Timeline Tunisia

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Country Reports: https://www.countryreports.org/country/Tunisia.htm
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The population of Tunisia, bordering on Libya and Algeria, was about 98.5% Muslim.
    (SFC, 5/6/96, p.A-1,4)
Tunisia measures 63,170 square miles (163,610 square km).
    (AP, 10/23/11)
The Bardo National Museum in Tunis contains the world’s finest collection of Roman mosaics.
    (SFEC, 4/12/98, p.T5)
Kairouan is the 4th holiest city of the Muslim world and contains the Great Mosque of Kairouan.
    (SFEC, 4/12/98, p.T5)       

100Mil BC    Spinosaurus, a 55 foot, 8 ton dinosaur with crocodile-like jaws lived during this time in Argentina, Morocco, Tunisia, Algeria. The Spinosaurus lived in what later became North Africa during the Cretaceous period (112Mil BC BC-93.5Mil BC). Fossil evidence in 2020 indicated that the Spinosaurus was possibly a predatory water-loving dinosaur.
    (http://tinyurl.com/r6kp2)(ABC News, 4/29/20)

814BC    Carthage was founded by Phoenician traders.
    (SFEC, 4/12/98, p.T5)

814-813BC        Elissa-Dido, Princess of Tyre, Jezebel’s grandniece, fled to North Africa after her brother, King Pygmalion, murdered her husband, Tyre’s high priest. She was said to have then founded Carthage on a hilltop now called Byrsa. Byrsa means Oxhide and it was said that Elissa could have as much ground as could be covered by the hide of an ox. She cut the hide into narrow strips and so claimed the whole hill.
    (NG, Aug., 1974, p.174)(SSFC, 12/10/00, p.T8)

586BC    The Jewish Ghriba synagogue in Djerba, Tunisia, was later said to date to about this time. The first Jews who arrived were said to have brought a stone from the ancient temple of Jerusalem that was destroyed by the Babylonians.
    (AP, 4/27/13)   

300BC    Carthago Nova (Cartagena, Spain) had coins minted in the Greek style. One face bears the image of Melqart, chief god of Tyre, the other face shows a horse and palm tree, emblems of Carthage.
    (NG, Aug., 1974, S.W. Matthews, p.171)

264BC    Rome initiated the Punic Wars with Carthage, an oligarchic empire that stretched from the northern coast of Africa to the Strait of Gibralter. The primary cause was the Carthaginian expansion into the Greek cities of Sicily. Carthage was forced to surrender its control over the western region of Sicily and this marked the end of the first Punic War. The three Punic Wars: 264-241 BC, 218-202 BC, 149-146 BC, also known as the Carthaginian Wars, finally resulted in the destruction of Carthage and Roman control of the western Mediterranean.
    (eawc, p.14)(HNQ, 8//00)

262BC    War broke out between Carthage and Rome. Three long wars lasted till 146BC when Carthage was destroyed by Rome.
    (Enc. of Africa, 1976, p.167-8)

261BC    Rome captured a Punic quinquereme. In two months they copied it plank by plank and built 100 like it and eventually the Roman fleet was able to defeat the Carthaginians.
    (NG, Aug., 1974, p.178)

256BCE    The Carthaginian city of Kerouane was sacked by the Romans.
    (NG, 8/04, p.48)

250-150BC    Punic wars between Rome and Carthage.

241BC    Mar 10, The Battle of Aegusa in which the Roman fleet sank 50 Carthaginian ships occurred.
    (HN, 3/10/98)

218BC    The Romans renewed their efforts against Carthage as Carthage expanded into Spain. This 2nd Punic War lasted 16 years after which Carthage was forced to surrender al of its territory to Rome except for its capital city in North Africa.
    (http://eawc.evansville.edu, p.15)

217BC    Jun 21, Carthaginian forces led by Hannibal destroyed a Roman army under Consul Gaius Flaminicy in a battle at Lake Trasimenus in central Italy. Hannibal of Carthage attacked Roman Consul Flaminio at Tuoro on Lake Trasimeno in Umbria. Hannibal’s army of Numidians, Berbers, Libyans, Gascons, and Iberians was down to one elephant after crossing the Alps with 39. His army of 40,000 drove the Romans into the lake where 15,000 died as opposed to 1,500 of Hannibal’s men. Two nearby towns were named Ossaia (boneyard) and Sanguineto (bloodied).
    (SFEM, 10/12/97, p.37)(HN, 6/21/98)

217BC    During the Second Punic War Rome appointed Quintus Fabius Maximus as dictator to stave off Hannibal’s Carthaginian army.
    (ON, 9/05, p.6)

216 BC    Aug 2, Hannibal Barca [of Carthage] won his greatest victory over the Romans at Cannae. Hannibal seized a grain depot in the small village of Cannae in order to lure the Romans to battle. Having crossed over the Alps, Hannibal‘s forces defeated the Romans at the Trebia River and also at Lake Trasimene. Thereafter, the Romans were unwilling to commit a large force to attacking Hannibal. However, Hannibal‘s spies had learned two Roman consuls shared command of the legions and attempted to goad the more impetuous of the two into battle at Cannae.
    (HN, 8/2/98)(HNQ, 11/16/00)

206BC    Rome destroyed Carthaginian forces at the Battle of Metaurus in northern Italy.
    (ON, 9/05, p.7)

204BC-202BC    Greece and most of Asia Minor came under the control of the Romans after the Roman victory over Carthage in the 2nd Punic War.
    (WSJ, 12/26/97, p.A7)(ON, 9/05, p.7)

203BC    Hannibal and his army returned home to defend Carthage against Roman forces.
    (ON, 9/05, p.7)

202BC    Roman forces under Scipio Africanus defeated Hannibal of Carthage on the Plains of Zama in northern Tunisia.
    (NG, 8/04, p.44)(www2.cs.uh.edu/~clifton/hannibal.html)

149BC-146BC     Rome and Carthage fought the 3rd Punic War that resulted in the total defeat of Carthage. All inhabitants of Carthage were sold into slavery and the city was burned to the ground. As a result of the Punic wars Rome expanded its empire to cover Spain, North Africa, Greece, Asia Minor and Egypt.
    (eawc, p.15)(HNQ, 8/9/00)

146BC    Roman forces breached the walls of Carthage. All inhabitants were sold into slavery. The city was burned to the ground and the land was sown with salt.
    (NG, Aug., 1974, p.174)(NG, 8/04, p.46)
31BC        Rome under Emperor Augustus annexed the Carthage territory.
    (SSFC, 12/10/00, p.T8)

162        The Antonine Baths were completed in Carthage after 17 years of construction.
    (SSFC, 12/10/00, p.T8)

230        A Roman coliseum was built in the town of El Jem that could hold 30,000.
    (SFEC, 4/12/98, p.T5)(AP, 10/19/98)

230        Quintus Septimius Florens Tertullianus (anglicized as Tertullian), early Christian apologist, died. He was a church leader and prolific author of Early Christianity. Tertullian was born about 150 and lived and died in Carthage (later Tunisia).

439        Oct 9, Ancient city of Carthage was captured by Genseric the Vandal. [see Oct 19,24]
    (MC, 10/9/01)

439        Oct 19, The Vandals, led by King Gaiseric, took Carthage and quickly conquered all the coastal lands of Algeria and Tunisia. Egypt and the Libyan coast remained in Roman hands.
    (Enc. of Africa, 1976, p.168)(HN, 10/19/98)

632-661    The Rashidun Caliphate, also known as the Rightly Guided Caliphate, comprising the first four caliphs in Islam's history, was founded after Muhammad's death. At its height, the Caliphate extended from the Arabian Peninsula, to the Levant, Caucasus and North Africa in the west, to the Iranian highlands and Central Asia in the east. It was the one of the largest empires in history up until that time.

902        Aug 1, The Aghlabid rulers of Ifriqiyah (modern day Tunisia) captured Taormina, Sicily.
    (HN, 8/1/98)

1091        A trading deal was made between Mahdiyah, near Tunis, and Genoa.
    (WSJ, 1/11/99, p.R50)

c1200-1300    Sidi Bou Said was a 13th century Sufi holy man. A town 12 miles from Tunis was named after him. It was closed to non-Muslims until the 1820s.
    (SSFC, 8/4/02, p.C12)

1332        May 27, Ibn Khaldun (d.1406), Berber historian, was born in Tunis. He was also a social scientist and political activist and developed theories on economics and politics. He authored the "Muqaddimah" (introduction to history), that gave an in-depth analysis of the cyclical nature of the rise, maturation and decline of political regimes and economies. “Only tribes held together by a group feeling can survive in a desert."
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ibn_Khaldun)(WSJ, 1/11/99, p.R20)(Econ, 1/28/12, p.68)

1518        Algiers and Tunis, Barbary states in North Africa, were founded.
    (TL-MB, p.11)

1530s    Khayr Ad-Din (d.1546) known by the European name Barbarossa, meaning Redbeard, united Algeria and Tunisia as military states under the Ottoman caliphate. He was a Barbary pirate and later as admiral of the Ottoman fleet.
    (HNQ, 4/25/02)

1534        Aug 20, Turkish admiral Chaireddin (Khair ad-Din) "Barbarossa" occupied Tunis.
    (MC, 8/20/02)(PC, 1992, p.178)

1535        Holy Roman Emperor Charles V led a naval expedition to Tunis against Barbarossa. The foray proved successful, but Barbarossa escaped and continued to fight.
    (WSJ, 7/21/08, p.A11)

1546        Barbarossa, one of the great figures in the court at Istanbul, died. Khayr Ad-Din was a Barbary pirate and later, as admiral of the Ottoman fleet, he united Algeria and Tunisia as military states under the Ottoman caliphate in the 1530s.
    (HNQ, 2/10/99)

1554        Dragut, leader of the Mediterranean pirates, recaptured Mehedia, Tunisia, from the Spaniards.
    (TL-MB, 1988, p.18)

1655        Apr 4, Battle at Postage Farina, Tunis: English fleet licked Barbarian pirates.
    (MC, 4/4/02)

1655        Apr 28, English admiral Blake beat a Tunisian pirate fleet.
    (MC, 4/28/02)

1795        In Tripoli Pasha Yusef Karamanli deposed his older brother Hamet in a bloodless coup.
    (ON, 10/06, p.8)

1798        Mar 26, Tunis, under the rule of Bey Hamuda Pasha, signed a treaty of peace and friendship with the US following negotiations with William Eaton. The American Revolutionary War veteran had been recently appointed consul to the North African kingdom.
    (ON, 10/06, p.7)

1800        Jan 10, The US Senate ratified a peace treaty with Tunis.
    (ON, 10/06, p.7)

1815        Aug 5, A peace treaty with Tripoli, which followed treaties with Algeria (Jun 30) and Tunis (Aug 28), brought an end to the Barbary Wars. Commodores Stephen Decatur and William Bainbridge had conducted successful operations against the Barbary States of Algiers, Tunis and Tripoli.
    (HN, 8/5/98)(WSJ, 10/9/01, p.A22)(ON, 10/06, p.10)

1846        The mufti of Tunis wooed the British by closing his slave markets.
    (Econ, 8/22/15, p.51)

1881        May 12, The Treaty of Bardo established Tunis [Tunisia] as a French protectorate. The French withdrew their forces after signing the treaty. The terms of the agreement gave France responsibility for the defense and foreign policy decisions of Tunisia. Henceforth, Tunis became a French protectorate

1890        The Cathedral of St. Louis was built in a suburb north of Tunis.
    (SSFC, 12/10/00, p.T8)

1902        Aug 3, Habib Bourguiba, 1st president of Tunisia, was born.
    (SC, 8/3/02)

1903        Aug 3, Habib Bourguiba (d.2000), later president and independence leader, was born in Monastir. Some said the papers were doctored and that he was born earlier.
    (SFC, 4/7/00, p.D5)

1930s    Habib Bourguiba founded the Neo-Destour nationalist movement dedicated to end French colonial rule.
    (SFC, 4/7/00, p.D5)

1934        Sep 3, Tunisia began its move for independence.
    (MC, 9/3/01)

1938        Apr 9, In Tunisia French troops cracked down on nationalist-inspired rioting in Tunis. 122 Tunisians were killed by French troops. Tunisians remembered this as Martyr’s Day.

1939        Bahi Ladgham was arrested and sentenced to prison for plotting against the state’s security.
    (SFC, 4/16/98, p.B4)

1942        Nov, German troops arrived in Tunisia. The nation was home to some 100,000 Jews at the time. The Germans imposed anti-Semitic policies that included fines, forcing Jews to wear Star of David badges and confiscating property. More than 5,000 Jews were sent to forced labor camps, where 46 are known to have died. About 160 Tunisian Jews in France were sent to European death camps.
    (AP, 1/30/07)

1943        Jan 22, Axis forces pulled out of Tripoli for Tunisia, and destroyed bases as they left.
    (HN, 1/22/99)

1943        Feb 13, There was a German assault on Sidi Bou Zid, Tunisia, as Gen. Eisenhower visited the front.
    (MC, 2/13/02)

1943        Feb 14, A German offensive was made through the de Faid pass in Tunisia.
    (MC, 2/14/02)

1943        Feb 15, The Germans broke the U.S. lines at the Fanid-Sened Sector in Tunisia.
    (HN, 2/15/98)

1943        Feb 16, Withdrawing Africa Corps reached the Mareth-line in North Africa.
    (MC, 2/16/02)

1943        Feb 18, Rommel took three towns in Tunisia, North Africa. The intercepted communications of an American in Cairo provided a secret ear for the Desert Fox.
    (HN, 2/18/98)

1943        Feb 19, German tanks under brig. general Buelowius attacked Kasserine Pass, Tunisia.
    (MC, 2/19/02)

1943        Feb 20, German troops of the Afrika Korps broke through the Kasserine Pass, defeating U.S. forces.
    (HN, 2/20/99)

1943        Feb 21, German tanks and two infantry battalions broke the Allied line and took Kasserine Pass in North Africa.
    (HN, 2/21/98)

1943        Feb 23, German troops pulled back through the Kasserine Pass in Tunisia.
    (MC, 2/23/02)

1943        Feb 25, U.S. troops retook the Kasserine Pass in Tunisia, where they had been defeated five days before.
    (HN, 2/25/99)

1943        Feb 26, The German assault moved to Beja, North Tunisia.
    (SC, 2/26/02)

1943        Mar 6, Battle at Medenine, North-Africa: Rommel's assault attack.
    (MC, 3/6/02)

1943        Mar 10, Hitler called Rommel back from Tunisia in North Africa. The intercepted communications of an American in Cairo provided a secret ear for the Desert Fox.
    (HN, 3/10/98)

1943        Mar 18, American forces took Gafsa in Tunisia. In the crucible of Operation Torch, the men of Sub-Task Force Goalpost received their baptism of fire capturing the Moroccan town of Port Lyautey.
    (HN, 3/18/98)

1943        Mar 21, British 8th army opened an assault on Mareth line, Tunisia.
    (MC, 3/21/02)

1943        Mar 23, Germans counter attacked US lines in Tunisia.
    (SS, 3/23/02)

1943        Mar 27, US began an assault on Fondouk-pass, Tunisia.
    (MC, 3/27/02)

1943        Apr 19-1943 Apr 20, Lance Sgt. Haane Manahi (d.1987) of New Zealand performed gallant actions against overwhelming odds in the bloody battle for Takrouna, a fortified citadel in Tunisia, North Africa. In 2007 the Maori trooper was posthumously honored he 64 years after he was denied a top gallantry award despite a commendation signed by four commanding generals.
    (AP, 3/17/07)(www.nzetc.org/tm/scholarly/name-004807.html)

1943        Apr 22, There was German counter attack in North Tunisia.
    (MC, 4/22/02)

1943        May 6, British 1st army opened an assault on Tunis.
    (MC, 5/6/02)

1943        May 7, The last major German strongholds in North Africa, Tunis and Bizerte, fell to Allied forces.
    (HN, 5/7/99)

1943        May 9, The 5th German Panzer army surrendered in Tunisia.
    (MC, 5/9/02)

1943        May 11, Hermann Goering division in Tunisia surrendered.
    (MC, 5/11/02)

1943        May 12, Axis forces in Tunisia and all of North Africa surrendered.
    (AP, 5/12/97)(HN, 5/12/98)

1943        May 20, French, British and US held a victory parade in Tunis, Tunisia.
    (MC, 5/20/02)

1943        Jul 8, US invasion fleet passed Bizerta, Tunisia.
    (MC, 7/8/02)

1943        In Tunisia Khaled Abdelwahhab hid a group of Jews on his farm outside Mahdia, saving them from the Nazi troops occupying the North African nation. In 2007 Abdelwahhab became the first Arab to be nominated for recognition as "Righteous Among the Nations," an honor bestowed on non-Jews who risked their lives to save Jews from Nazi persecution.
    (AP, 1/30/07)

1953        May, Reports claimed that 200 young Muslims tried to invade the Jewish quarter and had provoked an Arab-Jewish riot. Bahi Ladgham challenged the French authorities to permit an int’l. investigation.
    (SFC, 4/16/98, p.B4)

1953-1973    Bahi Ladgham (d.1998 at 85) was secretary general of the Neo-Destour Party, dedicated to independence.
    (SFC, 4/16/98, p.B4)

1956        Mar 20, Tunisia was granted independence by France. Tunisia became an independent nation under the leadership of Habib Bourguiba, a Francophone lawyer. He launched a campaign advocating birth control. By 2003 the fertility rate plunged from 7.2 in the 1960s to 2.08. Bourguiba created a paternalistic and monopolistic ruling party that continued for 3 decades.
    (WUD, 1994, p.1685)(EWH, 1968, p.1247)(SFEC, 4/12/98, p.T5)(SFC, 4/16/98, p.B4)(WSJ, 8/8/03, p.A1)(Econ, 1/22/11, p.31)

1956        Tunisia a Personal Status Code extending several rights to women and abolishing polygamy.
    (AFP, 8/17/17)

1957        Mar 30, Tunisia and Morocco signed a friendship treaty in Rabat.
    (HN, 3/30/98)

1957        Jul 25, The monarchy in Tunisia was abolished in favor of a republic. Habib Bourguiba (1903-2000) began serving as president and continued to 1987.
    (AP, 7/25/07)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Habib_Bourguiba)

1958        Iraq’s Prime minister Fadhel al-Jamali (1903-1997) was sentenced to death after a military coup. He was freed after Morocco interceded and he later became an advisor to Pres. Habib Bourguiba who granted him citizenship.
    (SFC, 5/27/97, p.A22)   

1959        Nov 8, Tunisian Pres. Habib Bourguiba's Nes Destour party won every chair.
    (MC, 11/8/01)

1960        The per capita income was under $200 and the illiteracy rate was more than 80%.
    (SFC, 5/6/96, p.A-4)

1966        Tunisia legalized abortion.
    (WSJ, 8/7/03, p.A5)

1969-1970    Bahi Ladgham served as premier.
    (SFC, 4/16/98, p.B4)

1970        Sep 27, A cease-fire accord was signed in Cairo between the Jordanian army and Palestinian guerrillas by King Hussein and Yasser Arafat brokered by the Arab peace committee headed by Bahi Ladgham of Tunisia.
    (SFC, 4/16/98, p.B4)(http://tinyurl.com/6e3v9s)

1970        Nov, Hedy Nouri succeeded Bahi Ladgham as premier.
    (SFC, 4/16/98, p.B4)

1971        Habib Bourguiba was the first Arab leader to publicly advocate mutual recognition with Israel.
    (SFC, 4/7/00, p.D5)

1973        Tunisia banned the marriage of Muslim to non-Muslims. The ban was lifted in 2017.
    (AFP, 9/14/17)

1977        Sep 10, Convicted murderer Hamida Djandoubi, a Tunisian immigrant, became the last person to date to be executed by the guillotine in France.
    (SFEC, 2/9/97, Z1 p.6)(AP, 9/10/97)

1981        In Tunisia radical preacher Rached Ghannouchi and other intellectuals, inspired by Egypt's Muslim Brotherhood, founded the Islamic Tendency Movement, which denounced violence and endorsed pluralism and democracy. He was accused of fomenting unrest and sentenced to 10 years in prison. In 1987 he was sentenced to life behind bars with hard labor under the regime of Habib Bourguiba.
    (AFP, 10/25/11)

1982        Aug 30, Palestinian Liberation Organization left Beirut, Lebanon, and moved to Tunis, Tunisia [see Aug 21]. American and European forces left Lebanon following the departure of the PLO, but returned following the September death Bashir Gemayel.
    (SFC, 11/11/04, p.A18)(Econ, 5/14/16, SR p.13)

1985        Aug 21, Tunisia expelled 253 Libyans in apparent retaliation for Libya’s expulsion of over 20,000 Tunisian workers in recent weeks.

1985        Oct 1, Israeli forces staged an air raid on PLO-headquarter at Tunis and 68 people were killed. Yasser Arafat narrowly escaped death.
    (WSJ, 11/12/04, p.A11)

1987        Nov 7, Zine El Abidine Ben Ali became president of Tunisia after doctors declared Habib Bourguiba (84) medically unfit to govern. Mr. Ben Ali led a peaceful coup that ended the 30 year rule of Habib Bourguiba. "The Tunisians are Sunni Muslims and deny polygamy, admit abortion, and abjure the veil."
    (SFC, 5/6/96, p.A-4)(WSJ, 6/22/95, p.A-5)(SFC, 10/28/99, p.A13)

1988        Apr 16, Abu Jihad, [Khalil al-Wazzir], PLO-leader, was murdered by Israeli assassins in Tunisia. They left the chief strategist of the Palestinian uprising with 170 bullets in his body. The Palestine Liberation Organization accused Israel of assassinating al-Wazir, a top PLO military figure. Palestinians reacted angrily, and at least 14 were shot and killed by Israeli troops during clashes in the occupied Gaza Strip and West Bank. In 2012 Israel admitted responsibility for the killing of Abu Jihad.
    (AP, 4/16/98)(AP, 1/22/06)(AP, 11/1/12)

1988        Dec 15, U.S. Ambassador Robert H. Pelletreau Jr. telephoned the PLO's headquarters in Tunisia, one day after President Reagan authorized direct talks.
    (AP, 12/15/98)

1989        Tunisia held elections which were heavily falsified. An Islamist-backed coalition still managed to win 17 percent of the vote. Islamist leader Rached Ghannouchi fled to Algeria. Hundreds of Islamist activists who stayed behind were thrown into prison, often on flimsy charges. In 1991 Ghannouchi moved to Britain.
    (AFP, 1/30/11)

1989        The Arab Maghreb Union was created to encourage free trade between Algeria, Libya, Mauritania, Morocco and Tunisia. It failed to hold summit meetings after 1994.
    (Econ, 5/29/10, p.50)

1991        In Tunisia military officers allegedly held secret meetings with a view to toppling Ben Ali. The case became known as the "Bakaret Essahel affair", named after a village 45 km (28 miles) south of Tunis. The officers involved were tortured.
    (AFP, 4/7/12)

1992        Tunisia’s Pres. Zine al-Abidine Ben Ali banned the Islamist Ennahda party.
    (AFP, 10/25/11)

1994        Tunisia held its first multiparty parliamentary elections.
    (SFC, 10/28/99, p.A13)

1996        The population of Tunisia was about 9 million.
    (SFC, 5/6/96, p.A-1,4)

1998        The Tunisian film "Honey and Ashes" opened in the US.
    (SFEC, 10/4/98, DB p.53)

1999        Mar 26, Hillary Clinton continued her 12-day African tour with a speech in Tunis at a women's rights conference.
    (SFC, 3/27/99, p.C1)

1999        Oct 25, In Tunisia Pres. Zine al-Abidine Ben Ali won a 3rd term in office with over 99% of the vote. It was the nation's first multiparty presidential vote.
    (SFC, 10/26/99, p.B2)

1999         Algeria, Libya and Tunisia agreed to share the northwest Sahara aquifer system (NWSAS).
    (Econ, 10/9/10, p.87)(http://tinyurl.com/25w5boa)

2000        Apr 6, Habib Bourguiba former president and independence leader, died at age 96.
    (SFC, 4/7/00, p.D5)

2000        Jan 19, Bettino Craxi (65), former 2-term Italian premier, died in Tunisia. He had fled Italy in 1994 to escape a corruption jail sentence.
    (WSJ, 1/20/00, p.A1)(Econ, 1/9/10, p.53)

2002        Apr 11, In Tunisia a gas tanker truck crashed into the wall of the El Ghriba synagogue on the island of Djerba and killed 14 Germans, 6 Tunisians and a Frenchman. The government at first called it an accident. Later evidence indicated that it was an act of terrorism. Nizar Nawar (24), a Tunisian citizen who had studied in Canada, was the driver. Al Qaeda later claimed responsibility. In 2006 a Spanish court sentenced two men to a total of 10 years in prison for their part in a suicide bombing. In 2006 Nawar’s uncle, Belgacem Nawar (44), was convicted in Tunis and sentenced to years in prison for aiding in the attack.
    (SFC, 4/17/02, p.A8)(SFC, 4/24/02, p.A7)(WSJ, 5/2/02, p.A13)(SSFC, 5/19/02, p.A3)(WSJ, 8/20/02, p.A1)(AP, 5/10/06)(SFC, 6/8/06, p.A3)

2002        May 7, An EgyptAir Boeing 737 with 62 people crashed in bad weather near Tunis. 18 were reported dead.
    (SFC, 5/8/02, p.A15)

2002        Jun 17, It was reported that fundamentalist Tunisian Jews on Djerba Island were exempt from the country’s mandatory secular education. The numbered about a 1,000.
    (WSJ, 6/17/02, p.A16)

2002        Jun 21, Eleven people drowned off Tunisia while swimming to a boat they hoped would take them to Italy.
    (AP, 6/21/02)

2002        Sep 2, Tunisia's highest court upheld jail terms against opposition leader Hamma Hammami, head of the outlawed Communist Workers Party, and two officials of his political party.
    (AP, 9/2/02)

2003        Jun 20, A boat carrying some 250 people toward Italy sank off the Tunisian coast, killing at least 50 people. The boat's occupants were all thought to be illegal immigrants.
    (AP, 6/20/03)(AP, 6/22/03)

2003        Sep 30, In the largest terrorism trial in Belgium's history Nizar Trabelsi of Tunisia, who once played professional soccer in Germany, received the maximum sentence of 10 years in prison from a court that also convicted 17 other men and acquitted five others.
    (AP, 9/30/03)

2003        Dec 5, In Tunisia an informal, two-day summit brought leaders from five southern European countries together with five of their counterparts from across the Mediterranean.
    (AP, 12/5/03)

2003        Dec 6, The Europe and North Africa summit ended a 2-day meeting in Tunisia. The group, formed in 1990, gathered leaders from North Africa — Algeria, Tunisia, Morocco, Mauritania and Libya — with leaders from France, Italy, Spain, Portugal and Malta.
    (AP, 12/6/03)

2003        The African Development (AfDB) fled its home in the Ivory Coast and set up operations in Tunisia.
    (Econ, 5/19/07, p.50)

2004        Feb 18, President Bush praised social progress in Tunisia and welcomed its leader, Zine El Abidine Ben Ali, as a partner in the fight against terrorism while also urging political reforms in the moderate Muslim nation in North African nation.
    (AP, 2/18/04)

2004        Apr, In Tunisia the Nawaat collective blog was created. It was quickly blocked and remained blocked until January 2011. It played a major role in channeling the opposition to Ben Ali's long rule and covered protests that culminated in his ouster.
    (AFP, 6/5/12)

2004        May 22, An Arab League summit met for a 2-day session in Tunis. 8 Arab leaders, including Crown Prince Abdullah of Saudi Arabia, failed to show up and Libyan leader Moammar Gadhafi walked out on the 1st day.
    (AP, 5/23/04)

2004        May 23, In Tunisia Arab leaders concluded a 2-day summit and committed their countries to political reforms.
    (SFC, 5/24/04, p.A7)

2004        Oct 3, Twenty-two would-be immigrants drowned and 42 were missing after a boat that was to have carried them across the Mediterranean broke up and sank off the Tunisian coast.
    (AFP, 10/4/04)

2004        Oct 23, Tunisia’s Pres. Ben Ali (68) won elections with 94.5% of the vote.
    (WSJ, 10/26/04, p.A1)(Econ, 10/23/04, p.46)

2005        Jan, Tunisia’s 1st private television station began broadcasting under the name “Hannibal TV."
    (WSJ, 5/26/05, p.A1)(www.hannibaltv.com.tn/)

2005        Jun, The Trans-Sahara Counter-Terrorism Initiative began operations. The US funded plan intended to provide military equipment and development aid to 9 north-east African countries considered fertile ground for Muslim militant groups. Participating countries included Algeria, Chad, Mali, Mauritania, Morocco, Niger, Nigeria, Senegal, and Tunisia.
    (SFC, 12/27/05, p.A1)

2005        Aug 6, A Tunis Air jet carrying 35 passengers went down in the sea off the Sicilian coast, and rescuers were on their way. 16 people were killed, while 23 survived. A bad fuel gauge on the Tuninter plane caused the crash. On March 23, 2009, the Tunisian pilot who paused to pray instead of taking emergency measures before crash-landing his plane, was sentenced to 10 years in jail by an Italian court along with his co-pilot. Another five employees of Tuninter, a subsidiary of Tunisair, were sentenced to between 8 and 9 years in jail.
    (AP, 8/5/05)(AP, 8/7/05)(WSJ, 9/8/05, p.A1)(Reuters, 3/24/09)

2005        Oct 18, In Tunisia 8 prominent opponents of the government went on a hunger strike ahead of a world summit on information in Tunis. They called for freedom of the press and of association and want Tunisia’s 600-odd political prisoners to be freed.
    (Econ, 11/12/05, p.50)

2005        Nov 16, A UN technology summit opened in Tunisia after an 11th-hour agreement that leaves the United States with ultimate oversight of the main computers that direct the Internet's flow of information, commerce and dissent.
    (AP, 11/16/05)

2006        Feb 11, In Tunis US Defense Secretary Donald H. Rumsfeld and leaders of Tunisia pledged to build closer military ties to help combat Islamic extremism.
    (AP, 2/11/06)

2007        Jan 3, In Tunisia at least 14 people, including two security forces, were killed in the shootout in Soliman, 25 miles south of the capital, Tunis. Fifteen people were arrested. On Jan 12 the interior minister said nearly 30 Islamic extremists involved in a deadly gunbattle with police had blueprints of foreign embassies and documents naming foreign envoys.
    (AP, 1/13/07)

2007        Apr 30, In southern Tunisia a stampede at an open-air concert by stars of the Arab version of "American Idol" killed seven young people and injured 32.
    (AP, 5/1/07)

2007        May 14, In Tunisia Sfax port officials said the Tunisian coastguard had rescued 35 African would-be immigrants who were trying to sail to Italy from the Libyan coast. More than 1,000 people have landed on Spanish or Italian territory since May 10.
    (AFP, 5/14/07)

2007        Jun 9, In Bosnia Karray Kamel bin Ali, alias Abu Hamza, Tunisian-born radical Islamist, was arrested near Zenica. This was several hours after he and possibly three or four others attacked a house owned by Zijad Kovac. 3 family members were wounded.

2007        Jun 19, The US announced the transfer of six Guantanamo Bay prisoners back to their home countries, including one who, according to his lawyers, now may face abuse in Tunisia for nonviolent political activities. 4 men returned to Yemen and two to Tunisia.
    (AP, 6/19/07)

2007        Jul 6, EU officials said they have asked Algeria, Morocco and Tunisia to join patrols of Europe's border control agency in a bid to stop massive clandestine immigration.
    (AFP, 7/6/07)

2007        Nov 6, Italian police said a Europe-wide sweep disrupted an Islamic cell that was recruiting potential suicide bombers for attacks in Iraq and Afghanistan. They announced the arrests of 20 terror suspects, mostly Tunisians. Authorities in Britain, France and Portugal confirmed arrests.
    (AP, 11/6/07)

2007        Nov 15, A Tunisian court convicted a former prisoner at the US prison at Guantanamo Bay, Cuba, on terror charges. Abdullah Bin Omar, a Tunisian citizen who spent five years at the detention facility in Cuba, was released in June.
    (AP, 11/14/07)

2007        Nov, Tunisia blocked access to popular video-sharing sites YouTube and DailyMotion, which both carried material about Tunisian political prisoners. Tunisian activists and allies responded by linking videos about civil liberties to the image of Tunisia’s presidential palace in Google Earth.
    (Econ, 6/28/08, p.67)

2008        Jan 7, The Tunis-based Arab League Educational Cultural and Scientific Organization said nearly one in 3 people in the Arab world is illiterate, including nearly half of all women in the region.
    (AP, 1/8/08)

2008        Jan 30, Tunisia hosted the 25th session of the meeting of Arab Ministers of the Interior. Security chiefs agreed to toughen rules on material that might promote terrorism.
    (Econ, 2/9/08, p.53)(http://allafrica.com/stories/200801220589.html)

2008        Feb 22, In Tunisia 2 Austrian tourists were kidnapped. Al-Qaida in Islamic North Africa later claimed responsibility and warned western tourists to stay away. The 2 tourists were released on October 31.
    (AFP, 3/11/08)(WSJ, 3/11/08, p.A1)(AP, 10/31/08)

2008        Jul 18, In Tunisia 2 officials and three others were convicted of plotting terror attacks and to overthrow the government.
    (WSJ, 7/19/08, p.A1)

2008        Aug 23, A Tunisian court convicted 13 Islamic militants on charges linked to plots to carry out attacks in the north African country. 6 more were convicted on Aug 26 for establishing a military camp in Tunisia's northeastern Kef region designed to train fighters to be sent to Iraq.
    (AP, 8/28/08)

2008        Oct 30, Scientists reported that 1 in 17 men living on the coasts of North Africa and southern Europe may have a Phoenician direct male line ancestor. Evidence was based on Y-chromosomes collected in Cyprus, Malta, Morocco, the West Bank, Syria and Tunisia.
    (SFC, 10/31/08, p.A14)

2008        Nov 1, Three Tunisian men accused of terrorism links by Italian prosecutors arrived in Milan under heavy security after being extradited from Britain. Habib Ignaoua, Mohamed Khemiri and Ali Chehidi were arrested in the London and Manchester areas last year as part of coordinated raids across Europe against an alleged Italian-based network recruiting fighters for Iraq and Afghanistan.
    (AP, 11/2/08)

2009        May 26, Tunisia’s Justice Minister Bechir Tekkari said his country is ready to accept the 10 Tunisians held at Guantanamo Bay.
    (SFC, 5/27/09, p.A2)

2009        Oct 25, Tunisians cast ballots for president and parliament in elections expected to hand another landslide victory to incumbent leader Zine El Abidine Ben Ali (73), who warned opponents they would face legal retaliation if they questioned the elections' fairness. Pres. Zine El Abidine Ben Ali was re-elected for a fifth 5-year term with an overwhelming 89% of the vote, his weakest performance yet but more than enough to show his solid grip on the nation.
    (AP, 10/25/09)(AP, 10/26/09)(Econ, 10/31/09, p.59)

2009        Nov 26, In Tunisia Taoufik Ben Brik (49), a journalist known for his critical stance toward Tunisia's government, was sentenced to six months in prison for what his lawyer called a trumped-up assault charge. Brik was released on April 27, 2010.
    (AP, 11/26/09)(AP, 4/27/10)

2009        Dec 20, Italian state-run and private television stations said a third Tunisian detainee from Guantanamo Bay is being moved to Italy to face international terrorism charges for having allegedly recruited fighters for Afghanistan. He was identified as Moez Ben Abdelkader Fezzani (40), also known as Abou Nassim.
    (AP, 12/20/09)

2010        Jan 22, Some 124 refugees, who said they are Kurds and Tunisians, landed on the southern shore of Corsica after a lengthy journey at sea.
    (AP, 1/22/10)

2010        Jun 23, Mohamed Mzali (b.1925), former Tunisian prime minister (1980-1986) and a longtime member of the International Olympic Committee, died in Paris after a long illness.
    (AP, 6/24/10)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mohammed_Mzali)

2010        Jul 6, A Tunisian appeals court upheld a prison sentence in absentia of four years and one month for journalist Fahem Boukaddous. He had covered protests that turned violent in 2008 over high unemployment in the Gafsa mining region.
    (AP, 7/7/10)

2010        Nov 22, Egypt's Orascom Telecom said it is selling its entire 50% stake in its Tunisian subsidiary to Qatar Telecom in a deal valued at $1.2 billion.
    (AP, 11/22/10)

2010        Dec 17, In Tunisia Mohamed Bouazizi (26), a university graduate without a steady job and trying to support his family, burned himself after police confiscated the fruits and vegetables he sold without a permit. His self-immolation left him in intensive care and sparked protests over unemployment that led to at least three deaths. Bouazizi died on Jan 4.
    (AP, 1/2/11)(AP, 1/5/11)

2010        Dec 22, In Tunisia a 24-year-old jobless protester was electrocuted after announcing he wanted to end his life and mounting a high-voltage electricity pole in the town of Sidi Bouzid. Police fired tear gas at stone-throwing protesters after simmering tensions linked to unemployment erupted after the demonstrator committed suicide.
    (AP, 12/23/10)

2011        Jan 8, In Tunisia at least 10 people were killed in rioting in the western towns of Thala and Kasserine. 4 people died in the central-western town of Regueb. The opposition said at least 20 people were killed Thala and Kasserine.
    (AP, 1/9/11)(AP, 1/10/11)

2011        Jan 10, Tunisia temporarily shut down all of its high schools and universities as it tried to stop deadly riots over joblessness and poor prospects for youths. At least 14 people were killed in unrest this weekend.
    (AP, 1/10/11)

2011        Jan 12, In Tunisia police and protesters clashed in the center of the capital, Tunis, bringing unrest to the government's doorstep after nearly a month of deadly protests that pose the most serious challenge to the president's two decades of iron-fisted rule.
    (AP, 1/12/11)

2011        Jan 13, In Tunisia rioters hurled stones at trams and government buildings in Tunis in defiance of increasingly tough government attempts to quash more than three weeks of rioting by youths angry about joblessness.
    (AP, 1/13/11)

2011        Jan 14, Tunisian police fired rounds of tear gas at thousands of protesters in the capital after some climbed atop the roof of the Interior Ministry, a symbol of the iron-fisted government they want to oust. Tunisian President Zine al-Abedine Ben Ali stepped aside after failing to quell the worst anti-government unrest in his two decades in power. The official death toll in the riots was 23, but opposition leaders put the figure at three times that. Medical workers reported another 13 new deaths and over 50 injuries from the previous day alone. PM Mohammed Ghannouchi went on state television to say he is assuming power. Ben Ali and his wife, Leila Trabelsi, fled to Saudi Arabia. The Trabelsi and Ben Ali's families were said to have a stake in Tunisian banks and airlines, car dealerships, Internet providers, radio and television stations, industry and big retailers.
    (AP, 1/14/11)(AP, 1/17/11)

2011        Jan 15, Tunisia swore in a new interim president, the second change of power in this North African nation in less than 24 hours, and grappled with looting, deadly prison riots and chaos in the streets after protests forced the country's leader to flee. At least 42 people were killed in a prison fire in a resort town and the director of another prison let 1,000 inmates flee after a deadly rebellion. Interim president, Fouad Mebazaa (77), the former president of the lower house of parliament, ordered the creation of a unity government that could include the opposition.
    (AP, 1/15/11)

2011        Jan 16, Tunisian authorities struggled to restore order, arresting the top presidential security chief and trying to stop gunfights that erupted across the capital. One clash broke out near Tunisia's main opposition party building, another by the dreaded Interior Ministry.
    (AP, 1/16/11)

2011        Jan 17, Tunisia's PM Mohamed Ghannouchi announced a national unity government, hoping to quell simmering unrest following the ouster of President Zine El Abidine Ben Ali amid huge street protests.
    (AP, 1/17/11)

2011        Jan 18, Four ministers quit Tunisia's day-old government, undermining its hopes of quelling unrest by sharing power with members of the opposition to the old regime.
    (AP, 1/18/11)

2011        Jan 19, In Tunisia hundreds of protesters demonstrated in Tunis to demand the dismissal from the new coalition government of ministers associated with ousted president Zine al-Abidine Ben Ali. A Tunisian prosecutor opened an investigation into the overseas assets of the ousted president and his deeply resented family. The government moved to give legal status to three parties barred under the previous administration and freed a dissident journalist, Fahem Boukadous, sentenced to four years in prison last year for his work.
    (AP, 1/19/11)(AFP, 1/20/11)
2011        Jan 19, Switzerland's federal council said it has agreed to freeze any assets of Tunisia's ousted president and the incumbent leader of Ivory Coast.
    (AP, 1/19/11)

2011        Jan 20, Tunisian police fired shots into the air to try to disperse hundreds of protesters demanding that ministers associated with the rule of ousted president Zine al-Abidine Ben Ali leave the government. Tunisian authorities arrested 33 members of toppled dictator Zine El Abidine Ben Ali's family and paraded a treasure trove of jewelry seized in raids on their homes on state television. 8 ministers in the new national unity cabinet, who had up until now remained members of Ben Ali's disgraced Constitutional Democratic Rally, resigned from the party.
    (AP, 1/20/11)(AFP, 1/20/11)

2011        Jan 22, In Tunisia protesters who overthrew the president took to the streets again to accuse his lieutenants of clinging to power and to demand new leaders now. Tunisia's once-feared police staged a rally of their own, demanding better salaries and insisting they're not to blame for shooting deaths among protesters. An official count put 78 civilians dead.
    (Reuters, 1/22/11)(AP, 1/22/11)(Econ, 1/22/11, p.31)

2011        Jan 23, In Tunisia thousands of anti-government protesters rallied outside PM Mohammed Ghannouchi's office, calling for him to quit after the downfall of the north African state's 23-year regime.
    (AFP, 1/23/11)

2011        Jan 24, In Tunisia thousands of protesters rallied in the main government quarter in Tunis calling for PM Mohammed Ghannouchi to resign after the fall of veteran leader Zine El Abidine Ben Ali. Teachers went on strike, and police demanded the right to form a union, as Tunisia struggled to stabilize itself after its president was overthrown.
    (AFP, 1/24/11)(AP, 1/24/11)

2011        Jan 25, In Tunisia protesters pressured the new interim government to quit in the wake of president Zine El Abidine Ben Ali's ouster, as the cabinet prepared a major shake-up.
    (AFP, 1/25/11)

2011        Jan 26, Tunisia said it has issued an international arrest warrant for ousted president Zine El Abidine Ben Ali, as anti-government protesters clashed with riot police in the capital.
    (AFP, 1/26/11)

2011        Jan 27, In Tunisia thousands took to the streets to call for old regime politicians to be ousted after the fall of president Zine El Abidine Ben Ali. The interim government under PM Ghannouchi named 12 new ministers and removed ministers tied to the ousted president.
    (AFP, 1/27/11)(SFC, 1/28/11, p.A7)

2011        Jan 28, The head of Tunisia's main union body said that PM Mohammed Ghannouchi had agreed to meet critics demanding his removal amid signs that mass protests were running out of steam.
    (AFP, 1/28/11)

2011        Jan 30, Thousands of Tunisians turned out to welcome Islamist leader Rached Ghannouchi (69) after more than 20 years in exile, as he eyed a political future for his Ennahda movement after the fall of the government. Ghannouchi was persecuted in Tunisia ever since founding his Islamist movement in 1981.
    (AFP, 1/30/11)

2011        Jan 31, European Union foreign ministers agreed to freeze the assets of Tunisia's former President Zine-al Abidine Ben Ali and his wife.
    (Reuters, 1/31/11)

2011        Feb 1, The head of a UN human rights mission said some 219 people were killed and 510 injured during the violent protests that led to the ouster of Tunisian strongman Zine El Abidine Ben Ali. A gang set fire overnight to a small synagogue, in what appeared to be the first attack on a Jewish institution since the start of the unrest.
    (AP, 2/1/11)

2011        Feb 2, Tunisia's interim government moved to impose its control over the country's security forces and state institutions, firing dozens of senior allies of fallen dictator Zine El Abidine Ben Ali.
    (AFP, 2/2/11)

2011        Feb 7, Tunisia’s Ministry of Interior suspended the Constitutional Democratic Rally (RCD), the former ruling party.
    (Econ, 2/12/11, p.30)

2011        Feb 9, Tunisia's Senate agreed unanimously to grant wide powers to the interim president struggling to restore order to the country following the overthrow of ex-leader Zine El Abidine Ben Ali.
    (AFP, 2/9/11)

2011        Feb 11, Italy warned it faces a humanitarian crisis with some 1,600 would-be migrants from Tunisia arriving in its waters over the past two weeks following unrest in their home country.
    (AP, 2/11/11)

2011        Feb 13, Tunisian immigrants clinging to small fishing boats landed in Italy, as the Italian government appealed for EU aid and said it wanted to deploy its security forces in Tunisia.
    (AFP, 2/13/11)

2011        Feb 15, Tunisian authorities extended a state of emergency imposed as president Zine El Abidine Ben Ali fled a month ago but ordered an end to a nationwide curfew.
    (AFP, 2/15/11)

2011        Feb 18, In Tunisia Marek Marius Rybinski (34), a Polish priest, was found with his throat slit and stab wounds in the parking lot of the religious school in the Tunis suburb of Manouma.
    (AP, 2/19/11)(Econ, 3/12/11, p.29)

2011        Feb 20, In Tunisia several thousand protesters swarmed on the governmental palace to demand the ouster of the provisional government in power since the ouster of country's longtime strongman. Many were angry that PM Mohamed Ghannouchi, a longtime ally of Ben Ali, is still in his post, and fear the Tunisian revolution has been co-opted by the old guard.
    (AP, 2/20/11)

2011        Feb 25, In Tunisia tens of thousands of people filled the streets of central Tunis in what they called a "day of rage," calling for the resignation of PM Mohamed Ghannouchi, a former ally of the ousted president.
    (Reuters, 2/25/11)

2011        Feb 27, Tunisian PM Mohamed Ghannouchi (69) said he will resign, amid renewed violence during protests in this North African country. Officials said that at least five people have died during violent street protests since Feb 25 with nearly 200 people were arrested over the last two days. Interim president Fouad Mebazaa chose Beji Caid-Essebsi (84), a former government minister, as the new prime minister.
    (AP, 2/27/11)(SFC, 2/28/11, p.A3)

2011        Mar 1, The UN refugee agency said that the situation on Libya's border with Tunisia is reaching a crisis point after 70,000 to 75,000 people fled from the violence in Libya since February 20.
    (AFP, 3/1/11)

2011        Mar 10, In Tunisia ousted Tunisian leader Zine El Abidine Ben Ali's former advisor Abdel Aziz Ben Dhia and Abdel Wahab Abdallah, who served as minister in the presidency, were arrested along with former Senate chief Abdallah Kallal and taken to a military base near Tunis.
    (AFP, 3/12/11)

2011        Mar 11, In Tunisia a new eruption of violence between police and protesters killed 2 and injured 20.
    (SFC, 3/12/11, p.A3)

2011        Mar 13, Tunisia’s TAP news agency said that a 7 pm to 5 am curfew has been imposed on the mining town of Metlaoui, where clashes 2 days earlier left 2 people dead and 20 injured. Protests had begun amid rumors that a regional phosphate mining company was secretly recruiting in a specific tribal area, instead of opening its jobs to the entire local population.
    (AP, 3/13/11)

2011        Apr 5, Italy and Tunisia signed a deal to choke off the flood of Tunisians heading to Italian shores. Italy agreed to take two flights a day of repatriated migrants.
    (SFC, 4/6/11, p.A2)(Econ, 4/16/11, p.58)

2011        Apr 8, France and Italy announced an agreement to joint sea-and-air patrols to try to block new Tunisian migrants from sailing to European shores.
    (AP, 4/8/11)

2011        Apr 17, A train carrying Tunisian immigrants from Italy was halted at the French border in an escalation of an international dispute over the fate of North African migrants fleeing political unrest for refuge in Europe, unprecedented since the introduction of the Schengen travel-free zone.
    (AP, 4/17/11)

2011        Apr 19, A Tunisian court dropped charges against a policewoman whose dispute with fruit vendor Mohamed Bouazizi sparked a chain of events that unleashed uprisings around the Arab world. The case against Fedia Hamdi was closed after the vendor's family withdrew its original complaint.
    (AP, 4/19/11)

2011        Apr 29, In Tunisia more than 800 prisoners escaped from prisons in Kasserine and Gafsa after fires were started in cells. Some 11,000 inmates have escaped since Zine al-Abidine Ben Ali fled into exile in January.
    (SFC, 4/30/11, p.A2)

2011        May 1, A seemingly endless flow of Libyans crossed into Tunisia from Libya at the Dehiba border post, a day after a record 5,000 refugees fled the conflict in their country.
    (AP, 5/2/11)

2011        May 2, The Swiss government said it has identified potential assets belonging to Libya’s Moammar Khadafy and his entourage amounting to $415 million. Assets of $473 million were also found linked to Egypt’s Hosni Mubarak and $69 million to Tunisia’s Zine al-Abidine Ben Ali.
    (SFC, 5/3/11, p.AA2)

2011        May 7, Tunisia's caretaker government has ordered an overnight curfew for the capital and nearby areas, following three days of renewed protests over fears that the country's efforts at democracy are in jeopardy.
    (AP, 5/7/11)

2011        May 11, Tunisian police arrested a Libyan man in a car packed with Kalashnikov rifle cartridges in the south of the country, 80 km (50 miles) from the border with Libya. Authorities had also arrested a second man, an Algerian, who was transporting grenades. It appeared the vehicles were traveling from Libya.
    (AP, 5/11/11)

2011        May 14, Italian border police escorted a boat with 218 Tunisians aboard to tiny Lampedusa island, where tens of thousands of illegal migrants have arrived since January to escape turmoil in North Africa. Meanwhile, Africans fleeing Libya by sea reached Sicily.
    (AP, 5/14/11)

2011        May 14, Tunisian army troops deployed along the border thwarted an attempt by 200 troops from Gadhafi's army to cross the border aboard some 50 off-road vehicles. 3 pro-Gadhafi officers who defected landed at Tunisia's port of Zarzis on a boat. 2 people suspected of links to al-Qaida's North African affiliate were arrested overnight, one with a belt of explosives and the other carrying a grenade.
    (AP, 5/15/11)

2011        May 18, In Tunisia suspected Libyan Al-Qaeda militants exchanged fire with security forces, leaving two alleged militants and a Tunisian colonel dead.
    (AFP, 5/18/11)

2011        May 24, World Bank Pres. Robert Zoellick said it will provide up to $6 billion to Egypt and Tunisia to help them modernize their economies as they undertake democratic reforms after the ouster of their longtime presidents.
    (AP, 5/24/11)

2011        May 27, Pres. Obama and other G8 leaders wrapped up a 2-day summit in France and announced plans for a $40 billion in aid to support democracy in Egypt, Tunisia and the rest of North Africa.
    (SFC, 5/28/11, p.A3)

2011        May 29, In Tunisia police officer Samir Feriani was arrested at the Aouina military base on the outskirts of the capital after publishing two letters in the weekly L'Expert, in which he accused an unnamed interior ministry official of taking part in a crackdown on popular uprisings at Sidi Bouzid in central Tunisia and Kasserine in the west. Feriani was acquitted on Sep 29.
    (AFP, 9/29/11)(http://tinyurl.com/6apm82u)

2011        Jun 1, Tunisia's coast guard launched operations to rescue would-be immigrants trapped on a fishing boat that stalled off the country's coast. The boat was believed to have set sail from Libya and was en route to Italy with an estimated 800 would-be immigrants. At least 583 of the estimated 800 people on board survived the sinking.
    (AP, 6/1/11)(AP, 6/2/11)(AP, 6/3/11)(SFC, 6/6/11, p.A2)

2011        Jun 4, Tunisia’s news said clashes between tribal factions killed 5 people with 90 others injured in the southwestern mining town of Metlaoui. Rumors had surfaced about changes in the recruitment policies of the region’s main employer.
    (SFC, 6/5/11, p.A4)

2011        Jun 20, Tunisia's former autocratic ruler, whose ouster triggered a series of Arab world uprisings, went on trial in absentia in the first of what will likely be a long series of court proceedings five months after he went into exile. Zine El Abidine Ben Ali and wife Leila Trabelsi were convicted in absentia on embezzlement and other charges after $27 million (euro18.97 million) in jewels and public funds were found in one of his palaces.
    (AP, 6/20/11)

2011        Jun 26, In Tunisia 6 members of the Salafist movement were arrested after they stormed a Tunis cinema and broke its glass doors in a bid to stop the screening of the film "Neither Allah, nor Master" on secularism in Tunisia.
    (AP, 7/8/11)

2011        Jun 28, Tunisian police arrested about 30 people at a rally by Salafist Muslims demanding the release of comrades who ransacked a cinema that showed a film on secularism.
    (AP, 6/28/11)

2011        Jul 4, In Tunisia 2 people were killed and 24 injured when inmates set mattresses on fire during an attempted jailbreak in the central city of Kasserine.
    (AFP, 7/4/11)(AP, 7/7/11)

2011        Jul 11, Tunisian authorities arrested Bechir Tekkari, a former justice minister and charged him with corruption and abuse of power. He was charged with corruption and abuse of power over trade deals and the awarding of planning contracts.
    (AFP, 7/11/11)

2011        Jul 13, Tunisian PM Beji Caid Essebsi painted a bleak picture of the national economy, which he blamed on repeated strikes that have paralyzed several companies.
    (AFP, 7/13/11)

2011        Jul 15, Tunisian police fired tear gas to break up an anti-government protest in the capital, with demonstrators accusing the authorities of using violence to end their peaceful action.
    (AFP, 7/15/11)

2011        Jul 17, In Tunisia 6 police officers were injured, four seriously, in a series of overnight attacks on police stations and public buildings in cities across the country.
    (AFP, 7/17/11)

2011        Jul 18, In Tunisia a 14-year-old was killed overnight in the inland town of Sidi Bouzid. The teen was hit by a "stray bullet" in clashes between security forces and protesters.
    (AP, 7/18/11)

2011        Jul 21, A Tunisian court opened two more trials of ousted president Zine El Abidine Ben Ali, now living in exile in Saudi Arabia, accusing him of corruption and property fraud. Hundreds of Tunisians rallied in the capital, denouncing the "violence and chaos" that persist six months after the toppling of authoritarian president Zine El Abidine Ben Ali.
    (AFP, 7/21/11)

2011        Aug 8, In Tunisia hundreds of people demonstrated in central Tunis to demand that members of the toppled Ben Ali regime be stopped from re-entering the political scene or escaping justice for alleged crimes.
    (AFP, 8/8/11)

2011        Aug 12, A Tunisian court handed down prison terms for members and collaborators of the former first lady for trying to illegally flee with jewels and cash as the regime collapsed. But it dismissed charges against Ali Seriati, the once powerful head of presidential security.
    (AP, 8/12/11)

2011        Aug 15, Tunisian police fired tear gas to disperse protesters throwing stones and smashing storefronts in an unexpected eruption of violence in the country's capital. A few hundred lawyers protested in Tunis over what they said is continuing corruption in the courts and too-lax verdicts against those in the regime of ousted President Zine El Abidine Ben Ali.
    (AP, 8/15/11)

2011        Aug 27, Tunisia arrested a member of Libya's pro-Kadhafi forces in the southeast of the country for planning attacks on Libyan refugees and rebel supporters.
    (AFP, 8/27/11)

2011        Sep 2, Tunisia imposed a curfew in two separate areas following a series of clashes that left a 17-year-old girl dead and dozens injured.
    (AFP, 9/2/11)

2011        Sep 21, The Tunisian army attacked an armed convoy near the Algerian border. 6 people were killed as the Tunisian army neutralized vehicles fitted with anti-aircraft guns that crossed over from the Algerian desert near Bir Znigra.
    (AFP, 9/21/11)(AFP, 9/23/11)

2011        Oct 9, Tunisian police arrested dozens of Islamist demonstrators set on attacking the offices of a television channel that had shown the award-winning film "Persepolis," Marjane Satrapi's moving and humorous adaptation of her graphic novels about growing up during and after Iran's 1979 Islamic Revolution.
    (AP, 10/9/11)

2011        Oct 14, Tunisian extremists fire-bombed the home of a TV station chief, hours after militants protesting its broadcast of a film they say violated Islamic values clashed with police in the streets of Tunis.
    (AFP, 10/14/11)

2011        Oct 20, Tunisians expatriates began casting their ballots ahead the weekend legislative elections, the country's first free elections.
    (AFP, 10/20/11)

2011        Oct 23, Tunisia held its first truly free elections since independence in 1956. Voters elected a 217-seat constituent assembly that would shape their fledgling democracy, choose a new government and write a new constitution that would pave the way for future elections. The moderate Islamist party Ennahda, led by Rached Ghannouchi (b.1941), claimed the biggest block of votes. Ennahda (Renaissance), banned for decades, emerged the official victor taking 41.47% of the vote and 89 of 217 seats in the new assembly.
    (AP, 10/23/11)(AP, 10/24/11)(AFP, 10/25/11)(AP, 10/27/11)(AP, 11/14/11)

2011        Oct 26, Tunisia's Islamist Ennahda party vowed to form a new government within a month as early results gave it a commanding lead in the Arab Spring's first free election.
    (AFP, 10/26/11)

2011        Oct 27, Five Arab Spring activists won the European parliament's Sakharov prize awarded to campaigners for freedom. They include Mohamed Bouazizi of Tunisia, awarded posthumously, Egyptian militant Asmaa Mahfouz, Libyan dissident Ahmed al-Zubair Ahmed al-Sanusi, Syrian lawyer Razan Zeitouneh and Syrian cartoonist Ali Farzat.
    (AFP, 10/27/11)

2011        Oct 31, A Tunisian court was reported to have issued an international arrest warrant against Suha Arafat (48), the widow of the late Palestinian leader Yasser Arafat over alleged corruption. The case appeared to be connected to a school she founded in 2006 with the wife of the ousted Pres. Ben Ali. She was stripped of her Tunisian citizenship in 2007 following a dispute with the former ruling family and currently lives in Malta.
    (AFP, 11/1/11)(SFC, 11/1/11, p.A2)

2011        Nov 15, A Tunisian official said Moncef Marzouki, a physician who headed that Tunisian League of Human Rights, will take on the role of interim president for the next year while a new constitution is being written.
    (SFC, 11/16/11, p.A2)

2011        Nov 19, In Tunisia the three parties making up the new ruling coalition divided up the top government jobs between them. Ennahda's Hamadi Jebali will become prime minister. Congress for the Republic party leader Moncef Marzouki will become president. The leader of the left of center Ettakatol, or forum, party will become speaker of the assembly.
    (AP, 11/19/11)

2011        Nov 22, Tunisia's newly elected assembly held its inaugural meeting, ready to start shaping the constitution and the democratic future of the country that sparked the Arab Spring uprisings.
    (AP, 11/22/11)

2011        Nov 23, In Tunisia violent demonstrations erupted in the impoverished central region and had to be dispersed with tear gas. It stemmed from a peaceful demonstration in the town of Kasserine over the exclusion of local residents from a list of those killed in last year's uprising against the dictatorship.
    (AP, 11/24/11)

2011        Nov 24, In Tunisia an overnight curfew was declared across the central mining region of Gafsa, in the wake of violence that began late Wednesday over job hiring.
    (AFP, 11/24/11)

2011        Nov 28, In Tunisia a group of students, who were for the most part not enrolled at Manouba university, camped out to demand the right for women students to wear the full veil, known as the niqab. They also demanded a place of prayer on campus.
    (AFP, 1/24/12)

2011        Nov 29, Tunisia’s state news said interim President Fouad Mebazza has signed a decree extending the state of emergency for the fourth time since it was first enacted during street unrest after the fall of Tunisia's longtime autocratic leader in January.
    (AP, 11/29/11)

2011        Dec 1, In Tunisia thousands of people rallied in central Tunis to express fears of extremism under an Islamist party that swept to power in October polls, but also to denounce unemployment and corruption.
    (AFP, 12/1/11)

2011        Dec 2, Tunisia closed the second main border post into Libya following attacks on Tunisians on the Libyan side, two days after the first closure.
    (AFP, 12/2/11)

2011        Dec 3, In Tunisia thousands of Islamist supporters descended on central Tunis to confront liberal demonstrators rallying against extremism as lawmakers draft a new constitution.
    (AFP, 12/3/11)

2011        Dec 10, Tunisia's constituent assembly adopted a provisional constitution that will allow the north African country to name a government, a month and a half after its first post-revolution election.
    (AFP, 12/10/11)

2011        Dec 12, Tunisia’s new assembly chose Moncef Marzouki of the Congress for the Republic Party to serve as the country’s first democratically elected president.
    (SFC, 12/13/11, p.A2)

2011        Dec 14, Tunisia's new president, Moncef Marzouki, asked the secretary general of the Islamist party that dominated last month's elections to form the next government. Hamadi Jebali has three weeks to form the next interim government.
    (AP, 12/14/11)

2011        Dec 15, Tunisia reopened its Ras Jidr crossing with Libya after Tripoli took steps to prevent the kind of incidents that led to the border's closure two weeks ago.
    (AFP, 12/16/11)

2011        Dec 19, Tunisia’s President Moncef Marzouki said that Tunisia's Jews are full citizens and those that had left were welcome to return. His comments came almost two weeks after Israeli deputy PM Silvan Shalom called on the country's remaining Jews to emigrate to Israel.
    (AP, 12/19/11)

2011        Following Tunisia’s revolution 214 businesses and assets worth $13 billion, including 550 properties and 48 boats and yachts, were confiscated from deposed president Zine el-Abidine Ben Ali.
    (Econ, 10/11/14, p.74)
2011        Tunisia’s population was about 10.6 million.
    (Econ, 7/16/11, p.52)

2012        Jan 5, In Tunisia Ammar Gharsalla (48), a jobless father of three, poured petrol and set himself ablaze in front of the main office of the governorate of Gafsa after three ministers visiting the area to look into the unemployment problem refused to meet him. He had been part of a group of protesters staging a sit-in for days in front of the Gafsa government office to highlight the unemployment problem in the phosphate-rich region. Gharsalla died on Jan 9.
    (AFP, 1/6/12)(Econ, 1/14/12, p.47)

2012        Jan 7, In northern Tunisia Daoud Bouhli (50), a man with a history of mental illness, set himself on fire, two days after a similar case in the south.
    (AP, 1/7/12)

2012        Jan 9, In Tunisia several hundred journalists demonstrated in Tunis to protest at the appointment of media bosses by the government, which they regard as a return to bad practices of the past.
    (AFP, 1/9/12)

2012        Jan 11, A local official in the Tunisian city of Sfax said a middle-aged woman has died after setting herself on fire, the fourth Tunisian case of self-immolation in the last week. The woman reportedly had a history of mental illness.
    (AP, 1/11/12)

2012        Jan 18, Five Tunisian students said they went on hunger strike against a ban on niqab veils imposed by Manouba university, upping the ante in a dispute which began in November.
    (AFP, 1/18/12)

2012        Jan 24, Tunisian police ended a weeks-long sit-in by conservative Muslims at Manouba university that banned the full-face veil.
    (AFP, 1/24/12)

2012        Jan 28, In Tunisia over 8,000 people marched in Tunis denouncing violence committed by ultraconservative Islamist groups.
    (SSFC, 1/29/12, p.A3)

2012        Feb 1, In Tunisia men, described as bearded by the state news agency, were stopped in their car at a checkpoint and then opened fire with assault rifles, before fleeing into a nearby olive orchard in the southern Bir Ali Ben Khalifa region.
    (AP, 2/2/12)

2012        Feb 2, Tunisia cut ties with Syria. TAP news agency said authorities have seized dozens of yachts as well as cars, company shares and houses belonging to ousted leader Zine El Abidine Ben Ali and his family. Confiscated items included 34 vehicles, shares in 117 companies, 233 property deeds and 48 yachts and two homes.
    (AFP, 2/2/12)(AP, 4/2/15)
2012        Feb 2, Tunisian security forces killed two members of an armed group and arrested a third after a clash the day before left a policeman and three soldiers wounded, one of them critically. State news described the men as involved in arms smuggling.
    (AP, 2/2/12)

2012        Feb 4, Tunisia decided to expel Syria's ambassador in response to the "bloody massacre" in Homs. Dozens of Syrian protesters were arrested after storming their country's embassies in cities in Europe and the Middle East.
    (AP, 2/4/12)(AFP, 2/4/12)

2012        Feb 8, Tunisia's new President Moncef Marzouki arrived in Morocco to push for a revival of a dormant project to unify the Maghreb region on his first foreign tour since taking office.
    (AFP, 2/8/12)

2012        Feb 14, A Tunisian court cleared Libyan former PM Al-Baghdadi al-Mahmudi (70) on a charge he had crossed illegally into Tunisia as he fled Libya last year.
    (AFP, 2/14/12)

2012        Feb 22, Tunisia's court of cassation threw out a ruling banning pornographic websites.
    (AFP, 2/22/12)

2012        Feb 24, Tunisian police wielding batons beat back several dozen pro-Syrian protesters trying to enter the venue of an international meeting on the Syria crisis. The US secretary of state and other leading Western and Arab officials were in Tunis for the "Friends of Syria" meeting aimed at increasing pressure on President Bashar al-Assad's regime over its bloody crackdown on the opposition.
    (AFP, 2/24/12)

2012        Feb 25, In Tunisia more than 3,000 protesters rallied in Tunis to call for the country's moderate Islamist government to resign after accusations that ruling party activists had defaced union offices. US Secretary of State Hillary Clinton pledged that Washington would help Tunisia rebuild its economy and cement democracy.
    (AFP, 2/25/12)

2012        Mar 2, In Tunisia protesters began camping outside the offices of Wataniya in Tunis, demanding the "cleansing" of the national broadcaster and jeering at journalists. On April 25 they ended their protest after the government promised to address their concerns and asked them to leave.
    (AFP, 4/25/12)

2012        Mar 11, Hackers claiming to belong to the Anonymous Internet freedom group posted video messages on Facebook pages of Tunisian Islamists, threatening reprisals over their efforts to introduce Salafist laws.
    (AFP, 3/11/12)

2012        Mar 16, In Tunisia several thousand men and women demonstrated outside the parliament to demand the inclusion of Islamic law in the country's future constitution.
    (AFP, 3/17/12)

2012        Mar 20, Thousands of Tunisians gathered in defense of liberty as they marked Independence Day amid fears of a widening divide between secular and religious groups in the newly democratized nation.
    (AFP, 3/20/12)

2012        Mar 24, In Tunisia Beji Caid Essebsi (85), the man who steered the country in the aftermath of its January 2011 revolution, came out of retirement to criticize the Islamist-led government and galvanize a secular opposition.
    (AFP, 3/24/12)

2012        Mar 25, In Tunisia at least 8,000 Islamists staged a mass demonstration in central Tunis in the latest show of force to demand the adoption of Islamic law in the north African country.
    (AFP, 3/25/12)

2012        Mar 26, A top official in Tunisia's ruling Islamist Ennahda Party says Islamic law will not be enshrined in the country's new constitution, preserving the North African nation's civil state.
    (AFP, 3/26/12)

2012        Mar 28, Tunisia's interior ministry banned demonstrations on the capital's main avenue which has become a hub of protests since the fall of strongman Zine el Abidine Ben Ali in January last year.
    (AFP, 3/29/12)
2012        Mar 28, A Tunisian court convicted Jaber Majeri (Jabeur Mejri) and Ghazi Beji for posting images of the prophet purportedly being intimate with one of his wives. They were sentenced to 7½ years in prison and fined $800. An appeals court in June upheld the conviction. Beji had fled to Europe and was sentenced in absentia. On Feb 4, 2014, artists from a dozen countries launched an online campaign called "100 drawings for Jabeur" in support of Mejri.
    (SFC, 6/26/12, p.A2)(http://tinyurl.com/lfr52jj)(AFP, 2/4/14)

2012        Mar 31, Tunisia's Religious Affairs Minister Nourredine al-Khademi said the country will take stock of the hundreds of mosques now in the hands of ultra-conservatives. He estimated that about 400 of more than 5,000 mosques had fallen under the sway of Salafist extremists.
    (AFP, 3/31/12)

2012        Apr 7, Several Tunisian centrist parties including the center-left PDP agreed to combine forces and gain more clout in a country increasingly challenged by Islamists ahead of general elections. A military appeals court in Tunis upheld the convictions of Tunisia's ousted president and his top officials for torturing army officers over an alleged 1991 coup plot. Baton-wielding police fired teargas to disperse a demonstration by thousands of jobless Tunisian graduates in the capital Tunis.
    (AFP, 4/7/12)

2012        Apr 9, Tunisian police fired tear gas to disperse a rally on Bourguiba Avenue in central Tunis where demonstrations are banned. Hundreds of demonstrators, marking Martyrs' Day (1938) and protesting against the ban imposed on March 28, sought shelter in neighboring streets and shops. At least 15 civilians and eight policemen were hurt. The journalists' union called on its members to boycott Interior Minister Ali Larayedh for a week over the crackdown.
    (AFP, 4/9/12)(AFP, 4/10/12)

2012        Apr 10, Tunisia said it will allow demonstrations on a symbolic street in the capital two days after police brutally clamped down on protesters who defied a ban on rallies.
    (AFP, 4/11/12)

2012        Apr 12, Tunisian journalists walked out of the country's Constituent Assembly as Interior Minister Ali Larayedh defended a police crackdown, widely branded as brutal, on a banned rally.
    (AFP, 4/12/12)

2012        Apr 17, The Tunisian League for Human Rights said that around 100 people working near the town of Zaouia, some 50 km (30 miles) west of Tripoli, had been taken hostage by armed men demanding the release of a group of Libyans held in Tunisia. The workers' seizure had been in retaliation for the arrest of Libyan nationals in Tunisia. 3 Libyans had been arrested on April 14 near the north African countries' border.
    (AFP, 4/18/12)

2012        Apr 18, Tunisia said some 100 Tunisian workers kidnapped by armed men in western Libya have been released. 3 Libyans arrested on April 14 wee also reported freed.
    (AFP, 4/18/12)

2012        Apr 30, In Tunisia Abdekrim Boulahya and Kemaies Saai, both from the mining town of Om Larayes, tried to hang themselves outside the ministry building before being rescued and taken to hospital.
    (AFP, 4/30/12)

2012        May 1, In Tunisia over 20,000 people marched for national unity, chanting slogans borrowed from the popular uprising that toppled Zine El Abidine Ben Ali over a year ago.
    (AFP, 5/1/12)

2012        May 3, A Tunisian court slapped a small fine on the head of the Nessma television station for undermining morality by screening the film "Persepolis," which included depictions of God. Nabil Karoui broadcast the award-winning Franco-Iranian film which recounts the Iranian revolution and its aftermath through the eyes of a young girl, on October 7 last year. The court ordered Karoui to pay 2,400 dinars (1,300 euros, $1,700 dollars).
    (AFP, 5/3/12)

2012        May 4, In Tunisia an official tally said 338 Tunisians were killed and 2,174 were injured during the popular uprising that led to the fall of president Zine El Abidine Ben Ali.
    (AFP, 5/4/12)

2012        May 19, The European Bank for Reconstruction and Development approved investment of 1.0 billion euros for expansion into north Africa and the Middle East under its first British president, Suma Chakrabarti, who a day earlier replaced Thomas Mirow from Germany. The EBRD is planning to invest specifically in Egypt, Morocco, Tunisia and Jordan.
    (AFP, 5/19/12)

2012        May 20, In central Tunisia thousands of hardline Ansar al-Sharia Islamists, some in Afghan military garb and waving swords, converged to rally for one of the country's most radical religious movements. Researchers estimated Salafists count about 10,000 followers in Tunisia.
    (AFP, 5/2o/12)

2012        May 21, In Tunisia military police confiscated the cameras of Ramzi Bettaieb, who works for Nawaat, a collective blog, when he filmed the trial of Ben Ali and 22 co-accused in the northwestern town of Kef over their role in crushing anti-regime protests. On May 28 he launched a hunger strike to defend press freedom.
    (AFP, 6/5/12)

2012        May 26, The Tunisian justice ministry sacked 81 magistrates over suspicions of graft and their links to the ousted regime of president Zine El Abidine Ben Ali. Police used tear gas to stop gangs of ultra-conservative Salafists, some armed with clubs and swords, who went on the attack in the northwestern towns of Jendouba and Ghardimaou. About 15 people were arrested.
    (AFP, 5/27/12)

2012        May 30, Tunisia’s PM Hamadi Jebali said Tunisians have lost patience with hardline Islamists sowing violence in the country, and authorities will deal firmly with any such groups "who believe they are charged by God to purify society."
    (AP, 5/31/12)

2012        May, In Tunisia the League for the Protection of the Revolution (LPR), a pro-Islamist group was founded to "preserve the gains of the revolution" that toppled dictator Zine El Abidine Ben Ali in 2011 and reinforce Tunisia's Arab and Muslim identity.
    (AFP, 5/26/14)

2012        Jun 2, In Tunisia some 100 people defied a government ban to rally in the center of the capital against Salafist extremism, accusing the authorities of double standards.
    (AFP, 6/2/12)

2012        Jun 10, In Tunisia hundreds of extremists destroyed artworks at an exhibit in the Tunis suburb of La Marsa that included paintings that caricatured Mecca, portrayed a nude woman, and showed the word "Allah" spelled with strings of ants. On July 4 a Tunisian court sentenced court official Mohamed Ali Bouaziz to two months in jail on charges of inciting the riots.
    (AP, 6/12/12)(AFP, 7/4/12)

2012        Jun 11, In Tunisia radical protesters set fire to a police post in La Marsa and to a security kiosk in Kram. Police fired warning shots to disperse them. 7 police officers were injured and 90 people arrested in  the 2 days of unrest in three suburbs of Tunis.
    (AP, 6/12/12)

2012        Jun 12, Tunisia's justice minister condemned as terrorism a spate of overnight attacks on government offices by gangs including Islamist hardliners, warning that those guilty would be punished.
    (AFP, 6/12/12)

2012        Jun 13, A Tunisian military court convicted former president Zine El Abidine Ben Ali in absentia of inciting violence and sentenced him to 20 years in prison. Tunisia has repeatedly asked Saudi Arabia to extradite Ben Ali so he can face the charges in person. Calm returned after days of riots by radical Islamists across the country left 62 members of the security forces injured and led to 162 arrests.
    (AP, 6/13/12)

2012        Jun 24, Tunisia sent back ex-Libyan PM Baghdadi al-Mahmoudi, a stalwart of slain leader Moamer Kadhafi's regime, to face trial in Tripoli.
    (AFP, 6/24/12)

2012        Jun 27, Libya’s official TAP news agency said a Tunisian seaman died after the Libyan coastguard fired on a Tunisian fishing boat with a crew of 19 off the north African coast.
    (AFP, 6/27/12)

2012        Jul 4, The independent Tunisian authority (INRIC) charged with reforming the media announced that it had shut down after failing to achieve its objective, accusing the Islamist-dominated government of censorship.
    (AFP, 7/4/12)

2012        Jul 9, Abbes Settou of Eritrea, who drank sea water to survive, was spotted clinging to a jerry can and the remains of the stricken boat off the Tunisian coast by fishermen who alerted the coast guard. 54 migrants trying to reach Italy died of thirst when their inflatable boat ruptured in the Mediterranean.
    (AFP, 7/11/12)

2012        Jul 13, Egypt's new Islamist President Mohammed Morsi and Tunisian President Moncef Marzouki told reporters in Cairo that the two nations will rebuild ties after what he described as years of stagnant, routine relations.
    (AP, 7/13/12)

2012        Jul 19, In Tunisia a military court convicted former dictator Zine El Abidine Ben Ali, who is in exile in Saudi Arabia, for complicity in the deaths of protesters in the north of the country during last year's uprising and sentenced him to life in prison. Some 43 officials were tried in the same case, receiving sentences ranging from five years in prison to life.
    (AP, 7/19/12)

2012        Jul 25, Tunisian President Moncef Marzouki pardoned 1,300 prisoners to mark national day, the 55th anniversary of the proclamation of the republic.
    (AFP, 7/25/12)

2012        Jul 26, Tunisian police fired warning shots and tear gas to disperse protesters who attacked provincial government headquarters in Sidi Bouzid, the town where the country's revolution was born.
    (AFP, 7/26/12)

2012        Jul 27, Tunisian Finance Minister Houcine Dimassi resigned following a disagreement with the policies of the government led by Islamist PM Hamadi Jebali. Dimassi complained of excessive spending.
    (AFP, 7/27/12)

2012        Aug 9, Tunisian police fired tear gas and rubber bullets to disperse a protest in the central town of Sidi Bouzid, birthplace of last year's revolution, as hundreds of demonstrators demanded the resignation of the Islamist-led government.
    (AFP, 8/9/12)

2012        Aug 14, In Tunisia hundreds of protesters demonstrated against the ruling Islamist party during a general strike in Sidi Bouzid, hub of the 2011 uprising.
    (AFP, 8/14/12)

2012        Aug 27, Tunisia extended the state of emergency in the country for another month ahead of the start of the new school year over fears of increased violence. This was the 8th extension following the popular uprising that overthrew long-ruling dictator Zine El Abidine Ben Ali a year and a half ago.
    (AP, 8/31/12)

2012        Sep 10, Tunisian authorities said four police officers have been detained on suspicion they tortured a robbery suspect who later died. The officers are suspected of torturing Abderraouf Khamassi (34) who was arrested Aug 28. He died Sep 8 with a wound to his skull.
    (AP, 9/10/12)

2012        Sep 14, In Tunisia violent protests outside the US Embassy in Tunis against an anti-Muslim film were met with tear gas and gunshots. Police killed 4 people. Around 40 others were injured as plumes of black smoke wafted over the city. I20 Tunisians accused of attacking the US Embassy were convicted in 2013 and given two-year suspended sentences.
    (AP, 9/14/12)(Economist, 9/22/12, p.56)(AP, 5/28/13)

2012        Sep 15, Tunisia's governing moderate Islamist party condemned the attack on the U.S. Embassy in Tunis and the neighboring American school, saying Saturday that such violence threatens the country's progress toward democracy after decades of dictatorship.
    (AP, 9/15/12)

2012        Sep, In Tunisia Meriem Ben Mohamed (27) was reportedly raped by two policemen who later said they had found and her boyfriend having sex in a car in a Tunis suburb. A third policeman allegedly tried to extort money from her fiance at a bank cashpoint. The woman later authored a book in France entitled "Guilty of being raped." The policemen faced trial in 2014.
    (AFP, 2/13/14)

2012        Oct 2, Hundreds of Tunisians protested in support of a woman (27) who says she was raped by police and is facing accusations of violating modesty laws. The woman says three police officers stopped her in a car last month, and one of them held her fiancé back while the other two raped her. The police officers deny wrongdoing.
    (AP, 10/2/12)

2012        Oct 3, Turkish authorities arrested Ali Harzi for reported links to the Sep 11 attack on a US consulate in Libya. He was repatriated to Tunisia on Oct 11 and faced terrorism charges there. Harzi was one of two Tunisians reportedly arrested in Turkey when they tried to enter the country with false passports.
    (AP, 10/25/12)

2012        Oct 16, In Tunisia 5 masked men stormed into the shrine of Sayyeda Aicha Manoubia, a 13th century holy woman, near the capital Tunis that had previously been threatened by religious conservatives and set it on fire.
    (AP, 10/16/12)

2012        Oct 22, In Tunisia thousands decried the growing political violence during a protest in Tunis.
    (SFC, 10/23/12, p.A2)

2012        Oct 30, In Tunisia an Islamist protester was killed and 3 security officers injured after ultraconservative Salafists attacked a police station near Tunis.
    (SFC, 10/31/12, p.A2)

2012        Nov 17, In Tunisia Mohammed Bakhti, a prominent member of the ultraconservative Muslim Salafi movement, died after months on a hunger strike. Fellow detainee, Bachir al-Gholi, died Nov 15 after a heart attack brought on by his own hunger strike. Both were suspects in the Sep 14 attack on Tunisia's US embassy.
    (AP, 11/17/12)

2012        Nov 27, The World Bank approved a $500 million loan to help support reforms in Tunisia's financial sector to encourage investment and growth.
    (AP, 11/28/12)

2012        Nov 28, In Tunisia a strike in a low income region degenerated into a second day of clashes between police and protesters, leaving 177 people injured, including some seriously.
    (AP, 11/28/12)

2012        Nov 30, The Tunisian army moved into the southwestern town of Siliana, in the fourth day of protests that have injured more than 300 people. President Moncef Marzouki said on television that the country's government has not "met the expectations of the people" and asked that a new one, smaller and specialized to deal with the unrest, be formed.
    (AP, 11/30/12)

2012        Nov, In Tunisia Sami Fehri, a producer of political puppet shows that mocked the country’s Islamic leaders, was imprisoned on corruption charges.
    (Econ, 4/6/13, p.58)

2012        Dec 1, In Tunisia hundreds of stone-throwing protesters and security forces firing tear gas clashed for a 5th day in Siliana despite government efforts to defuse days of violence injuring at least 300 people.
    (AP, 12/1/12)

2012        Dec 2, A Tunisian labor union suspended a nearly weeklong strike in Siliana after the national government agreed to remove a local governor.
    (AP, 12/2/12)

2012        Dec 14, Tunisia’s justice minister said Sakhr Materi, the son-in-law of former Pres. Zine al-Abidine Ban Ali, was arrested in the Seychelles on an int’l. warrant over the embezzlement of state funds last year.
    (SFC, 12/15/12, p.A2)

2012        Dec 18, In Tunisia some 3000 people protested the leadership in Tunis during ceremonies marking 2 years since a street vendor set himself on fire to protest abuses under former Pres. Ben Ali.
    (SFC, 12/18/12, p.A2)

2012        Dec 26, In Tunisia journalist Olfa Riahi posted receipts alleging that Foreign Minister Rafik Abdessalam spent six nights at public expense, including one accompanied by an unidentified woman, raising suspicions of adultery. The minister has denied any wrongdoing and described the woman as his cousin. Riahi followed up these allegations on Dec. 29 with documents showing that the Chinese government transferred a million dollars directly into a Foreign Ministry account rather than going via the Finance Ministry or public treasury as is the custom.
    (AP, 1/8/13)

2013        Jan 7, In Tunisia Ali Harzi (26), a man linked by officials to the attack on the US consulate in Benghazi, was conditionally released by a Tunisian judge due to lack of evidence.
    (AP, 1/8/13)

2013        Feb 6, In Tunisia opposition leader Chokri Belaid (47), critical of the Islamist-led government, was gunned down as he left home in the first assassination in post-revolutionary Tunisia, setting off anti-government riots that left downtown Tunis choked with tear gas and patrolled by a tank and armored cars. PM Hamadi Jebali announced he would dissolve the government and form a new one of nonpartisan technocrats to manage the country until elections.
    (AP, 2/6/13)(AP, 2/7/13)

2013        Feb 7, In Tunisia the Islamist Ennahda party, dominating the ruling coalition, rejected PM Hamadi Jebali’s decision to replace the government to try to appease critics, signaling that the political crisis brought on by the assassination of a prominent leftist politician is far from over.
    (AP, 2/7/13)

2013        Feb 8, Tens of thousands of Tunisians chanting anti-government slogans converged on a cemetery for the funeral of an assassinated leftist opposition politician, as military helicopters hovered overhead and tensions threatened to boil over into further violence.
    (AP, 2/8/13)

2013        Feb 9, Several thousand supporters of Tunisia's ruling moderate Islamist party rallied in the capital in a pro-government demonstration. Protesters hurled insults at France, accusing the former colonial ruler of interfering in the North African country's politics.
    (AP, 2/9/13)

2013        Feb 10, Tunisia’s state news agency reported that the Congress for the Republic party, led by President Moncef Marzouki, is quitting the coalition government, which is led by Islamist party Ennahda.
    (AP, 2/10/13)

2013        Feb 16, In Tunisia thousands of supporters of the ruling Islamist party marched in  Tunis in response to rising criticism of the country’s direction.
    (SSFC, 2/17/13, p.A4)

2013        Feb 19, Tunisia's PM Hamadi Jebali announced his resignation following a failed effort to form a technocratic government to see the country out of its political crisis. His own party, Ennahda, rejected his initiative, insisting that the country still needed a government of politicians.
    (AP, 2/19/13)

2013        Feb 22, Tunisia's ruling Islamist party named Ali Larayedh, the interior minister seen as a conservative loyalist, to form a new government.
    (AP, 2/22/13)

2013        Mar 8, Tunisia's ruling party nominated several respected figures not aligned with political parties for key Cabinet posts, concessions to the opposition it hopes will defuse the country's political crisis.
    (AP, 3/8/13)

2013        Mar 13, Tunisian vendor Adel Khedhri (27) died of full-body burns a day after setting himself ablaze. He was from a poor town in northwestern Tunisia and had struggled to find a steady job to support his mother and siblings.
    (AP, 3/13/13)

2013        Apr 4, The Ukraine-based group Femen, which stages pranks for women's and gay rights, held an International Topless Jihad day in support of Muslim women. In Tunisia a woman named Amina participated and went into hiding after reportedly receiving death threats. On Apr 6 she reappeared in an interview on French cable TV station Canal Plus saying she fears for her life and wants to take refuge abroad.
    (AP, 4/7/13)

2013        Apr 12, In Tunisia a mob of alleged religious conservative Salafis attacked a police station and clashed with security forces, leaving one person dead and two wounded in the coastal town of Hergla.
    (AP, 4/12/13)

2013        May 18, Massive numbers of Tunisian police and army surrounded the religious center of Kairouan to prevent a conference by salafists. The ultraconservative Muslim group Ansar al-Shariah has been implicated in attacks around the country.
    (AP, 5/19/13)

2013        May 19, In Tunisia some 11,000 police officers and soldiers blocked an annual conference by a radical Islamist movement that has been implicated in attacks across the country, prompting clashes with angry youths that resulted in one death.
    (AP, 5/19/13)
2013        May 19, Tunisian feminist Amina Sboui (19), aka Amina Tyler, who scandalized her country by posting topless photos of herself online, was arrested after allegedly sneaking into Tunisia's holiest city disguised in a veil, then trying to get undressed during a protest. Sboui was freed from jail on Aug 1, but still faced trial for  profanation of a cemetery.
    (AP, 5/20/13)(AP, 8/1/13)

2013        May 26, The Palm d’Or of the 66th Cannes Film Festival went to “Blue Is the Warmest Color: The Life of Adele," a tender lesbian romance by Tunisian director Abdellatif Kechiche.
    (SFC, 5/27/13, p.A2)

2013        May 28, A Tunisian court convicted Amina Sboui, the Tunisian member of the Ukrainian feminist group Femen, for carrying an "incendiary object" and fined her $182. Her lawyers had argued that the 1894 statute on "incendiary objects" should not apply to her can of pepper spray. She remained in custody pending more serious charges.
    (AP, 5/30/13)

2013        May 29, In Tunisia 3 foreign activists disrobed in front of the Ministry of Justice in Tunis to protest against the jailing of Amina Sboui, a Tunisian member of the Ukrainian feminist group FEMEN, quickly attracting a crowd of offended Tunisians before the 3 women were hustled away by police.
    (AP, 5/29/13)

2013        Jun 12, A Tunisian court convicted 3 European feminist activists, who staged a topless courthouse protest last month, sentencing them to four months and a day in prison.
    (AP, 6/12/13)

2013        Jun 26, A Tunisian court decided to release three European feminist activists who staged a topless protest in Tunis last month against the Islamist-led government.
    (Reuters, 6/26/13)

2013        Jul 25, In Tunisia two gunmen on a motorbike shot dead Mohammed Brahmi (58), the leader of the leftist opposition People’s Party, outside his house. Thousands of Tunisians gathered in front of the Interior Ministry building in Tunis to protest against the assassination.
    (AP, 7/25/13)(Reuters, 7/25/13)(Econ, 8/3/13, p.42)

2013        Jul 27, In Tunisia thousands of protesters chanting anti-government slogans joined a funeral march to lay to rest assassinated opposition politician Mohammed Brahmi. One man was killed in violent protests in the southern city of Gafsa.
    (AP, 7/27/13)(Reuters, 7/27/13)

2013        Jul 29, The Tunisian army blocked off a square where rival protesters had confronted each other in Tunis, declaring it a "closed military zone" to try to stave off rising unrest. Gunmen killed at least 8 soldiers, staging the biggest attack on the security forces in decades.
    (Reuters, 7/29/13)

2013        Aug 2, Tunisian forces launched air and ground strikes on Islamist militants near the Algerian border after fierce overnight clashes in the area.
    (Reuters, 8/2/13)

2013        Aug 3, Tens of thousands of Tunisians came out in a show of force for the ruling Ennahda party. The opposition pledged to overtake those numbers in a rally the next day.
    (Reuters, 8/4/13)

2013        Aug 4, Tunisian police shot dead an Islamist militant in Tunis and arrested several suspected militants, as the government grappled with growing security and political crises. One soldier was killed and seven others wounded by a landmine near the Algerian border, where security forces have been hunting Islamist militants.
    (Reuters, 8/4/13)

2013        Aug 6, Tunisian police shot dead an Islamist militant in a suburb on the outskirts of Tunis.
    (Reuters, 8/6/13)

2013        Aug 12, Tunisia carried out air strikes on Islamist militants holed up in the Mount Chaambi area near the Algerian border.
    (Reuters, 8/12/13)

2013        Aug 23, Tunisia's secular opposition said that the governing Islamists must quit power before they would join negotiations to resolve the country's worst crisis since its Arab Spring revolt, declaring otherwise the talks would be a waste of time.
    (Reuters, 8/23/13)

2013        Aug 27, Tunisia’s PM Ali Larayedh declared Ansar al-Sharia a terrorist organization after obtaining proof it killed two secular politicians and several soldiers.
    (Reuters, 8/27/13)

2013        Sep 7, Thousands of Tunisians took to the streets of Bardo, near the capital Tunis, calling for the government led by the moderate Islamist Ennahda party to step down.
    (AFP, 9/7/13)

2013        Sep 9, Tunisian police arrested a senior leader from a banned Islamist group and killed two other militants during a raid near Tunis.
    (Reuters, 9/9/13)

2013        Sep 23, Tunisia's ruling Islamists rejected a plan under which they would step down pending elections, a decision likely to deepen confrontation with secular opponents demanding their immediate resignation.
    (Reuters, 9/23/13)

2013        Sep 26, Tunisian rapper Klay BBJ was jailed for six months for songs judged insulting by the authorities, a verdict his supporters slammed as a sign of the Islamist-led government's growing intolerance. On Oct 17 Klay BBJ was acquitted by an appeals court.
    (AFP, 9/26/13)(AFP, 10/17/13)

2013        Sep 28, Tunisia's governing Islamist party agreed to step down following negotiations with opposition parties that begin next week.
    (AP, 9/28/13)

2013        Oct 11, Tunisian security forces and suspected jihadists clashed near Mount Chaambi, a stronghold of militants linked to Al-Qaeda, in the Kasserine area near the Algerian border.
    (AFP, 10/12/13)

2013        Oct 17, In Tunisia Islamist militants killed two policemen in clashes in the northeastern city of Goubellat.
    (Reuters, 10/17/13)

2013        Oct 18, In Tunisia protesting security forces drove top leaders from a memorial ceremony for two policeman killed by militants a day earlier.
    (AFP, 10/18/13)

2013        Oct 19, Tunisia said government forces have killed 9 "terrorists" and seized two tons of explosives in the north of the country where policemen died this week in a jihadist attack.
    (AP, 10/19/13)

2013        Oct 23, Thousands of Tunisians marched through Tunis chanting for their government to step down. Ruling Islamists and opposition leaders prepared to start talks aimed at end months of political crisis. PM Ali Larayedh  said his government was committed in "principle" to resigning to pave a way out of the crisis. Clashes between security forces and gunmen rocked the central Sidi Bouzid region, leaving at least six policemen dead.
    (Reuters, 10/23/13)(AFP, 10/24/13)

2013        Oct 24, Protesters in Tunisia torched the office of the ruling Islamists in the town of Kef, where a policeman killed in fighting with suspected jihadists was to be buried.
    (AFP, 10/24/13)

2013        Oct 30, In Tunisia a man blew himself up in front of a popular seaside hotel at Sousse. The attack was believed to be the country's first suicide bombing. Authorities in Monastir foiled a possibly related assault at the mausoleum of Habib Bourguiba, modern Tunisia's secular founder.
    (AP, 10/30/13)

2013        Nov 1, Tunisia's party leaders met to choose a new premier to be tasked with replacing an Islamist-led government and steering the country out of a months-long political crisis.
    (AFP, 11/1/13)

2013        Nov 4, Tunisia's ruling Islamists and opposition parties suspended talks over forming a new caretaker government to end the country's crisis after the two sides failed to agree on naming a prime minister.
    (Reuters, 11/4/13)

2013        Nov 11, In Tunisia a man (32) from a poor neighbourhood of Tunis set himself on fire outside a government building and was rushed to a specialist medical clinic. The man was reportedly a victim of deprived social circumstances, suffered psychological problems, and had tried to kill himself late last month by leaping from an electricity pylon.
    (AFP, 11/11/13)

2013        Nov 12, In Tunisia special forces units from the National Guard killed a suspected militant and arrested eight others in an early morning operation deep in the desert south of the country.
    (AP, 11/12/13)

2013        Nov 20, Tunisia signed a $500 million loan agreement with energy-rich Qatar to help bolster its currency reserves.
    (AFP, 11/23/13)

2013        Nov 27, In Tunisia angry protesters set fire to the office of the ruling Islamist party in the neglected Gafsa region, as strikes were observed in areas amid rising discontent and political deadlock. Fifty policeman were injured in clashes with protesters in the marginalised town of Siliana where a general strike degenerated into violence.
    (AFP, 11/27/13)(AP, 11/28/13)

2013        Dec 4, Tunisia's southern Tozeur region ground to a halt, as the latest in a growing number of strikes around the country was called to protest a lack of development.
    (AFP, 12/4/13)

2013        Dec 14, Tunisia's political parties chose Industry Minister Mehdi Jomaa (50) to head a government of independent figures aimed at pulling the country out of a months-long crisis.
    (AFP, 12/14/13)(SSFC, 12/15/13, p.A8)

2013        Dec 18, The Swiss government said it has decided to keep 760 million Swiss francs ($858 million) in Egyptian and Tunisian assets frozen for three more years.
    (AP, 12/18/13)

2013        Dec 29, Tunisian police arrested seven Salafists in the western town of Kasserine, as authorities feared radical Islamists may be planning attacks during New Year celebrations.
    (Reuters, 12/29/13)

2013        Dec 30, Libyan forces in Misrata captured Saifallah Benahssine, the leader of Tunisia's Islamist militant group Ansar al-Sharia. Benahssine had declared loyalty to al Qaeda and was accused of inciting an attack on the US embassy in Tunisia in September 2012.
    (Reuters, 12/30/13)

2014        Jan 2, Tunisia says four Ansar al-Shariah militants have been arrested after late-night gunbattles between militants and security forces in the southern city that was the cradle for the Arab Spring revolutions.
    (AP, 1/2/14)

2014        Jan 4, Tunisian lawmakers rejected Islam as the main source of law for the country that spawned the Arab Spring as they voted for a second day on a new constitution.
    (AFP, 1/4/14)
2014        Jan 4, The Tunisian coast guard fired on three Egyptian fishing boats intercepted in its territorial waters. One boat captain was killed.
    (SFC, 1/6/14, p.A2)

2014        Jan 6, Tunisia's national assembly voted to enshrine gender equality "without discrimination" in its draft constitution, a key step towards safeguarding the most liberal laws in the Arab world on women's rights. Unemployed Tunisian youths ransacked an empty police post in the impoverished central region of Gafsa overnight and torched its contents.
    (AFP, 1/6/14)

2014        Jan 8, In central Tunisia clashes broke out between police and demonstrators protesting economic hardship in Kasserine, as discontent mounts over new taxes and government failure to improve living conditions, three years after the revolution.
    (AFP, 1/8/14)

2014        Jan 9, Tunisia's Islamist PM Ali Larayedh, who was tortured under the ousted Ben Ali regime, resigned as part of a plan to end months of political deadlock. He is to be replaced within 15 days by premier designate Mehdi Jomaa at the head of a government of technocrats that will lead the country to fresh elections this year under a new constitution.
    (AFP, 1/9/14)

2014        Jan 10, Tunisia's new premier Mehdi Jomaa took office to lead a caretaker government until elections this year.
    (Reuters, 1/10/14)

2014        Jan 11, Riots over Tunisia's economy flared overnight in towns around the country, leaving one dead and posing an immediate challenge to the new prime minister and the country's path to democracy.
    (AP, 1/11/14)

2014        Jan 26, Tunisian lawmakers voted on a new constitution, three years after its revolution, with the premier-designate to unveil his cabinet on a landmark day for the Arab Spring's birthplace.
    (AFP, 1/26/14)

2014        Jan 27, Tunisia’s President Moncef Marzouki and the head of the National Assembly signed a new constitution, enshrining one of its last steps toward full democracy after a 2011 uprising that inspired the Arab Spring.
    (Reuters, 1/27/14)

2014        Jan 29, Tunisia's new technocratic government under PM Mehdi Jomaa (51) was sworn in.
    (AFP, 1/29/14)(Econ, 1/18/14, p.49)

2014        Jan 30, Tunisia's central bank expressed "optimism" after the IMF released a delayed $506 million loan to support the fragile economy following major steps this week to end months of political turmoil.
    (AFP, 1/30/14)

2014        Feb 3, In Tunisia a gun battle began after police raided a house in Tunis where weapons, explosives and suicide bomb belts were found. By the next day 7 Islamist militants and a policeman were killed. The dead included Kamel Ghadghadi, a senior member of the banned Islamist militant group Ansar al-Shariah.
    (Reuters, 2/4/14)(SFC, 2/5/14, p.A3)

2014        Feb 21, In Tunisia an Islamist official in Libya's government and 10 other passengers and crew were killed when a Libyan military plane carrying medical patients crashed near Tunis.
    (Reuters, 2/21/14)

2014        Feb, In Tunisia Imed Dghij, a senior figure with the League for the Protection of the Revolution (LPR), was arrested after threatening authorities in a video posted online. He was sentenced in March to eight months in jail for inciting violence and six months for attacking others on social networks. In April an appeals court sharply reduced the first sentence to three months and quashed the second one after reclassifying the offence.
    (AFP, 5/10/14)

2014        Mar 6, Tunisia's Pres. Moncef Marzouki lifted a state of emergency in force since the 2011 uprising that ousted dictator Zine El Abidine Ben Ali.
    (AP, 3/6/14)(SFC, 3/7/14, p.A2)

2014        Mar 17, Tunisia police shot and killed three suspected Islamist militants and arrested six others in a raid near the Algerian border.
    (Reuters, 3/17/14)

2014        Mar 31, Two Tunisian police officers were convicted of raping a young woman in September 2012, and sentenced to seven years in prison in a case that drew widespread protests after the victim was initially accused of immoral behavior.
    (AP, 4/1/14)

2014        Apr 4, Pres. Obama met with Tunisia’s PM Mehdi Jomaa in Washington DC for talks on security and financial aid. On returning home Jomaa said the US has extended $500 million in new loan guarantees to Tunisia and lifted a State Department warning about traveling there.
    (SFC, 4/4/14, p.A4)(AP, 4/6/14)

2014        Apr 11, Switzerland said it will hand over to Tunisia $40 million (29 million euros) stashed in Swiss bank accounts by the family of ousted dictator Zine El Abidine Ben Ali. Investigations into the origin of $28.5 million remaining continued.
    (AFP, 4/11/14)

2014        Apr 17, In Libya a Tunisian diplomat was kidnapped in Tripoli. He was the 2nd to be kidnapped since last month. Both men were released on June 30.
    (Reuters, 4/17/14)(AP, 6/30/14)

2014        May 8, Tunisia’s President Moncef Marzouk declared a state of emergency in Douz, a southern desert town swept by days of clashes between rival tribes. An overnight curfew would remain in force until May 22 because of the violence.
    (AFP, 5/9/14)

2014        May 23, A Tunisian soldier was killed and five wounded in a landmine explosion near the Algerian border where security forces have been hunting Islamist militants.
    (Reuters, 5/23/14)

2014        May 25, In Tunisia security forces arrested 16 suspects, including three Tunisians who had just crossed over from Libya and were believed to be part of the banned, al-Qaida-linked Ansar al-Shariah organization.
    (AP, 5/28/14)

2014        May 26, A Tunisian court decided to dissolve the League for the Protection of the Revolution (LPR), a pro-Islamist group accused of inciting violence, as sought by the powerful UGTT workers union.
    (AFP, 5/26/14)

2014        May 28, In Tunisia gunmen attacked the Kasserine home of Interior Minister Lotfi Ben Jeddou while his family was inside, killing 4 of the policeman standing guard.
    (AP, 5/28/14)

2014        Jun 12, Tunisian police killed two Islamist militants during clashes near the Algerian border and seized weapons and bombs.
    (Reuters, 6/13/14)

2014        Jul 1, In Tunisia six members of the security forces were wounded when a roadside bomb exploded in the mountainous Kef region near the Algerian border.
    (AFP, 7/1/14)

2014        Jul 2, Tunisia state news said 4 soldiers have been killed in a landmine blast during an operation against Islamist militants in the north of the country. A 19-year-old was killed overnight by a landmine in the western border region where the army has been battling Islamist militants.
    (Reuters, 7/2/14)(AFP, 7/2/14)

2014        Jul 10, Tunisia detained eight people in a "sweeping security operation" in the restive Sidi Bouzid region, targeting radical Islamists belonging to the banned Ansar al-Sharia group.
    (AFP, 7/11/14)

2014        Jul 16, In western Tunisia some 40-60 militants staged two simultaneous attacks at sundown on army posts while soldiers held a Ramadan feast, killing at least 14 soldiers. The body of a 15th soldier was found on July 18.
    (AP, 7/17/14)(AFP, 7/19/14)

2014        Jul 26, In Tunisia at least 2 soldiers were killed when Islamist militants attacked a checkpoint in a remote area of Kef region near the Algerian border.
    (Reuters, 7/27/14)

2014        Jul 30, Tunisia said up to 6,000 people a day were fleeing into the country from Libya as violence between rival militias continued.
    (SFC, 7/31/14, p.A6)

2014        Jul 31, In Libya 2 Egyptians were killed when Libyan guards opened fire to disperse them as they tried to cross the border to Tunisia.
    (Reuters, 8/1/14)

2014        Aug 1, Tunisia closed its main border crossing with Libya after thousands of stranded Egyptian and foreign nationals, fleeing militias' fighting and violence in Libya, tried to break through the passage. Tunisian guards shot into the air and fired tear gas to stop a group of Egyptians from storming across the border.
    (AP, 8/2/14)(Reuters, 8/1/14)

2014        Aug 3, A Tunisian soldier was killed after Islamist militants tried to storm an army base in the town of Sbitla near the Algerian border.
    (Reuters, 8/3/14)
2014        Aug 3, In Libya the exodus of foreigners gathered pace as the government said at least 22 people were killed in clashes in Tripoli and warned of a "worsening humanitarian situation." Thousands of Egyptians seeking to flee were being airlifted home after being allowed into neighboring Tunisia.
    (AFP, 8/3/14)

2014        Aug 21, Egypt's Cairo airport and Tunisia cancelled most flights to and from Libya, days after the Libyan government said unidentified war planes had attacked positions of armed groups in Tripoli.
    (Reuters, 8/21/14)

2014        Sep 16, Tunisia’s PM Mehdi Jomaa said that security forces were heightening security across the North African country with special focus in border areas monitoring arms smuggling and Islamist groups.
    (AP, 9/17/14)

2014        Sep 17, Tunisia’s interior and defense ministries said police have killed 2 Islamist militants in clashes near the Algerian border.
    (Reuters, 9/17/14)

2014        Sep 19, Tunisia’s Okba Ibn Nafaa, an Al-Qaeda-linked group, offered backing to the Islamic State organization that has overrun chunks of Iraq and Syria, becoming the third jihadist group to do so this week.
    (AfP, 9/20/14)

2014        Sep 20, Tunisian President Moncef Marzouki announced he will stand for re-election in November, in a key vote almost four years after a revolt that sparked the Arab Spring uprisings.
    (AFP, 9/20/14)

2014        Oct 23, A Tunisian policeman was killed when security forces clashed with Islamist militants on the outskirts of Tunis, as the country prepared for parliamentary elections. Police arrested two men armed with assault rifles in the southern of Kebili in a clash that left a bystander dead.
    (Reuters, 10/23/14)(AP, 10/23/14)

2014        Oct 24, Tunisian counterterrorism forces stormed a home in a Tunis suburb after a 24-hour standoff, killing six people and seriously wounding a child.
    (AP, 10/24/14)

2014        Oct 26, Tunisia held parliamentary elections. The Islamist party Ennahda finished second with 69 seats behind secular rival Nidaa Tounes with 85 of the 217 seats in parliament.
    (AP, 10/26/14)(AP, 10/27/14)(Econ, 11/1/14, p.47)

2014        Nov 5, In Tunisia 3 soldiers were killed and 12 others were wounded in an attack by suspected Islamist militants on a bus carrying soldiers in Kef near the Algerian border. Two of the wounded died soon after.
    (Reuters, 11/5/14)(AFP, 11/6/14)

2014        Nov 23, Tunisia held its first free presidential election. Initial results showed Beji Caid Essebsi (87), head of the Nida Tunis party, winning 47% of the vote. Outgoing interim president Moncef Marzouki followed with 27% forcing a runoff on Dec 28.
    (AP, 11/23/14)(SFC, 11/24/14, p.A2)

2014        Dec 20, In Tunisia one gunman was killed by government troops and three others arrested after they attacked a voting station late today, hours before polls opened for a presidential run-off.
    (Reuters, 12/21/14)

2014        Dec 21, Tunisians voted in the runoff of the country's first free presidential election, with authorities urging a big turnout to consolidate democracy after a chaotic four-year transition. Veteran politician Beji Caid Essebsi (88) won the presidential election with 55.68 percent of the vote.
    (AFP, 12/21/14)(Reuters, 12/22/14)

2014        Dec 25, Tunisian authorities arrested blogger Yassine Ayari (33) as he returned home from France. Ayari has been critical of the party of newly elected president Beji Caid Essebsi. On November 18 Ayari was tried in absentia on charges of "defaming" army officers and sentenced to three years in jail, but he was unaware of the verdict.
    (AFP, 12/25/14)

2015        Jan 3, In Tunisia suspected Islamist militants captured and killed a police officer south of Tunis, stabbing him and slashing his throat as he traveled home. Nine suspected militants were arrested. In late December four men were convicted of cutting the throat of the 23-year-old policeman in El Fahs. Three men were sentenced to death. A fourth man, who is on the run, was sentenced to 22 years in jail.
    (Reuters, 1/4/15)(AFP, 12/30/15)

2015        Feb 1, Tunisian party leaders said the moderate Islamist party Ennahda has agreed to join its main rival secular party Nidaa Tounes as part of a coalition government.
    (Reuters, 2/1/15)

2015        Feb 5, Tunisia's parliament approved a coalition government led by the secular Nidaa Tounes party and including moderate Islamist rivals Ennahda, following landmark elections in the birthplace of the Arab Spring.
    (AFP, 2/5/15)

2015        Feb 7, Tunisian authorities said they have arrested 32 extremists over the last several days and thwarted an ambitious plot to attack civilian and military sites around the country, including the Interior Ministry. Some 3,000 Tunisians were estimated to have left for jihad, mainly with the Islamic State group, in Syria and Iraq.
    (AP, 2/8/15)

2015        Feb 18, Four Tunisian police were killed in a pre-dawn attack by suspected Al-Qaeda-linked militants near the Algerian border.
    (AFP, 2/18/15)

2015        Mar 2, Tunisia canceled a new tax imposed on travelers crossing Libya’s border after the measure triggered rioting.
    (Reuters, 3/2/15)

2015        Mar 3, An Italian coast guard ship rescued 121 people after their boat capsized some 50 miles north of Libya. Ten bodies were recovered. Tunisian naval forces rescued all 81 migrants onboard another boat that had started taking on water off near the Tunisian island of Djerba. Several merchant ships assisted in migrant rescues from seven separate boats in a 24-hour period, bringing to safety almost 1,000 migrants, including 30 children and 50 women, one of them pregnant.
    (Reuters, 3/4/15)

2015        Mar 5, Tunisian troops captured a large arms cache near the border with Libya, including Kalashnikov rifles, rockets and landmines.
    (Reuters, 3/6/15)

2015        Mar 16, The Islamic State group reported the death of one of its top field commanders in Libya. Ahmed al-Rouissi, one of the most wanted militants in Tunisia, was killed recently in clashes around the city of Sirte.
    (AP, 3/17/15)

2015        Mar 17, Tunisia said it had dismantled 4 recruiting cells sending jihadis to fight in Libya and arrested dozens in part of tighter security and border controls to counter Islamist militants.
    (Reuters, 3/17/15)

2015        Mar 18, In Tunisia gunmen opened fire at the Bardo National Museum in Tunis. Overall 22 people were killed, including 21 foreign tourists. Yassine al-Abidi and a fellow gunman were killed by police. Security forces arrested nine people the next day in connection with the attack.
    (AP, 3/18/15)(AP, 3/19/15)(AP, 3/20/15)(AFP, 3/28/15)

2015        Mar 20, EU leaders agreed to increase cooperation with Tunisia following an Islamist attack on tourists in the capital this week, saying they would also offer more economic assistance to the new Arab democracy.
    (Reuters, 3/20/15)

2015        Mar 28, In Tunisia Khaled Ben Hamadi Chaieb, the operational chief in the March 18 deadly museum attack on foreign tourists, was among 9 people killed in anti-terrorist operations. Tens of thousands of Tunisians marched through the capital to denounce extremist violence.
    (Reuters, 3/29/15)(SFC, 3/30/15, p.A2)

2015        Apr 2, Tunisia's foreign minister said that diplomatic relations with Syria will be restored at a consular level, following a long hiatus that began during the Arab Spring.
    (AP, 4/2/15)

2015        Apr 7, In Tunisia 4 soldiers were killed and six wounded in an ambush in the Kasserine region where the military is battling jihadists. A 5th soldier died of his wounds the next day.
    (AFP, 4/7/15)(AFP, 4/8/15)   

2015        Apr 24, Tunisia said at least 10 militants and 2 government soldiers have been killed in two days of clashes in the central Kasserine region near the Algerian border.
    (Reuters, 4/24/15)

2015        May 2, Tunisians unfurled a national flag the size of 19 football pitches in a bid to set a Guinness world record and promote patriotism in the face of Islamist extremism.
    (AFP, 5/3/15)

2015        May 18, Tunisia said that it was negotiating for the release of 172 nationals held by a Libyan militia as bargaining chips for one of its commanders detained in Tunis.
    (AFP, 5/18/15)

2015        May 20, Italian police said they have arrested a Moroccan man (22) on suspicion of involvement in the March attack on the National Museum in Tunisia.
    (SFC, 5/21/15, p.A2)

2015        May 23, At least 5 Tunisian migrants died when their boat sailing to Italy capsized off the Tunisian coast.
    (Reuters, 5/23/15)

2015        May 25, A Tunisian soldier opened fire on fellow troops at a military barracks in Tunis, killing 7 people before he was himself killed.
    (AP, 5/25/15)

2015        Jun 10, A Tunisian court annulled a 2011 decree confiscating the assets of ousted president Zine El Abidine Ben Ali and his inner circle after an appeal from the Ben Ali family, infuriating the government.
    (Reuters, 6/10/15)
2015        Jun 10, Tunisia's navy rescued 356 migrants including a two-month-old baby girl off the country's southeastern coast near Ben Guerdane.
    (AFP, 6/10/15)

2015        Jun 12, In Libya an armed group stormed the Tunisian consulate in Tripoli and kidnapped 10 staff. 7 people were shot dead at a protest against Islamic State in the eastern city of Derna.
    (Reuters, 6/12/15)

2015        Jun 15, In central Tunisia 3 policemen and a suspected jihadist were killed in clashes in Sidi Ali Ben Aoun. A 2nd terrorist was wounded and arrested.
    (AFP, 6/15/15)

2015        Jun 16, A Tunisian passenger train smashed into a semi-trailer truck killing 18 people outside of Fahs. At least 86 passengers were injured.
    (SFC, 6/17/15, p.A2)

2015        Jun 17, In Libya three of 10 staffers kidnapped from Tunisia's Tripoli consulate by militia on June 12 were released, and the remainder were expected to be freed soon. The release came as Tunisian authorities announced that a Libyan man they have been holding, whose freedom was reportedly demanded by the kidnappers, is to be deported.
    (AFP, 6/18/15)

2015        Jun 19, Tunisia said it was shutting its consulate in conflict-hit Libya as 10 staffers abducted by an armed militia in Tripoli returned home after a week in captivity.
    (AFP, 6/19/15)

2015        Jun 26, In Tunisia 39 people were killed and 40 wounded in a gun attack on the five-star Riu Imperial Marhaba beachside hotel in Sousse. The confirmed death toll of Britons reached 30 out of the 38 foreign tourists who were mowed down by a Kalashnikov-toting gunman, identified as 23-year-old student Seifeddine Rezgui.
    (Reuters, 6/26/15)(AFP, 6/29/15)(Reuters, 7/1/15)

2015        Jul 3 - 2015 Jul 10, Tunisian authorities recovered 27 corpses of migrants off the Mediterranean Coast who apparently died trying to reach Italy from Libya.
    (AP, 7/11/15)

2015        Jul 4, Tunisian coast guards recovered the decomposed bodies of 5 migrants who apparently drowned at sea as they sought to reach Italy from conflict-hit Libya.
    (AFP, 7/6/15)

2015        Jul 9, Tunisia said its army is building a 105-mile barrier along the border with Libya to keep out extremists.
    (SFC, 7/10/15, p.A3)

2015        Jul 10, Tunisian security forces killed 5 Islamist militants in clashes in the mountains near the central town of Gafsa and that military helicopters were pursuing more in the area. Mourad Gharsalli, a senior leader of the Al-Qaeda-linked Okba Ibn Nafaa Brigades jihadist group, was among the dead.
    (Reuters, 7/10/15)(AFP, 7/11/15)

2015        Jul 23, In Tunisia one militant was killed and 16 others arrested in a late-night operation that foiled a planned attack.
    (AFP, 7/24/15)

2015        Jul 25, Tunisia's parliament overwhelmingly approved legislation allowing the death penalty for those convicted on terrorism charges after Islamist militant attacks that killed dozens of foreign visitors in the past few months.
    (Reuters, 7/25/15)

2015        Aug 24, A Swiss official says his country has made headway toward returning some $40 million that was stolen from the Tunisian state and has been sitting in Swiss banks since Tunisia's longtime regime collapsed in the Arab Spring uprising.
    (AP, 8/24/15)

2015        Sep 12, Hundreds of Tunisians marched through the capital under heavy security to protest a law offering amnesty for those accused of corruption.
    (AP, 9/12/15)

2015        Sep 15, Tunisia, whose economy has remained stagnant since the ouster of a long-time dictator in 2011, unveiled the outlines of a five-year plan to cut unemployment by stimulating growth.
    (AFP, 9/15/15)

2015        Sep 30, Tunisian troops stopped two bomb-laden cars crossing from Libya and seized arms and documents bearing the symbol of Islamic State.
    (Reuters, 10/1/15)

2015        Oct 9, Tunisia's National Dialogue Quartet won the Nobel Peace Prize for helping build democracy in the birthplace of the Arab Spring, an example of peaceful transition in a region otherwise struggling with violence and upheaval.
    (Reuters, 10/9/15)

2015        Nov 4, In Tunisia 30 lawmakers from the ruling party suspended their membership and threatened to resign in protest over what they called attempts by President Beji Caid Essebsi's son to control the party.
    (Reuters, 11/4/15)

2015        Nov 13, In Tunisia Islamist militants beheaded a teenager in the central province of Sidi Bouzid and sent his head to his family after accusing him of spying for the military.
    (Reuters, 11/15/15)

2015        Nov 15, In Tunisia at least 3 Islamist militants and a Tunisian soldier were killed in clashes in the central Kasserine province, near the Algerian border.
    (Reuters, 11/15/15)

2015        Nov 24, In Tunisia a suicide bomber attacked a presidential guard bus killing at least 12 people. A day later the Islamic State group claimed responsibility for the attack.
    (Reuters, 11/25/15)(AP, 11/25/15)

2015        Dec 14, In Tunisia a lawyer said a court last week sentenced six students to three years in jail each on charges of homosexuality in a judgment condemned by rights activists.
    (AFP, 12/14/15)

2015        Dec 22, Tunisia extended for another two months a state of emergency imposed after a deadly November bus bombing claimed by the Islamic State group.
    (AFP, 12/22/15)

2016        Jan 16, In Tunisia Ridha Yahyaoui (28) died from electrocution after scaling a utility pole in Kasserine. He had recently been denied a government job and reportedly threatened suicide.
    (Econ, 1/30/16, p.42)

2016        Jan 21, In Tunisia a police officer died in clashes with young protesters who had overturned his car during one of a series of demonstrations against mass unemployment, as unrest triggered by the death of an unsuccessful job-seeker spread to at least 11 cities around the country.
    (AP, 1/21/16)

2016        Jan 22, Tunisia declared a nighttime curfew across the country after a wave of protests and clashes that constitute the most serious outbreak of social unrest since its 2011 revolution.
    (AFP, 1/22/16)
2016        Jan 22, France said it will provide one billion euros ($1.1 billion) to Tunisia over the next five years as part of an economic support package.
    (AFP, 1/22/16)

2016        Jan 25, In Tunisia several thousand police marched to the presidential palace to demand more pay in the latest challenge to PM Habib Essid's government after a week of protests and riots over jobs.
    (Reuters, 1/25/16)

2016        Feb 6, Tunisia said it has completed a 200-km (125 mile) barrier along its frontier with Libya to try to keep out Islamist militants, and will soon install electronic monitoring systems.
    (Reuters, 2/6/16)

2016        Feb 19, In Libya a US air strike killed 49 people near Tripoli, where members suspected of the Islamic State group were gathered. A Western official quoted by the NY Times said the strike targeted a senior Tunisian operative linked to two major jihadist attacks in Tunisia last year. Most of those killed were believed to be from Tunisia. Two Serbian Embassy staff members abducted in Libya in November were among those killed. The Serbians were later said to have been associated with weapons deals.
    (AFP, 2/19/16)(Reuters, 2/19/16)(Reuters, 2/20/16)(Econ, 4/16/15, p.44)

2016        Feb 22, In central Tunisia a suspected jihadist was killed in an exchange of fire with security forces in in the Mount Mghila area.
    (AFP, 2/23/16)

2016        Feb 29, Britain's defense minister said about 20 UK troops are being sent to Tunisia to help stop people crossing illegally from chaotic Libya.
    (AP, 2/29/16)

2016        Mar 7, In Tunisia dozens of Islamist fighters stormed through the town of Ben Guerdan near the Libyan border attacking army and police posts in a raid that killed 55 people, including civilians.
    (Reuters, 3/7/16)(Reuters, 3/8/16)

2016        Mar 9, In Tunisia 2 "terrorists" and a soldier were killed in a firefight in the Oued Rbyaa area. The confrontation came after jihadists on the run raided a building site in search of provisions and stole food from workers there.
    (AFP, 3/9/16)

2016        Mar 12, Tunisia's PM Habib Essid called for civil servants and the general public to donate part of their wages to an anti-terrorism fund, following a deadly assault on a town near the Libyan border. The statement came after President Beji Caid Essebsi donated a month's salary to the fund at a post office in central Tunis.
    (AFP, 3/12/16)

2016        May 11, In Tunisia two suspected jihadists were killed during a security operation near the capital against a cell planning "simultaneous" attacks. Sixteen others were arrested during the operation in Ariana province.
    (AFP, 5/11/16)
2016        May 11, The southern Tunisia of Ben Guerdane went on strike in protest at a decision by Libyan authorities late last month to halt cross-border trade on which its economy depends.
    (AFP, 5/11/16)

2016        May 23, Tunisia's Islamist Ennahda party voted to separate its political and religious work, part of the group's effort to cast itself as a modern political party in line with the North African country's secular heritage.
    (AP, 5/23/16)

2016        May 30, In Tunisia 2 civilians were killed and one other injured by a landmine planted by jihadist groups in a mountainous region near the Algerian border.
    (Reuters, 5/30/16)

2016        Jul 12, Human Rights Watch urged an end to "forced anal examinations" with a report documenting them in eight countries, mostly in Africa, saying the practice is based on flawed ideas about supposedly proving homosexual conduct. The report drew on interviews with 32 men and transgender women subjected to the exams in eight countries that ban same-sex conduct: Cameroon, Egypt, Kenya, Lebanon, Tunisia, Turkmenistan, Uganda and Zambia.
    (AP, 7/12/16)

2016        Jul 25, Hundreds of Tunisian demonstrated in the capital to protest against a bill being discussed in parliament to grant amnesty to people accused of corruption.
    (AP, 7/26/16)

2016        Aug 3, Tunisian President Beji Caid Essebsi named local affairs minister Youssef Chahed (40) as prime minister-designate tasked with forming a unity cabinet to tackle major economic and security challenges.
    (AFP, 8/3/16)

2016        Aug 26, Tunisia's Parliament approved Youssef Chahed (41) as prime minister along with a new government focused on boosting the economy and fighting terrorism.
    (AP, 8/27/16)

2016        Nov 4, Tunisia's PM Youssef Chahed sacked Salem Abd El Jalil, the minister of religious affairs. A day earlier local media quoted Jalil as saying in parliament: "I told the Saudi ambassador in Tunisia that terrorism and extremism historically came from you ... You should reform your (religious) school."
    (Reuters, 11/4/16)

2016        Nov 5, Tunisian TV reported that a soldier has been killed in his home near central Mount Mghilla, an area where jihadist fighters operate.
    (AFP, 11/6/16)

2016        Nov 16, Tunisia said authorities have dismantled a jihadist cell that was planning attacks against a security station and a commercial center in the capital.
    (Reuters, 11/16/16)

2016        Nov 29, Tunisia won pledges of more than a billion dollars in financial support at an investment conference aimed at reviving the country's struggling economy. More than 2,000 business, finance and political leaders from 40 countries attended the two-day "Tunisia 2020" conference.
    (AFP, 11/29/16)

2016        Dec 5, Tunisia’s parliament's finance committee approved a budget draft that would tax lawyers between about $8 to $20 on each file they present to court. The levy was part of austerity measures proposed for 2017 by a government under pressure from international lenders to cut the fiscal deficit.
    (Reuters, 12/6/16)

2016        Dec 6, Several thousand Tunisian lawyers demonstrated in front of the prime minister's office, with some demanding his resignation as they escalated a protest against widely unpopular new taxes that will hit them and other high-end professions.
    (Reuters, 12/6/16)

2016        Dec 15, Mohammed Alzoari (Zawari) (49), an aerospace engineer and drone expert, was found gunned down in his car near his home in Sfax, Tunisia. He had joined the military wing of Hamas in 2006 and led the development of its drones. Hamas accused Israel of assassinating him. Tunisian authorities later said they had arrested 10 Tunisians but two foreigners suspected of plotting the killing escaped. On May 15, 2018, Bosnian citizen Elvir Sarac, sought by Tunisia on terrorism charges over his alleged role in the killing, was arrested. Police in Croatia in March 2018 had arrested a Bosnian citizen wanted by Tunisia on same charges.
    (AP, 12/18/16)(Reuters, 5/16/18)

2016        Dec 24, Tunisian security forces said they have arrested three suspected militants after uncovering their links to Anis Amri, the Tunisian national believed responsible for the Dec 19 Berlin Christmas market attack that killed 12 people.
    (Reuters, 12/24/16)

2016        Dec 28, In Tunisia at least five people were killed and more than 50 injured on when a train slammed into a public bus before dawn near Tunis.
    (AFP, 12/28/16)

2016        Dec 29, Tunisian security forces said that they had broken up an al Qaeda-linked militant cell with 10 members that was active near the coastal city of Sousse.
    (Reuters, 12/29/16)

2016        Tunisian authorities arrested Bernard Raymond Augustine (18) of California for entering the country illegally with the intent to travel to Libya  to participate in Islamic State activities. Augustine served two years in jail and in 2018 was turned over to the FBI agents and transported to New York.
    (SFC, 2/28/18, p.D1)

2017        Jan 21, Representatives of Libya's neighbors meeting in Cairo warned the North African nation's main rival factions against seeking to settle their differences through military force, as Egypt announced that efforts were underway to bring their leaders together to chart a "joint vision" for the country. The representatives came from Libya, Egypt, Sudan, Algeria, Chad, Niger and Tunisia as well as the UN envoy to Libya.
    (AP, 1/21/17)

2017        Jan 27, The European Union prolonged for a year sanctions against dozens of Tunisians, including ousted president Zine El Abidine Ben Ali, accused of illegally using state funds.
    (AP, 1/27/17)

2017        Mar 3, Chancellor Angela Merkel said Tunisia had agreed to take back 1,500 rejected Tunisian migrants from Germany, after an attack by a Tunisian on a Christmas market in Berlin which killed 12 people.
    (Reuters, 3/3/17)

2017        Mar 12, In southwest Tunisia Islamist militants attacked a checkpoint in Kebili, killing a policeman and wounding three others. Two militants were also killed in an exchange of fire during the attack.
    (Reuters, 3/12/17)

2017        Mar 29, Tunisia's former PM Mehdi Jomaa launched a new political party which he said would be non-ideological and could "restore hope for Tunisians" frustrated by the country's transition.
    (Reuters, 3/29/17)

2017        Apr 11, Tunisia's journalists Union said violations against journalists are on the rise as authorities try to control local media, warning this threatened press freedom and the country's young democracy.
    (Reuters, 4/11/17)

2017        May 10, Tunisia's President Beji Caid Essebsi ordered the army to protect phosphate, gas and oil production facilities after protests aimed at disrupting output broke out in the south of the country.
    (Reuters, 5/10/17)
2017        May 10, In Tunisia Oliver Potezica (64), Serbia's ambassador to Libya, died some days after a car crash near Sousse.
    (AP, 5/10/17)

2017        May 13, In Tunisia thousands of people marched through Tunis to protest an “economic reconciliation" bill that would give amnesty to businessmen and officials accused of graft during the rule of Zine el-Abidine Ben Ali. The bill would allow ill-gotten to be secretly declared and repaid to the state, which hoped to use the funds to plug a 5.9% of GDP budget deficit this year.
    (Econ 5/20/17, p.42)

2017        May 20, Tunisian troops fired shots in the air to disperse protesters who tried to close down a gas pumping in southern Tatatouine province as part of their demands for jobs.
    (Reuters, 5/20/17)

2017        May 21, Tunisian media said protesters demanding jobs and a share in energy wealth have closed down another oil pumping station in defiance of government efforts to protect oil and gas fields with troops and negotiate an end to unrest.
    (Reuters, 5/21/17)

2017        May 22, Tunisian security forces firing teargas clashed with protesters after they burned down two police stations following the death of a young man hit by a police vehicle during protests over jobs in the south.
    (Reuters, 5/22/17)

2017        May 26, Switzerland said it is transferring 3.5 million euros ($3.9 million) to Tunisia that had been frozen in connection with a close relative of former President Zine El Abidine Ben Ali. Tunisian authorities will determine what to do with the assets.
    (AP, 5/26/17)

2017        May 28, Tunisian security forces late today killed a leader of the Islamic State group who was plotting attacks during the Muslim fasting month of Ramadan. The suspect was a Tunisian known as Houssem Tlithi (1997).
    (AFP, 5/29/17)

2017        Jun 1, A court in northern Tunisia handed one-month jail terms to four men for eating in public during the Muslim dawn-to-dusk fasting month of Ramadan. Tunisia has no specific law banning eating in public during Ramadan, a controversy which resurfaces each year in the North African country.
    (AFP, 6/1/17)

2017        Jun 14, Tunisia announced that it has extended for another four months a state of emergency in place since a 2015 jihadist attack.
    (AFP, 6/14/17)

2017        Jul 26, It was reported that Tunisia’s PM Youssef Chahed has embarked on a sweeping crackdown against organized crime, arresting nearly a dozen mafia bosses and smuggling barons in recent weeks.
    (SFC, 7/26/17, p.A2)
2017        Jul 26, Britain said it has lifted an advisory against travel to Tunisia, paving the way for tourists to return to the country's Mediterranean beaches two years after a deadly attack.
    (AP, 7/26/17)

2017        Sep 6, Tunisia's PM Youssef Chahed named a new cabinet, including the newly created post of economic reforms minister, after reaching a deal with political parties following weeks of infighting over posts.
    (Reuters, 9/6/17)

2017        Sep 14, Tunisia said it has abolished a decades-old ban on Muslim women marrying non-Muslims. The ban dated back to 1973.
    (AFP, 9/14/17)

2017        Sep 22, Tunisia’s minister for human rights said Tunisia has committed itself to ban forced anal examinations to determine sexual orientation. Homosexuality is still punishable by three years in jail under Article 230 of Tunisia's criminal code.
    (AFP, 9/22/17)

2017        Oct 8, Eight Tunisian migrants died and a further 20 are believed to be missing after a Tunisian naval ship collided with a wooden boat packed with migrants.
    (AP, 10/9/17)

2017        Nov 1, In Tunisia suspected Islamist militant Zied Gharbi (25) wounded two policemen with a knife near the parliament in Tunis. He was soon arrested. Commander Riadh Barrouta died the next of the injuries he sustained after being stabbed in the neck by a suspected Islamic extremist.
    (Reuters, 11/1/17)(AP, 11/2/17)

2017        Nov 18, French-Tunisian fashion designer Azzedine Alaia (b.1935) died in Paris after winning a worldwide following.
    (https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Azzedine_Ala%C3%AFa)(SSFC, 11/19/17, p.C10)

2017        Dec 5, The European Union put 17 non-EU countries on a blacklist of those it deems guilty of unfairly offering tax avoidance schemes. They Included: American Samoa, Bahrain, Barbados, Grenada, Guam, South Korea, Macau, Marshall Islands, Mongolia, Namibia, Palau, Panama, St. Lucia, Samoa, Trinidad & Tobago, Tunisia and United Arab Emirates. Over 40 more were put on a "grey list" to be monitored until they are fully committed to reforms.
    (AP, 12/5/17)

2017        Dec 24, Tunisia suspended all flights by Emirates to and from Tunis after the Dubai-based airline barred Tunisian women from boarding its flights last week. UAE's Minister of State for Foreign Affairs Anwar Gargash soon replied on Twitter that the ban was temporary and due to security reasons.
    (Reuters, 12/25/17)(AP, 12/25/17)

2018        Jan 8, The Committee to Protect Journalists called on Sudan to stop its crackdown on local newspapers reporting on protests over bread price hikes.
    (AP, 1/9/18)

2018        Jan 10, Tunisian police arrested 328 people and fired tear gas as protesters hurled rocks and burned tires during further nationwide demonstrations over price rises.
    (AP, 1/11/18)

2018        Jan 11, Tunisian authorities, following a third night of unrest, said more than 600 people have been arrested this week as anger at austerity measures boiled over.
    (AFP, 1/11/18)

2018        Jan 12, Tunisian authorities arrested another 150 people including local opposition leaders, bringing the total detained close to 800 in response to demonstrations this week against price and tax rises.
    (Reuters, 1/12/18)

2018        Jan 13, Tunisian President Beji Caid Essebsi held talks with political parties, unions and employers to discuss means to overcome a week of unrest triggered by austerity measures.
    (AFP, 1/13/18)

2018        Jan 14, Tunisians marked seven years since the uprising that launched the Arab Spring, with fresh protests after days of unrest over persisting poverty and unemployment.
    (AFP, 1/14/18)

2018        Jan 23, European Union finance ministers agreed to remove eight jurisdictions from the bloc's blacklist of tax havens, one month after the list was set up. Barbados, Grenada, South Korea, Macao, Mongolia, Tunisia and the United Arab Emirates joined Panama as jurisdictions delisted following commitments made at a high political level to remedy EU concerns.
    (Reuters, 1/23/18)

2018        Feb 1, France's President Emmanuel Macron said he would push to double French investment in Tunisia over five years to buttress its faltering economy and transition to democracy.
    (Reuters, 2/1/18)

2018        Feb 26, In Tunisia Spanish PM Mariano Rajoy and Tunisian counterpart Youssef Chahed signed eight accords in Tunis reviving ties after a decade-long freeze, pledging notably to work together on security and women's right.
    (AP, 2/26/18)

2018        Mar 1, In Tunisia dozens of judges and lawyers staged a work stoppage outside a court near Tunis over alleged pressure from police in a trial involving their colleagues.
    (AFP, 3/1/18)

2018        Mar 19, In Tunisia a militant blew himself up as government security forces surrounded him and another fighter in a house in Ben Guerdan near the Libyan border.
    (Reuters, 3/19/18)
2018        Mar 19, The Tunisian government said an unidentified armed group in southwestern Cameroon has kidnapped two Tunisians working on a road construction project for a Tunisian company.
    (Reuters, 3/19/18)

2018        Apr 10, Italian authorities said they have arrested 13 suspects in a high-speed migrant trafficking ring operating between Tunisia and Sicily whose members espoused radical jihadist views.
    (AP, 4/10/18)

2018        Apr 21, Libya's foreign ministry said Tunisia has reopened its consulate, the latest mission to return to Tripoli.
    (Reuters, 4/21/18)

2018        Apr 29, In Tunisia police and military personnel voted in the country's local elections for the first time.
    (AP, 4/29/18)

2018        May 3, It was reported that Tunisia's PM Youssef Chahed has opened a conference on dialogue between religions on the island of Djerba during an annual Jewish pilgrimage that is taking place amid high security.
    (AP, 5/3/18)

2018        May 6, Tunisians voted in their first free municipal elections. The Islamist Ennahda and secular Nidaa Tounis parties, which form a coalition at national level, were expected to dominate the polls for 350 municipalities.
    (Reuters, 5/6/18)

2018        May 17, A Bosnian court said it had rejected a request from Tunisia to hand over Elvir Sarac, a Bosnian national wanted on terrorism charges, over his alleged role in the 2016 killing of Mohammed Zawari, a Tunisian whom Palestinian group Hamas said was one of its members.
    (Reuters, 5/17/18)

2018        Jun 3, Tunisia's coast guard rescued 68 migrants. At least 46 others were killed after their boat sank near Kerkennah island. Officials later said there were 60 confirmed deaths and 52 people missing and presumed dead from the capsizing off Tunisia's eastern city of Sfax.
    (AP, 6/3/18)(SFC, 6/4/18, p.A2)(AP, 6/5/18)

2018        Jun 22, Tunisia arrested the main organizer of a migrant smuggling operation after at least 87 people drowned on June 3 when their boat sank off the southern coast.
    (Reuters, 6/22/18)

2018        Jun 24, In Tunisia shepherd (28) Mohamed Griri died one day after he was attacked by jihadists on Mount Chaambi. He had been bashed in the head and his nose cut off. Mount Chaambi is also a stronghold of the Al-Qaeda-linked Okba Ibn Nafaa Battalion.
    (AFP, 6/25/18)

2018        Jul 3, In Tunisia Souad Abederrahim (54) was elected by the Tunis municipal council  to serve as the city's first female mayor.
    (SFC, 7/4/18, p.A2)

2018        Jul 8, In Tunisia at least six members of the national guard were killed in an apparent attack by an armed group near the Algerian border.
    (AP, 7/8/18)

2018        Jul 13, Germany deported a Tunisian man who allegedly worked as a bodyguard for Osama bin Laden, more than a decade after his asylum bid was first rejected. He was identified by German authorities only as Sami A. and by Tunis as Sami Idoudi, and had lived in Germany for more than two decades.
    (AP, 7/13/18)

2018        Jul 23, Tunisia's Red Crescent said a Tunisian boat carrying around 40 African migrants has been stranded off the country's coast without aid for more than a week after authorities refused to let them disembark there.
    (Reuters, 7/23/18)

2018        Jul, In northern Tunisia sanitary engineer Mohamed Oussama Houij (27) set out to walk a 300-km (185-mile) stretch of coastline and clean up 30 beaches along the way. Nearly 150 km and 14 beaches later, Houij was astounded by the sheer volume of waste he's found along the shore. "We're talking tons of rubbish... The more you clean, the more you find. It never ends".
    (AFP, 8/14/18)

2018        Aug 3, Tunisian authorities said they had arrested two suspects in connection with a biological bomb plot thwarted on June 12 by police in Germany.
    (AFP, 8/3/18)

2018        Aug 11, In Tunisia thousands of people demonstrated in front of parliament against any changes to inheritance rules.
    (Reuters, 8/13/18)

2018        Aug 13, Tunisia's President Beji Caid Essebsi proposed giving women equal inheritance rights despite protests from thousands of people objecting to any challenge to Islamic law.
    (Reuters, 8/13/18)

2018        Aug 23, Tunisia’s coast guard recovered the bodies of five migrants whose boat sank as they tried to cross the Mediterranean to the Italian island of Lampedusa.
    (Reuters, 8/23/18)

2018        Aug 31, Tunisia's PM Youssef Chahed sacked the energy minister, Khaled Kaddour, and four other senior figures linked to that ministry over corruption accusations.
    (Reuters, 8/31/18)

2018        Sep 22, Severe floods struck northeastern Tunisia, killing at least four people and damaging homes, bridges, roads and fields.
    (AP, 9/23/18)

2018        Oct 29, In Tunisia suicide bomber Mna Guebla (30) blew herself up on Tunis' busy upmarket Avenue Habib Gourguiba, wounding 26 people including eight police in what the Interior Ministry called a "terrorist explosion".
    (Reuters, 10/29/18)(AP, 11/30/18)

2018        Oct 30, In Germany Chancellor Angela Merkel opened the G20 Compact with Africa meeting saying it's critical "not only to talk about Africa but to talk with Africa" about development needs and goals. So far 11 countries have joined the program: Benin, Ivory Coast, Egypt, Ethiopia, Ghana, Guinea, Morocco, Rwanda, Senegal, Togo and Tunisia.
    (AP, 10/30/18)

2018        Nov 8, Tunisian President Beji Caid Essebsi said he was ready to swear in ten new ministers named in a reshuffle that he had originally rejected, easing a high-level political standoff that has alarmed donors.
    (Reuters, 11/8/18)

2018        Nov 15, In Tunisia a three-day forum opened in Tunis for a conference on freedom of expression and new challenges facing the media. It attracted 600 journalists, bloggers, newspaper chiefs and media academics from Arabic and French-speaking countries across the Mediterranean, Africa and Europe.
    (AFP, 11/16/18)

2018        Nov 22, Tunisian civil servants staged the largest general strike in five years after their powerful trade union failed to secure wage hikes in tense negotiations with the government.
    (AFP, 11/22/18)

2018        Nov 27, Hundreds of Tunisian protesters marched through Tunis in opposition to a planned visit by Saudi Crown Prince Mohammed bin Salman, urging justice over the murder of journalist Jamal Khashoggi.
    (AFP, 11/27/18)

2018        Nov 30, Tunisia's interior ministry said authorities have arrested 12 suspected members of the Islamic State group and seized bomb making materials since a suicide attack last month.
    (AFP, 11/30/18)

2018        Dec 24, In Tunisia police fired tear gas at dozens of people who took to the streets late today in the city of Kasserine, setting tires ablaze and blocking the main street. Journalist Abdel Razaq Zorgi (32) died after setting himself on fire in the protest over harsh living conditions.
    (AFP, 12/25/18)

2018        Dec 26, Tunisian authorities said 18 people have been arrested during protests that erupted after the death of a journalist who set himself on fire to protest economic problems in the North African nation.
    (AP, 12/26/18)

2018        Dec 27, In Tunisia protesters clashed with police for a third consecutive night in six different towns including Kasserine, where journalist Abderrazak Zorgui set himself ablaze earlier this week.
    (AP, 12/27/18)

2018        Tunisia granted women equal rights under inheritance laws.
    (Econ, 8/3/19, p.41)

2019        Jan 3, In Tunisia two alleged jihadists blew themselves up during an early morning raid by security forces on a house in the central region of Sidi Bouzid.
    (AFP, 1/3/19)

2019        Jan 17, A public sector strike brought Tunisia to a standstill as workers heeded calls from a powerful trade union to stay home over demands for wage hikes and economic reforms.
    (AFP, 1/17/19)

2019        Jan 27, In Tunisia secular government leaders announced a new party called Long Live Tunisia which is to be led by PM Youssef Chahed and will compete with moderate Islamists in upcoming elections.
    (Reuters, 1/27/19)

2019        Feb 9, A Tunisian court sentenced seven jihadists to life in prison over attacks at a museum and on a beach in 2015 that killed 60 people, many of them British tourists.
    (AFP, 2/9/19)

2019        Mar 8, In Tunisia 11 newborn babies died over the last two days at the Rabta clinic in Tunis, which is part of a large medical center in the capital. Tunisia's health minister soon resigned following the sudden deaths. On March 10 a 12th infant died at the Rabta state hospital. The deaths were believed to have been caused by an infection acquired in the clinic.
    (AFP, 3/10/19)(AFP, 3/11/19)

2019        Mar 26, In Tunisia UN official Moncef Kartas, charged with investigating alleged violations of a UN arms embargo on Libya, was detained in Tunis on suspicion of spying. On March 29 Tunisian authorities confirmed that they had detained two Tunisians, including Kartas, on suspicion of "spying for foreign parties".
    (AFP, 3/29/19)(AFP, 4/13/19)

2019        Mar 31, In Tunisia Arab leaders, long divided by regional rivalries, condemned a US decision to recognize Israel's sovereignty over the Golan Heights and said Middle East stability depended on creating an Palestinian state.
    (Reuters, 3/31/19)

2019        Apr 6, Tunisia's Pres. Beji Caid Essebsi (92) said he did not plan to stand for re-election in the November polls, in order to make way for someone younger.
    (AFP, 4/6/19)

2019        Apr 25, Tunisian police stormed the offices of the private Nesna television station and cut it off the air over accusations it had breached broadcasting rules, which the channel called an attempt to silence its voice criticizing the government.
    (Reuters, 4/25/19)

2019        Apr 27, In Tunisia seven women day laborer's being transported to work on a farm in the back of a pickup were among 12 people killed when it collided with a minivan.
    (AFP, 4/27/19)

2019        Apr 29, In Tunisia about 5,000 people protested in central Sidi Bouzid city against marginalization and deteriorating conditions, two days after the deaths of 12 female rural workers in a traffic accident.
    (Reuters, 4/29/19)

2019        May 1, Tunisia raised the minimum wage for industrial and farm workers, as well as pensions for hundreds of thousands of private-sector retirees, by 6.5 percent, a move aimed at defusing discontent about economic hardship.
    (Reuters, 5/2/19)

2019        May 2, In Tunisia fuel distribution workers began a three-day strike to demand higher wages, leading to long queues and empty pumps at petrol stations across the North African nation.
    (Reuters, 5/2/19)

2019        May 3, Tunisia ordered the army to transport fuel to petrol stations on the second day of a strike by fuel distribution workers that has caused empty pumps and long queues across the country.
    (Reuters, 5/3/19)

2019        May 10, Tunisian fishermen rescued 16 people and brought them to shore in Zarzis. Around 60 migrants, most of them from Bangladesh, died after their boat capsized in the Mediterranean Sea after it left Libya for Italy.
    (AFP, 5/11/19)

2019        May 27, In Tunisia Nabil Karoui (50), the controversial founder of a major private television channel, said he will run for the presidency in November polls.
    (AFP, 5/28/19)

2019        Jun 27, In Tunisia double suicide attacks shook Tunis, even as the country was plunged into uncertainty with the hospitalization of President Beji Caid Essebsi who was said to be in "critical condition".
    (AFP, 6/27/19)

2019        Jul 3, A boat carrying 86 migrants from Libya sank off the Tunisian city of Zarzis and only three passengers are known to have survived the shipwreck.
    (AP, 7/4/19)

2019        Jul 25, Tunisia's Pres. Beji Caid Essebsi (92), the country's first democratically elected leader, died in Tunis. The legislature's President Mohamed Ennaceur, head of parliament, said he is taking over as the country's interim president.
    (AP, 7/25/19)

2019        Aug 23, In Tunisia Nabil Karoui, a media magnate considered to be a leading candidate in presidential elections, was jailed along with his brother on allegations of tax evasion and money laundering. Supporters of Karoui accused PM Youssef Chahed of plotting against the tycoon.
    (SSFC, 8/25/19, p.A6)

2019        Sep 2, In Tunisia a national guard chief and three extremists were killed in a clash in the Kef mountains, on the first day of the country's presidential campaign.
    (AP, 9/2/19)

2019        Sep 7, In Tunisia eight presidential candidates stood behind their podiums aiming to impress Tunisian voters this evening in the young democracy's first ever televised election debate.
    (Reuters, 9/8/19)

2019        Sep 15, Tunisians cast ballots in their country's second democratic presidential election, choosing among 26 candidates for a leader who can safeguard its young democracy and tackle its unemployment, corruption and economic despair. There was no clear favorite, suggesting that the vote, which included two female candidates, will only be the first round of the presidential election. Tunisians delivered a political earthquake by rejecting established leaders for a little known law professor and a media mogul jailed on suspicion of tax evasion. Kais Saied and Nabil Karoui led 24 other candidates.
    (AP, 9/15/19)(Reuters, 9/16/19)

2019        Sep 17, Tunisia's electoral commission said law professor Kais Saied and detained media mogul Nabil Karoui won the most votes in the Sept. 15 presidential election, beating veteran political leaders to advance to a second-round runoff.
    (Reuters, 9/17/19)

2019        Sep 19, Former Tunisian President Zine El Abidine Ben Ali (83) died in Jeddah, Saudi Arabia. The autocrat had led his small North African country for 23 years before being toppled by nationwide protests that unleashed revolt across the Arab world.
    (AP, 9/19/19)

2019        Oct 6, Tunisians voted for a new parliament but quiet polling stations gave an indication of the economic disillusionment that has emerged since the 2011 revolution and brought political newcomers to challenge established parties. Two polls estimated that Islamist party Ennahdha would win about 40 of the 217 seats in the Assembly of People's Representatives.
    (Reuters, 10/6/19)(SFC, 10/7/19, p.A2)

2019        Oct 9, Tunisia freed presidential candidate Nabil Karoui. This came shortly before the electoral body announced that his secular Heart of Tunisia party had won 38 seats in the Oct. 6 parliamenatry elections, finishing 2nd to Islamist party Ennahda's 52 seats.
    (SFC, 10/10/19, p.A2)

2019        Oct 13, Tunisians cast ballots to choose their next president. In the runoff Saied, an independent law professor, faced Nabil Karoui, a media mogul facing corruption allegations. Exit polls declared a landslide election win for Kais Saied.
    (Reuters, 10/13/19)(Reuters, 10/14/19)

2019        Nov 15, Tunisia's moderate Islamist Ennahda, which came first in last month's parliamentary elections, named Habib Jemli, a former junior agriculture minister, as its choice to become prime minister.
    (Reuters, 11/15/19)

2019        Dec 1, In northern Tunisia a regional bus crashed off a hill this morning, killing 22 of 43 local passengers who were on an excursion in the Amdoun region.
    (AP, 12/1/19)

2020        Jan 27, Ennahda, the biggest party in Tunisia's parliament, rejected the idea of a government that excludes other parties, adding that it was ready to contest another election.
    (Reuters, 1/27/20)

2020        Feb 7, Tunisia fired Moncef Baati, its ambassador to the UN, accusing him of failing to consult the foreign ministry on key issues that diplomatic sources said included Washington's controversial Middle East peace plan.
    (AFP, 2/7/20)

2020        Mar 6, In Tunisia two suicide bombers blew themselves up near the US Embassy on the outskirts of Tunis, killing a police officer and wounding four others.
    (AP, 3/6/20)

2020        Mar 23, Tunisia's President Kais Saied ordered the army to deploy in the streets to force people to respect a lockdown imposed to halt the spread of coronavirus. Tunisia has 89 confirmed cases of the virus.
    (Reuters, 3/23/20)

2020        Apr 3, It was reported that Tunisia has deployed a police robot to patrol areas of Tunis, to ensure that people are observing a coronavirus lockdown. The country has reported 436 cases of COVID-19 and 14 deaths.
    (BBC, 4/3/20)

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