Timeline Tanzania

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Country Reports:  http://www.countryreports.org/country/Tanzania.htm
Travel Docs:
  Tanzania is 364,000 sq. miles, the largest country in East Africa. The population was 29 million in 1998 with 45% Christian and 35% Muslim. English and Swahili were the official languages with many local languages.
 (SFC, 8/8/98, p.A12)

  Zanzibar is a limestone island 60 miles long and 20 miles wide, about 40 miles by boat from Dar es Salaam. The name comes from Arabic roots, Zinj el Barr, meaning Black Coast or land of the black people. Locals call it Unguja. A 2nd island is called Pemba.
 (SFEC, 4/23/00, p.T6)(SSFC, 6/9/02, p.C12)

245Mil BC    The ancient reptile Teleocrater rhadinos lived about this time. Fossils discovered in Tanzania in the 1930s showed that it had four sturdy legs and a long neck and tail. It was later identified as the oldest known branch on the lineage that would eventually lead to dinosaurs.
    (SFC, 4/13/17, p.A7)

3.6Mil BC-3Mil BC    A composite skull of adult male, Australopithecus afarensis, was found in 1975 by M. Bush at Hadar, Ethiopia. In 1978-1979 Mary Leakey’s team excavated a 75-foot long trail of 47 footprints, found at Laetoli, Tanzania, most likely made by Australopithecus afarensis.
    (NG, Nov. 1985, p.568)(Hem., Dec. '95, p.24)(PacDisc, Spring ‘96, p.2)

10000BC -1500AD    The Bachwezi people, also known as the Ancient Cwezi or Chwezi, were a group of people who legends say ruled the Empire of Kitara (Empire of the Sun), which encompassed a vast area including modern day Uganda, Sudan, northern Tanzania, the Democratic Republic of Congo, Rwanda, Burundi, Zambia and Malawi during this period.

1503        Zanzibar became a Portuguese colony.
    (TL-MB, p.8)

1698-1701    The Portuguese built the Old Fort in Stone Town on Zanzibar to defend against the sultan of Oman.
    (SFEC, 4/23/00, p.T6)

1700-1800s    Over 100,000 slaves from Tanzania, Kenya, Rwanda, Burundi, Malawi and Uganda were shipped into slavery through Zanzibar to the Middle East and India.
    (SFEC, 4/23/00, p.T7)

1840        Zanzibar became the capital of Oman and the sultan ruled from Stone Town.
    (SFEC, 4/23/00, p.T6)

1858        Feb, British explorers Sir Richard Burton and John Speke (1827-1864) explored Lake Tanganyika, Africa.

1858        John Hanning Speke (1827-1864), British explorer, became the first European to visit Lake Victoria, Africa’s largest lake. Its shoreline touched Kenya, Tanzania and Uganda.

1863        Feb 15, Samuel and Florence Baker encountered John Speke and James Grant at the frontier village of Gondokoro (southern Sudan). Speke and Grant said they had found the Nile’s headwaters at a lake they named Victoria (Kenya, Tanzania, Uganda).
    (ON, 10/01, p.9)

1864        Missionaries settled in Zanzibar following a call by David Livingstone for volunteers to fight the slave trade and help spread Christianity across Africa.
    (SSFC, 6/9/02, p.C13)

1866-1886    Dr. John Kirk, a Scottish botanist, served as the British representative on the island of Zanzibar. He made great effort to abolish the local slave trade. In 2011 Alastair Hazell authored “The Last Slave Market: Dr John Kirk and the Struggle to End the African slave Trade.
    (Econ, 8/6/11, p.72)

1870-1888    The Omani Sultan Barghash ruled in Zanzibar.
    (SFEC, 4/23/00, p.T7)

1871        Nov 10, Journalist-explorer Henry M. Stanley found missing Scottish missionary David Livingstone in Central Africa at Ujiji near Unyanyembe on Lake Tanganyika. Stanley delivered his famous greeting: "Dr. Livingstone, I presume?" Livingstone replied: "Yes, and I feel thankful that I am here to welcome you." The two explored Lake Tanganyika, but did not find the source of the Nile. When Stanley left on March 14, 1872, he begged the doctor to return to England with him, but Livingstone refused. He died in May 1873. Stanley returned to Africa a year later, the first of many subsequent African explorations.
    (HFA, '96, p.42)(AP, 11/10/97)(HN, 11/10/98)(HNQ, 6/2/98)(HNPD, 11/10/98)

1872        Apr 15, A cyclone hit the coast of Tanzania. All the ships in the harbor of Zanzibar, with the exception of a steamer that escaped to sea, were sunk or wrecked on the shore with great loss of life.
    (https://tinyurl.com/3d7ujz54)(SSFC, 5/2/21, p.A16)

1873        May 1, David Livingstone (60), British physician, explorer (Africa), died in Chitambo, Zambia. His body passed through Zanzibar for a funeral in London in Apr 18, 1874.
    (MC, 5/1/02)(SSFC, 7/13/03, p.C9)

1873        Jun 5, Sultan Bargash closed the slave market of Zanzibar. Missionaries bought the site and began building an Anglican cathedral.
    (SSFC, 6/9/02, p.C13)(MC, 6/5/02)

1882        In Zanzibar the Maruhubi Palace was built for the Omani Sultan Barghash. It burned down in 1899.
    (SFEC, 4/23/00, p.T7)

1883        In Zanzibar the Beit-el-Ajaib, House of Wonders, was built in Stone Town by an Omani sultan.
    (SFEC, 4/23/00, p.T6)

1887-1891    German colonial administrators made Bagamoyo, Tanzania, their capital.
    (SSFC, 7/13/03, p.C9)

1890        An agreement between colonial powers stipulated the border between Malawi and Tanzania as lying along the Tanzanian shore of the waters of Lake Malawi.
    (AFP, 7/31/12)
1890        Britain ceded the island of Heligoland to Germany in exchange for a free hand in the former slave-trading sultanate of Zanzibar.
    (Econ, 2/18/17, p.69)

1896        A renegade cousin of the deceased sultan attempted to wrest power from British colonialist and the Zanzibar House of Wonders was bombed by the British.
    (SSFC, 6/9/02, p.C13)

1901        Feb 23, Britain and Germany agreed on a boundary between German East Africa [later Tanganyika, Rwanda and Burundi] and Nyasaland [later Malawi].
    (HN, 2/23/98)(WUD, 1994, p.593,990)

1904        Market Hall was built in Zanzibar City.
    (SSFC, 6/9/02, p.C12)

1907        The British forced the abolition of slavery on the new Sultan of Zanzibar.
    (SSFC, 4/15/01, p.T7)

1911        The British took over the Zanzibar House of Wonders for government offices.
    (SSFC, 6/9/02, p.C13)

1913        The German Tendaguru expedition to East Africa (later Tanzania) yielded a huge collection of dinosaur bones from the late Jurassic. The collection was taken to the Berlin Museum of Natural History.
    (WSJ, 1/31/03, p.A1)
1913        The MV Liemba, a 220-foot steamer, began its life in a shipyard in Papenburg, Germany, where it was named the Graf von Goetzen after German East Africa's former governor. It was dismantled, packed into 5,000 numbered crates, and shipped to Dar es Salaam and then taken by railway and porter to the shore of Lake Tanganyika where it was reassembled in 1915, armed with cannon, and put to work defending the waters against Belgian and British soldiers. It was scuttled and then dredged up by the Belgians but sank in a storm soon after. In 1921 Churchill ordered it recovered. In 1924 it was fished up and renamed MV Liemba, after the local name for the lake. It was put into service as a cargo and passenger ferry in 1927. It later inspired C.S. Forester’s novel "The African Queen" (1935).
    (AFP, 5/12/15)(Econ, 2/4/17, p.39)

1917        Nov, The East African Campaign, a series of battles and guerrilla actions, which started in German East Africa (later Tanzania) and spread to portions of Mozambique, Northern Rhodesia, British East Africa, Uganda and the Belgian Congo, all but ended when the Germans entered Portuguese East Africa (later Mozambique) and continued the campaign living off Portuguese supplies.
    (http://tinyurl.com/lcfyagk)(Econ, 2/4/17, p.40)

1946        Apr, The British Labour government authorized a mission to visit suitable sites in its Tanganyika colony to cultivate groundnuts. The British Labour government of Clement Attlee had come up with a plan to cultivate tracts of what later became Tanzania with peanuts in a plan that came to be called the Tanganyika Groundnut Scheme. It was abandoned at considerable cost to the taxpayers when it did not become profitable.
    (AP, 6/1/09)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Tanganyika_groundnut_scheme)

1946-1961    The Tanganyika Territory was a British trusteeship.
    (WUD, 1994, p.1452)

1952        Apr 15, The Lindi tropical cyclone made landfall on Tanzania. The cyclone resulted in extensive damage to buildings and property and a considerable loss of life.
    (https://tinyurl.com/rnwv78bu)(SSFC, 5/2/21, p.A16)

1954        British colonial authorities opened a deepwater port at Mtwara, Tanzania.
    (Econ, 4/20/13, p.53)

1960        Archbishop Trevor Huddleston (d.1998 at 84) was made Bishop of Masasi, Tanzania, and spent 8 years there.
    (SFC, 4/21/98, p.A26)

1960        The state hospital at Dar es Salaam, Tanzania, was built.
    (Econ, 1/3/04, p.34)

1960        Jane Goodall began her study of chimpanzees in the Gombe reserve of Tanzania.
    (SFEC, 12/15/96, zone 1 p.3)

1961        Dec 9, The British Trust Territory of Tanganyika became independent. The first president was socialist Julius Nyerere (1922-1999). He resigned in 1985. Tanganyika became the mainland part of Tanzania in 1964.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Tanganyika)(SFC, 8/8/98, p.A12)(SFC, 10/15/99, p.D7)

1961        May 3, A British Colonial Office telegram stated the general guidance for keeping papers out of the hands of newly elected independent governments. Items should be disposed of if they "might embarrass members of the police, military forces, public servants or others eg police informers; might compromise sources of intelligence" -- or might be used "unethically" by incoming ministers. Under "Operation Legacy", officials in Kenya, Uganda, Malaysia, Tanzania, Jamaica and other former colonial territories were briefed on how to dispose of documents that "might embarrass Her Majesty's government." This was only made public in 2013.
    (AFP, 11/29/13)

1961-1985    Pres. Julius Nyerere bankrupted Tanzania by forcing peasants into collectives. During his rule he declared water to be free, which led to it being squandered.
    (Econ, 4/16/05, p.40)(Econ, 11/11/06, p.67)

1963        Dec 10, Zanzibar was granted independence by the United Kingdom and became a constitutional monarchy under the Sultan.

1964        Jan 12, Leftist rebels in Zanzibar, soon joined with Tanganyika to form Tanzania, began their successful revolt against the government. The socialist uprising unseated Sultan Jamshid and was fatal to thousands of Indian and Arabian gentry.
    (AP, 1/12/98)(SSFC, 6/9/02, p.C12)

1964        Feb 23, The U.S. and Britain recognized the new Zanzibar government.
    (HN, 2/23/98)

1964        Apr 22, The islands of Zanzibar and Pemba joined the former British colony of Tanganyika to form the republic of Tanzania. Zanzibar consists of the Pemba and Unguja islands. It has its own president and legislation but also votes in the Tanzanian presidential and National Assembly elections.
    (WSJ, 12/13/96, p.A1)(WUD, 1994, p.1453)(SFC, 11/7/00, p.B2)(MC, 4/22/02)

1964        Oct 29, Julius Kambarage Nyerere (1922-1999) took office as the first president of Tanzania, a union of Tanganyika and Zanzibar.

1965        Feb 26, West Germany ceased military aid to Tanzania.
    (SC, 2/26/02)

1967        Sep, The government delegations of China, Tanzania and Zambia held talks in Beijing and formally signed the "Agreement of the Government of the People's Republic of China, the Government of the United Republic of Tanzania and the Government of the Republic of Zambia on the Construction of the Tanzania-Zambia Railway".

1967        The East African Community (EAC) of Kenya, Tanzania and Uganda established a common shilling. The EAC lasted only a decade as cooperation fizzled. The project was revived in 1999 and expanded in 2007 to include Burundi and Rwanda.
    (WSJ, 1/13/98, p.A1)(Econ, 9/5/09, p.52)

1967        An Indian geologist identified a local gemstone from the Mererani region near Mount Kilimanjaro as a rare form of the mineral zoisite. He determined that it turned blue at 400 degrees F. Tiffany & Co. named it “tanzanite."
    (WSJ, 11/16/01, p.A1)

1968        Julius K. Nyerere (1922-1999), the first president of Tanzania (1964-1985), authored Ujamaa: Essays on Socialism." He coined the economic policy called ujamaa, a Swahili word for togetherness or family and fused the country’s 120 tribes into a cohesive state.
    (www.nathanielturner.com/ujamaanyerere.htm)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Julius_Nyerere)(WSJ, 12/10/96, p.A6)

1968        In Tanzania Campbell Bridges (1937-2009), Scottish-born geologist, became the first to record the discovery of the gemstone-quality tsavorite a green gem that shines even before polishing. The gem was later mined in Kenya and Tanzania.
    (AP, 8/13/09)

1970        Oct, China began construction of the 1,160 mile Tazara Railway between Lusaka, Zambia and the Tanzanian port of Dar es Salaam. China brought in its own workers for the project, which in 1976 finished ahead of schedule.
    (www.fmprc.gov.cn/eng/ziliao/3602/3604/t18009.htm)(Econ, 10/28/06, p.54)

1972        Apr 7, Sheik Abeid Amane Karume, Zanzibari vice-president of the republic of Tanzania, was assassinated.
    (Econ, 12/13/03, p.43)(www.encyclopedia.com/doc/1G2-3404703463.html)

1976        Jul, China completed the construction of a railway between Tanzania and Zambia.
    (Econ, 2/7/04, p.45)(www.fmprc.gov.cn/eng/ziliao/3602/3604/t18009.htm)

1976        Human type footprints were found at Laetoli, Tanzania. In 1978-79 Mary Leakey’s team excavated the 75-foot long trail of 47 footprints most likely made by Australopithecus afarensis.
    (www.bbc.co.uk/dna/h2g2/A944336)(PacDisc, Spring ‘96, p.2)

1977        Feb 5, Julius Nyerere and Aboud Jumbe set up the Chama Cha Mapinduzi (CCM) party following the merger of the Tanganyika African National Union (TANU) and the Afro-Shirazi Party (ASP), which were the sole operating parties in mainland Tanzania and the semi-autonomous islands of Zanzibar respectively.
    (https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Chama_Cha_Mapinduzi)(Econ, 10/24/15, p.44)

1977        The East African Community (EAC), founded in 1967, collapsed. In 2000 the regional club was resurrected with six members: Burundi, Kenya, Rwanda, South Sudan, Tanzania and Uganda.
    (https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/East_African_Community)(Econ, 6/11/16, p.51)

1978        Oct 30, Uganda troops attacked Tanzania. Uganda under Idi Amin went on to annex a 700-square-mile section of Tanzania. Pres. Nyerere sent Tanzanian soldiers and Ugandan exile volunteers to push back Amin's forces.
    (SFC, 10/15/99, p.D7)(www.theage.com.au/articles/2003/08/16/1060936102425.html)

1978        Nov 1, Uganda, following its invasion into Tanzania, formally annexed a section across the Kagera River boundary.

1979        Apr 11, Idi Amin was deposed as president of Uganda as rebels and exiles backed by Tanzanian forces seized control of Kampala. Amin escaped to Libya and settled into exile in Saudi Arabia.
    (AP, 4/11/97)(SFC, 10/15/99, p.D7)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Idi_Amin)

1979        In Tanzania 2 new varieties of cassava root were introduced. They were more resistant to draught and more poisonous in raw form.
    (NH, 7/96, p.13)

1980        Apr 1, The southern African Development Coordination Conference (SADCC) was established by 9 countries with the Lusaka declaration (Angola, Botswana, Lesotho, Malawi, Mozambique, Swaziland, Tanzania, Zambia, Zimbabwe). The main aim was coordinating development projects in order to lessen economic dependence on apartheid South Africa.  On August 17, 1992, it was transformed into the Southern African Development Community (SADC). By 2008 it included 15 members.

1980-1994    Tanzania averaged an inflation rate of almost 30% during this period.
    (Econ, 11/2/13, p.82)

1985        In Tanzania Mr. Nyerere retired and left his chosen successor, Hassan Mwinyi, winner of a one party election, to open the economy. Mwinyi ruled to 1995.
    (WSJ, 12/10/96, p.A6)(Econ, 9/1/07, p.44)

1991        Nov 24, Freddie Mercury (45), Zanzibar-born rock singer, died in London of pneumonia brought on by AIDS. Mercury and the rock group Queen made the 1975 hit "Bohemian Rhapsody."
    (AP, 11/24/01)(SSFC, 11/10/02, p.A2)

1993        The government invited Ocelot and TransCanada Pipelines to transport natural gas from the Indian Ocean island of Songo Songo. It was to be completed in 1998.
    (WSJ, 12/10/96, p.A6)

1993        Aug 4, Rwandan Hutu's and Tutsi's negotiated power-sharing agreement in Arusha, Tanzania. It was viewed as a sellout by extremist leaders of the Hutu majority.
    (WSJ, 11/15/96, p.A16)(MC, 8/4/02)

1993        In a privatization drive part of the government stake in Safari beer was sold to a South African company.
    (WSJ, 12/10/96, p.A1)
1993        Monique A. Maddy (31) launched her African Communications Group. The plan was to establish a voice-mail only communications system using wireless hardware. By 1998 the operation grew to 1,000 wireless phones and 55 employees with plans for expansion to Ghana and Sri Lanka.
    (WSJ, 9/25/98, p.B1)
1993        The Serengeti plain in northern Tanzania and south-western Kenya experienced a devastating drought.
    (Econ, 12/1/12, p.88)

1994        Apr 6, The presidents of Rwanda and Burundi were killed on a return trip from Tanzania in a mysterious plane crash near Kigali, Rwanda; widespread violence erupted in Rwanda over claims the plane had been shot down: Agatha Uwilingiyimana, Rwanda’s and Africa’s 1st female PM, Cyprian Niayamira (Ntaryamira), president of Burundi (1993-94) and Juvenal Habyarimana, president of Rwanda (1973) were killed along with the French aircrew. In Rwanda the Interhamwe, an extremist organization, and the Rwandan armed forces, FAR, launched a massacre of Tutsis and sympathizers that killed some 800,000. [see Aug 1, 1997] A French report in 2004 concluded that Paul Kagame, Tutsi rebel leader, was behind the crash. In 2010 a Rwandan government-commissioned inquiry said Rwandan Hutu soldiers shot down the Hutu president's plane and sparked the slaughter of more than 500,000 people. In 2012 a French judge determined that the missile fire that brought down the plane and sparked the Rwanda genocide came from a military camp, and not Tutsi rebels. This finding supported the theory that Habyarimana was killed by extremist members of his own ethnic Hutu camp.
    (WSJ, 11/15/96, p.A16)(SFC, 2/21/97, p.A26)(AP, 4/6/99)(SFC, 2/11/04, p.A8)(AP, 1/12/10)(AFP, 1/11/12)

1994        Apr 29, Hundreds of thousands of refugees fleeing the terror of ethnic massacres in Rwanda were pouring into Tanzania.
    (AP, Internet, 4/29/99)

1994        Apr 30, Some 100,000 men, women and children fleeing ethnic slaughter in Rwanda crossed into neighboring Tanzania. In Rwanda Tutsis were singled out, abducted and massacred at a convent close to an army camp. In 2010 in Tanzania the International Criminal Tribunal for Rwanda handed down a life sentence to Ildephonse Hategekimana, a lieutenant from the former Rwandan army, for ordering the massacre. He was found guilty of genocide, murder and rape.
    (AP, 4/30/99)(AFP, 12/6/10)

1994        Jun, In Tanzania 43 girls died in a fire at Shauritanga school near Mount Kilimanjaro.
    (AP, 8/24/09)(

1994        Jul 18, In Rwanda the Tutsi rebel movement (RPF) under Tutsi rebel leader Paul Kagame took power. It promised to rebuild the courts and execute the guilty for the slaughter of an estimated 500-800 thousand Tutsis. Two million refugees, mostly Hutus, fled to refugee camps in Zaire and Tanzania. Kagame studied at the US Army Command and General Staff College at Fort Leavenworth in 1990. In 2005 Jean Hatzfeld, French journalist, authored “Machete Season: The Killers in Rwanda Speak."
    (SFC, 417/96, p.A-9)(SFC, 8/9/96, p.A10)(SFC, 10/22/96, p.B1)(WSJ, 11/15/96, p.A16)(AP, 7/18/99)(SSFC, 6/26/05, p.C3)

1995        Mar 30, Tens of thousands of Rwandan refugees, fleeing violence in Burundi, began a two-day trek to sanctuary in Tanzania.
    (AP, 3/30/00)

1995        Nov, In Tanzania Pres. Benjamin William Mkapa took office after being elected president for 5 years in the country’s first multiparty vote and free elections in 30 years. Mkapa ruled to 2005.
    (WSJ, 12/10/96, p.A1)(SFC, 8/8/98, p.A12)(Econ, 9/1/07, p.44)(Econ., 7/25/20, p.32)

1995        Tanzania's ruling party faced its first big challenge in 30 years.
    (WSJ, 10/30/95, p.A-1)
1995        Tanzania's Opposition Civic United Front (CUF) supporters believed that the ruling Party of the Revolution (CCM) stole the 1995 elections in Zanzibar.
    (Econ, 11/5/05, p.51)

1996         Jan 25, 12,000 Rwandan refugees fleeing army attacks in Burundi allowed to enter.
    (WSJ, 1/25/96, A-1)

1996        May 21, A Tanzanian ferry sank on Lake Victoria and at least 615 people, many of whom were students, were killed. Pres. Mkapa called the sinking a national disaster. The ferry, MV Bukoba with capacity for 441, was traveling from Bukoba to Mwanza. 563 of the 663 aboard were presumed dead.
    (WSJ, 5/22/96, p.A-1)(SFC, 5/22/96, p.A8)(WSJ, 5/23/96, p.A-1)(AP, 5/21/97)

1996        Aug, After the Burundi coup of Jul 25, former Tanzanian Pres. Julius Nyerere led East African leaders to impose sanctions on Burundi and force Buyoya to restore democratic rule.
    (SFC, 9/25/96, p.A9)

1996        Dec 14, Rwandan refugees, who previously refused to return home, began re-entering Rwanda after 2 1/2 years in Tanzania.
    (AP, 12/14/02)

1997        Jan, It was reported that the lion population had fallen by about a third in the Serengeti National park due to distemper in dogs that transmitted up the food chain. More than 1,000 lions had died over the last 2 years.
    (SFC, 1/18/96, p.A16)

1997        Mar 22, In Tanzania the worst drought in 40 years was reported.
    (SFC, 3/22/97, p.A4)

1998        Apr 13, It was reported that at least 90 miners were feared dead after heavy rains the previous week caused 14 pits to collapse near Arusha. They were mining for tanzanite, a gem used in jewelry.
    (WSJ, 4/13/98, p.A1)

1998        May 15, Three African nations, Kenya, Uganda and Tanzania, announced plans for an economic, political and social union.
    (SFC, 5/16/98, p.A11)

1998        Jun 27, It was reported that some 22,000 Indian house crows had been trapped and killed over the past year. They were introduced into East Africa in the late 19th century and had become a significant pest.
    (SFC, 6/27/98, p.A7)

1998        Aug 7, Two powerful bombs exploded at the US embassies in Nairobi, Kenya and Dar es Salaam, Tanzania. The bombings killed 224 people and marked the first large-scale attack by al Qaeda. Twelve Americans were among the dead, and over 4,800 were injured. In Nairobi at least 53 buildings were damaged. The adjacent Ufundi Cooperative House was demolished and the 22-story Cooperative Bank House had all its windows shattered. Haroun Fazil of the Comoros Islands was later the 3rd bombing suspect to be charged in the Kenya bombing. Ali Mohamed, a former US Army sergeant, was involved in the US Embassy bombings. In 2000 he pleaded guilty for his role under the direction of Osama bin Laden. In 2001 Mohamed Rashed Daoud Al-‘Owhali (24) of Saudi Arabia, Khalfan Khamis Mohamed (27) of Tanzania, Wadi El-Hage (40) of Texas, and Mohamed Sadeek Odeh (36) of Jordan were convicted on 302 counts. In 2007 Walid Muhammad bin Attash told a military tribunal at Guantanamo that he was responsible for organizing the 2000 Cole attack in Yemen as well as the 1998 bombings in Kenya and Tanzania. In 2014 Adel Abdul Bary, a suspect in the bombings, pleaded guilty to lesser charges of making threats against Americans. Plaintiffs began suing Sudan in 2001 in federal court in Washington for harboring and providing support to al Qaeda. In 2020 the US Supreme Court refused to hear Sudan's bid to avoid paying $3.8 billion in damages to family members of people killed or injured in the bombings.
    (SFC, 8/8/98, p.A1)(SFEC, 8/9/98, p.A1)(WSJ, 9/18/98, p.A1)(AP, 8/7/99)(SFC, 10/21/00, p.A1)(SFC, 5/30/01, p.A13)(SFC, 9/21/01, p.A1)(SFC, 3/20/07, p.A3)(SFC, 9/20/14, p.A5)(Reuters, 1/13/20)

1998        Aug 8, A group called the Liberation Arm of the Islamic Sanctuaries claimed responsibility and threatened more attacks. Israeli troops began to arrive to assist in rescue efforts.
    (SFC, 8/8/98, p.A1)(SFEC, 8/9/98, p.A1)(SFC, 8/10/98, p.A13)
1998        Aug 8, Pres. Clinton in weekly radio address vowed the bombers of 2 US embassies in Africa would be brought to justice, "no matter how long it takes or where it takes us.''
    (AP, 8/8/99)

1998        Aug 9, Americans, Kenyans and Tanzanians held church and memorial services to mourn those killed in bombing attacks on two U.S. embassies.
    (AP, 8/9/99)

1998        Sep 21, In Dar es Salaam Mustafa Mahmoud Said Ahmen of Egypt and Rashid Saleh Hemed of Tanzania were charged with murder in connection with the bombing of the US Embassy.
    (SFC, 9/22/98, p.A6)

1998        Sep 23, Transparency Int’l, an int’l. good-government advocacy group, said that Cameroon is viewed as the most corrupt of the 85 countries rated. Nigeria, Tanzania, Honduras and Paraguay filled out the bottom five. Denmark, Finland and Sweden were seen as having the cleanest political systems.
    (WSJ, 9/23/98, p.B17)

1998        Oct 24, A shipment of 10,000 books bound for Tanzania and Zanzibar left SF. The shipment was based on a donation by Berkeley Prof. Ed Ferguson with help from the Int’l. Longshore and Warehouse Union.
    (SFC, 10/23/98, p.A23)

1998        Nov 11, It was reported that Pfizer and the Edna McConnell Clark Foundation initiated a $66 million effort to attack trachoma, a disease of the eye caused by chlamydia. A one-gram dose of zithromax given once a year would treat the disease. Focus was to be on Ghana, Mali, Morocco, Tanzania and Vietnam.
    (SFC, 11/11/98, p.D6)

1998        Dec 16, Federal prosecutors in NYC charged 5 men in the Aug 7 bombing of the American Embassy in Tanzania. Mustafa Mohamed Fadhil of Egypt, Khalfan Khamis Mohamed and Ahmed Khalfan Ghailani of Tanzania, and Fahid Mohammed Ally Msalam and Sheik Ahmed Salim Swedan of Kenya. A 6th man, “Ahmed the German," detonated the explosive device and was killed.
    (SFC, 12/17/98, p.C2)

1998        Rick Ridgeway authored “The Shadow of Kilimanjaro," an account of his trek from the top of the mountain, through the Tsavo national park and to the shores of the Indian Ocean.
    (SFEC, 10/11/98, p.T8)

1999        Jan 19, In Burundi rebels based in Tanzania killed 59 civilians in Makamba. In Muresi Hill 76 civilians were killed.
    (SFC, 1/29/99, p.E9)

1999        Mar 30, Tanzania arrested a former Rwanda army officer suspected in the killing of 10 Belgian peacekeepers in 1994. The officer was freed Mar 29 by a UN war crimes tribunal.
    (WSJ, 3/31/99, p.A1)

1999        Sep 1, In Tanzania a charter plane carrying 10 American tourists from Serengeti National Park crashed on Mount Meru. 12 people were confirmed dead.
    (SFC, 9/2/99, p.A15)(WSJ, 9/3/99, p.A1)

1999        Oct 14, Former Pres. Julius Nyerere (77) died in London from a massive stroke. He was called Mwalimu, the Swahili word for teacher.
    (SFC, 10/14/99, p.A14)(SFC, 10/15/99, p.D7)

1999        Nov 22, In Tanzania it was reported that some 500 people per day were fleeing into the country from Burundi as fighting in Burundi intensified.
    (SFC, 11/23/99, p.A16)

1999        Dec 6, In Tanzania a UN court convicted Georges Rutaganda on 3 of 8 charges of genocide against Tutsis committed when he was vice president of the Interhamwe death squads in Rwanda in 1994.
    (SFC, 12/7/99, p.B2)

1999-2003    Carla Del Ponte, a Swiss prosecutor, served as chief prosecutor of the Rwandan tribunal based in Tanzania.
    (Econ, 1/24/09, p.89)

2000        Feb 21, In Tanzania African presidents and European ministers appealed to Burundi's leaders to negotiate a swift end to the civil war.
    (SFC, 2/22/00, p.A9)

2000        Jul 7, The East African Community (EAC), founded in 1967, was resurrected following its collapse in 1977. The regional club included six members: Burundi, Kenya, Rwanda, South Sudan, Tanzania, and Uganda. In 2005 members agreed on a customs union and in 2010 they agreed on a common market.
    (https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/East_African_Community)(Econ, 6/11/16, p.51)

2000        Oct 5, In Tanzania 18 people died and 39 were injured as a bus swerved to avoid a presidential motorcade and hit a crowd of people.
    (WSJ, 10/6/00, p.A1)

2000        Oct 29, In Tanzania elections were held. The leader of Zanzibar charged that ballots were kept from opposition strongholds. Police later fired on protesters and officials agreed to rerun voting in 16 of 50 districts.
    (WSJ, 10/30/00, p.A1)(WSJ, 10/31/00, p.A1)

2000        Nov 6, In Zanzibar the ruling Chama Cha Mapinduzi won 34 of the 50 seats in the House of Representatives. The opposition Civic United Front took the remaining 16 seats.
    (SFC, 11/7/00, p.B2)

2000        Nov 8, In Tanzania the National Electoral Commission announced that Pres. Benjamin Mkapa had won the Oct 29 multi-party elections with 71.7% of the vote. In Zanzibar Amani Karume was declared president.
    (SFC, 11/9/00, p.C5)(WSJ, 11/8/00, p.A1)

2000        Nov 22, In Tanzania the state power company, Tanesco, announced rationing measures with power cuts 8-16 hours per day until March. $61 million in bills were unpaid, mostly from government offices.
    (SFC, 11/23/00, p.D6)

2001        Jan 3, In Tanzania 6 armed men attacked a ferry with 50 passengers in Lake Tanganyika and 3 were shot to death including a 3-year-old girl. Male passengers were ordered to jump into the lake and 5 bodies were later recovered. 20 were feared drowned. 5 gunmen were later arrested
    (SFC, 1/8/01, p.A10)(SFC, 1/9/01, p.A15)

2001        Jan 15, In East Africa the presidents of Kenya, Tanzania and Uganda formed a regional partnership, reviving one that collapsed in 1978.
    (SFC, 1/16/01, p.A10)

2001        Jan 28, Weekend clashes in Zanzibar (Tanzania) killed 39 opposition supporters as protesters demanded new elections.
    (WSJ, 1/29/01, p.A1)(Econ, 12/13/03, p.43)

2001        Jan 29, Tanzanian police regained control in Zanzibar following weekend street battles that left 40 people dead.
    (WSJ, 1/30/01, p.A1)

2001        Jun 15, The US cancelled $16 million of Tanzania’s debt and committed to canceling the remaining $10 million by the end of the year.
    (SFC, 6/16/01, p.A7)

2002        Jun 20, In northern Tanzania more than 30 people may have suffocated deep inside a tanzanite mine in northern Tanzania after an oxygen pump failed.
    (AP, 6/20/02)

2002        Jun 24, In central Tanzania a passenger train rolled backward into an oncoming freight train, killing at least 288 people.
    (AP, 6/24/02)(AP, 6/25/02)(AP, 6/28/03)

2002        Jul 5, The United States has forgiven all of the remaining $21.3 million in debt owed by the Tanzanian government, the U.S embassy said.
    (AP, 7/5/02)

2002        Nov 17, In the Mbeya region of southwestern Tanzania at least 19 prisoners died from suffocation in an overcrowded jail cell.
    (AP, 11/19/02)

2003          Mar 3, In Tanzania a new U.S. Embassy opened in Dar Es Salaam, replacing the one destroyed 4 ½ years ago when terrorists launched attacks.
    (AP, 3/4/03)

2003        Jul 7, In northwestern Tanzania a bus rolled several times after one of its front tires burst, killing at least 19 people and injuring 23 others.
    (AP, 7/8/03)

2003        Nov 5, Two buses collided in northern Tanzania, killing at least 25 people.
    (AP, 11/5/03)

2004        Jan 3, In Tanzania life expectancy was 43 years and the infant mortality rate was one of the highest in the world.
    (Econ, 1/3/04, p.34)

2004        Jul 15, In Tanzania the International Criminal Tribunal for Rwanda (ICTR) sentenced former finance minister Emmanuel Ndindabahizi to life imprisonment for his role in the east African country's 1994 genocide.
    (AP, 7/15/04)

2004        Jul 25, Pakistan arrested Ahmed Khalfan Ghailani, a Tanzanian al-Qaida suspect, wanted by the United States in the 1998 bombings at U.S. embassies in Kenya and Tanzania.
    (AP, 7/29/04)

2004        Jul, In Tanzania over 10,000 flamingos died at the Lake Manyara National Park. Officials were puzzled and no other wildlife appeared affected.
    (SFC, 7/24/04, p.B10)

2004        Aug 4, In southern Tanzania some 22 villagers appeared in court on charges of killing 7 people who allegedly practiced witchcraft. Villagers said the witches cut off the sexual organs of dead villagers and used them to concoct charms intended to bring good harvests and fortune.
    (AP, 8/5/04)

2004        Nov 20, Fifteen African presidents and UN chief Kofi Annan signed a common declaration in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania, to promote peace and security in the Great Lakes region.
    (AFP, 11/20/04)

2004        Some 50,000 Barabaig, a remnant of the Datoga people, lived in central Tanzania. They were semi-nomadic herders by tradition, but since 1961 the government had appropriated much of their traditional grazing land for agricultural development.
    (NG, 7/04, p.80)

2004        Dr. Frank Artress and his wife Susan Gustafson, formerly from Modesto, Ca., established the Foundation for African Medicine and Education (FAME) in Tanzania. Their decision to work in Africa followed a spiritual transformation during a climb on Mt. Kilimanjaro, during which Artress was rescued by his native crew.
    (SSFC, 5/4/08, p.A17)(www.fameafrica.org)

2005        Apr 27, A UN tribunal in Tanzania sentenced Mika Muhimana, a former local government official in western Rwanda, to imprisonment for the rest of his life for shooting to death and raping mostly Tutsi victims during the 1994 genocide.
    (AP, 4/28/05)

2005        May 20, British scientists reported the discovery of a new species of monkey in Tanzania, the Lophocebus kipunji.
    (SFC, 5/21/05, p.A1)

2005        Oct 16, In Tanzania 4 British tourists and a Canadian pilot who were killed in a weekend plane crash in the western part of the country.
    (AFP, 10/18/05)

2005        Oct 30, Zanzibar police and ruling party militia chased opposition supporters through the streets as voters chose between the socialists who have ruled semiautonomous state for more than 30 years and an opposition group promising wholesale change. Voting in national and regional elections on mainland Tanzania was postponed to Dec. 18 because of a vice presidential candidate's death. Official results named incumbent Amani Karume of the ruling Party of the Revolution (CCM) the winner with 53% of the vote.
    (AP, 10/30/05)(Econ, 11/5/05, p.51)

2005        Nov 1, Police surrounded opposition headquarters and clashed with protesters on the semiautonomous archipelago of Zanzibar (Tanzania) as the ruling party was declared the winner of presidential and parliamentary elections. 9 people died in related violence and the opposition made allegations of rigging.
    (AP, 11/1/05)(WSJ, 11/2/05, p.A1)

2005        Nov 8, Callixte Kalimanzira (52), a suspected leader of Rwanda's 1994 genocide, surrendered in Tanzania to the international court trying the architects of the slaughter.
    (AP, 11/8/05)

2005        Nov 14, In Tanzania Calixte Kalimanzira, a man who served as Rwanda's interior minister during the slaughter of more than half a million people in 1994, pleaded not guilty to three counts of genocide and crimes against humanity.
    (AP, 11/14/05)

2005        Dec 7, A UN court in Tanzania trying masterminds of Rwanda's genocide convicted Paul Bisengimana, former mayor of Gikoro, for abetting the 1994 slaughter, but dropped three counts including genocide.
    (AP, 12/07/05)

2005        Dec 13, A UN tribunal convicted former Lt. Col. Aloys Simba, a retired Rwandan army officer, of genocide and sentenced him to 25 years in prison for participating in the slaughter of ethnic minority Tutsi.
    (AP, 12/13/05)

2005        Dec 14, Tanzania voted for president and Parliament. Jakaya Kikwete took 80% of the vote. The ruling party of the Revolution (CCM) won 206 of 232 parliamentary seats.
    (WSJ, 12/15/05, p.A1)(Econ, 1/7/06, p.50)

2005        Dec 18, In Tanzania the national election commission said Jakaya Kikwete, candidate for the ruling Revolutionary Party, won the presidential election with 80% of the vote.
    (AP, 12/18/05)(Econ, 9/30/06, p.57)

2005        The population of Tanzania was about 36 million with 45% Christian and 35% Muslim.
    (Econ, 11/5/05, p.51)

2006        Jan 1, East African leaders said that millions of people in the region faced hunger because poor rains had affected vital crops and pasture. Burundi, Ethiopia, Kenya, Somalia and Tanzania faced acute food shortages.
    (AP, 1/1/06)

2006        Jan 4, In Tanzania rocks and boulders tumbled down Mount Kilimanjaro and crashed into tents where tourists were sleeping, killing 3 American climbers and seriously injuring 2.
    (AP, 1/5/06)

2006        Feb 18, Conservation officials said a searing drought in Kenya and neighboring Tanzania has killed dozens of hippopotamuses and other wild animals, and disrupted the annual migration of wildebeests and zebras between the two East African nations.
    (AP, 2/20/06)

2006        Apr 29, Scientists tried to discover why hundreds of dolphins washed up dead on a beach popular with tourists on the northern coast of Zanzibar.
    (AP, 4/29/06)

2006        Jun 9, In northern Tanzania an overloaded bus plunged off a bridge and into a river gorge, killing at least 54 people.
    (AP, 6/9/06)

2006        Sep 15, Tanzania’s energy minister said ongoing drought in east Africa has forced Tanzania to impose power cuts seven days a week.
    (AP, 9/15/06)

2006        Oct 17, The United States said it plans to take in about 10,000 Burundian refugees from Tanzania, many of whom fled their landlocked nation as far back as 1972.
    (Reuters, 10/18/06)

2006        Nov 24, France said it will give Tanzania 46 million euros (60 million dollars) to fund development projects in the east African nation over the next five years.
    (AFP, 11/24/06)

2006        Nov 30, The East African Community (EAC) said Rwanda and Burundi have been accepted as members, expanding the regional economic bloc to five nations. The EAC previously grouped Kenya, Uganda and Tanzania, which hoped to transform the region into a political federation.
    (AP, 11/30/06)

2006        Dec 14, In Tanzania Joseph Nzabirinda (49), a former youth organizer accused in Rwanda's 1994 genocide, pleaded guilty to one count of murder before a UN war crimes court, becoming only the seventh defendant to admit his guilt. Amnesty International expressed serious concern that the court has been one-sided in its prosecutions and decried its proposed transfer of cases to the Rwandan judicial system.
    (AFP, 12/14/06)

2006        Dec 15, In Kenya 11 African heads of state attending the 2nd International Conference on the Great Lakes Region signed a landmark $2 billion (1.5-billion-euro) security and development pact to forestall fresh violence in the area.
    (AFP, 12/15/06)

2006        In the waters off East Africa unmarked fishing ships carried 23mm anti-aircraft guns and fished illegally impacting the local fishermen of Kenya, Somalia and Tanzania. Fish stocks fell as coral reefs were ripped, and numberless dolphins and turtles were getting snagged.
    (Econ, 8/5/06, p.43)

2007        Jan 5, UN Secretary-General Ban Ki-moon appointed Tanzania's Foreign Minister Asha-Rose Migiro to the deputy secretary-general post at the UN, calling her a highly respected leader and outstanding manager who has championed the developing world. A senior UN official said the United Nations has investigated more than 300 members of UN peacekeeping missions for alleged sexual exploitation and abuse during the past three years and more than half were fired or sent home.
    (AP, 1/6/07)

2007        Feb 14, In Dar es Salaam, Tanzania, a conference of Anglican leaders opened as the 77 million-member church struggled with a potentially disastrous fight over the Bible and sexuality.
    (AP, 2/14/07)

2007        Feb 14, In Dar es Salaam, Tanzania, a conference of Anglican leaders opened as the 77 million-member church struggled with a potentially disastrous fight over the Bible and sexuality.
    (AP, 2/14/07)

2007        Feb 19, Anglican leaders in Tanzania demanded that the US Episcopal Church unequivocally bar official prayers for gay couples and the consecration of more gay bishops to undo the damage that North Americans have caused the Anglican family.
    (AP, 2/20/07)

2007        Feb 26, The World Vision humanitarian group said that more than 50% of children in refugee camps around Africa's volatile Great Lakes area have experienced some form of sexual abuse. The data, collected in camps in the Burundi, Congo (DRC), Tanzania, northern Uganda and Rwanda, said widespread poverty made children vulnerable to abuses.
    (AFP, 2/27/07)

2007        Mar 15, A defiant Zimbabwean President Robert Mugabe told his critics of his government to "go hang" themselves in his first response to the arrest and assault of opposition chief Morgan Tsvangirai. Tanzanian President Jakaya Kikwete went into talks with Mugabe following growing international condemnation of the crackdown on opposition demonstrators.
    (AFP, 3/15/07)

2007        Mar 28, In Tanzania 14 Southern African leaders meet for a two-day extraordinary summit on economic and political regional woes spurred by crises in Zimbabwe and the Democratic Republic of Congo.
    (AFP, 3/28/07)

2007        Mar 29, In Tanzania African leaders rallied around President Robert Mugabe of Zimbabwe, ignoring calls for tougher action against him and suggesting dialogue as the solution to his country's deepening political crisis.
    (Reuters, 3/29/07)

2007        Apr 13, In Tanzania the International Criminal Tribunal for Rwanda (ICTR) ordered that Michel Bagaragaza, the former head of Rwanda's national tea industry, be tried by a court in the Netherlands. He was accused of involvement in Rwanda’s 1994 mass slaughter. In Sep, 2009, Bagaragaza (64) pleaded guilty to complicity in the slaughter. In Nov he was sentenced to 8 years in prison.
    (AFP, 4/13/07)(AP, 9/17/09)(AP, 11/5/09)

2007        May 18, A group of 88 Burundians who have lived as refugees in neighboring Tanzania for up to 35 years became the first of some 8,500 to head to the US for a new life.
    (AP, 5/19/07)

2007        May 21, In Tanzania the appeals court of the UN-backed Rwandan genocide tribunal upheld a life sentence for Mika Muhimana (57), convicted on multiple counts of rape and murder. Muhimana, a Hutu, was accused of involvement in the rape of nearly 30 women from the minority Tutsi tribe during Rwanda's 1994 genocide.
    (AFP, 5/21/07)

2007        Jun 4, The TED organization (Technology, Entertainment, Design) gathered in Tanzania for a 4 day session to discuss ideas for helping the poor of Africa.
    (Econ, 6/23/07, p.55)(www.ted.com/pages/view/id/49)
2007        Jun 4, The Institute for Democracy in South Africa (IDASA) said a study of mortality patterns in South Africa, Malawi, Namibia, Zambia, Tanzania and Senegal indicated Africa's HIV/AIDS crisis was reaching deep into elected governments.
    (Reuters, 6/4/07)

2007        Jun 12, It was reported that the Hadzabe tribe of Tanzania, numbering fewer than 1,500, faced a hastening extinction following a government deal to lease 2,500 square miles of tribal hunting land to members of the UAR royal family. Schools, roads and other projects were offered in compensation.
    (SFC, 6/12/07, p.A20)

2007        Jun 19, President Jakaya Kikwete said Tanzania will shut camps housing 150,000 refugees from Burundi by the end of this year as the war in the neighboring central African country is over.
    (AFP, 6/19/07)

2007        Jul 25, State television reported that Zimbabwe is to import 200,000 tons of the staple maize from Tanzania to avert widespread food shortages following a poor harvest. An international rights group said Zimbabwe's government routinely arrests and tortures women's rights activists as part of a crackdown on protests against President Mugabe and his policies.
    (AP, 7/25/07)

2007        Jul, Rwanda and Burundi became members of the East African Community (EAC), which included Kenya, Tanzania and Uganda.
    (AP, 11/17/07)(Econ, 9/5/09, p.52)

2007        Aug 3, In Tanzania Darfur's fractious rebel groups gathered for talks aimed at hammering out a united front, following UN approval of a beefed up peacekeeping mission in the Sudanese region.
    (AP, 8/3/07)

2007        Aug 5, Darfur's fractious rebel groups held a third day of reconciliation talks in Tanzania in a bid to present a united front at future peace talks with Khartoum.
    (AP, 8/5/07)

2007        Aug 6, In Tanzania Darfur's rebel groups concluded four days of talks by agreeing on a common platform to soon enter final peace negotiations with the Sudanese government.
    (AFP, 8/6/07)

2007        Sep 1, The population of Tanzania was about 39 million, with a GDP per head of $860.
    (Econ, 9/1/07, p.44)

2007        Nov 14, The EU reached an accord with the East African Community (EAC) states of Burundi, Kenya, Rwanda, Tanzania and Uganda. They will enjoy duty free, quota free access to the EU for all products, except sugar and rice, from January 1. Originally established in 1967, the EAC collapsed a decade later amid diverging economic philosophies. It was resurrected in 2000 as Kenya, Tanzania and Uganda agreed to create an EU-style common market for their 90 million citizens. Rwanda and Burundi became members in July this year.
    (AP, 11/17/07)(Econ, 9/5/09, p.52)

2007        Dec 28, Tanzania's ambassador to South Africa and his wife were attacked by armed robbers at a farewell dinner hosted for them in the capital Pretoria.
    (AFP, 12/29/07)

2007        Uganda began construction of the $860 million Bujagali Dam for hydroelectric power from Lake Victoria water. About 55% of lower water levels on Lake Victoria were attributed dams built by the Ugandan government. This severely impacted farmers and fishermen in adjoining Kenya and Tanzania as well as Uganda.
    (SFC, 6/24/08, p.A14)

2008        Feb 7, Tanzania's PM Edward Lowassa and two Cabinet ministers resigned over a corruption scandal involving a contract with a nonexistent firm supposedly based in the US. Pres. Jakaya Kikwete dissolved the entire Cabinet as a result.
    (AP, 2/8/08)

2008        Feb 17, US President George W. Bush discussed the bloody conflict in neighboring Kenya with Tanzania's Pres. Jakaya Kikwete before showering him with praise and signing over a $700 million development grant.
    (Reuters, 2/17/08)

2008        Feb 18, President Bush handed out hugs and bed nets in Tanzania's rural north, saying the US is part of a new international effort to provide enough mosquito netting to protect every child between one and five from contracting malaria in this east African nation.
    (AP, 2/18/08)
2008        Feb 18, Callixte Nzabonimana (55), Rwanda’s former youth and sport minister, was arrested in the town of Kigoma, Tanzania. He faced trial for participating in the 1994 genocide. The trial of Nzabonimana, described by prosecutors as "the Butcher of Gitarama," began at the International Criminal Tribunal for Rwanda (ICTR) in Tanzania on Nov 9, 2009.
    (Reuters, 2/19/08)(AFP, 11/9/09)

2008        Feb 28, Kenya's rival politicians, aided by AU chairman Jakaya Kikwete, signed a power-sharing agreement and shook hands after weeks of bitter negotiations on how to end the country's deadly postelection crisis.
    (AP, 2/28/08)(Econ, 3/1/08, p.49)

2008        Mar 18, The World Food Program (WFP) made a six million dollar appeal to feed some 90,000 Burundian refugees in Tanzania who expect to return to the central African country in 2008.
    (AP, 3/18/08)

2008        Mar 28, In northeastern Tanzania 75 miners were missing and believed to have died in mines following heavy rains.
    (AP, 3/29/08)

2008        Apr 13, In Tanzania about 1,000 people cheered and marched with a team of 80 athletes and a Cabinet minister participating in the Olympic torch relay, the flame's only stop in Africa.
    (AP, 4/13/08)

2008        Jun 8, In Tanzania a growing criminal trade in albino body parts was reported to have led to 19 killings over the past year. By the end of the year at least 35 albinos were reportedly murdered to supply witch doctors with limbs, organs and hair for their potions.
    (SSFC, 6/8/08, p.A22)(Econ, 1/17/09, p.50)

2008        Jul 16, The United States signed a pair of agreements to boost trade and investment ties with countries in southern and eastern Africa. These included the Trade, Investment and Development Cooperation Agreement with the Southern Africa Customs Union (SACU), which includes Botswana, Lesotho, Namibia, South Africa and Swaziland; and the Trade Investment and Framework Agreement (TIFA) with the East African Community, which includes Burundi, Kenya, Rwanda, Tanzania and Uganda.
    (Reuters, 7/17/08)

2008        Sep 24, In Tanzania the International Criminal Tribunal for Rwanda (ICTR) sentenced Simeon Nchamihigo, Rwanda’s former deputy prosecutor, to life in prison for his role in Rwanda's 1994 genocide.
    (Reuters, 9/24/08)

2008        Oct 1, In central Tanzania a stampede at an overcrowded dance hall in Tabora killed 20 children and left 50 others injured as they celebrated the Islamic Eid al-Fitr festival.
    (AP, 10/2/08)

2008        Dec 2, In Tanzania Simon Bikindi, Rwandan singer-songwriter, was sentenced to 15 years in prison by the Tanzania-based UN war crimes court for inciting the killings of ethnic Tutsis during the 1994 genocide. In 2010 a court upheld his 15 year sentence. The time Bikindi has already spent in prison since his arrest in July 2001 will be deducted from the 15 years.
    (AFP, 12/2/08)(AFP, 3/18/10)

2008        Dec, Tanganyika Oil was acquired by a subsidiary of China Petroleum & Chemical Corp. (Sinopec) for $2 billion.
    (Econ, 6/27/09, p.72)

2009        Feb 15, China and Tanzania signed cooperation agreements worth millions of dollars during a visit by President Hu Jintao to this east African country aimed to reinforce ties.
    (AFP, 2/15/09)

2009        Feb 27, A UN tribunal in Tanzania convicted a former Rwandan military chaplain of attempted rape and genocide for crimes that included killing people who had sought refuge in a seminary. The three-judge panel sentenced Emmanuel Rukundo (50) to 25 years in prison. Rukundo will only serve 17 and half years because the judges gave him credit for the seven and a half years he has already spent in detention.
    (AP, 2/27/09)

2009        Mar 29, In central Tanzania a goods train hit a stationary passenger train, killing at least 15 people.
    (AP, 3/29/09)

2009        Apr 6, In Zambia western nations and lending agencies meeting in Lusaka agreed a financing package of more than $1 billion to improve infrastructure in southern and central Africa at an investment conference meant to expand transport links and trade. Britain said it would separately provide 100 million pounds ($149.2 million) to transform the region's infrastructure to increase trade and mitigate the effects of the global financial crisis. New projects will link businesses in 8 African countries: Tanzania, the Democratic Republic of Congo, Zambia, Malawi, Botswana, Zimbabwe, Mozambique and South Africa.
    (AP, 4/6/09)

2009        Apr 29, In Tanzania huge blasts rocked an ammunition dump at an army camp in the coastal city of Dar es Salaam. More than a dozen people were killed.
    (AP, 4/29/09)(SFC, 2/18/11, p.A2)

2009        Jun 22, In Tanzania a UN court, trying alleged masterminds of Rwanda's 1994 genocide, sentenced former interior minister Callixte Kalimanzira (56) to 30 years in prison for tricking thousands of people to hide on a hill, only to watch them get slaughtered by militias.
    (AP, 6/22/09)

2009        Jul 9, The UN passed a resolution extending the lifetime of the International Criminal Tribunal for Rwanda to next year. The latest extension is the second for the Tanzania-based court which had originally been scheduled wind up its lower court cases by December 2008, but had its life extended to December 2009.
    (AFP, 7/9/09)

2009        Jul 14, In Tanzania Tharcisse Renzaho, the former prefect of Rwandan capital Kigali, was sentenced to life for genocide-related crimes by the UN-backed war crimes court trying masterminds of the country's 1994 massacre.
    (AFP, 7/14/09)

2009        Jul 26, In Tanzania a bus crashed into a truck in Korogwe killing 33 people.
    (SSFC, 7/26/09, p.A2)

2009        Aug 22, In Tanzania a fire ripped through a dormitory in the rural Iringa district, killing 12 schoolgirls and wounding 23 others. Preliminary investigations indicated the fire was caused by a candle after a student fell asleep studying.
    (AP, 8/24/09)

2009        Oct 30, The BBC said Anton Turner (38), a British guide working on a children's television show in Tanzania, was killed after being charged by an elephant. The show "Serious Explorers" followed David Livingstone's famous 19th-century trek across the African continent.
    (AP, 10/31/09)

2009        Nov 11, In Tanzania a landslide followed a night of heavy rains and killed 11 children and 9 adults near Mt. Kilimanjaro.
    (AP, 11/12/09)

2009        Nov 17, A judge in Tanzania said the prosecution failed to prove its case against Father Hormisdas Nsengimana (55). He was alleged to have been at the center of a group of Hutu extremists that planned and carried out targeted attacks in Nyanza in 1994. Nsengimana was head of College Christ-Roi, a prestigious Catholic school in the southern Rwandan town. Judge Eric Mose ordered his immediate release from the UN detention facility in Arusha. He had been imprisoned for seven years since his 2002 arrest in Cameroon.
    (AP, 11/17/09)

2009        Nov 18, In Uganda a new 12 million dollar family planning drive was launched in Kampala highlighting how Obama administration funding has revamped a contraception drive in Africa and developing states. Uganda, Ethiopia, Nigeria, Senegal, Tanzania and Kenya will share in the 12-million dollar funding, but international organizations still have to persuade certain African governments that it is in their interest to curb population growth.
    (AFP, 11/18/09)

2009        Nov 20, In Tanzania members of the East Africa Community (Burundi, Kenya, Rwanda, Tanzania, Uganda) signed a common market agreement in Arusha, headquarters of the EAC.

2009        Nov 30, Interpol and the Kenya Wildlife Service said African authorities over the last 3 months had raided shops, intercepted vehicles at checkpoints and used sniffer dogs to detect and seize over 3,800 pounds (1,768kg) of illegal elephant ivory in a six-nation operation. This involved the wildlife authorities, police and customs departments of Burundi, Ethiopia, Kenya, Rwanda, Tanzania and Uganda.
    (AP, 11/30/09)

2009        Dec 10, In Tanzania an undersea cable to the archipelago of Zanzibar failed. The government vowed to have it restored by Feb 20, 2010.
    (SSFC, 1/24/10, p.M3)

2009        Dec 17, Oxfam said some areas of East Africa had received less than 5% of the normal November rains and that many people are malnourished in Uganda, Tanzania, Somalia, Kenya and Ethiopia. It was the sixth failed rainy season for war-ravaged Somalia and the worst drought there for 20 years. The European Commission announced that it would immediately release an extra $75 million to fund emergency relief for drought-stricken areas of East Africa. It estimated that 16 million people will need aid in the coming months.
    (AP, 12/17/09)

2009        The population of Tanzania was about 41 million.

2010        Feb 11, In Tanzania a UN tribunal found former Rwandan Lt. Col. Tharcisse Muvunyi guilty of exhorting a crowd to kill Tutsis and destroy their homes during the 1994 genocide that ripped through the Central African nation. He was sentenced to 15 years in prison.
    (AP, 2/11/10)

2010        Feb 25, In Arusha, Tanzania, the International Criminal Tribunal for Rwanda (ICTR), found lieutenant colonel Ephrem Setako (60) guilty of genocide, crimes against humanity and murder. "The Chamber found that Setako ordered the killings on 25 April 1994 of 30 to 40 Tutsis at Mukamira military camp in Ruhengeri prefecture and around 10 other Tutsis there on 11 May 1994."
    (Reuters, 2/25/10)

2010        May 14, Four African countries (Ethiopia, Rwanda, Tanzania, Uganda) signed a new treaty on the equitable sharing of the Nile waters despite strong opposition from Egypt and Sudan, who have the lion's share of the river waters. The new agreement, the Nile Basin Cooperative Framework, is to replace a 1959 accord between Egypt and Sudan that gives them control of more than 90 percent of the water flow. Egyptian Foreign Minister Ahmed Abul Gheit warned at the weekend that Cairo's water rights were a "red line" and threatened legal action if a partial deal is reached.
    (AFP, 5/14/10)

2010        Jul 1, The international court in Tanzania investigating Rwanda's 1994 genocide said it has sentenced Yussuf Munyakazi (75), a father of 13, to 25 years in jail for killing thousands of people. He was found guilty of "genocide and extermination" involving Tutsis who had sought refuge in Catholic churches.
    (AFP, 7/1/10)

2010        Jul 13, Tanzanian lawyer Jwani Mwaikusa was shot in Dar es Salaam. He was a defense lawyer for a UN tribunal that tries suspects in Rwanda's 1994 genocide. Police said his nephew and a neighbor were also killed.
    (AP, 7/15/10)

2010        Jul 31, The Tanzanian island of Zanzibar voted to form a unity government  after October elections in an effort to avoid a repeat of previous electoral violence that killed dozens of people.
    (AP, 8/1/10)

2010        Aug 3, In Arusha, Tanzania, the International Criminal Tribunal for Rwanda (ICTR), found Dominique Ntawukulilyayo (68) guilty of genocide and sentenced him to 25 years of imprisonment. Prosecutors said Ntawukulilyayo in 1994 had transported soldiers to a hill where thousands of refugee Tutsis had gathered after he promised to feed and protect them. The soldiers joined other assailants in an attack, leaving possibly thousands of Tutsis dead.
    (Reuters, 8/3/10)

2010        Aug 5, In Tanzania 20 school children were feared drowned and 20 rescued after a boat they were traveling in capsized on the Tanzanian side of Lake Victoria.
    (AP, 8/6/10)

2010        Aug 26, Interpol said police have seized about 10 metric tons of counterfeit medicines and arrested 80 people in a sweep across eastern Africa. Authorities across Burundi, Kenya, Rwanda, Tanzania, Uganda and Zanzibar took part in the bust.
    (Reuters, 8/26/10)

2010        Sep 3, In Accra, Ghana, Standard Bank Africa announced at an agricultural forum a 100 million dollar scheme to reach some 750,000 small scale farmers in Ghana, Mozambique, Tanzania and Uganda in a bid to boost output.
    (AFP, 9/4/10)

2010        Sep 29, In Tanzania a hot air balloon carrying tourists over Serengeti National Park crashed, killing an American and a Danish tourist and wounding eight others.
    (AP, 10/1/10)

2010        Oct 31, Tanzania's ruling party, which has been in power for close to half a century, faced an energized opposition in national elections, following corruption scandals that have undermined the government's popularity. On Nov 5 election officials said Tanzania's Pres. Jakaya Kikwete won a 2nd term in office with 61% of the vote. In Zanzibar Ali Mohammed Shein (62) won the election with 50.1% of the vote. He was sworn in as president on Nov 3.
    (AP, 10/31/10)(AP, 11/3/10)(AP, 11/6/10)

2010        Nov 1, In Tanzania Gasper Kanyarukiga, a former Rwandan businessman, was found guilty of ordering bulldozers in 1994 to demolish the Nyange Church where 2,000 Tutsis had sought shelter. Judge Taghrid Hikmet said he intentionally participated in the genocidal act and sentenced him to 30 years in prison.
    (AP, 11/1/10)

2010        Dec 6, In Tanzania the International Criminal Tribunal for Rwanda handed down a life sentence to Ildephonse Hategekimana, a lieutenant from the former Rwandan army, after finding him guilty of genocide, murder and rape in the 1994 massacre of Tutsis.
    (AP, 12/6/10)

2010-2012 In Tanzania the number of elephants at the Selous Game Reserve droped from 40,000 to 13,000 during this period. In 2014 it was reported that more than 100,000 African elephants had been killed during this period for their tusks.
    (SFC, 8/23/14, p.A2)

2011        Jan, Tanzania arrested Mohamed Mohamed of Kenya for his role in the July 11, 2010, bombings that killed 76 people in the Ugandan capital Kampala. In 2011 Tanzania’s Kisutu court granted an application to extradite the suspect to Uganda to face justice.
    (AP, 7/2/11)

2011        Feb 17, In Tanzania an ammunition depot exploded in Dar Es Salaam killing at least 25 people and sent thousands into a stadium for safety.
    (SFC, 2/18/11, p.A2)

2011        Mar 25, Africa's highest court on human rights ordered Libya to immediately cease any action that would result in the loss of life. The order also compelled Libya to report to the Tanzania-based court within two weeks. The ruling was not made public until March 30.
    (AP, 3/31/11)

2011        May 5, In Vietnam customs officials intercepted 661 pounds (300 kg) of smuggled African elephant tusks from Tanzania at a northern port city.
    (AP, 5/6/11)

2011        May 17, In Tanzania the International Criminal Tribunal for Rwanda sentenced Maj. Gen. Augustin Bizimungu to 30 years in prison for ordering killings during the 1994 genocide. Three other top officers were also sentenced. Bizimungu was captured in Angola in 2002. The ICTR also convicted the head of the paramilitary police at the time, Augustin Ndindiliyimana, of genocide crimes but ordered his release as he had already spent 11 years in jail.
    (AP, 5/17/11)(AFP, 5/17/11)

2011        May 23, India's PM Manmohan Singh began a six-day trip to Ethiopia and Tanzania, aiming to strike deeper economic ties with a continent rich in minerals and commodities, but where Asia's third-largest economy lags far behind rival China.
    (Reuters, 5/23/11)

2011        Jun 3, In Tanzania former Black Panther Party leader Elmer "Geronimo" Pratt (63), died. Pratt was convicted in 1972 of being one of two men who robbed and fatally shot schoolteacher Caroline Olsen on a Santa Monica tennis court in December 1968. The conviction was overturned after he spent 27 years in prison for a crime he maintained he did not commit.
    (AP, 6/3/11)

2011        Jun 24, In Tanzania the UN Court trying suspects of the 1994 Rwanda genocide found Pauline Nyiramasuhuko, a female former government minister, and her son, Arsene Ntahobali, guilty of war crimes and gave both life sentences, marking the first time a woman has been convicted of genocide.
    (AP, 6/24/11)

2011        Aug 4, Tanzania’s Legal and Human Rights Center said police brutality has led to the deaths of 20 people in Tanzania in the first six months of this year. Five police officers were killed by civilians during the same period.
    (AFP, 8/4/11)

2011        Aug 10, Tanzania pledged 300 tons of maize for Somalia's drought-hit people during a visit by Somali President Sharif Sheikh Ahmed.
    (AFP, 8/10/11)

2011        Aug 24, Youths torched a bar on Tanzania's Zanzibar archipelago in a reported protest against alcohol sales, the third bar attacked this month on the popular tourist island.
    (AFP, 8/25/11)

2011        Sep 10, The Tanzania ferry, M.V. Spice Islanders, overcrowded and carrying over 800 people sank in deep sea between the mainland and Pemba Island, leaving at least 240 people dead. Some 600 people were rescued.
    (AP, 9/10/11)(AP, 9/11/11)

2011        Sep 30, Two former Rwandan ministers were jailed for 30 years by the International Criminal Tribunal for Rwanda (ICTR) for involvement in the country's 1994 genocide. Former public service minister Prosper Mugiraneza and his then trade counterpart Justin Mugenzi were convicted of complicity to commit genocide and incitement to commit genocide. The Tanzania-based tribunal acquitted 2 other ministers charged with similar offences due to lack of evidence.
    (AFP, 9/30/11)

2011        Oct 3, The Tanzanian navy foiled a pirate attack on an offshore oil drilling ship and captured all seven bandits. The attack on the Ocean Rig Poseidon, owned by Ocean Rig of Norway, took place as it was carrying out exploration drilling for Brazilian firm Petrobras.
    (AFP, 10/4/11)

2011        Nov 9, Tanzanian opposition leader Freeman Mbowe surrendered to police. Mbowe, who heads the CHADEMA party, and scores of supporters staged a Nov 7 demonstration in the northern town of Arusha demanding the release of one of its officials and that President Jakaya Kikwete step down.
    (AFP, 11/9/11)

2011        Nov 10, Tanzanian police slapped a ban on protests, as the opposition planned to rally for the release of some of its members and the ruling party prepared its own counter-demonstration.
    (AFP, 11/10/11)

2011        Nov 17, The Tanzania-based International Criminal Tribunal for Rwanda (ICTR) handed down a 15-year jail term for genocide to Gregory Ndahimana (59), a Rwandan former mayor, who in 1994 failed to stop police bulldozing a church, burying nearly 2,000 people sheltered inside.
    (AFP, 11/17/11)

2011        Nov 21, Tanzania's PM Mizengo Pinda said eight suspects have been sentenced to death by hanging for the murder of albinos since a wave of witchcraft killings erupted in 2007. More than 60 albinos have been murdered in Tanzania since 2007 and their body parts chopped off to be sold to witch doctors.
    (AFP, 11/21/11)

2011        Dec 1, Amnesty International urged Ethiopia, Tanzania and Zambia to arrest former US president George W. Bush for violating international torture laws, during his African tour this week.
    (AFP, 12/1/11)

2011        Dec 14, The Tanzania-based UN tribunal said it has overturned several convictions against former Rwandan Ministry of Defense director Col. Theoneste Bagosora. The court reduced his life sentence to 35 years. Bagosora had been sentenced in 2008 at the age of 67. The court also reduced the life sentence of former military commander Anatole Nsengiyumva to 15 years and released him for time served.
    (AP, 12/15/11)

2011        Air Tanzania stopped flying after its last aircraft was grounded for repairs.
    (Econ, 6/8/19, p.45)

2012        Jan 11, Alexis Sinduhije, the head of Burundi’s opposition Movement for Solidarity and Development, a former journalist, was arrested in Tanzania upon his arrival there from Uganda. On Jan 21 Burundi admitted that it had asked for the exiled Burundian opposition leader to be arrested in Tanzania and extradited to face murder charges.
    (AFP, 1/21/12)

2012        Jan 24, Tanzanian police freed Burundian opposition leader Alexis Sinduhije, who was arrested two weeks ago in Dar es Salaam at Burundi's request. Sinduhije was expelled to Uganda.
    (AFP, 1/24/12)

2012        Feb 18, It was reported that more than 3,000 children in northern Uganda are suffering from a debilitating mystery ailment known as nodding disease. For several years, scientists have tried and failed to determine the cause of the illness. Scientists did not know if the disease is linked to similar outbreaks in neighboring South Sudan and Tanzania.
    (AFP, 2/18/12)

2012        Feb 24, The Tanzania-based UN-backed tribunal for Rwanda referred fugitive suspect Fulgence Kayishema's case to Kigali, the second such handover after initially refusing to do so on account that Rwandan courts could not guarantee fair trials.
    (AFP, 2/24/12)

2012        May 4, Tanzanian President Jakaya Kikwete sacked six ministers over graft allegations after a report by the auditor-general implicated numerous officials in cases of bribery and suspect procurements. Kikwete also transferred an additional eight ministers to new portfolios and appointed seven new ones.
    (AFP, 5/4/12)

2012        May 26, In Tanzania's archipelago of Zanzibar an Islamic group called Uamsho clashed with police after they marched on a police station following the arrest of one of their leaders. The group had been holding demonstrations demanding an end to the union with Tanzania.
    (AFP, 5/27/12)

2012        May 29, In Tanzania a leading local rights group said some 3,000 people suspected of witchcraft, mainly old women, have been lynched in Tanzania from 2005 to 2011.
    (AFP, 5/29/12)

2012        Jun 19, Double amputee Spencer West completed his ascent of Mount Kilimanjaro, in Tanzania. West (31) of Canada, lost the use of both legs at the age of five.
    (AFP, 6/23/12)

2012        Jun 19, Double amputee Spencer West completed his ascent of Mount Kilimanjaro, in Tanzania. West (31) of Canada, lost the use of both legs at the age of five. West and his two best friends, David Johnson and Alex Meers made the ascent to raise money for Free the Children, an organization that supplies drinking water to hundreds of people in Kenya.
    (AFP, 6/23/12)

2012        Jun 22, In Tanzania bandits killed a Dutch tourist and the manager of a safari lodge in Serengeti national park. Police soon arrested 5 people. On July 5 Daniel Musa, Marwa Machage and Ghati Wegesa were charged in connection with the killings and robberies.
    (AFP, 6/30/12)(AFP, 7/7/12)

2012        Jun 26, In Tanzania a truck driver abandoned Ethiopian and Somali migrants after letting a number of them suffocate to death inside his vehicle. He dumped 43 bodies and abandoned survivors.
    (AP, 6/27/12)

2012        Jul 18, In Tanzania at least 104 people died after a ferry capsized between Dar-es-Salaam and Zanzibar. The MV Skagit was officially carrying 290 people when the accident occurred. Emergency workers had rescued 146 people.
    (AFP, 7/18/12)(AFP, 7/20/12)(AP, 7/21/12)(AFP, 7/23/12)(AFP, 7/25/12)

2012        Jul 22, Tanzania police said they have arrested 43 suspected members of an Islamist group (UAMSHO) seeking greater independence for the country's Zanzibar archipelago following a protest rally on July 20.
    (AP, 7/22/12)

2012        Jul 25, Zanzibari authorities charged three people with manslaughter for the sinking of a ferry last week in which at least 104 people drowned, including the ship's owner and captain.
    (AFP, 7/25/12)

2012        Jul 31, Malawi vowed to press on with oil and gas exploration on Lake Malawi, dismissing a demand by Tanzania, which claims half of the lake, to halt prospecting. Mozambique also owns part of the lake.
    (AFP, 7/31/12)

2012        Aug 1, Tanzania called for an amicable resolution to a dispute with Malawi over oil and gas exploration in Lake Malawi.
    (AFP, 8/1/12)

2012        Aug 10, Zanzibar's Vice President Seif Ali Iddi told the island's parliament the authorities had investigated and confirmed "that 36 crude oil tankers and container ships flying the Tanzania flag are indeed from Iran."
    (AFP, 8/13/12)

2012        Aug 13, Abdallah Kombo, the director of the Zanzibar Maritime Authority (ZMA), said it was "cheated" by its Dubai-based agent Philtex Corporation, which is alleged to have reflagged the Iranian vessels. Maritime Transport Minister Rashid Suleiman Seif said The government in Zanzibar, a semi-autonomous part of Tanzania, will deregister Iranian oil tankers flying its flag to dodge sanctions.
    (AFP, 8/13/12)

2012        Sep 3, Tanzania journalist Daudi Mwangosi of Channel Ten TV was reported killed in a confrontation with police who were clashing with rallying supporters of the country's biggest opposition party.
    (AP, 9/3/12)

2012        Oct 20, Hong Kong officials said customs officers have confiscated 4 tons of ivory valued at $3.4 million in containers shipped from Tanzania and Kenya.
    (SSFC, 10/21/12, p.A4)

2012        Anthony Sinclair authored “Serengeti Story: Life and Science in the World’s Greatest Wildlife Region."
    (Econ, 12/1/12, p.88)

2013        Jan 15, Kenyan custom officials in Mombasa seized 638 pieces of illegal elephant ivory estimated to be worth $1.2 million. The ivory was in a container destined for Indonesia. The tusks were said to be from Tanzania.
    (AP, 1/16/13)

2013        Feb 4, In Tanzania the appeals chamber of the Arusha-based tribunal overturned 30-year sentences handed down to Justin Mugenzi and Prosper Mugiraneza, who were both Cabinet ministers at the time of Rwanda's 1994 genocide. The duo had been convicted to 30 years in September 2011 after being found guilty of conspiracy to commit genocide and inciting the public to commit genocide.
    (AP, 2/5/13)

2013        Mar 29, In Tanzania at least 18 people died after a 12-story building under construction collapsed in Dar es Salaam. By April 1 the death toll was raised to at least 30.
    (AP, 3/30/13)(AP, 4/1/13)

2013        Mar, Chinese-led criminal gangs conspired with corrupt Tanzanian officials to traffic huge amounts of ivory, some of which was loaded in diplomatic bags on Pres. Xi's plane during a presidential visit.
    (AP, 11/6/14)

2013        Apr 5, Activists said Tanzania's government is preparing to kick Maasai tribesmen off their land near to allow a company from the United Arab Emirates to use the land for hunting. Tanzania's Ministry of Natural Resources and Tourism announced last week it is shrinking the size of the Loliondo Game Controlled Areas.
    (AP, 4/5/13)

2013        May 5, In Tanzania a bomb thrown from a motorcycle on a Catholic church in Arusha left 2 people dead. 4 Saudi Arabian citizens were initially identified as among the 6 people arrested. The UAE later said 3 of those arrested were from the UAE.
    (AP, 5/6/13)(AP, 5/8/13)

2013        May 10, A contingent of about 100 Tanzanian troops began arriving in eastern Congo, a first step in assembling the new UN intervention brigade. The rest of the brigade will arrive in successive waves.
    (AP, 5/11/13)(AP, 5/14/13)

2013        Jul 1, In Tanzania teeming crowds and blaring horns welcomed President Barack Obama to Dar Es Salaam as he arrived on the last leg of his three-country tour of the African continent.
    (AP, 7/1/13)

2013        Jul 2, In Tanzania President Barack Obama and former President George W. Bush found common ground, honoring the victims of a terrorist attack in an unprecedented encounter a world away from home. The Obamas departed Africa for home shortly after crossing paths with the Bushes, who were hosting the summit promoting the role of African first ladies in bringing change to their countries. During his visit Obama announced his Power Africa plan to electrify the continent.
    (AP, 7/2/13)(Econ, 1/9/16, p.42)

2013        Jul 5, Tanzania police said they have arrested Iqbal Ahsan Ali, a British man, suspected of involvement in unspecified "terrorism activities" in Britain.
    (Reuters, 7/6/13)

2013        Jul 13, In Sudan’s western region of Darfur seven Tanzanian peacekeepers were killed in an ambush. 17 others were wounded.
    (AP, 7/14/13)

2013        Aug 7, In Tanzania's semi-autonomous Zanzibar region men riding a motorbike threw acid at two British teenage girls (18) in leaving them with facial, chest and back injuries. The girls had been volunteering at a local school in Zanzibar.
    (Reuters, 8/8/13)

2013        Sep 12, A UN official said at least 25,000 Burundian refugees living in Tanzania have been forcibly repatriated over the past month, describing a "dramatic" humanitarian situation.
    (AFP, 9/12/13)

2013        Sep 17, Police in Zanzibar, Tanzania, said they have arrested 15 people linked to terror groups including some connected to a spate of acid attacks in recent months.
    (SFC, 9/18/13, p.A6)

2013        Sep 27, Tanzania authorities suspended the privately-owned Mwananchi and MTanzania newspapers for 14 and 90 days respectively for publishing "hostile articles aimed at inciting the people to lose confidence in state institutions and thus endanger peace and national unity."
    (AFP, 10/1/13)

2013        Nov 1, Tanzania’s parliament suspended an anti-poaching campaign, amid a surge of killings of elephant and rhino, to allow investigation of reported seizure of property, torture and killing of suspects.
    (AFP, 11/4/13)

2013        Nov 7, Tanzania's opposition said a proposed tightening of the country's media law was an "attack against the press" and demanded a complete overhaul of existing legislation. Police said 6 people have been killed and eight others wounded in days of clashes between farmers and herders in the central Morogoro region.
    (AFP, 11/7/13)

2013        Nov 30, Five east African countries signed a protocol to establish a monetary union, in a first step towards creating a single currency. At a summit in Kampala, leaders from Burundi, Kenya, Uganda, Tanzania and Rwanda inked the framework to set up a single market modelled after the eurozone.
    (AFP, 11/30/13)

2013        Dec 6, The Norwegian oil company Statoil announced the discovery of a major gas deposit with its US partner ExxonMobil off the coast of Tanzania.
    (AFP, 12/6/13)

2013        Dec 20, Tanzanian President Jakaya Kikwete sacked four ministers following accusations of abuses committed by security forces during a huge operation against wildlife poaching.
    (Reuters, 12/21/13)

2013        Dec 29, A Tanzanian official said the country has been hit by a sharp upsurge in poaching, with at least 60 elephants killed in the two months since the government was forced to halt a controversial crackdown.
    (AFP, 12/30/13)

2014        Jan 11, Tanzania said its elephant population, beset by poaching for ivory, has plummeted by two-thirds in the past three-and-a-half decades.
    (AFP, 1/11/14)

2014        Jan 12, In Tanzania clashes broke out in the Embroi Murtangosi nature reserve in Manyara province, when armed Masai herdsmen launched an attack on farmers. At least 10 people were killed over the next few days.
    (AFP, 1/14/14)

2014        Jan 17, In Tanzania one person was killed in clashes between police and thousands of villagers who stormed a gold mine operated by a subsidiary of Canadian mining giant Barrick Gold.
    (AFP, 1/17/14)

2014        Feb 11, In Tanzania the UN-backed court for Rwanda acquitted on appeal former paramilitary police chief Augustin Ndindiliyimana and ex-elite battalion commander Francois-Xavier Nzuwonemeye of charges related to the 1994 genocide.
    (AFP, 2/11/14)

2014        Jun 14, In Tanzania a bomb explosion killed one person and wounded at least seven in front of a mosque near Zanzibar's capital Stone Town.
    (Reuters, 6/14/14)

2014        Jul 2, African nations agreed to suspend military operations for six months against Congo-based Rwandan rebels in order to give them more time to lay down their arms. The suspension was announced after a meeting in Angola of foreign ministers from a regional bloc including Angola, Burundi, Central African Republic, Republic of Congo, DRC, Kenya, Uganda, Rwanda, South Sudan, Sudan, Tanzania and Zambia.
    (Reuters, 7/3/14)

2014        Sep 5, In north-western Tanzania at least 36 people were killed and dozens injured when two passenger buses collided along a busy road.
    (Reuters, 9/6/14)

2014        Oct 6, In Tanzania 7 people accused of witchcraft were burned alive in the village of Murufiti. Police soon arrested 23 people in connection with the crimes.
    (AFP, 10/10/14)

2014        Oct 8, A court in Tanzania granted bail to an opposition member of parliament and eight others after charging them with illegal protests for demonstrating last week against a draft constitution.
    (Reuters, 10/8/14)

2014        Oct 14, In Tanzania 2 women were hacked to death by men who accused them of casting spells that made them sexually impotent in the village of Ihugi, Shinyanga province.
    (AFP, 10/17/14)

2014        Oct 19, Tanzanian police shot dead Yahaya Omari (31) as he tried to escape while being transferred to Dodoma. He was suspected of carrying out bomb attacks in the tourist town of Arusha, including targeting a church and restaurant.
    (AFP, 10/20/14)

2014        Nov 16, Tanzanian officials said parliament has received a report on the findings of an investigation into corruption allegations in the energy sector and will present its findings to parliament on November 26.
    (Reuters, 11/16/14)

2014        Dec 22, Kenyan police arrested Feisal Mohammed Ali, an alleged ivory trafficker, at a rental house in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania. On Dec 24 a Kenyan court charged him with smuggling tusks.
    (AP, 12/23/14)(AFP, 12/24/14)

2015        Jan 1, In Tanzania six lions were killed overnight by angry Maasai herders following an attack on livestock.
    (AFP, 1/1/15)

2015        Jan 12, Hundreds of Tanzanian schoolgirls returned home after spending three months hiding in safe houses to escape genital mutilation.
    (AFP, 1/12/15)

2015        Jan 13, Tanzania banned witchdoctors to try and stem a surge in murders of albinos, whose body parts are sold for witchcraft. The ban does not cover traditional healers who use herbs to help the sick.
    (AFP, 1/14/15)
2015        Jan 13, The cash-strapped Tanzania-Zambia Railway Authority (TAZARA), which is owned by the governments of the two countries and has been struggling for more than a decade, shut down all train operations after workers downed tools to demand five months unpaid salaries.
    (AFP, 1/13/15)

2015        Jan 28, In Tanzania Ibrahim Lipumba, chairman of the opposition Civic United Front (CUF), was charged with holding political rallies without a permit, prompting fellow lawmakers to storm out of parliament in protest. Lipumba pleaded not guilty in a court in Dar es Salaam, a day after he and some 30 supporters were arrested.
    (AFP, 1/28/15)

2015        Feb 18, Tanzanian police said they have found the mutilated body of a one-year-old albino boy An armed gang had snatched Yohana Bahati from his mother at their home in northwestern Tanzania's Geita region on Feb 15.  His abduction renewed calls for tougher action to stop the killing of albinos for their body parts, prized in black magic.
    (Reuters, 2/18/15)

2015        Mar 3, In Tanzania flash floods killed at least 38 people in the north-west after strong winds and hail battered villages.
    (Reuters, 3/4/15)

2015        Mar 5, A court in Tanzania sentenced four people to death for the murder of an albino woman who was killed so her hacked-off limbs could be used in magic. The killers included Charles Nassoro, the husband of the murdered woman.
    (AFP, 3/6/15)

2015        Mar 11, In central Tanzania at least 41 people were killed and 23 seriously injured in a collision between a bus and a truck near Changarawe.
    (AFP, 3/11/15)(SFC, 3/12/15, p.A2)

2015        Mar 12, Tanzania police said they had arrested 225 unlicensed traditional healers and soothsayers as part of a nationwide crackdown on witchdoctors linked to a wave of albino attacks and murders.
    (AFP, 3/12/15)

2015        Apr 14, Tanzania's security forces arrested 10 suspected members of the al Qaeda-linked Somali militant group al Shabaab, seizing explosives and military uniforms hidden at a mosque in a region east of Dar es Salaam.
    (Reuters, 4/15/15)

2015        Apr 17, In southern Tanzania at least 19 people were killed after a minibus they were traveling in plunged into a river in Mbeya.
    (Reuters, 4/17/15)
2015        Apr 17, In Tanzania at least 19 gold miners were killed when the pit they were working in collapsed in the northwestern Msalala district.
    (AFP, 4/18/15)

2015        Apr 22, In Tanzania the UN-backed international tribunal trying Rwanda's worst genocide cases ended its final hearing after more than two decades of work.
    (AFP, 4/22/15)

2015        May 21, The WHO said a cholera outbreak has killed at least 30 people in a Tanzanian refugee camp for Burundians.
    (AP, 5/21/15)

2015        May 22, The UN refugee agency said an outbreak of cholera has infected 3,000 people in a Tanzanian border region where refugees from Burundi have massed. UNHCR said 300 to 400 new cases are being reported daily.
    (AP, 5/22/15)

2015        May 31, In Tanzania African leaders began talks in their second summit in a month aimed at restoring peace in Burundi.
    (Reuters, 5/31/15)

2015        Jun 1, In Tanzania elephant census figures showed a "catastrophic decline" of around 60 percent over the last five years.
    (AFP, 6/2/15)

2015        Jun 17, Tanzanian police said they have arrested a man (44) accused of trying to sell his albino niece to undercover security officials posing at witch doctors as part of a nationwide crackdown on the illegal trade in albino body parts used in black magic.
    (Reuters, 6/17/15)

2015        Jun 18, A Tanzanian government minister described elephant poaching on as a national disaster, and urged China to curb its appetite for ivory.
    (Reuters, 6/18/15)

2015        Jun 25, A Tanzanian court ordered Islamist rebel leader Jamil Mukulu to be extradited to Uganda to face murder charges. He was described as the head of the Allied Democratic Forces (ADF), an organization blamed for a string of attacks in western Uganda and the capital Kampala that killed 1,000 people between 1998 and 2000. Mukulu said he would appeal.
    (Reuters, 6/25/15)

2015        Jul 6, Customs officials at Zurich airport seized 262 kg (578 pounds) of ivory that three Chinese men had dispatched from Tanzania, contraband that may have come from up to 50 elephants. The tusks had been sawed into 172 pieces to fit into luggage.
    (AP, 8/4/15)

2015        Jul 10, Tanzania extradited Jamil Mukulu to Uganda to face multiple counts of murder stemming from his alleged role as leader of the Congo-based Allied Democratic Forces, an Islamic militant group that regularly attacks civilians in eastern Congo.
    (SFC, 7/11/15, p.A2)

2015        Jul 12, Tanzania's ruling party anointed government minister John Magufuli as its candidate for presidential elections due to be held in October.
    (AFP, 7/12/15)

2015        Aug 20, Tanzania said it has suspended about a quarter of its recruitment agencies in a bid to crackdown on human trafficking after complaints that girls sent as domestic servants to the Middle East were used as sex slaves and forced to work without pay.
    (Reuters, 8/20/15)

2015        Oct 5, In Tanzania a group of around 20 miners were in a pit when a shaft they were working on collapsed. 14 escaped as the shaft collapsed leaving six trapped. One man died over the 41 days. Five men were rescued on Nov 15.
    (AFP, 11/17/15)

2015        Oct 7, In Tanzania Yang Feng Clan (66), a Chinese woman, was charged in Dar es Salaam alongside two Tanzanians with smuggling 1.9 tons of ivory between Jan. 1, 2000 and May 22, 2014.
    (AP, 10/9/15)

2015        Oct 21, in Tanzania attackers overnight tried to hack the genitals off a man with albinism. Presidential and parliamentary polls due Oct 25 have been marked by fears of a spike in albino murders, with rights groups warning that some politicians may also be seeking lucky charms or "witchcraft" potions.
    (AFP, 10/23/15)

2015        Oct 25, Tanzania and Zanzibar held general elections. Ruling party candidate, Works Minister John Magufuli (55), battled former PM Edward Lowassa (62), who defected to the opposition earlier this year after being rejected as the ruling party's candidate. On Oct 29 the National Electoral Commission said John Magufuli won the presidential elections with over 58 percent of votes, but the opposition said the vote was rigged and also claimed victory.
    (AP, 10/2515)(AFP, 10/29/15)

2015        Oct 26, In Zanzibar Maalim Seif Hamad of the Civic United Front party announced he had won the Zanzibar presidential election, saying he had ousted his rival, Ali Mohamed Shein of Tanzania's ruling party. Although part of Tanzania, Zanzibar is run by a semi-autonomous government with its own president.
    (AP, 10/2615)

2015        Oct 28, Tanzania's opposition presidential candidate Edward Lowassa called for a recount of the Oct 25 election for the presidency, citing voting irregularities in the East African nation's tightest elections in more than five decades. Earlier, the vote in Tanzania's semi-autonomous Zanzibar archipelago was annulled after the election commission there cited gross violations.
    (Reuters, 10/28/15)

2015        Oct 31, In Zanzibar two small blasts rocked streets but caused no casualties, in the latest unrest following the annulment of polls on the semi-autonomous Tanzanian archipelago.
    (AFP, 10/31/15)

2015        Nov 5, Tanzania's new president John Magufuli was sworn in, promising to unite the country after a contested vote, create more jobs and drive up economic growth.
    (Reuters, 11/5/15)

2015        Nov 15, Five Tanzanian gold miners were rescued after spending 41 days trapped deep underground eating cockroaches and frogs to survive. One of the miners died during the incarceration underground following the Oct 5 collapse.
    (AFP, 11/17/15)

2015        Nov 24, A Tanzanian court charged four Chinese nationals for smuggling rhino horns.
    (Reuters, 11/25/15)

2015        Dec 3, It was reported that three Tanzanian universities are offering a new course on female genital mutilation (FGM) to train health care professionals how to deal with victims of the harmful practice that is still widespread although illegal.
    (Reuters, 12/3/15)

2015        Dec 17, Tanzania sentenced four Chinese men to 20 years in jail each after they were convicted of smuggling rhino horns.
    (Reuters, 12/18/15)

2015        Dec 21, The Central Bank of Cyprus revoked the operating license for the local branch of Tanzania's FBME Bank Ltd. In July the US Financial Crimes Enforcement Network, or FinCen, concluded that FBME was used by customers involved in money laundering, fraud and terrorist financing.
    (AP, 12/22/15)

2015        Dec 22, Tanzanian authorities said they have seized tusks from about 45 elephants and arrested two suspects at their home in Dar es Salaam.
    (Reuters, 12/23/15)

2016        Jan 25, Tanzanian President John Magufuli suspended the head of a national electronic identification-card project and four other officials, opening the way for a corruption investigation into a public procurement process.
    (Reuters, 1/26/16)

2016        Jan 29, In Tanzania British pilot Roger Gower was tracking poachers in the Maswa Game Reserve when his helicopter was hit by an AK-47 rifle fired from the ground. Gower was killed in the crash. A second person traveling in the helicopter survived the crash. On Feb 11, 2016, Shija Mjika (38), Njile Gunga (28,) Dotto Pangali (42), and Moses Mandago (28) were jailed for 20 years for possessing firearms. They still faced murder charges.
    (Reuters, 1/31/16)(AFP, 2/12/16)

2016        Mar 2, Former Tanzanian president Benjamin Mkapa was named as the new mediator for talks to end a nearly year-long crisis in neighboring Burundi by the regional East African Community (EAC).
    (AFP, 3/2/16)

2016        Mar 20, Elections were held in Zanzibar with security tight and an opposition boycott in place for the re-run of October's polls in Tanzania's semi-autonomous islands, cancelled due to fraud allegations. President Ali Mohamed Shein of the Chama Cha Mapinduzi party was re-elected with more than 91 percent of the votes. America suspended $472 million in aid over the election re-run.
    (AFP, 3/20/16)(AP, 3/21/16)(Econ, 10/8/16, p.45)

2016        Mar 22, Tanzanian authorities said they have launched a national audit to find "ghost workers" and remove them from civil service payrolls under a corruption crackdown ordered by the president.
    (Reuters, 3/22/16)

2016        Mar 28, Dubai-based Dodsal Group said it has discovered 2.7 trillion cubic feet of gas deposits in Tanzania's Ruvu Basin Coast Region valued at around $8 billion.
    (AP, 3/28/16)

2016        Apr 1, The UN peacekeeping mission in Democratic Republic of Congo said that it has received allegations of sexual abuse against Tanzanian peacekeepers based in Congo's northeast.
    (Reuters, 4/2/16)

2016        Apr 18, Edward Loure, a native of Tanzania’s Maasai community, was one of six winners of this year's Goldman Environmental Prize. He was credited with preventing the government from stripping land from the country’s indigenous people.
    (SFC, 4/18/16, p.C2)

2016        Apr 23, Landlocked Uganda announced plans to export its future crude oil production via a new pipeline to be built to a Tanzanian port rather than via Kenya.
    (AFP, 4/23/16)

2016        Apr 27, A Zanzibar health official said a cholera outbreak on the island archipelago has killed at least 45 people since March and that 3,000 people have been hospitalized with the disease.
    (AP, 4/27/16)

2016        Jun 28, British researchers reported a huge helium gas field in Tanzania amid a global shortage for the gas.
    (SFC, 6/29/16, p.A2)

2016        Jul 8, Tanzania's High Court raising the legal age of marriage for girls to 18 and ruled that two sections of the 1971 Marriage Act, that allow girls to marry at 15 with parental consent and 14 with the permission of a court, are unconstitutional.
    (Reuters, 7/12/16)

2016        Jul 10, In Tanzania visiting Indian PM Narendra Modi and President John Pombe Magufuli signed five agreements, including one to provide credit $92 million to improve water accessibility on the island of Zanzibar.
    (AP, 7/10/16)

2016        Jul 19, The Tanzanian government admitted that it has banned imports and sales of sexual lubricants in its latest move targeting the gay community. It estimated that 23 percent of men who have sex with men in Tanzania are living with HIV/AIDS.
    (AFP, 7/22/16)

2016        Jul 28, The UN Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) said some 23 million farmers in drought-hit Southern Africa need urgent help to prepare for the next planting season with only a few weeks left before it begins. It said Botswana, Swaziland, South Africa, Namibia and Zimbabwe have reported more than 640,000 drought-related livestock deaths. Farmers and cattle herders in 10 countries have requested assistance: Lesotho, Madagascar, Malawi, Mozambique, Namibia, South Africa, Swaziland, Tanzania, Zambia and Zimbabwe.
    (Reuters, 7/28/16)

2016        Nov 7, Tanzania signed a memorandum of understanding with Switzerland to help the East African country recover money illegally kept in Swiss banks by Tanzanian nationals.
    (AP, 11/7/16)

2016        Dec 13, Tanzania's president, John Magufuli, vowed to root out corruption in his ruling party, threatening "no mercy" for anyone giving or taking bribes.
    (Reuters, 12/14/16)
2016        Dec 13, Tanzania arrested Maxence Melo Mubyazi, the co-founder of a website where people can post comments on officials they believe are corrupt. On Dec 16 Mubyazi was charged with offences including obstructing a police investigation.
    (Reuters, 12/16/16)

2016        Tanzania’s population was about 50 million.
    (Econ, 1/9/16, p.42)

2017        Jan 10, In Tanzania at least 12 people drowned when a boat capsized near a coastal town. At least 27 others were rescued.
    (Reuters, 1/10/17)

2017        Jan 23, In Tanzania Turkish President Recep Tayyip Erdogan asked Pres. John Magufuli to take action against the network of an exiled cleric he blames for last year's failed coup.
    (AFP, 1/23/17)

2017        Jan 26, In northeastern Tanzania a massive mound of earth collapsed early today at a Chinese-owned gold mine in Nyarugusu village, burying at least 13 workers, including a Chinese national.
    (AP, 1/26/17)

2017        Feb 6, Tanzania’s President John Magufuli told security forces to crack down on the drugs trade and said no one should be spared, even if they are top politicians or their relatives.
    (Reuters, 2/6/17)

2017        Feb 7, Tanzania’s deputy minister of health said he has ordered the arrest of three men accused of promoting homosexuality.
    (SFC, 2/8/17, p.A2)

2017        Feb 13, A Tanzanian court sentenced a married couple to 20 years in jail each for illegal possession of 210 pieces of ivory from 93 poached elephants. Peter and Leonida Loi Kabi had pleaded not guilty.
    (Reuters, 2/14/17)

2017        Mar 3, Tanzanian President John Magufuli ordered the confiscation of passports belonging to foreign employees of an Indian infrastructure company. The 29 billion shilling ($13 million) water project in the southern town of Lindi was expected to be finished in March 2015 but was still incomplete.
    (Reuters, 3/3/17)

2017        Mar 17, In Tanzania Dar es Salaam regional commissioner Paul Makonda stormed into the offices of the Clouds FM Media Group with six armed men to demand the airing of a muckraking video aimed at undermining a popular local pastor with whom Makonda has a dispute.
    (AFP, 3/23/17)

2017        Mar 23, Tanzania's information Minister Nape Nnauye was fired after he criticized an ally of Pres. John Magufuli who had stormed into a television station on March 17 accompanied by armed men.
    (AFP, 3/23/17)

2017        Mar 24, Tanzania's President John Magufuli warned the country's journalists that there were limits to their press freedom.
    (Reuters, 3/24/17)

2017        Mar, Tanzania’s Pres. John Magufuli imposed a ban on the export of gold and copper concentrates.
    (Econ 6/17/17, p.61)

2017        Apr 12, A Tanzanian court approved the extradition to the US of Ali Khatib Haji Hassan, the alleged leader of a global drug trafficking ring.
    (SFC, 4/13/17, p.A2)

2017        Apr 28, Tanzanian President John Magufuli ordered the immediate dismissal of more than 9,900 civil servants after a nationwide verification of academic credentials uncovered workers with forged school and college certificates.
    (Reuters, 4/28/17)

2017        May 6, In northern Tanzania 35 people were killed, most of them young children, after a bus carrying students lost control and crashed near the Mlera river in Meatu district.
    (AP, 5/6/17)(AP, 5/7/17)

2017        May 27, Tanzanian police said that they had arrested two morgue employees in Dar es Salaam after they admitted to cutting open a dead man's corpse a week ago and stealing the drugs hidden in his stomach.
    (AFP, 5/27/17)

2017        Jun 14, Tanzania said it has agreed to negotiations with Canadian mining giant Barrick Gold which it accuses of operating illegally and evading taxes.
    (AFP, 6/14/17)

2017        Jun 16, Tanzania’s interior ministry said the weekly, Mawio, has been ordered to suspend publication for two years after pointing the finger at two former presidents in connection with huge revenue losses.
    (AFP, 6/16/17)

2017        Jul 4, Tanzanian authorities ordered the detention of Halima Mdee, a female lawmaker from the main opposition CHADEMA party, for insulting President John Magufuli, days after the president ordered officials to take action against 'incitement'.
    (Reuters, 7/4/17)

2017        Jul 20, Tanzanian opposition number two Tundu Lissu was arrested, three days after having called President John Magufuli a "dictator".
    (AFP, 7/21/17)

2017        Aug 16, In Tanzania Wayne Lotter, the South African co-founder of the Protected Areas management Solutions (PAMS), a conservation group for the protection of elephants, was shot and killed in the Masa-ki district of Dar es Salaam.
    (SFC, 3/18/17, p.A2)(Econ, 9/2/17, p.78)

2017        Aug 27, The UN World Food Program (WFP) says it has reduced food rations for 320,000 refugees living in northwest Tanzania as a result of funding shortfalls.
    (AP, 8/27/17)

2017        Sep 7, In Tanzania opposition lawmaker Tundu Lissu, a fierce critic of President John Magufuli's government, was seriously wounded in a gun attack. Tundu Lissu was sprayed with 16 bullets by unknown gunmen. He moved to Belgium and underwent more than 20 medical operations before returning home in 2020.
    (Reuters, 9/7/17)(AP, 7/27/20)

2017        Sep 16, Police in Tanzania’s autonomous region of Zanzibar said 20 people have been detained for engaging in gay and lesbian activities. 12 men and 8 women were arrested following a police raid on a hotel where the suspects were attending a workshop.
    (SSFC, 9/17/17 p.A3)

2017        Oct 19, Tanzanian police said they are holding 12 men, including two South Africans, for questioning over allegations of promoting homosexuality. Homosexuality is criminalized in Tanzania under a colonial-era law.
    (AP, 10/19/17)

2017        Oct 21, The Tanzanian government said it had suspended the Community Health Education Services and Advocacy center (CHESA). The NGO stands accused of organizing a workshop on Oct 17 for gay couples in a hotel in Dar es Salaam.
    (AFP, 10/21/17)

2017        Oct 27, Tanzania deported three South African lawyers arrested last week for "promoting homosexuality". They were amongst a group of 13 people, including a Ugandan and Tanzanians, who were arrested Oct. 24 at the Peacock hotel in Dar es Salaam.
    (AFP, 10/28/17)

2017        Oct, Tanzania seized and auctioned off 1,300 cattle which had wandered across the border from Kenya to graze in a region where herders typically pay little heed to frontiers.
    (AFP, 11/8/17)

2017        Nov 14, Tanzania offered a reward of 10 million shillings ($4,500) for the arrest of a former chief accountant of its anti-graft watchdog, part of a new drive to root out corruption. Former chief accountant, Godfrey Gugai, was on the run after his assets were frozen in May as part of a graft investigation.
    (AP, 11/14/17)

2017        Dec 2, Tanzania police confirmed that they have arrested a woman in Geita after a video clip showing her kissing and embracing another woman at a party was widely shared online. Homosexuality is a criminal offense in Tanzania. Three more people were soon arrested over the video clip.
    (Reuters, 12/2/17)(SFC, 12/9/17, p.A2)

2017        Dec 7, In Congo DRC an attack in North Kivu province targeted a base of the UN's MONUSCO force, killing at least 14 UN peacekeepers from Tanzania. Five Congolese soldiers and a further 53 personnel were also injured in the worst single attack against a UN mission in recent history.
    (AP, 12/7/17)(AFP, 12/9/17)(AFP, 12/15/17)

2018        Jan 23, Tanzanian authorities said they arrested five schoolgirls last week, and then released them on bail, so they can help with information on the men who impregnated them.
    (SFC, 1/24/18, p.A2)

2018        Feb 10, Tanzania laid waste to eight hectares of cannabis at the Meru forest reserve in Arusha province following another six acres earlier in the week in an operation overseen by Interior Minister Mwigulu Nchemba.
    (AFP, 2/11/18)

2018        Feb 11, Tanzania's Catholic church accused the government of President John Magufuli of violating democratic norms by limiting freedom of expression.
    (AFP, 2/11/18)

2018        Feb 16, In Tanzania a first-year university student killed by a bullet while on a bus the day before a fiercely contested parliamentary by-election in the Kinondoni constituency of Dar es Salaam. Witnesses said police used tear gas and fired live ammunition in an attempt to stop hundreds of Chadema party members from marching towards a local Electoral Commission office.
    (AP, 2/17/18)

2018        Mar 24, In Tanzania a truck and a minibus collided killing at least 26 people in Mkuranga. The dead included 12 women and 7 children.
    (SFC, 3/26/18, p.A2)

2018        Mar 27, Tanzania charged six opposition leaders with sedition and incitement to violence, a move branded by critics of the government as an effort to silence dissent.
    (Reuters, 3/28/18)

2018        Apr 16, Tanzanian authorities reported that at least nine people have died in Dar es Salaam after three days of heavy rains flooded homes and roads.
    (Reuters, 4/16/18)
2018        Apr 16, Tanzania briefly detained two musicians, including one of the country's most popular singers, after they posted video clips deemed obscene by the authorities, in the latest crackdown on social media users.
    (Reuters, 4/17/18)

2018        Apr 26, Tanzanians largely ignored a call by US-based activist Mange Kimambi to stage nationwide protests against President John Magufuli's government. Nine demonstrators marched in Dar es Salaam and were quickly arrested. The main opposition party, CHADEMA, said several of its leaders were arrested by the police in various parts of the country on allegations of inciting Tanzanians to take to the streets.
    (Reuters, 4/26/18)

2018        Apr 30, The Swiss-based International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN) said three quarters of freshwater species endemic to East Africa's Lake Victoria basin face the threat of extinction, warning the biodiversity there was being "decimated." The lake stretches into Kenya, Tanzania and Uganda and its catchment also touches Burundi and Rwanda.
    (AFP, 4/30/18)

2018        May 3, In Kenya eight people were swept off a bridge in a flashflood outside the capital. 120 people have died over the last two months following weeks of torrential rain. Rwanda officials said 116 people had died and 207 had been injured in flooding and landslides since January. Torrential rains have also hit Tanzania, where 14 people died in April, as well as Uganda where flash floods have destroyed homes and left at least three dead.
    (AFP, 5/4/18)

2018        Aug 18, Tanzania's ruling party (CCM) said Tanzania is an "independent" country and will not be "intimidated", after the US expressed concern about the conduct of 70 recent by-elections.
    (AFP, 8/19/18)

2018        Sep 20, in Tanzania the ferry MV Nyerere, carrying more than 300 people, capsized just a few meters from the dock on Ukerewe, Lake Victoria's biggest island. At least 136 bodies were retrieved after the ferry sank.
    (Reuters, 9/21/18)

2018        Sep 22, In Tanzania a survivor was found inside a capsized ferry two days after the disaster on Lake Victoria, while coffins arrived for at least 209 victims and counting.
    (AP, 9/22/18)

2018        Sep 23, In Tanzania burials started of the 224 people who died when a ferry capsized on Lake Victoria. No one is sure how many people were on the overcrowded ferry, which officials said had a capacity of 101.
    (AP, 9/23/18)

2018        Oct 11, In Tanzania Mohammed Dewji (43), Africa's youngest billionaire, was snatched as he entered the gym of a hotel in Dar es Salaam. Dewji heads the MeTL Group which operates in about 10 countries with interests in agriculture to insurance, transport, logistics and the food industry.
    (AFP, 10/11/18)

2018        Oct 20, In Tanzania Mohammed Dewji (43), the CEO of the METL Group family conglomerate, returned home unharmed after being released by his kidnappers.
    (Reuters, 10/20/18)
2018        Oct 20, Tanzanian officials said police have arrested 104 suspected militants over the last few months planning to establish bases in neighboring Mozambique, where scores of people have been killed in Islamist attacks over the last year.
    (Reuters, 10/20/18)

2018        Oct 31, In Tanzania Dar es Salaam's administrative chief Paul Makonda said that a special committee would seek to identify and punish homosexuals, prostitutes and online fraudsters in the city from this week.
    (AP, 11/4/18)

2018        Nov 8, Tanzania released two staff members of the New York-based Committee to Protect Journalists (CPJ), a day after they were detained and their passports seized.
    (Reuters, 11/8/18)

2018        Nov 9, Tanzanian authorities carried out physical examinations on 10 men suspected of homosexual activity in Zanzibar. The men were arrested last week on suspicion of celebrating a gay marriage at a resort hotel.
    (AP, 11/9/18)

2018        Nov 15, Denmark said it is cutting about $10 million in aid to the government of Tanzania over what it called "negative developments" in human rights in the East African country.
    (AP, 11/15/18)

2019        Jan 30, Tanzania's home affairs minister said a manhunt has been launched for suspects in the abduction and murder of up to 10 children this month in cases believed to be linked to witchcraft. Local media this week reported at least four dead bodies of missing children had been found abandoned near bushes with missing body parts, believed to be used in rituals.
    (Reuters, 1/30/19)

2019        Feb 19, A Tanzanian court sentenced Yang Feng Glan (69) of China to 15 years in jail for her role in trafficking tusks from more than 400 elephants. Two Tanzanian men were also found guilty for their role in the illegal commerce. They were also sentenced to 15 years each.
    (AFP, 2/19/19)(Reuters, 2/19/19)

2019        Mar 15, Freeman Mbowe, the head of Tanzania's main opposition party, condemned what he described as a climate of fear installed by a "police state" after he was held in prison for more than three months.
    (AFP, 3/15/19)

2019        Apr 23, In northern Tanzania a landslide triggered by rains killed at least three people at a mine in Arusha and left several people injured.
    (Reuters, 4/23/19)

2019        Apr 28, Tanzanian albinos said they were living in fear of their lives after the remains of an albino were exhumed in what they said was a "bestial" and "barbaric" act.
    (AFP, 4/28/19)

2019        May 8, Tanzanian opposition activist Mdude Nyagali was found late today beaten and unconscious at a village in the country's southern highlands five days after unidentified people abducted him, stoking new fears of an opposition crackdown.
    (Reuters, 5/09/19)

2019        Jun, In Tanzania Tundu Lissu, who survived an assassination attempt in September 2017 when he was shot 16 times by unknown gunmen, was dismissed from parliament over absenteeism and ethical issues. Lissu was initially treated for his wounds in Kenya but since January 2018 has been recuperating in Belgium.
    (Reuters, 9/3/19)

2019        Jul 2, A coalition of East African citizen groups announced they were suing Uganda and Rwanda in the East African Court of Justice for financial losses resulting from a border dispute between the feuding nations. The court, in the northern Tanzanian town of Arusha, was set up to rule on matters of the East African Community (EAC).
    (AFP, 7/2/19)

2019        Jul 26, Tanzania's president inaugurated a huge hydroelectric dam project in the country's largest wildlife reserve and UNESCO World Heritage Site, calling it the start of "economic liberation." Some wildlife groups have expressed dismay over the $2.9 billion Stiegler's Gorge project in the Selous Game Reserve, which the United Nations calls one of Africa's largest protected areas.
    (AP, 7/26/19)

2019        Jul 29, Tanzanian police arrested prominent investigative journalist Erick Kabendera and were looking into his citizenship in another case triggering concern over press freedom under President John Magufuli's rule.
    (Reuters, 7/30/19)(Econ, 8/3/19, p.40)

2019        Aug 10, In eastern Tanzania a damaged tanker truck exploded as people were trying to siphon fuel out of it, killing at least 62 in one of the worst incidents of its kind in the country.
    (AP, 8/10/19)

2019        Aug 23, South African authorities impounded an Airbus 220-300 aircraft leased by Tanzania's national flag carrier.
    (Reuters, 8/24/19)

2019        Aug 27, Tanzanian authorities said they had reached an agreement with Burundi to send all Burundian refugees back home from October 1. The UN refugee agency urged the two governments not to forcibly repatriate Burundian refugees sheltering in Tanzania.
    (AP, 8/28/19)

2019        Aug 29, It was reported that Tanzania's National Bank of Commerce Ltd has been fined 1 billion Tanzanian shillings ($435,000) for failure to establish a data center in the East African nation, the second bank in two months to be penalized for such a breach by the central bank.
    (Reuters, 8/29/19)

2019        Sep 5, Tanzania's national carrier suspended its flights from the commercial capital Dar es Salaam to Johannesburg, citing ongoing violence that was a risk to its passengers.
    (Reuters, 9/5/19)

2019        Sep 21, The World Health Organization issued an unusual statement raising questions about whether Tanzania is covering up possible cases of the deadly Ebola virus.
    (The Telegraph, 9/22/19)

2019        Nov 12, In Tanzania unknown gunmen killed six farmers on an island in the Ruvuma River near the southern border with Mozambique, amid growing concerns over Islamist militants in a poor region where foreign companies are developing gas deposits.
    (Reuters, 11/13/19)

2019        Nov 23, Tanzania's government said it has summoned Canada's envoy to protest after a DHC Dash 8-400 turboprop, set to be delivered to state-owned Air Tanzania, was impounded earlier this week in a land compensation dispute. A retired Tanzanian farmer claimed compensation over what he says was the expropriation of his land several decades ago.
    (Reuters, 11/23/19)

2019        Dec 4, It was reported that the United Nations human rights office is urging Tanzania to reconsider its decision barring individuals and non-governmental groups from filing cases against it at the African Court on Human and People’s Rights. The continental court is based in the East African nation.
    (AP, 12/4/19)

2020        Jan 29, Tanzania’s national carrier said it will have to postpone its maiden flights from commercial capital Dar es Salaam to China, citing concerns over the spread of a coronavirus that has killed 133 people.
    (Reuters, 1/29/20)

2020        Jan 31, The Trump administration announced that it was restricting immigrants from six additional countries that officials said failed to meet minimum security standards, as part of an election-year push to further clamp down immigration. Immigrants from Kyrgyzstan, Myanmar, Eritrea, Nigeria, Sudan and Tanzania will face new restrictions in obtaining certain visas to come to the United States.
    (AP, 1/3120)

2020        Feb 1, In Tanzania twenty people died and a dozen others were injured in a stampede during a church meeting in the northern city of Moshi.
    (Reuters, 2/2/20)

2020        Feb 24, Prominent Tanzanian journalist Erick Kabendera, arrested in July, was released after pleading guilty of tax evasion and money laundering in a case critics had said was politically motivated.
    (Reuters, 2/24/20)

2020        Mar 16, Benin, Liberia, Somalia and Tanzania became the latest African countries to report cases of coronavirus.
    (Reuters, 3/16/20)

2020        Apr 13, The UN said swarms of locusts in Ethiopia have damaged 200,000 hectares (half a million acres) of cropland and driven around a million people to require emergency food aid. Billions of desert locusts have already chomped their way through much of East Africa, including Ethiopia, Somalia, Kenya, Djibouti, Eritrea, Tanzania, Sudan, South Sudan and Uganda.
    (AFP, 4/13/20)

2020        Apr 29, Tanzania reported 509 coronavirus cases and 21 deaths. At this point the government stopped releasing data. The US embassy in Tanzania later warned that there is a risk of "exponential growth" of Covid-19 cases in the country.
    (BBC, 5/13/20)

2020        May 3, Tanzania's President John Magufuli said coronavirus test kits used in the country were faulty, because he said they had returned positive results on samples taken from a goat and a pawpaw. Tanzania had recorded 480 cases of COVID-19 and 17 deaths. Magufuli said he will send a plane to Madagascar to import a herbal tonic, produced from the artemisia plant, which has been touted as a cure for coronavirus by the country's president. The drink was launched as Covid-Organics and was being marketed after being tested on fewer than 20 people over a period of three weeks. Congo-Brazzaville's president has also promised to import the drink.
    (Reuters, 5/3/20)(BBC, 5/3/20)
2020        May 3, The Tanzanian health ministry said there would be no more night burials and that from now on, family members would be fully involved in funeral preparations to ensure that the dignity of the deceased is preserved.
    (BBC, 5/4/20)

2020        May 7, Tanzania stopped reporting on COVID-19 as its count reached 509 cases and 21 deaths.
    (Econ., 7/25/20, p.33)

2020        May 16, Kenya's President Uhuru Kenyatta ordered a cessation of movement between the country and neighboring Tanzania and Somalia to help curb the spread of the novel coronavirus. He exempted cargo trucks but said drivers would have to be tested for the disease.
    (Reuters, 5/16/20)

2020        May 17, Tanzania's Pres. John Magufuli said there has been a "sharp decline" in the number of coronavirus patients in the country's hospitals. Tanzania has had 509 recorded coronavirus cases and 21 deaths according to data from the African Union's Centers for Disease Control and Prevention.
    (BBC, 5/17/20)

2020        May 21, The World Bank announced a $500 million program for East African countries affected by historic desert locust swarms. The affected countries included Ethiopia, Somalia, Kenya, Djibouti, Eritrea, Tanzania, Sudan, South Sudan and Uganda.
    (SFC, 5/22/20, p.A6)

2020        May, Tanzania's high court declared that it was unconstitutional to deny people bail automatically. On August 5 the country's Court of Appeal overturned the ruling.
    (Econ., 8/15/20, p.44)
2020        May, In Kenya more than 100 people arriving from Tanzania tested positive for coronavirus and were sent back. At Ugandan border testing points, at least 15 Tanzanian lorry drivers tested positive. The authorities in Tanzania have not released official figures on the extent of the outbreak there since the start of May.
    (BBC, 6/19/20)

2020        Jun 7, Tanzania's President John Magufuli declared the country "coronavirus-free" thanks to prayers by citizens. Mr Magufuli said last week that only four patients were receiving treatment in the largest city, Dar es Salaam.
    (BBC, 6/8/20)

2020        Jun 16, Tanzania's PM Kassim Majaliwa reported 66 active coronavirus cases, releasing data for the first time since April when Pres. John Magufuli questioned the reliability of the figures.
    (BBC, 6/18/20)

2020        Jun 23, Tanzania authorities arrested Zitto Kabwe (b.1976), an opposition MP, for holding an unlawful assembly. He was released the following day. Kabwe had been arrested before for questioning GDP numbers.
    (https://tinyurl.com/y64gpfqk)(Econ., 7/25/20, p.10)

2020        Jun 24, A small-scale miner in Tanzania became an overnight millionaire after selling two rough Tanzanite stones - the biggest ever find in the country. Saniniu Laizer earned £2.4m ($3.4m) from the country's mining ministry for the gemstones, which had a combined weight of 15kg (33 lb). Tanzanite, one of the rarest gemstones on Earth, is only found in northern Tanzania and is used to make ornaments.
    (BBC, 6/25/20)

2020        Aug 3, A Tanzanian small-scale miner, who became an overnight millionaire in June for selling two rough Tanzanite stones valued at $3.4m (£2.6m), has sold another gem for $2m. The third discovery by Saniniu Laizer weighed 6.3kg (14lb).
    (BBC, 8/3/20)

2020        Sep 13, Tanzania and Uganda signed an agreement allowing for the construction of a 1,445 km (898 miles) crude oil pipeline.
    (BBC, 9/13/20)

2020        Sep 30, It was reported that France's top appeals court has agreed to extradite the alleged financier of the 1994 Rwandan genocide, Félicien Kabuga, to face trial in Tanzania.
    (BBC, 9/30/20)

2020        Oct 11, In Tanzania a fire started in the Whona area of Mt. Kilimanjaro. Days later the fire had burned 28 square km (11 square miles) of vegetation and is very active in an area known as Kifunika Hill.
    (AP, 10/15/20)

2020        Oct 12, Amnesty International said Tanzanian authorities have intensified repression to muzzle the opposition, civil society and the news media ahead of elections on October 28, where the incumbent President John Magufuli is seeking a second term.
    (AP, 10/12/20)

2020        Oct 22, Tanzania’s government acknowledged an attack last week inside the country by Islamic extremists based in neighboring Mozambique. Some 300 attackers were involved in the assault on Kitaya, a riverside border village in the Mtwara region.
    (AP, 10/23/20)

2020        Oct 26, Tanzania's police arrested 42 people in connection with violence on Pemba island, part of Tanzania's Zanzibar Archipelago. Police reportedly shot dead at least nine citizens amid unrest over alleged fraud ahead of the country’s presidential election.
    (BBC, 10/27/20)(AP, 10/27/20)

2020        Oct 27, Zanzibar's main opposition leader Maalim Seif Sharif was arrested a day before local and national elections.
    (BBC, 10/27/20)

2020        Oct 28, Tanzania held elections. The main opposition leader said there has been "shameless" widespread vote rigging in the elections. Results were expected within a week.
    (AP, 10/28/20)

2020        Oct 29, Tundu Lissu, Tanzania's main opposition presidential candidate, rejected the Oct. 28 presidential vote after alleging widespread irregularities.
    (AP, 10/28/20)

2020        Oct 30, Tanzania's electoral commission said populist President John Magufuli has 83% of votes with 60% of ballots counted.
    (AP, 10/30/20)

2020        Oct 31, Tanzania's two main opposition parties demanded fresh elections, after denouncing last week's presidential vote as fraudulent.
    (BBC, 10/31/20)

2020        Nov 2, Police in Tanzania arrested Freeman Mbowe, the chairman of the main opposition party in the wake of a disputed election. Mbowe was detained overnight, along with two other Chadema leaders, for allegedly planning violent protests.
    (BBC, 11/2/20)

2020        Nov 3, Police in Tanzania arrested opposition leader Zitto Kabwe.
    (Econ., 11/7/20, p.42)

2020        Dec 6, The main opposition party in Tanzania's semiautonomous Zanzibar archipelago announced it will join a coalition government with the islands' ruling party, after a disputed poll in October in which some of its supporters were allegedly killed and its leaders arrested.
    (AP, 12/6/20)

2020        Tanzania registered only about one in eight births.
    (Econ., 5/9/20, p.34)

2021        Jan 19, The US said it has placed visa restrictions on unnamed Tanzanian officials who it says were “responsible or complicit in undermining" the country’s election last year.
    (AP, 1/19/21)

2021        Jan 27, Tanzania's President John Magufuli said that no lockdown was planned because God would protect people from COVID-19 while homespun precautions such as steam inhalation were better than vaccines. WHO data showed that Tanzania has officially reported a total number of 509 COVID-19 infections and 21 deaths, but the figures have not been updated for more than six months.
    (Reuters, 1/27/21)

2021        Feb 17, Seif Sharif Hamad (77), the vice-president of Tanzania's semi-autonomous islands of Zanzibar, died, nearly three weeks after his party said he had contracted Covid-19.
    (BBC, 2/17/21)

2021        Feb 21, Tanzania's President John Magufuli encouraged people to wear masks to avoid infection as the World Health Organization urged Tanzania to start reporting coronavirus cases and share its data.
    (BBC, 2/21/21)

2021        Feb 26, The United States praised Tanzania for finally acknowledging the resurgence of COVID-19 after claiming for months it had defeated the pandemic through prayer. But the US urged the country to share infection data and accept vaccines.
    (AP, 2/26/21)

2021        Mar 10, It was reported that John Magufuli, Tanzania's COVID-19-denying president, has not been seen since Feb. 27. Kenya’s leading newspaper, The Nation, reported that an African leader had been admitted to a hospital in Nairobi.
    (AP, 3/10/21)

2021        Mar 13, Tanzanian police said a man has been arrested for circulating posts saying that President John Magufuli is in ill health. PM Hassan Majaliwa has denied that Magufuli is unwell or battling COVID-19.
    (AP, 3/14/21)

2021        Mar 17, Tanzania's Pres. John Magufuli (61) died from reported heart complications at a hospital in Dar es Salaam. Vice-President Samia Suluhu Hassan (61) will be sworn in as the new president within 24 hours and should serve the remainder of Mr Magufuli's five-year term which he began last year.
    (BBC, 3/18/21)

2021        Mar 19, Samia Suluhu Hassan made history when she was sworn in as Tanzania’s first female president after the death of her controversial predecessor, John Magufuli, who denied that COVID-19 is a problem in the East African country.
    (AP, 3/19/21)

2021        Mar 21, In Tanzania a woman and four children died after a stampede as people mourned former President John Magufuli. 45 people died in the stampede during a public viewing of the body of Magufuli.
    (BBC, 3/22/21)(AP, 3/30/21)

2021        Mar, Sudan paid $335m (£244m) as compensation for victims of past attacks against US targets. The payment included punitive damages only to families of victims or those injured who are US nationals or US embassy workers. The majority of the estimated 5,000 people injured the twin bombings to hit the American embassies in Nairobi and the Tanzanian city of Dar es Salaam on 7 August 1998 will not get any money; neither will the families of the more than 200 locals who died in the blasts.
    (BBC, 4/27/21)

2021        Apr 6, Tanzania's new Pres. Samia Suluhu Hassan said she will form a technical committee to advise her about the scope of COVID-19 infections in the country and how to respond to the pandemic.
    (AP, 4/6/21)

2021        Apr 11, Tanzania, Uganda and French oil company Total signed agreements on building a heated pipeline to carry crude oil from western Uganda to the Indian Ocean coast. Construction of the pipeline, which would be the world’s longest at 897 miles, is expected to begin this year.
    (AP, 4/11/21)

2021        Apr 24, Zanzibar's authorities halted all sea activities, including fishing and transport, until further notice as a tropical storm approaches the Tanzanian islands.
    (BBC, 4/24/21)

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