Timeline Zimbabwe

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Nation: http://www.nationbynation.com/Zimbabwe/index.html
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  Hwange National Park has a large elephant population and covers 5,600 sq. miles. Mana Pools National Park has a preponderance of hippos.
 (SFEC, 10/6/96, T10)

c18000BC    Caves in the Matopos Hills of Zimbabwe were decorated with paintings.
    (WSJ, 12/9/98, p.A13)

1100-1400    Era of Great Zimbabwe and the Shona trading empire.
    (SFEC, 10/6/96, T10)

1200-1450    As many as 18,000 people in the iron-age center of Great Zimbabwe.
    (AM, Mar/Apr 97 p.72)

c1450-1500    Nyatsimba, Mwene Matapa or Monomotapa (Lord of the Plundered People or Ravager of the Lands), Chief of the Zimbabwe Empire. He conquered the middle Zambezi Valley and built stone citadels at Great Zimbabwe. He was known to have a corps of over 100 female bodyguards.
    (WSJ, 1/11/99, p.R8)

1820-1829    Renegade Zulus rebelled against King Chaka, but were crushed. Descendents of the renegade Zulus are of the Ndebeles tribe, which forms a 5th of Zimbabwe’s 11 million people, the majority of which are of the Shona tribe.
    (SFEC, 1/12/97,  p.C16)

1855        David Livingstone, English physician and explorer, first saw the 328-foot waterfall on the Zambezi River. Livingstone named the falls, which straddled the Zambia and Zimbabwe border, Victoria Falls. The local name is Musi-oa-Tunya (the smoke that thunders).
    (SSFC, 5/29/05, p.F2)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Victoria_Falls)

1881        King Lobengula left an encampment to regroup his "induna" warriors as colonial forces advanced toward it. In 1993 Lobengula's tribal capital was rebuilt as a symbolic national monument near the second city of Bulawayo, Zimbabwe, and became a center of academic and historical studies. In 2010 a bush fire destroyed the historic site.
    (AP, 8/26/10)

1888        Oct 29, Lord Salisbury granted Cecil Rhodes a charter for the BSA Company.
    (MC, 10/29/01)

1889        Jul, Queen Victoria granted the royal charter to the British South Africa Company (BSAC) in Zimbabwe.

1889        Oct 29, Cecil Rhodes used an agreement with the king of the Ndebele, Lobengula, as the legal basis to found a chartered company, the British South Africa Company in Zimbabwe. The company was roughly modeled on the old East India Company and its powers included the rights to annex and administer land, raise its own police force and to establish settlements within its own boundaries.

1889        Cecil Rhodes and his cronies conned King Lobengula into signing away his powers over the Ndebele kingdom in Zimbabwe. Lobengula’s father, Mzilikazi, founded the Ndebele nation and was buried in the Matopos Hills.
    (WSJ, 12/9/98, p.A13)

1890        Sep 13, Cecil Rhodes' colonies hoisted the Union Jack in Mashonaland and Salisbury, Rhodesia (Zimbabwe).
    (MC, 9/13/01)

1890-1899    British settlers led by Cecil Rhodes marched north from South Africa and appropriated vast stretches of arable land in Rhodesia (Zimbabwe). The Shangaani people, a hunting tribe, were gradually forced to become poachers after the British took control.
    (SFC, 3/28/98, p.A12)(SFC, 8/10/98, p.A14)

1895        Jan 29, The Jameson Raid began against the South African Republic (commonly known as the Transvaal). It was carried out by British colonial administrator Leander Starr Jameson and his Company troops and Bechuanaland policemen over the New Year weekend. On Jan. 2 the raiders surrendered after losing 30 men. They were taken to Pretoria and jailed. The raid was a contributory cause of the Anglo-Boer War (1899–1902).

1896        Cecil Rhodes rode unarmed into the Matopos Hills area of Rhodesia (Zimbabwe) in the midst of an Ndebele uprising to negotiate peace. He told the Ndebele chiefs that he wanted to be buried there and asked them to guard his grave.
    (WSJ, 12/9/98, p.A13)

1897        Mbuya Nehanda, a spirit medium of the Zezuru Shona people, was executed for the killing of administrator Henry Pollard, known for his brutality toward blacks. She provided inspiration to the Hwata Dynasty for their revolt against the British South Africa Company colonization of Mashonaland and Matabeleland (later Zimbabwe). She is believed to have had immense powers was later remembered as the ancestral grandmother of the Zimbabwe nation.
    (AP, 12/8/11)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Nehanda_Nyakasikana)

1898        Mar, In Zimbabwe liberation war hero Nehanda Charwe Nyakasikana, aka Mbuya Nehanda (b.~1840), was hanged by the British colonialists. She was a medium of Nehanda, a female Shona mhondoro.(powerful and respected ancestral spirit).

1902        Mar 26, British magnate Cecil Rhodes (b.1853), Prime Minister of Cape Colony (1890-96), died. In his last will and testament, he provided for the establishment of the Rhodes Scholarship, the world's first international study program. The first scholars were selected in 1903. In Rhodesia [later Zimbabwe] after Cecil John Rhodes died he was buried in a tomb in the Matopos Hills. He had co-founded De Beers Consolidated Mines Ltd., and built great railways through southern Africa. In 2008 Philip Ziegler authored “Legacy: Cecil Rhodes, the Rhodes Trust and Rhodes Scholarships."
    (https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cecil_Rhodes)(AP, 4/4/97)(SFC, 12/9/98, p.A25)(WSJ, 12/9/98, p.A1)(Econ, 5/10/08, p.95)

1905        Cecil Rhodes (1853-1902) brought about the construction of a 650 foot iron bridge to connect Zambia and Zimbabwe near victoria Falls.
    (SSFC, 10/9/11, p.C4)

1914-1918    The German campaign in East Africa was directed by General Paul Emil von Lettow-Vorbeck. German looting and raiding caused at least 300,000 civilian deaths. By attacking Northern Rhodesia they invaded British territory. Of 1 million porters recruited by the British, 95,000 died. In 2007 Edward Paice authored “Tip and Run: The Untold Tragedy of the Great War in Africa. In 2008 Edward Paice authored “World War I: The African Front.
    (Econ, 2/17/07, p.87)(WSJ, 8/9/08, p.W8)

1917        Nov, The East African Campaign, a series of battles and guerrilla actions, which started in German East Africa (later Tanzania) and spread to portions of Mozambique, Northern Rhodesia, British East Africa, Uganda and the Belgian Congo, all but ended when the Germans entered Portuguese East Africa (later Mozambique) and continued the campaign living off Portuguese supplies.
    (http://tinyurl.com/lcfyagk)(Econ, 2/4/17, p.40)

1919        Apr 8, Douglas Ian Smith, premier of Rhodesia (later called Zimbabwe), was born. He was Premier of the British Colony of Southern Rhodesia (13 Apr 1964 - 11 Nov 1965) and Prime Minister of the Republic of Rhodesia (11 Nov 1965 - 1 Jun 1979). He was Premier of the British Colony of Southern Rhodesia (13 Apr 1964 - 11 Nov 1965) and Prime Minister of the Republic of Rhodesia (11 Nov 1965 - 1 Jun 1979).

1924        Feb 21, Robert Mugabe, Zimbabwe president, was born in southern Rhodesia into the Zezeru sub-group of the Shona tribe.
    (www.afroamerica.net/RobertMugabe122001.html)(Econ, 1/15/05, p.44)

1932        In Rhodesia (later Zimbabwe) the Gospel of God church was founded by Johane Masowe (1914-1973, a Shona prophet who believed he was a reincarnation of John the Baptist and traveled the continent spreading the word.
    (www.dacb.org/stories/zimbabwe/johane_masowe.html)(Reuters, 5/29/15)

1936        Canaan Sodindo Banana (d.2003), Zimbabwe's 1st president (1980-1987), was born near Bulawayo.
    (Econ, 11/29/03, p.85)

1944        James Kapnek donated the founding grant for the University of Rhodesia and Nyasaland (later the Univ. of Zimbabwe).
    (SFC, 7/7/98, p.A20)

1949        Doris Lessing (30), author, left her girlhood home in Rhodesia (Zimbabwe) for England. The 2nd volume of her autobiography was "Walking in the Shade (1949-1962)."
    (SSFC, 2/24/02, p.M3)

1950        Doris Lessing, British writer, authored “The Grass Is Singing," a novel of race in Rhodesia and the effect that harsh colonial experience had on both oppressor and oppressed.
    (Econ, 10/23/10, p.101)

1952        Mar 10, Morgan Tsvangirai, founder of Zimbabwe’s Movement for Democratic Change in 1999, was born.
    (SFC, 3/9/02, p.A9)

1952        Joshua Nkomo formed and headed the African National Congress, Rhodesia's first black nationalist political party.
    (SFC, 7/2/99, p.D6)

1953-1958    Sir Garfield Todd (d.2002) served as prime minister of Southern Rhodesia.
    (AP, 10/13/02)

1961        Zimbabwe enacted a Minerals Act. In 2005 it planned to re-write mine ownership laws to “promote" indigenous ownership.
    (WSJ, 2/10/05, p.A10)

1962        Dec 14, North Rhodesia's first African-dominated government was formed under Kenneth Kaunda.
    (AP, 12/14/02)

1963        In Rhodesia (later Zimbabwe) Roland Rowland (d.1998) became chief executive of the London and Rhodesia Mining and Land Co. (Lonrho). Over the next 30 years "Tiny" turned it into a conglomerate with more than 1000 subsidiaries in over 60 countries.
    (SFC, 7/28/98, p.A20)(Econ, 11/8/08, p.62)

1964        Apr 13, Ian D. Smith became premier of Rhodesia. Smith was Premier of the British Colony of Southern Rhodesia (13 Apr 1964 - 11 Nov 1965) and Prime Minister of the Republic of Rhodesia (11 Nov 1965 - 1 Jun 1979).
    (SFC, 5/15/00, p.A14)(MC, 4/13/02)

1964        Joshua Nkomo and Roger Mugabe were jailed in Rhodesia (Zimbabwe) by Prime Minister Ian Smith after rivalries in the black nationalist movement erupted into violence.
    (SFC, 7/2/99, p.D6)

1965        Nov 11, Rhodesia (later Zimbabwe) under PM Ian D. Smith (d.2007) proclaimed its independence from Britain.
    (AP, 11/11/97)(SFC, 11/23/07, p.B14)

1965        Nov 20, UN Security council called for a boycott of Rhodesia.
    (MC, 11/20/01)

1965        Dec 28, U.S. barred oil sales to Rhodesia (later Zimbabwe).
    (HN, 12/28/98)

1966        Apr 16, Rhodesian PM Ian Smith broke diplomatic relations with Britain.
    (MC, 4/16/02)

1966        The UN applied international sanctions intended to cut off Rhodesia from the rest of the world due to Rhodesia’s (later Zimbabwe) opposition to majority rule.
    (SFC, 11/23/07, p.B14)

1966        James Kapnek, investor, businessman and rancher, died. He made a fortune building Rhodesia's first brewery and invested in diamond and copper mining and cattle ranching. He left several million dollars in a trust dedicated to charitable works to help the country.
    (SFC, 7/7/98, p.A20)(SSFC, 7/29/01, p.A12)

1968        May 29, UN Resolution 253 resolved sanctions on white-minority-ruled Rhodesia.

1968        Jul 18, The UK enacted sanctions against Rhodesia for a 2nd time. The first time was on June 17.
    (WUD, 1994, p.1687)(http://tinyurl.com/c5kcs9)

1968        Abel Muzorewa was consecrated bishop of Rhodesia for the United Methodist.
    (AFP, 4/9/10)

1970        Mar 1, The white government of Rhodesia declared independence from Britain.

1970        Mar 17, The United States cast its first veto in the UN Security Council. The US killed a resolution that would have condemned Britain for failure to use force to overthrow the white-ruled government of Rhodesia.
    (AP, 3/17/00)

1970        Black guerrillas fighting white rule attempted unsuccessfully to blast the body of Cecil Rhodes from his granite tomb in the Matopos Hills, Rhodesia (later Zimbabwe).
    (WSJ, 12/9/98, p.A1)

1971         Rhodesia’s Bishop Abel Muzorewa formed the African National Council (ANC) opening negotiations with the regime of Ian Smith.
    (AFP, 4/9/10)

1972        Jun 6, In Rhodesia (later Zimbabwe) 418 people were killed in an underground explosion at a mine.

1972        Aug 26, The XX Olympiad opened in Munich, Germany. The IOC had withdrawn Rhodesia’s invitation to the summer Olympics after several African nations threatened a boycott.

1972-1979    In Rhodesia black rebels fought an insurgency against minority white rule.
    (Econ, 11/24/07, p.92)

1974        Under pressure from guerrilla groups Rhodesian PM Ian Smith released all black leaders for peace talks, but the talks failed.
    (SFC, 7/2/99, p.D6)

1976        Mar 3, Mozambique closed its border with Rhodesia (Zimbabwe).

1976        Rhodesian (Zimbabwe) guerilla leaders Joshua Nkomo, exiled in Zambia, and Roger Mugabe, in Mozambique, merged their guerrilla armies in a pact that held until 1979.
    (SFC, 7/2/99, p.D6)

1977        Aug 31, Ian Smith, espousing racial segregation, won the Rhodesian general election with 80% of overwhelmingly white electorate's vote.

1977        In Rhodesia (later Zimbabwe) Sister Janice McLaughlin (194202021), an American nun, was charged with being a terrorist sympathizer and locked in solitary confinement for 18 days. She faced a penalty of seven years in prison, but the United States interceded, and she was instead deported. She later returned to a liberated Zimbabwe to help build its school system.   
    (AP, 4/1/21)

1978        Mar 3, In Rhodesia Ian Smith signed an agreement with moderate black leaders, who had pledged to eschew war and to bring black majority rule into effect by Dec 31. Bishop Abel Muzorewa signed the agreement with Smith, founding nationalist Ndabaningi Sithole and Chief Jeremiah Chirau to form a transitional government which tinkered with the constitution and paved the way for elections. Smith agreed to step down following elections in 1979.
    (WUD, 1994, p.1691)(SFC, 11/23/07, p.B13)(AFP, 4/9/10)

1978        Sep 3, An Air Rhodesia Vickers 782D Viscount passenger airliner crash-landed after being hit by a MANPAD, fired by forces from the Zimbabwe People's Revolutionary Army, killing 34 of the 56 passengers.
    (AP, 6/11/13)

1979        Jan, A new Zimbabwe-Rhodesia constitution was approved in a nearly Whites-only referendum.

1979        Apr 10, In Zimbabwe the first democratic parliamentary elections were held. The United African National Congress, led by Bishop Abel Tendekayi Muzorewa (b.1925), won 51 seats. The Zimbabwe African National Union, led by Ndabaningi Sithole (1920-2000), won 12 seats.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Zimbabwe_Rhodesia_general_election,_1979)(SFC, 11/23/07, p.B14)

1979        May 29, Bishop Abel Muzorewa was sworn in as the first black PM of Zimbabwe-Rhodesia - the name given to the country in the brief period before full independence.

1979        May 31, Zimbabwe proclaimed its independence following a British brokered cease-fire.
    (HN, 5/31/98)(SFC, 7/2/99, p.D6)

1979         Jun 1, The Government of Zimbabwe-Rhodesia took office under the internal settlement negotiated between the government of Rhodesia and moderate African nationalists. Abel Tendekayi Muzorewa (b.1925) served as the first prime minister under Pres. Josiah Zion Gumede.

1979        Dec 21, The Lancaster House Agreement was signed in London. It ended biracial rule in Zimbabwe Rhodesia following negotiations between representatives of the Patriotic Front (PF), consisting of ZAPU (Zimbabwe African Peoples Union) and ZANU (Zimbabwe African National Union) and the Zimbabwe Rhodesia government, represented by Bishop Abel Muzorewa and Ian Smith.

1979        In Zimbabwe a program of disarmament, demobilization and reintegration (DDR) was implemented following the end of a civil war.
    (Econ, 6/26/10, p.47)

1980        Mar 4, Robert Mugabe's ZANU-PF won parliamentary election in Zimbabwe. Black nationalist guerrillas led by Robert Mugabe laid down their arms and beat their white-backed opponents at the polls. Rhodesia was renamed Zimbabwe. Martin Meredith later authored "The Past Is Another Country," the story of Rhodesia.
    (WSJ, 9/8/98, p.A1)(SC, 3/4/02)(WSJ, 3/13/02, p.A16)

1980        Apr 1, The southern African Development Coordination Conference (SADCC) was established by 9 countries with the Lusaka declaration (Angola, Botswana, Lesotho, Malawi, Mozambique, Swaziland, Tanzania, Zambia, Zimbabwe). The main aim was coordinating development projects in order to lessen economic dependence on apartheid South Africa.  On August 17, 1992, it was transformed into the Southern African Development Community (SADC). By 2008 it included 15 members.

1980        Apr 18, Zimbabwe's (Rhodesia) formal independence from Britain was proclaimed. Its chiefs were stripped of power following independence. Canaan Banana, a Methodist theologian, became president until 1987. He was later accused by dozens of men of sexual harassment and rape. Robert Mugabe became prime minister and held the real authority.
    (SFEC, 1/12/97,  p.C16)(SFC, 5/9/97, p.E3)(HN, 4/18/98) (SFC, 7/14/98, p.A10)

1980        Jul, In Zimbabwe a statue of Cecil Rhodes was toppled in Salisbury (later Harare), a few months after the country became independent. Demonstrators cheered and pounded it with a hammer.
    (AP, 6/12/20)

1980        Oct, Zimbabwe’s President Robert Mugabe signed an agreement with the North Korean President, Kim Il Sung that they would train a brigade for the Zimbabwe National Army.

1980        Robert Mugabe appointed Joshua Nkomo as home affairs minister in charge of police and internal security in Zimbabwe.
    (SFC, 7/2/99, p.D6)
1980        Zimbabwe’s white population was around 200,000 at this time. By 2008 it had fallen to less than 50,000. Total population was about 7 million.
    (Econ, 3/22/08, p.53)(Econ, 12/5/15, p.50)

1980-1987    Canaan Banana, a Methodist minister and theology professor, served as ceremonial president of Zimbabwe following independence.
    (SFC, 12/17/98, p.A20)

1980-1992    The Renamo guerrilla movement, led by Afonso Dhlakama, waged rebellion against the Freelimo government. It was a peasant terrorist army created in the late 70s by Rhodesia’s (later Zimbabwe) white minority regime and later financed by South Africa’s white apartheid government.
    (SFC, 10/14/97, p.A10,12)

1981         Aug, In Zimbabwe 106 North Koreans arrived to train the new brigade for the National Army. North Korean-trained troops loyal to President Robert Mugabe massacred thousands of civilians as the government tried to crush an uprising led by Joshua Nkomo in the 1980s.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Zimbabwean_Fifth_Brigade)(AP, 9/29/10)

1981        In Zimbabwe Robert Mugabe ordered judges to investigate clashes between his security forces and the guerrillas of Joshua Nkomo's Zimbabwe African People's Union. The report was suppressed.
    (SFC, 2/22/00, p.A10)

1982        Feb 17, Zimbabwe’s Robert Mugabe dismissed Joshua Nkomo (1917-1999) for plotting a coup. A rebel insurrection that professed loyalty to Nkomo followed and was crushed. Nkomo fled the country.

1982        Zimbabwe granted landowners proprietorship over wildlife and allowed hunting. Since then the elephant population has increased from 40 to 50 thousand.
    (WSJ, 7/23/96, p.A22)

1982-1987    The Matabeleland atrocities occurred when the Zimbabwe government of Robert Mugabe sent in its North Korean trained Fifth Brigade to terrorize the Ndebele-speaking region of Matabeleland, that supported opponent Joshua Nkomo. Some 200 guerrillas of the minority Ndebele tribe in Matabeleland province, fought troops of Pres. Mugabe and as many as 20,000 civilians were killed. The terror ended in 1987 when Nkomo reconciled with Mugabe. In 1999 Mugabe ordered provincial officials to prepare compensation claims for the victims of army atrocities.
    (SFC, 5/30/97, p.A15)(SFEC, 11/21/99, p.A14)(WSJ, 3/13/02, p.A16)

1983        Robert Mugabe again ordered judges to investigate clashes between his security forces and the guerrillas of Joshua Nkomo's Zimbabwe African People's Union. This report was also suppressed.
    (SFC, 2/22/00, p.A10)

1983-1987    In Zimbabwe state security minister Emmerson Mnangagwa supported Operation Gukurahundi during which a North Korean-trained brigade rampaged through the southwestern provinces of Matabeleland, leaving 10,000 to 20,000 civilians dead. In 2018 the documentary "Gukurahundi genocide: 36 years later" was produced.
    (AP, 10/18/18)

1985        In Zimbabwe the Communal Areas Management Program for Indigenous Resources was begun. It was a community based conservation program to give villagers a stake in wildlife conservation and its costs.
    (WSJ, 6/5/97, p.A22)

1985        Morgan Tsvangirai became the deputy head of the Associated Mine workers union in Zimbabwe.
    (SFC, 3/9/02, p.A9)

1986        May 19, South African commandos struck alleged ANC "operational centers" in Zimbabwe, Botswana, Zambia.

1987        Dec 22, In Zimbabwe ZANU leader Robert Mugabe and ZAPU leader Joshua Nkomo signed a unity agreement that merged the two parties to form one party known as ZANU PF. This effectively dissolved ZAPU into ZANU, renamed ZANU-PF.

1987        Dec 31, Robert Mugabe was sworn in as Zimbabwe's first executive president. Joshua Nkomo rejoined the Zimbabwe government as vice president.
    (AP, 12/31/97)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Joshua_Nkomo)

1988        In Zimbabwe Kevin Woods, Michael Smith and Philip Conjwayo were convicted of plotting a car bombing against exiled members of South Africa's now-governing African National Congress. The explosives detonated before reaching their target in the city of Bulawayo, killing the Zimbabwean driver. In 2006 Pres. Mugabe pardoned the 3 men on humanitarian grounds.
    (AP, 7/2/06)

1988        Bill Graham produced a worldwide tour on behalf of Amnesty Int’l. featuring Bruce Springsteen, Sting and Peter Gabriel. They toured Costa Rica, India and Zimbabwe.
    (SFC,12/13/97, p.A15)

1989        The Communal Areas Management Program for Indigenous Resources (CAMPFIRE) was established as a compromise settlement between park rangers and local communities in Zimbabwe.
    (SFC, 8/10/98, p.A12,14)

1989        Zimbabwe’s Morgan Tsvangirai became the federation secretary-general of the Congress of Trade Unions.
    (SFC, 3/9/02, p.A9)

1989        Elephant floppy trunk disease was first reported around Lake Kariba. Initial paralysis at the tip of the trunk gradually moved up and resulted in total paralysis. Scores of cases were reported in 2000 in South Africa and Zimbabwe.
    (SFC, 2/26/00, p.A8)

1991        Meeting in Zimbabwe Commonwealth heads of government declared that the Commonwealth should bolster human rights and democracy.
    (Econ, 3/19/15, p.63)
1991        In Zimbabwe, the opposition Daily Gazette began publishing but quickly folded in the period of heavy drought.
    (SSFC, 8/19/01, p.A11)

1992        Jan 27, Pres. Mugabe’s wife, Sally (b.1932), died. Some dated the collapse of Zimbabwe and Mugabe’s misrule to her death.
    (Econ, 3/31/07, p.28)

1992        Britain stopped financial support for Zimbabwe’s land reform program due to mismanagement and corruption.
    (SFC, 4/7/00, p.D4)

1993        Strive Masiyiva challenged Zimbabwe’s President Mugabe for his right to start a cell-phone business.
    (WSJ, 4/24/00, p.A21)

1994        Zimbabwe restored power to local chiefs due to the corruption and inefficiency of appointed officials.
    (SFEC, 1/12/97,  p.C16)

1995        Jan, In Zimbabwe Roger Boka opened the doors of his United Merchant Bank. Government business was channeled his way including a deal to issue debt on behalf of the Cold storage Company Ltd., slated to be privatized.
    (WSJ, 9/8/98, p.A10)

1995         Zimbabwe’s President Robert Mugabe condemned the government in Nigeria for the hanging of Ken Saro-Wiwa.
    (WSJ, 12/15/95, p.A-16)

1995        Zimbabwe’s President Mugabe lashed out against homosexuals and said they had no civil rights in Zimbabwe.
    (SFC, 7/14/98, p.A10)

1995-1997    The Zimbabwe Supreme Court ruled in favor of Strive Masiyiva to set up a cell phone business. Pres. Mugabe issued a decree against private cellular networks, which the Supreme Court ruled unconstitutional.
    (WSJ, 4/24/00, p.A24)

1996        May 17, This week huge swarms of locusts swept through the Zimbabwe capital, Harare (formerly called Salisbury). The insects had come up from Mozambique.
    (SFC, 5/18/96, p.A-9)

1996        Oct 21, In Zimbabwe some 11,000 nurses went on strike for higher wages, allowances and better working conditions.
    (SFC, 11/1/96, p.A16)

1996        Oct 30, In Zimbabwe the government fired some 11,000 nurses who defied an order to end a strike.
    (SFC, 11/1/96, p.A21)

1996        Rwanda’s Paul Kagame dressed up an invasion of Zaire as an indigenous revolt and installed Laurent Kabila at its helm. Zimbabwe paid $5 million to help finance the Kabila regime in Congo.
    (WSJ, 10/8/98, p.A1)(Econ, 8/21/04, p.38)

1996        Zimbabwe’s Mana Pools National Park, 858 square miles, was declared a UNESCO World Heritage Site.
    (SFEC, 2/20/00, p.T4)

1997        Jun 19, In Zimbabwe delegates to the UN Convention on Int’l. Trade in Endangered Species (CITES) approved the applications by Zimbabwe, Namibia and Botswana to sell an annual quota of their collective 55 tons of ivory stockpile, but only to Japan. Trade in ivory was shut down in 1989 due to extensive poaching.
    (SFC, 6/20/97, p.A20)(SFC, 4/18/00, p.A9)

1997        Aug, In Zimbabwe on Heroes Day Pres. Mugabe was shouted down by his own former guerrillas who were angered that pensions to disabled veterans were frozen and over allegations that $36 million had gone to the ruling party elite.
    (SFC, 1/26/98, p.A12)

1997        Nov 14, In Zimbabwe the dollar, stock market and economy all crashed over concerns about payoffs to former guerrillas and the consequences of seizing 1,480 mostly white-owned farms. Zimbabwe’s currency plunged a record 72%, an episode later regarded as the precursor of its subsequent economic meltdown.
    (SFC, 1/26/98, p.A12)(AFP, 11/10/07)

1997        Dec 9, Thousands of protestors, angry over taxes, fought with the police for 4 hours in Harare during one of the biggest local labor strikes. The strike was called by the Zimbabwe Congress of Trade Unions amid discontent over unemployment, taxes and inflation along with corruption and lavish spending by politicians.
    (SFC,12/10/97, p.A13)

1997        Dec 10, Zimbabwe’s government withdrew key components of a controversial tax package.
    (SFC,12/11/97, p.A18)

1997        Zimbabwe’s Roger Boka opened an $8.6 million, 50,000 sq. foot tobacco exchange. His auction floor only managed to get 8% of the market.
    (WSJ, 9/8/98, p.A10)

1997        By UN definition 7% of Zimbabwe’s children were orphans due to AIDS.
    (SFC, 12/2/99, p.A18)

1998        Jan 19, In Harare, Zimbabwe people rioted over soaring food prices. The price of corn meal, the staple food, rose 21%, the 3rd increase in 4 months.
    (SFC, 1/20/98, p.D2)

1998        Jan 20, Army troops were ordered into Harare, Zimbabwe, to quell 2 days of unrest.
    (SFC, 1/21/98, p.C12)

1998        Jan 26, The average annual income in Zimbabwe was reported to be less than $550 and food prices rose over 50% in the last 4 months.
    (SFC, 1/26/98, p.A12)

1998        Feb, Lawrence "Warlord" Chakaredza changed his name to Munhumutapa III, after a dynasty of kings who once ruled in Zimbabwe. He was the founder of the Sangano Munhumutapa, a cultural pressure group, and advocated the removal of the Cecil Rhodes tomb in the sacred Matopos Hills.
    (WSJ, 12/9/98, p.A1)

1998        Mar 3, A strike over soaring taxes and food prices left 80% of Zimbabwe’s workers at home.
    (SFC, 3/4/98, p.C4)

1998        Apr 17, Checks issued by Zimbabwe’s United Merchant Bank to cover redeemed notes on Cold Storage began to bounce.
    (WSJ, 9/8/98, p.A10)

1998        Apr 29, Government regulators revoked the license of United Merchant Bank of Zimbabwe, Ltd., wholly owned and controlled Roger Boka.
    (WSJ, 9/8/98, p.A1)

1998        May 1, Zimbabwe’s labor leaders called for a 5-day national strike to protest a tax increase and higher prices.
    (SFC, 5/2/98, p.A9)

1998        May 4, It was reported that the United Merchant Bank of Zimbabwe’s tycoon Roger Boka was shut down when a government audit found it incapable of paying its debts.
    (WSJ, 5/4/98, p.A17)

1998        Jun, Zimbabwe’s Strive Masiyiva went live with Econet Wireless Ltd. on the microwaves.
    (WSJ, 4/24/00, p.A24)

1998        Aug 21, Zimbabwe sent 600 troops to support Pres. Kabila in the Congo. Rwanda called for a cease fire and warned that it would intervene if the troops from Zimbabwe were not withdrawn.
    (SFC, 8/22/98, p.A8)

1998        Aug 26, In Congo Rwandan-backed rebels attempted an assault on Kinshasa but were held off by government soldiers and troops from Zimbabwe and Namibia.
    (SFC, 8/27/98, p.A10)

1998         Sep 7, A summit in Zimbabwe was scheduled to create conditions for a cease-fire in Congo. A half dozen nations gathered to fashion a draft initiative for peace.
    (SFEC, 9/6/98, p.A11)(SFC, 9/8/98, p.A8)

1998        Sep 8, The Congo rebel delegation stormed out of the peace talks in Zimbabwe.
    (SFC, 9/9/98, p.A9)

1998        Sep 26, From Zimbabwe it was reported that timber companies were poisoning hundreds of baboons causing them to die a slow painful death over 7-10 days.
    (SFC, 9/26/98, p.A5)

1998        Oct 14, In Zimbabwe Pres. Robert Mugabe that he will meet with Kabila to discuss support against the rebels in Congo.
    (SFC, 10/15/98, p.A15)

1998        Oct 19, In Congo 16 Zimbabwean soldiers were captured by the rebels.
    (SFC, 10/21/98, p.C2)

1998        Oct 28, It was reported that 1 in 5 adults was infected with the AIDS virus in Zimbabwe.
    (SFC, 10/28/98, p.A12)

1998        Nov 4, In the outskirts of Harare, Zimbabwe, riots broke out in anger over rising prices, unemployment and involvement in the Congo war.
    (WSJ, 11/5/98, p.A1)

1998        Nov 11, A one-day general strike was held in Zimbabwe and soldiers killed one protestor.
    (WSJ, 11/12/98, p.A1)

1998        Nov 26, Former Zimbabwe Pres. Canaan Banana was convicted of 11 sex charges that included sodomy and homosexual assault against aide Jefta Dube. He jumped bail and fled to Botswana and then South Africa.
    (SFC, 12/17/98, p.A20)

1998        Nov 29, In Zimbabwe Pres. Mugabe imposed a 6-month ban on national strikes and threatened to suspend unions that defy the ban and imprison organizers.
    (WSJ, 11/30/98, p.A1)

1998        Nov, Zimbabwe announced a plan to seize 841 farms owned by white farmers. In Jan authorities announced a reduction of seizures to 118 in order to get a $53 million IMF loan.
    (SFC, 1/13/99, p.A11)

1998        Dec 15, Congo rebels claimed to have killed 47 Zimbabwean troops fighting for Kabila at Kabala.
    (WSJ, 12/16/98, p.A1)

1998        Dec 16, In Zimbabwe former Pres. Canaan Banana (63) was returned from South Africa and was placed under house arrest. He had been convicted Nov 26 of 11 sex charges.
    (SFC, 12/17/98, p.A20)

1998        Robert Mugabe of Zimbabwe, chairman of the African body “Organ on Politics, Defence and Security," joined with Namibia and Angola in a war of plunder in Congo.
    (Econ, 3/13/04, p.48)

1999        Jan 10, In Zimbabwe Journalists Ray Choto and Mark Chavunduka wrote that 23 officers had been arrested for plotting a coup.
    (SFC, 2/8/99, p.A10)

1999        Jan 12, Military police in Zimbabwe detained a newspaper editor who printed an article saying 23 soldiers were arrested for plotting to overthrow Pres. Mugabe last month. The government denied any coup attempt.
    (WSJ, 1/13/99, p.A1)

1999        Jan 18, Former Zimbabwe Pres. Canaan Banana was sentenced to 10 years in jail for sodomy and indecent assault. Nine of the years were suspended.
    (SFC, 1/19/99, p.A7)

1999        Jan 25, In Zimbabwe 3 Supreme Court justices wrote Pres. Mugabe a letter asking that he confirm that the army has no power to arrest civilians and that the government will not tolerate torture.
    (SFC, 2/8/99, p.A10)

1999        Feb 3, In Zimbabwe officials said that 70,000 people will die of AIDS this year. 1.6 million of the nation's 12 million people were infected.
    (WSJ, 2/4/99, p.A1)

1999        Feb 7, In Zimbabwe Pres. Mugabe suggested that the supreme court resign. He defended the actions of the army which had arrested and tortured 2 journalists.
    (SFC, 2/8/99, p.A10)

1999        Feb 8, In Zimbabwe police arrested 4 more journalists critical of the government.
    (SFC, 2/9/99, p.A10)

1999        Feb 10, A UN panel eased a trade ban on ivory. It allowed Namibia and Zimbabwe to sell nearly 34 tons to Japan.
    (WSJ, 2/11/99, p.A1)

1999        Mar 13, In Zimbabwe three Americans appeared in court on charges of terrorism, espionage and sabotage against Pres. Kabila. They had been tortured and pictures with the names: Gary George Blanchfield, Jona Lamonte-Dixon, and Joseph Pettijohn were displayed. The men were associated with Harvestfield Ministries in Indianapolis.
    (SFC, 3/13/99, p.A13)(SFC, 3/15/99, p.A8)(WSJ, 3/15/99, p.A1)

1999        Mar 14, In southeastern Congo rebels reportedly killed over 100 villagers in retaliation for an attack by pro-government militia. Moise Nyarugabo, head of the rebel Congolese Democratic Coalition said his forces killed at least 150 Zimbabwean soldiers allied to Kabila at Kabinda. Zimbabwe denied the report.
    (SFC, 3/15/99, p.A9)(SFC, 3/17/99, p.C3)

1999        Apr 18, During a speech on the 19th anniversary of independence Pres. Mugabe said that over 1200 Zimbabweans were dying each week from AIDS.
    (SFC, 4/19/99, p.A10)

1999        Jun 22, Zimbabwe reported that an estimated 3,000 people were dying per week, nearly 70% of them from AIDS-related illnesses. 25% of the population was said to be infected with the AIDS causing virus.
    (SFC, 6/23/99, p.A14)

1999        Jun, In Zimbabwe the opposition Daily News, founded by Geoffrey Nyarota, began publishing. In 2003 he was forced out of his job and went into exile in America. The paper closed shortly thereafter. In 2006 Nyarota authored “Against the Grain: Memoirs of a Zimbabwean Newsman."
    (SSFC, 8/19/01, p.A11)(Econ, 10/7/06, p.91)

1999        Jul 1, Zimbabwe Vice President Joshua Nkomo, traditional leader of the Ndebele tribe, died at age 82.
    (SFC, 7/2/99, p.D6)

1999        Jul 12, In Zimbabwe the trial for 3 American held on sabotage and weapons charges was scheduled. They were found guilty on Sep 10 and were sentenced to 1-year prison terms. They were released on Nov 6 and sent home.
    (SFC, 5/22/99, p.A16)(SFC, 9/11/99, p.A9)(WSJ, 9/16/99, p.A1)(SFC, 11/8/99, p.C14)

1999        Aug 1, David Pleydell-Bouverie (18), a British student, was dragged from his tent by a pride of lions and torn to pieces in Zimbabwe’s Matusadonha National Park.
    (SFC, 8/3/99, p.A9)

1999        Sep 13, In Zimbabwe AIDS activists gathered in Lusaka for a 4-day conference on the disease that had already killed 11 million Africans. 5 Africans were being infected every 2 minutes.
    (SFC, 9/14/99, p.A12)

1999        Sep 23, Moven Mahachi, Defense Minister, announced that Zimbabwe’s and Congo’s armies had set up a joint diamond and gold venture to help finance the war in Congo.
    (WSJ, 5/30/00, p.A22)

1999        Dec 2, Congo rebels besieged a large contingent of Zimbabwean troops allied with Kabila and captured a Russian-built transport plane and 120 prisoners.
    (SFC, 12/3/99, p.A1)
1999        Dec 2, Congolese rebels lost Bokungu as Zimbabwean soldiers broke through to save surrounded comrades at Ikela airport.
    (SFC, 12/4/99, p.A14)

1999        Dec 18, In Zimbabwe Pres. Mugabe announced at a convention of the ruling party that land would be seized from whites and that the constitutional clause guaranteeing compensation would be scrapped.
    (SFC, 12/20/99, p.A13)

1999        In Zimbabwe the Movement for Democratic Change was created to defend democratic principles in contrast to the ruling ZANU-PF.
    (Econ, 11/19/05, p.50)
1999        Zimbabwe experienced its first defaults on its IMF, World Bank, and African Development Bank debts in addition to debts taken out with Western lenders.
1999        The IMF suspended aid to Zimbabwe after disputes over unbudgeted expenditures, the value of its currency and the cost of its participation in the war in Congo. Within a year the World Bank and the African Development Bank followed.
    (AP, 9/10/05)
1999        Scientists announced that Y-chromosome tests had turned up a genetic link between southern Africa’s Lemba tribe (Zimbabwe) and the Jewish Cohanim, a priestly clan going back to biblical times.

2000        Jan, In Zimbabwe a new tax law became effective. It imposed a 3% tax on personal and corporate income to pay for a national AIDS trust.
    (SSFC, 8/19/01, p.A11)

2000        Feb 12, In Zimbabwe voting began on a new constitution with provisions for expropriating the land of white farmers without compensation. A new party, the Movement for Democratic Change, opposed the new constitution and Pres. Mugabe as inflation in the country soared to over 60%. Voters spread word of their opposition using Econet Wireless messaging and rejected the proposal.
    (SFC, 2/12/00, p.C1)(SFC, 2/16/00, p.A11)(WSJ, 4/24/00, p.A24)

2000        Feb 21, The Zimbabwe Supreme Court ruled that lawyers may sue Pres. Mugabe to release secret reports on government killings between 1980 and 1988.
    (SFC, 2/22/00, p.A10)

2000        Feb 26, Heavy rains continued to ravage South Africa, Botswana, Mozambique and Zimbabwe. 33 people were reported dead in the northern province of South Africa and 29 dead in Zimbabwe.
    (SFEC, 2/27/00, p.A22)

2000        Feb 29, In Zimbabwe former guerrillas invaded white-owned farms and occupied at least 36 with no official interference.
    (SFC, 3/1/00, p.A14)

2000        Mar 2, Zimbabwe ordered black war veterans to quit white-owned farms.
    (WSJ, 3/3/00, p.A1)

2000        Mar 31, In Zimbabwe it was reported that the hard-currency reserves were virtually non-existent, that over half the population was unemployed, and that inflation stood at 70%.
    (WSJ, 3/31/00, p.A17)

2000        Apr 6, In Zimbabwe ruling party lawmakers approved a bill empowering the government to seize white-owned land without compensation. The squatter occupation reached to 940 farms. 6 Western donors suspended $10 million in land reform aid.
    (SFC, 4/7/00, p.D4)

2000        Apr 13, In Zimbabwe acting Pres. Joseph Msika called for an end to squatter invasions of white-owned farms after the high court ruled that police must comply with an order to remove liberation war veterans and other government supporters occupying the farms. Pres. Mugabe was visiting Cuba for a summit of developing nations. Mugabe repudiated Msika’s order on his return.
    (SFC, 4/14/00, p.A20)(WSJ, 4/17/00, p.A1)

2000        Apr 15, In Zimbabwe David Stevens, a white farmer, was abducted and killed by squatters near Macheke. 4 neighbors who went to help him were missing.
    (SFEC, 4/16/00, p.C22)

2000        Apr 18, In Zimbabwe Martin Olds, a white cattle rancher, was fatally shot by squatters.
    (SFC, 4/19/00, p.A10)

2000        Apr 21, Pres. Mugabe met with Presidents Thabo Mbeki of South Africa, Joaquim Chissano of Mozambique and Sam Nujoma of Namibia at Victoria Falls concerning the crises in Zimbabwe.
    (SFEC, 4/23/00, p.C12)

2000        Apr 21, In Zimbabwe Robert Mbuzi, an MDC organizer, was wounded by gunfire while organizing a party meeting in Mhangura. He died a few days later.
    (SFC, 4/26/00, p.A13)

2000        Apr 24, In South Africa Pres. Mbeki brokered a deal with Pres. Mugabe of Zimbabwe for an end to the campaign against white farmers in exchange for US and British funding for land reform and a restoration of relations with the IMF.
    (SFC, 4/25/00, p.A10)

2000        Apr 24, David Nhaurva, a black supporter of the MDC, was killed by ax blows to the head north of Harare, Zimbabwe.
    (SFC, 4/26/00, p.A13)

2000        Apr 26, In Zimbabwe Morgan Tsvangirai, president of the Movement for Democratic Change, threatened to retaliate if attacks by ruling militants were not stopped.
    (SFC, 4/27/00, p.A10)

2000        May 1, In Zimbabwe thousands opposed to the rule of Pres. Mugabe rallied in Harare.
    (WSJ, 5/1/00, p.A1)

2000        May 7, In Zimbabwe squatter leader Chenjerai Hunzvi urged people attending a ruling party rally in Glen Norah to seek out British passport holders and force them out of the country. Allan Dunn was murdered at his farm by squatters.
    (SFC, 5/8/00, p.A13)(WSJ, 6/8/00, p.a24)

2000        May 14, In Zimbabwe elections were set for June 24-25, but the opposition objected because voting districts were not yet established and a May 29 deadline for candidates was thought too soon.
    (SFC, 5/17/00, p.A18)

2000        May 18, The UN called for a new land reform program in Zimbabwe as 2 more people were killed in clashes.
    (WSJ, 5/19/00, p.A1)

2000        May 29, Thadeus Rukuni, a candidate for the Movement for Democratic Change, was beaten to death in Bikita, Zimbabwe.
    (SFC, 6/2/00, p.A18)

2000        May 31, Farmer Tony Oates was killed by armed attackers at his home 40 miles northwest of Harare, Zimbabwe.
    (SFC, 6/2/00, p.A18)

2000        May, In Zimbabwe it was reported that about 4,500 white commercial farmers owned 31 million acres of prime agricultural land, 20.7% of the country’s total area. Most rural blacks lived on state-owned land over 41% of the country.
    (SFC, 5/24/00, p.C3)

2000        Jun 1, Zimbabwe Pres. Mugabe announced that the state would begin seizing 804 mostly white-owned farms and resettle them with landless blacks.
    (SFC, 6/3/00, p.A10)

2000        Jun 17, Pres. Mugabe said that whites may live in Zimbabwe, but they will never have a voice equal to that of blacks.
    (SFEC, 6/18/00, p.A14)

2000        Jun 19, Zimbabwe officials said elections would not be monitored by foreign nongovernmental organizations.
    (WSJ, 6/20/00, p.A1)

2000        Jun 24, After months of political violence, elections began in Zimbabwe.
    (SFC, 6/24/00, p.A1)(AP, 6/24/01)

2000        Jun 25, In Zimbabwe EU observers said the voting in parliamentary elections was "not free or fair."
    (WSJ, 6/26/00, p.A1)

2000        Jun 27, Zimbabwe Pres. Mugabe promised to work with the newly elected parliament. The Movement for Democratic Change won 57 seats vs. 62 for Mugabe’s ZANU-PF party.
    (SFC, 6/28/00, p.A12)

2000        Jul 9, In Zimbabwe 12 people died in a soccer stampede set off when police fired tear gas at bottle-throwing fans during a World Cup qualifier between Zimbabwe and South Africa in Harare. South Africa’s 2-0 victory over Zimbabwe was ruled official.
    (WSJ, 7/10/00, p.A1)(AP, 7/8/01)

2000        Jul 20, The new Zimbabwe Parliament opened with 57 opposition MDC members in the 150 seat body.
    (SFC, 7/21/00, p.A12)

2000        Jul 24, A 6th white farmer was found beaten to death south of Harare, Zimbabwe in an apparent robbery attempt.
    (SFC, 7/26/00, p.A14)

2000        Jul 25, In Zimbabwe at least 230 white farmers quit working along with some businessmen in Karoi to protest the breakdown in law and order.
    (SFC, 7/26/00, p.A14)

2000        Jul 31, In Zimbabwe Vice President Joseph Msika announced that 3,000 white-owned farms would be resettled by landless black families.
    (SFC, 8/2/00, p.A13)

2000        Aug 2, Zimbabwe’s Congress of Trade Unions (ZCTU) called a one day general strike to protest the policies of Pres. Mugabe. Finance minister Simba Makoni announced that the government had agreed to devalue its currency 24%.
    (WSJ, 8/2/00, p.A17)(WSJ, 8/3/00, p.A1,9)

2000        Sep 12, The Zimbabwe stock exchange made a record 500 point gain after the IMF announced that it would not resume financial assistance. The official inflation was 53.6% and local cash could not be moved out of the country.
    (WSJ, 9/15/00, p.A17)

2000        Oct 9, Morgan Tsvangirai, opposition leader, defied threats of arrest and returned to Zimbabwe. He called for Pres. Mugabe to quit or be ousted.
    (WSJ, 10/10/00, p.A1)

2000        Oct 10, Zimbabwe Pres. Mugabe pardoned offenders for thousands of politically motivated crimes committed between Jan 1 and July 31.
    (SFC, 10/11/00, p.A14)

2000        Oct 16, Hundreds rampaged in eastern Harare, Zimbabwe, over food prices. Opposition leaders called for the resignation of Pres. Mugabe.
    (SFC, 10/17/00, p.A16)(SFC, 10/18/00, p.A26)

2000        Oct 25, The Zimbabwe opposition Movement for Democratic Change (MDC) presented articles of impeachment against Pres. Mugabe.
    (SFC, 10/26/00, p.A16)

2000        Nov 7, White farmers appealed to the highest court on the constitutionality of the emergency powers used by Zimbabwe Pres. Mugabe for farm seizures.
    (SFC, 11/10/00, p.A16)

2000        Nov 10, The Zimbabwe Supreme Court ruled that the government’s land reform plan and occupations of white-owned farms were illegal.
    (SFC, 11/11/00, p.A16)

2000        Nov 30, In Harare Pres. Mbeki of South Africa and Pres. Obasanjo of Nigeria admonished Zimbabwe Pres. Mugabe to abide by laws and to curtail the seizure of white-owned farms.
    (WSJ, 12/1/00, p.A1)

2000        Dec 13, In Zimbabwe a white farmer was killed amid the land-expropriation drive.
    (WSJ, 12/14/00, p.A1)

2000        Dec 14, Zimbabwe Pres. Mugabe claimed that his government has no control over the economy and blamed the "white man" as the real enemy during an address to a Congress of the ruling Zanu-PF Party
    (SFC, 12/15/00, p.D10)

2000        The Caine Prize for African Writing, named in memory of the late Sir Michael Harris Caine (1927-1999), was first awarded to Leila Aboulela (b.1964) of Sudan at the Zimbabwe International Book Fair 2000 in Harare. Caine was a former Chairman of Booker plc., Chairman of Africa 95, and Chairman of the Booker Prize management committee for almost 25 years.

2001        Mar 7, Zimbabwe Pres. Mugabe left Europe after meetings in France and Belgium over the 11,000 troops he has stationed in Congo.
    (SFC, 3/9/01, p.D3)

2001        Mar 19, A Zimbabwe delegation wrapped up 2 days of meetings with South Africa to find ways to restore the economy. South Africa feared a flood of Zimbabweans due to fuel and food shortages there.
    (WSJ, 3/20/01, p.A1)

2001        Apr 9, Zimbabwe riot police clashed with university students and one was killed with 30 injured. The students protested "sugar daddies" who pursued impoverished female students.
    (WSJ, 4/10/01, p.A1)

2001        May 28, Zimbabwe's defense chief died in a radio reported car accident.
    (WSJ, 5/29/01, p.A1)

2001        Jun 4, Chenjerai Hunzvi (Hitler Hunzvi), a leader of the Zimbabwe war veterans, died at age 51. He had led the violent occupations of white-owned farms.
    (SFC, 6/5/01, p.A14)

2001        Jun 13, The Zimbabwe government increased gas prices by over 70% and labor unions threatened to shut down the economy.
    (SFC, 6/14/01, p.C3)

2001        Jun 29, Zimbabwe published a new list of 2,030 white farm properties to be nationalized and handed over to landless blacks.
    (SFC, 6/30/01, p.A10)

2001        Jul 2, Zimbabwe deployed riot police ahead of the start of a general strike.
    (WSJ, 7/3/01, p.A1)

2001        Aug 3, Joseph Made, Zimbabwe Agriculture Minister, announced that the government increased acreage acquisition from white farmers to 20 million acres.
    (SFC, 8/10/01, p.A17)

2001        Aug 12, Some 300 family members fled about 100 farms as rampaging mobs attacked and looted more farms following a week of violence in Zimbabwe.
    (SFC, 8/13/01, p.A8)

2001        Aug 15, Four Zimbabwean Daily News journalists were arrested after publishing a report that police were helping loot white-owned farms.
    (WSJ, 8/16/01, p.A1)(SSFC, 8/19/01, p.A11)

2001        Aug 21, Zimbabwe halted beef exports as foot-and-mouth disease broke out in the latest series of farm expropriations where militants released quarantined cattle.
    (WSJ, 8/22/01, p.A1)

2001        Sep 6, Zimbabwe Foreign Minister Stan Mudenge pledged to abide by a brokered deal to stop violent takeovers of white-owned farms. The government agreed to "restore the rule of law to the process of land reform."
    (SFC, 9/8/01, p.A8)

2001        Sep 8, Zimbabwe militants seized the Logan Lee farm in Beatrice.
    (SSFC, 9/9/01, p.A18)

2001        Sep 15, In Zimbabwe 2 ruling party militants were killed during clashes with workers on the Bibby family farm. John Bibby (70) was arrested the next day as an accessory to the murders.
    (SFC, 9/17/01, p.A18)

2001        Sep 23, In Congo rebel leader Adolphe Onusumba acknowledged peace talks with Zimbabwe’s Pres. Mugabe.
    (SFC, 9/24/01, p.B2)

2001        Oct 12, Zimbabwe Pres. Mugabe imposed a price freeze on basic foods following cuts of 5-20% on basic items.
    (SFC, 10/16/01, p.B6)

2001        Oct 15, In Zimbabwe Pres. Mugabe announced the abandonment of market-based economics and a return to a socialist-style economy.
    (SFC, 10/16/01, p.B6)

2001        Nov 8, Geoff Nyarota, editor of the Daily News, was arrested in Harare, Zimbabwe, along with Wilf Mbanga, CEO of the parent company.
    (SFC, 11/9/01, p.A18)

2001        Nov 12, The Zimbabwe government banned 1000 farmers from cultivating their fields and gave them 3 months to vacate their homes as part of a "fast track" land redistribution plan.
    (SFC, 11/13/01, p.A14)

2001        Nov 15, Peace Corp workers were recalled after the Zimbabwe government refused to issue permits for new volunteers.
    (WSJ, 11/16/01, p.A1)

2001        Nov 16, The MDC headquarters in Bulawayo, Zimbabwe, were destroyed by pro-government militants. They were protesting the recent killing of Cain Nkala, who helped lead violent occupations of white-owned farms. 6 opposition activists arrested for an alleged role in the murder were acquitted in 2004.
    (SFC, 11/22/01, p.A20)(SFC, 8/7/04, p.A9)

2001        Nov 21, Zimbabwe Pres. Mugabe’s administration planned to propose legislation for hanging anyone found guilty of sedition.
    (SFC, 11/22/01, p.A20)

2001        Nov 22, Patrick Chinamasa, the Zimbabwe justice minister, announced plans to force residents to carry identity documents at all times.
    (SFC, 11/23/01, p.A21)

2001        Nov 23, The Mugabe government of Zimbabwe accused 6 journalists working for foreign media of aiding terrorism.
    (SFC, 11/24/01, p.A13)

2001        Dec 4, The Zimbabwe high court reversed a previous decision and ruled that seizures of white-owned farms are legal. Pres. Mugabe had expanded the court and replaced many of the justices.
    (WSJ, 12/5/01, p.A1)

2001        Dec 10, Zimbabwe Pres. Mugabe said elections would be held in March.
    (WSJ, 12/12/01, p.A1)

2001        Dec 20, In Zimbabwe 2 opposition officials, Milton Chambati (45) and Titus Neya (50) were killed west of Harare. Youth leader Trymore Midzi was assaulted the next day and died Dec 24.
    (SFC, 12/25/01, p.A20)

2001        Dec 21, President Bush signed the Zimbabwe Democracy and Economic Recovery Act of 2001, which required the African nation to adopt land ownership protections in order to continue receiving U.S. aid.
    (SFC, 12/22/01, p.A5)(AP, 12/21/02)

2001        Dec 31, It was reported that Zimbabwe planned to publish the names of nearly 100,000 black citizens to be given portions of some 20 million acres of now farmland owned by whites.
    (WSJ, 12/31/01, p.A1)

2001        Thomas Mapfumo (57), musician known as "the Lion of Zimbabwe," left Zimbabwe and settled in the US. His innovations included translating sounds of the mbira to the electric guitar.
    (WSJ, 4/27/04, p.D10)

2002        Jan 4, It was reported that $54 million in short term food aid was needed to ward off widespread starvation in Zimbabwe. The AIDS epidemic, called "Nkondombera" (a Shona word for "no condom") was claiming over 2,000 people per week. Inflation was running at over 100% per month. Unemployment was estimated at 50%.
    (SFC, 1/5/02, p.A5)

2002        Jan 9, In Zimbabwe the military chiefs put their support behind Pres. Mugabe saying they would only accept a president who fought in the war for independence.
    (SFC, 1/10/02, p.A8)

2002        Jan 10, Pres. Mugabe enacted sweeping security and election laws to clamp down on critics and limit election monitoring. Iden Wetherell, editor of the Zimbabwe Independent, was arrested along with 2 staff members on charges of defaming Mugabe.
    (SFC, 1/11/02, p.A5)(WPR, 3/04, p.29)

2002        Jan 12, Police fired on some 5,000 opposition supporters in Buhera, Zimbabwe. Opposition MDC offices were set on fire in Kwekwe.
    (SFC, 1/15/02, p.A9)

2002        Jan 23, The UN sent famine relief to Zimbabwe.
    (SFC, 1/24/02, p.A8)

2002        Jan 28, In Zimbabwe Pres. Mugabe’s government announced plans for compulsory national youth service training.
    (SFC, 1/29/02, p.A8)

2002        Jan 31, Zimbabwe enacted a new media law that required local media people to be licensed and restricted foreign reporters from working freely.
    (SFC, 2/1/02, p.A15)

2002        Feb 6, A human rights group said 16 people died in Zimbabwe in political killings in Jan.
    (WSJ, 2/7/02, p.A1)

2002        Feb 13, Morgan Tsvangirai, Zimbabwe opposition leader, was implicated in a plot to overthrow Pres. Mugabe in film footage made by a consulting firm with ties to Mugabe. Tsvangirai said the tape was contrived.
    (SFC, 2/14/02, p.A9)(WSJ, 2/14/02, p.A1)

2002        Feb 16, Zimbabwe expelled Pierre Schori, head of the EU’s 150-member mission to observe elections. EU officials threatened sanctions.
    (SFC, 2/16/02, p.A14)(SSFC, 2/17/02, p.A13)

2002        Feb 18, The EU ordered home its 30-member observer team in Zimbabwe and voted to impose sanctions on that country, which included cutting off $110 million in aid, a ban on travel to the EU by Mugabe and 20 Cabinet members and freezing of assets.
    (SFC, 2/19/02, p.A8)

2002        Feb 25, Morgan Tsvangirai, Zimbabwe presidential candidate, was charged with treason for allegedly plotting to assassinate Pres. Mugabe.
    (SFC, 2/26/02, p.A6)

2002        Feb 27, The Zimbabwe Supreme Court struck down the General Laws Amendment Act that gave election officers sweeping powers. A high court judge delayed the implementation of new citizenship rules that disqualified thousands of voters.
    (SFC, 2/28/02, p.A9)

2002        Mar 5, In Zimbabwe Pres. Mugabe reinstated controversial election laws that had been struck down by the Supreme Court.
    (SFC, 3/6/02, p.A7)

2002        Mar 10, In Zimbabwe the high court ordered the government to extend voting to a 3rd day as long lines continued following the deadline. In Harare police chased away some 2.5-3 thousand people from a polling station following the extension.
    (SFC, 3/11/02, p.A7)(WSJ, 3/11/02, p.A1)

2002        Mar 11, In Zimbabwe the polls closed. A request for a 4th day of voting was denied.
    (SFC, 3/12/02, p.A70)

2002        Mar 13, Zimbabwe Pres. Mugabe was declared the winner with 1.6 million votes to Tsvangirai’s 1.2 mil. The opposition apposed the results and many observers described the process as deeply flawed.
    (SFC, 3/14/02, p.A7)

2002        Mar 18, Terry Ford became the 10th white farmer killed by Zimbabwe militants in the last 2 years.
    (SFC, 3/19/02, p.A8)

2002        Mar 19, Zimbabwe was suspended by the 54-nation Commonwealth for one year as punishment for Pres. Mugabe’s conduct during the elections.
    (SFC, 3/20/02, p.A11)

2002        Mar 20, In Harare, Zimbabwe, opposition leader Morgan Tsvangirai was charged with treason, fingerprinted and released on bail.
    (SFC, 3/21/02, p.A10)

2002        Mar 24, Zimbabwe opposition officials reported that Mugabe militants had driven hundreds of opposition supporters from their homes and that 4 opposition activists had been killed since the elections.
    (SFC, 3/25/02, p.A7)

2002        Mar 26, In nationwide vote tallies Zimbabwe’s MDC found 185,961 missing votes and 106,731 extra votes.
    (SFC, 3/27/02, p.A6)

2002        Apr 5, Zimbabwe police arrested 354 activists as they organized protests against the disputed election of Pres. Mugabe.
    (SFC, 4/6/02, p.A8)

2002        Apr 6, Police arrested at least 22 people in Harare, Zimbabwe, who planned demonstrations against Pres. Mugabe.
    (SSFC, 4/7/02, p.A8)

2002        Apr 15, The editor of the only private newspaper in Zimbabwe was arrested questioning the legitimacy of Pres. Mugabe’s re-election under a new press law: for "abuse of journalistic privilege."
    (WSJ, 4/16/02, p.A1)

2002        May 6, Zimbabwe arrested an 8th journalist under its harsh new press law.
    (WSJ, 5/7/02, p.A1)

2002        May 15, Zimbabwe was reported to have begun evicting thousands of black families occupying white-owned farms and other lands not listed for seizure under Pres. Mugabe’s land plan.
    (WSJ, 5/16/02, p.A12)

2002        May 31, Zimbabwe declared HIV a national emergency. Some 25% of the adults there were infected with the virus.
    (SFC, 6/1/02, p.A11)

2002        Jun 10, In Zimbabwe the state radio reported that a bus carrying student teachers back from a sporting event collided with a heavy truck, killing at least 37 people.
    (AP, 6/10/02)(SFC, 6/11/02, p.A11)(WSJ, 6/11/02, p.A1)

2002        Jun 29, In Zimbabwe Dr. Roy Raub, a retired American doctor, was killed in an apparent carjacking.
    (SFC, 7/2/02, p.A9)

2002        Jul 1, A US federal magistrate recommended a $73 million penalty against Zimbabwe's ruling party for allegedly torturing and killing political opponents.
    (AP, 7/1/02)

2002        Jul 23, In Zimbabwe at least 15 people illegally mining gold were killed when an abandoned mine shaft in Mhondoro caved in.
    (AP, 7/30/02)

2002        Aug 9, In Zimbabwe a government deadline for the white farmers to give up their land passed without incident, and it remained uncertain if police would try to forcibly evict them.
    (AP, 8/9/02)

2002        Aug 14, Black militants armed with clubs and stones began evicting a white farmer from his land in northeastern Zimbabwe, the first seizure since a government eviction order expired last week.
    (Reuters, 8/14/02)

2002        Aug 16, The Zimbabwean government appeared to be cracking down on white farmers who defied orders to leave their land, charging seven in court and detaining at least 27 others across the country.
    (AP, 8/16/02)

2002        Aug 25, In Zimbabwe President Robert Mugabe announced his new Cabinet, firing the moderate finance minister and keeping hard-liners who have spearheaded harsh media controls and seizures of white-owned farms.
    (AP, 8/25/02)

2002        Aug 28, The United Nations confirmed that Uganda and Zimbabwe have begun their pledged troop withdrawals from Congo.
    (AP, 8/28/02)

2002        Aug 29, In Zimbabwe a bomb attack gutted the office of a radio station critical of President Robert Mugabe's government, and authorities raided a human rights group and a camp for displaced farm workers run by a private charity.
    (AP, 8/29/02)

2002        Sep 28, Zimbabweans in rural areas voted in elections for local councils, and the main opposition party said hundreds of its candidates were barred from running for office.
    (AP, 9/28/02)

2002        Oct 13, In Zimbabwe Sir Garfield Todd (93), the former prime minister of Southern Rhodesia (1953-1958), as Zimbabwe was once known, died after suffering a stroke.
    (AP, 10/13/02)

2002        Oct 21, A UN panel accused criminal groups linked to the armies of Rwanda, Uganda, Zimbabwe and Congo of plundering Congo's riches, and called on the United Nations to impose financial restrictions on 29 companies and 54 individuals.
    (AP, 10/21/02)

2002        Oct 22, In Zimbabwe a top opposition lawmaker who was in jail on murder charges was found dead in his cell, prompting calls for an independent investigation and autopsy. Learnmore Jongwe (28) had been in custody since July, when he was arrested in the stabbing death of his wife.
    (AP, 10/22/02)

2002        Oct 28, Zimbabwe's ruling party won a sweeping victory in a parliamentary by-election. The opposition said that the vote was rigged and swayed by violence and intimidation.
    (AP, 10/29/02)

2002        Nov 11, Border police in Zimbabwe shot and killed Richard Gilman (58), a Connecticut man who was on a humanitarian mission in Africa.
    (AP, 11/12/02)
2002        Nov 11, Zimbabwean journalist and publisher Mark Chavunduka (37), whose arrest and subsequent torture helped expose his government's increasing repression of dissent, died after a prolonged illness.
    (AP, 11/13/02)

2002        Nov 16, Zimbabwe's government froze prices on a range of products from tractors to diapers, moving to ease an economic crisis that has been worsened by continuing political violence.
    (AP, 11/16/02)

2002        Nov 18, Zimbabwe banned citizens from swearing or making offensive gestures during the passage of Pres. Mugabe’s motorcades.
    (WSJ, 11/19/02, p.A1)

2002        Martin Meredith authored "Our Votes, Our Guns," a look at Zimbabwe under the rule of Robert Mugabe.
    (WSJ, 3/13/02, p.A16)

2002        Zimbabwe held a census but results were not made public. In 2004 the population was reported to be 11.6 million. Normal growth should have put the number at 14 million.
    (Econ, 11/27/04, p.48)

2003        Feb 1, In northwestern Zimbabwe a crowded passenger train and a freight train with flammable liquid collided, killed at least 50 people and injured about 40.
    (AP, 2/3/03)(AP, 2/1/08)

2003        Feb 14, In Zimbabwe 2 Valentine's Day peace parades by women clutching roses and singing hymns were broken up by baton-wielding police who arrested at least 88 people as well as eight journalists.
    (AP, 2/14/03)

2003          Mar 7, Pres. Bush invoked economic sanctions against Pres. Robert Mugabe of Zimbabwe and dozens of officials of his government on grounds they undermined the country’s democratic institutions.
    (AP, 3/7/03)

2003        Mar 19, In Zimbabwe a national strike called to protest the increasingly authoritarian government shut down businesses and disrupted transportation services across the country for a second day.
    (AP, 3/19/03)

2003        Mar 24, In Zimbabwe the Zwakwana human rights said forces loyal to President Robert Mugabe hunted down government opponents after a national strike, beating them with iron bars and whips. At least 1 person was killed.
    (AP, 3/24/03)

2003        Mar 27, In Zimbabwe opposition leaders urged the nation's soldiers and police to disobey orders to crush any show of dissent against the government.
    (AP, 3/27/03)

2003        Apr 23, In Zimbabwe many banks, factories and stores were forced to close as workers stayed off the job to protest a government increase gasoline prices.
    (AP, 4/23/03)

2003        Jun 3, In Zimbabwe a general strike shut down much of the already crippled economy, and security forces prevented efforts to organize massive street protests against Pres. Mugabe.
    (AP, 6/3/03)

2003        Jun 6, Zimbabwe police arrested Morgan Tsvangirai, the main opposition leader, and charged him with treason as hundreds of security forces took control of the streets.
    (AP, 6/6/03)

2003        Jun 20, Morgan Tsvangirai (51), Zimbabwe's opposition leader, was released on bail after two weeks in jail on treason charges. He said he will not stop putting pressure on Pres. Robert Mugabe (79).
    (AP, 6/21/03)

2003        Jul 18, Zimbabwe government inspectors and police ordered bakeries to pay fines Friday for violating price controls.
    (AP, 7/18/03)

2003        Aug 3, It was reported that the economic crises in Zimbabwe has led to corpses being stacked up because relatives could not afford burial costs.
    (SSFC, 8/3/03, p.A16)

2003        Sep 18, Zimbabwe's high court ordered the nation's only independent newspaper reopened. Police had shut it down because it refused to get a government license.
    (WSJ, 9/19/03, p.A1)

2003        Sep 19, Zimbabwe military police barred journalists from entering their offices, defying a court order to allow the country's only independent daily newspaper to resume publishing.
    (AP, 9/19/03)

2003        Sep 20, Zimbabwe Vice President Simon Muzenda (81), a long time loyal aide of Zimbabwe's autocratic leader Robert Mugabe, died.
    (AP, 9/20/03)

2003        Oct 1, In southwestern Zimbabwe a bus overturned and crashed after a tire burst, killing 16 people and injuring at least 28 in the second serious bus crash in Zimbabwe in 24 hours.
    (AP, 10/3/03)

2003        Nov 10, Canaan Sodindo Banana (b.1936), the first black president of Zimbabwe (1980-1987), died after a long illness. In 1998, Banana was sentenced to 10 years in prison for his role in a gay sex scandal, but served only 6 months.
    (AP, 11/11/03)(Econ, 11/29/03, p.85)

2003        Nov 18, In Zimbabwe police broke up demonstrations across the country against President Robert Mugabe's autocratic rule, arresting nearly 90 protesters, including 14 leaders of Zimbabwe's main labor federation.
    (AP, 11/18/03)

2003        Nov 28, Pres. Robert Mugabe threatened to pull Zimbabwe out of the Commonwealth after the 54-nation grouping of Britain and its former territories barred him from an upcoming summit in Nigeria.
    (AP, 11/28/03)

2003        Dec 7, Zimbabwe pulled out of the Commonwealth rather than endure a suspension after members in Nigeria decided to extend the southern African country's suspension from the organization of Britain and its former colonies.
    (AP, 12/7/03)

2003        Dec 8, In Nigeria the Commonwealth summit of 54-nations, representing nearly one-third of the world's 6 billion people, ended with Western nations blaming Zimbabwe for its own growing international isolation.
    (AP, 12/8/03)

2003        Dec 19, In Zimbabwe riot police shut down the printing plant of the only independent daily newspaper, defying a court order that overturned a government ban.
    (AP, 12/19/03)

2003        Dec, Gideon Gono took over as governor of Zimbabwe’s central bank.
    (Econ, 6/26/04, p.48)

2003        Inflation in Zimbabwe hit over 600%.
    (Econ, 6/26/04, p.48)
2003        The IMF suspended Zimbabwe's voting rights and began a process that could lead to the country's expulsion.
    (AP, 9/10/05)
2003        Life expectancy in Zimbabwe fell to 43 due to the AIDS epidemic.
    (Econ., 6/27/20, p.73)

2004        Jan 22, Zimbabwe's only independent daily newspaper brought out a slim edition that was snatched up by readers after a court ordered police to allow the popular Daily News to resume publishing.
    (AP, 1/22/04)

2004        Jan 29, Widespread drought was reported across southern Africa. Lesotho, Malawi, South Africa and Zimbabwe were all affected.
    (SFC, 1/29/04, p.A16)

2004        Jan, SHAZ, a new AIDS prevention tool, was begun in Zimbabwe. The Shaping the Health of Adolescents in Zimbabwe program offered economic security to help shield young girls from liaisons with older men that often transmitted AIDS.
    (WSJ, 2/25/04, p.B1)

2004        Feb 5, Journalists at Zimbabwe's only independent daily newspaper left their offices after the Supreme Court upheld that it was a crime to work without a government license.
    (AP, 2/5/04)(WSJ, 2/5/04, p.A1)

2004        Feb, Zimbabwe Pres. Mugabe bolstered police powers by decreeing that his police could hold people for 28 days without charge.
    (Econ, 3/13/04, p.48)

2004        Mar 7, Zimbabwean authorities seized a US-registered cargo plane at Harare carrying 64 "suspected mercenaries" and military equipment. Equatorial Guinea later said the men were mercenaries from South Africa en route to stage a coup. Twenty South Africans, 18 Namibians, 23 Angolans, two Congolese and one Zimbabwean carrying a South African passport were arrested when their aging Boeing 727 was impounded. Another 15 suspects were arrested in Equatorial Guinea the next day. In 2006 Adam Roberts authored “The Wonga Coup," an account of the attempted coup.
    (AP, 3/8/04)(WSJ, 3/10/04, p.A1)(AP, 3/10/04)(WSJ, 7/26/06, p.D11)

2004        Mar 28, Clashes between supporters of Zimbabwe's ruling party and the opposition killed one person and wounded at least 11 during the second day of polling in a parliamentary by-election.
    (AP, 3/29/04)

2004        Jun 8, The Zimbabwe government announced that all farmland will be nationalized and private land ownership abolished. Title deeds of farm properties will be scrapped and replaced by 99-year leases with rent payable to the government.
    (AP, 6/8/04)

2004        Jun 20, Zimbabwe’s government said it would honor ownership rights to land bought on the property market, backtracking on previous announcements it would nationalize all farmland.
    (AP, 6/20/04)

2004        Jul 15, The Gates Foundation announced a $44.7 million award at the AIDS Conference in Bangkok to a consortium of TB and AIDS researchers. The 2 diseases were often linked. A UN report cited 7 countries as the hardest hit by the AIDS pandemic: Zimbabwe, Swaziland, Lesotho, Zambia, Malawi, the Central African Republic and Mozambique.
    (WSJ, 7/15/04, p.B1)(SFC, 7/16/04, p.A6)

2004        Jul 18, Economists and international donors said mismanagement in Zimbabwe by Pres. Robert Mugabe's regime is behind an annual inflation rate now close to 400 percent.
    (AP, 7/18/04)

2004        Aug 27, A Zimbabwean court found Briton Simon Mann guilty of attempting to illegally buy arms for an alleged coup plot in oil-rich Equatorial Guinea but absolved 66 other suspected mercenaries.
    (AP, 8/27/04)

2004        Sep 10, Simon Mann, a former British special forces soldier and the alleged leader of a foiled coup plot in oil-rich Equatorial Guinea, was sentenced to seven years in prison for trying to buy weapons from Zimbabwe's state arms manufacturer.
    (AP, 9/10/04)

2004        Sep 22, Zimbabwe's government dismissed reports of dozens of deaths linked to malnutrition as lies peddled by detractors and insisted the nation has more food than it needs.
    (AP, 9/22/04)

2004        Sep, In Zimbabwe Kenny James Froud and Simon Buckleywere, British nationals, were killed with an axe in before the assailants stole goods and about 500 British pounds.  In November Zimbabwean police arrested three suspects in the murder of the 2 men.
    (AP, 11/15/04)

2004        Oct 15, Zimbabwe opposition leader Morgan Tsvangirai was acquitted on treason charges following a yearlong trial that his party had said was orchestrated by the government of President Robert Mugabe.
    (AP, 10/15/04)

2004        Nov 13, A Zimbabwe newspaper reported that the annual rate of inflation last month dropped to 209%, edging closer to a year-end target of 150% from a peak of 622.8% in Jan.
    (AFP, 11/13/04)

2004        Dec 4, Zimbabwe's ruling party elected longtime cabinet minister Joyce Mujuru as the country's first woman vice-president at the end of a party congress, putting her on course to succeed Mugabe when he eventually retires in 2008.
    (AFP, 12/4/04)

2004        Dec 9, Zimbabwean President Robert Mugabe's ruling party passed a controversial new law that aims to bar foreign rights groups from the country, as well as foreign funding for local groups doing similar work.
    (AP, 12/9/04)

2004        White farmers from Zimbabwe moved to Zambia and leased some 150 farms.
    (Econ, 6/26/04, p.49)

2005        Jan 9, The Zimbabwe Standard reported that a maize-meal shortage has become acute.
    (http://allafrica.com/stories/200501100537.html)(Econ, 1/15/05, p.44)

2005        Jan 17, Iranian President Mohammed Khatami arrived in Zimbabwe to a red carpet welcome from his counterpart Robert Mugabe with whom he is due to hold talks over two days.
    (AP, 1/18/05)

2005        Jan 20, It was reported that a Zimbabwe government crackdown on dissent is deepening a climate of fear ahead of parliamentary elections due in March. President Robert Mugabe appointed a new electoral commission to run parliamentary polls due in March under a law which the opposition says does not guarantee a free and fair vote.
    (AP, 1/20/05)(Reuters, 1/20/05)

2005        Feb 11, Zimbabwe announced that 1.5 million people needed food aid immediately.
    (SFC, 2/12/05, p.A3)

2005        Feb 25, The Zimbabwe government accused the independent Weekly Times of violating its operating license and ordered it to shut down.
    (SSFC, 2/27/05, p.A3)

2005        Feb, Zimbabwe Pres. Mugabe fell out with Jonathan Moyo and fired him as information minister.
    (AP, 8/22/05)

2005        Mar 13, In Musina, South Africa, thousands of protesters held an 18-hour vigil on the border with Zimbabwe to demonstrate against mounting repression in the neighboring country two weeks before a key parliamentary election there.
    (AP, 3/13/05)

2005        Mar 14, Zimbabwe's Supreme Court quashed a ban on the independent Daily News newspaper, known for its anti-government line, but upheld a controversial media law that has forced three other newspapers to close down.
    (AP, 3/14/05)

2005        Mar 17, Zimbabwe's highest court barred 3.4 million citizens living abroad, over 20 percent of the country's population, from voting in this month's parliamentary elections.
    (AP, 3/18/05)

2005        Mar 31, Zimbabweans waited in long lines to vote in parliamentary elections that President Robert Mugabe hopes will prove the legitimacy of a regime.
    (AP, 3/31/05)

2005        Apr 1, Zimbabwe opposition leader Morgan Tsvangirai dismissed the previous day's elections as "massive fraud" and accused President Robert Mugabe of treating his country like "his private property."
    (AP, 4/1/05)

2005        Apr 2, President Robert Mugabe's ruling party won 78 out of 120 contested seats in Zimbabwe's disputed parliamentary elections, giving him enough seats to press ahead with plans to change the constitution to strengthen his grip on power. The Opposition for Democratic Change (MDC) won 35 seats.
    (AP, 4/2/05)(SFC, 4/2/05, p.A12)(Reuters, 4/2/05)

2005        Apr 7, President Robert Mugabe of Zimbabwe defied a European Union travel ban and arrived in Rome to join world leaders attending Pope John Paul II's funeral. Italy has a pact with the Vatican in which it does not interfere with people transiting the country to see the pope.
    (AP, 4/7/05)

2005        Apr 12, Zimbabwe's main opposition Movement for Democratic Change (MDC) lodged a first court challenge against results from March 31 polls it says were rigged.
    (Reuters, 4/12/05)

2005        Apr 13, Zimbabwe state radio reported President Robert Mugabe's government has acquired six fighter jets "to deal with any challenges." The aircraft appeared to be the K-8 advanced jet trainer, a Chinese copy of the British Aerospace BAE "Hawk." Zimbabwe's opposition released a dossier to back claims that last month's elections were rigged to hand victory to President Robert Mugabe's ruling party.
    (AP, 4/13/05)

2005        May 23, In Zimbabwe paramilitary units armed with batons and tear gas patrolled Harare's main roads as police warned they would not tolerate any more protests against their crackdown on street trading, the only livelihood for thousands in the shattered economy.
    (AP, 5/23/05)

2005        Jun 1, Zimbabwe’s state Herald newspaper reported that police have arrested more than 22,000 people as a fierce blitz on illegal stores and shantytowns gathered pace, sending homeless people fleeing for the countryside.
    (Reuters, 6/1/05)

2005        Jun 9, A strike over Zimbabwe's razing of shantytowns made a slow start and the opposition boycotted President Robert Mugabe's opening of a new parliament elected in polls critics said were unfair.
    (AP, 6/9/05)

2005        Jun 10, Zimbabwe police fought running battles until dawn with supporters of a general strike called to protest a government campaign against shack dwellers and street traders. The mass strike failed on its final day.
    (AFP, 6/10/05)

2005        Jun 14, Zimbabwe reported that police have razed more than 20,000 shacks and other structures in what President Robert Mugabe called “Operation Murambatsvina," (drive out the rubbish), an urban cleanup campaign. Some 700,000 people had their homes or businesses destroyed in the campaign.
    (AP, 6/14/05)(Econ, 6/11/05, p.46)(Econ, 5/27/06, p.46)

2005        Jun 23, Zimbabwe state media reported that 2 children were crushed to death by rubble during the demolition of illegal houses this month in a government crackdown that has made tens of thousands homeless.
    (Reuters, 6/23/05)

2005        Jun 27, PM Tony Blair defended Britain's deportation of failed Zimbabwean asylum seekers, a policy that has triggered a refugee hunger strike.
    (AP, 6/27/05)

2005        Jun 30, Zimbabwe police targeted an illegal settlement west of Harare in the government's six-week demolition and resettlement campaign, and as many as three people were reported dead. 2 women, one of them pregnant, died when they fell off the back of trucks ferrying them to a "transit camp" where thousands of displaced people are living in tents. A 4-year-old boy was run over by a truck
    (AP, 7/1/05)

2005        Jul 2, Australia and New Zealand agreed on tough new measures to pressure Zimbabwe's President Robert Mugabe to respect human rights, including a sports ban and action against him in the International Criminal Court.
    (AP, 7/2/05)

2005        Jul 4, In Zimbabwe armed paramilitary police swept through a Harare township, pulling down more 100 prefabricated wooden cabins, including one with screaming children inside.
    (AP, 7/5/05)

2005        Jul 23, Zimbabwe President Robert Mugabe arrived in Beijing for a visit expected to include a plea for oil and food to aid his state's failing economy.
    (AP, 7/23/05)

2005        Aug 18, A pride of lions attacked a Japanese woman (50) visiting the Lion and Cheetah Park at Norton, a Zimbabwe wildlife park. She died the next day.
    (AP, 8/21/05)

2005        Aug 30, Zimbabwe lawmakers endorsed a constitutional overhaul that sharply restricts property rights and allows Zimbabwe's government to deny passports to its critics.
    (AP, 8/30/05)
2005        Aug 30, Australia and New Zealand lobbied the United Nations Security Council to indict Zimbabwean President Robert Mugabe and his government in the International Criminal Court for crimes against humanity.
    (AP, 8/30/05)

2005        Aug 31, Zimbabwe state television said the country has paid back 120 million dollars of its 300-million-dollar (245-million-euro) debt to the International Monetary Fund (IMF), which had threatened to expel Harare for arrears.
    (AFP, 8/31/05)

2005        Sep 7, Farmers and other experts said Zimbabwe, once a regional breadbasket, is facing its worst agricultural season since independence in 1980, with shortages of seed, fertilizer and equipment threatening next year's harvest before it even has been planted.
    (AP, 9/7/05)

2005        Sep 9, Zimbabwe’s President Robert Mugabe signed amendments that adopted constitutional changes that make it easier for the state to seize private property and prevent opponents from traveling abroad to criticize his 25-year rule. The constitutional overhaul stripped landowners of their right to appeal expropriation of their property by the state and declared all real estate is now on a 99-year lease from the government.
    (AP, 9/12/05)

2005        Sep 10, Zimbabwe President Robert Mugabe arrived in Cuba, criticizing the International Monetary Fund, even though the organization a day earlier deferred a decision for six months on whether to expel the African nation.
    (AP, 9/10/05)

2005        Sep 16, Zimbabwe's Pres. Mugabe said that his government will take a stake in privately operated mining enterprises, but he does not intend to nationalize the industry as he has commercial farmland.
    (AP, 9/16/05)

2005        Sep 22, In Britain 8 Zimbabwean soccer players and two officials deserted their teams after a tour, joining thousands of fellow citizens who have sought refuge abroad over a serious political and economic crisis at home.
    (AP, 9/24/05)

2005        Oct 5, The official Herald newspaper reported Zimbabwe needs to import more grain to feed at least 2.2 million needy people who cannot fend for themselves until the new harvest next April.
    (AP, 10/5/05)

2005        Oct 19, Zimbabwean Archbishop Pius Ncube said he feared 200,000 of his countrymen could die by early next year because of food shortages he blamed on his government, and called for President Robert Mugabe's ouster.
    (AP, 10/19/05)

2005        Nov 8, President Robert Mugabe told the US ambassador to Zimbabwe to "go to hell," after the envoy blamed the country's economic and political crisis on mismanagement and corrupt rule. Police detained several trade union leaders and were out in force ahead of planned demonstrations to protest worsening living conditions in Zimbabwe.
    (AP, 11/8/05)

2005        Nov 11, Zimbabwean war veterans demanded that US ambassador Christopher Dell leave the country, accusing him of trying to cause unrest and threatening to demonstrate against him if he stays.
    (AP, 11/11/05)

2005        Nov 16, More than 150 international rights groups petitioned African governments and the continent's main political union to act on what they called a humanitarian crisis in Zimbabwe.
    (Reuters, 11/17/05)

2005        Nov 17, UN officials said Zimbabwe has backtracked on its refusal to allow the UN to help build emergency housing for people whose homes were demolished in a government eviction campaign.
    (AP, 11/17/05)

2005        Nov 20, Zimbabwe President Robert Mugabe said he will turn to nuclear power by processing recently discovered uranium deposits to resolve its chronic electricity shortage.
    (AP, 11/20/05)

2005        Nov 21, Zimbabwe's state-owned national airline grounded its entire fleet after running out of fuel as the southern African country's economy continues to crumble.
    (Reuters, 11/22/05)

2005        Nov 24, The UN food agency said the United States has thrown a lifeline to six southern African countries, donating food aid valued at $45 million. The food will be distributed across Lesotho, Malawi, Mozambique, Swaziland, Zambia and Zimbabwe.
    (AP, 11/24/05)

2005        Nov 26, In Zimbabwe senate elections drew a low turnout under partial boycotting by the opposition over accusations the poll is designed to consolidate President Robert Mugabe's rule.
    (Reuters, 11/26/05)

2005        Nov 27, Zimbabwe's ruling party swept an overwhelming majority of seats in a newly created Senate, according to partial results from an election marked by record-low turnout and a deeply divided opposition.
    (AP, 11/27/05)

2005        Dec 1, Zimbabwe signed an agreement with the UN food agency to feed at least 3 million people after previously denying major shortages.
    (AP, 12/01/05)

2005        Dec 10, Zimbabwe's President Robert Mugabe conceded that shortcomings in his land redistribution program contributed to critical food shortages as his party wrapped up its annual conference.
    (AP, 12/11/05)
2005        Dec 10, Zimbabwe's ruling party recommended a crackdown on Western-sponsored groups hostile to President Robert Mugabe and asked security forces to make a list of people whose passports should be seized.
    (Reuters, 12/11/05)

2006        Feb 14, Zimbabwe police arrested at least 60 women who took part in a march with a Valentine's Day theme calling for love and harmony and protesting food shortages and alleged human rights violations.
    (CP, 2/14/06)

2006        Feb 23, A powerful earthquake sent thousands of panicking people fleeing from swaying buildings in Mozambique and Zimbabwe, and killed at least two people.
    (AP, 2/23/06)

2006        Feb 25, In Zimbabwe Arthur Mutambara, a former NASA researcher, was elected as president of a faction of the Movement for Democratic Change (MDC). He vowed to unite his divided party against the regime of Robert Mugabe which he accused of creating chaos in the country.
    (AFP, 2/26/06)

2006        Mar 3, Zimbabwe’s minister of mines announced that 51% of all foreign mining shareholdings would have to be transferred to the government.
    (Econ, 3/18/06, p.64)

2006        Mar 5, Zimbabwe state media reported that foreign hunters have bid a total of $1.5 million to shoot leopards, lions, elephants and buffaloes in Zimbabwe this year.
    (AP, 3/5/06)

2006        Mar 11, In Zimbabwe lawmaker Giles Mutseyekwa of the opposition Movement for Democratic Change (MDC) and seven others were formally charged with violating security laws. The eight were rounded up on Mar 7-8 after security agents had arrested one of the suspects identified as Mike Peter Hitschmann over an arms cache found at his home in Mutare.
    (AFP, 3/12/06)
2006        Mar 11, Zimbabwe’s Central Statistical Office said inflation was 782 percent for the 12 months that ended in February. Moffat Nyoni, acting director of the government-run Statistical Office, said prices of food and nonalcoholic beverages rose 824 percent during that time.
    (AP, 3/11/06)

2006        Mar, Inflation in Zimbabwe touched 914%. Unemployment was estimated at 80%.
    (SFC, 5/2/06, p.A2)

2006        May 6, A local rights group said Zimbabwe state security agents have stepped up the use of torture against government opponents, with 19 cases reported in March compared with three during the previous two months.
    (Reuters, 5/6/06)

2006        May 15, Zimbabwe state media reported that police, carrying out a massive monthlong roundup, had detained thousands of capital residents, charging many were responsible for crime in Harare.
    (AP, 5/16/06)

2006        Jun 9, A panel of Zimbabwe lawmakers reported that prisoners there face acute food shortages and are going weeks without soap or toilet paper.
    (AP, 6/9/06)

2006        Jul 18, Nearly 300 striking doctors in Zimbabwe ignored government demands for them to return to hospital wards. The junior doctors walked out on July 13 after authorities extended their seven-year attachment to state hospitals by another year, to be spent working at rural facilities.
    (AP, 7/19/06)

2006        Jul 31, Zimbabwe devalued its currency by 60% and slashed loan rates 550 points to 300%. 3 zeroes were off denominations amid 1200% inflation.
    (WSJ, 8/1/06, p.A1)

2006        Aug 11, The Zimbabwe Cabinet slashed fuel prices for private motorists by almost half, but experts said the move could lead to further shortages and fail to snuff out a flourishing black market.
    (AFP, 8/18/06)

2006        Aug 16, The presidents of South Africa, Mozambique and Zimbabwe gathered for the official opening the new Giriyondo border post linking South Africa and Mozambique. This was another step in the creation of the 14,000 square mile Greater Limpopo Transfrontier Park, which would span the 3 countries.
    (SFC, 8/17/06, p.A2)

2006        Sep 13, Zimbabwe police arrested trade union leaders and blocked streets and the main square of the capital to thwart an anti-government march, and the main labor federation apparently called off a planned nationwide strike at the last minute.
    (AP, 9/13/06)

2006        Sep 15, Zimbabwe said its annual inflation rate has reached a new record high of more than 1,200% in August despite the conversion to a new currency designed to halt the upwards spiral.
    (AFP, 9/15/06)

2006        Oct 5, Protais Mpiranya, one of the last remaining fugitives sought over the 1994 Rwandan genocide, died in Harare, Zimbabwe. Five outstanding fugitives remained under the International Residual Mechanism for Criminal Tribunals (IRMCT)’ jurisdiction.
    (Reuters, 5/12/22)

2006        Nov 6, China's relations with Zimbabwe are "unshakeable", President Hu Jintao said as he met Pres. Mugabe amid accusations that Beijing's ties help shore up a pariah regime.
    (AFP, 11/6/06)

2006        Nov 16, Zimbabwe invited more than 1,000 white farmers to collect compensation for property seized during controversial lands reforms launched by President Robert Mugabe's government.
    (AP, 11/16/06)

2006        Nov 19, Zimbabwean President Robert Mugabe left on a four-day state visit to Iran to beef up trade and political ties.
    (AP, 11/20/06)

2006        Nov 23, Farai Chiweshe, deputy director for the Southern African Human Rights Trust (SAHRIT), a leading Zimbabwean rights group, slammed President Robert Mugabe's government for failing to ratify a United Nations convention against torture and condoning its use by state agents.
    (AFP, 11/23/06)

2006        Nov 30, Zimbabwe's finance minister predicted marginal economic growth in the coming year and that the country's four-figure inflation rate would dip to 350% as he presented the budget for 2007.
    (AFP, 11/30/06)

2006        Dec 1, Pres. Robert Mugabe said Zimbabwe is showing the way for Africa in the fight against HIV/AIDS. He urged Zimbabweans to take greater personal responsibility in stopping the epidemic. HIV prevalence rate declined to 18.1% this year from 25% five years ago.
    (Reuters, 12/1/06)

2006        Dec 5, Zimbabwe's top union body vowed to stage new protests against the government, saying it had failed to address the plight of workers reeling under four-digit inflation, high taxes and a shrinking labor market.
    (AFP, 12/5/06)

2006        Dec 11, Zimbabwe said its inflation spiral had risen to 1,098.8 percent last month, a 28.6% hike, as experts cast doubts on state efforts to slash it to the three-digit level. The inflation rate peaked at 1,204.6% in August. Zimbabwe clinched a deal to export 5,000 tons of beef to Hong Kong from next year, the first such long-distance order in five years.
    (AFP, 12/11/06)

2006        Dec 17, Zimbabwe's ruling party recommended that President Robert Mugabe's term be extended by two years, to 2010, delaying a showdown between rival factions over the choice of his successor. Opposition and rights groups vowed to stage mass street protests against plans by Mugabe's supporters to extend the veteran ruler's term by another two years.
    (AP, 12/17/06)(AFP, 12/18/06)

2006        Dec 28, Zimbabwean police said they had arrested at least 16,000 suspected gold panners and seized more than three kilogram’s of gold in a sweeping crackdown on illegal miners. The operation, codenamed "Chikorokoza Chapera" (The End of Illegal Gold Dealings), was launched last month.
    (AFP, 12/28/06)

2006        Dec 29, In Zimbabwe 17 elephants and a rhino were found killed. A game ranger based near the famed Victoria Falls bordering the two countries was wounded. Zambian poachers were suspected.
    (AFP, 12/31/06)

2006        In Zimbabwe the Marange diamond fields were discovered at the height of the country’s political, economic and humanitarian crisis. Villagers rushed to the area and began finding diamonds close to the surface.
    (AP, 6/26/09)

2007        Jan 5, Senior doctors at Zimbabwe's state hospitals joined junior doctors in a strike over pay that has left patients stranded at the country's major medical centers. Health Minister David Parirenyatwa told state radio meanwhile that he had met with representatives of the striking doctors and that they had agreed to return to work.
    (AFP, 1/5/07)

2007        Jan 10, Zimbabwe’s central statistics office (CSO) said inflation had hit a new record high of 1,281%, puncturing government hopes of reining in the galloping rate which has left households struggling to make ends meet.
    (AP, 1/10/07)

2007        Jan 11, Former Ethiopian dictator Mengistu Haile Mariam was sentenced to life imprisonment, ending his 12-year trial in absentia for genocide and other crimes committed during his iron-fisted rule (1974-1991). Mariam lived comfortably in exile in Zimbabwe, where Pres. Robert Mugabe has said he won't deport Mengistu if he refrains from political activity.
    (AP, 1/11/07)

2007        Jan 17, Morgan Tsvangirai, Zimbabwe's main opposition leader, urged mass protests against President Robert Mugabe's nearly 27-year-rule.
    (AFP, 1/17/07)

2007        Jan 31, Zimbabwe's central bank chief Gideon Gono unveiled a battery of belt-tightening measures which include slashing the money supply and state spending to put the brakes on four-digit inflation. The Zimbabwe dollar traded at 250 against the greenback on the official market while fetching up to 4,200 on the black market.
    (AFP, 1/31/07)

2007        Feb 5, Teachers across Zimbabwe began an indefinite industrial action to press for better salaries and better working conditions.
    (AFP, 2/5/07)

2007        Feb 7, Zimbabwe’s President Robert Mugabe, under mounting pressure over a world record-busting inflation rate and escalating strike action in the public sector, sacked his finance minister. A union chief said 60 Zimbabwean junior doctors have been sacked from Harare's main hospital after going on strike in December demanding salary hikes.
    (AFP, 2/7/07)

2007        Feb 12, Zimbabwe's central statistics office reported that the inflation rate, already the highest in the world, had soared again by more than 300 points to 1,593% in January.
    (AP, 2/12/07)

2007        Feb 18, Zimbabwe riot police crushed an opposition rally amid government fears of a new street campaign against President Robert Mugabe. Morgan Tsvangirai cancelled a planned mass rally in Harare after police blocked supporters from attending the gathering in defiance of a court order.
    (AFP, 2/18/07)(Reuters, 2/19/07)

2007        Feb 19, The EU extended sanctions on Zimbabwe for another year including an arms embargo, travel ban and asset freeze on President Robert Mugabe and other top officials.
    (AP, 2/19/07)

2007        Feb 23, Teachers across Zimbabwe called off a 3-week strike for better wages and working conditions after the government agreed to a near four-fold increase in their pay.
    (AP, 2/23/07)

2007        Feb 28, In Namibia hundreds of people protested a visit by Zimbabwean President Robert Mugabe, holding signs reading, "Go home dictator." The local National Society for Human Rights called Mugabe's three-day state visit an insult to Namibia.
    (AP, 2/28/07)

2007        Mar 1, Zimbabwe's central bank introduced two new bank notes as it battles a four figure rate of inflation that is rapidly eroding the value of the local currency. Zimbabwe state media reported that the government has admitted that state agents are jamming radio broadcasts by foreign stations deemed hostile to President Robert Mugabe's government.
    (AP, 3/1/07)

2007        Mar 6, In Zimbabwe at least 34 people were killed when a train collided with a minibus at rail crossing on the outskirts of the capital Harare.
    (AP, 3/6/07)

2007        Mar 9, Zimbabwe state media said authorities have sealed off the eastern Marange diamond fields as part of measures to prevent plundering of the site.
    (AP, 3/9/07)

2007        Mar 11, Zimbabwe's main opposition leader Morgan Tsvangirai was arrested as riot police thwarted a planned mass demonstration in Harare against President Robert Mugabe's government. Top opposition leaders were assaulted and tortured by police who broke up a prayer meeting planned to protest government policies. Tsvangirai suffered head injuries while in police custody. Opposition militant Gift Tandare was killed as police disbanded the prayer meeting. President Robert Mugabe (83) said in an interview that he intends to stand in the country's next presidential elections if they are held as scheduled in 2008.
    (AFP, 3/11/07)(Reuters, 3/12/07)(AP, 3/19/07)

2007        Mar 14, In Zimbabwe Morgan Tsvangirai (54), the country's main opposition leader, said that police beat him repeatedly in the head, back, knees and arm and that he lost a lot of blood in an attack that seemed intended "to inflict as much harm as they could."
    (AP, 3/14/07)

2007        Mar 15, A defiant Zimbabwean President Robert Mugabe told his critics of his government to "go hang" themselves in his first response to the arrest and assault of opposition chief Morgan Tsvangirai. Tanzanian President Jakaya Kikwete went into talks with Mugabe following growing international condemnation of the crackdown on opposition demonstrators.
    (AFP, 3/15/07)

2007        Mar 17, Three Zimbabwean opposition activists were arrested as they tried to leave the country, including two who were allegedly beaten by police and were going to South Africa to seek medical treatment. The African Union (AU) expressed "great concern" about Zimbabwe's crisis and called for human rights to be respected, after opposition members said they were beaten after an anti-government protest.
    (AP, 3/17/07)

2007        Mar 18, In Zimbabwe Nelson Chamisa, a spokesman for the opposition Movement for Democratic Change (MDC), was prevented from leaving the country and suffered serious injuries after being beaten up at Harare International Airport.
    (AFP, 3/18/07)

2007        Mar 20, Zambian President Levy Mwanawasa urged southern Africa to take a new approach to Zimbabwe, which he likened to a "sinking Titanic" as millions flee economic and political turmoil.
    (Reuters, 3/21/07)

2007        Mar 21, PM Tony Blair said Britain would urge the EU to impose tougher sanctions on Zimbabwe, describing the situation there as "appalling, disgraceful and utterly tragic."
    (AFP, 3/21/07)

2007        Mar 22, Zimbabwe's Catholic Archbishop Pius Ncube urged his countrymen to stand up to the iron-fisted government of President Robert Mugabe. State-media reported that the Zimbabwean government has urged African nations to join hands to fight domination by powerful Western countries. A Harare court ruled that injured activists could seek treatment abroad.
    (AFP, 3/22/07)(Reuters, 3/22/07)

2007        Mar 23, Australia called on South Africa to pressure Zimbabwe's President Robert Mugabe to quit, saying the 83-year-old leader was a disaster for his country. South Africa defended its policy on Zimbabwe as the only way to approach Mugabe's authoritarian government and said African nations might convene a summit to deal with the crisis.
    (AFP, 3/23/07)(Reuters, 3/23/07)

2007        Mar 24, In southwestern Zimbabwe a British woman and her 10-year-old daughter were killed by a rogue elephant while her husband escaped unhurt during a walking safari at Hwange National Park.
    (AFP, 3/27/07)(SSFC, 4/1/07, p.G2)

2007        Mar 28, Police stormed the offices of Zimbabwe's main opposition party and arrested leader Morgan Tsvangirai, hours before he planned to talk to reporters about a wave of political violence that had left him briefly hospitalized. Tsvangirai was released after several hours.
    (AP, 3/28/07)(AP, 3/29/07)

2007        Mar 31, In Zimbabwe the body of Edward Chikombo, an independent journalist, was found. He had been missing since March 29. A lawyer for another reporter arrested under sweeping media laws said he was assaulted and tortured in custody. Chikombo had conveyed the picture of Morgan Tsvangirai’s battered head (see March 24) to the wider world. On April 6 Zimbabwe police opened a murder investigation into his death.
    (AP, 4/6/07)(Econ, 10/9/10, p.36)

2007        Mar 29, In Tanzania African leaders rallied around President Robert Mugabe of Zimbabwe, ignoring calls for tougher action against him and suggesting dialogue as the solution to his country's deepening political crisis.
    (Reuters, 3/29/07)

2007        Apr 3, In Zimbabwe trucks of riot police drove through Harare and military helicopters flew overhead on the first day of a national strike to protest deepening economic hardships blamed on the government of President Robert Mugabe. The strike received a cool response from workers worried about forfeiting vital wages. A UN study said Zimbabwe was Africa's worst economic performer in 2006.
    (AP, 4/3/07)(AFP, 4/3/07)

2007        Apr 4, Offices and factories in Zimbabwe's two main cities were operating as normal on the second day of a 48-hour strike called by the main labor organization over the deepening economic crisis. Many workers appeared to have shunned the call on the second day of the stoppage organized by the Zimbabwe Congress of Trade Unions (ZCTU).
    (AFP, 4/4/07)

2007        Apr 9, In an Easter message pinned to church bulletin boards around the country, Zimbabwe's Roman Catholic bishops called on President Robert Mugabe to leave office or face "open revolt" from those suffering under his government.
    (AP, 4/9/07)

2007        Apr 12, Zimbabwe opposition leader Morgan Tsvangirai expressed optimism about planned talks between his party and President Robert Mugabe's government to end the crisis in the country.
    (AFP, 4/12/07)

2007        Apr 17, State radio said Zimbabwe has deregistered all non-governmental organizations (NGOs) and told them to submit new applications to try to weed out groups it says are trying to oust President Robert Mugabe.
    (AP, 4/17/07)

2007        Apr 19, In Zimbabwe 82 members of the Women of Zimbabwe Arise group were arrested in Bulawayo during a protest against power outages. 18 of the women were stripped and jailed for hours.
    (SFC, 4/23/07, p.A10)

2007        Apr 21, A Zimbabwe cabinet minister said the Chinese government has given Zimbabwe a 58 million dollars financing facility that will be used to purchase farming equipment, implements and tools.
    (AP, 4/22/07)

2007        Apr 26, Zimbabwe's central bank governor Gideon Gono said the annual rate of inflation, already the highest in the world, rose to 2,200 percent last month.
    (AP, 4/26/07)

2007        Apr 28, Zimbabwe announced new controls to clamp down on charities and other humanitarian organizations, including democracy and human rights groups that the government accuses of campaigning against it. A state daily reported that Zimbabwe has compensated 800 white farmers for property seized during controversial land reforms launched by President Robert Mugabe's government.
    (AP, 4/28/07)

2007        May 1, Zimbabwe boosted the price of corn meal, a keystone of the nation’s diet, by nearly 600%.
    (WSJ, 5/2/07, p.A1)(AP, 5/7/07)

2007        May 2, Isaac Matongo (60), the chairman of Zimbabwe's opposition Movement for Democratic Change (MDC) and former trade unionist, died.
    (AP, 5/2/07)

2007        May 5, A state daily said Zimbabwe has lost about 40 black rhinos to poachers who have killed the animals in some government parks and conservancies over the past 3 years.
    (AP, 5/5/07)

2007        May 8, In Zimbabwe riot police violently broke up a demonstration by dozens of lawyers protesting the arrest of two colleagues outside the High Court in Harare.
    (AP, 5/8/07)

2007        May 9, Zimbabweans braced for darker days after President Robert Mugabe's government announced 20-hour daily electricity cuts for households across the country.
    (AP, 5/9/07)
2007        May 9, A Zimbabwean court authorized the extradition of Briton Simon Mann to Equatorial Guinea on coup plot charges, sweeping aside concerns that he might face torture or invalid justice there.
    (AFP, 5/9/07)

2007        May 11, Zimbabwe won approval, in a vote of 26-21 with three abstentions, to lead the important UN Commission on Sustainable Development despite protests from the US, European nations and human rights organizations. African members nominated Francis Nhema, Zimbabwe's minister of environment and tourism, for the post.
    (AP, 5/12/07)(Econ, 5/19/07, p.49)

2007        May 13, Australia’s PM John Howard said the Australian government has banned the country's cricket team from touring Zimbabwe in September because he does not want to support the regime of a "grubby dictator."
    (AP, 5/13/07)

2007        May 15, In Zimbabwe a spokesman said dozens of doctors at four of the largest state hospitals have gone on strike to demand higher pay.
    (AFP, 5/15/07)

2007        May 17, Analysts warned that a new pricing law approved by Zimbabwean President Robert Mugabe, as inflation exceeded 3,700%, could worsen rather than relieve widespread shortages and price rises.
    (AP, 5/17/07)

2007        May 24, Zimbabwe police slapped a new ban on political rallies and demonstrations in parts of the capital Harare, citing a recent spate of "disturbances."
    (AFP, 5/24/07)

2007        May 26, Zimbabwe riot police arrested more than 200 opposition activists and officials during a meeting they were holding at their party headquarters in Harare.
    (Reuters, 5/26/07)

2007        May 27, Zimbabwean police freed the bulk of 200 youth opposition activists arrested in a raid on their party headquarters.
    (AFP, 5/27/07)

2007        May 29, State media said Zimbabwe will put 40,000 more people on life saving anti-retroviral drugs by the end of the year despite an economic crisis.
    (AP, 5/29/07)

2007        Jun 5, Zimbabwe's electricity provider raised tariffs for both domestic and commercial customers by 50 percent at a time when a major outage has left large parts of the country without power.
    (AP, 6/5/07)

2007        Jun 7, Zimbabwe received 15 million dollars worth of anti-retroviral drugs from the United States government to bolster its fight against HIV and AIDS.
    (AP, 6/8/07)

2007        Jun 8, The Zimbabwean government published a draft bill to amend the country's constitution, provide for harmonized presidential and parliamentary polls and reduce the presidential term. A party spokesman said 11 Zimbabwean opposition supporters, who had been detained for two months for an alleged "terrorism" plot, have been released after a court ordered the charges to be dropped.
    (AFP, 6/8/07)(AFP, 6/9/07)

2007        Jun 13, Zimbabwe’s country's consumer watchdog said in its latest report that the cost of living for an average urban family rose by 66 percent last month.
    (AP, 6/13/07)

2007        Jun 14, In the Netherlands four African states (South Africa, Namibia, Botswana and Zimbabwe), after an 18-year ban, were allowed to put their ivory stocks on the market in a one-time sale as part of a hard-fought compromise reached with other Africans who tried to block the sale. The 171-member Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species, or CITES, approved the deal by consensus.
    (AP, 6/14/07)

2007        Jun 22, Zimbabwe's currency plunged to new depths as the US ambassador to Harare predicted galloping inflation will force Pres. Mugabe from office before the end of the year. Inflation hovered at around 4,500% and 8 of 10 citizens did not have formal jobs.
    (AP, 6/22/07)(Econ, 6/23/07, p.56)

2007        Jun 26, Zimbabwe's government announced sweeping price cuts in a bid to curb inflation and said it set up a unit drawn from all its security agencies to enforce the cuts. Retailers shunned a new government order to slash the prices of basic goods such as bread and sugar, arguing that such a move would drive them out of business.
    (AFP, 6/26/07)(AP, 6/26/07)

2007        Jun 28, Zimbabwe ordered a blanket freeze on the prices of all goods and services, urging members of the public to blow the whistle on retailers who ignore the latest edict.
    (AFP, 6/28/07)

2007        Jul 1, The state-run Sunday Mail said a senator from Zimbabwe's ruling party and 20 business people have been arrested for flouting a government-imposed ceiling on basic commodity prices.
    (AFP, 7/1/07)

2007        Jul 7, Zimbabwe's government announced a new law making it an offense to defy steep price cuts ordered in an effort to control runaway inflation and a growing economic crisis.
    (AP, 7/7/07)

2007        Jul 8, Zimbabwe’s official media said police have arrested 16 more business leaders in a crackdown on those suspected of violating the government's order to slash prices by 50%.
    (AP, 7/8/07)

2007        Jul 9, Zimbabwe police said more than 1,300 shop owners and business managers have been arrested as part of a crackdown on firms accused of flouting government-imposed price controls. Thousands of students were evicted from Zimbabwe's main university campus after they protested at the weekend against a decision to deny them food for not paying their fees.
    (AFP, 7/9/07)

2007        Jul 10, Zimbabwe police said hundreds more business executives and store managers have been arrested as part of a crackdown on violations of a government-ordered price freeze.
    (AFP, 7/10/07)

2007        Jul 13, Authorities in Zimbabwe announced the arrest of hundreds more retailers and executives as part of an ongoing price crackdown as it emerged the head of the central bank had warned against the blitz.
    (AP, 7/13/07)

2007        Jul 16, Zimbabwean Roman Catholic Archbishop Pius Ncube was named in an adultery case. State radio reported that a woman, identified as Rosemary Sibanda, "admitted the affair" to the state broadcasting company. The radio report said the woman's husband, Onesimus Sibanda, was demanding $160,000 in damages.
    (AP, 7/16/07)
2007        Jul 16, The University of Edinburgh confirmed that it had withdrawn an honorary doctorate awarded to Zimbabwe’s president Robert Mugabe in 1984, because of concern over his human rights record.
    (AP, 7/16/07)

2007        Jul 17, The US offered additional food aid to Zimbabwe to ease its famine but criticized what it said were reckless actions by Pres. Robert Mugabe to try to deal with the problem.
    (AP, 7/17/07)

2007        Jul 21, Zimbabwe’s official Herald newspaper said the government had revived the Zimbabwe State Trading Corporation (ZSTC) to work alongside the state Zimbabwe Development Corporation (ZDC) "as vehicles for acquiring companies that it might want to take over for engaging in economic sabotage."
    (AP, 7/21/07)

2007        Jul 23, Abel Mutsakani, the editor of an independent Zimbabwean news service based in South Africa, was shot and seriously wounded in Johannesburg.
    (AP, 7/26/07)

2007        Jul 25, State television reported that Zimbabwe is to import 200,000 tons of the staple maize from Tanzania to avert widespread food shortages following a poor harvest. An international rights group said Zimbabwe's government routinely arrests and tortures women's rights activists as part of a crackdown on protests against President Mugabe and his policies.
    (AP, 7/25/07)

2007        Jul 26, Zimbabwe state media reported that nearly 5,000 store owners, managers and business executives have been arrested since the government began its campaign to slash prices last month.
    (AP, 7/26/07)

2007        Jul 27, Zimbabwe's former finance minister Chris Kuruneri was acquitted by the high court for allegedly smuggling money abroad to build a house in South Africa.
    (AFP, 7/28/07)

2007        Jul 28, In Zimbabwe Arthur Mutambara, leader of the breakaway faction of the Movement for Democratic Change (MDC), said on that the country could not wait for outsiders to liberate them from on-going political and economic problems.
    (AFP, 7/28/07)

2007        Jul 31, Zimbabwe's central bank introduced yet another higher denomination banknote as it grappled with runaway inflation which is rendering lower-value banknotes useless. The new 200,000-Zimbabwe dollar bearer check is worth 800 US dollars at the official rate and one US dollar at the parallel market rate.
    (AFP, 7/31/07)

2007        Aug 3, In Zimbabwe the Interception of Communication Act was published in the government gazette. The bill, signed by President Robert Mugabe, allows the state to eavesdrop on private phone conversations and monitor faxes and emails.
    (AFP, 8/3/07)

2007        Aug 6, Zimbabwe police said at least 7,600 shop managers and business executives have been arrested in a crackdown on businesses accused of profiteering, as President Robert Mugabe vowed to continue the blitz.
    (AP, 8/6/07)

2007        Aug 12, In north-eastern Zimbabwe at least 9 people were killed and around 50 injured when a bus collided with a car.
    (AFP, 8/13/07)

2007        Aug 15, Hordes of shoppers desperate to buy sugar amid severe shortages stampeded at a shopping complex in Bulawayo, Zimbabwe's second-largest city, killing a 15-year-old boy and a security guard.
    (AP, 8/16/07)

2007        Aug 16, The 14-member Southern African Development Community (SADC) met in Lusaka, Zambia for its 27th summit. The 2-day summit provided scant hope for the people of Zimbabwe. Zimbabwe rejected the need for political reform at the summit of regional leaders that is meant to find ways to ease the country's political and economic crisis.
    (www.dfa.gov.za/docs/2007/sadc0820.htm)(AP, 8/16/07)(Econ, 8/25/07, p.43)

2007        Aug 22, Zimbabwe's main opposition party denounced a two-month voter registration program as a sham, saying its aim was to boost President Robert Mugabe's chances of victory in next year's elections. State media reported that Zimbabwe's government has authorized retailers to raise the prices of basic goods in order to ease widespread shortages which followed the imposition of price cuts.
    (AFP, 8/22/07)(AP, 8/22/07)

2007        Aug 29, Thousands of hardline supporters of Robert Mugabe marched through Harare, denouncing the Zimbabwe president's Western critics and endorsing his controversial program of farm seizures. Zimbabwe's state media called on the government to sever ties with Australia, accusing PM John Howard's government of seeking to topple Pres. Mugabe.
    (AP, 8/29/07)

2007        Aug 31, State media said Zimbabwe President Robert Mugabe has banned all pay rises without authorization and given himself extra powers in a new bid to curb the world's highest inflation rate.
    (AP, 8/31/07)

2007        Sep 1, State media reported that Zimbabwe's government will allow hotels, restaurants and bars to raise their rates by up to 50 percent. A woman and a child were killed in stampedes at an agriculture show in Harare packed with people lured by scarce snack foods and cheap Chinese toys and exhibitors hoping to skirt a government price freeze and sell their animals.
    (AP, 9/1/07)(AP, 9/2/07)

2007        Sep 3, The Zimbabwean government completed its takeover of the country's leading cooking oil manufacturer by acquiring US food giant H.J Heinz's 49% stake for 6.8 million dollars.
    (AFP, 9/3/07)

2007        Sep 5, Canada’s ambassador to Zimbabwe said the number of people facing serious food shortages there is expected to grow to 4.1 million over the first quarter of next year.
    (AP, 9/5/07)

2007        Sep 11, In Zimbabwe Archbishop Pius Ncube, a leading critic of President Robert Mugabe, resigned after an adultery scandal but said he would not be silenced by the "wicked regime."
    (AFP, 9/11/07)

2007        Sep 16, Reports said the Zimbabwean government has reversed a ban on pay increases put in place in a bid to curb the world's highest inflation rate.
    (AP, 9/16/07)

2007        Sep 18, Zimbabwe's main opposition party reached an agreement with the government on the adoption of a bill which paves the way for joint presidential and legislative elections next year. Police said 17 police officers have been arrested on charges of corruption and trading in diamonds while guarding a mine in the country's eastern district.
    (AFP, 9/18/07)(AFP, 9/19/07)

2007        Sep 20, Zimbabwe lawmakers voted unanimously in favor of a constitutional amendment that critics say further consolidates ruling party power, but is hailed by the government and opposition as a breakthrough in easing the political and economic crisis.
    (AP, 9/20/07)

2007        Sep 22, To date 144 countries had ratified the UN Convention Against Torture. Holdouts included Sudan, North Korea, Myanmar, Zimbabwe and India.
    (Econ, 9/22/07, p.72)

2007        Oct 1, Zimbabwe's central bank chief warned of "dangers" in a bill approved by legislators which says that locals must own a majority of foreign-run firms.
    (AFP, 10/2/07)

2007        Oct 2, Shop owners said Zimbabwe's supermarkets have run out of bread after bakers were forced to suspend their operations due to a critical shortage of wheat.
    (AFP, 10/2/07)

2007        Oct 3, Teachers at state schools across inflation-ravaged Zimbabwe began an indefinite strike to press for better salaries.
    (AP, 10/3/07)

2007        Oct 4, A union official said Zimbabwean teachers have called off a strike for better wages after reaching a deal with the government.
    (AFP, 10/4/07)

2007        Oct 10, Zimbabwe said it will import 30,000 tons of wheat from its neighbors in a bid to ease widespread bread shortages of bread. The human rights group Women of Zimbabwe Arise (WOZA) said Zimbabwean security forces routinely torture and sexually abuse women opposed to President Robert Mugabe's government.
    (AFP, 10/10/07)(Reuters, 10/10/07)

2007        Oct 11, Eleven of Zimbabwe's last remaining white farmers lost a bid to stay on their farms while appealing the orders and are to be tried for defying government eviction notices.
    (AFP, 10/11/07)

2007        Oct 12, The Zimbabwean government authorized new increases in the prices of basis foodstuffs in a bid to ease widespread shortages that followed an order for retailers to halve their tariffs. The government allowed bakers to increase the price of a loaf of bread by more than 200 percent, as shortages persisted across the country.
    (AP, 10/12/07)(AFP, 10/14/07)

2007        Oct 24, Zimbabwe's central bank chief pledged that empty shop shelves would soon be replenished as he denounced the "anarchy" inspired by the government's order for retailers to slash their prices in half.
    (AP, 10/24/07)

2007        Oct 25,     Zimbabwe's President Robert Mugabe launched an intelligence academy named after him, saying it would produce officers able to counter growing threats from Western powers.
    (Reuters, 10/26/07)

2007        Nov 1, State media reported that Zimbabwe President Robert Mugabe signed a law giving him more power to choose his successor. The new law also provides for simultaneous presidential and parliamentary polls next year.
    (AP, 11/1/07)

2007        Nov 5, Zimbabwe's supreme court ruled the government can seize equipment belonging to white farmers whose properties were expropriated under controversial land reforms.
    (AFP, 11/6/07)

2007        Nov 6, Zimbabwe’s Attorney General Sobusa Gula-Ndebele was briefly detained over allegations he promised to help a fugitive banker who had fled the southern African nation avoid arrest. Police said he faces corruption charges.
    (Reuters, 11/8/07)

2007        Nov 15, President Robert Mugabe commissioned the first biodiesel production plant in oil-starved Zimbabwe, vowing that the country would "never collapse."
    (AP, 11/15/07)

2007        Nov 19, President Robert Mugabe's government published a draft bill forcing mining firms to transfer majority shareholdings to local owners, including giving the Zimbabwe government a free 25 percent stake.
    (AP, 11/19/07)

2007        Nov 20, Ian Smith (88), Rhodesia's last white prime minister, died in South Africa. His attempts to resist black rule dragged the country, later renamed as Zimbabwe, into isolation and civil war.
    (AP, 11/20/07)(SFC, 11/23/07, p.B14)(Econ, 11/24/07, p.92)

2007        Nov 28, Senegalese President Abdoulaye Wade said he will propose the creation of a committee of African heads of state to mend broken relations between Zimbabwe and former colonial power Britain.
    (AFP, 11/28/07)

2007        Nov 30, Thousands of Zimbabwean war veterans gathered in Harare to lead a "million-man march" in support of President Robert Mugabe's bid to extend his rule despite a severe economic crisis blamed on his government. Thousands of ZANU-PF supporters were ferried into the capital by bus and train.
    (Reuters, 11/30/07)

2007        Dec 6, Zimbabwean President Robert Mugabe arrived in Lisbon for an EU-Africa summit, which British Prime Minister Gordon Brown is boycotting because he would not "sit down at the same table" as him.
    (Reuters, 12/6/07)

2007        Dec 8, In Spain German Chancellor Angela Merkel challenged European and African leaders to confront human rights abuses in Zimbabwe, putting the country's president Robert Mugabe in the spotlight at an EU-Africa summit.
    (AP, 12/8/07)

2007        Dec 14, Zimbabwe reserve bank governor Gideon Gono on said President Robert Mugabe's cronies were fuelling the country's runaway inflation through illicit dealings. Amnesty International said Zimbabwean police are still beating and torturing human rights activists and opponents of the government despite mediation efforts launched by fellow African nations.
    (AP, 12/14/07)(AFP, 12/14/07)

2007        Dec 15, President Robert Mugabe suspended Sobusa Gula-Ndebele, Zimbabwe's attorney general, and appointed a three-member tribunal to investigate allegations that the state's highest law officer abused his powers.
    (AP, 12/15/07)

2007        Dec 18, The Zimbabwe government introduced amendments to tough security and media laws, which critics said were used by President Robert Mugabe to stifle opposition to his 27-year rule.
    (AFP, 12/18/07)

2007        Dec 27, In southern Zimbabwe floodwaters swept a truck down a raging river, killing 7 people. Their deaths bring the number of drownings in Zimbabwe to 21 in the past month.
    (AP, 12/28/07)

2007        Dec 28, In Zimbabwe junior doctors and nurses at major state hospitals went on strike to press for higher pay and improved working conditions.
    (AFP, 12/30/07)

2007        Dec 29, Zimbabweans formed queues at banks to beat a December 31 deadline to hand in a currency series phased out by the central bank.
    (AP, 12/29/07)

2007        Peter Godwin authored “When a Crocodile Eats the Sun: A Memoir of Africa," a description of the collapse of Zimbabwe after 2000. This was his 2nd book in a trilogy that began with “Mukiwa: A White Boy in Africa." The 3rd volume was “The Fear: The Last Days of Robert Mugabe" (2010).
    (Econ, 10/23/10, p.101)
2007        Zimbabwe and Namibia entered into an agreement under which Namibia gave Zimbabwe a 40-million-dollar loan for repairs to its thermal power stations while Zimbabwe would pay back by exporting electricity to Namibia.
    (AFP, 1/13/10)
2007        The population of Zimbabwe was about 13 million. 3 million were thought to have left, mostly to South Africa, due to the economic crises.
    (Econ, 8/11/07, p.37)
2007        Zimbabwe Bishop Nolbert Kunonga, a loyalist to President Robert Mugabe, was excommunicated by the main Anglican Province of Central Africa and the worldwide head of the church for inciting violence in sermons supporting Mugabe's ZANU-PF party.
    (AP, 11/19/12)

2008        Jan 4, Zimbabwe’s state-owned The Herald daily reported that a diarrhea outbreak has hit Harare following weeks of uncollected garbage, sewer blockages and erratic water supplies.
    (AFP, 1/4/08)

2008        Jan 6, Zimbabwe state media reported that the government has awarded an immediate 600% pay rise to striking magistrates and prosecutors in a bid to end a 3-month work stoppage.
    (AP, 1/6/08)

2008        Jan 19, Nationwide power outages shut down basic services across Zambia and Zimbabwe as anger mounted in South Africa over power cuts that have wreaked havoc in the continent's economic hub.
    (AP, 1/20/08)

2008        Jan 24, Zimbabwean police arrested Nicholas van Hoogstraten (63), a British businessman, after finding a large quantity of foreign currency and alleged pornographic material in his possession. In 2002 the multi-millionaire was convicted of the manslaughter of an associate and was sentenced to ten years imprisonment but the conviction was quashed the following year and he was freed. On Jan 29 a Zimbabwe court ordered his release.
    (AFP, 1/26/08)(AFP, 1/29/08)

2008        Jan 30, South African police raided a downtown Johannesburg church late at night where hundreds of Zimbabweans had taken refuge, hauling people in pajamas to a police station in scenes reminiscent of apartheid-era raids.
    (AP, 1/31/08)

2008        Feb 5, Simba Makoni, a senior member of Zimbabwe's ruling ZANU-PF party, said he would run for president at the March 29 election in the first major internal challenge to Robert Mugabe in 20 years.
    (Reuters, 2/5/08)

2008        Feb 13, Zimbabwean opposition leader Morgan Tsvangirai urged South African President Thabo Mbeki to show some "courage" and pressure Robert Mugabe ahead of next month's elections. Former finance minister Simba Makoni pledged to heal the wounds of Zimbabwe as he unveiled his manifesto for next month's election battle against veteran President Robert Mugabe.
    (AFP, 2/13/08)

2008        Feb 14, Zimbabwe's inflation rate, already the highest in the world, soared to a new high of 66,212.3%.
    (AFP, 2/14/08)

2008        Feb 24, A rights group said Zimbabwe's biggest state hospital has stopped surgical operations because of a breakdown of equipment and shortages of drugs.
    (AFP, 2/24/08)

2008        Mar 9, A government newspaper reported that Zimbabwe’s President Robert Mugabe has signed into law a bill giving local owners the right to take majority control of foreign companies, including mines and banks.
    (Reuters, 3/9/08)

2008        Mar 14, In Zimbabwe the teacher’s union said thousands of teachers state schools have ended a 3-week strike after being awarded a 754% salary increase by the government.
    (AFP, 3/14/08)

2008        Mar 20, Morgan Tsvangirai, Zimbabwe's main opposition leader and presidential candidate in March 29 general elections, said that the voters' register was filled with tens of thousands of ghost voters.
    (AFP, 3/20/08)

2008        Mar 29, Zimbabweans lined up for hours to vote in elections that present President Robert Mugabe with his toughest political challenge in 28 years in power.
    (AP, 3/29/08)

2008        Mar 30, Zimbabwe's opposition said it had won the most crucial election since independence, but President Robert Mugabe's government warned premature victory claims would be seen as an attempted coup.
    (AP, 3/30/08)

2008        Mar 31, Zimbabwe's opposition Movement for Democratic Change and President Robert Mugabe's ruling ZANU-PF were on level-pegging, as the results trickled in from a weekend general election. The MDC's own tally of votes in 128 of the 210 parliamentary seats showed that its leader Tsvangirai had secured 60 percent of votes against 30 for Mugabe in the presidential race.
    (AFP, 3/31/08)

2008        Mar, It was reported that life expectancy in Zimbabwe, once the highest in sub-Saharan Africa, had fallen to 36 years.
    (Econ, 3/22/08, p.53)

2008        Apr 1, In Zimbabwe an independent African monitor said top members of President Robert Mugabe's party worried the government may have lost weekend elections, even as a tediously slow release of results fueled fears of rigging. A ruling party projection said opposition leader Morgan Tsvangirai will beat President Robert Mugabe in Zimbabwe's crucial election, but be forced into a runoff vote in three weeks.
    (AP, 4/1/08)(Reuters, 4/1/08)

2008        Apr 2, In Zimbabwe the main opposition party claimed outright victory for its leader Morgan Tsvangirai, saying he had won 50.3 percent of the vote compared to 43.8 percent for President Robert Mugabe.
    (AP, 4/2/08)

2008        Apr 3, Zimbabwe's ruling party geared up for a final battle to keep Robert Mugabe in power, saying it was ready for a presidential election run-off with opposition leader Morgan Tsvangirai.
    (AFP, 4/3/08)

2008        Apr 4, In Zimbabwe the ruling ZANU-PF party decided President Robert Mugabe should contest a runoff vote against opposition leader Morgan Tsvangirai if neither wins a majority in a presidential election. Hundreds of guerrilla war veterans who support President Robert Mugabe marched through the capital, raising fears he might turn to violence to prolong his rule. Authorities introduced a new 50 million bank note, state media reported. The new Zimbabwe dollar note is worth $1 in black market trading and can buy just three loaves of bread.
    (Reuters, 4/4/08)(AP, 4/4/08)

2008        Apr 5, Electoral officials said Zimbabwe's ruling ZANU-PF took 30 seats in elections for the country's senate, or upper house of parliament, with the combined opposition taking the same number. The president and tribal chiefs are to appoint the remaining 93 seats. Opposition chief Morgan Tsvangirai claimed outright victory in presidential elections and warned Robert Mugabe's ruling party would resort to violence to cling to power. 3 cattle ranchers were driven off their land, and equipment and livestock were seized.
    (Reuters, 4/5/08)(AFP, 4/5/08)(AP, 4/6/08)

2008        Apr 6, Zimbabwe’s state Sunday Mail newspaper reported that President Robert Mugabe's ruling party demanded a vote recount and a further delay in the release of presidential election results, prompting outrage from the opposition party. Several foreigners, including New York Times correspondent Barry Bearak, remained in custody after being charged with "illegally observing an election without official accreditation."
    (AP, 4/6/08)

2008        Apr 7, Zimbabwe authorities released Barry Bearak, a NY Times journalist, along with an unidentified British citizen. They had been arrested last week and accused of reporting without official accreditation.
    (WSJ, 4/8/08, p.A10)

2008        Apr 8, Opposition officials accused Zimbabwe's ruling party of orchestrating a campaign of violence in remote rural areas in an effort to intimidate opponents of President Robert Mugabe ahead of a likely runoff election. A farmers' union said more than 60 mostly white Zimbabwean farmers have been evicted from their land by war veterans loyal to President Robert Mugabe since the weekend.
    (AP, 4/8/08)(Reuters, 4/8/08)

2008        Apr 9, International calls for Zimbabwe's Robert Mugabe to release long-delayed results from a presidential vote mounted as ruling party militants continued to overrun white-owned farms and the opposition accused the government of waging a campaign of violence.
    (AP, 4/9/08)

2008        Apr 11, Zimbabwe state radio said President Robert Mugabe will snub a regional summit at the weekend that was expected to pressure him to release delayed election results. Police said all political rallies had been banned because officers were too busy guarding ballot boxes or deployed to prevent post-election violence.
    (Reuters, 4/11/08)

2008        Apr 12, African leaders hoped to find a resolution to Zimbabwe's deepening political crisis at an emergency summit in Zambia, but state media reported that President Robert Mugabe would not attend the "unnecessary" meeting. The Electoral Commission said it would conduct a full recount of the presidential and parliamentary ballots cast in 23 constituencies, all but one of them won by the opposition.
    (AP, 4/12/08)(AP, 4/13/08)

2008        Apr 13, In Zambia African leaders ended an emergency summit and called for the swift verification of the Zimbabwe voting results in the presence of all parties. The declaration fell far short of opposition calls for neighboring leaders to pressure President Robert Mugabe to step down after 28 years in power.
    (AP, 4/13/08)

2008        Apr 14, Zimbabwe's High Court rejected an opposition demand for the immediate release of results the March 29 presidential election.
    (AP, 4/14/08)

2008        Apr 15, An opposition general strike to demand the release of Zimbabwe's delayed election result flopped and the ruling party in South Africa said the situation in the neighboring country was "dire."
    (Reuters, 4/15/08)

2008        Apr 16, President Mugabe's security forces clamped down hard on unrest during a general strike, arresting dozens of opposition supporters before the stoppage fizzled out. A coalition of Zimbabwean doctors said its members had seen and treated more than 150 patients who had been beaten and tortured since the elections at the end of March. A court acquitted an American and a British reporter who had been charged with covering Zimbabwe's March 29 election without official accreditation.
    (AFP, 4/16/08)(AP, 4/16/08)

2008        Apr 17,     Zimbabwe's government accused opposition leader Morgan Tsvangirai of treason by plotting with former colonial power Britain to oust veteran President Robert Mugabe. G8 foreign ministers called for the swift release of the results of Zimbabwe's disputed presidential polls, condemning recent violence there.
    (AFP, 4/17/08)

2008        Apr 18,     South Africa's main transport union thwarted the delivery of a controversial shipment of Chinese arms destined for Zimbabwe, saying its workers would not offload the cargo. The Chinese ship left the South African harbor and headed for neighboring Mozambique. Angola and Mozambique said the ship is not welcome. China defended the cargo against international criticism.
    (AFP, 4/18/08)(AP, 4/19/08)(AFP, 4/22/08)(SFC, 4/23/08, p.A2)

2008        Apr 19,     Zimbabwe held a partial recount of votes from last month's general election as the opposition accused President Robert Mugabe and his party of trying to rig their way back to power.
    (AFP, 4/19/08)

2008        Apr 20, Zimbabwe announced a delay in the partial recount of its disputed March 29 election. The opposition accused the authorities of waging a "war" that has killed 10 people and injured 500 others since disputed parliamentary and presidential elections. The secretary general of the opposition Movement for Democratic Change said 400 opposition supporters have been detained in Zimbabwe following the elections.
    (AFP, 4/20/08)

2008        Apr 23, Zimbabwe state media reported the first results from an election recount under way showing President Robert Mugabe's party has won an additional parliamentary seat. The recount in Goromonzi concluded with just a one-vote difference from the original count from the poll, giving the seat to Mugabe's ZANU-PF party,
    (AP, 4/23/08)
2008        Apr 23, PM Gordon Brown pledged that Britain would promote proposals for an arms embargo on Zimbabwe.
    (AP, 4/23/08)

2008        Apr 24, China said a shipment of arms bound for Zimbabwe will be recalled after South African workers refused to unload the vessel and other neighboring countries barred it from their ports.
    (Reuters, 4/24/08)

2008        Apr 25, In Zimbabwe heavily armed police swooped down on opposition headquarters and independent election observers' offices, arresting hundreds and beating and shoving scores of people.
    (AP, 4/25/08)

2008        Apr 26, Official results showed Zimbabwe's main opposition movement has won a historic victory over President Robert Mugabe's ruling party, but the outcome of the presidential vote remained unknown.
    (AP, 4/26/08)

2008        Apr 28, Lawyers in Zimbabwe appealed for the release of some 200 jailed opposition activists as officials defied pressure from the West to release the results of last month's presidential election.
    (AP, 4/28/08)

2008        Apr 30, Zimbabwe said it has decided to float its local currency on foreign exchange markets in an attempt to eliminate speculation on the black market. Farmers tore up their tobacco crop in protest on the auction floors of Harare as state price controls to combat hyperinflation threatened to wipe out their profits. An unidentified senior official with Zimbabwe's ruling ZANU-PF party said results from the March 29 election gave opposition leader Morgan Tsvangirai 47% of the votes while Mugabe trailed with 43%.
    (AP, 4/30/08)(AP, 5/1/08)

2008        May 1, A cabinet minister said a runoff will be necessary to decide Zimbabwe's presidential election, citing the government's own election results.
    (AP, 5/1/08)

2008        May 2, Zimbabwe elections officials said opposition leader Morgan Tsvangirai won 47.9% of the vote in the presidential elections, more than longtime President Robert Mugabe but not enough to avoid a runoff. The opposition said it was willing to share power with the ruling party, but not with longtime President Robert Mugabe.
    (AP, 5/2/08)

2008        May 5, In Zimbabwe 2 truckloads of youths, led by senior members of Pres. Mugabe’s party, marauded through Chiweshe and beat to death 11 opposition activists.
    (SFC, 5/8/08, p.A15)

2008        May 7, Zimbabwe, already facing a presidential run-off, hit new electoral turmoil after the ruling party and opposition filed legal challenges to half of the parliamentary results from March's polls.
    (AFP, 5/7/08)

2008        May 8, In Zimbabwe farmers' groups said the ruling ZANU-PF has pushed 40,000 workers off farms in a post-election campaign targeting supporters of the opposition ahead of a possible presidential run-off. Pressure mounted to admit foreign observers to oversee a presidential election run-off amid fresh claims pro-government militias were instilling terror in the countryside.
    (Reuters, 5/8/08)(AFP, 5/8/08)

2008        May 9, South African President Thabo Mbeki held intensive talks with veteran counterpart Robert Mugabe over Zimbabwe's post-election crisis as doctors reported a dramatic rise in violence.
    (AP, 5/9/08)

2008        May 10, Morgan Tsvangirai, Zimbabwe's opposition leader, said he would contest a presidential runoff poll, but he called for peacekeepers and observers to ensure a fair vote.
    (AP, 5/10/08)

2008        May 15, Zimbabwe's opposition reacted furiously to the prospect of a run-off poll being delayed until the end of July, accusing authorities of flouting the law to help Robert Mugabe cling to power. Zimbabwe introduced a new half-a-billion dollar bank note in a bid to tackle cash shortages fed by rampant inflation.
    (AFP, 5/15/08)

2008        May 16, Zimbabwe's President Robert Mugabe acknowledged he had suffered an electoral disaster in losing a first round against arch rival Morgan Tsvangirai, as the date for a run-off was fixed for June 27.
    (AFP, 5/16/08)

2008        May 17, Zimbabwean opposition leader Morgan Tsvangirai postponed his expected return home to contest an election run-off after his party said it had discovered an assassination plot against him.
    (AP, 5/17/08)

2008        May 18, In South Africa mobs killed at least six people and injured 50 in anti-foreigner violence that has spread through poor suburbs of Johannesburg. Zimbabweans were mainly targeted. The trouble started last week in the sprawling township of Alexandra, where angry residents accused foreigners of taking scarce jobs and housing.
    (AP, 5/18/08)

2008        May 19, Zimbabwe's opposition party accused the country's military of plotting to assassinate the group's presidential candidate using snipers.
    (AP, 5/19/08)

2008        May 24, Morgan Tsvangirai returned to Zimbabwe for an election run-off with President Robert Mugabe and said the veteran leader wanted to "decimate" MDC structures.
    (Reuters, 5/24/08)

2008        May 26, Zimbabwe’s state-run Herald newspaper reported that President Robert Mugabe will respect the will of voters if they end his 28-year rule in a run-off election against opposition leader Morgan Tsvangirai.
    (AP, 5/26/08)

2008        May 27, Zimbabwe's opposition said a campaign of violence and intimidation designed to fix President Robert Mugabe's re-election had now killed over 50 of its supporters.
    (AFP, 5/27/08)

2008        May 30, Zimbabwe’s opposition declared itself the new ruling party and convened what if called a session of Parliament.
    (WSJ, 5/31/08, p.A1)

2008        May 31, Zimbabwe state radio reported that 2 supporters of the ruling party have been shot dead in the country's northeast over the last 2 days, amid mounting violence ahead of a presidential run-off next month. Police arrested Eric Matinenga, a lawyer of the opposition Movement for Democratic Change (MDC), as he went to visit arrested members in Buhera where more than 70 suspects had been arrested over recent outbreaks of violence.
    (AFP, 6/1/08)(Reuters, 6/3/08)

2008        Jun 1, In Zimbabwe police in Harare jailed Arthur Mutambara, head of an MDC faction, for allegedly making false statements that endangered state security.
    (AP, 6/2/08)(Econ, 6/7/08, p.59)

2008        Jun 4, Zimbabwe police detained opposition leader Morgan Tsvangirai after his convoy was stopped at a roadblock. The director of a national NGO association said Zimbabwe has ordered aid groups Save the Children UK, CARE International and ADRA to stop work in the country immediately due to alleged political interference.
    (AP, 6/4/08)(AFP, 6/4/08)(WSJ, 6/4/08, p.A1)

2008        Jun 5, Zimbabwe opposition leader Morgan Tsvangirai vowed to push on with his bid to topple Robert Mugabe at a run-off poll as he returned to the campaign trail a day after being detained by police. The US Embassy said its diplomats and British colleagues were attacked as they tried to investigate Zimbabwe’s political violence.
    (AP, 6/5/08)(AFP, 6/5/08)

2008        Jun 6, Zimbabwe police briefly detained Zimbabwe's opposition presidential candidate for the second time this week and told him the party's rallies had been banned indefinitely three weeks before the runoff election.
    (AP, 6/6/08)

2008        Jun 7, Zimbabwe's High Court overturned a police ban on opposition rallies this weekend ahead of the June 27 presidential run-off.
    (Reuters, 6/7/08)

2008        Jun 9, The US said it will spend seven million dollars to help international observers ensure that presidential elections due at the end of the month in Zimbabwe are free and fair.
    (AFP, 6/9/08)

2008        Jun 10, Morgan Tsvangirai, Zimbabwe's opposition leader, said the country was now effectively being run by a military junta as he vowed that he would not accept a victory for President Robert Mugabe at this month's poll.
    (AFP, 6/10/08)
2008        Jun 10, Zambia’s state media said Zambia has granted political asylum to a dozen Zimbabwe opposition supporters who have fled mounting political violence ahead of a run-off presidential election this month.
    (AP, 6/10/08)

2008        Jun 11, Zimbabwean President Robert Mugabe's party said it would deploy more war veterans to campaign in some opposition areas ahead of a presidential election run-off marred by violence. South African President Thabo Mbeki said levels of violence in the approach to Zimbabwe's run-off presidential election on June 27 are a cause for "serious concern."
    (Reuters, 6/11/08)(AFP, 6/11/08)

2008        Jun 12, Zimbabwe police arrested opposition leader Morgan Tsvangirai while he was campaigning for the country's June 27 presidential run-off election. The Zimbabwean opposition's secretary-general Tendai Biti was arrested at Harare airport as he returned home from South Africa to campaign for the June 27 election.
    (AP, 6/12/08)
2008        Jun 12, The University of Massachusetts rescinded an honorary law degree awarded 22 years ago to Zimbabwean President Robert Mugabe, calling his politics "egregious" and his leadership an "assault on human rights."
    (AP, 6/13/08)

2008        Jun 13, Zimbabwe's President Robert Mugabe said liberation war veterans would take up arms if he loses a June 27 presidential run-off vote. UNICEF said some 500,000 Zimbabwean children are no longer getting the treatment and food they urgently need since the government suspended the work of humanitarian aid organizations.
    (Reuters, 6/13/08)(AFP, 6/13/08)

2008        Jun 14, President Robert Mugabe vowed that the opposition Movement for Democratic Change (MDC) would never rule Zimbabwe and that he was prepared to fight to keep them from taking power. Zimbabwe opposition's number two leader appeared in court to face a treason charge, while police again detained opposition chief Morgan Tsvangirai ahead of this month's presidential run-off election.
    (Reuters, 6/14/08)(AFP, 6/14/08)

2008        Jun16, In Zimbabwe Emmanuel Chiroto's house in the suburb of Hatcliffe was attacked and destroyed by ZANU-PF supporters. Chiroto had been elected Mayor of Harare. He was not present but his wife was later found beaten to death.
    (Econ, 6/28/08, p.50)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Emmanuel_Chiroto)

2008        Jun 18, The UN said up to 5 million people could go hungry in Zimbabwe next year due to a steady drop in food production coupled with the world's highest rate of inflation.
    (AP, 6/18/08)

2008        Jun 19, Zimbabwe’s Movement for Democratic Change (MDC) opposition said 4 more opposition activists and the wife of an MDC politician have been killed, blaming the deaths on ruling party supporters. The MDC youth members were abducted Jun 17 and their bodies were discovered in various locations in Chitungwiza, southeast of Harare.
    (AFP, 6/19/08)

2008        Jun 22, Zimbabwe’s opposition leader Morgan Tsvangirai said he is pulling out of this week's presidential runoff due to mounting violence and intimidation against his supporters.
    (AP, 6/22/08)

2008        Jun 23, Zimbabwe police raided the opposition party's headquarters and took away about 60 people, a day after the party's presidential candidate withdrew from a runoff against longtime leader Robert Mugabe. Opposition leader Morgan Tsvangirai took refuge at the Netherlands embassy in Harare. World leaders challenged Zimbabwe President Robert Mugabe's legitimacy and threatened sanctions. UN Security Council members unanimously condemned Zimbabwe's government, saying it has waged a "campaign of violence" that has made it impossible to hold a fair presidential election. The Zimbabwe opposition said that one of its lawmakers was in intensive care after being beaten up by President Robert Mugabe's supporters ahead of an aborted campaign rally.
    (AP, 6/23/08)(AFP, 6/23/08)(AP, 6/24/08)(AFP, 6/24/08)

2008        Jun 24, Zimbabwe's opposition hand-delivered a letter to the country's electoral commission confirming that its leader Morgan Tsvangirai will not participate in this week's presidential run-off.
    (AFP, 6/24/08)

2008        Jun 25, Zimbabwe's opposition leader emerged from his refuge at the Dutch Embassy to call for African leaders to guide talks to end Zimbabwe's crisis, saying a presidential runoff this week was no solution. Morgan Tsvangirai said the goal of the talks would be forming a coalition transitional authority for his country.
    (AP, 6/25/08)

2008        Jun 26, Zimbabwe's President Robert Mugabe held final campaign rallies on the eve of a one-man election denounced as a sham by the West after the opposition leader pulled out of the contest.
    (AP, 6/26/08)

2008        Jun 27, In Zimbabwe marshals led voters to polling stations and bands of government supporters harassed people in the street as the government held an internationally discredited, one-candidate presidential runoff marked by intimidation. A film was taken by prison guard Shepherd Yuda using a camera supplied by the Guardian newspaper. It was smuggled out of Zimbabwe and showed prison staff being told by a war veteran how to fill in their ballot papers for Mugabe.
    (AP, 6/27/08)(Reuters, 7/5/08)

2008        Jun 28, The head of a foreign observer mission said many Zimbabweans deliberately defaced their ballots in a discredited presidential runoff with President Robert Mugabe as the sole candidate, and voted only out of fear.
    (AP, 6/28/08)

2008        Jun 29, In Zimbabwe according to official results President Robert Mugabe (84) won an overwhelming victory in the discredited, violence-wracked runoff election. On BBC TV Archbishop Desmond Tutu said there is "a very good argument" for sending an international force into Zimbabwe if diplomatic pressure fails to sweep away President Robert Mugabe.
    (AP, 6/29/08)(AFP, 6/29/08)

2008        Jun 30, In Egypt African Union Commission chief Jean Ping told African leaders at a summit that Africa must assume its responsibility in crisis-riven Zimbabwe.
    (AFP, 6/30/08)

2008        Jul 1, The African Union, meeting in Egypt, announced that it was extending the mandate of its force in Somalia for another six months but urged the UN to take over the peacekeeping mission. The African leaders also called for dialogue between Zimbabwe's political foes and a national unity government following President Robert Mugabe's widely discredited reelection.
    (AFP, 7/1/08)(AP, 7/2/08)
2008        Jul 1, Munich-based Giesecke & Devrient, caved in to pressure from the German government to stop supplying Zimbabwe with special blank paper money. Zimbabwe required new notes every few weeks as the inflation rate pushed well over one million percent.
    (WSJ, 7/2/08, p.A1)

2008        Jul 2, Zimbabwe opposition leader Morgan Tsvangirai rejected an African Union decision to keep South Africa's president alone in charge of efforts to resolve Zimbabwe's political crisis. The European Commission insisted that Zimbabwe opposition leader Morgan Tsvangirai should be named at the head of any new government. South African President Thabo Mbeki rejected the EU position.
    (AP, 7/2/08)(AFP, 7/2/08)

2008        Jul 3, A group of around 200 Zimbabweans gathered outside the US embassy in Harare, pleading for political asylum and food after being displaced in recent election violence.
    (AFP, 7/3/08)

2008        Jul 4, Robert Mugabe ruled out the prospect of talks with his opponents on ending Zimbabwe's political crisis unless they acknowledge his victory in the one-man presidential election. Botswana's government urged its neighbors not to recognize Mugabe's re-election as it reiterated calls for Zimbabwe to be suspended from a regional bloc.
    (AFP, 7/4/08)

2008        Jul 8, In Japan G8 leaders endorsed halving world emissions of greenhouse gases by 2050. The G8 also agreed to impose targeted sanctions against leading Zimbabwean officials after a violent election last month that extended President Robert Mugabe's 28-year rule.
    (AP, 7/8/08)

2008        Jul 10, European Union lawmakers called for tougher EU sanctions against Zimbabwe, including putting businessmen who finance Pres. Mugabe's regime on a visa ban list.
    (AP, 7/10/08)

2008        Jul 11, Zimbabwe’s opposition Movement for Democratic Change said a total of 113 MDC supporters have now been killed in politically-related violence. Zimbabwe's ruling party and opposition held a second day of talks in South Africa. A UN Security Council bid to pass sanctions against Zimbabwe’s Robert Mugabe was vetoed by Russia and China.
    (AP, 7/11/08)(AFP, 7/11/08)(AFP, 7/12/08)

2008        Jul 14, Britain vowed to increase pressure on Zimbabwe's leaders by pushing for tougher EU sanctions and hunting down their assets around the world, after failing to secure bolstered UN action.
    (AF, 7/14/08)

2008        Jul 16, Zimbabwe’s central bank's governor said the annual rate of inflation, already the highest in the world, has hit a new record level of 2.2 million percent.
    (AFP, 7/16/08)

2008        Jul 18, South Africa’s Pres. Thabo Mbeki announced plans to work with the UN and African Union as he attempts to mediate a settlement in Zimbabwe.
    (SFC, 7/19/08, p.A8)

2008        Jul 20, A state newspaper reported that Zimbabwe will transfer ownership of all foreign-owned firms that support Western sanctions against President Robert Mugabe's government to locals and investors from "friendly" countries.
    (Reuters, 7/20/08)

2008        Jul 21, In Zimbabwe mediator South African Pres. Thabo Mbeki oversaw a ceremony in Harare at which Robert Mugabe and opposition leader Morgan Tsvangirai signed an agreement for negotiations to bring the country out of political chaos in their first meeting in a decade.
    (AFP, 7/21/08)

2008        Jul 24, In South Africa talks began in earnest on resolving Zimbabwe's political crisis after President Robert Mugabe gave his senior lieutenants the final go-ahead to negotiate power-sharing with the opposition.
    (AP, 7/24/08)

2008        Jul 25, President George W. Bush signed an order expanding US sanctions against the "illegitimate" Zimbabwe government of President Robert Mugabe.
    (Reuters, 7/25/08)

2008        Jul 29, Talks in South Africa on Zimbabwe's political crisis broke up with no power-sharing deal between President Robert Mugabe and his bitter rival Morgan Tsvangirai in sight.
    (AFP, 7/29/08)

2008        Jul 30, Zimbabwe’s reserve bank said it will drop 10 zeros from its hyper-inflated currency — turning 10 billion dollars into one. President Robert Mugabe threatened a state of emergency if businesses profiteer from the country's economic and political unraveling. Inflation this summer reached an absurd 231 million percent.
    (AP, 7/30/08)(Econ, 4/27/13, p.71)

2008        Aug 3, Zimbabwe's rival parties resumed power-sharing talks, a day ahead of the expiry of a deadline to conclude discussions to end a ruinous political crisis.
    (AFP, 8/3/08)

2008        Aug 6, Zimbabwe's ruling ZANU-PF and the opposition MDC called on their supporters to end political violence in the country. A newspaper reported that President Robert Mugabe would have amnesty from prosecution and a ceremonial role in government under a draft settlement to resolve the country's crisis.
    (Reuters, 8/6/08)(AFP, 8/6/08)

2008        Aug 10, South African President Thabo Mbeki spent more than eight hours in talks with Zimbabwe's president and opposition leaders to try to resolve a deadly political dispute.
    (AP, 8/10/08)

2008        Aug 13, South African President Thabo Mbeki left Zimbabwe after failing to secure a power-sharing deal between its main rivals during marathon talks, adding to doubts over chances of an agreement.
    (Reuters, 8/13/08)

2008        Aug 16, In South Africa a regional summit of southern African leaders opened with Zimbabwe's crisis high on the agenda, and with the country's main political rivals in attendance.
    (AP, 8/16/08)

2008        Aug 25, Zimbabwe's opposition won the vote for speaker of the first parliament since disputed elections in March, claiming votes even from the ruling party of autocratic President Robert Mugabe amid stalled talks over sharing power.
    (AP, 8/25/08)

2008        Aug 26, Zimbabwe's opposition heckled Robert Mugabe in an unprecedented show of defiance when the president opened parliament with traditional pomp and his familiar denunciations of the West.
    (AP, 8/26/08)

2008        Aug 27, Zimbabwe's opposition said it will not join any new government with President Robert Mugabe until power-sharing talks are concluded, after the 84-year-old declared he would name his own cabinet.
    (AFP, 8/27/08)

2008        Aug 29, In Zimbabwe power-sharing talks over a unity government resumed as Mugabe's government made good on a promise to allow aid agencies to resume operations. Mugabe announced cash awards for Zimbabwe’s Olympic winners. He called Kirsty Coventry, who won three silvers and a gold at the Beijing games, Zimbabwe's "golden girl" and gave her $100,000.
    (AP, 8/29/08)(AP, 8/30/08)

2008        Aug 31, Zimbabwe's rival parties returned home from talks in South Africa with no sign of a power-sharing deal to resolve the country's bitter political crisis.
    (AFP, 8/31/08)

2008        Sep 1, Zimbabwe's main opposition called on regional powers to pressure President Robert Mugabe's ruling ZANU-PF party to be more flexible in power-sharing talks.
    (AP, 9/1/08)

2008        Sep 4, Teachers in Zimbabwe's public schools went on strike to press for higher pay, despite a pay rise for civil servants announced by the government.
    (AFP, 9/7/08)

2008        Sep 5, Canada joined the US and EU in imposing sanctions on Zimbabwe's authoritarian regime headed by President Robert Mugabe.
    (AP, 9/6/08)

2008        Sep 7, Zimbabwean opposition leader Morgan Tsvangirai said his party would rather withdraw from power-sharing talks than sign an unsatisfactory deal and challenged President Robert Mugabe to call a new poll.
    (AP, 9/7/08)

2008        Sep 11, President Robert Mugabe and the opposition reached an accord in which they will wield equal power in a unity government aimed at ending Zimbabwe's protracted political crisis and economic meltdown. One source said Mugabe will chair the cabinet, while Morgan Tsvangirai takes charge of a national security council which consists of 31 cabinet ministers.
    (AFP, 9/12/08)
2008        Sep 11, Zimbabwe's health minister said a cholera outbreak in a Harare suburb has killed at least 11 people.
    (AP, 9/11/08)

2008        Sep 15, President Robert Mugabe relaxed his iron hold on Zimbabwe for the first time in nearly three decades of one-man rule, forced by escalating economic chaos into sharing power with his bitter political rivals. PM Morgan Tsvangirai used his first platform as head of government to call on Zimbabwe's rival political parties to work together to "unite" the country.
    (AP, 9/15/08)(AFP, 9/15/08)

2008        Sep 17, In Zimbabwe a government-controlled newspaper said key aspects of the new power-sharing deal won't go in effect until next month, adding to concerns that President Robert Mugabe's agreement to cede some power for the first time in 28 years will founder.
    (AP, 9/17/08)

2008        Sep 19, Zimbabwe's ZANU-PF and Movement for Democratic Change (MDC) again failed to break a deadlock over forming a cabinet after reaching a power-sharing deal.
    (AP, 9/19/08)

2008        Sep 25, Zimbabwe's central bank chief said nearly 600 shops had been licensed to sell goods in foreign currency to fight the world's highest inflation rate and critical shortages of basic goods.
    (AFP, 9/25/08)

2008        Sep 27, Zimbabwe's main opposition leader and designated prime minister Morgan Tsvangirai said it was "urgent" the country form a new government to ensure food supplies and prevent starvation.
    (AP, 9/27/08)

2008        Sep 29, Zimbabwe's central bank introduced 10,000- and 20,000-dollar bank notes to ease a cash crunch in the country struggling to cope with the world's highest inflation rate.
    (AFP, 9/29/08)

2008        Oct 9, Zimbabwe's opposition leader Morgan Tsvangirai said that power-sharing talks with President Robert Mugabe's government had stalled and outside mediation was needed to break the deadlock. The UN food agency made an urgent appeal for 140 million dollars (102 million euros) in food aid for more than five million Zimbabweans facing severe hunger. A state newspaper said Zimbabwe's annual inflation rate soared to 231 million percent in July.
    (AFP, 10/9/08)

2008        Oct 10, Zimbabwe's political rivals agreed to seek renewed mediation from former South African President Thabo Mbeki to try to end deadlock over posts in a unity government.
    (Reuters, 10/10/08)

2008        Oct 11, Zimbabwe’s state Herald newspaper published a list from the official government gazette giving the ruling ZANU-PF party 14 ministries, including the key portfolios of defense, home and foreign affairs, justice, media, mines and land. This would allow 83-year-old Mugabe to retain his iron grip on power. Opposition party spokesman Nelson Chamisa said it was a "midnight ambush style of attack" and meant the proposed national unity government was now in jeopardy.
    (AP, 10/11/08)

2008        Oct 13, The EU condemned Zimbabwe President Robert Mugabe's "unilateral decision" to form a new government and threatened fresh sanctions unless he respects a power-sharing deal. Mugabe swore in his two vice presidents, casting doubt on a new mediation effort aimed at saving a power-sharing deal with the opposition.
    (AFP, 10/13/08)

2008        Oct 15, Former South African leader Thabo Mbeki opened a second day of talks with Zimbabwe President Robert Mugabe and his main rival to save a power-sharing deal that has floundered over cabinet posts.
    (AFP, 10/15/08)

2008        Oct 18, Zimbabwean opposition leader Morgan Tsvangirai characterized failed talks to form a unity government with President Robert Mugabe as "a monologue" saying the veteran ruler refused to compromise on the allocation of key ministries.
    (AFP, 10/18/08)

2008        Oct 21, Zimbabwe's main opposition party warned that unless its leader Morgan Tsvangirai is issued a passport he will not attend a meeting next week aimed at breaking a deadlock in power-sharing talks. The party also said that only fresh elections would resolve a dispute over who controls key cabinet posts, a make-or-break issue under a power-sharing pact signed with President Robert Mugabe.
    (AP, 10/21/08)(Reuters, 10/21/08)

2008        Oct 27, Leaders of a Southern African bloc gathered in Zimbabwe to press President Robert Mugabe and the main opposition leader to break an impasse on forming a unity government.
    (AP, 10/27/08)

2008        Oct 28, Zimbabwe’s opposition issued an urgent call for a regional summit after talks aimed at breaking a political deadlock with Pres. Mugabe’s party failed.
    (SFC, 10/29/08, p.A6)

2008        Nov 1, Zimbabwe opposition leader Morgan Tsvangirai called for a truth commission to examine atrocities in the country dating back to the massacres of ethnic minorities in the 1980s.
    (AFP, 11/1/08)

2008        Nov 3, Zimbabwean officials say they have sold almost 4 tons of ivory for over $450,000 and the money will go to the country's cash-strapped wildlife authorities.
    (AP, 11/3/08)

2008        Nov 5, Zimbabwe issued three new denominations of banknotes, including a one-million-dollar note, as the impoverished country struggles to cope with runaway inflation.
    (AP, 11/5/08)

2008        Nov 6, State media reported that Zimbabwe's government will release millions of dollars in unspent foreign aid given to the country last year to fight AIDS, tuberculosis and malaria. An official said Zimbabwe's largest gold mining firm has stopped operations at its five mines across the strife-torn country, resulting in 5,000 people losing jobs. The closures resulted from long delays in receiving payments for gold delivered to the Reserve Bank of Zimbabwe, which has a monopoly on the country's gold trade.
    (AFP, 11/6/08)

2008        Nov 9, Southern African leaders opened a regional summit on Zimbabwe, hoping to break a deadlock over the allocation of cabinet posts which has prevented formation of a power-sharing government.
    (AP, 11/9/08)

2008        Nov 9, Zimbabwe's neighbors failed to break an impasse on forming a unity government, prompting opposition leader Morgan Tsvangirai to appeal to the African Union to step in.
    (AFP, 11/9/08)

2008        Nov 10, President Robert Mugabe said a new Zimbabwe government would be formed "as quickly as possible" despite his rival Morgan Tsvangirai's rejection of a regional compromise on a power-sharing deal.
    (AP, 11/10/08)

2008        Nov 11, In Zimbabwe riot police beat dozens of students and pro-democracy activists marching through Harare to demand a new government to tackle the country's worsening economic and political crisis.
    (AFP, 11/11/08)

2008        Nov 12, Zimbabwe's main opposition said it would not join a new government with President Robert Mugabe until unresolved power-sharing issues were ironed out.
    (AFP, 11/12/08)

2008        Nov 14, Zimbabwe's main opposition party said that it will not join a unity government with Pres. Mugabe until the rivals resolve their differences over a power-sharing deal.
    (AFP, 11/14/08)

2008        Nov 18, In Zimbabwe riot police prevented striking doctors and nurses from protesting against the collapsing health care system, which lacks even basic drugs amid a rapid spread of cholera in the country.
    (AP, 11/18/08)

2008        Nov 19, The World Food Program said that it has signed a new food aid deal to allow the UN agency to provide 350,000 tons of grain to millions in Zimbabwe.
    (AFP, 11/19/08)

2008        Nov 20, South Africa said it will withhold aid for Zimbabwe until a representative government is in place, in what appeared to be the first punitive measure by a regional country to enforce a power-sharing agreement.
    (AP, 11/20/08)
2008        Nov 20, The US ambassador to Harare, James McGee, said that a total of 294 people have been confirmed dead from cholera in Zimbabwe, amid some 1,200 cases of the water-borne disease.
    (AFP, 11/20/08)

2008        Nov 21, Zimbabwe refused to let former UN secretary-general Kofi Annan, ex-US President Jimmy Carter and rights advocate Graca Machel to visit the impoverished African country for a humanitarian mission. They came as members of The Elders group, formed by former South African President Nelson Mandela to foster peace and tackle world conflicts.
    (AP, 11/22/08)

2008        Nov 23, Kenyan PM Raila Odinga called for the deployment of African Union peacekeepers to Zimbabwe to bring President Robert Mugabe back into line.
    (AFP, 11/23/08)

2008        Nov 26, South Africa's health minister said Zimbabwe faced a humanitarian crisis after a major outbreak of cholera, vowing not to turn away anyone who crosses the border for treatment. Botswana's foreign minister said Zimbabwe's neighbors should close their borders in an attempt to bring down Pres. Robert Mugabe, in the strongest call yet for action from Africa.
    (AFP, 11/26/08)

2008        Nov 28, Zimbabwe’s opposition said it has agreed on a draft constitutional amendment to allow the formation of a power-sharing government, but obstacles still remain to setting it up. The UN warned that cholera has killed 389 people in Zimbabwe to date and that the disease is also spreading into neighboring Botswana and South Africa.
    (AFP, 11/28/08)(Reuters, 11/28/08)
2008        Nov 28, A regional tribunal in Namibia ruled that 78 white Zimbabweans can keep their farms because the government's land reform scheme discriminated against them.
    (AFP, 11/28/08)

2008        Nov 30, Zimbabwe's health minister insisted that the country's crumbling medical system was taking all necessary measures to combat a cholera epidemic, even as more than 1,000 new cases were reported.
    (AP, 11/30/08)

2008        Nov, In South Africa a verdict by the tribunal of the regional Southern African Development Community (SADC) found that Zimbabwe had wrongly taken land from nearly 80 farmers, saying they had been targeted because of their race. In 2010 white farmers whose land was seized under Zimbabwe President Robert Mugabe's land reforms claimed a house owned by his government in South Africa based on the SADC verdict.
    (AFP, 3/30/10)

2008        Dec 1, In Zimbabwe gunfire broke out in downtown Harare when rampaging, unpaid soldiers attacked money changers and clashed with police. Zimbabwe rejected a court ruling that demanded the government stop its policy of seizing land from white farmers. Opposition leader Morgan Tsvangirai urged the world to help end a "man-made" humanitarian crisis which has left hundreds of people dead in a cholera epidemic.
    (AP, 12/1/08)

2008        Dec 2, Zimbabwe slipped deeper into crisis as the death toll from a cholera epidemic neared 500 and members of President Robert Mugabe's armed forces were accused of taking part in a looting spree.
    (AP, 12/2/08)

2008        Dec 3, Zimbabwe riot police charged into a group of doctors and nurses protesting the deepening economic and health crisis, as deaths rose sharply from a cholera epidemic blamed on collapsing infrastructure.
    (AP, 12/3/08)

2008        Dec 4, Zimbabwe declared a national emergency over a cholera epidemic and the collapse of its health care system, as the government sought more international help to pay for food and drugs to combat the crisis.
    (AP, 12/4/08)

2008        Dec 6, Zimbabwe's President Robert Mugabe came under fresh international pressure over his country's economic collapse as his government announced plans to introduce a 200 million dollar bill.
    (AFP, 12/6/08)

2008        Dec 7, Kenya’s PM Raila Odinga said foreign troops should prepare to intervene in Zimbabwe to end a worsening humanitarian crisis and Zimbabwean President Robert Mugabe should be investigated for crimes against humanity.
    (AP, 12/7/08)

2008        Dec 8, The EU joined calls for President Robert Mugabe to step down after 28 years ruling Zimbabwe, where spreading cholera and food shortages have worsened a desperate humanitarian crisis.
    (AP, 12/8/08)

2008        Dec 9, President Robert Mugabe rejected mounting Western pressure for him to resign, even as his health minister called for more international aid to battle a deadly cholera epidemic. US President George W. Bush joined calls for Robert Mugabe to step down, but the African Union rejected tougher action against Mugabe and said only dialogue could solve its crisis.
    (AFP, 12/9/08)(Reuters, 12/9/08)

2008        Dec 10, The death toll from Zimbabwe's cholera outbreak soared to nearly 800 and a court ordered police to find a missing rights activist, piling more pressure on President Robert Mugabe's government.
    (Reuters, 12/10/08)

2008        Dec 11, President Robert Mugabe declared that Zimbabwe's cholera crisis was over, even as the UN raised the death toll from the epidemic to 783.
    (AP, 12/11/08)

2008        Dec 12, Zimbabwe's central bank introduced a 500 million dollar note, as the African country struggles to cope with the world's highest inflation and crippling currency shortages.
    (AP, 12/12/08)

2008        Dec 13, The Zimbabwean government accused the West of deliberately starting the country's cholera epidemic, stepping up a war of words with the regime's critics as the humanitarian crisis deepened. Air Marshal Perrance Shiri, head of Zimbabwe's air force, was wounded in the hand in an alleged assassination attempt by gunmen who ambushed his car.
    (AP, 12/13/08)(AP, 12/16/08)

2008        Dec 15, President Robert Mugabe's government vowed to thwart western efforts to put Zimbabwe on the UN Security Council agenda, saying it was not a threat to international security.
    (AP, 12/15/08)

2008        Dec 17, South African President Kgalema Motlanthe said Zimbabwe's neighbors will launch an urgent humanitarian campaign in the hope of saving the country from economic collapse and a cholera epidemic. Motlanthe also said South Africa would not join international calls for Zimbabwe's President Robert Mugabe to step down, saying it was "not for us" to do so.
    (AP, 12/17/08)(AFP, 12/17/08)

2008        Dec 19, President Robert Mugabe declared that "Zimbabwe is mine" and vowed never to surrender to calls to step down, as his political rival threatened to quit stalled unity government talks.
    (AP, 12/19/08)

2008        Dec 22, UN experts said some 5.5 million people in Zimbabwe, about half the population, need food aid, as they called for increased international help for the country which is battling a cholera epidemic. A UN human rights expert said Zimbabwe's President Robert Mugabe is "a mad dictator" who has lost all sense of reality.
    (AP, 12/22/08)(Reuters, 12/22/08)

2008        Dec 24, Leading Zimbabwean human rights campaigner Jestina Mukoko and nine other activists were charged with plotting to overthrow President Robert Mugabe's government.
    (Reuters, 12/24/08)

2008        Dec 25, Zimbabwe police ignored a court order to allow the release to hospital of a rights activist and several opposition figures accused of recruiting anti-government plotters.
    (AFP, 12/25/08)

2008        Dec 28, Zimbabwe’s state media said the government will prosecute 140 white landowners on charges of failing to vacate their farms under the country's controversial 2000 land reform program.
    (AP, 12/28/08)

2008        Heidi Holland authored “Dinner with Mugabe: The Untold Story of a Freedom Fighter who Became a Tyrant."
    (Econ, 3/22/08, p.94)
2008        Zimbabwe’s President Mugabe sent in the police and army to stop the "informal" diamond panning at the Marange fields in favor of mining companies.
    (AFP, 12/28/11)

2009        Jan 6, The WHO said at least 1,732 people have died in Zimbabwe's cholera epidemic and the number of cases diagnosed has risen to 34,306.
    (AP, 1/6/09)

2009        Jan 7, In Zimbabwe seven members of the main opposition party were the first of dozens of jailed dissidents to be formally charged, and they pleaded not guilty in a bombing plot. Zimbabwe delayed the opening of schools by two weeks, amid fears that teachers may not show up for classes due to the country's worsening humanitarian crisis.
    (AP, 1/7/09)(AFP, 1/7/09)

2009        Jan 8, In Zimbabwe opposition members accused of being involved in a bomb plot said they were tortured into making false confessions.
    (AP, 1/8/09)

2009        Jan 13, The WHO said Zimbabwe's cholera epidemic has killed more than 2,000 people and almost 40,000 have contracted the normally preventable disease in Africa's worst outbreak in nearly a decade.
    (Reuters, 1/13/09)

2009        Jan 14, South Africa’s health ministry said the death toll from a cholera outbreak has risen to 15, with more than 2,100 cases registered in a spillover from Zimbabwe's epidemic. The UN said the death toll from Zimbabwe's cholera outbreak has risen to 2,106.
    (AP, 1/14/09)

2009        Jan 15, In Hong Kong Grace Mugabe (43), the wife of Zimbabwe's President Robert Mugabe, struck a photographer in the face repeatedly as her bodyguard grabbed him when he was trying to snap photos of her leaving the five-star Kowloon Shangri-la Hotel. She was later granted diplomatic immunity from prosecution over her alleged assault of the British journalist.
    (AFP, 3/22/09)(http://tinyurl.com/clw9hb)

2009        Jan 16, The EU threatened new sanctions against Robert Mugabe's government in Zimbabwe, blamed for political deadlock, a surging cholera epidemic and runaway inflation. The UN said the death toll from the cholera outbreak had risen to 2,201 and that the epidemic is still not under control.
    (AP, 1/16/09)

2009        Jan 19, In Zimbabwe Southern African mediators tried to forge a compromise between Zimbabwe President Robert Mugabe and his rival Morgan Tsvangirai, in a last-ditch effort to save a power-sharing deal. The power-sharing talks ended without a deal and opposition leader Morgan Tsvangirai said no progress was made on what he called the "darkest day of our lives."
    (AFP, 1/19/09)(Reuters, 1/20/09)

2009        Jan 21, Zimbabwe activists launched a hunger strike to demand faster political change and urge African leaders to isolate the country's president, Robert Mugabe, who is accused of overseeing its political and economic collapse.
    (AP, 1/21/09)

2009        Jan 23, In Zimbabwe city workers in Harare began an indefinite strike, demanding to be paid in hard currency. President Robert Mugabe's ruling party refused to budge on opposition demands for a unity government, whose fate hinges on the outcome of a regional summit next week. The WHO said cholera in Zimbabwe has so far killed 2,773 people.
    (AP, 1/23/09)(AFP, 1/23/09)

2009        Jan 26, European Union nations announced the addition of 27 Zimbabwean officials and 36 companies to the EU's visa and assets freeze blacklist to pressure President Robert Mugabe to share power with Zimbabwe's opposition.
    (AP, 1/26/09)(Econ, 1/31/09, p.52)
2009        Jan 26, Southern African leaders opened fresh talks in Pretoria to end Zimbabwe's political crisis amid a new threat by President Robert Mugabe to form a government excluding his arch rival from power.
    (AFP, 1/26/09)

2009        Jan 27, In South Africa the 15-nation SADC grouping said after a meeting, its fifth attempt to secure a deal on forming a unity government, it had agreed that opposition MDC leader Morgan Tsvangirai should be sworn in as prime minister by February 11. An analyst said chances for a deal appeared slim. The recently introduced 10 trillion Zimbabwean dollar note cannot buy a loaf of bread, which costs Z$30 trillion. Two weeks ago, a loaf of bread cost Z$30 billion.
    (Reuters, 1/27/09)

2009        Jan 29, Zimbabwe Finance Minister Patrick Chinamasa said citizens will be allowed to conduct business in other currencies, alongside the Zimbabwean dollar. A UN report said Zimbabwe's humanitarian disaster is far worse than anticipated with only six percent of the population formally employed and more than half in need of emergency food aid.
    (Reuters, 1/29/09)(AFP, 1/29/09)

2009        Jan 30, Zimbabwe's opposition decided to join a government with President Robert Mugabe next month, ending a paralyzing political deadlock that has worsened the desperate economic and humanitarian crisis. WHO reported that the death toll in Zimbabwe’s cholera outbreak had reached 3,161, out of 60,401 recorded cases.
    (Reuters, 1/30/09)(AP, 1/30/09)

2009        Feb 2, Zimbabwe's central bank revalued its dollar again, lopping another 12 zeros off its battered currency to try to tame hyperinflation and avert total economic collapse.
    (AP, 2/2/09)

2009        Feb 5, Zimbabwe's parliament passed a constitutional bill to allow a coalition government of President Robert Mugabe and opposition rivals, being set up under a deal to end political and economic crisis.
    (Reuters, 2/5/09)

2009        Feb 11, Zimbabwe's opposition leader Morgan Tsvangirai was sworn in as prime minister, joining President Robert Mugabe in a unity government after a decade of struggling to push him from power.
    (AFP, 2/11/09)

2009        Feb 13, In Zimbabwe Roy Bennett, a white farmer turned politician with Tsvangirai's Movement for Democratic Change (MDC), was arrested by state agents just as the new cabinet was preparing to take office. Tsvangirai had named Bennett to become the deputy minister of agriculture in the new coalition cabinet.
    (AFP, 2/13/09)

2009        Feb 15, Britain's Sunday Times reported that Zimbabwean President Robert Mugabe has bought a 4 million pound ($5.6 million) home in Hong Kong. It was bought last year, as Mugabe's 20-year-old daughter began studying at the University of Hong Kong. The paper said it was one of several properties the Mugabes own in Asia but the first to be documented.
    (AP, 2/16/09)

2009        Feb 17, In Zimbabwe President Robert Mugabe and his arch rival Morgan Tsvangirai sat at a cabinet table for the first time as ministers of the country's new unity government held their inaugural meeting. A Zimbabwe court charged Roy Bennett, a senior MDC party official, over a plot involving terrorism and insurgency, just days after the party joined a unity government.
    (AFP, 2/17/09)(Reuters, 2/17/09)

2009        Feb 18, Zimbabwe’s the new finance minister announced that Zimbabwe has begun paying government workers in US dollars and will allow more trade in foreign currency in the first act by a unity government that gave the opposition control of much of the devastated economy. A court ordered ministerial nominee Roy Bennett to be kept in custody until March 4, on the grounds there was "reasonable suspicion" against him in a terrorism case.
    (AP, 2/18/09)

2009        Feb 19, Trading resumed at the Zimbabwe Stock Exchange (ZSE) after a three-month suspension but transactions were carried out only in US dollars, the first time in President Robert Mugabe's 29-year rule.
    (AFP, 2/19/09)

2009        Feb 24, Officials said Zimbabwe's teachers have agreed to end a strike that emptied classrooms for a year, after the government promised to review salaries and appealed for 458 million dollars' aid for schools.
    (AFP, 2/24/09)

2009        Feb 28, In Zimbabwe Pres. Robert Mugabe told followers at his lavish $250,000 birthday party to respect the new power-sharing government but vowed to press on with seizures of white farms. A melee broke out in a dining hall among thousands lined up for a free meal of porridge and vegetables. Soldiers used truncheons to maintain order.
    (AFP, 2/28/09)(SSFC, 3/1/09, p.A5)

2009        Mar 3, In Zimbabwe’s parliament former opposition leader Morgan Tsvangirai was sworn in. A judge ordered the release on bail of senior opposition lawmaker Roy Bennett after nearly three weeks in prison on weapons charges.
    (AP, 3/3/09)

2009        Mar 4, Zimbabwe’s PM Morgan Tsvangirai made his first call for an end to international sanctions, part of his bid to start rebuilding the shattered economy. He also said the detention of political prisoners is undermining donor confidence in Zimbabwe's unity government, hurting efforts to rebuild the economy. US President Barack Obama extended sanctions against Zimbabwe, saying the troubled African nation had not resolved its political crisis.
    (Reuters, 3/4/09)(AFP, 3/4/09)(Reuters, 3/5/09)

2009        Mar 5, In Zimbabwe PM Morgan Tsvangirai said more than 4,000 people have died in the cholera epidemic that has hit at least 85,000 people, warning the figures were likely an underestimate.
    (AP, 3/5/09)

2009        Mar 6, In Zimbabwe PM Morgan Tsvangirai was injured in a car crash that killed his wife. Tsvangirai was flown the next day to neighboring Botswana for medical tests.
    (Reuters, 3/7/09)(AFP, 3/7/09)

2009        Mar 11, Australia said it would provide funding to Zimbabwe's new unity government, the first Western power to announce direct support to the new administration.
    (Reuters, 3/11/09)

2009        Mar 12, In Zimbabwe Roy Bennett, a top aide to PM Morgan Tsvangirai, was released on bail after a legal battle that has raised doubts about Zimbabwe's new unity government.
    (AP, 3/12/09)

2009        Mar 14, Zimbabwe's President Robert Mugabe denounced political violence and urged Zimbabweans to work together following the formation of an inclusive government with opposition leader Morgan Tsvangirai.
    (AFP, 3/14/09)

2009        Mar 27, Zimbabwe PM Morgan Tsvangirai decried a fresh wave of farm invasions across the country and warned that those responsible for the farm disruptions risk arrest.
    (AFP, 3/27/09)

2009        Apr 3, The global diamond certification body ordered a ban on trade in diamonds from eastern Zimbabwe over concerns about human rights violations.
    (AP, 4/3/09)

2009        Apr 6, In Zambia western nations and lending agencies meeting in Lusaka agreed a financing package of more than $1 billion to improve infrastructure in southern and central Africa at an investment conference meant to expand transport links and trade. Britain said it would separately provide 100 million pounds ($149.2 million) to transform the region's infrastructure to increase trade and mitigate the effects of the global financial crisis. New projects will link businesses in 8 African countries: Tanzania, the Democratic Republic of Congo, Zambia, Malawi, Botswana, Zimbabwe, Mozambique and South Africa.
    (AP, 4/6/09)

2009        Apr 12, Zimbabwe set up a parliamentary team to spearhead the writing of a new constitution which Pres. Mugabe's opponents say will be key to holding free and fair elections. A state newspaper reported that Zimbabwe will not use its own local currency for at least a year, while it tries to repair an economy which critics say was destroyed by President Mugabe.
    (Reuters, 4/12/09)

2009        Apr 15, In southern Zimbabwe at least 29 people were killed and 39 injured when a bus plunged into a river bed near Chivhu town.
    (AFP, 4/16/09)

2009        Apr 17, Zimbabwe deputy prime minister Arthur Mutambara vowed to act against illegal farm invasions amid claims that a top lawmaker and Pres. Mugabe ally was behind a fresh seizure. Mugabe made a new call for western nations to lift sanctions and prodded his unity government partners to join his campaigning against them.
    (AFP, 4/17/09)

2009        Apr 18, Zimbabweans celebrated their first Independence Day under a coalition government, with President Robert Mugabe calling for national conciliation as he shared the stage with his former political rival.
    (AP, 4/18/09)

2009        Apr 20, Zimbabwe's central bank governor admitted that he took hard currency from the bank accounts of private businesses and foreign aid groups without permission, saying he was trying to keep his country's cash-strapped ministries running.
    (AP, 4/20/09)

2009        Apr 29, Zimbabwe's teachers vowed to go on strike when the new school term begins next week after government reneged on a pledge to increase their salaries.
    (AFP, 4/29/09)

2009        May 5, In Zimbabwe prominent human rights campaigner Jestina Mukoko and the 17 others were taken back into custody, just two months after their release on bail over an alleged plot to overthrow President Robert Mugabe. PM Morgan Tsvangirai's party warned their detention threatened the survival of Zimbabwe's fledgling unity government. Zimbabwe's teachers unions called off a threatened strike at state schools after the government agreed to scrap fees for children of teachers.
    (AFP, 5/5/09)
2009        May 5, China said it has given 10 million dollars (7.5 million euros) to Zimbabwe, half of it directly into the state coffers, to help boost the country's troubled economy.
    (AP, 5/5/09)

2009        May 6, In Zimbabwe a top rights activist and 14 others were ordered freed on bail after Zimbabwe's president and prime minister forced a judge to reverse her decision to send them back to the prison where they said they had been tortured. She refused, however, to free three others she had ordered returned to prison, saying their case was more serious because they had allegedly been found with explosives. The last 3 were released on May 13.
    (AP, 5/6/09)(AFP, 5/14/09)

2009        May 7, Zimbabwe’s finance minister, Tendai Biti, said African financial institutions have extended $428 million in credit lines in a bid to rescue the country's ailing economy.
    (AP, 5/7/09)

2009        May 18, The World Bank said it would give $22 million to Zimbabwe, but said the country must clear its long-standing arrears to qualify for more aid.
    (AP, 5/18/09)

2009        May 21, Zimbabwe’s PM Morgan Tsvangirai said the unity government has agreed on key appointments in an attempt to resolve the political impasse that has paralyzed the new administration.
    (AP, 5/21/09)

2009        May 26, The Red Cross said the number of cholera cases in Zimbabwe is expected to cross the 100,000 mark in the coming days, warning that the epidemic was Africa's worst in 15 years.
    (AFP, 5/26/09)

2009        May 30, Zimbabwe’s PM Morgan Tsvangirai said that his efforts to restore democratic freedoms and the rule of law to Zimbabwe have so far failed. Tsvangirai urged southern African leaders to help resolve a deadlock over the appointments of the country's bank chief and attorney general. The national statistical agency said Zimbabwe had recorded a minus 1.1 percent inflation rate in April, a slower fall than March, after scrapping its worthless currency to combat world record prices.
    (AP, 5/30/09)(AFP, 5/30/09)

2009        Jun 7, Zimbabwe PM Morgan Tsvangirai launched a three-week trip to the West. He spoke at The Hague saying he is seeking re-engagement, not touring with a "begging bowl" asking for aid. Pres. Robert Mugabe launched a new pact aimed at tearing down trade barriers across 19 African nations with appeals for external investors and an end to domestic conflicts.
    (AP, 6/7/09)(AFP, 6/7/09)

2009        Jun 16, The US added six African countries to a blacklist of countries trafficking in people, and put US trading partner Malaysia back on the list. Chad, Eritrea, Niger, Mauritania, Swaziland, and Zimbabwe were added to the list in the annual report. Removed from the list were Qatar, Oman, Algeria, and Moldova.
    (AFP, 6/16/09)

2009        Jun 20, Zimbabwean PM Morgan Tsvangirai was booed and shouted down by exiles during a speech in London when he pleaded with them to return home to help rebuild the shattered country.
    (AFP, 6/21/09)

2009        Jun 22, Britain pledged an extra five million pounds in aid to Zimbabwe, hailing progress under a new unity government but urging more reform after landmark talks between leaders of the two countries.
    (AFP, 6/22/09)

2009        Jun 26, Human Rights Watch said that Zimbabwe's armed forces have taken over diamond fields in the east and killed more than 200 people, forcing children to search for the precious gems and beating villagers who get in the way.
    (AP, 6/26/09)

2009        Jun 29, In Zimbabwe PM Morgan Tsvangirai's party boycotted a meeting of the cabinet on the grounds that it made a mockery of the country's power-sharing deal. Tsvangirai said Zimbabwe has won 950 million dollars in credit lines from China, the largest loan secured by the unity government since it was formed in February.
    (AFP, 6/29/09)AFP, 6/30/09)

2009        Jul 1, Zimbabwe's former finance minister Simba Makoni launched a new opposition party that promises to "clean up" the country's political landscape.
    (AFP, 7/1/09)

2009        Jul 5, An official Zimbabwe newspaper reported that the government has promised to withdraw soldiers from diamond fields in the east, a week after a rights group alleged the military was committing killings and abuses in the area.
    (AP, 7/5/09)

2009        Jul 10, Zimbabwe's army and police refused to vacate diamond fields where security forces are accused of human rights abuses, despite a pledge last week for their withdrawal. Finance Minister Tendai Biti said the government will provide 142 million dollars in aid to small-scale farmers as the country struggles to revive its shattered agricultural sector.
    (AFP, 7/10/09)(AP, 7/10/09)

2009        Jul 13, In Zimbabwe militants from President Robert Mugabe's party disrupted the start of a national conference aimed at drawing up a new constitution.
    (AP, 7/13/09)

2009        Jul 14, Zimbabwe's constitution talks, violently disrupted by militant backers of President Robert Mugabe, resumed with calls for tolerance in work on a charter meant to pave the way to fresh polls.
    (AFP, 7/14/09)

2009        Jul 24, Zimbabwe's coalition government launched a campaign of "national healing" and reconciliation, with political leaders urging supporters to end years of political violence and intimidation.
    (AP, 7/24/09)

2009        Jul 25, Zimbabwe’s PM Morgan Tsvangirai said compensation must be considered for victims of political violence as the country held a weekend of national reconciliation.
    (AFP, 7/25/09)

2009        Jul 29, In Zimbabwe the British Broadcasting Corp. resumed broadcasting for the first time since it was banned in 2001. The five-month-old coalition government said it also was considering allowing CNN back.
    (AP, 7/30/09)

2009        Jul 30, Zimbabwe’s Daily News, a popular newspaper banned nearly six years ago, won a new license to resume printing. It was renowned for its willingness to criticize Pres. Robert Mugabe. CNN said Zimbabwe agreed last week to allow it to resume working in the country.
    (AFP, 7/31/09)
2009        Jul 30, Zimbabwe's health minister said a cholera epidemic has ended, after more than 4,200 deaths and 100,000 cases since last August, but warned new outbreaks remain a threat.
    (AP, 7/30/09)

2009        Jul 31, Global Witness, which monitors the exploitation of natural resources, backed calls for a ban on trading in Zimbabwe diamonds due to human rights abuses in mining of the gem.
    (AFP, 7/31/09)

2009        Aug 2, In Zimbabwe 40 people were killed and 30 others injured when a bus overturned after colliding with a lorry south of Harare.
    (AP, 8/2/09)(AP, 8/3/09)

2009        Aug 5, Zimbabwe's veteran Vice-President Joseph Msika (86) died. His death was expected to reignite debate over who will eventually succeed President Robert Mugabe.
    (Reuters, 8/5/09)

2009        Aug 7, International donor the Global Fund, which had a financial dispute with Zimbabwe's previous government, took the unusual step of giving $37.9 million in aid directly to Zimbabwe's new unity government instead of channeling it through private groups.
    (AP, 8/7/09)

2009        Aug 12, Doctors at Zimbabwe's state hospitals went on strike, demanding higher salaries and payment of their monthly allowances.
    (AFP, 8/12/09)

2009        Aug 18, In Zimbabwe a truck hit a bus head-on, killing 11 people including six members of a family returning from a funeral.
    (AP, 8/19/09)

2009        Aug 19, In Zimbabwe 10 lawmakers from PM Morgan Tsvangirai's party were arrested and charged with disturbing the peace as they headed into the Finance Ministry for a meeting.
    (AP, 8/19/09)

2009        Aug 23, In Zimbabwe a cabinet retreat by the unity government collapsed this weekend as President Robert Mugabe's ministers walked out after the deputy prime minister said last year's polls were fraudulent.
    (AP, 8/23/09)

2009        Aug 26, Doctors at Zimbabwe's state hospitals called off a crippling two-week strike, broken by the reality that the government had no money to meet their wage demands.
    (AFP, 8/26/09)

2009        Aug 27, In Zimbabwe South Africa’s President Jacob Zuma he met with PM Tsvangirai who has accused Mugabe's ZANU-PF party of stalling on reforms and continuing to attack and harass its activists.
    (AP, 8/28/09)

2009        Aug 28, In Zimbabwe South Africa’s President Jacob Zuma met with President Robert Mugabe and other leaders and appeared cautiously optimistic that their differences within the coalition government could be resolved.
    (AP, 8/28/09)

2009        Aug 29, The EU signed a temporary trade pact with Mauritius, Seychelles, Zimbabwe and Madagascar calling for tariffs on European goods to be removed over the next 15 years.
    (AP, 8/29/09)

2009        Aug 30, In Zimbabwe Godknows Dzoro Mtshakazi, a member of PM Morgan Tsvangirai's party, was killed by soldiers in Shurugwi for playing a song praising the premier.
    (AFP, 9/8/09)

2009        Sep 5, The IMF said Zimbabwe has received about 400 million dollars, as Special Drawing Rights, in support from the International Monetary Fund, part of its broader effort to cushion the blows of the global economic crisis. To convert the SDRs into hard currency, Zimbabwe would have to find another country to buy them. Otherwise the money serves to bolster Harare's meager foreign reserves.
    (AFP, 9/5/09)

2009        Sep 11, South Africa and the European Union started a summit expected to be dominated by calls from African nations for sanctions against Zimbabwe to be lifted.
    (AP, 9/11/09)

2009        Sep 12, Zimbabwe’s President Robert Mugabe welcomed the first top-level European Union delegation to visit in seven years with "open arms" and said talks on implementing a power-sharing deal went well.
    (Reuters, 9/12/09)

2009        Sep 13, Zimbabwe's PM Morgan Tsvangirai accused President Robert Mugabe of violating a fledgling power-sharing deal. The EU said ties with Zimbabwe would only normalize once a unity accord is properly implemented, but pledged a further 90 million euro this year to assist the troubled nation.
    (AFP, 9/13/09)

2009        Sep 21, Zimbabwe teachers, who went on strike over salaries at the start of the new school term three weeks ago, returned to work after their union called off the boycott.
    (AFP, 9/21/09)

2009        Sep 30, The World Bank announced a 74-million-dollar grant to revive Zimbabwe's agriculture sector.
    (AFP, 9/30/09)

2009        Oct 1, Nestle said it will stop buying milk from Zimbabwean President Robert Mugabe's wife's farm after facing worldwide boycott threats.
    (AP, 10/2/09)

2009        Oct 10, Zimbabwe's central bank chief said the government has frozen Nestle's local accounts and ordered an audit after Nestle stopped buying milk from a farm owned by President Robert Mugabe's wife.
    (AP, 10/11/09)

2009        Oct 12, Nestle said its Zimbabwe banking is back to normal just days after newspapers reported that the government froze their accounts and ordered an audit after the company stopped buying milk from a farm owned by President Robert Mugabe's wife.
    (AP, 10/12/09)

2009        Oct 14, A Zimbabwe court ordered ministerial nominee Roy Bennett, a close aide to PM Morgan Tsvangirai, back to jail until his terrorism trial begins next week. Bennett was accused of possessing arms for the purposes of banditry, terrorism and inciting acts of insurgency.
    (AFP, 10/14/09)

2009        Oct 16, Zimbabwe PM Morgan Tsvangirai suspended cooperation with President Robert Mugabe's "dishonest and unreliable" camp but said he will not quit the unity government. The snub was sparked by the renewed detention of Tsvangirai's top aide Roy Bennett.
    (AFP, 10/16/09)

2009        Oct 21, South Africa’s President Jacob Zuma said Zimbabwe must not return to instability, after holding talks with PM Morgan Tsvangirai who has cut ties within his unity government. Tsvangirai flew to South Africa after meeting Mozambican President Armando Guebuza a day earlier and then headed to the Democratic Republic of Congo and Angola to brief leaders on Zimbabwe's worst impasse in eight months.
    (AFP, 10/22/09)

2009        Oct 23, In Zimbabwe armed police raided a house belonging to PM Morgan Tsvangirai's party in a new threat to the country's faltering unity government.
    (AFP, 10/24/09)

2009        Oct 24, Zimbabwean President Robert Mugabe accused PM Morgan Tsvangirai of failing to act in the national interest after withdrawing his support for the country's fragile unity government, state media reported.
    (AFP, 10/24/09)

2009        Oct 27, Zimbabwe's PM Morgan Tsvangirai and ministers drawn from his MDC party boycotted a cabinet meeting led by Pres. Mugabe for the second time in as many weeks. The Southern African Development Community (SADC) confirmed that it will be sending its politics, defense and security body on a fact-finding mission to Harare. The bloc mediated the unity pact that underpins the government.
    (AFP, 10/27/09)

2009        Oct 28, The UN said Zimbabwe's government has blocked a visit by Manfred Nowak, the UN’s torture investigator who was to examine alleged attacks on opposition activists by ruling party supporters.
    (AP, 10/28/09)

2009        Oct 29, In eastern Zimbabwe Elmon Mupombwa (41) killed three of his children with an ax and wounded two others. He also torched his home and killed his livestock — five cattle, 20 goats and 17 chickens — before hanging himself. Police said Mupombwa had attended a tribal ritual conducted by a spirit medium, also known as a witch doctor.
    (AP, 11/1/09)

2009        Nov 5, Zimbabwe's rival leaders met with Mozambican leader Armando Guebuza, the head of a regional security body, ahead of an emergency summit aimed at hauling a fragile power-sharing deal out of a three-week impasse. The summit was set to open with leaders from the Democratic Republic of Congo, South Africa, Swaziland and Zambia.
    (AP, 11/5/09)

2009        Nov 6, Zimbabwe averted a political meltdown after PM Morgan Tsvangirai ended a boycott of the unity government, but faced a new deadline to resolve a slate of thorny disputes. He said assurances South Africa will be watching persuaded him to end his boycott.
    (AP, 11/6/09)

2009        Nov 16, A 3-day summit on world hunger opened in Rome. Zimbabwe’s Pres. Mugabe used the UN summit on world hunger to lash out at the West and defend land reforms blamed for plunging his people into starvation. Some 60 heads of state and dozens of minister rejected a UN call to commit $44 billion annually for agricultural development in poor countries.
    (AP, 11/17/09)(SFC, 11/17/09, p.A8)

2009        Nov 18, South African police fired rubber bullets to disperse a mob who attacked shacks belonging to hundreds of migrants following several days of tension. Up to 2,700 Zimbabwean asylum seekers have set up a temporary "safety camp" in a rural South African town following attacks on their shacks in a dispute over jobs.
    (Reuters, 11/18/09)

2009        Nov 19, Zimbabwe’s government said security forces have started withdrawing from the country's eastern diamond fields to meet Kimberley Process reforms over human rights abuses.
    (AFP, 11/19/09)

2009        Nov 25, Zimbabwe's state media said the ailing public health system will receive a 180 million US dollar boost to fight HIV and AIDS, tuberculosis and malaria from the Global Fund.
    (AP, 11/25/09)

2009        Nov 27, Zimbabwe and South Africa signed a bilateral investment agreement which would protect investments made by nationals of both countries in each other's territory.
    (AFP, 11/27/09)

2009        Nov 28, In China a Zimbabwe-registered cargo plane crashed in flames during takeoff from Shanghai's main airport, killing 3 American crew members and injuring 4 others on board.
    (AP, 11/28/09)

2009        Dec 9, The International Federation of Red Cross and Red Crescent Societies said it needs $32 million to feed 220,000 Zimbabweans who cannot access hard currency in the collapsed economy.
    (AP, 12/9/09)

2009        Dec 10, In South Africa the Industrial Development Corporation of South Africa (IDC) said it has approved a 10-million-dollar grant to fund the expansion of Zimbabwe's Freda Rebecca gold mine.
    (AFP, 12/10/09)

2009        Dec 12, Zimbabwe President Robert Mugabe was re-elected as ZANU-PF leader for the next five years, urging supporters to work for the survival of the party. Mugabe said the unity government is short-lived and he plans to regain his hold over the country.
    (AFP, 12/12/09)(AP, 12/13/09)

2009        Dec 14, The World Health Organization (WHO) said polio has re-emerged in several African countries where it had been eradicated, at the start of a conference on child immunization in Zimbabwe.
    (AP, 12/14/09)

2009        Dec 18, Zimbabwe, for years plagued by hyper inflation, presented official data showing it has switched narrowly into an absolute price fall on a monthly basis, following adoption of foreign currencies.
    (AFP, 12/18/09)

2009        Dec 21, Zimbabwe President Robert Mugabe and his rival PM Morgan Tsvangirai announced an agreement on commissions to drive media and electoral reforms, one of the key issues which has been threatening their power-sharing deal.
    (AP, 12/22/09)

2009        Dec 23, Nestle, the Swiss-based food giant, said Zimbabwean government officials and police had made an "unannounced visit" to the plant on Dec 19, forcing staff to take delivery of a tanker of milk from non-contracted suppliers. "Since under such circumstances normal operations and the safety of employees are no longer guaranteed, Nestle decided to temporarily shut down the factory."
    (AFP, 12/23/09)

2009        In Zimbabwe Godknows Nare produced a documentary on the conditions of the country’s jails and prisons titled “Hell Hole."
    (SFC, 4/2/09, p.A2)

2010        Jan 6, Zimbabwe state media reported that Zimbabwe Power Company (ZPC) has signed an eight million dollar deal with Botswana to revive a shut-down thermal power station and ease national blackouts.
    (AFP, 1/6/10)

2010        Jan 7, Zimbabwe halted a controversial sale of 300,000 carats of diamonds, but blamed bureaucratic hold-ups rather than a scandal over rights abuses by the military in the diamond fields.
    (AFP, 1/7/10)

2010        Jan 13, Zimbabwe civil servants, who earn only 150 US dollars a month, rejected the government's "paltry" offer to raise salaries by a maximum of 14%.
    (AP, 1/13/10)
2010        Jan 13, A Zimbabwe state daily reported that the nation’s power utility has been ordered to stop electricity exports to Namibia until it can meet its own country's needs.
    (AFP, 1/13/10)

2010        Jan 14, Key southern African leaders gathered in the Mozambican capital Maputo for a special summit on the political crises in Zimbabwe and Madagascar. Leaders called for a return to dialogue in the ongoing political crisis in Madagascar. A medical aid group said Zimbabweans crossing illegally into neighboring South Africa after holidays at home are being raped and robbed by gangs on both sides of the border.
    (AFP, 1/14/10)(AP, 1/14/10)

2010        Jan 27, In Zimbabwe a lawyer said the Supreme Court has ordered the central bank to safeguard millions of dollars' worth of diamonds from a mine where the military is accused of killings and forced labor. State media said a Zimbabwe high court has rejected a southern African court's ruling that blocked the government's move to resettle blacks on more than 70 white-owned farms.
    (AFP, 1/27/10)

2010        Feb 5, Zimbabwe's civil servants launched an open-ended strike, demanding that their wages be increased to at least 630 US dollars, from 150 dollars a month, piling pressure on the strained unity government struggling to fix the economy. Most of Zimbabwe's 230,000 civil servants appeared to have heeded the strike call.
    (AFP, 2/5/10)(AFP, 2/9/10)

2010        Feb 11, Willem Wijnstekers, head of the UN program to protect endangered species, said that Zimbabwe security forces had killed over 200 rhinos over the past 2 years putting that population on the verge of extinction.
    (SFC, 2/12/10, p.A2)

2010        Feb 18, Zimbabwe state newspapers reported that the Supreme Court has ordered two government mining firms to stop operations on British-owned diamond mining fields plagued by human rights abuses.
    (AFP, 2/18/10)

2010        Feb 19, Some 1,000 Zimbabwe civil servants marched through the streets of the capital Harare demanding hefty increases in their salaries.
    (AFP, 2/19/10)

2010        Feb 26, In Zimbabwe a cabinet minister said Zimbabwe stands by a new law requiring major foreign firms to sell 51 percent stakes to locals, but will allow companies to choose their own partners. The law takes effect on March 1, giving 45 days for companies valued at more than 500,000 US dollars to sell 51 percent stakes to locals. The Indigenization and Empowerment Bill was passed by parliament in 2007 and signed by President Robert Mugabe in 2008, before the creation of a unity government with long-time rival, PM Morgan Tsvangirai.
    (AP, 2/26/10)

2010        Mar 1, In Zimbabwe a new law took effect, giving companies valued at more than 500,000 US dollars 45 days to inform the government of the racial make-up of their shareholders. The main labor body said the new law, requiring locals to own 51 percent of major foreign firms, could hurt the nation's economic recovery.
    (AFP, 3/1/10)

2010        Mar 3, Zimbabwe's the industry minister said the cabinet will review new local ownership rules that have sparked concern among business leaders, saying the law had been published "prematurely."
    (AFP, 3/3/10)

2010        Mar 11, The Zimbabwe Red Cross said at least 2.17 million Zimbabweans need food aid and the figures are set to rise because of an expected poor harvest this year.
    (AFP, 3/11/10)

2010        Mar 17, In Zimbabwe South African President Jacob Zuma began talks with Zimbabwe's political leaders on his first trip as chief regional mediator to patch up differences in the troubled coalition government.
    (AP, 3/17/10)

2010        Mar 18, Zimbabwe's rival leaders faced fresh pressure to mend their differences and push toward new elections, as South African President Jacob Zuma led talks on the fragile unity government.
    (AP, 3/18/10)

2010        Mar 24, A Zimbabwean rights group that organized a photo exhibit documenting human rights violations scrambled to re-hang its damaged displays just minutes before the show was slated to begin. Police had confiscated the photos a day earlier, but the show's organizers won a court ruling ordering the photos' return to the independent downtown Gallery Delta. The rights group abandoned the photo exhibit following fresh attempts by police to shut it down.
    (AP, 3/25/10)

2010        Mar 26, Zimbabwe state media reported that PM Morgan Tsvangirai has backed President Robert Mugabe's stance against including gay rights in a new constitution.
    (AFP, 3/26/10)

2010        Mar 27, Zimbabwe police shut down an art exhibit exploring violence blamed on President Robert Mugabe. Artist Owen Maseko had collected family photos of missing people, images of mine shafts where bodies were believed dumped and reports on an armed uprising after independence in 1980 in the western Matabeleland district that was crushed by troops loyal to Mugabe. Thousands of civilians were massacred in the fighting.
    (AP, 3/29/10)

2010        Mar 30, In Zimbabwe 13 legislators from both parties in the coalition government were not allowed to enter the Chiadzwa diamond district. They spent 2 days waiting for clearance.
    (AP, 4/1/10)

2010        Apr 8, In Zimbabwe retired bishop Abel Muzorewa (85) died. He was the first black leader of the former Rhodesia and later became an opponent of Zimbabwe's Pres. Mugabe.
    (AP, 4/10/10)

2010        Apr 13, Zimbabwe's government withdrew a controversial law that would have seen foreign firms forced to cede 51 percent of their shares to locals.
    (AFP, 4/13/10)
2010        Apr 13, In Zimbabwe at least 25 people were burned to death and two dozen others injured when a bus collided with a truck laden with fertilizer on a highway in the northwest.
    (Reuters, 4/14/10)

2010        Apr 18, Zimbabwe President Robert Mugabe pledged to move ahead with plans to hand over 51 percent control of businesses to blacks under a controversial program. Addressing a rally to mark 30 years of independence from Britain, Mugabe urged Zimbabweans to end political violence and focus on rebuilding a devastated economy.
    (Reuters, 4/18/10)

2010        Apr 22, Zimbabwe’s President Robert Mugabe welcomed Iranian President Mahmoud Ahmadinejad, a meeting of two leaders united in fierce opposition to the West.
    (AP, 4/22/10)

2010        May 10, In Zimbabwe a judge acquitted top prime minister's aide Roy Bennett of all charges in a terrorism case that had strained Zimbabwe's struggling coalition government since it was forged more than a year ago.
    (AP, 5/10/10)

2010        May 13, In Zimbabwe thousands of mine workers went on strike for better pay after negotiations with employers collapsed.
    (AP, 5/13/10)

2010        May 16, Zimbabwe's PM Morgan Tsvangirai called for an immediate Southern African Development Community (SADC) summit to resolve major disagreements stalling a power-sharing government with his long-time rival President Robert Mugabe.
    (AP, 5/16/10)

2010        May 18, Amnesty International accused Zimbabwe's unity government of failing to provide for victims of a mass eviction blitz five years ago that left 700,000 people destitute.
    (AFP, 5/17/10)

2010        May 19, Zimbabwe's Chamber of Mines proposed a compromise in the government's drive to force foreign firms to give 51 percent stakes to locals, saying 15 percent local shareholding for mines was enough.
    (AP, 5/19/10)

2010        May 26, Zimbabwe licensed four private daily newspapers, including the banned Daily News, a sign the new unity government is following through on promises to open up the media to non-state run publications.
    (Reuters, 5/26/10)

2010        May 31, Business leaders from Ghana and Zimbabwe met in Accra to forge closer economic and trade cooperation between the two African countries.
    (AFP, 6/1/10)

2010        Jun 1, In Zimbabwe a taxi van crashed head-on into a military bus, killing 16 people and seriously injuring three others.
    (AP, 6/2/10)

2010        Jun 4, Zimbabwe's first private daily newspaper hit the streets to break a state monopoly established years ago after President Robert Mugabe's government banned a pro-opposition newspaper over a registration dispute.
    (Reuters, 6/4/10)

2010        Jun 9, Zimbabwe’s farmers' union said at least 16 white farmers have come under attack over the last week, including several South African nationals and a farm owned by Malaysian investors. The attackers were trying to evict them, although many of the farmers have court orders allowing them to stay on their land.
    (AFP, 6/9/10)

2010        Jun 10, The Zimbabwe state wildlife authority said poachers last week killed 10 elephants in a single attack in southeastern Gonarezhou national park. All the tusks were removed, leaving the carcasses on a river bank.
    (AP, 6/10/10)

2010        Jun 18, Parts of Zimbabwe and most of neighboring Zambia suffered a massive blackout for about 10 hours, as a fault crippled the hydro-electric dam that supplies most of the countries' power.
    (AFP, 6/18/10)

2010        Jun 20, Zimbabwe arrested two Pakistani men for using fake passports. State media later said one man is potentially linked to the November 2008 attacks in Mumbai. Suspect Imran Muhammad (33) was wanted in Pakistan for alleged involvement in the Mumbai attacks, which left 166 people dead. The second man was identified as Chaudry Parvez Ahmed.
    (AP, 6/26/10)

2010        Jul 4, In Zimbabwe a collision involving 2 buses and a truck killed 18 people and injured 30 others 50 miles west of Harare.
    (SFC, 7/5/10, p.A2)

2010        Jul 12, A Zimbabwean high court released Farai Maguwu, a rights activist charged with endangering Zimbabwe's economic interests by highlighting abuses at diamond mines. He had been arrested on June 3.
    (AFP, 7/12/10)(Econ, 6/26/10, p.48)

2010        Jul 13, Zimbabwe's President Robert Mugabe vowed that the country would go ahead with diamond sales that were banned earlier this year because of rights violations at its largest mines. He said his nation will sell its massive stores of diamonds despite not receiving authorization from the world's diamond control body.
    (AFP, 7/13/10)(AP, 7/13/10)

2010        Jul 15, A last-minute deal at a meeting of the Kimberley Process certification scheme in Russia authorized Zimbabwe to sell two batches of diamonds under strict monitoring and regulation through Sept. 1.
    (AP, 7/16/10)

2010        Aug 1, Zimbabwean President Robert Mugabe lashed out at Western powers over sanctions imposed on his ZANU-PF party, saying the European Union and United States were simply bent on driving him out of power. Mugabe said Zimbabwe's diamonds should benefit the entire country, as he urged greedy politicians to blunt their appetite for individual wealth.
    (Reuters, 8/1/10)(AFP, 8/1/10)

2010        Aug 3, The UN launched an appeal for 478 million dollars (362 million euros) in aid to Zimbabwe, 100 million dollars more than in 2009, saying the country was at crossroads.
    (AFP, 8/3/10)

2010        Aug 11, Zimbabwe auctioned 900,000 carats of rough diamonds that were mined from its Marange fields, an area where human rights groups say soldiers killed 200 people, raped women and forced children into hard labor.
    (AP, 8/11/10)

2010        Aug 12, In Zimbabwe a wounded buffalo, known as one of the most aggressive animals in the African bush, gored veteran Zimbabwean conservationist Steve Kok (71) to death, ending his years of dedication to saving wild animals from poachers' traps.
    (AP, 8/17/10)

2010        Aug 16, US-based Rapaport Diamond Trading Network, one of the world's largest diamond trading networks, said it will expel members who knowingly trade Zimbabwean stones tainted by allegations of killings and human rights abuses.
    (AP, 8/16/10)

2010        Sep 2, South Africa's government said it is withdrawing the April, 2009, special status granted to illegal Zimbabwean immigrants who fled their country's economic meltdown and political violence. A government said South Africa will begin deportations after Dec 31.
    (AP, 9/2/10)

2010        Sep 8, The UN Children's Fund launched a scheme to provide 13 million textbooks to Zimbabwe's students, in a 50-million-dollar effort to revive the struggling school system.
    (AFP, 9/8/10)

2010        Sep 10, Zimbabwean police arrested 6 health workers, including four US citizens and a New Zealand doctor, as well as a Zimbabwean doctor for allegedly operating a clinic without a license in Harare. All belonged to an int’l. church group that helps care for HIV and AIDS patients. All 6 were granted bail on Sep 13. Charges were dropped on Sep 22 as prosecutors conceded the health workers were "doing good work" for the Allen Temple Baptist Church of Oakland, Calif., which operates the Mother of Peace Orphanage outside Harare.
    (AP, 9/11/10)(AFP, 9/12/10)(AFP, 9/13/10)(AP, 9/22/10)

2010        Sep 14, Zimbabwe's state airline said it has fired 40 striking pilots for failing to meet a deadline to return to their posts. The pilots said the indebted airline has not paid out operational allowances for nearly 20 months. They earned up to $2,500 a month, about one third of the international pay scale for airline pilots.
    (AP, 9/14/10)

2010        Sep 17, In Zimbabwe about 300 civil servants marched through Harare demanding higher pay and benefits from money the state earned through recent diamond auctions.
    (AFP, 9/17/10)

2010        Sep 19, In Zimbabwe 5 people were injured in the capital Harare when pro-Mugabe militants stoned a meeting meant to gather public opinion on a new constitution.
    (AFP, 9/20/10)

2010        Sep 20, In Zimbabwe 83 members of Women of Zimbabwe Arise (WOZA) were arrested after marching to highlight concerns around community safety and police behavior. They were freed after 2 days in jail.
    (AFP, 9/21/10)(AP, 9/22/10)

2010        Sep 22, In Zimbabwe supporter of PM Morgan Tsvangirai died, days after militants from President Robert Mugabe's rival party attacked a political meeting.
    (AFP, 9/22/10)

2010        Sep 23, Zimbabwe's national airline said a crippling two-week strike by its 44 pilots has ended and regional and international flights will resume Sep 24.
    (AP, 9/23/10)
2010        Sep 23, Zimbabwe state media said a measles outbreak has claimed the lives of 70 children over the past two weeks, mostly among families from apostolic sects that shun vaccinations.
    (AP, 9/24/10)

2010        Sep 24, Investigators of the Zimbabwe Conservation Task Force, who visited an animal reserve near the southern border town of Beit Bridge and the Limpopo river, reported that occupiers slaughtered 300 zebra for their skins in the last two months. 7 African antelope were killed this week.
    (AP, 9/24/10)

2010        Sep 30, Zimbabwe's Pres. Mugabe told foreign investors that they must accept black Zimbabweans as the major shareholders in their projects, or stay away from the southern African nation.
    (AP, 9/30/10)

2010        Oct 25, In Zimbabwe Kobus Joubert (67), a prominent white farmer, was shot dead in a robbery at his home. The Commercial Farmers Union, representing about 300 whites still on their land after a decade-long violent land seizure program that ousted some 4,000 white farmers, said the killing showed "the flagrant disregard for the rule of law" in farming areas ahead of proposed elections.
    (AP, 10/27/10)

2010        Oct 30, In Zimbabwe a supporter of Tsvangirai's Movement for Democratic Change (MDC) was beaten and stabbed by supporters of President Robert Mugabe's Zanu-PF party at a constitution meeting in Harare.
    (AFP, 10/31/10)
2010        Oct 30, Zimbabwean businessman Peter Evershed (59) was mauled by five lions while showering under a tree at the Chitake Springs bush camp.
    (AP, 11/4/10)

2010        Nov 4, In Israel the global diamond industry's oversight body upheld restrictions preventing Zimbabwe from exporting its vast stockpile of diamonds from a large mine after efforts to reach a compromise ended in deadlock. Extending the approval to all the fields dominated this week's Kimberley Process plenary meeting in Jerusalem, where the unanimous agreement of members is required to certify the trade of diamonds. Israel is this year's sponsor of the conference.
    (AP, 11/4/10)
2010        Nov 4, The UN named oil-rich Norway as the country with the best quality of life, while Asia has made the biggest strides in recent decades. Australia, New Zealand, the United States and Ireland followed at the top of the standings. Zimbabwe came in last among the 169 nations ranked, behind Mozambique, Burundi, Niger and Democratic Republic of Congo.
    (AFP, 11/5/10)

2010        Nov 10, Zimbabwe's high court referred the case of five of six diamond executives charged with fraud to the Supreme Court while ordering the release of the sixth.
    (AFP, 11/10/10)

2010        Nov 14, In Zimbabwe a report in the Standard Newspaper said retired police and war veterans are being recalled to direct operations during elections. Reporter Nqodani Ndlovu was arrested on Nov 17 on charges of criminal defamation. He was granted bail on Nov 26 after his lawyer went to the High Court to enforce an earlier magistrate’s decision.
    (AP, 11/18/10)(AFP, 11/27/10)

2010        Nov 22, A South African court said a Zimbabwean government property in Cape Town can be auctioned to compensate three evicted white farmers in Zimbabwe for legal fees.
    (AP, 11/22/10)

2010        Nov 25, Zimbabwe's PM Morgan Tsvangirai filed court papers filed saying Pres. Mugabe violated the constitution with his unilateral appointment of 10 provincial governors last month. Tsvangirai said the power-sharing agreement requires the president to consult with the prime minister before making key appointments, and that Mugabe did not.
    (AP, 11/25/10)

2010        Nov 26, South African President Jacob Zuma arrived in Harare to try to smooth over disputes threatening Zimbabwe's troubled power-sharing government. Zuma said he had persuaded President Mugabe and PM Tsvangirai to start talking again to address the rifts in their power-sharing government.
    (AFP, 11/26/10)(Reuters, 11/26/10)

2010        Dec 2, The UN appealed for $415 million (€315 million) to feed almost two million Zimbabweans facing near immediate malnutrition.
    (AFP, 12/2/10)

2010        Dec 16, In Zimbabwe Raphael Khumalo, chief executive at the Zimbabwe Standard said first lady Grace Mugabe (45) has filed a $15 million lawsuit against the independent newspaper after they published a story citing WikiLeaks cables, dating to 2008, alleging her involvement in illegal diamond deals.
    (AP, 12/16/10)

2010        Dec 17, Zimbabwe's Pres. Mugabe said the power-sharing government is not working and must end, putting him on a collision course with PM Morgan Tsvangirai. Mugabe told his party conference that British and US companies in Zimbabwe will be nationalized unless sanctions against the country are dropped.
    (AFP, 12/17/10)(AFP, 12/17/10)

2010        Dec 21, In Zimbabwe 9 people died and 25 were injured when a speeding bus slammed into a truck in Harare. 3 infants were among the dead.
    (AP, 12/22/10)
2010        Dec 21, The US Treasury Department imposed sanctions against Zimbabwe's attorney general, Johannes Tomana, saying his actions undermined the country's democratic institutions.
    (Reuters, 12/21/10)

2010        Dec 30, Cyber activists said they have brought down Zimbabwean government websites after the president's wife sued a newspaper for publishing a WikiLeaks cable linking her with illicit diamond trading.
    (Reuters, 12/30/10)

2010        Dec 31, In South Africa thousands of Zimbabwean immigrants crowded outside immigration offices as a deadline approached for them to obtain permits or face deportation.
    (AP, 12/31/10)

2010        In Zimbabwe ZIFA chief Henrietta Rushwaya sent the national soccer team to play unsanctioned friendlies in Thailand, Syria and Malaysia, where a betting syndicate allegedly fixed the results. She was fired and charged with bribery and corruption.
    (AFP, 2/29/12)

2011        Jan 21, Zimbabwe researchers said nearly one-third of the country’s registered voters are dead, and others appear to be babies or up to 120 years old, and called for the list to be overhauled so that the upcoming election cannot be rigged.
    (AP, 1/21/11)

2011        Jan 23, Zimbabwean police drove out scores of so-called war veterans and supporters of Pres. Robert Mugabe after they declared themselves new owners of several tourist resorts.
    (AFP, 1/24/11)

2011        Jan 25, Zimbabwe's wildlife chief said poachers are using aircraft to hunt and kill rhinoceros as demand in Asia for their horns' supposed medicinal benefits grows.
    (AP, 1/25/11)

2011        Feb 5, Zimbabwe's main rival political parties condemned a spate of violent clashes among their supporters. PM Morgan Tsvangirai blamed Pres. Mugabe's youth brigades.
    (Reuters, 2/5/11)

2011        Feb 6, Zimbabwe state media reported that the nation’s ivory stockpile has rocketed to 42,000 kilos up from a previous record of 29,000, but the country cannot sell it due to a ban. It reportedly costs Zimbabwe $13 million annually to secure the stockpile, valued at $10 million.
    (AFP, 2/6/11)

2011        Feb 7, Zimbabweans chanting slogans from President Robert Mugabe's party trashed stalls owned by hawkers from elsewhere in Africa at a flea market in the capital, looting mobile phones, electrical goods and clothing.
    (AP, 2/7/11)

2011        Feb 11, China’s foreign Minister Yan Jiechi said that China plans to increase economic cooperation with longtime African ally Zimbabwe in mining, agriculture and other ventures. He met with Pres. Mugabe in Harare. Mugabe thanked Yang for China's training of his guerrillas to help in "demolishing colonialism" before independence from British colonial rule in 1980.
    (AP, 2/11/11)

2011        Feb 15, The European Union said it is extending visa bans and an asset freeze against President Robert Mugabe and 163 individuals and 31 companies in Zimbabwe.
    (AP, 2/15/11)

2011        Feb 19, In Zimbabwe Munyaradzi Gwisai, a university lecturer and former lawmaker from PM Morgan Tsvangirai's Movement for Democratic Change (MDC) party was arrested along with 45 others at a meeting to discuss the uprising that led to the ouster of former Egyptian president Hosni Mubarak. Police tortured some of the 46 rights activists facing treason charges after their arrest. On March 16 a court freed on bail Gwisai and 5 other civic activists.
    (AFP, 2/24/11)(AP, 3/16/11)

2011        Feb 26, Zimbabwean President Robert Mugabe repeated calls for elections to end the power-sharing government and vowed to punish companies from countries that imposed sanctions on him and his allies.
    (AFP, 2/26/11)

2011        Mar 1, Zimbabwean police and troops put on a show of force in the capital amid calls for protests against Pres. Mugabe, the longtime authoritarian ruler.
    (AP, 3/1/11)

2011        Mar 2, Zimbabwe’s Pres. Mugabe threatened to boycott Western products before seizing companies from countries that have imposed sanctions against him and his allies.
    (AFP, 3/2/11)

2011        Mar 7, A Zimbabwean court freed 38 of 46 people, arrested on Feb 19, who were charged with plotting an Egypt-style uprising against the country's longtime ruler. A magistrate ordered 8 others to face treason charges later this month.
    (AFP, 3/7/11)

2011        Mar 8, PM Morgan Tsvangirai said Zimbabwe will use revenue from diamond sales to repay part of its external debt totaling $7.1 billion. Tsvangirai told potential foreign investors not to fear an "ambush" election to replace the country's shaky power-sharing government.
    (Reuters, 3/8/11)(AFP, 3/8/11)

2011        Mar 9, Zimbabwe won its biggest foreign investment in a decade with a $750-million steel deal. The agreement gave India's Essar Group a 54% stake in the mothballed state steel firm Zisco, in a deal worth 12.5 times Zimbabwe’s total 2009 recorded foreign investment.
    (AFP, 3/13/11)(http://tinyurl.com/4w97xuq)

2011        Mar 10, Zimbabwe's PM Morgan Tsvangirai called for a "divorce" in his unity government with President Robert Mugabe, proposing new elections under a regional roadmap.
    (AFP, 3/10/11)

2011        Mar 19, Zimbabwe police banned a rally planned by PM Tsvangirai. Some of his supporters were beaten as they approached the event site, plunging the country's fragile coalition government deeper into crisis.
    (AP, 3/19/11)

2011        Mar 25, A Zimbabwean court ordered Energy Minister Elton Mangoma, a top political ally of PM Tsvangirai, to be held in jail after his second arrest this month. The arrests have been criticized by the prime minister's party as being politically motivated.
    (AP, 3/25/11)

2011        Mar 27, Zimbabwean President Robert Mugabe vowed his party would not back down from its controversial drive to force foreign-owned companies to sell majority shareholdings to local blacks. Police barred PM Morgan Tsvangirai's party from holding a rally, saying it coincided with the funeral of a close ally of President Mugabe.
    (Reuters, 3/27/11)(AFP, 3/27/11)

2011        Mar, In Zimbabwe state television began showing Pres. Mugabe supporters pulling bones from a disused mine and hauling them off in plastic bags and old sacks near the northern town of Mount Darwin. Mugabe's ZANU-PF party claimed the remains are of victims of the 1970s liberation war against the white-minority Rhodesian regime led by Ian Smith, when an estimated 30,000 people died. Others said the victims may have been killed by ZANU-PF forces during one of the many waves of repression since independence in 1980.
    (AP, 4/7/11)

2011        Apr 1, African leaders delivered a thinly veiled rebuke to Zimbabwe Pres. Mugabe, after a security summit sharply demanded an end to political violence ahead of expected polls.
    (AFP, 4/1/11)

2011        Apr 4, Zimbabwe Energy Minister Elton Mangoma, charged with abuse of office, was freed after the high court rejected a bid by prosecutors to block his release.
    (AFP, 4/5/11)

2011        Apr 6, Mike Campbell 978), white Zimbabwe farmer, died. In 2007 he Pres. Mugabe before the tribunal of the Southern African Development Community to protect his property and won his suit. In June, 2008, he was left brain damaged after thugs broke into his house and severely beat him. 
    (Econ, 4/23/11, p.91)

2011        Apr 7, A Zimbabwe court ordered militant supporters of President Mugabe to stop exhuming hundreds of skeletons they say were the victims of colonial-era massacres, a project that critics say is stoking racial hatred in Zimbabwe.
    (AP, 4/8/11)

2011        Apr 11, In San Francisco the annual Goldman Environmental prize was awarded 6 people from around the world. The winners included Hilton Kelly for his efforts to cut pollution in Port Arthur, Texas; Francisco Pineda for resisting mining in El Salvador; Ursula Sladek of Germany for creating for reducing her community’s reliance on nuclear power; Prigi Arisandi for her efforts to protect Indonesia’s Surabaya River; Dmitry Lisitsyn for his efforts to protect the Russia’s Sakhalin island; and Raoul du Toit for defending wildlife in Zimbabwe.
    (SFC, 4/11/11, p.A12)

2011        Apr 13, In Zimbabwe a government minister and a Roman Catholic priest were arrested and detained by police for holding a memorial service for victims of massacres in western Zimbabwe after independence in 1980.
    (AP, 4/15/11)

2011        Apr 14, Zimbabwe President Mugabe condemned gay "filth" in Europe, as he lambasted Western powers for maintaining their asset freeze and travel ban on him and his inner circle. Mugabe also said the government would go ahead with the takeover of foreign companies.
    (AP, 4/14/11)(Reuters, 4/14/11)

2011        Apr 25, In Zimbabwe thieves raided the offices and stole computer hard drives and the editor's laptop of NewsDay, an independent daily newspaper critical of President Mugabe.
    (AP, 4/27/11)

2011        May 4, The European Union said six Zimbabwean state-media journalists are on a sanctions list because they incite hatred in their reporting. The journalists who fiercely support President Robert Mugabe are among some 200 individuals linked to Mugabe's party who face banking and travel bans from the EU, the US and Britain.
    (AP, 5/4/11)

2011        May 15, Zimbabwe's central bank chief Gideon Gono said the southern African country's economy cannot sustain an election.
    (AFP, 5/15/11)

2011        May 29, In Zimbabwe a police inspector was killed. 12 suspects, members of PM Morgan Tsvangirai's former opposition party, were soon detained in a police crackdown in a western Harare township. The group appeared in court on June 3 with severe cuts, bruising and swollen limbs.
    (AP, 6/3/11)

2011        Jun 8, In Zimbabwe a group of 19 armed men made off with one ton of gold ore, beating farm workers with hot iron bars at Chav-Chess Farm outside Kadoma.
    (AFP, 7/27/11)

2011        Jun 21, Zimbabwe state media reported that Zimbabwe has vowed to defy moves for international monitoring of diamond sales from its disputed Marange fields, at a meeting of the global "blood diamond" watchdog.
    (AFP, 6/21/11)

2011        Jun 22, In Zimbabwe a gang of 27 armed robbers struck again stealing three tons of gold ore at Chav-Chess Farm outside Kadoma.
    (AFP, 7/27/11)

2011        Jun 24, In CongoDRC a 4-day meeting of the Kimberly Process, a system to end the trade in “blood diamonds," ended. Chairman Mathieu Yamba announced that two Zimbabwean-South African joint ventures could resume diamond sales.
    (Econ, 7/2/11, p.40)

2011        Jun 26, A Zimbabwe high court judge freed Jameson Timba, a key aide to PM Morgan Tsvangirai, two days after he was arrested for calling veteran President Robert Mugabe a liar.
    (AFP, 6/26/11)

2011        Jul 2, Zimbabwean teachers said they will suspend their 11-day strike to consider the government's offer of a pay rise that fell nearly 90 percent short of their demands.
    (AFP, 7/2/11)

2011        Jul 6, Zimbabwe's two main political parties agreed to a timeline for reforms that will pave the way for fresh elections, but no date for the polls was set.
    (AFP, 7/7/11)

2011        Jul 27, Zimbabwe police arrested 13 members of the Restoration of Human Rights group, who staged a protest outside a court where allegations of police assaults and torture were to be raised. The High Court again postponed an appeal for bail by eight activists of the prime minister's former opposition group accused over the killing of a police inspector in May.
    (AP, 7/27/11)

2011        Jul 31, In northern Zimbabwe 19 people were reported killed when the commuter bus they were traveling in lost a wheel and veered off the road in the town of Mvurwi.
    (AFP, 7/31/11)

2011        Aug 2, In Zimbabwe at least 14 people were killed after a minibus crashed 120 miles east of Harare, the second deadly accident involving an overcrowded bus in the southern African country in recent days.
    (AP, 8/3/11)

2011        Aug 3, Computer hackers attacked the Zimbabwe Stock Exchange website, prompting the authorities at the bourse to shut it down. ZSE does not conduct trading on the Internet.
    (AFP, 8/5/11)

2011        Aug 16, In Zimbabwe former military chief Gen. Solomon Mujuru (62), one of the country’s main political power brokers and the husband of the vice president, died in an overnight fire at one of his homes.
    (AP, 8/16/11)

2011        Aug 26, It was reported that the Zimbabwe Electricity Regulatory Commission (ZERC) has increased electricity rates from 7.53 US cents to 9.83 US cents per kilowatt hour, effective next week, to help the regulator fund an expansion program that will boost electricity production.
    (AP, 8/26/11)

2011        Aug 30, Rights groups said foreign banks with investments in Zimbabwe are enabling human rights abuses by failing to stop local partners from facilitating illegal sales of the country's diamonds.
    (AFP, 8/30/11)

2011        Sep 1, The British-based Economist Intelligence Unit rated Harare, Zimbabwe's capital, as the worst of 140 world cities to live in.
    (AP, 9/1/11)

2011        Sep 2, Zimbabwe state media reported that Pres. Mugabe has sworn in an anti-corruption commission in an effort to stem graft.
    (AFP, 9/2/11)
2011        Sep 2, In Zimbabwe an independent conservation group said a new influx of settlers at a nature preserve in the southeast is destroying the sanctuary of at least 70 elephants.
    (AP, 9/2/11)

2011        Sep 19, Zimbabwe's wildlife authority said poachers have begun poisoning watering holes, killing nine elephants and at least five lions in recent weeks.
    (AP, 9/19/11)

2011        Sep 21, Zimbabwe said it has reached a deal with insurance group Old Mutual on how the company will comply with a law compelling foreign companies to sell majority stakes to local blacks. The agreement allows British insurer Old Mutual to conduct a "first phase" of compliance which will see the firm place 25% of its local subsidiary in the hands of local blacks.
    (AFP, 9/21/11)

2011        Oct 7, Mining multinational RioTinto's Zimbabwean subsidiary Murowa Diamonds said it has ceded 51% of its equity to comply with a new law giving local blacks majority shares in foreign companies.
    (AFP, 10/7/11)

2011        Oct 9, In Zimbabwe the archbishop of Canterbury, Rowan Williams, condemned "godless" assaults on Anglicans by a breakaway faction of the Anglican Church led by an excommunicated bishop, aligned with Zimbabwe's president. Anglican faithful have turned to tents and parking lots for their services, as renegade bishop Nolbert Kunonga has forcefully blocked them from Church property.
    (AFP, 10/9/11)

2011        Oct 10, In Zimbabwe the Archbishop of Canterbury, Rowan Williams, handed over a report to President Robert Mugabe detailing incidents of intimidation.
    (AP, 10/11/11)

2011        Oct 31, Zimbabwe state media said President Robert Mugabe has warned Switzerland he would "reciprocate" after his wife and top officials were denied visas to attend a UN meeting in that country.
    (AFP, 10/31/11)
2011        Oct 31, In Zimbabwe a $430 million fund was launched with the help of the EU and UNICEF to give children and pregnant women free medical care at public hospitals.
    (AFP, 10/31/11)

2011        Oct, Zimbabwe police arrested three alleged sperm-hunting women, found with a plastic bag of 31 used condoms. They were nabbed for allegedly violating 17 men. Reports of sperm hunters first surfaced in the local press in 2009. Sperm-hunting charges against the women were dropped in May, 2012, but the state decided to prosecute two of the women on a lesser charge of "loitering for the purposes of prostitution", punishable by a fine.
    (AFP, 3/22/12)(AFP, 5/3/12)

2011        Nov 1, Zimbabwe police fired tear gas into PM Morgan Tsvangirai's party headquarters in Harare and blocked off the building while beating up nearby street vendors. MDC spokesman Douglas Mwonzora said the attempts to arrest the street vendors was a ploy to raid Tsvangirai's party offices.
    (AFP, 11/1/11)
2011        Nov 1, In Zimbabwe a decision by the Kimberley Process (KP) allows two firms, state-owned Marange Resources and state joint venture Mbada Diamonds, to sell gems from the Marange region, one of Africa's biggest diamond finds in decades and the site of gross human rights violations. The deal came after negotiations involving Zimbabwe, the European Union, South Africa, the United States and the World Diamond Council.
    (AFP, 11/1/11)

2011        Nov 3, The Zimbabwean government, the United Nations and other Western donors launched an $85 million education fund aimed at improving education in the country's secondary schools.
    (AP, 11/3/11)

2011        Nov 6, Young supporters of Zimbabwe's President Robert Mugabe stoned and beat up backers of PM Morgan Tsvangirai, blocking a planned rally of his Movement for Democratic Change party.
    (AFP, 11/6/11)

2011        Nov 11, Zimbabwean President Robert Mugabe and PM Morgan Tsvangirai called for peace in the wake of attacks on the premier's party, as tensions rise with expectations for elections next year.
    (AFP, 11/11/11)

2011        Nov 16, A Zimbabwe magistrate court freed three businessmen accused of espionage for allegedly selling state secrets to the United States, Canada and Afghanistan. Farai Rwodzi and Simba Mangwende, both executives at Africom Holdings, and Oliver Chiku of Global Satellite System still faced a lesser charge of violating the Post and Telecommunications Act.
    (AFP, 11/17/11)

2011        Nov 22, A survey of some 6,000 people over the last 12 months in Democratic Republic of Congo, Malawi, Mozambique, South Africa, Zambia and Zimbabwe said police are the most corrupt institution in the six countries.
    (AFP, 11/22/11)

2011        Nov 23, Zimbabwe wildlife authorities said at least 77 elephants have died in a three-month heat wave in western Hwange National Park that has dried up watering holes.
    (AP, 11/23/11)

2011        Nov 25, A study by Canadian scientists found that South Africa and Zimbabwe suffer the worst economic losses due to doctors emigrating, while Australia, Canada, Britain and the United States benefit the most from recruiting doctors trained abroad.
    (Reuters, 11/25/11)

2011        Nov 29, Zimbabwe state radio reported that militant youth group loyal to Pres. Mugabe is calling for a boycott of a restaurant chain whose latest advertisement depicts the aging, authoritarian president as "the last dictator standing." The head of Chipangano called for South Africa-based Nando's to withdraw the ad.
    (AP, 11/29/11)

2011        Dec 5, In South Africa Global Witness said it has left the Kimberley Process, accusing the international diamond regulatory group of refusing to address links between diamonds, violence and tyranny. The rights watchdog cited what it called failures in Ivory Coast, Venezuela and Zimbabwe.
    (AP, 12/5/11)

2011        Dec 10, South Africa's ruling African National Congress offered to help President Robert Mugabe's ruling ZANU-PF win the next elections in neighboring Zimbabwe.
    (AFP, 12/11/11)

2011        Dec 15, Air Zimbabwe chairman Jonathan Kadzura said the government has raised $1.5 million (1.2 million euros) to pay off the national airline's debt and have an impounded airplane released in London.
    (AFP, 12/15/11)

2011        Dec 16, Zimbabwe state media said the national airline has suspended flights to South Africa over a debt of $500,000, fearing creditors might impound more of its planes.
    (AFP, 12/16/11)

2011        Dec 25, In Zimbabwe a pleasure boat capsized at Lake Chivero, drowning 11 of 19 people, most of them children.
    (AP, 12/26/11)

2011        Peter Godwin authored “The Fear: Robert Mugabe and the Martyrdom of Zimbabwe."
    (SSFC, 5/1/11, p.G4)

2012        Jan 11, In Zimbabwe 3 suspects appeared in court in Harare accused of murder and of possessing rhino horn worth $120,000 found in a vehicle still registered to Sessel Zvidzai, deputy local government minister in the former opposition party. The next day Zvidzai expressed surprise and said that he sold the truck two years ago.
    (AP, 1/12/12)

2012        Jan 24, More teachers in Zimbabwe joined a national strike in which government workers are seeking to double their salaries. Their action on the strike's second day, and the absence of more staff from government offices, began to disrupt routine services.
    (AP, 1/24/12)

2012        Jan 26, In Zimbabwe a public servants' strike jerkily resumed after failed talks on doubling basic wages, as some teachers held classes while others left students on their own.
    (AFP, 1/26/12)

2012        Jan 31, Zimbabwe’s health minister said up to 50 cases of typhoid were being reported per day. More than 1,500 people have been treated in an outbreak blamed on poor water and sanitation facilities.
    (AFP, 1/31/12)

2012        Feb 12, Zimbabwe state media said International diamond watchdog the Kimberley Process (KP) has certified Zimbabwe's Diamond Mining Company to sell gems from the violence-tainted Marange fields.
    (AFP, 2/12/12)

2012        Feb 14, Zimbabwean police disrupted a Valentine's Day march, by about 200 members of the militant Women of Zimbabwe Arise organization, aimed at promoting peace and love between foes.
    (AP, 2/14/12)

2012        Feb 15, In Zimbabwe a provincial governor appointed by President Robert Mugabe suspended the activities of 29 humanitarian organizations, alleging they did not clear their operations with his office.
    (AP, 2/16/12)

2012        Feb 16, Zimbabwe President Robert Mugabe told foreign firms to form partnerships with Zimbabweans to secure their investments under new rules requiring them to cede majority stakes to locals.
    (AFP, 2/16/12)
2012        Feb 16, An animal protection group said 4 Chinese nationals have been arrested in Zimbabwe on cruelty charges after they cut up and ate rare tortoises. The 4 men were found to have entered Zimbabwe illegally and worked without permits in the small scale mining district of Bikita. They awaited deportation.
    (AP, 2/16/12)

2012        Feb 17, The EU partially lifted sanctions on Zimbabwe to encourage further progress in political reforms but kept restrictions on veteran President Robert Mugabe.
    (AFP, 2/17/12)

2012        Feb 24, Zimbabwe's national airline suspended all its flights indefinitely, after the latest revival effort collapsed this week. The struggling carrier battled against debts reported in December at $140 million.
    (AFP, 2/24/12)

2012        Feb 28, In Zimbabwe Richard Mubaiwa (31), a member of the country’s Central Intelligence Organization, was accused of demanding $10,000 from the head of the scandal-plagued national football association to protect him from assassination.
    (AFP, 2/29/12)

2012        Mar 4, Zimbabwe state media reported that some 3,000 cases of typhoid have been reported in Harare since the first case was detected in a working-class suburb in January.
    (AFP, 3/4/12)

2012        Mar 13, The Zimbabwean government and mining firm Zimplats reached an agreement to transfer a 51 percent stake to local investors, as required by the country's controversial "indigenization" policy.
    (AFP, 3/13/12)

2012        Mar 14, Zimbabwe Finance Minister Tendai Biti warned the government could shut down, as new diamond sales from the controversial Marange fields are falling far short of expectations.
    (AFP, 3/14/12)

2012        Mar 15, Mozambique's Cahora Bassa dam denied cutting power to Zimbabwe, which had claimed the state-owned company had pulled the plug over unpaid bills totaling around $75 million.
    (AFP, 3/15/12)

2012        Mar 19, Six Zimbabwean activists, arrested a year ago at a meeting to discuss the Arab Spring uprisings, were convicted of inciting public violence. They faced up to 10 years in prison. They were among 45 activists arrested in February 2011 while watching a video of the protests that toppled Egyptian president Hosni Mubarak. On March 21 the court decided not to imprison the 6 activists, and sentenced them instead to 420 hours of community service and a fine of $500 each.
    (AFP, 3/19/12)(SFC, 3/22/12, p.A2)

2012        Mar 26, South African rights activists began a legal bid to compel South Africa to investigate and prosecute citizens of neighboring Zimbabwe suspected of crimes against humanity.
    (Reuters, 3/26/12)

2012        Mar 30, Zimbabwe's education ministry said it is investigating how school text books donated by the U.N. children's agency wind up in the hands of bookstores and street vendors.
    (AFP, 3/30/12)

2012        Apr 2, China International Mining Group Corporation said it will invest $21.2 million (€15.8 million) to restart the Bindura Nickel Corporation's Trojan mine in Zimbabwe, which closed in 2008 during the country’s political turmoil.
    (AFP, 4/2/12)

2012        Apr 5, Zimbabwe said it had taken over majority shares from foreign mining firms which had not sold 51 percent of their equity to black Zimbabweans, without specifying which or how many firms were affected. The announcement will be implemented retrospectively from September 25, 2011, when companies had to hand in plans on how they intend to sell their majority shares.
    (AFP, 4/5/12)

2012        Apr 13, Zimbabwe state media said the country will suffer a one million ton maize deficit due to drought, after nearly half of the national crop now coming up for harvest has failed. The United Nations has already appealed for $488 million dollars in food aid for Zimbabwe for last year and the first months of this year.
    (AFP, 4/13/12)

2012        Apr 16, In southern Zimbabwe at least 21 people were killed early today when a speeding bus overturned while traveling towards Beitbridge.
    (AFP, 4/16/12)
2012        Apr 16, Zimbabwean police arrested a journalist from New Zealand for reporting without accreditation. Hammond Robin Nicholas (37) was arrested together with Zimbabwean charity worker Bertha Chiguvare (31) in the border town of Beitbridge.
    (AFP, 4/20/12)

2012        Apr 29, In Zimbabwe Benias Gwenhamo Madhakasi, who works as a street vendor in South Africa, was arrested at the Beit Bridge border post on charges of insulting or undermining the authority of the president. He had cartoons on his cell phone that showed a bony-looking Robert Mugabe in the nude. On July 24 a magistrate tossed out the case.
    (AFP, 7/25/12)

2012        May 8, A South African judge ordered prosecutors to investigate whether Zimbabwean President Robert Mugabe's government committed human rights abuses against his rivals ahead of 2008 elections. The Southern Africa Litigation Center (SALC) and the Zimbabwe Exiles Forum wanted South Africa to arrest and prosecute 17 Zimbabweans accused of torture in 2007 if they enter the country for holiday, shopping or seeking medical treatment.
    (AP, 5/8/12)(AFP, 5/8/12)

2012        May 17, Zimbabwe Finance Minister Tendai Biti said Chinese diamond firm Anjin has failed to remit revenue from its operations in the controversial Marange fields in the first quarter of this year.
    (AFP, 5/17/12)

2012        May 22, In southern Zimbabwe dozens of miners were trapped underground at the Mimosa platinum mine in Zvishavane following a fire the previous evening.
    (AFP, 5/22/12)

2012        May 24, In Zimbabwe Petroc Trelawny, who presents several radio programs for the BBC, was arrested for taking part in the Bulawayo Music Festival without a work permit. He was not being paid for the role. Trelawny reportedly dislocated his shoulder in a fall in a police cell.
    (AFP, 5/26/12)

2012        Jun 22, In Zimbabwe a handful of male lawmakers underwent voluntary circumcision in a new public drive to curb the spread of HIV, which affects about one in 10 people in the southern African country.
    (AFP, 6/22/12)

2012        Jul 3, Zimbabwe's leaders made public a year's ultimatum to foreign-owned banks and other firms to cede a 51% stake to local black people in compliance with equity and empowerment laws. The government notice was dated June 30.
    (AFP, 7/3/12)

2012        Jul 23, The European Union promised to lift most of the sanctions slapped against Zimbabwe a decade ago if the country holds a "credible" vote on a new constitution.
    (AFP, 7/23/12)

2012        Jul 27, Zimbabwe's central bank chief warned the country's fragile economy could grind to a halt if the government rushes its planned seizure of majority stakes in foreign-owned banks.
    (AFP, 7/27/12)

2012        Aug 15, Zimbabwe's Pres. Mugabe launched the national census, saying he hoped the once-a-decade count would measure the extent to which AIDS was affecting the population.
    (AFP, 8/15/12)

2012        Aug 26, In Zimbabwe a consortium of wildlife ranchers said tens of thousands of animals face annihilation in a wave of land takeovers in the southeast after hunting permits and land were granted to 25 leaders of the ZANU-PF party in a black empowerment program.
    (AP, 8/26/12)

2012        Sep 5, In Zimbabwe an independent animal welfare group said it is filing cruelty charges against the veterinary teaching department at the Univ. of Zimbabwe after three emaciated, ailing and distressed horses were killed using an ax and a knife.
    (AP, 9/5/12)

2012        Sep 15, Zimbabwe PM Morgan Tsvangirai (60) went ahead with wedding celebrations despite a court ruling that cancelled his marriage license on allegations that he would be committing bigamy. Tsvangirai and his bride, Elizabeth Macheka (35), exchanged vows and rings at a luxury convention facility in Harare but did not sign the legal marriage register.
    (AP, 9/15/12)

2012        Nov 12, Zimbabwe government opened a conference on the diamond trade in Victoria Falls. Partnership Africa Canada, an organization leading the campaign against conflict diamonds, reported that at least $2 billion worth of diamonds have been stolen from Zimbabwe’s eastern diamond fields and have enriched President Robert Mugabe's ruling circle, international gem dealers and criminals.
    (AP, 11/12/12)

2012        Nov 19, A Zimbabwe court ordered breakaway Anglican Bishop Nolbert Kunonga to return church property he seized after his excommunication in 2007.
    (AP, 11/19/12)

2012        Dec 7, Zimbabwe's Pres. Mugabe said he would fire government ministers accused of soliciting for bribes in a bid to purge corruption from his party as loyalists met at a convention to map out a winning election strategy to end a conflict-ridden four-year-old coalition.
    (AP, 12/7/12)

2012        Dec 16, In Zimbabwe mainstream Anglican Christians took back their cathedral in Harare after a lockout of more than five years staged by an excommunicated, breakaway bishop who claimed loyalty to the president's party and used loyalist police to keep people out.
    (AP, 12/16/12)

2012        Dec 25, Zimbabwe state radio said 18 people headed home for the holidays died when their open truck veered off a mountain road and plunged into a ravine in the northeastern Honde Valley region.
    (AP, 12/25/12)

2013        Jan 5, In Zimbabwe eight people died in a bus crash that brought the traffic accident death toll during the holiday period to the highest on record in the country. The central police traffic command said 209 people have died in accidents since Dec. 15.
    (AP, 1/6/13)

2013        Jan 11, Zimbabwe's largest platinum mining company, Ziomplats, said it has signed a deal to sell off its majority shareholding to the government as part of the country's black empowerment laws.
    (AP, 1/11/13)
2013        Jan 11, In Zimbabwe Professor Gordon Chavunduka (82), the leader of the organization of tribal healers, died. The eminent academic, author, sociologist and politician, a former head of the main Zimbabwe University, was widely known for his research and writing that did much to bridge the gap between Western medical practices and Africa's traditional, tribal and herbalist healers.
    (AP, 1/12/13)

2013        Jan 17, Zimbabwe’s Vice President John Nkomo (79) died in Harare. He was one of the country’s two vice presidents.
    (AP, 1/17/13)

2013        Jan 18, Zimbabwe's political leaders said they have reached agreement on a new constitution after more than two years of delays and bickering over changes to reduce the sweeping powers of President Robert Mugabe and his ruling party.
    (AP, 1/18/13)

2013        Jan 21, In Zimbabwe a massive explosion at a tribal sorcerer's house killed 5 people outside the capital, Harare. The explosion damaged 12 nearby houses in the Chitungwiza township. A 6th person died later.
    (AP, 1/22/13)(AP, 1/30/13)

2013        Jan 25, Regional civic campaign group AfriForum said it is taking legal action to stop Zimbabwe from taking delivery of helicopter gunships from neighboring South Africa.
    (AP, 1/25/13)

2013        Jan 27, Zimbabwe's prominent political analyst Professor John Makumbe (63), an albino who also campaigned against prejudice toward the skin pigmentation condition, died after a heart attack.
    (AP, 1/28/13)

2013        Feb 11, Zimbabwe police raided the offices of a member organization of Crisis in Zimbabwe, an alliance of rights groups, and seized files on political violence, funding details, DVD display materials, mobile phones and other equipment. Officials of the widely respected Zimbabwe Peace Project were accused of illegal importation of goods and "possessing articles for criminal use."
    (AP, 2/12/13)

2013        Feb 12, Scientists in Zimbabwe said a fresh water crayfish brought from Australia is breeding out of control in the northern Lake Kariba, devouring the food sources of other fish and putting the nation's entire aquatic ecosystem at risk. The red claw crayfish was introduced a decade ago for a fish farming project.
    (AP, 2/12/13)

2013        Feb 16, In Zimbabwe a pastor and three activists were arrested for holding a voter education meeting a day after President Robert Mugabe announced March 16 as the date for a referendum on a new constitution.
    (AP, 2/17/13)

2013        Feb 18, The European Union said it has removed 21 loyalists of Zimbabwe's president from a sanctions list of people facing travel and banking bans. It said the decision to remove those restrictions was a result of a "step forward" in finalizing a draft constitution which is set to go voted on in a national referendum on March 16.
    (AP, 2/19/13)

2013        Feb 19, Zimbabwe police raided the suburban Harare offices of the independent Zimbabwe Election Support Network searching for alleged subversive materials.
    (AP, 2/19/13)

2013        Feb 22, Zimbabwe media freedom campaigners said police are breaking the law by seizing and banning small radio receivers that can tune in to stations not linked to the state broadcasting monopoly controlled by President Robert Mugabe's party.
    (AP, 2/22/13)

2013        Feb 23, In eastern Zimbabwe an arson attack on the home of an election candidate killed the politician's 12-year-old son.
    (AP, 2/26/13)

2013        Feb 26, The party of Zimbabwe's PM Morgan Tsvangirai said that violence against its supporters is increasing as political tensions rise before upcoming elections.
    (AP, 2/26/13)

2013        Mar 5, In Zimbabwe a man escaped from a lion attack on the shores of Lake Kariba, but the woman with him was savaged to death. An arm and remains of a second corpse were found by rangers hunting for the lions.
    (AP, 3/6/13)

2013        Mar 7, Zimbabwe wildlife rangers caught put down three lions that killed two people near a suburb in the northern resort town of Kariba. A lioness and two "sub-adult" cubs between two and three years old were baited into traps and given lethal injections using darts.
    (AP, 3/8/13)

2013        Mar 13, Zimbabwe's official election body said it will not back down on its ban preventing a leading human rights group from monitoring a referendum on a new constitution on March 16.
    (AP, 3/13/13)

2013        Mar 16, Zimbabwe citizens cast their votes in a one-day referendum on a new constitution that all main political parties have backed, urging supporters to accept the draft document that will curb presidential powers.
    (AP, 3/16/13)

2013        Mar 17, Zimbabwe police arrested rights lawyer Beatrice Mtetwa, the country's most prominent rights lawyer and four senior officials of PM Tsvangirai’s party and held them at the capital's main police station. Mtetwa was accused of "obstructing or defeating the course of justice." Police also raided and searched a suburban office of Tsvangirai's media and communications department. On March 18 police ignored a judge’s order to release Mtetwa.
    (AP, 3/17/13)(SFC, 3/19/13, p.A4)

2013        Mar 19, Zimbabwe's electoral body said that 94.5 percent of voters cast a ballot in favor of a new constitution that calls for a strengthening of human rights and a curb on presidential powers after a decade of political and economic turmoil in the southern African nation.
    (AP, 3/19/13)

2013        Mar 21, Zimbabwean police arrested two more members of PM Morgan Tsvangirai's office staff, raising the number detained to six.
    (AP, 3/21/13)

2013        Mar 25, Zimbabwe's High Court ordered the immediate release of prominent rights lawyer Beatrice Mtetwa, detained for eight days for obstructing the course of justice. A free Mtetwa said her arrest was a ploy to intimidate human rights activists and pro-democracy groups ahead of upcoming elections expected in July.
    (AP, 3/25/13)

2013        Mar 27, Zimbabwe's High Court freed on bail four senior officials from PM Morgan Tsvangirai's party accused of illegally collecting information on high level corruption.
    (AP, 3/27/13)

2013        May 3, A Zimbabwe lawyer for a youth leader said Solomon Madzore  is in jail for referring to longtime ruler Robert Mugabe (89) as "a limping donkey" at an election campaign rally.
    (AP, 5/3/13)

2013        May 12, Zimbabwe's state radio said police have arrested three polling campaigners for illegally promoting voter awareness ahead of crucial elections.
    (AP, 5/12/13)

2013        May 22, Zimbabwe's President Mugabe signed into law a new constitution and vowed to hold peaceful and clean elections later this year.
    (AP, 5/22/13)

2013        Jun 13, Zimbabwe's Pres. Mugabe officially announced that elections will go ahead on July 31 despite opposition from the prime minister, setting the stage for a political standoff between the longtime rivals.
    (AP, 6/13/13)

2013        Jun 15, Regional presidents of the Southern Africa Development Community (SADC), meeting at a special summit on Zimbabwe asked President Mugabe to delay crucial elections he has set for the end of July while asking the nation to guarantee conditions for free and fair elections.
    (AP, 6/15/13)

2013        Jun 19, Zimbabwe's highest court said it has received an application from longtime President Robert Mugabe's party to delay crucial elections by at least two weeks following pressure from regional leaders.
    (AP, 6/19/13)
2013        Jun 19, In Zimbabwe Edward Chindori-Chininga, a Zanu-PF member of parliament, died in a car accident after issuing a report on his party’s theft of vast revenues from the diamond fields of Marange.
    (Econ, 6/29/13, p.44)

2013        Jul 14, Zimbabwe police officers and soldiers, who will be on duty during the July 31 election, began voting, the eve of a court hearing to stop the process because PM Morgan Tsvangirai's MDC party says police numbers were inflated.
    (Reuters, 7/14/13)

2013        Jul 19, Zimbabwe's first independent television station, 1st TV, said it is going on air to challenge the 30-year state broadcasting monopoly controlled by President Robert Mugabe. The station is a satellite feed from outside Zimbabwe using a free network received by an estimated 700,000 homes across the nation.
    (AP, 7/19/13)

2013        Jul 31, Zimbabwe held presidential elections.
    (AP, 7/31/13)

2013        Aug 1, Zimbabwe PM Morgan Tsvangirai said the Aug 31 election was heavily manipulated and did not meet regional or African election standards. A poll monitoring group not affiliated with the state also said the poll was compromised by a campaign to stop voters from casting ballots.
    (AP, 8/1/13)

2013        Aug 2, Zimbabwe's Movement for Democratic Change (MDC) said it could take to the streets to challenge President Mugabe's victory in an election it rejects as a farce and which faces skepticism from the West. Observers from the Southern African Development Community (SADC) described Zimbabwe's elections as "free and peaceful."
    (Reuters, 8/2/13)

2013        Aug 3, Zimbabwean election commissioner Mkhululi Nyath resigned, citing doubts about the integrity of results showing a big win for President Robert Mugabe's ZANU-PF party, but dismissed as a fraud-riddled farce by his main challenger. Election officials announced that Mugabe won 61% of the presidential vote, trailed by Morgan Tsvangirai at 33%.
    (Reuters, 8/3/13)(AP, 8/3/13)

2013        Aug 6, Zimbabwe’s President Robert Mugabe's ZANU-PF party said it would increase black ownership of the economy in the next five years after its landslide election victory, adding to investors' concerns about the party's political dominance.
    (Reuters, 8/6/13)
2013        Aug 6, Botswana said disputed elections won by Zimbabwe President Robert Mugabe did not meet acceptable standards and has warned southern African nations against violating commitments to democracy by accepting the result.
    (AP, 8/6/13)

2013        Aug 9, In Zimbabwe lawyers for outgoing PM Morgan Tsvangirai said they filed an appeal with the Constitutional Court over the July 31 election results that gave longtime President Mugabe 61% of the vote.
    (AP, 8/9/13)

2013        Aug 13, Zimbabwe's longtime Pres. Robert Mugabe said his party won "a resounding mandate" from voters to complete a sweeping black empowerment program to take over foreign and white-owned assets.
    (AP, 8/13/13)

2013        Aug 22, Zimbabwe’s President Robert Mugabe (89) was sworn in for another five-year term after disputed elections in which the opposition alleged widespread vote-rigging.
    (AP, 8/22/13)

2013        Sep 17, Zimbabwe Pres. Robert Mugabe accused a top mining official and ruling party loyalist of accepting a $6 million bribe from Ghanaian investors to obtain diamond mining rights in Marange. Mugabe said Godwills Masimirembwa took the bribe when he was head of the state Zimbabwe Mining Development Corporation. A recent bipartisan parliamentary investigation concluded that tens of millions of dollars in diamond earnings are missing from 2012 alone.
    (AP, 10/17/13)

2013        Sep 20, Zimbabwe police announced a probe into a top member of President Robert Mugabe's party on suspicion of soliciting a $6-million bribe from a Ghanaian investor in a diamond-mining deal.
    (AFP, 9/20/13)

2013        Sep 24, Zimbabwean authorities said at least 81 elephants have been killed for their ivory tusks by poachers using cyanide poison in water holes in Hwange National Park. The elephant toll soon rose to 91.
    (AP, 9/24/13)(AP, 10/1/13)

2013        Oct 21, The Zimbabwe Conservation Task Force said more than 300 elephants and other animals died in July of cyanide poisoning by poachers in Hwange, Zimbabwe's largest game park. Three elephants attacked a park ranger and trampled him to death during an anti-poaching patrol in the Hwange nature reserve.
    (AFP, 10/21/13)(AP, 10/23/13)

2013        Oct 30, Zimbabwe's highest court scrapped a law against insulting the president that has been used to arrest opponents and critics of veteran leader Robert Mugabe.
    (Reuters, 10/31/13)
2013        Oct 30, In Zimbabwe 21 people were killed, many burnt beyond recognition, after a fuel tanker and a truck ferrying mourners collided.
    (AFP, 10/30/13)

2013        Nov 26, A Zimbabwean court freed prominent rights lawyer Beatrice Mtetwa, who had faced charges of obstructing the course of justice during a police raid.
    (AFP, 11/26/13)

2013        Dec 28, Australian media reported that Jacqueline Zwambila, Zimbabwe's ambassador to Australia, has asked for political asylum just days before her term ends saying she fears for her safety at home.
    (Reuters, 12/28/13)

2013        Dec 30, In Zimbabwe the owners of mainly small businesses selling cheap consumer goods said they were informed of a weekend statement by empowerment minister Francis Nhema that they have been allowed to continue trading as authorities reversed an ultimatum for them to close their businesses by Jan 1.
    (AP, 12/30/13)

2014        Jan 3, Zimbabwe's black empowerment agency said at least 90 percent of foreign shop owners don't have bank accounts and are hiding away money or smuggling it out of the country, worsening cash shortages in the troubled economy.
    (AP, 1/3/14)

2014        Jan 10, Zimbabwe police said they are investigating the murder of four suspected illegal ivory buyers whose bodies were found in a wrecked car in western Zimbabwe.
    (AP, 1/10/14)

2014        Jan 11, In Zimbabwe the pilot of a US-built helicopter died when he crashed into a wooded mountainside in the country's remote southwest. State media later reported that the pilot, identified as a prominent Zimbabwean businessman based in South Africa, was flying alone to visit relatives in the American 4-seat Robinson R44 model.
    (AP, 1/13/14)

2014        Feb 17, In Zimbabwe former US Rep. Melvin Jay Reynolds (62) was arrested on suspicion of possessing pornography and an immigration offence. Reynolds, an Illinois Democrat, resigned from his congressional seat in 1995 after he was convicted of 12 counts of statutory rape, obstruction of justice and solicitation of child pornography. On Feb 21 a judge dismissed the pornography charges but ordered Reynolds to pay a fine or face jail time after pleading guilty to charges of violating the country's immigration laws.
    (AP, 2/18/14)(AP, 2/21/14)

2014        Feb 25, In Zimbabwe a petrol bomb hit the home of top opposition official and former finance minister Tendai Biti, the second such attack in three years.
    (AFP, 2/25/14)

2014        May 10, In northeastern Zimbabwe farmer Malcolm and daughter Catherine Francis suffered head injuries from possible axe blows in an assault on their farm in Guruve district.
    (AP, 5/23/14)

2014        Jun 21, In Zimbabwe Edmund Kudzayi, editor of the Sunday Mail state-owned newspaper, appeared in court on charges of subversion and undermining the authority of President Robert Mugabe.
    (AP, 6/21/14)

2014        Aug 12, South Africa said around 250,000 Zimbabweans living in the country on temporary visas due to expire this year can get three-year extensions, delaying a possible mass expulsion of workers.
    (AFP, 8/12/14)

2014        Aug 25, Zimbabwean President Robert Mugabe (90) was welcomed in Beijing by his counterpart Xi Jinping as Africa's longest-ruling leader sought more Chinese investment in his nation's stagnant economy.
    (AFP, 8/25/14)

2014        Aug 27, Zimbabwe riot police beat and briefly detained more than a dozen opposition protesters, at a demonstration over high unemployment.
    (AFP, 8/27/14)

2014        Sep 4, Zimbabwe launched a $533-million project with China to scale up electricity generation at one of its major power plants in a bid to ease perennial energy woes.
    (AFP, 9/4/14)

2014        Sep 24, In Zimbabwe a white family was evicted from their land in the eastern Goromonzi district by security agents. Media soon reported that Bona Mugabe (24), the daughter of Pres. Mugabe (90), was involved in the eviction.
    (AFP, 9/26/14)

2014        Oct 28, In Zimbabwe patients waited in long queues while others were being turned away at state hospitals as hundreds of doctors staged a strike to press for higher pay.
    (AFP, 10/28/14)

2014        Oct 31, The EU said it will take another step towards normal relations with Zimbabwe by ending restrictions on aid, paving the way for 234 million euros ($293 million) of new funding.
    (Reuters, 11/1/14)

2014        Nov 16, Zimbabwe's vice president Joice Mujuru hit back at charges of plotting to challenge President Robert Mugabe and said calls for her to resign were unconstitutional, her first public response to weeks of attacks by state-owned media.
    (Reuters, 11/17/14)

2014        Nov 20, In Zimbabwe 11 people were killed and dozens injured in a stampede at a stadium in Kwekwe, as thousands of people at an evening church service tried to leave through the same exit.
    (Reuters, 11/21/14)

2014        Nov 26, Zimbabwe state media reported that VP Joice Mujuru (59), once seen as a top contender to succeed Pres. Mugabe, has been blocked from seeking a seat on the 245-member soviet-style Central Committee of the ruling Zanu-PF party. Party rivals and state newspapers have linked Mujuru to an alleged plot against Mugabe.
    (AP, 11/26/14)

2014        Dec 4, Zimbabwe President Robert Mugabe (90) purged VP Joice Mujuru (59) seen just months ago as his most likely successor, denouncing her before party loyalists as leader of a "treacherous cabal" bent on removing him from power.
    (Reuters, 12/4/14)

2014        Dec 8, Zimbabwe's President Robert Mugabe fired his deputy, Joice Mujuru, and seven government ministers, in the latest twist in a power struggle over the choice of his successor.
    (Reuters, 12/9/14)

2014        Dec 10, Zimbabwe’s Pres. Mugabe told a ruling party meeting that Justice Minister Emmerson Mnangagwa and appointee Phelekezela Mphoko will "automatically" become vice presidents.
    (AP, 12/10/14)
2014        Dec 10, Zimbabwe said it has received a $110 million grant from the African Development Bank to repair and upgrade ageing infrastructure including water and power supply facilities.
    (AFP, 12/10/14)

2014        Dec 24, Zimbabwe wildlife authorities announced plans to export at least 62 elephants to top up scant state funding and curb a ballooning pachyderm population.
    (AFP, 12/24/14)

2014        Dec, Zimbabwe’s Reserve Bank introduced special currency in one, five, 10 and 25 cent coins. The value has been secured against a $50 million bond to reassure Zimbabweans. Shoppers however preferred to swap candy or smaller items instead of accepting change.
    (AP, 12/24/14)

2014        Grace Mugabe was controversially awarded a doctorate by the Univ. of Zimbabwe after just months of study. In 2018 the 226-page thesis, titled "The Changing Social Structure and Functions of the Family," was published and became the subject of a fraud investigation.
    (AFP, 1/25/18)

2015        Jan 13, Zimbabwe ruling party officials, ousted in a purge against allies of President Robert Mugabe's former deputy Joice Mujuru, vowed to launch a legal fight to regain control of the party.
    (AFP, 1/13/15)

2015        Jan 16, Zimbabwe's government says it must export elephants to raise funds for wildlife management. About 60 elephants will be sold for between $40,000 and $60,000 each to China, France and the United Arab Emirates.
    (AP, 1/16/15)

2015        Jan 18, In Zimbabwe at least 25 people were killed when two buses collided along a highway outside Harare.
    (Reuters, 1/18/15)

2015        Jan 30, In Ethiopia Zimbabwean President Robert Mugabe (90) took over the post of African Union chairman, replacing Mauritania's President Mohamed Ould Abdel Aziz.
    (AFP, 1/30/15)

2015        Feb 20, Zambia and Zimbabwe signed $294 million in deals with international investors allowing urgent repairs to avert the collapse of the gigantic, power-generating Kariba Dam, the world's largest man-made dam, to begin this year.
    (AFP, 2/20/15)

2015        Feb 26, Zimbabwean nanny Violet Moyo (22) was jailed for 22 years for the murder of a 10-month-old baby she stuffed into a drawer "for crying too much" before she settled down to watch TV.
    (AFP, 2/27/15)

2015        Mar 9, In Zimbabwe Itai Dzamara was forcibly taken by five unidentified men and bundled into an unmarked truck near his home in the capital Harare. The journalist-turned activist had been staging sit-ins in the capital demanding that President Robert Mugabe resign.
    (Reuters, 3/11/15)

2015        Mar 13, In Zimbabwe one prisoner in one of the country’s most notorious jails died in a stampede after hundreds of inmates rioted over the poor quality of their food.
    (AFP, 3/14/15)

2015        Apr 3, Zimbabwe's ruling ZANU-PF party said it has expelled former vice-president Joice Mujuru for allegedly plotting against President Robert Mugabe.
    (AFP, 4/3/15)

2015        Apr 10, In Zimbabwe a magistrate's court in Harare sentenced two former senior executives of the national carrier Air Zimbabwe to 10 years in jail each for insurance fraud involving more than $8 million. Former Air Zimbabwe chief executive officer Peter Chikumba (60) and former company secretary Grace Pfumbidzai (50) were found guilty of criminal abuse.
    (AFP, 4/10/15)

2015        Apr 17, Zimbabwe said it will evacuate its nationals caught in anti-foreigner violence that has left 6 people dead in South Africa.
    (AFP, 4/17/15)

2015        Apr 18, Zimbabwe’s President Robert Mugabe said public workers would continue receiving annual bonuses, publicly contradicting his finance minister who said this week the government would stop the payments for the next two years.
    (Reuters, 4/18/15)

2015        Apr 29, Zimbabwe shut down the country's second largest mobile phone service provider, Telecel Zimbabwe, partly for breaching black empowerment laws. International telecom firm VimpelCom, based in the Netherlands, has a 60 percent stake in Telecel Zimbabwe, making it the major shareholder.
    (AFP, 4/29/15)

2015        May 7, Organizers of the Miss Zimbabwe pageant said they are investigating 25-year-old Emily Kachote two weeks into her reign after photos that allegedly show her nude appeared on the Internet.
    (AP, 5/7/15)

2015        May 27, Zimbabwe’s Constitutional Court ruled that it was illegal and sexist for police to indiscriminately arrest women on the streets and in public establishments because it was discriminatory and deprived women of equal rights and the right to liberty. By 2017 a flood of young women and girls joined professional prostitutes driving down prices.
    (AP, 6/3/15)(Econ, 1/7/17, p.38)

2015        Jun 10, Miss Zimbabwe pageant organizers officially stripped Emily Kachote (25) of her title after photographs emerged of the now former beauty queen posing naked.
    (AP, 6/11/15)

2015        Jun 12, Zimbabwe's central bank said banknotes from its old currency, which collapsed and was discarded years ago because of runaway inflation, can be exchanged for American dollars as of June 15. But 100 trillion Zimbabwean dollars will fetch only 40 US cents, a fraction of what collectors have been paying for the notes for years.
    (AP, 6/12/15)

2015        Jul 1, In Zimbabwe Cecil the lion was killed in the western Hwange region. His carcass was discovered days later by trackers. On July 29 two men, arrested for illegally hunting the protected lion, were in court. They were reportedly paid $50,000 by American dentist James Palmer to hunt a lion for Palmer to kill with a crossbow. A Cabinet minister later said Palmer had not broken local hunting laws.
    (AP, 7/29/15)(SFC, 7/29/15, p.A4)(SFC, 10/13/15, p.A2)

2015        Jul 12, Zimbabwean writer Chenjerai Hove (59) died in exiled in Norway. His work largely portrayed the struggles of Zimbabwe's powerless groups. He left Zimbabwe for France in 2001 at the height of Zimbabwe's political tumult, claiming he was in danger. He later relocated to Norway.
    (AP, 7/13/15)

2015        Aug 3, US airlines Delta and American banned the shipment of big game trophies on flights, in the wake of outrage over the killing of Cecil the lion in Zimbabwe.
    (AFP, 8/4/15)

2015        Aug 8, Zimbabwe police blocked the country's main workers union from protesting against a recent wave of job losses and briefly held union leaders.
    (AFP, 8/8/15)

2015        Aug 25, The World Food Program (WFP) said around 1.5 million Zimbabweans are predicted to go hungry this year after a dramatic fall in maize production due to severe drought this year.
    (Reuters, 8/25/15)

2015        Aug 28, Zimbabwe media reported that President Robert Mugabe has signed a new law banning mass lay-offs following a spate of redundancies that unions say put 30,000 people out of work.
    (AFP, 8/28/15)

2015        Aug 31, Nigerian Aliko Dangote, Africa's richest man, said he would build a cement plant in Zimbabwe.
    (Reuters, 8/31/15)

2015        Sep 8, Zimbabwe's ousted vice president, Joice Mujuru, published plans to relax security and media laws and review divisive black empowerment legislation, signaling she could be lining up a challenge to President Robert Mugabe in 2018 elections.
    (Reuters, 9/8/15)

2015        Oct 7, A Zimbabwean wildlife official said five people are in police custody and being questioned over the killing of 11 elephants poisoned by cyanide at Hwange National Park in the west of the country.
    (AP, 10/7/15)   

2015        Oct 14, Zimbabwe officials said rangers in Hwange National Park have discovered the carcasses of 26 elephants at two locations, dead of cyanide poisoning along with 14 other elephants who were found last week.
    (AP, 10/14/15)

2015        Oct 22, Zimbabwean President Robert Mugabe was awarded China's alternative to the Nobel Peace Prize for what the prize committee called his inspired national leadership and service to pan-Africanism. Mugabe received only 36 of 76 votes, but was awarded the prize following a meeting of the committee's 13-member review board.
    (AP, 10/22/15)

2015        Nov 2, In Zimbabwe Sunday Mail editor Mabasa Sasa, investigations editor Brian Chitemba and reporter Tinashe Farawo were arrested after allegedly implicating an unnamed top police officer and other officials in recent fatal cyanide poisonings of more than 60 elephants by poachers.
    (AP, 11/3/15)

2015        Nov 16, Zimbabwe media said the government has passed new regulations ordering some 300,000 beneficiaries of President Robert Mugabe's controversial land reforms to pay annual rent and levies.
    (AFP, 11/16/15)

2015        Dec 1, In Zimbabwe China’s President Xi Jinping witnessed the signing of 10 economic agreements, including on expanding the southern African nation's largest thermal power plant.
    (Reuters, 12/2/15)

2015        In Zimbabwe at least 50 rhinos were poached this year, up from 20 a year earlier.
    (SFC, 1/13/16, p.A2)

2016        Jan 5, Zimbabwe media reported that Ellen Chiweshe, whose title was group captain, has been promoted to become the southern African country's first female Air Commodore, the No. 3 post in the air force.
    (AP, 1/5/16)

2016        Jan 8, Two Zimbabwean journalists were arrested after they reported that the government secretly paid salaries and bonuses to intelligence staffers while other civil servants went unpaid in December. Nqaba Matshazi and Xolisani Ncube were released on $200 bail each.
    (AP, 1/9/16)

2016        Jan 18, Zimbabwe's wildlife rangers recovered 22 elephant tusks after a shootout with 11 suspected poachers, all of whom escaped.
    (AP, 1/20/16)

2016        Jan 20, Zimbabwe's Constitutional Court outlawed child marriage in an effort to end a practice that a rights group says is common in the southern African nation.
    (AP, 1/20/16)

2016        Feb 4, Zimbabwean President Robert Mugabe declared a state of disaster in most rural parts of the country severely hit by a drought, with 26 percent of the population said to be in need of food aid.
    (Reuters, 2/5/16)

2016        Feb 10, The United Nations Development Program said it has raised $60 million for food aid in Zimbabwe and is feeding 1 million people as the country faces its worst drought in a quarter century.
    (Reuters, 2/10/16)

2016        Feb 14, Zimbabwe aviation authorities impounded a US-registered cargo jet, with a dead body and millions of South African rand reportedly on board. The Western Global Airlines MD-11 trijet was traveling from Germany to South Africa.
    (AP, 2/15/16)

2016        Feb 27, Zimbabwe President Robert Mugabe marked his 92nd birthday at a nearly $1 million party organized by supporters, drawing criticism from opponents who said the celebrations in a drought-stricken area were an affront to ordinary citizens.
    (Reuters, 2/27/16)

2016        Feb 29, A Zimbabwe’s High Court allowed the largest mine in Marange, Mbada Diamonds, to return and assume control of all assets after challenging the government's ban on mining operations.
    (Reuters, 3/3/16)

2016        Mar 1, Zimbabwean former vice president Joice Mujuru launched a new political party in a direct challenge to veteran President Robert Mugabe's all-powerful ZANU-PF, as speculation increases over his succession.
    (AFP, 3/1/16)

2016        Mar 3, Zimbabwean police said they have recovered the bodies of three illegal diamond miners and are searching for up to seven more missing people, a week after government banned operations at diamond shafts.
    (Reuters, 3/3/16)
2016        Mar 3, Zimbabwean President Robert Mugabe announced that the government will take over all the country's diamond mines to stop foreign firms syphoning off gems without declaring them.
    (AFP, 3/4/16)
2016        Mar 3, In Zimbabwe 31 people were killed in a bus accident after a burst front tire sent the vehicle careening into the oncoming lane in the Midlands city of Kwekwe.
    (AP, 3/5/16)

2016        Mar 9, In Zimbabwe hundreds rallied in Harare over the shadowy disappearance of an opposition activist a year ago. Itai Dzamara, a former journalist and harsh regime critic, was seized by unidentified men on March 9, 2015.
    (AFP, 3/9/16)

2016        Mar 11, Zimbabwe Finance Minister Patrick Chinamasa said white farmers will be compensated for land seized for redistribution to blacks and that evaluations of the properties has begun.
    (AFP, 3/11/16)

2016        Mar 13, In Zimbabwe an Italian father and son were shot dead by wildlife rangers while on an anti-poaching patrol in an apparent case of mistaken identity in the Mana Pools national park. Claudio Chiarelli (50) had lived in Zimbabwe since 1982 and that his son (20) was born in the country.
    (AFP, 3/14/16)

2016        Mar 15, A Zimbabwe state-owned newspaper said the number of citizens requiring food aid has risen to 4 million, up from 3 million initially.
    (Reuters, 3/15/16)

2016        Mar 16, The United Nations' food agency said it needed $220 million in funding to provide assistance to drought-hit Zimbabwe until March 2017.
    (Reuters, 3/16/16)

2016        Mar 28, Japanese PM Shinzo Abe welcomed Zimbabwean President Robert Mugabe -- the 92-year-old former guerrilla fighter who is widely shunned in the West but frequently courted in Asia.
    (AFP, 3/28/16)

2016        Apr 14, Demonstrators in Zimbabwe held the largest protest against President Robert Mugabe in nearly a decade, marching through central Harare demanding that the 92-year-old leader make a dignified exit.
    (AFP, 4/14/16)

2016        Apr 20, The Zimbabwean government suspended Harare Mayor Bernard Manyenyeni accusing him of insubordination, escalating a struggle for control of the capital which has been run by the opposition since 2002.
    (Reuters, 4/21/16)

2016        May 3, Zimbabwe put its wild animals up for sale, saying it needed buyers to step in and save the beasts from a devastating drought.
    (Reuters, 5/3/16)

2016        May 16, The International Federation of Red Cross and the Red Crescent Societies (IFRC) pledged $110 million to a new initiative to help drought-stricken southern African countries including Lesotho, Malawi, Mozambique, Namibia, South Africa, Swaziland and Zimbabwe.
    (AP, 5/16/16)

2016        May 30, Zimbabwean officials say poachers killed 5 elephants by poisoning them with cyanide. Rangers discovered the carcasses of the elephants with their tusks removed in a western forest last week.
    (AP, 5/30/16)

2016        Jun 9, Zimbabwean police arrested 15 people, including a journalist and the brother of missing political activist Itai Dzamara, while they were holding a vigil in Africa Unity Square in central Harare calling upon Pres. Mugabe to step down.
    (AFP, 6/10/16)

2016        Jun 16, Zimbabwe's cash-strapped government announced it will delay paying June salaries for the military and police by up to two weeks. Zimbabwe has been delaying pay dates for its employees for nearly a year due to revenue problems, but this is the first time the salaries have been delayed so long.
    (AP, 6/19/16)

2016        Jun 28, Zimbabwe's wildlife authority said it has suspended its director general and is investigating the disappearance of 228 kg (500 pounds) of the agency's stored rhino horn. Edson Chidziya was put leave with full pay to facilitate the investigation.
    (Reuters, 6/28/16)

2016        Jul 4, In Zimbabwe a protest by taxi drivers against a police crackdown turned violent when residents joined in and hurled rocks at police, who fired teargas to disperse the rioters. Drivers accused police of seeking to raise money for their operations by imposing hefty fines on their vehicles.
    (Reuters, 7/4/16)

2016        Jul 6, In Zimbabwe riot police patrolled through the capital Harare as a call for a national strike against President Robert Mugabe's economic policies closed businesses and crippled the public transport system. The protest was led by Evan Mawarire, whose hashtag #ThisFlag has caught the nation’s imagination. Zimbabweans stayed at home and foreign banks and most businesses in the capital shut down operations in one of the biggest protests against high unemployment, corruption, and acute cash shortage.
    (AFP, 7/6/16)(Reuters, 7/6/16)(Econ, 7/30/16, p.35)

2016        Jul 12, Zimbabwean Baptist minister Evan Mawarire, a leader of the biggest protests against Pres. Robert Mugabe in a decade, was charged with inciting public violence. In a video recorded before his arrest he urged supporters to go ahead with demonstrations.
    (Reuters, 7/12/16)

2016        Jul 13, Zimbabwe's state prosecutor charged pastor Evan Mawarire with attempting to overthrow the state via his Internet video campaign that inspired rare protests this month against President Robert Mugabe.
    (Reuters, 7/13/16)

2016        Jul 15, Zimbabwe delayed paying its soldiers for a second successive month, underlining the worsening economic crisis that has triggered recent protests.
    (AFP, 7/18/16)

2016        Jul 20, In Zimbabwe tens of thousands gathered to show their support for 92-year-old President Robert Mugabe in the capital, Harare. The massive turnout was organized by Mugabe's ruling party, ZANU-PF, in response to recent anti-government demonstrations and a nationwide strike protesting a rapidly declining economy.
    (AP, 7/20/16)

2016        Jul 21, Zimbabwean war veterans turned on their long-time ally President Robert Mugabe, describing him as a dictator in a jolting rebuke underlining political maneuvering over his succession and mounting anger over economic woes.
    (Reuters, 7/22/16)

2016         Jul 24, Zimbabwe war veterans decried Mugabe's "dictatorial tendencies" and vowed to withdraw their support if he seeks re-election in 2018.
    (AFP, 7/24/16)

2016        Jul 27, Thousands of Zimbabweans rallied in support of President Robert Mugabe, days after war veterans called the 92-year-old a corrupt dictator, highlighting maneuvering over the ZANU-PF leader's succession and anger over growing hardships.
    (AP, 7/27/16)
2016        Jul 27, Zimbabwe police arrested Douglas Mahiya, a senior official from the country’s war veterans' association, after it accused President Robert Mugabe of "dictatorial" behaviour in a shock rupture with the 92-year-old leader. The association's secretary-general, Victor Matemadanda, was also taken from his rural home in Gokwe, after being summoned for police questioning.
    (AFP, 7/28/16)

2016        Jul 28, The UN Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) said some 23 million farmers in drought-hit Southern Africa need urgent help to prepare for the next planting season with only a few weeks left before it begins. It said Botswana, Swaziland, South Africa, Namibia and Zimbabwe have reported more than 640,000 drought-related livestock deaths. Farmers and cattle herders in 10 countries have requested assistance: Lesotho, Madagascar, Malawi, Mozambique, Namibia, South Africa, Swaziland, Tanzania, Zambia and Zimbabwe.
    (Reuters, 7/28/16)

2016        Aug 3, Zimbabwe police fired tear gas and water cannons to break up anti-government protests in the capital, Harare, as frustrations grew over a rapidly deteriorating economy.
    (AP, 8/3/16)

2016        Aug 26, Zimbabwe police battled anti-government protesters in Harare with batons, tear gas and water cannons, despite a court order that police should not to interfere with the demonstration.
    (AP, 8/26/16)

2016        Aug 31, In Zimbabwe riot police patrolled Harare and other cities after authorities vowed to prevent further protests against President Robert Mugabe's government.
    (AFP, 8/31/16)

2016        Nov 17, In Zimbabwe opposition activists were abducted and beaten before a demonstration against the cash-strapped government's plans to introduce a new currency. Six people were beaten and two cars were burned in what was seen as a warning against going ahead with the protests.
    (AP, 11/18/16)
2016        Nov 17, The United Nations said its budget to assist people suffering from Zimbabwe's worst drought in a quarter of a century that left millions in need of food aid had fallen short by $140 million.
    (Reuters, 11/17/16)

2016        Nov 28, Zimbabweans greeted a new "bond note" currency with deep suspicion that it could herald the return of hyperinflation that destroyed their savings less than 10 years ago. The new "bond notes" were valued at the equivalent of $1 and $2.
    (AFP, 11/28/16)

  2016        Nov 30, In Zimbabwe riot police fired tear gas and beat up opposition protesters marching through Harare against the new "bond note" currency.
    (AFP, 11/30/16)

2016        Dec 17, In Zimbabwe the ruling ZANU-PF endorsed President Robert Mugabe (92) for a 2018 election run.
    (AFP, 12/17/16)

2017        Jan 5, Zimbabwe's wildlife agency said it has sold 35 elephants to China to ease overpopulation and raise funds for conservation, amid criticism from animal welfare activists that such sales are unethical.
    (AP, 1/5/17)

2017        Jan 10, Zimbabwe wildlife park rangers killed two poachers in Hwange National Park.
    (SFC, 1/13/17, p.A2)

2017        Jan 11, Zimbabwe wildlife park rangers killed one poacher in the Hurungwe safari area.
    (SFC, 1/13/17, p.A2)

2017        Feb 1, Zimbabwe started levying a 15 percent value-added tax on basic foodstuffs, dealing a further blow to cash-strapped consumers already battling to survive in an ailing economy.
    (AFP, 2/1/17)
2017        Feb 1, Zimbabwean pastor Evan Mawarire was arrested at Harare airport as he returned to the country after several months abroad. He had led a surge of protests last year against President Robert Mugabe's authoritarian government.
    (AFP, 2/1/17)

2017        Feb 3, Zimbabwean protest leader Evan Mawarire was remanded in custody by a court in Harare after police arrested him on charges of subverting the government and inciting public violence.
    (AFP, 2/3/17)

2017        Feb 8, Zimbabwe's Constitutional Court dismissed a case against President Robert Mugabe (92) lodged by an activist who accused the aging leader of violating the southern African country's supreme law during protests last year.
    (Reuters, 2/8/17)
2017        Feb 8, Zimbabwean protest leader Evan Mawarire was released on bail by a court in Harare after police arrested him on charges of subverting the government and inciting public violence.
    (AFP, 2/8/17)

2017        Feb 16, The UN Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) said Zimbabwe is likely to be the country hardest hit by an outbreak of armyworms that is destroying crops and threatening food security in southern Africa.
    (Reuters, 2/16/17)

2017        Feb, Zimbabwe appealed to international donors for $100 million to help those affected by recent floods. Since December, southern floods have killed 246 people, injured 128 and left nearly 2,000 homeless.
    (AP, 3/5/17)

2017        Mar 3, Two Zimbabwean journalists were arrested over a newspaper report that described President Robert Mugabe as "in bad shape" when he flew to Singapore for what officials called a scheduled medical check-up.
    (AFP, 3/3/17)

2017        Mar 5, Zimbabwean junior doctors called off a three-week strike saying the government had partially met their demands, a day before a one-day walkout by other public sector workers.
    (Reuters, 3/5/17)

2017        Mar 6, Zimbabwe's government agreed to pay outstanding cash bonuses, bringing an end to a brief sit-in protest by public workers.
    (Reuters, 3/6/17)

2017        May 19, In western Zimbabwe Theunis Botha (51), a professional hunter who specialized in hunting with hounds, was crushed to death when an elephant picked him up and then fell on him after being shot.
    (AFP, 5/22/17)

2017        May 24, Pres. Robert Mugabe's daughter Bona Chikore (27) was appointed to the Zimbabwe board of censors, the latest family member to take up an official role.
    (AFP, 5/24/17)

2017        Jun 7, In Zimbabwe a bus traveling to Zambia crashed late today, killing 45 people.
    (AP, 6/8/17)

2017        Jun 9, Zimbabwe President Robert Mugabe fired suspended prosecutor general Mr. Johannes Tomana, who now faces a misconduct trial.   
    (AFP, 6/10/17)

2017        Jun 13, Zimbabwe state-owned media reported that the government has banned the import of corn after enjoying a bumper crop that authorities hope will be enough to feed the nation and stimulate home-grown production. The deputy agriculture minister said the government stopped issuing grain import permits about four months ago and no maize imports are allowed at our borders.
    (AFP, 6/13/17)

2017        Jul 3, In Ethiopia Zimbabwe's President Robert Mugabe handed over $1 million (880,000 euros) at the start of the AU's bi-annual summit in Addis Ababa, after auctioning off 300 of his own cattle, as well as those belonging to some of his supporters to help make the AU self-supporting.
    (AFP, 7/3/17)

2017        Jul 22, In Zimbabwe a bull elephant, that gave tourist rides in the town of Victoria Falls, trampled to death Enock Kufandanda (50), his professional handler. Parks and wildlife authority rangers shot and killed the elephant, reported to be about 30 years old.
    (AFP, 7/25/17)

2017        Aug 1, In Zimbabwe about a hundred uniformed soldiers wielding batons and whips charged into a bus terminus and beat up police officers, leaving many prostrate on the ground. The violence was reportedly triggered by police using spikes to deflate the tires of a military vehicle after an alleged traffic offence.
    (AFP, 8/4/17)

2017        Aug 16, Zimbabwe police said first lady Grace Mugabe has claimed diplomatic immunity after being accused of assaulting a 20-year-old model, in an incident that could test cross-border relations. She is accused of attacking Gabriella Engels with an electrical extension cord on August 13 at a Johannesburg hotel where her two sons were staying.
    (AFP, 8/16/17)

2017        Aug 17, In South Africa lawyers for the young model who claims Zimbabwe's first lady Grace Mugabe assaulted her in a Johannesburg hotel said that her family has been approached with an offer of money to drop the allegation. Police said a "red alert" had been issued to prevent Grace Mugabe from leaving the country after Zimbabwe's government requested diplomatic immunity.
    (AP, 8/17/17)

2017        Aug 18, A South African government source said South Africa is planning to grant diplomatic immunity to Zimbabwe's First Lady Grace Mugabe, allowing her to return to Harare and avoid prosecution for the alleged assault of a 20-year-old model.
    (Reuters, 8/18/17)
2017        Aug 18, South Africa grounded an Air Zimbabwe flight at Johannesburg's main international airport after South African authorities concluded it was not in compliance with civil aviation rules.
    (AP, 8/19/17)

2017        Aug 19, Zimbabwe blocked flights by South Africa's government-owned airline amid tensions over allegations that Zimbabwe's first lady assaulted a young model at a luxury hotel in Johannesburg.
    (AP, 8/19/17)

2017        Aug 20, Zimbabwe's first lady Grace Mugabe returned home from South Africa, pursued by demands she face prosecution over an alleged assault of a 20-year-old model in an upmarket Johannesburg hotel room. South Africa's international relations minister said she had been granted diplomatic immunity.
    (Reuters, 8/20/17)

2017        Aug 30, Thousands of Zimbabweans marched through Harare in a show of support for first lady Grace Mugabe who evaded assault allegations in South Africa by claiming diplomatic immunity. The march was organized by President Robert Mugabe's all-powerful ZANU-PF party.
    (AFP, 8/30/17)

2017        Sep 11, Global Witness accused Zimbabwe’s top security and political leaders of secretly profiting from the trade in the country's diamond reserves while depriving the impoverished nation of much-needed revenue.
    (AFP, 9/11/17)

2017        Sep 24, Zimbabwean activist pastor Evan Mawarire was arrested during a church service after he posted a video bemoaning the country's worsening economic troubles.
    (AFP, 9/24/17)

2017        Sep 27, It was reported that hundreds of vultures in Namibia died after feeding on an elephant carcass that poachers had poisoned. Poachers in Zimbabwe used cyanide to kill dozens of elephants for their ivory tusks. In Mozambique three lions died after eating bait infused with a crop pesticide.
    (AP, 9/27/17)

2017        Sep 29, Zimbabwean police in Harare fired teargas to break up protests against the country's worsening economic crisis as rising prices fuel opposition to President Robert Mugabe's regime.
    (AFP, 9/29/17)
2017        Sep 29, Zimbabwean activist pastor Evan Mawarire (40) was acquitted of inciting public violence, but he remained on trial for allegedly trying to subvert President Robert Mugabe's government.
    (AFP, 9/29/17)

2017        Oct 2, In Zimbabwe NewsDay reported that a ruling Zanu-PF lawmaker, Esau Mupfumi, had over the weekend handed out clothes saying they were donated by First Lady Grace Mugabe. NewsDay journalist Kenneth Nyangani was arrested for allegedly writing and publishing the story over the donation of some used undergarments by Mugabe’s wife.
    (AFP, 10/3/17)

2017        Oct 5, Zimbabwe vice president Emmerson Mnangagwa said he had been hospitalized in August because he had been poisoned, raising the political temperature in the fight to succeed 93-year-old President Robert Mugabe.
    (Reuters, 10/6/17)

2017        Oct 9, Zimbabwean President Robert Mugabe (93) reshuffled his Cabinet and stripped the justice ministry from Vice President Emmerson Mnangagwa, accused of harboring presidential ambitions.
    (AP, 10/10/17)

2017        Oct 18, In Uruguay Tedros Ghebreyesus, the World Health Organization's new chief, announced the appointment of Zimbabwe’s leader Robert Mugabe (93) as a "goodwill ambassador" for the WHO.
    (http://tinyurl.com/ybjk5kpb)(AP, 10/21/17)

2017        Oct 22, The World Health Organization (WHO) said Zimbabwean President Robert Mugabe has been removed as a goodwill ambassador, following outrage among Western donors and rights groups at the appointment.
    (Reuters, 10/22/17)

2017        Nov 3, Zimbabwe officers detained Martha O'Donovan, a US citizen, in a dawn raid at her home for allegedly tweeting that President Robert Mugabe is a "goblin whose wife and step-son bought a Rolls-Royce." This came just weeks after Mugabe appointed a cyber security minister charged with policing social media.
    (AFP, 11/3/17)

2017        Nov 6, Zimbabwean President Robert Mugabe fired Vice President Emmerson Mnangagwa, as the battle between Mnangagwa and Mugabe's wife Grace to succeed the veteran leader intensified.
    (AFP, 11/6/17)

2017        Nov 9, Zimbabwean President Robert Mugabe attended a ceremony re-naming Harare Airport in his honor.
    (AFP, 11/9/17)
2017        Nov 9, A high court judge in Zimbabwe said the state's case against US citizen Martha O'Donovan, charged with trying to subvert President Robert Mugabe's government, lacked facts and ordered that she be granted bail. O'Donovan worked for Magamba TV, which describes itself as Zimbabwe's leading producer of political satire.
    (Reuters, 11/9/17)

2017        Nov 10, In Zimbabwe Martha O'Donovan, the US woman charged with subversion over allegedly insulting President Robert Mugabe on Twitter was freed on $1,000 bail.
    (AP, 11/10/17)
2017        Nov 10, A Zimbabwe court released on $50 bail each four people facing charges of undermining the authority of President Robert Mugabe after his powerful wife was jeered at a Nov. 4 rally.
    (AP, 11/10/17)

2017        Nov 13, Zimbabwe's top military general called for an immediate end to purges against former liberation war fighters in President Robert Mugabe's ruling party, after Emmerson Mnangagwa was stripped of his vice president's post.
    (Reuters, 11/13/17)

2017        Nov 14, Zimbabwe was on edge as armored personnel carriers were seen outside the capital a day after the army commander threatened to "step in" to calm political tensions over the president's firing of his deputy.
    (AP, 11/14/17)

2017        Nov 15, Zimbabwe's military was in control of the country as President Robert Mugabe said he was under house arrest, although generals denied staging a coup. The country, which has an unemployment rate of over 90 percent, is due to hold elections next year with Mugabe pledging to stand for office again.
    (AFP, 11/15/17)

2017        Nov 16, Zimbabwe opposition leader Morgan Tsvangirai said President Robert Mugabe should resign in the interest of the country after the military seized power.
    (Reuters, 11/16/17)
2017        Nov 16, Conservation groups decried US President Donald Trump's decision to allow trophy hunters who kill elephants in Zambia and Zimbabwe to bring home the endangered animals' tusks or other body parts as trophies.
    (Reuters, 11/16/17)(SFC, 11/16/17, p.A6)

2017        Nov 17, Zimbabwe's Pres. Robert Mugabe (93) opened a graduation ceremony at Zimbabwe Open University in Harare, as the ruling party made plans to force him to step down after more than three decades in power.
    (Reuters, 11/17/17)
2017        Nov 17, US President Donald Trump said in a tweet he is putting a decision to allow imports of big game trophies on hold until he can "review all conservation facts."
    (Reuters, 11/18/17)

2017        Nov 19, Zimbabwe’s ZANU-PF party sacked Robert Mugabe as its leader and told him to resign as head of state. He was replaced by former vice president Emmerson Mnangagwa, Grace Mugabe's chief rival. The party added that it would impeach Mugabe if he did not resign by Nov. 20, that Mnangagwa would be its candidate in 2018 elections, and that Grace was expelled from the ZANU-PF ranks. Mugabe defied expectations he would quit in a televised address late today, pitching the country into a second week of political crisis after the army took power.
    (AFP, 11/19/17)(AFP, 11/20/17)

2017        Nov 20, Zimbabwe’s Pres. Robert Mugabe ignored a midday deadline by the party's Central Committee to resign. Several hundred Zimbabwean students added their voices for Pres. Mugabe to quit. Classes at the University of Zimbabwe in Harare were cancelled and examinations postponed as students raged over Mugabe's insistence on staying in office.
    (AP, 11/20/17)(AFP, 11/20/17)

2017        Nov 21, Zimbabwe’s Pres. Robert Mugabe resigned, shortly after parliament began an impeachment process to end his nearly four decades of rule. Emmerson Mnangagwa, a former security chief known as The Crocodile, was expected to take over as president.
    (Reuters, 11/21/17)

2017        Nov 22, Zimbabwe's incoming leader Emmerson Mnangagwa emerged from hiding, departing from neighboring South Africa to return home in preparation to take power after Robert Mugabe's stunning resignation.
    (AP, 11/22/17)

2017        Nov 24, Zimbabwe inaugurated new President Emmerson Mnangagwa. He laid out a grand vision to revitalize the country’s ravaged economy and vowed to rule on behalf of all the country's citizens.
    (AFP, 11/24/17)(Reuters, 11/24/17)

2017        Nov 25, Former Zimbabwe finance minister Ignatius Chombo, among those detained by the military when it seized power before Robert Mugabe resigned, was charged with three counts of corruption in offences that allegedly in 2004.
    (Reuters, 11/25/17)

2017        Nov 28, Zimbabwe's new president, Emmerson Mnangagwa announced a three-month amnesty window for the return of public funds illegally stashed abroad by individuals and companies.
    (Reuters, 11/28/17)

2017        Dec 1, Zimbabwe's new president, Emmerson Mnangagwa, came under fire for unveiling a debut cabinet that named two military allies to top positions, reappointed figures from Robert Mugabe's discredited era and sidelined the opposition.
    (AFP, 12/1/17)

2017        Dec 2, In Zimbabwe at least 21 people died this evening in a northwestern province after a truck carrying 69 people overturned.
    (AP, 12/3/17)

2017        Dec 13, Zimbabwe’s parks agency said it has seized 200 kg (440 pounds) of ivory, worth over $500,000, destined for Malaysia.
    (AP, 12/13/17)

2017        Dec 18, Zimbabwe's army declared an end to the military intervention that ousted Robert Mugabe, promising to shut down their last roadblocks in the capital and hand over to police.
    (Reuters, 12/18/17)

2017        Dec 21, In Zimbabwe white farmer Robert Smart, evicted by the government of Robert Mugabe, became the first to get his land back under new Pres. Emmerson Mnangagwa.
    (SFC, 12/23/17, p.A4)

2017        Dec 23, Zimbabwe’s President Emmerson Mnangagwa appointed retired army boss Constantino Chiwenga and veteran politician Kembo Mohadi as the ruling party's vice presidents.
    (Reuters, 12/23/17)

2017        Dec 27, Zimbabwe state media reported that new President Emmerson Mnangagwa has appointed Constantino Chiwenga. the country's former military commander, as one of his two vice presidents.
    (AP, 12/27/17)

2017        Dec 28, Zimbabwe state media reported that ousted president Robert Mugabe will get a residence, a car fleet and private air travel as part of a new government-funded retirement package for former leaders.
    (AFP, 12/28/17)

2018        Jan 4, A Zimbabwean court freed "for now" Martha O'Donovan, an American woman charged with subversion for allegedly describing the former president on Twitter as a "sick man".
    (AP, 1/4/18)

2018        Jan 5, In Zimbabwe former foreign minister Walter Mzembi and ex-energy minister Samuel Undenge were charged with "criminal abuse of office." They both denied wrongdoing. Both granted bail the next day.
    (Reuters, 1/6/18)

2018        Jan 17, In New Mexico Roy Bennett and his wife, who pushed for political change in Zimbabwe, died in a fiery helicopter crash in a remote area of the state along with an adventurous Texas investor and a pair of decorated pilots.
    (AP, 1/19/18)(SFC, 1/20/18, p.A3)

2018        Jan 20, It was reported that Zimbabwe has given illegal vendors and pirate taxis 48 hours to leave Harare's streets, failing which it will forcibly remove them with the military's help, as President Emmerson Mnangagwa seeks to restore order in cities.
    (Reuters, 1/20/18)

2018        Jan 24, Zimbabwe's new President Emmerson Mnangagwa said the country will hold transparent elections by July and he would respect the result if the opposition wins.
    (Reuters, 1/24/18)

2018        Feb 1, It was reported that Zimbabwe's remaining white farmers will now get 99-year land leases according to a new government policy that marks a dramatic change from widespread evictions of whites from farms.
    (AP, 2/1/18)

2018        Feb 14, Morgan Tsvangirai (65), Zimbabwe’s opposition leader, died in South Africa after a long battle with cancer. The party's National Council announced that its vice president, Nelson Chamisa, was taking the role of acting president following Tsvangirai's death.
    (Reuters, 2/15/18)

2018        Mar 9, Dozens of Zimbabweans protested as Harare-based Western diplomats called on the new government to investigate the abduction three years ago of journalist Itai Dzamara, a rights activist and firebrand critic of ex-ruler Robert Mugabe.
    (AFP, 3/9/18)

2018        Mar 19, Zimbabwean President Emmerson Mnangagwa named hundreds of mines, Chinese businesses and individuals who had illegally transferred foreign currency abroad during Robert Mugabe's rule and warned they would be prosecuted.
    (AFP, 3/19/18)

2018        Mar 20, Wildlife authorities in Zimbabwe shot dead a large crocodile that strayed into the northern town of Hwange and blocked entry to a hospital.
    (AFP, 3/22/18)

2018        Mar 21, Zimbabwe's new Pres. Emmerson Mnangagwa announced that he is commuting death sentences for some prisoners and releasing thousands of people from prison, including most women and everyone under age 18, to ease overcrowded prisons.
    (SFC, 3/22/18, p.A2)

2018        Apr 3, Chinese President Xi Jinping told President Emmerson Mnangagwa of Zimbabwe that they should work towards a new chapter in ties, during the African leader's first state visit to China since he seized power last year.
    (Reuters, 4/3/18)

2018        Apr 17, Zimbabwe's government sacked the majority of 15,000 nurses who started industrial action this week shortly after doctors ended their month-long strike.
    (AFP, 4/19/18)

2018        Apr 22, Zimbabwean nurses called off a strike against poor working conditions. a nurses union said they will return to work on April 23.
    (Reuters, 4/22/18)

2018        Apr 23, Zimbabwe police said special courts have been established to deal with cases of political violence, part of the government's drive to curtail unrest and intimidation ahead of the first post-Robert Mugabe elections set for July.
    (Reuters, 4/23/18)

2018        Apr 28, It was reported that Zimbabwe has legalized the production of marijuana for medicinal and scientific purposes, making it the rare African country to turn the drug into a source of revenue. Recreational use remained illegal.
    (AP, 4/28/18)

2018        Apr 29, Zimbabwe held primary elections. The voting was extended to May 1 in some constituencies due to disagreements over who should vote, late ballot deliveries and accusations of bribery and cheating by some candidates. Seven government ministers and several allies of President Emmerson Mnangagwa were defeated in the primary elections for parliament.
    (Reuters, 5/3/18)

 2018        May 14, Zimbabwe's central bank warned against trading in cryptocurrencies, saying virtual currencies such as bitcoin were not regulated in the country.
    (AFP, 5/14/18)

2018        May 15, Zimbabwe President Emmerson Mnangagwa officially applied for his country to re-join the British Commonwealth it left in 2003.
    {Zimbabwe, Commonwealth}
    (Reuters, 5/21/18)

2018        May 31, In Zimbabwe a play that was banned by Robert Mugabe about a 1980s government crackdown in which rights groups say 20,000 civilians were killed was performed in Zimbabwe for the first time. The play, "1983, The Dark Years", was stopped by the censors in 2012.
    (AP, 6/1/18)

2018        Jun 5, In Zimbabwe thousands of opposition supporters marched in Harare to demand electoral reforms ahead of the July 30 vote, the first since Robert Mugabe stepped down last year.
    (AP, 6/5/18)

2018        Jun 7, Zimbabwe's main opposition MDC-T party announced it will create a $100 billion economy within a decade and re-establish ties with Israel, a major foreign policy shift, if it wins July 30 elections.
    (AP, 6/7/18)

2018        Jun 23, Zimbabwean President Emmerson Mnangagwa survived a blast at a ruling ZANU-PF party rally at the White City stadium in Bulawayo. 49 people were hurt in the explosion.
    (AFP, 6/23/18)(Reuters, 6/24/18)

2018        Jun 25, In Zimbabwe two people died today from injuries suffered when a June 23 explosion rocked an election campaign rally by Pres. Emmerson Mnangagwa.
    (Reuters, 6/25/18)

2018        Jun 26, Several Zimbabwean presidential candidates and political parties condemned the explosion over the weekend that narrowly missed President Emmerson Mnangagwa and signed an agreement to have a peaceful campaign ahead of elections at the end of July.
    (AP, 6/26/18)

2018        Jul 11, Zimbabwe's main opposition vowed to press on with demands for fair elections as thousands took to the streets to petition the electoral commission with a slew of grievances.
    (AFP, 7/11/18)

2018        Jul 13, Zimbabwe state media said top prosecutor Ray Goba has been suspended for failing to prosecute high-profile corruption cases among other allegations.
    (Reuters, 7/13/18)

2018        Jul 20, In Zimbabwe Samuel Undenge, a former minister who served under ex president Robert Mugabe, was found guilty of corruption and sentenced to four years in jail, the first conviction of a Mugabe-era official since he stepped down.
    (Reuters, 7/20/18)

2018        Jul 30, Zimbabwe held its first election since former president Robert Mugabe was ousted in a de facto coup. President Emmerson Mnangagwa, a long-time ally of Mugabe, faced opposition leader Nelson Chamisa in the vote.
    (Reuters, 7/30/18)
2018        Jul 30, A South African court ruled that former Zimbabwean first lady Grace Mugabe did not have diplomatic immunity when she allegedly beat a young woman with an electrical cord.
    (AFP, 7/30/18)

 2018        Jul 31, Zimbabwe's opposition MDC party claimed victory in the country's historic elections, setting the scene for a showdown with the ruling ZANU-PF that has held power since independence in 1980. The opposition alleged that results were not posted outside one-fifth of polling stations as required by law.
    (AFP, 7/31/18)(SFC, 8/1/18, p.A3)

2018        Aug 1, In Zimbabwe people fled military and other security forces firing live ammunition to break up opposition protests in Harare over election results. A search warrant was issued opposition presidential candidate Nelson Chamisa and others, when soldiers in Harare fired live rounds to disperse opposition protesters, some of whom were rioting. Six people were killed after soldiers moved into Harare, firing live rounds and beating protesters.
    (AP, 8/1/18)(AP, 8/2/18)(AP, 11/13/18)

2018        Aug 2, In Zimbabwe opposition leader Nelson Chamisa claimed victory in the disputed presidential election as an anxious nation awaited an official announcement of the result three days after voting. A lawyer said police are investigating Chamisa and others for allegedly inciting violence. Police sealed off the headquarters of the opposition Movement for Democratic Change (MDC) and 27 party employees carrying out voter tabulation were locked inside.
    (Reuters, 8/2/18)(AP, 8/2/18)

2018        Aug 3, Zimbabwe's opposition leader Nelson Chamisa lashed the results of the country's landmark presidential elections as "fraudulent" and "illegitimate" but signaled he would take the path of law to contest the outcome.
    (AFP, 8/3/18)

2018        Aug 7, A Zimbabwe court freed on bail 27 opposition supporters arrested last week on accusations of fomenting violence in the aftermath of President Emmerson Mnangagwa's election victory over Nelson Chamisa.
    (Reuters, 8/7/18)
 2018        Aug 7, Joint statement by the heads of mission of EU states in Zimbabwe along with the US, Canada and Switzerland condemned the "violence, attacks, and acts of intimidation targeted at opposition leaders and supporters," saying such violations have no place in a democratic society. New York-based Human Rights Watch said Zimbabwean security forces and unidentified gunmen have beaten and harassed dozens of people in a crackdown on the political opposition following a disputed election.
    (AP, 8/7/18)

2018        Aug 9, Senior Zimbabwean opposition figure Tendai Biti was in police custody after Zambia rejected his asylum bid and deported him, as fears grew about a government crackdown following Zimbabwe's disputed election.
    (AP, 8/9/18)

2018        Aug 10, Zimbabwe's main opposition party filed a legal challenge to the July 30 results of the country's first election without Robert Mugabe on the ballot.
    (AP, 8/10/18)

2018        Aug 22, In Zimbabwe crowds gathered around screens outside the top court to watch a legal showdown challenging Pres. Emmerson Mnangagwa's July 30 election victory.
    (Reuters, 8/22/18)

2018        Aug 24, Zimbabwe's constitutional court unanimously upheld Pres. Emmerson Mnangagwa's narrow victory in last month's historic election after the opposition alleged vote-rigging, saying "sufficient and credible evidence" had not been produced.
    (AP, 8/24/18)

2018        Aug 25, Zimbabwe's main opposition leader Nelson Chamisa refused to accept a Constitutional Court ruling that upheld Emmerson Mnangagwa's win in presidential elections last month.
    (AFP, 8/25/18)

2018        Aug 26, Zimbabwe inaugurated President Emmerson Mnangagwa (75) for the second time in nine months. He faced the mammoth task of rebuilding a worsening economy and uniting a nation divided by a vote that many hoped would deliver change.
    (AP, 8/26/18)

2018        Sep 3, Zimbabwe's wildlife authority said it is donating 10 white rhinos to Democratic Republic of Congo to re-establish a population driven to extinction by poachers a decade ago.
    (Reuters, 9/3/18)

2018        Sep 7, Zimbabwe's President Emmerson Mnangagwa appointed former banker Mthuli Ncube as finance minister and kept Winston Chitando in charge of mining, placing two technocrats at the helm of plans to rescue the country's battered economy.
    (Reuters, 9/7/18)

2018        Sep 10, Zimbabwe's newly sworn-in finance minister said he planned to reintroduce the Zimbabwe dollar and accelerate plans to repay the country's debt, in a bid to revive the battered economy. Zimbabwe abandoned its currency after it spiraled out of control between 2008 and 2009 during the rule of Robert Mugabe.
    (AFP, 9/10/18)

2018        Sep 11, Zimbabwe declared a cholera outbreak in the capital Harare after 20 people died from the disease and more than 2,000 were infected by drinking contaminated water.
    (Reuters, 9/11/18)

2018        Sep 12, Zimbabwe banned public gatherings in the capital Harare following a cholera outbreak which has claimed at least 21 lives and left hundreds of people ill over the past week.
    (AFP, 9/12/18)

2018        Sep 14, Zimbabwe's opposition MDC party called off plans to hold a mock inauguration to name its leader Nelson Chamisa as the country's president after public gatherings were banned due to a cholera outbreak.
    (AFP, 9/14/18)

2018        Sep 16, Zimbabwe state media said the death toll in the cholera outbreak in Harare has risen to 28.
    (AFP, 9/16/18)

2018        Sep 18, Zimbabwe's new Pres. Emmerson Mnangagwa ruled out an early return of the Zimbabwean dollar, toning down remarks by his finance minister that backed reintroducing the currency.
    (AFP, 9/18/18)

2018        Sep 26, In Zimbabwe an elephant trampled a German tourist (49) while she was trying to take photos of it in Mana Pools National Park.
    (AP, 9/27/18)

2018        Oct 11, Zimbabwe police arrested dozens of trade union members and activists ahead of a planned protest in the capital over the worst economic crisis in a decade. Police arrested Zimbabwe Congress of Trade Unions members in Harare and the cities of Mutare and Masvingo. The government banned the protest, citing an ongoing cholera outbreak. The arrested Trade union leaders and scores of activists were released on bail over the next two days.
    (AP, 10/11/18)(AP, 10/13/18)

2018        Oct 23, Zimbabwe's main opposition leader Nelson Chamisa called for a transitional emergency government to resolve the worsening economic and political crisis engulfing the country.
    (AFP, 10/23/18)

2018        Nov 7, In Zimbabwe a head-on collision between two buses killed 47 people near Rusape. Police said the death toll could rise because there 80 others admitted to hospital, some with serious injuries.
    (AP, 11/8/18)(SFC, 11/9/18, p.A2)

2018        Nov 16, In southern Zimbabwe at least 42 people were feared dead after flames swept through a passenger bus overnight driving towards South Africa.
    (Reuters, 11/16/18)

2018        Nov 23, In Zimbabwe a small plane en route to the popular tourist site of Victoria Falls crashed in Masvingo killing four people from Finland.
    (AP, 11/24/18)

2018        Nov 29, In Zimbabwe Several thousand anti-government demonstrators marched through the capital Harare, closely watched by armed police in the first rally since a deadly crackdown on an election protest in August.
    (AFP, 11/29/18)

2018        Dec 13, South Africa issued an arrest warrant for Zimbabwe's former first lady Grace Mugabe over the alleged assault of a model in a luxury Johannesburg hotel in 2017. Police sought Interpol's help to enforce the warrant.
    (Reuters, 12/19/18)

2018        Dec 15, Zimbabwe's President Emmerson Mnangagwa pledged to reform his party and promote democracy in his closing address to the ruling ZANU PF party's annual conference.
    (AFP, 12/15/18)

2018        Dec 18, A Zimbabwean inquiry said the military's use of live bullets to quell post-election violence earlier this year was "disproportionate and unjustified".
    (Reuters, 12/18/18)

2018        The Association for Free Research and International Cooperation (AFRIC), run by Yevgeny Prigozhin’s St. Petersburg-based organization, was founded as a “network of agents of influence" meant to provide “expert evaluations and opinions beneficial to Russia" in Africa. AFRIC sent “election observers"—many of them well-known white supremacists and neo-Nazis from Europe—to try to sway democratic races in Zimbabwe, Madagascar, Democratic Republic of the Congo and South Africa, in races in which other arms of Prigozhin’s vast empire often supported one or more of the candidates.
    (The Daily Beast, 3/2/21)

2019        Jan 4, Zimbabwe's government said it has begun laying off 3,365 workers from its youth ministry, as it tries to make good on its promise to cut the bloated civil service and sort out the country's finances.
    (Reuters, 1/4/19)

2019        Jan 12, Zimbabwe's President Emmerson Mnangagwa said prices of petrol and diesel would more than double to tackle a shortfall caused by increased demand and "rampant" illegal trading. Despite the price hike, diplomats and tourists would be able to access cheaper fuel at certain pumping stations.
    (AFP, 1/13/19)

2019        Jan 13, Zimbabweans reacted with outrage to a sharp rise in fuel prices announced by President Emmerson Mnangagwa in a move to improve supplies as the country struggles with its worst gasoline shortages in a decade.
    (AFP, 1/13/19)

2019        Jan 14, Zimbabwe police fired teargas as angry protesters barricaded roads with burning tires and rocks, after the government more than doubled the price of fuel over the weekend. At least 13 people sustained gunshot wounds during protests against the shock price hike. A police officer was stoned to death by protesters in the city Bulawayo. Two other people died during protests in Chitungwiza, south of Harare, and Kadoma, west of the capital.
    (AFP, 1/14/19)(AFP, 1/15/19)

2019        Jan 15, Zimbabwe's military put on a show of force to deter further protests over steep fuel price hikes.
    (Reuters, 1/15/19)

2019        Jan 16, Leading Zimbabwean activist Evan Mawarire was arrested by armed police at his home in Harare. Scores of civilians were detained and charged with public violence and others were beaten during protests in response to Mnangagwa increasing the price of fuel by more than 150 percent.
    (AFP, 1/16/19)(Reuters, 1/16/19)

2019        Jan 18, Zimbabwe blocked most social media as international criticism mounted of a ruthless security crackdown after anti-government protests.
    (AFP, 1/18/19)

2019        Jan 19, Zimbabwe police manned checkpoints on many main roads, searching vehicles for protesters allegedly involved in recent anti-government demonstrations.
    (AFP, 1/19/19)

2019        Jan 21, A Zimbabwe court ruled that the government exceeded its mandate in ordering an internet blackout during civilian protests last week, as authorities pressed on with rounding up opposition figures blamed for the unrest.
    (Reuters, 1/21/19)

2019        Jan 22, Zimbabwe's President Emmerson Mnangagwa called for a national dialogue among political parties and civic leaders, even as arrests continued.
    (AP, 1/22/19)

2019        Jan 23, Zimbabwe's government acknowledged accusations that its security forces engaged in "systematic torture" during a crackdown on anti-government protests, saying there were lessons to be learnt from the operation.
    (AFP, 1/23/19)
2019        Jan 23, Zimbabwe music star Oliver Mtukudzi (66) died in Harare.
    (AP, 1/23/19)

2019        Jan 24, Zimbabwe's army said soldiers accused of beating residents in townships following protests over fuel price hikes were impostors who tarnished the name of the military.
    (Reuters, 1/24/19)

2019        Jan 25, In Zimbabwe reports of a violent crackdown continued as rights groups and others accused security forces of raping women during house-to-house searches.
    (AP, 1/25/19)

2019        Jan 29, Zimbabwe's high court ordered the release on bail of activist pastor Evan Mawarire, who was arrested on charges of subversion amid violent anti-government protests. Lawyers marched on the constitutional court to protest the alleged denial of justice for hundreds of people arrested in a violent crackdown on protests that shut down the country.
    (Reuters, 1/29/19)(AP, 1/29/19)

2019        Feb 5, Some Zimbabwean teachers stayed at home while others went slow on the job as an indefinite strike at state schools got off to a patchy start amid fears of further intimidation by security forces who cracked down hard on protests last month.
    (Reuters, 2/5/19)

2019        Feb 6, Zimbabwe's main opposition snubbed talks with President Emmerson Mnangagwa meant to try resolve a political and economic crisis, saying any dialogue with the president would have to be brokered by an independent outside mediator. Other smaller parties attended the meeting at Mnangagwa's state house offices in Harare.
    (Reuters, 2/6/19)

2019        Feb 12, In Zimbabwe dozens of gold miners were caught underground on the outskirts of Kadoma. Between 60 and 70 people were working underground at the time of the accident.
    (AP, 2/16/19)

2019        Feb 16, In Zimbabwe eight artisanal miners, who were trapped underground since Feb. 12 after heavy flooding, were rescued. Dozens of their co-workers remained missing and were feared dead.
    (AP, 2/16/19)

2019        Feb 18, Zimbabwe President Emmerson Mnangagwa retired four generals, in the first major shake-up of the armed forces since he took office.
    (AP, 2/18/19)

2019        Mar 1, Botswana's Pres. Mokgweetsi Masisi dismissed a report that the country had offered Zimbabwe a $600 million diamond-backed loan and said his government had only offered to guarantee a $100 million private credit line for Botswana companies to invest in their troubled neighbor.
    (Reuters, 3/1/19)

2019        Mar 14, Mozambique cancelled flights to several domestic destinations as a tropical cyclone, potentially the strongest to hit the country in nearly two decades, approached. Cyclone Idai hit Mozambique late today and continued on to Zimbabwe and Malawi. Over the next two days more than 140 people were killed, hundreds more were missing and tens of thousands left stranded in mainly poor, rural areas.
    (AFP, 3/14/19)(AP, 3/16/19)(SSFC, 3/17/19, p.A7)

2019        Mar 15, Cyclone Idai hit Zimbabwe, cutting off power and communications. At least 31 people died in southeastern Zimbabwe as homes and bridges were swept away by the tropical storm. The confirmed dead soon rose to 98 with least 217 more missing.
    (Reuters, 3/16/19)(SSFC, 3/17/19, p.A7)(AFP, 3/19/19)

2019        Mar 21, Mozambique authorities said the death toll in the country has risen to 217 and around 15,000 people, many of them very ill, still need to be rescued. In neighboring Zimbabwe, the death toll from Cyclone Idai jumped to 139.
    (Reuters, 3/21/19)

2019        Mar 22, The confirmed death toll in Mozambique and neighboring Zimbabwe reached 432, with 293 killed in Mozambique, and around 1.7 million people affected. Hundreds of thousands of people scrambled for shelter, food and water across a swathe of southern Africa.
    (AFP, 3/22/19)(Reuters, 3/22/19)

2019        Mar 27, UN officials said at least 707 people had been reported killed by Cyclone Idai, the flooding it caused and heavy rains before it hit. This included 468 in Mozambique, 259 in Zimbabwe and 60 in Malawi.
    (Reuters, 3/27/19)

2019        Mar 30, United Nations officials said at least 746 people have been reported killed in Malawi, Mozambique and Zimbabwe since Cyclone Idai landed on March 14.
    (Reuters, 3/30/19)

2019        Apr 7, UN and government officials said at least 847 people have been killed by Cyclone Idai, the flooding it caused and heavy rains after it hit Mozambique (602), Zimbabwe (259) and Malawi (60).
    (Reuters, 4/7/19)

2019        Apr 9, Zimbabwe updated its death toll from Cyclone Idai to 344 while Mozambique said recorded fatalities stood at 602, taking the combined tally to 946.
    (AFP, 4/10/19)

2019        Apr 14, Zimbabwe Pres. Emmerson Mnangagwa said in a published interview that the government will give priority to elderly white farmers when it starts compensating those who lost their properties during the controversial land reforms.
    (AFP, 4/14/19)

2019        Apr 21, It was reported that the price of bread almost doubled for Zimbabweans last week, as the inflation nightmare that marked the rule of long-time authoritarian leader Robert Mugabe returns to haunt his successor Emmerson Mnangagwa.
    (AFP, 4/21/19)

2019        Apr 28, A Zimbabwean organization started exhuming the remains of victims of a government massacre during former president Robert Mugabe's rule, which claimed some 20,000 lives. The remains of Thembi Ngwenya, aged 21 at the time of her death in 1983, were the first to be exhumed as part of a healing process promised by the government.
    (AFP, 4/30/19)

2019        May 3, The World Bank said will extend more than half-a-billion dollars in grants for cyclone-ravaged southern African countries as he concluded a visit to Mozambique. A total of up to $545 million will be disbursed to Mozambique, Zimbabwe and Malawi, the three countries hit by Cyclone Idai in March.
    (AFP, 5/3/19)

2019        May 26, In Zimbabwe at least nine miners died following blasts in a shaft north of the capital Harare where they were illegally digging for gold.
    (AFP, 5/28/19)

2019        Jun 18, It was reported that inflation in Zimbabwe was running at 75% and that a passport now takes a year to be issued.
    (SFC, 6/18/19, p.A3)

2019        Jul 15, Zimbabwe data showed that prices of cooking oil and other basics soared as inflation nearly doubled in June, piling pressure on a population struggling with shortages and stirring memories of economic chaos a decade ago.
    (Reuters, 7/15/19)

2019        Jul 16, Representatives of Zimbabwe's government workers protested against what they called "slave salaries" as inflation almost doubled to 176%, a decade high that highlights the country's rapidly deteriorating economy.
    (AP, 7/16/19)

2019        Jul 22, It was reported that Zimbabwean VP Constantino Chiwenga (62) has been flown to China for medical treatment. Chiwenga is widely seen as the power behind Pres. Emmerson Mnangagwa.
    (Reuters, 7/22/19)

2019        Jul 25, Zimbabwe's newly formed Anti-Corruption Commission (ZACC) said Tourism Minister Prisca Mupfumira has been detained for questioning. Mupfumira, a senior member of the ruling ZANU-PF party, was previously labor minister who oversaw the $1 billion state pension fund.
    (Reuters, 7/25/19)

2019        Aug 1, Zimbabwe's finance minister said the country's economy will shrink this year due to a drought and severe power cuts, as he announced a threefold hike in electricity tariffs that will fuel already crippling inflation.
    (Reuters, 8/1/19)
2019        Aug 1, The United States placed on its sanctions list Anselem Sanyatwe, a former Zimbabwean army general. He commanded troops accused of killing six civilians after a disputed election a year ago.
    (AP, 8/1/19)

2019        Aug 15, A coalition of rights groups said six Zimbabwean political activists were abducted from their homes at night and beaten by armed men this week, ahead of planned street demonstrations by the main opposition party.
    (Reuters, 8/15/19)

2019        Aug 16, Zimbabwe police combed Harare's streets rounding up suspected opposition supporters, enforcing a clampdown on dissent after using batons and water cannon to break up a protest that authorities had declared illegal.
    (Reuters, 8/16/19)

2019        Aug 19, Zimbabwe soldiers and police deployed in large numbers in the city Bulawayo to enforce a ban on an anti-government demonstration, as the country's main opposition party sought to overturn that decision in court.
    (Reuters, 8/19/19)

2019        Aug 20, Zimbabwe police deployed in force to block a street protest for the third time in five days, as the main opposition party said hopes were vanishing that the government might become more tolerant of dissent than the regime it replaced.
    (Reuters, 8/20/19)

2019        Aug 26, A Zimbabwean court freed Amos Chibaya, a senior opposition official, on bail after charging him with failing to stop an anti-government protest that authorities had banned.
    (Reuters, 8/26/19)

2019        Sep 3, Zimbabwean public sector doctors went on strike for the second time in less than a year to demand a further salary increase amid soaring living costs, as President Emmerson Mnangagwa's government struggles with a deteriorating economy.
    (Reuters, 9/3/19)

2019        Sep 6, Former Zimbabwe Pres. Robert Mugabe (95) died in Singapore. The bush war guerrilla leader led Zimbabwe to independence in 1980 and crushed his foes during nearly four decades of rule as his country descended into poverty, hyperinflation and unrest.
    (Reuters, 9/6/19)

2019        Sep 13, Zimbabwe's central bank said it had raised its overnight borrowing rate from 50% to 70% after a surge in inflation and a steep fall in the domestic currency. The central bank added that it was introducing dollar-denominated savings bonds with a 3-year tenor and an interest rate of 7.5% to try to stimulate greater saving.
    (Reuters, 9/13/19)

2019        Sep 15, Hundreds of Zimbabwean doctors protested in central Harare over the disappearance of the leader of their union, but riot police blocked them from marching to President Emmerson Mnangagwa's office.
    (Reuters, 9/16/19)

2019        Sep 23, Zimbabwe's capital shut its main water works citing shortages of foreign currency to import treatment chemicals, the deputy mayor said, potentially leaving the city dry and raising the risk of water borne diseases like cholera.
    (Reuters, 9/23/19)

2019        Sep 25, Zimbabwe's President Emmerson Mnangagwa appealed for patience for his efforts to pull his country out of an economic collapse and called on the US and Europe to lift "illegal sanctions" that he blamed for slowing down the recovery.
    (AP, 9/25/19)

2019        Sep 27, A UN human rights envoy said Zimbabwe's political and economic environment is deteriorating, causing anxiety as hopes fade for a long-awaited improvement in people's living conditions.
    (Reuters, 9/27/19)

2019        Oct 1, Zimbabwe's President Emmerson Mnangagwa pleaded for time and patience to bring the economy back from the "dead", as his government faces blame for surging inflation evoking dark days under Robert Mugabe.
    (Reuters, 10/1/19)

2019        Oct 7, Striking Zimbabwean doctors defied a government ultimatum to return to work, after rejecting a 60% pay rise offer they say is not enough to keep up with soaring prices of basic goods.
    (Reuters, 10/7/19)

2019        Oct 9, Zimbabwe's public sector workers demanded to be paid US dollar-indexed salaries to cushion them against soaring inflation, and will decide this week whether to strike.
    (Reuters, 10/9/19)

2019        Oct 11, A Zimbabwean court ordered doctors on a 40-day strike over pay to return to work within 48 hours, after a ruling that their boycott was illegal.
    (Reuters, 10/12/19)

2019        Oct 14, Zimbabwe said it expects to increase diamond production to 11 million carats by 2023 from 3.2 million carats last year, part of an ambitious plan to raise mining output and earn the country $12 billion a year.   
    (Reuters, 10/14/19)

2019        Oct 21, Zimbabwe authorities said at least 55 elephants have starved to death in the past two months in the country's biggest national park as a serious drought forces animals to stray into nearby communities in search of food and water.
    (AP, 10/21/19)

2019        Oct 25, A massive march that Zimbabwe's government tried to rouse for a new anti-sanctions public holiday appeared to fizzle, as just hundreds of people turned out in Harare, instead of the many thousands the ruling party had in mind.
    (AP, 10/25/19)
2019        Oct 25, Humane Society International said Zimbabwe has sent about 30 young elephants to China this week, where they will be held in zoos. Authorities said at least 55 elephants have starved to death in the past two months in Hwange National Park as drought dries up water sources and overcrowding results in massive loss of habitat. The park has a carrying capacity of 15,000 elephants but is home to more than 50,000.
    (AP, 10/25/19)

2019        Oct 28, Zimbabwe's national airline resumed flights to South Africa, after a halt last week when South Africa's state-run airports management firm barred the airline from using the country's airports over unpaid fees.
    (Reuters, 10/28/19)

2019        Nov 4, The Zimbabwe Anti-Corruption Commission (ZACC) detained and charged Joram Gumbo, a cabinet minister and long-time ally of Pres. Emmerson Mnangagwa, for abuse of office alleged to have cost the government $3.7 million, the second high-profile graft case this year.
    (Reuters, 11/4/19)

2019        Nov 8, Zimbabwe fired more than 200 public sector doctors who have been on strike for more than two months demanding better pay to protect them from soaring inflation. Junior and middle level doctors from state hospitals have been on strike since Sept. 3. They want their pay indexed to the US dollar to stop their earnings being eroded by triple-digit inflation.
    (Reuters, 11/8/19)
2019        Nov 8, Zimbabwe said it has suspended imports of livestock and meat from South Africa for the second time this year after an outbreak of foot and mouth in the north of the country.
    (Reuters, 11/8/19)

2019        Nov 11, In Zimbabwe new low-denomination banknotes touted by the government as the solution to the acute cash shortage that has crippled the economy failed to arrive, leaving banks in confusion and customers frustrated.
    (Reuters, 11/11/19)

2019        Nov 12, Zimbabwe said more than 200 elephants have died amid a severe drought, and announced plans for a mass relocation of animals to ease congestion.
    (AP, 11/12/19)

2019        Nov 22, It was reported that a month's long drought is affecting most of southern Africa. The area has received just one normal rainfall in the last five growing seasons. More than 11 million people faced food insecurity in Mozambique, Zimbabwe, and South Africa.
    (SFC, 11/22/19, p.A6)

2019        Nov 23, Zimbabwean Vice President Constantino Chiwenga (63) returned home after spending four months in China receiving medical treatment for an unknown illness.
    (Reuters, 11/23/19)

2019        Nov 28, A special expert on the right to food said Zimbabwe is on the brink of man-made starvation and the number of people needing help is “shocking" for a country not in conflict.
    (AP, 11/28/19)

 2019        Dec 2, Zimbabwe’s opposition party said it is suffering unprecedented persecution and state-sanctioned violence and claims it is unable to function as a political party as most of its rallies are banned.
    (The Telegraph, 12/2/19)

2019        Dec 3, The United Nations said about half of Zimbabwe’s population faces severe hunger amid a devastating drought and economic collapse.
    (AP, 12/3/19)

2019        Dec 31, Two Zimbabwe rangers, who had arrested four Zambian men for poaching, were transporting them by boat to Kariba town to be charged and jailed. But the four suspects overpowered the rangers and threw them into Lake Kariba. The rangers' bodies were discovered after a week-long search.
    (AP, 1/7/20)

2020        Jan 23, Striking junior doctors at Zimbabwe's state hospitals planned to end a four-month strike after accepting an offer from a telecoms billionaire to pay them a monthly allowance of about $300 for six months. Strive Masiyiwa, through his philanthropic arm Higher Life Foundation, last November set up a 100 million Zimbabwe dollar ($5.9 million) fund for the striking doctors. Negotiations with the government continued.
    (Reuters, 1/23/20)

2020        Feb 5, In Zimbabwe some 20 miners were trapped underground after a mine shaft collapsed. At least two bodies were recovered.
    (AP, 2/6/20)

2020        Mar 11, The US imposed sanctions on Zimbabwe's state security minister and its ambassador to Tanzania, accusing them of human rights abuses, including directing an attack on peaceful protestors.
    (Reuters, 3/11/20)

2020        Mar 19, South African authorities announced they would erect a fence along its border with Zimbabwe to prevent illegal immigrants from entering and spreading the coronavirus.
    (Reuters, 3/19/20)

2020        Mar 22, Zimbabwe journalist Zororo Makamba (30) became the country's first coronavirus casualty. He had undergone surgery last November to remove a tumor from under his lung and was in recovery.
    (BBC, 3/28/20)

2020        Mar 25, Zimbabwe's public hospital doctors and nurses went on strike over a lack of protective gear as the coronavirus begins to spread in a country whose health system has almost collapsed.
    (AP, 3/25/20)

 2020        Mar 30, Zimbabwe entered a “total lockdown" over the coronavirus. Hundreds of public hospital doctors and nurses have gone on strike over the lack of protective equipment. However, social distancing was being pushed aside in the struggle to obtain food, cash, cheap public transport, even clean water.
    (AP, 3/30/20)

2020        Apr 3, Zimbabwe's police began using water cannon to disinfect markets and bus ranks, turning instruments associated with repression into weapons against the new coronavirus. The country has recorded one death from nine cases of the COVID-19 disease.
    (Reuters, 4/3/20)

2020        Apr 22, Zimbabwe's government agreed with bakers, millers and other businesses to cut the prices of basic goods, including bread and sugar, to levels before the country entered a coronavirus lockdown last month amid soaring inflation. Annual inflation in the nation has hit 676.39%, one of the highest rates in the world.
    (Reuters, 4/22/20)

2020        May 15, In Zimbabwe three young female opposition activists, who were reported missing following a May 13 protest over COVID-19 lockdown measures, were being treated at a hospital after asserting they were abducted and sexually abused by suspected state security agents.
    (AP, 5/15/20)
2020        May 15, Zimbabwe's second biggest city of Bulawayo limited access to tap water to just one day a week as reservoir levels fall to dangerously low levels amid the country's worst drought in years.
    (Reuters, 5/15/20)

2020        May 28, In Zimbabwe manhunts have begun after more than a hundred people, some with the coronavirus, fled quarantine centers. Nearly all of Zimbabwe’s 75 new cases this week came from the centers that hold hundreds of people who have returned, sometimes involuntarily, from neighboring South Africa and Botswana.
    (AP, 5/28/20)

2020        Jun 10, It was reported that authorities in Zimbabwe have started publicly naming people who have escaped from quarantine centers and urging the public to report them to prevent the spread of the coronavirus. Zimbabwe has reported 314 cases of COVID-19. The figures have risen from the 56 recorded toward the end of May. Most of the new cases have been reported at the quarantine centers.
    (AP, 6/10/20)
2020        Jun 10, In Zimbabwe three female opposition party members, including an MP, were arrested for allegedly lying about being tortured while in custody. The women were found last month dumped in a marketplace and had to receive treatment in hospital for their injuries.
    (BBC, 6/11/20)

2020        Jun 19, Zimbabwe's health minister, Obadiah Moyo, was arrested after the government came under pressure from the opposition and on social media over the procurement of coronavirus tests and equipment. He was released on bail after appearing in court on corruption charges. Zimbabwe says it has confirmed nearly 500 virus cases, including four deaths, but the actual number of cases is thought to be higher.
    (BBC, 6/20/20)

2020        Jun 21, Zimbabwean authorities said people who cannot explain where their wealth came from are in danger of having their assets seized even if courts clear them of a corruption allegation. The new operation was called "an intensive lifestyle audit" of the rich.
    (BBC, 6/21/20)

2020        Jul 6, In Zimbabwe at least 12 nurses were arrested when they demonstrated against their working conditions, complaining that they do not have adequate protective gear to safely treat COVID-19 patients. The country has recorded about 700 cases of coronavirus infection and 8 deaths.
    (AP, 7/6/20)

2020        Jul 15, Zimbabwe postponed the reopening of schools citing rising numbers of confirmed cases of COVID-19. New cases numbered 1,064 along with 20 deaths.
    (SFC, 7/16/20, p.A6)

2020        Jul 19, Zimbabwe police said more than 105,000 people have been arrested since March for violating regulations aimed at curbing the spread of coronavirus.
    (BBC, 7/19/20)

2020        Jul 20, It was reported that Zimbabwean journalist Hopewell Chin'ono, who recently exposed alleged government corruption involving coronavirus supplies, has been charged with inciting public violence. Opposition politician Jacob Ngarivhume has also been arrested in Harare on the same charges. In September Zimbabwean journalist Hopewell Chin'ono was granted bail after being held in jail for more than a month on charges of inciting violence.
    (BBC, 7/20/20)(The Telegraph, 9/2/20)

2020        Jul 27, In Zimbabwe seven babies were stillborn at Harare Central Hospital night after urgent treatment was delayed because of staffing issues. Nurses are on strike nationwide because of a lack of personal protective equipment (PPE) and other concerns, and the maternity wards were overwhelmed.
    (BBC, 7/29/20)

2020        Jul 31, Award-winning Zimbabwean author Tsitsi Dangarembga (61), a nominee for this year's Booker Prize, was among scores arrested in Harare during an anti-government protest. The government had warned that participation in today's demonstration would be regarded as insurrection.
    (AP, 7/31/20)

2020        Aug 3, Zimbabwe Lawyers for Human Rights said Zimbabwe's military and police are continuing to arrest scores of opposition members and activists after authorities thwarted an anti-government protest last week. Human rights groups accused the administration of President Emmerson Mnangagwa of clamping down on dissent under the guise of enforcing anti-COVID-19 lockdown rules.
    (AP, 8/3/20)

2020        Aug 4, Zimbabwe's Pres. Mnangagwa called the main opposition party "Terrorist," and vowed to "flush out" his opponents as anger with his government grows over alleged corruption and economic mismanagement.
    (BBC, 8/4/20)(SFC, 8/5/20, p.A2)

2020        Aug 5, The United States imposed sanctions on Kuda Tagwirei, a business associate of Zimbabwe's Pres. Emmerson Mnangagwa, in signs of the international community’s growing frustration with Mnangagwa’s administration. Over the last few days, in response to a particularly brutal, public, widespread, and on-going clampdown by security forces, the hashtag #ZimbabweanLivesMatter has gone viral, globally.
    (AP, 8/6/20)(BBC, 8/6/20)

2020        Aug 12, A Zimbabwean magistrate ordered prison authorities to unchain journalist Hopewell Chin’ono, accused of mobilizing anti-government protests, but then ruled that his testimony of poor prison conditions must be heard in private.
    (AP, 8/12/20)

2020        Aug 14, Zimbabwe's Roman Catholic bishops issued a letter highlighting corruption, poverty and human rights abuses and called for an urgent resolution to the country's economic and political challenges. The government dismissed the charges.
    (BBC, 8/16/20)

2020        Aug 18, A Zimbabwean magistrate barred Beatrice Mtetwa, a top human rights lawyer, from representing jailed journalist Hopewell Chin’ono and ordered that Mtetwa be prosecuted for comments she posted on a Facebook page run by an American filmmaker.
    (AP, 8/18/20)

2020        Aug 29, It was reported that some people in Zimbabwe are calling themselves “keyboard warriors" as they take to graffiti and social media to pressure a government that promised reform but is now accused of gross human rights abuses.
    (AP, 8/29/20)

2020        Aug 30, Zimbabwe's parks authorities said they are investigating the death of 11 elephants in a forest in the west of the country. The carcasses of the elephants were discovered August 28 in Pandamasue Forest.
    (AP, 8/30/20)

2020        Sep 4, The UN said locusts are threatening another part of Africa, with up to 7 million people in the southern region facing further food insecurity. The outbreaks of African migratory locusts in Botswana, Namibia, Zambia and Zimbabwe are not related to the huge outbreak of billions of desert locusts that has affected East Africa for months.
    (AP, 9/4/20)

2020        Sep 7, The World Food Program said an estimated 45 million people in southern Africa are food insecure, with the number of people without access to adequate affordable and nutritious food up 10% from last year. Zimbabwe is the worst affected country, with its number of food insecure people expected to reach 8.6 million by the end of this year.
    (AP, 9/7/20)

2020        Sep 8, It was reported that an environmental group in Zimbabwe has applied to the country’s High Court to stop a Chinese firm from mining coal in Hwange National Park, which hosts one of Africa’s largest populations of elephants. The mining license was granted by President Emmerson Mnangagwa's government to the Chinese firm in February, 2019, and the firm has started exploratory work in the park. Information Minister Monica Mutsvangwa announced a ban on mining in all national parks, reversing a decision to let Chinese firms explore for coal at its famous Hwange game park with immediate effect.
    (AP, 9/8/20)(BBC, 9/9/20)

2020        Sep 24, Zimbabwe's Pres. Emmerson Mnangagwa appealed at the United Nations for support to end Western sanctions, saying that they set back development goals.
    (AFP, 9/24/20)

2020        Sep 28, Zimbabwe’s schools reopened for pupils in two grades as part of a gradual process that will see all pupils return to class by early November. But many teachers did not report for work, as their union demanded that the government should first pay them a COVID-19 allowance and improve their salaries and working conditions.
    (AP, 9/28/20)

2020        Sep 29, Wildlife officials in Zimbabwe said they suspect a bacterial disease is responsible for the deaths of more than 30 elephants since late August.
    (BBC, 9/30/20)

2020        Sep, The Zimbabwe Human Rights NGO Forum released a report listing 920 cases of torture, extrajudicial killings, unlawful arrests and assaults on citizens by the security forces in the first 180 days of its coronavirus lockdown.
    (Econ., 10/17/20, p.52)

2020        Nov 3, Zimbabwe police arrested investigative journalist, Hopewell Chin’ono on contempt of court charges. He was charged with contempt of court for making a post on Twitter that allegedly impaired the dignity of Zimbabwe’s Chief Justice Luke Malaba.
    (AP, 11/3/20)

2020        Nov 12, A Zimbabwean magistrate denied bail to investigative journalist Hopewell Chin'ono who has been in detention for more than a week for alleging corruption in the country’s prosecuting agency.
    (AP, 11/12/20)

2020        Nov 18, It was reported that Zimbabwean authorities have closed a boarding school in the west of the country after at least 100 students tested positive for coronavirus. Zimbabwe has so far recorded 8,945 confirmed cases of COVID-19, and 260 deaths.
    (AP, 11/18/20)

2021        Jan 3, Zimbabwe imposed curbs to slow the spread of the coronavirus as Information Minister Nick Mangwana warned that the country was being overwhelmed.
    (SFC, 1/4/21, p.A4)

2021        Jan 8, Zimbabwe police arrested prominent journalist Hopewell Chin’ono for the third time in six months. Chin'ono had tweeted that police had beaten an infant to death while enforcing COVID-19 lockdown rules this week. Police later said the information was false.
    (AP, 1/8/21)

2021        Jan 10, Zimbabwe recorded 21,477 cases and 507 deaths, up from the slightly more than 10,000 cases and 277 deaths at the beginning of December.
    (AP, 1/11/21)

2021        Jan 11, Zimbabwe banned families from transporting their dead relatives between cities, as part of new measures stop traditional funeral rites that are believed to be increasing the spread of the coronavirus.
    (AP, 1/11/21)

2021        Jan 20, Zimbabwe's Foreign Minister Sibusiso Moyo (b.1960) died after succumbing to Covid-19.
    (BBC, 1/20/21)

2021        Jan 23, Zimbabwe recorded a total of 31,007 cases, including 974 deaths, up from the slightly more than 10,000 cases and 277 deaths at the beginning of December. Four Cabinet ministers have died of COVID-19, three within the past two weeks.
    (AP, 1/24/21)

2021        Jan 27, Zimbabwe’s High Court freed on bail journalist Hopewell Chin’ono who had spent nearly three weeks in prison — his third detention in five months.
    (AP, 1/27/21)

2021        Jan 29, Zimbabwe's VP Constantino Chiwenga said it was likely that more transmissible variants of COVID-19 were now circulating in Zimbabwe and the government was investigating. More than half of Zimbabwe's 32,646 confirmed COVID-19 cases and two-thirds of its 1,160 deaths were recorded this month.
    (Reuters, 1/29/21)

2021        Feb 15, A plane carrying Zimbabwe's first coronavirus vaccines, 200,000 doses donated by China, arrived in the capital Harare.
    (Reuters, 2/15/21)

2021        Feb 16, Zimbabwe said the coronavirus variant first discovered in neighboring South Africa now makes up more than 60% of cases within its borders.
    (BBC, 2/16/21)

2021        Feb 18, Zimbabwe started giving COVID-19 vaccinations, with Vice President Constantino Chiwenga volunteering for the first jab at a hospital in the capital, Harare.
    (AP, 2/18/21)

2021        Feb 24, Zimbabwe said it will buy an additional 1.2 million COVID-19 vaccine doses from China at a preferential price, after Beijing agreed to give more free doses to the southern African country.
    (Reuters, 2/24/21)

2021        Mar 1, Zimbabwe eased a coronavirus lockdown and overnight curfew imposed in January by allowing businesses to fully re-open after the rate of new infections slowed in the last two weeks.
    (Reuters, 3/1/21)

2021        Mar 24, Zimbabwe’s Pres. Emmerson Mnangagwa received his first shot of the Chinese Sinovac COVID-19 vaccine, a move the government hopes will encourage more people to seek the Chinese vaccines, which are the only ones currently available in the country.
    (AP, 3/24/21)

2021        Apr 17, It was reported that Zimbabwe has begun releasing about 3,000 prisoners under a presidential amnesty aimed at easing congestion to reduce the threat of COVID-19 in the country’s overcrowded jails. Zimbabwe’s prisons have a capacity of 17,000 prisoners but held about 22,000 before the amnesty declared by President Emmerson Mnangagwa.
    (AP, 4/17/21)

2021        Apr 23, In Zimbabwe an air force helicopter crashed into a house killing three crew members and a child at the crash site.
    (AP, 4/23/21)

2021        Jul 8, Zimbabwe received 2 million COVID-19 vaccines from China's Sinovac as infections increased to 60,227.
    (Reuters, 7/8/21)

2021        Jul 15, In Zimbabwe Anna Machaya (15) died during childbirth at a church shrine in the eastern region of Marange. The baby survived the birth. The case sparked outrage among citizens and rights activists.  Police later arrested her parents and Hatirarami Momberume (26). The parents were accused of lying about her age and also pledging their nine-year-old daughter to the same man.
    (BBC, 8/8/21)(BBC, 8/19/21)

2021        Jul 20, Zimbabwe's government ordered that all its workers should receive a COVID-19 vaccine and only 10% of civil servants report for duty, with the rest working from home in a bid to curb the spread of the pandemic.
    (Reuters, 7/20/21)

2021        Jul 22, Zimbabwe received the first batch of dozens of its citizens being deported from Britain, some after staying in that country for decades and forced to leave families behind to face an uncertain future back home. The first group of 14 were people convicted of committing crimes in Britain.
    (AP, 7/22/21)

2021        Jul 28, Zimbabwe said it has authorized the emergency use of Johnson & Johnson's COVID-19 vaccine, the first Western-made shot to be approved by the southern African nation.
    (Reuters, 7/28/21)

2021        Aug 26, Zimbabwe said it is opening COVID-19 vaccinations to those aged 14 and older and is only permitting fully vaccinated people to eat in restaurants, to encourage more people to get shots, as a devastating wave of the disease recedes.
    (AP, 8/26/21)

2021        Sep 7, Zimbabwe's justice minister said government workers who do not want to be vaccinated against COVID-19 should resign.
    (Reuters, 9/7/21)

2021        Sep 25, It was reported that Zimbabwe has adopted a more ambitious target for emissions reduction ahead of a UN climate conference in November. The country is now committed to a 40% drop in greenhouse gas emissions by 2030.
    (Reuters, 9/25/21)

2021        Oct 7, In Zimbabwe seven people, including six foreign nationals, died when some gas cylinders exploded at the SAS gold mine in the Mazowe district.
    (Reuters, 10/8/21)

2021        Dec 2, Zimbabwe said it has identified its first case of the omicron variant of Covid-19, a day after announcing a 10-day mandatory quarantine of all travelers entering the country.

2021        Dec 22, China's Zhejiang Huayou Cobalt said it would pay a total $422 million to acquire the Arcadia hard-rock lithium mine in Zimbabwe.
    (Reuters, 12/22/21)

2022        Jan 12, In Zimbabwe freelance reporter Jeffrey Moyo (37), working for the New York Times, appeared in court, in a case critics say illustrates the authoritarian nature of President Emmerson Mnangagwa's government.
    (Reuters, 1/12/22)

2022        Feb 15, Zimbabwe’s government said it will stop paying salaries of staff who are unvaccinated against COVID-19, while ordering those who have received jabs to report for work at their offices “with immediate effect," after more than a year of most government employees working from home.
    (AP, 2/15/22)

2022        Feb 20, Zimbabwe’s leading opposition figure Nelson Chamisa (44) drew thousands of cheering supporters to his first political rally since forming a new party weeks ago, as the country gears for elections that have been postponed due to COVID-19.
    (AP, 2/20/22)

2022        Feb 27, In Zimbabwe one person died and others were injured in clashes at an opposition party rally in the city of Kwekwe. 16 people were arrested in connection with the violence.
    (AP, 2/28/22)

2022        Mar 18, The WHO said almost 70,000 vaccinators will go door-to-door in Malawi, Mozambique, Tanzania, Zambia and Zimbabwe, to give all children under 5 the oral polio vaccine in a $15.7 million campaign funded by the Global Polio Eradication Initiative in a bid to prevent a renewed spread of polio.
    (Reuters, 3/18/22)

2022        Mar 24, The International Monetary Fund welcomed Zimbabwe's steps towards economic recovery and engaging with its creditors, but said more needs to be done following mixed implementation of its past advice.
    (Reuters, 3/24/22)

2022        Mar 27, It was reported that that Zimbabwe has begun a new COVID-19 vaccination campaign that includes inoculating children aged 12 and older.
    (SSFC, 3/27/22, p.A7)

2022        Apr 15, In eastern Zimbabwe a bus carrying 106 passengers to an Easter pilgrimage plunged into a gorge killing 35 people.
    (SFC, 4/16/22, p.A4)

2022        May 7, Zimbabwe's government ordered banks to stop lending with immediate effect in a move Harare said was designed to stop speculation against the Zimbabwean dollar and was part of a raft of measures to arrest its rapid devaluation on the black market.
    (Reuters, 5/7/22)

2022        Jun 14, Zimbabwean freelance reporter Jeffrey Moyo (37), working for the New York Times, was convicted and fined after he was accused of obtaining fake accreditation documents for two of the US newspaper's journalists. The New York Times has denied the charges.
    (Reuters, 6/14/22)

2022        Jun 20, Zimbabwean health workers went on strike after rejecting a 100% wage hike offer last week, pressing their demand for payment in US dollars as the local currency slumps.
    (Reuters, 6/20/22)

2022        Jul 4, Zimbabwe's central bank said it would start selling gold coins from July 25 as a store of value to tame runaway inflation, which has considerably weakened the local currency. Last week outlined plans to make the US dollar legal tender for the next five years to boost confidence.
    (Reuters, 7/5/22)

2022        Aug 14, Zimbabwe said a measles outbreak has killed 80 children since April. The ministry of health blamed church sect gatherings for the surge.
    (Reuters, 8/14/22)

2022        Aug 16, Zimbabwe said a measles outbreak has now killed 157 children with the death toll nearly doubling in just under a week.
    (Reuters, 8/16/22)

2022        Sep 3, Zimbabwe's Ministry of Health said a measles outbreak has so far claimed 685 lives, more than four times the cases reported almost a fortnight ago even as a nationwide vaccination program continues.
    (Reuters, 9/3/22)

2022        Sep 13, The UN World Food Program (WFP) said it is planning a food relief program targeting 700,000 people in Zimbabwe from October as the effects of a poor harvest and the Ukraine war continue to show.
    (Reuters, 9/13/22)

2022        Sep 29, Prize-winning Zimbabwean novelist and filmmaker Tsitsi Dangarembga was found guilty of staging an anti-government protest and received a six-month suspended jail sentence and a fine. Her co-accused Julie Barnes, was also found guilty. They were charged with participating in a public gathering with intent to incite public violence while breaking COVID-19 protocols, after they staged a protest in July 2020.
    (Reuters, 9/30/22)

2022        Oct 24, It was reported that a devastating measles outbreak in Zimbabwe has killed more than 700 children this year, chiefly among religious sects that do not believe in vaccinations. The COVID-19 pandemic interrupted measles vaccine campaigns globally in 2020 and 2021, leaving millions of children unprotected against one of the world's most contagious diseases, whose complications include blindness, pneumonia and death.
    (Reuters, 10/24/22)

2022        Nov 8, It was reported that Zimbabwe has passed regulations allowing the state to collect mining royalties partly in the form of minerals, as the country seeks to build a reserve of precious metals.
    (Reuters, 11/8/22)

2022        Nov 20, A senior Zimbabwe official at the Health Services Board revealed that more than 4,000 health workers have left the country in droves over the past year.
    (Reuters, 11/20/22)

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