct 28, George Eastman announced the invention of the color photographic process.
    (HN, 10/28/00)
1914        Oct 28, The German cruiser Emden, disguised as a British ship, steamed into Penang Harbor near Malaya and sank the Russian light cruiser Zhemchug.
    (HN, 10/28/99)

1915        Oct 28, Richard Strauss' Alpine Symphony premiered in Berlin.
    (MC, 10/28/01)

1918        Oct 28, The Czechoslovak National Congress in Prague proclaimed the independence of Czechoslovakia.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Czechoslovakia:_1918_-_1938)

1919        Oct 28, Congress passed the National Prohibition Act, or Volstead Act, over President Wilson's veto. It was named after its promoter, Congressman Andrew J. Volstead, and provided enforcement guidelines for the Prohibition Amendment which had been ratified January 29.
    (AP, 10/28/97)(HN, 10/28/98)

1922          Oct 28, The 1st coast-to-coast radio broadcast of a football game. WEAF in New York broadcast the first collegiate football game to be heard across the US. Princeton played against the University of Chicago at Stagg Field in Chicago, Illinois. Telephone lines transmitted the game to New York City, where the radio transmission started. Queensboro Realty Co. paid $100 for 10 minutes of air time. (Princeton 21, Chicago 18.)
    (http://senior.billings.k12.mt.us/otrannex/history/radio.htm)
1922        Oct 28, Fascism came to Italy as Benito Mussolini took control of the government.
    (AP, 10/28/97)

1925        Oct 28, Leonard Starr, comic strip cartoonist (Little Orphan Annie), was born.
    (MC, 10/28/01)

1927        Oct 28, Cleo Laine, actress and singer (Flesh to a Tiger), was born in Middlesex, England.
    (MC, 10/28/01)
1927        Oct 28, Pan Am Airways launched the first scheduled international flight. Pan Am was founded this year as a mail carrier to Havana by Juan Terry Trippe. In 2000 Barnaby Conrad III authored "Pan Am: An Aviation Legend."
    (HN, 10/28/98)(SFEM, 2/13/00, p.30)
1927        Oct 28, Josip Broz (Tito) began a 7 months jail sentence in Croatia.
    (MC, 10/28/01)

1929        Oct 28, Universal Pictures joined with Transcontinental Air Transport to offer moving pictures for air passengers bound for California.
    (SFC, 10/29/04, p.F11)
1929        Oct 28, The DJIA dropped 12.8%. Dow Jones plummeted 38.33 pts (13%) to 260.64. Just before the Great Crash the Ladies Home Journal proclaimed: "Everyone Ought to Be Rich."
    (WSJ, 9/9/96, p.A1)(SFC, 10/17/97, p.B2)

1934        Oct 28, In Redwood City, Ca., a crowd of 20,000 people gathered at the temporary Pulgas Water Temple to witness the first Sierra water begin to empty into Crystal Springs Lake. The Pulgas Water Temple near the Crystal Springs Reservoir was modeled after the Sunol Water Temple designed by Willis Polk. This marked the end of the 20-year SF water project led by engineer Michael O'Shaugnessy (d.10/18/34) [see Oct 12].
    (SFC, 12/19/96, p.A21)(SFC, 9/27/97, p.A24)(Ind, 3/11/00, p.5A)

1936        Oct 28, President Roosevelt rededicated the Statue of Liberty on its 50th anniversary.
    (AP, 10/28/97)

1938        Oct 28, There was a farewell parade of International Brigade in Barcelona, Spain.
    (MC, 10/28/01)

1939        Oct 28, Anti-German demonstrations and strikes took place in Czechoslovakia.
    (MC, 10/28/01)
1939        Oct 28, A Spitfire shot down a German Heinkel-111 over Scotland.
    (MC, 10/28/01)

1940        Oct 28, Greece said no to an ultimatum from Benito Mussolini who demanded that PM Metaxas allow the Italian army free passage to enter and occupy strategic sites in Greece unopposed. Italy invaded Greece, launching six divisions on four fronts from Albania, which it had occupied the previous year. Greece successfully resisted Italy's attack. From 1942 Greeks celebrated From 1942 Greeks celebrated October 28 as Ohi Day (No Day).
    (www.ultimatehistoryproject.com/oxi-day.html)(AP, 10/28/97)(HN, 10/28/98)
1940        Oct 28, A meeting between Hitler and Mussolini took place in Florence.
    (MC, 10/28/01)

1942        Oct 28, The 6th day of the battle at El Alamein. British offensive under Montgomery.
    (MC, 10/28/01)

1943        Oct 28, The German U-220 sank.
    (MC, 10/28/01)

1944        Oct 28, Dennis Franz, actor (NYPD Blue), was born in Maywood, Ill.
    (https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Dennis_Franz)
1944        Oct 28, The first B-29 Superfortress bomber mission flew from the airfields in the Mariana Islands in a strike against the Japanese base at Truk.
    (HN, 10/28/98)
1944            Oct 28, The last Nazi transport of Jews to the gas chambers of Auschwitz-Birkenau was sent from Theresienstadt.
    (http://tinyurl.com/8sf5k)

1946        Oct 28, German rocket engineers began work in the USSR.
    (MC, 10/28/01)

1948        Oct 28, Flag of Israel was adopted.
    (MC, 10/28/01)

1949        Oct 28, Eugenie Anderson became the 1st woman US ambassador. She was posted to Denmark.
    (HFA, ‘96, p.40)(MC, 10/28/01)

1953        Oct 28, Red Barber resigned as Dodger sportscaster to join Yankees.
    (MC, 10/28/01)

1954        Oct 28, Ernest Hemingway received news that he was awarded the Nobel Prize in literature. Poor health prevented him from going to Stockholm to receive it.
    (TMC, 1994, p.1954)(AH, 10/04, p.15)

1955        Oct 28, William Gates, the chairman and CEO of Microsoft Corporation, the world’s largest software firm, was born.
    (HN, 10/28/98)

1958        Oct 28, The Samuel Beckett play "Krapp's Last Tape" premiered in London.
    (AP, 10/28/08)(SFEC, 10/15/00, DB p.50)
1958        Oct 28, The Roman Catholic patriarch of Venice, Angelo Giuseppe Roncalli, was elected Pope, taking the name John XXIII.
    (AP, 10/28/97)

1960        Oct 28, In a note to the OAS (Organization of American States), the United States charged that Cuba had been receiving substantial quantities of arms and numbers of military technicians" from the Soviet bloc.
    (HN, 10/28/98)

1961        Oct 28, Ground was broken for Municipal (Shea) Stadium for NY Mets.
    (https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Shea_Stadium)

1962        Oct 28, Soviet leader Nikita Khrushchev informed the United States that he had ordered the dismantling of Soviet missile bases in Cuba. Radio Moscow reported nuclear missiles in Cuba deactivated. Kennedy and Khrushchev agreed on a formula to end the Cuban missile crisis: the Russians would dismantle their bases and the United States would publicly promise not to invade Cuba.
    (AP, 10/28/97)(HN, 10/22/98)(HNPD, 10/22/98)(MC, 10/28/01)

1963        Oct 28, In NYC the demolition of Penn Station, completed in 1910, began.
    (www.nyc-architecture.com/GON/GON004.htm)(WSJ, 1/12/07, p.W8)

1964        Oct 28, Dr. Timothy Leary (44) and Dr. Richard Alper (33), fired from Harvard Univ. for experimenting with LSD, spoke in San Francisco and said two generations hence everyone may be taking LSD weekly to increase their perceptiveness.
    (SSFC, 10/26/14, DB p.42)

1965        Oct 28, The Gateway Arch (630' (190m) high), designed by Eero Saarinen, was completed in St Louis, Missouri.
    (http://archanniversary.com/)
1965        Oct 28, Pope Paul VI issued a decree, Nostra Aetate, absolving Jews of collective guilt for the crucifixion of Jesus Christ.
    (AP, 10/28/99)(SFC, 3/11/06, p.B10)

1968        Oct 28, Pres. Johnson named Robert Komer (d.2000 at 78) as ambassador to Turkey. Komer had served Johnson as head of the "pacification" program in Vietnam, which used information and propaganda to gain political and social control of south Vietnam.
    (http://history.state.gov/departmenthistory/people/komer-robert-william)(SFC, 4/14/00, p.D5)
1968        Oct 28, In SF the first eviction notices were served to the 196 tenants of the International Hotel. This led to a 9-year struggle that resulted in their forced eviction on Aug 4, 1977. The property had been taken over five months earlier by the Milton Myers Company under Pres. Walter Shorenstein.
    (http://aam1968.blogspot.com/2008/01/third-world-student-strikes-at-sfsu-ucb.html)(SSFC, 8/19/07, p.B1)(SSFC, 11/25/18, p.46)

1970        Oct 28, In Canada Gerald Regan (b.1928) became premier of Nova Scotia and continued to 1978. In 1995 charges were filed that he sexually assaulted 2 girls (14) in 1956 and another young woman (18) in 1969. He was tried in 1998 at age 70. He was acquitted by a jury as 19 other women came forward with charges of sexual assault.
    (SFC, 12/17/98, p.C9)(SFEC, 12/20/98, p.A35)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Gerald_Regan)

1974        Oct 28, A US law banned discrimination of sex or marital status in credit application.
    (www.fdic.gov/regulations/laws/rules/6500-1200.html)
1974        Oct 28, Missionaries Mark Fischer (19) of Milwaukee, Wis., and Gary Darley (20) of Simi Valley, Calif., disappeared in Austin, Texas. Their bodies were never found. Robert Elmer Kleasen, taxidermist, was convicted for their murder and sentenced to death in 1975, but was released after 2 years due to a faulty search warrant. He moved to Britain and in 2001 was convicted again based on DNA evidence, but died in 2003 while awaiting possible extradition.
    (AP, 4/21/03)

1976        Oct 28, Former Nixon aide John D. Ehrlichman entered a federal prison camp in Safford, Ariz., to begin serving his sentence for Watergate-related convictions.
    (AP, 10/28/97)

1977        Oct 28, The US Congress passed Int'l. Emergency Economic Powers Act (IEEPA). This authorized the president to regulate international commerce after declaring a national emergency in response to any unusual and extraordinary threat to the United States which has its source in whole or substantial part outside the US. Pres. Carter signed the legislation on Dec. 28.
    (https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/International_Emergency_Economic_Powers_Act)

1980        Oct 28, President Carter and Republican presidential nominee Ronald Reagan faced off in a nationally broadcast, 90-minute debate in Cleveland.
    (AP, 10/28/98)
1980        Oct 28, Susan Jordan (15) of Riverside, Ca., was raped and murdered by Albert Greenwood Brown. In 2010 Brown (56) was scheduled to be executed.
    (http://abclocal.go.com/kabc/story?section=news/state&id=7687899)
1980        Oct 28, Canada’s federal government under Pierre Trudeau introduced a national energy program, which forced Alberta to sell its oil to Canadians at below market prices. The policy was dismantled in 1984.
    (Econ, 12/3/05, Survey p.6)(http://tinyurl.com/32q2bt)

1981        Oct 28, The US Senate voted for the sale of AWACS to Saudi Arabia. Fred Dutton (1923-2005), Washington counsel and lobbyist for Saudi Arabia, helped get US congressional approval for a 2nd major arms sale to Saudi Arabia.
    (http://tinyurl.com/98qre)(SFC, 6/28/05, p.B5)

1982        Oct 28, The Spanish Socialist Workers’ Party won the elections and Felipe Gonzalez (b.1942) became prime minister. He served 4 successive mandates and stepped down as head of the party in 1997.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Felipe_Gonz%C3%A1lez)(WSJ, 11/30/95, p.A-10)

1983        Oct 28, US forces led by Vice Adm. Joseph Metcalf III took control of Grenada 3 days after invading the island. Deputy PM Bernard Coard, leader of the rebellion, was captured. The fighting left 19 Americans dead along with 45 Grenadans.
    (SFC, 3/12/07, p.B4)

1985        Oct 28, Singer Whitney Houston (1963-2012) performed before a sellout crowd at Carnegie Hall.
    (www.nytimes.com/1985/10/29/arts/pop-whitney-houston-in-carnegie-hall-debut.html)
1985        Oct 28, John Walker, the leader of the so-called "Walker family spy ring," pleaded guilty to giving U-S Navy secrets to the Soviet Union.
    (www.dss.mil/training/espionage/1985.htm)
1985        Oct 28, In Sierra Leone Pres. Siaka Stevens retired from office at the end of his term. After pressuring all other potential successors to step aside, Major-General Joseph Saidu Momoh was sworn in as the new President of the Republic.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Siaka_Stevens)

1986        Oct 28, The Statue of Liberty turned 100 years old. The true centennial of the Statue of Liberty was celebrated in New York with ceremonies that were modest compared with the hoopla of "Liberty Weekend" the previous July.
    (TMC, 1994, p.1986)(AP, 10/28/06)

1987        Oct 28, During a debate in Houston that included the six Republican presidential contenders, Vice President George Bush argued that as President Reagan's "co-pilot," he knew how to "land the plane in a storm."
    (AP, 10/28/97)

1988        Oct 28, A French pharmaceutical company that manufactured the abortion pill RU-486 announced it would resume distribution on command of the French government.
    (AP, 10/28/98)

1989        Oct 28, The Oakland A's won the earthquake-interrupted World Series, completing a four-game sweep of the San Francisco Giants.
    (AP, 10/28/99)
1989        Oct 28, Twenty people were killed in the crash of a commuter plane on the island of Hawaii.
    (AP, 10/28/99)

1990        Oct 28, In a surprise move, Iraq said it was halting gasoline rationing imposed earlier in response to global economic sanctions.
    (AP, 10/28/00)

1991        Oct 28, Two days before the start of a Middle East peace conference in Madrid, Spain, President George H.W. Bush sought to lower expectations for a dramatic breakthrough, saying there was a “long, long way to go."
    (AP, 10/28/01)
1991        Oct 28, The Andrea Gail, a 72-foot swordfish boat from Gloucester, Mass., disappeared off the coast of Nova Scotia. Six fishermen were lost. In 1997 Sebastian Junger authored "The Perfect Storm: A True Story of Men Against the Sea." A film version followed in 2000.
    (SFC, 6/21/08, p.A3)(www.imdb.com/title/tt0177971/)

1992        Oct 28, Less than a week before Election Day, President Bush continued to emphasize that voters could not trust Bill Clinton in the White House; for his part, Clinton accused Bush of abusing the powers of the presidency.
    (AP, 10/28/97)
1992        Oct 28, The US Professional and Amateur Sports Protection Act (PASPA) was enacted. It banned betting on sports with exemptions to Delaware, Nevada, Oregon and Montana.
    (Econ, 9/26/09, p.42)(http://tinyurl.com/yenf89a)

1993        Oct 28, Doris Duke (b.1912), the only child of American Tobacco founder James Buchanon, died. She left a fortune to her butler, Bernard Lafferty (d.1996). She left $1.2 billion to her Doris Duke Charitable Foundation which took over management of her Shangri La home in Hawaii. In 2002 it opened as a museum to promote Middle Eastern art and culture. The foundation also bestowed her trove of Southeast Asian artifacts to the Asian Art museum in San Francisco. 
    (SFC, 11/5/96, p.A22)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Doris_Duke)(SSFC, 2/25/07, p.G5)(SFC, 10/24/09, p.E1)
1993        Oct 28, A US CIA report mentioned FRAPH and Emmanuel Constant in connection with the killing of Justice Minister Guy Mallory. The report says the Haitian junta’s chief of staff, Gen. Philippe Biamby and his associates coordinated the murder.
    (SFEC, 10/13/96, p.A15)
1993        Oct 28, Ousted Haitian President Jean-Bertrand Aristide, speaking at the United Nations, called for a trade blockade to Haiti to force out its military leaders.
    (AP, 10/28/98)

1994        Oct 28, President Clinton visited Kuwait, where he praised U.S. ground forces sent in response to an Iraqi threat, and all but promised the troops they'd be home by Christmas.
    (AP, 10/28/99)

1995        Oct 28, The Atlanta Braves defeated the Cleveland Indians, 1-0, to win the World Series in Game 6.
    (AP, 10/28/00)
1995        Oct 28, The US Senate approved a GOP package of spending slashes and tax reductions, 52-to-47.
    (AP, 10/28/00)
1995        Oct 28, An 18-wheel truck plunged over an embankment outside Washington DC and spilled 100 gallons of sulfuric acid onto I-95. The driver, Tom Billings, had fallen asleep.
    (WSJ, 5/6/96, p.B-1)

1996        Oct 28, Richard Jewell, cleared of committing the Olympic park bombing, held a news conference in Atlanta in which he thanked his mother for standing by him and lashed out at reporters and investigators who had depicted him as the bomber.
    (AP, 10/28/97)
1996        Oct 28, Comedian Morey Amsterdam died in Los Angeles at age 81.
    (AP, 10/28/97)

1997        Oct 28, The NBA announced that two women were selected to serve as referees. This was the first time that women would work as officials in any all-male American professional sport.
    (SFC, 10/29/97, p.A1)
1997        Oct 28, A day after plunging 554 points, the stock market roared back, posting a 337-point recovery, with more than one billion shares traded. The 4.71% point gain was the largest ever.
    (WSJ, 10/29/97, p.A1)(AP, 10/28/98)
1997        Oct 28, In England the Financial Services Authority (FSA) came into being for the oversight of financial institutions.
    (Econ, 10/20/07, SR p.31)(http://tinyurl.com/2ryrgx)
1997        Oct 28, In South Africa the First National Branch in Pretoria was robbed of $2,500. Mzwakhe Mbuli, a renowned "people's poet," and 2 suspects were arrested shortly after the robbery. Mbuli was convicted in 1999, but claimed that he was framed due to his knowledge of government officials involved in drug smuggling. He was given a 13-year jail term.
    (SFC, 3/30/99, p.F3)(SFC, 4/23/99, p.D3)

1998        Oct 28, Ted Hughes, British poet, died at age 68. His work included 35 books of poems, 3 works of prose, 2 opera libretti, and 4 stage plays. In 2007 Christopher Reid edited “Letters of Ted Hughes." In 2015 Jonathan Bate authored “Ted Hughes: The Unauthorized Life."
    (SFC, 10/30/98, p.A17)(Econ, 11/24/07, p.90)
1998        Oct 28, In Botswana the life expectancy was reported to have dropped from 61 in 1993 to 47 to the AIDS epidemic.
    (SFC, 10/28/98, p.A12)
1998        Oct 28, Brazil unveiled an $84 million austerity package that included a tax on government pensions.
    (SFC, 10/29/98, p.A14)
1998        Oct 28, Britain’s High Court ruled that Chilean dictator Augusto Pinochet could not be tried in England for anything he did in Chile. Pinochet was still held pending an appeal. The House of Lords later overturned the decision, saying Pinochet's arrest could stand. Pinochet was eventually allowed to return to Chile, where a court later held that he could not face charges because of his deteriorating health and mental condition. Pinochet died in 2006.
    (SFC, 10/29/98, p.A1)(AP, 10/28/08)
1998        Oct 28, In Burundi 34 people were killed south of the capital.
    (SFC, 10/29/98, p.A14)
1998        Oct 28, In China the new $400 million Wanjiazhai dam on the Yellow River was to begin producing hydroelectric power.
    (SFC, 10/23/98, p.D5)
1998        Oct 28, Colombian Pres. Pastrana met with Pres. Clinton in Washington and agreed to expand the fight against drugs.
    (SFC, 10/29/98, p.A14)
1998        Oct 28, In Indonesia some 8,000 students staged a sit-in in Jakarta and demanded the B.J. Habibie step down.
    (SFC, 10/29/98, p.A14)
1998        Oct 28, In Israel a bomb aimed at a busload of school children exploded in the Gaza Strip and 2 people were killed.
    (SFC, 10/29/98, p.A15)
1998        Oct 28, Four Slovak opposition parties formed a centre-right coalition government under Mikulas Dzurinda.
    (SFC, 10/29/98, p.A14)(Econ, 3/27/04, p.52)
1998        Oct 28, In South Africa the 3,500 page report of the Truth and Reconciliation Committee was formally handed over from Desmond Tutu to Pres. Mandela. It was based on years of testimony from the people who ran the 1960-1994 white-government and their victims.
    (SFC, 10/29/98, p.A13)(WSJ, 10/30/98, p.A1)
1998        Oct 28, The Inter-American Development Bank approved a $400 million loan to help Venezuela adopt economic reforms while battling the effects of low oil revenues.
    (WSJ, 10/29/98, p.A13)
1998        Oct 28, In Zimbabwe it was reported that 1 in 5 adults was infected with the AIDS virus.
    (SFC, 10/28/98, p.A12)

1999        Oct 28, Five Republican presidential hopefuls debated such issues as abortion, health care and taxes in their second meeting in less than a week; once again, front-runner George W. Bush was absent from the gathering in New Hampshire.
    (AP, 10/28/00)
1999        Oct 28, The House passed, 218-to-211, the last spending bill of the year, which President Clinton said he would veto.
    (AP, 10/28/00)
1999        Oct 28, Two Navy Blue Angel aviators, Kieron O'Connor (35) and Kevin Colling (32), were killed when their F/A-18 Hornet crashed during a training flight near Moody Air Force Base in Georgia. 23 pilots have died at shows or training since the group was formed in 1946.
    (SFC, 10/29/99, p.A3)(WSJ, 10/29/99, p.A1)
1999        Oct 28, Harvard Medical School reported that drug resistant TB had been found in 104 countries and required $1 billion for control. In Russia some 100,000 inmates had TB with 40% drug-resistant.
    (SFC, 10/29/99, p.A9)
1999        Oct 28, In Armenia the assassins of the prime minister surrendered following negotiations with Pres. Robert Kocharian. Nairi Unanian, his younger brother Karen, their uncle Vram Galstian were 3 of the 5 arrested.
    (SFC, 10/28/99, p.A1)(SFC, 10/29/99, p.A14)
1999        Oct 28, China Netcom Corp. began operations. It was formed earlier in the year by several government agencies as a competitor to the state-owned telecom monopoly, China Telecom Corp. Jiang Mianheng, the son of Jiang Zemin, was one of the 5-member board of directors.
    (WSJ, 10/28/99, p.A21)(WSJ, 11/1/99, p.A1)
1999        Oct 28, In Kashmir separatist militants fired 6 rocket-propelled grenades at the main government building in the capital and 3 people were killed and 28 injured.
    (SFC, 10/29/99, p.D3)
1999        Oct 28, Mauritania established full diplomatic relations with Israel.
    (SFC, 10/29/99, p.D3)
1999        Oct 28, Russian soldiers battled Chechen fighters for control of Yastrebinaya Hill, which overlooked Grozny. Chechen Pres. Makhashev said that 223 civilians had been killed in the last 2 days.
    (SFC, 10/29/99, p.D4)
1999        Oct 28, In Yemen 3 Americans, Marta R. Colburn and her parents, were freed after being held for 2 days by tribesmen, who demanded the release of 25 suspects held for an attack on an oil pipeline.
    (SFC, 10/28/99, p.A12)

2000        Oct 28, In Kosovo municipal elections were held. Ibrahim Rugova declared victory for his League for a Democratic Kosovo and won 21 of 27 contested municipalities.
    (SFEC, 10/29/00, p.A17)(SFC, 10/29/00, p.A1)(SFC, 10/31/00, p.A14)
2000        Oct 28, David Trimble, leader of Northern Ireland's biggest Protestant party, narrowly won a crucial party battle, keeping alive the province's power-sharing government.
    (AP, 10/28/01)
2000        Oct 28, Palestinians clashed with Israeli troops and at least 29 were wounded.
    (SFEC, 10/29/00, p.A18)

2001        Oct 28, The Arizona Diamondbacks gained a 2-0 lead in the World Series, defeating the New York Yankees 4-0.
    (AP, 10/28/02)
2001        Oct 28, The families of people killed in the Sept. 11 terrorist attack gathered in New York for a memorial service filled with prayer and song.
    (AP, 10/28/02)
2001        Oct 28, The CDC reported a 13th case of anthrax in a New Jersey postal worker. Spores were found at the mail center in Landover, Md.
    (SFC, 10/29/01, p.A1)
2001        Oct 28, United Airlines replaced embattled chairman and chief executive James Goodwin with board member John Creighton.
    (AP, 10/28/02)
2001        Oct 28, In California Jeffrey Fontana (24), a rookie police officer, was shot and killed during an apparent traffic stop in San Jose’s Almaden Valley neighborhood. DeShawn Lee Campbell (22) was suspected in the murder. Campbell was caught Nov 7. In 2009 Campbell, a mentally disabled man, was convicted of 2nd degree murder and sentenced to life in prison.
    (SFC, 10/29/01, p.A1)(SFC, 10/30/01, p.A13)(SFC, 11/8/01, p.A21)(SFC, 8/8/09, p.C2)
2001        Oct 28, The US expanded air strikes over Afghanistan and hit targets in Kabul, Mazar-e-Sharif, Herat, Jalalabad, Kandahar and near the Tajik border. 13 civilians, including 4 children, were reported killed in Kabul.
    (SFC, 10/29/01, p.A1)
2001        Oct 28, Israel pulled out of Bethlehem and Beit Jala. In Hadera suspected Palestinian gunmen sprayed gunfire and killed 4 women along a main boulevard before they were shot dead by police. Drive by shooters killed an Israeli soldier near the northern West Bank frontier.
    (SFC, 10/29/01, p.A9)
2001        Oct 28, In Pakistan gunmen attacked St. Dominic’s Catholic Church in Bahawalpur and shot to death at least 16 people. In Quetta a bomb on a bus killed 3 passengers. 13 Islamic militants were arrested in connection with the shooting.
    (SFC, 10/29/01, p.A1,8)(WSJ, 10/31/01, p.A1)
2001        Oct 28, In Zamboanga, Philippines, a bomb exploded at a food court and at least 6 people were killed. Abu Sayyaf rebels were blamed.
    (SFC, 10/29/01, p.A9)
2001        Oct 28, In Somalia PM Ali Khalif Galaydh lost a no-confidence vote after a tenure of 13 months. Pres. Abdiqasim Salad Hassan prepared to nominate a new PM.
    (SFC, 10/29/01, p.A9)

2002        Oct 28, In Arizona Robert Flores (41), a failing nursing student, shot and killed 3 professors and then himself at the College of Nursing in Tucson.
    (SFC, 10/28/02, p.A4)
2002        Oct 28, Chechen President Aslan Maskhadov is prepared to hold unconditional talks with the Russian leadership to find a political solution to the bloody conflict in Chechnya, his envoy said.
    (Reuters, 10/28/02)
2002        Oct 28, It was reported that 200 farms in China tap 7,000 live, caged bears for their bile in an excruciating process. Owners slice into the bears to milk bile from their gall bladder with a tube. Bear bile is viewed as a panacea in traditional Chinese medicine. Many bears do not survive the initial operation and few live longer than 10 years, less than half the average life expectancy.
    (Reuters, 10/28/02)
2002        Oct 28, In Colombia a car bomb set in front of a school killed 2 police officers and wounded 11 others, just hours before President Alvaro Uribe visited Arauca.
    (AP, 10/28/02)
2002        Oct 28, In Jordan an assassin pumped eight shots into Laurence Foley (62), an employee of the US Agency for International Development, outside his home in the first known killing of a Western envoy in Amman. 2 suspects were arrested Dec 14. Abu Musab Zarqawi was suspected in the murder. In 2009 a military court convicted Al-Qaida militant Mohammed Ahmed Youssef al-Jaghbeer in a retrial for the murder of Foley and sentenced him to death.
    (AP, 10/28/02)(WSJ, 12/16/02, p.A1)(WSJ, 2/10/04, p.A8)(SFC, 7/14/09, p.A2)
2002        Oct 28, Russian President Vladimir Putin led a national day of mourning as relatives and friends grieved for the more than 100 captives who died in the siege at a Moscow theater.
    (AP, 10/28/07)
2002        Oct 28, Zimbabwe's ruling party won a sweeping victory in a parliamentary by-election. The opposition said that the vote was rigged and swayed by violence and intimidation.
    (AP, 10/29/02)

2003        Oct 28, The US Senate approved Utah's Gov. Mike Leavitt as head of the EPA.
    (SFC, 10/29/03, p.A3)
2003        Oct 28, Ohio truck driver Iyman Faris (b.1969) was sentenced in federal court to 20 years in prison for aiding and abetting al-Qaida by scoping out the Brooklyn Bridge as part of a plot to cut through cables that support it. In 2018 a federal judge ruled that the government can't strip the Pakistani-born terrorist of his US citizenship.
    (http://tinyurl.com/y88getdr)(AP, 7/21/18)
2003        Oct 28, The seven astronauts who died in the February 1 Columbia shuttle disaster were honored with the unveiling of their names carved into the national Space Mirror Memorial.
    (AP, 10/28/08)
2003        Oct 28, In SF it was announced that the Helen Diller Family Foundation would make a $35 million donation to the new cancer research center of UCSF at Mission Bay. The new 5-story Diller Building, designed by Uruguay-born architect, Rafael Vinoly, opened in 2009.
    (SFC, 10/28/03, p.B1)(SFC, 6/2/09, p.E8)
2003        Oct 28, Wells Fargo announced a new Identity Theft Assistance Center.
    (SFC, 10/29/03, p.B1)
2003        Oct 28, Southern California fires covered 600,000 acres. The death toll climbed to 20. Some 11,467 firefighters covered the blazes. Arson was suspected in most of the 10 fires. Firefighters saved hundreds of homes in the San Fernando Valley from California's deadliest wildfires in more than a decade. In 2009 Rickie Lee Fowler (28) was indicted on murder and arson charges for a 2003 wildfire that destroyed nearly 1,000 homes in San Bernadino County. On Jan 28, 2013, Fowler was given the death penalty.
    (SFC, 10/29/03, p.A1)(AP, 10/28/08)(SFC, 10/21/09, p.A4)(SFC, 1/29/13, p.A4)
2003        Oct 28, It was reported that Forbes Magazine had estimated Yasser Arafat's fortune at some $300 million, with much of it controlled by adviser Mohammed Rachid.
    (SFC, 10/28/03, p.A3)
2003        Oct 28, A Soyuz space capsule with 3 astronauts from the International Space Station landed in Kazakhstan.
    (SFC, 10/28/03, p.A1)
2003        Oct 28, Australia and New Zealand said they will start withdrawing troops from the Solomon Islands, claiming success in a mission to restore law and order.
    (AP, 10/28/03)
2003        Oct 28, Chechen rebels killed 8 Russian soldiers in a series of attacks.
    (WSJ, 10/29/03, p.A1)
2003        Oct 28, Czech Independence Day. Cathrin Schauer published her book “Children Walk the Streets," a chronicle of child prostitution along the Czech-German border.
    (WPR, 3/04, p.45)
2003        Oct 28, Former Guatemala paramilitary fighters released four journalists and three other hostages after the government promised to pay the ex-soldiers for their services during the 36-year civil war.
    (AP, 10/28/03)
2003        Oct 28, In Iraq a car bomb exploded near a police station on a major street in the tense city of Fallujah, killing at least four people.
    (AP, 10/28/03)
2003        Oct 28, In Iraq 2 American soldiers were killed when their Abrams battle tank was damaged by resistance fighters 45 miles north of Baghdad. Total US deaths reach 115 and surpassed the 114 killed during the initial war Mar 20-May 1.
    (AP, 10/29/03)
2003        Oct 28, In southern Iraq 7 Ukrainian peacekeepers were wounded when militants attacked their patrol. 1,650 Ukrainian troops served in the Polish-led stabilization force.
    (AP, 10/29/03)
2003        Oct 28, Japan's Sony Corp. said it would cut 20,000 workers and reduce costs by $3 billion over the next 4 years.
    (SFC, 10/29/03, p.B3)
2003        Oct 28, In Mexico City high-level officials of the Organization of American States ended two day of talks with a new security agenda.
    (AP, 10/29/03)
2003        Oct 28, In central Nepal rebels attacked a police station, killing at least 8 people.
    (AP, 10/28/03)
2003        Oct 28, Joan Perucho (82), judge, novelist and art critic, died in Barcelona.
    (SFC, 10/31/03, p.A25)
2003        Oct 28, In western Sudan a helicopter transporting troops crashed, killing 19 members of the armed forces and a university student.
    (AP, 10/29/03)

2004        Oct 28, Fox News Channel's Bill O'Reilly (55) settled a harassment lawsuit brought by Andrea Mackris (33), a former Fox producer, who accused him of graphically discussing sex with her.
    (AP, 10/29/04)
2004        Oct 28, The US law Check 21, that allowed banks to transfer facsimiles of checks electronically, was scheduled to take effect.
    (WSJ, 1/26/04, p.A1)
2004        Oct 28, Boston Red Sox fans turned out by the tens of thousands near historic Fenway Park to celebrate their World Series champion team, the city's first since 1918.
    (AP, 10/28/05)
2004        Oct 28, AMD released its new $185 personal Internet Communicator for consumers in developing countries.
    (SFC, 10/28/04, p.C3)
2004        Oct 28, A breakaway Taliban group abducted three foreign UN workers from Kabul because they assisted Afghanistan's "fake election" and threatened to kill them if a rescue mission was launched.
    (AP, 10/29/04)
2004        Oct 28, Amar Saifi, one of North Africa's most wanted Islamic militant leaders, was taken into custody in Algeria. The No. 2 leader of the Salafists is accused in the kidnapping of 32 European tourists last year.
    (Reuters, 10/29/04)(WSJ, 10/29/04, p.A1)
2004        Oct 28, Cambodia's King Norodom Sihamoni, the 51-year-old son of former king Norodom Sihanouk, was formally sworn in as monarch.
    (AP, 10/29/04)
2004        Oct 28, China's central bank raised interest rates for the first time in 9 years in a surprise move that was aimed at guiding a heated economy onto a path of slower growth. The rate increase .25% to 5.6%.
    (Reuters, 10/28/04)(Econ, 11/6/04, p.12)
2004        Oct 28, China and Iran signed a memorandum of understanding for an oil and gas agreement worth tens of billions of dollars.
    (WSJ, 11/1/04, p.A1)
2004        Oct 28, For the 13th straight year, the U.N. General Assembly overwhelmingly urged the United States to end its more than four decade trade embargo against Cuba.
    (AP, 10/28/04)
2004        Oct 28, An armed group claimed in a video to have obtained a large amount of explosives missing from a munitions depot facility in Iraq and threatened to use them against foreign troops.
    (AP, 10/28/04)
2004        Oct 28, Militants released a grisly video that showed the killing of 11 Iraqi troops held hostage for days, beheading one, then shooting the others execution-style. Another group released a video of a kidnapped Polish woman, demanding Warsaw pull its troops from Iraq.
    (AP, 10/28/04)
2004        Oct 28, A survey of deaths in Iraqi households estimates that as many as 100,000 more people may have died throughout the country in the 18 months after the U.S. invasion than would be expected based on the death rate before the war.
    (AP, 10/28/04)
2004        Oct 28, Latvia's government resigned after lawmakers refused to pass the 2005 budget that had been proposed by PM Indulis Emsis.
    (AP, 10/28/04)(WSJ, 10/29/04, p.A13)
2004        Oct 28, Five policemen working for Nigeria's anti-drug enforcement agency were among 7 people killed by a mob that mistook them for armed robbers in a remote northern village.
    (AP, 10/29/04)
2004        Oct 28, In western Siberia 13 coal miners died after an explosion ripped through a coal mine.
    (AP, 10/28/04)
2004        Oct 28, A contingent of 50 Nigerian soldiers arrived in Darfur, Sudan, aboard a US military plane, the first of 3,000 extra African Union troops deployed to monitor a shaky cease-fire.
    (AP, 10/29/04)
2004        Oct 28, In southern Thailand a bomb exploded outside a bar, killing two people and injuring 21.
    (AP, 10/28/04)

2005        Oct 28, US prosecutor Patrick Fitzgerald released a 22-page indictment with five charges against I. Lewis "Scooter" Libby Jr. regarding the Valerie Plame case. They carried a total maximum penalty of 30 years in prison and $1.25 million in fines. It portrayed Libby as a serial liar who recklessly mishandled national security secrets. Libby immediately resigned as top aide to VP Cheney.
    (AP, 10/29/05)(SFC, 10/29/05, p.A1)(WSJ, 10/29/05, p.A1)
2005        Oct 28, US Ambassador Thomas Schieffer said the US plans to reduce the number of American troops in Okinawa and the rest of Japan.
    (AP, 10/28/05)
2005        Oct 28, The Alaska Supreme Court ruled that it is unconstitutional to bar benefits to the same-sex partners of public employees.
    (SFC, 10/29/05, p.A3)
2005        Oct 28, Delta Air Lines, in bankruptcy since Sep 14, said that it will discontinue its 2-year-old, low-cost carrier Song and will absorb the unit into its regular operations.
    (SFC, 10/29/05, p.C2)
2005        Oct 28, Rice University professor Richard Smalley (62), who shared a 1996 Nobel Prize in chemistry for the discovery of "buckyballs," died in Houston of cancer.
    (AP, 10/28/05)(Econ, 11/12/05, p.91)
2005        Oct 28, Hazelyn Francis (66), the president of the Antigua and Barbuda senate, was raped during an assault in her home.
    (AP, 10/31/05)
2005        Oct 28, In Argentina indigenous leaders from around the Americas met in Buenos Aires to draft a declaration of rights to present to world leaders at next week's Summit of the Americas.
    (AP, 10/28/05)
2005        Oct 28, China's President Hu Jintao flew to North Korea to meet with reclusive leader Kim Jong Il ahead of new nuclear talks and was greeted by cheering crowds of thousands on a rare visit by a leader of the North's last major ally.
    (AP, 10/28/05)
2005        Oct 28, The UN Security Council voted unanimously to extend the 16,700-member UN peacekeeping mission in Congo for a year and add 300 troops.
    (AP, 10/28/05)
2005        Oct 28, The EU offered to reduce average agricultural tariffs by 46 percent, its steepest ever farm tariff cuts, in a proposal aimed at breaking a deadlock in world trade talks.
    (AP, 10/28/05)
2005        Oct 28, Raymond Hains (b.1926), French Nouveau Realiste artist, died in Paris. In 1960 he joined with other artists to found the Nouveau Realistes, whose emergence came to be seen as the beginning of French Pop Art.
    (SFC, 11/15/05, p.B5)
2005        Oct 28, Guyanese lawmakers voted to raise the age of female sexual consent from 13 years old to 16, despite months of lobbying from groups who said the age should have been 18.
    (AP, 10/29/05)
2005        Oct 28, Tens of thousands of Iranians staged anti-Israel demonstrations across the country, repeating calls by their ultraconservative President Mahmoud Ahmadinejad for the destruction of the Jewish state.
    (AP, 10/28/05)
2005        Oct 28, An Italian court held the first in a series of closed-door hearings to decide whether to indict Prime Minister Silvio Berlusconi and 13 others for alleged fraud at his family's broadcaster Mediaset.
    (AP, 10/28/05)
2005        Oct 28, Police in Sicily said they have arrested two suspected mobsters accused of plotting to murder a judge with a car bomb.
    (AP, 10/28/05)
2005        Oct 28, Japan's government said basing a US nuclear-powered warship in Japanese waters for the first time will boost stability in East Asia, hailing an agreement even as it drew protests from the community that will host the aircraft carrier.
    (AP, 10/28/05)
2005        Oct 28, It was reported that the poppy crop in Laos has been reduced 73% over the last 5 years and that the number of opium addicts has shrunk from 63,000 in 1998 to 21,000. The UN drug office said yaaba, an amphetamine produced in illegal factories in Burma, was becoming the drug of choice for young people.
    (SFC, 10/28/05, p.A11)
2005        Oct 28, Mexico became the 100th country to ratify the treaty founding the world's first permanent war crimes tribunal, which the United States has opposed.
    (AP, 10/28/05)
2005        Oct 28, A general strike shut down schools, businesses and transportation in Kathmandu in a protest of new laws restricting the media for criticizing Nepal's king.
    (AP, 10/28/05)
2005        Oct 28, North and South Korea opened their first joint office to promote trade across the heavily militarized border, just as Pyongyang is feuding with a South Korean company about business in the North.
    (AP, 10/28/05)
2005        Oct 28, A Philippine court sentenced to death an Indonesian and two Filipino Muslim militants for their roles in the bombing of a Manila bus.
    (AP, 10/28/05)
2005        Oct 28, Saudi Arabia was given a green light to join the World Trade Organization, in time to participate in December's crucial ministerial summit in Hong Kong.
    (AP, 10/29/05)
2005        Oct 28, In South Africa former President Nelson Mandela launched the first edition of a series of comic books about his life aimed at encouraging young South Africans to read.
    (AP, 10/28/05)
2005        Oct 28, A top military officer said Syria has increased military posts and patrols along its border with Iraq and stopped thousands of infiltrators from entering into the war-torn country.
    (AP, 10/28/05)
2005        Oct 28, Egyptian Pres. Hosni Mubarak held unexpected talks with his beleaguered Syrian counterpart Bashar Assad to discuss Damascus' crisis with the West over the killing of a former Lebanese leader.
    (AP, 10/28/05)
2005        Oct 28, The US joined with the UN, Russia and the EU in demanding Syria immediately close the offices of Islamic Jihad in Damascus and prevent use of its territory for terror actions.
    (AP, 10/28/05)
2005        Oct 28, The UN food agency warned that at least 1.7 million Zambians need food, and the situation is deteriorating rapidly.
    (AP, 10/27/05)

2006        Oct 28, President Bush spoke by video conference with Iraqi PM Nouri al-Maliki as he sought to reaffirm support for the Iraqi leader.
    (AP, 10/28/07)
2006        Oct 28, David M. Walker, the comptroller general of the United States, warned that if the US government conducts business as usual over the next few decades, a national debt that is already $8.5 trillion could reach $46 trillion or more, adjusted for inflation. That's almost as much as the total net worth of every person in America.
    (AP, 10/28/06)
2006        Oct 28, In Jerseyville, Ill., a teenager carrying a Bible and shouting "I want Jesus" was shot twice with a police stun gun and died the next day at a St. Louis hospital.
    (AP, 10/31/06)
2006        Oct 28, Arnold Auerbach (89), legendary coach of the Boston Celtics basketball team, died of a heart attack in Washington DC.
    (SSFC, 10/29/06, p.C1)
2006        Oct 28, In southern Afghanistan NATO and Afghan troops killed 70 suspected militants who attacked a military base in Uruzgan province. A roadside blast killed one NATO soldier and wounded 8 others. Three National Geographic TV crew members were also hurt in a roadside bomb blast.
    (AP, 10/29/06)(AP, 11/2/06)
2006        Oct 28, In Bangladesh at least 9 people died and about 500 were wounded in political riots after the man due to take over as interim leader withdrew just hours before taking the oath.
    (Reuters, 10/28/06)
2006        Oct 28, Chad accused Sudan's air force of bombarding four towns along its eastern frontier and said its armed forces were ready to repel further aggression.
    (Reuters, 10/28/06)
2006        Oct 28, An explosion inside a western China coal mine trapped and killed 14 miners and burned six others.
    (AP, 10/28/06)
2006        Oct 28, In France marauding youths torched hundreds of vehicles overnight and into the day. In Marseilles Mama Galledou (26) was on the bus with some 10 other passengers when it was forcibly boarded by at least three teenagers wearing hoods. They doused the inside of the vehicle with flammable liquid and set it on fire before running away. Galledou was badly burnt and on the verge of death.
    (AFP, 10/29/06)
2006        Oct 28, Iraqi soldiers, backed by American forces, raided an insurgent hide-out near Baghdad at dawn, killing 15 fighters and capturing eight. In a separate raid south of Baghdad an insurgent dressed as a woman was killed when he opened fire on American soldiers who had rounded up 10 comrades. A rocket hit an outdoor market in southern Baghdad, killing one person and wounding 35. A bomb exploded in a minibus in the capital's east, killing one and wounding nine. 9 Iraqi soldiers were kidnapped on the increasingly dangerous highway linking Baghdad with Kirkuk. In Baqouba police said they had found two bodies of apparent sectarian violence in the city's central al-Mu'allimeen district. A third body was pulled from the Diyala river. Police reported the shooting deaths of two men in a Baqouba market. A US Marine was killed in fighting in Anbar province raising the death toll among US service members this month to 100.
    (AP, 10/28/06)(AP, 10/30/06)
2006        Oct 28, In the Indian-controlled section of Kashmir 3 Indian border guards and 18 civilians were injured when suspected Islamic rebels hurled a grenade in a busy market.
    (AFP, 10/28/06)
2006        Oct 28, In Jamaica Trevor Berbick (51), the last boxer to fight the legendary Muhammad Ali, was found dead in a churchyard near his home in Norwich. On Nov 3 police charged two men, one a nephew of Berbick, with murdering the former world heavyweight boxing champion. In 2007 a jury found Harold Berbick (21) guilty of murder and Kenton Gordon (19) guilty of manslaughter in the killing of the former boxer.
    (AP, 11/4/06)(AP, 12/21/07)
2006        Oct 28, Mexico’s President Vicente Fox announced he was sending federal police into the violence-wracked southern state capital of Oaxaca after a US journalist and two Mexican men were shot to death. The bodies of 3 state police officers, one of whom had been decapitated, were found in a sport utility vehicle abandoned outside the resort city of Acapulco.
    (AP, 10/28/06)(AP, 10/28/06)
2006        Oct 28, In western Nepal an overcrowded bus plunged off a mountain road, leaving at least 42 people dead and 45 injured.
    (AP, 10/28/06)
2006        Oct 28, Russian authorities said dozens of people have died and more than 1,000 received hospital treatment in a wave of alcohol poisoning that is sweeping the country.
    (AP, 10/28/06)
2006        Oct 28, The Millionaire Fair, founded by Yves Gijrath, opened in Moscow. It was first held in Amsterdam in 2002.
    (Reuters, 10/29/06)
2006        Oct 28, In Pakistan some 5,000 pro-Taliban tribesmen held an anti-America rally in a remote tribal region near the Afghan border, vowing to keep waging a holy war against "infidels."
    (AP, 10/28/06)
2006        Oct 28, Serbia began a weekend referendum on a proposed constitution that reasserts the nation's claim to the Kosovo region, whose status is under negotiation at international talks.
    (AP, 10/28/06)
2006        Oct 28, In Sri Lanka suspected Tamil Tiger rebels fatally shot a government soldier and wounded six police officers in two bomb attacks as peace talks began in Switzerland.
    (AP, 10/29/06)

2007        Oct 28, In Denver the Boston Red Sox swept to their second World Series title in four years with a 4-3 win over the Colorado Rockies in Game 4.
    (AP, 10/29/07)
2007        Oct 28, Iowa Democrats voted to move their leadoff precinct caucuses to Jan 3. Republicans had picked the same date earlier this month.
    (SFC, 10/30/07, p.A5)
2007        Oct 28, In Joliet, Illinois, Stacy Peterson (23), the current wife of police officer Drew Peterson, was last seen. On Nov 10 state police said Peterson is no longer a person of interest in the disappearance but a suspect. A coroner's jury ruled the 2004 death of Kathleen Savio, Peterson's third wife, an accident. On Nov 17 former NYC chief medical examiner Dr. Michael Baden analyzed Kathleen Savio's remains and concluded she died after a struggle. In 2008 Dr. Larry W. Blum said in an autopsy report that Kathleen Savio died by drowning and her death was ruled a homicide. In 2009 Peterson (55) was arrested during a traffic stop and faced murder charges.
    (AP, 11/10/07)(AP, 11/17/07)(AP, 2/22/08)(AP, 5/8/09)
2007        Oct 28, A beach house erupted into a storm of fire and smoke in Ocean Isle Beach, N.C. Six of the seven students killed attended the University of South Carolina.
    (AP, 10/29/07)
2007        Oct 28, In NYC orthodontist Daniel Malakov was shot and killed when he too his daughter for an arranged meeting with his former wife, Mazoltuv Borukhova. Police soon charged Borukhova with hiring a cousin by marriage to kill Malakov. In 2011 Janet Malcolm authored “Iphigenia in Forest Hills: Anatomy of a Murder Trial.
    (SSFC, 5/15/11, p.G4)(www.fathersandfamilies.org/?tag=daniel-malakov)
2007        Oct 28,     Porter Wagoner (80), country singer, died. He was known for a string of country hits in the '60s, perennial appearances at the Grand Ole Opry in his trademark rhinestone suits, and for launching the career of Dolly Parton. The Missouri-born Wagoner signed with RCA Records in 1955 and joined the Opry in 1957. His syndicated TV show, "The Porter Wagoner Show," ran for 21 years, beginning in 1960.
    (AP, 10/29/07)
2007        Oct 28,     A six-hour battle in southern Afghanistan left over 50 Taliban fighters killed or wounded in Uruzgan province. In the east, coalition forces raided a compound suspected of housing al-Qaida facilitators, killing several militants in Kunar province.
    (AP, 10/29/07)
2007        Oct 28, In Argentina Cristina Fernandez de Kirchner, the other half of the power couple credited with the country’s rebound from an economic collapse, overshadowed 13 rivals as voting opened in Argentina's presidential elections. Cristina Fernandez, claimed victory in the country's presidential election; she became the first woman elected to the post.
    (AP, 10/28/07)(AP, 10/28/08)
2007        Oct 28,     Nordin Benallal, a Belgian inmate, made a dramatic escape from jail for the fourth time after his armed accomplices landed in the prison grounds in a hijacked helicopter. On landing, the helicopter was crowded by other prisoners, making takeoff impossible and causing it to crash. Benallal and his cohorts then briefly seized two prison warders as hostages and fled in a car parked nearby.
    (Reuters, 10/29/07)
2007        Oct 28, In London a media report said US financial services group GMAC will lead a rescue bid for stricken bank Northern Rock.
    (AP, 10/28/07)
2007        Oct 28, Bulgarians voted in municipal elections that attracted a record number of candidates given the scheduled influx of millions of euros in EU funding over the next few years. The vote will prove a mid-term test for the ruling centre-left coalition government of PM Sergey Stanishev.
    (AP, 10/28/07)
2007        Oct 28, In Dubai thousands of South Asian construction workers went on strike over harsh working conditions in the latest threat to a spectacular building boom already endangered by a falling currency and labor shortage.
    (AP, 10/29/07)
2007        Oct 28,     Tens of thousands of impoverished Indians arrived in New Delhi ending a monthlong march to draw attention to the plight of those dispossessed of their land by recent economic development.
    (AP, 10/29/07)
2007        Oct 28, In Baghdad 10 Sunni and Shiite tribal leaders who joined forces against al-Qaida were abducted. One sheik was soon found shot to death. Shehab Mohammad al-Hiti (27), editor for the fledgling weekly Baghdad al-Youm, was killed in Baghdad. A car bomb ripped through a Kirkuk bus terminal that serves travelers to Iraq's Kurdish region, killing eight people and wounding 26. Gunmen sprayed a car carrying five bodyguards of the head of local Sunni Endowments department in the turbulent city of Basra, killing one of them and injuring the rest.
    (AP, 10/28/07)(SFC, 10/29/07, p.A9)(AP, 10/29/07)
2007        Oct 28, Israel began cutting vital fuel shipments to the Gaza Strip, following through on a promise to step up pressure on the area's Hamas rulers in response to months of Palestinian rocket attacks.
    (AP, 10/28/07)
2007        Oct 28, At least 15 migrants drowned in the waters off the Italian coast in two separate incidents, including the disintegration of a boat that spilled more than 100 passengers into rough seas.
    (AP, 10/29/07)
2007        Oct 28, In northwestern Pakistan security forces backed by helicopter gunships militant hideouts in the mountains of the district. Over 60 militants died in the fierce fighting.
    (AP, 10/29/07)(SFC, 10/30/07, p.A8)
2007        Oct 28, Puerto Rican and US archaeologists said they have found the best-preserved pre-Columbian site in the Caribbean, which could shed light on virtually every aspect of Indian life in the region. Artifacts of Taino or pre-Taino people dated from 600 A.D. to 1500 A.D.
    (AP, 10/28/07)
2007        Oct 28, The USS Porter, a guided missile destroyer, fired on and destroyed two pirate boats tied to the Golden Nori, a hijacked Japanese-flagged chemical tanker. The ship was carrying a load of benzene off the coast of Somalia.
    (AP, 11/1/07)
2007        Oct 28, UN-brokered peace talks ground to a halt, with officials saying there could be no key steps until the fighters decided how to negotiate with the Sudanese government.
    (AP, 10/28/07)
2007        Oct 28, Turkish troops killed some 20 Kurdish guerrillas in fighting in eastern Tunceli province. Turkey's PM Erdogan called for unity between Turks and Kurds against the rebels.
    (Reuters, 10/28/07)(AP, 10/29/07)(WSJ, 10/29/07, p.A1)
2007        Oct 28, The Vatican staged its largest mass beatification ceremony ever, putting 498 victims (1934-1937) of religious persecution before and during Spain's civil war on the path to possible sainthood.
    (AP, 10/28/07)

2008        Oct 28, The DJIA rose 889.35 to 9,065.12, its 2nd biggest gain in the Dow’s history.
    (SFC, 10/29/08, p.A1)
2008        Oct 28, In Anaheim, Ca., a newlywed, killed by police after he stepped outside his home to confront suspected burglars, was shot in a case of mistaken identity. Julian Alexander died after being shot twice in the chest by a police officer who was chasing four burglary suspects.
    (AP, 10/29/08)
2008        Oct 28, Kwame Kilpatrick (38), former Detroit mayor, was sent to jail for 4 months for his part in a sex-and-text scandal.
    (SFC, 10/29/08, p.A4)
2008        Oct 28, Google along with the Association of American Publishers and the Authors Guild announced a settlement regarding the use of copyrighted book material. Google agreed to pay $125 million to start the Books Rights Registry, resolve legal fees and deal with other issues relating to authors and online book use.
    (SFC, 10/29/08, p.C1)
2008        Oct 28, In California Bill Martin (65), Mendocino realist painter and art teacher, died. His 3 books included “Paintings “1969-1979."
    (SFC, 11/13/08, p.B4)
2008        Oct 28, Afghan and Pakistani leaders vowed to seek dialogue with Taliban insurgents, saying the "door is now open" for reconciliation.
    (AP, 10/28/08)
2008        Oct 28, Ricardo Claro (b.1934), Chilean industrialist, died. His industrial empire stretched from shipping (CSAV) to media to wine (Santa Rita). In 1974 he announced to the world, on behalf of the Pinochet government, that Chile was once again open for business.
    (WSJ, 11/8/08, p.A6)
2008        Oct 28, Amnesty International urged the United States and other nations to halt military aid to Colombia until it stems a rise in killings of noncombatants by security forces and heeds other UN prescriptions for ending its long-running internal conflict.
    (AP, 10/28/08)
2008        Oct 28, Rebels vowing to take Congo's eastern provincial capital of 600,000 people advanced toward Goma as Congolese troops and UN tanks retreated, while tens of thousands fled to a makeshift shelter.
    (AP, 10/28/08)
2008        Oct 28, Iceland’s PM Geir Haarde said his country needs about $6 billion in loans to recover from the financial meltdown, just as the country's central bank separately hiked its interest rates by a massive 6 percentage points to 18%.
    (AP, 10/28/08)(WSJ, 10/29/08, p.A10)
2008        Oct 28, In Iraq 4 police officers were killed in a drive-by shooting in the northern city of Mosul and three civilians were killed in a separate Baghdad bombing.
    (AP, 10/28/08)
2008        Oct 28, Voters turned out in strength to choose the Maldives' first democratically-elected president in a run-off between Asia's longest serving leader and a former political prisoner. Nasheed won 54% of the vote to Gayoom's 46%, according to provisional results from the nation's elections commission.
    (AP, 10/28/08)(AP, 10/29/08)
2008        Oct 28, Mexico's Congress passed a watered-down energy industry reform that enables private contractors to participate in the state-owned oil business but won't likely draw enough investment to reverse declining production.
    (AP, 10/29/08)
2008        Oct 28, Namibia sold more than seven tons of ivory for $1.1 million, in the first legal auction of elephant tusks in nearly a decade, exclusively for Chinese and Japanese buyers.
    (AP, 10/28/08)
2008        Oct 28, Pakistani President Asif Ali Zardari announced government awards for US Democratic vice presidential nominee Joe Biden and Republican Senator Richard Lugar. Biden and Lugar in July introduced a bipartisan US aid plan which calls for $1.5 billion per year in non-military spending to support economic development in Pakistan.
    (AP, 10/28/08)
2008        Oct 28, In Peru police and protesters clashed violently at a blockaded bridge in the province of Moquegua leaving 71 injured.
    (AP, 10/30/08)
2008        Oct 28, A Moscow jury said Alexei Frenkel (36), former chairman of VIP Bank, ordered the September, 2006, murder of Andrei Kozlov (41), a Central Bank official. 3 Ukrainians were found guilty of the killing. A 4th Ukrainian and 2 people from Moscow were found guilty as accessories to the murder.
    (WSJ, 10/29/08, p.A14)
2008        Oct 28, The bodies of Russian Otto Messmer and Victor Betancourt of Ecuador were found in their Moscow apartment at the Jesuit Moscow headquarters. Several days later, police announced a 38-year-old man had confessed to the killings but gave few details. In 2009 a federal Investigative Committee announced the man had been drinking with Betancourt, and when Betancourt suggested they have sex, the man bludgeoned Betancourt with a dumbbell. The man allegedly killed Messmer later to cover up the first killing.
    (AP, 7/17/09)
2008        Oct 28, In Serbia Miladin Kovacevic (21) was detained on suspicion that he "inflicted severe bodily harm" on Bryan Steinhauer during the fight in a bar in upstate New York last May. Steinhauer (22) only recently emerged from a coma. In 2010 prosecutors filed assault charges against Kovacevic. The beating left Steinhauer with skull fractures and a severe brain injury.
    (AP, 10/28/08)(AP, 3/2/10)
2008        Oct 28-2009 Oct 29, In northern Somalia 5 suicide car bombs attacks killed 28 people in Hargeisa, the capital of Somaliland, and in Bosasso, Puntland. Somali authorities arrested Cleric Sheik Mohamed Ismail in connection with the attacks. Shirwa Ahmed, one of the suicide bombers, was an American citizen and former resident of Minnesota.
    (AP, 10/30/08)(SFC, 10/30/08, p.A4)(Econ, 2/28/09, p.49)
2008        Oct 28, South Korean officials said a North Korean soldier has defected for the 2nd time in a decade.
    (WSJ, 10/29/08, p.A1)(www.iht.com/articles/2008/10/28/asia/korea.php)
2008        Oct 28, In Sri Lanka the Tamil Tigers' rudimentary air force bombed a power station on the outskirts of Colombo. The bombing damaged some turbines at the power station. A worker hospitalized after the attack died the next day.
    (AP, 10/29/08)
2008        Oct 28, The Syrian government ordered that an American school and a US cultural center in Damascus be closed in response to a deadly raid by US helicopters near the Syrian border with Iraq.
    (AP, 10/28/08)
2008        Oct 28, Turkey's warplanes and artillery struck Kurdish rebel targets inside northern Iraq.
    (AP, 10/28/08)
2008        Oct 28, Zimbabwe’s opposition issued an urgent call for a regional summit after talks aimed at breaking a political deadlock with Pres. Mugabe’s party failed.
    (SFC, 10/29/08, p.A6)

2009        Oct 28, President Barack Obama signed a defense bill into law containing a new provision to pay Taliban fighters who renounce the insurgency. The defense also bill killed some costly weapons projects and expanded war efforts. In a major civil rights change, the law also made it a federal hate crime to assault people based on sexual orientation.
    (Reuters, 10/27/09)(AP, 10/29/09)
2009        Oct 28, In Alabama a federal jury convicted Birmingham Mayor Larry Langford on charges of accepting bribes in exchange for funnelling $7.1 million in bond business to an investment banker.
    (SFC, 10/29/09, p.A6)
2009        Oct 28, In Anchorage Bill Allen, an oil services executive at the heart of a federal investigation of corruption in Alaska, was sentenced to 3 years in prison and fine $750,000.
    (SFC, 10/29/09, p.A6)
2009        Oct 28, A San Francisco judge ordered the closure of Pink Diamonds, a Tenderloin strip club, a directed its operator, Damone H. smith, to pay at least $688,500 in fines after he violated a court order to bring the club into compliance with local and state laws.
    (SFC, 10/29/09, p.D1)
2009        Oct 28, US federal agents in Dearborn, Michigan, arrested several members of a radical Sunni Islam group on charges that included conspiracy to sell stolen goods and the illegal possession and sale of firearms. Luqman Ameen Abddullah (53), a Muslim prayer leader, was shot and killed with 21 gunshot wounds after he refused to surrender and fired a weapon.  He had not been charged with a crime. An investigation into the killing was opened in 2010.
    (SFC, 10/29/09, p.A6)(SFC, 2/3/10, p.A8)(http://tinyurl.com/yf57rdd)
2009        Oct 28, NASA launched its 327-foot Ares I-X, its new prototype moon rocket, skyward from Cape Canaveral on a suborbital test flight at a cost of $445 million.
    (SFC, 10/29/09, p.A7)
2009        Oct 28, In Afghanistan Taliban militants wearing suicide vests and police uniforms stormed a guest house used by UN staff in the heart of Kabul. 11 people were killed, including 5 UN staff, 3 attackers, 2 security guards and an Afghan civilian. Liberian election worker Yah Lydia Wonyene (47) was one of the five UN staffers killed. It was the biggest in a series of attacks intended to undermine next month's presidential runoff election. The assault included rocket attacks at the presidential palace and the city's main luxury hotel. Two NATO members were killed in bomb blasts in the south, including one American.
    (AP, 10/28/09)(AP, 10/29/09)(AP, 11/22/09)
2009        Oct 28, Britain’s PM Gordon Brown welcomed Indian President Pratibha Patil on the second day of her state visit which he said showed growing ties between the two nations.
    (AFP, 10/28/09)
2009        Oct 28, The UN mission to Congo (MONUC) said Congolese soldiers killed their unit commander when he ordered them not to steal and pillage in eastern Democratic Republic of Congo. The men involved were former Mai-Mai militia members from the Congolese Resistance Patriots movement (PARECO) who recently became part of the army.
    (AFP, 10/29/09)
2009        Oct 28, Angela Merkel was sworn for a second term as German chancellor, a month after her party won national elections.
    (AP, 10/28/09)
2009        Oct 28, Germany's Lutheran Church elected Margot Kaessmann (51), the first woman to lead the nation's Protestants.
    (AP, 10/28/09)
2009        Oct 28, In Guinea tens of thousands of workers went on strike to mark the one-month anniversary of a massacre in which troops fatally shot pro-democracy demonstrators and raped women in broad daylight. 10 people who announced they were taking part in a hunger strike were arrested. The next day they were taken to a restaurant where they were forced to eat under threat of death. The 10 hunger strikers were released on Oct 30, after being detained inside a shipping crate with breathing holes.
    (AP, 10/28/09)(AP, 10/30/09)
2009        Oct 28, Ayatollah Ali Khamenei, Iran's supreme leader, said that questioning the results of Iran's June presidential election is a crime.
    (AP, 10/28/09)
2009        Oct 28, Kurdish President Massoud Barzani said the Kurds would not accept a proposed "special status," referring to distinct voting rules specifically for Kirkuk in Iraq's January election, which Kurds say would favor other ethnicities.
    (AP, 10/30/09)
2009        Oct 28, Kuwait's highest court ruled that women lawmakers are not obliged by law to wear the headscarf, a blow to Muslim fundamentalists who want to fully impose Islamic Sharia law in this small oil-rich state.
    (AP, 10/28/09)
2009        Oct 28, Lebanese troops found and dismantled four rockets near the border with Israel, a day after a brief flare-up across the tense boundary.
    (AP, 10/28/09)
2009        Oct 28, Mozambique held elections. President Armando Guebuza was expected to retain power and move to attract more foreign investors. On Nov 2 President Armando Guebuza was declared the "landslide" winner by two election monitoring groups. Frelimo, the ruling party since independence in 1975, had received 71% of the vote with 89% of polling stations reporting. On Nov 11 election officials said President Armando Guebuza won the landslide re-election with 75% of the vote. On Nov 17 the main opposition Renamo party said the ruling party stuffed ballot boxes and expelled opposition monitors from polling stations to help it win the presidential election.
    (Reuters, 10/28/09)(AFP, 11/2/09)(AFP, 11/11/09)(AP, 11/17/09)
2009        Oct 28, Norway’s central bank became the first in Europe to tighten, raising its policy rate to 1.5% from 1.25%.
    (Econ, 11/7/09, p.70)
2009        Oct 28, In northwestern Pakistan a car bomb tore through a busy market in Peshawar, killing 105 people, mostly women and children. US Secretary of State Hillary Rodham Clinton visited the country and pledged American support for its campaign against Islamist militants.
    (AP, 10/28/09)(AP, 10/29/09)
2009        Oct 28, In Rwanda Dismas Mukeshabatware, a member of Radio Rwanda's renowned Indamutsa theatre troupe, was sentenced on charges of murdering a woman and her three children in 1994 in the southern town of Butare. On Dec 16 he was acquitted on appeal.
    (AFP, 12/16/09)
2009        Oct 28, Somalia’s PM Omar Abdirashid Ali Sharmarke said that many countries are fishing illegally in Somali waters and have pushed formerly profitable Somali fishermen into the pirate trade. "We estimate that the value of the fish being taken from our waters is perhaps hundreds of millions of dollars." 5 people were killed in fighting after insurgents sent mortars toward the airport as the president was arriving.
    (AP, 10/28/09)(AP, 10/31/09)
2009        Oct 28, Somali pirates exchanged fire with a French fishing vessel. They sped away, but were soon stopped by a Spanish naval helicopter. 7 pirates were detained on the German naval vessel, FGS Karlsruhe.
    (AP, 10/28/09)
2009        Oct 28, In Thailand suspected Muslim insurgents shot and killed two Buddhist civilians in separate drive-by attacks in the insurgency-plagued south.
    (AP, 10/28/09)
2009        Oct 28, The UN said Zimbabwe's government has blocked a visit by Manfred Nowak, the UN’s torture investigator who was to examine alleged attacks on opposition activists by ruling party supporters.
    (AP, 10/28/09)

2010        Oct 28, A White House panel said that Halliburton Co. used flawed cement in BP Plc's doomed Gulf of Mexico well, which could have contributed to the blowout that sparked the worst offshore oil spill in US history. Halliburton had run a series of tests that showed the material was unstable in the weeks before the April 20 explosion on the Deepwater Horizon rig. An interim report BP issued in September said Halliburton used an "unstable" cement mixture that allowed hydrocarbons to flow up the drill pipe and onto the floor of the rig, where they ignited.
    (Reuters, 10/29/10)
2010        Oct 28, US federal regulators said Verizon Wireless has agreed to pay $25 million to the US government and at least $52.8 million in refunds to customers who inadvertently racked up data charges on their phones over the last three years.
    (AP, 10/28/10)
2010        Oct 28, The SF Giants at home won game 2 of the world series, 9-0, over the Texas Rangers.
    (SFC, 10/29/10, p.A1)
2010        Oct 28, Nvidia Corp. said China’s National University of Defense Technology has designed the world’s fastest supercomputer. Its Tianhe-1A set a performance record of 2.507 petaflops per second.
    (SFC, 10/29/10, p.C5)
2010        Oct 28, The Washington-based nonprofit, the National Association of Clean Air Act Agencies, surveyed the states on whether they would be ready to comply with the new EPA rules by the Jan 2, 2011, deadline. In a new report the association said 49 states have either changed their laws to allow regulation of greenhouse gases or will allow the EPA to issue permits. Texas is doing neither.
    (http://news.yahoo.com/s/ap/20101029/ap_on_bi_ge/us_epa_vs_texas)
2010        Oct 28, James MacArthur (b.1937), stage and screen actor, died. He played "Danno" in the original version of television's "Hawaii Five-O" (1968-1980). His breakout role was in the 1957 "Climax!" television series production of "The Young Stranger," in which he starred as the 17-year-old son of a movie executive who has a run-in with the law.
    (AP, 10/29/10)
2010        Oct 28, US microchip giant Intel said it plans to team up with Taiwan to set up a multi-million dollar Internet computing research laboratory.
    (AFP, 10/28/10)
2010        Oct 28, In southern Afghanistan a roadside bomb targeting the car of a district police chief killed three police officers in Zabul province. A NATO airstrike killed a Taliban leader and another militant in southern Zabul province as he was showing his fighters a new anti-aircraft heavy machine gun mounted on the back of his vehicle. Militants shot and killed a government official in charge of the water supply in Dand district of Kandahar province as he was walking near his home. A NATO service member died following a bomb attack in southern Afghanistan. In Khost province a NATO airstrike killed one insurgent believed to be a senior leader of the Haqqani network. In neighboring Mando Zayi district of Khost, one civilian was killed and two others were wounded in fighting. US and Russian special forces and Afghan police ended an operation raiding 4 drug labs in an unprecedented collaborative military operation, destroying some $56 million worth of heroin in Nangarhar province. Months earlier Russia had provided US officials in Kabul with the coordinates of 175 laboratories where heroin is processed but the US failed to act. A NATO helicopter killed more than 20 insurgents after it was fired on during an operation in Kandahar province.
    (AP, 10/28/10)(AP, 10/29/10)(AP, 10/31/10)
2010        Oct 28, In Bahrain more than two dozen Shiite Muslims accused of plotting against the Sunni rulers described abuses including beatings and electric shocks at a trial observed by US envoys.
    (AP, 10/28/10)
2010        Oct 28, Bangladesh police said arrested 20 members of the country’s largest Islamic party and seized homemade bombs from a house where they were holding a meeting.
    (AP, 10/28/10)
2010        Oct 28, In China Guo Xianliang, an engineer from the southern province of Yunnan, disappeared while on a business trip in the southern city of Guangzhou. He had been handing out fliers on the streets and in public parks there. Police told Guo's wife on Nov 2 that Guo had been criminally detained.
    (AP, 11/3/10)
2010        Oct 28, In China 4 driverless vehicles arrived at the Shanghai Expo ending an 8,000 mile test drive from Italy.
    (SFC, 10/29/10, p.A2)
2010        Oct 28, Liang Congjie (78), historian and modern China’s first environmentalist, died. In 1994 he and 3 colleagues founded Friends of Nature, China’s first legal NGO and the first committed to protecting the country’s environment.
    (Econ, 11/20/10, p.100)
2010        Oct 28, In France further strikes disrupted rail and air transport, but the broader protest over plans to raise the retirement age appeared to be waning a day after parliament adopted pension reform legislation.
    (AP, 10/28/10)
2010        Oct 28, A French helicopter crashed in Antarctica during rough weather conditions killing all 4 aboard. The downed AS350 Squirrel helicopter was operated in Antarctica from the French research vessel, L'Astrolabe, which was currently icebound about 230 miles (370 km) northeast of the Dumont-d'Urville station.
    (AP, 10/29/10)(AP, 10/30/10)
2010        Oct 28, Former Greenland premier Jonathan Motzfeldt (72) died. He had spearheaded a drive for more self-rule and opposed US bases on the semi-autonomous Danish territory. Motzfeldt led the Arctic island's government between 1979-1991 and again between 1997-2002 and is considered one of the founding fathers of its home rule agreement with Denmark.
    (AP, 10/29/10)
2010        Oct 28, Guinea officials said thousands of people from the Peul ethnic group have been forced to flee their homes in ethnic clashes ahead of the country's upcoming presidential election, overshadowing a looming poll in a country that has never succeeded in freely electing its leader.
    (AP, 10/29/10)
2010        Oct 28, Indonesia's Mount Merapi erupted for the second time in a week, blasting vast plumes of ash into the sky, as the death toll from the initial eruption and a tsunami that hit remote western islands reached 377.
    (AP, 10/28/10)
2010        Oct 28, Ali Shakouri-rad, a leader of the Islamic Iran Participation Front and former MP, was freed on bail, two weeks after his arrest for what Tehran prosecutor Abbas Jafari Dolatabadi termed "security reasons." On Dec 9 he was sent back to jail for "propagating against the regime and spreading lies."
    (AFP, 12/9/10)
2010        Oct 28, In Iraq a suicide bomber blew up his car outside a police checkpoint in Mosul, killing one policeman and injuring seven. In Baghdad small bombs stuck on cars owned by ranking police officials killed one and wounded another.
    (AP, 10/28/10)
2010        Oct 28, Israeli officials said that the military-grade armaments seized at a shipping terminal in Nigeria came from Iran and were bound for the Hamas-controlled Gaza Strip. On Oct 30 an international shipping company said the weapons cache originally came from Iran. Last week, the Iranian shipper filed a request for the containers to be picked up again and this time shipped to the West African nation of Gambia. On Feb 1, 2011, Azim Aghajani of Iran and his alleged accomplice, Nigerian national Usman Abbas Jega, both maintained their innocence against three charges over the shipment.
    (AP, 10/28/10)(AP, 10/30/10)(AP, 2/1/11)
2010        Oct 28, Ehud Netzer (76), leading Israeli archaeologist, died of injuries suffered in a fall at an excavation at the King Herod-era site near Bethlehem.
    (AP, 10/29/10)
2010        Oct 28, Kuwait's court of appeals upheld the acquittal of eight nationals, two of them tried in absentia, of charges of forming an Al-Qaeda cell and plotting attacks against a US military base. Five of the men were arrested in August last year while a sixth suspect was already serving a life sentence for a 2002 attack on the US military in Kuwait that killed an American soldier. The accused said that purported confessions presented to the court had been extracted under torture.
    (AFP, 10/28/10)
2010        Oct 28, Sheik Hassan Nasrallah, the leader of Hezbollah, called on all Lebanese to boycott the UN tribunal investigating the 2005 assassination of a former prime minister, saying all information gathered by the team was being sent to Israel. He spoke a day after a crowd of women attacked two UN investigators and a Lebanese interpreter as they gathered evidence at a private gynecology clinic in Beirut. He confirmed that the wives and relatives of Hezbollah commanders and officials were among the clinic's patients. A 13-year-old boy was killed and four other people wounded in a grenade blast outside a scrap metal yard in northern Lebanon's Nahr al-Bared camp.
    (AP, 10/29/10)(AFP, 12/25/10)
2010        Oct 28, In Mexico gunmen killed 6 young men in a gritty neighborhood of Mexico City. Gunmen ambushed a convoy of 5 police vehicles in Jalisco state, killing 9 officers and leaving one missing. In Zapopan, a suburb of the Jalisco state capital of Guadalajara, two boys (2) and 3 other people were wounded by grenade fragments during an attack on a private home. The United States delivered three mobile X-ray inspection vehicles to Mexico as part of the Merida Initiative anti-drug aid plan. Francisco Javier Gomez Meza, the director of the Puente Grande prison, was arrested for alleged ties to drug gangs.
    (AP, 10/28/10)(AP, 10/29/10)
2010        Oct 28, In Karachi, Pakistan, gunmen on a motorcycle opened fire on a Japanese consular vehicle, wounding two local employees and underscoring the fragile security in the country. An American missile strike killed 7 suspected militants in North Waziristan.
    (AP, 10/28/10)
2010        Oct 28, In Yemen clashes between Shiite rebels and a pro-government tribe in the northern mountains killed a tribesman and two rebels.
    (AFP, 10/29/10)

2011        Oct 28, The United States acknowledged it was flying drones out of Ethiopia under a counter-terrorism campaign in the Horn of Africa but said the aircraft were unarmed and not carrying out raids.
    (AFP, 10/28/11)
2011        Oct 28, In San Diego, Ca., police arrested 51 people who occupied the Civic Center Plaza and Children's Park for three weeks. Occupy San Diego protesters vowed to return to the civic plaza behind City Hall.
    (AP, 10/29/11)
2011        Oct 28, In San Francisco Rachael Marie Smith was sentenced to 2 years behind bars for swindling 18 potential apartment renters out of $110,000. Smith was also ordered to repay the stolen money.
    (SFC, 10/29/11, p.C2)
2011        Oct 28, In Tennessee 29 Occupy Nashville protesters were arrested in a pre-dawn raid. Many returned to the Legislative Plaza the same evening and remained through a 10 p.m. curfew. Troopers arrested 26 people this time. All were charged with trespassing. Magistrate Tom Nelson told troopers delivering the protesters to jail that he could "find no authority anywhere for anyone to authorize a curfew anywhere on Legislative Plaza."
    (AP, 10/29/11)
2011        Oct 28, In eastern Afghanistan insurgents attacked a convoy of Afghan and international troops, starting a firefight that left about 30 militants dead in Nangarhar province. In the south a NATO service member was killed in a roadside bombing in Kandahar province. A civilian car struck a roadside bomb in Nangarhar province's Khogyani district, killing two men, a woman and a child.
    (AP, 10/28/11)
2011        Oct 28, In Bosnia Mevlid Jasarevic, a man from the Muslim-dominated region of Serbia, fired with an automatic weapon outside the US Embassy in what authorities called a terrorist attack. Police in southern Serbia soon detained 15 people suspected of belonging to an extremist Islamic sect.
    (AP, 10/29/11)
2011        Oct 28, St. Paul’s Cathedral reopened after a weeklong closure triggered by protest against economic inequality and corporate greed. The City of London Corporation said it was launching legal action on the grounds that the protest is an "unreasonable user of the highway." Scores of tents are pitched on the pedestrianized square in front of the cathedral and near a footpath alongside the building.
    (AP, 10/28/11)
2011        Oct 28, Commonwealth leaders agreed to drop rules that give sons precedence as heir to the throne and bar anyone in line for the crown from marrying a Roman Catholic. The agreement came on the sidelines of a Commonwealth summit presided over by the Queen in the west Australian city of Perth. Current succession rules, dating back to 1688 and 1700, were designed to ensure a Protestant monarchy, and bar anyone in line to the throne from marrying a Catholic.
    (Reuters, 10/28/11)
2011        Oct 28, Chile's Hudson Volcano released three huge columns of steam and ash that combined in a cloud more than 3 miles (5 km) high.
    (AP, 10/28/11)
2011        Oct 28, China blocked online access to news of riots by thousands of people who clashed with police in an eastern manufacturing city in what began as a protest over taxes.
    (AFP, 10/28/11)
2011        Oct 28, In Egypt several thousand protesters in Cairo called on the ruling military to promptly transfer power to a civilian government and exclude old regime figures from politics. Protesters clashed with soldiers and police in Cairo after a funeral procession for a man a rights group claims died from police torture after he was caught smuggling a mobile phone chip into his cell.
    (AFP, 10/28/11)
2011        Oct 28, Committee of Ministers of the Council of Europe opened Medicrime convention for signature. It aimed to punish drug counterfeiters and speed information sharing. As of 2012 it was signed by 18 European countries, but ratified only by Ukraine.
    (Economist, 10/13/12, p.74)(www.edqm.eu/en/the-medicrime-convention-1470.html)
2011        Oct 28, In Greece thousands of anti-austerity protesters in Thessaloniki forced the cancellation of an annual military parade commemorating the nation's entry into World War II.
    (AP, 10/28/11)
2011        Oct 28, India’s government said the rate of suicides in the country is increasing and that more than 15 people kill themselves every hour.
    (SFC, 10/29/11, p.A2)
2011        Oct 28, In southern Iran an explosion at a state-run oil field killed a worker and injured three others. A refinery in central Iran was hit by a fire.
    (AFP, 10/28/11)
2011        Oct 28, Ireland held presidential elections. Michael D. Higgins (70), a champion of Palestinian rights and a member of junior coalition partner Labour Party, was ahead in most voting tallies across the country. Labor candidate Higgins won with nearly 57 percent of votes, clear of nearest rival, businessman Sean Gallagher.
    (Reuters, 10/28/11)(AP, 10/29/11)
2011        Oct 28, In central Jamaica an 8-year-old girl’s throat was slashed and her mother seriously wounded in an attack at their home. Officers looked to speak with the girl's father.
    (AP, 10/29/11)
2011        Oct 28, In Mexico at least 21 people were killed in three shootouts between soldiers and gunmen and a fight between rival drug gangs. This included 15 in Michoacan and 6 in Sinaloa.
    (AP, 10/28/11)
2011        Oct 28, A Moroccan court convicted all defendants for their role in the April 28 cafe bombing that killed 17 people, mostly tourists, sentencing Adel al-Othmani, the chief suspect, to death. All the defendants protested their innocence.
    (AP, 10/28/11)
2011        Oct 28, Myanmar police filed charges against seven people who staged a peaceful protest against alleged unfair confiscation of their land, which comes as the outside world watches the government's stated commitment to democratic reforms. Those charged included labor rights lawyer Pho Phyu, who was with more than 30 farmers who staged a sit-in a day earlier in front of the government housing department in Yangon.
    (AP, 10/28/11)
2011        Oct 28, NATO allies formally agreed to end the seven-month mission in Libya Oct 31.
    (AFP, 10/28/11)
2011        Oct 28, In Nigeria hackers calling themselves NaijaCyberHacktivists hit the website of the top anti-corruption agency over a government official suggesting tighter Internet control.
    (AP, 10/28/11)
2011        Oct 28, Nigeria's military seized a ship laden with 5,000 tons of stolen oil amid rising cases of crude theft in one of the world's main oil producing regions.
    (AFP, 10/31/11)
2011        Oct 28, In Pakistan some 2,000 people demonstrated outside the country's parliament to demand an end to US drone strikes, claiming they kill more innocent civilians than Taliban and Al-Qaeda leaders.
    (AFP, 10/28/11)
2011        Oct 28, A Pakistani court issued an arrest warrant for former president Pervez Musharraf and former PM Shaukat Aziz over the killing of Nawab Akbar Bugti, a Baluch rebel leader in August 2006. The operation also killed at least 7 soldiers and 17 tribal insurgents.
    (AFP, 10/28/11)
2011        Oct 28, A 6.9-magnitude quake just off the central coast of Peru. Peruvian authorities said 134 homes were destroyed and 103 people treated at hospitals for injuries.
    (AP, 10/29/11)
2011        Oct 28, The Philippine government said it will seize three Manila properties belonging to flamboyant former first lady Imelda Marcos as payment for money she embezzled nearly three decades ago.
    (AFP, 10/28/11)
2011        Oct 28, South Korea's parliament approved a tougher law against sex crimes, inspired in part by a recent movie based on a real-life case of sexually abused deaf children.
    (AP, 10/28/11)
2011        Oct 28, In Spain a man in Valencia went on a stabbing rampage at his apartment building, killing three people and seriously injuring at least two others. The man was arrested, but a motive for the attack was not given.
    (AP, 10/29/11)
2011        Oct 28, Syrian security forces reportedly killed at least 40 people. Authorities disrupted telephone and Internet service in restive areas during mass protests calling for the downfall of President Bashar Assad's regime. Activists called for a no-fly zone to protect civilians and soldiers deserting the army.
    (AFP, 10/28/11)(AP, 10/28/11)(AP, 10/29/11)
2011        Oct 28, The UN refugee agency said fresh aerial bombings in Sudan's border Blue Nile state are sending more refugees fleeing to Ethiopia, with 2,000 arriving in the last four days.
    (AFP, 10/28/11)
2011        Oct 28, In Yemen a car bomb near Aden killed Ali al-Haddi, the head of the anti-terror force in restive southern Abyan province. Demonstrations raged around the country. A 28-year-old woman was reported killed in crossfire in Sanaa during a gunbattle between opposing sides.
    (AP, 10/28/11)

2012        Oct 28, In Detroit, Michigan, the SF Giants won the World Series beating the Detroit Tigers 4-3 in a 4-game sweep.
    (SFC, 10/29/12, p.A1)
2012        Oct 28, London police arrested one-time pop star Gary Glitter as part of an investigation into allegations of child sex abuse by the late BBC presenter Jimmy Savile. Glitter, born Paul Gadd, shot to fame in the early 1970s with the hit "Rock and Roll". He has long been dogged by child sex accusations. He was convicted of abusing two girls in Vietnam in 2006 and has been jailed in that country.
    (AP, 10/28/12)
2012        Oct 28, Millions of Chileans voted in nationwide municipal elections that could set the stage for next year's presidential race.
    (AP, 10/28/12)
2012        Oct 28, The local Chinese government in Ningbo relented and agreed that a petrochemical factory would not be expanded, only to see the protesters refuse to halt their demonstration.
    (AP, 10/28/12)
2012        Oct 28, French police arrested Izaskun Lesaka (37) and another suspected ETA member, Joseba Iturbide Ochoteco (35), in a hotel in Macon. Police said Lesaka was considered one of ETA's top three leaders and that police also seized abundant computer equipment and a stolen car with false number plates.
    (AP, 10/28/12)
2012        Oct 28, In Iraq twin bombings near a market southeast of Baghdad killed three people and wounded eight others in Madain.
    (AP, 10/28/12)
2012        Oct 28, An Israeli airstrike strike into the Gaza Strip killed one Palestinian man and wounded another. Five rockets and mortars had struck southern Israel by early morning.
    (AP, 10/28/12)
2012        Oct 28, Lithuanians cast ballots in the second-round of national elections in a tight race. The main opposition Social Democrats won 38 seats and announced plans to form a left-leaning coalition with the 3rd place Labor party (29 seats) and 4th place Order and Justice Party (11 seats). The conservative Homeland Union of PM Kubilius won 33 seats.
    (AP, 10/28/12)(SFC, 10/30/12, p.A3)(Econ, 11/3/12, p.52)
2012        Oct 28, Victims of Myanmar's latest explosion of Muslim-Buddhist violence fled to already packed displacement camps along the country's western coast, with a top UN official saying the unrest has forced more than 22,000 people from their homes.
    (AP, 10/28/12)
2012        Oct 28, In northern Nigeria a suicide bomber rammed an SUV loaded with explosives into a Catholic church holding Mass, killing at least 7 people and wounding more than 100 others in Kaduna. The attack sparked reprisal killings in the city.
    (AP, 10/28/12)
2012        Oct 28, In northwestern Pakistan a powerful bomb went off outside the shrine of Sunni Muslim saint Kaka Sahib in the town of Nowshehra, killing at least four people.
    (AP, 10/28/12)
2012        Oct 28, A Russian vessel with a nine-person crew and 700 tons of gold ore onboard went missing in stormy seas off Russia's Pacific Coast. The ship sent a distress call as it was sailing from the coastal town of Neran to Feklistov Island in the Sea of Okhotsk.
    (AP, 10/29/12)
2012        Oct 28, Somali journalist Mohamed Mohamud Turyare, a reporter at Shabelle radio, died of wounds following an attacked by gunmen last week. This brought the number of journalists killed in targeted attacks in Somalia this year to 17.
    (AP, 10/29/12)
2012        Oct 28, Syrian warplanes and artillery struck rebellious suburbs east of Damascus, while rebels attacked regime positions elsewhere near Damascus. The violence marred the third day of what was meant to be a four-day holiday truce. At least 150 people were reported killed.
    (AP, 10/28/12)(AP, 10/29/12)
2012        Oct 28, Ukrainians voted in an election that was expected to maintain President Viktor Yanukovych's parliamentary majority, despite his rollback on democracy during nearly three years in power. An exit poll showed Yanukovych's Party of Regions ahead with some 28.1 percent of the vote. Tymoshenko's Fatherland party was poised to get about 25 percent of the proportional vote, while the Udar (Punch) led by world boxing champion Vitali Klitschko was set to get around 15 percent.
    (AP, 10/28/12)(AP, 10/29/12)
2012        Oct 28, In northern Yemen a suspected US drone airstrike targeted al-Qaida militants in a house in Saada province, killing 3 people, two of them said to be Saudis. Saeed al-Shihri, a Saudi national who fought in Afghanistan and spent six years in the US military prison at Guantanamo Bay, was wounded in the attack. On Jan 24 a security official said al-Shihri, Al-Qaida's No. 2 in Yemen, had died from wounds suffered in the attack.
    (AP, 10/28/12)(AP, 1/24/13)

2013        Oct 28, The Obama administration granted a 6-week extension until March 31 for Americans to sign up for health care coverage and avoid tax penalties.
    (SFC, 10/29/13, p.A4)
2013        Oct 28, The governors of California, Oregon and Washington states along with the premier of British Columbia agreed to coordinate greenhouse gas reduction goals.
    (SFC, 10/29/13, p.A1)
2013        Oct 28, Los Angeles police said body parts believed to be from the same woman have been found at two water treatment plants in the LA area.
    (Reuters, 10/28/13)
2013        Oct 28, Scientists said they have documented for the first time that an Asian carp species has successfully reproduced within the Great Lakes watershed, an ominous development in the struggle to slam the door on the hungry invaders that could threaten native fish.
    (AP, 10/29/13)
2013        Oct 28, A US federal judge determined that new Texas abortion restrictions place an unconstitutional burden on women seeking to end a pregnancy, a ruling that keeps open dozens of abortion clinics across the state while officials appeal.
    (AP, 10/28/13)
2013        Oct 28, In Texas 5 people were killed during a rapid series of attacks in Terrell. Charles Everett Brownlow Jr. (36), the son of one of the victims, was arrested early the next day.
    (AP, 10/29/13)(SFC, 10/30/13, p.A6)
2013        Oct 28, Bangladesh police said at least 15 people have been killed and hundreds wounded as the 2nd day of an opposition strike demanded elections be held under a non-partisan administration.
    (Reuters, 10/28/13)
2013        Oct 28, In Brazil one person was injured and 90 detained while trucks and buses were torched in Sao Paulo late today in renewed violence after police fatally shot a 17-year-old boy.
    (AFP, 10/28/13)
2013        Oct 28, British security group G4S denied that its workers had electrocuted and drugged prisoners at South Africa's Mangaung prison, the maximum security facility it ran before the government stepped in to restore order earlier this month.
    (Reuters, 10/28/13)
2013        Oct 28, A major storm, dubbed the St Jude storm, lashed southern Britain, the Netherlands and parts of France, knocking down trees, flooding low areas and causing travel chaos. 5 deaths were reported.
    (AP, 10/28/13)
2013        Oct 28, In China a sport utility vehicle plowed through a crowd in Tiananmen Square before crashing and catching fire, killing the 3 occupants and 2 tourists and injuring 38 visitors and security officers. The SUV was driven by Usmen Hasan, a man whose name suggested he is an ethnic Uighur. His wife and mother were also with him in the car, along with devices filled with gasoline. China blamed the attack on the East Turkestan Islamic Movement (ETIM). Eight people connected with the incident were soon arrested with help from the Xinjiang government.
    (AP, 10/28/13)(Reuters, 10/29/13)(AP, 10/30/13)(Econ, 11/9/13, p.50)(SSFC, 6/1/14, p.A5)
2013        Oct 28, The Congolese army, who one year ago abandoned their posts and fled in the face of an advancing rebel army, succeeded on in taking back Rumangabo, the fifth, rebel-held town.
    (AP, 10/28/13)
2013        Oct 28, In Egypt gunmen killed 3 policemen at a security checkpoint north of Cairo.
    (AP, 10/28/13)
2013        Oct 28, A Georgian court convicted former defense minister Bacho Akhalaia and ordered him sent to prison, in another blow for outgoing President Mikhail Saakashvili the day after a presidential election that was won by his rival.
    (AP, 10/28/13)
2013        Oct 28, Israeli warplanes raided the northern Gaza Strip after militants fired rockets over the border. Israel readied to free a new batch of long-term Palestinian prisoners.
    (AFP, 10/28/13)
2013        Oct 28, In Kenya a petition campaign demanding justice topped a million signatures after three men accused of brutally gang raping a Kenyan schoolgirl in June were ordered to cut grass as punishment.
    (AFP, 10/28/13)
2013        Oct 28, Lebanon's army began deploying in Tripoli following a week of bloodshed in which 14 have people died and more than 80 were wounded. Two more people died Tripoli in fighting between supporters and opponents of Syrian President Bashar al-Assad and the Lebanese army.
    (AFP, 10/28/13)(Reuters, 10/28/13)
2013        Oct 28, In Libya gunmen stole over $50 million after attacking a van belonging to the Central Bank on a road along the Mediterranean coast.
    (AP, 10/29/13)
2013        Oct 28, Niger police said dozens of migrants to Algeria from Niger died of thirst in the desert south of the Sahara after their vehicle broke down. 19 reportedly survived.
    (AP, 10/28/13)
2013        Oct 28, Pakistani police said a young man has stabbed at least 25 women since Oct 6 in the small town of Chichawatni, Punjab province. Many women and girls were afraid to leave their homes.
    (Reuters, 10/28/13)
2013        Oct 28, In Poland Tadeusz Mazowiecki (b.1927), Eastern Europe's first democratic prime minister after communism, died. He was a key adviser to Poland's Solidarity freedom movement and UN human rights envoy to Bosnia in the 1990s.
    (AP, 10/28/13)
2013        Oct 28, Saudi Arabia said one more person has died from a new respiratory virus related to SARS, bringing to 52 the number of deaths in the kingdom at the center of the outbreak.
    (AP, 10/28/13)
2013        Oct 28, In Somalia Ibrahim Ali Abdi (aka Anta-Anta), a top suicide bomb-maker for Shebab rebels, was among 3 people killed in a drone strike on a vehicle.
    (AFP, 10/29/13)
2013        Oct 28, A South African court began sentencing 20 right-wing extremists convicted of high treason for a plot to kill Nelson Mandela and drive blacks out of the country.
    (AFP, 10/28/13)
2013        Oct 28, A Spanish newspaper published a document that it said shows the US National Security Agency spied on more than 60 million phone calls in Spain in one month alone — the latest revelation about alleged massive US spying on allies.
    (AP, 10/28/13)
2013        Oct 28, In northern Spain 6 miners died and five others were injured after a gas leak at a coal mine at the Santa Lucia mine near the town of Pola de Gordon.
    (AP, 10/28/13)
2013        Oct 28, In Sudan 9 university professors, many of them activists, were detained during a campus raid, hours after President Omar al-Bashir spoke of political dialogue and reform. They were all released the next day.
    (AFP, 10/29/13)(AP, 10/30/13)
2013        Oct 28, Syrian government forces retook Sadad, a Christian town north of Damascus, from al-Qaida-linked rebels who seized control of part of it a week ago, touching off fierce clashes.
    (AP, 10/28/13)
2013        Oct 28, Thailand rubber farmers took to the streets again to demand that the government buy their produce at prices higher than the market, rejecting a subsidy offered last month and threatening violence if their demands are not met.
    (Reuters, 10/28/13)
2013        Oct 28, Turkish police fired water cannon and teargas to break up a protest by around 2,000 people outside an Ankara court over the handling of the trial of a policeman accused of killing a demonstrator earlier this year. Officer Ahmet Sahbaz is accused of killing Ethem Sarisuluk, shot dead June 1 during a wave of nationwide anti-government demonstrations.
    (Reuters, 10/28/13)

2014        Oct 28, An unmanned US supply rocket exploded shortly after lifting off from the Wallops Flight Facility launch pad in Virginia, the first disaster since NASA turned to private operators to run cargo to the Int’l. Space Station. The 14-story Antares rocket was built and launched by Orbital Sciences Corp.
    (Reuters, 10/29/14)(Econ, 11/1/14, p.75)
2014        Oct 28, General Motors said it is moving production of a critical component in the Chevrolet Volt from Mexico to Michigan.
    (AP, 10/28/14)
2014        Oct 28, In Concord, North Carolina, the Swiss company Alevo opened a factory for manufacturing batteries to be used by power-grid operators.
    (Econ, 12/6/14, TQ p.14)
2014        Oct 28, Afghanistan's President Ashraf Ghani began a 4-day visit to China. Ghani met President Xi Jinping in Beijing and pledged to help China fight Islamist extremists.
    (Reuters, 10/28/14)
2014        Oct 28, It was reported that Australia is suspending entry visas for people from Ebola-affected countries in West Africa in an attempt to keep out the disease.
    (AP, 10/28/14)
2014        Oct 28, A Bahraini court banned the Gulf state's main opposition movement for three months, just weeks before a parliamentary election the group had already said it would boycott.
    (AFP, 10/28/14)
2014        Oct 28, Botswana President Ian Khama, a retired general and the son of independence leader Seretse Khama, was sworn in beginning a second term after the ruling party won an election last week.
    (AP, 10/28/14)
2014        Oct 28, Burkina Faso police used tear gas to disperse an opposition protest in the capital, as tensions increase ahead of a vote this week on whether the country's longtime president can seek another term.
    (AP, 10/28/14)
2014        Oct 28, Cambodian police arrested Michael Edward Harris, identified by media there as a US Army deserter wanted in the US for offenses involving child pornography and possible related crimes. Sgt. Harris entered Cambodia on Jan. 17 after earlier skipping bail in Florida.
    (AP, 10/29/14)
2014        Oct 28, China's Communist Party published a lengthy resolution calling for an extensive and profound revolution in the way the country is governed. Endorsed by the Central Committee five days earlier it pledged to speed up legislation to fight corruption and make it tougher for officials to exert control over the judiciary. State media said prosecutors have indicted Xu Caihou, former deputy chairman of the ruling Communist Party's powerful Central Military Commission, on bribery charges. China's top prosecuting body said that whistleblowers who expose corruption and other wrongdoing would receive legal protection against reprisals.
    (Reuters, 10/28/14)(AP, 10/28/14)(Econ, 11/1/14, p.43)
2014        Oct 28, The European Court of Human Rights in London ruled that Stephen Gough’s rights were not violated by repeated arrests and convictions for being naked in public. Gough (55), a former Royal Marine nicknamed the “Naked Rambler," has twice walked the length of Britain naked with frequent arrests, court appearances and jail time.
    (SFC, 10/29/14, p.A2)
2014        Oct 28, In Hungary tens of thousands of protesters marched in Budapest against a plan by the government to tax Internet use from 2015. This was the 2nd big rally in three days.
    (SFC, 10/29/14, p.A2)
2014        Oct 28, Off India’s west coast a boat taking tourists on a dolphin-sighting trip capsized, killing three Russian women.
    (AP, 10/28/14)
2014        Oct 28, Iraqi peshmerga fighters left Iraq for the besieged Syrian town of Kobani to help fellow Kurds in their battle against Islamic State militants. US forces staged four air strikes on Islamic State militants in Syria and allies joined in nine strikes on the group in Iraq.
    (Reuters, 10/28/14)
2014        Oct 28, Israeli defense sources said Israel plans to buy a second batch of Lockheed Martin's F-35 stealth fighter jets, bringing the total number it has on order to about 44.
    (Reuters, 10/28/14)
2014        Oct 28, Italy's President Giorgio Napolitano gave unprecedented testimony in a major trial that accuses the state of holding secret talks with the Sicilian Mafia in the 1990s.
    (Reuters, 10/28/14)
2014        Oct 28, Japanese and North Korean officials held talks in Pyongyang for the first time in 10 years, meeting to assess progress into North Korea's investigation into the fates of Japanese citizens who were abducted in the 1970s and '80s.
    (AP, 10/28/14)
2014        Oct 28, In southwest Japan the town of Satsumasendai became the first to approve the restart of a nuclear power station.
    (Reuters, 10/28/14)
2014        Oct 28, Polish President Bronislaw Komorowski and Israeli President Reuven Rivli joined Holocaust survivors for a ceremony to open a multimedia museum that tells the 1,000-year history of Jewish life in Poland. The POLIN Museum of the History of Polish Jews opened in 2013 and is located at the site that once was the center of the Warsaw Ghetto.
    (AP, 10/28/14)(Econ, 4/9/15, p.55)
2014        Oct 28, In southern Turkey a coal mine collapsed, trapping 18 workers underground at the Has Sekerler mine near the town of Ermenek in Karaman province. The bodies of the last 5 miners were recovered on Dec 4.
    (AP, 10/28/14)(AP, 12/4/14)
2014        Oct 28, In Zimbabwe patients waited in long queues while others were being turned away at state hospitals as hundreds of doctors staged a strike to press for higher pay.
    (AFP, 10/28/14)

2015        Oct 28, Former House speaker Dennis Hastert (73), once second in line to the US presidency, pleaded guilty to making illegal bank transactions, allegedly for hush-money payouts.
    (AFP, 10/28/15)
2015        Oct 28, In Afghanistan Taliban insurgents overran the district capital of Darqand in Takhar province, one of the northern provinces hit by a powerful earthquake this week.
    (Reuters, 10/28/15)
2015        Oct 28, African Union investigators discovered mass graves in South Sudan and found evidence of horrific crimes, including forced cannibalism, according to a long-awaited report. Investigators found that the conflict began on Dec. 15, 2013, as a skirmish broke out between Dinka and Nuer soldiers of the presidential guard following political tension between Kiir and Machar, who had been fired as Kiir's deputy the previous July.
    (AP, 10/28/15)
2015        Oct 28, Australia’s Troy Resources Limited said it plans to open a large gold mine in upcoming weeks at the mine in the Puruni region in western Guyana.
    (AP, 10/28/15)
2015        Oct 28, Austria said it would build a fence along its border with fellow EU state Slovenia to "control" the migrant influx, in what would be the first barrier between two members of the passport-free Schengen zone.
    (AFP, 10/28/15)
2015        Oct 28, Colombian President Juan Manuel Santos offered to declare a bilateral ceasefire with the FARC guerrillas from January 1, which would mark a major breakthrough in peace talks.
    (AFP, 10/28/15)
2015        Oct 28, Germany's Interior Minister Thomas de Maiziere said the rising number of Afghan asylum seekers was "unacceptable", as he urged young citizens of the south Asian nation to stay at home and rebuild their homeland.
    (AFP, 10/28/15)
2015        Oct 28, At least 29 people died and 274 people were rescued when a wooden boat they were on literally fell apart in rough seas off the Greek island of Lesbos.
    (Reuters, 10/30/15)(SFC, 10/31/15, p.A2)
2015        Oct 28, An Indonesian minister said the death toll from acrid haze blanketing parts of the country has climbed to 19.
    (AFP, 10/28/15)
2015        Oct 28, Iran said Foreign Minister Mohammad Javad Zarif and three of his deputies will attend multilateral talks on Oct 29 in Vienna aimed at resolving the conflict in Syria. Egypt, Iraq, Lebanon, the European Union and France also said they would attend the talks.
    (Reuters, 10/28/15)
2015        Oct 28, The United States and its allies conducted 13 air strikes against Islamic State militants in Iraq.
    (Reuters, 10/29/15)
2015        Oct 28, An Italian court rejected Tunisia's extradition request for Abdelmajid Touil, a Moroccan arrested on suspicion of involvement in a deadly museum attack, because he risks the death penalty.
    (AFP, 10/28/15)
2015        Oct 28, Nepal's parliament elected communist lawmaker Bidhya Bhandari as the country's first female president.
    (AFP, 10/28/15)
2015        Oct 28, In southeastern Niger suspected Boko Haram militants killed at least 14 people in an overnight attack on the village of Ala in the Diffa region.
    (Reuters, 10/28/15)
2015        Oct 28, The Pakistani documentary film “A Girl in the River: The Price of Forgiveness", directed by Sharmeen Obaid-Chinoy, was released. Its worldwide premiere was on HBO on March 7, 2016. It was about honor killings in Pakistan and won an Oscar.
    (http://tinyurl.com/hujbky5)(Econ, 7/23/16, p.32)
2015        Oct 28, The tiny Pacific island nation of Palau created a vast marine sanctuary the size of Spain, banning fishing across the bulk of its waters to preserve the ocean for future generations.
    (AFP, 10/28/15)
2015        Oct 28, A Palestinian in the occupied West Bank city of Hebron attempted to stab an Israeli soldier and was shot dead.
    (AFP, 10/28/15)
2015        Oct 28, Russia said its air force flew 71 sorties over Syria in the last two days, carrying out 118 strikes on militant targets.
    (Reuters, 10/28/15)
2015        Oct 28, South African police fired stun grenades and arrested one student in clashes at Johannesburg's University of the Witwatersrand, as country-wide protests for free tertiary education entered a third week.
    (Reuters, 10/28/15)
2015        Oct 28, Tanzania's opposition presidential candidate Edward Lowassa called for a recount of the Oct 25 election for the presidency, citing voting irregularities in the East African nation's tightest elections in more than five decades. Earlier, the vote in Tanzania's semi-autonomous Zanzibar archipelago was annulled after the election commission there cited gross violations.
    (Reuters, 10/28/15)
2015        Oct 28, In Turkey Istanbul police used tear gas in a dawn raid on the headquarters of Koza-Ipek Holding, a major media company linked to a government critic, enforcing a court order to seize the business just days before Turkey holds a national election. Riot police firing tear gas and water cannon stormed two opposition-linked television stations and forced them off air.
    (AP, 10/28/15)(AFP, 10/28/15)
2015        Oct 28, In Yemen warplanes from a Saudi-led alliance bombed the Iran-allied Houthi movement throughout Yemen and dropped weapons for its allies battling the group in the southwestern city of Taiz. Militants bombed a local college in the southern city of Aden, following previous threats against the school.
    (Reuters, 10/28/15)(AP, 10/28/15)

2016        Oct 28, Zcash, a new crypto-currency, made its debut. The new digital currency was based on the Bitcoin code.
    (Econ, 10/29/16, p.65)
2016        Oct 28, In eastern Afghanistan an airstrike hit the home of a Taliban commander in Nangarhar province and caused several civilian casualties. The US strike targeted the home of Mawlawi Mohammad Alam, a Taliban commander in the Sherzad district.
    (Reuters, 10/28/16)   
2016        Oct 28, In the Central African Republic clashes between militia groups killed six gendarmes and four civilians.
    (Reuters, 10/29/16)
2016        Oct 28, Egypt's health ministry said 12 people have died and dozens were injured as heavy rain battered several cities across the country.
    (AP, 10/28/16)
2016        Oct 28, Crowds of mostly young Iranians attended the march near the ancient city of Pasargadae in central province of Fars to celebrate the day unofficially marked in the Iranian calendar as Cyrus Day. On Oct 31 prosecutor Ali Salehi said the main leaders and organizers of the gathering have been arrested.
    (Reuters, 10/31/16)
2016        Oct 28, In Kashmir soldiers from India and Pakistan continued to shell villages and border posts. An Indian paramilitary officer said a civilian and a soldier were killed by Pakistani firing.
    (AP, 10/28/16)
2016        Oct 28, Lebanese singer and composer Melham Barakat (71) died at a Beirut hospital. He was highly esteemed and popular across the region. His most popular songs included "Two Moons at my Door," and "Habibi Inta (You are my Love)".
    (AP, 10/28/16)
2016        Oct 28, In the Maldives six ruling party lawmakers defected to work with the opposition in the party's first open split and a major challenge to President Yameen Abdul Gayoom's rule.
    (AP, 10/28/16)
2016        Oct 28, In Morocco Mouhcine Fikri (31) was crushed to death in a rubbish truck in Al-Hoceima, located in the northern Rif region, as he reportedly tried to protest against a municipal worker seizing and destroying his wares. An image of his inert body -- head and arm sticking out from under the lorry's crushing mechanism -- went viral on social media, sparking calls for protests nationwide including in the capital Rabat. 11 people soon faced manslaughter or forgery charges in the investigation of Fikri’s death.
    (AFP, 10/31/16)(AP, 11/1/16)(Econ 7/8/17, p.42)
2016        Oct 28, Myanmar's government said that a pregnant foreign woman has been diagnosed with the country's first case of Zika, a mosquito-borne virus linked to birth defects.
    (AFP, 10/28/16)
2016        Oct 28, Pakistani riot police clashed with stone-throwing supporters of cricketer-turned-politician Imran Khan who rallied in the capital in defiance of a government-imposed ban on demonstrations.
    (AP, 10/28/16)
2016        Oct 28, A Palestinian attacked Israeli troops with his car late today and then with a knife in the occupied West Bank before being shot and seriously wounded.
    (AP, 10/29/16)
2016        Oct 28, South Africa said it has detected its first outbreak of Tomato Leaf Miner, a pest originally from South America which can ruin tomato and potato crops. Tomato Leaf Miner spread from South America to Europe in 2006 and has since moved southward through Africa and Asia. It has been reported in Kenya and Tanzania and was detected in Zambia in September.
    (Reuters, 10/28/16)
2016        Oct 28, Syrian rebels including jihadists began a counter-attack against the army and its allies aiming to break a weeks-long siege on eastern Aleppo. The Syrian Observatory for Human Rights, a British-based war monitor, said more than 15 civilians had been killed and 100 wounded by rebel shelling of government-held western Aleppo.
    (Reuters, 10/28/16)
2016        Oct 28, The UN human rights office said Islamic State forces in Iraq have abducted tens of thousands of men, women and children from areas around Mosul and are using them as "human shields" in strategic sites in the city as Iraqi troops advance.
    (Reuters, 10/28/16)
2016        Oct 28, The UN General Assembly voted Russia off the Human Rights Council.
    (SFC, 10/29/16, p.A2)
2016        Oct 28, In Venezuela a 12-hour work stoppage came as the opposition stepped up its campaign to force embattled socialist Pres. Maduro from office after electoral authorities canceled a recall referendum seeking his removal.
    (AP, 10/28/16)
2016        Oct 28, Yemen's Shiite rebels and their allies fired a ballistic missile deep into Saudi Arabia in an overnight strike that they said had targeted an international airport while the kingdom claimed that it flew toward the holy Muslim city of Mecca.
    (AP, 10/28/16)

2017        Oct 28, In southern California inmate Jason Kohr (36) was found missing from a prison in Lancaster, Los Angeles County.
    (SFC, 10/31/17, p.A6)
2017        Oct 28, The Los Angeles Times reported that more than 200 people in Los Angeles County have contracted the West Nile virus this year and that 17 have died.
    (SSFC, 10/29/17, p.A6)
2017        Oct 28, In Afghanistan Taliban fighters killed nine policemen and wounded two others stationed at checkpoints in Ghazni, the capital of Ghazni province. Twelve of the militants were killed and four wounded.
    (AFP, 10/29/17)
2017        Oct 28, Britain's ministry of defense has confirmed that nine British sailors assigned to a nuclear submarine have been discharged from the Royal Navy after they tested positive for using cocaine while docked in the US.
    (AFP, 10/28/17)(Reuters, 10/28/17)
2017        Oct 28, British budget airline easyJet said it has reached an agreement with Air Berlin to buy parts of the bankrupt German airline as part of a 40-million euro ($46 million) deal.
    (AP, 10/28/17)
2017        Oct 28, The G5 Sahel force (Burkina Faso, Chad, Mali, Niger and Mauritania), backed by France and the United States, launched its campaign to counter escalating Islamist insurgencies amid growing unrest.
    (Reuters, 11/2/17)
2017        Oct 28, Cambodia police deported 61 Chinese nationals wanted in China on suspicion of extorting money over the internet and by phone. Taiwan's government said 19 of them were from Taiwan, and that it had lodged a strong protest with China about the deportations.
    (Reuters, 10/28/17)
2017        Oct 28, China appointed Li Xi as the new top official for the southern export powerhouse province of Guangdong. Sources said former leader Hu Chunhua is likely to be promoted to a vice premier.
    (Reuters, 10/28/17)
2017        Oct 28, Tropical Storm Selma made landfall on the coast of El Salvador near the Central American nation's capital, bringing strong winds, heavy rains and dangerous ocean swells.
    (AP, 10/28/17)
2017        Oct 28, Greek police arrested a 29-year-old suspect in a bomb attack last May on Lucas Papademos, one of the country's former prime ministers (2011-2012).
    (AP, 10/28/17)
2017        Oct 28, Icelanders voted for the third time in four years as the nation tried to shake off the latest political crisis on an island roiled by divisions since its economy was ravaged by the global financial crisis. Conservative PM Bjarni Benediktsson (47) won the snap election despite a string of scandals. He was named last year in the "Panama Papers" worldwide tax-evasion leaks. His Independence Party won 16 seats in the 63-seat parliament. The Left Green Movement finished second with 17%.
    (AP, 10/28/17)(AFP, 10/29/17)(SFC, 10/30/17, p.A2)
2017        Oct 28, Indonesian police said that the inferno at a firework factory near Jakarta that killed 48 people on Oct. 26 was started by sparks from a welder's torch.
    (AP, 10/28/17)
2017        Oct 28, Kenyans who boycotted a repeat presidential election voiced relief on after authorities indefinitely delayed further attempts to hold the vote in some opposition areas due to the risk of violence. President Uhuru Kenyatta has won more than 97 percent of votes counted so far.
    (Reuters, 10/28/17)
2017        Oct 28, The state-run Global New Light of Myanmar (GNLM) newspaper said it had "incorrectly stated that UN-Habitat had agreed with the Union government to provide technical assistance in building housings for displaced people in northern Rakhine." Union officials said that the issue is still under negotiation.
    (Reuters, 10/28/17)
2017        Oct 28, In Nepal a passenger bus heading toward Kathmandu veered off a key highway early today, killing at least 31 people and injuring 15.
    (AP, 10/28/17)
2017        Oct 28, In Somalia a suspected suicide car bomb exploded outside the Nasa-Hablod hotel in Mogadishu, killing at least two people and wounding more than eight. Gunfire continued at the site.
    (AP, 10/28/17)
2017        Oct 28, Spanish PM Mariano Rajoy took drastic measures to quash secession, deposing the Catalonia’s leaders and dissolving its parliament. Rajoy also called December 21 elections for the region. Secessionist leader Carles Puigdemont stood defiant against Madrid's moves to depose him, urging "democratic resistance" to direct rule imposed in a bid to stop the region breaking away from Spain.
    (AFP, 10/28/17)(AFP, 10/29/17)
2017        Oct 28, In Taipei, Taiwan, tens of thousands marched in Asia's largest gay pride parade, the first since Taiwan's top court ruled in favor of gay marriage.
    (AFP, 10/28/17)
2017        Oct 28, Turkey arrested 49 alleged members of the Islamic State group, some of whom were suspected of planning an attack the next day on celebrations for the 94th anniversary of Republic Day.
    (AFP, 10/28/17)
2017        Oct 28, In southern Yemen Sheikh Adel Al Shehri, a Salafist imam, was shot dead by gunmen in Aden, which is dominated by local forces backed by the UAE.
    (Reuters, 10/28/17)

2018        Oct 28, In Los Angeles the Boston Red Sox beat the Los Angeles Dodgers 5-1 in Game 5 of the World Series to win the series 4 games to 1. Manager Alex Cora capped off one of the greatest runs by a first-year skipper in leading Boston to the World Series championship.
    (AP, 10/29/18)
2018        Oct 28, IBM said it has agreed to buy software maker Red Hat Inc. for $33.4 billion, its biggest ever acquisition to date.
    (SFC, 10/29/18, p.D1)
2018        Oct 28, William J. Murtagh (b.1923), the first keeper of the US National Register of Historic Places, died in Florida. He authored the first leading textbook on historical preservation: "The History and Theory of Preservation in America" (1988).
    (SFC, 11/7/18, p.C3)
2018        Oct 28, In Abu Dhabi Israel's national anthem was played at a judo tournament after one of its athletes won gold in what was thought to be a first in the Gulf emirate.
    (AFP, 10/28/18)
2018        Oct 28, In Albania Konstantinos Kacifa died in an exchange of gunfire with police during an event to celebrate Greece's entry in World War II against Italy. He initially shot in the air, apparently as a celebratory gesture, but later fired at approaching police cars.
    (AP, 11/8/18)
2018        Oct 28, Brazil held presidential elections. Voters were picking between far-right Congressman Jair Bolsonaro and former Sao Paulo Mayor Fernando Haddad. Bolsonaro (63) won 55 percent of the run-off vote.
    (AP, 10/28/18)(AFP, 10/29/18)
2018        Oct 28, Japan Airlines pilot Katsutoshi Jitsukawa (42) was arrested after the driver of a Heathrow Airport crew bus smelled alcohol and reported it to security officials. Tests later found the first officer had 189 milligrams of alcohol per 100 milliliters of blood in his system, almost 10 times the 20 milligrams limit for a pilot.
    (AP, 11/29/18)
2018        Oct 28, Cameroon authorities have released around 50 opposition supporters detained in Douala a day earlier, but also arrested others in Yaounde.
    (AFP, 10/28/18)
2018        Oct 28, In southwestern China 15 people were killed after the bus to plunged off a high bridge into the Yangtze River in the western city of Chongqing. A surveillance camera later showed that a fight between a bus driver and a passenger who missed her stop caused the bus to plunge off the high bridge.
    (AP, 10/28/18)(AP, 11/2/18)(AP, 11/4/18)
2018        Oct 28, The Czech Republic marked 100 years since the creation of Czechoslovakia with the biggest military parade in its post-communist history, highlighting a weekend of celebrations.
    (Reuters, 10/28/18)
2018        Oct 28, Georgians voted for a new president. Former foreign minister Salome Zurabishvili, supported by the ruling Georgian Dream party, was in a close contest with opposition leader Grigol Vashadze, also a former foreign minister. The election went to a run-off after no candidate won the first round. Salome Zurabishvili (66) narrowly led with 38.64 percent of the vote against 37.73 percent for opposition leader Grigol Vashadze.
    (AFP, 10/28/18)(AFP, 10/29/18)
2018        Oct 28, Indonesia's anti-graft agency said it has arrested seven people, including a senior executive of palm firm Sinar Mas Agro Resources and Technology, in connection with a bribery case.
    (Reuters, 10/28/18)
2018        Oct 28, Iran sold oil to private buyers through its energy exchange for the first time, as part of its efforts to counter the imminent return of US sanctions.
    (AFP, 10/28/18)
2018        Oct 28, In Italy former party sympathizers set fire to the 5-Star flag in the southern town of Melendugno to protest at the government's decision to endorse the Trans Adriatic Pipeline (TAP) that will bring Azeri gas into Italy via their coastline.
    (Reuters, 10/29/18)
2018        Oct 28, In Japan visiting Indian PM Narendra Modi met with Japanese PM Shinzo Abe at a resort area near Mount Fuji reaffirming their ties amid growing worries about trade and regional stability.
    (AP, 10/28/18)
2018        Oct 28, Mexican voters in a referendum rejected the completion of a new, partly constructed Mexico City airport by a 70 to 29 percent margin. This effectively ended the $13 billion project that was already one-third built.
    (SFC, 10/30/18, p.A2)
2018        Oct 28, A long-awaited reform of Qatar's controversial exit visa system, which requires foreign workers to obtain their bosses' permission to leave the country, came into force.
    (AFP, 10/28/18)
2018        Oct 28, Pakistan's President Arif Alvi says the country will not establishing ties with Israel and that it supports the Palestinians because the Gaza Strip has also faced "unprecedented atrocities" like Kashmir.
    (AP, 10/28/18)
2018        Oct 28, It was reported that traces of oil have been found along Pakistan's coastline near Karachi. Leakage from an underwater pipeline was suspected and a nearby refinery was ordered to suspend operations.
    (SFC, 10/29/18, p.A2)
2018        Oct 28, Palestinian Yahya al-Hassanat (37) died two days after suffering gunshot wounds in clashes on the Israel-Gaza border. The death raised to seven the number of Palestinians killed as a result of the Oct. 26 clashes when thousands again approached the border fence.
    (AFP, 10/28/18)
2018        Oct 28, Three Palestinian boys were killed in an Israeli air strike at the Gaza frontier. Israel said it targeted Palestinians trying to blow up part of the fence.
    (Reuters, 10/29/18)
2018        Oct 28, Philippine Pres. Rodrigo Duterte put the Bureau of Customs temporarily under military control after two large shipments of illegal drugs slipped past the agency through the port of Manila.
    (AP, 10/29/18)
2018        Oct 28, In Sri Lanka a constitutional crisis gripping the country since the president's shock dismissal of PM Ranil Wickremesinghe erupted into violence, with a man shot dead and two others injured in Colombo. Pres. Maithripala Sirisena said that the main reason he decided to sack his prime minister was the alleged involvement of a Cabinet minister in a plot to assassinate him.
    (AFP, 10/28/18)(AP, 10/28/18)   
2018        Oct 28, Syrian officials, foreign archeologists and restoration specialists attended the reopening ceremony of Syria's National Museum in the heart of Damascus, more than six years after the prominent institution was shut down and emptied as the country's civil war encroached on the capital.
    (AP, 10/28/18)
2018        Oct 28, In Syria 72 SDF fighters were reported killed over the last three days as the Islamic State took advantage of a sandstorm that hampered coalition air cover and dispatched suicide bombers as part of their fightback.
    (AFP, 10/28/18)
2018        Oct 28, The Turkish army struck Kurdish targets in northern Syria east of the Euphrates River. Artillery strikes hit positions belonging to the Syrian Kurdish People's Protection Units (YPG) in Zor Moghar.
    (AP, 10/28/18)
2018        Oct 28, At the Vatican Pope Francis ended a month-long meeting on the theme of Catholic youth. He told young people that in order to be good members of the Church they should not be obsessed with "doctrinal formulae" but blend its rules with social activism to help those in need.
    (Reuters, 10/28/18)

2019        Oct 28, US President Donald Trump said he expected to sign a significant part of the trade deal with China ahead of schedule but did not elaborate on the timing.
    (Reuters, 10/28/19)
2019        Oct 28, US President Donald Trump said in a letter the United States plans to cooperate with "like-minded nations" to promote security in next-generation 5G networks.
    (AP, 10/28/19)
2019        Oct 28, Pres. Donald Trump attended a conference of police chiefs in Chicago. Eddie Johnson, the city's top cop, skipped the event. City Mayor Lori Lightfoot also refused to meet with Trump during his visit.
    (SFC, 10/29/19, p.A4)
2019        Oct 28, The US government extended temporary protection for Salvadorans living in the United States by an additional year, in a potential sign of easing tensions over migration. El Salvador's Pres. Nayib Bukele said the temporary protected status (TPS) will protect more than 200,000 Salvadorans living in the US.
    (Reuters, 10/28/19)(SFC, 10/29/19, p.A4)
2019        Oct 28, In southern California the Getty Fire in Los Angeles erupted early today and forced thousands of residents to flee their homes as winds reached extremely dangerous levels. In northern California The Kincade Fire that broke out last week amid Sonoma County's vineyards and wineries grew to at least 103 square miles (267 square km), destroying 94 buildings, including 40 homes, and threatening 80,000 more structures, authorities said. Nearly 200,000 people were under evacuation orders, mostly from the city of Santa Rosa.
    (AP, 10/28/19)
2019        Oct 28, In Chicago classes were canceled for about 300,000 students for an eighth day as the teachers' union and public school district failed over the weekend to resolve a deadlock in contract talks over class sizes, support staff levels and pay.
    (Reuters, 10/28/19)
2019        Oct 28, It was reported that a newly approved three-drug treatment for tuberculosis will be available in 150 countries including India and South Africa, priced at $1,040 for a complete regimen, more than twice the cost proposed in the past by advocacy groups for other treatments.
    (Reuters, 10/28/19)
2019        Oct 28, Allergan Plc said it would pay $750 million to settle a class action lawsuit from a group of direct purchasers of Alzheimer's disease therapy Namenda, in a resolution to the litigation that was set to face trial today.
    (Reuters, 10/28/19)
2019        Oct 28, AT&T Inc unveiled a three-year strategic plan that included adding two new board members, selling off up to $10 billion worth of non-core businesses next year and paying off all its debt from the purchase of Time Warner, bowing to pressure from activist investor Elliott Management.
    (Reuters, 10/28/19)
2019        Oct 28, In Bolivia protesters blocked roads and shop owners kept their stores shut in La Paz as people took to the streets in a strike called by the opposition to protest at what they say was fraud at elections giving President Evo Morales a fourth term.
    (Reuters, 10/28/19)
2019        Oct 28, British MPs defeated yet another attempt by PM Boris Johnson to force an early election, just hours after the EU agreed to postpone Brexit for up to three months.
    (AFP, 10/28/19)
2019        Oct 28, In northern Burkina Faso suspected jihadists killed 16 villagers in an incident highlighting the increased presence of Sahel-based Islamists in the area.
    (Reuters, 10/28/19)
2019        Oct 28, Bitcoin held ground near a one-month high scaled over the weekend after China's president Xi Jinping said the world's second biggest economy should accelerate the development of blockchain technology.
    (Reuters, 10/28/19)
2019        Oct 28, An Egyptian train conductor forced two poor street vendors without tickets to jump off a moving train, leading to the death of one of the youths in the Nile Delta town of Tanta. The conductor was soon arrested.
    (AP, 10/29/19)
2019        Oct 28, In Egypt a police conscript was killed in a militant attack in the restive northern part of the Sinai Peninsula.
    (AP, 10/29/19)
2019        Oct 28, France-based LVMH offered to buy Tiffany & Co, known for its engagement rings and ties to Hollywood glamor. The owner of Louis Vuitton and Bulgari sought to expand in jewelry, one of the fastest-growing parts of the luxury goods market.
    (Reuters, 10/28/19)
2019        Oct 28, In Georgia thousands of state, private and media websites were knocked out and their home pages made to display an image of former Georgian President Mikheil Saakashvili holding a poster saying "I'll be back!"
    (Reuters, 10/29/19)
2019        Oct 28, Hong Kong's Financial Secretary said the city has fallen into recession, hit by five months of anti-government protests that erupted in flames at the weekend, and is unlikely to achieve any growth this year.
    (Reuters, 10/28/19)
2019        Oct 28, Iran blocked a female UN inspector from touring its Natanz nuclear facility. Iran alleged the inspector tested positive for suspected traces of explosive nitrates.
    (AP, 11/9/19)
2019        Oct 28, Iran's state TV reported that five people were stabbed to death in a house in the northern Gilan province, including four members of the same family. One suspect was arrested.
    (AP, 10/28/19)
2019        Oct 28, Iraqi authorities imposed a curfew from midnight to 6 a.m. in Baghdad, as renewed anti-government protests rage for a fourth day. Three anti-government protesters were killed and 105 were wounded in clashes with security forces in Baghdad as thousands of students took to the streets in defiance of a government order and tear gas from security forces. Parliament voted cancel all privileges and bonuses for senior officials, but the legislature did not actually amend the law governing such matters.
    (AP, 10/28/19)(SFC, 10/29/19, p.A3)
2019        Oct 28, Italy's UniCredit said it has uncovered a data breach involving the personal records of 3 million domestic clients, the third security incident at Italy's top bank in recent years.
    (Reuters, 10/28/19)
2019        Oct 28, Lebanese banks said they would ensure public sector workers were paid their salaries as they remain closed by a wave of protests against politicians blamed for corruption and steering Lebanon towards economic collapse. Protesters set up new roadblocks early to keep pressure up, defying security forces who tried to re-open roadways but with orders not to use force.
    (Reuters, 10/28/19)
2019        Oct 28, It was reported that South Africa has imposed emergency measures, including rationing, to save dwindling water supplies after an abnormally hot, dry summer coupled with below average rainfall and a spike in usage pushes the country towards a crippling shortage.
    (Reuters, 10/28/19)
2019        Oct 28, Syrian Kurdish forces said they are increasing security at prisons and detention facilities holding tens of thousands of Islamic State militants and supporters, including foreigners, following the death of the extremist group's leader in a US military raid.
    (AP, 10/28/19)
2019        Oct 28, Turkey's state-run news agency said police have detained 20 foreign nationals suspected of links to the Islamic State group.
    (AP, 10/28/19)
2019        Oct 28, The Vatican released a declaration in which leaders of Christianity, Islam and Judaism joined forces against assisted suicide and euthanasia. The declaration states that no health care provider should be "coerced or pressured" into providing assisted suicide or any form of euthanasia.
    (AP, 10/28/19)
2019        Oct 28, The Vatican Secret Archives, containing millions of documents spanning 12 centuries, are no longer officially "secret." The Vatican said the new name will be the Vatican Apostolic Archives. The archives first got their name around 1610. The collection of papers, documents and parchments date back to the 700s and make the archives one of the world's most important research centers.
    (Reuters, 10/28/19)
2019        Oct 28, Zimbabwe's national airline resumed flights to South Africa, after a halt last week when South Africa's state-run airports management firm barred the airline from using the country's airports over unpaid fees.
    (Reuters, 10/28/19)

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