Timeline Spain thru 1899

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History: http://www.red2000.com/spain/primer/hist.html
Travel Docs:
Spain is about 2 times the size of Oregon.
(SSFC, 10/9/05, Par p.27)
The Euskera language in 2000 was spoken by about 30% of the Basque people.
    (WSJ, 12/4/00, p.A20)
Spain has 17 “autonomous regions."
    (Econ, 2/14/04, p.45)
The Spanish enclaves of Ceuta and Melilla are located on the northern coast of Morocco.
    (Econ, 6/26/04, Survey p.7)

1.2Mil BC    In 2007 Spanish researchers said they had unearthed a human tooth more than one million years old, which they estimated to be the oldest human fossil remain ever discovered in western Europe.
    (AFP, 6/29/07)

900000BC    In 2009 scientists reported finding advanced hand axes made about this time in southeastern Spain. Similar Acheulean type limestone tools, flaked on both edges, were at another site nearby dated to 760,000 BC.
    (SFC, 9/5/09, p.A1)

800000BC    In 1996 a team of fossil hunters reported 800,000 year-old hominids from the Gran Dolino site in the Atapuerca Mountains in northern Spain. The date was older by 300,000 years than any other human remains in Europe. They called the new species Homo antecessor. Among modern characteristics were a prominent brow line and multiple roots for premolar teeth, characteristics of early hominids.
    (PacDis., Spg. 96, p.46)(SFC, 5/30/97, p.A8)

760000BC    In 2009 scientists reported finding advanced hand axes made about this time in southeastern Spain. Similar Acheulean type limestone tools, flaked on both edges, were at another site nearby dated to 900,000 BC.
    (SFC, 9/5/09, p.A1)

470000-410000    In 2014 a UC Berkeley scientist dated Neanderthal bones found in Spain to between 410,000 and 470,000 years of age. Excavations had begun in 1984 in a cave in Spain’s Atapuerco mountains at a site called Sima de los Huesos (the Pit of the Bones).
    (SFC, 6/20/14, p.D1)(www.atapuerca.org/huesosin.htm)

400000BC    Scientists in 2013 reported mitochondrial DNA results from a Human thighbone found in Spain estimated to be 400,000 years old. The DNA showed a closer relation to Denisovans who lived in Siberia than to Neanderthals.
    (SFC, 12/5/13, p.A9)

41000BC    In 2006 archeologists reported evidence of cannibalism about this time from Neanderthal bones at the El Sidron cave in the Asturias region of Spain.
    (SFC, 12/11/06, p.A1)

38800BC    Wall decorations in the El Castillo cave in northwestern Spain dated to at least this time.
    (SFC, 6/15/12, p.A11)

28000BC    Neanderthals persisted to about this time at the site of Zafarraya in Andalucia, Spain.
    (Arch, 9/00, p.53)

12500BC    The Altamira Cave in Spain and its wall paintings dated to this time. The cave was rediscovered in 1879 by Marcelino Sanz de Sautuola, a lawyer and amateur archeologist.
    (WSJ, 9/18/01, p.A20)

12500BC-10500BC Paleolithic era cave drawings were created at the Atxurra cave in the northern Basque region during this period. Some 70 drawings in the cave were found in 2016 on ledges 1,000 feet underground.
    (SFC, 5/28/16, p.A2)

65000BC    In 2021 it was reported that red ochre pigment discovered on stalagmites in the Caves of Ardales, near Malaga in southern Spain, were created by Neanderthals about this time, making them possibly the first artists on earth.
    (Reuters, 8/8/21)

500-500BC    The Greeks established settlements in NE Spain that included Emporio.
    (SFEC, 5/21/00, p.T5)

360BC    Greek philosopher Plato, in his "dialogues" from about this time, said an island he called Atlantis "in a single day and night... disappeared into the depths of the sea." He described Atlantis as "an island situated in front of the straits which are by you called the Pillars of Hercules." In 2011 a US-led research team, using a satellite photo of a suspected submerged city, suggested a site just north of Cadiz, Spain, as the site of Atlantis.
    (Reuters, 3/12/11)

300BC        Spain was named by the Carthaginians about this time as Ispania, meaning land of rabbits. The Romans changed the name slightly to Hispania, which evolved to Espana (Spain).
    (SSFC, 12/19/10, p.M2)

218BC        Emporio was called by the Romans Emporiae. It later came to be called Empuries.
    (SFEC, 5/21/00, p.T5)

4BC        Lucius Annaeus Seneca (d.65) (aka Seneca the younger), Roman intellectual, was born in Spain.

39CE        Nov 3, Lucan, Latin poet (Bellum Civile), was born in Cordova, Spain.
    (MC, 11/3/01)

53CE        Sep 18, Marcus Trajanus (d.117), 13th Roman emperor (Trajan's Arch) (98-117), was born at Italica near Seville, Spain.

258        A red agate cup with gold handles, the Santo Caliz, was sent to Spain by Pope Sixtus II and St. Laurence as Rome went under siege by the Persians. In 1437 the church moved it to the Cathedral of Valencia.
    (SSFC, 5/27/06, p.G3)

346        Theodosius was born in Spain. He served as emperor East Roman Republic 379-395.
    (WUD, 1994 p.1471)(SSFC, 3/21/04, p.M6)

633        In Spain the 4th Synod of Toledo took on the right to confirm elected kings. Jews were obliged to be baptized. The vernacular language, of Latin origin, prevailed over that of the Visigoths.

694        Nov 9, Spanish King Egica accused Jews of aiding Moslems and sentenced them to slavery.
    (MC, 11/9/01)

711        Jul 19, The Muslim troops crossed the Strait of Gibraltar and defeated the Visigoth king Rodrigo at the battle of Guadalete. Berbers under Tarik-ibn Ziyad occupied Northern Spain. The Umayyads with the help of the Berbers in North Africa moved across the Strait of Gibraltar and began the conquest of Spain and Portugal. The word Gibraltar comes from the term Jabal-al-Tarik, which means the hill of Tarik. Gebel-al-Tarik means "Rock of Tarik."
    (ATC, p.79)(SFEC, 9/29/96, Z1 p.2)(www.sispain.org/english/history/visigoth.html)

711-1309    The Moorish occupation of Gibraltar covered this period, and then again from 1350 to 1462, a total of 710 years.

712        Muza ben-Nosair completed the Muslim conquest of Spain. The Visigothic period ended.

756AD    May 15, Abd-al-Rahman was proclaimed the emir of Cordoba, Spain. Abd al Rahman united the Umayyad forces in Spain and made the ancient Roman city of Cordoba his new capital.
    (ATC, p.95)(HN, 5/15/98)

778        Aug 15, At the Battle at Roncesvalles the Basques beat Charlemagne.
    (PC, 1992, p.67)

784        The Emir 'Abd al-Rahman I purchased the Christian half of a Catholic church built by the Visigoths, which had been shared following the Muslim conquest of Spain in 711. He then destroyed the church and built the Great Mosque of Cordoba. In 1236 it was reverted to a Catholic church as the Cathedral of Our Lady of the Assumption.
    (http://tinyurl.com/pk2r3cx)(Econ, 10/10/15, p.54)

c813        Pelayo to Santiago, a Spanish hermit, was guided, according to legend, by strange lights in the sky to discover the long-forgotten tomb of the apostle St. James (San Tiago). This led others to make pilgrimages across northern Spain to the city of Santiago de Compostela. [see 1130]
    (SFC, 3/11/04, p.F9)

842        Mar 20, Alfonso II the Chaste, king of Asturia (791-842), died. Asturias was a kingdom in NW Spain.
    (MC, 3/20/02)(WUD, 1994 p.92)

938-1002    Al-Mansur (the Conqueror), Moorish leader. He was born Abu'Amir al-Ma'asiri and rose to power by wooing the caliph's favorite concubine. He raided Christian Spain and hauled his booty back to Cordoba and built a palace called Madinat al-Zahira, the Shining City.
    (WSJ, 1/11/99, p.R4,6)

961        Oct 15, Abd al-Rahman III (891-961), Muslim governor of Spain, died. He was succeeded by his son Al-Hakim. Rahman III is famed for his quote: "I have now reigned above fifty years in victory and peace, beloved by my subjects, dreaded by my enemies, and respected by my allies. Riches and honors, power and pleasure, have waited on my call, nor does any earthly blessing appear to be wanting for my felicity. In this situation, I have diligently numbered the days of pure and genuine happiness which have fallen to my lot: they amount to fourteen."

976        Oct 1, Al-Hakam II, the caliph of Cordoba, died.
    (MC, 10/1/01)

976AD        The Great Mosque of Cordoba (Spain) was completed and served as a religious, social and educational center. The largest of the 70 libraries in Cordoba contained 500,000 volumes. 70,000 books a year were hand-copied to satisfy the citizen’s literary appetites.
    (ATC, p.95,98)

994        Nov 7, Muhammad ibn Hazm, historian, jurist, author of Islamic Spain, was born.
    (MC, 11/7/01)

1035        In Spain 66 Jews were killed in Castrojeriz near Burgos. Others were expelled and settled on a nearby hill that was named Castrillo Motajudios (Jew’s Hill). Records from 1627 show the name was changed to Castrillo Matajudios, meaning "Kill Jews." In 2014 the 56 town residents planned a May 25 vote on changing the name back to Castrillo Mota de Judios. The name change was celebrated on Oct 23, 2015.
    (AP, 4/22/14)(http://tinyurl.com/pzmhvqh)(SFC, 10/24/15, p.A2)

1064        Jun 9, Coimbra, Portugal, fell to Ferdinand, the King of Castile.
    (HN 6/9/98)

1072        Oct 6, Sancho II, king of Castilia (1065-72), was murdered.
    (MC, 10/6/01)

1073        Dec 20, Domingo, Spanish monastery founder, abbot, saint, died.
    (MC, 12/20/01)

1075        The 3rd Cathedral at Santiago de Compostela in Spain was built on the site of the tomb of St. James. There had been a Cathedral on the site since the 9th century.
    (SFC, 9/22/96, p.T5)

1085        May 25, Alfonso VI, Spanish Christian ruler, took Toledo, Spain, from the Moslems.
    (ATC, p.100)(HN, 5/25/99)

1094        Jun 15, Rodrigo Diaz de Vivar [El Cid] occupied Valencia on the Moren.
    (MC, 6/15/02)

c1100        The town of Santo Domingo de la Calzada was founded by a man known as St. Dominic of the Walkway.
    (SFEC, 6/15/97, p.T5)

c1100-1200    San Isidro, a farmer, later became the patron saint of Madrid.
    (WSJ, 11/18/97, p.A20)

1118        Dec 18, Afonso the Battler, the Christian King of Aragon captured Saragossa, Spain, a major blow to Muslim Spain.
    (HN, 12/18/98)

1130        The first travel book was written by a French priest about travel on the Camino de Santiago (the road of St. James) in northern Spain.
    (SFEC, 6/15/97, p.T5)

1135-1204    Maimonides, Jewish scholar, philosopher and rabbi. He was born in Spain and analyzed linkages between wealth and charity.
    (WUD, 1994, p.864)(WSJ, 1/11/99, p.R14)

1158        Aug 31, Sancho III, King of Castilia, died.
    (MC, 8/31/01)

c1171        Benjamin ben Jonah, a Spanish Jew, returned to his home in Tudela and published an account of his 6-year journey to Constantinople, Cyprus, Palestine, Damascus, Persia and Egypt: "The Travels of Benjamin of Tudela."
    (WSJ, 8/8/02, p.D10)

1195-1270    Rabbi Moshe ben Nahman (Nahmanides) was a Catalan Kabbalist.
    (SFEC, 10/25/98, BR p.6)

1198        The Giralda bell tower in Seville, Spain, was built as a Muslim minaret.
    (SSFC, 8/15/10, p.M5)

1200-1300    Moses de Leon, a Spanish Jewish mystic, wrote the "Zohar," in Aramaic. It was a mystical interpretation of the Torah disguised as a novel. The Zohar consists of mystical interpretations and commentaries of the Pentateuch, the first 5 books of the Old Testament. It became the major text of Jewish mysticism that came to be called the Kabala, as developed a few centuries later by Isaac Luria in Palestine.
    (WUD, 1994, p.1662)(WSJ, 5/22/98, p.W11)

1212        Jul 16, Battle of Las Navas de Tolosa marked the end of Muslim power in Spain.
    (MC, 7/16/02)

1212        Jul 17, Moslems were crushed in the Spanish crusade.
    (HN, 7/17/98)

1218        The university at Salamanca, Spain, was founded by King Alfonso IX.
    (SSFC, 6/8/03, p.C8)

1219        The Augustine abbey at Roncesvalles began offering shelter to travelers.
    (SFEC, 5/2/99, p.T5)

1221        Nov 23, Alfonso X (the Wise, d.1284), king of Castile & Leon (1252-84), was born. Also known as Alfonso the Wise, he served as king of Castile from 1252-1284. His manuscript "Cantigas de Santa Maria" is one of the most important of the period.
    (WUD, 1994, p.36)(WSJ, 5/14/97, p.A20)(MC, 11/23/01)

1227        Construction of the Gothic Cathedral in Toledo was begun.
    (SFEC, 3/22/98, p.T11)

1235-1315    Raimon Lull, a Mallorcan Catholic Franciscan poet. He declared that his ecstatic Christian spirituality drew from the example of Sufis like Rumi.
    (SFEC, 10/25/98, BR p.6)

1236        Jun 29, In Spain Christian forces under Ferdinand III of Castile and Leon took Cordoba. The last Islamic kingdom left in Spain is that of the Berbers in Granada.
    (ATC, p.100)(HN, 6/29/98)

1236        In Spain the Great Mosque of Cordoba was transformed into a cathedral after King Ferdinand III captured the city from the Moors.
    (AP, 4/2/10)

1238        Sep 28, James of Aragon retook Valencia, Spain, from the Arabs.
    (HN, 9/28/98)

1250        Apr 15, Pope Innocent III refused Jews of Cordova, Spain, permission to build a synagogue.
    (MC, 4/15/02)

1263        In a Spanish court Rabbi Moses ben Nachman defended the legitimacy of Judaism against Pablo Christiani, a converted Jew, who argued for Christianity. The trial was set up by King James I of Aragon to please the pope. In 1982 Hyam Maccoby wrote "Judaism on Trial" and turned in into a play, "The Disputation" in 1999.
    (WSJ, 3/23/99, p.A20)

1285        May 10, Philip IV (Fair) succeeded Philip III as King of Spain.
    (HN, 5/10/99)

1321        In the Battle of Beotibar the Guipuzcoans defeated the Navarrese in the Basque region of Spain. Part of the lore connected with the battle is the valour shown by the Loyola brothers, ancestors of Ignatius of Loyola, founder of the Society of Jesus, known as the Jesuits.
    (GenIV, Winter 04/05)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Beotibar)

1334        Aug 30, Pedro, the Cruel, King of Castilia & Leon, was born.
    (MC, 8/30/01)

1340        Nov 28, In the Battle of Salado, Spain, the last Moor invasion was driven back.
    (MC, 11/28/01)

1347-1350    The Black Death: A Genoese trading post in the Crimea was besieged by an army of Kipchaks from Hungary and Mongols from the East. The latter brought with them a new form of plague, Yersinia pestis. Infected dead bodies were catapulted into the Genoese town. One Genoese ship managed to escape and brought the disease to Messina, Sicily. The disease quickly became an epidemic. It moved over the next few years to northern Italy, North Africa, France, Spain, Austria, Hungary, Switzerland, Germany, the Low countries, England, Scandinavia and the Baltic. There were lesser outbreaks in many cities for the next twenty years. An estimated 25 million died in Europe and economic depression followed. In 2005 John Kelly authored “The Great Mortality: An Intimate History of the Black Death, the Most Devastating Plague of All Time."
    (NG, 5/88, p.678)(WSJ, 1/11/99, p.R42)(SSFC, 3/6/05, p.B1)(SFC, 10/13/11, p.A6)

1350        Mar 27, Alfonso XI of Castile (38) died of the black death while besieging Gibraltar.
    (HN, 3/27/99)(PCh, 1992, p.130)

1354-1720    Catalan conquerors ruled over Sardinia.
    (SFEC, 1/30/00, p.T5)

1355        May 7, 1,200 Jews of Toledo, Spain, were killed by Count Henry of Trastamara.
    (MC, 5/7/02)

1263        Aug 19, King James I of Aragon censored Hebrew writing.
    (MC, 8/19/02)

1297        Sep 12, The town of Olivenza (Olivença) came under Portuguese sovereignty with the Treaty of Alcanices. In 1801 it was ceded to Spain under the Treaty of Badajoz. In the 1815 Vienna convention Spain agreed to return it to Portugal, but this never happened.
    (Econ, 8/31/13, p.14)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Olivenza)

1360        In Spain Francesc Castello was beheaded in front of his own bank following bankruptcy.

1367        Apr 3, John of Gaunt and Edward the Black Prince won the Battle of Najara, in Spain.
    (HN, 4/3/99)

1367-1383    Don Rodrigo Anes de Araújo lived during the reign of King Ferdinand I of Portugal. Araújo built a Castle and named it Araújo which can be found in all the ancient Galician maps. Araújo or Araujo or Arauxo is a Galician and Portuguese surname. The surname Araújo is of toponymic origin derived from a place in the Province of Ourense which is part of the Autonomous Community of Galicia in North Western Spain next to the Portuguese border where a Crusader Knight of French Noble descent, Don Rodrigo Anes, was rewarded with reconquered Iberian lands during the Reconquista.

1369        Mar 23, Pedro the Cruel, King and tyrant of Castile and Leon, was murdered. Enrique, the illegitimate son of Alfonso XI of Castile, killed his half brother Pedro I in the Castilian civil war and became King Enrique I "the Bastard" of Castile.
    (SS, 3/23/02)(Reuters, 12/23/06)

1370        Spain’s Prince Sancho de Castile (7) died. Spaniards for a long time believed Prince his uncle poisoned him to become king. In 2006 studies of the boy's mummified body showed the boy died of natural causes.
    (Reuters, 12/23/06)

1385        Aug 14, Portuguese forces defeated Castilians at Aljubarrota and gained independence. Nuno Alvares Pereira helped secure Portugal's independence from the Spanish kingdom of Castile. After leaving the military, Pereira entered religious life as a Carmelite and changed his name to Nuno de Santa Maria. He dedicated himself to the poor, never taking the privileges that would have been afforded to him as a former commander. In 2009 the Vatican declared him a saint.
    (PCh, 1992, p.136)(HN, 8/15/98)(AP, 4/26/09)

1391        Mar 15, Jew-hating monk in Seville, Spain, stirred up a mob to attack Jews.
    (MC, 3/15/02)

1391        Jun 4, Mob led by Ferrand Martinez surrounded and set fire to the Jewish quarter of Seville, Spain. The surviving Jews were sold into slavery.
    (MC, 6/4/02)

1391        Aug 5, Castilian sailors in Barcelona, Spain set fire to a Jewish ghetto, killing 100 people and setting off four days of violence against the Jews.
    (HN, 8/5/98)

1391        Aug 24, Jews of Palma Majorca, Spain, were massacred.
    (MC, 8/24/02)

1391        There were anti-Jewish attacks in Girona, Spain, and many Hebrew documents were destroyed.
    (SFC, 1/20/02, p.A15)
1391        Ottoman Caliph Bayezid I sent boats to rescue Jews as they were being expelled from Spain.
    (Econ, 12/19/15, p.67)

1401        A Giro Bank was established in Barcelona, making it Europe’s first bank. At this time Barcelona was the capital of the Aragon Kingdom.
    (Econ, 1/10/09, p.74)

1418        In Spain an agreement with the city council of Madrid set a fee of 50 maravedis - medieval copper coins - per 1,000 sheep brought through the central Sol square and Gran Via street. In 1994 sheep farmers began parading their livestock through the city, along a route that once cut through undeveloped countryside on their way to winter grazing pastures in southern Spain.
    (Reuters, 10/21/18)

1424        Dec 6, Don Alfonso V of Aragon granted Barcelona the right to exclude Jews.
    (MC, 12/6/01)

1429        Jan 10, Order of Golden Fleece was established in Austria-Hungary & Spain.
    (MC, 1/10/02)

1431        Jan 1, Rodrigo Borgia Lanzol (d.1503), member of the Borgia family, was born in Xativa, Spain. His mother was the sister of Pope Calixtus III. He was elected Pope Alexander VI in 1492 and amassed a fortune by pocketing church funds. His reign helped inspire the Protestant reformation. He fathered numerous children including Lucrezia Borgia. Machiavelli based "The Prince" on him.
    (WSJ, 1/11/99, p.R8)(PTA, 1980, 424)

1449        Rodrigo Borgia Lanzol (b.1431), father of Cesare and Lucretia, arrived in Rome from Spain and Italianized his name from Borja to Borgia. His rise in the church was helped a great deal when his uncle became Pope Calixtus III.
    (HN, 8/10/98)(PTA, p.424)(WSJ, 1/11/99, p.R4)(MC, 8/11/02)

1451        Apr 22, Isabella I of Castile, Queen of Spain (1479-1504), patron of Christopher Columbus, was born in Madrigal, Spain.
    (HN, 4/22/98)(AP, 4/22/01)(MC, 4/22/02)

1452        Mar 10, Ferdinand II, the Catholic King of Aragon (1479-1516) and Sicily (1468-1516), was born. He bankrolled Columbus and expelled Jews.
    (WUD, 1994 p.524)(MC, 3/10/02)

1455        May 3, Jews fled Spain.
    (MC, 5/3/02)

1459        Mar 3, Ausias March, Catalan poet, died.
    (SC, 3/3/02)

1460        Apr 8, Ponce de Leon was born in Spain. He searched for fountain of youth and found Florida.
    (MC, 4/8/02)

1461        Aug 10, Alfonso ed Espina, bishop of Osma, urged an Inquisition in Spain.
    (MC, 8/10/02)

1462        Aug 20, Castilian forces captured Gibraltar (Eighth Siege of Gibraltar).
    (SSFC, 5/30/10, p.M4)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/History_of_Gibraltar)

1468        Juan Reixach created his panel of St. Vincent Ferrer in the Hispano-Flemish style.
    (WSJ, 3/2/05, p.D9)

1469        Oct 18, Crown prince Fernando of Aragon (1452-1516) formally married princess Isabella (1451-1504) of Castile.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Isabella_I_of_Castile)(Econ, 11/24/12, p.25)

1471        Henry IV of Castile issued copper coins of small denominations known as blancas.
    (AM, 7/97, p.59)

1474        Dec 12, Isabella crowned herself queen of Castilia & Aragon.
    (MC, 12/12/01)

1474        Bartolome de Las Casas (d.1566), “Apostle to the Indians," was born in Seville, Spain.

1475-1495    An 11-piece set of tapestries were created with scenes from the Trojan War. They included "The Death of Troilus, Achilles and Paris." They were later housed at the Museo Catedralicio, Zamora, Spain.
    (WSJ, 4/11/02, p.AD7)

1479        Sep 4, After four years of war, Spain agreed to allow a Portuguese monopoly of trade along Africa's west coast and Portugal acknowledged Spain's rights in the Canary Islands.
    (HN, 9/4/98)

1479        Nov 6, Johanna, the Insane, Queen of Castilia (1504-20), was born.
    (MC, 11/6/01)

1479        Jorge Manrique (b.1440), Spanish military hero and poet, died.
    (SSFC, 9/3/06, p.M3)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Jorge_Manrique)

1480        The Spanish Inquisition was introduced by Ferdinand and Isabella to enable the crown to control the inquiries into whether or not converted Jews were really secret "Judaizers" who kept their original faith. "The Spanish Inquisition," a history of the Inquisition was written by Henry Kamen and a new edition was published in 1998.
    (WSJ, 4/16/98, p.A1)

1481-1530    The first burnings of 8 people occurred as a result of the Inquisition trials. Over this period some 2000 people were burned.
    (WSJ, 4/16/98, p.A20)

1482        Feb 11, Pope Sixtus VI appointed Reverend Dr. Tomas de Torquemada (1420-1498) as the assistant inquisitor. In 1483 he became the Grand Inquisitor of Castile.

1483        Oct 17, The Reverend Dr. Tomas de Torquemada (1420-1498), the Grand Inquisitor of Castile, had his jurisdiction extended to Aragon.

1486        Feb 12, In Toledo, Spain, some 750 lapsed Christians were paraded through the streets of Toledo from the Church of San Pedro Martir to the cathedral in order to be reconciled to the Christian faith.
    (SSFC, 11/13/05, p.M3)

1486        May 1, Christopher Columbus convinced Queen Isabella to fund expedition to the West Indies.
    (HN, 5/1/98)

1491        Nov 15, 6 Jews and 5 Conversos (Jews who pretend to be Catholic converts) were accused of killing Christians in La Guardia, Spain.
    (MC, 11/15/01)

1492        Jan 2, Boabdil, the leader of the last Arab stronghold in Spain surrendered to Spanish forces loyal to King Ferdinand II and Queen Isabella I. Sultan Muhammad XI surrendered, ending Muslin rule in Spain. The combined Catholic forces of Ferdinand of Aragon and Isabella of Castile drove out the last of the Berbers from Spain. The Moors were expelled. King Ferdinand and Queen Isabella took the town of Grenada, the last Moslem kingdom in Spain. The event became marked by an annual festival that began around 1516.
    (ATC, p.73,100)(AP, 1/2/98)(SFEC, 3/22/98, p.T11)(HN, 1/2/99)(WSJ, 1/2/02, p.A6)(SSFC, 1/27/02, p.C20)

1492        Mar 30, King Ferdinand and Queen Isabella signed a decree expelling all Jews from Spain. Jews numbered about 80,000 and it was estimated that about half chose to convert. [see Mar 31]
    (HN, 3/30/98)(WSJ, 4/16/98, p.A20)

1492        Mar 31, King Ferdinand and Queen Isabella of Spain issued an edict expelling Jews from Spanish soil, except those willing to convert to Christianity. In 2002 Claudia Roden authored "The Ornament of the World," a collection of stories of Sephardic Jews in Spain from 750 to 1492. A Jewish text later known as the Sarajevo Haggadah was carried by a refugee to Italy and later to Bosnia. [see Mar 30]
    (AP, 3/30/97)(WSJ, 4/26/02, p.W12)(SSFC, 12/8/02, p.F9)

1492        Apr 17, A contract was signed by Christopher Columbus and a representative of Spain's King Ferdinand and Queen Isabella, giving Columbus a commission to seek a westward ocean passage to find the Indies [to Asia].
    (AP, 4/17/97)(HN, 4/17/98)

1492        Apr 30, King Ferdinand and Queen Isabella granted Christopher Columbus specific privileges and prerogatives regarding the discovery and conquest of islands and a continent in the (western) ocean.
    (DAH, 1946, p.1)

1492        Aug 3, Christopher Columbus, set sail from the port of Palos de la Frontera, in southern Spain and headed for Cipangu, i.e. Japan. The voyage took him to the present-day Americas. His squadron consisted of three small ships, the Santa Maria, the Pinta, and the Nina. The 2nd ship was owned by Cristóbal Quintero, and was named Pinta. The 3rd ship was owned by Juan Niño, and was named the Santa Clara, but became known by its nickname, the Nina.
    (http://tinyurl.com/774v3)(SFEC, 8/8/99, Z1 p.8)(ON, 8/09, p.2)

1492        Sep 6, Columbus' fleet sailed from Gomera, Canary islands.

1492        Oct 12, (Old Style calendar; Oct. 21 New Style), Christopher Columbus sited land, an island of the Bahamas which he named San Salvador, but which was called Guanahani by the local Taino people. Seeking to establish profitable Asian trade routes by sailing west, Columbus seriously underestimated the size of the Earth--never dreaming that two great continents blocked his path to the east. Even after four voyages to America, Columbus believed until the end of his life in 1506 that he had discovered an isolated corner of Asia.
    (NH, 10/96, p.22)(AP, 10/12/97)(HNPD, 10/12/98)(http://tinyurl.com/774v3)

1492        Oct 28, Christopher Columbus discovered Cuba and claimed it for Spain.

1492        Jews began arriving in Morocco, Syria and elsewhere in the Arab world after their expulsion from Spain.
    (SFEC, 7/25/99, p.T11)(SSFC, 6/28/09, p.A8)

1493        Feb, Christopher Columbus penned a letter to Spain's monarchs, four months after discovering the New World, describing what he had found and laying the groundwork for his request to fund another voyage. A Latin copy was printed in Rome by Stephan Plannack in 1493, and found its way into the Vatican Library. This was later stolen by book thief Marino Massimo De Caro and sold in 2014 to American collector David Parsons for $875,000. In 2018 it was returned to the Vatican.
    (Reuters, 6/14/18)

1493        Mar 15, Christopher Columbus returned to Spain, concluding his first voyage to the Western Hemisphere.
    (AP, 3/15/97)(HN, 3/15/98)

1493        Apr 15, Columbus met with King Ferdinand and Isabella in Barcelona.
    (MC, 4/15/02)

1493         May 4, The Discovery Doctrine, a legal doctrine claiming the right and duty of Christian states to rule newly discovered territories and their peoples, was first issued by Pope Alexander VI regarding the Americas. The Papal Bull Inter caetera ("Among other [works]") granted to the Catholic Majesties of Ferdinand and Isabella (as sovereigns of Castile) all lands to the "west and south" of a pole-to-pole line 100 leagues west and south of any of the islands of the Azores or the Cape Verde islands. “Inter Caetera" was amended in Sep. granting Spain the right to hold lands to the “western regions and to India." The Patronata Real granted the Spanish throne the privilege and duty of overseeing propagation of Christianity among Spain’s subjects in the New World.
    (https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Inter_caetera)(SFC, 3/5/11, p.E3)

1493        Sep 25, Christopher Columbus set sail from Cadiz, Spain, with a flotilla of 17 ships on his 2nd voyage to the Western Hemisphere. He was accompanied by 13 clerics; Alvarez Chanca, a physician who left valuable accounts of the voyage; Juan Ponce de Leon; Juan de la Cosa, a cartographer; and Columbus’s younger brother Bartholomew.
    (AP, 9/25/97)(AM, 7/97, p.58)

1493        Rodrigo de Jerez, a sailor under Christopher Columbus, became the first person to bring tobacco to Europe. In November 1492, Jerez and Luis de Torres first observed natives smoking. The Spanish Inquisition imprisoned him for his "sinful and infernal" habits.
    (Econ, 3/30/13, p.38)( http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Rodrigo_de_Jerez)

1494        Jun 7, Spain and Portugal divided the new lands they had discovered between themselves. King Joao II signed the Treaty of Tordesillas in which he conceded to Spain a monopoly on Columbus’ western route in exchange for a Portuguese monopoly on the eastern route.
    (HN, 6/7/98)(ON, 11/07, p.2)(www.u-s-history.com/pages/h1028.html)

1495        Mar 8, Juan de Dios, Portuguese-Spanish saint, founder (Brothers of Mercy), was born.
    (MC, 3/8/02)

1495        Oct 25, Portugal’s King Joao II died without leaving male issue. He was succeeded by his brother-in-law Manuel I.

1496        Oct 20, Spain’s Juana of Castile (1479-1555) married Philip the Handsome, the Duke of Burgundy, in Lier (later a part of Belgium). Philip's parents were Maximilian I, Holy Roman Emperor and his first wife, Duchess Mary of Burgundy. Juana had sailed from Spain with 15,000 men to the Habsburg Netherlands. Between 1498 and 1507, she gave birth to six children: two emperors and four queens.
    (Econ, 4/13/13, p.55)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Joanna_of_Castile)

1496        Juan de Flandes painted “Christ Calming the Storm," a commission by Spain’s Queen Isabel.
    (WSJ, 12/16/04, p.D8)

1498        May 30, Columbus departed Spain with 6 ships for his 3rd trip to America. He took 30 women along on his third trip to the New World.

1498        Sep 16, Tomas de Torquemada (b.1420) died in Avila, Spain. He was a Spanish Dominican friar and the first Grand Inquisitor in Spain's movement to restore Christianity among its populace in the late 15th century. He was one of the chief supporters of the Alhambra Decree, which expelled the Jews from Spain in 1492.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Tom%C3%A1s_de_Torquemada)(AP, 9/16/06)

1499        The Spanish play "Celestine" was published.
    (WSJ, 11/19/98, p.A21)

1500        Jan 26, Spanish explorer Vicente Yanez Pinzon reached the northeastern coast of Brazil during a voyage under his command. Pinzon had commanded the Nina during Christopher Columbus's first expedition to the New World.
    (MC, 1/26/02)

1500        Feb 24, Charles V, king of Spain (1516-1556), was born in Ghent, Belgium. He was the last Holy Roman Emperor to be crowned by the Pope.
    (HN, 2/24/99)(SFEC, 11/21/99, p.T10)(MC, 2/24/02)

1500        Oct, Governor De Bobadilla of Santo Domingo captured Christopher Columbus and returned him in shackles to Spain. Columbus, during his third sojourn to the new world, engaged in a dispute with the ambassador plenipotentiary to Santo Domingo, Hispaniola (later shared by Haiti and the Dominican Republic). Columbus was later released and forgiven by the Queen.
    (V.D.-H.K.p.143)(SFEC, 3/15/98, Z1 p.8)(http://www1.minn.net/~keithp/v2.htm)

1500-1750    The Spanish economy shrank during this period as Jews, Muslims and heretics were driven out of the country. The Inquisition also helped impoverish the country.
    (Econ., 9/12/20, p.71)       

1502        Feb 12, Isabella issued a royal order giving all remaining Moors in the realms of Castile the choice between baptism and expulsion.

1502        May 11, Columbus embarked on his 4th voyage with 150 men in 4 caravels. Among those in the fleet were Columbus's brother Bartholomew, and Columbus' younger son Fernando, then just 13 years old. They reached the coast of Honduras after 8 months and passed south to Panama (1503). The ships included the Capitana, which served as the flagship, and the Vizcaina. In 2006 Klaus Brinkbaumer authored “The Voyage of the Vizcaina."
    (WSJ, 1/11/99, p.R49)(http://www1.minn.net/~keithp/v4.htm)(WSJ, 5/26/06, p.W5)

1502        Jun 29, Christopher Columbus arrived at Santo Domingo on his 4th voyage to the new world. He requested harbor and advised Gov. Nicolas de Ovando of an approaching hurricane. Ovando denied the request and dispatched a treasure fleet to Spain. 20 ships sank in the storm, 9 returned to port and one made it to Spain.

1502        Jul, Columbus reached the coast of Honduras during his 4th voyage and passed south to Panama.

1502        Sep 18, Christopher Columbus landed at Costa Rica during his 4th and last voyage.  Columbus left 52 Jewish families in Costa Rica.
    (MC, 9/18/01)(WSJ, 6/15/00, p.A1)

1502        Spain legalized slave shipments to the Americas.
    (WSJ, 1/11/99, p.R49)

1503        Jun 25, Christopher Columbus beached his sinking ships in St. Anne’s Bay, Jamaica, and spent a year shipwrecked and marooned there before returning to Spain.
    (TL-MB, 1988, p.8)(http://www1.minn.net/~keithp/v4.htm)

1503        Aug 18, Alexander VI, [Rodrigo di Borgia], Spanish Pope (1492-1503), died.
    (PTA, p.424)(MC, 8/18/02)

1503        Oct 30, Queen Isabella of Spain banned violence against Indians.
    (MC, 10/30/01)

1503        Nov 2, Christopher Columbus discovered Panama during his 4th voyage and named the harbor of Portobello, which became a principal city of Spanish colonial America.
    (TL-MB, 1988, p.8)(AP, 5/9/97)(WSJ, 6/15/00, p.A1)(PCh, 1992, p.164)

1503        Seville, Spain, was awarded rights to all trade with the recently discovered New World.
    (SSFC, 8/15/10, p.M4)

1503        The missionary Bartolome de Las Casa described the brutal destruction of a Taino Indian city, La Aleta (later in the Dominican Republic). Captain-Gen’l. Juan de Esquival led a Spanish force that massacred 600-700 Higuey Tainos for rebelling after one of their chiefs was disemboweled by a Spanish attack dog. In 1997 archeologists found evidence of a city at the site called La Aleta.
    (SFC, 3/29/97, p.A10)(AM, 7/97, p.60)

1504        Jun 29, Diego Mendez, one of Columbus's captains, returned to Jamaica with a small caravel and rescued the Columbus expedition. Mendez had managed to take a canoe from Jamaica to Hispaniola where he chartered the rescue ship.

1504        Nov 7, Columbus returned to Spain following his 4th voyage after suffering a shipwreck at Jamaica. Columbus brought back cocoa beans and chocolate drinks soon became a favorite in the Spanish court. In 2005 Martin Dugard authored “The Last Voyage of Columbus."
    (EWH, 1968, p.390)(WSJ, 1/11/99, p.R49)(SSFC, 6/26/05, p.C1)

1504        Nov 26, Isabella I (53), Catholic Queen of Castile and Aragon (1474-1504), patron of Columbus died.
    (MC, 11/26/01)

1506        May 19, Columbus selected his son Diego as sole heir.
    (MC, 5/19/02)

1506        May 20, Christopher Columbus (55) died in poverty in Spain, still believing he discovered the coast of Asia. Columbus died in the Spanish city of Valladolid, and was initially interred in a monastery there. Three years later, his remains were moved to a monastery on La Cartuja. In 1537, Maria de Rojas y Toledo, widow of Columbus' son Diego, was allowed to send the bones of her husband and his father to the cathedral in Santo Domingo for burial. There they lay until 1795, when Spain ceded the island of Hispaniola to France and decided Columbus' remains should not fall into foreigners' hands. A set of remains that the Spaniards thought were Columbus' were then dug up from behind the main altar in the newly built cathedral and shipped to a cathedral in Havana, where they remained until the Spanish-American War broke out in 1898 and Spain brought them to Seville. But in 1877, workers digging inside the Santo Domingo cathedral unearthed a leaden box containing 13 large bone fragments and 28 small ones. It was inscribed "Illustrious and distinguished male, don Cristobal Colon." The Dominicans said these were the real remains of Columbus and that the Spaniards must have taken the wrong remains in 1795.
    (AP, 5/20/97)(HN, 5/20/99)(AP, 10/13/02)(SFC, 1/18/05, p.A8)

1507        Mar 12, Cesare Borgia (31), cardinal, soldier, politician, died while fighting alongside his brother, the king of Navarre, in Spain.
    (HN, 3/12/99)(MC, 3/12/02)

1508        Aug 12, Ponce de Leon arrived and conquered the island of Boriquen (Puerto Rico). Spain had appointed him to colonize Puerto Rico. He explored Puerto Rico and Spanish ships under his command began to capture Bahamanian Tainos to work as slaves on Hispaniola. His settlement at Caparra, 2 miles south of San Juan Bay, was plagued by Taino Indians and cannibalistic Carib Indians.
    (NH, 10/96, p.23)(SC, 8/12/02)(http://welcome.topuertorico.org/glossary/index.shtml#936)

1510        Garci Ordonez de Montalvo authored "Serges de Esplandian" (The Adventures of Esplandian), a novel that described an island filled with gold named California and ruled by Queen Califia.
    (SFEC, 4/18/99, BR p.1)(SFC, 2/25/00, p.C14)

1510        The Florentine banker Bartolomeo di Marchionni lent the King of Spain money for the crown’s first shipment of Africans to Santo Domingo.
    (SFEC, 11/16/97, BR p.4)

1510-1515    Don Pedro Fajardo y Chacon, commissioned a set of wood friezes for his Velez Blanco castle in Almeria. The friezes were based on engravings by Jacopo da Strasbourg and Zoan Andrea Vavasorri that depicted the triumphs of Caesar and events in the mythical life of Hercules, the "Labors of Hercules."
    (WSJ, 1/6/00, p.A20)(WSJ, 5/18/00, p.A24)

1510-1550    Spain took in gold shipments from the New World at 3,000 pounds a year.
    (WSJ, 1/11/99, p.R49)

1511        King Ferdinand of Spain said: "Get gold, humanely if possible, but at all hazards – get gold."
    (WSJ, 11/9/00, p.A24)

1511        Diego de Velazquez, Spanish commander, occupied Cuba.
    (TL-MB, 1988, p.10)

1512         Feb 22, Amerigo Vespucci (b.1454), Italian explorer, financier, navigator, and cartographer, died in Seville. He was born in the Republic of Florence and sailing for Portugal around 1501–1502, demonstrated that Brazil and the West Indies were not Asia's eastern outskirts (as initially conjectured from Columbus' voyages) but a separate, unexplored land mass colloquially known as the New World. In 1507, the new continent was named America after the Latin version of Vespucci's first name.

1512        Apr 11, The forces of the Holy League were heavily defeated by the French at the Battle of Ravenna. France under Gaston de Foix beat the Spanish Army. Gaston de Foix, French pretender to Navarre throne, died in battle.
    (HN, 4/11/99)(MC, 4/11/02)

1512        The Spaniards conquered Navarre and annexed it to Castile.
    (TL-MB, 1988, p.10)(Econ, 6/26/04, Survey p.13)

1513        Mar 27, Spanish explorer Juan Ponce de Leon sighted Florida.
    (AP, 3/27/97)(HN, 3/27/98)

1513        Apr 2, Spanish explorer Juan Ponce de Leon landed in Florida. Juan Ponce de Leon, Spanish explorer, discovered Florida and planted orange and lemon trees there. [see March 27, 1512 entry] He also discovered the Dry Tortugas, 10 small keys southwest of Key West. The Spanish governor of Puerto Rico, Juan Ponce de Leon, discovered Florida and named it Pascua Florida, "feast of the flowers." His discovery was made during his search for the legendary Fountain of Youth.
    (TL-MB, 1988, p.10)(NH, 4/97, p.317)(AP, 4/2/97)(SFEC, 1/2/00, Z1 p.2)(HNQ, 3/9/00)

1513        Apr 8,    Spanish explorer Juan Ponce de Leon and his expedition began exploring the Florida coastline.
    (AP, 4/8/07)

1513        Sept 25, Vasco Nunez de Balboa, Spanish explorer, crossed the Isthmus of Panama and claimed the Pacific Ocean for Spain. He was named governor of Panama and the Pacific by King Ferdinand. In 2004 Hugh Thomas authored “Rivers of Gold: The Rise of the Spanish Empire from Columbus to Magellan."
    (HFA, '96, p.38)(TL-MB, 1988, p.10)(SFEC, 9/21/97, p.C7)(WSJ, 6/2/04, p.D12)

1513        Sep 29, Spanish explorer Vasco Nunez de Balboa discovered the Pacific Ocean.
    (HN, 9/29/98)

1514        Spanish soldiers conquered the natives of Cuba.
    (TL-MB, p.10)

1514        1,500 Spanish settlers went to Panama.
    (TL-MB, p.10)

1515        Mar 28, Theresa of Avila (d.1582), Teresa de Jesus (St. Theresa), Spanish Carmelite nun, mystic writer, saint, was born. She initiated reforms in the Order. She co-founded with John of the Cross (1542-1591) the Order of Discalced (barefoot) Carmelites. "Untilled ground, however rich, will bring forth thistles and thorns; so also the mind of man." "To wish to act like angels while we are still in this world is nothing but folly."
    (CU, 6/87)(WUD, 1994, p.769)(AP, 12/8/97)(AP, 7/5/98)(MC, 3/28/02)

1515        Dec 2, Gonzalo de Cordoba, Spanish general, strategist, viceroy of Naples, died.
    (MC, 12/2/01)

1515        Bartolome de Las Casas (1474-1566), Dominican priest and the first Spanish priest to be ordained in the New World, returned to Spain from Hispaniola to plead on behalf of the ill-treated native Indians. He became known as the “Apostle to the Indians." Helen Rand Parish (1912-2005) later authored a number of seminal works on Las Casas.
    (NH, 10/96, p.29)(TL-MB, p.11)(SSFC, 5/15/05, p.A19)(http://tinyurl.com/brzzu)

1515        Teresa of Avila, St. Theresa (d.1582), Spanish Carmelite nun was born.
    (CU, 6/87)(WUD, 1994, p.769)(AP, 12/8/97)

1515        Spanish explorer Juan Ponce de Leon first described the Gulf Stream. In 1770 Benjamin Franklin drew a map of the Gulf Stream and in 1786 described it in detail in Transactions of the American Philosophical Society. In 2008 Stan Ulanski authored “The Gulf Stream: Tiny Plankton, Giant Bluefin, and the Amazing Story of the Powerful River in the Atlantic."
    (WSJ, 10/4/08, p.W9)

1516        Feb 23, The Hapsburg Charles I succeeded Ferdinand in Spain.
    (HN, 2/23/99)

1516        Seville Univ., Spain, was founded.
    (TL-MB, p.11)

1516        Archduke Charles, later Emp. Charles V, succeeded his grandfather, King Ferdinand II of Spain, and founded the Hapsburg dynasty.   
    (TL-MB, p.11)

1516        The Treaty of Noyon brought peace between France and Spain.
    (TL-MB, p.11)

1516        Juan Diaz de Solis, Spanish explorer, was killed on the coast of Argentina.
    (TL-MB, p.11)

1517        Oct, Ferdinand Magellan arrived in Spain and began the first voyage to successfully circumnavigate the world a little less than two years later. He eventually died in the Philippines in 1521. The expedition was completed by others in 1522. 
    (HNQ, 10/9/00)

1517        Seville Cathedral was completed after 115 years of work.
    (TL-MB, p.11)

1517        Bartolomeo de las Casas, the first Spanish priest to be ordained in the New World, pleaded the case of oppressed and enslaved American Indians.
    (TL-MB, p.11)

1517        Archduke Charles left the Netherlands for Spain and entered Valladolid in triumph.
    (TL-MB, p.11)

1517        Francisco Fernandez de Cordoba, Spanish explorer, discovered the Mayan civilization in the Yucatan, southeast Mexico.
    (TL-MB, p.11)

1518        Cardinal Wolsey arranged the Peace of London between England, France, the Pope, Maximilian I and Spain.
    (TL-MB, p.11)

1518        Vasco Nunez de Balboa, Spanish explorer, was wrongly charged with treason and beheaded.
    (SFEC, 9/21/97, p.C7)

1519        Feb 15, Pedro Menendez de Aviles, explorer (found St. Augustine, Florida), was born.
    (MC, 2/15/02)

1519        Jul 6, Charles of Spain was elected Holy Roman emperor in Barcelona. The Catholic heir to the Hapsburg dynasty, Charles V, was elected Holy Roman Emperor, combining the crowns of Spain, Burgundy (with the Netherlands), Austria and Germany. He was the grandson of Ferdnand and Isabella of Spain.
    (V.D.-H.K.p.162)(NH, 9/96, p.18)(HN, 7/6/98)

1519        Sep 20, Portuguese navigator Ferdinand Magellan set out from Spain with 270 men and 5 ships on a voyage to find a western passage to the Spice Islands in Indonesia. Magellan was killed en route, but one of his ships eventually circumnavigated the world. He was first European explorer to reach the Pacific Ocean from the Atlantic by sailing through the dangerous straits below South America that now bear his name. [see Sep 20, 1520]
    (V.D.-H.K.p.182)(DD-EVTT, p.41)(AP, 9/20/97)(HN, 9/20/98)

1519-1682    In 2015 Robert Goodwin authored “Spain: The Center of the World 1519-1682."
    (Econ, 7/25/15, p.67)

1520        May 20, Hernando Cortes defeated Spanish troops sent to punish him in Mexico.
    (HN, 5/20/98)

1520        Jun 30, Montezuma II was murdered as Spanish conquistadors fled the Aztec capital of Tenochtitlan during the night. Montezuma died from wounds inflicted by his people. Conquistadors under Cortez plundered gold from Aztecs.
    (HN, 6/30/01)(ON, 10/00, p.5)(MC, 6/30/02)

1520        Sep 20, Magellan set sail from Spain with five ships and 265 men, on a voyage to find a western passage to the Spice Islands of Indonesia. [see Sep 20, 1519]
    (MC, 11/28/01)

1520        Oct 23, King Carlos I (1500-1558) was crowned as German emperor Charles V (1520-1558), a Holy Roman Emperor.

1520        Nov 28, Portuguese navigator Ferdinand Magellan reached the Pacific Ocean after passing through the South American strait, the straits of Magellan and entered the "Sea of the South."
    (V.D.-H.K.p.177)(AP, 11/28/97)

1520        A 9-piece tapestry set was created for the Holy Roman Empire coronation of Belgium-born Charles V, King of Spain, titled "Los Honores." The set was restored by Belgium in 2000 for the 500th anniversary of Charles’ birth.
    (WSJ, 4/11/02, p.AD7)

1521        Apr 22, French king Francois I declared war on Spain.
    (MC, 4/22/02)
1521        Apr 22, Juan de Padilla, Spanish nobleman, communero-rebel, was beheaded.
    (MC, 4/22/02)

1521        Apr 23, The Comuneros were crushed by royalist troops in Spain.
    (HN, 4/23/99)

1521        Apr 26, Magellan was killed in a fight with natives on Mactan Island. Magellan named the Mariana Islands Islas de los Ladrones (Islands of Thieves), and was killed by natives on Cebu. Juan Sebastian Elcano, Magellan’s second in command, returned to Spain with 18 men and one ship, the Vittorio, laden with spices. His coat of arms was augmented in reward with the inscription Primus circumdisti me: "You were the first to encircle me."
    (V.D.-H.K.p.177-178)(SFEC, 11/10/96, zone 1 p.2)(TL-MB, p.12)

1521        May 20, Ignatius Loyola was seriously wounded by a cannon ball.
    (MC, 5/20/02)

1521        Aug 31, Spanish conqueror Cortez (1485-1547), having captured the city of Tenochtitlan, Mexico, set it on fire. Nearly 100,000 people died in the siege and some 100,000 more died afterwards of smallpox. In 2008 Buddy levy authored “Conquistador: Hernan Cortes, King Montezuma, and the Last Stand of the Aztecs."
    (HN, 8/31/98)(WSJ, 7/10/08, p.A13)

1521        Nov 19, Battle at Milan: Emperor Charles V's Spanish, German, and papal troops beat France and occupied Milan. An eight year war between France and the Holy Roman Emp., Charles V, began after the French supported rebels in Spain.
    (TL-MB, 1988, p.12)(MC, 11/19/01)

1521        The first running of the bulls was held at Pamplona, Spain. [see 1591]
    (WSJ, 1/11/99, p.R34)

1522        Feb 7, Treaty of Brussels: Habsburgers split into Spanish and Austrian Branches.
    (MC, 2/7/02)

1522        May 25, Emperor Karel I returned to Spain.
    (SC, 5/25/02)

1522        Jul 5, Antonio de Nebrija (b.1441), Spanish scholar, died. His work included a Spanish grammar  written in Latin. It was the first systematic treatment of a vernacular European language.
    (Econ, 6/1/13, p.80)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Antonio_de_Nebrija)

1522        Sep 6, Juan Sebastian Elcano (Del Cano), Magellan’s second in command, returned to Spain with 18 men and one ship, the Vittorio, laden with spices. His coat of arms was augmented in reward with the inscription: Primus circumdisti me: "You were the first to encircle me." 18 survivors of the original Magellan expedition completed the circumnavigation of the globe under Sebastian del Cano. Plumes of the bird of paradise from New Guinea were first brought back to Europe. One of the five ships that set out in Ferdinand Magellan's trip around the world made it back to Spain. Only 15 of the original 265 men that set out survived. Magellan was killed by natives in the Philippines.
    (V.D.-H.K.p.177-178)(SFEC, 11/10/96, Z1 p.2)(TL-MB, 1988, p.12)(NH, 9/96, p.8)(HN, 9/6/98)

1522        Sep 8, Spanish navigator Juan de Elcano returned to Spain. He completed the 1st circumnavigation of globe, expedition begun under Ferdinand Magellan. [see Sep 6]
    (MC, 9/8/01)

1522        A Bible was printed in Alcala, Spain, in Hebrew, Greek, Latin and Aramaic.
    (TL-MB, p.12)

1522        Pascual de Andagoya, Spanish explorer, became the first European to set foot in Peru.
    (TL-MB, p.12)

1523        The first turkeys were introduced to Spain and Europe from America by the conquistadors.
    (TL-MB, p.12)(SFEC, 11/24/96, p.A3)

1524        Aug 19, Emperor Charles V's troops besieged Marseille.
    (MC, 8/19/02)

1525        Francisco Pizarro, Spanish conquistador, sailed from Panama to explore Peru.
    (TL-MB, 1988, p.13)

1525        The Spanish made initial contact with the Incas.
    (SFC, 3/19/02, p.A2)

1526        Mar 26, King François I returned Spanish captivity to France.
    (SS, 3/26/02)

1526        Oct 18, Lucas Vazquez de Ayllp, Spanish colonialist who settled in SC, died.
    (MC, 10/18/01)

1527        May 6, German and Spanish troops under Charles V began sacking Rome, bringing about the end of the Renaissance. Libraries were destroyed,  Pope Clement VII was captured and thousands were killed. 147 of 189 of the Pope’s Swiss guard were killed.
    (HN, 5/6/02)(PCh, 1992, p.174)(WSJ, 4/14/06, p.W5)

1527        May 21, Philip II (d.1598), king of Spain and Portugal (1556-98), was born. He invaded England and roasted heretics. He collected a fifth of all the wealth generated from the mines and trade in the Americas. He invested heavily into his military and lost it all with the defeat of the Armada in 1588. His debt at his death amounted to 85 million ducats, or 300 tons of gold.
    (HN, 5/21/98)(WSJ, 1/11/99, p.R8)(MC, 5/21/02)

1527        Don Alvar Nunez Cabeza de Vaca, a Spanish soldier, was appointed 2nd in command under Panfilo de Narvaez (47), to explore the recently discovered land of Florida.
    (http://tinyurl.com/z36z9yk)(ON, 10/03, p.1)

1528        Jan 22, England & France declared war on Emperor Charles V of Spain. The French army was later expelled from Naples and Genoa.
    (TL-MB, 1988, p.13)(MC, 1/22/02)

1528        Apr 14, A Spanish expedition, led by Panfilo de Narvaez, arrived at the west coast of Florida with 400 soldiers and 42 horses.
    (ON, 10/03, p.1)

1528        Sep 28, A Spanish fleet sank in Florida hurricane;  380 died.
    (MC, 9/28/01)

1529        Apr 22, Spain and Portugal divided the eastern hemisphere in Treaty of Saragosa.
    (HN, 4/22/98)

1529        Jul 26, Francisco Pizarro was made governor for life and captain-general in New Spain. He returned to Peru in a fleet of three ships. Pizarro received a royal warrant in Toledo, Spain, to "discover and conquer" Peru.
    (TL-MB, 1988, p.13)(HN, 7/26/98)

1530        Feb 23, Spain's Carlos I was crowned Holy Roman Emperor Charles V by Pope Clement VII in the last coronation of a German king by a Pope. Charles restored the Medici to power after capturing Florence and ceded Malta to the landless religious order of the Knights of St. John of Jerusalem.
    (TL-MB, p.14)(MC, 2/24/02)(PC, 1992, p.176)

1531        Jan 26, Lisbon was hit by an earthquake and some about 30,000 died.
    (MC, 1/26/02)

1533        Cartagena de Indias (Colombia) was founded by Spain and served as a major port for the trade of slaves, gold and cargo.
    (SSFC, 5/18/03, p.C12)

1534        Apr 7, Josr de Anchieta, Spanish Jesuit, missionary (Brazilian Tupi Indians), was born.
    (MC, 4/7/02)

1536        Feb 2, The Argentine city of Buenos Aires was founded by Pedro de Mendoza of Spain.
    (AP, 2/2/97)

1536        Jul 14, France and Portugal signed the naval treaty of Lyons aligning themselves against Spain.
    (HN, 7/14/98)

1536        Oct 14, Garcilaso de la Vega, Spanish poet and diplomat, died in battle.
    (MC, 10/14/01)

1537        Aug, Castaway Don Alvar Nunez Cabeza de Vaca returned from Mexico to Spain where he wrote an account of his 3,000 mile journey through North American and his experiences with the Indians. These narratives were collected and published in 1542 in Spain. They are now known as The Relation of Álvar Núñez Cabeza de Vaca. The narrative of Cabeza de Vaca is the “first European book devoted completely to North America. In 2006 Paul Schneider authored “Brutal Journey: The True Story of the First Crossing of North America." Schneider used de Vaca’s original memoir as well as an official report prepared by survivors of the Narvaez expedition.
    (ON, 10/03, p.5)(SSFC, 6/11/06, p.M3)(http://tinyurl.com/z36z9yk)

1538        Jul 8, Diego de Almagro (63), Spanish conquistador (Chile and Peru), died.
    (MC, 7/8/02)

1539        May 30, Spanish explorer Hernando De Soto landed at Tampa Bay in Florida in search of gold.
    (TL-MB, 1988, p.15)(AP, 5/30/97)(HN, 5/30/98)

1539        Jun 3, Hernando De Soto claimed Florida for Spain.
    (HN, 6/3/98)

1540        Cabeza de Vaca, a Spanish conquistador, was appointed governor of the province of Rio de la Plata. His advocacy of Indian rights caused him to be arrested and banished to a Spanish outpost in North Africa.
    (ON, 10/03, p.5)

1541        Feb 12, Santiago, Chile, was founded by Spanish conquistador Pedro de Valdivia, a lieutenant of Pizarro. When the Spaniards arrived in Chile, 11 languages were in widespread use: Quechua, Aymara, Rapanui, Chango, Kunza, Diaguita, Mapudungun, Chono, Kawesqar, Yagan and Selk’nam. By 2007 only the 1st 3 remained. The last ethnic Selk’nam died in the 1970s.
    (PCh, 1992, p.182)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pedro_de_Valdivia)(SSFC, 8/12/07, p.A18)

1541        Apr 4, Ignatius Loyola, Spanish ecclesiastic, was elected 1st superior-general of the Jesuits.
    (TL-MB, 1988, p.16)(MC, 4/4/02)

1541        Jun 26, Francisco Pizarro, the Spanish Conqueror of Peru, was murdered by his former followers.
    (HN, 6/26/98)

1541        Cabeza de Vaca, a Spanish conquistador, became the 1st European to see the Iguacu Falls in Brazil. He named the falls Saltos de Santa Maria but the Tupi-Guarani name persisted.
    (SFEC, 10/8/00, p.17)

1542        May 21, Spanish explorer Hernando De Soto died while searching for gold along the Mississippi River. His men buried his body in the Mississippi River in what is now Louisiana in order that Indians would not learn of his death, and thus disprove de Soto's claims of divinity.
    (TL-MB, 1988, p.16)(AP, 5/21/97)(MC, 5/21/02)

1542        Jun 24, Juan de la Cruz, [de Yepes], Spanish Carmelite, poet, saint, was born.
    (MC, 6/24/02)

1542        Nov 22, New laws were passed in Spain giving protection against the enslavement of Indians in America.
    (HN, 11/22/98)

1542        The University of Zaragoza was founded in Zaragoza, the capital of Aragon, Spain.

1542-1544    A 7-piece set of tapestries was created titled the "Seven Deadly Sins." They were later housed at the Palacio Real in Madrid.
    (WSJ, 4/11/02, p.AD7)

1543        Apr 14, Bartoleme Ferrelo returned to Spain after discovering a large bay in the New World (San Francisco).
    (HN, 4/14/99)

1533        Spaniards arrived at Zaci, the capital of the Cupul Maya, in Mexico’s Yucatan peninsula and were pushed out.
    (SSFC, 6/29/08, p.E5)(http://tinyurl.com/4o62ox)

1543        Jan 3, Spanish explorer Juan Rodriguez Cabrillo (43-44) died of gangrene and was buried at San Miguel. He was injured in December while helping defend his men fight off a band of Indians in the Channel Islands off California. In 1989 Harry Kelsey authored the biography “Juan Rodriguez Cabrillo."
    (NPS-CNM, 4/1/97)(SFC, 10/18/14, p.A1)

1545        Apr 13, Elisabeth van Valois, French queen of Spain, daughter of Henri II, was born.
    (MC, 4/13/02)

1545        Jul 8, Don Carlos, son of Spanish king Philip II  (protagonist in Schiller's drama; hero in Verdi opera), was born.
    (MC, 7/8/02)

1546        A coalition of eastern Maya laid siege to Valladolid, in Mexico’s Yucatan peninsula. Spanish conquistadores brutally crushed a major Mayan rebellion in New Spain.
    (http://tinyurl.com/4o62ox)(TL-MB, 1988, p.17)

1547        Sep 29, Miguel de Cervantes Saavedra (d.1616) was born, at Alcala de Henares, near Madrid. "He was first a soldier and was captured by Barbary pirates in 1575. His family was unable to raise the ransom money until 1580. He was not initially successful as a writer until he wrote "The Ingenious Hidalgo Don Quixote de la Mancha" (1604).
    (V.D.-H.K.p.150)(HN, 9/29/02)

1547        Hernando Cortes, the conquistador who subdued Aztec king Montezuma and stole his wife, died in Spain. His remains were brought to Mexico in 1836.
    (WSJ, 12/14/00, p.A8)

1549        Cosimo I di’Medici married Eleonora of Toledo to gain a link to the Spanish ruling class that controlled Florence.
    (MT, Spring 02, p.23)

1551        Mar 9, Emperor Charles V appointed his son Philip as heir to the throne. Don Philip was recognized as the sole heir of Charles V.
    (TL-MB, 1988, p.18)(MC, 3/9/02)

1551        May 12, San Marcos University opened in Lima, Peru. The Universidad Nacional Mayor de San Marcos was founded under Spanish royal charter.
    (TL-MB, 1988, p.18)(MC, 5/12/02)(AM, 7/01, p.18)

1554        Jul 24, Queen Mary of England married Philip II, king of Spain and the Catholic son of Emp. Charles V.
    (TL-MB, 1988, p.18)(ON, 5/00, p.5)(MC, 7/24/02)

1554        Dragut, leader of the Mediterranean pirates, recaptured Mehedia, Tunisia, from the Spaniards.
    (TL-MB, 1988, p.18)

1555        Sep 8, Thomas Villanova, Spanish saint and archbishop of Valencia, died.
    (MC, 9/8/01)

1555        Oct 21, English parliament refused to recognize Philip of Spain as king.
    (MC, 10/21/01)

1556        Feb 5, Henry II of France and Philip of Spain signed the truce of Vaucelles.
    (HN, 2/5/99)

1556        Mar 28, Philip II, Charles V's son, was crowned king of Spain. [see Sep 12]
    (MC, 3/28/02)

1556        Sep 12, Emperor Charles resigned and his brother Ferdinand of Austria took over. Charles V resigned and ended his days in a Spanish monastery. He bequeathed Spain to his son Philip II, and the Holy Roman Empire to his brother Ferdinand I. A few years of peace in Europe followed. The event formed the basis for a later historical play by Friedrich Schiller, which was in turn used by Verdi for his opera "Don Carlos."
    (TL-MB, 1988, p.19)(WSJ, 3/21/96, p.A-12)(MC, 9/12/01)

1556        Sep 13, Charles V and Maria of Hungary marched into Spain.
    (MC, 9/13/01)

1556        Philip II of Spain made the Duke of Alba his chief military and political advisor.
    (WSJ, 7/1/04, p.D8)

1557        Aug 10, Spanish and English troops in alliance defeated the French at the Battle of St. Quentin (San Quintino). French troops were defeated by Emanuele Filiberto's Spanish army at St. Quentin, France. In 1559 Filiberto made Turin capital of his Savoy state.
    (HN, 8/10/98)(www.niaf.org/news/news_italy/news_italy_mar2003.asp)

1557        The world’s first sovereign bankruptcy took place following the indulgence of Genoese lenders for Spain’s Philip II expensive taste for warfare.
    (Econ, 9/23/06, p.11)

1557        The influx of New World silver caused bankruptcies in France and Spain.
    (TL-MB, 1988, p.19)

1557        The Spanish enslaved local Indians around Guanajuato, Mexico, to work a silver mine. A major vein was struck in 1768.
    (SSFC, 5/4/03, p.D7)

1558        Jul 13, Led by the court of Egmont, the Spanish army defeated the French at Gravelines, France.
    (HN, 7/13/98)

1558        Sep 21, Charles V (b.1500), King of Spain (Carlos I), former Holy Roman Emperor (1519-1556), died. In 2006 lab tests showed that Charles suffered from gout.
    (TL-MB, 1988, p.19)(http://tinyurl.com/kq9sq)

1559        Apr 3, Philip II of Spain and Henry II of France signed the peace of Cateau-Cambresis, ending a long series of wars between the Hapsburg and Valois dynasties.
    (HN, 4/3/99)

1559        Aug 14, Spanish explorer Tristan de Luna entered Pensacola Bay, Florida. 1,500 Spanish settlers sailed from Vera Cruz to found a settlement on Pensacola Bay in Florida, but were repulsed by hostile Indians. The location of the Spanish settlement founded in the area of Pensacola, Fl., remained a mystery until 2016 when amateur archaeologist Tom Garner stumbled upon some shards of 16th century Spanish pottery.
    (HN, 8/14/98)(TL-MB, 1988, p.19)(AP, 3/24/06)

1559        Aug 22, Spanish archbishop Bartholome de Carranza was arrested as a heretic.
    (MC, 8/22/02)

1559        Sep, A Spanish expedition was scuttled by a hurricane, shortly after the fleet arrived in Pensacola. Five ships sank.
    (AP, 2/17/16)

1559        Mateo Prunes, a Majorcan mapmaker, created his portolan chart of the Mediterranean and Black seas on the skin of a single sheep. Portolan charts are navigational maps based on realistic descriptions of harbors and coasts.
    (SSFC, 5/23/10, p.A15)
1559        The Escorial, an enormous palace built on a grid plan for Philip II, was begun in Madrid.
    (TL-MB, 1988, p.19)

1560        Jan 31, Spanish king Philip II married Elisabeth de Valois.
    (MC, 1/31/02)

1560        Cardinal Mendoza, archbishop of Burgos, wrote "Tizon de la nobleza de Espana," (the Blot on the Spanish Nobility). He claimed that virtually the entire aristocracy had Jewish or Moorish blood to point out the folly of the Inquisition’s campaign to prevent anyone with Jewish blood from securing a position of authority under the crown.
    (WSJ, 4/16/98, p.A20)

1561        Sep 23, Philip II of Spain gave orders to halt colonizing efforts in Florida. The French took advantage of the opportunity.
    (TL-MB, 1988, p.20)(HN, 9/23/98)

1561        Philip II moved his court from Toledo to Madrid, which was but a village until this time, and proclaimed Madrid as capital of Spain.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Toledo,_Spain)(SFEC, 3/22/98, p.T11)

1562        Aug 8, Diego Te, a Maya man in the Yucatec town of Sotuta, testified that a year earlier he had witnessed a village leader and another man cut the hearts from 2 boys and hand them to a shaman, who rubbed the hearts onto the mouths of two Maya idols. The account was preserved in the Archivo General de Indias in Seville, Spain.
    (AM, 7/05, p.43)

1562        Nov 25, Lope Felix de Vega, dramatist and poet (Angelica, Arcadia), was born in Madrid, Spain.
    (MC, 11/25/01)

1562        Titian painted the "Rape of Europa" for Philip II of Spain. It is the most celebrated of his erotic mythologies.
    (TL-MB, 1988, p.20)

1562        In the Yucatan a campaign to root out idolatry ended with the destruction of thousands of ritual objects and most of the Maya books in existence. The campaign was led by Franciscan leader Diego de Landa, who was later tried in Spain for his excessive behavior and acquitted. He recorded the oral traditions of the Maya in “An Account of the Things of the Yucatan" before returning there in 1573 as Bishop of Yucatan.
    (AM, 7/05, p.44)

1563        Construction began on the San Lorenzo del Escorial Palace in Madrid.

1564        Aug 18, Spanish king Philip II joined the Council of Trent.
    (MC, 8/18/02)

1565        Aug 28, A Spanish expedition under Pedro Menendez de Aviles arrived at an inlet on the Florida coast on the feast day of St. Augustine and gave the theologian’s name to the encampment.
    (WSJ, 7/18/08, p.W8)

1564        Sep 4, A 10-ship Spanish fleet under Pedro Menendez de Aviles made landfall in Florida. Menendez was under orders from Phillip II to oust the French.
    (Arch, 1/05, p.47)

1565        Sep 8, A Spanish expedition under Pedro Menendez de Aviles established the first permanent European colony in the present day St. Augustine, Fla. Aviles founded St. Augustine on the site of the Timucuan Indian village of Seloy, 42 years before the English settled at Jamestown and 55 years before the Pilgrims landed at Plymouth Rock. St. Augustine, Florida is the oldest permanent European settlement in the US. Castillo de San Marco fortress was built by the Spanish to defend St. Augustine.
    (AP, 9/8/97)(NG, March 1990, p.117)(WSJ, 8/3/95, p.A-8)(WSJ, 5/21/98, p.A1)

1565        Sep 20, A Spanish fleet under Pedro Menendez de Aviles wiped out some 350 Frenchmen at Fort Caroline, in Florida. Spanish forces under Pedro Menendez massacred a band of French Huguenots that posed a potential threat to Spanish hegemony in the area. They also took advantage of the local Timucuan Indian tribe. Artist Jacques Le Moyne de Morgues managed to escape and return to France, where he painted watercolors depicting the local botany. His alleged paintings of Indians living nearby were later thrown into question.
    (WSJ, 8/3/95, p.A-8)(Arch, 1/05, p.47)(WSJ, 7/18/08, p.W8)(Arch, 5/05, p.31)(Arch, 1/06, p.25)

1565        Philip II of Spain sent Miguel Lopez de Legazpi  and 1,000 mercenaries from Mexico to wrest the Philippines from Muslim sultans, who had ruled since the 12th century.
    (SFC, 7/7/03, p.A6)

1566        Dec 1, Spanish king Philip II named Fernando Alvarez, duke of Alba.
    (MC, 12/1/01)

1566        Bartolome de Las Casas (b.1474), “Apostle to the Indians," died in Madrid, Spain.

1567        Oct 6, The Duke of Alba became guardian of the Netherlands. Spain’s Duke of Alba arrived in Brussels at the head of a 10,000 troops to quell the iconoclastic riots.
    (MC, 10/6/01)(WSJ, 7/1/04, p.D8)

1568        May 3, French forces in Florida slaughter hundreds of Spanish. On a sultry summer day in 1742, a handful of British and Spanish colonial troops faced each other on a Georgia coastal island and decided the fate of a colony.
            (HN, 5/3/98)

1568        Jul 23, Don Carlos (c23), son of Spanish king Philip II, died.
    (MC, 7/23/02)

1569        Feb 7, King Philip II ordered the inquisition in South America.
    (MC, 2/7/02)

1569        May 10, John of Avila (b.1500), Spanish minister and writer, died. He became the patron saint of Spain's diocesan clergy and was considered one of the greatest preachers of his time. He was canonized in 1970. In 2012 Pope Benedict XVI named him as a “doctor" of the Catholic church.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/John_of_Avila)(AP, 8/20/11)(AP, 10/7/12)

1570        Mar 4, Spain’s King Philip II banned foreign Dutch students.
    (SC, 3/4/02)

1570        Apr 24, Spanish troops battled followers of Sultan Suleiman.
    (MC, 4/24/02)

1570        Seville, Spain, by this time stood as the 3rd largest city in Europe, behind Rome and Venice, as it reaped the rewards of trade rights, granted in 1503, with the New World.
    (SSFC, 8/15/10, p.M4)

1571        Mar 19, Spanish troops occupied Manila. [see May 19]
    (MC, 3/19/02)

1571        May 19, Miguel Lopez de Lagazpi founded the city of Manila in the Philippines and encountered Chinese settlements. [see Mar 19]
    (DTnet, 5/19/97)(WSJ, 12/26/02, p.A1)

1571        May 20, Venice, Spain & Pope Pius formed an anti-Turkish Saint League.
    (MC, 5/20/02)

1571        Oct 7, Spanish, Genoese and Venetian ships of the Christian League defeated an Ottoman fleet in the naval Battle of Lepanto, Greece. In the last great clash of galleys, the Ottoman navy lost 117 ships to a Christian naval coalition under the overall command of Spain's Don Juan de Austria.
    (AP, 10/7/07)(www.freerepublic.com/focus/f-religion/1760264/posts)

1571        Miguel de Cervantes (1547-1616) was wounded in the Battle of Lepanto, which pitted Ottoman Turkish forces against the Holy League, led by Spain. Returning home aboard the ship La Marquesa he was hit with three musket shots by Turkish pirates and spent years captive in Algiers. The Trinitarian order negotiated his release and helped pay a ransom that ruined the Cervantes family. In 1604 he published the first part of "The Ingenious Hidalgo Don Quixote de la Mancha."
    (AP, 4/28/14)

1572        Oct 5, The Spanish army under Duke of Alva's son Don Frederik plundered Mechelen (Flanders).
    (MC, 10/5/01)

1572        Dec, The Dutch town of Naarden surrendered to Imperial Spanish troops under the Duke of Alba (1507-1582). The town was then burned and the entire population massacred. Alba’s attempt to impose a 10% sales tax on commodities stirred resistance that led to the Dutch independence. In 2004 Henry Kamen authored "The Duke of Alba."
    (WSJ, 7/1/04, p.D8)

1572        Dutch warships, Beggars of the Sea, effectively harried Spanish shipping in the English Channel and fueled the Dutch War of Independence.
    (TL-MB, 1988, p.22)

1572        The Dutch used carrier pigeons during the Spanish siege of Haarlem.
    (WSJ, 1/11/99, p.R14)

1572        Fray Luis de Leon, Spanish scholar and poet at Salamanca, was denounced as a heretic and served 5 years in prison.
    (SSFC, 6/8/03, p.C8)

1574        Spanish forces in the Netherlands besieged Leyden, but William the Silent breached the dykes to flood the land. This allowed his ships to sail up to the walls and lift the siege.
    (TL-MB, 1988, p.22)

1574        Turkish troops captured Tunis from the Spaniards.
    (TL-MB, 1988, p.22)

1576        May 29, Spanish army under Mondragón conquered the Zierik sea.
    (SC, 5/29/02)

1576        Jul, The Spanish ship San Felipe departed Manila for the port of Acapulco. It wrecked on the coast of Baha, California. Artifacts from the wreckage were later used to identify the ship.
    (SFC, 8/23/11, p.C1)

1577        Painter El Greco (36), born in Crete as Domenikos Theotokopoulos, went to Spain and settled there permanently in Toledo.
    (TL-MB, 1988, p.22)(WSJ, 6/18/01, p.A16)

1577        Fray Luis de Leon, Spanish scholar and poet at Salamanca, was released from prison after serving 5 years for heresy. He greeted his students with the words: "As I was saying, yesterday..."
    (SSFC, 6/8/03, p.C8)

1578        Mar 31, Juan de Escobedo, secretary of Spanish land guardian Don Juan, was murdered.
    (MC, 3/31/02)

1578        Apr 14, Philip III, king of Spain and Portugal (1598-1621), was born.
    (HN, 4/14/98)

1579        Jan 6, The Union of Atrecht (French: Arras) was an accord signed in Atrecht (Arras), under which the southern states of the Spanish Netherlands, today in Wallonia and the Nord-Pas-de-Calais (and Picardy) regions in France, expressed their loyalty to the Spanish king Philip II and recognized the landlord, Don Juan de Austria. It is to be distinguished from the Union of Utrecht, signed later in the same month. The Peace of Arras ensured that the southern provinces of The Netherlands were reconciled to Philip II. It joined the Low Country Walloons (Catholics) with those of Hainaut and Artois.
    (http://en.allexperts.com/e/u/un/union_of_atrecht.htm)(PCh, 1992, p.200)

1579        Mar 1, Sir Francis Drake waylaid a Spanish treasure galleon, the Nuestra Senora de la Concepcion, off the coast of Panama.
    (ON, 7/03, p.7)

1579        Jul 29, Spain's King Philip II arrested plotters Antonio Perez and Princess of Eboli.
    (MC, 7/29/02)

1579        The Peace of Arras ensured that the southern provinces of The Netherlands were reconciled to Philip II. [out of order, see 1580]
    (TL-MB, 1988, p.22)

1580        Mar 15, Spanish king Philip II put 25,000 gold coins on head of Prince William of Orange.
    (MC, 3/15/02)

1580        Aug 25, Spain defeated Portugal in the Battle of Alcantara.
    (chblue.com, 8/25/01)

1580        Nov 9, Spanish troops landed in Ireland.
    (MC, 11/9/01)

1580        The Duke of Alba invaded Portugal and put it under Spain’s rule. Spain’s Philip II was proclaimed King Philip I of Portugal and united the colonial empires of Spain and Portugal.
    (TL-MB, 1988, p.23)(PCh, 1992, p.200)

1580-1640    The Azores was occupied by Spain and bullfighting was introduced.
    (SFEC, 5/24/98, p.A10)

1581        The Portuguese Cortes (national assembly) submitted to Philip II of Spain.
    (TL-MB, p.23)

1581        Bernal Diaz del Castillo (b.1492/93), Spanish conquistador and governor of Santiago de los Caballeros (Antigua, Guatemala), died. He wrote “Verdadera Historia de la Conquista de Nueva España" (True History of the Conquest of New Spain) in response to claims made in the earlier work by Cortes’ chaplain. It was not published until his manuscript was found in Madrid in 1632.
    (SSFC, 5/21/06, p.M3)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bernal_Diaz_del_Castillo)

1582        Oct 4, Theresa of Avila (b.1515), Spanish mystic writer and saint, died. She co-founded with John of the Cross (1542-1591) the Order of Discalced (barefoot) Carmelites. "Untilled ground, however rich, will bring forth thistles and thorns; so also the mind of man."
    (CU, 6/87)(WUD, 1994, p.769)(AP, 12/8/97)(MC, 10/4/01)

1582        Oct 15, The Gregorian (or New World) calendar was adopted in Italy, France, Spain, and Portugal; and the preceding ten days were lost to history. This day followed Oct 4 to bring the calendar into sync. by order of the Council of Trent. Oct 5-14 were dropped.
    (K.I.-365D, p.97)(NG, March 1990, J. Boslough)(HN, 10/15/98)

1582        In Spain Fernando Alvarez de Toledo (b.1507), military and political advisor to Philip II, died. In 2004 Henry Kamen authored "The Duke of Alba."
    (WSJ, 7/1/04, p.D8)

1583        Nov, Francis Throckmorton, who was born in 1554, was arrested. He made a full confession of the Throckmorton Plot for the overthrow of Queen Elizabeth I and the restoration of papal authority in England after being tortured on the rack. He was tried and then executed on July 20, 1584. Throckmorton was the central figure in the conspiracy involving France and Spain, which called for a French invasion of England and the release from prison of Mary, Queen of Scots.
    (HNQ, 10/8/98)

1584        Jul 10, William of Orange (1533-1584), Prince of Orange (1544-1584), Count of Nassau (1559-1584), and first stadholder of the United Provinces of the Netherlands, was assassinated by Burgundian Balthasar Gerard (25) with a handgun. Philip II of Spain had called for a volunteer assassin due to William’s reluctance take a public stand on religious issues. William was succeeded by his 17-year-old son, Maurice of Nassau. In 2006 Lisa Jardine authored “The Awful End of Prince William the Silent."
    (TL-MB, 1988, p.23)(WSJ, 4/5/06, p.D8)

1584        The San Lorenzo del Escorial Palace in Madrid, begun in 1563, was completed. It was consecrated in 1586

1585        Luca Cambiaso (b.1527), Genovese Renaissance painter, died in San Lorenzo de El Escorial, Spain, where he was working under commission for King Phillip II.

1586        El Greco began to paint "The Burial of Count Orgaz." This depicted the miracle of the saintly count’s funeral, where St. Augustine and St. Stephen personally descend from heaven to bury the corpse with their own hands.
    (TL-MB, p.24)(WSJ, 11/6/03, p.D10)

1587        Apr 19, Sir Frances Drake sailed into Cadiz, Spain, and sank the Spanish fleet.
    (MC, 4/19/02)

1587        Sir Edward Stafford, English ambassador in Paris, contacted the Spanish ambassador and offered to provide news of Queen Elizabeth’s plans and to offer the English disinformation concerning Spanish plans. Stafford’s brother-in-law was Lord Howard Effingham, commander in chief of the English fleet.
    (WSJ, 11/24/98, p.A20)

1588        Feb, King Philip II (61) appointed Don Alonzo Perez de Guzman el Bueno (37), the Duke of Medina Sedonia, as Captain General of the High Seas and ordered him to take charge of the Spanish Armada. Philip intended to restore England to Catholicism
    (ON, 3/02, p.1)

1588        May 11, The Spanish Armada of 130 ships with 30,000 men left Lisbon for England. [see May 19]
    (ON, 3/02, p.2)

1588        May 19, The Spanish Armada set sail to Lisbon bound for England; it was soundly defeated by the English fleet the following August. [see May 11]
    (AP, 5/19/97)(DTnet, 5/19/97)

1588        May 30, Spanish Armada under Medina-Sidonia departed Lisbon to invade England.
    (MC, 5/30/02)

1588        Jul 20-22, The Spanish Armada, after month in Corunna, set sail for England. The Duke of Medina Sedonia sailed in the flagship San Martin with Admiral Juan Martinez de Recalde.
    (HN, 7/20/01)(ON, 3/02, p.2)

1588        Jul 27, The Spanish anchored off Calais in a crescent-shaped, tightly-packed defensive formation, not far from Parma's army of 16,000, which was waiting at Dunkirk.

1588        Jul 29, At midnight of July 28th the English set eight fireships (filled with pitch, gunpowder, and tar) alight and sent them downwind among the closely-anchored Spanish vessels. The English attacked the Spanish Armada in the Battle of Gravelines, resulting in an English victory.
    (ON, 3/02, p.3)(http://wapedia.mobi/en/Spanish_Armada#1.1.)(AP, 7/29/08)

1588        Jul 30, The English exchanged fire with the Spanish Armada.
    (ON, 3/02, p.3)

1588        Aug 1, Sir Francis Drake captured the Nuestra Senora del Rosario, one of the largest Spanish Armada galleons.
    (ON, 3/02, p.4)

1588        Aug 2, The English and Spanish fleets exchanged fire all day. The English used up all their ammunition and sailed into nearby ports.
    (ON, 3/02, p.4)

1588        Aug 4, The English and Spanish fleets exchanged fire all day off the Isle of Wight.
    (ON, 3/02, p.4)

1588        Aug 6, The Spanish Armada anchored of Calais.
    (ON, 3/02, p.4)

1588        Aug 8, The English Navy destroyed the Spanish Armada. 600 Spaniards were killed in the day’s fighting and 800 badly injured. The Duke of Medina Sidonia led the "invincible" Spanish Armada from Lisbon against England. It was shattered around the coasts of the English Isles by an English fleet under the command of Lord Howard of Effingham with the help of Sir Francis Drake, Sir John Hawkins, and a violent storm (see Aug 18). The victory opened the world for English trade and colonization. In 1959 Garrett Mattingly authored “The Armada." In 1998 Geoffrey Parker published "The Grand Strategy of Phillip II." In 2005 Neil Janson authored “The Confident Hope of a Miracle: The True Story of the Spanish Armada," and James McDermott authored “England & the Spanish Armada: The necessary Quarrel."
    (ON, 3/02, p.5)(SSFC, 2/20/05, p.B2)(Econ, 5/28/05, p.85)

1588        Aug 10, The remnants of the Spanish Armada sailed north to avoid the English fleet.
    (ON, 3/02, p.6)

1588        Aug 18, A storm struck the remaining 60 ships of the Spanish Armada under the Duke of Medina Sidonia after which only 11 were left. Many of the ships went to Ireland where most of the Spaniards were killed by the English. 600 Spaniards wrecked in Scotland were later returned to Spain. In 1978 Niall Fallon authored "The Armada in Ireland."
    (ON, 3/02, p.6)

1588        Sep 21, Medina Sidonia's Spanish Armada flagship, the San Martin, arrived at Santander, Spain. Almost half of the 130 ships were lost. 20k of 30k men died. 1,500 died in battle, the rest from shipwreck, massacre, starvation or disease. In 1981 David Howarth authored "The Voyage of the Armada." In 1988 Peter Kemp authored "The Campaign of the Spanish Armada."
    (ON, 3/02, p.6)

1588        Sep 25, A heavy storm drove 3 Spanish ships onto the coast of Ireland. Francisco de Cuellar, an officer on the galleon Lavia, spent the next 6 months evading English forces and getting to Scotland and then the Netherlands.
    (ON, 5/02, p.12)

1588        Oct 23, Medina Sidonia's Spanish Armada returned to Santander. [see Sep 21]
    (MC, 10/23/01)

1589        Oct 4, Francisco de Cuellar, a Spanish Armada officer from the wrecked galleon Lavia, wrote a letter from Antwerp to King Philip that was later valued for its descriptions of Ireland.
    (ON, 5/02, p.12)

1590        Fray Jose de Acosta, Spanish Jesuit priest, authored “Historia Natural y Moral de las Indies." In it he suggested that the Americas were populated by people from Asia.
    (Arch, 9/00, p.72)

1591        Dec 14, San Juan de la Cruz (b.1542), Spanish poet, died. He is remembered for his treatise “Dark Night of the Soul."
    (SSFC, 9/3/06, p.M3)(www.newadvent.org/cathen/08480a.htm)

1591        Philip II bought the Hieronymus Bosch painting "the Garden of Earthly Delights." It hung in the Escorial from this time to 1939 when it was moved to the Prado.
    (WSJ, 8/25/98, p.A12)

1591        The encierro (running of the bulls) at Pamplona, Spain, began as a means of moving the bulls to the bull fighting arena. It became known as Los San Fermines. [see 1521]
    (SSFC, 6/16/02, p.C6)(SSFC, 7/7/02, p.A2)

1592        Juan de Fuca, a Greek sailing for Spain, sailed into a strait that later became the border between Canada’s Vancouver Island, BC, and the Olympic Peninsula of Washington state. The waterway was later named the Strait of Juan de Fuca.
    (NG, 7/04, p.66)

1594        Jun 7, Roderigo Lopez was executed at Tyburn, England, on charges of spying for the king of Spain.
    (WSJ, 9/24/04, p.W7)

1595        Jun 5, Henry IV’s army defeated the Spanish at the Battle of Fontaine-Francaise.
    (HN, 6/5/98)

1595        Jul, The Spanish galleon San Agustin departed the Philippines with 130 tons of cargo and 70 men. See Nov, 1595.
    (SFC, 9/26/97, p.A21)(SFC, 8/23/11, p.C3)

1595        Nov, The San Agustin, a Spanish galleon from Manila, sank off the coast of northern California near Point Reyes with a load of silks and porcelains from the Orient. Skipper Sebastian Rodriguez Cermeno sailed with survivors in an open boat 2,500 miles to Acapulco.
    (SFC, 9/26/97, p.A21)(SFC, 8/23/11, p.C3)

1596        Jul 1, An English fleet under the Earl of Essex, Lord Howard of Effingham and Francis Vere captured and sacked Cadiz, Spain.
    (HN, 7/1/98)

1596        Oct 25, The Spanish fleet sailed from Lisbon to Ireland.
    (MC, 10/25/01)

1597        Jun 9, Jose de Anchieta, Spanish Jesuit, missionary, died.
    (MC, 6/9/02)

1597        El Greco (1541-1614), Spanish artist, completed his visionary “View of Toledo" about this time.
    (WSJ, 6/28/08, p.W12)

1598        Sep 1, Spanish king Philip II ("Scourge of Heretics") received his last rites sacrament. [see Sep 13]
    (MC, 9/1/02)

1598        Sep 13, Philip II (71), King of Spain (1556-98), died. He had ordered the 1588 Spanish Armada attack on England. After its failure he dispatched 3 smaller armadas, but they all failed.
    (MC, 9/13/01)(ON, 3/02, p.6)

1598        Oct 15, Spanish general strategist Bernardino de Mendoza occupied Fort Rhine.
    (MC, 10/15/01)

1599        Jun 6, Velazquez (d.1660), Diego Rodriguez de Silva, Spanish painter of Portuguese ancestry, was born. He painted "Count Duke of Olivares" and "Rokeby Venus" (1647-51) The Venus is at the London National Gallery.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Diego_Vel%C3%A1zquez)(SFEC, 2/1/98, p.T8)(WSJ, 1/5/07, p.W12)

1600-1681    Pedro Calderon de la Barca, Spanish baroque master dramatist. His work included: "Life Is a Dream." "Cuando amor no es locura, no es amor." (When love is not madness, it is not love).
    (WSJ, 10/20/95, p. A-12)(WSJ, 4/5/96, p.A-6)(AP, 10/30/98)

1601        Mar 19, Alonzo Cano, Spanish painter, sculptor (Cathedral Granada), was born.
    (MC, 3/19/02)

1601-1658    Baltasar Gracian, Spanish philosopher: "You should avoid making yourself too clear even in your explanations."
    (AP, 8/13/00)

1602        Jan 2, Battle at Kinsale, Ireland: English army beat the Spanish.
    (MC, 1/2/02)

1602        Apr 2, Maria de Jesus de Agreda (Maria Coronel), Spanish Franciscan, was born.
    (MC, 4/2/02)

1604        May 18, (OS)England and Spain agreed signed the Treaty of London ending the 19 year Anglo-Spanish war.
    (AH, 6/07, p.31)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Treaty_of_London_%281604%29)

1604        Sep 20, After a two-year siege, the Spanish retook Ostend [NW Belgium], the Netherlands, from the Dutch.
    (WUD, 1994, p.1019)(HN, 9/20/98)

1604        Miguel de Cervantes Saavedra (1547-1616) published the first part of "The Ingenious Hidalgo Don Quixote de la Mancha." Don Quixote and his friend Sancho Panza seek what a modern poet has called an impossible dream, a dream of justice in an earthly paradise, a contradiction in terms, as practical men have always known... Cervantes was the first to see that the new world coming into being needed such heroes; otherwise it would go mad." In 2006 Manuel Duran and Fay R. Rogg authored “Fighting Windmills."
    (V.D.-H.K.p.150)(HN, 9/29/02)(WSJ, 6/10/06, p.P8)

1605        Apr 8, Philip IV king of Spain and Portugal (1621-65), was born. 
    (HN, 4/8/98)

1605-1612    Don Pedro de Zuniga served as the Spanish ambassador to England. Zuniga actively engaged in espionage while serving as ambassador to England, sending various reports and maps concerning the English colony in Virginia to the Spanish court.
    (AH, 6/07, p.31)(www.she-philosopher.com/ib/bios/zuniga.html)

1607        Francisco de Rojas Zorrilla (d.c1660), Spanish dramatist, was born at Toledo. He became a knight of Santiago in 1644. The exact date of his death is unknown.

1608        Shogun Ieyasu ordered Will Adams to go to the Philippines to invite the Spanish Gov. Don Diego Vevero y Velasco to compete with the Portuguese for trade with Japan.
    (ON, 11/02, p.10)

1609        Apr 9, Spain’s King Philip III decreed the expulsion of the Moriscos,  descendants of the Muslim population that converted to Christianity under threat of exile from Ferdinand and Isabella in 1502.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Expulsion_of_the_Moriscos)(Econ, 2/22/14, p.44)

1609        Spanish ships began visiting Japan and Spanish Dominicans began missionary work.
    (ON, 11/02, p.10)

1609        Don Alonzo Perez de Guzman el Bueno, the Duke of Medina Sedonia and head of the failed Spanish Armada, died.
    (ON, 3/02, p.6)

1611        Don Diego de Molina, a Spanish spy, was taken prisoner in Jamestown. Molina managed to send reports about the colony to agents in London. When he eventually returned to Spain, Molina urged King Philip to eliminate the English presence in Virginia, but Philip again demurred.
    (AH, 6/07, p.31)

1611-1670    Antonio de Pareda, Spanish allegorist painter. His work included "El Sueño del Caballero" (The Gentleman’s Dream).
    (WSJ, 1/09/00, p.A20)

1614        Apr 7, El Greco (b.1541), born in Crete as Domenikos Theotocopoulos, died in Toledo, Spain. His paintings included "The Resurrection" (1597) and “View and Plan of Toledo" (1610-1614).
    (WSJ, 6/18/01, p.A16)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/El_Greco)

1616        Feb 26, Spanish Inquisition delivered an injunction to Galileo.
    (SC, 2/26/02)

1616        Apr 23, Miguel de Cervantes (b.1547), Spanish poet and novelist, died in Madrid.
    (AP, 4/23/97)

1620        The Plaza Mayor, a grand, arcaded square in Madrid, dates to this time.
    (SFEC, 5/31/98, p.T9)

1622        Sep 6, A Spanish silver fleet disappeared off Florida Keys; thousands died. The Santa Margarita, discovered off of Key West in 1980 by pioneering shipwreck salvor Mel Fisher, was bound for Spain when it sank in a hurricane in 1622.
    (MC, 9/6/01)(AP, 6/18/07)

1623        Velazquez painted the portrait: "Gaspar de Guzman, Count-Duke of Olivares."
    (WSJ, 12/29/99, p.A12)

1624        May 3, Spanish silver fleet sailed to Panama.
    (MC, 5/3/02)

1624        Velasquez painted a portrait of King Philip IV.
    (WSJ, 12/16/04, p.D8)

1625        May 18, Francisco Gómez de Sandoval y Rojas, Spanish marquis of Denia, died.
    (SC, 5/18/02)

1625        Jul 2, The Spanish army took Breda, Spain, after nearly a year of siege.
    (HN, 7/2/98)

1627        Luis de Gongora y Argote (b.1561), Spanish poet, died.
    (SSFC, 9/3/06, p.M3)(www.spanish-books.net/literature/i_gongora.htm)

1628        Peter Paul Rubens, Flemish painter, was called upon to broker a peace between Catholic Spain and Protestant England.
    (Econ, 5/15/04, p.81)

1629        Jun 18, Piet Heyn (51), lt.-admiral (Spanish silver fleet), died in battle.
    (MC, 6/18/02)

1631        Jun 17, The Spanish galleon San Jose smashed into rock off the Pacific coast of Panama. It was overloaded with 200 passengers and 700 tons of cargo. Silver coins and bars were lost over a 40-mile trail.
    (http://tinyurl.com/hmy8v7f)(SFC, 12/1/15, p.A7)

1631        Oct 14, The ship Our Lady of Juncal set sail from the Gulf coast port of Veracruz, as part of a 19-ship fleet bearing described only as "a valuable shipment of the goods obtained by the king's ministers to feed the Spanish empire." Most of the fleet never made it.
    (AP, 2/17/09)

1632-1635    Velazquez painted "The Jester Pablo de Vallodolid."
    (WSJ, 4/16/03, p.D10)

1633        Francisco de Zurbaran (1598-1644), Spanish artist, painted his “Still Life With Lemons Oranges and a Rose," later described as symbolic objects to the Virgin Mary. It was the work that Zurbaran ever signed and dated. In 1998 it was held by the Los Angeles Norton Simon Museum of Art.
    (SFEC, 1/11/98, p.D7)(WSJ, 2/21/09, p.W7)

1634        Sep 5, Battle at Nordlingen: King Ferdinand III & Catholic Spain beat Sweden & German protestants.
    (MC, 9/5/01)

1635        May 19, Cardinal Richelieu of France intervened in the great conflict in Europe by declaring war on the Hapsburgs in Spain.
    (DTnet, 5/19/97)(HN, 5/19/99)

1636        Aug 8, The invading armies of Spain, Austria and Bavaria were stopped at the village of St.-Jean-de-Losne, only 50 miles from France.
    (HN, 8/8/98)

1640        Dec 1, Spain lost Portugal as the Duke of Braganza was proclaimed João IV (John IV), king of Portugal.
    (HoS, p.267)

1640        Spain’s medieval kingdom of Aragon rebelled against Madrid.
    (Econ, 11/8/08, SR p.10)
1640        Pope Urban VIII ordered Spanish priests to stop smoking cigars.
    (SFC, 5/24/97, p.E3)

1643        May 19, A French army destroyed Spanish army at the Battle at Rocroi /Allersheim in France
    (DTnet, 5/19/97)(HN, 5/19/98)

1644        Velazquez painted the portrait: "King Philip IV of Spain."
    (WSJ, 12/29/99, p.A12)

1647        Velazquez (1599-1660) began his painting "Toilet of Venus." It was completed in 1651.
    (WSJ, 2/24/00, p.A16)

1648        Apr 5, Spanish troops and feudal barons struck down people's uprising in Naples.
    (MC, 4/5/02)

1648        May 15, The independence of the Netherlands was finally recognized with the Dutch and Spanish ratification of the Treaty of Munster, initially signed on January 30.

1649        In Seville one in three died of the Black Plague.
    (SFEC, 10/13/96, p.T6)

c1650        Velazquez painted the portrait: "Juan de Pareja."
    (WSJ, 12/29/99, p.A12)

1654        Sep 8, Peter Claver, Spanish saint (baptized 300,000 slaves), died.
    (MC, 9/8/01)

c1655        Esteban Murillo (1617-1682), Spanish artist, painted a self-portrait. Some of his mid-century work in Seville portrayed the effects of the Plague that killed 50% of the population in 4 months. [see 1649]
    (WSJ, 4/9/02, p.D19)

1657        Mar 23, France and England formed an alliance against Spain.
    (HN, 3/23/98)

1657        Apr 20, English Admiral Robert Blake fought his last battle when he destroyed the Spanish fleet in Santa Cruz Bay.
    (HN, 4/20/99)

1660        Aug 6, Diego Rodriguez de Silva Velazquez (b.1599), Spanish court painter, died in Madrid. In 1906 C. Lewis Hind authored “Days with Velazquez." In 1986 Jonathan Brown authored “Velazquez: Painter and Courtier." In 2016 Laura Cumming authored “The Vanishing Man: In Pursuit of Velazquez."
    (https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Diego_Vel%C3%A1zquez)(Econ, 1/23/16, p.79)

1667-1668    The War of Devolution was fought between France and Spain as a result of the claim by Louis XIV of France that the ownership of the Spanish Netherlands devolved to his wife, Marie Therese, upon the death of her father, Philip IV of Spain. France conquered the area, now Belgium, and also seized the Franche-Comte, a Spanish possession that bordered on Switzerland.
    (HNQ, 2/7/00)

1668        The Spaniards established a permanent settlement on Guam. They forced the Chamorros to convert to Catholicism. Under Spanish rule the Chamorro numbers were reduced to some 2,000.
    (SFEC, 3/7/99,Z1 p.4)

1672        Aug 9, Jose Ximenez (70), Spanish composer, died.
    (MC, 8/9/02)

1676        King Carlos II of Spain, having successfully outlawed a drink suspected of leading to homicides, inattentiveness at church and moral turpitude, warned his colonial rulers in Bogota of a drink "that is, beyond all comparison, more dangerous and which goes by the name of aguardiente." In 1988 Gilma Mora de Tovar's authored, "Aguardiente and Social Conflicts in 18th Century New Granada,"
    (AP, 9/2/03)

1679        Dec 17, Don Juan, ruler of Spain, died.
    (MC, 12/17/01)

1681        May 25, Caldéron de la Barca (b.1600), Spanish dramatist & poet, died.
    (WUD, 1994 p.210)(SC, 5/25/02)

1682        Apr 3, Esteban Murillo (b.1617), Spanish painter, died. Some of his mid-century work in Seville portrayed the effects of the Plague that killed 50% of the population in 4 months.
    (WSJ, 4/9/02, p.D19)(MC, 4/3/02)

1683        Feb 20, Philip V, first Bourbon King of Spain, was born. [see Dec 19]
    (HN, 2/20/01)

1683        Dec 19, Philip V, King of Spain (1700-24, 24-46), was born in Versailles, France. [see Feb 20]
    (MC, 12/19/01)

1686        A Spaniard by the name of Francisco Lazcano named a group of about 500 small coral islands east of the Philippines, the Caroline Islands, after King Charles II of Spain who funded the expedition.

1689        Apr 15, French king Louis XIV declared war on Spain.
    (MC, 4/15/02)

1689        Aug 25, Battle at Charleroi: Spanish and English armies chased the French.
    (MC, 8/25/02)

1691        The Spanish Inquisition killed 37 Jews from Mallorca for secretly practicing their faith. In 2011 the island’s leading government official issued an official condemnation for the killing.
    (SFC, 5/6/11, p.A2)

1692        Oct 25, Elisabeth Farnese, princess of Parma and queen of Spain, was born.
    (MC, 10/25/01)

1697        Sep 20, The Treaty of Ryswick was signed in Holland. It ended the War of the Grand Alliance (aka War of the League of Augsburg,1688-1697) between France and the Grand Alliance. Under the Treaty France’s King Louis XIV (1638-1715) recognized William III (1650-1702) as King of England. The Dutch received trade concessions, and France and the Grand Alliance members (Holland and the Austrian Hapsburgs) gave up most of the land they had conquered since 1679. The signees included France, England, Spain and Holland. By the Treaty of Ryswick, a portion of Hispaniola was formally ceded to France and became known as Saint-Domingue. The remaining Spanish section was called Santo Domingo.

1698        The Spanish established Presidio Santa Maria de Galve (later Pensacola, Florida).
    (AP, 3/24/06)

1699        The King of Spain, due to competition, banned the production of wine in the Americas, except for that made by the church.
    (SFEC, 11/7/99, p.T8)

1700        Apr, A siege by Spanish forces shut down a Company of Scotland colony called "New Caledonia" on the Isthmus of Panama. As the Darien company was backed by nearly half the money circulating in Scotland, its failure left the country, which had suffered a run of bad harvests, completely ruined and was an important factor in weakening resistance to the Act of Union (finally consummated in 1707) among the political elite.

1700         The Spanish crown monopolized the Aquardiente industry in Colombia.
    (AP, 9/2/03)

1700s        Bullfighting emerged in its modern form.
    (WSJ, 1/11/99, p.R34)

1700-1746    Philip V (1683-1746) was King of Spain.
    (WUD, 1994, p.1081)

1701        Feb 19, Philip V of Spain made his ceremonial entry into Madrid.
    (HN, 2/19/99)

1701        Spain’s medieval kingdom of Aragon again rebelled against Madrid.
    (Econ, 11/8/08, SR p.10)

1701        The War of Spanish Succession began and continued to 1714.

1704        Jul 24, Admiral George Rooke took Gibraltar from the Spanish.
    (HN, 7/24/98)

1704        Aug 4, In the War of Spanish Succession, an Anglo-Dutch fleet captured Gibraltar.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/History_of_Gibraltar)(AP, 9/19/06)

1704        Aug 13, The Battle of Blenheim, Germany, was fought during the War of the Spanish Succession, resulting in a victory for English and Austrian forces. The Duke of Marlborough and Prince Eugene of Austria defeated the French Army at the Battle of Blenheim. In 1705 Joseph Addison wrote the poem "The Campaign" for the Duke of Marlborough to commemorate the military victory over France and Spain at the Battle of Blenheim: "Do you not think an angel rides in the whirlwind and directs this storm."
    (AP, 8/13/97)(HN, 8/13/98)(SSFC, 1/21/01, p.A6)

1705        Oct 14, The English Navy captured Barcelona in Spain.
    (HN, 10/14/98)

1707        Apr 25, At the Battle of Almansa, Franco-Spanish forces defeated Anglo-Portuguese.
    (HN, 4/25/98)

1708        Jun 8, The San Jose, a 62-gun, three-masted Spanish galleon, was trying to outrun a fleet of British warships off Colombia's Baru peninsula, when a mysterious explosion sent it to the bottom of the sea with gold, silver, emeralds and 600 men. 14 men survived. In 1979 Sea Search signed a deal with Colombia giving Sea Search exclusive rights to search for the San Jose and 50 percent of whatever they find. In 1982 Sea Search announced to the world it had found the San Jose's resting place 700 feet below the water's surface, a few miles from the historic Caribbean port of Cartagena. In 1984 Colombian President Belisario Betancur signed a decree reducing Sea Search's share from 50% to a 5% "finder's fee." By 2007 the treasure was valued at more than $2 billion. In July, 2007, Colombia’s highest court ruled that the ship must first be recovered before an international dispute over the fortune can be settled. In 2007 Carla Rahn Phillips authored “The Treasure of San Jose: Death at Sea in the War of the Spanish Succession." In 2015 experts confirmed that they found the San Jose on November 27 in a place never before referenced by previous research. The Remus 6000, an underwater autonomous vehicle operated by the Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution, assisted in the operation.
    (AP, 6/3/07)(AP, 7/6/07)(WSJ, 1/31/07, p.D6)(AP, 12/6/15)(AP, 5/22/18)

1711        English ships captured the Spanish galleon San Joaquin, part of a fleet returning to Spain from Portobelo under Don Miguel Augustin de Villanueva, who was mortally wounded. New World wealth was on another ship, which managed to return to Spain.
    (WSJ, 1/31/07, p.D6)

1713        Apr 11, Spain ceded the 2.5-sq. mile Gibraltar in perpetuity to Britain under the Treaty of Utrecht.
    (WSJ, 11/29/99, p.A29)(SFC, 2/19/02, p.A2)

1713        Nov 24, Junipero Serra (d.1784), Spanish Roman Catholic missionary to the Indians in California and Mexico was born on the Spanish isle of Palma de Mallorca. He came to the New World in 1749 accompanied by 14 other Mallorcans including the geographer Crespi and Father Francisco Palou, biographer of Serra and historian of the missions. Serra was beatified in 1988.
    (www.beachcalifornia.com/carmel2.html)(SFC, Z1, 4/28/96, p.6)(SFEC, 9/14/97, p.A18)

1714        Mar 6, the Treaty of Rastatt ended the war between Austria and Spain. It complemented the Treaty of Utrecht, which had, the previous year, ended hostilities with Britain and the Dutch Republic. The Spanish Netherlands became the Austrian Netherlands, and Spain gave up her possession in Italy, Luxembourg and Flanders. A third treaty, the Treaty of Baden (Sep 7, 1714), was required to end the hostilities between France and the Holy Roman Empire.
    (PCh, ed. 1992, p.279)(http://tinyurl.com/b8uxbje)

1714        Sep 7, In Baden, Switzerland, Charles VI signed the Treaty of Baden, also called the Peace of Baden, on behalf of the Holy Roman Empire. It was one of the agreements that concluded the War of the Spanish Succession.

1714        Sep 11, The Bourbon monarchy suppressed Catalonia’s medieval institutions following the end of the War of Spanish Succession. The Kingdom of Aragon troops that fought in support of the Habsburg dynasty's claim to the Spanish throne were finally defeated at the Siege of Barcelona by the army of the Borbon king Philip V of Spain after 14 months of siege. This became the National Day of Catalonia (Diada) first celebrated in 1886.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/National_Day_of_Catalonia)(Econ, 11/24/12, p.25)

1715        Jul 30, Eleven of twelve Spanish ships carrying gold and silver disappeared in a hurricane near Vero Beach, Florida.

1716-1788    Charles III, (Carlos III) king of Spain from 1759-1788, was born in Madrid. He was a member of the Bourbon-Parma dynasty. He was King of Naples from 1734-1759 and authorized expeditions from Mexico to California.
    (WUD, 1994, p.249)(SFC, 6/7/00, p.A15)

1719        The French captured and burned the Spanish settlement Presidio Santa Maria de Galve (later Pensacola, Flordia), but handed Pensacola back to Spain three years later. Hurricanes forced the Spanish to repeatedly rebuild.
    (AP, 3/24/06)

1720        Jan 26, Guilio Alberoni was ordered out of Spain after his abortive attempt to restore his country’s empire.
    (HN, 1/26/99)

1720        Feb 17, Spain signed the Treaty of the Hague with the Quadruple Alliance ending a war that was begun in 1718.
    (HN, 2/17/99)

1724        Jan 10, King Philip V shocked all of Europe when he abdicated his throne in favor of his eldest son, Louis. Philip V (1683-1746) was King of Spain from 1700-1746.
    (WUD, 1994, p.1081)(HN, 1/10/99)

1725        Apr 30, Spain withdrew from the Quadruple Alliance.
    (HN, 4/30/98)

1729        Dec 3, Padre Antonio Francisco J. Jose Soler, composer (Fandango), was born in Olot, Spain.
    (MC, 12/3/01)

1734        Mar 10, Spanish army under Don Carlos (III) drew into Naples.
    (MC, 3/10/02)

1739        Oct 19, England declared war on Spain over borderlines in Florida. The War is known as the War of Jenkins’ Ear because a member of Parliament waved a dried ear and demanded revenge for alleged mistreatment of British sailors. British seaman Robert Jenkins had his ear amputated following a 1731 barroom brawl with a Spanish Customs guard in Havana and saved the ear in his sea chest.
    (EWH, 4th ed, p.555)(HN, 10/19/98)(PCh, 1992, p.292)

1739        Nov 22, Adm. Edward Vernon captured the Spanish city of Portobello, Panama, with a force of 6 British ships.
    (PCh, 1992, p.292)

1743        Jun 20, The British warship Centurion under Commodore George Anson engaged and overcame the Spanish treasure galleon, Nuestra Senora de Covadonga, near the Philippines. 58 Spaniards were killed and 83 wounded. Anson captured over 1 million Spanish silver dollars and 500 pounds of native silver.
    (ON, 4/01, p.7)

1744        Feb 9, Battle at Toulon: French-Spanish faced the English fleet of Adm. Matthews.
    (MC, 2/9/02)

1744        Feb 21, The British blockade of Toulon was broken by 27 French and Spanish warships attacking 29 British ships.
    (HN, 2/21/98)

1746-1828    Francisco Jose de Goya y Lucientes(d.1828), Spanish painter. 128 of his paintings are at the Prado in Madrid, Spain. Among these are: "La Maja Desnuda," "La Maja Vestida," "El Dos de Mayo," "El Tres de Mayo," "The Witches Sabboth," "Saturn eating one of his children," "La Quinta del Sordo" (House of the Deaf Man) murals (1820-1823) that he applied to the walls of his Madrid rooms. Known as El Rapidisimo, he painted more than 600 works. Other works include: "Los Caprichos," "Disasters of War," "Family of Charles IV," "Boys Climbing a Tree," "The Kite," "The Injured Workman," "The Drunken Workman," "The Wedding," "The Duchess of Alba" and "Pinturas Negras." Goya spent his last years in France.
    (WSJ, 5/20/96, p.A-12)(AAP, 1964)(WUD, 1994, p.612)(WSJ, 5/4/99, p.A20)

1750        The Spanish ship La Galga sank. It was later believed that the wild ponies of Chincoteague Island off the coast of Virginia came from this ship.
    (USAT, 5/7/98, p.9A)

1756-1763    The Seven Years War. France and Great Britain clashed both in Europe and in North America. In 2000 "Crucible of War" by Fred Anderson was published. France, Russia, Austria, Saxony, Sweden and Spain stood against Britain, Prussia and Hanover. Britain financed Prussia to block France in Europe while her manpower was occupied in America.
    (V.D.-H.K.p.223)(SFC, 7/7/96, BR p.7)(WSJ, 2/10/00, p.A16)

1759-1788    Charles III ruled as King of Spain.
    (WUD, 1994, p.249)

1760        Jan 20, Charles III, King of Spain, was born.
    (HN, 1/20/99)

1762        Aug 12, The British captured Cuba from Spain after a two month siege.
    (HN, 8/12/98)

1762        Oct 5, The British fleet bombarded and captured Spanish-held Manila in the Philippines.
    (HN, 10/5/98)

1762        Nov 3, Spain acquired Louisiana. [see Dec 3]
    (MC, 11/3/01)

1762        Dec 3, France ceded to Spain all lands west of the Mississippi- the territory known as Upper Louisiana. [see Nov 3]
    (CO, Grolier's, 11/10/95)(HN, 12/3/98)

1763        Feb 10, Britain, Spain and France signed the Treaty of Paris ending the French-Indian War. France ceded Canada to England and gave up all her territories in the New World except New Orleans and a few scattered islands. France retained the sugar colonies of Martinique and Guadeloupe.
    (HN, 2/10/97)(AP, 2/10/97)(AP, 2/10/08)(SSFC, 7/6/14, p.L5)

1763        Spain established a national lottery as a charity during the reign of King Carlos III. Its objective later became to shore up state coffers, but it also helps several charities.
    (AP, 12/22/19)

1766        Mar 5, Spanish official Antonio de Ulloa (1716-1795) arrived in Louisiana to take possession of the Louisiana Territory from the French. The French colonists refused to recognize Spanish rule and de Ulloa was expelled by a Creole uprising during the Louisiana Rebellion of 1768.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Antonio_de_Ulloa)(AP, 3/5/98)

1766        Jul 11(Jun 11), Elisabeth Farnese (73), princess of Parma, queen of Spain, died.
    (MC, 7/11/02)

1766        France handed its settlement on the Falkland Islands over to Spain.
    (Econ, 7/15/06, p.36)

1767        Jun 25, Mexican Indians rioted as Jesuit priests were ordered home. Spain expelled the Jesuits from Mexico and their work was taken over by the Dominican Fathers.
    (WSJ, 12/26/97, p.A9)(HN, 6/25/98)(Econ, 6/1/13, p.80)

1768        King Carlos III of Spain sent Father Junipero Serra from Mallorca to California.
    (SFEC, 3/12/00, p.T4)

1769        King Carlos III chose Don Jose Galvez to protect interests in Mexico. Galvez sent Gaspar de Portola and Father Junipero Serra out to establish a settlement at San Diego and on a northerly journey from Loreto to found missions along the Baha Peninsula and into California.
    (SFEC, 5/18/97, p.T5)(SFEC, 3/1/98, p.W34)

1770        Apr 28, Marie AC de Camargo (60), Spanish-Italian-Belgian dancer, died.
    (MC, 4/28/02)

1772        Apr 11, Manuel Jose Quintana, Spanish author, poet (El Duque de Viseo), was born.
    (MC, 4/11/02)

1774        Jul 11(Jun 11), Jews of Algiers escaped an attack of the Spanish Army.
    (MC, 7/11/02)

1774        Spain established a small settlement on the Falkland Islands, which lasted to 1811. An Argentine outpost was established in the 1820s.
    (Econ, 4/7/07, p.36)

1775        Aug 5, Spanish Lieutenant Juan Manuel de Ayala and his crew of 30 became the first European explorers to sail into the San Francisco Bay. He anchored at Angel Island and waited for the overland expedition of Captain Juan Bautista de Anza. Angel Island was one of the first landforms named by the Spanish when they entered SF Bay. The 58-foot Spanish fregata, Punta de San Carlos, was the first sailing vessel to enter the SF Bay while on a voyage of exploration. Ayala named Alcatraz Island after a large flock of pelicans, called alcatraces in Spanish.
    (CAS, 1996, p.19)(SFEC, 2/9/97, p.W4)(SFEC, 3/8/98, p.W38)(SFC, 12/26/01, p.A28)(SFC, 8/16/14, p.C1)

1776        Sep 17, The Presidio of SF formed as a Spanish fort. The Spanish built the Presidio on the hill where the Golden Gate Bridge now meets San Francisco.
    (WSJ, 9/17/96, p.A12)(MC, 9/17/01)

1778        King Carlos III sent Spanish settlers from the Canary Islands to Louisiana. They settled in St. Bernard Parish and became known as Islenos or Spanish Cajuns.
    (SFC, 9/4/00, p.B2)

1779        Jun 16, Spain, in support of the US, declared war on England.
    (MC, 6/16/02)
1779        Jun 16, Vice-Admiral Hardy sailed out of Isle of Wight against the Spanish fleet.
    (MC, 6/16/02)

1779        Jul 24, The Siege of Gibraltar by the Spanish and French was begun. British Gen. George Eliott led the 5,000 man Gibraltar garrison. The siege was finally lifted on Feb 7, 1783. In 1965 T.H. McGuffie authored "The Siege of Gibraltar, 1779-1783).
    (HN, 2/7/99)(ON, 7/01, p.8)

1780-1820    Some 5,000 cases came before the Spanish Inquisition from which only 6 Spaniards were prosecuted for Judaism.
    (WSJ, 4/16/98, p.A20)

1781        Tupak Katari, Aymara Indian leader, laid siege to La Paz, Bolivia, for 109 days. A Spanish army finally broke through and Katari was executed by being drawn and quartered.
    (SFC, 4/5/01, p.A12)(WSJ, 1/8/04, p.A1)

1782        Sep 13, The British fortress at Gibraltar came under attack by French and Spanish forces.
    (HN, 9/13/98)

1783        Jan 20, The fighting of the Revolutionary War ended. Britain signed a peace agreement with France and Spain, who allied against it in the American War of Independence.
    (HFA, '96, p.22)(HN, 1/20/99)

1783        Feb 3, Spain recognized United States' independence.
    (AP, 2/3/97)(HN, 2/3/99)

1783        Feb 7, The Siege of Gibraltar, pursued by the Spanish and the French since July 24, 1779, was finally lifted. [see Sep 13, 1782]
    (HN, 2/7/99)(ON, 7/01, p.10)

1783        Dec 20, Antonio Francisco Jawer Jose Soler (54), Spanish composer (Fandango), died.
    (MC, 12/20/01)

1784        Oct 13, Ferdinand VII, king of Spain, was born.
    (HN, 10/13/98)

1792-1793    Francisco Jose de Goya y Lucientes (1746-1828), Spanish painter, went deaf from an unexplained illness.
    (WSJ, 5/10/02, p.W8)(Econ, 10/18/03, p.81)

1794        May 6, In Haiti Toussaint Louverture (L’Ouverture), Haitian rebel leader, ended his alliance with the Iberian monarchy and embraced the French Republicans. An order followed that led to the massacre of Spaniards.
    (www.travelinghaiti.com/history_of_haiti/toussaint_louverture.asp)(WSJ, 1/19/07, p.W4)

1794        Spanish painter Goya completed his painting “Yard With Lunatics," the last in a series of uncommissioned small paintings executed during his convalescence from an illness that left him deaf.
    (WSJ, 6/18/08, p.D7)

1795        Jul 22, Spain signed the Peace of Basel, a treaty with France ending the War of the Pyrenees. The treaty ceded Santo Domingo to France.

1795        Oct 27, The United States and Spain signed the Treaty of San Lorenzo (also known as Pinckney's Treaty), which provided for free navigation of the Mississippi River.
    (AP, 10/27/97)

1797        Feb 14, The Spanish fleet was destroyed by the British under Admiral Jervis (with Nelson in support) at the battle of Cape St. Vincent, off Portugal.
    (HN, 2/14/99)

1799        Goya (1746-1828) made his famous etching "The Sleep of Reason Produces Monsters," in which fluttering bats hover darkly above a man dozing at his desk.
    (WSJ, 11/3/95, p.A-12)

1800        Oct 1, Spain ceded Louisiana to France in a secret treaty.
    (AP, 10/1/97)

1801        Jun 6, The Treaty of Badajoz (also known as the Peace of Badajoz) was signed in Badajoz between John VI of Portugal and representatives from the Kingdom of Spain.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Treaty_of_Badajoz_%281801%29)(Econ, 8/31/13, p.14)

1802        Apr 19, Spain reopened the New Orleans port to American merchants.
    (HN, 4/19/97)

1802        Oct 28, The frigate Juno, enroute back to Spain from Mexico, ran into a storm off the coast of Virginia with 425 men, women and children and an estimated half-billion dollars in treasure.
    (USAT, 5/7/98, p.9A)

1803        Nov 30, Spain, in a ceremony at New Orleans, completed the process of ceding Louisiana to France, which had sold it to the United States.
    (CO, Grolier’s, 11/10/95)(AP, 11/30/04)

1804        Oct 5, The Nuestra Senora de las Mercedes, a Spanish galleon, was sunk by the British navy southwest of Portugal with more than 200 people on board. In May 2007, Odyssey Marine Exploration announced that it had discovered a wreck in the Atlantic and its cargo of 500,000 silver coins and other artifacts worth an estimated $500 million. Spain claimed this was the Nuestra Senora de las Mercedes. In 2009 Peru pushed claims to the silver coins arguing that they were minted in Lima. In 2012 a US judge ordered that the treasure be returned to Spain.
    (AP, 5/8/08)(www.guardian.co.uk/world/2008/mar/24/usa.spain)(AP, 1/29/09)(SFC, 2/18/12, p.A7)

1804        Nov 27, Pres. Jefferson issued a nationwide proclamation to military and public officials warning of a conspiracy to attack Spanish territory in Texas. He had opened negotiations with Spain to purchase Texas territory west of New Orleans. Jefferson had heard rumors that Aaron Burr had begun plotting an invasion of Texas. Jefferson ordered Gen. James Wilkinson to move federal troops into defensive positions between the Sabine River and New Orleans. Wilkinson, unbeknownst  to Jefferson, was a close confidant of Burr and also worked as a spy in the employ of Spanish officials in Mexico.
    (ON, 12/08, p6)

1805        Aug 9, Austria joined Britain, Russia, Sweden and the Kingdom of Piedmont-Sardinia in the Third Coalition against Napoleonic France and Spain.
    (HN, 8/9/98)(HNQ, 10/19/98)

1805        Oct 21, A British fleet commanded by Vice Adm. Horatio Nelson defeated a French-Spanish fleet in the Battle of Trafalgar fought off Cape Trafalgar, Spain. Admiral Nelson won his greatest victory and though fatally wounded in the battle aboard his flagship, he lived long enough to see victory: "England expects every man to do his duty." The crew fittingly preserved his body in rum. Over 8,500 Englishmen, Frenchmen and Spaniards were lost in the battle or the hurricane that swept over the ships the next day. In 1807 Nelson’s surgeon William Beatty authored “authentic narrative of the Death of Lord Nelson." In 1999 Barry Unsworth authored the novel "Losing Nelson." In 2001 Joseph F. Callo edited "Nelson Speaks: Admiral Lord Nelson in His Own Words." In 2005 Adam Nicolson authored “Men of Honour: Trafalgar and the Making of the English Hero;" Roy Adkins authored “Nelson’s Trafalgar," and Adam Nicolson authored “Seize the Fire."
    (WSJ, 5/24/01, p.A20)(Econ, 6/25/05, p.82)(WSJ, 8/19/05, p.W6)(ON, 3/06, p.2)(Reuters, 7/13/10)

1806        Jul 5, A Spanish army repelled the British during their attempt to retake Buenos Aires, Argentina.
    (HN, 7/5/98)

1808        Feb 16, The Peninsular War began when Napoleon ordered a large French force into Spain under the pretext of sending reinforcements to the French army occupying Portugal.
    (MC, 6/21/02)

1808        Mar 19, Spain's King Charles IV abdicated.
    (AP, 3/19/03)

1808        Mar 23, Napoleon's brother Joseph took the throne of Spain.
    (SS, 3/23/02)

1808        May 2, The citizens of Madrid rose up against Napoleon. It culminated in a fierce battle fought out in the Puerta del Sol, Madrid's central square. The Spanish were defeated, and during the night the French army lead by Grand Duke Joachim Murat slaughtered hundreds of citizens along the Prado promenade in reprisal.
    (HN, 5/2/98)(MC, 5/2/02)

1808        May 3, Spanish executions took place and were later commemorated in Goya’s painting "Executions of 3rd of May."
    (Econ., 1/23/21, p.68)

1809        Jul 27-28, Arthur Wellesley led the British army to triumph against the Spanish King Joseph Bonaparte at Talavera de la Reina against a French army twice his size. For this he was made Duke of Wellington.
    (WSJ, 6/6/96, p.A15)(PC, 1992 ed, p.371)

1809        Aug 10, Ecuador struck its first blow for independence from Spain.
    (AP, 8/10/97)

1810        May 25, Argentina declared independence and began its revolt from Napoleonic Spain.
    (AP, 5/25/97)(HN, 5/25/98)

1810        Jul 20, Colombia declared independence from Spain.
    (AP, 7/20/97)

1810        Sep 18, Chile declared its independence from Spain. Bernardo O’Higgins helped lead Chile to independence.
    (AP, 9/18/97)(SFEC, 10/27/96, p.T9)

1810        Oct 27, US annexed West Florida from Spain.
    (MC, 10/27/01)

1810        General Count Hugo, the father of Victor Hugo, governed Central Spain during the Peninsula War. He exterminated guerrillas and nailed up their severed heads.
    (WSJ, 2/10/98, p.A16)

1811        May 14, Paraguay gained independence from Spain (Nat’l Day).
    (MC, 5/14/02)

1811        Jul 31, Miguel Hidalgo y Costilla, Mexican hero priest, was executed by Spanish.
    (MC, 7/31/02)

1811        Nov 5, El Salvador fought its 1st battle against Spain for independence.
    (MC, 11/5/01)

1812        Mar 19, Spanish Cortes passed a liberal constitution under a hereditary monarch.
    (AP, 3/19/03)

1812        Jul 22, English troops under the Duke of Wellington defeated the French at the Battle of Salamanca in Spain.
    (AP, 7/22/97)(HN, 7/22/98)

1812        Jul, British troops under the Duke of Wellington pillaged the Spanish town of Badajos. This prompted Wellington to call his troops "the scum of the earth."
    (WSJ, 1/6/95, A-10)

1812        Aug 12, British commander the Duke of Wellington occupied Madrid, Spain, forcing out Joseph Bonaparte.
    (HN, 8/12/98)

1812        Oct 22, The Duke of Wellington abandoned his 1st siege of Burgos, Spain.

1813        Jun 21, The Peninsular War ended. It began on February 16, 1808, when Napoleon ordered a large French force into Spain under the pretext of sending reinforcements to the French army occupying Portugal.
    (MC, 6/21/02)

1813        Nov 6, Chilpancingo congress declared Mexico independent of Spain.
    (MC, 11/6/01)

1811        Aug 14, Paraguay declared independence from Spain.
    (PC, 1992, p.373)

1814        Nov 7, Andrew Jackson attacked and captured Pensacola, Florida, defeating the Spanish and driving out a British force.
    (HN, 11/7/98)

1815        Dec 22, Spaniards executed Mexican revolutionary priest Jose Maria Morelos.
    (MC, 12/22/01)

1816        Jul 9, Argentina declared independence from Spain.
    (AP, 7/9/97)

1816        Jul 14, Francisco de Miranda (b.1750), Venezuela-born self-appointed leader of independence for South America from Spanish rule, died in a Spanish prison in Cadiz. He is regarded as a forerunner of Simón Bolívar, who during the Spanish American wars of independence successfully liberated much of South America.
    (https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Francisco_de_Miranda)(Econ, 7/23/16, p.28)

1817        Spain formally accepted the principle to abolish slavery.
    (WSJ, 12/16/97, p.A18)

1818        Feb 12, Chile gained independence from Spain.
    (HN, 2/12/97)

1818        The last prosecution of the Spanish Inquisition was held.
    (WSJ, 4/16/98, p.A20)

1818        An annual national Christmas lottery was begun.
    (SFC,12/23/97, p.D3)

1819        Feb 22, Spain signed the Adams-Onis Treaty with the United States ceding eastern Florida. Spanish minister Do Luis de Onis and U.S. Secretary of State John Quincy Adams signed the Florida Purchase Treaty, in which Spain agrees to cede the remainder of its old province of Florida. Spain renounced claims to Oregon Country. [see 1821]
    (AP, 2/22/99)(HN, 2/22/99)

1819        Aug 7, Bolivar defeated the Spanish in Colombia at the Battle of Boyaca. This established the independence of Colombia from Spain. The battle took place shortly after South American liberator Simon Bolivar defeated a force of Spanish regulars north of Bogota.
    (MC, 8/7/02)(HNQ, 9/12/99)

1819        Spain’s Prado opened as the Real Mueso de Pintura y Escultura.
    (WSJ, 4/16/03, p.D10)

1820        Oct 20, Spain sold a part of Florida to US for $5 million. [see Feb 22, 1821]
    (MC, 10/20/01)

1821        Feb 22, The Adams-Onis Treaty became final, whereby Spain gave up all of Florida to the US. The boundary between Mexico and the Louisiana Purchase was established and the US renounced all claims to Texas.
    (AH, 2/06, p.15)

1821        Feb 24, Mexico rebels proclaimed the "Plan de Iguala," their declaration of independence from Spain, and took over the mission lands in California.
    (HT, 3/97, p.61)(AP, 2/24/98)(HN, 2/24/98)

1821        Jul 17, Spain ceded Florida to the United States. [see Feb 22]
    (AP, 7/17/97)

1821        Jul 28, Peru declared its independence from Spain. Lima had been the seat of the Spanish viceroys until this time.
    (SFC, 12/20/96, p.B4)(AP, 7/28/97)

1821        Aug 23, After 11 years of war, Spain granted Mexican independence as a constitutional monarchy. Spanish Viceroy Juan de O'Donoju signed the Treaty of Cordoba, which approved a plan to make Mexico an independent constitutional monarchy.
    (HN, 8/23/00)(MC, 8/23/02)

1822        May 24, At Battle of Pichincha, Bolivar secured the independence of Quito [Ecuador] from Spain.
    (HN, 5/24/98)(MC, 5/24/02)

1822        Aug 19, Melchor Lopez Jimenez (62), composer, died.
    (MC, 8/19/02)

1824        Aug 24, Simon Bolivar's army beat the Spanish in Peru in the Battle at Junin.
    (PC, 1992, p.394)

1824        Dec 9, In the Battle of Ayacucho (Candorcangui) Peru defeated Spain.
    (MC, 12/9/01)

1824        Francisco Jose de Goya y Lucientes, painter, left Spain for Bordeaux.
    (WSJ, 5/10/02, p.W8)

1828        Feb 18, More than 100 vessels were destroyed in a storm at Gibraltar.
    (MC, 2/18/02)

1828        Apr 16, Francisco Jose Goya y Lucientes (b.1746), Spanish painter, cartoonist, died at age 82 in France. He had served 3 generations of Spanish kings as court painter. In 2002 Julia Blackburn authored "Old Man Goya." In 2003 Robert Hughes authored "Goya." See link for Goya timeline.
    (WSJ, 5/10/02, p.W8)(Econ, 10/18/03, p.81)(http://tinyurl.com/ngxt7)

1831        Apr 9, Robert Jenkins lost an ear which started a war between Britain and Spain.
    (HN, 4/9/98)

1833        Sep 29, King Ferdinand of Spain died and his daughter Isabella was proclaimed as queen. A civil war broke out in Spain between Carlisists, who believed Don Carlos deserved the throne, and supporters of Queen Isabella.
    (HNQ, 8/20/98)(HN, 9/29/98)

1833-1868    The Carlist Wars comprised the dynastic struggle in Spain between Isabelline liberalism and the reactionary rural traditionalism represented by Don Carlos. With the death of Ferdinand on September 29, 1833, and the proclamation of his daughter Isabella as queen--excluding Ferdinand's brother Don Carlos from the succession--the First Carlist War was ignited.
    (HNQ, 8/20/98)

1834        In Madrid, Spain, a time capsule with books, documents and mementos, was buried beneath a statue of writer Miguel de Cervantes. The lead box was uncovered in December, 2009.
    (SFC, 1/16/10, p.A2)

1836        Dec 28, Spain recognized the independence of Mexico.
    (MC, 12/28/01)

1836        Spain’s central government revoked the Basque’s fiscal privileges. These were restored in 1979.
    (Econ, 11/8/08, SR p.10)

1839        In Seville, Spain, the Monasterio de Santa Maria de las Casas was purchased by a British businessman and turned into a ceramic tile factory. It had been badly run down during occupation by French troops (1808-1812).
    (SSFC, 8/15/10, p.M5)

1843        Feb 19, Adelina Patti, opera soprano (Lucio), was born in Madrid, Spain.
    (MC, 2/19/02)

1844        Mar 10, Pablo Martin M de Sarasate y Navascuez, composer (Spanish Dances), was born.
    (MC, 3/10/02)

1844        Mar 28, Jose Zorilla's "Don Juan Tenorio," premiered in Madrid.
    (MC, 3/28/02)

1844        Nov 6, The first constitution of the new Dominican Republic was signed in San Cristobal. Pedro Santana, fearing political instability, controlled revisions to the newly written constitution that allowed him to stay in power, and declared himself president of the nation, a post he would hold from 1844-1848, 1853-1856, and 1858-1861. Spain granted independence to the Dominican Republic. The Dominican Republic won independence from next door Haiti after 2 occupations. [see Feb 27]
    (http://dr1.com/articles/history_1.shtml)(SFC, 5/16/96, p.A-9)(Econ, 2/20/10, p.35)

1845        The "Handbook for Travelers in Spain" was first published. It described Valencians as: "perfidious, vindictive, sullen, mistrustful, fickle, treacherous, smooth, empty of all good, snarling and biting like hyenas, and smiling as they murder."
    (SSFC, 12/1/02, p.C3)

1847        April, A cattle market began in Seville, Spain, that changed over the years to a week long celebration of Holy Week.
    (Hem, 4/96, p.51)

1852        Jun 25, Antoni Gaudi (d.1926), Spanish modernist architect (Sagrada Familia, Barcelona), was born.
    (MC, 6/25/02)(SFEM, 10/8/00, p.61)

1857        Banco Santander was founded in Spain to finance trade between the port city of Santander and Latin America.
    (WSJ, 5/23/96, p.A-6)

1859        Oct 22, Spain declared war on the Moors in Morocco.
    (HN, 10/22/98)

1859        Dec 10, In Venezuela’s war for independence from Spain Ezequiel Zamora (1817-1860) led the Battle of Santa Ines. Zamora and 3,400 men defeated the Central Army of 2,300 men, with about 1,200 casualties altogether on both sides. Zamora had returned to Venezuela to lead the Federal War, which lasted to 1863.

1860        May 29, Isaac [Manuel F] Albéniz, Spanish pianist, composer (Iberia), was born.
    (SC, 5/29/02)

1864-1936    Miguel de Unamuno, Spanish philosopher: "La vida es duda, y la fe sin la duda es solo muerte." (Life is doubt, and faith without doubt is nothing but death.)
    (AP, 2/4/01)

1865        Oct 10, Raffaele Merry del Val, Spanish cardinal, was born.
    (MC, 10/10/01)

1865        Dec 23, France, Belgium, Italy and Switzerland formed the Latin Monetary Union (LMU). It was a 19th century attempt to unify several European currencies into a single currency that could be used in all the member states, at a time when most national currencies were still made out of gold and silver. Spain and Greece joined in 1868. It quickly weakened as members pursued their own economic policies. It was disbanded in 1927.
    (WSJ, 1/13/98, p.A1)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Latin_Monetary_Union)

1866        Aug 12, Jacinto Benavente y Martinez, Spanish dramatist (Nobel 1922), was born.
    (SC, 8/12/02)

1867        Jul 27, Enrique Granados, composer (Maria del Carmen), was born in Lerida, Spain.
    (MC, 7/27/02)

1868        Oct 10, Cuba revolted for independence against Spain.
    (MC, 10/10/01)

1871        Mar 26, Serafín Alvarez Quintéro, Spanish dramatist, playwright (El Flechazo), was born.
    (SS, 3/26/02)

1871        Pepita, a celebrated Spanish dancer, died. She had captivated British diplomat Lionel Sackville, later the second Lord Sackville in 1852 and bore him seven children, five of whom survived. In 2014 Robert Sackvile-West authored “The Disinherited: A Story of Family, Love and Betrayal."
    (Econ, 4/26/14, p.82)

1872        May, Don Carlos (24), Spanish pretender, entered Navarre. King Amadeo I routed his forces at Oroquista and forced him to take refuge in the Pyranees.
    (PCh, 1992, p.523)

1873        Feb 12, The 1st Spanish Republic was proclaimed. King Amadeo I abdicated following a 2-year reign. Emilio Cistelar y Ripolo  (40) became prime minister, but the Carlist civil war continued.
    (PCh, 1992, p.527)

1873        Many Basques fled Spain during the 2nd Carlist War.
    (SFC, 3/16/02, p.A2)

1873        The British based Rio Tinto Company was formed by investors to mine ancient copper workings at Rio Tinto near Huelva in southern Spain. By 2003 the company had mining interests in 40 countries and revenues of $11.8 billion.
    (www.riotinto.com/whoweare/timeline.asp)(WSJ, 11/17/04, p.A12)

1873-1874    Spain’s system of federal government failed.
    (Econ, 11/17/12, p.15)

1876        Nov 23, Manuel de Falla (d.1946), composer (El Amor Brujo), was born in Cadiz, Spain.
    (WUD, 1994, p.512)(MC, 11/23/01)

1876        Dec 29, Pablo Casals, violinist, conductor, composer, was born in Vendrell, Catalonia, Spain.
    (MC, 12/29/01)

1876        In Spain Antonio Canovas del Castillo (1828-1897), a conservative stateman, created a civilian democracy based on electoral manipulation by corrupt political bosses. He served six terms as Prime Minister and his overarching role as "architect" of the regime that ensued with the 1874 restoration of the Bourbon monarchy.
    (Econ., 6/20/20, p.71)

1878        Feb 10, Cuba’s 10 year war with Spain ended with the signing of the pact of Zanjon. The nationalist uprising failed.
    (WSJ, 9/12/08, p.W6)(www.cubagen.org/mil/war-hist.htm)

1879        In Spain Marcelino Sanz de Sautuola, a lawyer and amateur archeologist, discovered the Altamira Cave. His daughter Maria (8) discovered the 14,500 year-old wall paintings.
    (WSJ, 9/18/01, p.A20)(ON, 10/02, p.1)

1880        Captain Salvador Ordonez developed a new artillery piece to defend harbors and military installations.
    (G, Spring/98, p.5)

1881        Oct 25, Pablo Picasso (d.1973), painter and sculptor, was born in Malaga, Spain. He worked in France and a painter and sculptor. Francoise Gilot was the mother of 2 of his children. His work includes “Gilot," and “Self-Portrait with a Palette" (1906). He immortalized the French apéritif Pernod by including it in many paintings. “Picasso and Dora" was written by James Lord.
    (SFC, 7/14/96, p.C11)(SFC, 8/14/96, zz-1 p.4) (WSJ, 9/30/96, p.A14)(HN, 10/25/98)

1882        Dec 9, Joaquin Turina, composer (Rima), was born in Seville, Spain.
    (MC, 12/9/01)

1882        In Barcelona, Spain, ground was broken for the new Sagrada Familia church. Antoni Gaudi (1852-1926) became involved in the project in 1883. Completion of the 5-tower basilica was expected in 2026.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sagrada_Fam%C3%ADlia)(SFC, 9/18/13, p.A2)

1883        May 9, Spanish philosopher Jose Ortega y Gasset was born in Madrid.
    (AP, 5/9/08)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Jos%C3%A9_Ortega_y_Gasset)

1884        Spain annexed the coastal area of Western Sahara.
    (SFC, 11/27/00, p.A12)

1886        Oct 7, Spain abolished slavery in Cuba.
    (SFC, 4/12/01, p.C4)(MC, 10/7/01)

1887        Mar 23, Juan Gris, cubist painter (Still Life Before an Open Window), was born in Spain.
    (SS, 3/23/02)

1888        In  Spain the fishing company Grupo Viera SA was founded.
    (WSJ, 1/18/07, p.A13)

1892        Dec 4, Francisco Franco (y Bahamonde), Spanish general and dictator (1936-75), was born. He came to power as a result of the Spanish Civil War.
    (HN, 12/4/00)(MC, 12/4/01)

1893        Feb 21, Andrés Segovia (d.1987), Spanish classical guitarist, was born in Linares, Spain.
    (WUD, 1994 p.1291)(HN, 2/21/01)(MC, 2/21/02)

1893        Apr 20, Joan Miró (Joan Miro), Spanish painter, was born.
    (HN, 4/20/01)

1893        Nov 7, In Barcelona, Spain, 23 people including 9 women, were killed at Liceo Opera House by a bomb thrown by anarchist Salvador Franch  bomb.

1895        Mar 26, King Alfonso planted a pine sapling in Madrid and started Spain's Arbor Day.
    (SS, 3/26/02)

1895        Nov 28, Jose Iturbi, pianist (Pequena danza Espanola), was born in Valencia, Spain.
    (MC, 11/28/01)

1893        Apr 20, Joan Miró, Spanish painter, was born.
    (HN, 4/20/01)

1897        Aug 8, Anarchist Miguel Angiolillo assassinated Spanish PM Antonio Canovas del Castillo at Santa Agueda, Spain. Práxides Mateo Sagasta became prime minister of Spain.
    (NG, 11/04, p.76)(www.loc.gov/rr/hispanic/1898/chronpr.html)

1897        Nov 25, Spain granted Puerto Rico autonomy.
    (MC, 11/25/01)

1898        Feb, 15, The battleship USS Maine exploded and sank in Havana harbor. It had been sent there to menace Imperial Spain and its sinking helped to precipitate the Spanish-American War.
    (Civilization, July-Aug, 1995, p. 14)(NH, 4/97, p.38)

1898        Apr 11, American President McKinley asked Congress to authorize military intervention in Cuba. The war was fomented by New York newspapers in their own battle for circulation.
    (AP, 4/11/07)(WSJ, 5/19/98, p.A20)

1898         Apr 20, President McKinley signed a congressional resolution recognizing Cuban independence from Spain. He signed the Joint Resolution for War with Spain that authorized U.S. military intervention to Cuban independence.
    (AP, 4/20/97)(SFC, 1/19/02, p.A19)

1898        Apr 21, The Spanish-American War began. In 1998 David Traxel published "1898: The Birth of the American Century," a history of the Spanish-American War.
    (HN, 4/21/98)(SFEC, 7/5/98, BR p.6)

1898         Apr 22, With the United States and Spain on the verge of formally declaring war, the U.S. Navy began blockading Cuban ports. In the first Spanish-American War action the USS Nashville captured a Spanish merchant ship, the Buenaventura, off Key West, Fla. Also, Congress authorized creation of the First U.S. Volunteer Cavalry, popularly known as the "Rough Riders." In 1998 the book "Empire by Default" by Ivan Musicant retold the story of the was in detail.
    (AP, 4/22/97)(WSJ, 2/23/98, p.A20)(AP, 4/22/98)(HN, 4/22/98)

1898        Apr 24, Spain declared war on the United States after rejecting America's ultimatum to withdraw from Cuba.
    (AP, 4/24/97) (HN, 4/24/98)

1898        Apr 25, The United States formally declared war on Spain. The US House passed the declaration 311 to 6.
    (AP, 4/25/97)(HN, 4/25/98)(SSFC, 3/30/03, p.A1)

1898        May 18, Juan J. Domenchina, Spanish poet, interpreter (sombra desterrada), was born.
    (SC, 5/18/02)

1898        Jun 5, Federico Garcia Lorca (d.1936), Spanish poet and dramatist, was born.
    (WUD, 1994, p.584)(MT, Spg. ‘99, p.2)(HN, 6/5/01)

1898        Jul 17, During the Spanish-American War, Spain surrendered to the United States at Santiago, Cuba.
    (AP, 7/17/97)

1898        Jul 21, Spain ceded Guam to US.
    (OGA, 11/24/98)

1898        Jul 28, Spain, through the offices of the French embassy in Washington, D.C., requested peace terms in its war with the United States.
    (HN, 7/28/98)

1898        Aug 12, Fighting in the Spanish-American War came to an end. The peace protocol ending the Spanish-American War was signed Dec 10 after three months and 22 days of hostilities. 460 US soldiers died in battle. The US paid Spain $20 million to vacate Cuba, Guam, Puerto Rico and the Philippines. Over the next 3 years US casualties in the Philippines war totaled over 4,000.
    (AP, 8/12/97)(WSJ, 2/23/98, p.A20)(HN, 8/12/00)(SSFC, 3/30/03, p.D1)(WSJ, 7/2/03, p.B1)

1898        Oct 18, The American flag was raised in Puerto Rico shortly before Spain formally relinquished control of the island to the US.
    (AP, 10/18/97)

1898        Dec 10, The United States and Spain signed the Treaty of Paris, ending the Spanish-American War. This ceded Puerto Rico, the Philippines and Guam to the United States. The US Senate ratified the treaty February 6, 1899. The US military governed Puerto Rico from October 1898 until May 1900, when the US Congress instituted a civil government. The civil government underwent many changes until a Constitutional Assembly formed in 1950 and established a Commonwealth of Puerto Rico, which was proclaimed on July 25, 1952. [see Aug 12]
    (AP, 12/10/97)(HN, 12/10/98)(HNQ, 7/28/01)

1899        Feb 6, A peace treaty between the United States and Spain was ratified by the U.S. Senate. Spanish-American War ended.
    (AP, 2/6/97)(HN, 2/6/99)

1899        Apr 11, The Treaty of Paris ending the Spanish-American War was declared in effect. Spain ceded Puerto Rico to US. [see Apr 12, 1898]
    (AP, 4/11/97)(MC, 4/11/02)

1899        Germany bought the Caroline Islands, a group of about 500 small coral islands east of the Philippines, from Spain for 25 million pesetas.
    (Econ, 11/19/11, p.64)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Caroline_Islands)

1899-1935    Eusebia Palomino Yenes (1899-1935) of Spain: a nun of the Institute of the Daughters of Mary, Help of Christians. She was beatified in 2004.
    (AP, 4/25/04)

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