Timeline Venezuela

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  Venezuela was named after Venice.
 (SFEC, 12/20/98, p.T2)
  Apure state is on part of the 1,300 mile border with Columbia. There are 23 states.
 (SFC,11/4/97, p.A9)

8Mil BC    About this time Phoberomis pattersoni, a giant rodent related to later guinea pigs, wallowed in the coastal marshes of northwestern Venezuela.
    (SFC, 9/19/03, p.A2)

1.8Mil BC    In 2006 a Petroleos de Venezuela team looking for oil in Monagas state, found fossils of six scimitar cats, or Homotherium, along with those of panthers, wolves, camels, condors, ducks and horses, that dated to about this time.
    (AP, 8/12/08)

1498        Aug 4-1498 Aug 12, Christopher Columbus explored the Gulf of Paria (Venezuela) between Trinidad and South America.

1498        Aug 16, Christopher Columbus reached the island of Margarita (Venezuela).

1498        Aug 14, Columbus landed at the mouth of the Orinoco River in Venezuela.
    (MC, 8/14/02)

1500        Nueva Cadiz was established on Isla de Cubagua off the coast of Venezuela after Columbus discovered rich pearl oyster beds nearby.
    (SSFC, 2/19/06, p.F8)

1509-1520    The Spanish colonized the area of Nueva Granada (modern Colombia, Ecuador, Panama, Venezuela).
    (http://homepage20.seed.net.tw/[email protected]/flags/wfh/pg-am-4.htm)

1536        The city of Porlamar was founded on the southeastern coast of Margarita Island off the coast of Venezuela.
    (SSFC, 2/19/06, p.F8)

1541        An earthquake and tidal wave finished off the settlement of Nueva Cadiz on Isla de Cubagua off the coast of Venezuela.
    (SSFC, 2/19/06, p.F8)

1595        Sir Walter Raleigh explored the South American coast from the Orinoco River to the mouth of the Amazon, an area that he called "Guiana."
    (WSJ, 1/6/04, p.D10)

1616        Mar 20, Walter Raleigh was released from Tower of London to seek gold in Guiana. He took along his son Wat (22), who was killed during an attack on a Spanish outpost.
    (MC, 3/20/02)(WSJ, 1/6/04, p.D10)

1778        Dec 26, Juan Lovera, artist, was born: ‘artist of independence’: originator of Venezuelan historical painting: paintings commemorate Venezuela’s independence dates.

1781-1865    Andres Bello, diplomat, politician (a Senator in Chile - his adopted country), educator, poet and author of a Spanish grammar, was born in Venezuela. His selected writings were published by the Oxford Library of Latin America in 1998.
    (WSJ, 2/3/98, p.A20)

1783        Jul 24, Simon Bolivar (1783-1830), was born in Caracas, Venezuela. He was a soldier and statesmen who led armies of liberation throughout much of South America, including Ecuador, Venezuela, Colombia, Panama, Peru and Bolivia, which took its name from Bolivar. Bolivar, called "the Liberator," was a leader in Venezuela for struggles of national independence in South America. He formed a Gran Colombia that lasted 8 years but broke apart into Venezuela, Colombia and Ecuador. Bolivar died of tuberculosis.
    (AHD, p.148)(SFC, 6/14/97, p.E3)(AP, 7/24/97)(HNQ, 3/30/00)

1796        Hacienda Santa Teresa began producing rum in Venezuela. In 1885 it was bought out by the Vollmer family.
    (WSJ, 11/10/04, p.A8)   

1811        Jul 5, Venezuela became the first South American country to declare independence from Spain.
    (HFA, '96, p.34)(AP, 7/5/97)

1811        Scotsman Gregor MacGregor (1786-1845), later known as His Serene Highness Gregor I, Prince of Poyais (in modern Honduras), received a commission from Simon Bolivar in Venezuela to serve in the Army of Liberation. After he returned to London in 1820, he began selling land in the fictional kingdom of Poyais. He served 8 months in jail after English and French expeditions revealed the hoax. In 1839 he returned to Venezuela. In 2004 David Sinclair authored "The Land That Never Was: Sir Gregor MacGregor and the Most Audacious Land Fraud in History."
    (SSFC, 1/18/04, p.M2)(WSJ, 1/30/04, p.W9)(Econ, 12/22/12, p.109)

1812        Mar 26, Earthquake destroyed 90% of Caracas; about 20,000 died.
    (SS, 3/26/02)(PCh, 1992, p.376)

1816        Jul 14, Francisco de Miranda (b.1750), Venezuela-born self-appointed leader of independence for South America from Spanish rule, died in a Spanish prison in Cadiz. He is regarded as a forerunner of Simón Bolívar, who during the Spanish American wars of independence successfully liberated much of South America.
    (https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Francisco_de_Miranda)(Econ, 7/23/16, p.28)

1819        May 23, Bolivar’s revolutionary commanders met in the deserted village of Setenta, Venezuela, and planned a march across the Andes to attack Spanish forces in New Granada (Colombia).
    (ON, 3/05, p.1)

1821        Jun 24, Battle of Carabobo: Bolivar defeated the royalists outside of Caracas.
    (MC, 6/24/02)

1822        May 24, At Battle of Pichincha (Ecuador) General Sucre (1795-1830) won a decisive victory against Spanish forces. Shortly after the battle, Sucre and Bolivar entered the newly-liberated Quito and Sucre was named President of the Province of Quito, which formed Gran Colombia with Venezuela and Colombia.
    (HN, 5/24/98)(AP, 11/24/02)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Antonio_Jos%C3%A9_de_Sucre)

1828        The Republic of Gran Colombia fell apart due to political rivalries between its constituent provinces. Colombia, Ecuador and Venezuela became independent countries.
    (ON, 3/05, p.2)

1830        Dec 17, Simon Bolivar (b.1783), called "the Liberator," died of TB in Santa Marta, in Colombia. He was a leader in Venezuela for struggles of national independence in South America. He formed a Gran Colombia that lasted 8 years, but broke apart into Venezuela, Colombia and Ecuador. In 2006 John Lynch authored “Simon Bolivar: A Life."
    (AHD, p.148)(SFC, 6/14/97, p.E3)(AP, 12/17/97)(Econ, 7/1/06, p.77)

1845        Dec, Scotsman Gregor MacGregor (b.1786), con artist known as the Prince of Poyais, died in Caracas.
    (Econ, 12/22/12, p.112)

1846        Ezequiel Zamora (1817-1860) spearheaded a peasant revolt in Venezuela. After a brief exile he returned to lead the Federal War (1859-1863) and founded the Venezuelan state of Barinas.
    (SSFC, 8/26/07, p.M2)

1853        Dec 22, Maria Teresa Carreno (d.1917), Venezuelan composer and singer, was born in Caracas.

1859        Jan 20, The Federal War began in Venezuela. Ezequiel Zamora (1817-1860) led the Federalist Army until his assassination on Jan 10, 1860.

1859        Dec 10, In Venezuela’s war for independence from Spain Ezequiel Zamora (1817-1860) led the Battle of Santa Ines. Zamora and 3,400 men defeated the Central Army of 2,300 men, with about 1,200 casualties altogether on both sides. Zamora had returned to Venezuela to lead the Federal War, which lasted to 1863.

1860        Jan 10, Ezequiel Zamora (1817-1860), leader of the Federalist Army in Venezuela, was assassinated.

1863        Apr, In Venezuela the hostilities of the Federal War ended with negotiations for the Treaty of Coche, singed on May 22. This was the biggest civil war Venezuela had had since its independence.

1863        May 22, The Treaty of Coche was signed in Venezuela. Arms were laid down from the Federal War and a general assembly called at Victoria, which elected Juan Chrisostomo Falcon as president and Antonio Leocadio Guzman as vice president. The latter was at the same time secretary of the treasury, and went to London to negotiate a loan.

1870        Antonio Guzman Blanco (1830-1899) became president of Venezuela.

1883        In Venezuela General Joaquin Crespo, a friend of Antonio Guzman Blanco, was declared president, and Guzman-Blanco became ambassador to France, living with great ostentation in Paris. In 1886 he again assumed the presidency.

1884        English explorers Everhard Im Thurn and Harry Perkins became the 1st Westerners to reach the 9,200 foot summit of Roraima in Venezuela.
    (SSFC, 12/14/03, p.C5)

1899        Oct, An int'l. tribunal in Paris ruled on a border dispute between Venezuela and British Guiana (Guyana). Britain received most of the claim for the Essequibo region, close to 111,000 square miles. Venezuela was represented by 2 US judges and the chairman of the panel was Russian jurist Frederic de Martens. Venezuela rejected this decision in the 1960s.
    (SFC, 10/26/99, p.A12)(Econ, 9/29/07, p.44)

1899        Antonio Guzman Blanco (b.1830), former president of Venezuela, died. He dominated Venezuela from 1870-1888, when a revolution destroyed his power.

1899-1909    Cipriano Castro served as president of Venezuela.

1908        Dec 12, Luis Peraza (d.1974), Venezuelan dramatist, was born.

1908        Dec 13, The Dutch took two Venezuelan Coast Guard ships.
    (HN, 12/13/98)

1908        Dec 19, In Venezuela Gen. Juan Vicente Gomez (1857-1935) seized power from Pres. Cipriano Castro, while Castro was in Europe for medical treatment.
    (AP, 5/22/14)

1914        Venezuela’s 1st oil gusher was drilled near Lake Maracibo.
    (WSJ, 4/18/02, p.A9)

1914        The discovery of oil in Venezuela prompted Royal Dutch/Shell to build an oil refinery on Curacao.
    (Econ, 6/19/04, p.72)

1916        Jan 24, Rafael Caldera, president of Venezuela (1969-1974), was born.
    (WP, 6/29/96, p.A20)

1928        In Venezuela a student movement shook, but failed to dislodge the dictatorship of General Juan Vicente Gomez.
    (Econ, 11/17/07, p.45)

1929        Rómulo Gallegos, Venezuelan novelist and Venezuela's first freely-elected president, authored Doña  Bárbara. Mr. Danger, a long-standing figure in Venezuelan  life, was a character in the work. It was republished many times. His government was brought down  in a  U.S.-backed 1948 military coup, ten months after he took office.

1929-1970    Venezuela was the world's largest exporter of oil.

1933        Nov 16, American pilot and adventurer Jimmie Angel (1899-1956) flew over the world's tallest waterfall in Venezuela, while searching for a cloud-shrouded, flat-topped mountain where he had previously discovered gold. The falls became known as Angel Falls. In 2009 Pres. Hugo Chavez said that the waterfall should revert to its original indigenous name, Kerepakupai-Meru.
    (AP, 12/21/09)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Jimmie_Angel)

1935        Dec 17, Venezuela’s military strongman Juan Vicente Gomez died. He had lorded over Venezuela since 1908.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Juan_Vicente_G%C3%B3mez)(AP, 5/22/14)

1941        In Venezuela Romulo Betancourt founded Accion Democratica, a centrist political party.

1943        Venezuela negotiated the first 50-50 oil deal with Shell Oil and Standard Oil of New Jersey.
    (WSJ, 9/13/99, p.R4)

1945         Oct 19, Romulo Betancourt began serving his first term as president of Venezuela and continued to 1948. founded Accion Democratica.

1948        Nov 24, In Venezuela Gen. Pérez Jiménez and Lt. Colonel Carlos Delgado Chalbaud staged a coup.  A military junta headed by Delgado Chalbaud, Luis Felipe Llovera Páez and Pérez Jiménez overthrew the elected president Rómulo Gallegos and ruled for the next four years.

1949        A memorandum by Severo Mallet-Prevost was published posthumously. He had acted as junior counsel in 1899 land dispute with British Guiana and asserted that Venezuela was pressured to accept the deal or give up territory to the mouth of the Orinoco.
    (SFC, 10/26/99, p.A12)

1952        Venezuela’s constituent assembly proclaimed Gen. Marcos Perez Jimenez (1914-2001) as president. He was a popular dictator  and prided himself on colossal public works that included the Central University.
    (WSJ, 4/27/98, p.A16)(SSFC, 6/24/01, p.T6)(Econ 8/5/17, p.27)

1952-1958    Gen. Marcos Perez Jimenez was president (dictator) of Venezuela. He prided himself on colossal public works that included the Central University. He was ousted by a popular revolt in Jan., 1958.
    (www.infoplease.com/ce6/people/A0838296.html)(WSJ, 4/27/98, p.A16)(SSFC, 6/24/01, p.T6)

1953        In Venezuela a statue of the legendary Maria Lionza, crafted by sculptor Alejandro Colina, was placed in Caracas by the dictator Gen. Marcos Perez Jimenez. The 20-foot image of a naked, muscular Indian woman sitting astride a wild tapir, a snake coiled at its feet split apart at the waist in 2004.
    (AP, 6/8/04)

1954        Jul 28, Hugo Chavez, later president of Venezuela, was born in Sabaneta, Venezuela.
    (SSFC, 8/26/07, p.M2)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hugo_Ch%C3%A1vez)

1954        The Caracas Convention established ground rules for political sanctuary in Latin America.
    (SFC, 7/12/97, p.A13)

1954        Venezuela’s Radio Caracas Television Station (RCTV) began operations.
    (Econ, 6/2/07, p.38)

1957        Nov 21, A student strike began at the Central Univ. of Venezuela (UCV) against the electoral fraud of the dictatorship of Marcos Perez Jimenez. This soon led his downfall.
    (WSJ, 11/24/07, p.A12)(www.handsoffvenezuela.org/students_march_referendum.htm)

1957        Gen. Marcos Perez Jimenez opened his Hotel Humboldt atop a mountain overlooking Caracas. The hotel closed in 1970. In 2001 it underwent a $90 million renovation.
    (SSFC, 6/24/01, p.T6)

1958        Jan 23, Venezuela gained liberties with the overthrow of Gen. Marcos Perez Jimenez, its last dictator. The social democrats' Democratic Action (AD) and the Christian Democrats (Copei) began alternating power and then entered into the power-sharing agreement called "Pacto de Punto Fijo." Rafael Antonio Caldera (1916-2009) was one of the three signers of the Punto Fijo pact, which organized democratic elections after the fall of Jimenez.
    (WSJ, 2/26/99, p.A15)(SSFC, 6/24/01, p.T6)(AP, 1/23/04)(AP, 12/24/09)

1958        May 13, Vice President Nixon's limousine was battered by rocks thrown by anti-U.S. demonstrators in Caracas, Venezuela. Nixon’s eight-nation South America goodwill tour encountered violent demonstrations, particularly in Peru and Venezuela, spurring President Dwight Eisenhower to order the movement of US forces into Caribbean bases.
    (AP, 5/13/97)(HNQ, 6/14/99)

1959         Feb 13, Romulo Betancourt began serving his 2nd term as president of Venezuela and continued to 1964.

1960        Sep 14, Iraq, Iran, Kuwait, Saudi Arabia and Venezuela formed OPEC. Fuad Rouhani (1907-2004) of Iran served as its 1st secretary-general. In 1964 he was succeeded by Abdul Rahman Bazzaz of Iraq.
    (HN, 9/14/98)(WSJ, 7/28/03, p.A8)

1961        A Constitution was passed with 252 articles and a wide variety of social rights. Article 99 declared the social function of private property.
    (WSJ, 11/26/99, p.A11)(WSJ, 1/05/00, p.A11)

1962        Venezuela’s Pres. Romulo Bettancourt announced the cessation of oil exploration concessions to private companies. His energy minister became OPEC’s founder.
    (WSJ, 1/05/00, p.A11)

1966-1996    Venezuela’s state owned Guayana Complex (producing steel, electricity and aluminum) received more than 100 billion in government investments over this period.
    (WSJ, 8/9/96, p.A11)

1967        Jul, A 6.7 earthquake hit Caracas, Venezuela, and left 300 dead and 2,000 injured.
    (SFC, 7/10/97, p.E3)

1967        Luis Posada Carriles, Cuban-born CIA agent since 1965, moved to Venezuela and rose to become head of a government counterintelligence security agency.
    (SFC, 5/18/05, p.A9)

1967        At least 30 Indians in Venezuela died from a measles epidemic that hit Yanomani villages at least one year before researchers administered the Edmonston B vaccine.
    (SFC, 11/16/00, p.A19)

1968        In Venezuela researchers, Napoleon Chagnon and James V. Neel, reportedly inoculated thousands of Yanomami Indians with a measles vaccine. Chagnon published "Yanomamö: The Fierce People," a summation of his 30 years in the Amazon forest. In 2000 the controversial book "Darkness in El Dorado" Patrick Tierney blamed the researchers for a major epidemic that killed hundreds of Indians. At least 30 Indians died from a measles epidemic that hit Yanomani villages at least one year before researchers administered the Edmonston B vaccine [see 1967].
    (SFC, 11/10/00, p.A4)(SFC, 11/16/00, p.A19)(NH, Jul, p.28)(WSJ, 2/23/08, p.W8)

1969        In Venezuela the Democratic Action party changed the law so that judges would be chosen by party affiliation in proportion to the electoral results, which put the courts into the hands of the deepest pockets. Social democrats lost the presidential election but maintained a legislative majority and passed a new law making judicial appointments a function of electoral results. The judiciary became politicized and corrupt.
    (WSJ, 2/26/99, p.A15)(WSJ, 1/05/00, p.A11)
1969        In Guyana a group opposed to the government of Pres. Forbes Burnham staged an uprising in the Essequibo region. It was asserted that Venezuela had trained and armed the militants.
    (SFC, 10/26/99, p.A12)

1970        Venezuelan oil production peaked in this year.

1970-1998    Brazilian Gold miners worked in the Yanomani reservation near Venezuela beginning in the 1970s and introduced disease that cut the Indian population by more than half.
    (WSJ, 1/15/98, p.A1)

1974        Mar 12, Carlos Andres Perez (1922-2010) began serving as president of Venezuela and continued to 1979. Oil income exceeded $48 billion over this period. Foreign debt meanwhile grew from $3 billion to $18 billion. Perez served a 2nd term from 1989-1993.
    (SFC, 12/8/99, p.A14)(AP, 12/25/10)(Econ, 1/8/11, p.86)

1974        Dec, In Venezuela a national commission created by President Perez delivered a proposal for nationalization. This proposal formed the core of the 1975 law that nationalized the oil industry. Pres. Carlos Andres Perez nationalized the oil industry and the central bank.
    (www.globalsecurity.org/military/world/venezuela/petroleum.htm)(WSJ, 1/05/00, p.A11)(Econ, 1/8/11, p.86)

1974        Venezuela set up a fund for the future (El Fondo de Inversiones) to help spread its wealth to future generations, but soon began to raid the kitty.
    (Econ, 12/24/05, p.46)

1975        Maestro Jose Antonio Abreu (b.1939) founded the "National Network of Youth and Children Orchestras of Venezuela," which came to be called “El Sistema." He believed that introducing kids to classical music could heal the "spiritual poverty" that perpetuates social and economic inequality. The school became a network of schools and received UNESCO’s international music prize in 1995.
    (Econ, 8/25/07, p.37)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Jos%C3%A9_Antonio_Abreu)

1976        Oct 6, A Cuban aircraft from Venezuela with 73 people onboard was blown up on a flight over the Caribbean. Castro blamed the explosion on the US. Luis Posada Carriles, a veteran of the Cuban exile’s war against Castro, was charged and twice acquitted in the bombing. Venezuelan authorities kept him in jail for 9 years until his escape in 1985 when he settled in El Salvador. In April, 2005, Posada sought asylum in the US. In May, 2005, declassified documents were made public that linked Posada to the bombing and indicated he was on the CIA's payroll for years.
    (SFC, 7/9/96, p.A8)(SFC,11/17/97, p.A14)(AP, 4/15/05)(AP, 5/11/05)

1976        In Venezuela Carlos Lanz and 5 others kidnapped an American executive and held him captive for the next 3½ years. Lanz later served time for military rebellion. In 2004 Pres. Chavez appointed Lanz to devise a plan for economic self-sufficiency for workers in cooperatives.
    (WSJ, 12/24/04, p.A1)

1976-1996    Venezuela’s political establishment accumulated a growing control over the country’s assets.
    (WSJ, 6/7/96, p.A15)

1978        Jul 3, The Amazon Pact was established. Bolivia, Brazil, Colombia, Ecuador, Guyana, Peru, Suriname, and Venezuela signed the Amazon Pact, a Brazilian initiative designed to coordinate the joint development of the Amazon Basin.

1979        In Boston Joseph P. Kennedy launched the Citizen’s Energy Corp., a tax-exempt social welfare program that later depended on for-profit subsidiaries. The initial idea was to ease heating bills during the oil crises. The group signed its 1st crude oil contract with Venezuela. By 2007 the company had expanded to 16 states delivering low-cost oil to as many as 400,000 households. In 1987 Kennedy was elected as a Massachusetts Representative to Congress and served until 1999.
    (WSJ, 3/25/98, p.A1,10)(SFC, 2/17/07, p.A3)

1981        Irene Saez of Venezuela won the Miss Universe title. In 1998 she ran for the presidency of Venezuela.
    (SFC, 5/15/98, p.D3)

1982        Dec 17, In Venezuela Hugo Chavez (b.1954) and other junior officers formed a secret group, the Bolivarian Revolutionary Movement 200 (MBR-200), and vowed to change their society. They made their 1st coup attempt in 1992.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Military_career_of_Hugo_Ch%C3%A1vez)(WSJ, 6/12/03, p.A10)

1983        Feb 18, The Venezuelan bolivar suffered a serious devaluation. Pres. Luis Herrera initiated a round of currency devaluations. The Herrera government was forced to devalue the currency, which at 4.3 bolivars to the US dollar had been underwriting a lifestyle the country could no longer afford. By 2000 the bolivar lost 16,185% to the dollar.
    (www.guardian.co.uk/news/2007/nov/13/guardianobituaries.venezuela)(WSJ, 1/05/00, p.A11)
1983        Venezuela’s finance minister established exchange controls that offered a preferential rate and led to crony favoritism.
    (WSJ, 1/05/00, p.A11)

1984        Feb 2, In Venezuela Pres. Jaime Lusinchi took office as the country’s 57th president and continued to 1989.

1984-1989    Jaime Lusinchi served as president of Venezuela. Under his leadership the state Recadi agency under Guillermo Meneses purchased some $40 billion dollars below the prevailing exchange rate with $9 billion estimated in fraud.
    (SFC, 12/8/99, p.A14)

1985        Jan 27, Pope John Paul said mass to one million in Venezuela.
    (HN, 1/27/99)

1985        Luis Posada Carriles, Cuban-born CIA agent (~1965-1976), escaped from prison in Venezuela.
    (SFC, 5/18/05, p.A9)

1986        May 8, In Venezuela 9 people were killed by security forces in the western town of Yumare. Interior minister Octavio Lepage described it as a clash with guerrillas — remnants of leftist rebel bands that largely had put down their weapons by the early 1970s.
    (AP, 3/16/08)

1987-1989    In Venezuela inflation rose for 3 years under price controls established by Pres. Jaime Lusinchi. Inflation rose from 16% to 40% eventually topping 100% after the controls were lifted.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Jaime_Lusinchi)(Econ, 8/13/11, p.38)

1987-1991    Gen. Ramon Guillen Davila headed the CIA-financed Venezuelan National Guard antinarcotics group. During his tenure 1-2 tons of cocaine were smuggled into the US. He was indicted by a federal grand jury in Miami in 1996.
    (WSJ, 11/22/96, p.A12)(SFC, 11/23/96, p.A2)

1988        Dec 4, In Venezuela, former President Carlos Andres Perez was declared the winner of the country's presidential election.
    (AP, 12/4/98)

1989        Feb 27, In Venezuela riots took place in Caracas. Known as the "Caracazo," they were triggered by a hike in gasoline prices and public transportation fares. The government said at least 300 people died, but some rights activists say hundreds more were killed — many of them shot by security forces struggling to re-establish order. In 2011 retired generals Freddy Maya Cardona of the National Guard and Luis Fuentes Serra of the Caracas police were charged for their roles in some of the deaths.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Caracazo)(AP, 2/9/11)

1989        Carlos Andres Peres took office and instituted bold reform plans. Increases in fuel costs and government reforms in Venezuela sparked extensive rioting and looting with hundreds of people killed.
    (WSJ, 4/15/96, p.A-1)(WSJ, 5/22/96, p.A-16)(WSJ, 4/27/98, p.A16)
1989        An IMF loan was made to Venezuela.
    (WSJ, 6/7/96, p.A15)

1990        Aug 13, Alejandro Otero (b.1921), Venezuelan painter of Geometric abstraction, a sculptor, a writer and a cultural promoter, died in Caracas.

1990        Dec 7, As President Bush arrived in Venezuela on the last stop of his South American tour, his chief spokesman, Marlin Fitzwater, warned Iraq that there was "no lessening in the threat of war," despite Iraq’s promise to release its hostages.
    (AP, 12/7/00)

1991        Venezuela’s Senate voted to hold Jaime Lusinchi (b.1924), a former President (1984-1989), "politically responsible" for multibillion-dollar fraud, though he has never been tried on corruption charges.
    (AP, 3/16/08)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Jaime_Lusinchi)

1991        In Venezuela the Compania Anonima Nacional Telefonos de Venezuela (CANTV) was privatized. In 2007 Pres. Chavez planned to transfer the company into state hands.
    (Econ, 1/13/07, p.33)

1991        US Customs intercepted a large cocaine shipment and began investigations. It was found to be part of a CIA operation out of Venezuela.
    (WSJ, 11/22/96, p.A12)

1992        Feb 4, In Caracas, Venezuela, there was a coup attempt but Lt. Col. Chavez failed to capture the presidential Palace and was forced to surrender. He served 2 years in prison.
    (WSJ, 6/12/03, p.A10)

1992        Nov 27, In Venezuela some 15,000 rebel forces under Lt. Col. Hugo Chavez tried but failed to overthrow President Carlos Andres Perez for the second time in 10 months. The coup left dozens dead and Chavez was jailed for 2 years and then pardoned by Pres. Rafael Caldera. Chavez was elected president Dec 6, 1998.
    (AP, 11/27/97)(WSJ, 4/27/98, p.A16)(SFC, 12/7/98, p.A9)

1992        Irene Saez, the Miss Universe of 1981, was elected mayor of Chacao. By 1997 she was being considered for national leadership.
    (SFC, 8/19/97, p.A8)

1992        In Venezuela Victor Vargas sold a small bank he helped for to Banco Latino, one of Venezuela’s biggest banks. In 1994 Banco Latino collapsed as a run on deposits exposed questionable loans.
    (WSJ, 1/29/08, p.A14)

1993        May, Venezuela Pres. Carlos Andres Perez was impeached. He was later charged with misusing $17 million security fund for election debts and a lavish inauguration. He said the money was used to help Violeta Chamorro win the presidency of Nicaragua.
    (SFC, 5/31/96, A16)(Econ, 1/8/11, p.86)

1993        Aug 31, Venezuela’s Congress officially removed President Andres Perez (b.1922) from office. Perez had served 2 terms as presidents (1974-1979, 1989-1993). He was impeached following a scandal on the alleged mishandling of US$17 million from the presidents' special secret fund, used to help Violeta Chamorro's government in Nicaragua.

1993        Rafael Caldera was elected president of Venezuela. He promised not to increase fuel costs.
    (WSJ, 4/15/96, p.A-14)

1993        In Venezuela Victor Vargas purchased Banco Occidental de Descuento, a small regional bank known for it’s a-list of oil-services clients.
    (WSJ, 1/29/08, p.A14)

1994        Jan 3, In Maracaibo, Venezuela, a riot and fire at the Sabaneta Prison left 108 inmates dead.
    (SFC, 10/24/96, p.C4)(AP, 1/3/04)

1994        Jan, Banco Latino failed and sparked a run on the currency that put Venezuela into its worst economic crises. Chairman Gomez Lopez left the country just before a warrant for his arrest on charges of fraud was issued. Ricardo Cisneros was on the board and fled after being charged with playing a role in the bank’s failure. Victor Vargas, head of Banco Occidental de Descuento, was able to snap up Banco Latino’s customers.
    (WSJ, 7/31/96, p.A1)(WSJ, 9/18/96, p.A14)(WSJ, 1/29/08, p.A14)

1994        In Venezuela the ska-punk band Desorden Publico released its album "People's Song of Life and Death." Some ten years earlier founding member Horacio Blanco wrote "Paralytic Politicians," which later became an anthem of protest for Venezuela.
    (AFP, 3/3/19)
1994        Venezuela Pres. Caldera pardoned Hugo Chavez for the 1992 coup attempt, and asked him to leave the military.
    (WSJ, 4/27/98, p.A16)
1994        Financial controls were imposed on Venezuela’s currency and the exchange rate was set to 170 to the US dollar. Almost the entire private banking system had to be nationalized at a cost of $8.5 billion, equivalent to three-quarters of the national budget. Responsible bankers took much of the money and fled abroad.
    (WSJ, 12/12/95, p.A-15)(SFC, 12/8/99, p.A17)

1995        Moises Naim (b.1952), Venezuelan writer, coined the phrase “corruption eruption."
    (Econ, 5/1/10, p.73)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mois%C3%A9s_Na%C3%ADm)
1995        Venezuela devalued its Bolivar currency 41% to 290 from 170 to the US dollar.
    (WSJ, 12/12/95, p.A-15)
1995        In northwest Venezuela the Carbones de la Guajira coal mine began operating in territory occupied by the native Wayuu Indians. The operation poisoned the local Socuy River, which drained into lake Maracaibo, which later became considered too contaminated for swimming. The Wayuu Indians accounted for nearly 200,000 of Venezuela’s 300,000 indigenous people.
    (SSFC, 12/16/07, p.A17)

1996        Jan, The Venezuela government reopened the oil sector to private foreign investments.
    (WSJ, 6/7/96, p.A15)

1996        Apr 15, Tens of thousands of striking Venezuelan teachers defied a government order to go back to their classrooms. The month-old stoppage has kept more than 6 million children out of school.
    (SFC, 4/16/96, p.A-9)
1996        Apr 15, Venezuela Pres. Rafael Caldera was expected to announce increases in fuel prices by as much as 850% from the 13-cent per gallon current cost.
    (WSJ, 4/15/96, p.A-1,14)

1996        May 30, Venezuela’s former Pres. Carlos Andres Perez was convicted on corruption charges. He was sentenced to prison for 28-months and fined for misappropriation of $17 million from a secret security spending fund.
    (SFC, 5/31/96, A16)(SFC, 5/28/97, p.A12)

1996        Jun 3, The IMF signed a $1.4 billion loan to Venezuela.
    (WSJ, 6/7/96, p.A15)

1996        Jun 7, Assets under Venezuela state control included all mines, oil production, petrochemical, aluminum and iron factories, beaches, ports, a large proportion of agricultural lands, prime real estate locations, 60% of the value of the banking system, manufacturing companies, TV and the main radio stations. Most of the state enterprises are money losing.
    (WSJ, 6/7/96, p.A15)

1996        Jul 12, Venezuela was awarded a $1.4 billion credit from the Int’l. Monetary Fund.
    (SFC, 7/13/96, p.A10)

1996        Aug 1, The Venezuela tax authorities increased the general sales tax to 16.5% from 12.5%. There had been a 108% rate of inflation over the last 12 months. Transparency Int’l., a Berlin base nongovernmental anticorruption organization, rated Venezuela as the most corrupt country in the Western hemisphere.
    (WSJ, 8/9/96, p.A11)

1996        Sep 18, It was reported that the Cisneros Group, the wealthiest business group in Venezuela, was moving its assets into communications companies such as Galaxy Latin America, a direct TV satellite broadcast service.
    (WSJ, 9/18/96, p.A14)

1996        Oct 22, In Venezuela at least 30 prison inmates died after a fire was started apparently caused by tear gas canisters fired by guards. The fire was set by incendiary devices fired by national guardsmen. 25 guards were assigned to watch over 1,700 inmates at the La Planta prison designed for 1,000.
    (SFC, 10/23/96, p.A10)(SFC, 10/24/96, p.C4)

1997        May 20, It was reported that a plan was approved to allow Venezuela’s 4,000 jaguars to be legally hunted. Proceeds of hunting licenses would be used to move remaining jaguars to protected areas.
    {Venezuela, Animal}
    (SFC, 5/20/97, p.A14)

1997        May 26, Venezuela’s jaguar hunting plan was dropped.
    (SFC, 5/27/97, p.A16)

1997        Jul 9, In Venezuela a 6.7 earthquake hit the northeast coastal region and killed at least 59 people including 27 students trapped inside a collapsed school building.
    (SFC, 7/10/97, p.E3)(SFC, 7/11/97, p.A11)

1997        Jul 23, The US and Venezuela signed an agreement to allow authorities of both countries to board boats of each others flags if suspected of carrying drugs.
    (SFC, 7/24/97, p.A11)

1997        Aug 28, In Venezuela 29 prison inmates died after a dominant prison gang fell on a group of newcomers in a remote jungle facility.
    (WSJ, 8/29/97, p.A1)

1997        Oct 12, Pres. Clinton met Venezuela Pres. Rafael Caldera on the first stop of his trip to South America. It was reported that Venezuela handled some 100 metric tons of cocaine and 10 metric tons of heroin from Columbia to the US.
    (SFC, 10/13/97, p.A14)

1997        Nov 4, It was reported that the new Venezuela town of Ciudad Sucre in Apure state was being set up as a bulwark against guerrillas, drug traffickers and kidnappers.
    (SFC,11/4/97, p.A9)

1997        Nov 22, From Venezuela it was reported that 18,000 people were infected in an epidemic of dengue hemorrhagic fever (DHF) and that 34 had died this year. Heavy rains allowed Aedes aegypti, the mosquito which carries anyone of 4 dengue viruses, to breed in water containers left out in the open. In 2006 over 500,000 cases of dengue were reported in Latin America including 14,000 cases of DHF.
    (SFC,11/22/97, p.A9)(Econ, 4/21/07, p.42)(Econ, 7/14/07, p.46)

1997        Sidor, Venezuela's largest steel maker, Sidor, was privatized.
    (Econ, 4/12/08, p.43)

1998        Jan 12, It was reported that over 140 dead dolphins were recently washed ashore on La Tortuga Island. There were no external wounds other than some reddish marks on the abdomen.
    (SFC, 1/12/98, p.A8)

1998        Jan 23, Alicia Machado (21), a former Miss Universe, drove the getaway car following an attempted murder by her boyfriend, Juan Rodriguez Reggeti.
    (SFC, 1/24/98, p.A10)

1998        Mar, Saudi Arabia, Venezuela and Mexico began talking to reduce oil output. They pledged to take 2-3% of the world’s oil production off the market in what came to be called the Riyadh Pact.
    (WSJ, 6/23/98, p.A1)

1998        Apr 27, It was reported that Hugo Chavez, leader of Venezuela’s Fifth Republic Movement (MVR), was campaigning for the office of president. He led  a 1992 failed coup and was jailed for 2 years.
    (WSJ, 4/27/98, p.A16)

1998        Apr, Former Venezuela Pres. Carlos Andres Perez (76) and Cecilia Matos, his longtime mistress and personal secretary, were charged with depositing funds in US banks that far exceeded their earnings as public officials.
    (SFC, 1/8/99, p.A16)

1998        May 14, Irene Saez (38) received the support of the Social Christian COPEI Party in her bid for the presidency of Venezuela.
    (SFC, 5/15/98, p.D3)

1998        May 20, In another part of Operation Casablanca, a US federal indictment  in LA charged 5 Venezuelans with laundering millions of dollars from drug cartels. Bankers Esperanza de Saad and Marco Tulio Henriquez were included.
    (SFC, 5/21/98, p.A5)

1998        Jun 4, Mexico, Saudi Arabia and Venezuela agreed to cuts in oil production and exports for the 2nd time this year in order to raise prices.
    (WSJ, 6/5/98, p.A2)

1998        Aug 20, In Venezuela the market plunged 9.5% on fears that the Bolivar would be devalued.
    (WSJ, 8/21/98, p.C12)

1998        Aug 28, In Venezuela Aragua state police beat and took away Benito Antonio Barrios (28). Barrios died later in the day from multiple gunshot wounds. This began a series of police shootings and killings of related family members that continued to 2012.
    (SFC, 2/6/13, p.35)

1998        Oct 28, The Inter-American Development Bank approved a $400 million loan to help Venezuela adopt economic reforms while battling the effects of low oil revenues.
    (WSJ, 10/29/98, p.A13)

1998        Nov 8, In Venezuela a leftist coalition led by Hugo Chavez, the Patriotic Pole movement, won a majority in parliament. The Democratic Action and Copei parties won most of the 23 governorships. Former Pres. Carlos Andres Perez won a senate seat in Tachira. Corruption charges against Perez were later dropped due to senatorial immunity.
    (SFC, 11/10/98, p.A10)(SFC, 1/8/99, p.A16)

1998        Dec 6, Venezuela held national presidential elections. Hugo Chavez, a former army officer who staged a bloody coup attempt against the government six years earlier, won with 56% of the vote. He faced a $22 billion foreign debt and planned a constitutional assembly to replace the Congress and to rewrite the constitution.
    (SFC, 12/7/98, p.A1)(AP, 12/6/99)(Econ, 3/9/13, p.24)

1998        In Venezuela a 136-mile power line was scheduled to be completed by Edelca. The line ran through Canaima National Park, home to Pemon Indians and the world's highest waterfall Kerepakupai-meru, or Angel Falls (3,200 feet). Construction was delayed by protests and sabotage.
    (SFC, 12/2/99, p.A18)(SSFC, 12/14/03, p.C5)
1998        Venezuela counted some 4,550 murders for this year.
    (Econ, 8/21/10, p.30)

1999        Feb 2, Hugo Chavez was sworn in as president. He soon began Plan Bolivar 2000, a national effort to refurbish schools and clinics using military forces.
    (SFC, 2/3/99, p.A9)(SFC, 6/14/99, p.A12)

1999        Feb 26, It took 578 bolivars to buy on US dollar.
    (WSJ, 2/26/99, p.A15)

1999        Mar 4, In Venezuela the bodies of 3 Americans, who were kidnapped Feb 25 in Columbia, were found shot to death.
    (SFC, 3/6/99, p.A10)

1999        Mar 14, In Venezuela Irene Saez, a former Miss Universe, won the governorship of Margarita Island.
    (SFC, 3/15/99, p.A9)

1999        Mar 27, Congress approved a bill that gave Pres. Chavez new powers to manage the economy. Chavez vetoed it and said it was not enough.
    (SFC, 4/13/99, p.A11)

1999        Apr 10, Pres. Chavez said he would extend his term from 5 to 10 years. He had already threatened to dissolve Congress and the Supreme Court.
    (SFC, 4/13/99, p.A11)

1999        Apr 11, Pres. Chavez reinstated 37 cashiered soldiers who had helped him in his failed 1992 coup.
    (SFC, 4/13/99, p.A11)

1999        Apr 22, Congress granted Pres. Chavez an "enabling law" to rule by decree on key economic issues for the next 6 months.
    (SFC, 4/24/99, p.A14)

1999        Apr 25, A referendum was scheduled to endorse Pres. Chavez's plan to elect a popular assembly to write a new constitution.
    (SFC, 4/24/99, p.A14)

1999        Apr 25, In Venezuela voters overwhelmingly endorsed the formation of an assembly to rewrite the constitution. The abstention rate was 60%.
    (SFC, 4/26/99, p.A13)

1999        Jul 1, Pres. Chavez appointed Jose Rojas (35), the deputy finance minister, to succeed Maritza Izaguirre (60) as Finance Minister. He then asked the upcoming Constituent Assembly to dissolve Congress.
    (WSJ, 7/2/99, p.A10)

1999        Jul 25, A Constituent Assembly to rewrite the constitution was scheduled for elections.
    (SFC, 7/2/99, p.A18)

1999        Jul 26, In Venezuela candidates from the Fifth Republic Movement, supported by Pres. Chavez, won over 80% of the 131 constituent assembly seats in preliminary results. Less than half the eligible voters cast ballots.
    (WSJ, 7/26/99, p.A19)

1999        Jul 30, A Venezuelan airliner with 16 people went missing. Rebels on Aug 8 promised to free 14 passengers and crewmen. Colombian rebels freed 8 passengers Aug 9 and allowed the pilot and co-pilot to fly the plane back to Venezuela.
    (WSJ, 8/2/99, p.A1)(WSJ, 8/9/99, p.A1)(WSJ, 8/10/99, p.A1)

1999        Jul, A new penal code was implemented and led to the release of over 7,000 inmates from overcrowded jails.
    (SFC, 3/3/00, p.D4)

1999        Aug 12, In Venezuela the Constitutional Assembly assumed sweeping powers and declared a state of emergency for the courts.
    (SFC, 8/13/99, p.D3)

1999        Aug 19, In Venezuela the Constitutional Assembly declared a judicial emergency and gave itself new powers to overhaul the court system.
    (SFC, 8/20/99, p.D3)

1999        Aug 25, In Venezuela the constitutional assembly declared a legislative emergency and usurped most of the functions of Congress.
    (SFC, 8/26/99, p.A12)

1999        Aug 27, In Venezuela members of Congress clashed with police as they attempted to defy a government ban on conducting a legislative session.
    (SFC, 8/28/99, p.A1)

1999        Aug 28, Congress members announced that they would refuse to authorize funds for the constitutional panel and would withhold legal permission for Pres. Chavez to leave the country.
    (SFEC, 8/29/99, p.A22)

1999        Aug 30, The constitutional assembly stripped the opposition-controlled Congress of its last remaining powers.
    (SFC, 8/31/99, p.A13)

1999        Sep 9, In Venezuela the Constitutional Assembly agreed to reverse its order for Congress to shut down and allowed Congress to resume normal activities in an accord mediated by the Catholic Church.
    (SFC, 9/10/99, p.A16)

1999        Sep 16, In Venezuela a Colombian delegation met with the largest guerrilla group to revive peace talks.
    (WSJ, 9/17/99, p.A1)

1999        Oct 4, It was reported that Venezuela had begun domestic sales of unleaded gasoline.
    (WSJ, 10/4/99, p.B13E)

1999        Oct 8, In Venezuela authorities suspended 122 judges for corruption and incompetence.
    (SFC, 10/9/99, p.A11)

1999        Oct 21, In Venezuela corruption cases against 2 former presidents, Carlos Andres Perez and Jaime Lusinchi, were reopened.
    (SFC, 10/22/99, p.B4)

1999        Nov 4, The Constitutional Assembly approved a 6 year presidential term and allowed reelection.
    (SFC, 11/5/99, p.A17)

1999        Dec 15, In Venezuela a vote for the approval of the 26th new constitution was scheduled. The new document contained 368 articles and included the possibility of recall referendums. Voters approved the new constitution which included changing the name of the country to the Bolivarian Republic of Venezuela.
    (WSJ, 11/26/99, p.A11)(SFC, 12/16/99, p.A16)(Econ, 2/28/04, p.36)(Econ, 3/15/14, p.15)

1999        Dec 16, In Venezuela torrential rains flooded 9 northern states and Caracas and forced some 120,000 people to flee their homes. Over 1000 people were killed in Vargas state and 25,000 were described missing.
    (SFC, 12/17/99, p.D6)(SFC, 12/18/99, p.A14)(SFC, 12/20/99, p.A1)(WSJ, 12/20/99, p.A1)

1999        Dec 22, In Venezuela 2 helicopters crashed on aid missions and at least 4 people were killed.
    (WSJ, 12/23/99, p.A1)

1999        Dec 25, A Cuban airplane, Russian-made YAK-42, with 22 people crashed just before landing in the northern Venezuelan state of Carabobo.
    (SFEC, 12/26/99, p.D6)

1999        Dec, Security forces killed dozens of alleged looters following the flood disaster in Vargas state.
    (SFC, 1/27/00, p.A12)

1999        The economic crises threw some 600,000 people out of work and led to a major increase in crime.
    (SFC, 3/3/00, p.D4)

2000        Feb, Mayors from the Caracas region declared a "crime emergency" and demanded that Pres. Chavez take action.
    (SFC, 3/3/00, p.D4)

2000        Apr 6, In Venezuela Pres. Chavez announced that the Pemon tribe had dropped their opposition to construction of a 136-mile electrical line in the Canaima National Park.
    (SFC, 4/7/00, p.D2)

2000        Apr 16, It was reported that the murder rate had reached some 21 per day. Cars were reported to be stolen every 10 minutes.
    (SFEC, 4/16/00, p.T15)

2000        May, In Venezuela Ford Motor Co. began a recall of Ford Explorers due to problems with their Firestone tires.
    (SFC, 9/9/00, p.A10)

2000        Jul 30, In Venezuela national elections were scheduled. 56% of the populace turned out and endorsed Pres. Chavez to a 6-year term by a 59 to 37% margin over Francisco Arias. Chavez’s Fifth Republic Movement also won 9 of 23 state governor races and a simple majority of the legislature. The new constitution gave voters the right to revoke the president’s mandate after 3 years by referendum.
    (SFC, 7/29/00, p.A10)(SFC, 7/31/00, p.A12)(SFC, 8/1/00, p.A10)

2000        Aug 7, Venezuela’s Pres. Hugo Chavez arrived in Saudi Arabia to begin a tour of 10 oil-producing nations that included Iraq.
    (SFC, 8/8/00, p.A10)

2000        Aug 10, In Iraq Pres. Chavez held talks with Pres. Saddam Hussein in support of upcoming oil talks in Caracas.
    (SFC, 8/11/00, p.A15)

2000        Aug 13, Pres. Chavez held talks in Libya with Moammar Khadafy and proceeded to Nigeria to meet Pres. Obasanjo.
    (SFC, 8/14/00, p.A14)

2000        Aug 18, Government forces seized 5 tons of cocaine as part of the "Orinoco 2000" probe financed by the US DEA. Another 5 tons was discovered at the Doble Uno ranch just days later. The cocaine was suspected to have been dropped from Colombia.
    (SFC, 8/21/00, p.A10)(SFC, 8/26/00, p.A10)

2000        Aug 19, Hugo Chavez took the oath of office as president of Venezuela after a landslide re-election.
    (AP, 8/19/01)

2000        Aug 26, Maracaibo, Venezuela, won the Little League World Series title, defeating Bellaire, Texas, 3-2.
    (AP, 8/24/01)

2000        Aug 30, It was reported that many professional and entrepreneurs were leaving the country due to economic policies.
    (WSJ, 8/30/00, p.A1)

2000        Sep 9, It was reported that Venezuela had begun a criminal investigation against Ford and Firestone due to at least 47 deaths from defective tires on Ford Explorers.
    (SFC, 9/9/00, p.A10)

2000        Sep 22, Venezuela’s Pres. Chavez announced his 1st major spending program. The $2.1 billion plan included $819 million for infrastructure and $756 million for social programs. The rest was for economic stimuli, technology and security.
    (SFC, 9/28/00, p.A11)

2000        Sep 27, OPEC’s top leaders gathered in Caracas for a 2-day meeting. OPEC speakers called on Western countries to reduce taxes levied on oil to ease prices.
    (SFC, 9/27/00, p.A1)(SFC, 9/28/00, p.A1)

2000        Sep 28, OPEC leaders in Venezuela signed a united declaration of 20 resolutions and agreed to meet again in 5 years.
    (SFC, 9/29/00, p.A17)

2000        Oct 11, Tens of thousands of oil workers went on strike for higher wages.
    (SFC, 10/12/00, p.A16)

2000        Oct 26, In Venezuela Pres. Chavez greeted Fidel Castro and they planned an accord for oil shipments to Cuba in exchange for bartered products and services.
    (SFC, 10/27/00, p.D2)

2000        Nov 7, The congress granted Pres. Chavez fast track powers to decree laws without parliamentary debate.
    (SFC, 11/8/00, p.B5)

2000        Nov, In Portuguesa state Alexander Mendoza Sr. (25) and brothers Gonzalo (29) and Ender Ramon (16) were wrongly slain by police officers in Acarigua.
    (SFC, 8/9/01, p.A8)

2000        Dec 3, In Venezuela a referendum was scheduled on suspending the leaders of the nation’s labor unions for 180 days pending new labor elections. Voters in a 20% turnout approved the referendum to oust the leaders of the labor unions. This paved the way for a government-dominated workers’ federation.
    (SFC, 11/14/00, p.A17)(SFC, 12/5/00, p.A14)(WSJ, 12/5/00, p.A1)

2000        Dec 24, Pres. Chavez appointed Adina Bastidas as vice president following the recent appointment of VP Isaias Rodriquez as attorney general.
    (SFC, 12/25/00, p.B4)

2000        Venezuela’s largest electricity company, Electricidad de Caracas, was bought by Virginia-based AES for $1.7 billion. In 2007 Pres. Chavez planned to nationalize the company.
    (Econ, 1/13/07, p.p33)

2001        May 14, Pres. Chavez planned a 3-week diplomatic trip to Russia, Iran, India, Bangladesh, China, Malaysia and Indonesia.
    (WSJ, 5/14/01, p.A15)

2001        Jun 23, Vladimiro Montesinos, Peru’s former spy chief, was arrested in Caracas, Venezuela. Pres. Chavez pledged to return him to Peru.
    (SFC, 6/25/01, p.A1)(WSJ, 6/25/01, p.A16)

2001        Jun 25, Vladimiro Montesinos was flown from Venezuela to Lima.
    (SFC, 6/26/01, p.A8)

2001        Oct 22, At least 11 people, mostly children, were killed during a stampede into a bullring for a music concert in Valencia.
    (SFC, 10/23/01, p.C1)

2001        Dec 10, In Venezuela a nation-wide 12-hour work stoppage was planned to protest policies of Pres. Hugo Chavez. Thousands of businesses closed and millions stayed home as Pres. Chavez countered as host of the annual air force show in Caracas.
    (WSJ, 12/6/01, p.A12)(SFC, 12/11/01, p.A6)

2001        Dec 31, In Caracas street vendors began selling pre-recorded CDs of banging pots to help drown out the long-winded speeches of Pres. Chavez. Earlier protests included the banging of pots and pans and became known as "cacerolazes." Approval ratings for Chavez had dropped from 80% to just over 50% in recent months.
    (SFC, 1/1/02, p.A2)

2001-2003    Cuba ran up an oil debt to Venezuela of some $752 million.
    (WSJ, 2/2/04, p.A1)

2002        Feb 12, Pres. Chavez said the currency would go on float Feb 13.
    (WSJ, 2/13/02, p.A1)

2002        Feb 13, In Venezuela the bolivar fell nearly 19% with the abandonment of exchange controls by Pres. Chavez, who also announced a 7% cut in government spending to help close a projected $8 billion deficit.
    (SFC, 2/14/02, p.B6)

2002        Feb 18, Vice Adm. Carlos Molina Tamayo called for the resignation of Pres. Chavez.
    (SFC, 2/19/02, p.A8)

2002        Feb 25, Gen. Roman Gomez became the 4th military officer to call for Pres. Chavez to step down.
    (SFC, 2/26/02, p.A7)

2002        Mar 7, Venezuela sent some 2,000 troops to its border with Colombia to block fleeing rebels.
    (WSJ, 3/8/02, p.A1)

2002        Apr 7, Pres. Chavez announced the dismissal of 7 executives who led strikes and protests against the state-owned oil monopoly.
    (SFC, 4/8/02, p.A7)

2002        Apr 9, The 1-million member Workers Confederation planned a strike to support protesting oil executives of Petroleos de Venezuela, who were protesting tightening controls by Pres. Chavez. Later reports indicated US cash was used to support strike plans.
    (SSFC, 4/7/02, p.A8)(SFC, 4/25/02, p.A9)

2002        Apr 11, Venezuela’s military removed Pres. Chavez from power after 19 demonstrators were killed, many by snipers, as some 150-200k marched on the presidential palace in Caracas. A tape, later released, contained the voice of Pres. Chavez ordering the activation of "Plan Avila," an emergency state security plan. In 2009 a Venezuelan court sentenced nine former police officials to as long as 30 years in prison for the killings of demonstrators during street protests that led up to the failed 2002 coup against President Hugo Chavez. In 2009 Brian A. Nelson authored “The Silence and the Scorpion: The Coup Against Chavez and the Making of Modern Venezuela."
    (SFC, 4/12/02, p.A1,8)(WSJ, 4/12/02, p.A1)(SFC, 4/25/02, p.A12)(AP, 4/12/08)(AP, 4/4/09)(Econ, 6/13/09, p.87)(Econ, 3/9/13, p.24)

2002        Apr 12, In Venezuela Pedro Carmona Estanga, head of a business association, proclaimed himself interim president and declared the constitution abolished. A summit of Latin American leaders criticized the ouster of Hugo Chavez. Chavez had resigned under pressure from the country's divided military but was returned to office two days later.
    (SFC, 4/13/02, p.A9)(AP, 4/12/03)(Econ, 3/9/13, p.24)

2002        Apr 13, Hugo Chavez returned to the presidency as Pedro Carmona resigned following large protests in Caracas with dozens reported killed. Caracas mayor Alfredo Pena said at least 9 people were killed in rioting and looting.
    (SSFC, 4/14/02, p.1,20)

2002        Apr 19, A military helicopter crashed in fog-shrouded mountains north of Caracas and 10 people were killed including 4 generals.
    (SSFC, 4/21/02, p.A16)

2002        May 1, In Venezuela rival groups rallied for and against Pres. Chavez.
    (WSJ, 5/2/02, p.A1)

2002        May 23, Pedro Carmona (60), CEO of Industrias Venoco CA and Venezuela‘s recent 2-day president, escaped house arrest and sought refuge in the Colombian Embassy.
    (SFC, 5/24/02, p.A16)(WSJ, 3/10/08, p.A5)

2002        Jun 15, In Venezuela tens of thousands opposed to President Hugo Chavez marched to demand his resignation and punishment for those responsible for 17 deaths during a coup in April.
    (AP, 6/15/02)

2002        Jun 19, In Venezuela Pres. Chavez made an offer for a referendum on his rule in 2003.
    (SFC, 6/19/02, p.A8)

2002        Jun 29, In Venezuela over 100,000 people rallied in support of President Hugo Chavez's so-called "peaceful and democratic revolution."
    (AP, 6/29/02)

2002        Jul 6, Former President Carter launched a Venezuela peace mission sanctioned by leftist President Hugo Chavez but met with skepticism by many of Chavez's opponents.
    (AP, 7/6/02)

2002        Jul 11, In Venezuela an estimated 600,000 people marched demanding that Pres. Chavez abandon the presidency.
    (AP, 7/12/02)(SFC, 7/12/02, p.A9)

2002        Jul 22-2002 Jul 24, Flooding in southeastern Venezuela killed 5 people and left as many as 50,000 homeless in Apure state.
    (AP, 7/23/02)(SFC, 7/25/02, p.A12)

2002        Aug 2, In Venezuela gunmen with high-caliber weapons ambushed a police patrol in a Caracas slum, wounding at least five people and raising tensions ahead of a Supreme Court ruling on alleged coup leaders.
    (AP, 8/2/02)

2002        Aug 16, President Hugo Chavez railed against a Supreme Court decision to absolve four military officers accused of leading an April coup but urged Venezuelans to accept it.
    (AP, 8/16/02)

2002        Aug 23, In Venezuela subway and bus workers in Caracas unexpectedly walked off the job, forcing more than a million people to find other ways to work.
    (AP, 8/23/02)

2002        Aug 29, In Venezuela thousands of opponents of President Hugo Chavez took to the streets in Maracay to protest tax increases they say will further impoverish Venezuelans in this recession-ridden country.
    (AP, 8/29/02)

2002        Sep 26, In Venezuela thousands took to the streets to protest a decree giving the government the authority to ban protests in several areas of this capital city.
    (AP, 9/26/02)

2002        Oct 8, In Caracas, Venezuela, city police used tear gas to disperse a group of their colleagues who tried to seize the department's communications system in an ongoing eight-day strike.
    (AP, 10/8/02)

2002        Oct 10, In Venezuela hundreds of thousands marched through Caracas calling for the ouster of Pres. Chavez.
    (WSJ, 10/11/02, p.A10)

2002        Oct 21, In Venezuela thousands of stores closed and workers stayed home to demand that Hugo Chavez call early elections.
    (AP, 10/21/02)(SFC, 10/22/02, p.A11)

2002        Nov 12, Clashes between Venezuelan troops and supporters of President Hugo Chavez killed one person, wounded 20 and prompted an appeal for peace from the head of the Organization of American States.
    (AP, 11/13/02)

2002        Nov 16, In Venezuela Pres. Hugo Chavez ordered the federal takeover of the Caracas police force, sending soldiers and armored vehicles to stations throughout the capital. His opponents vowed to block the move and mounted street protests.
    (AP, 11/17/02)

2002        Nov 30, A fire ripped through the packed La Guajira nightclub in downtown Caracas, killing 50 people, most of them suffocated by smoke in what was one of the deadliest blazes in Venezuela's recent history.
    (AP, 12/3/02)(AP, 11/30/03)

2002        Dec 1, Venezuela museum officials discovered that Henri Matisse's "Odalisque in Red Pants," a 1925 painting of a topless, raven-haired woman kneeling on a floor, worth about $3 million, was stolen as long as two years ago from the Sofia Imber Museum of Contemporary Art and replaced by an imitation. In 2012 FBI agents recovered the painting and arrested 2 people at the Miami Beach Loews Hotel.
    (AP, 2/1/03)(SFC, 7/18/12, p.A6)

2002        Dec 2, Venezuela's opposition launched a general strike to protest President Hugo Chavez's defiant refusal to call a referendum on his rule, closing hundreds of businesses in Caracas.
    (AP, 12/2/02)

2002        Dec 6, In Venezuela at least one gunman opened fire on a Caracas square packed with opponents of Pres. Hugo Chavez, killing three people as strikers trying to force a change of government. Captains and officers of 12 of the nation’s 13 oil tankers joined the strike.
    (Reuters, 12/6/02)(SFC, 12/7/02, p.A1)

2002        Dec 9, In Venezuela a general strike aimed at ousting leftist President Hugo Chavez sparked panic buying at supermarkets and gasoline stations and forced the national guard to commandeer delivery trucks and ensure that service stations opened.
    (AP, 12/9/02)

2002        Dec 15, In Venezuela hundreds of thousands of people marched through the capital demanding Pres. Chavez step down. The strike had cut oil output by at least 70%.
    (WSJ, 12/14/02, p.A12)(AP, 12/15/02)

2002        Dec 20, In Venezuela hundreds of thousands of whistle-blowing demonstrators demanding President Hugo Chavez's resignation took to the streets on the 19th day of a general strike.
    (AP, 12/20/02)

2002        Henrique Capriles, one of the 5 mayors of Caracas, was put under detention for “abuse of power," following a protest in front of the Cuban Embassy. By 2004 he was still under detention with no formal charges filed.
    (WSJ, 6/25/04, p.A11)
2002        In Venezuela Pres. Chavez cut off supplies to Industrias Veneco Ca after CEO Pedro Carmona’s brief 2-day coup. Franklin Duran and Carlos Kauffman purchased Veneco and the company grew with new government contracts.
    (WSJ, 3/10/08, p.A5)

2002        Under Venezuelan President Hugo Chavez, the Oct 12 holiday name Día de la Raza was changed to Día de la Resistencia Indígena (Day of Indigenous Resistance) to commemorate the Indigenous peoples' resistance to European settlement. Between 1921 and 2002, Venezuela had celebrated Día de la Raza along with many other Latin American nations. The holiday was officially established in 1921 under President Juan Vicente Gomez.
2002        In Venezuela prison gang bosses reached an agreement about this time on an internal self-government that taxed fellow inmates.
    (Econ, 7/16/11, p.40)

2003        Jan 3, In Caracas, Venezuela, clashes between opponents and supporters of Pres. Chavez left at least eighty people wounded.
    (AP, 1/3/03)

2003        Jan 9, Thousands of Venezuelan bank workers stayed home to support a nationwide strike seeking new presidential elections.
    (AP, 1/9/04)

2003        Jan 10, In Venezuela opponents of President Hugo Chavez took to the streets as a bank strike prompted authorities to suspend dollar auctions for a second day in a row after Venezuela's currency fell.
    (AP, 1/10/03)

2003        Jan 15, Venezuela's VP said the government would respect the high court if it approves a Feb. 2 referendum on President Hugo Chavez's rule.
    (AP, 1/15/03)

2003        Jan 18, In Venezuela at least 100,000 anti-government protesters staged a candlelight march in Caracas.
    (AP, 1/19/03)

2003        Jan 25, In Venezuela opponents of Pres. Hugo Chavez launched a 24-hour street demonstration to protest a court ruling that postponed a referendum on Chavez's rule.
    (AP, 1/25/03)

2003        Feb 4, Venezuela's government suggested a referendum on his rule later this year as a way out of the country's political crisis.
    (AP, 2/4/03)

2003        Feb 8, Tens of thousands of Venezuelans marched in support of 9,000 oil workers fired for leading a two-month strike against President Hugo Chavez that battered the economy of this oil-dependent nation.
    (AP, 2/8/03)

2003      Feb 18, In Venezuela police reported that the bodies of 3 soldiers, who had called for "civic disobedience" against President Hugo Chavez’s government, had been found with their hands tied and faces wrapped with tape.
    (AP, 2/18/03)

2003      Feb 19, In Venezuela the secret police (DISIP) arrested Carlos Fernandez, head of the largest business federation, for his role in the general strike.
    (SFC, 2/21/03, A10)

2003      Mar 9, In Venezuela Pres. Hugo Chavez claimed an international campaign involving the US was trying to discredit his government and he warned other countries not to be fooled by the so-called smear tactics.
    (AP, 3/9/03)

2003        Apr 3, Venezuela’s government fired 828 more employees from Petroleos de Venezuela (PDVSA), the state oil monopoly, for participating in a two-month strike to oust Pres. Chavez. PDVSA lost many of its most experienced and best-qualified employees. Altogether Chavez fired some 18,000 employees of PDVSA this year and many of them soon found work Colombia.
    (AP, 4/4/03)(Econ, 8/12/06, p.56)(Econ, 7/19/14, p.31)

2003        Apr 11, The Venezuela government of Hugo Chavez and his opponents agreed to a plan for a referendum on his presidency, and the chief of state pledged to leave office if he loses.
    (AP, 4/11/03)

2003        Apr 18, In north central Venezuela a fight between inmates wielding homemade knives and machetes left 11 dead and 40 injured inside a maximum security prison.
    (AP, 4/19/03)

2003        Apr 23, Colombia and Venezuela agreed Wednesday to build a $120 million pipeline to deliver natural gas to northeastern Colombia and western Venezuela.
    (AP, 4/23/03)

2003        Aug 18, In Venezuela 9 workers died as 8 tried to rescue a comrade who was felled by toxic industrial gases at an animal feed plant outside Caracas.
    (WSJ, 8/19/03, p.A1)

2003        Aug 20, Opposition leaders turned in 2.7 million signatures to demand a referendum on ending Hugo Chavez's tumultuous four-year presidency in Venezuela.
    (AP, 8/20/03)

2003        Sep 9, In western Venezuelan two passenger buses crashed in separate highway accidents, killing 45 people and injuring dozens of others.
    (AP, 9/9/03)

2003        Oct 23,  Venezuelan troops and police killed 7 heavily armed gunmen during a raid on a drug trafficking ring in northeast Venezuela.
    (AP, 10/24/03)

2003        Oct 24, Venezuelan troops and police killed seven heavily armed gunmen during a raid on a drug trafficking ring in northeast Venezuela, officials said Friday.
    (AP, 10/24/03)

2003        Dec 2, In Venezuela opposition leaders claimed that more than 3.6 million people had signed a petition demanding a recall referendum on Venezuelan President Hugo Chavez.
    (AP, 12/2/03)

2003        Dec 19, Venezuela's opposition turned in 3.4 million signatures to demand a recall referendum on Hugo Chavez' rule.
    (AP, 12/19/03)

2003        Dec 20, Four Venezuelan National Guard soldiers were killed in an ambush while patrolling an area near the Colombian border.
    (AP, 12/21/03)

2003        Dec 23, Venezuelan opposition leaders turned in more than a million signatures to demand recall referendums against 26 lawmakers aligned with President Hugo Chavez.
    (AP, 12/24/03)

2003        Pres. Hugo Chavez, under advice from Cuba, began creating emergency health, education and welfare programs called “missions" to provide public services and subsidies to the poor. They were paid for by a budget controlled by the president without going through social ministries.
    (Econ, 2/18/06, p.36)

2003        Venezuela's tax collection was reported up 28% under a "Zero Evasion" campaign.
    (WSJ, 1/23/04, p.A10)

2003        The Bolivarian University was founded in Venezuela as an alternative to a university system Chavez accuses of being elitist. The main campus in Caracas was set up in a 10-story building formerly used by the state oil company. The government seized the building and converted its offices into classrooms after firing thousands of oil workers who participated in an anti-government strike.
    (AP, 7/29/05)

2004        Jan 27, Venezuela's central bank agreed to allow commercial banks to tap into their reserves by as much as 2% to finance agricultural programs. Venezuela require banks to maintain a 15% deposit as a guarantee against runs.
    (WSJ, 1/28/04, p.A15)

2004        Feb 9, Venezuela devalued its currency by 17 percent against the U.S. dollar, a surprise decision that could fuel inflation but help the government meet financing needs.
    (AP, 2/9/04)

2004        Feb 27, In Venezuela clashes between police and thousands of protesters pressing for the recall of President Hugo Chavez overshadowed a summit of developing nations, with at least two people killed and dozens injured. Chavez opened a two-day summit with the leaders of 18 other developing nations in Caracas, urging them to reject free-market policies imposed by industrialized nations.
    (AP, 2/28/04)

2004        Mar 2, In Venezuela demonstrators hurled rocks and gasoline bombs at soldiers as protests intensified after the elections council ruled against an opposition petition to force a presidential recall referendum.
    (AP, 3/3/04)

2004        Mar 6, Hundreds of thousands of Venezuelans marched through Caracas to protest the rejection of a petition aimed at recalling President Hugo Chavez.
    (AP, 3/7/04)

2004        Mar 15, In Venezuela opponents of President Hugo Chavez celebrated a Supreme Court ruling that signatures on petitions seeking a presidential recall vote were valid unless citizens disclaim them.
    (AP, 3/16/04)

2004        Mar 23, A chamber of Venezuela's Supreme Court dealt a blow to opponents of President Hugo Chavez by overruling fellow justices on a petition for recalling him from office.
    (AP, 3/23/04)

2004        May 27, Vito Bigione (52), one of Italy's most-wanted Mafia suspects, was captured in Venezuela. He was accused of a key role in international drug trafficking and flown back to Italy. Bigione had spent years living in Namibia and only recently moved to Venezuela.
    (AP, 5/29/04)

2004        Jun 5, In Venezuela tens of thousands of opposition supporters marched through Caracas to celebrate a recent announcement by election authorities that President Hugo Chavez likely will face a recall referendum on his rule.
    (AP, 6/6/04)

2004        Jun 8, In Venezuela, elections officials said President Hugo Chavez must face a recall vote on Aug 15. Should Chavez lose a recall before Aug. 19, the completion of the fourth year of his six-year term, presidential elections would be held within a month. After Aug 19, Chavez's vice president, Jose Vicente Rangel, would serve out the remainder of Chavez's term.
    (AP, 6/9/04)

2004        Jul 6, President Hugo Chavez announced that Venezuela has granted citizenship to 216,000 immigrants since May under a fast-track nationalization plan.
    (AP, 7/6/04)

2004        Jul 30, A Venezuelan judge ordered the arrests of 59 former military officers on suspicion of plotting against President Hugo Chavez's government.
    (AP, 7/31/04)

2004        Aug 15, In Venezuela the opposition's long and bitter campaign to oust Venezuelan President Hugo Chavez finally came down to a recall referendum. Chavez survived a referendum to oust him.
    (AP, 8/16/04)

2004        Aug 16, Election officials in Venezuela announced that voters had overwhelmingly chosen to keep President Hugo Chavez in office.
    (AP, 8/16/05)

2004        Aug 18, In Venezuela opposition leaders charged that as many as 500 of 8,900 polling stations used voting machines that were programmed with an artificial cap to limit the number of votes cast in favor of recalling Pres. Chavez. In 2003 the Chavez regime has purchased 28% of Bizta Software, owned and operated by 2 Venezuelans, who also supplied the election machinery (Smartmatic Corp). Bizta bought back the shares after the story broke and after the 2 companies received a significant part of the $91 million referendum contract.
    (WSJ, 8/19/04, p.A11,12)

2004        Aug 21, The head of the Organization of American States said the results of an audit supported the official vote count showing that President Hugo Chavez won this month's recall referendum in Venezuela.
    (AP, 8/22/04)
2004        Aug 21, A military plane crashed into a mountain in central Venezuela, killing 25 people, including five children.
    (AP, 8/22/04)

2004        Sep 10, President Bush ordered a partial cut in U.S. assistance to Venezuela because of its alleged role in the international trafficking of women and children for sexual exploitation.
    (AP, 9/10/04)

2004        Sep 13, In Venezuela at least five people were killed and a dozen injured in heavy rains, flooding and giant waves from Hurricane Ivan. Nine people were reported missing on a small boat off the coast. Some 350 homes were damaged and 21 destroyed.
    (AP, 9/14/04)

2004        Sep 17, Gunmen killed a Venezuelan oil engineer and six soldiers near the border with Colombia in an attack that officials suspected was carried out by Colombian rebels.
    (AP, 9/19/04)

2004        Sep 21, Inmates rioted at a western Venezuela prison, killing at least six fellow inmates and injuring 35 others before hundreds of national guardsmen restored order.
    (AP, 9/22/04)

2004        Oct 17, Military helicopters doused a 730-foot office tower in Caracas' Parque Central complex, one of Venezuela's tallest buildings, bringing under control a blaze that many feared would cause the tower to collapse.
    (AP, 10/17/04)

2004        Oct 31, In Venezuela candidates backed by President Hugo Chavez swept all but two of 23 governorships in regional elections.
    (AP, 11/1/04)

2004        Nov 19, In Caracas a truck owned by a prosecutor pressing charges against supporters of Venezuela's failed 2002 coup exploded. Prosecutor Danilo Anderson was inside. In 2005 a court convicted 3 men in the murder of Anderson, who had been investigating opponents of Pres. Chavez and sentenced them to up to 30 years in prison. In 2008 Giovanny Vasquez, a star witness, recanted his testimony saying he testified against suspects after receiving $500,000 from a government official.
    (AP, 11/19/04)(AP, 12/21/05)(AP, 4/9/08)

2004        Nov 23, In Venezuela lawyer Antonio Lopez, a suspect in the slaying of a top prosecutor last week, was killed in a shootout with police.
    (AP, 11/23/04)

2004        Nov 24, Venezuela’s Congress passed a bill that lays down strict guidelines for sex and violence in broadcast programming and threatens multimillion dollar fines or even closure for media outlets that disobey.
    (AP, 11/25/04)

2004        Dec 9, In Venezuela a law that gives the government control over the content of radio and television programs took effect.
    (AP, 12/9/04)

2004        Dec 10, A Venezuelan military plane crashed in a mountainous region near Caracas on Friday, killing 16 people, including high-ranking officers.
    (AP, 12/10/04)

2004        Dec 13, In Venezuela President Hugo Chavez's allies in Congress appointed 17 new justices to the supreme court.
    (AP, 12/13/04)
2004        Dec 13, Rodrigo Granda, the principle international spokesperson for the most powerful revolutionary guerrilla group in Latin America, the Revolutionary Armed Forces of Colombia (FARC), was kidnapped in broad daylight (4pm) in the center of Caracas.
    (www.rebelion.org/noticia.php?id=10216)(Econ, 1/22/05, p.36)

2004        Dec 14, The Bolivarian Alliance for the Peoples of Our America (ALBA) began with the Cuba-Venezuela Agreement.

2004        Cristina Marcano and Alberto Barrera Tyszka authored the biography “Hugo Chavez." In 2007 Kristina Cordero translated it to English.
    (Econ, 8/4/07, p.70)
2004        Venezuela’s government built a $9 million outpost on Isla de Aves, 380 miles from its coast and much closer to Dominica, Antigua and Puerto Rico. The island measured 1,900 feet long and 1,640 feet wide. Fishing waters offshore teem with tuna, grouper and red snapper, while oil and natural gas are thought to lie under the sea floor.
    (AP, 10/17/05)
2004        In Venezuela Ivan Simanovis, the police chief of Caracas, was jailed in connection with the death of a pro-government protester who had rushed to the defense of Hugo Chavez  during a failed coup attempt in 2002. In 2014 Simanovis was released from jail and placed under house arrest.
    (SSFC, 9/21/14, p.A3)

2005        Jan 1, Venezuela was forecast for 4.1% annual GDP growth with a population at 26.5 million and GDP per head at $4,140.
    (Econ, 1/8/05, p.93)

2005        Jan 4, Venezuela's left-leaning government promised to grant poor farmers at least 100,000 plots of land carved from either state property or large private holdings, a step toward implementing a controversial agrarian reform law.
    (AP, 1/4/05)

2005        Jan 8, Venezuela government officials escorted by troops and police descended on a privately owned cattle ranch to determine whether some lands may be turned over to poor farmers as part of an agrarian reform. The owner of the 32,000 acre El Charcote Ranch, Agropecuaria Flora C.A., is a subsidiary of the British-owned Vestey Group Ltd. and a major beef producer. The company insists that it can prove ownership back to 1830. A 1998 census found that 60 percent of Venezuelan farmland was owned by less than 1 percent of the population.
    (AP, 1/8/05)

2005        Jan 10, Venezuela's President Chavez declared that farmland nationwide would be inspected and some of it given to the poor, expanding agrarian reforms with a pledge to fight "the large estates."
    (AP, 1/11/05)

2005        Jan 14, President Hugo Chavez said that diplomatic and commercial relations with Colombia would be put on hold until it apologizes for paying bounty hunters to abduct rebel leader Rodrigo Granda from inside Venezuela.
    (AP, 1/14/05)

2005        Jan 28, Colombia and Venezuela announced a settlement in a bitter dispute over the capture of a Colombian rebel on Venezuelan soil.
    (AP, 1/29/05)(Econ, 1/22/05, p.36)

2005        Feb 1, Venezuela’s Pres. Chavez said he intends to sell his country’s interests in 8 US oil refineries.
    (WSJ, 2/2/05, p.A2)

2005        Feb 9, Helicopters rescued stranded Venezuelans after flood waters struck the mountainous central coast, triggering landslides, destroying homes and washing out roads. Officials said at least 13 people were killed and thousands of others were forced from their homes.
    (AP, 2/9/05)

2005        Feb 11, Venezuela's vice president said US objections will not prevent Venezuela from going ahead with its plans to purchase 100,000 Kalashnikov assault rifles and dozens of Mi35 helicopters from Russia.
    (AP, 2/11/05)(Econ, 2/26/05, p.35)

2005        Feb 13, Floods and landslides in Colombia and Venezuela over the past few days cut a trail of destruction through small Andean towns and killed at least 64 people.
    (AP, 2/13/05)(WSJ, 2/14/05, p.A1)

2005        Feb 14, Brazil and Venezuela signed 25 accords dealing with energy and economic cooperation, including the joint development of the Mariscal Sucre offshore natural gas project.
    (WSJ, 2/15/05, p.A16)

2005        Mar 2, It was reported that the bodies of at least 34 men found in Venezuela's central Guarico state in the past three years had burns, bruises and cuts suggesting they were tortured before being executed.
    (AP, 3/2/05)

2005        Mar 4, President Hugo Chavez said Venezuela wants to supply crude oil to India, Asia's third-biggest consumer, under a long-term agreement.
    (AP, 3/4/05)

2005        Mar 5, India clinched a deal to operate a Venezuelan oilfield and import the output as Asia's third largest consumer and the world's No.5 oil exporter vowed to strengthen ties.
    (AP, 3/5/05)

2005        Mar 10, Iran’s Pres. Khatami began a 3-day visit to Venezuela and planned to strengthen political and economic ties with Pres. Chavez.
    (WSJ, 3/10/05, p.A15)

2005        Mar 13, Venezuela announced that it would seize parts of 4 large estates, some 270,000 acres of farmland, after finding irregularities in their ownership status.
    (WSJ, 3/15/05, p.A18)

2005        Mar 29, In Venezuela a crowded bus overturned on a highway and plunged 50 feet down a hill, killing 25 people.
    (AP, 3/29/05)

2005        Apr 22, The US Embassy in Caracas announced that President Hugo Chavez's government has unexpectedly ended a military exchange program with US.
    (AP, 4/22/05)

2005        Apr 23, President Hugo Chavez says "Don Quixote" is a must-read for Venezuelans — and his government has printed 1 million free copies to mark the 400th anniversary of the classic tale of the knight who dared to dream.
    (AP, 4/23/05)

2005        May 4, It was reported that Cuba and Venezuela agreed to start a joint shipyard in Venezuela, the latest sign of strengthening economic ties between the Latin nations.
    (AP, 5/4/05)

2005        May 17, Russia and Venezuela signed a contract for 100,000 Russian assault rifles to be provided to the Latin American nation.
    (AP, 5/18/05)

2005        May 21, In eastern Venezuela armed gunmen stole a 2nd government-owned helicopter before dawn after taking 3 security guards hostage at an airport in Ciudad Bolivar.
    (AP, 5/21/05)

2005        May 29, In Venezuela tens of thousands of marched in Caracas demanding the US extradite a Cuban militant wanted for his alleged role in the 1976 bombing of a Cuban airliner.
    (AP, 5/29/05)

2005        May, Energy ministers from Argentina, Brazil and Venezuela agreed to develop a field in Venezuela’s heavy-oil belt in the Orinoco, a refinery in Brazil’s north-east and an oil and gas venture in Argentina under the name Petrosur.
    (Econ, 7/30/05, p.33)

2005        Jun 11, Jose Maria Corredor, a Colombian drug smuggler wanted by the US, bribed his way out of Venezuela's secret police headquarters with help from federal agents.
    (AP, 6/14/05)

2005        Jun 18, Venezuela said another land holding of Britain’s Vestey Group Ltd. has been found to be idle and rightfully belongs to the state. The 67,000-acre ranch, owned by Vestey subsidiary Agroflora, was reported to be underutilized.
    (WSJ, 6/21/05, p.A14)

2005        Jun 28, Cuban leader Fidel Castro made a surprise visit to Venezuela for what he described on arrival as an ''historic encounter'' with his top ally, Pres. Hugo Chavez, and a 2-day summit with Caribbean leaders. This was his 4th trip to Venezuela since 1999 and his first outside of Cuba since late 2003.

2005        Jun, Venezuela set up Petrocaribe under which it offered 12 Caribbean countries cheap credit for oil imports.
    (Econ, 7/30/05, p.33)

2005        Jul 21, Venezuelan leaders condemned a U.S. decision to transmit broadcasts to this South American country to ensure its citizens receive "accurate news."
    (AP, 7/21/05)

2005        Jul 22, At a meeting of Andean presidents Pres. Chavez proposed Petroandina, under which oil-producing countries would cooperate on pipelines and refining.
    (Econ, 7/30/05, p.33)
2005        Jul 22, Seniat, Venezuela’s tax authority, presented Harvest Natural Resources with an $85 million retroactive income tax bill. Royal Dutch Shell received a bill a week earlier and was seeking talks on its bill.
    (WSJ, 7/25/05, p.A13)

2005        Jul 24, Telesur, a new TV station backed by Venezuela's government, began transmitting in various countries across Latin America. The station, funded by Venezuela and also backed by Argentina, Uruguay and Cuba, has drawn concern in the US Congress, where House members last week approved a measure to transmit radio and television broadcasts to Venezuela to ensure citizens receive "accurate news."
    (AP, 7/24/05)(Econ, 7/30/05, p.33)

2005        Jul 28, In Panama a 2-day summit started for 25 members of the Association of Caribbean States (ACS). Venezuela said it will continue offering crude on favorable terms, and even in barter trades, to countries in the region. Thirteen of the 15 members of the narrower Caribbean Community group, or Caricom, mainly island nations, have already signed onto Venezuela's oil initiative.
    (AP, 7/29/05)

2005        Aug 7, Voters across Venezuela cast ballots to select thousands of local officials in elections that could predict how well President Hugo Chavez's political allies will fare in key congressional elections in December.
    (AP, 8/7/05)

2005        Aug 9, Six of Venezuela's indigenous communities received title to their ancestral lands in a ceremony that Venezuela's president said reversed centuries of injustice. An estimated 300,000 Venezuelans belong to 28 indigenous groups, many living in the country's sparsely populated southeast.
    (AP, 8/9/05)

2005        Aug 10, In Venezuela lawmakers approved a transfer of $14 million (30.6 billion bolivars) as seed money for a new Treasury Bank to handle government banking needs.
    (WSJ, 8/11/05, p.A11)

2005        Aug 11, Venezuela's major newspapers calculated that pro-Chavez candidates won some 47 percent of city council posts across the country, while opposition candidates won 17 percent and other independent parties had 18 percent of posts in the Aug 7 elections.
    (AP, 8/11/05)
2005        Aug 11, Argentina and Venezuela signed an accord to set up a joint trust fund aimed at providing export financing to small businesses. Presidents Kirchner and Chavez signed a series of accords during the Chavez visit that included an expansion of Venezuelan fuel oil imports. Kirchner thanked Chavez for the purchase of $500 million of Argentine government bonds over the last few months.
    (WSJ, 8/12/05, p.A7)

2005        Aug 12, Venezuela’s Vice President Jose Vicente Rangel said American citizens could be denied visas to visit Venezuela in response to a US decision to revoke the visas of three Venezuelan military officers.
    (AP, 8/12/05)

2005        Aug 16, A chartered jet filled with tourists returning home from Panama to the French Caribbean island of Martinique crashed in western Venezuela, killing all 160 people on board. The pilot had been attempting an emergency landing after both engines failed.
    (AP, 8/16/05)(WSJ, 8/17/05, p.A1)

2005        Aug 22, Religious broadcaster Pat Robertson suggested that American agents assassinate Venezuelan President Hugo Chavez to stop his country from becoming "a launching pad for communist infiltration and Muslim extremism." Robertson later apologized, saying he had spoken out of frustration.
    (AP, 8/23/06)

2005        Aug 24, Venezuela condemned American religious broadcaster Pat Robertson for suggesting President Hugo Chavez should be killed, saying he committed a crime that is punishable in the United States.
    (AP, 8/24/05)
2005        Aug 24, Government officials from Ecuador and Venezuela singed a preliminary agreement by which Venezuela would lend Ecuador a million barrels of crude oil between September and October. A loan of naphtha and diesel was also part of the deal.
    (WSJ, 8/25/05, p.A7)

2005        Aug 29, The Rev. Jesse Jackson met with President Hugo Chavez in hopes of reducing tensions between the US and Venezuela after religious broadcaster Pat Robertson called for the assassination of Chavez.
    (AP, 8/30/05)

2005        Aug, In Caracas, Venezuela, 3 male students were shot to death while dropping off a friend at her home in a dangerous slum. In 2006 a court sentenced 19 soldiers and five police to prison terms of 10 to 30 years in the shooting deaths of the 3 students.
    (AP, 8/31/06)

2005        Sep 1, Venezuelan leader Hugo Chavez offering planeloads of soldiers and aid workers to help American victims of Hurricane Katrina, while at the same time taking aim at the US government for its handling of the crisis. He called Bush "the king of vacations" and noted he had been at his Texas ranch and when the storm hit and didn't provide leadership.
    (AP, 9/1/05)

2005        Sep 3, It was reported that Venezuela’s worker co-operatives under Pres. Chavez had increased from less than 1000 in 1998 to an estimated 67,000.
    (Econ, 9/3/05, p.34)

2005        Sep 5, A Venezuela official said a state governor allied to leftist Pres. Hugo Chavez has ordered troops to seize an abandoned tomato-processing plant owned by the H.J. Heinz Co.
    (AP, 9/5/05)

2005        Sep 6, Nine countries: Antigua, Belize, Grenada, Guyana, Dominica, Suriname, St. Kitts, St. Vincent and the Dominican Republic, signed oil deals with Venezuela in Jamaica. Cuba and Jamaica had previously signed. Chavez urged Caribbean governments to consider Cuba-style socialism as an alternative to capitalism.
    (AP, 9/11/05)

2005        Sep 13, Venezuelan President Hugo Chavez extended a preferential oil trade deal to 13 Caribbean countries in what he says is part of a plan to challenge U.S. economic domination of the region. The plan includes a $50 million fund to pay for social programs across the Caribbean, similar to those Chavez has started at home with rising oil profits.
    (AP, 9/14/05)

2005        Sep 15, Venezuelan Pres. Hugo Chavez took Pres. Bush to task in front of a global summit for waging war in Iraq without UN consent and won rousing applause for his critique.
    (AP, 9/16/05)

2005        Sep 16, Venezuelan President Hugo Chavez said he has documentary evidence that the United States plans to invade his country. Chavez, interviewed on ABC's "Nightline," said the plan is called "Balboa" and involves aircraft carriers and planes.
    (AP, 9/17/05)

2005        Sep 21, In Venezuela Pres. Chavez said his government would cancel existing mining concessions and not award new ones.
    (WSJ, 9/23/05, p.A15)

2005        Sep 23, Colombia's 2nd-largest rebel group, the ELN, accepted an offer from Venezuela to host peace talks between the guerrillas and the Colombian government.
    (AP, 9/24/05)

2005        Sep 26, Hugo de los Reyes Chavez, father of Venezuelan Pres. Hugo Chavez and governor of Barinas state, ordered the seizure of a plant owned by the country's largest food company, the latest move in the federal government's land reform program.
    (AP, 9/26/05)
2005        Sep 26, A judge in El Paso, Texas, cited conventions against sending a person to a country where he could face torture. Luis Posada Carriles, a Cuban militant, was wanted in Venezuela for a 1976 airliner bombing. President Hugo Chavez said the decision by a US immigration judge in the case of Posada protects a terrorist and shows the "cynicism of the empire," a term he uses for President Bush's government.
    (AP, 9/28/05)

2005        Sep 30, South American presidents committed themselves to establishing a continental free trade zone. The South American summit was attended by the presidents of Chile, Bolivia, Peru, Paraguay, Ecuador, Venezuela, Brazil and Argentina.
    (AP, 10/1/05)

2005        Sep, Some National Guard generals in Venezuela, suspected of easing drug movement through the country, were quietly removed from their posts.
    (Econ, 9/24/05, p.48)

2005        Oct 4, Venezuela said it has reduced its holdings of US Treasury securities and moved some foreign exchange reserves into European investments.
    (SFC, 10/5/05, p.A18)

2005        Oct 8, Thousands of poor farmers marched through Venezuela's capital demanding that the government expand its initiative to expropriate what they called "idle" land, a program that has raised the ire of cattle ranchers across the country.
    (AP, 10/9/05)

2005        Oct 12, Venezuelan President Hugo Chavez ordered a U.S.-based Christian missionary group working with indigenous tribes to leave the country, accusing the organization of "imperialist infiltration" and links to the CIA. Chavez said missionaries of the New Tribes Mission, based in Sanford, Fla., were no longer welcome during a ceremony in a remote Indian village where he presented property titles to several indigenous groups.
    (AP, 10/12/05)

2005        Oct 13, Spanish authorities said police have seized 3.5 tons of cocaine in a fishing boat bound for Spain from Venezuela after tip-offs from U.S. authorities.
    (AP, 10/13/05)

2005        Oct 15, Members of a Venezuelan indigenous tribe criticized President Hugo Chavez's order to expel a U.S. missionary group he accused of links to the CIA, saying the decision goes against the interests of their impoverished communities.
    (AP, 10/16/05)

2005        Oct 25, A Venezuela military court sentenced 3 former Venezuelan military officers and 27 Colombians to prison terms ranging from two to nine years for an alleged plot in May 2004 to kill President Hugo Chavez.
    (AP, 10/26/05)

2005        Oct 26, The Mormon Church, citing difficulties with the government of President Hugo Chavez in renewing visas or obtaining new ones, said it is pulling its foreign missionaries out of Venezuela and reassigning them to other countries.
    (AP, 10/26/05)

2005        Oct 31, Live news broadcasts began on a new Latin American TV station backed by Venezuelan President Hugo Chavez as an alternative to large corporate media outlets.
    (AP, 10/31/05)

2005        Nov 14, Mexico said it will sever diplomatic ties with Venezuela if Pres. Chavez doesn't apologize for warning Mexican leader Vicente Fox: "Don't mess with me." Mexico and Venezuela called their ambassadors home in a sharp dispute between presidents Hugo Chavez and Vicente Fox over the latter's relations with Washington.
    (AP, 11/14/05)(AP, 11/15/05)

2005        Nov 17, In Venezuela officials said the government will expand a land reform program next year to take control of some 3.7 million acres of "idle" farm land and turn it over to cooperatives of poor farmers.
    (AP, 11/17/05)

2005        Nov 21, In Venezuela Pres. Chavez pledged to help build a natural gas pipeline stretching from Venezuela to Argentina during talks with Argentine leader Nestor Kirchner.
    (AP, 11/21/05)

2005        Nov 22, Massachusetts signed an agreement with Venezuela to obtain discounted home heating oil. Democrat Rep. William Delahunt helped broker the deal.
    (WSJ, 11/23/05, p.A14)

2005        Nov 24, Colombian President Alvaro Uribe met with Venezuela's Hugo Chavez to try to help bridge differences in Latin America.
    (AP, 11/24/05)

2005        Nov 28, Spain agreed to sell 12 military planes and eight patrol boats to Venezuela in a $2 billion deal that the United States has threatened to block.
    (AP, 11/29/05)

2005        Dec 3, A rupture in an oil pipeline caused a fire in western Venezuela, but firefighters quickly brought the blaze under control. Evidence of sabotage was soon found. [see Dec 5]
    (AP, 12/04/05)(AP, 12/05/05)

2005        Dec 5, In Venezuela President Hugo Chavez's governing party won full control of the 167-National Assembly, claiming a sweeping victory in congressional elections boycotted by major opposition parties.
    (AP, 12/05/05)
2005        Dec 5, In Venezuela a Dec 3 explosion that damaged an oil pipeline supplying the country's largest refinery was reported to have been caused by government foes attempting to disrupt congressional elections. Interior Minister Jesse Chacon said investigators found remnants of C-4 explosives at three spots on the pipeline.
    (AP, 12/05/05)

2005        Dec 26, In southeastern Venezuela an accidental fireworks explosion touched off a blaze that raced through a busy strip mall, killing at least 12 people and injuring five others.
    (AP, 12/27/05)

2005        Venezuela’s government in 2005 approved plans for 20 co-management operations. Some 200 small companies had voluntarily applied for co-management status in exchange for government funds. Pres. Chavez vowed to continue taking over companies and converting them to co-managed entities.
    (WSJ, 12/27/05, p.A12)
2005        Venezuela’s government gave Cuba a contract to modernize its identity card system.
    (Econ, 2/13/10, p.40)
2005        Venezuela’s Ministry of Justice reported 9,402 homicides nationwide for 2005. Deaths by gunfire per capita was the highest in the world at 34.3 per 100,000.
    (SFC, 10/6/06, p.A14)
2005        Transparency Int’l. placed Venezuela 130th out of 159 countries in its annual survey of perceptions of corruption.
    (Econ, 4/1/06, p.31)

2006        Jan 1, In Venezuela 32 privately operated oil fields returned to state control. A 2001 hydrocarbons law had required oil production to be carried out by companies majority-owned by the government.
    (WSJ, 1/3/06, p.A14)

2006        Jan 3, Venezuela President Hugo Chavez offered Bolivia's president-elect Evo Morales diesel fuel, trade benefits and help in financing his social reforms as the two leftists cemented ties, reasserting their opposition to US policy in Latin America.
    (AP, 1/3/06)

2006        Jan 5, In Venezuela a viaduct, carrying the motorway that crosses the mountains between Caracas and the int’l. airport, was closed due to geologic and structural problems. Travel time one way rose up to 5 hours.
    (Econ, 1/14/06, p.44)

2006        Jan 6, Venezuela said it will expand a program to provide discounted home heating oil to low-income Americans, bringing savings to some Indian tribes in Maine.
    (AP, 1/6/06)

2006        Jan 7, American singer Harry Belafonte led a delegation of Americans including the actor Danny Glover and the Princeton University scholar Cornel West in a meeting with Venezuela’s president Hugo Chavez.
    (AP, 1/8/06)

2006        Jan 8, In Venezuela American singer and activist Harry Belafonte called President Bush "the greatest terrorist in the world" and said millions of Americans support the socialist revolution of Venezuelan leader Hugo Chavez.
    (AP, 1/8/06)

2006        Jan 13, Venezuela’s President Hugo Chavez on blasted an attempt by the US to block Spain from selling Venezuela 12 military planes with American parts.
    (AP, 1/13/06)

2006        Jan 19, Venezuelan officials said that they have approved a new anti-drug agreement with the US, months after suspended cooperation amid allegations of US spying.
    (AP, 1/19/06)

2006        Jan 24, In Venezuela activists gathering for the six-day World Social Forum in Caracas. 2 other gatherings were set in Mali and Pakistan. The World Social Forum was first held in Brazil in 2001 and coincides each year with the market-friendly World Economic Forum of political and business leaders in Davos, Switzerland.
    (AP, 1/24/06)(SFC, 1/24/06, p.A2)

2006        Jan 25, Venezuela’s VP Jose Vicente Rangel said that some Venezuelan military officers have been detained after they allegedly passed information to US officials.
    (AP, 1/26/06)
2006        Jan 25, In Venezuela thousands of activists marched through Caracas demanding an end to the war in Iraq and shouting slogans against U.S. imperialism at the opening of the World Social Forum backed by President Hugo Chavez.
    (AP, 1/25/06)

2006        Jan, The presidents of Venezuela, Argentina and Brazil met in Brazil and promised to come up with the first set of preliminary studies in March for a $20 billion, 5,000-mile gas pipeline, stretching from Venezuela to Argentina.
    (AP, 1/26/06)

2006        Feb 2, President Hugo Chavez said that Venezuela is expelling a US Navy officer for allegedly passing secret information from the Venezuelan military to the Pentagon and warned he will throw out all US military attaches if further espionage occurs.
    (AP, 2/2/06)

2006        Feb 3, Responding to Venezuela's expulsion of a US naval officer from Caracas, the State Department declared a senior Venezuelan diplomat persona non grata and gave her 72 hours to leave the United States.
    (AP, 2/3/06)
2006        Feb 3, Some 200,000 Cubans crowded Revolution Plaza for a ceremony granting Hugo Chavez UNESCO's 2005 Jose Marti International Prize. President Castro himself handed over the framed certificate to Venezuela’s Pres. Chavez. UNESCO introduced the Marti prize in 1994 to recognize an individual or institution contributing to the unity and integration of countries of Latin America and the Caribbean.
    (AP, 2/3/06)

2006        Feb 9, Venezuelan President Hugo Chavez unleashed more criticism toward President Bush and accused the US and Britain of planning to invade Iran.
    (AP, 2/9/06)

2006        Feb 23, Venezuela said it will prohibit Continental and Delta Airlines from flying into this South American nation. Initially effective March 1, the ban was soon delayed to Mar 30. The ban was in response to a 1996 FAA ban on commercial jets registered in Venezuela, because Venezuela allegedly didn't meet international safety standards. Venezuelan officials say they have improved safety standards since then.
    (AP, 2/24/06)(WSJ, 2/27/06, p.A6)

2006        Feb, In Venezuela parliamentary hearings exposed some $1.5 million in bribes, kickbacks and commissions involving the opening of the new Ezequiel Zamora Agroindustrial Sugar Complex in Sabaneta, Barinas state, where the father of Hugo Chavez is governor.
    (Econ, 4/1/06, p.31)

2006        Mar 2, Venezuela's VP Jose Vicente Rangel said that the US was the world's biggest consumer of illegal drugs and had no "moral authority" to criticize Venezuela for failing to control narcotics.
    (AP, 3/2/06)

2006        Mar 7, Venezuela's solidly pro-Chavez National Assembly gave final approval to changes in the flag proposed by the socialist president: an eighth star and a turnabout of the horse that until now has galloped to the right.
    (AP, 3/8/06)

2006        Mar 20, Venezuela agreed to sell fuel under preferential terms to an El Salvador association created by a group of leftist mayors.
    (AP, 3/20/06)

2006        Mar 21, An international audit concluded there are tens of thousands of dead voters listed on Venezuela's voter rolls, but the country's top electoral official said that those errors are being fixed and do not amount to significant flaws.
    (AP, 3/21/06)

2006        Mar 23, The US ambassador said that the US and Venezuela had reached a temporary agreement that will avoid a proposed ban on flights by most US airlines to Venezuela.
    (AP, 3/23/06)

2006        Mar 29, In Venezuela the body of Filippo Sindoni (74), a prominent businessman who owned a TV station, newspaper and pasta company, was found a day after he was abducted by men wearing police uniforms.
    (AP, 3/30/06)

2006        Apr 3, Venezuela seized control of oil fields from France's Total SA and Italy's Eni SPA in a show of force against those resisting President Hugo Chavez's efforts to pry more profits from the industry at a time of high oil prices.
    (AP, 4/4/06)

2006        Apr 4, Venezuelan authorities found the bullet-ridden bodies of three Canadian boys who had been kidnapped more than a month ago. John Faddoul (17), along with his brothers Kevin (13) and Jason (12) were abducted Feb. 23 when unidentified men dressed as police stopped their car at a checkpoint in Caracas as the boys were on their way to school.
    (AP, 4/5/06)

2006        Apr 5, In Venezuela Jorge Aguirre, a photographer for the Caracas daily El Mundo, was shot and killed on the way to an anti-crime protest. He managed to take a picture of his assailant fleeing on a motorcycle. Homicide charges were filed on April 15 against Boris Lenis Blanco (33), a police officer, who was arrested April 13.
    (AP, 4/16/06)

2006        Apr 7, Venezuela Attorney General Isaias Rodriguez said that five suspects were being charged with willful homicide in the slayings of the 3 Faddoul brothers, whose bodies were found April 4. Supporters of President Hugo Chavez pelted the car of the US ambassador with eggs and tomatoes, then chased after his convoy on motorcycles.
    (AP, 4/7/06)(AP, 4/8/06)

2006        Apr 10, Cuba and Venezuela signed agreements for a joint venture to revamp an unfinished Soviet-era refinery in Cuba and supply it with oil from Venezuela.
    (WSJ, 4/12/06, p.A7)
2006        Apr 10, Mexican soldiers seized 128 suitcases packed with 5.6 metric tons of cocaine worth more than $100 million from a commercial plane arriving from Venezuela. Smugglers had purchased the DC-9 plane with laundered funds transferred through US banks Wachovia Corp. and Bank of America. In 2010 court papers said a gang under Walid Makled operated the DC-9 and flew the cocaine from Simon Bolivar International to Campeche, Mexico. Makled was arrested Aug 19, 2010 in Colombia in the border city of Cucuta. In Nov 2010 Colombia denied an extradition request for Makled by the US, saying that the suspect will be sent back to face charges in his home country.
    (AP, 4/12/06)(SFC, 6/30/10, p.D1)(AP, 11/17/10)

2006        Apr 19, In Venezuela a riot erupted at a western prison, leaving 10 inmates dead and one wounded. A day earlier authorities had seized weapons and illegal drugs from gang members in the jail.
    (AP, 4/19/06)

2006        Apr 21, US aviation authorities upgraded Venezuela's safety ranking, averting a ban that would have blocked most US airlines from flying to the country.
    (AP, 4/22/06)

2006        Apr 22, Thousands of Venezuelans lay in the outlines of bodies chalked on a main avenue to protest against President Hugo Chavez's handling of violent crime, while supporters held a separate demonstration backing his social policies.
    (AP, 4/22/06)

2006        Apr 29, Bolivia's new left-leaning president, Evo Morales, signed a pact with Cuba and Venezuela on rejecting US-backed free trade and promising a socialist version of regional commerce and cooperation. Bolivia became the 3rd member of the Bolivarian Alternative for the Americas (ALBA).
    (AP, 4/29/06)(Econ, 5/6/06, p.38)
2006        Apr 29, Peru recalled its ambassador from Venezuela over what it called President Hugo Chavez's "persistent and flagrant interference" in its upcoming presidential elections.
    (AP, 4/29/06)

2006        May 4, Venezuelan President Hugo Chavez said he was withdrawing his ambassador from Peru as a matter of principle after Peru called home its ambassador.
    (AP, 5/4/06)
2006        May 4, Brazil’s President Luiz Inacio Lula da Silva met with Argentina’s Pres. Nestor Kirchner, Venezuela’s Pres. Chavez and Bolivia’s Pres. Morales in response to Bolivia’s decision to nationalize its oil and gas industry. Morales offered to refrain from cutting off supplies and to negotiate prices.
    (Econ, 5/13/06, p.43)
2006        May 4, Nicaraguan Foreign Minister Norman Caldera asked Venezuelan President Hugo Chavez to butt out of his country's political affairs after Chavez signed a favorable oil pact with dozens of leftist Nicaraguan mayors.
    (AP, 5/5/06)

2006        May 15, Washington banned all US arms sales to Venezuela, punishing President Hugo Chavez for his ties with Cuba and Iran and for what it believes is his inaction against guerrillas from neighboring Colombia.
    (Reuters, 5/15/06)

2006        May 17, In Libya Venezuela's anti-American president was given a warm welcome in Tripoli by Col. Moammar Gadhafi. Chavez and Gadhafi planned to discuss "social programs based on oil revenues."
    (AP, 5/17/06)

2006        May 24, President Hugo Chavez said that Venezuela will buy Russian jets because of a dispute over parts for US-made aircraft, launching yet another verbal assault on Pres. Bush.
    (AP, 5/24/06)

2006        May 26, Venezuelan President Hugo Chavez moved to expand his oil-rich country's influence in Bolivia with a set of accords to secure Venezuela's role in the impoverished Andean nation's recently nationalized energy industry.
    (AP, 5/26/06)

2006        Jun 3, President Hugo Chavez inaugurated a Venezuelan film studio to counter what he called Hollywood's cultural "dictatorship." Venezuela received 30,000 Russian-made assault rifles, the first shipment in a deal for 100,000 rifles.
    (AP, 6/3/06)

2006        Jun 14, Pres. Hugo Chavez said Venezuela will buy 24 Russian-made Sukhoi fighter jets this year, and his government will build a factory to produce Kalashnikov assault rifles.
    (AP, 6/15/06)

2006        Jun 26, In central Venezuela a riot by inmates fighting for control of cell blocks within a prison left seven prisoners dead and 11 wounded.
    (AP, 6/27/06)

2006        Jul 4, President Hugo Chavez marked Venezuela's entry into the South American trade bloc Mercosur with a six-nation summit, an alliance that he says should be a common front against US free trade deals.
    (AP, 7/4/06)

2006        Jul 5, Venezuela marked its Independence Day showcasing recent arms deals that have alarmed Washington. Pres. Chavez proposed that Mercosur members: Brazil, Argentina, Venezuela, Uruguay and Paraguay, should one day join their militaries to guarantee the region's security.
    (AP, 7/5/06)

2006        Jul 17, In western Venezuela a fire broke out at the Amuay oil refinery. Officials said it was soon extinguished without reported injuries or loss of deliveries.
    (AP, 7/17/06)

2006        Jul 20, Luis Jefferson Lira Rodriguez (20), a Venezuelan soldier, massacred 8 people at Ranch Adi, but said he acted on orders from at least one other lieutenant who claimed there was a Colombian rebel camp nearby. Officials later said rape was the motive and that the soldier acted alone.
    (AP, 8/17/06)

2006        Jul 21, Venezuela formally entered Mercosur, increasing the South American trade bloc's economic might and vowing to transform the policy organization into a force for profound social change. Cuba’s Fidel Castro signed a modest trade at the 2-day Mercosur meeting in Cordoba, Argentina.
    (AP, 7/21/06)(Econ, 7/29/06, p.36)

2006        Jul 24, In Belarus leftist Venezuelan President Hugo Chavez exchanged declarations of solidarity with the authoritarian leader of isolated Belarus, who shares his anti-US views. During the talks with Lukashenko, the two sides signed seven agreements on military-technical cooperation, economic and other ties as well as a declaration pledging a strategic partnership. Bilateral trade was just under $16 million in 2005.
    (AP, 7/24/06)

2006        Jul 27, The head of Russia's state arms-trading agency said that Russia has signed contracts with Venezuela for 24 military planes and 53 helicopters.
    (AP, 7/27/06)

2006        Jul 29, In Tehran the presidents of Iran and Venezuela pledged to support one another in disputes with Washington, with the Iranian calling Hugo Chavez "a brother and trench mate."
    (AP, 7/29/06)

2006        Jul 31, Venezuelan President Hugo Chavez praised Vietnam for its battle against "imperialism" and pledged to help the communist country develop its nascent oil and gas industry during a two-day state visit.
    (AP, 8/1/06)

2006        Aug 7, Venezuelan authorities captured Elias Verde, the alleged head of an international drug trafficking group that was involved in a major cocaine smuggling operation earlier this year in France.
    (AP, 8/8/06)

2006        Aug 9, In Venezuela 8 candidates opposing Pres. Chavez called off a primary and agreed to support front runner Gov. Manuel Rosales in the Dec 3 presidential balloting.
    (SFC, 8/10/06, p.A8)

2006        Aug 13, In Venezuela prison officials discovered that Carlos Ortega, an anti-Chavez union leader, had slipped out of the Ramo Verde prison west of Caracas, where he was serving a 16-year sentence for civil rebellion. Three convicted military officers also escaped.
    (AP, 8/14/06)

2006        Aug 22, In China visiting Venezuelan President Hugo Chavez said China will expand its cooperation in oil exploration and help his country build a fiber-optic communications network under agreements to be signed in Beijing this week.
    (AP, 8/22/06)

2006        Aug 30, Venezuelan President Hugo Chavez said in Damascus that he and Syrian President Bashar Assad shared a "decisive and firm" stance against American "imperialism" and "domination."
    (AP, 8/30/06)

2006        Sep 7, American officials said the US government has ordered Venezuela to close its military purchasing office in Miami after suspending arms sales to the South American country.
    (AP, 9/7/06)

2006        Sep 17, Iran's president made his first visit to Venezuela, seeking to strengthen ties with a government that also opposes the US.
    (AP, 9/17/06)

2006        Sep 20, Venezuelan President Hugo Chavez took his verbal battle with the US to the floor of the UN General Assembly, calling President Bush "the devil." "The devil came here yesterday," Chavez said. "He came here talking as if he were the owner of the world."
    (AP, 9/20/06)

2006        Sep 21, In NYC Venezuela’s Pres. Chavez visited the Mount Olive Baptist Church in Harlem and promised to double the amount of discounted heating oil his country is shipping to needy Americans. His offer included 100 gallons of heating oil for each of 12,000 households in rural Alaska.
    (SFC, 9/22/06, p.A3)(SSFC, 10/8/06, p.A27)

2006        Sep 27, In Venezuela’s Los Roques islands Elena Vecoli (34), a newly married Italian woman, was murdered and her husband, Riccardo Prescendi (46) beaten inside an inn popular with foreign tourists. Police identified 3 suspects the next day.
    (AP, 9/29/06)

2006        Sep, In Venezuela soldiers killed 6 miners from La Paragua in the Caroni basin, where mining was banned. 14 officers and men later arrested in the case. Another 4 men drowned while allegedly fleeing an army operation on the upper Carua River. 18 soldiers were later accused of abuse of authority.
    (Econ, 10/28/06, p.44)

2006        Oct 3, In Venezuela 2 boys, Renzo Festa (9) and Domenico Festa (12), were abducted along with their mother, Nathaly Gotera de Festa, as she drove them to school. Gotera (35) was married to Italian-Venezuelan businessman Domenico Festa and was in the process of obtaining her Italian citizenship.
    (AP, 10/7/06)

2006        Oct 7, In Caracas, Venezuela, thousands marched in the biggest show of public support yet for Manuel Rosales, the main opposition presidential candidate, who pledged to undo what he called the ills of President Hugo Chavez's government.
    (AP, 10/8/06)

2006        Oct 9, In Venezuela spending exceeded gains from oil sales and the government expected to see a deficit for the year of 4.3% of GDP.
    (WSJ, 10/10/06, p.A6)

2006        Oct 16, Guatemala topped Venezuela in the first round of voting for a UN Security Council seat, but it failed to get the necessary two-thirds majority to win a two-year term on the decision-making body. The 192-nation General Assembly elected South Africa, Indonesia, Italy and Belgium for the four other open seats in a secret ballot. 10 rounds of voting failed to anoint a winner to fill the spot reserved for Latin America.
    (AP, 10/16/06)(AP, 10/17/06)

2006        Nov 1, Venezuela’s President Hugo Chavez handed public workers $3 billion in Christmas bonuses 1 1/2 months early, angering opposition leaders who called it part of a cynical pattern of public handouts ahead of a December presidential election.
    (AP, 11/2/06)
2006        Nov 1, Venezuela and US-backed Guatemala agreed to withdraw from the race and support Panama, a compromise reached after voting in the UN General Assembly dragged through 47 rounds of balloting.
    (AP, 11/2/06)

2006        Nov, Venezuela inaugurated its Venirauto car factory, a joint venture with Iran. The first 300 units were released on July 9, 2007.
    (Econ, 11/28/09, p.42)(www.venezuelanalysis.com/news/2491)

2006        Dec 3, Venezuelan President Hugo Chavez won re-election, defeating Manuel Rosales, governor of the western state of Zulia. With 78% of voting stations reporting, Chavez had 61% of the vote, to 38% for Rosales.
    (Econ, 11/11/06, p.44)(AP, 12/3/06)(AP, 12/3/07)

2006        Dec 18, Venezuela's ruling party took the first step toward creating a single pro-government party, a move opponents criticized as a push to consolidate more power in the hands of President Hugo Chavez after his landslide re-election. Chavez met with Malaysia's PM Abdullah Ahmad Badawi to discuss expanding trade and deepening ties.
    (AP, 12/18/06)

2006        In Caracas, Venezuela, the annual murder rate was 107 per 100,000.
    (SSFC, 11/16/08, p.A16)

2007        Jan 2, Rival gangs battled for control of Uribana Prison in eastern Venezuela, killing 16 inmates and injuring 13. National Guard troops restored order after the riot broke out overnight. The death toll in riots this week rose to 22.
    (AP, 1/2/07)(AP, 1/3/07)

2007        Jan 8, Venezuela’s Pres. Hugo Chavez announced plans to nationalize power and telecommunications companies and make other bold changes to increase state control as he promised a more radical push toward socialism. Chavez stated that he had been a “communist" since at least 2002.
    (AP, 1/9/07)(Econ, 1/13/07, p.34)

2007        Jan 18, Venezuelan lawmakers gave initial approval to a bill granting President Hugo Chavez the power to rule by decree for 18 months so that he can impose sweeping economic, social and political change.
    (AP, 1/19/07)

2007        Jan 21, Venezuelan President Hugo Chavez told US officials to "Go to hell, gringos!" and called Secretary of State Condoleezza Rice "missy" on his weekly radio and TV show, lashing out at Washington for what he called unacceptable meddling in his country's affairs.
    (AP, 1/21/08)

2007        Jan 23, Hundreds of Venezuelans protested against a congressional measure that would grant President Hugo Chavez the power to pass laws by decree in areas from the economy to defense.
    (AP, 1/23/07)

2007        Jan 30, Venezuela said it plans to obtain air defense missiles to guard strategic sites such as oil refineries and major bridges against any air strike.
    (AP, 1/30/07)

2007        Jan 31, A Congress wholly loyal to President Hugo Chavez met at a downtown plaza to give the Venezuelan leader authority to enact sweeping measures by presidential decree.
    (AP, 1/31/07)

2007        Feb 7, Officials in Venezuela confirmed that Venezuela will buy whatever legal products Bolivia can make from coca leaf as part of an effort to wean farmers from the cocaine industry.
    (SFC, 2/8/07, p.A2)

2007        Feb 8, President Hugo Chavez's government moved to nationalize Venezuela's largest private electric company, signing an agreement to buy a controlling stake in Electricidad de Caracas from its US-based owner, AES Corp.
    (AP, 2/8/07)

2007        Feb 11, In Venezuela officials said President Hugo Chavez's government has drafted a decree allowing officials to take control of food distribution chains, including supermarkets and storage depots, if services are interrupted.
    (AP, 2/11/07)

2007        Feb 12, Venezuela signed a preliminary agreement to purchase Verizon Communications Inc.'s stake in the country's largest telecommunications company, the latest move by President Hugo Chavez toward nationalizing strategic sectors of the economy.
    (AP, 2/12/07)

2007        Feb 26, President Hugo Chavez ordered by decree the takeover of oil projects run by foreign oil companies in Venezuela's Orinoco River region.
    (AP, 2/26/07)

2007        Mar 2, Venezuela accused US anti-drug agents of collaborating with traffickers and rejected Washington's allegations that rampant corruption has allowed illegal drug smuggling to thrive in the South American country.
    (AP, 3/3/07)

2007        Mar 6, Venezuelan authorities arrested, Gen. Ramon Guillen Davila, a retired National Guard general, on accusations that he plotted to overthrow President Hugo Chavez.
    (AP, 3/7/07)

2007        Mar 9, Nearly 20,000 fans gathered at a stadium in Buenos Aires, not to watch soccer but to hear Hugo Chavez bash George W. Bush.
    (AP, 3/10/07)

2007        Mar 10, Venezuelan President Hugo Chavez visited flood-ravaged Bolivia to show off the fact that his country has pledged 10 times more aid than the Bush administration. But local leaders gave him a cool reception, accusing him of meddling in Bolivian politics.
    (AP, 3/10/07)

2007        Mar 11, In Bolivia Venezuela’s President Hugo Chavez called for a socialist counterattack against the American "empire," taking his campaign to upstage President Bush's Latin American tour to a packed gymnasium in a poor, indigenous Bolivian city.
    (AP, 3/12/07)

2007        Mar 12, Venezuelan President Hugo Chavez shadowed his political foil President Bush on a tour of Western Hemisphere nations, stopping in Haiti after passing through Jamaica to promote aid packages and discuss development projects.
    (AP, 3/12/07)

2007        Mar 25, Venezuela’s President Hugo Chavez said that his administration plans to create "collective property" as part of sweeping reforms toward socialism, and that officials would move to seize control of large ranches and redistribute lands deemed "idle."
    (AP, 3/25/07)

2007        Apr 19, Venezuela launched a Zeppelin to patrol Caracas, seeking to fight crime in one of Latin America's most dangerous cities but also raising fears that President Hugo Chavez could be turning into Big Brother.
    (Reuters, 4/19/07)

2007        Apr 21, Venezuelans marched amid heavy security in the opposition's largest show of support yet for a television station targeted by President Hugo Chavez, whom they accuse of suppressing freedom of speech and democratic rights.
    (AP, 4/21/07)

2007        Apr 24, Yanis Chimaras (51), a Venezuelan soap opera actor, was stabbed to death when he came upon a robbery in a Caracas suburb. The Justice Ministry reported 9,402 homicides nationwide in 2005.
    (AP, 4/26/07)

2007        Apr 25, In Venezuela officials from Chevron, BP PLC, France’s Total SA and Norway’s Statoil ASA signed memorandums of agreement to give state-owned Petroleos de Venezuela SA a majority stake in 3 projects. ConocoPhillips resisted giving up control of 2 projects.
    (SFC, 4/27/07, p.D3)

2007        Apr 28, President Hugo Chavez said that Venezuela is ready to become the sole energy supplier to Cuba, Bolivia, Nicaragua and Haiti, presenting the countries with his most generous offer yet of oil-funded diplomacy in the region.
    (AP, 4/29/07)

2007        Apr 29, President Hugo Chavez said that Venezuela hopes to gradually sell off its refineries in the United States and build a new network of refineries in Latin America, part of a plan to offer his leftist allies in the region a stable oil supply.
    (AP, 4/30/07)

2007        Apr 30, President Hugo Chavez announced he would pull Venezuela out of the World Bank and the International Monetary Fund, a largely symbolic move because the nation has already paid off its debts to the lending institutions.
    (AP, 5/1/07)

2007        May 1, President Hugo Chavez's government took over Venezuela's last privately run oil fields, intensifying a struggle with international firms over the development of the world's largest known petroleum deposit.
    (AP, 5/1/07)

2007        May 3, Venezuelan President Hugo Chavez warned he will nationalize the country's banks and largest steel producer in an apparent bid to strong-arm the businesses to contribute more to local industry.
    (AP, 5/4/07)

2007        May 5, President Hugo Chavez said that Venezuela's largest steel maker, Sidor, will not be allowed to make any more exports until it meets domestic needs, and threatened to expropriate the Argentine-controlled company if it resists.
    (AP, 5/5/07)

2007        May 7, Venezuela said it will not allow US agents to carry out counter-drug operations in the country, accusing the US Drug Enforcement Administration of being a "new cartel" that aids traffickers.
    (AP, 5/7/07)

2007        May 12, A cutter of the Dominican Republic picked up 3 men hauling in bales of cocaine dropped from a plane that had originated in Venezuela. A US plane and British helicopters took part in the seizure of a half-ton of cocaine as Colombian drug traffic via Venezuela escalated.
    (SFC, 7/2/07, p.A17)

2007        May 15, Venezuela’s health minister said Venezuela will impose a limited smoking ban in bars and restaurants but has no plans to halt the production of cigarettes and tobacco.
    (AP, 5/15/07)

2007        May 19, Tens of thousands of Venezuelans marched to support a TV station aligned with opponents of President Hugo Chavez, whose government plans to kick the channel off the air next week by not renewing its license.
    (AP, 5/19/07)

2007        May 26, Tens of thousands of Venezuelans took to the streets chanting "Freedom, Freedom!" to protest President Hugo Chavez's decision not to renew the broadcast license of the country's most-watched TV station, an outlet for the opposition.
    (AP, 5/26/07)

2007        May 28, RCTV, Venezuela's oldest private television station, was pushed off the air as President Hugo Chavez's government replaced the popular opposition-aligned network with a new state-funded channel. Police fired tear gas and plastic bullets into a crowd of thousands protesting the decision by President Hugo Chavez.
    (AP, 5/28/07)(AP, 5/29/07)(Econ, 6/2/07, p.14)

2007        May 30, In Venezuela a top opponent of President Hugo Chavez demanded the release of jailed protesters as university students poured into the streets for a third day to protest the removal of a leading opposition TV station from the air.
    (AP, 5/30/07)

2007        Jun 4, In Venezuela thousands of university students, their hands painted white as a symbol of nonviolence returned to the streets of Caracas, keeping up a week of protests against President Hugo Chavez's decision to force a popular TV station off the air.
    (AP, 6/5/07)

2007        Jun 6, President Hugo Chavez called for the creation of a common defense pact between Venezuela, Cuba, Nicaragua and Bolivia. The leftist Latin American bloc announced the creation of a development bank to finance joint projects.
    (AP, 6/7/07)

2007        Jun 9, Venezuelan authorities seized 2.5 tons of cocaine bound for Africa and arrested nine suspects including four federal police officers and a US citizen.
    (AP, 6/10/07)

2007        Jun 26, It was reported that ConocoPhillips planned to walk away from its Venezuelan investments, rather than agree to a government takeover of assets, and preserve its right to seek international arbitration. Exxon Mobil Corp. and ConocoPhillips refused to sign deals to keep pumping heavy oil under tougher terms in Venezuela's Orinoco River basin, signaling their departure from one of the world's largest oil deposits. 7 of the 11 companies agreed to new terms with Petroleos de Venezuela SA (PdVSA).
    (WSJ, 6/26/07, p.A7)(AP, 6/26/07)(WSJ, 6/27/07, p.A1)(Econ, 6/30/07, p.46)

2007        Jun 28, President Vladimir Putin welcomed Venezuelan leader Hugo Chavez for talks at the Russian presidential retreat outside Moscow, saying economic affairs and military-technical cooperation were on the agenda.
    (AP, 6/29/07)

2007        Jun 29, In Minsk Venezuelan President Hugo Chavez called for a strategic partnership with Belarus, calling his counterpart a "brother-in-arms" and lamenting the pressure he said the US was putting on Minsk and Caracas.
    (AP, 6/29/07)

2007        Jun 30, Venezuela’s Pres. Chavez arrived in Iran for a two-day visit.
    (AP, 7/1/07)

2007        Jul 3, President Hugo Chavez said his government will nationalize Venezuela's privately owned hospitals and clinics if they fail to reduce health care costs.
    (AP, 7/3/07)
2007        Jul 3, Venezuela’s energy minister said in newly published comments that Venezuela has agreed to sell gasoline to Iran.
    (AP, 7/3/07)

2007        Jul 16, In Venezuela RCTV resumed broadcasting on cable and satellite TV channels. The station had been pushed off public access on May 28.
    (Econ, 7/21/07, p.38)(www.rsf.org/article.php3?id_article=22903)

2007        Aug 1, An opposition-aligned television channel (RCTV), already booted from the airwaves, faced a deadline to agree to carry speeches by Venezuelan President Hugo Chavez or be yanked from the cable lineup.
    (AP, 8/1/07)

2007        Aug 3, In Venezuela US actor Sean Penn accompanied Pres. Chavez on a visit to western Venezuela. "I'm also here as a journalist and so I owe it to that medium to wait until I've digested, fact-checked and finished my journey here" before saying more, Penn said. He thanked Chavez for the visit.
    (AP, 8/4/07)

2007        Aug 7, Venezuelan President Hugo Chavez said Venezuela would invest in a regasification plant for liquid natural gas for Argentina, which is weathering an energy crisis. Chavez was in Argentina as part of a regional tour.
    (AP, 8/8/07)

2007        Aug 8, Venezuela's socialist President Hugo Chavez took a campaign of petrodollar diplomacy to Uruguay, seeking stronger political ties while offering energy aid from one of the world's largest oil producers.
    (AP, 8/8/07)
2007        Aug 8, Argentine authorities said they were investigating why Venezuelan businessman Antonini Wilson was carrying $800,000 in undeclared cash aboard an executive jet charted by Argentina's state energy company. In December US prosecutors said that the suitcase full of Venezuelan cash was intended to finance the presidential campaign of Cristina Kirchner.
    (AP, 8/8/07)(AP, 12/13/07)

2007        Aug 9, In Ecuador Venezuelan President Hugo Chavez offered to help Ecuador build a $5 billion oil refinery, as the socialist leader pledged to spread his government's oil wealth to another South American ally.
    (AP, 8/10/07)

2007        Aug 16, Opponents of President Hugo Chavez vowed to block his plans to radically overhaul the constitution, warning the changes would give him unlimited power and cripple democracy in Venezuela.
    (AP, 8/16/07)

2007        Aug 21, Venezuela's National Assembly, dominated by allies of President Hugo Chavez, gave unanimous initial approval to constitutional reforms that would allow him to run for re-election and possibly govern for decades to come.
    (AP, 8/22/07)

2007        Aug 31, Colombia's Alvaro Uribe and Venezuelan President Hugo Chavez agreed to allow a representative of Colombia's largest guerrilla group to travel to Caracas for talks aimed at freeing dozens of rebel-held hostages, including three U.S. defense contractors.
    (AP, 8/31/07)

2007        Sep 1, In Venezuela more than two dozen Colombian prisoners arrested three years ago in an alleged plot against President Hugo Chavez were freed in a goodwill gesture he hopes will help facilitate a prisoner exchange in Colombia.
    (AP, 9/1/07)

2007        Sep 12, Exxon Mobil Corp. said in a filing with the SEC that it had filed a request with the Int’l. Center for Settlement of Investment Disputes for arbitration over compensation from the Venezuelan government for seized oil production assets.
    (WSJ, 9/14/07, p.A9)

2007        Sep 17, President Hugo Chavez threatened to take over any private schools refusing to submit to the oversight of his socialist government, a move some Venezuelans fear will impose leftist ideology in the classroom.
    (AP, 9/17/07)

2007        Sep 27, Iran’s President Mahmoud Ahmadinejad traveled stopped in Bolivia, where he pledged $1 billion in investment. He pledged investment over the next five years to help the poor Andean nation tap its vast natural gas reserves, extract minerals, generate more electricity and fund agricultural and construction projects. He then visited Venezuela to meet President Hugo Chavez. Chavez embraced the Iranian leader, calling him "one of the greatest anti-imperialist fighters" and "one of the great fighters for true peace."
    (AP, 9/28/07)

2007        Oct 3, President Hugo Chavez accused the US of trying to spur a military rebellion, saying the CIA is behind the distribution of leaflets inside army barracks calling for his ouster.
    (AP, 10/3/07)

2007        Oct 19,     Armed with clubs and waving provincial flags, thousands of residents of Bolivia's wealthiest province seized control of Santa Cruz’s Viru Viru airport from troops sent in by President Evo Morales. The previous day Morales had ordered 220 troops to take control of the airport after workers threatened to block flights that did not pay landing fees to local officials rather than the national airport authority. Television footage showed a Venezuelan air force plane and uniformed personnel at the site.
    (AP, 10/19/07)(Econ, 8/1/09, p.32)

2007        Oct 23,     In Venezuela thousands of university students scuffled with police and government supporters during a protest against constitutional reforms that would let President Hugo Chavez run for re-election indefinitely.
    (AP, 10/23/07)

2007        Oct 29,     Patrick Duddy, the new US ambassador to Venezuela met with President Hugo Chavez, calling it a positive start toward improving tense relations.
    (AP, 10/30/07)

2007        Nov 1, Soldiers used tear gas, plastic bullets and water cannons to scatter tens of thousands who massed to protest constitutional reforms that would permit Venezuelan President Hugo Chavez to run for re-election indefinitely.
    (AP, 11/2/07)

2007        Nov 2, Venezuela's pro-government National Assembly overwhelmingly approved constitutional reforms that would greatly expand the power of President Hugo Chavez and permit him to run for re-election indefinitely.
    (AP, 11/2/07)

2007        Nov 7, Masked gunmen opened fire on students returning from a march in which tens of thousands of Venezuelans denounced President Hugo Chavez's attempts to expand his power through constitutional changes. At least eight people were injured.
    (AP, 11/8/07)

2007        Nov 16, Guyana rushed troops and police to its western border a day after Venezuelan soldiers allegedly blew up two Guyanese gold-mining dredges on a river near the frontier.
    (AP, 11/16/07)

2007        Nov 19, Venezuelan President Hugo Chavez made his fourth trip to Iran in two years, as the two countries sought to strengthen ties while their leaders exhort the international community to resist US policies.
    (AP, 11/19/07)

2007        Nov 21, In Venezuela tens of thousands of President Hugo Chavez's supporters filled the streets to back his proposed constitutional changes, while anti-government student leaders announced a bold plan to march on the presidential palace.
    (AP, 11/21/07)
2007        Nov 21, Colombia's government said it was canceling Venezuelan President Hugo Chavez's mediation role with leftist rebels in a possible hostage swap, dealing a blow to efforts to free three kidnapped US contractors and a former presidential candidate.
    (AP, 11/22/07)

2007        Nov 29, in Venezuela more than 100,000 people flooded the streets to protest constitutional changes that would boost President Hugo Chavez's power. Students again showed they are a key force behind the re-energized opposition.
    (AP, 11/30/07)

2007        Nov 30, In Venezuela some 200,000 gathered in Caracas as President Hugo Chavez urged supporters to approve constitutional changes that he said could keep him in power for life and threatened to cut off oil exports to the US if it tries to meddle in the Dec 2 vote.
    (AP, 12/1/07)

2007        Dec 2, Venezuelans voted in a referendum on granting President Hugo Chavez expanded powers and ending term limits under sweeping constitutional changes. Voters narrowly rejected changes to 69 of 350 articles in the 1999 constitution by 51% to 49%.
    (AP, 12/2/07)(AP, 12/3/07)(Econ, 12/8/07, p.30)

2007        Dec 3, In Venezuela President Hugo Chavez, humbled by his first electoral defeat ever, said he may have been too ambitious in asking voters to let him stand indefinitely for re-election and endorse a huge leap to a socialist state.
    (AP, 12/3/07)

2007        Dec 8, Venezuela’s Pres. Hugo Chavez promised to supply the oil needs of Belarus for years to come and dismissed Western accusations that Pres. Alexander Lukashenko is a dictator. Chavez presented Lukashenko with a medal, and they signed an agreement pledging military cooperation.
    (AP, 12/9/07)

2007        Dec 11, US officials in Florida arrested 4 people, 3 from Venezuelan and one from Uruguay, and accused them of being agents of the Venezuelan government. Prosecutors later said the 4 were seeking to silence Guido Alehandro Antonini Wilson, a citizen of both the USA and Venezuela. In August Wilson was detained in Argentina for carrying $800,000 in a suitcase, which prosecutors said was intended to aid the campaign of Cristina Kirchner. Franklin Duran, multimillionaire owner of Industrias Venoco CA, was one of the arrested Venezuelans. In 2008 a federal jury convicted Duran on charges that he was a foreign agent involved in a conspiracy.
    (WSJ, 12/13/07, p.A16)(WSJ, 3/10/08, p.A5)(SFC, 11/4/08, p.A4)

2007        Dec 18, The leaders of Argentina and Venezuela closed ranks against the United States, rejecting US court charges in a campaign cash scandal as one more example of Americans treating their nations like subservient colonies.
    (AP, 12/19/07)

2007        Dec 21, Caribbean leaders gathered in Cuba for a regional oil summit. Venezuelan President Hugo Chavez presided at a regional petroleum summit, pressing his efforts to counter US influence in Latin America and the Caribbean by suggesting more of his neighbors could pay for cheap oil with goods or services in lieu of cash.
    (AP, 12/21/07)

2007        Dec 31, President Hugo Chavez granted amnesty to many opponents accused of supporting a failed 2002 coup that briefly drove him from power. Chavez said he signed an amnesty decree that would also pardon others accused of attempting to overthrow his government in recent years.
    (AP, 1/1/08)
2007        Dec 31, A Venezuelan-led mission to rescue three hostages, including a 3-year old boy, from leftist rebels in Colombia's jungles fell apart as the guerrillas accused Colombia's military of sabotaging the promised handoff.
    (AP, 1/1/08)

2007        Inflation in Venezuela rose 22.5% for the year. Some 13,000 people were murdered this year producing a murder rate of 48 per 100,000, the 2nd highest in the world after El Salvador. In Caracas there were 2,710 murders, or 130 per 100,000 citizens.
    (Econ, 1/12/08, p.32)(Econ, 7/19/08, p.47)(SSFC, 11/16/08, p.A16)

2008        Jan 1, Venezuela launched a new currency with the new year, lopping off three zeros from denominations in a bid to simplify finances and boost confidence in a money that has been losing value due to high inflation.
    (AP, 1/1/08)

2008        Jan 3, President Hugo Chavez shuffled his Cabinet, naming a retired military officer as vice president and other changes aimed at tackling corruption and inefficiencies in his socialist government.
    (AP, 1/3/08)

2008        Jan 4, A private plane carrying 14 people, including 8 Italians, crashed into the sea after taking off from Venezuela's Los Roques islands.
    (AP, 1/5/08)(AP, 1/7/08)

2008        Jan 10, Helicopters sent by Venezuela's president picked up two hostages freed by Colombian rebels in the jungle and flew the women across the border. Clara Rojas was an aide to Colombian presidential candidate Ingrid Betancourt in February 2002 when the two were kidnapped on the campaign trail. Rojas gave birth in captivity to a boy fathered by one of the guerrillas. Betancourt is still being held. The other freed hostage, former congresswoman Consuelo Gonzalez de Perdomo, had been abducted in September 2001. FARC, in a statement published on a pro-rebel Web site, said the unilateral release demonstrated the group's "unquestionable willingness" to engage the government in talks over the release of remaining hostages. The Revolutionary Armed Forces of Colombia is thought to still hold more than 700 others.
    (AP, 1/11/08)(Econ, 1/19/08, p.39)

2008        Jan 12, In Venezuela Commander Hugo Chavez, spearheaded the installation of the Founding Congress of the United Socialist Party of Venezuela (PSUV) at the San Carlos quarter in Caracas.

2008        Jan 16, The Venezuelan Observatory of Prisons said more than an inmate a day died violently in Venezuela's crowded prisons last year. Some 498 prisoners were killed in riots and other violent acts in 2007, up from 412 in 2006.
    (AP, 1/17/08)

2008        Jan 23, In Venezuela a dozen opposition parties formally launched the Coalition for Democratic Unity (MUD).
    (Econ, 2/11/12, p.39)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Coalition_for_Democratic_Unity)

2008        Jan 25, In Miami Moises Maionica (36) of Venezuelan pleaded guilty in a scheme to cover up the source of $800,000 seized in a suitcase in Argentina that was allegedly sent by Venezuelans as a donation to Cristina Fernandez's presidential campaign.
    (AP, 1/25/08)

2008        Jan 26, Venezuelan President Hugo Chavez and allies Nicaragua, Bolivia and Cuba, members of the Bolivarian Alternative for the Americas (ALBA), launched a regional development bank intended to strengthen their alliance and promote independence from US-backed lenders like the World Bank as Chavez hosted a summit with ALBA leaders.
    (AP, 1/26/08)

2008        Jan 29, In Venezuela 4 gunmen held more than 30 people hostage inside a bank during a lengthy and tense standoff with police that began with a botched robbery in the town of Altagracia de Orituco. The 4 gunmen surrendered to police after freeing dozens of hostages and a high-speed chase, ending an ordeal that lasted more than 30 hours.
    (AP, 1/29/08)(AP, 1/30/08)

2008        Jan 30, Wilber Varela, one of Colombia's most-wanted drug lords, was found slain in Merida, Venezuela. Varela's war with his rival within the Norte del Valle cartel, Diego Montoya, plagued the city of Cali and much of southwestern Colombia, killing more than 1,000 people in several years.
    (AP, 2/1/08)

2008        Feb 8, It was reported that Exxon Mobil Corp. has obtained a court order freezing over $12 billion in bank accounts and assets in Europe, the Caribbean and New York belonging to Venezuela’s state oil company in a dispute over compensation for expropriated assets.
    (WSJ, 2/8/08, p.A3)

2008        Feb 10, President Hugo Chavez threatened to cut off oil sales to the United States in an "economic war" if Exxon Mobil Corp. wins court judgments to seize billions of dollars in Venezuelan assets.
    (AP, 2/10/08)

2008        Feb 12, Venezuela's state petroleum company PDVSA said it suspended oil supplies to ExxonMobil in retaliation for the US energy giant's effort to freeze billions of dollars in global PDVSA assets.
    (AP, 2/12/08)

2008        Feb 21, In Venezuela a plane carrying 46 people crashed in the western mountains, 6 miles from the airport in the Andean city of Merida. All aboard were believed killed.
    (AP, 2/22/08)

2008        Feb 24, In Venezuela a blast near the entrance of the Fedecamaras business chamber headquarters in Caracas killed a 44-year-old man suspected of trying to plant the bomb. The next day Venezuela's justice minister blamed "anarchists" for the explosion and vowed to capture those responsible.
    (AP, 2/25/08)

2008        Feb 27, Two Venezuelan helicopters left for Colombia on a mission to pick up four hostages held by rebels for more than six years. Rebels turned over four ex-lawmakers to representatives from Venezuela in the same region where they released two others on Jan 10.
    (AP, 2/27/08)(AP, 2/28/08)

2008        Feb 29, Peruvian officials arrested seven members from the Coordinadora Continental Bolivariana, a Venezuela-based leftist movement, including the group's alleged leader, Roque Gonzalez, who spent eight years in prison for kidnapping a Bolivian politician. Two more alleged members were arrested on March 17 trying to carry in $65,000 from Ecuador, money Peruvian authorities suspect is Venezuelan. Coordinadora founder Fernando Rivero told The Associated Press in Venezuela that the group is entirely autonomous.
    (AP, 3/22/08)
2008        Feb 29, Italy’s Eni SpA signed a major oil production agreement with Venezuela. Last month Eni said it had reached a compensation deal in which Venezuela agreed to a payment in excess of $700 million.
    (WSJ, 3/1/08, p.A5)

2008        Mar 1, Colombia's defense minister said security forces killed Raul Reyes (59), a leading commander of the FARC rebel group, in combat and air strikes in neighboring Ecuador. Reyes was the nom de guerre of Luis Edgar Devia. 23 other rebels were also killed and a laptop computer was seized with documents indicating a close relationship between the rebels and Venezuela’s Pres. Chavez. Colombia later acknowledged that an Ecuadorean was killed during the raid.
    (AP, 3/1/08)(AP, 3/5/08)(Econ, 3/8/08, p.43)(AP, 3/24/08)

2008        Mar 2, Venezuela and Ecuador ordered troops to their borders with Colombia, sharply raising tensions after Colombia killed a top rebel leader on Ecuadorean soil. Ecuadorean troops recovered the seminude bodies of 15 rebels in their jungle camp. Soldiers also found three wounded women at the camp, a Mexican philosophy student injured by shrapnel and two Colombians, who were evacuated by helicopter to be treated.
    (AP, 3/3/08)

2008        Mar 3, Ecuador's president said that his government was in "very advanced" talks with Colombian rebels to free 12 hostages, including former presidential candidate Ingrid Betancourt and three US contractors, but was thwarted by Colombia’s military raid. Venezuela and Ecuador expelled Colombia’s diplomats and cracked down on trade across the border.
    (AP, 3/4/08)

2008        Mar 5, The Washington-based OAS declared Colombia’s attack on rebels in Ecuador a violation of Ecuador's sovereignty and called for OAS Secretary-General Jose Miguel Insulza to lead a delegation to both countries to ease tensions. But the resolution stopped short of explicitly condemning the assault. Pres. Chavez said Venezuela will search for other countries like Ecuador, Brazil and Argentina to replace products imported from Colombia.
    (AP, 3/6/08)

2008        Mar 7, At a summit in the Dominican Republic the presidents of Colombia, Venezuela and Ecuador agreed to end a bitter dispute triggered by a Colombian cross-border raid with testy handshakes and an apology.
    (AP, 3/8/08)

2008        Mar 21, In Venezuela a riot broke out between prison gangs at the San Fernando de Apure lockup. 9 inmates were left dead and 20 more wounded.
    (SSFC, 3/23/08, p.A3)

2008        Mar 26, Venezuela's National Assembly opened an investigation into a congressman's accusations that two of President Hugo Chavez's brothers acquired 17 ranches in recent years.
    (AP, 3/26/08)

2008        Mar 28, Combat helicopters and F-16 fighter jets opened fire at a clandestine airstrip in Venezuela's remote southern plains as part of a government counter-drug effort. Army Gen. Jesus Gonzalez told state television that so far this year, the military has demolished 67 airstrips used by drug traffickers to smuggle cocaine from neighboring Colombia to the United States and Europe. Another 90 are to be destroyed next week.
    (AP, 3/28/08)

2008        Apr 3, President Hugo Chavez ordered the nationalization of Venezuela's cement industry, saying his government cannot allow businesses to continue exporting raw materials needed to help tackle a domestic housing shortage.
    (AP, 4/4/08)

2008        Apr 9, President Hugo Chavez's government said it will nationalize Sidor, Venezuela's largest steel maker and a unit of Ternium SA, bringing one more key industry under state control in its drive toward a socialist economy. Ternium, based in Luxembourg, was controlled by Argentine owners.
    (AP, 4/9/08)(SFC, 4/10/08, p.A9)
2008        Apr 9, Venezuela forced US cartoon "The Simpsons" off its airwaves, calling the show a potentially bad influence on children, and filled its morning slot with reruns of the beach-and-bikini show "Baywatch."
    (Reuters, 4/9/08)

2008        Apr 13, Venezuelan President Hugo Chavez said his government is working to create a NATO-like South America defense council along with Brazil and other countries.
    (AP, 4/14/08)

2008        Apr 15, Venezuela moved to take a greater cut of windfall oil profits, approving a 50 percent tax on foreign oil companies when crude tops US$70 a barrel.
    (AP, 4/15/08)

2008        Apr 23, Venezuela’s President Hugo Chavez joined with his leftist allies to create a $100 million program to fight the rising cost of food for Latin America's poor.
    (AP, 4/24/08)

2008        Apr 24, The Washington-based Cato Institute announced that Yon Goicoechea (23), a law student in Venezuela, was winner of the $500,000 Milton Friedman Prize for Advancing Liberty. Goicoechea took a central role last year in rallying students to oppose what he sees as threats to personal liberties and democracy in Venezuela.
    (AP, 4/24/08)

2008        Apr 29, A power outage left wide swaths of Venezuela without electricity, including much of the capital. The blackout was caused by a forest fire that overheated power lines in the central state of Guarico.
    (AP, 4/29/08)

2008        Apr 30, President Hugo Chavez ordered the expropriation of Sidor, Venezuela's largest steel maker, after attempts by the government to acquire a majority stake in the company failed. Chavez said Venezuela will turn Siderurgica del Orinoco, which was controlled by Luxembourg-based Ternium SA., into "a socialist company."
    (AP, 5/1/08)

2008        May 8, A US diplomatic cable, unveiled by WikiLeaks in 2010, described Nicaragua’s Pres. Ortega as a "willing follower" of Venezuelan President Hugo Chavez. The report said Ortega uses Venezuelan oil money to fund Sandinista campaigns and that "several unconfirmed reports indicate that Ortega will have as much as 500 million dollars at his disposal over the course of 2008.
    (AP, 12/8/10)

2008        May 23, In Brazil 12 South American leaders gathered in Brasilia to set up the Union of South American Nations. UNASUR was expected to replace the South American Community, declared in 2004, and unite the Mercosur and Andean Community free trade areas. Members included Argentina, Bolivia, Brazil, Chile, Colombia, Ecuador, Guyana, Paraguay, Peru, Suriname, Uruguay and Venezuela.
    (https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/UNASUR_Constitutive_Treaty)(Econ, 5/31/08, p.41)

2008        May 28, Venezuela announced that the new Intelligence and Counterintelligence Law, passed by Pres. Chavez, would replace the Disip secret police and Military Intelligence Directorate with 4 new agencies. Under the law citizens who refuse to act as informants for intelligence agencies could face as much as 4 years in prison.
    (WSJ, 6/4/08, p.A17)(www.venezuelanalysis.com/news/3505)

2008        Jun 2, In Venezuela the vice president of a Venezuelan newspaper was shot and killed by a gunman who police said could have confused the victim for his brother, the president of Reporte Diario de la Economia, a daily that has closely covered corruption cases.
    (AP, 6/3/08)

2008        Jun 7, President Hugo Chavez said that his government will rewrite a new intelligence law to calm fears in Venezuela that the decree could be used to stifle dissent. Thousands of opponents of President Hugo Chavez protested a "blacklist" unveiled by Venezuela's top anti-corruption official that bars key opposition candidates from running in upcoming elections.
    (AP, 6/8/08)

2008        Jun 8, Venezuelan President Hugo Chavez urged Colombian rebels to lay down their weapons, unilaterally free dozens of hostages and end a decades-long armed struggle.
    (AP, 6/8/08)

2008        Jun 10, In Venezuela the new intelligence system, dubbed the “Gestapo law," was repealed less than a fortnight after its introduction.
    (Econ, 6/14/08, p.47)

2008        Jun 14, Annualized inflation in Venezuela stood at around 30% amidst an economic slowdown and an unprecedented crime-wave.
    (Econ, 6/14/08, p.47)

2008        Jun 15, Javier Garcia, a Venezuelan television anchorman, was found slain in his apartment, his body riddled with stab wounds.
    (AP, 6/16/08)

2008        Jun 18, Venezuela's national electoral council dealt a setback to President Hugo Chavez's foes by tentatively accepting a blacklist barring nearly 400 potential candidates, most from the opposition. Venezuela's government started posting National Guard troops on buses to try to prevent violent crime.
    (AP, 6/18/08)(AP, 6/19/08)

2008        Jul 11, Venezuela's Hugo Chavez and Colombia's Alvaro Uribe mended relations after months of sniping that threatened trade and unleashed a diplomatic crisis.
    (AP, 7/11/08)

2008        Jul 12, President Hugo Chavez said that he is expanding his Venezuela's Petrocaribe oil-supply pact to include Guatemala.
    (AP, 7/13/08)
2008        Jul 12, Thousands of Venezuelans protested in the capital demanding that the Supreme Court overturn a "blacklist" blocking key opponents of President Hugo Chavez from running in upcoming elections.
    (AP, 7/12/08)

2008        Jul 14, In Vietnam Dayana Mendoza, Miss Venezuela, was crowned Miss Universe 2008 in a contest marked by the spectacle of Miss USA falling down during the evening gown competition for the second year in a row.
    (AP, 7/14/08)

2008        Jul 17, Venezuela's ruling party pledged to seek to reform the nation's constitution to let President Hugo Chavez seek indefinite re-election.
    (AP, 7/18/08)
2008        Jul 17, Six prominent members of Colombia’s largest rebel group FARC met this day with Nicaraguan President Daniel Ortega according to Nicaragua’s La Prensa newspaper. The members of the guerrilla organization arrived in Nicaragua in a Cessna airplane from Venezuela. Both Ortega and Venezuela denied the newspaper report.

2008        Jul 20, In central Bolivia a Venezuelan military helicopter often used to transport Bolivian President Evo Morales crashed. Four Venezuelan military personnel and a Bolivian officer were reported killed.
    (AP, 7/21/08)

2008        Jul 23, Venezuela signed over three more oil fields to a joint venture with Belarus, with Venezuelan President Hugo Chavez declaring that the two nations were strongly united in their resistance to "US imperialism" and Washington's "lackeys."
    (AP, 7/23/08)

2008        Jul 27, Venezuela’s Pres. Chavez, during his weekly TV program "Alo Presidente", made some sharp criticisms of various government officials, calling on them to fight against bureaucracy and corruption. He then brought to the attention of the audience the book, "Reformism or Revolution" by Alan Woods (b.1944), a Welsh Trotskyist.
    (www.marxist.com/alan-woods-speaking-tour-in-venezuela/)(Econ, 11/20/10, p.44)

2008        Jul 31, Venezuela’s Pres. Chavez said his government will nationalize Banco de Venezuela, the local unit of the Spanish banking giant Banco Santander.
    (WSJ, 7/31/08, p.A6)

2008        Jul, In Venezuela inflation was running at 32%.
    (Econ, 7/19/08, p.47)

2008        Aug 3, Venezuelan President Hugo Chavez says 24 Sukhoi fighter jets have been delivered to Venezuela, and are ready to defend his country from "imperialist" aggressions.
    (AP, 8/4/08)

2008        Aug 4, In Venezuela changes in areas from the military to small business loans were pushed through by the president in 26 laws released in the official gazette. Chavez approved them on the final day of an 18-month period during which lawmakers had granted him special legislative powers.
    (AP, 8/4/08)

2008        Aug 5, Venezuela's Supreme Court ruled that a list barring hundreds of candidates suspected of corruption from running in elections is constitutional, despite complaints that it singles out opponents of President Hugo Chavez.
    (AP, 8/5/08)

2008        Aug 6, Riot police used tear gas as they blocked hundreds of Venezuelans protesting what they call new moves by President Hugo Chavez to concentrate his power.
    (AP, 8/7/08)

2008        Aug 8, Researchers said at least 38 Warao Indians have died in remote villages in Venezuela since June 2007. Medical experts suspected an outbreak of rabies spread by bites from vampire bats.
    (AP, 8/8/08)

2008        Aug 12, Venezuela raised the regulated prices of foods ranging from bread to beef by up to 50 percent and removed price controls from other goods in a bid to ease sporadic shortages in supermarkets.
    (AP, 8/12/08)
2008        Aug 12, Spanish officials said local police acting on a tip-off from US authorities have seized 1.4 tons of cocaine and arrested eight South American suspects, 6 from Colombia and 2 from Venezuela.
    (AP, 8/12/08)

2008        Aug 18, Mexico’s Cemex SAB rejected Venezuela’s bid for the company’s assets in Venezuela. At midnight oil workers and Venezuelan soldiers occupied Cemex facilities around the country.
    (WSJ, 8/19/08, p.A10)

2008        Aug 19, The Dutch Navy and a squad of US Coast Guard raiders seized 4.6 tons (4,200 kilograms) of cocaine from a Panamanian-flagged freighter that had set sail from Venezuela. The freighter was boarded on Aug 17 and it took 36 hours of searching to find the drugs.
    (AP, 8/23/08)

2008        Aug 31, Venezuela rejected US requests to resume cooperation in the war on drugs, saying it has made progress despite an alleged fourfold-gain in the amount of Colombian cocaine now passing through its territory.
    (AP, 8/31/08)

2008        Sep 2, South Africa signed an energy agreement with oil-rich Venezuela as President Hugo Chavez arrived on his first state visit. Political, trade and economic relations were on the agenda with President Thabo Mbeki.
    (AFP, 9/2/08)(AFP, 9/3/08)

2008        Sep 11, Venezuela interrogated military officers named in recordings of an apparent plan to kill President Hugo Chavez, in what may the firmest evidence in years of a barracks plot to oust him. Chavez ordered the US ambassador to leave Venezuela within 72 hours, accusing the diplomat of conspiring against his government and saying he would also withdraw his own envoy from Washington immediately.
    (AP, 9/12/08)(Reuters, 9/12/08)

2008        Sep 12, The US accused Rodriguez Chacin and 2 other top aides to Venezuela’s Pres. Chavez of helping Colombian guerrillas traffic cocaine and procure weapons for FARC. Chacin had just resigned on Sep 8 from Venezuela’s Interior Ministry.
    (SFC, 9/13/08, p.A5)

2008        Sep 23, Venezuelan President Hugo Chavez arrived in China to hold talks with his counterpart Hu Jintao and sign a deal for combat aircraft in a visit likely to irk the US. Chavez said Venezuela and China agreed to jointly build 2 oil refineries, one in each country.
    (AP, 9/23/08)(WSJ, 9/24/08, p.A25)

2008        Sep 28, President Hugo Chavez said that Russia will help Venezuela develop nuclear energy, a move likely to raise US concerns over increasingly close cooperation between Caracas and Moscow.
    (AP, 9/29/08)

2008        Oct 1, In Venezuela Julio Soto, a student leader at the University of Zulia, was killed by unidentified gunmen in the western city of Maracaibo. Assailants sprayed his vehicle with gunfire and then fled without taking anything. Soto had helped organize protests against constitutional amendments proposed by President Hugo Chavez.
    (AP, 10/1/08)

2008        Oct 12, In Venezuela Pres. Chaves, on Indigenous Resistance Day, presented the Yukpa Indians titles to some blocks of land. This fell short of the 150,000 acres they claimed as ancestral territory.
    (Econ, 1/17/09, p.41)

2008        Oct 13, A Venezuelan court issued arrest warrants for eight suspects in the Oct 1 killing of Julio Soto, a student leader who helped organize protests against constitutional amendments proposed by President Hugo Chavez.
    (AP, 10/14/08)

2008        Oct 29, Venezuela launched its first satellite from Sichuan, China. It will begin carrying radio, television and other data transmissions in early 2009 after three months of tests.
    (AP, 10/29/08)

2008        Nov 8, Kenneth Dale Peters (55), an American tourist, was shot and killed and a friend wounded, in an apparent robbery attempt aboard a sailboat on Venezuela's Caribbean coast. On Nov 12 regional police arrested Jose Rodriguez, Jonas Marcano and Johan Isazis. They will face charges of homicide and attempted homicide.
    (AP, 11/10/08)(AP, 11/13/08)

2008        Nov 17, Venezuela and Iran announced a plan to start a new university program in the South American country with a focus on teaching socialist principles.
    (AP, 11/17/08)

2008        Nov 20, Vietnam's president Nguyen Minh Triet was set to meet Venezuelan leader Hugo Chavez, during the first visit by a head of state from the communist nation here, mainly focused on oil and gas ties.
    (AP, 11/20/08)

2008        Nov 23, In Venezuela President Hugo Chavez sought to hold on to his dominance in state and municipal elections, facing an opposition aiming to win back power in key states and cities. Chavez's opponents made important gains in local elections, capturing the Caracas mayor's office and three of the most populous states, but his allies won a strong majority.
    (AP, 11/23/08)(AP, 11/24/08)

2008        Nov 25, Russian warships arrived in Venezuela in a show of strength aimed at the United States as Moscow seeks to expand its influence in Latin America.
    (AP, 11/25/08)

2008        Nov 26, In Venezuela Russian President Dmitry Medvedev agreed to help start a local nuclear energy program and said Moscow is willing to participate in a socialist trade bloc in Latin America led by President Hugo Chavez.
    (AP, 11/27/08)

2008        Dec 11, Venezuelan prosecutors formally charged Manuel Rosales, a leading opposition figure, with corruption, as President Hugo Chavez pushed forward with plans for a referendum to end term limits. Rosales denied any wrongdoing, saying the accusations are politically motivated.
    (AP, 12/11/08)

2008        Dec 13, Cuban President Raul Castro arrived in Venezuela on his first international visit as Cuba's leader.
    (AP, 12/13/08)

2008        A Human Rights Watch report said Venezuela’s Pres. Chavez had effectively neutralized the judiciary as an independent branch of government.
    (Econ, 2/19/11, p.40)

2009        Jan 5, Former US Representative Joseph P. Kennedy said Citgo Petroleum, the US refiner owned by the Venezuelan government, planned to stop deliveries to his Boston-based nonprofit, Citizens’ Energy, due to falling oil prices. The stop order was removed 2 days later.
    (WSJ, 1/6/09, p.A7)(AP, 1/8/09)

2009        Jan 6, Venezuela ordered Israel's ambassador expelled from the country in protest over the Israeli military offensive in the Gaza Strip.
    (AP, 1/6/09)
2009        Jan 6, Turkey held a shipment bound for Venezuela from Iran saying it contains equipment that can make explosives.
    (WSJ, 1/7/09, p.A1)

2009        Jan 7, Venezuela's Citgo Petroleum Corp. announced its fuel oil aid program would continue, just two days after its partner nonprofit group, Boston-based Citizens Energy, said Citgo had halted the free fuel shipments due to the world economic crisis.
    (AP, 1/8/09)

2009        Jan 14, Venezuelan lawmakers approved a proposed constitutional amendment that would allow President Hugo Chavez to run for re-election indefinitely, the final step before the proposal goes before voters in a referendum.
    (AP, 1/14/09)
2009        Jan 14, Venezuela and Bolivia broke off diplomatic relations with Israel to protest its military offensive in Gaza.
    (AP, 1/14/09)

2009        Jan 16, In Venezuela a takeover of the Caracas City Hall began violently when dozens of armed Chavez supporters wearing ski masks stormed in after shooting at the building and tying up security guards. Chavez backers occupied the civil registry and other municipal buildings to protest Ledezma's decision to cut them off the city payroll. Caracas Mayor Antonio Ledezma took to working from an undisclosed friend's office.
    (AP, 1/31/09)

2009        Jan 20, Venezuelan President Hugo Chavez challenged President Barack Obama to remake US policy toward Latin America, but said he isn't holding out much hope for major changes. Police used tear gas, plastic bullets and a water cannon to break up a protest by university students against Chavez's attempt to eliminate term limits.
    (AP, 1/20/09)

2009        Jan 30, In Venezuela an armed group vandalized Caracas' oldest synagogue, shattering religious objects and spray-painting walls in what Jewish leaders called the worst attack ever on their community. On March 26 prosecutors filed charges against eight police officers and three other people, accusing them of involvement in the attack.
    (AP, 2/1/09)(AP, 3/26/09)

2009        Feb 7, In Venezuela tens of thousands of protesters marched in Caracas to oppose a constitutional amendment that could allow President Hugo Chavez to run for re-election indefinitely.
    (AP, 2/7/09)

2009        Feb 12, In Venezuela tens of thousands clad in red flooded the streets of Caracas, saying a referendum that would end term limits is the only way President Hugo Chavez can complete what he calls a socialist revolution.
    (AP, 2/12/09)

2009        Feb 15, Venezuela’s President Hugo Chavez tried for a second time to win the right to seek re-election far into the future with a referendum widely regarded as a way to cement socialism. Some 55% percent of the voters approved the amendment.
    (AP, 2/15/09)(AP, 2/16/09)(Econ, 2/21/09, p.39)

2009        Feb 26, Venezuela condemned a US State Department report on human rights problems in the South American country, saying Washington has no right to pass judgment on its record.
    (AP, 2/26/09)

2009        Feb 28, President Hugo Chavez ordered troops to intervene in Venezuelan rice processing businesses, saying some have balked at producing under regulated prices.
    (AP, 2/28/09)

2009        Mar 4, Venezuela’s Pres. Chavez ordered the expropriation of the rice operations of US grain giant Cargill Inc. and threatened to take over beer and food manufacturer Polar, the country’s largest private company.
    (WSJ, 3/5/09, p.A9)

2009        Mar 10, Venezuela's National Guard destroyed an elaborate network of clandestine cocaine-processing laboratories along the country's border with Colombia as part of its anti-drug efforts.
    (AP, 3/10/09)
2009        Mar 10, In northern Honduras a plane from Venezuela that was carrying more than 2 tons of cocaine crashed, killing the pilot. 2 US Drug Enforcement Administration helicopters were allegedly pursuing the aircraft when it went down near El Negrito town.
    (AP, 3/11/09)

2009        Mar 14, A Russian Air Force chief said that Venezuelan President Hugo Chavez has offered an island as a temporary base for strategic Russian bombers. Maj. Gen. Anatoly Zhikharev also said Cuba could be used to base the aircraft.
    (AP, 3/14/09)

2009        Mar 15, President Hugo Chavez dispatched the navy to Venezuela's seaports, warning that state governors who challenge a new law bringing transportation hubs under federal control could end up in prison. Chavez also said that Russian bombers would be welcome in Venezuela, but he denied that his country would offer Moscow its territory for a military base.
    (AP, 3/15/09)

2009        Mar 19, Venezuela’s Pres. Chavez announced the nationalization of Banco de Venezuela, a unit of Spain’s Banco Santander SA.
    (WSJ, 3/20/09, p.A10)

2009        Mar 21, Venezuela's federal government seized seaports and airstrips in at least four states, a move critics say is meant to limit the powers of mayors and governors opposed to President Hugo Chavez.
    (AP, 3/21/09)

2009        Mar 22, Venezuelan President Hugo Chavez, who has for years funneled state oil income into sweeping social programs, vowed to cut nonessential state spending and order a review of top officials' salaries as oil income plunges. Chavez also called President Barack Obama "ignorant," saying he has a lot to learn about Latin America.
    (AP, 3/22/09)

2009        Mar 23, In Venezuela thieves in Caracas ransacked the offices of the Ibrahim Al-lbrahim mosque, stealing jewels, computers and other objects and throwing books across the floor. The Ibrahim Al-lbrahim building is Latin America's second largest mosque after the Rey Fahd Islamic Cultural Center in Argentina.
    (AP, 3/24/09)

2009        Mar 25, US authorities arrested Florida businessman Rama K. Vyasulu  and froze his Rosemont Finance Corp. following a federal grand jury indictment in Boston indicting him on charges of laundering $900,000 in drug profits. His firm served as a key US clearing house for dozens of black market brokerages selling dollars in Venezuela, despite an official ban on private firms buying an d selling currency at unofficial rates. An estimated $100 million was believed to be frozen.
    (WSJ, 3/28/09, p.A1)

2009        Mar 26, The UN's top human-rights body approved a proposal by Muslims nations urging passage of laws around the world to protect religion from criticism. The resolution was sponsored by Pakistan, Belarus and Venezuela.
    (AP, 3/26/09)(Econ, 4/4/09, p.17)

2009        Mar 31, In Qatar Venezuelan President Hugo Chavez sought Arab support for a proposed oil-backed currency to challenge the US dollar in his latest swipe at Washington's dominance in global financial affairs.
    (AP, 3/31/09)

2009        Mar, In Venezuela Manuel Rosales, a leading opposition figure, stepped down as mayor of Maracaibo and went into hiding following politically motivated corruption charges. Rosales entered Peru as a tourist on April 4 and sought asylum there.
    (AP, 12/11/08)(SFC, 4/21/09, p.A2)(AP, 4/21/09)

2009        Apr 2, Venezuelan authorities arrested retired Gen. Raul Baduel, a former defense minister and a prominent critic of President Hugo Chavez, on corruption charges. The former ally of Pres. Chavez went into opposition 18 months earlier.
    (AP, 4/2/09)(Econ, 4/11/09, p.36)
2009        Apr 2, Washington expressed no interest in an offer by Venezuelan President Hugo Chavez to take in any of the 240 remaining Guantanamo detainees after they are released from the US military prison.
    (AP, 4/2/09)

2009        Apr 3, In Venezuela 3 of the capital’s former police chiefs were sentenced to 30 years in prison. They were accused without evidence of complicity in the murder of several supporters of Pres. Chavez, who died during a coup attempt in 2002.
    (Econ, 4/11/09, p.36) 

2009        Apr 6, Japan’s Finance Minister Kaoru Yosano said PM Taro Aso has ordered a $100 billion stimulus plan to boost the national economy. PM Aso and Venezuelan President Hugo Chavez agreed to deepen ties in energy, investment and trade, with Japanese companies ready to participate in gas and crude production in the Latin American country.
    (WSJ, 4/7/09, p.A8)(AP, 4/6/09)

2009        Apr 8, In China visiting Venezuelan President Hugo Chavez said the world's center of gravity has moved to Beijing, as he focused on boosting Chinese oil purchases.
    (AP, 4/8/09)

2009        Apr 8, The US Coast Guard located a Venezuela-flagged fishing boat 500 miles east of Brazil, boarded the vessel and found about 2,500 pounds (1,135 kilograms) of cocaine. They planned to turn over the boat, the drugs, the prisoners to Venezuelan authorities.
    (AP, 4/10/09)

2009        Apr 18, Venezuela’s Hugo Chavez said that he is restoring Venezuela's ambassador in Washington, voicing hopes for a "new era" in relations after exchanging greetings with US President Barack Obama at a regional summit in Trinidad. Chavez presented Obama with a Spanish hardcover edition of "Open Veins of Latin America: Five Centuries of the Pillage of a Continent" (1971), by Uruguayan journalist Eduardo Galeano.
    (AP, 4/18/09)(WSJ, 4/27/09, p.A13)

2009        Apr 20, In Florida 7 more Venezuelan polo horses sickened just before a tournament died overnight, raising the death toll to 21. Officials said they may have been killed by some type of poison.
    (AP, 4/20/09)

2009        Apr 27, Palestinian officials established formal ties with Venezuela and opened a diplomatic mission in the South American country.
    (AP, 4/28/09)

2009        Apr 27, Peru's government said that it has granted political asylum to Manuel Rosales, a Venezuelan opposition leader, who faced corruption allegations in his homeland but claimed to be persecuted by leftist President Hugo Chavez.
    (AP, 4/27/09)

2009        Apr 28, Venezuela recalled its ambassador to protest Peru's decision to grant political asylum to a prominent opponent of President Hugo Chavez, calling it a mockery of international law and escalating a diplomatic dispute.
    (AP, 4/28/09)

2009        May 1, In Venezuela police and national guard troops broke up an opposition march in Caracas as thousands of opponents and supporters of Pres. Chavez held separate May Day marches.
    (SFC, 5/2/09, p.A2)

2009        May 3, Sixteen Venezuelan soldiers and a civilian were killed when a military helicopter crashed near the Colombian border. A brigadier general was among those killed.
    (AP, 5/3/09)

2009        May 6, Venezuelan prosecutors filed embezzlement and other charges against a former Caracas mayor who supports the government of President Hugo Chavez. Juan Barreto, mayor from 2004 to 2008, denied the allegations and vowed to clear his name in court.
    (AP, 5/6/09)

2009        May 8, Venezuelan police uncovered a cache of weapons and explosives at a Caracas apartment. The discovery led to the detention of 3 citizens of the Dominican Republic, Luini Omar Campusano de la Cruz (38); Edgar Floiran Sanchez (29); and Diomedis Campusano Perez (31) and a Frenchman, Laurent Frederic Bocquet, on suspicion of planning terrorist acts.
    (AP, 5/9/09)
2009        May 8, Venezuela’s National Guard began occupying dozens of oil rigs, docks and boats operated by private contractors, both local and foreign, hired by PDVSA, the state oil company. It appeared that PDVSA had run out of cash.
    (Econ, 5/16/09, p.44)

2009        May 9, In Venezuela police and soldiers discovered 4,370 pounds (1,983 kilograms) of cocaine during a raid on a ranch in central Miranda state. A Colombian and two Venezuelans were detained.
    (AP, 5/11/09)

2009        May 10, A small plane filled with cocaine crashed in Honduras. The plane registered in Venezuela was carrying around 3,300 pounds (1,500 kilograms) of cocaine when it crashed on Utila, one of the Bay Islands off the country's northern coast.
    (AP, 5/11/09)

2009        May 20, In Venezuela thousands of university students marched through Caracas demanding more state financial aid for public universities after President Hugo Chavez's government reduced funding by 6 percent.
    (AP, 5/20/09)

2009        May 21, In Venezuela police and soldiers raided a property belonging to the head of the only anti-government news network amid a growing confrontation between the station and President Hugo Chavez's government.
    (AP, 5/22/09)

2009        May 25, It was reported that a secret Israeli government report said Venezuela and Bolivia are supplying Iran with uranium for its nuclear program.
    (AP, 5/25/09)

2009        May 26, Wilmer Ignacio Guerrero Ibanez (40), a suspected trafficker accused of smuggling cocaine through Venezuela was deported to Colombia, where officials took him into custody at an international bridge linking the countries.
    (AP, 5/27/09)

2009        May 27, In Venezuela hundreds of opponents of President Hugo Chavez marched in support of press freedom, two years after his government refused to renew the concession of an opposition-aligned television station.
    (AP, 5/27/09)

2009        Jun 4, Venezuelan prosecutors charged Guillermo Zuloaga (67), president of the anti-government television station Globovision,  with usury. This ended a weeks-long investigation into his business activities that Zuloaga called politically motivated.
    (AP, 6/5/09)

2009        Jun 5, Venezuela's tax agency ordered an anti-government news network to pay $2.3 million in back taxes, a day after its president was charged in a separate investigation and troops raided his home.
    (AP, 6/5/09)

2009        Jun 20, Venezuela’s Commerce Minister Eduardo Saman, a close confidant of President Hugo Chavez, announced that the government would annul patents on some medicines under a reform of existing intellectual property laws. Industry leaders soon responded saying the action could cause shortages and scare off foreign investment.
    (AP, 6/21/09)
2009        Jun 20, In Venezuela authorities arrested Salvatore Miceli, suspected of being a key intermediary in the drug trafficking trade and one of Italy's most dangerous Mafia fugitives, as he left his apartment in Caracas. Police also picked up two other Italian suspects.
    (AP, 6/21/09)

2009        Jun 24, Venezuela and the United States said they will restore their ambassadors more than nine months after President Hugo Chavez expelled the US envoy in his final diplomatic bout with the Bush administration.
    (AP, 6/24/09)

2009        Jun 27, Thousands of Venezuelans held separate protests to support and condemn an opposition-aligned TV station that President Hugo Chavez's government has threatened with closure.
    (AP, 6/27/09)

2009        Jul 3, The head of Venezuela's telecommunications regulatory agency said that 240 radio stations will have their licenses revoked for failing to update their registrations with the government. The government now controls six television channels, including the Caracas-based international network Telesur, two national radio networks and other smaller media outlets including 600 radio stations and 72 community TV stations.
    (AP, 7/3/09)

2009        Jul 9, In Venezuela’s top telecommunications official said President Hugo Chavez's government is imposing new regulations on cable television while revoking the licenses of more than 200 radio stations.
    (AP, 7/9/09)

2009        Jul 14, Venezuela's oil minister Rafael Ramirez said workers at the state oil company must support President Hugo Chavez's endeavors or be suspected of conspiring against his socialist revolution.
    (AP, 7/14/09)

2009        Jul 15, In Venezuela National Guard troops seized a police station controlled by a leading opponent of President Hugo Chavez, sparking clashes between soldiers and protesters that authorities said injured eight people.
    (AP, 7/15/09)

2009        Jul 20, In Venezuela Alicia Torres, a judge handling one of Venezuela's most politically charged cases, said that she was fired after complaining about pressure to rule against an opponent of President Hugo Chavez. Torres said last week she was pressured by a superior to prohibit Guillermo Zuloaga, president and owner of the Globovision TV channel, from leaving the country.
    (AP, 7/20/09)

2009        Jul 27, Sweden said it was demanding an explanation as to why Swedish-made anti-tank rocket launchers, sold to Venezuela years ago, were obtained by Colombia's main rebel group. Three launchers were recovered in October in a FARC arms cache belonging to a rebel commander known as "Jhon 40" and Colombia only recently asked Sweden to confirm whether they had been sold to Venezuela.
    (AP, 7/27/09)

2009        Jul 28, Venezuela’s Pres. Hugo Chavez recalled his ambassador from Bogota and threatened to halt Colombian imports after the neighboring country said anti-tank weapons found in a rebel arms cache came from Venezuela.
    (AP, 7/28/09)

2009        Jul 30, Venezuela's top prosecutor, Attorney General Luisa Ortega, insisted that freedom of expression in Venezuela "must be limited" and proposed legislation that would slap additional restrictions on the country's news media.
    (AP, 7/30/09)

2009        Jul 31, Venezuelan regulators revoked the broadcast rights of 34 radio stations for allegedly failing to submit the proper paperwork to the broadcasting regulator, deepening a rift between President Chavez's government and the private media. Venezuelan lawmakers approved an election law to redraw voting districts, a step that President Hugo Chavez's opponents say will give his party a big advantage in next year's congressional vote.
    (AP, 7/31/09)(AP, 8/1/09)(Econ, 8/8/09, p.32, 34)

2009        Aug 3, In Venezuela a far-left party led by Lina Ron attacked the opposition-aligned Globovision TV station. The next day Pres. Chavez condemned the attack and had Ron arrested for taking part in the assault.
    (SFC, 8/5/09, p.A2)

2009        Aug 5, Venezuela’s President Hugo Chavez said his government will buy dozens of Russian tanks because Venezuela feels threatened by a pending deal for the US military to increase its presence in neighboring Colombia.
    (AP, 8/6/09)

2009        Aug 8, Venezuela’s President Hugo Chavez said he's returning his ambassador to Colombia, moving to resolve rising diplomatic tensions after weapons sold to Venezuela were found in a rebel cache.
    (AP, 8/8/09)

2009        Aug 13, In Venezuela attackers injured 12 of the journalists as they passed out leaflets warning against a new education law that critics fear could lead to indoctrination in schools. Their fliers warned against a provision for sanctions against reports that "produce terror" among children or incite hate.
    (AP, 8/15/09)

2009        Aug 14, In Venezuela lawmakers loyal to President Hugo Chavez gave final approval on to legislation that has raised fears among government opponents of impending socialist indoctrination in schools. The National Assembly also approved a law that paves the way for the government to take over private buildings and land in urban areas.
    (AP, 8/14/09)

2009        Aug 19, US authorities in collaboration with Venezuela led to the seizure of about a ton of cocaine aboard a ship in the Caribbean Sea. Two Venezuelans and a Colombian were arrested.
    (AP, 8/20/09)

2009        Aug 22, Venezuelan police dispersed opponents of Pres. Chavez's government as thousands demonstrated both for and against an education law that critics fear will lead to political indoctrination in schools.
    (AP, 8/23/09)

2009        Aug 23, In the Bahamas Stefania Fernandez (18), Miss Venezuela, was the fairest of them all once again, winning the 2009 Miss Universe crown for the second year straight and the sixth time since the pageant's creation.
    (AP, 8/24/09)

2009        Sep 2, In Algeria Venezuelan President Hugo Chavez called for closer economic ties with Algeria, notably in the energy sector, during a two-day visit here.
    (AFP, 9/3/09)

2009        Sep 4, Thousands of opponents of Hugo Chavez marched against the Venezuelan president across Latin America, accusing him of everything from authoritarianism to international meddling. The protests, coordinated through Twitter and Facebook, drew more than 5,000 people in Bogota, and thousands more in the capitals of Venezuela and Honduras. Smaller demonstrations were held in other Latin American capitals, as well as New York and Madrid.
    (AP, 9/5/09)

2009        Sep 6, In Iran Venezuela’s President Hugo Chavez sealed an agreement to export 20,000 barrels per day of gasoline to Iran. The deal would give Tehran a cushion if the West carries out threats of fuel sanctions over Iran's nuclear program. The two countries also agreed to set up a bank together to help finance joint projects.
    (AP, 9/7/09)

2009        Sep 10, In Russia Venezuela’s President Hugo Chavez recognized the pro-Russian rebel regions of Abkhazia and South Ossetia as independent states, a rare boost to the Kremlin's campaign for their international acceptance.
    (Reuters 9/10/09)

2009        Sep 11, In Spain Venezuela’s Pres. Chavez paid a brief courtesy call on King Juan Carlos and met briefly with PM Jose Luis Rodriguez Zapatero to discuss energy issues and Spanish investment in oil-rich Venezuela.
    (AP, 9/11/09)
2009        Sep 11, Venezuela’s President Hugo Chavez returned home from a world tour. He said he has signed military agreements with Russia and is soon expecting the arrival of some "little rockets," which reach up to 186 miles (300km) and are strictly for defense purposes.
    (AP, 9/12/09)

2009        Sep 12, In Venezuela opposition Mayor Lluvane Alvarez was shot by unidentified assailants as he entered his home in western Tachira state, which is plagued by crime related to drug trafficking and other illicit activities.
    (AP, 9/12/09)

2009        Sep 13, Venezuela’s Pres. Chavez said Russia has opened a $2.2 billion line of credit for Venezuela to purchase weapons including armored vehicles and surface-to-air missiles.
    (AP, 9/14/09)

2009        Sep 16, In Venezuela the collision of a truck carrying chlorine gas and a cargo vehicle killed nine people and provoking breathing problems in 326 others.
    (AP, 9/17/09)

2009        Sep 18, In Venezuela an emergency meeting of the Inter American Press Association (IAPA) took place in Caracas. Former presidents from Peru and Bolivia joined newspaper editors from across the Americas in condemning what they call a series of attempts by Venezuelan President Hugo Chavez, and some of his allies, to clamp down on the news media.
    (AP, 9/19/09)

2009        Sep 22, Venezuelan police have captured Julio Mendez (38), an American pilot wanted  since 2007 on cocaine smuggling charges in the United States.
    (AP, 9/23/09)

2009        Sep 24, Venezuela’s Justice Minister Tareck El Aissami said the animated television series "Family Guy." should be pulled from the airwaves because it promotes the use of marijuana. He said that cable networks that broadcast "Family Guy" would be fined by Venezuela's telecommunications regulator if they refuse to dump the program.
    (AP, 9/25/09)

2009        Sep 26, In Venezuela some 30 African and South American leaders met for a 2-day summit on Margarita Island seeking to build on their alliances. Libyan leader Moammar Gadhafi called for a NATO-like defense alliance for Africa and South America as leaders from the two continents agreed to link up to gain more clout as economic and political blocs.
    (AP, 9/26/09)(AP, 9/27/09)

2009        Sep 27, In Venezuela Pres. Hugo Chavez proposed that South American and African nations unite to create a cross-continental mining corporation to keep control of their resources. Chavez made diplomatic inroads in Africa at a summit of South American and African leaders where he offered Venezuela's help in oil projects, mining and financial assistance. Venezuela signed agreements to work together on oil projects with South Africa, Mauritania, Niger, Sudan and Cape Verde.
    (Reuters, 9/27/09)(AP, 9/28/09)

2009        Sep 28, In Venezuela Pres. Hugo Chavez and Libya's Muammar Gaddafi called for a new global definition of terrorism. Meeting a day after the end of a summit of African and South American leaders in Venezuela, the two men signed a declaration urging a global conference be held to sketch out new terms defining terrorism.
    (Reuters, 9/28/09)

2009        Sep 30, In Venezuela more than 150 university students ended a hunger strike after the Organization of American States (OAS) agreed to hear their concerns over alleged political persecution by President Hugo Chavez's government.
    (AP, 10/1/09)

2009        Oct 1, Venezuela's top security official said Julio Mendez (37), an American pilot wanted in the United States on cocaine-smuggling charges, has been turned over to representatives of the US State Department to be taken home.
    (AP, 10/1/09)

2009        Oct 3, Some 2,000 people marched across Venezuela's capital to protest what they say is the persecution of President Hugo Chavez's opponents.
    (AP, 10/3/09)

2009        Oct 11, In Venezuela 12 men were kidnapped from a field where they were playing soccer. On Oct 25 the bodies of 10 of the men, most of them Colombians, were found with multiple spots in western Tachira state. A single survivor, Manuel Cortez (19) of Colombia, was shot in the neck.
    (AP, 10/26/09)

2009        Oct 12, In Venezuela thousands of people congregated for candlelit rituals on a remote mountainside where adherents make an annual pilgrimage to pay homage to an indigenous goddess known as Maria Lionza. The traditions, hundreds of years old, draw on elements of the Afro-Caribbean religion Santeria and indigenous rituals, as well as Catholicism. Believers often ask for spiritual healing or protection from witchcraft, or thank the goddess for curing an illness.
    (AP, 10/13/09)

2009        Oct 22, Venezuela deported Luis Cediel to the US. The Colombian man had links to a pyramid scheme that bilked Colombians out of hundreds of millions of dollars.
    (SFC, 10/23/09, p.A2)

2009        Oct 27, Venezuela’s President Hugo Chavez said two Colombian spies have been captured and will go on trail for conducting espionage within his country. Colombia's security agency denied sending any agents into Venezuela.
    (AP, 10/28/09)

2009        Nov 2, In Venezuela a lone gunman approached Gustavo Gonzalez, a member of the Copei opposition party, at a restaurant, fatally shot the politician in the head and fled on a motorcycle driven by an accomplice. 2 National Guard soldiers were shot multiple times at a roadside checkpoint near the border with Colombia. Prosecutors believed the troops were attacked by four men on two motorcycles. Johan Manuel Mora Rodriguez (20) was detained at a National Guard checkpoint near where the killings occurred in western Tachira state.
    (AP, 11/3/09)
2009        Nov 2, In Mali the burned debris of a Boeing cargo plane was discovered on Nov. 2 in the Gao region. It was assumed to have landed on a clandestine landing strip and either failed to take off again or was destroyed on purpose. Ample traces of cocaine were found on board. Drug smugglers had flown the plane from Venezuela, unloaded it and torched it. In 2010 it was reported that drug smugglers were buying old jets and flying them across the Atlantic to feed Europe’s growing coke habit.
    (AP, 12/3/09)(SFC, 11/16/10, p.A6)

2009        Nov 4, The London-based indigenous rights group Survival International said Swine flu has appeared among the Yanomami Indians of Venezuela, one of the largest isolated indigenous groups in the Amazon. A local doctor and that the virus is suspected in seven deaths, including six infants.
    (AP, 11/4/09)

2009        Nov 8, Colombia said it will appeal to the UN Security Council and the OAS after Hugo Chavez, the fiery leftist president of neighboring Venezuela, ordered his army to prepare for war in order to assure peace.
    (Reuters, 11/9/09)

2009        Nov 11, Venezuelan authorities destroyed more than 30,000 illegal firearms as part of an effort to combat soaring crime. The government stopped releasing complete annual murder figures in 2005, but in 2008 the Justice Ministry said homicides averaged 152 a week, or roughly 7,900 for 12 months.
    (AP, 11/11/09)

2009        Nov 14, Colombia’s government 4 soldiers from Venezuela's National Guard captured in Colombian territory will be repatriated in a bid to ease tensions between the South American neighbors. The Colombian navy intercepted the men Nov 13 in El Aceitico along the border.
    (AP, 11/15/09)

2009        Nov 19, Venezuelan authorities captured Magally Moreno (39), a former Colombian official, wanted for collaborating with outlawed right-wing paramilitary fighters. Moreno was wanted by Colombian authorities on charges of aggravated homicide and Interpol had called for her arrest.
    (AP, 11/21/09)

2009        Nov 20, Hugo Chavez has defended the alleged terrorist mastermind Carlos the Jackal, aka Ilich Sanchez Ramirez, saying the Venezuelan imprisoned in France was an important "revolutionary fighter" who supported the cause of the Palestinians. Ramirez gained international notoriety during the 1970s and 80s as the alleged mastermind of a series of bombings, killings and hostage dramas. He is serving a life sentence in France for the 1975 murders of two French secret agents and an alleged informant.
    (AP, 11/21/09)

2009        Nov 25, Iranian Pres. Ahmadinejad arrived in Caracas for a meeting with President Hugo Chavez, as the two outspoken anti-US leaders try to boost ties.
    (AFP, 11/25/09)

2009        Nov 27, Venezuela’s President Chavez said he plans to open an embassy in Palestinian territories and upgrade its ties to ambassadorial level, to support Palestinians in their struggle against Israel.
    (Reuters, 11/27/09)

2009        Dec 7, President Hugo Chavez said that Venezuela has received thousands of Russian-made missiles and rocket launchers as part of his government's military preparations for a possible armed conflict with neighboring Colombia.
    (AP, 12/7/09)

2009        Dec 8, In Venezuela a group of college students ended a hunger strike after 17 days following a meeting with Organization of American States representatives to air their concerns about human rights. A dozen students started the protest Nov. 21 outside the OAS office in Caracas, aiming to press the body to look into their complaints, including allegations that President Hugo Chavez's government abuses the legal system to persecute opponents. Jesus Ramirez Bello (20), a student, was shot and killed during a protest in the southwestern city of San Cristobal, Tachira state. 2 suspects were later detained in the killing.
    (AP, 12/9/09)(AP, 12/11/09)

2009        Dec 10, In Venezuela Judge Maria Afiuni was jailed on charges of corruption and abuse of power for freeing a high-profile banker while he awaited trial. An angry President Hugo Chavez demanded she be kept in a cell for the maximum sentence, 30 years.
    (AP, 12/15/09)

2009        Dec 15, In Venezuela lawmakers loyal to President Hugo Chavez inaugurated a state-run radio station that replaces a previous broadcaster that sandwiched criticism of Venezuela's socialist leader between jazz and salsa music.
    (AP, 12/16/09)

2009        Dec 24, In Venezuela Rafael Antonio Caldera (b.1916), former two-time president (1969-1974 and 1994-1999), died. He is considered as one of the founders of Venezuelan democracy (1958) after decades of dictatorship.
    (AP, 12/24/09)

2009        Venezuela counted some 19,133 murders for this year, over 4 times the number before Pres. Chavez became president. On Dec 9, 2010, the Provea human rights group said 13,985 people were murdered in Venezuela in 2009 and that the figure could be significantly higher, alluding to the rampant crime that has become a central concern of Venezuelans.
    (Econ, 8/21/10, p.30)(AP, 12/9/10)

2010        Jan 8, Venezuela’s Pres. Chavez issued a presidential decree devaluing the currency by up to 50%. Finance minister Ali Rodriguez admitted that this would boost the inflation rate, 27% last year, by 3-5 percentage points.
    (Econ, 1/16/10, p.39)
2010        Jan 8, Venezuela’s Pres. Chavez said his government is determined to keep Guri Dam from falling to a critical level that would cause its electricity-generating turbines to fail. The dam, which supplies 73% of Venezuela's electricity, was at dangerous lows.
    (AP, 1/10/10)

2010        Jan 10, Venezuela’s President Hugo Chavez says there's too much capitalism on Venezuelan TV. So he's urging producers to start making films and TV shows that stress socialist values.
    (AP, 1/11/10)

2010        Jan 13, Venezuela’s President Hugo Chavez indefinitely suspended rolling blackouts in Caracas, just a day after they began, and sacked his electricity minister saying he was responsible for mistakes in the way the rationing plan was applied.
    (AP, 1/14/10)

2010        Jan 15, Venezuela’s President Hugo Chavez announced a 25% increase in the minimum wage to try to blunt the effects of soaring inflation, and playing down criticism of his government's handling of an energy crisis and other domestic problems.
    (AP, 1/16/10)

2010        Jan 16, Venezuelan authorities said they have captured Salomon Camacho Mora (65), a prominent Colombian drug trafficker wanted by the United States. Venezuelan intelligence and counter-drug agents captured Mora during the past week in the city of Valencia.
    (AP, 1/16/10)

2010        Jan 20, In Venezuela’s Pres. Chavez opened the new 1.8 km. Metro Cable in Caracas.
    (Econ, 5/15/10, p.27)(http://venezuelanalysis.com/analysis/5176)

2010        Jan 23, In Venezuela tens of thousands opposed to President Hugo Chavez took to the streets, blaming him for rolling blackouts, water rationing, widespread crime and other problems they say are making daily life increasingly difficult. This day marked the 1958 uprising that ousted Venezuela’s last military dictator. The Chavez regime told cable TV operators to stop carrying RCTV, a pro-opposition channel.
    (AP, 1/24/10)(Econ, 1/30/10, p.44)

2010        Jan 24, In Venezuela a cable television channel critical of President Hugo Chavez was yanked from the airwaves for defying new regulations requiring it to televise the socialist leader's speeches.
    (AP, 1/24/10)

2010        Jan 25, In Venezuela police and supporters of President Hugo Chavez clashed with students in cities across the country during protests over the government forcing an opposition channel off cable TV. One youth was reported killed and 16 people suffered injuries. A government official said that Pres. Chavez has accepted the resignation of Ramon Carrizalez, who also served as defense minister. Carrizalez’s wife, the environment minister, also resigned.
    (AP, 1/25/10)(Econ, 1/30/10, p.46)

2010        Jan 26, In Venezuela thousands of university students again protested against Pres. Chavez, accusing the socialist leader of forcing an opposition-allied TV channel off cable and satellite as a means of silencing his critics.
    (AP, 1/26/10)

2010        Jan 28, In Venezuela police fired tear gas to chase off thousands of students demonstrating in the capital, a fifth day of protests against President Hugo Chavez for pressuring cable and satellite TV providers to drop an opposition channel.
    (AP, 1/28/10)

2010        Feb 2, Venezuela deported alleged major drug traffickers to the US and France. Suspected Colombian drug kingpin Salomon Camacho Mora, French smuggling suspect Jean Marie Bonnamy and alleged Colombian paramilitary member Oscar Ospino were ferried to the nation's main airport for deportation.
    (AP, 2/3/10)

2010        Feb 4, Venezuelan police used tear gas, plastic bullets and water cannons to scatter hundreds of students protesting against the government, as Pres. Chavez's supporters celebrated the 18th anniversary of his failed coup as an army officer.
    (AP, 2/4/10)

2010        Feb 6, Venezuela’s government announced that it will spend $15 billion over the next 5 years to increase electricity production.
    (SSFC, 2/7/10, p.A6)

2010        Feb 8, Venezuela’s Pres. Chavez declared a national emergency in the electricity sector as the worst drought in 50 years dried up water supplies in hydroelectric dams.
    (SFC, 2/10/10, p.A3)

2010        Feb 14, Venezuelan authorities said they have discovered 28 airplanes on the outskirts of El Sombrero that were presumably being used by drug traffickers. Federal police and National Guard troops took control of the hangar and impounded the planes.
    (AP, 2/14/10)

2010        Feb 24, Venezuela's highest court annulled the election of an opposition mayor, replacing him with a supporter of President Hugo Chavez until a new vote is held. The Supreme Court threw out the 2008 election of Jorge Barboza, mayor of the Sucre municipality in western Zulia state, on grounds that he failed to pay $292 in local taxes. On March 4 the court reinstated Barboza. The constitutional council said that last week's ruling was unconstitutional because it violated Barboza's political rights.
    (AP, 2/25/10)(AP, 3/4/10)

2010        Mar 9, Venezuela's government seized control of two sugar mills and threatened to expropriate them, accusing managers of hoarding a basic good and violating the labor rights of employees. The government also raised the price of sugar by 30% as mill owners struggled to turn a profit due to price controls.
    (AP, 3/9/10)

2010        Mar 13, Venezuela’s President Hugo Chavez called for regulation of the Internet while demanding authorities crack down on a critical news Web site that he accused of spreading false information. A Venezuelan police official said security forces have seized two tons of cocaine hidden in two bulldozers at a port in the central state of Carabobo. The cocaine was intended to be smuggled to the Netherlands.
    (AP, 3/14/10)

2010        Mar 15, in Venezuela representatives of a leftist party asserted their independence from President Hugo Chavez, accepting a dissident politician into their ranks while demanding increased tolerance from their socialist leader.
    (AP, 3/15/10)

2010        Mar 19, Venezuelan prosecutors charged a government opponent with conspiracy and other crimes after he said on a television program that the country has become a haven for drug trafficking.
    (AP, 3/19/10)

2010        Mar 22, In Venezuela former Zulia state Gov. Oswaldo Alvarez Paz, an outspoken opponent of President Hugo Chavez, said that police have taken him into custody while he awaits trial on conspiracy charges for saying Venezuela has become a haven for drug trafficking.
    (AP, 3/23/10)

2010        Mar 25, In Venezuela Guillermo Zuloaga, owner of Globovision, was arrested, raising concerns the government is pursuing a widening crackdown to silence opponents. Globovision is the country’s only remaining TV channel that takes a critical line against Pres. Chavez.
    (AP, 3/26/10)

2010        Apr 2, Russia’s PM Vladimir Putin made his first visit to Venezuela. Pres. Chavez, ahead of the visit, said Russia has offered to help Venezuela set up its own space industry, including a satellite launch site. Officials planned to sign new agreements for energy projects in Venezuela, as well as industrial, commercial and agriculture projects. Putin also planned to hold talks with Bolivian President Evo Morales.
    (AP, 4/2/10)

2010        Apr 5, PM Vladimir Putin said Russia may sell $5 billion worth of weapons to Venezuela following his visit to the South American nation.
    (AP, 4/5/10)

2010        Apr 6, Venezuela’s President Hugo Chavez said that eight Colombians have been arrested as suspected spies and charged that several carried identification indicating they are members of neighboring Colombia's military. He said the suspects, who were detained more than a week ago, had computers and satellite telephones and were using cameras to take photographs of Venezuela's power plants.
    (AP, 4/7/10)

2010        Apr 12, In Venezuela knife-wielding prison inmates killed seven other prisoners and wounded 10 guards during an outbreak of violence at the Santa Ana Prison.
    (AP, 4/12/10)

2010        Apr 15, Venezuelan authorities were reported to be investigating the deaths of six Yanomami Indians, including two children, in a remote community in the Amazon. Prosecutors believed that four adults, a man and three women, died after drinking water contaminated by illegal miners, and that the two children were apparently killed.
    (AP, 4/15/10)

2010        Apr 19, In Venezuela former boxing champ Edwin Valero committed suicide in his jail cell just hours after he was arrested in his wife's killing.
    (AP, 4/19/10)

2010        Apr 22, Venezuelan authorities raided eight drug laboratories near the Colombian border, seizing 4.5 tons of cocaine in one of the largest hauls in recent times.
    (Reuters, 4/22/10)

2010        Apr 29, In Venezuela Father Esteban Woods (68), an American priest, was slain inside his apartment in the eastern city of Puerto Ordaz.
    (AP, 4/29/10)

2010        May 1, In Venezuela armed government officials who took over the 914-acre farm Diego Arria, Venezuela's former ambassador to the United Nations. The government accused Aria of not holding proper legal title. Arria has been a vocal critic of Chavez internationally and is now forming a group to advocate for the rights of people whose lands have been seized by the government. Aria said he bought La Carolina farm, which is flanked by a mountain, in 1988 for the equivalent of about $300,000.
    (AP, 5/9/10)

2010        May 4, In Venezuela a riot at the Santa Ana Prison in the western state of Tachira, one of the country’s most violent prisons, left eight inmates dead and three injured.
    (AP, 5/5/10)

2010        May 7, In Venezuela Retired Gen. Raul Baduel, former defense minister and critic of President Hugo Chavez, was sentenced to more than seven years in prison after being convicted of embezzlement and abuse of power. In the same case, Col. Hernan Medina Marval was sentenced to 8 years, 11 months in prison.
    (AP, 5/8/10)

2010        May 13, The Venezuelan government said the Aban Pearl offshore natural gas platform has sunk into the sea, and 95 workers have been safely rescued.
    (AP, 5/13/10)

2010        May 25, Venezuela's top anti-corruption official barred two opponents of President Hugo Chavez from holding public office, preventing them from running in September legislative elections. The decision blocked candidacies by former presidential candidate Manuel Rosales and former Sucre state Gov. Ramon Martinez.
    (AP, 5/26/10)

2010        May, Venezuelan agents, while investigating the theft of powdered milk, discovered that some 30,000 tons of food were rotting in Puerto Cabello. The find came amidst growing shortages at PDVAL, the state-run grocery company.
    (Econ, 6/12/10, p.43)

2010        Jun 5, In Venezuela Gustavo Azocar, a journalist-turned-politician who had planned to run in September, became the latest in a series of candidates kept out of the race by Comptroller General Clodosbaldo Russian, an ally of Pres. Chavez. The government began to take control of an archive of documents that belonged to independence hero Simon Bolivar.
    (AP, 6/5/10)

2010        Jun 7, Venezuela announced the takeover of 18 more food companies accused of violating regulations.
    (Econ, 6/2/10, p.43)

2010        Jun 10, Venezuela’s Pres. Hugo Chavez said he wants Venezuelans to stop drinking so much alcohol and ordered the military to crack down on businesses selling beer on the streets or after legal hours.
    (AP, 6/11/10)

2010        Jun 11, Venezuelan authorities issued an arrest warrant for Guillermo Zuloaga, the owner of a television channel that takes a critical line against President Hugo Chavez. Zuloaga served as president and majority shareholder of Globovision, the country's only remaining channel on the airwaves that is stridently opposed to Chavez.
    (AP, 6/12/10)

2010        Jun 15, In Venezuela Guillermo Zuloaga, the majority owner of the country's only opposition-aligned TV station, was confirmed to have left the country to avoid an arrest warrant as multiple cases brought by authorities leave Globovision facing an uncertain future. In the meantime the channel will be headed by Maria Fernanda Flores, a member of the board of directors, along with Carlos Zuloaga, a son of the owner.
    (AP, 6/16/10)

2010        Jun 18, Venezuela called on Interpol for the capture of Guillermo Zuloaga (67), a government opponent who owns a critical television channel, who recently fled the country after authorities sought to arrest him. Authorities believed Zuloaga was in Miami, along with Nelson Mezerhane, who owns a minority stake in Globovision.
    (AP, 6/18/10)

2010        Jun 23, Venezuela said it will nationalize a fleet of oil rigs belonging to US company Helmerich and Payne. The 11 drilling rigs have been idled for months following a dispute over $49 million in pending payments by the state oil company PDVSA. On June 26 the oil minister said Venezuela will pay Helmerich and Payne for the fleet of seized oil rigs, warning that five drills at a Chevron venture were also at risk of nationalization.
    (Reuters, 6/24/10)(Reuters, 6/26/10)

2010        Jun 24, Venezuela said it has captured Luis Frank Tello Candelo (47), a suspected Colombian drug smuggler, who is wanted on cocaine charges in the United States and who has allegedly collaborated with Mexico's Zetas drug gang.
    (AP, 6/24/10)

2010        Jun 25, In Venezuela it was reported that fish and birds covered with tar-like oil are washing up on the eastern shores of Lake Maracaibo, angering fishermen who fear their livelihood is at stake because of the country's state-run oil company.
    (AP, 6/26/10)

2010        Jun 26, Venezuelan President Hugo Chavez met with Syrian President Bashar Assad and called on Latin America and the Arab world to fight what he called America's imperialist and capitalist interests abroad.
    (AP, 6/26/10)

2010        Jul 1, Francisco Chavez Abarca of El Salvador, was arrested in Venezuela, traveling on a false passport, and quickly flown to Cuba to face charges in a 1990s bombing campaign. On Sep 27 Abarca said on state TV that he was hired to plant bombs by Luis Posada Carriles, an 80-year-old anti-Castro militant and former CIA operative.
    (AP, 9/28/10)

2010        Jul 5, In Venezuela Carlos Alberto "Beto" Renteria (65), last remaining fugitive capo of Colombia's Norte del Valle drug cartel, was arrested after he traveled to Margarita Island. The next day Pres. Chavez announced that would be extradited to the US, which has offered a $5 million reward for information leading to his arrest. The cartel is accused in a 2004 US indictment of shipping some 500 metric tons of cocaine to the US beginning in 1990.
    (AP, 7/7/10)

2010        Jul 6, Venezuela announced plans to extradite a Salvadoran man wanted by Cuba as a suspect in a series of bombings. Cuba believes Chavez Abarca placed an explosive that damaged a hotel disco on April 2, 1997, and another bomb later that month that failed to explode on the 15th floor of the same hotel. Cuban officials also suspect him in a 1997 bombing of a Cuban government office.
    (AP, 7/6/10)

2010        Jul 12, Venezuelan intelligence agents detained Alejandro Pena Esclusa, a government opponent, on suspicion of links to a Salvadoran man accused of bombings in Cuba. His wife accused authorities of planting explosives while her husband was handcuffed and she was in another part of the apartment.
    (AP, 7/14/10)

2010        Jul 20, Venezuelan President Hugo Chavez said he would put a representative on the board of opposition television station Globovision, the leftist leader's boldest move yet against his fiercest media critic.
    (Reuters, 7/20/10)

2010        Jul 22, Venezuelan President Hugo Chavez broke diplomatic relations with neighboring Colombia, accusing the close US ally of fabricating reports that Colombian rebels find safe haven inside Venezuela.
    (AP, 7/23/10)

2010        Jul 27, Venezuela's justice ministry announced the capture of a purported Colombian drug trafficker, Gloria Esther Chavez Ceballos, alias "Gloria Amparo." Ceballos was alleged to lead a group of smugglers known as "Los Indios" that moves drugs to the Caribbean and Europe. Authorities said police have apprehended six alleged far-right paramilitary fighters from Colombia, including a militia leader wanted in the killing of a Venezuelan mayor near the border with Colombia.
    (AP, 7/27/10)

2010        Aug 8, Venezuela’s Pres. Chavez rejected Larry Palmer as the US ambassador to Caracas citing comments by Palmer regarding low morale in Venezuela’s military.
    (SFC, 8/9/10, p.A1)

2010        Aug 10, The leaders of Colombia and Venezuela re-established diplomatic relations, saying they are starting to repair confidence undermined by years of recriminations between the two countries. The announcement came after a four-hour meeting between Venezuelan Pres. Hugo Chavez and Colombia's new leader, Juan Manuel Santos.
    (AP, 8/11/10)

2010        Aug 17, Venezuelan President Hugo Chavez signed a new law into effect that formalizes the exclusion of private brokerages from trading the local bolivar currency or public sector dollar-denominated debt.
    (AP, 8/18/10)
2010        Aug 17, A Venezuelan court ordered one of the country’s leading newspapers to stop publishing photographs depicting blood, guns and other violent images and warned it could face a hefty fine for having published a photo of bodies in a morgue.
    (AP, 8/17/10)

2010        Aug 18, A leading Venezuelan newspaper replaced front-page photos with the word "censored" to protest a court's monthlong ban on the publication of information and photos about violence.
    (AP, 8/18/10)

2010        Aug 19, Venezuelan Walid Makled Garcia (43), a prominent drug trafficking suspect who has been branded a major kingpin by the US government, was arrested in Colombia. He was implicated in Venezuela in two killings.
    (AP, 8/20/10)

2010        Aug 21, In Venezuela a soldier, identified as Jeffersson Jose Trujillo Vasquez, shot and killed two officers at the Fort Tiuna military base in Caracas, setting off a gunfight that wounded six other soldiers. Trujillo Vasquez was arrested on Sep 21 in a slum in the city of Araure in the western state of Portuguesa.
    (AP, 8/21/10)(AP, 9/22/10)

2010        Aug 26, Venezuelan authorities seized more than 4.4 tons (4 metric tons) of cocaine at a ranch after F-16 fighter jets intercepted a plane that was flying to pick up the load.
    (AP, 8/26/10)

2010        Aug 27, A Venezuelan National Guard helicopter crashed during a counter-drug mission near the Colombian border, killing all 10 soldiers on board.
    (AP, 8/28/10)

2010        Aug 30, In Venezuela Franklin Brito, a farmer who staged repeated hunger strikes to protest a government-sanctioned takeover of his farm, died in a military hospital in Caracas.
    (AP, 8/31/10)

2010        Sep 13, In eastern Venezuela a plane carrying 51 people crashed in a steel mill yard. 17 people on board were killed leaving 34 survivors.
    (AP, 9/13/10)(AP, 9/14/10)

2010        Sep 14, A Venezuelan military helicopter crashed into a navy research boat and plunged into the sea, leaving two missing and five injured.
    (AP, 9/14/10)

2010        Sep 20, Venezuela deported two drug trafficking suspects to the US, including an alleged boss of the powerful Norte del Valle cartel in neighboring Colombia. The action came only days after the US criticized Venezuela's cooperation in fighting illegal narcotics.
    (AP, 9/20/10)

2010        Sep 26, Venezuela’s President Hugo Chavez was seeking to hold on to his dominant control of congress in elections that put his popularity to a critical test. Chavez's allies won a strong majority in Venezuela's congress, but lost the two-thirds majority needed to carry out major changes on their own.
    (AP, 9/26/10)(AP, 9/27/10)

2010        Sep 29, Venezuela’s attorney general's office said that psychiatrist Edmundo Chirinos has been convicted of killing Roxana Vargas (19). He was sentenced to 20 years in prison. Her body was found with a blow to the head in 2008 in a park on the outskirts of Caracas. Investigators had found some 1,200 photographs of nude female patients in his home. Chirinos was a fringe candidate for president in 1988, but came away with only a tiny fraction of the vote.
    (AP, 9/30/10)
2010        Sep 29, In Venezuela fighting erupted between inmates feuding over control in Tocoron prison in north-central Aragua state. The rioting killed 16 inmates and injured 35.
    (AP, 9/30/10)

2010        Oct 15, Russia agreed to help build Venezuela's first nuclear power plant and buy $1.6 billion of oil assets, reinforcing ties with President Hugo Chavez, who shares Moscow's opposition to US global dominance.
    (Reuters, 10/15/10)

2010        Oct 16, In Belarus visiting Pres. Chavez of Venezuela promised that Belarusian refineries, the backbone of the country's economy, would see no oil shortages for the next 200 years.
    (AP, 10/16/10)

2010        Oct 19, In Iran Venezuela’s President Hugo Chavez held talks with leaders expected to focus on boosting cooperation between the countries' oil, gas and petrochemical industries.
    (AP, 10/19/10)

2010        Oct 20, Venezuelan President Hugo Chavez left Iran after signing 11 deals focused on energy cooperation between the two major oil producers who are foes of the United States.
    (AFP, 10/20/10)

2010        Oct 21, In Syria Venezuelan Pres. Chavez met with his Pres. Bashar Assad on the Mideast leg of an international tour partly intended to counter what he calls US "imperialism."
    (AP, 10/21/10)

2010        Oct 25, Venezuelan President Hugo Chavez announced the expropriation of the local affiliate of the US-based glassmaker Owens Illinois, accusing it of causing environmental damage and exploiting its workers. To date almost 400 companies have been nationalized since Chavez became president in 1999.
    (AFP, 10/26/10)(Econ, 11/20/10, p.44)

2010        Oct 29, Venezuelan health workers said an epidemic that may be malaria has killed dozens of people, decimating three villages of the Yanomami Indians, whose struggle for survival in a remote part of the Amazon rain forest has attracted worldwide support.
    (AP, 10/30/10)

2010        Oct 30, In China Alexandria Mills, a soft-spoken 18-year-old from Louisville, Kentucky, was named the winner in the 60th Miss World Competition, held on Hainan Island. Second place went to Emma Wareus of Botswana, and Adriana Vasini of Venezuela came third.
    (AP, 10/31/10)

2010        Nov 2, In Venezuela President Hugo Chavez and his Colombian counterpart Juan Manuel Santos signed a string of accords seeking to improve relations despite ideological differences and recent bitter disputes.
    (AP, 11/2/10)(AFP, 11/3/10)

2010        Nov 7, Venezuelan President Hugo Chavez said on Cuban television that Colombia will extradite Walid Makled, known as "The Turk," a businessman accused of being a major drug kingpin back to his native Venezuela to face justice. Makled has said in a television interview that he poured $2 million into a 2007 Chavez political campaign and in return got a concession at Venezuela's Puerto Cabello, his alleged shipping point for drugs.
    (Reuters, 11/8/10)

2010        Nov 13, In Venezuela thousands of supporters of President Hugo Chavez filled a downtown Caracas avenue to demonstrate their backing for the socialist leader's crackdown on allegedly crooked real-estate and construction companies. Chavez ordered the expropriation of six residential complexes and "the temporary occupation" of eight gated communities in Caracas and other cities more than a week ago, arguing that real estate and construction companies were unjustly boosting prices.
    (AP, 11/13/10)

2010        Nov 22, Venezuela's oil minister, Rafael Ramirez, said that the latest exploratory drilling has confirmed "extraordinary results": about 15 trillion cubic feet of gas under the sea floor in a place where experts once thought there was only a fraction of that amount. An event launched a separate $17 billion oil project involving Italy’s Eni SpA and state oil company Petroleos de Venezuela SA, or PDVSA.
    (AP, 11/23/10)

2010        Nov 27, Venezuelan President Chavez promoted Gen. Henry Rangel Silva to general-in-chief. Silva had sparked controversy by suggesting the military would not accept an electoral return to power by government opponents.
    (AP, 11/27/10)

2010        Dec 5, In Venezuela voters in several regions elected governors in two states and mayors in 11 municipalities, including the country's second-largest city. An opposition candidate won the mayorship of Venezuela's second-largest city of Maracaibo. Candidates from Chavez's ruling party captured 7 of the 11 mayorships and one state.
    (AP, 12/5/10)(AP, 12/6/10)
2010        Dec 5, Venezuelan authorities said flooding and landslides unleashed by torrential rains have killed at least 34 people and forced thousands from their homes.
    (AP, 11/30/10)(AP, 12/2/10)(AP, 12/5/10)

2010        Dec 6, Venezuelan soldiers took charge at several privately owned hotels to help accommodate some of the thousands of people who have been forced from their homes by flooding and mudslides following weeks of torrential rains.
    (AP, 12/6/10)

2010        Dec 9, The Provea human rights group said 13,985 people were murdered in Venezuela last year and the figure could be significantly higher, alluding to the rampant crime that has become a central concern of Venezuelans.
    (AP, 12/9/10)

2010        Dec 10, Venezuelan President Hugo Chavez said he will ask his congressional allies to again grant him special powers to enact laws by decree.
    (AP, 12/10/10)

2010        Dec 13, A classified US document, dated Feb 26, 2010, released by WikiLeaks said Venezuela’s government sold China oil for as little as $5 a barrel and was upset that China apparently profited by selling the fuel to other countries. Another embassy report on Sept. 23, 2009, said Venezuela has been manipulating its oil price index. Other cables indicated significant problems at PDVSA.
    (AP, 12/14/10)

2010        Dec 14, Venezuelan President Hugo Chavez asked congress to grant him special powers to enact laws by decree for one year, just before a new legislature takes office with a larger contingent of opposition lawmakers.
    (AP, 12/14/10)

2010        Dec 17, Venezuelan lawmakers granted President Hugo Chavez broad powers to enact laws by decree, undermining the clout of a new congress that takes office next month with a bigger opposition bloc. Officials and troops began seizing 47 private ranches as pres. Chavez pushed ahead to take over big swaths of agricultural land in western Venezuela.
    (AP, 12/18/10)(SFC, 12/18/10, p.A2)

2010        Dec 18, Tensions between the US and Venezuela flared over Washington's nominee for ambassador, as President Hugo Chavez warned that diplomat Larry Palmer would be detained and put on the next flight home if he tries to set foot in the country.
    (AP, 12/18/10)

2010        Dec 20, Venezuela’s government formally rejected Larry Palmer, Washington's nominee for ambassador. The US State Department said the decision will have consequences on their relations. Venezuela’s parliament passed a law banning for the first time Internet content that promotes social unrest, challenges authority or condones crime, fueling outrage by the opposition.
    (AP, 12/20/10)(AFP, 12/21/10)

2010        Dec 21, Venezuela’s congress, dominated by President Hugo Chavez's allies, passed a law barring foreign funding for nongovernment organizations and political parties, adding to a series of measures that critics say aim to stifle dissent.
    (AP, 12/22/10)

2010        Dec 22, A Venezuelan court sentenced Jose Sanchez Montiel, an opposition politician, to 19 years in prison, saying he was an accomplice in the 2007 killing of a military intelligence official. He was elected to the National Assembly in September while in jail awaiting sentencing. On Dec 24, 2011, a court granted parole to Montiel for humanitarian reasons because of his advanced prostate cancer.
    (AP, 12/23/10)(AP, 12/24/11)

2010        Dec 23, In Venezuela police and soldiers fired water cannons and plastic bullets as thousands of students protested against a law passed by Venezuela's congress that increases the government's powers over the country's universities.
    (AP, 12/23/10)

2010        Dec 25, Former Venezuelan President Carlos Andres Perez (88) died in Miami. His popularity soared with his country's oil-based economy, but later faced riots, a severe economic downturn and impeachment in his homeland. Perez governed Venezuela from 1974-79 and again from 1989-93 and denied any wrongdoing.
    (AP, 12/25/10)(Econ, 1/8/11, p.86)

2010        Dec 26, Venezuelan President Hugo Chavez made his first use of new decree powers to create a $2.3 billion fund for reconstruction after widespread flooding that left more than 130,000 people homeless.
    (Reuters, 12/26/10)

2010        Dec 27, Venezuela said it has detained 12,376 people for drug-related crimes this year, about 40 percent more than in 2009.
    (Reuters, 12/28/10)

2010        Dec 30, Venezuelan President Hugo Chavez's government devalued its bolivar currency for the second time in 12 months, abolishing the lowest exchange rate as the OPEC member fights to revive its economy.
    (Reuters, 12/31/10)

2010        In Venezuela 476 people died and 967 were injured in prison violence this year, according to figures compiled by the Inter-American Commission on Human Rights.
    (AP, 10/24/11)

2011        Jan 5, In Venezuela supporters and opponents of Hugo Chavez held rival rallies to mark the start of a new parliament shorn of power by the radical socialist leader's assumption of decree rule. Larry Tovar Acuna, a convicted drug trafficker who has been in and out of prison, was recaptured by Venezuelan authorities after a shootout with police.
    (AP, 1/5/11)(AP, 1/6/11)

2011        Jan 7, In western Venezuela a 10-year-old girl survived a plane crash that killed the five other people on board, apparently her family members.
    (AP, 1/8/11)

2011        Jan 15, Venezuela’s President Hugo Chavez called for conciliation between political rivals and told recently elected lawmakers he was willing to sharply reduce the period of time he has to enact laws by decree.
    (AP, 1/15/11)

2011        Jan 23, In Venezuela allies and adversaries of President Hugo Chavez took to the streets of the capital by the thousands, staging rival demonstrations to commemorate the 53rd anniversary of Venezuela's democracy.
    (AP, 1/24/11)

2011        Jan 26, Venezuela's top security official and Colombia's defense minister signed an accord to strengthen cooperation in the fight against drug trafficking along the extensive border separating the South American neighbors.
    (AP, 1/26/11)

2011        Jan 30, In Venezuela a fire set off a series of explosions at a military arms depot in the city of Maracay, killing one person and leading authorities to evacuate around 10,000 people from the area.
    (AP, 1/30/11)

2011        Feb 8, Cuban officials celebrated the arrival of a 1,600km fiber optic cable from Venezuela, whose government put up the $70 million cost. It was expected to become operational this summer.
    (SFC, 2/10/11, p.A2)(Econ, 3/5/11, p.42)(http://tinyurl.com/4zgampd)

2011        Feb 15, Venezuelan and French authorities seized 3.6 metric tons of cocaine aboard a vessel in the Caribbean Sea.
    (AP, 2/16/11)

2011        Feb 17, Analysts of the British research firm, Capital Economics, wrote that the government of Venezuela could default on its obligations in 2012.
    (Econ, 2/26/11, p.43)

2011        Feb 22, In Venezuela protesting students ended a three-week hunger strike, saying they stopped because the Organization of American States is discussing their allegations of human rights abuses by Venezuela's government.
    (AP, 2/22/11)

2011        Feb 28, In Venezuela union leader Ruben Gonzalez was sentenced to 7½ years in prison on charges related to a 2009 strike he led that temporarily paralyzed the state-run iron mining company, CVG Ferrominera Orinoco CA, better known as Ferrominera. On March 3 Gonzalez was granted parole but would be required to appear before authorities every 15 days.
    (AP, 3/3/11)(AP, 3/4/11)

2011        Mar 2, Leading human rights activists condemned Venezuelan authorities for sentencing union leader Ruben Gonzalez to prison for launching a strike, saying more than 100 other unionists also face charges after participating in protests.
    (AP, 3/3/11)

2011        Mar 3, Libya’s Muammar Gaddafi struck at rebel control of a key Libyan coastal road for a second day but received a warning he would be held to account at The Hague for suspected crimes by his security forces. Mutinous army units deployed around the strategic oil installation at Brega, securing the site after the opposition repelled an attempt by loyalists of Moammar Gadhafi to retake the port in rebel-held east Libya. A spokesman for Venezuela’s President Hugo Chavez said the Libyan government has accepted a Venezuelan plan that seeks a negotiated solution to the uprising in the North African country.
    (Reuters, 3/3/11)(AP, 3/3/11)(Reuters, 3/3/11)

2011        Mar 17, A Venezuelan government official said one person has died of swine flu and six others have been diagnosed with the virus.
    (AP, 3/17/11)

2011        Mar 22, In Venezuela new rules authorizing the military to distribute weapons to pro-government militias took effect, raising concern among critics who say the armed groups could be used by President Hugo Chavez to cement his hold on power.
    (AP, 3/22/11)

2011        Mar 26, University protesters in Venezuela ended a month-long hunger strike, saying President Hugo Chavez's government has met their demands.
    (AP, 3/26/11)

2011        Mar 27, Venezuela’s President Chavez urged citizens to cut their calories to avoid obesity, the latest lifestyle recommendation by the self-proclaimed socialist crusader. Chavez has lobbied in recent weeks against what he calls the evils of capitalism, including alcoholism, breast implants and violent television programs.
    (AP, 3/27/11)

2011        Apr 3, In Colombia Walid Makled, the reputed Venezuelan drug kingpin who Colombia has decided to extradite back home rather than to the US, said in a TV interview that he has videos proving Venezuela's ruling elite is deeply involved in cocaine trafficking.
    (AP, 4/4/11)

2011        Apr 7, A blackout hit a large swath of Venezuela, darkening street lights, shutting down the Caracas subway and prompting the government to announce temporary rationing measures. A forest fire apparently caused the problem by overheating major transmission lines in western Venezuela and knocking them offline.
    (AP, 4/7/11)

2011        Apr 11, Venezuela deported two suspected Colombian rebels, sending a positive message to other nations that want President Hugo Chavez to ensure suspected terrorists do not find haven in Venezuela.
    (AP, 4/11/11)

2011        Apr 13, Venezuela’s police seized 66 pounds (30 kg) of cocaine aboard a bus carrying members of the government-organized militias. Five suspects, including the bus driver and his assistant, were arrested.
    (AP, 4/15/11)
2011        Apr 13, Colombia's interior minister approved the extradition to Venezuela of Walid Makled, a reputed drug kingpin who has publicly accused his home country's ruling elite of deep involvement in cocaine trafficking. It will take at least five days to extradite Makled, in order to give him a chance to appeal the decision.
    (AP, 4/13/11)

2011        Apr 23, Venezuela detained Joaquin Perez Becerra as he arrived in Caracas on an airline flight from Frankfurt, Germany. He was described him as an alleged member of the international front of the Revolutionary Armed Forces of Colombia (FARC).
    (AP, 4/24/11)

2011        Apr 28, Venezuelan authorities said inmates have taken 22 employees hostage at a prison to demand human rights guarantees and improved living conditions. The uprising inside El Rodeo prison began the previous day, when inmates complained of a tuberculosis outbreak inside the lockup.
    (AP, 4/29/11)

2011        May 5, In Venezuela inmates at a prison near Caracas freed the prison director and 14 other hostages and ended an eight-day standoff over conditions at the jail.
    (AP, 5/5/11)

2011        May 6, In Venezuela authorities at a prison in western Tachira state found the bodies of eight inmates killed in what officials say is a conflict between rival gangs fighting for control of their cellblocks.
    (AP, 5/7/11)

2011        May 8, In Venezuela the director of a municipal police force and his son were slain in the western part of the country. Investigators believed the criminals began shooting during an attempt to steal the officer's vehicle.
    (AP, 5/8/11)

2011        May 9, Colombia extradited Walid Makled to Venezuela to face drug smuggling and murder charges.
    (SFC, 5/10/11, p.A2)

2011        May 17, In Venezuela the body of journalist Wilfred Ivan Ojeda (56) was found in a vacant lot in the town of La Victoria. He had been shot in the head and was found gagged and hooded with his hands bound. He was a local political activist for the opposition party Democratic Action and a columnist for the small daily El Clarin in the rural town.
    (AP, 5/18/11)

2011        May 21, In Venezuela inmates at a Caracas prison freed the warden and 14 other officers after holding them hostage for more than a day.
    (AP, 5/21/11)

2011        May 25, In Venezuela red-clad oil workers rallied to denounce "imperialist" US sanctions over its Iran ties, but the rising anger seemed unlikely to sink the OPEC member's huge oil trade with the United States.
    (Reuters, 5/25/11)

2011        May 30, In Venezuela Guillermo Torres (56), aka "Julian Conrado," a top commander for the FARC rebels, was captured in a collaboration between Colombia and Venezuela.
    (AP, 6/1/11)

2011        Jun 10, Venezuelan president Hugo Chavez had surgery in Cuba for an abscess in his pelvis. A government spokesperson said the operation was successful and he would remain in Cuba for several more days, while he recuperated.
            (Reuters, 6/10/11)

2011        Jun 12, In Venezuela a shoot-out erupted between gangs at the Rodeo I unit of the El Rodeo jail complex. 27 people were reportedly killed.
    (Econ, 7/16/11, p.40)

2011        Jun 15, Venezuela's energy minister said his country will soon begin rationing electricity in several regions because of recurring power outages.
    (AP, 6/16/11)

2011        Jun 17, In Venezuela thousands of National Guard troops stormed the El Rodeo I prison seeking to disarm inmates days after a bloody riot, setting off gunfights with resisting inmates that left at least two soldiers dead and 18 wounded.
    (AP, 6/17/11)
2011        Jun 17, Mexican customs inspectors say they've found more than $2.4 million in cash rolled up and stuffed into spools of telephone cable headed for Venezuela. Authorities say Venezuela is increasingly becoming a trans-shipment point for cocaine, and Mexican cartels often ship money back to South America to pay for the drugs.
    (AP, 6/17/11)

2011        Jun 18, In Venezuela gunfire rang out at the El Rodeo I prison for a 2nd day as troops sought to regain control in battles that have left at least 3 dead and 18 wounded.
    (AP, 6/18/11)

2011        Jun 19, In Venezuela fire ripped through the El Rodeo I prison where thousands of troops struggled to put down a revolt by inmates as dozens of horrified relatives tried to watch the fighting.
    (AP, 6/19/11)

2011        Jun 20, In Venezuela National Guard troops fired tear gas at a prison as they tried for a fourth day to dislodge a group of heavily armed inmates who have staved off attempts to retake control.
    (AP, 6/20/11)

2011        Jun 24, In Venezuela Warden Luis Aranguren was arrested along with National Guard Capt. Gamalier Jose Camargo Gomez whose unit patrolled the Rodeo II prison. The two men were charged with corruption, criminal association and supplying arms and explosives to inmates. Violence began after troops stormed the Rodeo I on June 17 in a weapons hunt, sparking a furious reaction from prisoners.
    (AP, 6/28/11)

2011        Jun 25, Venezuela's top security official said authorities have seized more than 5.5 tons of cocaine.
    (AP, 6/26/11)

2011        Jun 28, In Venezuela authorities arrested an operations chief of Rodeo II and a prison guard. Another 10 officials have also been arrested, including Ruben Jose Gonzalez Heredi, the deputy director of an adjacent prison. He was detained for allegedly facilitating arms and explosives and illegal drug trafficking.
    (AP, 6/28/11)

2011        Jun 30, Venezuelan President Hugo Chavez (56) revealed that he is fighting cancer after having a tumor removed in Cuba, raising uncertainty about Venezuela's political future even as he assured his country he expects to fully recover.
    (AP, 7/1/11)

2011        Jul 4, Venezuela's ever-theatrical President Hugo Chavez made a surprise homecoming from Cuba and declared himself "fine" despite speculation his cancer may still require lengthy treatment.
    (Reuters, 7/4/11)

2011        Jul 9, Venezuela’s President Hugo Chavez announced a new $4 billion loan from China and discussed his health in a televised appearance.
    (AP, 7/9/11)

2011        Jul 13, In Venezuela a prison uprising that caused seven deaths ended peacefully on its 27th day when hundreds of inmates emerged from the embattled Rodeo II prison after negotiations with officials.
    (AP, 7/14/11)

2011        Jul 15, Venezuelan President Hugo Chavez announced that he will return to Cuba to begin a new phase of cancer treatment that will include chemotherapy.
    (AP, 7/15/11)

2011        Jul 17, Venezuelan President Hugo Chavez returned to Cuba to begin chemotherapy nearly a month after surgery to remove a tumor.
    (AP, 7/17/11)

2011        Jul 19, In Venezuela a clash at a prison in San Felipe left six dead. Tension was high since July 17, when one group of inmates vying for control of the prison killed a leader of a rival group. Another prisoner was killed and 16 were being treated for burns after violence broke out in a prison in the western town of Cabimas.
    (AP, 7/19/11)

2011        Jul 23, President Hugo Chavez (56) returned to Venezuela after spending almost a week in Cuba to receive chemotherapy treatment for his cancer.
    (AP, 7/24/11)

2011        Aug 3, Venezuela and Iran signed a deal for Iran build over 10,000 homes in three central states of the South American nation in a billion-dollar investment package that signals the two country's increasingly close ties.
    (AFP, 8/4/11)

2011        Aug 10, Some Venezuelan police chiefs said the lockups in their stations are either at capacity or nearly full as a result of the order for prisons to stop accepting new inmates for a month. The order came last week from the newly appointed prisons minister, Iris Varela.
    (AP, 8/10/11)

2011        Aug 13, In Venezuela a light plane landed on a coastal road in Falcon state with 1.4 tons of cocaine. A shootout followed between state police and national detectives (CICPC). The plane had taken off from a military airport in Caracas. 2 people were killed.
    (Econ, 10/8/11, p.48)(www.madcowprod.com/08242011.htm)

2011        Aug 17, Venezuela’s Pres. Chavez said that he is nationalizing the nation’s gold mining industry and that he intends to bring home $1 billion in gold reserves held in the US and European banks. In western Venezuela inmates brawled in an overcrowded prison, killing seven prisoners and injuring 37 people, including eight visitors.
    (SFC, 8/18/11, p.A2)(AP, 8/18/11)
2011        Aug 17, A Venezuelan military helicopter carrying 10 soldiers crashed into the sea off the Caribbean coast. Searchers rescued one soldier and found the body of one of the helicopter's pilots. The wreckage and remaining bodies were recovered by Aug 20.
    (AP, 8/17/11)(AP, 8/20/11)

2011        Aug 23, In Venezuela a judge ordered a weekly newspaper strongly critical of President Hugo Chavez and his allies to temporarily stop publishing while prosecutors proceed with slander charges against its director. Dinorah Giron, director of Sexto Poder, was accused of committing the crimes by allowing the Aug. 20 publication of photo montage that ridiculed several female public officials by likening them to cabaret dancers.
    (AP, 8/23/11)

2011        Sep 8, The US government accused a powerful Venezuelan general, an intelligence official and two political allies of President Hugo Chavez of providing arms, security and training to Colombia's main rebel group. It barred Americans from doing business with them.
    (AP, 9/8/11)

2011        Sep 19, Venezuela deported six suspected drug traffickers wanted in Colombia and the United States. They also included US citizen Lionel Scott Harris (67), who is suspected of smuggling drugs, and five Colombians wanted on drug-related charges.
    (AP, 9/19/11)

2011        Sep 24, Venezuelan opposition leader Leopoldo Lopez launched his presidential campaign, challenging President Hugo Chavez to accept him in the race after a human rights court overturned a ban on his candidacy.
    (AP, 9/24/11)

2011        Oct 6, Venezuelan President Hugo Chavez announced that his government will expropriate homes on the Caribbean resort islands of Los Roques, saying the structures were built on plots bought in shadowy business deals.
    (AP, 10/6/11)

2011        Oct 14, In Venezuela activists reported that inmates at Tocuyito prison took more than 50 guards and other prison workers hostage. 25 were released on Oct 23. 15 more were released on Oct 24. Twelve remaining prison employees, mostly women, were released on Oct 25 after authorities vowed to transfer hundreds of prisoners to another facility.
    (AP, 10/24/11)(AP, 10/25/11)

2011        Oct 20, Venezuelan President Hugo Chavez said he is free of cancer after a series of chemotherapy treatments in Cuba.
    (AP, 10/20/11)

2011        Oct 27, Venezuelan lawmakers approved measures that expand rent controls and require landlords to offer to sell their properties to any renters who have been living in a home for more than 20 years.
    (AP, 10/28/11)

2011        Oct 30, Venezuela's Pres. Chavez ordered the expropriation of 716,590 acres belonging to a British-owned company amid a disagreement over compensation for earlier takeovers of ranchland from the firm. Chavez announced the latest seizure after saying that Venezuela refuses to pay compensation in foreign currency to Agropecuaria Flora, a local subsidiary of the British company Vestey Group.
    (AP, 10/30/11)

2011        Nov 2, In Venezuela inmates rioting at a jail attacked other prisoners, killing 8, and took 5 police officers hostage inside the jail in the city of San Cristobal, capital of Tachira state.
    (AP, 11/3/11)

2011        Nov 6, Miss Venezuela, Ivian Sarcos, was crowned the 2011 winner of the Miss World beauty pageant at a glittering final ceremony in London.
    (AFP, 11/7/11)

2011        Nov 9, In Venezuela Washington Nationals catcher Wilson Ramos (24), who had just finished his rookie season, was seized from his home in the town of Santa Ines by kidnappers. Ramos was reported rescued on Nov 11.
    (AP, 11/10/11)(AP, 11/11/11)

2011        Nov 17, Venezuela’s Pres. Chavez ordered thousands of National Guard soldiers into the streets of Caracas and the surrounding states of Miranda and Vargas to help outgunned police curb widespread violent crime.
    (SFC, 11/18/11, p.A2)

2011        Nov 27, In Venezuela Maximiliano Bonilla Orozco, a top Colombian drug trafficker known as "Valenciano," was captured in Maracay. Officials the next day said he will be turned over to US authorities.
    (AP, 11/28/11)

2011        Dec 1, In Venezuela a 5-year-old boy died in Guanare. An autopsy found bruises and other injuries on the boy's body as well as scars showing a history of physical abuse and "signs of sexual abuse." His death sparked violent protests leading to the arrest of some 30 people. Suspects, including the boy's mother, faced charges of murder, sexual abuse and abusive treatment.
    (AP, 12/7/11) 

2011        Dec 2, Venezuela’s Pres. Hugo Chavez hosted leaders from across the Americas at a two-day summit. Chavez described the new regional bloc that excludes the US as a tribute to his idol Bolivar, saying the time has come to put an end to US hegemony. The 33-nation Community of Latin American and Caribbean States (CELAC) includes every country in Latin America and the Caribbean. Plans for the new organization, which grew out of the 24-nation Rio Group, have been in the works since a 2008 summit hosted by Brazilian President Luiz Inacio Lula da Silva.
    (AP, 12/2/11)

2011        Dec 3,     In Venezuela leaders from across Latin America and the Caribbean pledged closer ties to safeguard their economies from the world financial crisis as they formed a new bloc on Saturday including every nation in the hemisphere except the US and Canada. The leaders formally launched the new bloc, known by its Spanish initials CELAC, by approving a declaration of shared principles as well as a clause dealing with democratic norms.
    (AP, 12/3/11)

2011        Dec 5, In South Africa Global Witness said it has left the Kimberley Process, accusing the international diamond regulatory group of refusing to address links between diamonds, violence and tyranny. The rights watchdog cited what it called failures in Ivory Coast, Venezuela and Zimbabwe.
    (AP, 12/5/11)

2011        Dec 9, In Venezuela officials said floods and mudslides unleashed by torrential rains have caused at least eight deaths. Neighboring Colombia has also been coping with floods and President Juan Manuel Santos, touring flooded areas south of Bogota, promised assistance to those whose houses have been damaged.
    (AP, 12/9/11)

2011        Dec 13, Venezuelan authorities extended house arrest for Maria Lourdes Afiuni, a judge whose case has been strongly criticized by human rights groups. Afiuni was arrested after she released banker Eligio Cedeno, who had been in jail awaiting trial on charges of violating currency controls. Cedeno fled the country shortly following his release.
    (AP, 12/13/11)

2011        Dec 15, Venezuela handed Maximiliano Bonilla Orozco (aka "Valenciano"), a top Colombian drug trafficking suspect to US authorities, deporting him to face charges of shipping tons of cocaine to the United States.
    (AP, 12/15/11)

2011        Dec 17, Former Miss Venezuela Eva Ekvall (28), whose struggle with breast cancer was closely followed by Venezuelans, died at a hospital in Houston. Ekvall was crowned Miss Venezuela at age 17 in 2000, and the following year she was third runner-up in the Miss Universe pageant in Puerto Rico.
    (AP, 12/19/11)

2011        Dec 29, In Venezuela a PDVSA tanker truck filled with gasoline crashed and burst into flames, engulfing several cars and a bus. 15 people were killed.
    (AP, 12/29/11)(Econ, 2/18/12, p.38)

2012        Jan 4, In Venezuela more than 950 relatives of inmates were refusing to leave the Yare I and II prison in a protest to demand faster trial for inmates. President Hugo Chavez has told authorities to negotiate peacefully.
    (AP, 1/4/12)

2012        Jan 9, Iranian President Mahmoud Ahmadinejad visited his close ally President Hugo Chavez in Venezuela on the first leg of a four-nation tour that will also take Ahmadinejad to Nicaragua, Cuba and Ecuador.
    (AP, 1/9/12)
2012        Jan 9, In Venezuela fighting broke out at a jail. 6 prisoners were left dead.
    (AP, 1/10/12)

2012        Jan 13, Venezuelan President Hugo Chavez said that his government will close its consulate in Miami after the US government expelled a diplomat.
    (AP, 1/13/12)

2012        Jan 18, In Venezuela a helicopter crashed into Auyantepui mountain during a tour of the tabletop mountains in the Canaima National Park. 5 people were killed.
    (AP, 1/19/12)

2012        Jan 24, Venezuela deported three suspected drug smugglers wanted in the United States, Canada and Colombia, touting the moves as proof the government of President Hugo Chavez is making strides in fighting trafficking.
    (AP, 1/24/12)

2012        Jan 29, In Venezuela 4 armed men seized Mexico’s Ambassador Carlos Pujalte and his wife as they were leaving a party shortly before midnight in Caracas. The kidnappers freed the couple four hours later. On Feb 6 the prosecutor-general's office announced the arrests of 3 suspects in the case: Juan Pacheco, Oswaldo Leon and Mayurki Barreto.
    (AP, 2/6/12)

2012        Feb 4, Venezuelan President Hugo Chavez hosted a meeting of allies, the eight-nation Bolivarian Alliance bloc, or ALBA. The leaders of Cuba, Nicaragua, Ecuador, Bolivia, Haiti and Antigua and Barbuda participated. Suriname's president, Desi Bouterse, arrived the next day to join the talks. ALBA approved an agreement barring any boats flying Falkland Islands flags from docking in their ports.
    (AP, 2/4/12)
2012        Feb 4, In Venezuela the Colombian far-tight paramilitary warlord known as "Martin Llanos" (aka Hector Buitrago) was captured along with his brother, Nelson Buitrago (aka Caballo), in the eastern town of El Tigre.
    (AP, 2/7/12)
2012        Feb 4, In Venezuela a pipe transporting crude oil to a processing plant ruptured and blackened Guarapiche River in Monagas state. The spill forced officials to halt normal water distribution to parts of the city of Maturin.
    (AP, 2/11/12)

2012        Feb 12, Venezuelans lined up to vote in the country's first-ever opposition presidential primary, choosing a single challenger they hope will have what it takes to finally defeat President Hugo Chavez after 13 years in office. Henrique Capriles (39), governor of Miranda state, easily won the opposition presidential primary.
    (AP, 2/12/12)(AP, 2/13/12)

2012        Feb 14, Venezuela's Supreme Court ordered opposition electoral officials not to destroy lists of voters following primary elections, a decision that was promptly condemned by opposition leaders who vowed to keep voters' identities secret.
    (AP, 2/14/12)

2012        Feb 15, In eastern Venezuela hundreds of protesters blocked streets and burned tires in Maturin to demand clean water after a Feb 4 oil spill polluted rivers and streams that supply local storage tanks.
    (AP, 2/16/12)

2012        Feb 21, Venezuela’s President Hugo Chavez announced that doctors in Cuba found a new lesion in the same place where a cancerous tumor was removed last year and said he will shortly return to the island to have it surgically removed.
    (AP, 2/22/12)

2012        Feb 25, Venezuela’s President Hugo Chavez arrived in Cuba for urgent surgery to remove a tumor he says is probably malignant.
    (AP, 2/25/12)

2012        Feb 28, Cuban doctors successfully extracted a tumor from Venezuelan President Hugo Chavez's pelvic region and he was stable and recovering with family at his side.
    (AP, 2/29/12)

2012        Mar 16, Venezuelan President Hugo Chavez returned home nearly three weeks after undergoing cancer surgery in Cuba, saying he is praying for life and is confident he will survive and triumph in his re-election bid.
    (AP, 3/16/12)

2012        Mar 17, In Venezuela the daughter of Chilean diplomat Fernando Berendique was shot to death by police at a road checkpoint. The young woman (19) was hit by three bullets after her brother tried to evade an illegal unmarked roadblock.
    (AP, 3/18/12)(Econ, 4/14/12, p.48)

2012        Mar 21, Colombian police captured FARC midlevel leader William Alberto Asprilla (62) in neighboring Venezuela. He was said to be wanted for his role in the kidnapping and killing of three Americans in 1999. Asprilla, also known as "Marquetaliano," was detained while on the road between Caracas and the nearby port of La Guaira with the alleged cooperation of Venezuelan authorities.
    (AFP, 3/23/12)

2012        Mar 25, Venezuelan President Hugo Chavez was in Cuba to begin radiation therapy treatment one month after undergoing surgery that removed a cancerous tumor.
    (AP, 3/25/12)

2012        Mar 29, In Venezuela Pres. Chavez appeared on state television at an early morning meeting with aides after his plane touched down shortly before midnight. He said this week's 5-day treatments for cancer have been the first of five rounds.
    (AP, 3/29/12)

2012        Mar 30, Venezuelan regulators shut down four radio stations for allegedly operating without licenses, including one run by a brother of Monagas governor, Jose Briceno, on the outs with President Hugo Chavez. Briceno's falling out came this month after the governor accused National Assembly President Diosdado Cabello of trying to seize control of the governor's office.
    (AP, 3/30/12)

2012        Mar 31, Venezuelan President Hugo Chavez traveled to Cuba for another round of cancer treatment.
    (AP, 3/31/12)

2012        Apr 3, The European Commission prohibited Conviasa, Venezuela’s state airline, from flying into the EU due to safety concerns. Venezuela called the decision unfair.
    (SFC, 4/4/12, p.A2)

2012        Apr 4, Venezuelan President Hugo Chavez returned from his latest round of radiation therapy treatment in Cuba.
    (AP, 4/5/12)

2012        Apr 7, Venezuelan President Hugo Chavez flew back to Cuba late today for another round of radiation therapy.
    (AP, 4/8/12)

2012        Apr 18, Eladio Aponte, a former Venezuelan supreme court justice who recently fled to the US, gave an interview to SoiTV, a Miami-based TV channel. He said that senior officials from the president on down would provide the judiciary with instructions on sensitive cases.
    (Econ, 4/28/12, p.42)

2012        Apr 24, Venezuela's top security official announced the arrests of five people on charges of money laundering and said that there are suspicions some opposition politicians were involved in the scheme.
    (AP, 4/25/12)

2012        Apr 25, In Venezuela Walid Maklid, an alleged drug baron, said he had paid supreme court justice Eladio Aponte millions of dollars.
    (Econ, 4/28/12, p.42)

2012        Apr 30, Venezuela’s Pres. Chavez signed a labor law, known as LOTTT, that included a virtual ban on dismissals, a shorter working week and improved holiday and maternity benefits.
    (Econ, 1/25/14, p.28)(http://tinyurl.com/pp7suqv)

2012        May 11, Venezuelan Pres. Hugo Chavez returned home after 11 days of cancer treatment in Cuba.
    (SSFC, 5/13/12, p.A6)

2012        May 18, In Venezuela a 3-week prison standoff ended as the last of over 1,600 inmates agreed to be moved from La Planta prison to other prisons.
    (SFC, 5/19/12, p.A2)

2012        Jun 5, Bolivia, Ecuador, Nicaragua and Venezuela said they were pulling out of the Inter-American Treaty of Reciprocal Assistance during an annual meeting of the Organization of American States (OAS) in Bolivia.
    (SFC, 6/6/12, p.A2)

2012        Jun 11, Venezuela’s President Hugo Chavez sang, danced and gave a marathon speech at the launch of his re-election bid, offering a preview of a campaign in which he is likely to push his limits trying to show Venezuelans he is emerging from cancer's shadow.
    (AP, 6/11/12)

2012        Jun 21, A group of Venezuelan Indians demanded that Germany give back a 35-ton boulder, the so-called "Kueka Stone," that they say is sacred. Artist Wolfgang Kraker von Schwarzenfeld brought the sandstone boulder to Germany in 1997 and says it was given as a gift. He says Pemon Indians had helped him select the rock and questions whether it was considered sacred.
    (AP, 6/21/12)

2012        Jun 29, The Venezuelan television channel Globovision paid a fine of more than $2 million imposed by regulators, calling it an unfair penalty but saying it had no choice after the Supreme Court ordered an embargo on its assets for nonpayment. Regulators slapped the penalty on the channel last year for its coverage of a prolonged prison uprising.
    (AP, 6/29/12)
2012        Jun 29, In Argentina the Mercosur trade bloc held a summit. It suspended Paraguay's membership for having impeached and ousted its president but said it will not slap economic sanctions on it. The group also announced that Venezuela will become a full member starting July 31.
    (AP, 6/29/12)

2012        Jul 27, In Kenya Olga Fonseca Gimenez (57), the charge d'affaires and acting ambassador of Venezuela, was found dead at her official residence in Nairobi. Police said she was murdered by strangulation. Fonseca arrived in Kenya in July to replace Ambassador Gerardo Carillo-Silva, who had fled the country after three male workers at the ambassador's residence filed a complaint with the police accusing him of sexual harassment. Dwight Sagaray, First Secretary at the embassy, was arrested the next day in connection to the murder.
    (AP, 7/27/12)(AFP, 7/30/12)

2012        Jul 28, In Venezuela leaders from across Latin America and the Caribbean pledged closer ties to safeguard their economies from the world financial crisis as they formed a new 33-nation regional bloc (CELAC), the Community of Latin American and Caribbean States, including every nation in the hemisphere except the US and Canada.
    (AP, 7/28/12)

2012        Jul 31, Venezuela was officially welcomed into the Mercosur trade bloc as Brazilian President Dilma Rousseff hosted Argentina's President Cristina Fernandez and Uruguay's Jose Mujica along with Chavez for the one-day Mercosur meeting in Brasilia.
    (AP, 7/21/12)

2012        Jul, In Venezuela Brazilian gold miners reportedly arrived by helicopter and massacred a village of Yanomani Indians along the upper reaches of the Ocamo River. Most of the 80 people in Irotatheri village were allegedly killed. On Sep 1 officials said Investigators were unable to find any evidence of a massacre.
    (SFC, 8/31/12, p.A3)(AP, 9/2/12)

2012        Aug 6, Kenyan authorities charged Dwight Sagaray, the first secretary of Venezuela's embassy, with the murder of that country's acting ambassador to Kenya. Police believed the killing was motivated by a battle over embassy leadership. Mohamed Ahmed Mohamed Hassan, Sagaray's friend and an alleged co-conspirator, was also charged. Prosecutor Tabitha Ouya said the two suspects strangled Olga Fonseca Gimenez on the night of July 26 to 27.
    (AP, 8/6/12)

2012        Sep 18, In Venezuela Daniel Barrera, one of Colombia’s most wanted drug lords, was captured in San Cristobal. Barrera, aka “El Loco," has been in Venezuela since 2008, posing as a cattle rancher.
    (SFC, 9/20/12, p.A4)

2012        Aug 19, In Venezuela rival prison inmates waged a gunbattle that left 25 people dead.
    (SFC, 8/21/12, p.A2)

2012        Aug 25, In Venezuela a huge explosion rocked the Amuay refinery in Los Taques, killing 42 people. It injured more than 150 and was the deadliest disaster in memory for the country's key oil industry. It took 3-days to extinguish the fire.
    (AP, 8/25/12)(AP, 8/26/12)(AP, 8/28/12)(Economist, 9/1/12, p.39)

2012        Sep 27, Venezuelan and Russian officials signed eight agreements to boost cooperation in energy projects. Igor Sechin, the CEO of Russia's state-controlled Rosneft oil company, was quoted by Russian news agencies as saying he also gave Chavez a 3-month-old black terrier puppy as a present from Putin.
    (AP, 9/27/12)

2012        Sep 28, China launched a second satellite built for Venezuela's government. The $140 million remote sensing satellite soared into orbit atop a rocket from the northwestern Chinese province of Gansu. It will provide images for tasks such as mapping croplands, counter-drug efforts and monitoring floods.
    (AP, 9/28/12)

2012        Sep 29, In Venezuela 2 supporters of opposition candidate Henrique Capriles died in a confrontation with Chavez supporters in the western state of Barinas. A third was seriously wounded.
    (AP, 9/30/12)

2012        Sep 30, In Venezuela a huge crowd filled the streets of Caracas cheering for opposition candidate Henrique Capriles (40), waving flags in a show of support one week before the country's hotly contested presidential election.
    (AP, 10/1/12)

2012        Oct 7, Venezuela held presidential elections. With 90 percent of votes counted, Chavez had more than 54 percent of the vote to 45 percent for challenger Henrique Capriles. The opposition accused Chavez of unfairly using Venezuela's oil wealth and his near total control of state institutions to his advantage.
    (AP, 10/7/12)

2012        Nov 14, Venezuelan authorities deported Daniel Barrera, a prominent drug-trafficking suspect, to Colombia, nearly two months after his capture at a payphone in an operation aided by Colombian and US authorities.
    (AP, 11/14/12)

2012        Dec 7, Venezuelan President Hugo Chavez arrived back home in Caracas after 10 days of medical treatment in Cuba.
    (AP, 12/7/12)

2012        Dec 9, Venezuelan President Hugo Chavez named his vice president as his chosen successor and prepared to head back to Cuba for more surgery for cancer after announcing that the illness returned despite two previous operations, chemotherapy and radiation treatment.
    (AP, 12/9/12)

2012        Dec 11, Doctors in Cuba operated on Venezuelan President Hugo for cancer, after the illness reappeared despite a year and a half of surgeries and treatments.
    (AP, 12/12/12)

2012        Dec 16, Venezuelans chose governors and state lawmakers. Allies of cancer-stricken Pres. Hugo Chavez steamrolled Venezuela's opposition in gubernatorial elections, winning 20 of 23 states. Voter turnout was 53%.
    (AP, 12/16/12)

2012        Tricia Tunstall authored “Changing Lives: Gustavo Dudamel, El Sistema, and the Transformation of Music." Jose Antonio Abreu founded el sistema, a network of youth orchestras, in Venezuela in 1975. Dudamel became a star graduate of the system.
    (Econ, 1/14/12, p.80)

2013        Jan 4, A small plane disappeared off the Venezuelan coast with six people aboard, including Vittorio Missoni (58), a top executive in Italy's Missoni fashion house. Wreckage of the plane was found in June.
    (AP, 1/5/13)(AP, 6/27/13)

2013        Jan 5, In Venezuela allies of cancer-stricken President Hugo Chavez chose to retain Diosdado Cabello as the National Assembly president. He could be in line to step in as a caretaker leader in some circumstances.
    (AP, 1/5/13)

2013        Jan 10, In Venezuela thousands of chanting supporters of President Hugo Chavez rallied outside his presidential palace in an exuberant alternative inauguration for a leader too ill to return home for the real thing.
    (AP, 1/10/13)

2013        Jan 13, Thousands of supporters of Venezuela's cancer-stricken president held rallies across the nation, hours before the government announced that Hugo Chavez is responding favorably to treatment for a respiratory infection.
    (AP, 1/13/13)

2013        Jan 15, Venezuelan Vice President Nicolas Maduro took the place of ailing President Hugo Chavez by delivering a short speech and turning in a state-of-the-nation report amid legal debate about his legitimacy.
    (AP, 1/15/13)

2013        Jan 21, German customs officials at Duesseldorf airport found a check in Venezuelan currency worth $70 million in the luggage of Tahmasb Mazaheri, Iran's former central bank chief, upon his arrival from Turkey. Mazaheri told authorities the money was to be used for the construction of 10,000 apartments funded by the Venezuelan government. The newspaper Bild am Sonntag reported the story in its Sunday Feb 3 edition.
    (AP, 2/4/13)

2013        Jan 22, Venezuela’s government said President Hugo Chavez is in good spirits and recovering six weeks after he underwent cancer surgery in Cuba.
    (AP, 1/23/13)

2013        Jan 25, In Venezuela violence erupted at Uribana prison in the city of Barquisimeto when groups of inmates attacked National Guard troops who were attempting to carry out an inspection. The death toll reached 58 with some 120 wounded. Officials evacuated the prison after the riot and found 106 firearms and over 8,000 rounds of ammunition.
    (AP, 1/27/13)(SFC, 1/28/13, p.A2)(SFC, 2/8/13, p.A2)

2013        Feb 8, Venezuela's government announced that it will devalue the country's currency, a long-anticipated change expected to push up prices in the heavily import-reliant economy.
    (AP, 2/8/13)

2013        Feb 13, Venezuela's government devalued the country's currency  amid questions about how the government can get a grip on 22% inflation and satisfy growing demand for dollars to pay for imported goods. The fifth devaluation in a decade established a new government-set rate of 6.30 bolivars to the dollar, replacing the previous rate of 4.30 bolivars.
    (AP, 2/13/13)

2013        Feb 18, President Hugo Chavez returned to Venezuela after more than two months of treatment in Cuba following cancer surgery.
    (AP, 2/18/13)

2013        Feb 28, Venezuela's Vice President Nicolas Maduro said that President Hugo Chavez is fighting for his life while he continues to undergo treatment more than two months after his latest cancer surgery.
    (AP, 3/1/13)

2013        Mar 3, In Venezuela hundreds of protesters took to the streets of Caracas demanding the government provide details about the health of Pres. Hugo Chavez.
    (SFC, 3/4/13, p.A2)
2013        Mar 3, In Venezuela Sabino Romero, a leader of the Yukpa tribe, was fatally shot along a highway in the western state of Zulia.
    (AP, 3/4/13)

2013        Mar 5, Venezuela’s government announced the death of President Hugo Chavez (b.1954), the larger-than-life firebrand socialist who led the nation for 14 years. Vice President Nicolas Maduro stood as interim president in the wake of Chavez's death and will run as the governing party candidate in elections to be called within 30 days.
    (AP, 3/5/13)

2013        Mar 8, In Venezuela a state funeral was held for Hugo Chavez followed by a swearing in ceremony for Vice President Nicolas Maduro as interim president.
    (AP, 3/8/13)

2013        Mar 10, Venezuelan opposition leader Henrique Capriles announced that he will run in elections to replace Hugo Chavez, launching what many consider a doomed candidacy with a no-holds-barred attack against a government he said had coldly betrayed Venezuelans' trust.
    (AP, 3/10/13)

2013        Mar 11, In Venezuela owners of Globovision, the last remaining television station critical of the government, announced that it is being sold to an insurance company owner who is apparently friendly with the ruling socialists, following an unrelenting official campaign to financially strangle the broadcaster through regulatory pressure.
    (AP, 3/12/13)

2013        Mar 20, Venezuela's government halted lines of communication established by a top U.S. diplomat to protest what it says has been US interference in the country's internal affairs ahead of an election set next month to replace the late President Hugo Chavez.
    (AP, 3/20/13)

2013        Mar 21, In Venezuela supporters of late Pres. Hugo Chavez attacked student protesters as they marched against perceived bias by Venezuela’s electoral council.
    (SFC, 3/22/13, p.A2)

2013        Apr 14, Venezuela held presidential elections. Nicolas Maduro, Hugo Chavez's hand-picked successor, won the election by a stunningly narrow margin. Electoral officials said he got just 50.7 percent of the votes compared to 49.1% for Henrique Capriles, with nearly all ballots counted.
    (AP, 4/14/13)(AP, 4/15/13)

2013        Apr 15, Venezuela’s National Guard troops fired tear gas and plastic bullets to disperse students protesting the official results in the disputed presidential election.
    (AP, 4/15/13)

2013        Apr 16, Venezuela's chief prosecutor said that 7 people have been killed and 61 injured in widespread protests following presidential elections in which the opposition candidate is demanding a recount. Diosdado Cabello, speaker of the Natioanl Assembly, said legislators who do not recognize Maduro as president would not be allowed to speak.
    (AP, 4/16/13)(Econ, 4/20/13, p.40)

2013        Apr 17, Venezuela's opposition watched its options dwindle after the head of the Supreme Court said there could be no recount of the razor-thin presidential election victory by Hugo Chavez's heir, leaving many government foes feeling the only chance at power is to wait for the ruling socialists to stumble.
    (AP, 4/17/13)

2013        Apr 18, Venezuelan  officials, in a surprise announcement, said they will accept an audit of the disputed vote that handed a narrow margin of victory to the heir of late President Hugo Chavez.
    (AP, 4/19/13)

2013        Apr 19, Venezuela held inauguration ceremonies for President Nicolas Maduro. Massive crowds that used to pack the streets for late leader Hugo Chavez failed to appear.
    (AP, 4/19/13)

2013        Apr 25, Venezuelan opposition leader Henrique Capriles announced that his movement will boycott an audit of election results and push the government to hold a new presidential ballot.
    (AP, 4/25/13)
2013        Apr 24, Venezuelan authorities arrested Timothy Tracy (35), a filmmaker from California, accusing him of fomenting postelection violence on behalf of the US government. Tracy was formally charged on April 27. Officials accused him of paying right-wing groups to foment postelection unrest on behalf of US intelligence. Tracy was released and returned to the US on June 5.
    (AP, 4/25/13)(AP, 4/27/13)(AP, 6/5/13)

2013        Apr 27, Venezuelan officials arrested retired Brig. Gen. Antonio Rivero. He had gained fame for denouncing Cuban involvement in the Venezuelan military in 2010 and became a prominent member of the opposition, participating in post-vote protests this month.
    (AP, 4/27/13)

2013        Apr 30, In Venezuela a clash in congress erupted when members of the opposition coalition unfurled a banner in the National Assembly denouncing a ruling that strips them of most legislative powers unless they recognize the April 14 election victory of President Nicolas Maduro.
    (AP, 5/1/13)

2013        May 5, The government of Venezuela announced that it will use military forces to fight rampant violent crime.
    (SFC, 5/6/13, p.A2)

2013        May 13, In Venezuela a "Secure Homeland" initiative placed dozens of military checkpoints in Petare, a sprawling slum on the outskirts of Caracas. This was the socialist government's latest attempt to control the oil-rich country's pandemic of violence.
    (AP, 5/17/13)

2013        May 14, Venezuela’s Commerce Minister Alejandro Fleming blamed a shortage of toilet tissue on "excessive demand" built up as a result of "a media campaign that has been generated to disrupt the country."
    (AP, 5/16/13)

2013        May 22, Venezuela's Pres. Maduro announced the creation of a new workers' militia to defend the country's "Bolivarian revolution" at a time when the government faces economic problems and political turmoil.
    (AP, 5/24/13)

2013        May 28, In Venezuela 2 officials from the US Embassy suffered gunshot wounds early today during an altercation between themselves at a strip club in the Chacao neighborhood Caracas.
    (AP, 5/28/13)

2013        May 29, In Venezuela a free application for mobile devices, written by Jose Augusto Montiel, was posted to let people notify one another where flour, sugar, milk, cooking oil and toilet paper are for sale. Within 10 days it was downloaded more than 12,000 times.
    (AP, 6/9/13)

2013        Jun 4, Venezuelan officials said restrictions on the sale of 20 basic items including toilet paper and chicken subject to price controls are set to begin next week in Zulia, its most populous state.
    (AP, 6/4/13)

2013        Jun, In Venezuela Radwan Sabbagh, the chairman of state-owned iron-ore miner and processor Ferrominera, was arrested and accused of bleeding the company dry.
    (Econ, 8/10/13, p.31)

2013        Jul 5, Nicolas Maduro of Venezuela and Daniel Ortega of Nicaragua made offers of asylum for NSA leaker Edward Snowden during separate speeches in their home countries.
    (AP, 7/6/13)

2013        Jul 8, Venezuela’s Pres. Nicolas Maduro said five officials have been arrested and charged with embezzling $84 million from a China-financed development fund administered by state-run development bank Bandes.
    (Reuters, 7/8/13)

2013        Jul 19, Venezuela’s Foreign Ministry said it was terminating efforts to improve relations with the US following recent remarks by Samantha Power, the US nominee for ambassador to the UN. On July 17 Power said part of her role would be to challenge a crackdown on civil society in several countries including Venezuela.
    (SSFC, 7/21/13, p.A5)

2013        Jul 20, In Venezuela gunmen stormed a graduation party at a home in central Bolivar state and killed 8 people, including 6 teenagers in Caicara del Orinoco.
    (Reuters, 7/21/13)

2013        Jul 21, In Venezuela 4 men and a woman were killed by hooded gunmen at a birthday party in Valle de La Pascua in central Guarico state.
    (Reuters, 7/21/13)

2013        Sep 3, In Venezuela a blackout hit much of the country including the capital Caracas, but the oil industry was not affected and the government said it expected power to be restored within hours.
    (Reuters, 9/3/13)

2013        Sep 9, Chilean press reported that the US has spied on communications from Brazil, Colombia, Venezuela and Uruguay from the island of Ascension according to documents leaked by Edward Snowden.
    (SSFC, 9/15/13, p.A6)

2013        Sep 12, Venezuelan President Nicolas Maduro launched a state council to counter economic "sabotage" by opposition-linked business leaders he accuses of artificially creating product shortages.
    (Reuters, 9/12/13)

2013        Sep 13, It was reported that at least five Venezuelan newspapers have temporarily stopped publishing in recent weeks for lack of paper.
    (Reuters, 9/13/13)

2013        Sep 16, In Venezuela a clash between rival gangs killed at least 16 inmates at the  Sabaneta prison in the latest bloodshed to afflict the notoriously over-crowded penal system.
    (Reuters, 9/17/13)

2013        Sep 22, In Venezuela Venezuela's two National Guard sergeants and one lieutenant were arrested for alleged involvement in the smuggling of 1.4 metric tons of cocaine to Paris on an Air France flight in three dozen suitcases. The flight had arrived in Paris on Sep 10.
    (AP, 9/22/13)
2013        Sep 22, China and Venezuela signed several finance and development agreements during a visit to Beijing by Pres. Nicolas Maduro.
    (SFC, 9/23/13, p.A2)

2013        Sep 30, Venezuela’s President Nicolas Maduro announced the expulsion of the top US diplomat and two other embassy officials, accusing them of plotting acts of sabotage with the opposition.
    (AFP, 10/1/13)(SFC, 10/1/13, p.A2)

2013        Oct 1, Three Venezuelan diplomats were ordered out of the United States in response to their government's decision to boot three US officials from Venezuela, including the highest-ranking US envoy in the country.
    (AP, 10/1/13)

2013        Oct 10, The Venezuelan navy detained the crew of an oil exploration vessel operated by US-based Anadarko Petroleum in waters disputed by the Guyana and Venezuela. The RV Teknik Perdana and its crew were released on Oct 15.
    (AP, 10/11/13)(Reuters, 10/15/13)

2013        Oct 31, Venezuela seized control of two oil rigs owned by a unit of Houston-based Superior Energy Services after the company shut them down because the state oil monopoly was months behind on payments.
    (AP, 11/2/13)

2013        Nov 4, Venezuelan air force warplanes forced a small executive jet with a Mexican license number to land in the state of Apure, near the border with Colombia. Venezuela’s air force released images of the plane fuselage still in flames. President Nicolas Maduro later said the plane was full of cocaine.
    (AP, 11/10/13)

2013        Nov 7, Jim Wyss, the Miami Herald’s Andean bureau chief, was detained by Venezuela’s National Guard in San Cristobal, a western city near the border with Colombia that is the center of a vibrant black market by Venezuelans seeking to circumvent rigid currency controls. Wyss was released on Nov 9.
    (AP, 11/9/13)

2013        Nov 8, Venezuela's Pres. Nicolas Maduro ordered the "occupation" of the Daka chain of electronic goods stores in a crackdown on what the government views as price-gouging hobbling the country's economy. The annual rate was now at 54 percent.
    (Reuters, 11/9/13)

2013        Nov 9, In Russia Gabriela Isler (25) of Venezuela was crowned in the Miss Universe pageant at an exhibition hall on Moscow's outskirts.
    (AP, 11/10/13)

2013        Nov 10, Venezuela’s President Nicolas Maduro announced an extension of price controls and limits on profits as he extends attempts to curb the galloping inflation that is eroding support for his rule. Maduro's government announced arrests of both store managers and looters as part of what it calls an "economic war" in Venezuela between the socialist state and unscrupulous businessmen.
    (AP, 11/11/13)(Reuters, 11/10/13)

2013        Nov 14, Venezuelan President Nicolas Maduro said that authorities had arrested more than 100 "bourgeois" businessmen in a crackdown on alleged price-gouging since the weekend. Venezuela's legislature gave initial backing to a measure granting extraordinary powers over the economy to President Maduro.
    (Reuters, 11/14/13)(AFP, 11/15/13)

2013        Nov 23, In Venezuela thousands of opponents of Pres. Nicolas Maduro took to the streets to express outrage over the country’s deepening economic crisis.
    (SSFC, 11/24/13, p.A4)

2013        Nov, Bitly, popular site for shortening Web addresses, got caught in the crossfire of Venezuela's polarized politics shortly after President Nicolas Maduro decided to block access to sites such as www.dolartoday.com that publish the black market rate for the bolivar, which is now 10 times the official rate of 6.3 bolivars per dollar.
    (AP, 12/5/13)

2013        Dec 2, Venezuela's second massive power outage of the year plunged much of the nation into darkness, prompting renewed talk of sabotage from President Nicolas Maduro's government and cries of incompetence from its foes.
    (Reuters, 12/2/13)

2013        Dec 8, Venezuela held municipal elections. The opposition saw this as a referendum on Pres. Maduro’s performance amid soaring crime, high inflation, and shortages of basic household items. Early results gave Socialists and their allies 49 percent of votes, compared to 43 percent for the opposition coalition and its partners.
    (AFP, 12/8/13)(Reuters, 12/9/13)

2013        Dec 30, Venezuela’s Pres. Nicolas Maduro acknowledged that annual inflation had hit 56%.
    (SFC, 12/31/13, p.A2)
2013        Rory Carroll authored “Comandante: Hugo Chavez’s Venezuela."
    (Econ, 3/9/13, p.83)
2013        Napoleon Chagnon authored “Noble Savages: My Life Among the Two Dangerous Tribes – the Yanomamo and the Anthropologists."
    (Econ, 2/23/13, p.80)

2014        Jan 6, In Venezuela Monica Spear (29), a popular soap-opera actress and former Miss Venezuela (2004), was shot and killed along with her ex-husband Thomas Henry Berry, a 39-year-old British citizen, during a highway robbery between Puerto Cabello and the provincial capital of Valencia. Their daughter (5) was wounded. Police in Puerto Cabello soon arrested five suspects, some under the age of 18. In 2015 a court sentenced two boys aged 15 and 17 to four years in prison after it said they admitted taking part in the attack. Three other young men got terms of between 24 and 26 years. In 2016 a court sentenced three men to 30 years in prison for the murders.
    (AP, 1/8/14)(AFP, 2/13/16)

2014        Jan 15, Venezuela’s Pres. Nicolas Maduro delivered his annual state-of-the-nation address. He blamed soap operas for crime saying they are spreading “antivlaues."
    (AP, 1/22/14, p.A4)(http://tinyurl.com/m9v8dz7)

2014        Jan 23, Ecuadorean airline Tame suspended its once-daily flights to and from Venezuela until that country's cash-strapped government pays it $43 million owed for ticket sales.
    (AP, 1/23/14)

2014        Jan 24, Air Canada suspended ticket sales in Venezuela, adding to a rising number of airlines protesting a government devaluation of the local currency just for travellers.
    (AFP, 1/24/14)

2014        Jan 28, Venezuelan journalists and journalism students protested on one of Caracas' avenues to demand that the government auction off dollars to allow newspapers to buy newsprint after nine regional dailies shut down and some of the main media chains are experiencing difficulties.
    (AP, 1/28/14)

2014        Feb 11, In western Venezuela armed pro-government groups attacked and shot at people protesting against President Nicolas Maduro's government, injuring five.
    (Reuters, 2/12/14)

2014        Feb 12, In Venezuela 3 people were killed in Caracas as protests against Pres. Maduro turned violent. Armed members of a pro-government vigilante arrived on motorcycles and began shooting at more than 100 anti-Maduro student protesters clashing with security forces.
    (SFC, 2/13/14, p.A2)(Econ, 2/15/14, p.30)

2014        Feb 14, In Venezuela soldiers fired tear gas and deployed water cannons to break up hundreds of student demonstrators blocking a highway in protest against President Nicolas Maduro. Authorities freed 25 student protesters pending trial and said that 74 others arrested after this week's deadly political turmoil would be processed within hours.
    (Reuters, 2/15/14)(AFP, 2/15/14)

2014        Feb 15, Venezuelan security forces searched for Leopoldo Lopez (42), looking to arrest the hard-line opposition leader who President Maduro blamed for three deaths at the Feb 12 anti-government protests.
    (AP, 2/16/14)(Econ, 2/22/14, p.30)
2014        Feb 15, In Venezuela a priest (79) and lay worker (84) were killed during a robbery in the city of Valencia. A 17-year-old was arrested the next day and a 14-year-old was being sought.
    (AP, 2/17/14)

2014        Feb 16, Venezuela’s Pres. Nicolas Maduro ordered the expulsion of three US consular officials that he accused of infiltrating universities.
    (SFC, 2/17/14, p.A2)

2014        Feb 17, In Venezuela a student protester (17) died after being hit by a vehicle in Carupano. This was the 4th fatality from political unrest over the past week.
    (Reuters, 2/18/14)

2014        Feb 18, Venezuelan protest leader Leopoldo Lopez (42) surrendered to troops after speaking to over 10,000 people gathered in Caracas. This followed his spearheading three weeks of often rowdy demonstrations.
    (Reuters, 2/19/14)(SFC, 2/19/14, p.A4)

2014        Feb 19, In Venezuela Imprisoned protest leader Leopoldo Lopez (42) urged supporters to keep fighting for the departure of the socialist government, even as he was due in court accused of fomenting unrest that has killed at least 4 people.
    (Reuters, 2/19/14)

2014        Feb 20, In Venezuela security forces faced off with demonstrators in streets blocked by burning barricades in several cities in an escalation of protests against President Nicolas Maduro's socialist government.
    (Reuters, 2/20/14)

2014        Feb 22, In Venezuela tens of thousands of opponents of Pres. Maduro filled the streets of Caracas in their biggest rally to date.
    (SSFC, 2/23/14, p.A9)

2014        Feb 24, In Venezuela anti-government demonstrators set up barricades in Caracas, snarling traffic, despite calls from within the opposition to rein in protests in which at least 11 people have died in the OPEC nation.
    (AP, 2/24/14)

2014        Mar 2, Venezuela released dozens of anti-government protesters and an Italian photographer, but that did nothing to appease demonstrators set for more rallies against President Nicolas Maduro. Thousands marched peacefully in Caracas. Afterwards some 1,500 erected barricades and clashed with National Guard troops.
    (AFP, 3/2/14)(SFC, 3/3/14, p.A4)

2014        Mar 5, Venezuela broke ties with Panama. President Nicolas Maduro said he was breaking diplomatic and commercial relations with the Panamanian government due to a "conspiracy" against him.
    (Reuters, 3/5/14)(Econ, 3/8/14, p.40)

2014        Mar 6, A Venezuelan soldier and a motorcyclist died in a confused melee sparked by the opposition's barricading of a Caracas street, boosting the death toll from nearly a month of violence to 20.
    (Reuters, 3/7/14)

2014        Mar 7, In Washington DC the Organization of American States voted to approve a declaration that rejected violence and called for just outcomes for the 21 people the Venezuelan government says have died in weeks of street protests. The OAS also supported the Venezuelan government's attempts to use political dialogue to end the protests. The United States, Panama and Canada voted against the resolution.
    (AP, 3/8/14)

2014        Mar 15, Venezuelan President Nicolas Maduro urged Washington to join a "high-level commission" to promote peace after more than a month of deadly anti-government demonstrations.
    (AFP, 3/16/14)

2014        Mar 16, In Venezuela a National Guardsman was shot and killed during violence in the city of Maracay.
    (AP, 3/17/14)

2014        Mar 18, In Venezuela Anthony Rojas (18), mechanical engineering student, was fatally shot in Tariba, on outskirts of San Cristobal. Rojas had participated in past opposition protests in San Cristobal, but was not doing so when he was shot.
    (AP, 3/19/14)
2014        Mar 19, In Venezuela a municipal worker was fatally shot while removing a street barricade in a Caracas middle class neighborhood. The mayor of San Cristobal, where recent protests began, was detained.
    (AP, 3/19/14)(Econ, 3/22/14, p.37)

2014        Mar 21, Venezuela's Pres. Maduro said that street protests for the past month have caused at least $10 billion in damage, accusing hardline foes of carrying out terrorist acts to sabotage public assets.
    (Reuters, 3/22/14)

2014        Mar 22, In Venezuela Police fired tear gas and made several arrests as 20,000 people marched in Caracas against what they say is President Nicolas Maduro's heavy-handed repression of dissent. At least 3 people were killed pushing the death toll from almost two months of anti-government demonstrations to 34.
    (AFP, 3/22/14)(Reuters, 3/23/14)

2014        Mar 23, In Venezuela Adriana Urquoila, a pregnant woman, was shot dead in the head after she left a bus stuck in traffic because of a barrier built by protesters.
    (SFC, 3/25/14, p.A2)

2014        Mar 24, In Venezuela Sgt. Miguel Antonio Parra was shot dead during a street demonstration in Merida. At least 32 people have died in protests over the last five weeks.
    (SFC, 3/25/14, p.A2)

2014        Mar 25, Venezuela’s Pres. Maduro said officials have arrested three air force generals on charges of plotting a coup.
    (SFC, 3/26/14, p.A2)

2014        Mar 27, Colombia’s Pres. Juan Manuel Santos said Venezuela’s government has accepted the political opposition’s conditions for dialogue.
    (SFC, 3/28/14, p.A2)

2014        Apr 5, Spain’s foreign minister announced that his country has suspended the export of riot gear to Venezuela’s government following weeks of unrest.
    (SSFC, 4/6/14, p.A2)

2014        Apr 20, In Venezuela fresh clashes erupted in Caracas, with hooded anti-government protesters hurling rocks and Molotov cocktails at riot police who returned fire with rubber bullets, tear gas and water cannon.
    (AFP, 4/21/14)

2014        Apr 25, Venezuela's President Nicolas Maduro said that 16 people have been arrested in a new round of inspections to find alleged price gougers whom the socialist government blames for the worst inflation rate in the Americas.
    (Reuters, 4/25/14)

2014        Apr 26, In Venezuela scores of opponents of Pres. Nicolas Maduro marched in Caracas, vowing to remain on the streets in defiance of a high court ruling limiting protests. The body of former intelligence chief Eliezer Otaiza was dumped in a forested area on the edge of Caracas after his vehicle was intercepted by a group of armed men. He was shot four times.
    (AP, 4/26/14)(AP, 4/30/14)

2014        May 2, Venezuela's government said it has arrested 58 foreigners, including an American, on suspicion of inciting violent street protests against the government of President Nicolas Maduro.
    (AP, 5/3/14)
2014        May 2, A Venezuelan fishing boat found 11 Chinese sailors floating in a raft about 1,000 miles west of Cabo San Lucas, Mexico. 2 soon died of their injuries.
    (SFC, 5/5/14, p.A2)

2014        May 8, In Venezuela hundreds of National Guard members and police broke up four camps maintained by student protesters and arrested 243 people in an early morning raid. Officials reported one officer killed in clashes following the raids.
    (AP, 5/8/14)(SFC, 5/9/14, p.A4)

2014        May 14, Venezuelan security forces arrested 105 people during a sweep of a busy Caracas avenue as protests against the government heated up amid a widening split within the opposition over whether to back possible US sanctions.
    (AP, 5/15/14)

2014        May 21, Jaime Lusinchi (89), former Venezuelan president (1984-1989), died in Caracas. He had struggled to tame an economic crisis sparked by plunging oil prices in the late 1980s and then saw his reputation tarnished by allegations of corruption after leaving office.
    (AP, 5/22/14)

2014        May, Venezuela saw its first cases of chikungunya, a disease that causes high fevers and severe joint pain. It took authorities five months to declare it a notifiable disease.
    (Econ., 4/4/15, p.32)

2014        Jun 16, In Venezuela at least 20 people were killed and 10 were wounded when a bus driving toward Caracas crashed after the driver lost control.
    (Reuters, 6/16/14)

2014        Jun 17, American Airlines said that it will cut nearly 80 percent of its flights to Venezuela in a dispute over revenue being held by the South American country.
    (AP, 6/17/14)

2014        Jun 27, In Venezuela a power plant failure knocked out electricity across a big swath of the country, darkening the lights at a nationally televised presidential ceremony and forcing a suspension of subway and train services around the country.
    (AP, 6/28/14)

2014        Jul 22, In Venezuela the first of thousands of squatters at the half-built “Tower of David" in Caracas were moved out by armed police and soldiers to be relocated to new government-provided apartments in Cua. The structure, named after financier David Brillembourg, was abandoned in the 1990s amid a banking crisis.
    (SFC, 7/23/14, p.A6)

2014        Jul 23, In Aruba retired major general Hugo Carvajal, a former Venezuelan military intelligence chief, was arrested at US request to face drug trafficking charges. Carvajal flew home July 27 after the Netherlands government ruled he had diplomatic immunity on the Dutch-owned island.
    (AFP, 7/26/14)(Reuters, 7/28/14)

2014        Jul 30, The US State Dept. imposed travel and visa restrictions on Venezuelan government officials accused of human rights violation s during widespread protests that have left more than 40 dead.
    (SFC, 7/31/14, p.A2)

2014        Aug 11, Venezuela began nightly closures of its border with Colombia in an effort to plug smuggling, estimated to cost the government several billions a year. Some 17,000 troops were deployed to enforce the blockade.
    (Econ, 8/16/14, p.28)

2014        Aug 16, Spanish poilice said they have arrested a Venezuelan woman (43) arriving from Colombia carrying 3.7 pounds of cocaine in her breast implants.
    (SFC, 8/16/14, p.A2)

2014        Sep 17, Venezuelan cartoonist Rayma Suprani said she was fired from her newspaper for a caricature that used the late socialist leader Hugo Chavez's signature to satirize the state of healthcare.
    (Reuters, 9/18/14)

2014        Sep 22, Clorox said it is shutting down all operations in Venezuela, citing restrictions by the government, supply disruptions and economic uncertainty.
    (AP, 9/22/14)

2014        Sep 27, In Venezuela hard-line opponents of Pres. Nicolas Maduro began collecting signatures seeking to force a constitutional assembly and remove the socialist leader before presidential elections in 2019.
    (AP, 9/27/14)

2014        Oct 1, In Venezuela Robert Serra (27), a "Chavista" ruling party lawmaker, and his partner, Maria Herrera, were found dead in their home in Caracas.
    (Reuters, 10/2/14)

2014        Oct 7, Venezuelan police moved in before dawn to arrest what authorities said is a gang behind multiple homicides. That led to an eight-hour standoff that created panic and blocked traffic across several downtown blocks. 5 people were killed including Jose Odreman, a former policeman and well-connected leader of a militia group aligned with the socialist government.
    (AP, 10/8/14)(Econ, 11/29/14, p.31)

2014        Nov 3, Venezuela’s President Nicolas Maduro said a 15% boost of the minimum wage will take effect in December to protect workers' salaries from inflation running at more than 60 percent a year. It follows a 30 percent boost in April and a 10 percent hike in January. The move came a week after Maduro boosted military salaries by 45 percent.
    (AP, 11/4/14)

2014        Nov 7, Venezuelan authorities said Leiva Padilla Mendoza, the purported leader of a Colombian paramilitary group who they allege masterminded the October slaying of socialist Venezuelan lawmaker Robert Serra, has been captured in Cartagena, Colombia.
    (AP, 11/7/14)

2014        Nov 18, Venezuela’s Pres. Maduro used expiring decree powers to put in place 28 new measures, including a luxury tax, increased protection for young workers, and the establishment of new economic development zones.
    (AP, 11/19/14)
2014        Nov 18, Jailed Venezuelan opposition leader Leopoldo Lopez said he will skip his own trial to draw attention to a United Nations request for his freedom. Lopez has been jailed since February for his role in the street demonstrations that shook the socialist country earlier this year.
    (AP, 11/19/14)

2014        Nov 27, Venezuela reported that at least 13 prisoners have died of drug overdoses after inmates at the overcrowded David Viloria penitentiary stormed an infirmary on Nov 24 during protests demanding better living conditions. On Nov 28 authorities confirmed 35 deaths. On Dec 11 the number of dead was raised to 48.
    (AP, 11/27/14)(AP, 11/28/14)(SFC, 12/12/14, p.A2)

2014        Nov, Venezuela greeted the first 119 Palestinian recipients of a medical school scholarship. Eight months later about a third of the students had dropped out, complaining the program lacks academic rigor. The students who dropped out complained that their first year consisted only of Spanish language lessons and indoctrination about Venezuela's 16-year-old socialist revolution.
    (AP, 7/16/15)

2014        Dec 3, In Venezuela Maria Corina Machado, a former member of the National Assembly, was informed that she would be charged with conspiracy alleging involvement in a purported plot to kill Pres. Maduro. She denied that charges and supposed evidence.
    (SFC, 12/4/14, p.A2)

2015        Jan 13, Governors in three Venezuelan states banned nighttime queuing as huge lines continued to snake around shops across the scarcity-plagued OPEC nation.
    (Reuters, 1/14/15)

2015        Jan 23, It was reported that robbers and looters were targeting trucks carrying food across Venezuela in another sign of worsening shortages that have turned basics like flour and chicken into coveted booty.
    (Reuters, 1/23/15)

2015        Feb 4, Venezuela formally charged two top executives of Farmatado, its largest drugstore chain, as part of an investigation into what authorities say are illegal practices contributing to the country's chronic shortages.
    (AP, 2/5/15)

2015        Feb 10, In Venezuela Judge Ali Fabricio Paredes sentenced drug kingpin Walid Makled to 14 years in prison, drawing immediate objections from prosecutors, who said they will appeal.
    (AP, 2/11/15)

2015        Feb 11, Venezuelan authorities arrested Judge Ali Fabricio Paredes less than 24 hours after he issued a sentence in a high-profile drug trafficking case that prosecutors said is too lenient.
    (AP, 2/11/15)

2015        Feb 12, Venezuelan officials said a retired air force general has been arrested and 13 other people are implicated in a plot to overthrow President Nicolas Maduro.
    (AP, 2/13/15)

2015        Feb 19, In Venezuela agents of the security police (Sebin) broke into the Caracas office of Mayor Antonio Ledezma (59) and carted off the longtime critic of the socialist government, adding to tensions on the anniversary of the outbreak of protests that paralyzed the nation a year ago.
    (AP, 2/19/15)(SFC, 2/20/15, p.A4)(Econ., 2/28/15, p.29)

2015        Feb 24, In Venezuela a teenager was fatally shot at an anti-government protest in the western city of San Cristobal.
    (Reuters, 2/25/15)

2015        Mar 1, Venezuelan President Nicolas Maduro said his government had detained US citizens, including a pilot, on suspicion of espionage, in a move likely to strain already tense relations between Washington and Caracas.
    (Reuters, 3/1/15)
2015        Mar 1, Guyana's foreign affairs ministry said that Caracas objects to plans for an exploratory well to be drilled in an area it contends is within Guyana's territorial waters.
    (AP, 3/1/15)

2015        Mar 2, Venezuela gave the US two weeks to reduce its diplomatic mission  in Caracas to 17 diplomats, from an estimated 100, to match the 17 Venezuelan diplomats serving in the US.
    (SFC, 3/3/15, p.A2)

2015        Mar 3, Venezuela began requiring US travelers to seek visas before visiting the South American nation amid an escalation of diplomatic tensions between Washington and the administration of President Nicolas Maduro.
    (Reuters, 3/3/15)

2015        Mar 9, President Barack Obama issued an executive order declaring a “national emergency" because of the “extraordinary threat to the national security" posed by Venezuela. He levied new sanctions on seven Venezuelan officials who the US says have violated human rights and engaged in acts of public corruption.
    (Econ., 3/21/15, p.31)(AP, 3/9/15)

2015        Mar 10, Cuba offered its "unconditional support" to Venezuela after US President Barack Obama authorized new sanctions against senior officials of the turbulent South American oil producer.
    (AFP, 3/10/15)

2015        Mar 12, The European Parliament called on Venezuela to release students and opposition figures "arbitrarily detained" during protests against left-wing President Nicolas Maduro.
    (AFP, 3/12/15)

2015        Mar 13, In Venezuela Rodolfo Gonzalez (64) died sometime during the night while being held at the headquarters of the intelligence police in an apparent suicide that his family said was the result of harsh prison conditions and unjust punishment.. Gonzalez was arrested last year during demonstrations against the socialist government.
    (AP, 3/13/15)

2015        Mar 24, Venezuela said it is launching a probe into large offshore bank deposits amid a spate of reports that at least $2 billion was siphoned off by corrupt, top-level officials at state-run oil company PDVSA.
    (AP, 3/24/15)

2015        May 1, Venezuela’s President Nicolas Maduro raised the minimum wage 30% for the second time this year to help workers being battered by the world's highest inflation. Two-thirds of the increase will come this month and the rest on July 1. Pensions for retirees were also included in the raise.
    (AP, 5/2/15)

2015        May 23, Venezuelan jailed opposition leader Leopoldo Lopez announced that he and Daniel Ceballos were starting a hunger strike to demand the release of political prisoners and an end to government repression.
    (AP, 5/24/15)

2015        May 26, Venezuela approved Decree 1787. It created Operating Zones of Integral Maritime and Insular Defense, or Zodimain, meant to bolster Venezuela's national defense system.
    (Reuters, 6/20/15)

2015        May 30, In Venezuela thousands of demonstrators took to Caracas' streets to press for the release of imprisoned foes of President Nicolas Maduro's government.
    (AFP, 5/30/15)

2015        Jun 3, Venezuela barred former Zulia state governor Pablo Perez from holding office for 10 years, the latest in a series of opposition politicians to be banned.
    (AP, 7/18/15)

2015        Jun 20, In Venezuela some 500 marchers hit the Caracas streets to demand elections and the release of jailed opposition activists including figurehead Leopoldo Lopez, who has been on hunger strike since May 24.
    (AFP, 6/21/15)
2015        Jun 20, Colombia said it has sent a letter of protest to neighboring Venezuela after the government of President Nicolas Maduro decreed maritime borders in a disputed area of the Atlantic Ocean.
    (Reuters, 6/20/15)

2015        Jun 26, In Venezuela 120 policemen were reported to have been murdered so far this year, one of the world's most violent countries.
    (Reuters, 6/27/15)

2015        Jul 31, In Venezuela Gustavo Patinez (21) died of a gunshot wound to the chest and 60 people were detained following looting of supermarkets in the southeastern city of Ciudad Guayana. President Nicolas Maduro said the violence was premeditated and blamed the United States as being behind it.
    (Reuters, 7/31/15)

2015        Jul, Venezuela officially rolled out Operation Liberate the People, which aimed to take back neighborhoods overrun by gangs. Over the next two months police shot and kill more than 80 suspected criminals.
    (AP, 8/31/15)   

2015        Aug 5, In Venezuela 4 men were murdered in Aragua state. Eight police officers were later arrested for the alleged murders, shortly after a video began circulating on social networks that appeared to show an execution.
    (Reuters, 8/15/15)

2015        Aug 9, In Venezuela John Pate, an American lawyer, was stabbed to death in his apartment in Caracas. He looked to be the victim of a botched robbery.
    (Econ, 8/29/15, p.29)

2015        Aug 11, A Venezuelan military court granted parole to former general Raul Baduel. He was key in the rescue of Hugo Chavez from a coup in 2002, but later broke ranks with the late leader's socialist government. Baduel, arrested in 2009, was serving an eight-year sentence for illicit enrichment while Defense Minister, accusations he deemed politically motivated.
    (Reuters, 8/13/15)

2015        Aug 12, In Venezuela Daniel Ceballos, the former mayor of the restive western city of San Cristobal, was granted house arrest on medical grounds while awaiting trial for his alleged role in inciting violence during last year's anti-government protests.
    (AP, 8/13/15)

2015        Aug 19, Venezuelan President Nicolas Maduro ordered a 72-hour closure of a major border crossing with Colombia in western Tachira state after three soldiers were attacked while looking for smugglers.
    (AP, 8/20/15)

2015        Aug 21, Venezuela's President Nicolas Maduro indefinitely closed his country's border with Colombia and declared a state of emergency in part of the frontier region, following an earlier attack that wounded four people.
    (AFP, 8/21/15)

2015        Aug 23, In Venezuela Gov. Jose Gregorio Vielma Mora of Tachira state said that 791 Colombians living in Venezuela illegally had been handed over to Colombian authorities as a result of a now five-day crackdown against smugglers and criminal gangs operating along the 1,400 mile (2,200 km) border.
    (AP, 8/24/15)
2015        Aug 23, In Venezuela fire broke out at a private senior facility in the upscale neighborhood of La Castellana on the east side of Caracas, leaving 8 people dead.
    (AP, 8/24/15)

2015        Aug 24, Venezuela announced a 60-day extension of its partial closure of the border with Colombia.
    (SFC, 8/25/15, p.A2)

2015        Sep 7, Venezuela's President Nicolas Maduro said he has ordered more of his country's vast border with Colombia closed amid a diplomatic crisis over deportations and smuggling.
    (AFP, 9/8/15)

2015        Sep 10, A Venezuelan judge sentenced opposition leader Leopoldo Lopez to a maximum sentence of nearly 14 years in prison for inciting violence in last year’s antigovernment protests.
    (CSM, 9/11/15)

2015        Sep 12, The foreign ministers of Colombia and Venezuela agreed to renew diplomatic contacts that had been interrupted by an ongoing border crisis between the two neighbors.
    (AFP, 9/12/15)

2015        Sep 17, A Venezuelan air force jet with two crew members crashed while monitoring an illegal flight that had entered the country near the Colombian border.
    (AP, 9/18/15)

2015        Sep 22, Venezuela’s President Nicolas Maduro said he is extending an anti-smuggling crackdown to a fourth state on the border with Colombia as foreign ministers from the two countries prepared to meet in Caracas.
    (AP, 9/23/15)

2015        Oct 15, Venezuelan President Nicolas Maduro said he is raising the country's minimum wage by 30%, effective Nov 1, to help workers being clobbered by inflation economists say is likely the highest in the world.
    (AP, 10/16/15)

2015        Oct 17, Venezuela announced that its state-owned oil company will buy a 25 percent stake in West Indies Oil Co. and that it will establish a regional bank with the Antigua and Barbuda government to fund a new resort.
    (AP, 10/17/15)

2015        Oct 24, Venezuela media reported that Franklin Nieves, the state prosecutor who helped lead charges against opposition leader Leopoldo Lopez, has fled the country and accused the socialist government of pressing him to use false evidence to unfairly condemn Lopez.
    (Reuters, 10/24/15)

2015        Nov 7, In western Venezuela a magnitude 5.3 earthquake struck about 27 km (17 miles) from the city of Merida, knocking out power in some areas, damaging some buildings and triggering rockfalls that killed one man.
    (Reuters, 11/7/15)

2015        Nov 12, In NYC two nephews of Venezuela's first lady appeared in court charged with conspiring to smuggle cocaine into the US. They were arrested in Haiti on Nov 10 by local police, handed over to US agents and flown the same day to New York.
    (AFP, 11/12/15)

2015        Nov 20, A new study was released that estimated poverty in Venezuela has hit an all-time high of some 73 percent of households. It was prepared by researchers at three Venezuelan universities on the basis of surveys with 6,000 people.
    (AP, 11/20/15)

2015        Nov 23, Argentina's President-Elect, Mauricio Macri, said he would seek Venezuela's suspension from South America's Mercosur trade bloc because of accusations of rights abuses committed by Pres. Maduro's socialist government.
    (Reuters, 11/23/15)

2015        Nov 25, Venezuelan opposition election candidate Luis Manuel Diaz was shot dead while campaigning. The shooter was believed to be a member of an "armed gang" linked to the ruling United Socialist Party of Venezuela (PSUV).
    (AFP, 11/26/15)

2015        Dec 2, A Venezuelan military helicopter landed in Guyana amid a border dispute between the two nations. Venezuela has long claimed 40 percent of Guyana's territory.
    (AP, 12/4/15)

2015        Dec 6, Venezuelans voted in tense elections that could see the opposition seize legislative power from the socialist government and risk sparking violence in the oil-rich, cash-poor nation. The opposition Democratic Unity coalition won 112 of 167 of the National Assembly seats. The ruling Socialists and its allies got 55 seats.
    (AFP, 12/6/15)(Reuters, 12/7/15)(SFC, 12/9/15, p.A2)

2015        Dec 10, Venezuela's outgoing congress promoted a judge who drew international criticism by handing down a long prison term to opposition leader Leopoldo Lopez. Lawmakers from the ruling socialist party named Judge Susana Barreiros as head public defender.
    (AP, 12/11/15)

2015        Dec 30, Venezuela’s Supreme Court barred four recently elected lawmakers from taking their seats in the National Assembly. No legal justification was provided.
    (SFC, 1/1/16, p.A4)

2015        Dec, In Texas three former officials at Petroleos de Venezuela S.A. (PDVSA) pleaded guilty under seal to conspiracy to commit money laundering. They were charged with violating the US Foreign Corrupt Practices Act.
    (Reuters, 3/23/16)

2016        Jan 5, Venezuela’s opposition took majority control of the National Assembly. 163 of 167 lawmakers were sworn in as the government-stacked Supreme Court barred four from taking their seats under probes of electoral fraud.
    (SFC, 1/6/16, p.A4)

2016        Jan 6, Venezuela’s new opposition congress swore in three lawmakers barred by the Supreme Court from taking their seats, setting up a direct confrontation with the ruling Socialists.
    (SFC, 1/7/16, p.A2)

2016        Jan 12, Venezuela's opposition-controlled legislature suspended its session after the Supreme Court declared it null and void because the new speaker defied the judiciary by swearing in three banned lawmakers.
    (AFP, 1/12/16)

2016        Jan 18, Secretary-General Ban Ki-moon signed a letter informing the General Assembly that 15 countries including oil producer Venezuela are in arrears in paying their annual contribution to the UN regular budget, which means they can't vote in the 193-member world body unless there are exceptional circumstances.
    (AP, 1/22/16)

2016        Jan 22, Venezuela's opposition-led congress rejected Pres. Nicolas Maduro's request for emergency powers amid a plunging national economy, the depths of which were dramatized by an IMF estimate that inflation this year will top 700 percent up from an estimated 200% in 2015.
    (AP, 1/22/16)(Econ, 1/9/16, p.29)

2016        Jan 29, Venezuela's opposition vowed to drive President Nicolas Maduro from office this year, raising pressure on the socialist leader as he weathers a political crisis in the oil-rich nation.
    (AFP, 1/29/16)

2016        Feb 16, Lawmakers in Venezuela's opposition-controlled legislature approved an amnesty for jailed foes of President Nicolas Maduro, who has pledged to veto the bill.
    (AFP, 2/16/16)

2016        Mar 4, In Venezuela 28 miners were reportedly murdered in a dispute over a gold claim. The next day the country's public prosecutor's office said it was opening an investigation as Bolivar State Governor Francisco Rangel denied that any massacre took place. By March 14 seventeen bodies were recovered.
    (AP, 3/7/16)(AP, 3/15/16)

2016        Mar 8, Venezuela's opposition launched a campaign to oust socialist President Nicolas Maduro, saying it would press immediately for a recall referendum, constitutional amendment and street campaign to demand his resignation.
    (Reuters, 3/8/16)

2016        Mar 12, Venezuela's opposition held a national day of protest, the opening salvo in its new strategy to oust Pres. Nicolas Maduro, who responded with a rally of his own.
    (AFP, 3/13/16)

2016        Mar 17, Venezuela's Supreme Court approved President Nicolas Maduro's request for a 60-day extension of an economic emergency decree that had been rejected by the opposition-controlled congress.
    (AP, 3/18/16)

2016        Mar 18, Cuba honored visiting Venezuelan President Nicolas Maduro with its highest state honor in an act of defiance two days before US President Barack Obama is due for a historic visit to Havana.
    (Reuters, 3/18/16)

2016        Mar 29, Venezuela's opposition-controlled Congress approved an amnesty law to free jailed opposition activists and end legal proceedings against others, a measure President Nicolas Maduro promised to veto.
    (Reuters, 3/30/16)

2016        Apr 6, Venezuela's President Nicolas Maduro decreed that all Fridays for the next two months will be holidays for state workers, in a bid to save energy in the blackout-hit OPEC country.
    (Reuters, 4/7/16)(SFC, 4/8/16, p.A2)

2016        Apr 8, Guatemalan prosecutors raided the offices of a bank and froze some $20 million worth of the bank's shares as part of a money-laundering probe involving Hidalgo Rafael Socorro Urdaneta, a Venezuelan said to be the legal representative of DHK Finance INC Panama.
    (AP, 4/9/16)

2016        Apr 9, Venezuela’s Digitel cell phone service suspended long-distance calling as the country struggled to pay its bills. The Movistar cell phone service planned to do the same on April 15.
    (SFC, 4/12/16, p.A2)

2016        Apr 11, Venezuela’s Supreme Court scrapped an amnesty law that could have secured the release of jailed opposition activists.
    (Reuters, 4/12/16)

2016        Apr 27, Venezuelan cities cleaned up from a night of looting and fiery protests as government offices closed their doors for the rest of the week in the face of a worsening energy crisis that is causing daily blackouts.
    (AP, 4/27/16)

2016        Apr 30, Venezuela's Pres. Nicolas Maduro ordered a 30 percent increase in the minimum wage, the latest move by the socialist government to grapple with high inflation and economic stagnation. The boost comes after a 25 percent increase on March 1.
    (AP, 5/1/16)

2016        May 1, Pacific Alliance members (Argentina, Bolivia, Brazil, Chile, Paraguay, Peru, Uruguay and Venezuela) eliminated tariffs on 92% of their trade with each other and planned to phase out the rest over 17 years.
    (Econ, 5/14/16, p.26)

2016        May 13, Venezuelan President Nicolas Maduro declared a 60-day state of emergency due to what he called plots from within the OPEC country and the United States to topple his leftist government.
    (Reuters, 5/13/16)

2016        May 14, Venezuelan President Nicolas Maduro announced a sweeping crackdown under a new emergency decree, ordering the seizure of paralyzed factories, the arrest of their owners and military exercises to counter alleged foreign threats.
    (AFP, 5/14/16)

2016        May 20, Coca-Cola said it is halting production in Venezuela of its namesake beverage due to a sugar shortage brought on by the country's grinding economic crisis. Last month, Empresas Polar, Venezuela's largest food and beverage company, stopped production of beer because of a lack of imported barley.
    (AP, 5/20/16)

2016        May 29, German airline Lufthansa said it is suspending its flights to Caracas, citing the difficult economic situation in Venezuela.
    (AP, 5/29/16)

2016        Jun 14, In Venezuela dozens of bakeries, supermarkets and hardware shops were looted in the eastern city of Cumana after gangs of looters on motorcycles raided trucks transporting food as the country's food crisis continued. More than 400 people were arrested, including three suspected gang leaders. Over the next few days at least 5 people were reported killed in food related disturbances.
    (AFP, 6/17/16)

2016        Jul 11, Venezuela's President Nicolas Maduro said that Citibank NA, planned to shut his government's foreign currency accounts within a month, denouncing the move by one of its main foreign financial intermediaries as part of a "blockade."
    (Reuters, 7/12/16)

2016        Jul 17, Caravans of Venezuelan families drove for hours on bandit-plagued highways to a checkpoint on the Colombian border where they'll be able to cross and hunt for food and medicine that are in short supply at home. This was the second weekend in a row that the socialist government has opened the long-closed border connecting Venezuela to Colombia.
    (AP, 7/17/16)

2016        Jul 27, In Venezuela a union leader said some 50 animals have starved to death in the last six months at the Caricuao zoo in Caracas, due to chronic food shortages that have plagued the crisis-stricken South American nation.
    (Reuters, 7/27/16)

2016        Aug 1, Venezuelan electoral authorities certified that opponents of President Nicolas Maduro had gathered enough signatures to permit them to conduct a second petition drive aimed at removing the socialist leader from office.
    (AP, 8/2/16)

2016        Aug 2, Venezuelan President Nicolas Maduro named Gen. Nestor Reverol as interior minister. A day earlier US prosecutors announced the indictment of Nestor Reverol, who once led Venezuela's anti-drug agency and National Guard, on drug-trafficking charges.
    (AP, 8/3/16)

2016        Aug 13, Thousands of Venezuelans were welcomed to Colombia by a military band early today as the two countries' borders were officially reopened after being closed by Venezuela a year ago.
    (Reuters, 8/14/16)

2016        Aug 17, Venezuelan police crushed and chopped up nearly 2,000 shotguns and pistols in a Caracas city square, as the new interior minister relaunched a long-stalled gun control campaign in one of the world's most crime-ridden countries.
    (Reuters, 8/18/16)

2016        Aug 27, Venezuela sent opposition leader Daniel Ceballos, who was under house arrest, back to jail and expelled a delegation of Ecuadoran lawmakers, amid rising political tension over a campaign to recall leftist President Nicolas Maduro.
    (AP, 8/28/16)

2016        Aug 30, Venezuela set to expel a crew of Al Jazeera journalists who were intending to cover an opposition march against President Nicolas Maduro.
    (AFP, 8/30/16)

2016        Sep 1, Venezuelan opposition supporters descended on Caracas to press for a recall referendum this year against unpopular Socialist President Nicolas Maduro. As many as one million protesters took to the streets.
    (Reuters, 9/1/16)(Econ, 9/10/16, p.30)

2016        Sep 2, In Venezuela scores of people banged pots and pans and jeered Pres. Nicolas Maduro during a visit to inspect state housing projects. Authorities briefly rounded up more than 30 people on Margarita island for heckling Maduro. Some 500 thousand to one million protesters gathered in Caracas calling for a recall referendum on Pres. Maduro.
    (Reuters, 9/3/16)(SSFC, 8/7/16, p.A4)

2016        Sep 3, Venezuela named publicly 18 military commanders to oversee the production and distribution of food and basic goods in an effort to alleviate severe shortages affecting the country.
    (AFP, 9/3/16)

2016        Sep 9, In Manhattan a father-son team of informants testified that they repeatedly lied to US investigators in order to secretly traffic drugs, even while they were working on a narcotics probe of two nephews of Venezuela's first lady. The Mexican-born 34-year-old son, referred to only as CS-2, said he has earned $400,000 as an informant. The 55-year-old father, called CS-1, said he has earned about $1 million since 2003. The nephews of Venezuela's first lady were arrested in November 2015 and were fighting US charges that they worked with others to try to send 800 kg of cocaine from Venezuela to Honduras for importation into the United States.
    (Reuters, 9/9/16)

2016        Sep 17, Venezuela took over the presidency of the Non-Aligned Movement as only 12 heads of state arrived for the two days of meetings on the Caribbean island of Margarita. Venezuela did not respond to a request for a list of attendees for the 17th meeting of the group.
    (Reuters, 9/17/16)(AP, 9/17/16)

2016        Sep 21, Venezuela’s election board gave a timetable for a potential plebiscite to happen in early 2017, meaning that should Maduro lose, the vice-president would take over under constitutional rules on succession.
    (Reuters, 9/22/16)

2016        Oct 7, Venezuela's socialist President Nicolas Maduro said he is establishing a peace prize in honor of the late Hugo Chavez and that his pick for the initial award would be Russian leader Vladimir Putin.
    (AP, 10/7/16)

2016        Oct 14, Venezuelan President Nicolas Maduro issued the government's 2017 budget by decree, bypassing the opposition-held legislature in a move that could deepen the country's economic crisis. A compliant supreme court waived it through.
    (AFP, 10/15/16)(Econ, 10/29/16, p.29)
2016        Oct 14, At the Vatican a gathering of Jesuit priests from around the world elected the Rev. Arturo Sosa of Venezuela to replace the retiring Rev. Adolfo Nicolas of Spain as father general.
    (AP, 10/14/16)

2016        Oct 20, In Venezuela elections officials issued an order suspending a recall signature drive a week before it was to start.
    (AP, 10/22/16)

2016        Oct 22, In Venezuela thousands of women marched in Caracas against leftist Pres. Nicolas Maduro's decision to block opposition-led efforts for a recall referendum.
    (AFP, 10/22/16)

2016        Oct 23, Venezuela's opposition-majority legislature declared that President Nicolas Maduro's government had committed a coup d'etat by blocking a referendum on removing him from power, vowing mass protests and international pressure.
    (AP, 10/24/16)

2016        Oct 24, Venezuela’s Pres. Maduro made a surprise visit to the pope, who has been trying to arrange a meeting between the government and the opposition.
    (SFC, 3/6/17, p.29)

2016        Oct 25, In Venezuela opposition supporters headed to rallies around the country against unpopular socialist President Nicolas Maduro, whom they accuse of turning into a dictator by preventing a plebiscite to remove him.
    (Reuters, 10/26/16)

2016        Oct 28, In Venezuela a 12-hour work stoppage came as the opposition stepped up its campaign to force embattled socialist Pres. Maduro from office after electoral authorities canceled a recall referendum seeking his removal.
    (AP, 10/28/16)

2016        Oct 31, Venezuela’s government and opposition leaders agreed to continue a Vatican-backed dialogue following initial talks meant to ease an escalating political standoff taking place against the backdrop of a worsening economic crisis.
    (Reuters, 10/31/16)

2016        Nov 15, Venezuela's high court ordered the opposition to drop plans for a political trial against President Nicolas Maduro, whose rivals blame him for food shortages in the volatile country.
    (AFP, 11/15/16)

2016        Nov 18, Venezuela freed Rosmit Mantilla (33), a politician accused of fomenting violent protests in 2014, but opposition leaders said it was not enough and demanded President Nicolas Maduro's government release all 100 or so jailed opponents.
    (Reuters, 11/18/16)
2016        Nov 18, Venezuela said it has rejoined an international pact to curtail the smuggling of conflict diamonds, vowing to resume issuing export certificates to guarantee the minerals are not being used to finance war or violent activity.
    (Reuters, 11/18/16)

2016        Dec 4, Venezuela’s central bank said it will introduce six new notes and three new coins starting in mid-December to help alleviate practical problems in doing business with the world's most inflationary currency. The nation's largest note is worth just 2 US cents on the black market.
    (Reuters, 12/4/16)

2016        Dec 6, Venezuela's opposition withdrew from the latest round of crisis negotiations with authorities, insisting the government first release prisoners and allow a vote on the volatile country's political future.
    (AFP, 12/6/16)

2016        Dec 9, Venezuela’s fair pricing authority seized almost 4 million toys from toy distributor Kreisel and said it plans to hand them out to poor children this holiday season. Two company executives were detained on suspicion of promoting price speculation.
    (SSFC, 12/11/16, p.A4)

2016        Dec 11, Venezuela’s Pres. Maduro announced that the government would pull from circulation its 100-bolivar bill, the country’s largest-denominated. It was only worth 3 US cents at the black market rate. They will eventually be replaced with new ones in denominations as high as 20,000 bolivars.
    (SFC, 12/13/16, p.A2)(Econ, 12/17/16, p.69)

2016        Dec 12, Venezuelans rushed to spend their 100-bolivar notes after President Nicolas Maduro's announcement they will be taken out of circulation to stop the contraband smuggling "mafias" along the Colombian border that he says hoard cash outside the country. An estimated third of Venezuelans have no bank account and keep their savings in the soon-to-be-worthless bills.
    (AP, 12/12/16)

2016        Dec 16, In Venezuela protests and looting broke out in parts of the country due to a lack of cash after the socialist government suddenly pulled the nation's largest banknote from circulation in the midst of a brutal economic crisis. Three deaths were reported amid violent scenes in the southern mining town of Callao.
    (Reuters, 12/17/16)

2016        Dec 17, Venezuelan President Nicolas Maduro suspended the elimination of the country's largest denomination bill, which had sparked cash shortages and nationwide unrest, saying the bill could continue in use until January 2.
    (Reuters, 12/18/16)(SFC, 12/19/16, p.A2)

2016        Dec 18, In Venezuela a 14-year-old boy was shot dead. The opposition said there has been four other fatalities, all in the southern state of Bolivar. More than 300 people have been arrested, dozens injured in several days of protests and looting over the socialist government's elimination last week of the largest currency bill.
    (Reuters, 12/19/16)

2016        Dec 23, The UN Security Council passed a landmark resolution condemning Israeli settlements in east Jerusalem and the West Bank after the United States refrained from using its veto. A resolution needs nine votes in favor and no vetoes by the US, France, Russia, Britain or China to be adopted. New Zealand, along with Senegal, Venezuela and Malaysia, co-sponsored the UN Security Council resolution.
    (Reuters, 12/23/16)(AFP, 12/24/16)(AP, 6/13/17)

2016        Dec 29, Venezuela’s Pres. Maduro again extended the deadline to stop using 100-bolivar bills. People will now have until Jan 20 to stop using the old bills.
    (SSFC, 1/1/17, p.A5)

2016        Dec 31, Venezuela's government freed former presidential candidate Manuel Rosales along with five other activists who were jailed during anti-government protests in 2014.
    (AP, 12/31/16)

2016        Dec, Venezuela was suspended from Mercosur, a South American trade block, for violating its democratic principles.
    (Econ, 1/28/17, p.12)

2016        Venezuela’s economy shrank by nearly 19% this year with inflation reaching 800%.
    (Econ, 1/28/17, p.12)
2016        Venezuela arrested Joshua Holt (26) of Utah and his girlfriend. He had traveled there to marry a fellow Mormon he had met on the Internet. Police said they found him stockpiling an assault weapon and grenades.
    (SFC, 5/18/18, p.A2)

2017        Jan 11, In Venezuela Tareck El Aissami (42), Pres. Maduro's new hardline vice-president, announced the arrest of opposition lawmaker Gilber Caro saying he was caught with a rifle and explosives.
    (AFP, 1/12/17)(Econ, 2/18/17, p.30)

2017        Jan 12, In Venezuela the son of Raul Baduel, a retired general turned critic of Pres. Maduro, said authorities had revoked the parole of his father who served six years in jail for corruption.
    (AFP, 1/12/17)

2017        Jan 18, In Venezuela Eliannys Vivas (9) died of diphtheria. Her death and a wider outbreak of diphtheria, showed how vulnerable the country is to health risks amid a major economic crisis that has sparked shortages of basic medicines and vaccines.
    (Reuters, 2/10/17)

2017        Jan 23, Venezuela's opposition parties launched a new round of protests aimed at forcing President Nicolas Maduro from power and ending 18 years of socialist rule, but they fell well short of the massive demonstrations of the past.
    (Reuters, 1/23/17)

2017        Jan 31, Israeli authorities said that nine Venezuelan Jewish converts will be allowed to move to Israel in light of the humanitarian crisis in Venezuela, reversing an earlier decision to keep them out.
    (AP, 1/31/17)

2017        Feb 13, The US Department of Treasury labeled Venezuela’s VP El Aissami a drug "kingpin," accusing him of facilitating shipments by air and sea, and having links to drug gangs in Mexico and Colombia. The United States also sanctioned Samark Lopez, a man it termed El Aissami's frontman. Aissami’s assets reportedly included three lavish apartments in the Four Season complex of Miami and a Gulfstream jet.
    (Reuters, 2/14/17)(Econ, 2/18/17, p.30)

2017        Feb 14, Venezuela's powerful vice president called his blacklisting by the United States on drug charges an "imperialist aggression" in the first bilateral flare-up under new US President Donald Trump.
    (Reuters, 2/14/17)

2017        Feb 15, Venezuela suspended CNN in Spanish after a report by the network alleging government workers sold passports to members of a Middle East terror group.
    (SFC, 2/16/17, p.A2)

2017        Feb 18, Hundreds of Venezuelans marched to demand the release of opposition leader Leopoldo Lopez, the annual demonstration taking on added urgency after President Donald Trump met with the activist's wife and his administration slapped drug sanctions on the country's vice president.
    (AP, 2/18/17)

2017        Mar 20, Some 60 Venezuelan soldiers crossed the border into Colombia and raised their national flag in a camp they set up. They withdrew on March 23 after Pres. Juan Manuel Santos called his Venezuelan counterpart Nicolas Maduro to protest.
    (AP, 3/24/17)

2017        Mar 29, Venezuela's Supreme Court ruled that it can take over responsibilities assigned to Congress. Earlier this week, the high court also moved to place limits on lawmakers' immunity from prosecution. Opponents of President Nicolas Maduro said it's part of an attempt to install a dictatorship in the South American nation.
    (AP, 3/30/17)

2017        Mar 30, Venezuela's Supreme Court took over legislative powers from the opposition-majority National Assembly, a dramatic tightening of leftist President Nicolas Maduro and his allies' grip amid a devastating economic crisis.
    (AFP, 3/30/17)

2017        Mar 31, Venezuelan security forces violently repressed small protests that broke out in Caracas after the government-stacked Supreme Court gutted congress of its last vestiges of power, drawing widespread condemnation from foreign countries and even from the government's top prosecutor.
    (AP, 3/31/17)

2017        Mar, In Venezuela former general Raul Baduel was charged with treason two days before completed a sentence for illicit enrichment.
    (Econ, 3/11/17, p.36)

2017        Apr 1, Venezuela's pro-government Supreme Court revoked its controversial annulment of the opposition-led Congress amid international condemnation and protests against socialist President Nicolas Maduro.
    (Reuters, 4/1/17)

2017        Apr 3, Venezuelan authorities said they've arrested six officials for taking bribes to issue identification documents to Syrians.
    (AP, 4/4/17)

2017        Apr 4, Venezuelan lawmakers were impeded from reaching the National Assembly. Chaos and violence in Caracas left 18 people arrested and 20 injured.
    (Reuters, 4/5/17)

2017        Apr 5, Venezuela's opposition's lawmakers gathered from dawn, some carrying injuries from protests, to seek the dismissal of Supreme Court judges whom they accuse of propping up a dictatorship.
    (Reuters, 4/5/17)

2017        Apr 6, Seven protests against Venezuela's socialist government were held in Caracas, one for each of the Supreme Court judges who passed a ruling last week taking control of the country's opposition-led congress in what demonstrators said was a lurch toward dictatorship. Jairo Ortiz (19) was shot and killed in a Caracas suburb by security forces that were breaking up a protest there.
    (Reuters, 4/6/17)(Reuters, 4/7/17)

2017        Apr 7, Venezuelan authorities banned Henrique Capriles, a top opposition leader, from public office for 15 years. Capriles rejected the move and insisted he would retain his post as governor, branding Maduro a dictator.
    (AFP, 4/8/17)

2017        Apr 8, In Venezuela protesters hurling rocks clashed with police firing tear gas in a fourth demonstration in a week against President Nicolas Maduro and his government.
    (AFP, 4/9/17)

2017        Apr 10, In Venezuela thousands of protesters demanding new elections faced off with security forces who launched tear gas and blocked roadways in Caracas. Daniel Queliz (20) died after being shot in the neck during protests in Valencia.
    (SFC, 4/11/17, p.A2)(SFC, 4/12/17, p.A2)

2017        Apr 11, In Venezuela Miguel Colmenares (36) was shot at a protest in the central city of Barquisimeto. Gruseny Calderon (32) was also killed during the same protest. The protests have also claimed the lives of two college students and a 13 year-old.
    (AP, 4/13/17)

2017        Apr 13, Thousands of Venezuelans took to the streets of Caracas to support a growing protest movement. Officials confirmed earlier today that a fifth person had died in recent protests.
    (SFC, 4/14/17, p.A2)

2017        Apr 19, Venezuela's opposition staged the "mother of all marches," accusing President Nicolas Maduro of resorting to dictatorial measures to quash popular outrage over a deepening economic crisis. Two students were killed in the demonstrations. A National Guard officer soon died from gunfire injuries.
    (Reuters, 4/19/17)(Reuters, 4/20/17)
2017        Apr 19, Venezuelan authorities took control of GM’s only factory there in what GM called an illegal judicial seizure of its assets.
    (AP, 4/20/17)

2017        Apr 20, General Motors said it was shuttering operations in Venezuela a day after authorities seized its factory in the country. The neglected factory has not produced cars since 2015, but the company still had 79 dealers employing 3,900 people.
    (SFC, 4/21/17, p.A2)

2017        Apr 21, Venezuela was rocked by a night of fresh violence during anti-government protests. A man was shot and killed during one protest. The death toll in three weeks of violence at anti-government protests jumped to 20 people after a night of clashes and pillaging left 12 people dead in Caracas.
    (AFP, 4/21/17)

2017        Apr 24, In Venezuela small groups of protesters held "sit-ins" around the country barricading roads with trash and even bathtubs in an effort to maintain momentum as anti-government unrest entered a fourth week. Three people were killed in another day of nationwide protests against leftist president Nicolas Maduro, raising the death toll to 24 in weeks of anti-government demonstrations.
    (Reuters, 4/24/17)(AP, 4/24/17)(AFP, 4/25/17)

2017        Apr 25, In Venezuela a man (23) was shot dead at a political demonstration in the western state of Lara, bringing to at least 25 the number of deaths in unrest this month.
    (Reuters, 4/25/17)(AFP, 4/25/17)
2017        Apr 25, A top Venezuelan prison official said six inmates died and another 11 have been wounded in a brawl among prisoners at the Puente Ayala penitentiary in Anzoategui state.
    (AP, 4/26/17)

2017        Apr 26, Venezuela said that it would begin withdrawing for the Organization of American States to counter an attempt by the OAS and conservative regional governments to topple Pres. Maduro.
    (SFC, 4/27/17, p.A2)

2017        Apr 30, Venezuela’s Pres. Maduro said the minimum wage will rise 60% starting May 1. This was the third wage increase this year as triple-digit inflation eroded workers’ savings.
    (SFC, 5/1/17, p.A2)

2017        Apr, Colombia’s constitutional court ruled that Venezuelan sex workers are entitled to work visas.
    (Econ 7/22/17, p.28)

2017        May 1, Venezuela’s Pres. Maduro called for a new constitution as an intensifying protest movement entered a second month.
    (SFC, 5/2/17, p.A2)
2017        May 1, The US Supreme Court ruled against Oklahoma-based Helmerich & Payne International Drilling Company that claimed Venezuela unlawfully seized 11 drilling rigs in 2010. The justices ruled 8-0 to throw out a 2015 decision by the US Court of Appeals for the District of Columbia Circuit that allowed one of the claims to move forward.
    (Reuters, 5/1/17)

2017        May 2, Venezuela's opposition blocked streets in Caracas to denounce a decision by unpopular leftist President Nicolas Maduro to create a new super-body known as a "constituent assembly," a move critics say is a veiled attempt to cling to power by avoiding elections.
    (Reuters, 5/2/17)

2017        May 6, In Venezuela thousands of women dressed in white marched in Caracas to keep pressure on President Nicolas Maduro, whose authority is being increasingly challenged by protests and deadly unrest.
    (AFP, 5/6/17)

2017        May 15, In Venezuela opposition supporters blocked roads in various parts of the country to try to keep pressure on socialist President Nicolas Maduro.
    (Reuters, 5/15/17)

2017        May 16, In Venezuela Yeison Mora (17) died after he was shot in the head during a protest the day before, taking the death toll from six weeks of anti-government unrest to at least 40.
    (Reuters, 5/16/17)(SFC, 5/17/17, p.A4)

2017        May 19, The Venezuelan Foreign Ministry announced that Russian President Vladimir Putin has promised to start delivering several tons of wheat each month after speaking on the phone with President Nicolas Maduro.
    (AP, 5/19/17)
2017        May 19, The US imposed a new round of sanctions on Venezuelan officials targeting eight Supreme Court judges for damaging their nation’s democracy by steadily stripping the opposition controlled congress of any authority.
    (SFC, 5/20/17, p.A2)

2017        May 20, In western Venezuela a 23-year-old was killed with gunshot wounds to the chest during a protest. His death brings to at least 48 the number of people killed since anti-government unrest began two months ago. Government supporter Orlando Figuera (21) suffered burns to almost all his body when he was doused with gasoline and set on fire at a protest in Caracas. Enzo Franchini Oliveros was later accused of burning Figuera and was arrested on July 8, 2019, in a town near Madrid. Venezuela sought his extradition from Spain.
    (AP, 5/21/17)(AP, 5/25/17)(The Guardian, 7/11/19)

2017        May 22, In Barinas, Venezuela, protesters set the childhood home of late Pres. Hugo Chavez on fire along with several government buildings as they clashed with national guardsmen.
    (SFC, 5/23/17, p.A2)

2017        May 24, Angry Venezuelans barricaded streets in parts of Caracas and the opposition geared up for another protest as the announcement of two election dates failed to appease anger against President Nicolas Maduro and an economy in tailspin.
    (Reuters, 5/24/17)

2017        May 27, In Venezuela demonstrators clashed with police again as they descended on the offices of the state media regulator, the latest in nearly two months of often-violent protests demanding the ouster of President Nicolas Maduro.
    (AFP, 5/27/17)

2017        May 28, The Wall Street Journal reported that the Goldman Sachs Group has bought $2.8 billion in bonds from Venezuela’s state-run oil company PDVSA at a steeply discounted price. Opposition leaders immediately accused the bank of getting in bed with a deeply unpopular administration, the target of two months of near-daily protests.
    (AP, 5/30/17)

2017        Jun 5, In Venezuela protesters again took to the streets of Caracas shutting down main roads to demand new presidential elections following the release of a new video expressing support from jailed opposition leader Leopoldo Lopez.
    (SFC, 6/6/17, p.A2)

2017        Jun 12, Venezuela's Supreme Court rejected the chief prosecutor's motion to stop President Nicolas Maduro's push to rewrite the constitution.
    (AP, 6/12/17)

2017        Jun 20, It was reported that the number of Venezuelans seeking asylum in the United States is accelerating as the oil-rich economy crashes and bloody, anti-government protests roil the nation.
    (AP, 6/20/17)

2017        Jun 28, A Venezuelan police helicopter strafed the Supreme Court and a government ministry. A government communique said the helicopter was stolen by investigative police pilot Oscar Perez, who declared himself in rebellion against Maduro.
    (Reuters, 6/28/17)

2017        Jun 29, In Venezuela 29 students in Caracas were detained after participating in anti-government protests.
    (AP, 6/30/17)

2017        Jul 5, In Venezuela a pro-government mob charged into the national assembly building and beat up parliamentarians. The thugs were responding to a summons by Tareck el Aissami, the country’s vice-president.
    (Econ 7/15/17, p.31)

2017        Jul 8, Venezuela's best-known jailed opposition leader Leopoldo Lopez was back home and hugging his family after being granted house arrest following three years in jail for leading anti-government protests.
    (Reuters, 7/8/17)

2017        Jul 14, The Venezuelan state prosecutor's office called for the conditional release of Joshua Holt (25), a US citizen held on weapons charges for more than a year, citing delays in his trial.
    (Reuters, 7/14/17)
2017        Jul 14, UN officials said more than 52,000 Venezuelans have applied for asylum this year, nearly twice the number in all of 2016. The UN human rights office noted figures from the Venezuelan Attorney General's office indicating 92 people have died in connection with protests since April 1.
    (AP, 7/14/17)

2017        Jul 16, In Venezuela the opposition held an unofficial vote to let Venezuelans have their say about unpopular President Nicolas Maduro's plan to elect a new legislative body with powers to rewrite the constitution and supersede other institutions. Venezuelan expatriates began voting in hundreds of cities worldwide in the unofficial plebiscite. The Democratic Unity coalition brought millions onto the streets for the informal referendum.  More than 7 million Venezuelans cast symbolic votes rejecting Maduro’s plan to retool the constitution.
    (Reuters, 7/16/17)(Reuters, 7/17/17)(AP, 7/17/17)

2017        Jul 20, Many Venezuelan streets were deserted and barricaded for a strike called by foes of President Nicolas Maduro to demand a presidential election and the abandonment of a plan for a new congress they fear would institute a dictatorship. Two people were killed in clashes during the nationwide strike.
    (Reuters, 7/20/17)(AFP, 7/21/17)

2017        Jul 21, Venezuela’s opposition-controlled congress named a 33 new judges to replace the government-stacked Supreme Court, which wasted no time in rejecting the move as an ongoing power struggle heats up between Pres. Nicolas Maduro and his foes. The government soon arrested three of the new judges.
    (AP, 7/22/17)(Econ 7/29/17, p.20)

2017        Jul 22, In Venezuela another day of violent clashes took place as security forces blocked protesters with armored cars and riot shields. The injured included Violinist Wuilly Arteaga, famous for his musical protests. The opposition called for a fresh 48-hour general strike against President Nicolas Maduro's plans to have the constitution rewritten giving him broader powers.
    (AP, 7/23/17)(AFP, 7/23/17)

2017        Jul 26, Opposition leader Leopoldo Lopez (46) called on Venezuelans to support a 48-hour general strike in protest of government plans to rewrite the constitution, in his first direct public message since being released from prison to house arrest. Three people were killed in clashes between security forces and protesters on the first day of the opposition-led strike.
    (AP, 7/26/17)(Reuters, 7/27/17)
2017        Jul 26, The Trump administration imposed sanctions on 13 senior officials of Venezuela's government, military and state oil company PDVSA.
    (Reuters, 7/26/17)

2017        Jul 30, Venezuelan President Nicolas Maduro asked for global acceptance as he cast an unusual pre-dawn vote for an all-powerful constitutional assembly that his opponents fear he'll use to replace his country's democracy with a single-party authoritarian system. The opposition boycotted the vote.
    (AP, 7/30/17)

2017        Jul 30, Venezuela’s President Nicolas Maduro asked for global acceptance as he cast an unusual pre-dawn vote for an all-powerful constitutional assembly that his opponents fear he'll use to replace his country's democracy with a single-party authoritarian system. The opposition boycotted the vote. A candidate to the all-powerful assembly being elected was shot dead in his home and troops fired weapons to clear protesters in Caracas. At least 10 people were killed in protests against Maduro. 8 million people reportedly voted for the new assembly. The firm that runs the electronic voting system said it had been “tampered with."
    (AP, 7/30/17)(AFP, 7/30/17)(Reuters, 7/31/17)(Econ 8/5/17, p.27)

2017        Jul 31, Venezuelan President Nicolas Maduro celebrated the election of a new legislative superbody that is expected to give the ruling Socialist Party sweeping powers and mocked US criticism that the vote was an affront to democracy.
    (Reuters, 7/31/17)
2017        Jul 31, The European Union condemned what it said was excessive use of force by state troops in Venezuela and said it was unlikely to recognize results of elections a day earlier that were marred by deadly clashes.
    (Reuters, 7/31/17)

2017        Aug 1, In Venezuela leading opposition figures Leopoldo Lopez and Antonio Ledezma were removed from their homes early today after "official intelligence sources" determined there was a "escape plan" involving both men.
    (AP, 8/1/17)

2017        Aug 2, The president of Venezuela's opposition-controlled National Assembly said the legislature will call for an investigation into claims that the official turnout figure in the July 30 election was inflated by at least 1 million votes.
    (AP, 8/2/17)

2017        Aug 4, Venezuela returned opposition leader Antonio Ledezma from prison to his home. Venezuela’s government inaugurated a new legislative superbody authorized to expand the powers of leftist President Nicolas Maduro. Chief prosecutor Luisa Ortega Diaz said it was fraudulently elected.
    (Reuters, 8/4/17)(Reuters, 8/5/17)

2017        Aug 5, Venezuelan security forces surrounded the entrance to the chief prosecutor's office. The newly installed constitutional assembly voted unanimously to remove chief prosecutor Luisa Ortega, replaced her with a government loyalist and ordered her to stand trial, confirming opposition fears that it would use its powers to root out critics of the government.
    (AP, 8/5/17)(Reuters, 8/6/17)
2017        Aug 5, The South American trade bloc Mercosur, meeting in San Paulo, decided to suspend Venezuela for failing to follow democratic norms.
    (AP, 8/5/17)

2017        Aug 6, Venezuelan authorities suppressed a small military rebellion near the central city of Valencia, days after President Nicolas Maduro formed a legislative superbody internationally condemned as a power grab.
    (Reuters, 8/6/17)

2017        Aug 8, Venezuela’s new constitutional assembly assumed even more power by declaring itself as the superior body to all other governmental institutions, including the opposition-controlled congress.
    (AP, 8/9/17)
2017        Aug 8, Venezuela's Supreme Court sentenced Caracas district mayor Ramon Muchacho to 15 months in jail for defying orders to keep transit moving in an area routinely blocked and barricaded by anti-government demonstrations.
    (Reuters, 8/8/17)

2017        Aug 9, Washington imposed sanctions on eight Venezuelan officials for their role in creating an all-powerful legislative body loyal to President Nicolas Maduro, while a mayor-turned-fugitive called for more anti-government protests. Ramon Muchacho, mayor of the wealthy Chacao district of capital city Caracas, appeared in a video shot from a secret location after a court removed him from office and sentenced him to 15 months in prison a day earlier for failing to halt anti-government protests in his district.
    (Reuters, 8/10/17)
2017        Aug 9, Venezuela’s supreme court ordered David Smolansky, mayor of the eastern Caracas district of El Hatillo, imprisoned for 15 months for not obeying orders to shut down protests.
    (AP, 8/10/17)

2017        Aug 11, US Pres. Donald Trump said a military option was not out of the question for dealing with the Venezuelan government's crackdown on the opposition and deepening social crisis.  A day earlier in the Oval Office he had asked his top aides why can't the US just simply invade the troubled country?
    (Reuters, 8/13/17)(AP, 7/4/18)

2017        Aug 15, Embattled Venezuelan President Nicolas Maduro traveled to Cuba to pay homage to deceased leader Fidel Castro, in a surprise visit days after US President Donald Trump warned of possible military action against Venezuela.
    (Reuters, 8/16/17)
2017        Aug 15, Venezuelan violinist Wuilly Arteaga (23) was released after spending 19 days in police custody. He had become a beloved fixture at anti-government protests.
    (AFP, 8/16/17)

2017        Aug 16, Venezuela’s government-stacked Supreme Court announced it was ordering the capture of German Ferrer, the ousted chief prosecutor's husband, and referring the case to the new, all-powerful constitutional assembly. Ferrer was accused of running a $6 million extortion ring.
    (AP, 8/17/17)(SFC, 8/18/17, p.A4)
2017        Aug 16, In southern Venezuela at least 37 people were killed overnight during clashes between armed inmates and security forces at a prison in Puerto Ayacucho, Amazonas state. Inmates had seized control of the prison several weeks earlier.
    (SFC, 8/17/17, p.A2)

2017        Aug 18, Venezuela’s newly-created constituent assembly, elected in late July to re-write the crisis-hit country's constitution, said it would supersede congress and pass laws on its own. A group of 12 regional nations plus the United States rejected Venezuela's new government-allied legislative superbody, saying they would continue to regard the opposition-controlled congress as the country's only legitimate law maker.
    (Reuters, 8/19/17)
2017        Aug 18, Venezuela's ousted chief prosecutor and her husband, two of President Nicolas Maduro's most outspoken critics, fled the country and landed in Colombia.
    (AP, 8/18/17)

2017        Aug 22, Chile said it has granted diplomatic asylum to five Venezuelans who took refuge in its embassy in Caracas, amid political turmoil as President Nicolas Maduro moves to consolidate power.
    (AFP, 8/22/17)

2017        Aug 23, Venezuela's fugitive former top prosecutor Luisa Ortega (59) resurfaced in Brazil claiming to possess "a lot" of proof of President Nicolas Maduro's corruption and to warn that her life remains in danger.
    (AFP, 8/23/17)

2017        Aug 24, Colombia’s Caracol Television said President Nicolas Maduro's socialist government has pulled its channel from Venezuela's airwaves, slamming the move as a crackdown on media. The signal for RCN was also pulled.
    (Reuters, 8/24/17)(SSFC, 8/27/17, p.A5)

2017        Aug 25, Venezuela’s National Communications Commission did not renew permits for two radio stations that aired critical coverage of Pres. Nicholas Maduro’s government and ordered them to cease transmitting.
    (SSFC, 8/27/17, p.A5)

2017        Aug 26, Venezuela kicked off two days of military drills in response to US President Donald Trump's threat of military action and newly announced sanctions on the crisis-stricken nation.
    (AFP, 8/26/17)

2017        Aug 30, The UN said Venezuela's security forces had committed extensive and apparently deliberate human rights violations in crushing anti-government protests and that democracy was "barely alive".
    (Reuters, 8/30/17)

2017        Aug 31, Venezuela's chief prosecutor said he has launched embezzlement accusations against his predecessor, who fled the country saying the government wanted to kill her after she challenged it over a deadly political crisis. Former chief prosecutor Luisa Ortega is currently in Mexico, the latest stop on a tour of countries where she has been denouncing Venezuelan President Nicolas Maduro.
    (AFP, 9/1/17)
2017        Aug 31, Venezuelan authorities discovered some 200 million bolivars in a vehicle belonging to Lilian Tintori, the wife of opposition activist Leopoldo Lopez. That's around $60,000 at the nation's weakest official exchange rate or $10,000 at the black market rate. She has said the cash was to pay for emergencies including the hospitalization of her 100-year-old grandmother. On Sep 2 Tintori said her passport was seized as she tried to board a flight for Europe.
    (AP, 9/1/17)(SSFC, 9/3/17, p.A4)

2017        Sep 3, Guyanese authorities said they're seeing a significant increase in Venezuelans crossing the border seeking treatment for malaria and other ailments. Guyana's Indigenous Affairs Ministry said Venezuelan soldiers recently crossed the border and stole food, telling locals they hadn't been resupplied for 45 days.
    (AP, 9/3/17)

2017        Sep 7, Venezuela’s President Nicolas Maduro invited bondholders to unspecified "negotiations" over its foreign debt in coming days in response to recent US financial sanctions.
    (Reuters, 9/8/17)

2017        Sep 8, Russian Finance Minister Anton Siluanov told reporters that Venezuela is having problems with fulfilling its obligations on its debt to Russia.
    (Reuters, 9/8/17)

2017        Sep 12, The International Commission of Jurists (ICJ) said Venezuela's Supreme Court has progressively dismantled the rule of law, becoming an instrument of President Nicolas Maduro's government in what amounts to a coup against the constitutional order. It called on the UN Human Rights Council to take action.
    (Reuters, 9/12/17)

2017        Sep 21, Venezuelan President Nicolas Maduro arrived in Cuba in a surprise visit to bring a donation of goods after Hurricane Irma wreaked havoc on the Caribbean island.
    (Reuters, 9/22/17)

2017        Oct 6, In Turkey Venezuelan President Nicolas Maduro met with Pres. Recep Tayyip Erdogan for talks on bilateral relations and international issues.
    (AP, 10/6/17)

2017        Oct 15, Venezuela held gubernatorial elections. The ruling Socialist Party currently controlled 20 of 23 state governorships, but polls showed the opposition Democratic Unity coalition likely to upend that. Socialist contenders swept 18 of the 23 governor offices at stake
    (Reuters, 10/15/17)(AP, 10/17/17)

2017        Oct 16, Venezuela's opposition refused to recognize a surprise win for the ruling socialists in weekend regional elections.  On Oct 18 the National Electoral Council said socialist contenders swept 18 of the 23 governor offices at stake. The opposition had been widely expected to win a majority of the races and contested the results.
    (Reuters, 10/16/17)(AP, 10/17/17)

2017        Oct 26, Venezuela's democratic opposition was awarded the European Union's human rights award and the European Parliament called for a peaceful transition to democracy in the troubled country.
    (Reuters, 10/26/17)

2017        Nov 3, Venezuela's government released two prominent opposition activists it has held for more than a year without trial. Yon Goicoechea and Delson Guarate were freed late today from a Caracas jail, but continue to be bound by restrictions on their movement and speech.
    (AP, 11/4/17)

2017        Nov 4, Venezuelan opposition lawmaker Freddy Guevara (31) requested Chile's protection after Venezuela's high court announced he would be prosecuted on charges punishable by a decade in prison. He became the sixth Venezuelan to seek protection at the embassy in under three months.
    (AFP, 11/5/17)

2017        Nov 7, Venezuelan journalist Jesus Medina said he has been released following two days of captivity and torture after photographing criminal gang activities inside a prison. Last week, he published photos taken from a nearby hilltop purportedly showing armed inmates, marijuana plots and satellite dishes inside the prison.
    (AP, 11/7/17)

2017        Nov 8, Moscow's finance minister said Venezuela has agreed to Russia's terms for restructuring its debt. As of 2016 Venezuela's official debt to Moscow stood at $2.8 billion.
    (AFP, 11/8/17)

2017        Nov 13, Venezuela opened talks with creditors to renegotiate a crippling debt that has left citizens sifting through garbage for food, as the once-prosperous OPEC nation seeks to avert a default that would plunge its economy into deeper crisis.
    (Reuters, 11/13/17)
2017        Nov 13, The European Union banned arms sales to Venezuela and set up a system to slap asset freezes and travel restrictions on Venezuelan officials as it sought to ramp up pressure on President Nicolas Maduro.
    (AP, 11/13/17)
2017        Nov 13, Spain's defense and foreign ministers said they had evidence that state and private-sector Russian groups, as well as groups in Venezuela, used Twitter, Facebook and other Internet sites to massively publicize the separatist cause and swing public opinion behind it in the run-up to the Oct. 1 referendum.
    (Reuters, 11/13/17)

2017        Nov 15, The Russian Finance Ministry says it has signed a deal to restructure Venezuela's debt.
    (AP, 11/15/17)

2017        Nov 16, Venezuela's ousted chief prosecutor asked the International Criminal Court to open an investigation into President Nicolas Maduro and four other senior officials for alleged crimes against humanity.
    (AP, 11/16/17)

2017        Nov 17, Colombian authorities said Venezuelan opposition leader Antonio Ledezma (62), who was detained in 2015 on allegations of coup-plotting but had been under house arrest in Caracas, has fled over the border to Colombia.
    (Reuters, 11/17/17)

2017        Nov 22, Venezuelan President Nicolas Maduro said that Venezuelan-American executives at refiner Citgo who were arrested in a corruption sweep this week would be tried as "corrupt, thieving traitors" despite a request by the United States to free them. Maduro named Asdrubal Chavez -- a cousin of late leader Hugo Chavez -- to lead Citgo, the state oil company's US affiliate.
    (Reuters, 11/23/17)(AFP, 11/23/17)

2017        Nov 28, The Venezuelan Soccer Federation fired Kenneth Zseremeta, the coach of its under-20 women's national soccer team, after he claimed that his players were suffering from malnutrition.
    (AP, 11/29/17)

2017        Nov 29, Human Rights Watch said Venezuelan state security forces systematically abused opposition protesters detained earlier this year during months of deadly political unrest.
    (SFC, 11/30/17, p.A2)

2017        Nov 30, Venezuelan authorities said they have detained two once-powerful officials who had run the oil ministry and state energy company PDVSA. Engineer Eulogio Del Pino was thought to have participated in a $500 million corruption and sabotage scheme at the Petrozamora joint venture, while chemist Martinez was suspected of allowing a poor refinancing deal for US-based refiner Citgo Petroleum Corp, which he used to lead, to go ahead without government approval.
    (Reuters, 11/30/17)

2017        Dec 1, Venezuela’s state prosecutor said Diego Salazar, a relative of former oil czar Rafael Ramirez, has been arrested as part of an investigation into a 2011-2012 money laundering scandal in Andorra.
    (Reuters, 12/2/17)

2017        Dec 10, Venezuelans voted in mayoral races, boycotted by the major opposition parties. The ruling Socialist Party as predicted dominated mayoral polls with the help of a partial boycott by a crumbling opposition.
    (AP, 12/10/17)(Reuters, 12/11/17)

2017        Dec 13, The European Union's Sakharov Prize for human rights was awarded to Venezuela's democratic opposition and its political prisoners.
    (AP, 12/13/17)

2017        Dec 15, A Venezuelan cash crunch led residents of Caracas to unveil their own currency. The panal, which means honeycomb in Spanish, can be spent in just a few stores. Its circulation is limited to one poor neighborhood. Initially 62,000 bills have been printed.
    (AP, 12/16/17)

2017        Dec 24, In Venezuela three dozen opponents of the socialist government were released from prison and reunited with loved ones as part of a wider Christmas release.
    (Reuters, 12/24/17)

2017        Dec 26, It was reported that over the last year Venezuela's currency has weakened 97.5 per cent against the greenback, meaning $1,000 of local currency purchased then would be worth just $25 now.
    (Reuters, 12/26/17)

2017        Dec 28, Hundreds of Venezuelans took to the streets in poor parts of Caracas overnight to protest a shortage of pork for traditional Christmas meals in the latest symptom of social discontent during a brutal economic crisis.
    (Reuters, 12/28/17)

2017        Dec 30, Colombia said it has shipped around 55 tons of ham to Venezuela after protests broke out over shortages of the traditional holiday staple.
    (AFP, 12/30/17)

2017        Dec 31, In Venezuela Alexandra Colopoy (18) was reportedly gunned down by National Guard First Sergeant David Rebolledo. The soldier shot and killed the pregnant woman an incident that local media described as a melee over scarce pork. Rebolledo was soon arrested.
    (Reuters, 1/1/18)

2018        Jan 5, Venezuelan President Nicolas Maduro ordered the shutdown of all air and maritime traffic with the Caribbean islands of Aruba, Curacao and Bonaire for the next 72 hours. He accused island leaders of being complicit in the illegal trafficking of goods and resources.
    (AP, 1/5/18)
2018        Jan 5, The United States imposed sanctions on four current or former Venezuelan government officials, including a former food minister accused by the opposition of corruptly managing food imports.
    (Reuters, 1/5/18)

2018        Jan 9, Venezuelan officials extended the ban on air and maritime ties with Aruba, Curacao and Bonaire, three nearby Dutch Caribbean islands, citing smuggling claims.
    (AP, 1/9/18)
2018        Jan 9, A boat carrying roughly 30 migrants left Venezuela for Curacao. Early the next day four bodies washed up on the shore of Curacao. Venezuelan authorities later confirmed 16 survivors from the shipwreck with ten people still missing.
    (AP, 1/12/18)

2018        Jan 12, It was reported that two days of protests and looting in western Venezuela over food shortages have left at least three people dead and 16 more injured.
    (AP, 1/12/18)

2018        Jan 15, Venezuelan officials exchanged fire with fugitive police officer Oscar Perez, who led a high-profile attack in Caracas last year from a stolen helicopter. Perez was among seven who died fighting against police and soldiers in a small mountain community outside Caracas.
    (AP, 1/15/18)(SFC, 1/17/18, p.A3)

2018        Jan 17, It was reported that a wave of looting by hungry mobs across Venezuela has left streets of shuttered shops in provincial towns and pushed some store owners to arm themselves with guns and machetes, stirring fear that the turmoil could spread to the capital Caracas.
    (AP, 1/17/18)

2018        Jan 22, The EU announced new sanctions on seven senior Venezuelan officials, saying this was an expression of the bloc's concern with the political crisis under President Nicolas Maduro.
    (Reuters, 1/22/18)

2018        Jan 25, Colombian President Juan Manuel Santos said his country will not recognize the validity or the result of forthcoming presidential elections in neighboring Venezuela, adding he expected other countries would share the view that the vote is illegitimate.
    (Reuters, 1/25/18)

2018        Jan 25, In Venezuela the pro-Maduro Supreme Court moved late today to exclude the opposition coalition from registering in the vote placed yet another obstacle ahead of the already disparate opposition.
    (AP, 1/26/18)

2018        Jan 26, The Spanish government declared Venezuela's ambassador in Spain 'persona non grata' following an equivalent move by the Venezuelan government a day earlier. The EU condemned Venezuela for expelling the Spanish ambassador and called for the decision to be reversed and diplomatic relations to remain in place.
    (Reuters, 1/26/18)

2018        Feb 3, Colombia's government opened its first shelter for Venezuelans who are pouring across the border in ever-larger numbers to escape their nation's economic crisis.
    (AP, 2/3/18)

2018        Feb 6, It was reported that four prominent Venezuelan journalists have fled their country after being sued by a politically connected businessman over an article alleging irregularities in food sales to President Nicolas Maduro's socialist administration.
    (AP, 2/6/18)

2018        Feb 9, Brazilian President Michel Temer criticized the leftist government of neighboring Venezuela for leading that country into a crisis that is causing an exodus of refugees into northern Brazil.
    (AP, 2/9/18)

2018        Feb 10, In southern Venezuela violence broke out at the illegal Cucapra gold mine in Bolivar state leaving at least 18 people killed as soldiers confronted an armed gang that threatened wildcat miners.
    (SFC, 2/12/18, p.A2)
2018        Feb 10, Brazilian police arrested Gordon Fowler (42), a homeless man from Guyana, accused of attacking Venezuelan migrants in Boa Vista, a city in northeastern Brazil that's coping with a wave of migrants from the struggling neighboring nation.
    (AP, 2/11/18)

2018        Feb 14, Venezuela's Pres. Nicolas Maduro said he has ordered the reopening of the country's consulate in Miami, home to a sizeable anti-government community, before presidential elections on April 22, reversing a move by his predecessor Hugo Chavez.
    (Reuters, 2/15/18)

2018        Feb 20, A Venezuelan opposition official says the largest parties in the broad anti-government coalition have decided to boycott an upcoming presidential election they say won't be free or fair. That brings to four the number of major parties that have decided they won't support any candidate.
    (AP, 2/20/18)
2018        Feb 20, Venezuela became the first country to launch its own version of bitcoin, a move it hopes will provide a much-needed boost to its credit-stricken economy. The so-called petro is backed by Venezuela's crude oil reserves, the largest in the world. The US Treasury Department has thrown a damper on the release, warning US citizens and companies who buy the petro that they could be violating sanctions.
    (AP, 2/20/18)

2018        Feb 28, Venezuela’s opposition coalition decried a decision by Henri Falcon (56), a former state governor, to run against President Nicolas Maduro in elections in April, accusing him of undercutting their strategy of boycotting the vote.
    (Reuters, 2/28/18)

2018        Mar 1, Venezuelan intelligence agents entered the home of opposition leader Leopoldo Lopez, who is under house arrest for leading protests against President Nicolas Maduro. The arrival of agents of the Sebin came hours after the New York Times published a story in which Lopez described how security forces have sought to prevent him from speaking with reporters.
    (Reuters, 3/1/18)

2018        Mar 8, It was reported that Brazil’s government estimated that between 500 and 1,200 Venezuelans cross the border into Brazil every day. Brazil has promised to digest all the migration from Venezuela, but little has been done.
    (AFP, 3/8/18)

2018        Mar 20, The United States said it would provide $2.5 million for food and medicine to help Venezuelans fleeing their economically crippled country to neighboring Colombia.
    (Reuters, 3/20/18)

2018        Mar 21, The UN's International Labour Organization (ILO) launched a commission of inquiry into complaints that Venezuela is violating standards including freedom of association and workers' rights to organize.
    (Reuters, 3/21/18)

2018        Mar 24, In Venezuela Jose Antonio Abreu (78), a musician, politician and economist who created a network of more than 1,500 orchestras and choirs for young people in Venezuela, died. His internationally-acclaimed "El Sistema" ("The System") has grown to include more than 900,000 children, taught by 10,000 teachers throughout Venezuela.
    (AFP, 3/25/18)

2018        Mar 28, In Venezuela a fast-moving fire swept through a station where prisoners were being kept in crowded cells, killing 68 people in one of the worst catastrophes involving the nation's prison system.
    (AP, 3/28/18)

2018        Mar 31, Venezuelan authorities said five police commanders have been arrested, suspected of bearing responsibility for a deadly fire in a state police headquarters jail that killed 68 people.
    (AFP, 3/31/18)

2018        Apr 17, California-based Chevron Corp. said that two of its Venezuela-based employees were arrested by local authorities, in what appeared to be the first such detentions of a private oil company's workers amid a growing anti-corruption purge.
    (AP, 4/18/18)

2018        May 4, The chairman of Venezuela's top bank Banesco condemned a 90-day state takeover and arrest of 11 executives as locals thronged cash machines and sped up transfers to other institutions.
    (Reuters, 5/4/18)

2018        May 10, Guatemala asked both Sweden and Venezuela to remove their ambassadors and accused them of interfering in its internal affairs. A few days earlier Sweden's ambassador Anders Kompass had announced Sweden's financial support for a United Nations-sponsored commission investigating corruption in Guatemala.
    (AP, 5/11/18)

2018        May 15, Venezuela's Pres. Maduro said in a campaign speech that all fatherland card holders who voted would receive a "fatherland prize, which is legal and constitutional." Venezuela began issuing Fatherland cards in January 2017. It started giving bonuses to card holders last December and since then has given 62 million awards.
    (AP, 5/25/18)

2018        May 20, Venezuelan President Nicolas Maduro (55) sought a six-year term in a poorly attended vote that was condemned by foes as the "coronation" of a dictator and likely to bring fresh foreign sanctions. Official election results gave President Nicolas Maduro a new six-year term. Turnout was a low 46 percent.
    (Reuters, 5/20/18)(AP, 5/21/18)

2018        May 21, The government of Spain added its voice to a chorus of international condemnation of Venezuela's presidential election. The Lima Group of 14 countries from throughout the Americas refused to recognize the result of Venezuela's disputed presidential election and urged diplomatic and financial action in response.
    (AP, 5/21/18)

2018        May 22, Venezuela's Pres. Maduro said he was expelling charge d'affaires Todd Robinson and his deputy Brian Naranjo for allegedly conspiring against his government by pressuring opposition groups to boycott the May 20 presidential election that he won by a landslide.
    (AP, 5/23/18)

2018        May 26, The Venezuelan government released American Mormon missionary Josh Holt a day after Senator Bob Corker, the chairman of the Senate Foreign Relations Committee, met in Caracas with Venezuelan President Nicolas Maduro. Holt had been held since 2016 on weapons charges.
    (Reuters, 5/26/18)

2018        May 27, A Venezuelan lawyer said two generals were among a group of people arrested last week for allegedly plotting against the country's President Nicolas Maduro.
    (AFP, 5/28/18)

2018        May 30, Cuban President Miguel Diaz-Canel arrived in the Venezuelan capital Caracas on his first foreign visit as president ahead of talks with Pres. Nicolas Maduro.
    (AFP, 5/30/18)

2018        Jun 1, Venezuelan officials said they're taking steps to release activists who government opponents consider to be political prisoners in a gesture aimed at uniting the fractured nation. Former army general Angel Vivas (61) was among 17 people released during a reprieve Maduro said was meant to help national reconciliation. They had been classed as political prisoners by local rights organization Penal Forum. Maduro's government was still reportedly holding more than 300 political prisoners.
    (AP, 6/1/18)(Reuters, 6/2/18)

2018        Jun 2, Venezuela's government freed dozens more opposition activists from jail, bringing to almost 80 the number of prisoners whose release authorities hope will unite the fractured nation.
    (AP, 6/2/18)

2018        Jun 16, In Venezuela at least 17 people were killed after a nightclub brawl in Caracas led to a stampede. A tear gas device exploded after a fight broke out during a graduation ceremony prompting the stampede. Seven people were arrested.
    (SSFC, 6/17/18, p.A4)

2018        Jun 22, The Office of the UN High Commissioner for Human Rights said government security forces in Venezuela carry out unjustified killings without any apparent consequences as the rule of law. The report highlights the case earlier this year in which rebel police officer Oscar Perez and six in his group were shot to death as they tried to surrender. UN officials say they believe the group was executed on orders from top government officials in violation of their basic rights.
    (AP, 6/22/18)

2018        Jun 25, The EU hit the Venezuelan vice-president and 10 other officials with sanctions over rights abuses and irregularities in the re-election of President Nicolas Maduro, which the bloc condemned as "neither free nor fair".
    (AFP, 6/25/18)

2018        Jul 5, Peru, in a joint statement to the UN Human Rights Council in Geneva, led more than 50 countries in urging Venezuela to restore the rule of law and open its doors to humanitarian assistance, as an economic crisis causes shortages of medicine and growing malnutrition.
    (Reuters, 7/5/18)

2018        Jul 26, Venezuelan opposition lawmaker and oncologist Jose Manuel Olivares, who led protests over the crumbling health sector, said he has fled the crisis-stricken country after his family received threats that they would be persecuted unless he quit politics.
    (Reuters, 7/27/18)

2018        Aug 4, In Venezuela a drone blast hit during a military event where President Nicolas Maduro was speaking. Seven soldiers were wounded by explosive-laden drones during a military parade in Caracas A little known group called the "National Movement of Soldiers in T-shirts" soon claimed responsibility.
    (Reuters, 8/5/18)(AFP, 8/5/18)

2018        Aug 5, In Venezuela investigators hunted for assailants behind a failed attempt to assassinate President Nicolas Maduro with explosives-laden drones. They raided hotels and seized vehicles while grilling six suspects for details of the plot.
    (AP, 8/6/18)

2018        Aug 8, Venezuela's Supreme Court ordered the arrest of opposition leader Julio Borges and called for the prosecution of opposition lawmaker Juan Requesens (29), who police detained a day earlier, in connection with the recent alleged assassination attempt against Pres. Maduro.
    (SFC, 8/9/18, p.A2)

2018        Aug 13, Venezuela's President Nicolas Maduro announced that from now on dirt-cheap fuel will be available only to people with a special government aid card that the opposition has denounced as a tool for controlling people.
    (AFP, 8/14/18)

2018        Aug 15, Guyana said it will set up a temporary settlement for hundreds of people who have fled the economic collapse in neighboring Venezuela. An estimated 500 Venezuelans have crossed into Guyana in recent months.
    (AP, 8/15/18)

2018        Aug 16, It was reported that Venezuela's opposition-run supreme court in exile in Colombia has sentenced President Nicolas Maduro to 18 years in prison over the infamous Odebrecht corruption scandal, a move dismissed by the regime.
    (AFP, 8/16/18)

2018        Aug 18, Uncertainty reigned in Venezuela after President Nicolas Maduro unveiled a major economic reform plan aimed at halting the spiraling hyperinflation that has thrown the oil-rich, cash-poor South American country into chaos.
    (AFP, 8/18/18)
2018        Aug 18, In northern Brazil a local merchant was robbed and severely beaten in an incident blamed on Venezuelan suspects, in Pacaraima, where an estimated 1,000 immigrants are living on the street. Dozens of locals then attacked the two main immigrant makeshift camps and burned their belongings, leading Venezuelans to cross the border back into their home country. Brazilian federal police, in charge of immigration, estimated that about 500 Venezuelans cross over to Brazil every day.
    (AFP, 8/18/18)

2018        Aug 20, Venezuela began to launch dramatic reforms announced by President Nicolas Maduro to rescue a downward-spiraling economy, including a new currency and a more-than-3,000 percent hike in the minimum wage.
    (AP, 8/20/18)
2018        Aug 20, In Brazil the government of the northern state of Roraima asked the country's supreme court to halt the entry of Venezuelan immigrants, as the border state struggles to cope with a flow that has already sparked violent confrontations.
    (AP, 8/20/18)

2018        Aug 21, Venezuela's streets were quieter than normal but many businesses remained open despite an opposition call for a national strike to protest economic measures announced by socialist President Nicolas Maduro.
    (Reuters, 8/21/18)

2018        Aug 23, The United Nations refugee and migration agencies called on Latin American countries to ease entry for Venezuelan nationals fleeing economic hardship and a deepening political crisis.
    (Reuters, 8/23/18)

2018        Aug 24, Brazil's health officials said more than 4 million children still needed to be vaccinated against measles. More than 1,380 people have been infected in an outbreak linked to cases imported from Venezuela.
    (SFC, 8/25/18, p.A2)
2018        Aug 24, The UN migration agency said the exodus of migrants from Venezuela is building towards a "crisis moment" comparable to events involving refugees in the Mediterranean.
    (Reuters, 8/24/18)

2018        Aug 25, Peru closed its borders to Venezuelan migrants without a passport, as thousands holding only identification cards reached the border in a last minute crush, some beating the deadline with special assistance from Ecuador.
    (AFP, 8/25/18)

2018        Sep 14, China made no mention of new funds for Venezuela's struggling government after President Nicolas Maduro visited his key foreign financier in hopes of securing new loans. Maduro was on a four-day trip to China to discuss economic agreements.
    (Reuters, 9/14/18)

2018        Sep 18, Impoverished Venezuelans reacted with fury after videos of President Nicolas Maduro gorging on succulent pieces of meat in a restaurant owned by a celebrity Turkish chef went viral. Maduro had a stopover in Istanbul where he was invited to dine with Turkish authorities.
    (AFP, 9/18/18)

2018        Sep 22, A Chinese navy hospital ship docked near Venezuela's capital as the OPEC nation's deepening economic crisis garners the attention of the US and other world powers. The stop by the People's Liberation Army Navy's ship is the latest in an 11-nation "Mission Harmony" tour.
    (AP, 9/22/18)

2018        Sep 25, The United States imposed new sanctions on Venezuelan President Nicolas Maduro's wife and key members of his government, including the vice president and defense minister, accusing them of plundering the country's wealth and helping Maduro maintain his grip on power.
    (Reuters, 9/25/18)

2018        Oct 5, In Venezuela opposition councilman Fernando Alban (56) was taken into custody at Caracas' international airport upon arriving from New York. On October 8 officials said he killed himself by leaping from the 10th floor of the state police agency's headquarters.
    (AP, 10/9/18)

2018        Oct 8, Venezuelan officials said opposition councilman Fernando Alban (56) said killed himself by leaping from the 10th floor of the state police agency's headquarters. But opposition leaders denied the official version.
    (AFP, 10/9/18)

2018        Oct 12, Venezuelan authorities freed a prominent opposition activist jailed for four years just days after an anti-government politician died in state custody. Lorent Saleh (30) was immediately escorted to the airport and put on a flight to Madrid.
    (AFP, 10/13/18)

2018        Oct 14, In Venezuela seven people were killed near a remote gold mine in the southeast. Family members believed the incident was the result of a struggle between armed groups for control of the area.
    (Reuters, 10/18/18)

2018        Oct 15, In Venezuela a blackout started this evening with an explosion at a power station in the northern state of Carabobo. It left at least 11 of 23 states in the dark.
    (AP, 10/16/18)

2018        Oct 18, Spanish police announced the arrests or four people including Nervis Villalobos, a former Venezuelan officials, Argentinian businessman Luis Fernando Vuteff, and two of their business associates as part of a money laundering investigation.
    (SFC, 10/19/18, p.A2)

2018        Oct 29, Russia sent a high-level official delegation to Venezuela, including a deputy finance minister, to help advise the cash-strapped country on economic reform at a time of crisis.
    (Reuters, 10/29/18)

2018        Oct 31, Venezuela named Army General Manuel Cristophe as the new chief of its state intelligence agency, following the death of a politician in custody that was officially ruled a suicide but critics called a murder. Cristopher replaced outgoing Sebin chief Gustavo Gonzalez.
    (Reuters, 10/31/18)

2018        Nov 2, The World Bank reported that it will cost Colombia upward of $1 billion to tend to the surge of Venezuelan migrants fleeing their nation's economic and humanitarian crisis.
    (AP, 11/3/18)

2018        Nov 6, The EU extended sanctions against Venezuela until November 2019 for what it said were human rights violations and undermining of democracy and the rule of law under President Nicolas Maduro.
    (Reuters, 11/6/18)

2018        Nov 8, The UN said at least 2.3 million people have fled economic and political crisis in Venezuela, mostly since 2015.
    (AFP, 11/8/18)

2018        Nov 19, The US Justice Department accused Venezuelan television mogul Raul Gorrin of bribing officials in the South American country and helping them launder the funds through assets in the United States in an indictment unsealed in federal court in West Palm Beach, Florida.
    (Reuters, 11/20/18)

2018        Nov 23, Ecuador officials said it will cost $550 million to respond to the influx of Venezuelan migrants.
    (SSFC, 11/25/18, p.A4)
2018        Nov 23, Spain's National Court said it has agreed to extradite to Venezuela Adrian Velasquez Figueroa, a former bodyguard of the country's late leader Hugo Chavez, to face charges of corruption and money-laundering. The court had previously ruled that his wife, Claudia Diaz, a one-time Chavez nurse, should also be extradited on the same charges.
    (AP, 11/23/18)

2018        Nov 26, Chile said it is returning a second planeload of Haitian immigrants to their native country and will make use of the return flight from the Caribbean island to bring home Chileans stranded in crisis-stricken Venezuela.
    (Reuters, 11/26/18)
2018        Nov 26, North Korea's ceremonial leader Kim Yong Nam arrived in Caracas and was expected to meet with socialist Venezuelan Pres. Nicolas Maduro the next day.
    (Reuters, 11/27/18)

2018        Nov 30, The Pan-American Health Organization reported a big jump in measles cases in the Americas this year, with Brazil surpassing crisis-hit Venezuela as the nation with the most confirmed cases.
    (AP, 12/1/18)

2018        Dec 4, Venezuelan President Nicolas Maduro arrived in Russia, looking for support amid a spiraling economic crisis.
    (AP, 12/4/18)
2018        Dec 4, The UN said it was seeking $738 million in 2019 to help neighboring countries cope with the inflow of millions of Venezuelan refugees and migrants, who have "no prospect for return in the short to medium term".
    (Reuters, 12/4/18)

2018        Dec 5, Russian President Vladimir Putin voiced support for Venezuelan leader Nicolas Maduro as he visited Moscow seeking financial assistance for the socialist country's collapsing economy.
    (AFP, 12/5/18)

2018        Dec 6, In Venezuela former baseball major league players Luis Valbuena (33) and Jose Castillo (37) were killed in a car crash as they were heading to the city of Barquisimeto after a game in Caracas.
    (AP, 12/7/18)

2018        Dec 10, US tire company Goodyear announced it will no longer continue production in Venezuela as economic conditions in the South American nation continue to deteriorate.
    (AP, 12/10/18)

2018        Dec 22, Venezuela's navy "intercepted" a ship exploring for oil on behalf of Exxon Mobil Corp in Guyanese waters. An Exxon spokeswoman said seismic explorations in the western portion of Guyana's Stabroek Block "have been paused until they can be safely continued," and that the vessel was operating in Guyana's exclusive economic zone.
    (Reuters, 12/23/18)

2018        Dec 27, In Venezuela a magnitude 5.5 earthquake jolted people from their sleep early today, forcing residents in the capital to evacuate buildings in their pajamas before sunrise. There were no immediate reports of casualties.
    (AP, 12/27/18)

2018        Dec 28, Venezuela launched a complaint at the World Trade Organization to challenge US sanctions, saying that a ban on travel by blacklisted individuals and trade restrictions break WTO rules.
    (Reuters, 1/8/19)

2018        Dec 29, Colombian Foreign Minister Carlos Holmes Trujillo said in a video message that there was intelligence indicating "credible" plans to target the right-wing Pres. Ivan Duque, who took office in August. He said three Venezuelans were arrested in recent days with "weapons of war".
    (Reuters, 12/30/18)

2018        Dec, Venezuelan migrant singer Reymar Perdomo (30) was invited to Colombia by a popular satirist and Youtuber who had her sing on a bus in Peru, surprising her by bringing along Latin Grammy winner Carlos Vives and Andres Cepeda. She had written the heartfelt reggae song "Me Fui" about leaving her homeland that went viral on the internet and has brought tears to hundreds in the Venezuelan diaspora that has spread around the globe.
    (https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=PMtbPQWPlsk)(AP, 1/16/19)

2019        Jan 4, Colombia's government said it has asked Venezuela to verify whether certain members of the ELN rebel group are living in the country and to detain them under Interpol red notices if they are.
    (Reuters, 1/4/19)
2019        Jan 4, In Peru foreign ministers from 12 Latin American countries and Canada said their governments would not accept Nicolas Maduro as Venezuela's president when he is sworn in for a second six-year term next week. The 14-member Lima Group -- with the exception of Mexico -- said it would not grant recognition to Maduro's hardline socialist government.
    (AFP, 1/5/19)

2019        Jan 5, Venezuela's opposition-controlled but toothless National Assembly declared Nicolas Maduro's presidency illegitimate, calling on the military to support efforts to restore democracy.
    (AFP, 1/6/19)

2019        Jan 8, The United States imposed sanctions on seven Venezuelans including the owner of news network Globovision for allegedly plundering billions of dollars from the crisis-hit country through black-market currency exchanges.
    (AFP, 1/8/19)

2019        Jan 10, Venezuelan President Nicolas Maduro was sworn into a new term in office by the nation's Supreme Court.
    (Reuters, 1/10/19)

2019        Jan 12, Brazil's government issued a statement saying it recognized Venezuela's Congressional leader, who opposes President Nicolas Maduro, as the rightful president of Venezuela.
    (Reuters, 1/12/19)
2019        Jan 12, The United States stepped up its criticism of Venezuelan leader Nicolas Maduro with an explicit call for the formation of a new government in the South American country.
    (AP, 1/12/19)

2019        Jan 15, Venezuela's opposition-run congress considering a measure that would ask dozens of foreign governments to seek a freeze on bank accounts controlled by the government of President Nicolas Maduro. Congress also prepared to formally declare Maduro a usurper following his inauguration on Jan. 10 to a disputed second term.
    (Reuters, 1/15/19)

2019        Jan 16, Brazil's far-right President Jair Bolsonaro and Argentina's President Mauricio Macri said after their first meeting that they agreed on their opposition to Venezuela's authoritarian government.
    (Reuters, 1/16/19)

2019        Jan 21, Venezuela's government suppressed a small military revolt after a group of officers stole weapons and kidnapped several officials. The action triggered violent street protests
    (Reuters, 1/21/19)(AP, 1/22/19)
2019        Jan 21, Venezuela's Supreme Court chief Maikel Moreno said the court has disavowed Juan Guaido as leader of the country's opposition-run congress.
    (Reuters, 1/21/19)

2019        Jan 23, In Venezuela at least four people died following overnight clashes ahead of rival protests today. Protesters marched in the streets and waved their nation's flag as they demanded that Pres. Nicolas Maduro step down from power. Members of the National Guard launched tear gas at protesters in the middle-class neighborhood of El Paraiso.
    (AFP, 1/23/19)(AP, 1/23/19)
2019        Jan 23, Venezuelan opposition leader Juan Guaido declared himself interim leader, winning the support of Washington and parts of Latin America. That prompted socialist President Nicolas Maduro, who has led the oil-rich nation since 2013, to sever diplomatic ties with the United States.
    (Reuters, 1/24/19)

2019        Jan 24, In Venezuela the National Police's Special Action Force (FAES) killed as many as ten people in Jose Felix Ribas, a Caracas slum, a day after residents had joined mass protests against President Nicolas Maduro.
    (Reuters, 2/3/19)
2019        Jan 24, Russia accused Washington of stoking street protests in Venezuela and called Nicolas Maduro the legitimate president. Moscow alongside China has become a creditor of last resort for Caracas, lending it billions of dollars as its economy implodes.
    (Reuters, 1/24/19)

2019        Jan 25, In Venezuela some US diplomats left the embassy in Caracas for the airport in a convoy escorted by police, after President Nicolas Maduro broke off relations with Washington and ordered American personnel out.
    (Reuters, 1/25/19)
2019        Jan 25, In Venezuela Jhonny Godoy (29) was pulled outside his home in the Caracas slum of La Vega and was shot in the abdomen and foot. A disposable diaper was shoved in his mouth, apparently to suffocate him  He had recently posted a video of his opposition to Pres. Maduro.
    (http://tinyurl.com/yxobxdxh)(SFC, 2/21/19, p.A3)
2019        Jan 25, Russia offered to mediate between the government and opposition in Venezuela if necessary, saying it was ready to cooperate with all political forces that acted responsibly.
    (AP, 1/25/19)
2019        Jan 25, The UN human rights boss Michelle Bachelet called for an independent investigation into alleged excessive use of force by Venezuelan security forces or allied militia, citing reports of at least 20 people killed this week.
    (Reuters, 1/25/19)

2019        Jan 26, Venezuela's political showdown moved to the United Nations where a Security Council meeting called by the United States pit backers of President Nicolas Maduro against the Trump administration and supporters of the country's self-declared interim leader Juan Guaido.
    (AP, 1/26/19)
2019        Jan 26, British Foreign Secretary Jeremy Hunt said Britain will recognize opposition leader Juan Guaido as president unless the government of President Nicolas Maduro makes an announcement about new elections within eight days. Germany, France and Spain made similar announcements.
    (AP, 1/26/19)
2019        Jan 26, Spain's PM Pedro Sanchez said he would give Venezuela's President Nicolas Maduro eight days to call elections in the south American country or Spain would recognizes Juan Guaido as interim leader in charge of calling an election.
    (Reuters, 1/26/19)

2019        Jan 27, Venezuela's President Nicolas Maduro rejected an international ultimatum to call elections within eight days and said opposition leader Juan Guaido violated the constitution by declaring himself interim leader.
    (Reuters, 1/27/19)
2019        Jan 27, Venezuela defused a potential showdown with the United States, suspending a demand that US diplomats leave the country as Washington called on the world to "pick a side" in the South American nation's fast-moving crisis.
    (AP, 1/27/19)
2019        Jan 27, Israel officially recognized Venezuela's National Assembly chief Juan Guaido as president.
    (AFP, 1/27/19)

2019        Jan 28, The US imposed restrictions on Venezuelan state-oil company PDVSA with the goal of curbing some $11 billion of crude exports from the OPEC member to the United States this year.
    (Reuters, 1/29/19)

2019        Jan 29, Venezuela's Pres. Nicolas Maduro sought OPEC support against US sanctions imposed on his country's oil industry in a letter sent to OPEC Secretary-General Mohammad Barkindo.
    (Reuters, 2/11/19)
2019        Jan 29, The United States said that it has handed control of Venezuela's bank accounts in the United States to Juan Guaido, the opposition leader whom Washington has recognized as interim president.
    (AFP, 1/29/19)

2019        Jan 21, An investment firm in Abu Dhabi bought some 3 tons of gold from Venezuela amid that country's political turmoil. Noor Capital later said it will refrain from any further transactions.
    (AP, 2/2/19)

2019        Jan 31, Venezuelan security agents detained three foreign journalists -- a Colombian photographer, Spanish reporter and Colombian TV producer -- who had been covering the U.S.-backed effort to oust President Nicolas Maduro for the Spanish news agency EFE. Two detained French journalists were freed.
    (Reuters, 1/31/19)
2019        Jan 31, The European Parliament recognized Venezuela's self-declared interim president Juan Guaido as de facto head of state, heightening international pressure on the OPEC member's socialist President Nicolas Maduro.
    (Reuters, 1/31/19)
2019        Jan 31, A Spanish court approved the temporary extradition to the United States of a former Venezuelan official being investigated in a bribery scheme involving Venezuela's state oil company, PDVSA. The extradition of Nervis Villalobos would be for a maximum of six months.
    (AP, 1/31/19)

2019        Feb 1, Venezuelan opposition leader Juan Guaido said he's respectfully declining offers from the presidents of Mexico and Uruguay to negotiate with Pres. Nicolas Maduro.
    (AP, 2/1/19)

2019        Feb 2, Venezuelan air force Gen. Francisco Yanez defected from the administration of President Nicolas Maduro and called on his compatriots to participate in protests against the socialist leader's rule. Rival marches took place in different districts of Caracas. Tens of thousands joined opposition protests against Maduro in Caracas and other cities.
    (AP, 2/2/19)(AFP, 2/2/19)(AP, 2/3/19)

2019        Feb 3, Austria's Chancellor Sebastian Kurz said he has spoken with Venezuelan opposition leader Juan Guaido and is joining several other European Union nations in saying he will recognize Guaido as interim president unless new presidential elections are called.
    (AP, 2/3/19)

2019        Feb 4, Venezuela's opposition leader Juan Guaido accused the military of planning to divert aid being stockpiled in Colombia, Brazil and an unidentified Caribbean island, in order to distribute it through the socialist government's subsidized food program for its own supporters.
    (AFP, 2/5/19)
2019        Feb 4, Canadian PM Justin Trudeau pledged Can$53 million (US$40 million) in humanitarian aid for Venezuelans amid a deepening crisis. Trudeau spoke in Ottawa at a gathering of the Lima Group of nations. Created in 2017, the Lima Group includes Argentina, Brazil, Canada, Chile, Colombia, Costa Rica, Guatemala, Honduras, Mexico (which did not recognize Guaido), Panama, Paraguay, Peru, Guyana and Saint Lucia.
    (AFP, 2/4/19)
2019        Feb 4, The Czech Republic joined Germany, Spain, France, Sweden, Austria, Denmark and Britain in recognizing Venezuela's opposition leader Juan Guaido as president, arguing that Pres. Nicolas Maduro's re-election was illegitimate.
    (AP, 2/4/19)
2019        Feb 4, Italy blocked a joint European Union position to recognize Venezuela's National Assembly head Juan Guaido as interim president.
    (AP, 2/4/19)
2019        Feb 4, Japanese PM Shinzo Abe said that he and visiting German Chancellor Angela Merkel share a responsibility to work towards global peace and prosperity, with both hoping for a prompt, democratic solution to Venezuela's leadership crisis.
    (Reuters, 2/4/19)

2019        Feb 6, Venezuela's opposition legislator Carlos Paparoni said the government of President Nicolas Maduro sold 73 tons of gold to the United Arab Emirates and Turkey last year without complying with regulations.
    (Reuters, 2/6/19)
2019        Feb 6, ICRC President Peter Maurer said the International Committee of the Red Cross has doubled its budget in Venezuela to 18 million Swiss francs in recent weeks and is also helping Venezuelan migrants in neighboring Colombia and Brazil.
    (Reuters, 2/6/19)

2019        Feb 7, In Uruguay European and Latin American leaders gathered in Montevideo to discuss a plan to solve the deepening crisis in Venezuela, while urging the global community to back away from direct intervention.
    (Reuters, 2/7/19)

2019        Feb 8, Colombia's migration office said it has canceled over 300 daily entrance passes for Venezuelan politicians and their families who support Pres. Nicolas Maduro.
    (Reuters, 2/8/19)
2019        Feb 8, President Klaus Iohannis said that Romania had decided to join other EU countries and allies in recognizing Venezuela's opposition leader Juan Guaido as president partly because Bucharest currently holds the EU's rotating presidency.
    (AP, 2/8/19)

2019        Feb 9, Active-duty Venezuelan army doctor Colonel Ruben Paz Jimenez said in a video he has dropped his allegiance to President Nicolas Maduro, backing opposition leader Juan Guaido instead and urged his fellow soldiers to help allow humanitarian aid into Venezuela.
    (AFP, 2/10/19)

2019        Feb 11, Venezuelan opposition envoy Maria Teresa Belandria was received as her country's official ambassador in Brazil, and said Brazil's government will provide all possible support to get humanitarian aid to the border.
    (Reuters, 2/11/19)

2019        Feb 12, Venezuela's opposition supporters returned to the streets nationwide to keep the heat on embattled President Nicolas Maduro and demand he allow humanitarian aid into the country where food and medicine shortages are rife.
    (Reuters, 2/12/19)

2019        Feb 14, Venezuela's military reinforced a blockade at the border with Colombia where opposition leader Juan Guaido has vowed to bring in desperately-needed humanitarian aid despite President Nicolas Maduro's vow to keep it out. The opposition's envoy to the US accused the government of President Nicolas Maduro of blocking humanitarian aid to the country and urged the international community to help open "thousands of windows" to let assistance in.
    (AFP, 2/14/19)(Reuters, 2/14/19)
2019        Feb 14, Cuba charged that the United States was secretly moving special forces closer to Venezuela as part of a plan to intervene in the South American country using the pretext of a humanitarian crisis.
    (Reuters, 2/14/19)

2019        Feb 15, The US Treasury Department imposed sanctions on top Venezuelan security officials and the head of Venezuelan state oil company PDVSA as it ratcheted up pressure on embattled Venezuelan President Nicolas Maduro over an election it says was illegal.
    (Reuters, 2/15/19)

2019        Feb 16, US military transport planes carrying humanitarian aid meant for Venezuelans landed in the Colombian border city of Cucuta, where food and medicine is being stored amidst uncertainty over how and where aid will be distributed.
    (Reuters, 2/16/19)

2019        Feb 17, Thousands of volunteers in Venezuela began mobilizing to bring American aid into their crisis-hit country despite a blockade by President Nicolas Maduro who claims the assistance could be cover for a US invasion.
    (AFP, 2/17/19)

2019        Feb 18, Venezuela's opposition said that the state internet provider CANTV has blocked a webpage where volunteers sign up to answer National Assembly president Juan Guaido's call to help bring in desperately needed humanitarian aid.
    (AFP, 2/18/19)

2019        Feb 19, Venezuelan Defense Minister Vladimir Padrino said the country's opposition would have to pass over "our dead bodies" to oust President Nicolas Maduro and impose a new government.
    (Reuters, 2/19/19)

2019        Feb 20, Russian news agencies said a shipment of Russian medicine and medical equipment has arrived in Venezuela.
    (AP, 2/20/19)

2019        Feb 21, Venezuelan opposition leader Juan Guaido left Caracas with some 80 lawmakers on a 800-km (500-mile) trip to the Colombian border where they hope to receive food and medicine to alleviate shortages in defiance of President Nicolas Maduro.
    (Reuters, 2/21/19)

2019        Feb 22, In Venezuela members of the Pemon ethnic group clashed with the National Guard and army, who were moving tanks to the border with Brazil a day after Maduro ordered the crossing closed. Zoraida Rodriguez, a member of an indigenous community, was killed. The violence came just hours before dueling concerts were expected to begin on the country's western border with Colombia, where tons of donated food and medicine are stored.
    (AP, 2/22/19)
2019        Feb 22, Brazilian authorities moved humanitarian aid to the country's northern border with Venezuela even though the international crossing has been closed.
    (AP, 2/22/19)
2019        Feb 22, The Trump administration says it's sent about 191 metric tons of humanitarian assistance over the past two weeks to the Colombian-Venezuelan border for distribution inside Venezuela.
    (AP, 2/22/19)
2019        Feb 22, Russia accused the United States of using aid deliveries to Venezuela as a ploy to carry out military action against President Nicolas Maduro's government.
    (AFP, 2/22/19)

2019        Feb 23, A convoy of trucks carrying humanitarian aid for Venezuela left warehouses in Colombia headed for the nearby border crossing, despite President Nicolas Maduro's insistence they would not be allowed to cross. Opposition leader Juan Guaido said a first aid shipment has entered Venezuela from Brazil. Three members of the Venezuelan national guard deserted their posts early today. Venezuelan troops blocking a border bridge with Colombia fired tear gas to repel dozens of opposition lawmakers and activists walking toward the frontier to receive humanitarian aid from the Colombian side. At least two protesters were killed near the Brazilian border. Two aid trucks went up in flames. Some 60 members of security forces defected into Colombia, but the National Guard at the frontier crossings held firm.
    (Reuters, 2/23/19)(AP, 2/23/19)(Reuters, 2/24/19)
2019        Feb 23, Venezuelan opposition supporters rallied in Curacao's port as the island's government indicated it may allow their humanitarian aid shipment to sail. Pres. Maduro has ordered the country's sea border with Curacao to be closed to block the aid.
    (AFP, 2/23/19)

2019        Feb 24, International condemnation of Venezuelan President Nicolas Maduro grew after he deployed troops to block foreign aid convoys, with Brazil branding it criminal and urging allies to join a "liberation effort" of the South American nation.
    (AP, 2/24/19)
2019        Feb 24, Officials in the Brazilian border state of Roraima say they've treated 22 Venezuelans who suffered bullet or buckshot wounds during a confrontation over aid shipments. The border was closed for a third day.
    (AP, 2/24/19)

2019        Feb 25, The United States imposed sanctions on four pro-Maduro state governors as it ramped up pressure on Venezuela's President Nicholas Maduro, whose election Washington sees as illegitimate.
    (Reuters, 2/25/19)

2019        Feb 26, Colombian immigration officials said over 320 mostly low-ranking soldiers fled Venezuela in a span of four days.
    (AP, 2/26/19)
2019        Feb 26, Mexico's President Andres Manuel Lopez Obrador said he would not take sides on the crisis in Venezuela, a day after US Vice President Mike Pence urged Mexico to recognize opposition leader Juan Guaido as Venezuela's rightful president.
    (Reuters, 2/26/19)

2019        Feb, Venezuela deported American journalist Jorge Ramos, who showed a video of people eating garbage while he interviewed President Nicolas Maduro.
    (AP, 3/1/19)

2019        Mar 1, Venezuela's Vice President Delcy Rodriguez said President Nicolas Maduro has ordered state oil company PDVSA's office in Lisbon to be relocated to Moscow, a move she said was designed to help safeguard her country's assets.
    (Reuters, 3/1/19)
2019        Mar 1, Russia vowed to maintain support for the embattled regime of its Venezuelan "friend" President Nicolas Maduro, including with humanitarian aid supplies.
    (AFP, 3/1/19)
2019        Mar 1, The United States imposed sanctions on six Venezuelan security officials for obstructing aid that Washington had tried to force in as part of its effort to support the country's opposition leader against President Nicolas Maduro.
    (AFP, 3/1/19)

 2019        Mar 4, Flag-waving Venezuelans turned out to await the return of opposition leader Juan Guaido, who was defying the threat of arrest as he embarks on a renewed push against embattled President Nicolas Maduro.
    (AFP, 3/4/19)

2019        Mar 6, Venezuela's government said it will expel the German ambassador, Daniel Martin Kriener, for interfering in the country's internal affairs and gave him 48 hours to leave.
    (Reuters, 3/6/19)
2019        Mar 6, UN rights chief Michelle Bachelet said sanctions had exacerbated the crisis in Venezuela but also slammed Maduro's "violations of civil and political rights" in her annual report to the UN Human Rights Council in Geneva.
    (AFP, 3/6/19)

2019        Mar 7, In Venezuela power went out this afternoon due to a problem at the main hydroelectric plant. The government called the event an act of "sabotage" by ideological adversaries.
    (Reuters, 3/8/19)
2019        Mar 7, US President Donald Trump's special representative for Venezuela pledged that Washington would "expand the net" of sanctions on the South American nation, including more on banks supporting President Nicolas Maduro's government.
    (Reuters, 3/7/19)

2019        Mar 8, Venezuela shut schools and suspended the workday as the worst blackout in decades paralyzed most of the troubled nation for a second day, spurring outrage among citizens already suffering from hyperinflation and a crippling recession.
    (Reuters, 3/8/19)
2019        Mar 8, A World Bank arbitration panel ruled that Venezuela must pay US oil giant ConocoPhillips more than $8 billion as compensation for a decade-old expropriation dispute. The Venezuelan government and its state-owned entities currently owe around $150 billion to creditors around the world, while the country's foreign currency reserves have fallen to just $8 billion.
    (AP, 3/8/19)
2019        Mar 8, Colombia said it will allow Venezuelans to cross the border using expired passports in view of the difficulty of renewing travel documents in the neighboring country in the midst of its economic crisis.
    (Reuters, 3/9/19)

2019        Mar 9, Venezuelan opposition protesters confronted security forces on a main avenue in Caracas, venting their anger over a nationwide blackout, shortages of basic necessities and the government of President Nicolas Maduro.
    (AP, 3/9/19)

2019        Mar 10, Venezuela's embattled President Nicolas Maduro grappled with a crippling power outage and mounting protests as a top White House aide said members of the country's military were talking about possibly shifting allegiance to the opposition. An NGO said at least 15 patients with advanced kidney disease died after they stopped receiving dialysis treatments in darkened hospitals.
    (AP, 3/10/19)

2019        Mar 11, Much of Venezuela, including parts of the capital Caracas, remained without power for a fifth day, crimping vital oil exports and leaving people struggling to obtain water and food. President Nicolas Maduro again ordered the suspension of classes and the working day. Opposition leader Juan Guaido led the country's legislature in declaring a "state of alarm" over power problems. A five-day power blackout left homes in Caracas without water.
    (Reuters, 3/11/19)(Reuters, 3/12/19)
2019        Mar 11, In Venezuela Luis Carlos Diaz, a journalist with dual Spanish and Venezuelan nationality, went missing. Later that night a unit from the feared SEBIN intelligence police turned up at his home and took away computers, mobile phones and money, among other items.
    (AP, 3/12/19)
2019        Mar 11, In Venezuela the Red Cross renewed visits to prisons when a Red Cross delegation visited a model prison in Caracas, the Simon Bolivar Center for the Formation of New Men.
    (AP, 4/10/19)

2019        Mar 13, Venezuela's Pres. Nicolas Maduro's government scrambled to return power to western Venezuela following heavy looting in Zulia, the second largest city. China offered to help the South American nation end its worst blackout on record.
    (Reuters, 3/13/19)

2019        Mar 15, Venezuela President Nicolas Maduro created a military unit charged with protecting basic installations and services such as electricity and water just over a week after the country was hit with a massive blackout.
    (AFP, 3/15/19)
2019        Mar 15, In Venezuela German journalist Billy Six, detained by Venezuelan intelligence services four months ago, was freed in Caracas, but must report to the court every 15 days. Six was allowed to leave Venezuela if he chose and soon flew home from Caracas.
    (AFP, 3/15/19)(AP, 3/17/19)
2019        Mar 15, Greece backed calls by Bolivia's left-wing President Evo Morales for a negotiated settlement to the severe political and financial crisis in Venezuela, in what marks a different approach to that pursued by key European allies.
    (AP, 3/15/19)

2019        Mar 19, The United States imposed sanctions against Venezuela's state-run mining company Minerven and its president, Adrian Perdomo, in a bid to further cut off funding to the government of Venezuelan President Nicolas Maduro.
    (Reuters, 3/19/19)

2019        Mar 21, Venezuelan intelligence agents detained Roberto Marrero, the chief of staff of opposition leader Juan Guaido, during a pre-dawn raid, putting to the test repeated US warnings that President Nicolas Maduro should not go after his opponents.
    (Reuters, 3/21/19)

2019        Mar 22, Venezuelan opposition leader Juan Guaido said Pres. Maduro had lost the ability to "finance political blackmail" to retain power thanks to pressure brought by foreign governments who have recognized him as the South American country's rightful leader in the midst of a hyperinflationary economic collapse.
    (Reuters, 3/23/19)

2019        Mar 24, Two Russian air force planes carrying a Russian defense official and nearly 100 troops arrived in Caracas, Venezuela, amid strengthening ties between the two countries.
    (Reuters, 3/25/19)

2019        Mar 25, Venezuela was hit by a power blackout. Power was restored to much of the country by the evening but went out again during the night.
    (Reuters, 3/26/19)

2019        Mar 26, Venezuela canceled work and school as the second major blackout this month left streets mostly empty in Caracas and residents of the capital wondering how long power would be out amid a deepening economic and political crisis.
    (Reuters, 3/26/19)

2019        Mar 27, In Venezuela new disruption to the power grid had left 91 percent of the country offline, reversing a "partial recovery" since the latest blackouts started March 25.
    (AP, 3/27/19)

2019        Mar 28, Venezuela's government said it has barred opposition leader Juan Guaido from holding public office for 15 years  citing irregularities in his financial records. Guaido has taken 90 international trips without accounting for the origin of an estimated $94,000 in expenses.
    (SFC, 3/29/19, p.A2)

2019        Mar 29, The US urged Venezuela's military to act to "protect" its citizens as it renewed criticism of Russia's deployment of forces to prop up Pres. Nicolas Maduro.
    (AFP, 3/29/19)

2019        Mar 31, Venezuela's Pres. Nicolas Maduro announced a 30-day plan to ration electricity following nationwide power cuts.
    (SFC, 4/1/19, p.A4)

2019        Mar, A plot to unseat Venezuela's government quickly crumbled when a volunteer combatant was arrested after sneaking across the border into Venezuela from Colombia. Shortly after, Colombian police stopped a truck transporting a cache of brand new weapons and tactical equipment worth around $150,000, including spotting scopes, night vision goggles, two-way radios and 26 American-made assault rifles with the serial numbers rubbed off. The plan was led by Jordan Goudreau, an American citizen and three-time Bronze Star recipient for bravery in Iraq and Afghanistan.
    (AP, 5/2/20)

2019        Apr 1, Venezuelans prepared to hold protests over continued shortages of power and water following angry demonstrations as the government of President Nicolas Maduro appeared prepared to begin a rationing program.
    (Reuters, 4/1/19)
2019        Apr 1, Turkish Foreign Minister Mevlut Cavusoglu said Turkey is giving Venezuelan President Nicolas Maduro its continued support and intends to deepen cooperation with Venezuela "in all fields" despite US pressure.
    (AP, 4/1/19)

2019        Apr 1, Russian state-owned industrial conglomerate Rostec said it has opened a training center in Venezuela to help the country's pilots fly Russian-made military helicopters.
    (Reuters, 4/2/19)

2019        Apr 4, The EU condemned a decision to strip Venezuelan opposition leader Juan Guaido of immunity from prosecution, calling it a "serious violation" of the constitution that undermined the chances of a peaceful solution to the country's crisis.
    (AFP, 4/4/19)

2019        Apr 5, US Vice President Mike Pence stepped up efforts to force Venezuelan President Nicolas Maduro from office by imposing new sanctions on its oil shipments, and promising "stronger action" against Cuba for helping to keep the regime afloat.
    (Reuters, 4/6/19)

2019        Apr 6, In Venezuela rival political factions took to the streets across the country in a mounting struggle for control of the crisis-wracked nation.
    (AP, 4/6/19)

2019        Apr 12, Argentina reiterated its support for Venezuela's opposition leader by issuing diplomatic credentials to a new delegate and officially announcing its withdrawal from the regional UNASUR bloc, which has been criticized over its lack of action on Venezuela.
    (Reuters, 4/12/19)
2019        Apr 12, Spanish police in Madrid arrested retired Maj. Gen. Hugo Carvajal, Venezuela's longtime spy chief, on a US drug warrant a few weeks after he threw his support behind opponents of President Nicolas Maduro. Prosecutors in New York alleged Carvajal used his high office to coordinate the smuggling of approximately 5,600 kilograms of cocaine from Venezuela to Mexico in 2006.
    (AP, 4/13/19)

2019        Apr 15, Canada expanded sanctions against the Venezuelan government of President Nicolas Maduro, targeting an additional 43 people close to the disputed leader.
    (Reuters, 4/15/19)

2019        Apr 16, The Red Cross confirmed that the first shipment of humanitarian aid from the International Federation of Red Cross and Red Crescent Societies has arrived in Venezuela.
    (AP, 4/16/19)

2019        Apr 24, At least 21 Venezuelans were missing after their boat sank on the way to the Caribbean island nation of Trinidad and Tobago. Four of the 25 aboard the boat were rescued by the Trinidad and Tobago coast guard and returned to Venezuela.
    (Reuters, 4/26/19)

2019        Apr 26, The US Treasury Department imposed sanctions on Venezuela's Foreign Minister Jorge Arreaza and a judge, Carol Padilla.
    (Reuters, 4/26/19)

2019        Apr 27, Venezuela's opposition leader Juan Guaido used his latest mass rally to reiterate an appeal to the army to end its support for Nicolas Maduro's regime, and announced massive Mayday protests to oust the embattled president.
    (AFP, 4/27/19)

2019        Apr 28, US sanctions came into effect to block Venezuela's economic lifeline of oil exports, in what Washington hopes will be a major blow in its fledgling campaign to topple leftist President Nicolas Maduro.
    (AFP, 4/28/19)

2019        Apr 30, Venezuelan opposition chief Juan Guaido claimed to have also secured the backing of Venezuelan soldiers, while the country's leftist government said an attempted coup was under way. Guaido released a video recorded at a Caracas air force base in which he says he has the support of "brave soldiers".
    (AFP, 4/30/19)

2019        May 1, In Venezuela state security forces used tear gas to disperse protesters opposed to President Nicolás Maduro who have gathered at a middle-class neighborhood in western Caracas.
    (AP, 5/1/19)

2019        May 2, Venezuelan President Nicolas Maduro called on the armed forces to oppose "any coup plotter" after a failed military uprising by forces supporting opposition leader Juan Guaido.
    (AFP, 5/2/19)

2019        May 3, A Venezuelan court issued a warrant for the arrest of opposition politician Leopoldo Lopez, saying he violated an order that required him to remain under house arrest and restricted his ability to speak publicly. Lopez was evading arrest in a Spanish diplomatic residence. A Spanish government spokeswoman said Madrid had no intention of turning him over to Venezuelan authorities.
    (Reuters, 5/3/19)

2019        May 4, Seven Venezuelan military officers were killed when their helicopter crashed while heading to a state where Pres. Nicolás Maduro appeared alongside troops.
    (AP, 5/04/19)

2019        May 7, Venezuela’s top court opened a criminal investigation against six opposition lawmakers for allegedly "betraying the homeland" and "instigating an insurrection," among other charges.
    (AP, 5/08/19)
2019        May 7, The US lifted sanctions on Gen. Manuel Figuera, a top Venezuelan general who broke ranks with President Nicolás Maduro, trying to help the opposition regain momentum in the face of a government crackdown following last week's failed uprising.
    (AP, 5/08/19)

2019        May 8, Venezuelan intelligence agents detained opposition leader Juan Guaido's congressional deputy, using a tow truck to drag his vehicle away with him inside, prompting the US government to warn of "consequences" if he was not released.
    (Reuters, 5/09/19)

2019        May 10, Venezuela announced it was re-opening its land border with Brazil after Maduro ordered it shut in February. Maritime links with the Caribbean island of Aruba were also reopened. The border with Colombia and links with other parts of the former Dutch Antilles remained closed.
    (AFP, 5/11/19)

2019        May 12, Venezuelan Gen. Ramon Rangel called on the country's armed forces to rise up against President Nicolas Maduro, who has relied on the backing of the military to hold on to power despite an economic collapse. Rangel fled to Colombia last month.
    (Reuters, 5/12/19)

2019        May 13, US police launched a bid to evict Americans who have been occupying the Venezuelan embassy in Washington for weeks in protest against opposition leader Juan Guaido. Three people left and the estimated four who remained inside were given notice that they "have to leave the building".
    (AFP, 5/14/19)

2019        May 16, Norwegian media reported that representatives of Venezuela's regime and the opposition are holding "peace negotiations" in Oslo this week.
    (AFP, 5/16/19)
2019        May 16, A small boat carrying escaping migrants from Venezuela sank in coastal waters on its way to Trinidad and Tobago. At least 20 people aboard were missing.
    (SFC, 5/21/19, p.A2)

2019        May 24, In western Venezuela at least 29 prisoners were killed and 19 police wounded in clashes at a jail in the town of Acarigua, Portuguesa state. Police special forces (FAES) had tried to stop a "massive prison break".
    (AFP, 5/25/19)

2019        May 28, The European Union named Spanish-Uruguayan former banker and diplomat Enrique Iglesias as its point man to help end the crisis in Venezuela, part of an intensification of diplomatic efforts to seek new elections.
    (Reuters, 5/28/19)
2019        May 28, The United States walked out of a Conference on Disarmament in Geneva to protest against Venezuela assuming the rotating presidency of the UN-sponsored forum, as it did a year ago when Syria took the chair.
    (Reuters, 5/28/19)

2019        May 31, Venezuelan opposition leader Juan Guaido renewed calls for President Nicolas Maduro to resign while campaigning in the birthplace of former leader Hugo Chavez, following inconclusive talks in Norway to end the country's crisis.
    (AFP, 6/1/19)

2019        Jun 4, A prominent Venezuelan news website said it was ordered by the country's Supreme Court to pay some five million dollars in damages and interest to Diosdado Cabello, head of the all-powerful National Assembly. Cabello had taken the La Patilla site to court for putting up an article from the Spanish daily ABC -- published three years previously -- that accused him of having links to drug trafficking.
    (AFP, 6/5/19)

2019        Jun 6, The US Treasury Department tightened its pressure on Venezuela's state-owned oil company by making clear that exports of diluents by international shippers could be subject to US sanctions.
    (Reuters, 6/7/19)

2019        Jun 7, A member of Venezuela's opposition said that a mediation effort by Norway is stalling over Nicolás Maduro's refusal to accept presidential elections to resolve the nation's political crisis. The UN said the number of Venezuelans who have left their country in recent years has surpassed 4 million.
    (AP, 6/7/19)
2019        Jun 7, Venezuelan President Nicolas Maduro announced a partial opening of the country's border with Colombia, which his government closed in February as opposition leaders prepared an ultimately failed effort to bring aid into the country.
    (Reuters, 6/8/19)

2019        Jun 8, Several thousand Venezuelans, desperate for food and medicine, packed a border crossing to Colombia, hours after Pres. Nicolas Maduro partially reopened it.
    (AFP, 6/8/19)

2019        Jun 13, Venezuela's central bank began introducing new bolivar bills of 10,000, 20,000 and 50,000 to make payments and transactions more efficient. The 50,000 bill is about the equivalent of $10, more than country's monthly minimum wage.
    (SFC, 6/13/19, p.A2)

2019        Jun 15, In Peru riot police began guarding the northern border to ensure that only Venezuelan migrants who hold a passport and humanitarian visa can enter the country.
    (AP, 6/15/19)

2019        Jun 17, Venezuela received a second shipment of Red Cross humanitarian aid, including 24 tons of medical supplies and generators provided by Panama, intended for hospitals to help address the country's acute health crisis.
    (AFP, 6/18/19)

2019        Jun 19, UN High Commissioner for Human Rights Michelle Bachelet arrived in Venezuela as part of a visit to review the country's ongoing economic and political crisis.
    (AFP, 6/20/19)

2019        Jun 20, It was reported that Marxist rebels and right-wing paramilitaries in Colombia are recruiting Venezuelan migrants to strengthen their ranks.
    (Reuters, 6/20/19)

2019        Jun 21, UN High Commissioner for Human Rights Michelle Bachelet called on Venezuela to release jailed dissidents and said the crisis-wracked country faced a "serious" humanitarian situation.
    (AFP, 6/21/19)

2019        Jun 27, The Organization of American States (OAS) began two days of meetings in Medellin, Colombia. Latin American leaders planned to seek to increase pressure on Venezuelan President Nicolas Maduro and further isolate the embattled leader.
    (Reuters, 6/27/19)

2019        Jun 28, In Colombia members of the Organization of American States (OAS) ended two days of meetings without a clear plan for increasing pressure on embattled Venezuelan President Nicolas Maduro, despite a majority vote to recognize a representative from the country's opposition. Specialists affiliated with the OAS said Venezuelans fleeing their nation's crisis should be granted refugee status.
    (Reuters, 6/28/19)(SSFC, 6/30/19, p.A4)
2019        Jun 28, The United States imposed sanctions on Nicolas Ernesto Maduro Guerra (29), the son of Venezuelan President Nicolas Maduro for serving in his father's "illegitimate regime".
    (AFP, 6/29/19)

2019        Jun 29, Venezuela's government deported 59 Colombian citizens who had been "arbitrarily" detained there almost three years ago.
    (Reuters, 6/29/19)
2019        Jun 29, In Venezuela Corvette Capt. Rafael Acosta died early today hours after his wife and lawyer said he had appeared in court in a wheelchair with signs of torture. Authorities late today confirmed the death. Opposition leaders and family members said he was tortured in custody after his detention on June 21 over alleged involvement in a coup plot against Pres. Nicolas Maduro.
    (AP, 6/30/19)(Reuters, 6/30/19)

2019        Jul 4, UN human rights chief Michelle Bachelet reported that Venezuela's government registered nearly 5,300 killings during security operations last year linked to cases of "resistance to authority," denouncing a "shockingly high" number of extrajudicial killings.
    (AP, 7/5/19)

2019        Jul 5, In Venezuela judge Maria Lourdes Afiuni confirmed her release nine years after her arrest and journalist Braulio Jatar, the country’s top court said in separate posts on Twitter, without offering further details.
    (Bloomberg, 7/6/19)

2019        Jul 13, Venezuela said two members of opposition Juan Guaido's security team have been detained for allegedly planning to sell four guns belonging to the state.
    (SSFC, 7/14/19, p.A4)

2019        Jul 22, In Venezuela lights went out across much of the country. The government again accused opponents of sabotaging the nation's hydroelectric power system.
    (SFC, 7/23/19, p.A2)

2019        Jul 25, The United States imposed sanctions on 10 people and 13 groups in a Venezuelan food subsidy scheme that lined the pockets of President Nicolas Maduro, his stepsons and others while ordinary Venezuelans suffer food shortages. Sanctions were announced against three of Venezuelan President Nicolas Maduro's stepsons, a Colombian businessman and six others for running a "corruption network" that profited from emergency food imports.
    (Reuters, 7/25/19)(AFP, 7/26/19)

2019        Jul 27, Carlos Cruz-Diez (b.1923), a Venezuelan artist who shaped the field of kinetic and optical art during the 20th century, died in Paris. He moved to France in 1960 after studying at Caracas' School of Fine Arts.
    (Reuters, 7/30/19)

2019        Aug 2, The United States said it would bar two Venezuelan officials accused of human rights violations from traveling to the United States in its latest action to pressure Venezuela's President Nicolas Maduro into stepping down. The US State Dept. said Rafael Enrique Bastardo Mendoza, the commander of Venezuela's special forces, and Ivan Rafael Hernandez Dala, the chief of counterintelligence, had committed "gross violations of human rights".
    (Reuters, 8/2/19)

2019        Aug 5, President Donald Trump ordered a freeze on all Venezuelan government assets in the United States and barred transactions with its authorities "in light of the continued usurpation of power" by the socialist leader.
    (AP, 8/6/19)

2019        Aug 6, Delegates from some 60 countries met in Lima to discuss the political crisis in Venezuela, as Washington stepped up pressure for President Nicolas Maduro to step down.
    (The Telegraph, 8/6/19)

2019        Aug 7, Venezuela's Pres. Nicolas Maduro suspended mediated talks with the opposition movement to protest US Pres. Trump's latest sanctions.
    (SFC, 8/9/19, p.A2)

2019        Aug 22, Interpol issued a red notice for Seuxis Paucias Hernandez, a fugitive Colombian lawmaker and former FARC rebel commander who the United States wants extradited for alleged conspiracy to export 10 tons of cocaine. Colombian President Ivan Duque has said Hernandez may have fled to neighboring Venezuela.
    (Reuters, 8/22/19)
2019        Aug 22, It was reported that Russian state oil major Rosneft has become the main trader of Venezuelan crude, shipping oil to buyers in China and India and helping Caracas offset the loss of traditional dealers who are avoiding it for fear of breaching US sanctions.
    (Reuters, 8/22/19)

2019        Sep 9, The UN human rights chief said that extrajudicial killings appeared to be continuing in Venezuela and the Special Action Forces (FAES) presumed to be responsible had received support from the highest levels of government.
    (Reuters, 9/9/19)

2019        Sep 21, Colombia's Pres. Ivan Duque compared Nicolás Maduro to Serbian war criminal Slobodan Milosevic as he went on a diplomatic offensive to corral the Venezuelan socialist, warning that he would be making a "stupid" mistake if he were to attack his US-backed neighbor.
    (AP, 9/22/19)

 2019        Sep 25, Russian President Vladimir Putin reiterated his support for his Venezuelan counterpart, Nicolas Maduro, who made a surprise visit to Moscow.
    (AP, 9/25/19)
2019        Sep 25, US President Donald Trump signed a proclamation suspending the entry of senior Venezuelan officials and their families to the US, the latest in a series of efforts to oust Venezuela’s leader Nicolas Maduro.
    (Bloomberg, 9/25/19)

2019        Sep 27, The EU slapped sanctions on seven members of Venezuela's security and intelligence services on suspicion that they are involved in torture and other abuses, as the UN's top rights body set up a fact-finding missions to look into human rights violations in the country.
    (AP, 9/27/19)
2019        Sep 27, The UN Human Rights Council agreed to set up an international fact-finding mission to document violations in Venezuela, including torture and thousands of summary executions.
    (Reuters, 9/27/19)

2019        Sep 30, Authorities in Colombia doubled down on their claim that guerrilla troops are operating in Venezuela with the support of President Nicolás Maduro a week after similar allegations presented at the United Nations were marred by erroneous photographs.
    (AP, 9/30/19)

2019        Oct 4, A panel of experts at the UN labor agency is calling on Venezuelan authorities to halt violence, threats and other forms of “aggression" against workers and employers who oppose President Nicolas Maduro’s government.
    (AP, 10/4/19)

2019        Oct 12, Guatemala's president-elect Alejandro Giammattei was denied entry to Venezuela, where he was scheduled to meet with opposition leader Juan Guaido, according to Venezuela's opposition.
    (Reuters, 10/12/19)

2019        Oct 17, Venezuela won a contested election for a seat on the UN Human Rights Council despite a campaign by over 50 organizations and many countries opposed to Nicolas Maduro's government and its rights record. The 193-member world body elected 14 members to the 47-member Human Rights Council for three-year terms starting Jan. 1. Under its rules, seats are allocated to regions to ensure geographical representation.
    (AP, 10/18/19)

2019        Oct, The Venezuelan opposition signed a contract in Miami with Jordan Goudreau, an American special-forces veteran, to assemble fighters to nab Pres. Nicolas Maduro and Diosdado Cabello. The contract for Operation Gideon was reportedly ended in November.
    (Econ., 5/16/20, p.26)

2019        Nov 2, El Salvador said it had ordered Venezuela's diplomats to leave the Central American country within 48 hours, arguing that the decision was in line with its position that Venezuelan President Nicolas Maduro is illegitimate.
    (AP, 11/2/19)

2019        Nov 5, The Trump administration imposed sanctions on five Venezuelan security officials and political figures, the latest round of measures taken against Caracas in an effort to oust Venezuelan President Nicolas Maduro.
    (Reuters, 11/5/19)

2019        Nov 11, The EU extended sanctions against Venezuela for a year due to the political and economic crisis that it blames on he government of Pres. Nicolas Maduro.
    (SFC, 11/12/19, p.A2)

2019        Nov 13, In Brazil supporters of Venezuelan opposition leader Juan Guaido entered the country’s embassy in Brasilia, a move coinciding with the arrival of Russian and Chinese leaders for an international summit (BRICS).
    (Bloomberg, 11/13/19)
2019        Nov 13, The UN refugee agency said nations in Latin America and the Caribbean will need $1.35 billion to respond to the massive exodus of Venezuelans. An estimated 4.6 million Venezuelans have now fled their crisis-torn country.
    (AP, 11/13/19)

2019        Nov 16, The Venezuelan opposition held nationwide protests in the hope of reviving a stalled movement to oust President Nicolas Maduro, who has held on to power despite an economic crisis and aggressive US sanctions.
    (Reuters, 11/16/19)

2019        Nov 18, A Spanish National Court official confirmed that Maj. Gen. Hugo Carvajal, a former Venezuelan spymaster accused of attempting to "flood" the United States with drugs, remains missing since an order for his arrest pending extradition was issued on Nov. 8.
    (AP, 11/18/19)

2019        Dec 16, It was reported that Venezuelan businessmen have taken advantage of his government’s quiet abandonment of price, currency and import controls to buy direct from US wholesalers including Costco and Walmart. Their products now line the shelves in scores of new US dollar-only shops known as “bodegones".
    (Reuters, 12/16/19)

2020        Jan 5, Venezuela's authoritarian leader Nicolas Maduro moved to consolidate his grip on power by taking control of the National Assembly and blocking the re-election of Juan Guaido as the opposition's leader.
    (SFC, 1/6/20, p.A4)

2020        Jan 7, In Venezuela Juan Guaido forced his way back into the National Assembly to open a new legislative session. Now Venezuela has two presidents, three legislatures (two congresses, one overarching constituent assembly) and no clue as to how to proceed.
    (Bloomberg, 1/8/20)

2020        Jan 10, The United Nations said seven countries -- Lebanon, Yemen, Venezuela, Central African Republic, Gambia, Lesotho and Tonga -- have fallen behind in their financial contributions and would not be able to in the 74th session of the General Assembly.
    (AFP, 1/11/20)

2020        Jan 17, The Trump administration granted Chevron a special license to keep drilling oil in Venezuela despite a ban on American companies doing business with Pres. Nicolas Maduro's socialist government.   
    (SSFC, 1/19/20, p.A4)

2020        Jan 24, In Venezuela a woman (49) reportedly escaped after 31 years of captivity when captor Matias Salazar (56) left a set of keys behind. She sought help at a branch of a state-run women’s advocacy agency. Salazar was later arrested in the city of Maracay.
    (The Independent, 2/12/20)

2020        Jan 27, It was reported that an ally of Venezuelan President Nicolás Maduro has hired Washington lobbyist Robert Stryk’s Sonoran Policy Group, whose business has boomed under the Trump administration, as part of a $12.5 million effort to ease sanctions and reset bilateral relations as the US-backed campaign to oust the socialist leader stalls. Days later US law firm Foley & Lardner, hired for $12.5 million by a top official in Nicolás Maduro's government, decided to dump the controversial Venezuelan client amid a major outcry by critics.
    (AP, 1/28/20)(AP, 1/31/20)
2020        Jan 27, Venezuelan special police detained a fugitive Colombian former senator who had illegally crossed the border. Aida Merlano, a former Conservative senator who was imprisoned last year for vote buying, made her theatrical escape in October.
    (Reuters, 1/28/20)

2020        Feb 1, Juan Guaido, Venezuela’s opposition leader, rallied supporters in Miami and met with US Senator Marco Rubio, who’s played a key role in shaping US policy on the South American country.
    (Bloomberg, 2/1/20)

2020        Feb 18, The Trump administration announced significant new sanctions targeting Rosneft, Russia’s largest oil company, for helping Venezuelan leader Nicolás Maduro circumvent US sanctions.
    (Miami Herald, 2/18/20)

2020        Feb 20, Canada hosted members of the Lima Group regional bloc (Argentina, Bolivia, Brazil, Chile, Colombia, Costa Rica, Guatemala, Haiti, Honduras, Mexico, Panama, Paraguay, Peru and St Lucia). The bloc said the world needs to stop the humanitarian crisis in Venezuela, hit by political conflict and a collapsing economy.
    (Reuters, 2/20/20)

2020        Feb 21, It was reported that a top official for Venezuelan President Nicolás Maduro's government has hired Washington law firm Amsterdam & Partners, that also represents Turkey, taking over from another legal team that backed out last month following an outcry from critics who accused it of collaborating with a repressive regime. Lawyer Bob Amsterdam declined to comment on the nature of work for Maduro’s Inspector General Reinaldo Muñoz, other than saying it would focus on sanctions and human rights issues.
    (AP, 2/22/20)

2020        Feb 24, A study from the UN's World Food Program said one of every three people in Venezuela is struggling to put enough food on the table to meet minimum nutrition requirements.
    (SFC, 2/25/20, p.A2)

2020        Feb 28, Spain's High Court denied a US extradition request for former Venezuelan minister Javier Alvarado Ochoa in connection with an investigation into money-laundering. It said it had refused extradition because the US warrant was based on alleged crimes also under investigation in Spain, and because Alvarado Ochoa also holds Spanish citizenship.
    (AP, 2/28/20)

2020        Mar 3, The Spanish government approved the extradition of Venezuela's former military intelligence chief Hugo Carvajal to the US where he faces charges of drug and weapon trafficking.
    (Reuters, 3/3/20)

2020        Mar 10, In Venezuela a protest called by opposition leader Jaun Guaido against the Maduro government drew only several thousand supporters in Caracas.
    (SFC, 3/13/20, p.A4)

2020        Mar 14, Colombia's Pres. Ivan Duque closed the country's borders to foreigners, including some 55,000 a day, mostly shoppers, who came from Venezuela.
    (Econ., 5/2/20, p.24)

2020        Mar 15, Venezuelan President Nicolás Maduro wrote to the IMF asking for a $5bn loan to fight COVID-19.
    (Econ, 3/21/20, p.30)

2020        Mar 16, Venezuela's capital of Caracas woke to quiet streets and military checkpoints on the first day of a quarantine ordered by President Nicolas Maduro to combat the coronavirus. The country has confirmed 17 cases of the virus and no deaths.
    (Reuters, 3/16/20)

2020        Mar 19, It was reported that Venezuelan utilities have hiked fees and the government plans to raise taxes, as the economy deteriorates further due to the spread of coronavirus and the crash in global oil prices adds to the strain on public coffers. Venezuela has reported 36 coronavirus cases so far.
    (Reuters, 3/19/20)

2020        Mar 25, Cliver Alcalá, a retired Venezuelan army general, publicly revealed details of a plot to kidnap Pres. Maduro.
    (Econ., 5/16/20, p.17)
2020        Mar 25, The US Justice Department announced federal charges against Venezuelan President Nicolás Maduro and his top deputies for crimes related to narco-terrorism, money laundering and drug trafficking.
    (CBS News, 3/25/20)

2020        Mar 26, The US State Department announced rewards for information leading to the arrest or conviction of various Venezuelan nationals, including President Nicolas Maduro who Washington aims to push out of power.
    (Reuters, 3/26/20)
2020        Mar 26, Venezuelan President Nicolás Maduro stood defiant in the face of a $15 million bounty by the US to face drug trafficking charges, calling Donald Trump a “racist cowboy" and warning that he is ready to fight by whatever means necessary should the US and neighboring Colombia dare to invade.
    (AP, 3/26/20)
2020        Mar 26, Cliver Alcalá, a retired Venezuelan army general indicted alongside Nicolás Maduro, surrendered in Colombia and was flown with US Drug Enforcement Administration agents to New York for arraignment.
    (AP, 3/27/20)

2020        Mar 27, It was reported that Venezuela's only telecom satellite has veered off its orbit and stopped working. The Chinese-built satellite was launched in 2008 and has become useless three years before its planned expiration date.
    (SFC, 3/28/20, p.A2)

2020        Mar 28, Russia's state-controlled Rosneft oil company said that it is ceasing operations and selling its assets in Venezuela. Rosneft said that it’s turning over its Venezuelan projects to an unnamed state-owned company in what it called an effort to protect its shareholders’ interests.
    (SSFC, 3/29/20, p.A3)(Bloomberg, 3/28/20)

2020        Mar 30, Venezuela's ANBV Naiguata patrol vessel reportedly rammed the RCGS Resolute, a Portuguese-flagged cruise ship and promptly sank. 44 Venezuelan sailors were rescued.
    (SFC, 4/17/20, p.24)

2020        Mar 31, US officials said the Trump administration is prepared to lift sanctions on Venezuela in support of a new proposal to form a transitional government representing allies of both Nicolas Maduro and opposition leader Juan Guaido. The plan would require Maduro and Guaidó to step aside and hand power to a five-member council of state to govern the country until presidential and parliamentary elections can be held in late 2020.
    (AP, 3/31/20)

2020        Apr 3, Venezuela said it was formulating a “special fuel supply plan" to restore stockpiles of oil in the “shortest possible time," allowing the nation to combat the coronavirus. In recent days, gas lines have popped up across Caracas, which is typically immune from days' long waits common in the rest of the country. Most stations had closed as supplies ran out.
    (AP, 4/3/20)

2020        Apr 7, In Venezuela to date the coronavirus has claimed only seven confirmed fatalities with at least 144 confirmed cases. A party by offspring of the ruling elite on March 11 on an island in the Los Roques archipelago led to a cluster of infections. On March 20 embattled leader Nicolás Maduro said on state TV that practically everyone at the party is testing positive.
    (AP, 4/7/20)(Economist, 4/4/20, p.24)

2020        Apr 8, A plane carrying 90 tons of UN health, water and sanitation aid arrived in Venezuela to help the cash-strapped country fight the coronavirus pandemic.
    (AFP, 4/8/20)

2020        Apr 17, Venezuela said it has just 204 reported cases of the coronavirus and 9 deaths in a country of 29 million people.
    (Reuters, 4/17/20)

2020        Apr 21, The Trump administration ordered Chevron Corp. to "wind down" operations in Venezuela by Dec. 1, barring the California-based oil giant in the meantime from drilling or exporting. Chevron's investments in Venezuela were estimated at $2.6 billion.
    (SFC, 4/22/20, p.A2)

2020        Apr 23, In Venezuela the communications team of opposition leader Juan Guaido issued a statement denying a $5,000 “salary" had been approved. It said lawmakers, who have gone unpaid since Maduro cut off funding to the legislature after it fell to the opposition in 2015, will determine an appropriate amount and communicate it to the rest of the country in a transparent manner. Funding for the payout was contained in legislation passed last week by the National Assembly setting up an $80 million “Liberation Fund" made up of Venezuelan assets seized by the Trump administration.
    (AP, 4/23/20)
2020        Apr 23, In Venezuela a 2nd flight arrived from Iran delivering key chemical components for producing gasoline. 14 more flights were expected in the coming days.
    (SFC, 4/25/20, p.A2)

2020        Apr 24, Venezuela has reported 311 cases of coronavirus and 10 deaths. Acute fuel shortages are forcing farmers to let crops rot in fields or feed them to livestock since they cannot transport food to market during the coronavirus quarantine.
    (Reuters, 4/24/20)

2020        Apr 28, Venezuela's Pres. Nicolas Maduro named Tareck El Aissami as oil minister and Asdrubal Chavez as head of state run oil giant PDVSA. In 2017 the US sanctioned El Aissami as allegedly being a major drug trafficker.
    (SFC, 4/29/20, p.A2)

2020        Apr 30, The United States said that cash-strapped Venezuela is paying Iran in gold to rebuild its troubled oil industry as it denounced what it saw as growing cooperation between its two adversaries.
    (AFP, 4/30/20)

2020        May 1, In central Venezuela a riot erupted at the Llanos Penitentiary Center in Guanare, killing at least 40 people and injuring 50 more. The was built to hold 750 inmates but is jammed beyond capacity with 2,500 inmates.
    (NBC News, 5/2/20)
2020        May 1, Iran rejected US claims it is helping Venezuela to rebuild its oil industry, saying the accusations are designed to increase pressure and disrupt the two countries' trade ties.
    (AFP, 5/1/20)

2020        May 3, Venezuela's government foiled a marine incursion by "terrorist mercenaries" who attempted to enter the country at La Guaira on speedboats from neighboring Colombia. Eight raiders were reported killed.
    (Reuters, 5/3/20)(SFC, 5/4/20, p.A2)(Econ., 5/16/20, p.26)

2020        May 4, Venezuelan authorities arrested two US citizens among a group of “mercenaries," a day after a beach raid purportedly aimed at capturing the socialist leader that authorities say they foiled. They were identified as Luke Denman and Airan Berry, both former US special forces soldiers.
    (AP, 5/4/20)

2020        May 11, Venezuelan opposition leader Juan Guaidó said that two US-based political advisers have resigned in the fallout from a failed incursion into the Caribbean nation led by a former-Green Beret aimed at capturing President Nicolás Maduro.
    (AP, 5/11/20)

2020        May 17, Venezuela reported 504 coronavirus illnesses raising the national total to 504 with 10 deaths.
    (SFC, 5/18/20, p.A5)
2020        May 17, It was reported that five Iranian tankers likely carrying at least $45.5 million worth of gasoline and similar products are now sailing to Venezuela, part of a wider deal between the two US-sanctioned nations amid heightened tensions between Tehran and Washington.
    (AP, 5/18/20)

2020        May 23, The first of five tankers carrying much-needed Iranian fuel and oil products entered Venezuelan waters.
    (AFP, 5/23/20)

2020        May 26, The third cargo of an Iranian tanker flotilla carrying fuel for gasoline-thirsty Venezuela was approaching the nation's exclusive economic zone as the previous two were preparing to discharge.
    (Reuters, 5/26/20)

2020        May 27, The US charged Adel El Zabayar (56), a former Venezuelan politician, with participating in a vast narco-terrorism conspiracy in which he traded drugs for weapons and recruited terrorists from Hezbollah and Hamas to orchestrate attacks against US interests. Zabayar remained out of US custody.
    (NBC, 5/27/20)(SFC, 5/28/20, p.A2)

2020        Jun 1, In Manhattan Bruce Bagley (74), a University of Miami professor, pleaded guilty to two counts of money laundering. Bagley blamed Jorge Luis Hernandez, a controversial law enforcement informant, for his career-ending decision to try and hide $3 million in proceeds from a corruption scheme run by Alex Saab, a Miami businessman connected to Venezuela’s socialist government.
    (AP, 6/1/20)

2020        Jun 12, Authorities in Cape Verde on a US warrant arrested Alex Saab, a prominent businessman accused of corrupt dealings with the government of Venezuela's President Nicolás Maduro. Cape Verde has no extradition treaty with the US. In 2021 the UN put Cape Verde on notice for the torture, arbitrary detention and violations inflicted on diplomat Alex Saab.
    (AP, 6/13/20)(Global Newswire, 10/15/21)

2020        Jun 22, Venezuela accused the US of blocking its ability to pay over $21 million in dues to the UN causing the loss of its voting rights in the General Assembly.
    (AP, 6/22/20)

2020        Jun 26, Venezuela has reported 4,525 confirmed coronavirus cases and 39 deaths, although the true numbers appear to be significantly larger. It was reported that hospitals in Maracaibo, Venezuela's main oil-producing state, are filled with coronavirus patients and that dozens of health workers have been infected.
    (AP, 6/27/20)

2020        Jul 1, US federal prosecutors sought to seize four tankers sailing toward Venezuela with gasoline supplied by Iran. The four tankers named in a complaint filed today — the Bella, Bering, Pandi and Luna — are currently transporting to Venezuela 1.1 million barrels of gasoline obtained via risky ship-to-ship transfers.
    (AP, 7/2/20)

2020        Jul 2, A British judge refused a request by Venezuela's Pres. Nicolas Maduro who sought the return of $1.8 billion in gold bars sitting in the Bank of England to help his nation fight the coronavirus pandemic. The UK has recognized Juan Guaido as Venezuela's legitimate leader.
    (SFC, 7/2/20, p.A4)(SFC, 7/3/20, p.A2)

2020        Jul 9, In Venezuela socialist party chief Diosdado Cabello (57), the country's No. 2 leader, announced that he has been infected with the new coronavirus. The government has reported 8,010 confirmed cases and 75 deaths.
    (AP, 7/9/20)

2020        Jul 15, It was reported that coronavirus cases in Venezuela have jumped in recent weeks and two top lieutenants of President Nicolas Maduro have tested positive, triggering warnings from health workers that the pandemic may overwhelm the country's already battered healthcare system.
    (AP, 7/15/20)
2020        Jul 15, It was reported that the United Nations has asked the Nicolas Maduro regime to dismantle criminal gangs running gold mines in Venezuela's Amazon region. Nearly 150 people are reported to have died in or around the gold mines from March 2016 to 2020. Venezuelan human rights and environmental groups have said that legal and illegal mining are rapidly decimating Venezuela's Amazon. A UN report on Venezuela cited documented cases of executions, torture and forced disappearances. Among the atrocities cited is the execution of 38 young men by Pres. Nicolas Maduro’s hit squads.
    (The Independent, 7/15/20)(AP, 7/18/20)

2020        Jul 29, In Venezuela the new Iranian Megasis supermarket, in the east of Caracas, was launched amid a tightening of the coronavirus quarantine. The inauguration was attended only by Venezuelan government officials, Iranian diplomatic personnel and businessmen.
    (AP, 7/30/20)

2020        Jul 30, Veteran US diplomat Bill Richardson said two of the six former Citgo Petroleum Corp executives detained in Venezuela were moved to house arrest. Gustavo Cardenas and Jorge Toledo were among six executives arrested in 2017 on charges of embezzlement that the US government and their lawyers say are baseless.
    (Reuters, 7/31/20)

2020        Aug 4, In Venezuela the Nicolás Maduro regime promoted Interior Minister Néstor Reverol to General in Chief, even though the officer is charged by federal prosecutors in New York with accepting large bribes in exchange for protecting drug shipments to the United States.
    (Miami Herald, 8/5/20)

2020        Aug 7, A Venezuelan court sentenced two former US special forces soldiers to 20 years in prison for their part in a failed beach attack aimed at overthrowing President Nicolás Maduro. Former Green Berets Luke Denman and Airan Berry admitted to taking part in the May 4 operation orchestrated by a third ex-US soldier who remains in the United States.
    (AP, 8/7/20)

2020        Aug 13, It was reported that an oil spill in Venezuela has coated a stretch of the country's Caribbean coastline. Fishermen and locals living around Morrocoy National Park began reporting oil washing ashore last week.
    (SFC, 8/13/20, p.A2)
2020        Aug 13, It was reported that the US has seized the cargo of four vessels, called Luna, Pandi, Bering and Bella, on the high seas in recent days and that they are now en route to Houston. US prosecutors filed a lawsuit last month to seize the gasoline aboard the four tankers that Iran is trying to ship to Venezuela.
    (Reuters, 8/13/20)(SFC, 8/14/20, p.A4)

2020        Sep 8, Gasoline shortages have returned to Venezuela, sparking mile-long lines in the capital as international concerns mounted that Iran yet again may be trying to come to the South American nation's rescue.
    (AP, 9/8/20)

2020        Sep 10, In Venezuela Matthew Heath (39), a former US Marine corporal, was arrested traveling along the Caribbean coast accused of scheming with three Venezuelans to sabotage oil refineries and other infrastructure to stir unrest.
    (AP, 10/31/20)

2020        Sep 16, Independent experts for the UN’s top human rights body accused the government of Venezuelan President Nicolas Maduro of crimes against humanity, highlighting grisly cases of torture and killings allegedly carried out by security forces who used techniques like electric shocks, genital mutilation and asphyxiation.
    (AP, 9/16/20)

2020        Sep 23, Venezuelan President Nicolás Maduro blasted United States sanctions in his address to the UN General Assembly, while avoiding any mention of a report accusing his government of crimes against humanity.
    (AP, 9/23/20)

2020        Sep 29, The US Department of State said it is offering rewards for information on a trio of former Venezuelan officials in major drug-trafficking cases. They included Pedro Luis Martin-Olivares (53), Rodolfo McTurk-Mora (58) and Jesus Alfredo Itriago (62).
    (Miami Herald, 9/30/20)

2020        Sep 30, It was reported that a wave of demonstrations has erupted across Venezuela as angry citizens flout lockdown restrictions to demand an end to worsening shortages of everything from electricity and water to fuel and household supplies.
    (The Guardian, 9/30/20)
2020        Sep 30, The second of three ships loaded with gasoline from Iran approached fuel-starved Venezuela amid simmering social unrest over a lack of goods and services that's sparked protests across the South American nation. The Iranian tanker Forest arrived a day earlier carrying 275,000 barrels of gasoline. The Faxon — the third Iranian tanker en route — is expected to reach port this weekend. The flotilla is delivering an estimated 815,000 total barrels of fuel. Venezuela’s domestic consumption is around 100,000 barrels a day.
    (AP, 9/30/20)

2020        Oct 20, President Nicolas Maduro said Venezuela plans to vaccinate citizens with Russian and Chinese coronavirus vaccines, which could arrive in the South American nation in December or January.
    (Reuters, 10/20/20)

2020        Oct 30, In Florida former Venezuelan treasurer Claudia Patricia Díaz Guillén, a former naval officer, and her husband, Adrián Velásquez Figueroa, a former presidential security guard, were charged with accepting tens of millions of dollars from the billionaire, Raul Gorrín, in a foreign corruption and money laundering case.
    (Miami Herald, 10/30/20)

2020        Nov 12, The EU said it is prolonging sanctions against dozens of Venezuelan officials for another year over allegations that they are undermining democracy in the country or are linked to rights abuses.
    (SFC, 11/13/20, p.A2)

2020        Nov 18, The US Senate confirmed James Story of South Carolina as the new ambassador to Venezuela. He will work from Colombia as Venezuela endures an economic and political crisis.
    (SFC, 11/20/20, p.A2)

2020        Nov 26, A Venezuelan judge found six American executives guilty, sentencing them to lengthy prison terms three years after they were arrested on corruption charges. The defendants are all employees of the Houston-based refining company Citgo.
    (The Week, 11/27/20)

2020        Dec 6, Venezuelans headed to the polls, with President Nicolás Maduro and his loyalists reportedly set to take back control of the National Assembly after the opposition won a majority of seats in 2015. Opposition supporters, many of whom are planning to boycott the voting booth, have called it fraudulent.
    (NY Times, 12/6/20)

2020        Dec 7, Venezuelan President Nicolás Maduro declared victory after his allies swept congressional elections boycotted by the opposition and considered fraudulent by international critics.
    (AP, 12/7/20)

2020        Dec 12, Venezuela's opposition, led by Juan Guaido, concluded a "popular consultation" to repudiate President Nicolas Maduro's government after boycotting a Dec. 6 congressional vote. The opposition said just under 6.5 million people participated. The Maduro government has said 5.2 million Venezuelans voted in the election.
    (Reuters, 12/12/20)
2020        Dec 12, The bodies of 11 migrants, traveling by boat from Venezuela to Trinidad and Tobago, were found at sea. Nine more bodies were found the next day.
    (SFC, 12/15/20, p.A4)

2020        Dec 18, The United Nations’ highest court (ICJ) ruled that it will intervene to settle a decades-old border dispute between South American neighbors Guyana and Venezuela.
    (AP, 12/18/20)

2020        Dec 29, It was reported that the UAE has emerged as hub for companies helping Venezuela avoid US oil sanctions.
    (Reuters, 12/29/20)

2021        Jan 5, Venezuela's  Nicolás Maduro was set to extend his grip on power as the ruling socialist party assumed the leadership of Venezuela’s congress, the last institution in the country it didn’t already control.
    (AP, 1/5/21)

2021        Jan 16, Venezuelan Foreign Minister Jorge Arreaza criticized a US court ruling authorizing a sale of the shares in the parent company of US refiner Citgo Petroleum Corp, calling it the result of a "fraudulent judicial process." A federal court in Delaware this week approved the sale as a way for Canadian gold miner Crystallex to collect on a $1.4 billion judgment for expropriation of its assets, though US sanctions currently bar the transaction.
    (AP, 1/17/21)

2021        Jan 17, Venezuelan President Nicolas Maduro said that a convoy of trucks carrying emergency oxygen supplies for Brazil's northern Amazonas state, where a second wave of the coronavirus pandemic has hit hard, has departed and is set to arrive at the border by tomorrow morning.
    (AP, 1/18/21)
2021        Jan 17, The French navy seized a huge consignment of cocaine off the coast of Barbados. It was destined for the UK and Europe. The boat and her eight crew were apprehended and handed over to the Venezuelan authorities.
    {France, Venezuela, Drugs}
    (https://tinyurl.com/y5twxk86)(The Telegraph, 1/28/21)

2021        Jan 19, The Trump administration issued a parting shot to Venezuela's Pres. Nicolas Maduro with stiff financial sanctions on three individuals, 14 business entities and six ships accused of assisting oil firm PDVSA of outmaneuvering earlier US sanctions.
    (SFC, 1/20/21, p.A4)

2021        Jan 21, A Venezuelan navy vessel detained two Guyanese vessels that were fishing in Guyana's exclusive economic zone, the latest dispute in a long-running border conflict between the two South American nations.
    (Reuters, 1/24/21)

2021        Feb 8, President Ivan Duque said Colombia will provide temporary protective status to undocumented Venezuelan migrants. Colombia offered residency rights for 10 years to nearly one million Venezuelan migrants.
    (AP, 2/8/21)(Econ., 2/13/21, p.34)

2021        Feb 22, The EU imposed sanctions on 19 more officials in Venezuela accused of undermining democracy or rights abuses in the crisis-torn South American country. A total of 55 Venezuelan officials are now subject to EU sanctions.
    (AP, 2/22/21)

2021        Mar 2, The Cyprus-flagged oil tanker Berlina was physically spotted loading crude oil in Venezuela despite US sanctions against such trading. Off-ship agents at the same time were using distant computers to show the ship near the Caribbean island of Dominica.
    (https://tinyurl.com/3pdhs4xs)(SFC, 5/31/21, p.A2)

2021        Mar 3, Colombia said it will grant legal status to all Venezuelan migrants who fled there since 2016 to escape their country’s economic collapse and political crisis.

2021        Mar 8, The US Department of Homeland Security announced that Venezuelans living in the United States will be eligible to receive temporary protected status for 18 months.
    (Axios, 3/9/21)

2021        Mar 15, It was reported that Venezuelan President Nicolas Maduro is pressing banks to implement digital payment systems as hyperinflation prompts chronic shortages of cash in the bolivar currency.
    (Reuters, 3/15/21)
2021        Mar 15, A regional court in West Africa ordered the immediate release of a Venezuelan businessman close to President Nicolás Maduro, finding that his arrest in Cape Verde on US money laundering charges was unlawful. The court also instructed Cape Verde to cease all extradition proceedings against Alex Saab and compensate him $200,000 for damages. Federal prosecutors in Miami indicted Saab in 2019 on money laundering charges connected to an alleged bribery scheme that pocketed more than $350 million from a low-income housing project for the Venezuelan government that was never built.
    (AP, 3/15/21)

2021        Mar 26, Venezuelans fleeing to Colombia to escape clashes between the Venezuelan military and irregular armed groups accused soldiers of abuses, including killing civilians.
    (Reuters, 3/27/21)

2021        Mar 27, Facebook said it has frozen Venezuelan President Nicolas Maduro's page for violating policies against spreading misinformation about COVID-19 by promoting a remedy he claims, without evidence, can cure the disease.
    (Reuters, 3/27/21)

2021        Mar 31, The UN's sexual and reproductive health agency pushed international allies to provide $26.7 million in funding that would go toward "life-saving sexual and reproductive services and a multi-sectoral response to gender-based violence" in Venezuela.
    (Axios, 3/31/21)

2021        Apr 5, Venezuela's main academies of medicine and science urged renewed efforts to vaccinate the South American nation's population against the coronavirus amid a spike in infections that has led the government to extend lockdown measures. Venezuela reported 15 deaths and 1,786 new infections, the highest since the start of the pandemic. It has reported 166,123 cases and 1,662 associated deaths.
    (Reuters, 4/5/21)

2021        Apr 15, Venezuela said it has received a batch of 50,000 doses of Russia's Sputnik V coronavirus vaccine. Venezuela has reported 178,094 cases of coronavirus and 1,834 deaths, according to official figures.
    (AP, 4/15/21)

2021        Apr 19, The food assistance agency of the United Nations announced that it will begin operations in Venezuela after reaching an agreement with the nation’s government.
    (AP, 4/19/21)

2021        Apr 30, In Venezuela six American oil executives, jailed more than three years ago, were granted house arrest in a gesture of goodwill toward the Biden administration.
    (SFC, 5/1/21, p.A2)

2021        May 15, The Russian Direct Investment Fund (RDIF) said Venezuela has approved for use Russia's single-shot Sputnik Light COVID-19 vaccine.
    (Reuters, 5/15/21)

2021        May 17, In Venezuela Seuxis Hernandez Solarte (aka Jesus Santrich), former Colombian FARC leader, was killed along with five others in a shooting. Solarte was a member of the Chamber of Representatives of Colombia until August 2019 and was the FARC's delegate in the Colombian peace process in Havana.

2021        May 21, It was reported that a judge in Colombia has sentenced three Venezuelan men to six years in prison for helping organize the so-called Operation Gideon, an ill-conceived plot to remove Pres. Nicolas Maduro involving former American Green Berets.
    (SFC, 5/21/21, p.A5)

2021        Jun 1, The Biden administration gave Chevron Corp. and several other American companies six more months to wind down their operations in Venezuela.
    (SFC, 6/2/21, p.B2)

2021        Jun 2, US federal authorities said a ring of Venezuelans who live in South Florida and Mexico have stolen more than $800,000 in US government stimulus checks from people who lost their jobs or struggled financially during the COVID-19 pandemic.
    (AP, 6/2/21)

2021        Jun 4, Venezuela said it has reached a deal to purchase doses of Russia's EpiVacCorona vaccine, as well as manufacture the inoculation locally.
    (Reuters, 6/5/21)

2021        Jul 1, The food assistance agency of the UN announced that its first shipments of supplies for vulnerable Venezuelan school children have arrived in the troubled South American country.
    (AP, 7/1/21)

2021        Jul 5, A UN report said Venezuelan security forces carried out fewer extra-judicial killings in the 12 months through April, but it accuses them of a continued pattern of torture or cruel treatment of individuals as well as enforced disappearances and incommunicado detentions.
    (AP, 7/5/21)

2021        Jul 8, In Venezuela gang members walking through western Caracas' El Cementerio barrio with megaphones told residents to leave and that shooting would not soon stop in gun battles between police and a collection of gangs. Unrelenting gunfire continued for the next 48 hours. The government later reported 26 dead.. NGO Victim's Monitor documented 37 deaths, including four officers and 22 alleged non-gang members killed by stray bullets or police.
    (Reuters, 7/18/21)
2021        Jul 8, It was reported that Venezuela has paid its financial commitments to the COVAX vaccine-sharing facility and will be allocated COVID-19 vaccine doses upon availability.
    (AP, 7/8/21)

2021        Jul 22, It was reported that a Chinese logistics firm has emerged as a central player in the supply of sanctioned oil from Iran and Venezuela, even after it was blacklisted by Washington two years ago for handling Iranian crude.
    (Reuters, 7/22/21)

2021        Aug 13, Venezuela's government and the opposition signed an agreement in Mexico City to begin talks aimed at ending a five-year political impasse and addressing the nation's economic collapse.
    (SSFC, 8/15/21, p.A5)

2021        Aug 25, Venezuela state TV said at least 20 people have died in the western state of Merida following intense rains that caused mudslides and rivers to overflow.
    (Reuters, 8/25/21)

2021        Aug 31, Venezuela's main opposition parties said they will participate in November regional and local elections, a strategy reversal after boycotting previous elections they argued were not free or fair.
    (Reuters, 8/31/21)

2021        Sep 6, Venezuelan government and opposition representatives said they reached partial agreement during talks in Mexico City as part of a roadmap drawn up to tackle the once prosperous country's long-running crisis.
    (Reuters, 9/7/21)

2021        Sep 9, The Spanish police said Hugo Carvajal (61), the former head of Venezuela's military intelligence unit, has been arrested. He had been in hiding since a Spanish court approved his extradition to the United States almost two years ago.
    (Reuters, 9/9/21)(SSFC, 9/12/21, p.A2)

2021        Sep 13, It was reported that Venezuela's government is allowing private firms to run at least 13 food companies that were nationalized a decade ago, an effort meant to improve operations that suffered under state management.
    (Reuters, 9/13/21)

2021        Sep 16, Venezuelan fishermen in Rio Seco, across the bay from Punta Cardon, notified PDVSA about an oil spill. The oil leaked from PDVSA's Ule-Amuay 2, a 26-inch pipeline that transports crude to the Paraguana Refining Center. The spill gushed for at least 10 days before being sealed.
    (Reuters, 10/6/21)

2021        Sep 23, A cargo of 2 million barrels of Iranian condensate arrived in Venezuela, which has agreed to a key contract to swap its heavy oil for Iranian condensate that it can use to improve the quality of its tar-like crude. The deal could be a breach of US sanctions on both nations.
    (Reuters, 9/25/21)

2021        Sep 25, Local Chileans marched with anti-immigration slogans and set fire to belongings of Venezuelan migrants in Iquique, tossing clothes and mattresses in bonfires in the street, after a camp was cleared by police a day earlier.
    (Reuters, 9/27/21)

2021        Sep 29, The commander of Colombia's armed forces said about 1,900 fighters belonging to rebel and crime groups are operating from Venezuela, where they plan attacks and participate in drug trafficking.
    (Reuters, 9/30/21)

2021        Sep 29, A new study said around three-fourths of Venezuelans now live in extreme poverty as the once-prosperous OPEC nation's hyperinflationary economic collapse continued for a seventh straight year.
    (Reuters, 9/29/21)

2021        Oct 1, Venezuela launched its second monetary overhaul in three years by cutting six zeros from the bolivar currency in response to hyperinflation, simplifying accounting but doing little to ease the South American nation's economic crisis.
    (Reuters, 10/1/21) 

2021        Oct 10, Venezuela received a second batch of 2.5 million doses of COVID-19 vaccines via the COVAX mechanism, while the government said it hoped to reach immunity for 70% of Venezuelans by the end of the month.
    (Reuters, 10/10/21)

2021        Oct 12, Former Venezuelan Defense Minister and retired general Raul Baduel, considered a political prisoner by the opposition, died after contracting coronavirus.
    (Reuters, 10/13/21)

2021        Oct 15, In Venezuela an Iran-flagged supertanker finished loading oil and prepared to set sail to Iran carrying 2 million barrels of heavy crude provided by state-run oil firm PDVSA. The vessel arrived in Venezuela in September with its transponder turned off while carrying 2.1 million barrels of Iranian condensate. The exchange provides Venezuela with a stable supply of blending material needed to convert its extra heavy oil into exportable grades. The pact also delivers heavy oil to Iran for blending, refining or marketing.
    (Reuters, 10/16/21)

2021        Oct 16, Venezuela said it would suspend negotiations with the opposition that were set to resume this weekend, after Cape Verde extradited Colombian businessman Alex Saab, a Venezuelan envoy, to the United States on money laundering charges. Hours after Saab's extradition, Venezuela revoked the house arrest of six former executives of refiner Citgo, a US subsidiary of state oil company PDVSA.
    (Reuters, 10/17/21)

2021        Nov 21, Venezuelans headed to the polls in local and regional elections which represent a major challenge for electoral authorities and opposition politicians alike.
    (Reuters, 11/21/21)

2021        Nov 22, Venezuela's National Electoral Council (CNE) awarded victory to the ruling Socialist party in 20 governorships and three to opposition politicians in an initial announcement following local and regional elections.
    (Reuters, 11/22/21)

2021        Dec 3, It was reported that Venezuela has denied visa extensions for electoral observers from the European Union, requiring them to leave the South American country this weekend.
    (Reuters, 12/3/21)

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