Timeline South Africa (A) thru 2014

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History: https://www.sahistory.org.za/article/africa-timeline
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South Africa has nine provinces. They included Eastern Cape, Free State, Gauteng, KwaZulu-Natal, Limpopo, Mpumalanga, Northern Cape, North West and Western Cape.

3.41Bil BC     In 2004 Michael Tice, Stanford graduate student, report finding evidence of fossilized microbes of this age from a mountain near Barberton, South Africa.
    (SFC, 9/30/04, p.A2)

2.6Bil BC    African rocks from South Africa’s Eastern Transvaal in 2000 indicated primitive microbes on dry land from about this time.
    (SFC, 12/1/00, p.A21)

2Bil BC    A meteorite impacted Earth in South Africa. The discovery of the Vredefort Crater, 250-300 km in diameter, was announced in 1994.

253.5Mil BC    In 2015 an ash layer at South Africa’s Karoo Basin was dated to this time and indicated the disappearance of the Permian era dicynodonts.
    (Econ, 10/3/15, p.83)

200Mil BC    In 1983 Paul C. Sereno first viewed fossils of Pegomastax, a member of the heterodontosaur family and one of the smallest dinosaurs that ever lived, in a slab of red rock that was collected in the early 1960s by scientists working in South Africa. In 2012 Sereno, a paleontologist at the Univ. of Chicago and a dinosaur specialist, described the strange anatomy of the specimen, which dated back some 200 million years, and gave the new species the name Pegomastax africanus (thick jaw from Africa).

197Mil BC    In 2009 Scientists in South Africa said that a newly discovered dinosaur species that roamed the Earth about this time may help explain how the creatures evolved into the largest animals on land. The Aardonyx celestae was a 23-foot- (7-meter-) long small-headed herbivore with a huge barrel of a chest. The species walked on its hind legs but could drop to all fours.
    (AFP, 11/11/09)

2.8Mil BC - 2.5Mil BC South African scientists in 2015 said they've discovered a new member of the human family tree based on fossils found in 2013 in the Dinaledi Chamber of the Rising Star cave system near the town of Magaliesburg. Researchers named the creature Homo naledi (nah-LEH-dee) and estimated the species to be from about this period.
    (AP, 9/10/15)(Econ, 9/12/15, p.76)

2Mil BC-1.5Mil BC Australopithecus robustus. Skull of adult female found by Quarryman Fourie in 1950 at Swartkrans, South Africa. A survey of Robustus teeth by Alan Mann shows an average age at death of 17 years. A female Paranthropus robustus was found in 1994 Drimolen, South Africa.
    (NG, Nov. 1985, K.F. Weaver, p.570)(SFC, 4/27/00, p.A4)

1.977Mil BC    In 2008 scientists in South Africa found 2 skeletons of a new hominid species dating back to about this time. In 2010 studies were published indicating that the adult female and juvenile male fossils, dubbed Australopithecus sediba, have shed light on a previously unknown stage in human evolution. In 2011 Lee Berger of the Univ. of Witwatersrand. Berger said the find represented the most plausible known ancestor of archaic and modern humans.
    (AFP, 4/8/10)(SFC, 4/9/10, p.A16)(SFC, 9/9/11, p.A21)

1.95Mil BC-1.78Mil BC    Fossils of a partial skull and two jawbones found in South Africa’s Turkana Basin in 2007 dated to this period and indicated that at least 3 species of early humans co-existed.
    (SFC, 8/9/12, p.A3)

1.8Mil BC    Fossils of the bipedal Paranthropus robustus from the Swartkrans cave of South Africa dated to about this time. The species went extinct about 1Mil BC. In 2006 new evidence suggested the species had a broader diet than was believed earlier.
    (SFC, 11/10/06, p.A4)

200000BC    It is speculated that the Neanderthals and Homo Sapiens split from a common ancestor about this time. DNA research in 2008 indicated that shortly after this time Homo Sapiens split into 2 groups. Most people in 2008 represented one group, while the bushmen of southern Africa represented the other.
    (SFC, 10/1/96, p.A2)(Econ, 4/26/08, p.101)

186000BC    Human footprints that dated back to this time were discovered along Langebaan Lagoon some 60 miles north of Cape Town, South Africa, in Sep, 1995. The 117,000 year-old prints were cut out and moved to the South African Museum in 1998.
    (SFC, 8/15/97, p.A1,17)(SFC, 2/27/98, p.D3)(SFC, 6/24/98, p.A12)

165000BC    In 2009 scientific analysis of stone age tools from South Africa suggested that humans about this time began using fire to make it easier to flake stone tools and to make them sharper. The process was believed to have become widespread by about 70000BC.
    (SFC, 8/26/09, p.A3)

164000BC    In 2007 scientists reported that shellfish evidence from the a cave at Pinnacle Point near Mossel Bay, South Africa, indicated human habitation at this time and that red ochre at the site indicated a cognitive world enriched by symbols.
    (SFC, 10/18/07, p.A8)

100000BC    In 2008 scientists unearthed human-made paint “toolkits" from the Blombos Cave in South Africa dating to about this time.
    (SFC, 10/14/11, p.A5)
77000BC    In 2011 scientists in South Africa said layers of cave floor at a natural rock shelter called Sibudu dated to this time with evidence of plant-based bedding used by humans.
    (Econ, 12/10/11, p.90)

75000BC    In 2002 evidence from the Blombos Cave in South Africa indicated possible symbolic thinking. Sophisticated tools of stone and carve bone had etchings that indicated complex behavior. Evidence of ornamental bead-making was reported in 2004.
    (SFC, 1/11/02, p.A2)(SFC, 4/16/04, p.A2)

69000BC    Scientists reported in 2012 that shard evidence known as microliths from South Africa indicated that people from this time were capable of making arrow heads by heating a suitable lump of rock in a fire and then bashing it to flake pieces from the surface.
    (Econ, 11/10/12, p.84)

42000BC    Poison-tipped arrows and ostrich egg beads were made by hunter-gatherers in South Africa. In 2012 the artifacts were said to be characteristic of the San hunter-gatherers.
    (SFC, 7/31/12, p.A2)

41000BC    Scholars surmised that diggers in Africa’s Swaziland began to seek iron about this time.
    (SFEC, 5/11/97, Z1 p.7)

c8000BC    Traces of a man-made shelter from this time were found in northern South Africa north of Johannesburg.
    (SFC, 1/15/99, p.A14)

c1k-14kBC    The Mapungubwe kingdom thrived in South Africa. It was rediscovered by archeologists in the 1930s.
    (Arch, 1/05, p.10)

1240-1630BC    The site of Thulamela in Kruger Nat’l. Park in northeastern South Africa had graves containing people with gold ornaments.
    (AM, Mar/Apr 97 p.71)

1488        Feb 3, Bartolomeu Dias, Portuguese explorer, sighted the coast of Africa sailing north and made landing at Mossel Bay (South Africa) and realized that they had rounded the continent. He saw the southern tip on his return journey in May and named it the Cape of Good Hope. He continued north to the Great Fish River near present day Port Elizabeth, and then returned home in December.

1497        Nov 18, Vasco da Gama reached the Cape of Good Hope.
    (MC, 11/18/01)

1497        Nov 22, Portuguese navigator Vasco da Gama rounded the Cape of Good Hope.
    (MC, 11/22/01)

1580        Sir Francis Drake rounded the promontory of what later became Cape Town.
    (SFEC, 10/15/00, p.T8)

1652        Officials [farmers] of the Dutch East India Company were sent from Europe to run the small victualing station at the cape of South Africa. They were distinguished from the native born Dutch people who are called Afrikaner. It marked the beginning of Cape Town. Jan Van Riebeck, a Dutch ship’s surgeon, founded Dap Town.
    (NG, Oct. 1988, p. 563)(SFEC, 6/22/97, Z1 p.5)(SFEC, 10/15/00, p.T8)

1655        Dutch settlers planted the 1st vines for grapes.
    (SSFC, 12/3/00, p.T6)

c1656        European settlers arrived at the cape. Robben Island in Cape Town’s Table Bay from this time on was variously used as a mental institution, leper colony and prison.
    (SFC, 9/5/96, p.A10)

1687        Dec 31, The 1st Huguenots departed France to the Cape of Good Hope.
    (MC, 12/31/01)

1688        Persecuted Huguenots, French Protestants, arrived and improved the quality of wine production.
    (SSFC, 12/3/00, p.T6)

1692        A 350-acre vineyard was established in the Paarl Valley on the border of Nelson Creek. It was sold to Alan Nelson in 1989, who developed it with his workers to a prize-winning vineyard. Mr. Nelson in thanks to his workers gave them 25 acres valued at $500,000 in 1998.
    (WSJ, 1/20/98, p.A1)

1761        A transit of Venus occurred. Charles Mason and Jeremiah Dixon observed it from Cape Town, South Africa.
    (Econ, 5/29/04, p.79)

1772        Oct 30, Capt. Cook arrived with ship Resolution in Capetown.
    (MC, 10/30/01)

1781        Apr 29, French fleet stopped Britain from seizing the Cape of Good Hope.
    (MC, 4/29/02)

1786        Graaff-Reinet, the major town of the eastern Karoo, was founded.
    (Nat. Hist., 3/96, p.60)

1794        Dec 27, The Portuguese slave ship Sao Jose--Paquete de Africa sank off the coast of South Africa’s Cape Town. Some 400-500 African slaves from Mozambique were on board the vessel bound for Brazil. About half of them perished. Wreckage of the ship was found in 2015.
    (http://tinyurl.com/q9xyg73)(AP, 6/2/15)

1795        Sep 16, The Capitulation of Rustenburg: A Dutch garrison at the Cape of Good Hope surrendered to a British fleet under Adm. George Elphinstone.
    (EWH, 4th ed, p.884)

1799        Nov 5, The Danish ship Oldenborg was wrecked on her outward passage by being beached in the roadstead at Cape Town, South Africa, during a north-westerly gale, thus becoming one of the 127 ships that have been lost on this minuscule portion of the South African coast.

1800-1900    The Witwatersrand gold mines were discovered, the largest gold reserve find in the world. The gold came from a strip of land 62 miles long and 25 miles wide and produced three-fourths of all the gold ever mined.
    (SFEC, 4/21/97, p.A10)(SFEC, 8/8/99, Z1 p.8)

1803        Feb 21, The British return the Cape of Good Hope to the Dutch (Batavian Republic) under the Treaty of Amiens.
    (EWH, 4th ed, p.884)

1806        Jan 10, The Capitulation of Papendorp: The Dutch in Cape Town surrendered to a British fleet.
    (EWH, 4th ed, p.884)

1807        Mar 25, The British Parliament abolished the slave trade. This led to a labor problem in South Africa.
    (HN, 3/24/98)(EWH, 4th ed, p.884)

1810        Saartjie Baartman (~21) left South Africa with 2 white men who promised to make her rich. [see 1816]
    (SFC, 5/4/02, p.A8)

1814        May 30, The First Treaty of Paris was declared, after Napoleon's first abdication. It returned France to its 1792 borders and secured for the British definite possession of the Cape of Good Hope.
    (HN, 5/30/98)(HN, 5/30/99)(EWH, 4th ed, p.884)

1814        Aug 13, Treaty of London-Netherland was signed to stop the transport of slaves. By agreement Britain paid the Dutch £6 million in compensation for the Cape of Good Hope. [see May 30]
    (EWH, 4th ed, p.884)(MC, 8/13/02)

1816        Saartjie Baartman (26), taken from S. Africa in 1810, fell sick and died penniless and friendless in France after being exhibited as the "Hottentot Venus." Her body was dissected, her brain and genitals were bottled, and her skeleton was wired and exhibited in the Musee de l’Homme in Paris. In 1994 Nelson Mandela requested that she be returned home. In 2002 her remains were returned to S. Africa. In 2003 Barbara Chase-Ribaud authored the novel "Hottentot Venus" based on the Baartman story. In 2007 Rachel Holmes authored “African Queen: The Real Life of the Hottentot Venus."
    (SFC, 5/4/02, p.A8)(SSFC, 11/9/03, p.M6)(SFC, 1/1/07, p.D2)(Econ., 2/28/15, p.31)

1820        Aug 9, David Stuurman (1773-1830) escaped from South Africa's Robben Island for a 2nd time. He was soon captured and in 1823 was transported to Australia. He was first arrested in 1809 and charged for resisting colonial rule as well as opposing the conscription of the Khoi into militias that were created to defend the colony and to attack the San and amaXhosa. He first escaped Robben Island in Dec. 1809.
    (BBC, 3/16/21)

1820        Port Elizabeth was founded British settlers and named in memory of the late wife of the Cape Colony's then governor. In 2021 its name was change to Gqeberha, the Xhosa name for the Baakens River, which flows through the city.
    (BBC, 2/24/21)
1820        Some 4,000 British colonists, the Albany settlers, settled in the eastern coastal region of the Cape of Good Hope.
    (EWH, 4th ed, p.884)
1820        The first permanent astronomical observatory in the southern hemisphere was built near Cape Town, South Africa.
    (Econ, 6/2/12, p.95)

1826        The British Cape Colony was extended northward to the Orange River.
    (EWH, 4th ed, p.885)

1828        Sep 22, Zulu King Shaka (b.1787) was assassinated by his half brothers Dingane and Mhlangana. The kingdom at this encompassed around 30,000 Square km (12,000 square miles).
    (https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Shaka)(Econ., 12/19/20, p.73)

1834        Aug 1, The British Emancipation Act went into effect abolishing slavery throughout the British Empire. This ended slavery in Canada, in the West Indies and in all Caribbean holdings. Some 35,000 slaves were freed in the Cape Colony. The Minstrels Parada in Cape Town, SA, originated as a spontaneous outpouring of marches, music and dancing to mark the abolition of slavery.
    (NH, 7/98, p.29)(HN, 8/1/98)(EWH, 4th ed, p.885)(AP, 1/2/06)

1835-1837    Some 10,000 Dutch (Boer) cattlemen and farmers moved northward from the Cape Colony due to restrictions on slavery and the sympathetic native policy of the government. They settled in what became the Transvaal. Under Piet Retief they began to occupy Zululand and Natal.
    (EWH, 4th ed, p.885)

1835-1868    Lesotho acted as a buffer between the Afrikaner’s and British colonial interests and supplied seasonal farm workers to both.
    (WSJ, 3/25/98, p.A11)(EWH, 4th ed, p.885)

1836        May 31, HMS Beagle anchored in Simons Bay, Cape of Good Hope.
    (MC, 5/31/02)

1838        Feb 6, Having failed to obtain land by trickery from the Zulus of South Africa, Boar leader Piet Retief and 60 followers were executed by Dingaan, the Zulu king.
    (HN, 2/6/99)(EWH, 4th ed, p.885)

1838        Dec 16, Boers led by Andreas Pretorius defeated the Zulus in the Battle of Blood River and settled in Natal. The Afrikaners while escaping from British rule encountered resistance from the native black peoples. In the Battle of Blood River a few hundred Boers repelled an attack by more than 10,000 warriors of the Zulu king Dingaan.
    (EWH, 4th ed, p.885)(NG, Oct. 1988, p. 563)

1840        Zulu king Dingaan was defeated by his rival Umpanda, who accepted the rule of the Boers.
    (EWH, 4th ed, p.885)

1845        George Cato, the 1st mayor of Durban, South Africa, acquired almost 5,000 acres in an area of Durban that came to be called Cato Manor.
    (MT, Fall/99, p.10)

1846        Scottish missionaries set up a school for Africans near Alice, South Africa. The Lovedale Bible College, a prep school for Blacks interested in going to seminary, soon followed.
    (MT, Fall/99, p.13)

1852        Jan 17, At the Sand River Convention, the British recognized the independence of the Transvaal Board.
    (HN, 1/17/99)

1852        Feb 26, The British frigate Birkenhead sank off South Africa and 458 died.
    (SC, 2/26/02)

1853        Jul 5, Cecil John Rhodes (d.1902), politician, diamond merchant, was born in South Africa. He discovered a vast lode of diamonds at Kimberley and founded the De Beers Mining Co. He ran for Cape parliament in 1881 and was prime minister of the Cape Colony from 1890-1896. He founded Rhodesia (later Zimbabwe) for mineral speculation and endowed the Rhodes scholarships upon his death with £3 million.
    (WSJ, 1/11/98, p.R18)(MC, 7/5/02)

1854        Feb 23, Great Britain officially recognized the independence of the Orange Free State.
    (HN, 2/23/99)

1854        Richard Owen, founder of London’s Natural History Museum discovered fossils in South Africa of a plant-eating prosauropod named Massospondylus (bulky vertebrae). Owen is the man who coined the term dinosaur.
    (SFC, 7/29/05, p.A2)

1855-1920     Olive Schreiner, South African author and feminist: "My feeling is that there is nothing in life but refraining from hurting others, and comforting those that are sad."
    (AP, 7/24/98)

1857        In South Africa a millenarian movement started up based on the prophesy that if the Xhosa destroyed all their cattle, their ancestors would lead them to victory over the British. Huge numbers of animals were killed leaving the Xhosa without means to plant sufficient crops. Thousands of Xhosa starved and the rest moved under protection of other tribes. The Xhosa never recovered their lands.
    (MT, Fall/99, p.15)(www.stormfront.org/whitehistory/hwr56.htm)

1862        Sep 27, Louis Botha, commander-in-chief of the Boer Army against the British and first president of South Africa, was born.
    (HN, 9/27/98)

1866        Diamonds were discovered in South Africa. [see 1867]
    (WSJ, 1/11/99, p.R49)

1867        In South Africa diamonds were discovered. This and the later discovery of gold prompted the end of Boer isolation. [see 1866]
    (NG, Oct. 1988, p. 564)

1869         Theophilus Shepstone, the Natal Secretary for Native Affairs, formalized the ilobolo, a system linked to the ownership of cattle, to a payment of 10 cattle for commoners.
1869        An 84-carat diamond was found by a shepherd boy in South Africa. It was cut to 47-carat pear-shaped diamond that came to be called the Star of South Africa.
    (SSFC, 12/20/09, p.N7)

1876        The gladiolus rust, Uromyces trasversalis, was discovered in South Africa. Some 90 years later it turned up in the Mediterranean region then spread to Europe, South America, and Australia. In 2006 it was detected in the US.
    (SSFC, 8/9/09, p.L2)

1877        Sir Theophilus Shepstone KCMG, a British South African statesman, was responsible for the annexation of the Transvaal to Britain.

1879        Jan 11, The Zulu war against British colonial rule in South Africa began. [see Jan 12]
    (MC, 1/11/02)

1879        Jan 12, British-Zulu War began as British troops under Lieutenant General Frederic Augustus invaded Zululand from the southern African republic of Natal. [see Jan 11]
    (MC, 1/12/02)

1879        Jan 22, In South Africa battles at Isandlwana Zulu impis or regiments armed with spears and shields killed around 1,300 British troops bearing rifles. Private Samuel Wassall lived through the battle and was awarded the Victoria Cross along with 14 others.
    (AFP, 2/5/07)(Econ, 2/10/07, p.91)
1879        Jan 22-24, Eighty-two British soldiers with rifles held off attacks by 4,000 Zulu warriors with spears at the Battle of Rorke's Drift in South Africa. A large British troop had just been massacred prior to this battle. The 1964 film "Zulu" was based on this event.
    (History Channel, 4/9/98)(HN, 1/22/00)

1879        Mar 12, The British Zulu War began. [see Jan 11]
    (HN, 3/12/98)

1879        Mar 28, British mounted troops under Colonel Henry Evelyn Wood went up Hlobane Mountain to battle the Zulus—only to be surrounded by a 22,000-man impi (army). Lieutenant Colonel Redvers Buller, received the Victoria Cross for his gallantry during the difficult withdrawal of his troopers from the mountain. Hlobane was the worst rout of British cavalry—and the last Zulu victory—of the Anglo-Zulu War in South Africa.
    (HN, 3/12/98)(HN, 3/28/99)

1879        Mar 29, Some 2,000 British and Colonial troops of the 90th Light Infantry Regiment under the command of Colonel Henry Evelyn Wood repulsed a major attack by 20,000 Zulu tribesmen at Khambula, Zululand. Jubilant over their victory at Hlobane the day before, the Zulus prepared to finish off the British at Khambula. This time, however, the outcome was different as the Zulus vainly assaulted British foes who were dug in and ready for them. The assault, depicted in "The Battle of Khambula" by Angus McBride, ended in failure for the Zulus, leaving them doubting for the first time their ability to win the Anglo-Zulu War.
    (HN, 3/29/99)(MC, 3/29/02)

1879        Jul 4, Afrikaner Union was formed by Rev SJ du Toit at Cape colony.
    (Maggio, 98)

1879        Jul 4, Battle at Rorkes Drift: Britain ended attack on Zulus.
    (Maggio, 98)

1879        Aug 28, Cetewayo (or Cetshwayo), last of the great Zulu kings, was captured by the British at the end of the Zulu wars.
    (RTH, 8/28/99)

1879        John Dunn (d.1885), Englishman and friend of Zulu King Cetshwayo, was granted 10,000 acres after the Anglo-Zulu war. Dunn took 27 Zulu wives and was declared a chief by the king.
    (SFC, 8/13/01, p.A9)

1880        Mar 12, Cecil Rhodes (1853-1902) and C.D. Rudd launched the De Beers Mining Company after the amalgamation of a number of individual claims in South Africa.

1881        Feb 26, Natal British troops under General-Major Colley occupied Majuba Hill.
    (SC, 2/26/02)

1881        Mar 4, South African President Kruger accepted a cease-fire with the British in the First Boer War (1880-1881 – aka Transvaal Revolt). [see Mar 23]
    (SC, 3/4/02)

1881        Mar 23, Boers and Britain signed a peace accord. This ended the 1st Boer war.
    (SS, 3/23/02)

1883        Apr 16, Paul Kruger was chosen president of Transvaal.
    (MC, 4/16/02)

1884        Apr 24, Otto von Bismarck cabled Cape Town that South Africa had become a German colony.
    (HN, 4/24/98)

1886        In South Africa Maria Fuller was one of the first four women to enroll at the University of Cape Town.
    (Econ, 2/20/15, p.42)
1886        The discovery of gold on the Witwatersrand, South Africa, launched the city of Johannesburg. Labor was provided from Lesotho.
    (NG, Oct. 1988, p. 562)(WSJ, 3/25/98, p.A11)
1886        Phylloxera, a sap-sucking a pest of commercial grapevines, was recorded in South Africa.
    (https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Phylloxera)(Econ., 7/4/20, p.73)

1889        Mar 19, Sarah Gertrude Millina, South African writer (The Dark River, God's Stepchildren), was born.
    (HN, 3/19/01)

1891        Jul 31, Great Britain declared territories in Southern Africa up to the Congo to be within their sphere of influence.
    (HN, 7/31/98)

1892        Jan 3, J.R.R. Tolkien, author of the "Lord of the Rings" trilogy, was born in Bloemfontein, South Africa. "All that is gold does not glitter; not all those that wander are lost."
    (440 Int'l. 1/3/99)(AP, 1/5/99)(AP, 1/3/00)

1892        Jun 13, Basil Rathbone, actor (Sherlock Holmes), was born in Johannesburg, South Africa.
    (MC, 6/13/02)

1892        A Boer government grabbed 90% of the land of southern Africa’s biggest woman, the Rain Queen of the Lobedu. She was immortalized by H. Rider Haggard as “She."
    (Econ, 12/18/04, p.62)

1893        Mohandas Gandhi (24) moved to South Africa to work as a legal advisor to an Indian businessman.
    (ON, 9/03, p.1)

1895        Jan 29, The Jameson Raid began against the South African Republic (commonly known as the Transvaal). It was carried out by British colonial administrator Leander Starr Jameson and his Company troops and Bechuanaland policemen over the New Year weekend. On Jan. 2 the raiders surrendered after losing 30 men. They were taken to Pretoria and jailed. Cecil Rhodes supported the Jameson Raid to help rebellious British settlers in the Dutch Transvaal. The raid was a contributory cause of the Anglo-Boer War (1899–1902).
    (https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Jameson_Raid)(WSJ, 7/11/03, p.W19)

1895        Barney Barnato, a mining magnate, bought a block of land at the corner of Eloff and Commissioner streets in Johannesburg to develop a world-class hotel. His untimely death and the Boer War delayed the opening of the Carlton Hotel to 1906.
    (SFEC, 5/31/98, p.A22)
1895        South African Breweries (SAB) was founded to quench the thirst of gold prospectors around Johannesburg. In 1999 the firm moved its main stock market listing to London.
    (Econ, 3/24/12, p.67)(Econ, 5/31/14, p.55)
1895        Cecil Rhodes supported the Jameson Raid to help rebellious British settlers in the Dutch Transvaal.
    (WSJ, 7/11/03, p.W19)

1897        Jan 22, Eighty-two British soldiers held off attacks by 4,000 Zulu warriors at the Battle of Rorke's Drift in South Africa.
    (HN, 1/22/99)

1897        Zululand was absorbed fully into the British colony of Natal.

1898        Mar 26, In South Africa the Sabi Game Reserve, the world's 1st official designated game reserve, opened.

1898        In South Africa Sir Thomas Cullinan discovered a prospect that contained kimberlite, a rock that can be rich in diamonds. A mine was established there in 1903 and became one of the world’s most valuable diamond resources.
    (Econ, 12/1/07, p.82)
1899        Sep 8, The British government sent an additional 10,000 troops to Natal South Africa.
    (MC, 9/8/01)

1899        Oct 11, South African Boers, settlers from the Netherlands, declared war on Great Britain. In the Boer War Dutch settlers of the South African Republic (the Traansvaal) under Pres. Paul Kruger and the Orange Free State refused to accept English rule in southern Africa. The Boers were the predominately Dutch inhabitants of the two republics, which had gained their independence from Great Britain in the 1850s. Years of tensions between British settlers and the Boer governments exploded into war. Eventual British victory resulted in the Boer republics becoming colonies of the British Empire and in 1910 part of the Union of South Africa.
    (V.D.-H.K.p.289)(HNQ, 7/12/99)(SFC, 10/8/99, p.D3)

1899        Oct 12, The Anglo-Boer War began. [see Oct 11]
    (HN, 10/12/98)

1899        Oct 30, British Morning Post reporter Winston Churchill reached Capetown.
    (MC, 10/30/01)
1899        Oct 30, In South Africa two battalions of British troops were cut off, surrounded and forced to surrender to General Petrus Joubert's Boers at Nicholson's Nek.
    (HN, 10/30/98)

1898        Joseph Silver (d.1918), a Polish-born Jew, arrived in Johannesburg fresh from a stint in Sing Sing for burglary and a stay in London a decade earlier. Shortly after arriving in Johannesburg, Silver set up a string of cafes, cigar shops and police-protected brothels. Silver was executed as a spy in Poland in 1918. In 2007 Charles van Onselen authored "The Fox and The Flies: The World of Joseph Silver," in which he suggested that Silver was London’s “Jack the Ripper."
    (AP, 5/2/07)

1899        Nov 15, Winston Churchill (24), war correspondent for London’s Morning Post, was captured by Boers in Natal, South Africa. He escaped prison in Pretoria on Dec 12 and after some days reached the English colony in Durban, Natal.
    (ON, 12/08, p1)

1899        Nov 28, The British were victorious over the Boers at Modder River.
    (HN, 11/28/98)

1899        Dec 15, In South Africa the Boars defeated the British at the Battle of Colenso.
    (HN, 12/15/98)

1899-1902    In the Boer War some 12,000 blacks and 18,000 whites were killed from epidemics in British concentration camps. Some 25,000 blacks and 94,000 whites were herded into the world's first concentration camps. Thomas Packenham later authored "The Boer War."
    (SFC, 10/8/99, p.D3)

1899-1902    The Anglo-Boer War. Winston Churchill took part as a war correspondent for the Morning Post. Shortly after his arrival he was caught in an ambush and taken prisoner in Pretoria from whence he escaped. In 1999 his granddaughter Celia Sandys authored "Churchill: Wanted Dead Or Alive."
    (WSJ, 12/29/99, p.A12)

1900        Jan 8, The Boers attacked Ladysmith, but are turned back by General White in South Africa.
    (HN, 1/8/99)

1900        Feb 6, Battle at Vaalkrans, South Africa (Boers vs. British army).
    (MC, 2/6/02)

1900        Feb 8, British General Buller was beaten at Ladysmith, South Africa as the British fled over the Tugela River.
    (HN, 2/8/99)

1900        Feb 14, General Roberts invaded South Africa’s Orange Free State with 20,000 British troops.
    (HN, 2/14/98)

1900        Feb 15, The British threatened to use natives in the Boer War fight.
    (HN, 2/15/98)

1900        Feb 18, Battle at Paardeberg (Boer War), 1,270 British killed or injured.
    (MC, 2/18/02)

1900        Feb 28, After a 119-day siege by the Boers, the English defenders of Ladysmith, under General Sir George White were relieved.
    (HN, 2/28/98)

1900        Mar 11, British Prime Minister Lord Salisbury rejected the peace overtures offered from Boer leader Paul Kruger.
    (HN, 3/11/98)

1900        Mar 27, The London Parliament passed the War Loan Act which gave 35 million pounds to the Boer War cause.
    (HN, 3/27/98)

1900        Apr 9, British forces routed the Boers at Kroonstadt, South Africa.
    (HN, 4/9/98)

1900        May 12, Mostly Black fighters in Mafikeng repelled a Boer assault. Col. Robert Baden-Powell, commander of the British troops in Mafikeng, armed black fighters and many died during the 7-month siege.
    (SFC, 10/8/99, p.D3)

1900        May 28, Britain annexed the Orange Free State.
    (HN, 5/28/98)

1900        Jun 5, In South Africa, British troops under Lord Roberts seized Pretoria from the Boers.
    (HN, 6/5/98)

1900        Aug 31, British troops overran Johannesburg.
    (MC, 8/31/01)

1900        Nov 30, The French government denounced the British government and declared sympathy for the Boers.
    (HN, 11/30/98)

1900        Zulu Princess Magogo kaDinuzulu (d.1984) was born. She became a composer and singer with a 3-octave range. She became the mother of Prince Mangosuthu Buthelezi.
    (WSJ, 6/22/04, p.D8)

1901        Aug 20, Fawcett committee visited Mafeking concentration camp in Cape Colony.
    (MC, 8/20/02)

1901        Sep 3, Boer General Smuts entered Kiba Drift in Cape Colony.
    (MC, 9/3/01)

1901        Sep 17, At the Battle at Elands River Port, Boer Gen. Smuts destroyed the 17th Lancers unit.
    (MC, 9/17/01)

1900        Dec 1, Kaiser Wilhelm II refused to meet with Boer leader Paul Kruger in Berlin.
    (HN, 12/1/98)

1900        Dec 9, The Russian Czar rejected Paul Kruger’s pleas for aid to the Boers in South Africa against the British.
    (HN, 12/9/01)

1900-1902    Lord Herbert Horatio Kitchener created concentration camps where hundreds of thousands of Boer women, children and old men were herded. An estimated 16,000 died in the camps.
    (WSJ, 2/27/00, p.A24)

1901        Mar 23, The world learned that Boers were starving to death in British concentration camps.
    (HN, 3/23/98)

1901        Jun 20, Charlotte M. Manye of South Africa became the first native African to graduate from an American University.
    (HN, 6/20/00)

1901        A process of "forced removals," whereby Blacks were removed to allow for all-white areas, was begun.
    (SFEC, 10/15/00, p.T8)

1902        Jan 17, Gideon Scheepers, South Africa Boer leader, was executed.
    (MC, 1/17/02)

1902        Feb 27, Harry 'Breaker' Morant (1864-1902) and Peter Handcock were executed for the murder of 12 prisoners of war in the dying days of the Boer war. George Witton had his death sentence commuted because it contained serious errors. Morant, who volunteered to fight with the British in South Africa, was born in England but became well known in Australia as a poet and a horsebreaker. In 1980 the film ‘Breaker’ Morant was produced in Australia. In 2010 Australia sent Britain a petition calling for posthumous pardons for Morant and Handcock. The petition argued the accused were denied the right to communicate with the Australian government or relatives after their arrest and during their trials and were refused an opportunity to prepare their cases.
    (AFP, 2/10/10)(www.awm.gov.au/people/267.asp)

1902        Mar 10, The Boers scored their last victory over the British, capturing British General Methuen and 200 men.
    (HN, 3/10/98)

1902        Mar 26, British magnate Cecil Rhodes (b.1853), Prime Minister of Cape Colony (1890-96), died. In his last will and testament, he provided for the establishment of the Rhodes Scholarship, the world's first international study program. The first scholars were selected in 1903. In Rhodesia [later Zimbabwe] after Cecil John Rhodes died he was buried in a tomb in the Matopos Hills. He had co-founded De Beers Consolidated Mines Ltd., and built great railways through southern Africa. In 2008 Philip Ziegler authored “Legacy: Cecil Rhodes, the Rhodes Trust and Rhodes Scholarships."
    (https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cecil_Rhodes)(AP, 4/4/97)(SFC, 12/9/98, p.A25)(WSJ, 12/9/98, p.A1)(Econ, 5/10/08, p.95)

1902        Apr 10, South African Boers accepted British terms of surrender.
    (HN, 4/10/98)

1902        May 6, There was a Zulu assault at Holkrantz, South-Africa.
    (MC, 5/6/02)

1902        May 31, The Boer War ended between the Boers of South Africa and Great Britain with the Treaty of Vereeniging. This effectively ended a 3-year uprising by the Boers, led by Louis Botha, commandant general of the Transvaal forces. Botha was a signatory at the peace conference. The combination of superior fire power and a brutal war of attrition launched by Lord Kitchener forced the Boers to give in. Kitchener burned the farms of Africans and Boers alike and collected as many as a 100,000 women and children in carelessly run and unhygienic concentration camps on the open veldt. Britain annexed Transvaal.
    (V.D.-H.K.p.289)(HN, 5/31/99)(SFC, 9/25/99, p.A21)(HNQ, 6/29/02)

1902        The British Colonial Administration singed a law that gave 100-acre farms to 63 descendants of John Dunn (d.1885).
    (SFC, 8/13/01, p.A9)

1903-1988     Alan Paton, South African author: "The tragedy is not that things are broken. The tragedy is that they are not mended again."
    (AP, 7/7/98)

1904        Aug 11, German General Lothar von Trotha defeated the Hereros tribe near Waterberg, South Africa. [see Namibia]
    (HN, 8/10/98)

1904        Soweto (an acronym for southwest townships) was established as a separate, African-only district.
    (SFEC, 7/19/98, p.T4)

1905        Jan 26, The biggest diamond ever discovered was the 3,106 carat Cullinan diamond found in South Africa.
    (https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cullinan_Diamond)(BBC, 6/17/21)

1906        Feb 9, Natal proclaimed a state of siege in Zulu uprising.
    (MC, 2/9/02)

1906        Apr 17, In South Africa Zulu chiefs Siganandi and Ndubi refused to take part in an expedition in pursuit of chief Bamibaata, who was in rebellion against the Natal government.
    (SFC, 4/18/06, p.A15)

1906        Sep 11, Mohandas Gandhi addressed a meeting in Johannesburg on social protest  against the Asiatic Law Amendment, a new law by the province of Transvaal that made it compulsory for all Indians over age 8 to register with the government and carry ID cards. In the India Opinion he published articles on what he called Satyagraha (Truth Force): "the vindication of truth not by infliction of suffering on the opponent but on one's self."
    (ON, 9/03, p.1)

1906        The luxury Carlton Hotel opened in Johannesburg. It closed in 1998.
    (SFEC, 5/31/98, p.A22)

1906-1996    Sir Laurens van der Post, South African author: "Human beings are perhaps never more frightening than when they are convinced beyond doubt that they are right."
    (AP, 4/29/01)

1907        Mar 2, General Louis Botha was named premier of Transvaal.
    (SC, 3/2/02)

1907        Jul 1, The Asiatic Registration Act became law in the province of Transvaal, SA.
    (ON, 9/03, p.1)

1908        Jan 11, Mohandas Gandhi and a group of other Indian men were arrested for refusing to register under the Asiatic Registration Act.
    (ON, 9/03, p.1)

1908        Aug 16, Mohandas Gandhi and hundreds of other registered Indians set fire to thousands of registration cards at the Hamidia Mosque in Johannesburg.
    (ON, 9/03, p.1)

1908        Oct 8, Mohandas Gandhi was again arrested. And sentenced to 2 months in prison. Following his release he was again arrested for not carrying a registration card.
    (ON, 9/03, p.1)

1909        Jul 26, The SS Waratah left Durban, South Africa, with 211 passengers and crew. The steamship, enroute from Melbourne to London, was due in Cape Town 3 days later, but never arrived.
    (Econ, 9/19/09, p.94)

1909        Nov, Mohandas Gandhi returned to South Africa from a trip to England to lobby the government to help repeal the Registration Act. He founded a communal farm named "Tolstoy" to help support a few members of his Satyagrahi movement.
    (ON, 9/03, p.1)

1909        Dec 28, The first manned, controlled, powered flight in the whole continent of Africa and the entire southern hemisphere was successfully carried out by the Frenchman Albert Kimmerling (d.6/12/1912) at East London, South Africa using a Voisin bi-plane.

1910        May 31, The Union of South Africa was founded as a union within the British Empire. It combined four British colonies: the Cape Colony, the Natal Colony, the Transvaal Colony and the Orange River Colony. (The latter two were, before the Second Boer War, independent republics known as the South African Republic and the Orange Free State.) These colonies became the four original provinces of the Union: Cape Province, Transvaal Province, Natal Province and Orange Free State Province.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Provinces_of_South_Africa)(NG, Oct. 1988, p. 566)(AP, 5/31/97)

1910        Jul 9, Govan Mbeki (d.2001), the son of a Xhosa chief, was born.
    (SFC, 8/31/01, p.A24)

1910        Louis Botha was elected prime minister, and held the post until his death in 1919. Botha was the first prime minister of the Union of South Africa.  His only formal education was at a German mission school in his native Orange Free State. He became active in politics when the New Republic became part of the South African Republic in 1888.  When war broke out in 1899, Botha quickly rose through the ranks finally being the commandant general of the Transvaal forces and a signatory at the peace conference in 1902.
    (HNQ, 8/18/00)

1911        A group of South Africans took part in the Trans-Saharan Ostrich Expedition to claim the Barbary Ostrich from French West Africa. They then sold the expensive plumes to milliners in across American and Europe.
    (Econ, 6/4/11, p.95)

1912        Jan 8, The South African Native National Congress was founded. It was renamed the African National Congress (ANC) in 1923. Sol Plaatje was one of the founders of the ANC.
    (SFC, 5/7/03, p.A20)(AFP, 1/1/12)(Econ, 8/25/12, p.38)

1912        Dec 14, Louis Botha resigned as South Africa's premier.
    (AP, 12/14/02)

1912        In South Africa Walter Max Ulyate Sisulu (d.2003), anti-apartheid hero, was born.
    (SFC, 5/7/03, p.A20)
1912        In South Africa Johannesburg’s Alexandra township began when a group of blacks bought the land from a white farmer who failed to find white buyers. It became one of the only neighborhoods to successfully resist apartheid's forced relocations.
    (AFP, 6/19/12)

1913        Nov 6, Mohandas K. Gandhi led a march of Indian miners into Transvaal, South Africa. He was arrested 3 times during the 1st 4 days of the march. The miners had struck because the Cape Colony Supreme Court Justice had ruled that only Christian marriages registered by the Registrar of Marriages would be considered legal.
    (AP, 11/6/97)(ON, 9/03, p.5)

1913        In South Africa the Native Lands Act reserved 90 percent of the country's land for the white minority. This made it illegal for Africans to acquire land outside of rural reserves, which became known as "Homelands". It was subsequently revised down to 87 percent. Blacks were not allowed to own, or even rent, land outside special black reserves. While blacks account for 80 percent of South Africa's population, the homelands comprise just 13 percent of the land.
    (Econ, 7/25/05, p.38)(Econ, 6/5/10, SR p.9)(AFP, 2/14/15)(Reuters, 3/14/18)

1914        Jan, Gen. Smuts began negotiations with Mohandas Gandhi to eradicate many of the racist laws imposed on South African Indians.
    (ON, 9/03, p.5)

1914        Aug 4, Britain and Belgium declared war after German troops entered Belgium. The United States proclaimed its neutrality. Britain’s entry also committed its dominions of Australia, Canada, Newfoundland, New Zealand and South Africa. AS WWI started the financial press helped to cover up news of a run on the Bank of England.
    (HNQ, 7/24/98)(AP, 8/4/97)(Econ, 8/2/14, p.45)(Econ, 9/27/14, p.70)

1915        Feb 2, Abba Eban (d.2002), Israeli statesman, was born in South Africa. He grew up in England, attaining honors at Cambridge University, where he honed his oratory as a leader of the university debating society.
    (AP, 11/17/02)

1915        May 12, In South Africa Naspers was founded as Die Nasionale Pers (The National Press) with the aim of furthering the cause of the Afrikaner people.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Naspers)(Econ, 7/10/10, p.61)

1915        Jul 9, Germany’s South West Africa surrendered to Gen. Botha of the Union of South Africa.

1916        Jan 12, Pieter W. Botha, later president of South Africa, was born in Orange Free State.
    (MC, 1/12/02)

1916        Jul 15, A series of engagements in the Battle of the Somme began at Delville Wood and continued to September 3 between the armies of the German Empire and the British Empire. A brigade of South Africans held the wood until 19 July at a cost of four-fifths of its men injured or killed.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Battle_of_Delville_Wood)(Econ, 8/2/14, p.46)

1916        In South Africa the Univ. of Fort Hare (UFH) was officially established.
    (MT, Fall/99, p.13)

1917        Feb 21, The SS Mendi steamship sank after being accidentally rammed in the British Channel by the SS Darro, an empty meat ship bound for Argentina. 607 members of the South African Labour Corps, 9 officers and 33 crew lost their lives. The crew of the Darro made no attempt to rescue survivors.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/SS_Mendi)(Econ, 8/2/14, p.46)

1917        May 26, The Spanish boat Carlos de Eizaguirre hit a German mine that had been part of a naval blockade near Cape Town. 25 survivors reached the harbor.
    (AP, 5/26/17)

1917        Ernest Oppenheimer founded the Anglo American Corp., a mining company.
    (SFC, 8/21/00, p.A20)

1918        Jul 18, Nelson Mandela (d.2013), later anti-apartheid leader and president of South Africa, was born in the Umtata district of Transkei. Prior to becoming president he served 18 of 27 years in jail on Robben Island.
    (WP, 6/29/96, p.A20)(SFC, 9/5/96, p.A10)(SFC, 12/6/13, p.A18)

1919        May 6, Paris Peace Conference disposed of German colonies; German East Africa was assigned to Britain & France, German SW Africa to South Africa.
    (MC, 5/6/02)

1919        Prime Minister Louis Botha died.
    (HNQ, 8/18/00)

1920        Feb 4, Lt. Col Pierre van Ryneveld and Flight Lieutenant Christopher Joseph (Flossie) Quintin-Brand left London from Brooklands Aerodrome in Surrey, England in the Vimy named the Silver Queen in the 1st flight from London to South Africa. Their flight took a total of 45 days with a flight time of 109 hours and 30 minutes.

1920        Dec 17, The League of Nations assigned the colony to South Africa to govern as a "Class A" mandate.

1921        The South African Reserve Bank was established as a privately owned entity.
    (Reuters, 8/17/18)

1921-1929    In South Africa the nomadic Nama people were forced from their lands near the mouth of the Orange River following the British discovery of diamonds in the area. In 1998 community elders initiated a bid to reclaim their land and asked for ownership of the mining operations and compensation of $350 million for the removed diamonds and environmental damage. A 2003 ruling established that community members were entitled to both land and monetary restitution.
    (SSFC, 11/27/05, p.A22)

1922        Oct 8, Dr. Christiaan Barnard, Pioneering South African heart-transplant surgeon, was born. [see Nov 8]
    (MC, 10/8/01)

1922        Nov 8, Christiaan Barnard, South African surgeon, was born. He performed the first human heart transplant operation. [see Oct 8]
    (HN, 11/8/00)

1923        Nov 20, Nadine Gordimer, Nobel Prize-winning South African novelist, was born.
    (HN, 11/20/00)

1925        Jul 7, Afrikaans was recognized as one of the official languages of South Africa, along with English and Dutch.
    (HN, 7/7/98)

1927        South Africa’s first Immorality Act prohibited sex between whites and blacks. It was amended in 1950 to prohibit sex between whites and all non-whites.
1927        In South Africa Alexkor Ltd., a state-run diamond mining company, was set up in the town of Alexander Bay as a work program for poor whites. The local Nama were forced out after mineral rights were awarded to Alexkor Ltd. In 2007 the government agreed to restore the 330-square-mile northern coastal strip to the tribe and pay $28 million compensation as well as millions more in development funding.
    (AP, 10/9/07)
1927        In South Africa industrialist Isidore Schlesinger installed Johannesburg’s first traffic light. An errant motorist soon knocked it down.
    (Econ, 9/10/16, p.40)

1929        Ernest Oppenheimer, founder of the Anglo American Corp., took control of De Beers.
    (SFC, 8/21/00, p.A20)

1931        Oct 7, Desmond Tutu, South African Black archbishop who won the Nobel Peace Prize in 1984, was born.
    (HN, 10/7/98)

1931        Dec 11, The Statute of Westminster recast the British Empire as a Commonwealth of Nations.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Statute_of_Westminster_1931)(Econ, 8/2/14, p.45)

1932        Mar 4, Miriam Makeba, singer (Grammy 1965), was born in Johannesburg, South Africa.
    (HN, 3/4/01)(SC, 3/4/02)

1932        Jun 11, Athol Fugard, playwright, director, actor and novelist, was born in Middelburg, South Africa as Harold Athol Lanigan Fugard. As a child he was known as Hally before he decided he wanted to be called Athol.
    (www.litencyc.com/php/speople.php?rec=true&UID=1651)(HN, 6/11/01)

1934        Jan 27, Julian Ogilvie Thompson, CEO of De Beers, was born.
    (MC, 1/27/02)

1935        May 29, André P. Brink, South African writer (Dry White Season), was born.
    (SC, 5/29/02)
1935        May 29, Denis J. Worrall, South African politician/leader (DP), was born.
    (SC, 5/29/02)

1936        Mar 18, Frederik Willem de Klerk, president of the Republic of South Africa, was born in Johannesburg. He initiated the abolition of apartheid.
    (Hem. 1/95, p. 19)(HN, 3/18/99)

1937        In South Africa the vervet monkey was classified as vermin after one bit the daughter of the country’s finance minister. In 1976 the species was listed as threatened by the Convention on Int’l. Trade and Endangered Species.
    (SFC, 5/19/07, p.B6)

1938        Karen Blixen wrote her novel: "Out of Africa."
    (SFEC, 11/3/96, BR p.5)

1939        Sep 6, The Union of South Africa declared war on Germany.
    (AP, 9/6/07)

1939        Oct 16, Charlotte Maxeke (b.1871), South African social worker and activist, died in Johannesburg. She was the first black South African woman to receive a college degree (Ohio’s Wilberforce University, 1901).

1939        Olive Schreiner wrote her novel: "The Story of an African Farm."
    (SFEC, 11/3/96, BR p.5)

1939        Solomon Linda’s Original Evening Birds made recordings that included the piece "Mbube" (The Lion). In 1951 the Zulu song was recorded by Pete Seeger with "Uyimbube" (You’re the lion) mistranslated to "Wimoweh." The song became a big hit in 1961 recorded by the Tokens as "The Lion Sleeps Tonight."  Linda died in poverty.
    (NH, 6/97, p.66)(SFC, 7/9/01, p.A10)

1940        In South Africa Nelson Mandela was expelled from the Univ. of Fort Hare for his role in a student strtike with Oliver Tambo.
    (SFC, 12/6/13, p.A18)

1943        May 25, Wynand C. Malan, South African lawyer, NP/DP-politician, was born.
    (SC, 5/25/02)

1944        May 17, D. du Toit (Harvard College Observatory, Boyden station, Bloemfontein, South Africa) discovered the comet, 66P/du Toit, on a photograph.

1944        In South Africa Walter Sisulu (1912-2003), Nelson Mandela and Oliver Tambo formed the ANC Youth League.
    (AP, 5/6/03)(SFC, 5/7/03, p.A20)

1945        Jan 25, The US Justice Department's Antitrust Division filed suit in the U.S. District Court in New York against De Beers, four other British or South African companies, three Belgian companies and one Portuguese Company which together produced and sold 95 percent of the world's diamonds, 'charging them with conspiring to restrain and monopolize the foreign trade of the United States in gem and industrial diamonds in violation of the Sherman Antitrust Act and the Wilson Tariff Acts.

1946        Dec 18, Stephen Biko, South African anti-apartheid activist, was born.
    (MC, 12/18/01)

1948        May 26, South Africa elected a nationalist government with apartheid policy. The National Party of the Dutch Afrikaners came to power and imposed apartheid. P.W. Botha (1916-2006) was among those elected to parliament.
    (WSJ, 7/28/98, p.A16)(http://tinyurl.com/yxx4zh)(Econ, 11/4/06, p.56)

1948        Alan Paton authored the novel "Cry the Beloved Country."
    (WSJ, 10/4/99, p.A40)

1949        Jan 14, There was a Black-Indian race rebellion in Durban, South Africa that left some 142 dead. 2 days of murder, pillage and arson left some 50 Indians dead, more than 500 injured and thousands in makeshift refugee camps. The Africans, whose toll was 87 killed and 550 injured, believed they'd won the Battle of Cato Manor.
    (MC, 1/14/02)(http://durban.kzn.org.za/durban/about/3.html)

1949        Jun 29, The government of South Africa enacted a ban against racially mixed marriages.
    (AP, 6/29/99)

1949        South Africa established an apartheid program.
    (TOH, 1982, p.1949)

1950        Jan 29, Riots broke out in Johannesburg, South Africa, over Apartheid.
    (HN, 1/29/99)

1950        Apr 27, South Africa passed the Group Areas Act, formally segregating races.
    (HN, 4/27/98)(SFEC, 10/15/00, p.T8)

1950        May 1, South Africa’s 1927 Immorality Act, which prohibited sex between whites and blacks, was amended to prohibit sex between whites and all non-whites.

1950        Jul 7, South Africa’s Population Registration Act commenced. It required that each inhabitant of South Africa be classified and registered in accordance with their racial characteristics as part of the system of apartheid. It was repealed by section 1 of the Population Registration Act, Repeal Act No 114 of 1991.

1950        Sep 11, Jan C. Smuts, co-founder of British RAF and S. African PM (1919-48), died at 80.
    (MC, 9/11/01)

1950        Laurence Marshall, a former president of Raytheon, took his family to the bush land of the Kalahari Desert in South Africa where they encountered the native Bushmen. The area later became the border of Namibia and Botswana. In 2006 his daughter Elizabeth Marshall Thomas authored "The Old Way: A Story of the First People."
    (SSFC, 11/5/06, p.M3)
1950        The South Africa Nationalist government banned Communists and forced them to go underground to struggle against apartheid.
    (SFC, 7/6/02, p.A19)

1950        South Africa set up Sasol as a state-owned company and authorized funds for the development of a coal-to-liquids facility called Sasolburg.
    (WSJ, 8/16/06, p.A12)

1950-1980    About 3.5 million blacks were forcibly trucked off to ethnic territories, often abandoning land, houses and cattle.
    (WSJ, 5/17/96,p.A-10)

1951        J.D. Bold wrote "Phrase Book, Grammar and Dictionary of Fanagalo," a pidgin language used by miners.
    (WSJ, 4/15/98, p.A9)

1951        In South Africa Drum magazine was founded in Johannesburg. Drum journalists living in Sophiatown, a racially-mixed suburb of Johannesburg, soon began producing the best investigative journalism, short fiction, satirical humour, social and political commentary, and musical criticism South Africa had ever seen.
    (AFP, 12/26/11)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sophiatown)

1952        Mar 24, Great demonstrations took place against apartheid in South Africa.
    (MC, 3/24/02)

1952        In South Africa Nelson Mandela led the Defiance Campaign and encouraged people to break racial separation laws. He was convicted under the Suppression of Communism Act. With Oliver Tambo he formed the first black law partnership in the country.
    (SFC, 12/6/13, p.A18)

1953        Oct 5, South Africa’s Bantu Education Act, later renamed the Black Education Act, was passed to become effective Jan 1, 1954. It set out to ensure that whites received a better education than blacks. The segregation law legalized several aspects of the apartheid system.
    (https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bantu_Education_Act,_1953)(Econ, 1/7/17, p.37)

1953        A freedom charter in the struggle against apartheid was framed in Soweto, South Africa.
    (AFP, 5/20/06)

1954        South Africa began refining oil.
    (SFC, 8/16/00, p.A17)

1955        Feb 9, In South Africa some 2,000 policemen, armed with handguns, rifles and clubs known as knobkierries, forcefully moved the black families of Sophiatown to Meadowlands, Soweto.

1955        Jun 26, South Africa’s Congress of the People gathered in Soweto and adopted a Freedom Charter. It called for the mineral wealth beneath the soil to be transferred to the people as a whole.
    (www.anc.org.za/ancdocs/history/charter.html)(Econ, 10/20/12, p.22)

1955-1960    In South Africa residents of Sophiatown were forcibly removed and relocated to townships outside Johannesburg because white blue-collar areas sprang up nearby. Sophiatown had generated a cultural flowering unequalled in the urban history of South Africa.
    (SFC, 12/19/00, p.B5)(AFP, 12/26/11)

1956        Dec 6, Nelson Mandela and 156 others were arrested for political activities in South Africa. They were charged with treason for supporting the Freedom Charter, which called for a non-racial and socialist-based economy.
    (MC, 12/6/01)(SFC, 12/6/13, p.A18)

1956        Dr. J.L.B. Smith (1897-1968), South African ichthyologist, authored “Old Fourlegs: The Story of the Coelacanth."
    (Econ, 12/14/13, IL p.12)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/J.L.B._Smith)
1956        The New Zealand Maori rugby team was ordered by Maori Affairs Minister Ernest Corbett (d.1968) to throw a game against the South African Springboks to ensure the All Blacks weren't stopped from touring South Africa. News of this was only made public by a former player in 2010. The indigenous Maori side went on to lose 37-0. Maori players were excluded from All Black tours to white-controlled South Africa in 1928, 1949 and 1960.
    (AFP, 4/13/10)

1957        May 22, South Africa government approved race separation in universities.
    (MC, 5/22/02)

1957        South African reporter Henry Nxumalo was stabbed to death while investigating abortions. He was famous for his investigative pieces. Fondly called "Mr Drum", Nxumalo once enlisted as a farm worker to expose the brutality of white farmers. Nxumalo's life story was portrayed in a 2004 film called "Drum."
    (AFP, 12/26/11)

1957        Ernest Oppenheimer, founder of the Anglo American Corp., died.
    (SFC, 8/21/00, p.A20)

1959        The Pan African Congress was founded.
    (SFC, 8/21/96, p.A8)
1959        Colin Eglin (1925-2013) founded South Africa's Progressive Party and later became leader of the opposition in the white-controlled parliament for part of the 1970s and 1980s. Helen Suzman, a liberal MP with the United Party, broke away with other liberal colleagues to form the Progressive Party.
    (AP, 11/30/13)(Econ, 1/18/14, p.82)
1959        The Usutu virus, a life threat to birds, was 1st observed in South African mosquitoes. By 2004 it had spread to Europe and ravaged the blackbird population.
    (SFC, 8/21/04, p.B10)

1960        Jan 21, The Coalbrook mining disaster, the worst mining accident in the history of South Africa, left 437 miners dead. The miners were suffocated by methane gas and crushed to death by rockfall.

1960        Mar 21, A police massacre in Sharpeville, South Africa, left 69 black protestors dead as people gathered to protest the pass books that the apartheid government required them to carry at all times. The ANC was outlawed.
    (SFC, 12/5/96, p.C2)(SFEC, 2/9/97, Z1 p.7)(AP, 3/21/08)

1960        Mar 31, The South African government declared a state of emergency after demonstrations led to the deaths of more than 50 Africans.
    (HN, 3/31/98)

1960        Albert John Luthuli (c1898-1967), tribal chief and president-general of the African National Congress, won the Nobel Peace prize.

1960        Joe Modise was appointed high commander of Umkhonto we Sizwe, the military wing of the ANC.
    (SFC, 11/28/01, p.A22)

1961        Mar 15, South Africa withdrew from British Commonwealth.
    (MC, 3/15/02)

1961        Mar 29, In South Africa Nelson Mandela was acquitted on a treason charge after a 4 year trial.
    (MC, 3/29/02)

1961        Apr 13, The U.N. General Assembly condemned South Africa for apartheid.
    (HN, 4/13/98)

1961        May 31, South Africa became an independent republic.
    (AP, 5/31/97)

1961        Aug 24, Johannes Vorster, a former Nazi leader, became South Africa's minister of justice.
    (MC, 8/24/02)

1961        In South Africa Nelson Mandela helped establish the ANC guerrilla wing, Umkhonto we Sizwe (Spear of the nation).
    (SFC, 12/6/13, p.A18)

1962        Aug 5, In South Africa Nelson Mandela was arrested near Howick and charged with illegally leaving the country and incitement to strike. He was later sentenced to five years of hard labor.
    (SFC, 12/6/13, p.A18)

1962        Aug 5, Nelson Mandela was arrested for incitement and illegally leaving South Africa.
    (MC, 8/5/02)

1963        Oct 9, In South Africa indictments began for the Rivonia trial and resulted in the jailing of Nelson Mandela and Govan Mbeki. In 1999 Glenn Frankel authored "Rivonia's Children." White activists (Joe Slovo and his wife Ruth First, Rusty and Hilda Bernstein, and Anna Marie and Harold Wolpe) of the South African Communist Party, involved in the trial, fled into exile. The trial was named after the area where the ANC members were arrested.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Rivonia_Trial)(WSJ, 10/4/99, p.A40)(SFC, 7/18/02, p.A26)(SFC, 12/6/13, p.A18)

1962        Nov 6, The UN General Assembly adopted resolution 1761 (XVII), which established a Special Committee on Apartheid in South Africa. The non-binding resolution called upon members "separately or collectively, in conformity with the charter" to break diplomatic relations with South Africa, to close ports to South African vessels, to forbid vessels flying their flags to enter South African ports, to boycott South African trade, and to suspend landing rights for South African aircraft. The committee held its first meeting on April 2, 1963.
    (Econ, 9/15/07, p.74)(www.anc.org.za/un/reddy/aamun.htm)

1963        In South Africa Arthur Goldreich (1929-2011), who helped the anti-apartheid leader Nelson Mandela hide out on a farm by posing as his employer, was arrested. Goldreich and his family pretended to be the owners of a farm on the outskirts of Johannesburg that was the ANC underground headquarters in the 1960s. The raid on the farm led to the Rivonia Trial, and decades in prison for Mandela. Goldreich and three others escaped from a downtown Johannesburg police station and made it out of South Africa disguised as a priest. He eventually settled in Israel.
    (AP, 5/25/11)
1963        Albie Sachs was jailed without charges for 168 days. He described his experience in the book: "The Jail Diary of Albie Sachs."
    (SFEC, 2/9/97, z1 p.7)
1963        Steve Tshwete (d.2002 at 64) was arrested and sentenced to 15 years on Robben Island, where he spent time with Nelson Mandela. He later became South Africa’s security minister.
    (SFC, 4/30/02, p.A24)
1963        South Africa conducted a joint nuclear test with Israel, but the Israelis did not confirm the report.
    (SFC, 5/18/02, p.A2)
1963        Andrew Mlangeni (1925-2020) returned to South Africa and became a member of the high command of the ANC's armed movement, Umkhonto we Sizwe. Nelson Mandela had selected him to join five other men in the first group of South African anti-apartheid activists to be sent to China for training.
    (BBC, 7/22/20)

1964        Jun 12, In South Africa Nelson Mandela, convicted of treason in the Rivonia Trial, was moved into a jail cell on Robben Island. He stayed there until Apr 1982.
    (SFC, 12/19/96, p.C1)(SFC, 7/6/02, p.A19(SFC, 12/6/13, p.A19)

1964        Aug 18, South Africa was banned from Olympic Games because of apartheid policies.
    (MC, 8/18/02)

1965        Dec 1, South Africa government said children of white fathers are white.
    (MC, 12/1/01)

1965        Donald Woods founded and edited the Daily Dispatch until 1977 when the government put him under effective house arrest.
    (SFC, 8/20/01, p.A15)

1966        Jun 6, Robert F. Kennedy visited South Africa and spoke at the University of Cape Town. He talked about a "ripple of hope" from every small act against injustice.
    (www.rfksafilm.org/html/speeches/unicape.php)(AP, 5/31/16)

1966        Aug 8, South African Broadcasting banned the Beatles for Lennon's anti-Jesus remark.
    (MC, 8/8/02)

1966        Sep 6, South African Prime Minister Hendrik Verwoerd was stabbed to death by a deranged page during a parliamentary session in Cape Town. Demitrios Tsafendas was reported to have been insane with the belief that a tapeworm inside his head instructed him to do the killing. In 2001 Henk Van Woerden authored "The Assassin: A Story of Race and Rage in the Land of Apartheid."
    (AP, 9/6/97)(SSFC, 7/8/01, DB p.63)

1966        Oct 27, The UN deprived South Africa of Namibia.
    (MC, 10/27/01)

1966        Mary Renault (b.1905), English and South African writer, authored "Mask of Apollo." Here she said "In hatred as in love, we grow like the thing we brood upon. What we loathe, we graft into our very soul."
1966        In South Africa PM B.J. Vorster (1915-1983) appointed P.W. Botha (1916-2006) as defense minister. In 2010 it was revealed that Botha, as South Africa’s defense minister, asked for nuclear warheads from Israel and that Israel’s defense minister Shimon Peres offered them in 3 sizes.
1966        In South Africa District Six, a multicultural community in Cape Town, was declared an all-white area. Black were allowed to return in 2004.
    (SFEC, 10/15/00, p.T8)(AP, 2/12/04)
1966        Attorney Albie Sachs (b.1935) was ordered by the South African government into exile. He went to England and spent 11 years studying for a Ph.D., and then moved to Mozambique.
    (SFEC, 2/9/97, z1 p.7)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Albie_Sachs)

1967        Jul 21, In South Africa ANC president Albert Luthuli died after being hit by a train in what was widely thought to have been an assassination operation. The anti-apartheid icon received the 1960 Nobel prize for his role in the struggle against whites-only rule.
    (AP, 7/11/07)

1967        Dec 3, Surgeons in Cape Town, South Africa, led by Dr. Christiaan Barnard, performed the first human heart transplant at the Groote Shur Hospital. Louis Washkansky lived 18 days with the new heart. The first heart transplant operation in the U.S. was on December 6, 1967, in New York City.
    (AP, 12/3/97)(HNQ, 1/9/99)

1967        Dec 21, Louis Washkansky (55) died in South Africa 18 days after undergoing the 1st heart transplant.
    (AP, 12/3/97)(HNQ, 1/9/99)

1967        Miriam Makeba (1932-2008), South African folk singer and anti-apartheid activist, released her hit single “Pata Pata."
    (SFC, 11/11/08, p.B5)

1969        May 12, Winnie Mandela was detained under South Africa’s Terrorism Act and was placed in solitary confinement for seventeen months. In 1970 she was placed under house arrest.

1969-1991    Alfred Nzo (d.2000 at 74) served as the secretary general of the ANC.
    (SFC, 1/14/00, p.D4)

1970        May 15, South Africa was excluded from Olympic play.

1971        Mar 3, South African Broadcasting Corp lifted its ban on the Beatles.

1971        Oct, In South Africa antiapartheid activist Ahmed Timol (29) died five days after his arrest and transfer to John Vorster Square, a notorious police station in Johannesburg. Officials called his death a suicide. Joao Rodrigues, a former member of the feared security police, was allegedly the last officer to have been with Timol before he plunged to his death from the 10th-floor of Johannesburg police headquarters. In 2017 a court reopened an inquiry into Timol’s death. In 2018 Joao Rodrigues (80) appeared in court charged with the murder of Timol.
    (SFC, 6/28/17, p.A2)(AFP, 8/2/17)(AP, 7/30/18)

1971        Dec, The main 600-room structure of the Carlton Hotel was completed.
    (SFEC, 5/31/98, p.A22)

1971        "Umabatha" by Welcome Msomi, playwright and director, premiered at the Amphitheatre of the Univ. of Natal. It was a recast of Shakespeare’s Macbeth in the context of 19th century Zulu history.
    (WSJ, 7/25/97, p.A12)
1971        In the Orange Free State, South Africa, 19 citizens were arrested for contravening the Immorality Act by having sex across the color line.
    (Econ, 2/28/04, p.81)
1971        In South Africa shaft No. 14 in Gold Reef City near Johannesburg closed. In the 1980s developer Norman Jarrett helped create the "Gold Reef City" theme park.
    (SFEC, 8/10/97, Z1 p.4)(http://tinyurl.com/2oam78)

1971-1985    In 2005 Peter Hug, history professor at the Univ. of Bern, reported that a Swiss nuclear research center aided South Africa between 1971 and 1985 in the sectors of acceleration technology and uranium enrichment.
    (AP, 10/28/05)

1973        In South Africa Eugene Terre’Blanche (1941-2010) founded the Afrikaner Resistance Movement, with an ideology that blacks were not only inferior but also a mortal threat to the Afrikaner volk.
    (Econ, 4/10/10, p.88)

1973        Fossils of 190 million year old dinosaur embryos were unearthed in South Africa. They belonged to a plant-eating group called prosauropods named Massospondylus (bulky vertebrae) first discovered in 1854.
    (SFC, 7/29/05, p.A2)

1974        Nov 12, South Africa was suspended from UN General Assembly over racial policies.

1975        Oct 14, South Africans secretly launched Operation Savannah when the first of several South African columns (task force Zulu) crossed into Angola from Namibia.

1975        Oct 23, A Battle between Cuban and South Africa troops took place in Angola.

1975        Nov, In Ebo, Angola, some 1,300 Cuban troops halted the advance of a much larger South African column.
    (SSFC, 3/29/02, p.A12)

1975        In South Africa the residential building Ponte City opened in Johannesburg’s inner-city district of Hillbrow.
    (Econ, 1/12/13, p.44)
1975        Breyten Breytenbach (b.1939), Afrikaner writer, was charged with sabotage during a clandestine visit. He was sentenced to 9 years in prison but was released in 1982 with the intervention of Francois Mitterand.
    (WSJ, 10/4/99, p.A40)

1976        Jun 16, In South Africa white police gunned down teenagers Hector Pieterson and Hastings Ndhlovu and caused a nationwide riot that left 700 people dead. Students at Morris Isacson High School in Soweto had marched to protest a new rule that called for Afrikaans as the medium of instruction. Photographer Sam Nzima (1934-2018) took an iconic image of a black high school student carrying a fatally wounded fellow pupil away from the gunfire of apartheid police.
    (https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sam_Nzima)(SFC, 6/15/96, p.C12)(USAT, 7/9/04, p.10D)

1976        Aug 10, In South Africa Jimmy Kruger, minister of justice and police, recommended killing anti-apartheid demonstrators at a cabinet meeting.
    (SFC, 11/30/96, p.A12)(http://tinyurl.com/2678bd)

1976        Nov 9, The UN General Assembly approved ten resolutions condemning apartheid in South Africa, including one characterizing the white-ruled government as "illegitimate."
    (AP, 11/9/00)

1976        South Africa's Surgeon General, Major N.J. Nieuwoudt, hired Dr. Wouter Basson to work for the SADF's medical military unit known as the 7th SAMS Battalion. Under Dr. Basson, head of the chemical and biological and weapons program, black prisoners were killed by injections. In 2000 Johan Theron, a former special forces officer, testified how he flung the victim’s corpses from an airplane into the Atlantic between 1979 and 1987. Theron and Gen. Fritz Loots had decided that there were too many guerrillas of the South West African People’s Organization in the prison camps.
    (www.crimelibrary.com/notorious_murders/mass/south_africa/2.html)(SFC, 5/5/00, p.A18)

1977        Aug 18, In South Africa Steve Biko and Peter Jones were picked up by police at Grahamstown. They were arrested at a police roadblock under the Terrorism Act No 83 of 1967. Biko suffered a major head injury while in police custody, was chained to a window grille for a day and died on Sep 12.
    (WSJ, 2/6/97, p.A9)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Steve_Biko)

1977        Sep 11, Steve Biko was found by a guard to be semiconscious and foaming at the mouth. A doctor ordered him transported 750 miles to a prison hospital in Pretoria.
    (WSJ, 2/6/97, p.A9)

1977        Sep 12, In South Africa Steven Biko died while under police custody. He headed the Black Consciousness Movement and was the country’s best known political dissident. He was detained and held in Port Elizabeth and later driven naked in a truck 700 miles to Pretoria where he died in a prison cell. In 1997 the five police officers involved in his detention filed for amnesty. They were retired Col. Harold Snyman, retired Lt. Col. Gideon Nieuwoudt, Ruben Marx, Johan Beneke, and then Capt. Daantjie Siebert. In 1999 former Detective Sgt. Gideon Nieuwoudt was denied amnesty because he denied any crime. This killing was the breaking point and led to international protests and a UN imposed arms embargo.
    (SFC, 1/28/97, p.A7)(WSJ, 2/6/97, p.A9)(AP, 9/12/97)(SFEC, 1/10/99, p.A23)(MC, 9/12/01)

1977        Dec 14, The South African government eased job restrictions on blacks.
    (AP, 12/14/02)

1977        Dec, In South Africa journalist Donald Woods received a package containing children’s t-shirts laced with acid. His young daughter was badly burned and he blamed South African authorities.
    (Econ, 11/6/10, p.74)

1977        South Africa prepared to detonate a nuclear device in the Kalahari desert, but the plans were detected by a spy satellite and cancelled under int'l. pressure led by Pres. Jimmy Carter. The events were later described by Seymour M. Hersh in "The Samson Option."
    (SFC, 10/13/99, p.A3)
1977        KwaZulu, the semi-autonomous homeland of the Zulus, was formally hewn from Natal.
    (Econ., 12/19/20, p.73)
1977        US Rev. Leon H. Sullivan (d.2001 at 78) drafted guidelines (the Sullivan Principles) to help persuade American companies to treat their workers in South Africa the same way as in the US.
    (SFC, 4/26/01, p.A6)
1977        South African police shut down the Christian Institute founded by anti-apartheid Afrikaner cleric Beyers Naude (1915-2004).
    (Econ, 9/18/04, p.89)
1977        The United Nations imposed an arms embargo against South Africa to pressure it to end apartheid.
    (WSJ, 12/19/03, p.A8)

1978        May 4, The South African Air Force (SAAF) engaged in air to ground combat at the Battle of Cassinga in Angola.

1978        Sep 12, The first annual "Day of Martyrs" was held in South Africa to remember those who gave their lives in the struggle against apartheid.

1978        Sep 20, John Vorster, prime minister of white-ruled South Africa since 1966, announced his resignation.
    (AP, 9/20/03)

1978        Sep 28, P.W. Botha (1916-2006) began serving as Prime Minister of the apartheid regime of South Africa. In 1984 he became president and continued until 1989.
    (SFC, 9/18/96, p.A8)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pieter_Willem_Botha)

1978        Donald Woods escaped to Britain where he waged a campaign for South African democracy.
    (SFC, 8/20/01, p.A15)

1979        May 19, The Regents of the Univ. of California asked General Motors to stop doing business with the police and military forces in South Africa.
    (SFC, 5/14/04, p.F5)

1979        Jun 4, South African Pres. Vorster resigned due to scandal. Marais Viljoen became the last non-executive State President of South Africa and served until September 3, 1984.

1979        Sep 7, The Karoo National Park in South Africa was proclaimed. It officially opened on September 12.
    (Nat. Hist., 3/96, p.60)(www.sanparks.org/about/news/default.php?id=43)

1979        Sep 22, A 2-3 kiloton thermonuclear device was set off in the waters off Bouvet Island, a little-visited possession of Norway located between the bottom of South Africa and the Prince Astrid Coast of Antarctica. The list of suspects quickly narrowed to South Africa and Israel.
    (SFCM, 9/25/05, p.6)(www.globalsecurity.org/wmd/world/israel/nuke-test.htm)

1979        Dec 16, In South Africa Eugene TerreBlanche gave instructions to some 40 men to tar and feather Van Jaarsveld at the University of South Africa, after Van Jaarsveld had delivered a paper calling for the abolition of the Day of the Covenant.
    (SFC, 6/16/99, p.B2)(www.doj.gov.za/trc/media/1999/9905/p990510a.htm)

1979        South Africa privatized Sasol, a coal-to-liquids facility, and listed it on the Johannesburg Stock Exchange.
    (WSJ, 8/16/06, p.A12)

1980        Apr 1, The southern African Development Coordination Conference (SADCC) was established by 9 countries with the Lusaka declaration (Angola, Botswana, Lesotho, Malawi, Mozambique, Swaziland, Tanzania, Zambia, Zimbabwe). The main aim was coordinating development projects in order to lessen economic dependence on apartheid South Africa.  On August 17, 1992, it was transformed into the Southern African Development Community (SADC). By 2008 it included 15 members.

1981        Sep, Salomon Brothers merged with Phibro Corp. and dumped 62 partners including Michael Bloomberg. He received $10 million and went on to start a financial information empire. South Africa’s AngloAmerican mining conglomerate, owned 27.3% of Phibro's stock through Anglo's subsidiary, the Minerals and Resources Corporation (Minorco).
    (SFC, 10/16/04, p.C1)(http://multinationalmonitor.org/hyper/issues/1981/09/anglo.html)

1981        Nov 10, In South Africa Durban human rights attorney Griffiths Mxenge was found slain. Mxenge was stabbed 46 times by a police death squad that included Dirk Coetzee. In July 1985 his wife Victoria Mxenge was attacked by four men in the driveway of her home in Umlazi, Durban. She was stabbed and shot shortly after disembarking from a family friend’s vehicle.
    (SFC, 7/18/96, p.E3)(http://campus.ru.ac.za/index.php?action=category&category=932)

1981        Nadine Gordimer, 1991 Nobel Prize winner, authored "July’s People." It was set in a futuristic South Africa roiling from racial revolution. In 2001 it was struck from the approved reading list for the 12th grade by the Education Department of Gauteng.
    (WSJ, 4/20/01, p.A14)

1981        Pieter-Dirk Uys (b.1945), South African writer, brought his newspaper character Evita to life in the theater. He had begun using the character to write critical commentary on apartheid in the late 70s.
    (SFEC, 5/2/99, p.A27)

1982        Mar 14, South African police bombed the London offices of the African National Congress. Gen'l. Johann Coetzee commander of apartheid police and 8 officers received amnesty in 1999. Col. Eugene de Kock testified in 1998 that he blew up a building belonging to the African National Congress in London and received a Star of Excellence medal approved by Pres. Botha.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/1982_in_South_Africa)(SFC, 6/4/98, p.A12)(SFC, 10/16/99, p.A16)

1982        Mar 31, In South Africa Nelson Mandela and 3 others were transferred from Robben Island to Pollsmoor Prison on the mainland. Mandela had spent 18 years on Robben Island.

1982        Aug 17, Ruth First, an exiled anti-apartheid activist, was killed in Mozambique from a letter bomb sent by agents of the Nationalist South African government.  In 1997 her daughter, Gillian Slovo, published "Every Secret Thing: My Family, My Country."
    (SFEC, 5/11/97, BR p.5)(SSFC, 2/10/02, p.M6)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ruth_First)

1982        Nov 20, South Africa backed down on a plan to install black rule in neighboring Namibia.
    (HN, 11/20/98)

1982        Dec 19, Four bombs exploded at South Africa's only nuclear power station in Johannesburg.
    (HN, 12/19/98)

1982        In South Africa the Venda Building Society (VBS) was founded in the former Venda Bantustan, a homeland created by the apartheid regime to exclude blacks from South Africa's political system. VBS Mutual gained notoriety in 2016 when it lent scandal-tainted former president Zuma $540,000 to repay taxpayers for upgrades he made to his private home. In 2018 VBS suffered a severe liquidity crisis and the bank collapsed into administration.
    (AFP, 10/16/18)

1983        Sep 10, John Vorster, prime minister of white-ruled South Africa from 1966 to 1978, died in Cape Town at age 67.
    (AP, 9/10/99)

1983        Dec 13, Mary Renault (b.1905), English and South African writer, died in South Africa. She is best known for her historical novels set in ancient Greece.

1983        The Organ and Tissue Act of this year allowed officials to remove needed organs and tissues without consent if reasonable attempts to locate the potential donor’s next of kin had failed.
    (NH, 10/98, p.51)
1983        The Booker Prize in Literature was won by J.M. Coetzee of South Africa for his novel "Live and Times of Michael K."
    (SFC, 10/26/99, p.G2)
1983        In the Church Street bombing a car bomb outside Air Force headquarters in Pretoria killed and injured a number of people.
    (WSJ, 7/17/00, p.A18)
1983        Didata, a South African computer firm, was established.
    (Econ, 7/15/06, p.59)
1983        In South Africa Nokuthula Simelane (23) disappeared just weeks before her graduation ceremony. Her body was never found. In 1995 her mother learned that Simelane had been abducted and killed by state police. A trial against her alleged killers finally began in 2016.
    (AFP, 3/4/16)

1983-1985    Brig. Jack Cronje ran the Vlaakplaas counter-insurgency unit.
    (SFEC, 10/13/96, p.A18)

1984        Feb 14, In South Africa under Apartheid rule the Black community at Mogopa was displaced in a "force removal" action. Some 300 homes and a cluster of community buildings were bulldozed over.
    (WSJ, 3/10/00, p.A1)

1984        Mar 16, Mozambique and South Africa signed a pact banning support for one another’s internal foes.
    (HN, 3/16/98)

1984        Jun 28, In Angola the wife and daughter of activist Marius Schoon were killed by a parcel bomb. It was sent by Craig Michael Williamson (b1949), a former South African police major, who was exposed as a spy in 1980.
    (Econ, 11/6/10, p.74)

1984        Sep-1993 Dec, In South Africa some 19,000 people were killed in political violence during this period.
    (SFC, 8/22/96, p.E1)

1984        Oct 16, Desmond Tutu, black Anglican Archbishop in South Africa, won the Nobel Peace Prize for his decades of non-violent struggle for racial equality.
    (SFC, 6/23/96, BR, p.32)(AP, 10/16/04)

1984        Dec 10, South African Archbishop Desmond Tutu received the Nobel Peace Prize.
    (SFC, 6/23/96, BR, p.32)(AP, 12/10/99)

1984        Breyten Breytenbach, Afrikaner writer, authored "The True Confessions of an Albino Terrorist," a memoir of his arrest and 7-year incarceration.
    (WSJ, 10/4/99, p.A40)
1984        South Africa’s ANC executed 7 of its guerrillas by firing squad and sentenced another 8 to death in Angola’s Pango camp.
    (Econ, 1/12/13, p.75)
1984        The South African magazine Drum was bought by Naspers, a staunchly pro-apartheid media house. The magazine was founded in 1951 in Johannesburg.
    (AFP, 12/26/11)

1984-1996    Fighting between the Inkatha and the ANC was believed to have killed 14,000 people over this time.
    (USAT, 6/25/96, p.10A)

1985        Mar 18, The 1st remote location for ABC’s "Nightline" news was in South Africa.

1985        Mar 21, Police in Langa (Uitenhage), South Africa, opened fire on blacks marching to mark the 25th anniversary of the Sharpeville shootings; the reported death toll varied between 29 and 43.
    (AP, 3/21/08)(www.un.org/av/photo/subjects/apartheid.htm)

1985        Sep 9, President Ronald W. Reagan issued Executive Order No. 12532 establishing sanctions against South Africa. Reagan banned the sale of computers to South African security agencies, barred most loans to the Pretoria government, halted the importation of the Krugerrand, South Africa's gold coin (effective Oct 11), and stopped exports of nuclear technology until South Africa signs an accord to prevent the spread of nuclear weapons.

1985        Oct 11, President Reagan’s ban on the importation of South African Krugerrands went into effect.

1985        Oct 18, Benjamin Moloisi (30), South African poet, was hanged for his role in the 1982 murder of a security policeman.

1985        Eugene de Kock took over the Vlaakplaas counter-insurgency unit and ran it until 1993. The existence of the unit was only made public in 1989 and the full extent of its activities were not revealed until the Truth Commission in 1994.
    (SFEC, 10/13/96, p.A18)(SFEC, 5/23/99, p.A19)

1985        South Africa repealed laws that prohibited interracial sex and marriage.

1985        Two ANC activists and 8 others were killed in a raid into Lesotho. A government assassin told a court in 1996 that plans for the raid were approved by the highest levels of Pres. Botha’s apartheid regime.
    (WSJ, 9/17/96, p.A1)

1985        Three Port Elizabeth activists, the Pepco 3, were beaten and strangled at an unused police station.
    (SFEC, 10/13/96, p.A19)

1985-1993    Dr. Mike Odendaal headed the microbiology division at Roodeplat Research Labs (RRL), a biological research front for the chemical and biological warfare program known as Project Coast.
    (WSJ, 5/20/02, p.A1)

1986        Jan 6, In Johannesburg, South Africa, Impala Platinum fired 20,000 black mine workers.

1986        Apr 14, Desmond Tutu was elected Anglican archbishop of Capetown.

1986        May 19, South African commandos struck alleged ANC "operational centers" in Zimbabwe, Botswana, Zambia.

1986        Sep 7, Desmond Tutu was installed as the Anglican archbishop of Capetown, the first black to lead the Anglican Church in southern Africa.
    (AP, 9/7/97)

1986        Dec 1, In South Africa National Congress supporter Dr. Fabian Ribeiro (b.1933) and his wife, Florence, were assassinated.
    (SFEC, 10/13/96, p.A19)(http://sahistory.org.za/pages/people/ribiero-f.htm)

1986        Mark Mathabane authored "Kaffir Boy," an account of the poverty, violence and racism under apartheid. In 2000 his sister, Miriam Mathabane authored "Miriam’s Song: A Memoir." The award-winning book was later frequently banned in US schools due to two paragraphs describing child prostitution.
    (SFEC, 7/9/00, BR p.7)(SFC, 4/12/07, p.A1)

1986        In South Africa 10 youths were drugged and then blown to pieces with explosives. In 1999 Abraham Joubert, former special forces commander, testified that he authorized a plan for the slayings submitted by provincial special forces commander Charl Naude. In 1999 3 police officers received amnesty for their roles in the killings.
    (SFC, 4/7/99, p.C12)(SFC, 8/20/99, p.D3)

1986        Adriaan Vlok was appointed as South Africa’s minister of law and order and still headed the ministry when allegations surfaced in 1989 that police hit squads may have been involved in the murder of more than 100 political activists.
    (AP, 8/28/06)

1986        The Belhar Confession, a Christian statement of belief originally, was written in Afrikaans and adopted by the synod of the Dutch Reformed Mission Church in South Africa. It stressed racial and social inclusiveness.
    (Econ, 10/18/08, p.70)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Belhar_Confession)

1986        In Sweden Prime Minister Olaf Palme was assassinated. In 1996 South African former police officer Eugene de Kock said that Craig Williamson, a South African spy, was involved in the murder.
    (SFC, 9/27/96, p.A12)

1987        Jan 21, A paramilitary force killed 13 civilians in their sleep in the KwaMakutha Zulu township (KwaZulu-Natal black homeland). In 1996 former defense minister Magnus Malan and 20 others were charged with authorizing the killing. The first six defendants of the Inkatha Freedom party were acquitted by Judge Jan Hugo. Former intelligence officer Johan Opperman admitted to planning the attack.
    (SFC,7/18/96, p.E3)(SFC,10/11/96, p.A16)(WSJ,10/11/96, p.A1)(SFC,10/12/96, p.A10)

1987        Apr 11, Invoking emergency powers, the government of South Africa outlawed any action, word or written document protesting the practice of detention without trials or calling for the release of detainees.
    (AP, 4/11/97)

1987        May 6, The London building that housed the Congress of South African Trade Unions was bombed under orders of the apartheid government of South Africa.
    (SFC, 9/18/96, p.A11)

1987        Jul 15, In South Africa Ashley Kriel, an anti-apartheid activist was killed. Police officer Jeffrey Benzien later confessed to the killing and was absolved by the Truth and Reconciliation Commission in 1999.
    (SFC, 2/19/99, p.B12)(www.doj.gov.za/trc/decisions/1999/99_benzien.html)

1987        Nov 5, Govan Mbeki, an early leader of the African National Congress, was released from Robben Island prison after 24 years.
    (www.anc.org.za/ancdocs/pr/1980s/pr871105.html)(SFC, 8/31/01, p.A24)

1987        Nov 28, A South African Airways Boeing 747 crashed into the Indian Ocean with the loss of all 159 people aboard.
    (AP, 11/28/97)

1987        The film "Cry Freedom" was made by Richard Attenborough. It covered the relationship of Steve Biko and Donald Woods.
    (SFC, 8/20/01, p.A15)
1987        South African legislator Frederik Van Zyl Slabbert (1940-2010) led a delegation of white South Africans to Senegal to meet the African National Congress (ANC), which was banned in South Africa.
    (AP, 5/14/10)
1987        Standard Chartered PLC divested its South African holdings.

1988        Feb 29, South African Archbishop Desmond Tutu and other religious leaders were arrested while kneeling near Parliament with a petition against government bans on anti-apartheid groups. All were freed hours later.
    (AP, 2/29/00)

1988        Mar 22, In Angola the battle of Cuito Cuanavale changed the region's political landscape, accelerating the independence of Namibia and the fall of apartheid in South Africa. While the Cuban and Angolan forces claimed victory, South Africa claimed it lost only 31 soldiers against 4,785 who fell on the other side.
    (AP, 3/22/08)

1988        Apr 12, Alan Stewart Paton (b.1903), South African writer (Cry The Beloved Country), died. He founded and served as president of the Liberal Party (1953-68).

1988        Apr 13, In South Africa Aubrey Jabulani Ndaba, from the Pietermaritzburg area, and Oscar Maleka, from Soweto, were working for the armed wing of the African National Congress when they died in firefights with security forces. In 2005 they became first of 477 missing people to be recovered.
    (AP, 3/9/05)

1988        Apr, Albie Sachs was working in Mozambique on legal guarantees that be part of the new South African Constitution when a car bomb exploded that left him without a right arm.
    (SFEC, 2/9/97, z1 p.7)

1988        Jun 11, Nelson Mandela spoke at Wembley Stadium, London, for the Freedomfest.

1988        Jul, The apartheid regime in South Africa, having entered into discussions with the ANC, agreed to elections in Namibia in exchange for the withdrawal of Cuban troops from Angola.
    (AP, 3/22/08)

1988        Aug 31, The Khotso House was bombed. In South Africa police chief Johan van der Merwe was instructed to blow up the Johannesburg headquarters of the South African Council of Churches, called Khotso House, for harboring anti-apartheid groups. The bombing injured 21 people. He said in 1996 that the instructions came from Law and Order Minister Adriaan Vlok, who told him that the order came directly from Pres. P.W. Botha. In 1997 a document submitted by Vlok said the order to destroy the headquarters came from Pres. Botha. Col. Eugene de Kock testified in 1998 that he was called in by a police general to blowup Khotso House. Vlok testified in 1998 that Botha dictated the bombing. Vlok and van der Merwe were given amnesty in 1999.
    (SFC, 11/23/96, p.A9)(SFC, 6/21/97, p.A10)(SFC, 6/4/98, p.A12)(SFC, 7/22/98, p.A11)(SFC, 8/6/99, p.A14)

1988        Nov 15, In South Africa 7 blacks were killed and another 15 wounded in Strijdom Square in Pretoria. Barend Strydom, known as the White Wolf, was later sentenced to death for the killings. He was released in 1992 in a prisoner exchange during talks between the apartheid government and Mandela's African National Congress.
    (AFP, 8/20/12)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Barend_Strydom)

1988        Nov 24, South Africa's justice minister announced that Nelson Mandela would not be returned to prison upon his recovery from tuberculosis, but would instead remain in custody in another location.
    (AP, 11/24/98)

1988        Dec 3, In South Africa 11 black funeral mourners were slain in Natal Province in an attack blamed on security forces. The Trust Feed massacre was masterminded by policeman Brian Mitchell. He was later convicted of 11 murders in the botched assassination attempt and served less than five years of a 30-year sentence. He was freed from prison in 1996 by the Reconciliation Commission.
    (SFC, 12/11/96, p.C3)(www.doj.gov.za/trc/media/1996/9607/s960725k.htm)(AP, 12/3/98)

1988        Dec 29, In South Africa Stompie Seipei (14) was kidnapped and killed by the Mandela United Football Club, the bodyguards of Winnie Mandela. Jerry Richardson was convicted of the murder and sentenced to a life sentence. Winnie Mandela had sent a young man to the mission of Paul Verryn, a Methodist minister, to try to trap him into a sexual liaison. She then kidnapped 4 youths from the mission and beat them until they agreed to accuse the minister of having sex with them. In 1997 he reported to the truth commission that Mrs. Mandela asked him to do it. Dr. Abu-baker Asvat, who examined Stompie, was also murdered. The events were later described in the 1997 book "Katiza’s Journey" by Fred Bridgland. Bodyguard Katiza Cebekhulu in 1997 testified that he saw Winnie Mandela plunge a shiny object into Stompie. Pelo Mekgwe, one of the 4 young men brought to the Mandela house, testified in 1997 that chief bodyguard Jerry Richardson ordered him to help kill Lerothodi Ikaneng, who survived a cut throat.
    (https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Stompie_Seipei)(SFC, 9/17/97, p.C2)(SFC,11/26/97, p.C4)(SFC,11/27/97, p.B2)(SFC, 12/4/97, p.C2)(SFC, 11/30/99, p.A16)

1988        Winnie Madikizela-Mandela assaulted and kidnapped a young activist and was later convicted on the charges. Lolo Sono beaten and his body was never found. It was reported that she played a role in as many as a dozen killings. In 1999 Jerry Richardson, her former bodyguard, testified that he killed Koekie Zwane on orders from Winnie Mandela.
    (SFC,11/25/97, p.A8)(SFC, 11/30/99, p.A16)

1989        Jan, Abu Baker Aswat, a Soweto doctor, was killed. Thulani Dlamini was later convicted and sentenced to 25 years in prison. Dlamini testified in 1997 that Winnie Madikizela Mandela paid him for the murder.
    (SFC, 12/3/97, p.C2)

1989        Apr 27, In South Africa Frans "Ting-Ting" Masango (1958-2009), an anti-apartheid activist, was sentenced to death following the historic "Delmas Four" trial. He was released in 1991 after the ANC was unbanned. In 2008 Peter Harris authored “In A Different Time, the Story of the Delmas Four."
    (www.sowetan.co.za/News/Article.aspx?id=802399)(AP, 9/21/09)

1989        May 1, David Webster, an anti-apartheid campaigner, was shot and killed outside his Eleanor Street home in Troyeville, Johannesburg, on South Africa's first official Workers' Day. In 1999 apartheid hitman Ferdi Barnard was sentenced to life imprisonment for the assassination of Webster. He was sentenced to two life terms plus 63 years for a number of crimes, including the murder of Webster.

1989        Jul 5, South-African Pres Pieter Botha visited ANC leader Nelson Mandela.

1989        Aug 14, South African President P.W. Botha announced his resignation after losing a bitter power struggle within his National Party.
    (AP, 8/14/99)

1989        Aug 15, F.W. de Klerk was sworn in as acting president of South Africa, one day after P.W. Botha resigned as the result of a power struggle within the National Party.
    (AP, 8/15/99)

1989        Sep 6, The National Party, the governing party of South Africa, lost nearly a quarter of its parliament seats to far-right and anti-apartheid rivals, its worst setback in four decades.
    (AP, 9/6/99)

1989        Sep 13, Desmond Tutu led the biggest anti-apartheid protest march in S. Africa.

1989        Sep 20, F.W. de Klerk (b.1936) was sworn in as president of South Africa. Frederik Willem de Klerk was the last president (1989-1994) of Apartheid-era South Africa.
    (AP, 9/20/99)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Frederik_Willem_de_Klerk)

1989        Oct 10, South African President F.W. de Klerk announced that eight prominent political prisoners, including African National Congress official Walter Sisulu, would be unconditionally freed, but that Nelson Mandela would remain imprisoned.
    (AP, 10/10/99)

1989        Oct 15, South African officials released eight prominent political prisoners, including Walter Sisulu, a leader of the African National Congress.
    (AP, 10/15/99)

1989        Dec 13, South African President F.W. de Klerk met for the first time with imprisoned African National Congress leader Nelson Mandela, at de Klerk's office in Cape Town.
    (AP, 12/13/99)

1989        Mary Benson, South African anti-apartheid campaigner, wrote her autobiography: "A Far Point."
    (SFC, 6/23/00, p.D5)
1989        Executive Outcomes, a private military company (PMC), was founded in South Africa by Eeben Barlow, a former lieutenant-colonel of the South African Defence Force. It later became part of the South African-based holding company Strategic Resource Corporation.
1989        In South Africa Eugene de Kock’s covert Vlakplaas unit began to be exposed in newspapers and court proceedings.
    (SFC, 9/19/96, p.A8)
1989        South Africa banned the use of the sjambok, a three-foot-long whip traditionally made of rhino hide.
    (Economist, 4/4/20, p.37)
1989        In South Africa Rev. Frank Chikane almost died after his underwear was laced with poison. In 2007 Adriaan Vlok, former security minister, and Johann van der Merwe, former police chief, faced charges of attempted murder.
    (Econ, 8/4/07, p.41)
1989        The African Management Services Company (AMSCO) was formed in South Africa by the Int’l. Finance Corp., the private sector arm of the World Bank, to help small African firms become competitive. In 2004 Ayisi Makatiani took over the leadership of AMSCO.
    (Econ, 8/5/06, p.58)

1990        Feb 2, In a dramatic concession to South Africa's black majority, President F.W. de Klerk lifted a ban on the African National Congress and promised to free Nelson Mandela.
    (AP, 2/2/00)
1990        Feb 2, In South Africa Benedict Daswa, as Catholic schoolteacher, was beaten to death in a spasm of violence born of a flash of lightning and a witch hunt. In 2012 a movement was under way to have the Vatican declare Daswa South Africa's first saint. Daswa was beatified on Sep 13, 2015.
    (AP, 7/15/12)(AFP, 9/13/15)

1990        Feb 10, South African President F.W. de Klerk announced that black activist Nelson Mandela would be released the next day after 27 years in captivity.
    (AP, 2/10/00)

1990        Feb 11, Nelson Mandela was released from South Africa’s Victor Verster prison after being detained for 27 years as a political prisoner fighting against Apartheid.
    (AP, 2/11/97)(SFC, 12/6/13, p.A19)

1990        Mar 16, South African President F.W. de Klerk announced that exiled African National Congress leaders could return home for talks with the white-led government.
    (AP, 3/16/00)

1990        Mar, After UN-observed elections the previous year, South Africa formally ceded sovereignty to Namibia, generally known before independence as South West Africa.
    (HNQ, 2/13/01)

1990        May 2, The government of South Africa and the African National Congress opened their first formal talks aimed at paving the way for more substantive negotiations on dismantling apartheid.
    (AP, 5/2/00)

1990        May 4, The South African government and the African National Congress concluded historic talks in Cape Town with a joint statement agreeing on a "common commitment toward the resolution of the existing climate of violence."
    (AP, 5/4/00)

1990        May 6, Former president P.W. Botha quit South Africa's ruling National Party as a protest against the apartheid reform program of his successor F.W. de Klerk.

1990        Jun 5, South African troops plundered Mandela's dwelling.
    (MC, 6/5/02)

1990        Jun 7, South African President F.W. de Klerk announced he was lifting a four-year-old state of emergency in three of the country’s four provinces, with the exception of Natal.
    (AP, 6/7/00)

1990        Jun 16, A crowd in the Netherlands welcomed African National Congress leader Nelson Mandela, who thanked them for staunch Dutch support for the anti-apartheid movement.
    (AP, 6/16/00)

1990        Jun 20, South African black nationalist Nelson Mandela and his wife, Winnie, arrived in New York City for a ticker-tape parade in their honor as they began an eight-city US tour.
    (AP, 6/20/00)

1990        Jun 26, African National Congress leader Nelson Mandela addressed the U.S. Congress, asking for "material resources" to hasten the end of white-led rule.
    (AP, 6/26/97)

1990        Jun 30, African National Congress leader Nelson Mandela visited Oakland, California, a day after receiving a star-studded welcome in Los Angeles.
    (AP, 6/30/00)

1990        Sep 23, South African President F.W. de Klerk arrived in the US for talks with President Bush.
    (AP, 9/23/00)

1990        Sep 24, South African President F.W. de Klerk met at the White House with President Bush.
    (AP, 9/24/00)

1990        A letter bomb from a pro-apartheid hit squad left Rev. Michael Lapsley maimed for life.
    (SFC, 2/23/01, p.A18)

1990-1994    Over 5,000 people were killed in KwaZulu-Natal province prior to the first all-race elections.
    (SFC, 5/13/99, p.C3)

1990-1998    In the Northern Province some 577 killings were committed related to witchcraft.
    (SFC, 10/23/98, p.D3)

1991        Jan 13, Forty-two people were killed in a brawl and stampede during a soccer match in Johannesburg, South Africa.
    (AP, 1/13/01)

1991        Feb 1, South African President F.W. de Klerk said he would repeal all remaining apartheid laws.
    (AP, 2/1/01)

1991        Feb 15, The government of South Africa and the African National Congress announced an agreement on terms of the ANC’s decision to suspend its armed struggle against apartheid.
    (AP, 2/15/01)

1991        May 13, South African black activist Winnie Mandela and two co-defendants were convicted of abducting four young black men and keeping them at her Soweto home. Winnie Mandela and Xoliswa Falati were both convicted of assaulting and kidnapping Stompie Seipei in 1988. Both received 6-year prison sentences. Mandela paid a $3,200 fine on appeal and Falati had her sentence reduced to 2 years.
    (AP, 5/13/01)(SFC,11/26/97, p.C4)

1991        May 14, In South Africa, Winnie Mandela was sentenced to six years in prison for her part in the kidnapping and beating of three black youths and the death of a fourth.
    (HN, 5/14/99)

1991        Jun 17, The South African Parliament abolished the Population Registration Act, the last major apartheid law still in effect.
    (AP, 6/17/01)

1991        Jul 2, The first national conference of the ANC, since the organization was banned in 1960, began in Durban, South Africa. Oliver Tambo, whose health was suffering, handed over the presidency of the ANC to Nelson Mandela and assumed the largely honorary post of national chairperson. Walter Sisulu was elected deputy president.

1991        Jul 9, The International Olympic Committee readmitted South Africa.
    (AP, 7/9/97)

1991        Jul 10, President Bush lifted economic sanctions against South Africa, citing its "profound transformation" toward racial equality.
    (AP, 7/10/97)

1991        Jul 19, The South African government acknowledged that it had been giving money to the Inkatha Freedom Party, the main rival of the African National Congress.
    (AP, 7/19/01)

1991        Aug 9, Hundreds of police battled neo-Nazis as pro-apartheid extremists tried to stop a speech by President F.W. de Klerk.
    (AP, 8/9/01)

1991        Sep 4, President F.W. de Klerk proposed a new constitution that would allow blacks to vote and govern; the African National Congress rejected the plan, charging it was designed to maintain white privileges.
    (AP, 9/4/01)

1991        Sep 8, More than 40 people were reported killed in factional fighting around Johannesburg, South Africa.
    (AP, 9/8/01)

1991        Sep 14, The government of South Africa, the African National Congress and the Inkatha Freedom Party signed a national peace pact.
    (AP, 9/14/01)

1991        Oct 3, Arkansas Gov. Bill Clinton entered the race for the Democratic presidential nomination.
    (AP, 10/3/01)
1991        Oct 3, South African author Nadine Gordimer was named winner of the Nobel Prize in literature.
    (SFEC, 1/11/98, BR p.3)(AP, 10/3/01)

1991        Ted Botha wrote "Apartheid in My Rucksack."
    (WSJ, 11/8/96, p.A12)

1991        South Africa signed on to the Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty. South Africa had secretly built several bombs but dismantled them before signing on to the NPT. 
    (Econ, 6/10/06, p.23)

1991        Afrikaner nationalists led by Prof. Carel Boshoff, son-in-law of the late PM Hendrik Verwoerd, founded the Orania enclave in the desert of South Africa with a ban on using black laborers for menial tasks. By 2016 the Afrikaner-only town numbered 1,300 people.
    (SFC, 11/25/02, p.A8)(Econ, 10/22/16, p.41)

1991        In South Africa Eugene TerreBlanche provoked a street battle that left 3 people dead.
    (SFC, 6/16/99, p.B2)

1991        Charles D. Moody, Univ. of Michigan vice-president for minority affairs, led a delegation to bestow an honorary doctorate to Nelson Mandela. It had been awarded in absentia in 1990.
    (MT, Fall/99, p.16)

1992        Mar 17, The whites of South Africa voted in a referendum to endorse the “continuation of the reform process" by a margin of 68.73% to 31.27%. They supported the negotiated reforms begun by State President F.W. de Klerk two years earlier, in which he proposed to end the apartheid.

1992        Apr 13, Nelson Mandela announced he would seek a divorce from Winnie.

1992        Jun 20, An enraged mob forced South African President F.W. de Klerk to cut short a visit to the black township of Boipatong, the scene of a massacre three days earlier.
    (AP, 6/20/97)

1992        Aug 3, Millions of South African blacks joined a nationwide strike against white-led rule.
    (AP, 8/3/97)

1992        Sep 7, Troops in South Africa fired on African National Congress supporters near the Transkei homeland, killing 28 and wounding 200. 29 ANC protestors were killed in the Bisho massacre by troops of the homeland of Ciskei. Major General Marius Oelschig radioed the "open fire" command. He said that he was convinced by officers on the seen that they were under danger of imminent attack.
    (WSJ, 9/10/96, p.A1)(SFC, 9/12/96, p.A14)(AP, 9/7/97)

1992        Sep 26, South African President F.W. de Klerk and African National Congress leader Nelson Mandela held their first meeting in three months, during which they agreed on the urgent need for an interim government.
    (AP, 9/26/97)

1992        Nov 28, In King William's Town, South Africa, four people were killed, about 20 injured, when black militant gunmen attacked a country club.
    (AP, 11/28/97)

1992        Dec, Sol Kerzner, multimillionaire, unveiled his $280 million Palace of the Lost City in Sun City in the state of Bophuthatswana.
    (Hem, 6/96, p.134)

1993        Mar 24, South African Pres F.W. de Klerk admitted for the 1st time that his country had built 6 nuclear bombs, but that the weapons had been dismantled.
    (AP, 3/24/03)

1993        Apr 10, Chris Hani, leader of the South African Communist Party, was killed by Janusz Walus and Clive Derby-Lewis (d.2016). The 2 men appealed for amnesty in 1997. Amnesty was denied and the 2 continued to serve life sentences. On March 10, 2016, Walus won a bid for parole. On August 18, 2017, the top court blocked the release from jail of Polish immigrant Janusz Walus. Walus became a symbol for young Polish nationalists and fascists and from about 2010 started receiving letters from supporters in Poland.
    (SFC, 8/12/97, p.A8)(SFC, 4/8/99, p.C3)(AP, 3/10/16)(AFP, 8/18/17)(BBC, 9/20/20)

1993        Apr 13, Anti-apartheid activists of the ANC killed 2 white brothers, Alistair and Glen Weakly, who were on a fishing trip, in retaliation for the killing of Chris Hani. The activists applied for and received amnesty in 1999.
    (SFC, 8/20/99, p.D3)

1993        Apr 14, Millions of black workers in South Africa went on strike to protest the slaying of activist Chris Hani.
    (AP, 4/14/98)
1993        Apr 14, Sam Ntombani, ANC-secretary in Soweto South Africa, was shot to death.

1993        Apr 24, Former African National Congress president Oliver Tambo (75) died in Johannesburg, South Africa.
    (AP, 4/24/98)

1993        May 7, In South Africa, representatives of 23 political parties signed a declaration of intent to hold multiracial elections within a year.
    (AP, 5/7/98)

1993         May 10, Nelson Mandela [of the ANC] moved into the president’s office of South Africa.
    (Hem. 1/95, p.19)

1993        Jun 2, South Africa's Supreme Court upheld Winnie Mandela's conviction for kidnapping four young blacks, but said she would not have to serve her five-year prison term.
    (AP, 6/2/98)

1993        Jul 4, South African leaders F.W. de Klerk and Nelson Mandela received the Liberty Medal in a ceremony outside Philadelphia's Independence Hall.
    (AP, 7/4/03)

1993        Aug 25, Amy Biehl, Stanford graduate and Fulbright scholar from Newport Beach, Calif., was slain while attempting to drive black friends home to Guguletu outside Cape Town. Four members of the Congress’ youth wing were arrested, convicted and sentenced to 18-year jail terms. They later requested amnesty from the Truth & Reconciliation Commission. In 1998 the 4 men convicted of Biehl’s murder were given amnesty. In 2016 Justine van der Leun authored “We Are Not Such Things," an account of those involved in the Biehl murder.
    (SFC, 8/21/96, p.A8)(SFEC, 6/29/97, p.D1)(WSJ, 7/29/98, p.A1)(AP, 8/25/98)(Econ, 7/23/16, p.68)

1993        Sep 8, Black gunmen in South Africa launched a series of attacks on black commuters, claiming two dozen lives.
    (AP, 9/8/98)

1993        Sep 23, The South African parliament voted to allow blacks a role in governing.
    (AP, 9/23/98)

1993        Sep 24, Addressing the United Nations, Nelson Mandela asked the world community to lift economic sanctions against South Africa, saying huge foreign investments would help prevent unrest and build a multiracial democracy.
    (AP, 9/24/98)

1993        Oct 8, The UN lifted remaining economic sanctions against South Africa.

1993        Oct 15, Nelson Mandela and F.W. de Klerk were named winners of the Nobel Peace Prize for their efforts to end apartheid.
    (AP, 10/15/98)

1993        Oct, Pres. De Klerk authorized an attack in the Transkei Homeland on a house where arms were allegedly stored. Five youths were killed while asleep by a death squad. He claimed the attack was a military operation but in 1996 Eugene de Kock testified that de Klerk knew that a covert operation would carry out the attack.
    (SFC, 9/19/96, p.A8)

1993        Nov 18, Representatives of 21 South African political parties approved a new constitution.
    (AP, 11/18/98)

1993        Nov 23, President Clinton signed legislation lifting remaining US sanctions against South Africa, and announced an initiative to spur investment in South Africa's black private sector.
    (AP, 11/23/98)

1993        Dec 6, Crimes committed up to this date became eligible for amnesty as set up by special constitutional legislation that set up the Truth and Reconciliation Commission. A 1996 extension was requested to move the deadline to May 10, 1994.
    (SFC, 10/19/96, A10)

1993        Dec 10, South African President F.W. de Klerk and African National Congress leader Nelson Mandela accepted their Nobel Peace Prize in Oslo, Norway.
    (AP, 12/10/98)

1993        Breyten Breytenbach, Afrikaner writer, authored "A Return to Paradise."
    (WSJ, 10/4/99, p.A40)
1993        In South Africa a group of Black entrepreneurs founded the BASA Educational Institute Trust to establish and run formal independent primary and secondary schools.
1993        The Nobel Peace Prize was awarded to Nelson Mandela and Frederic de Klerk of South Africa.
    (SFC, 10/12/96, p.A13)
1993        South Africa renounced its biological weapons program.
    (SSFC, 4/20/03, p.A16)
1993        In South Africa Petrus Matthews testified in 1998 how he and 8 members of the neo-Nazi Afrikaner Resistance Movement erected a bogus roadblock to kill ANC supporters. The pulled over 2 carloads of blacks and shot the victims in a ditch.
    (SFC, 6/1/98, p.A9)
1993        Wouter Basson was forced to resign from the army after a government report linked him with making poisons and chemical bombs for the army. In 1998 it was revealed that an army project, Project Coast," plotted to poison Nelson Mandela with Thallium to induce brain damage.
    (SFC, 6/11/98, p.A11)(SFC, 4/12/02, p.A8)
1993        An attack on St. James Church in Capetown by the ultra-radical Azanian People’s Liberation Army under commander Daniel Mofokeng left 11 people dead. Mofokeng in 1997 refused to either regret or apologize for the killings before the Truth and Reconciliation Commission.
    (SFC, 10/8/97, p.A10)

1994        Jan 29, In South Africa, Nelson Mandela kicked off his party's campaign for the country's first multiracial elections.
    (AP, 1/29/99)

1994        Jan, A US warrant was issued for the arrest of Isaac Amuah, a son-in-law of former South Africa President Nelson Mandela. He was charged with raping a US woman at his home in Connecticut in 1993. He went to South Africa before trial and never went back to the United States. On Feb 11, 2011, A South African judge decided not to extradite Amuah.
    (Reuters, 2/11/11)

1994        Mar 13, A South African diplomat took over as leader of Bophuthatswana as the black homeland's president, Lucas Mangope, was deposed.
    (AP, 3/13/99)

1994        Mar 18, The South Africa Goldstone Commission published a report which finally confirmed that senior South African Police (SAP) officials had been involved in supplying Inkatha with weapons and financial support.

1994        Mar 28, In Johannesburg, South Africa, ANC guards killed more than 50 people in violence that erupted during a march by Zulu nationalists.
    (AP, 3/28/99)(WSJ, 3/29/96, p.A-1)

1994        Apr 24, In South Africa the Ingonyama Trust Act came into effect. It made a special case out of the ancestral land of the Zulus. It vested trusteeship of the land to Zulu King Goodwill Zwelithini.
    (https://tinyurl.com/y8h2xxn9)    (Econ., 12/19/20, p.72)

1994        Apr 25, Terrorist bombers struck twice on the eve of South Africa's first all-race election, killing about a dozen people. Car bombs near voting stations killed 20 people. Afrikaner Nationalists led by Eugene Terre’Blanche (TerreBlanche) were responsible. In 1997 Clifton Barnard and Abraham Myburgh were sentenced to 50 years in prison for the bomb blasts that killed 21 people. [see 12/24/96]
    (SFC, 12/25/96, p.A10)(SFC, 6/18/97, p.A10)(SFC,10/24/97, p.D6)(AP, 4/25/99)

1994        Apr 26, Voting began in South Africa's first all-race elections. Nelson Mandela won the presidency.
    (AP, 4/26/99)(HN, 4/26/01)

1994        May 1, South Africa's first all-race elections ended.
    (SFC, 11/30/96, p.A12)

1994        May 2, Nelson Mandela claimed victory in the wake of South Africa's first democratic elections; President F.W. de Klerk acknowledged defeat.
    (AP, 5/2/98)

1994        May 6, Nelson Mandela and his ANC finally were confirmed winners in South Africa.
    (MC, 5/6/02)

1994        May 9, South Africa's newly elected parliament chose Nelson Mandela to be the country's first black president.
    (AP, 5/9/97)

1994         May 10, Nelson Mandela was sworn in as Prime Minister of South Africa. His ANC party earmarked $4 billion to be spent over ten years to help correct the land imbalance largely due to the forced abandonment by blacks between 1950-80 when about 3.5 million blacks were forcibly trucked off to ethnic territories, often abandoning land, houses and cattle. It was later declared that crimes committed under apartheid up to this time would be considered for pardon under an amnesty act.
    (WSJ,5/10/94)(WSJ, 5/17/96,p.A-10)(SFEC, 12/15/96, p.C22)

1994        May 11, In South Africa the Rand Supreme Court sentenced to death six white rightwing extremists for the murder of four blacks, including an 11-year-old child, at a roadblock near Randfontein on December 12, 1993.

1994        May 25, The UN Security Council lifted a 10-year-old ban on weapons exports from South Africa, scrapping the last of its apartheid-era embargoes.
    (AP, 5/25/99)

1994        Jun 7, The Organization of African Unity formally admits South Africa as its fifty-third member.    
    (HN, 6/7/00)

1994        Oct 3, South African President Nelson Mandela addressed the United Nations, urging the world to support his country's economy.
    (AP, 10/3/99)

1994        Oct 4, President Clinton welcomed South African President Nelson Mandela to the White House.
    (AP, 10/4/99)

1994        Oct 6, In an address to a joint meeting of the U.S. Congress, South African President Nelson Mandela warned against the lure of isolationism, saying the U.S. post-Cold War focus should be on eliminating "tyranny, instability and poverty" across the globe.
    (AP, 10/6/99)

1994        Mary Benson authored the biography: "Nelson Mandela: The Man and the Movement."
    (SFC, 6/23/00, p.D5)

1994        South Africa’s government adopted a plan to redistribute 30% of white-owned farmland to poor blacks. At this time 87% of commercial farmland was owned by whites and 13% by blacks, the exact reverse of their proportion of the population. This excluded the 4 million blacks making a bare living on subsistence farms.
    (Econ, 12/5/09, p.58)
1994        King Goodwill Zwelithini broke with Inkatha leader Mangosuthu Buthelezi and tension between the Zulu royal family and Inkatha escalated.
    (SFC, 4/28/96, A-13)
1994        In South Africa public schooling was desegregated.
    (Econ, 1/15/11, p.52)
1994        Dr. Nkosazana Zuma became the first South African black minister of health.
    (SFC, 11/28/98, p.C3)
1994        Prudence Mabele became the first black South African woman to admit being HIV-positive.
    (SFC, 12/28/98, p.A7)
1994        South Africa’s Shoprite supermarket began expanding across Africa. In 2005 it was Africa’s largest retailer with 700 shops in 16 countries.
    (Econ, 1/15/05, p.62)
1994        South African Breweries (SAB) moved into the China market.
    (Econ, 7/15/06, p.59)
1994        Chinese triads arrived in South Africa seeking abalone to supply black markets in China, Taiwan, Japan and Korea. Poaching soared and "Operation Neptune" was begun to combat a feared extinction.
    (SFC, 11/28/03, p.C1)

1994-1995     South African Moses Sithole raped and strangled 38 women in the Johannesburg area. He was sentenced in 1997 to more than 2,400 years in jail.
    (AP, 1/13/04)(http://members.skcentral.com/html/articles.php?cat_id=13)
1994-1999    In South Africa Mac Maharaj (b.1935) served as transportation minister. In July 2011 he was appointed as a spokesman for Pres. Zuma. In Nov 2011 it was reported that from 1997-1999 Maharaj was paid 1.2 million French francs, through an offshore bank account registered in his wife's name, before French weapons maker Thales was awarded a credit card license contract. Zuma's former financial adviser and convicted fraudster Shabir Shaik's Swiss bank account was allegedly used as a conduit by Thales to channel the money into Maharaj's wife's bank account.
    (AFP, 11/19/11)

1995        Jan 6, In South Africa Joe Slovo, a former leader of the South Africa Communist party and white hero of the liberations struggle, died. He was born in Obeliai, Lithuania, to a Jewish family who emigrated to South Africa when he was eight.
    (Econ, 3/3/12, p.62)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Joe_Slovo)

1995        Mar 25, A protest took place in South Durban over the high pollution at the Engen oil refinery.
    (SFC, 8/16/00, p.A17)

1995        May 10, One-hundred-four miners were killed in an elevator accident in Orkney, South Africa.
    (AP, 5/10/00)

1995        Jun 24, Nelson Mandela, wearing a Springbok rugby shirt and baseball cap, presented the William Webb Ellis Cup to South African captain Francois Pienaar following the Springbok win over New Zealand in the Rugby World Cup. This was the first Rugby World Cup in which every match was held in one country. In 2008 John Carlin authored "Playing the Enemy: Nelson Mandela and the Game that Made a Nation."
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/1995_Rugby_World_Cup)(Econ, 9/13/08, p.92)

1995        Jun, South Africa’s Constitutional Court abolished the death penalty.
    (SFC, 4/23/97, p.A4)

1995        Nov, The first McDonald’s restaurant opened in Johannesburg.
    (WSJ, 10/22/98, p.B21)

1995        Dec 25, In South Africa supporters of the Zulu nationalist Inkatha Freedom Party carried out a Christmas massacre where 18 supporters of the African National Congress (ANC) were killed in the KwaZulu-Natal province. 600 members of Inkatha, a Zulu nationalist group, were responsible. In 1998 5 of the 13 men convicted in the massacre were freed from prison.
    (WSJ, 12/26/95, p. A-1)(SFC, 12/23/98, p.C2)

1995         Dec 26, Floods in eastern South Africa killed at least 130.
    (WSJ, 12/27/95, p. A-1)

1995        Nelson Mandela published his autobiography "Long Walk to Freedom." In 1998 British journalist Martin Meredith published a biography titled "Nelson Mandela."
    (SFEC, 3/1/98, BR p.3)
1995        Former South African defense minister Magnus Malan and 19 other top military brass were charged with murder and creating hit squads to destabilize the country, and specifically with the 1987 massacre of 13 people in KwaZulu's Kwamakutha township. After a 7-month trial, all 20 were cleared of the charges in a verdict that found the apartheid government had paid Inkatha vigilantes for the killings, but ruled the prosecution had not proved the link to Malan.
    (AFP, 7/18/11)
1995        The first lion infected with tuberculosis was discovered by Dewald Keet, chief veterinarian at Kruger National Park. They picked up the disease from feeding on infected Cape Buffalo, who picked it up from infected cattle herds.
    (SFC, 10/22/98, p.A12)
1995        Sierra Leone hired a private army to battle rebels. Mercenaries from Executive Outcomes, a South Africa-based group, played a key role in routing the murderous rebels of the Revolutionary United Front.
    (WSJ, 6/19/01, p.A1)(Econ., 5/30/20, p.38)

1995-2005    In South Africa Jacob Zuma was alleged in 2005 to have accepted over $596,000 from his friend and financial advisor Schabir Shaik, during this period, for using his influence to help secure government contracts for Mr. Shaik’s companies. Charges against Mr. Zuma were dropped in 2009.
    (Econ, 4/18/09, p.23)

1996        Feb, Afrikaner men attacked 300 black students protesting outside a primary school in rural Trompsburg for admittance. The men chased away the youths while police watched. three girls were severely injured and the angry students went on a rampage. Afterwards white parents pulled their kids out of the school rather than integrate it.
    (SFC, 6/29/96, p.A12)

1996        Mar 19, Winnie Mandela divorced Nelson after 38 years of marriage.
    (MC, 3/19/02)

1996        Apr 25, Princess Nonhlanhla Zulu disappeared during a gang attack on a royal residence in KwaMashu black township near Durban, South Africa.
    (SFC, 4/28/96, A-13)

1996        May 8, South Africa approved a National Constitution that guaranteed equal rights for all races. Zulu nationalists and white extremists boycotted the parliament vote and the entire process. The Constitution contained a clause that prevented discrimination on the basis of sexual orientation.
    (SFC, 5/8/96, p.A-19)(WSJ, 5/9/96, p.A-1)(SFEC, 9/6/98, p.A22)

1996        May 9, In South Africa the National Party withdrew from a national-unity government with Pres. Mandela’s African National Congress.
    (WSJ, 5/10/96, p.A-1)

1996        Jun 5, Anglican Church leaders chose Rev. Njongonkulu Ndungane to succeed Desmond Tutu as the archbishop for southern Africa.
    (SFC, 6/6/96, C3)

1996        Jun 27, A report from the World Health Organization said that South Africa has the worst tuberculosis problem in the world and that drug-resistant forms (XDR-TB) of the disease were spreading rapidly.
    (SFC, 6/27/96, p.A12)(Econ, 2/24/07, p.58)

1996        Jul 5, In South Africa the Anglo American Platinum Corp. fired an additional 7,000 striking workers. That makes the total 28,261 fired workers since the strike began June 25.
    (WSJ, 7/5/96, p.A4)

1996        Jul 7, The average cost of a Big Mac in South Africa was $1.64.
    (SFC, 7/7/96, Parade, p.17)

1996        Jul 13, Winter storms raged across South Africa and snowdrifts up to 8-feet high blocked the main road from Johannesburg to Durban.
    (SFC, 7/13/96, p.A10)

1996        Jul 31, In South Africa rush-hour crowds panicked when guards used electric prods to drive off fare-beaters. At least 15 died and 65 were injured in a stampede.
    (WSJ, 8/1/96 p.A1)

1996        Aug 13, In South Africa Nadthmie Edries, leader of a group called People Against Gangsterism, was charged with sedition in connection with the vigilante slaying of a drug-gang leader.
    (SFC, 8/15/96, p.C1)

1996        Aug 17, It was reported that 900 million South African bees died this year. The Cape bees were introduced in the north and threw off the breeding patterns of the native bees. They were unable to endure the harsher climate and died. Fruit farmers and native plants were put into severe jeopardy.
    (SFC, 8/17/96, p.A4)

1996        Aug 26, Eugene de Kock, former police colonel, was found guilty of 5 counts of murder. He still faced 116 charges that included 3 for murder. He admitted to killing about 65 people and was later sentenced to 212 years.
    (WSJ, 8/27/96, p.A1)(SFC, 12/11/98, p.A18)

1996        Aug 28, South Africa announced an investigation into killings that have left 25 miners dead in recent weeks at 4 gold fields.
    (WSJ, 8/28/96, p.A1)

1996        Sep 6, The high court rejected the 140-page constitution in part because of the proposals for a restructured senate. 3 months were allotted for changes.
    (SFC, 9/7/96, p.A8)

1996        Sep 23, In South Africa 2 days of ethnic fighting among gold miners at Buffeslfontein left 18 people dead.
    (WSJ, 9/24/96, p.A1)

1996        Sep, The government disclosed that it was sending $18 million worth of arms to Rwanda.
    (SFC, 11/8/96, p.A16)

1996        Oct 11, In South Africa former defense minister Magnus Malan and other members of the military hierarchy were acquitted of charges in the massacre of 13 people in 1987. Judge Hugo said that evidence showed that Inkatha’s leader, Zulu Chief Mangosuthu Buthelezi, had in 1996 secretly requested assistance from apartheid leaders for a paramilitary force against political rivals but that the prosecution had not shown sufficient evidence against the defendants.
    (SFC, 10/12/96, p.A10)

1996        Dec 4, A new constitution was given final approval. It would go into full effect in 1999.
    (SFC, 12/5/96, p.C2)

1996        Dec 10, Pres. Nelson Mandela signed the finished constitution, largely the work of Albie Sachs.
    (SFEC, 2/9/97, z1 p.7)

1996        Dec 10, A policeman convicted of 11 murders in a botched 1988 assassination attempt and serving a 30-year sentence was freed from prison by the amnesty panel.
    (WSJ, 12/11/96, p.A1)

1996        Dec 24, In Worcester, South Africa, 2 pipe bombs killed 1 adult and 2 children in shopping areas. The Boer Attack Troop claimed responsibility. in 1997 Jan van der Westhuizen (44), Clifton Barnard (41) and Abraham Myburgh (24) were convicted and given sentences of life in prison for the bombing that killed 4 people.
    (SFC, 12/25/96, p.A10)(SFC, 1/6/97, p.A9)(SFC,10/24/97, p.D6)

1996        In the US Arthur Penn directed the film "Inside." It focused on the abuses of the penal system in South Africa just before and after the collapse of Apartheid.
    (SFEC, 1/5/97, EM p.9)
1996        A census was conducted in all 11 of South Africa’s official languages. It revealed that over half the population did not have running water in their homes.
    (SFC, 10/21/98, p.C2)
1996        Chief Khayelihle Mathaba of the Mangethe tribe claimed the lands of the descendants of John Dunn (d.1885) and tried to declare himself their chief.
    (SFC, 8/13/01, p.A9)
1996        The South Africa Council for Scientific and Industrial Research patented the active chemical of hoodia, called P57, and licensed development rights to a British firm. They did not acknowledge the San Bushmen who used the cactus raise energy and fight hunger. In 2003 an agreement was reached to pay the San 6% of the royalties. Some 100,000 San lived in South Africa, Botswana, Namibia and Angola.
    (SFC, 4/11/03, p.D5)
1996        The vigilante group People Against Gangsterism and Drugs publicly lynched gang boss Rashaad Staggie.
    (SFC, 8/29/98, p.A12)
1996        Sbu Ndebele, premier of KwaZulu-Natal, set up the Vukuzhake program to boost jobs and promote a policy of “black economic empowerment" in poor communities. In 2009 Ndebele was appointed to be South Africa’s transport minister.
    (Econ, 5/23/09, p.49)
1996        The South Africa mining firm Gencor acquired Billiton. In 2001 a merger with BHP created the BHP-Billiton Group, the world’s largest mining company.
    (WSJ, 11/18/05, p.A8)(www.mineweb.net/sections/mining_finance/490641.htm)

1997        Jan 5, In Algeria Muslim guerrillas massacred 16 in Ben Achour village.
    (SFC, 1/6/97, p.A9)
1997        Jan 5, In South Africa police arrested 2 white men in connection with 3 bomb blasts near Johannesburg.
    (SFC, 1/6/97, p.A9)

1997        Jan 28, Five former police officers in South Africa admitted to killing anti-apartheid activist Stephen Biko, who died in police custody in 1977. His death had been officially listed as an accident.
    (MC, 1/28/02)

1997        Jan 29, Wouter Basson, retired brigadier general, was arrested for selling 1,000 tablets of the drug Ecstasy to undercover police.
    (SFC, 2/1/97, p.C1)

1997        Jan, Eicker Henning ordered a worker to tie Ndelwa Kepisi Mgaga to his truck. Henning dragged Mgaga along a gravel road and left Mgaga to die. Henning was convicted in 2000 and sentenced to 25 years in prison.
    (SFC, 11/16/00, p.A16)

1997        Feb 6, Mixed race rioters protested in Eldorado Park. One died and more than 100 were injured.
    (SFC, 2/7/97, p.A17)

1997        Mar 30, In South Africa Celeste Nurse (18) woke up in the maternity ward of a Cape Town hospital to find her three-day-old baby had vanished from her cot. In 2016 a South African woman was convicted of kidnapping the baby (Zephany Nurse) and raising her for 17 years before an astonishing coincidence reunited the girl with her biological family. On August 15, 2016, the kidnapper (51) was sentenced to ten years in prison.
    (AP, 3/10/16)(Reuters, 8/15/16)

1997        Apr 28, In South Africa a newborn girl was kidnapped from a Cape Town hospital. On Feb 26, 2015, she was re-united with her parents for the first time after DNA tests confirmed she was the child kidnapped from the Groote Schuur Hospital.
    (AP, 2/27/15)

1997          Apr, In South Africa Eugene Terre'Blanche was convicted of attempted murder and assault in 1996 incidents. He led the radical wing of the Afrikaner nationalists that set off bombs in 1994 that killed 21. In 1997 he was sentenced to 6 years in prison.
    (SFC, 6/18/97, p.A10)

1997        May 10, The amnesty act was extended to this date.
    (SFEC, 12/15/96, p.C22)

1997        May 11, In South Africa some 8,000 people filed for amnesty to meet the deadline of the commission for the investigation of apartheid-era crimes.
    (WSJ, 5/12/97, p.A1)

1997        Jul 22, In South Africa 5 killings in Magoda, Kwa Zulu / Natal Province, were suspected of being caused an unknown "third force," a presumed right-wing group dedicated to fomenting black-on-black violence.
    (SFC, 8/11/97, p.A7)

1997        Jul, Max, a 400-pound gorilla, beat up a fleeing armed robber, a former police officer, who tried to hide in his cage at the Johannesburg Zoo. Max survived 3 gunshots.
    (SFC,10/31/97, p.D2)

1997        Aug 3, In South Africa a Greyhound bus crashed near Trompsburg and left 4 people dead.
    (Eyewitness, Brett Moses)

1997        Aug 26, Former Pres. Frederik de Klerk announced his retirement from politics and his leading role in the National Party.
    (SFC, 8/26/97, p.C2)

1997        Oct 28, The First National Branch in Pretoria was robbed of $2,500. Mzwakhe Mbuli, a renowned "people's poet," and 2 suspects were arrested shortly after the robbery. Mbuli was convicted in 1999, but claimed that he was framed due to his knowledge of government officials involved in drug smuggling. He was given a 13-year jail term.
    (SFC, 3/30/99, p.F3)(SFC, 4/23/99, p.D3)

1997        Oct 29, South Africa’s Nelson Mandela arrived in Libya to bestow the Order of Good Hope on Colonel Muammar Qaddafi.
    (Econ, 9/3/11, p.45)(www.usc.edu/dept/LAS/ir/sirga/ARboyd273.pdf)

1997        Dec 16, Pres. Mandela stepped aside as leader of the African National Congress and was succeeded by Deputy Pres. Thabo Mbeki. In 2005 William Mervin Gumede authored “Thabo Mbeki and the Battle for the Soul of the ANC."
    (SFC,12/17/97, p.A26)(Econ, 3/26/05, p.82)

1997        Dec 20, President Nelson Mandela stepped down as leader of South Africa's governing African National Congress. [see Dec 16]
    (AP, 12/20/98)

1997        Dec 30, South Africa established diplomatic ties with China and ended formal ties with Taiwan.
    (SFC,12/31/97, p.A9)

1997        The film "Fools" was the first South African feature film directed by a black South African, Ramadan Suleman.
    (SFEM, 9/28/97, p.17)
1997        Aspen Pharmacare, a generic drug maker, was founded in Durban, South Africa. By 2005 it was the country’s leading drug-maker with an annual revenue of $467 million.
    (Econ, 10/8/05, p.74)

1998        Jan 7, The attorney general announced that former Pres. Peter Botha would be prosecuted for refusing to appear before the Truth Commission and for hindering its work.
    (SFC, 1/8/98, p.A12)

1998        Jan, In South Africa 6 white police officers made a video tape showing a "training exercise" where they incited their dogs to maul 3 black men and beat the victims if they tried to protect themselves. The officers were arrested in 2000 on charges of attempted murder. 4 officers pleaded guilty in 2001.
    (SFC, 11/10/00, p.A17)(WSJ, 11/20/01, p.A1)

1998        Mar 19, Hundreds of black demonstrators clashed with police as they marched on the Vryburg High School. Some 2,500 residents of Huhudi township marched in support of the students who said they no longer feel safe at school. A later investigation revealed that the 140 black students were isolated from the 750 white students in classrooms and facilities.
    (SFC, 3/20/98, p.A18)(SFC, 3/26/98, p.B3)

1998        Mar 26, President Clinton stood with President Nelson Mandela in a racially integrated South African parliament to salute a country that was "truly free and democratic at last."
    (SFC, 3/21/98, p.A13)(AP, 3/26/99)

1998        Mar 28, President Clinton, during his visit to South Africa, went to Soweto, a landmark in the bloody uprising against apartheid, to honor South Africans "who answered the call of conscience" and defeated their country's system of white supremacy.
    (AP, 3/28/99)

1998         Apr 11, In Benoni Nicholas Steyn (42), a white farmer, shot Francina Diamina (11) and her 6-month old cousin, Angelina, for trespassing. The baby was hit in the head and killed and Francina was wounded in the back. Steyn was convicted of culpable homicide in 1999. Steyn was given a suspended sentence in 1999 and freed.
    (SFC, 4/18/98, p.A8)(SFC, 3/6/99, p.A14)(WSJ, 3/24/99, p.A1)

1998        Apr 15, It was reported that Fanagalo, a pidgin tongue based on Zulu, English and Afrikaans, was still being used by miners, despite industry and government efforts stamp it out.
    (WSJ, 4/15/98, p.A1)

1998        Apr 20, The Goldman Environmental Awards were presented to six winners in SF. The prizes were increased to $100,000. Sven "Bobby" Peek (31) of South Africa won for fighting for the rights of poor people in industrialized South Durban.
    (SFC, 4/20/98, p.A8)

1998        Apr 29, Pres. Mandela named Siphiwe Nyanda as the first black to head the nation’s armed forces.
    (SFC, 4/30/98, p.A10)

1998        May 8, The National Sports Council asked the world to boycott South African Rugby in a move to push for the resignation of Louis Luyt, the league’s president, over racist and corrupt practices.
    (SFC, 5/9/98, p.A10)

1998        May 10, Louis Luyt announced his resignation as the president of the South African Rugby Football Assoc.
    (SFC, 5/11/98, p.A10)

1998        Jun, Four bombings occurred in the center of Cape Town and attributed to rival gangs.
    (SFEC, 7/5/98, p.T8)

1998        Jul 10, In South Africa 8 people were gunned down in the Kwa-Zulu-Natal town of Richmond. Pres. Mandela spoke out against the police after another 15 were killed with no arrests. 40 people had been killed since May.
    (SFC, 7/13/98, p.A8)(SFC, 7/28/98, p.A8)

1998        Jul 18, South African President Nelson Mandela capped his 80th birthday by marrying Graca Machel, the widow of a Mozambican president and black liberation leader.
    (AP, 7/18/08)

1998        Jul 31, The Truth and Reconciliation Commission closed down after 2 years of hearings. A report was due in October.
    (SFC, 8/1/98, p.A12)

1998        Aug 21, Former Pres. Botha (82) was convicted of ignoring a subpoena to testify about apartheid atrocities in front of the Truth and Reconciliation Commission. He was fined $1,577 and given a suspended 1 year jail sentence.
    (SFC, 8/22/98, p.A8)

1998        Aug 25, In South Africa a bomb exploded in a Planet Hollywood restaurant in Cape Town and killed one person and injured 24. A group called Muslims Against Global Oppression claimed responsibility. One injured man died 10 days later.
    (SFC, 8/26/98, p.A8)(SFC, 9/4/98, p.D4)

1998        Sep 23, In Lesotho 9 South Africans and 40 rebels were killed since the SADC (Southern African Development Community) task force entered Lesotho to restore the government of PM Pakalitha Mosisili. Maseru was virtually destroyed by arson and looting that followed the military intervention. Damages were estimated at $39 million.
    (SFC, 9/24/98, p.A14)(SFC, 4/10/99, p.C14)

1998         Oct 19, Angolan rebel commander Arlindo Chenda Pena (b.1955) died of an illness in South Africa. In 2018 his remains were repatriated to Angola. Pena, known as "Ben Ben," was a rebel commander in UNITA, whose Portuguese acronym means the National Union for the Total Independence of Angola.
    (http://tinyurl.com/ycs8z4hk)(AP, 9/13/18)

1998        Oct 28, In South Africa the 3,500 page report of the Truth and Reconciliation Committee was formally handed over from Desmond Tutu to Pres. Mandela. It was based on years of testimony from the people who ran the 1960-1994 white-government and their victims.
    (SFC, 10/29/98, p.A13)(WSJ, 10/30/98, p.A1)

1998        Oct, Parliament approved one of the world’s toughest anti-smoking laws.
    (SFC, 11/28/98, p.C3)

1998        Oct, Former Pres. F.W. de Klerk completed his divorce with Marike de Klerk and married his companion Elita Georgiades, the former wife of Tony Georgiades, Greek shipping magnate.
    (SFC, 12/6/01, p.A6)

1998        Dec 1, A rally of 82 vintage cars entered Cape Town after a 39 day, 18,600 mile journey that began in London.
    (SFC, 12/2/98, p.C12)

1998        Dec 15, In South Africa a tornado killed 13 people in Umtata. Pres. Mandela narrowly escaped injury while shopping there.
    (SFC, 12/16/98, p.C3)

1998        Dec 22, In South Africa Gugu Dlamini (36), an AIDS activist, died from wounds inflicted by a mob.
    (SFC, 12/28/98, p.A7)

1998        A South Africa court struck down the law against sodomy.
    (SSFC, 5/25/03, p.A12)
1998        The South African government enacted the Regulation of Foreign Miligtary Assistance Act outlawing mercenaries. The act was toughened in 2006.
    (Econ, 1/10/15, p.75)(Econ., 3/21/15, p.42)
1998        South African senior foreign ministry official Robert McBride was arrested on suspicion of gun running in neighboring Mozambique and held for six months before being released.
    (AFP, 9/9/11)

1999        Jan 23, In South Africa Sifiso Nkabinde, leader of the small United Democratic Movement party, was shot and killed in Richmond. Later gunmen in the same town killed 11 people who backed the ANC.
    (SFC, 1/25/99, p.A7)

1999        Jan 28, In Cape Town, South Africa, a bomb exploded at the main police station and wounded 11 people. It was the 3rd bombing in 5 months.
    (SFC, 1/29/99, p.E9)

1999        Feb 4, It was reported that a $650 flamethrower, invented by Charl Flourie, was available for installation on cars to protect against carjackers.
    (SFC, 2/4/99, p.A11)

1999        Feb 10, In South Africa a helicopter crashed on the roof of an office building in Cape Town and all 4 people aboard were killed.
    (SFC, 2/11/99, p.C2)

1999        Feb 16, In South Africa the 4 policemen charged with the fatal beating of Steve Biko were denied amnesty.
    (WSJ, 2/17/99, p.A1)

1999        Mar 3, From South Africa it was reported that 3.6 million people, one in eight adults, were carrying the AIDS virus by the end of 1998. This compared with 2.7 million in 1997.
    (SFC, 3/4/99, p.C5)(SFC, 4/27/99, p.A10)

1999        Mar 9, In South Africa a gunman killed Patata Nqwaru, vice chairman of the local United Democratic Movement in Cape Town.
    (SFC, 3/10/99, p.A13)

1999        Mar 17, Allan Boesak (53), a leading anti-apartheid activist, was convicted of stealing money from foreign donors intended for the Foundation for Peace and Justice. He was later sentenced to 6 years in prison for theft and fraud.
    (SFC, 3/18/99, p.A13)(SFC, 3/25/99, p.A10)

1999        Mar 25, In South Africa Wouter Basson, the former head of chemical and biological warfare dubbed "Doctor Death," was indicted on 64 charges that included murder, theft and fraud. Conspiracy charges for offenses in Namibia, Swaziland, Mozambique and Britain were later dismissed. 61 charges remained. Basson was acquitted of 46 counts of murder, fraud and drug dealing in 2002.
    (SFC, 3/26/99, p.A16)(SFC, 10/13/99, p.A12)(SFC, 4/12/02, p.A8)

1999        Apr 20, In South Africa the police beating of 4 carjacking suspects was broadcast over TV. One suspect died from the beating and the officers were suspended and put under criminal investigation.
    (SFC, 4/21/99, p.A13)

1999        May 11, Authorities found over 7 tons of arms, ammunition and explosives in KwaZulu-Natal province. It was believed to have been amassed by former police commander Eugene de Kock.
    (SFC, 5/13/99, p.C3)

1999        May 14, In South Africa the ruling African National Congress signed a peace pact with the arch-rival Inkatha Freedom Party.
    (SFC, 5/15/99, p.A14)

1999        May 21, In South Africa a principal and teacher opened fire on students who were throwing stones angered by field trip fees. Sithembiso Gcwenya (19) was killed and 2 students were wounded near Scottburgh on the Indian Ocean.
    (SFC, 5/22/99, p.A12)

1999        May, President Nelson Mandela handed the Schmidtsdrift San communities almost 13,000 hectares of farmland, including Platfontein, near Kimberley. The Schmidtsdrift San are members of the !Xun and !Khwe tribes who were employed by the former SA Defence Force in its war against the South West African People's Organization (Swapo) during the eighties. When Namibia gained independence in 1990, the San soldiers were given the option to move to Schmidtsdrift with their families. The !Xum and Khwe Bushmen pooled government allowances and purchased the Platfontein Farm.
    (http://tinyurl.com/l62ne)(Econ, 4/15/06, p.50)

1999        Jun 2, An appeals court set aside the contempt conviction against former Pres. P.W. Botha based on a technicality.
    (SFC, 6/2/99, p.C5)

1999        Jun 2, In South Africa Pres. Mandela set this date for elections. Thabo Mbeki, the deputy of Pres. Mandela, was expected to win. The ANC headed for victory with 62.2% support after half the votes were counted. The final count showed a 65.7% win. The Congress Party trailed a rival black party in KwaZulu-Natal province. The ANC won 266 seats, one shy of a two-third majority.
    (SFC, 3/4/99, p.C3)(SFC, 6/3/99, p.A12)(SFC, 6/4/99, p.D2)(SFC, 6/7/99, p.A11)(SFC, 6/8/99, p.A12)

1999        Jun 13, In South Africa Pres. Mandela welcomed visiting Libyan leader Moammar Khadafy as his last official guest. Khadafy was on his first foreign tour since sanctions were lifted in April.
    (SFC, 6/14/99, p.A13)

1999        Jun 15, The Truth Commission granted amnesty to Eugene TerreBlanche after he made full disclosure for his apartheid-era crimes.
    (SFC, 6/16/99, p.B2)

1999        Jun 16, Thabo Mbeki took the oath as president of South Africa, succeeding Nelson Mandela. Mbeki soon appointed Jacob Zuma, chairperson of the ANC, as deputy president.
    (AP, 6/16/00)(www.anc.org.za/people/zumaj.html)

1999        Jul 29, In South Africa some 300,000 workers staged a public sector strike and demanded a 10% pay hike.
    (SFC, 7/30/99, p.D3)

1999        Jul 29, Simon Mahlathini Nkabinde, lead groaner of the Mahlathini and the Mohatella Queens, died at age 62. The group performed together from 1964-1997 and popularized mbaqanga music.
    (SFC, 7/31/99, p.A17)

1999        Aug 8, Tito Mboweni was inaugurated as governor of the South African Reserve Bank.
    (WSJ, 3/29/00, p.A1)

1999        Aug 16, In South Africa thousands of state workers stayed home from work and some 10,000 Telkom and post office workers demonstrated in Pretoria and other cities.
    (SFC, 8/17/99, p.A10)

1999        Aug 24, In South Africa an estimated 100,000 workers joined marches across the country in a one-day strike for wage increases.
    (SFC, 8/25/99, p.A16)

1999        Aug 29, In South Africa a heavy storm in Cape Town left 4 people dead and some 5,000 homeless.
    (SFC, 8/30/99, p.A14)

1999        Sep 15, The government reported that it would purchase $3.5 billion in arms over the next 8 years in exchange for investments in the country.
    (SFC, 9/16/99, p.A13)

1999        Sep 27, In South Africa a bus of British tourists overturned as it approached Lydenburg and 27 people were killed.
    (SFC, 9/28/99, p.C16)

1999        Oct 11, South Africa and the European Union signed a free-trade pact.
    (SFC, 10/12/99, p.C16)

1999        Oct 18, Nelson Mandela visited Israel for the 1st time in an effort to end enmity between the Jewish state and the African National Congress. Israel had supported the apartheid government in South Africa.
    (SFC, 10/19/99, p.A13)

1999        Oct 25, The 31st Booker Prize in Literature was won by J.M. Coetzee of South Africa for his novel "Disgrace." He became the 1st author to win the prize twice. He won in 1983 for the novel "Live and Times of Michael K."
    (SFC, 10/26/99, p.G2)

1999        Oct, The policy manual for South Africa’s national prosecuting authority was released. The authority took over cases that left over from the Truth and Reconciliation Commission.
    (www.iss.co.za/Pubs/Monographs/No53/Chap4.html)(Econ, 8/4/07, p.41)

1999        Nov 4, At Empangeni rival minivan taxi operators waged a gun battle that left at least 10 people dead and 24 wounded.
    (SFC, 11/5/99, p.A17)

1999        Nov 28, In South Africa a pipe bomb injured at least 43 people at St. Elmo's pizza restaurant in Camps Bay, just south of Cape Town.
    (SFC, 11/29/99, p.A12)

1999        Dec 14, In South Africa Clarence Mlokoti (69), co-founder of the Kaizer Chiefs soccer team, was killed during an attempted car-jacking in Soweto.
    (SFC, 12/16/99, p.C2)

1999        Dec 24, In South Africa 7 policemen were injured after responding to a bomb threat in Cape Town.
    (WSJ, 12/27/99, p.A1)

1999        Dec 29, In South Africa police arrested 3 members of a Muslim vigilante gang and seized bomb materials linked to recent bombings near Cape Town.
    (WSJ, 12/30/99, p.A1)

1999        Breyten Breytenbach, Afrikaner writer, authored "Dog Heart: A Memoir," a look at South Africa since the 1994 elections.
    (WSJ, 10/4/99, p.A40)
1999        Nadine Gordimer authored "Living in Hope and History: Notes from Our Century."
    (SFEC, 12/12/99, BR p.5)
1999        South Africa’s Pres. Thabo Mbeki created Directorate of Special Operations (DSO), better known as the Scorpions. It was a crime-fighting unit of the National Prosecuting Authority (NPA) set up to fight corruption and organized crime. In 2008 the government planned to disband the unit and merge it into the police force.
    (Econ, 10/15/05, p.48)(Econ, 5/10/08, p.56)
1999        South Africa signed a deal with Saab for 26 JAS Gripen fighter jets for 1.6 billion euros. The deal was later trimmed to 26 planes. Allegations of fraud later arose after Saab disclosed that bribes had been paid in the form of bonuses and salaries between 2003 and 2005 by its South African subsidiary Sanip, which was then controlled by BAE Systems.
    (AP, 7/31/11)
1999        Mark Shuttleworth of South Africa sold Thawte, a company that made digital certificates and security software to support internet commerce, to VeriSign for over $500 million.
    (Econ, 6/9/07, TQ p.33)
1999        Taddy Blecher and 3 partners founded CIDA City Campus in Johannesburg, South Africa. The university charged only $21 per month for tuition. The official inauguration was held on Nov 8, 2002.
    (Econ, 9/1/07, p.63)
1999        In South Africa a wine buyer suggested the vinification of a Rhone-style blend called Goats do Roam owned by Charles Back.
    (SFC, 10/31/08, p.F2)

2000        Jan 10, In South Africa there was a rock fall at the African Rainbow Minerals gold mine. 9 miners were rescued after 4 days, but 4 were found dead and two were feared dead.
    (SFC, 1/14/00, p.D2)

2000        Feb 11, In South Africa it was reported that at least 19 people had died and 12 were feared drowned after torrential rains hit the northern province of Mpumalanga.
    (SFC, 2/12/00, p.A9)

2000        Feb 18, The telephone company, Telkom, announced that it would buy and distribute 5 million condoms to its employees in an effort to fight AIDS which had infected some 13% of the adult population.
    (SFC, 2/19/00, p.A12)

2000        Feb 26, Heavy rains continued to ravage South Africa, Botswana, Mozambique and Zimbabwe. 33 people were reported dead in the northern province of South Africa and 29 dead in Zimbabwe.
    (SFEC, 2/27/00, p.A22)

2000        Mar 2, Dr. Larry C. Ford committed suicide just days after a botched assassination attempt on his business partner at Biofem Inc., of Irvine, Calif. Ford had met with scientists from South Africa's Project Coast in the 1980s to discuss chemical and biological warfare under Wouter Basson, head of the project. Project Coast, which has been accused of trying to create deadly bacteria that would only affect blacks, poisoning opponents' clothing and stockpiling cholera, HIV and anthrax, opened an offshore bank account to pay Ford. In 2002 former FBI informant Peter Fitzpatrick told "60 Minutes" that Ford passed a bag filled with cholera, typhoid, botulism, anthrax and bubonic plague to a South African military doctor during a meeting at the house of the South African trade attache in California.
    (AP, 11/3/02)

2000        Mar 25, In South Africa a flashflood down the Storms River Gorge left 7 dead and 6 missing from a group of 24 whitewater enthusiasts.
    (SFC, 3/27/00, p.A12)

2000        May 28, Themba Khoza, member of parliament and leader of the Inkatha Freedom Party, died of AIDS at age 41.
    (SFC, 6/2/00, p.D5)

2000        May, The Kimberley process started when Southern African diamond-producing states met in Kimberley, South Africa, to discuss ways to stop the trade in ‘conflict diamonds’ and ensure that diamond purchases were not funding violence.

2000        Jun 19, Mary Benson, writer and anti-apartheid campaigner, died at age 80. Her work included a 2-volume history of the African National Congress.
    (SFC, 6/23/00, p.D5)

2000        Jun 23, A Panamanian registered tanker sank off Cape Town, South Africa and at least 1,300 tons of seeped out. Oil began to soak the local penguins at Robben Island.
    (SFC, 6/30/00, p.A16)

2000        Jul 9, The 13the Int’l. AIDS Conference convened in South Africa. Pres. Thabo Mbeki opened the conference and insisted that poverty was a greater enemy than the AIDS virus. Hundreds of delegates walked out.
    (SFC, 7/7/00, p.A1)(SFC, 7/10/00, p.A1)

2000        Jul 14, In South Africa Nelson Mandela closed the 13th Int’l. Conference on AIDS with a call for scientists to set aside differences with Pres. Thabo Mbeki and to concentrate on fighting the disease.
    (SFC, 7/15/00, p.A1)

2000        Jul, Nkosi Johnson (10), a victim of AIDS, spoke to int’l. delegates and implored South Africa to provide HIV-positive pregnant women with anti-retroviral drugs to block transmission of the virus to children at birth. Johnson died June 1, 2001 at age 12.
    (SFC, 1/12/01, p.A18)(SFC, 6/2/01, p.A8)

2000        Aug 26, In Sasolburg, South Africa, black employee John Mosoko Rampuru (37) died after being dragged behind a pickup for over 3 miles by white building contractor Pieter Odendaal (44). On November 12, 2001, the Bloemfontein High Court sentenced Odendaal to 10 years in jail after finding him guilty of culpable homicide but not murder with intent. Judge AP van Coller suspended 3 years of Odendaal's sentence and freed him on bail pending appeal.
    (SFEC, 9/10/00, p.C12)(http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/world/africa/1651683.stm)

2000        Sep 13, The government announced war with the Muslim vigilante group, PAGAD, People Against Gangsterism and Drugs, following a series of bombings.
    (SFC, 9/14/00, p.C7)

2000        Nov 17, In South Africa 11 workers died from a fire while apparently locked in a floor polish factory in Lenasia.
    (SFEC, 11/19/00, p.C16)

2000        Dec 1, On World AIDS Day the government agreed to accept a $50 million donation of the drug fluconazole from Pfizer to treat a brain inflammation associated with AIDS. Recent approval was also given for nevirapine, a drug to reduce transmission of the AIDS virus to a fetus.
    (SFC, 12/2/00, p.A12)

2000        Dec 5, In South Africa 7 people were killed at 2 polling stations during the 2nd all-race municipal elections. The elections slashed the number of municipalities from 843 to 284 with 6 mega cities, each presided by a single mayor. The ruling African National Congress (ANC) won at least 59% of the contests.
    (SFC, 12/6/00, p.A18)(WSJ, 12/7/00, p.A1)

2000        Dec 15, Pres. Mbeki spoke at a MERCOSUR meeting in Brazil and planned to begin negotiations to join the trading block.
    (SFC, 12/31/00, p.B2)

2000        Dec 18, Edmund Ntemi Piliso, jazz musician, died at age 75. He led the Alexandra All-Star band in Sophiatown in the 1950s.
    (SFC, 12/19/00, p.B5)

2000        In South Africa the Johannesburg consortium “Business Against Crime" moved its Cueincident program, a video-monitoring system of the central business district, to the Carlton building. Crime soon began to decline and people moved back into the area.
    (Econ, 4/8/06, Survey p.11)

2000        South Africa ranked as the world’s 8th largest wine producer. Its output was roughly in line with Germany.
    (SSFC, 12/3/00, p.T6)

2001        Jan 6, It was reported that cholera had sickened some 13,000 people in KwaZulu-Natal and had killed at least 53.
    (SFC, 1/6/01, p.D8)

2001        Jan, A single lightning bolt killed 14 people huddled in a hut in Kwa-Zulu-Natal province.
    (WSJ, 2/1/00, p.A1)

2001        Mar 20, New AIDS statistics indicated that 25% of the adult population, one of every 9 people, was infected with HIV.
    (SFC, 3/21/01, p.A13)

2001        Mar, Billiton, a South African mining company, and Broken Hill Proprietary (BHP), an Australian rival, revealed plans to merge.
    (Econ, 8/21/10, p.56)

2001        Apr 11, In Johannesburg 43 people were killed in a stampede at a soccer game in Ellis Park Stadium. Over 150 were injured.
    (SFC, 4/12/01, p.A12)

2001        May 8, In South Africa 12 miners were killed in a gold mine explosion.
    (WSJ, 5/9/01, p.A1)

2001        May 18, Shareholders of De Beers, a giant diamond company, approved a move to privatize the company. Shares would be delisted June 1 and the company will be taken over by DB Investments, a consortium owned by the Oppenheimer family, Anglo-American and Debswana.
    (SFC, 5/19/01, p.C3)

2001        May 24, US Sec. of State Colin Powell traveled to South Africa as part of his 4-nation African tour to promote the fight against AIDS.
    (WSJ, 5/25/01, p.A11)

2001        May 25, US Sec. of State Colin Powell spoke to students at the Univ. of Witwatersrand and called on Pres. Mugabe of Zimbabwe to submit to free elections next year.
    (SFC, 5/26/01, p.B12)

2001        Jun 1, Nkosi Johnson (12), a victim of AIDS, died. In 2000 he had spoken to int’l. delegates and implored South Africa to provide HIV-positive pregnant women with anti-retroviral drugs to block transmission of the virus to children at birth.
    (SFC, 1/12/01, p.A18)(SFC, 6/2/01, p.A8)

2001        Jun 26, In Washington Pres. Bush met with South Africa Pres. Thabo Mbeki and defended Mbeki’s efforts to combat AIDS.
    (SFC, 6/27/01, p.A10)

2001        Jun 28, Queen Modjadji V, the "rain queen" of the Bolobedu tribe, died at age 64.
    (SFC, 7/5/01, p.D3)

2001        Jun, Members of the Pan African Congress began collecting $3 from poor people in exchange for small parcels of vacant land in Bredell, 12 miles northeast of Johannesburg. A week later the government condemned the PAC and arrested people for trespassing.
    (SFC, 7/12/01, p.A14)

2001        Jul 10, The government ordered the demolition of shacks on the occupied land in Bredell. 1-2 thousand shacks were expected to be destroyed.
    (SFC, 7/13/01, p.A15)

2001        Jul 30, In South Africa Catholic bishops denounced condoms as "immoral and misguided" weapons against AIDS.
    (SFC, 7/31/01, p.A6)

2001        Aug 19, Donald Woods (67), former Daily Dispatch editor and apartheid opponent, died in Sutton, England.
    (SFC, 8/20/01, p.A15)

2001        Aug 30, Govan Mbeki, the father of Pres. Thabo Mbeki, died at age 91. He authored the book "South Africa: The Peasant’s Revolt" while imprisoned on Robben Island.
    (SFC, 8/31/01, p.A24)

2001        Aug 31, The UN World Conference Against Racism, Racial Discrimination, Xenophobia and Related Intolerance began in Durban, South Africa.
    (SFC, 9/1/01, p.A1)

2001        Sep 1, In Durban, South Africa, a variety of African leaders at the UN World Conference Against Racism demanded apologies, and in some cases financial reparations, from Western countries that benefited from slavery and colonization of African countries for over 3 centuries. Activists at the conference developed a strategy, later known as “BDS," that included boycotts, divestments and sanctions, to push their agenda.
    (SSFC, 9/2/01, p.A12)(Econ, 9/15/07, p.74)

2001        Sep 2, Dr. Christiaan Barnard (78), South African cardiologist, died in Paphos, Cyprus. He performed the world’s 1st human heart transplant in 1967, authored a distinguished text on cardiology, a scandalous autobiography and 4 minor novels.
    (SFC, 9/3/01, p.A15)(AP, 9/2/02)

2001        Sep 3, The US delegates pulled out of the UN Conference on Racism due to extremist diatribes against Israel by Arab nations.
    (SFC, 9/4/01, p.A1)

2001        Sep 7, In Durban the UN Conference on Racism went into overtime and agreed on a deal. The conference acknowledged that slavery and the slave trade were crimes against  humanity, expressed an apology and offered a package of economic assistance to Africa. A deal on the Middle East was not yet reached.
    (SFC, 9/8/01, p.A8)

2001        Sep 8, In South Africa the UN World Conference on Racism ended and agreed to condemn the "barbarism" of the slave trade, proposed an aid package for Africa, recognized Palestinian rights and Israeli security concerns, opposed bias against ethnic minorities, refugees, indigenous peoples and women.
    (SSFC, 9/9/01, p.A1)

2001        Oct 3, In South Africa ANC leader Tony Yengeni was charged with corruption, forgery and perjury linked to the country’s $6 billion arms deal with Europe.
    (SFC, 10/4/01, p.C4)

2001        Oct 15, In South Africa Winnie Madikizela-Mandela, the former wife of Nelson Mandela, was indicted for fraudulent loans of more than $100,000.
    (SFC, 10/16/01, p.B6)

2001        Nov 26, Joe Modise (72), former defense minister (1994-1999), died.
    (SFC, 11/28/01, p.A22)

2001        Nov 27, The predominantly white New National Party (NNP) joined into a coalition with the ruling African National Congress (ANC).
    (SFC, 11/28/01, p.A5)

2001        Dec 4, In South Africa Marike de Klerk (64), former wife of former Pres. F.W. de Klerk, was found stabbed and strangled in her luxury apartment near Cape Town. Police arrested Luyanda Mboniswa (21), a security guard, on Dec 5. The guard confessed Dec 7. In 2003 DNA evidence linked him to the murder.
    (SFC, 12/6/01, p.A6)(SFC, 12/7/01, p.A6)(SFC, 12/8/01, p.A7)(AP, 4/8/03)

2001        Dec 13, It was reported that 83 vanadium miners at the Vantech Tech. mining operations in Steelport were let go between 1998 and 2001 after suffering respiratory problems. Vantech was a subsidiary of the Swiss-based Xstrata.
    (SFC, 12/13/01, p.E2)

2001        Dec 30, In South Africa an open truck carrying families on a pilgrimage to ancestral graves, overturned on a steep hill and 48 people were killed.
    (SFC, 1/1/02, p.A7)

2001        Alexandra Fuller authored “Don’t Let’s Go to the Dogs Tonight," an account of her growing up in South Africa.
    (Econ, 1/31/15, p.74)
2001        South Africa decided to overhaul its mining laws and began laying out specific targets for its Black Economic Empowerment program.
    (WSJ, 11/18/05, p.A8)
2001        In South Africa MTN, a fledgling telecoms company, paid $285m for one of four mobile licenses sold at auction by the government of Nigeria.
    (Econ, 8/23/14, p.59)

2001-2005    Property prices in South Africa rose by an average of 20% a year.
    (Econ, 5/6/06, p.46)

2002        Jan 29, In South Africa Doctors Without Borders defied patent law and imported a generic AIDS drug from Brazil.
    (WSJ, 1/30/02, p.A1)

2002        Feb 5, In Durban, South Africa, a commuter train collided with a freight train and 18 people were killed.
    (SFC, 2/6/02, p.A9)

2002        Feb 9, In South Africa Bulelani Vukwana (29), shot and killed his girlfriend and 9 others before killing himself in Mdantsane suburb of East London.
    (SFC, 2/11/02, p.A8)

2002        Mar 24, It was reported that scientist David Rasnick had agreed to inject himself with HIV and that computer scientist Philip Machanick agreed to take a cocktail of anti-HIV drugs for the rest of his life in a test over the cause of AIDS.
    (SSFC, 3/24/02, p.A3)

2002        Mar 25, A Pretoria high court ruled that the government must provide the anti-AIDS  drug nevirapine to all public hospitals with the capacity to use it.
    (SFC, 3/26/02, p.A6)

2002        Apr 11, A white judge acquitted Dr. Wouter Basson ("Dr. Death"), former head of the chemical and biological weapons program, of 46 counts murder, fraud and drug dealing following a 2 ½ year trial.
    (SFC, 4/12/02, p.A8)

2002        Apr 25, A Russian rocket blasted into orbit with Mark Shuttleworth (28) of South Africa, who paid $20 million for the trip to the Int’l. Space Station.
    (SFC, 4/26/02, p.A15)

2002        Apr 27, Steve Tshwete (64), security minister, died. He had been arrested in 1963 and sentenced to 15 years on Robben Island, where he spent time with Nelson Mandela.
    (SFC, 4/30/02, p.A24)

2002        May 6, Daan Goosen, South Africa scientist, passed a vial of genetically engineered bacteria to a retired US CIA officer and offered an entire collection of pathogens developed in SA bio-weapons research for $5 million and immigrations permits for 19 associates and family members. The deal collapsed.
    (SSFC, 4/20/03, p.A16)

2002        Jun 1, Hansie Cronje (32), who captained South Africa to 27 wins against only 11 losses in 53 Tests before his disgrace for accepting money from illegal cricket gamblers, was the only passenger on a mail delivery flight which crashed into a mountain near his home town of George in bad weather.
    (AFP, 5/30/12)

2002        Jun 17, In South Africa Lulu Petersen said she hoped a class-action lawsuit against foreign companies that dealt with the racist, white regime would finally bring her family justice.
    (AP, 6/17/02)

2002        Jun 25, South Africa's parliament passed a landmark bill aimed at transforming the country's mining industry by giving the government control of mineral rights.
    (AP, 6/26/02)

2002        Jul 2, A former South African policeman killed four people and wounded nine during a shooting rampage in a small town in the Northern Cape province.
    (AP, 7/3/02)

2002        Jul 8, African leaders gathered in South Africa to form the new African Union and to bid farewell to the Organization of African Unity, a much-criticized regional body formed nearly four decades ago to usher the continent out of colonialism.
    (AP, 7/8/02)

2002        Jul 9, African leaders in Durban, SA, launched the African Union, an ambitious new body intended to pull the beleaguered continent out of poverty and conflict.
    (AP, 7/9/03)

2002        Jul 10, The first summit of the African Union ended with lofty promises of a new era of economic development and good government on a continent plagued by poverty and oppression.
    (AP, 7/10/02)

2002        Jul 14, A passenger bus overturned and burst into flames after hitting a cow, killing at least 18 people in South Africa's Eastern Cape province.
    (AP, 7/15/02)

2002        Aug 26, The 4th UN World Summit on Sustainable Development opened in Johannesburg, SA, with a call from South African President Thabo Mbeki for coordinated international action to fight poverty and protect the world's natural resources. Pres. Bush sent Colin Powell as his stand-in. The 3rd gathering was in Rio de Janeiro in 1992.
    (SSFC, 8/25/02, p.A3)(AP, 8/26/03)
2002        Aug 26, As Zimbabwean and Ethiopian activists staged protests, South African security officials promised to clamp down on any protesters demonstrating at the U.N. development summit without government approval.
    (AP, 8/26/02)

2002        Aug 27, In South Africa delegates to the World Summit on Sustainable Development called for increased global efforts to bring new agricultural technologies to poor farmers to help feed the developing world.
    (AP, 8/27/02)

2002        Aug 28, Delegates at the World Summit on Sustainable Development focused on ways to bring fresh water and sanitation to hundreds of millions of people who lack access to either. Negotiators hailed their first breakthrough: a deal to protect the world's oceans and marine life.
    (AP, 8/28/02)

2002        Aug 29, The World Summit on Sustainable Development focused on ways business and governments could work together to spread prosperity in the developing world while protecting the environment.
    (AP, 8/29/02)

2002        Aug 31, In South Africa some 10,000 people marched from a township of tin shacks and open sewers to the glittering venue of a U.N. development summit to protest that world leaders are not doing enough to fight poverty.
    (AP, 8/31/02)

2002        Sep 2, At the UN Earth Summit in South Africa negotiators agreed on a global plan to reduce the use of oil and switch to other cleaner and more efficient forms of energy.
    (SFC, 9/3/02, p.A1)

2002        Sep 4, The World Summit on Sustainable Development closed with just a handful of small victories and some promising new initiatives. Colin Powell was heckled and the US was viewed as a key obstacle to setting firm targets on many issues. The Extractive Industries Transparency Initiative (EITI), an anti-corruption scheme to oversee oil production, was launched by UK PM Tony Blair, at the World Summit on Sustainable Development in Johannesburg, SA.
    (AP, 9/5/02)(SFC, 9/5/02, p.A10)(www.osi-az.org/eitiabout.shtml)

2002        Sep 10, In South Africa the highest court ruled that gay couples have the right to adopt children and laws that prevent them from doing so violate their constitutional rights.
    (AP, 9/10/02)

2002        Sep 13, In South Africa the Italian ship, the Jolly Rubino, that ran aground  within the boundaries of the Greater St. Lucia Wetland Park, began leaking oil and was in danger of breaking up, according to conservation officials and a salvage company.
    (AP, 9/13/02)

2002        Sep 28, In South Africa a commuter bus veered off a road and flipped several times down a mountain pass, killing 21 people and injuring 52 in the Eastern Cape.
    (AP, 9/28/02)

2002        Oct 1, In South Africa tens of thousands of workers blew whistles and sang protest songs as they marched in a nationwide strike protesting the government's privatization plans.
    (AP, 10/1/02)

2002        Oct 30, A series of bomb blasts rocked the poor township of Soweto, SA, killing one person, ripping a hole in a mosque and damaging several railway stations and rail lines running into the nearby city of Johannesburg. The Boeremag (Afrikaner Power) was believed responsible.
    (AP, 10/30/02)(SFC, 11/2/02, p.A7)
2002        Oct 30, Nine people, mostly Canadian or British tourists, were killed and at least 10 more injured when their bus crashed in South Africa, police said. 
    (Reuters, 10/30/02)

2002        Nov, 52 governments ratified and adopted the Kimberley Process Certification Scheme setting up an internationally recognized certification system for rough diamonds and establishing national import/export standards. This followed meetings that had begun in Kimberley, South Africa, in 2000. The scheme was fully implemented in August 2003.

2002        An internal South African position paper on argued that half of all  new mining rights and 30% of existing one should be black-owned within a decade. The report leaked to the media and caused the Johannesburg stock market to plunge.
    (WSJ, 11/18/05, p.A8)

2002        South African Breweries bought America’s Miller Brewing for $5.6 billion.
    (Econ, 5/15/04, p.64)

2002        Over 21,000 people were murdered in South Africa this year.
    (Econ, 10/11/03, p.52)

2003        Jan 7, In South Africa a passenger train collided with a freight train, killing 10 people and injuring 49.
    (AP, 1/7/03)

2003        Jan 20, In South Africa an execution-style attack at a Cape Town house used as a gay massage parlor killed eight men and badly wounded two.
    (AP, 1/20/03)

2003        Mar 21, A South African commission that investigated the crimes of the era recommended  that the government pay compensation totaling $348 million to more than 21,000 victims of apartheid-era abuses.
    (AP, 3/21/03)

2003        Apr 6, In Capetown, SA, Roxanne Dickson (5) became the 7th child to die from gang violence in the last month. Some 280 gangs operated in Western Cape, a province of about 3 million people, 5 percent of whom are believed to belong to gangs.
    (AP, 4/12/03)

2003        Apr 25, In South Africa Winnie Madikizela-Mandela, the fiery anti-apartheid leader and ex-wife of former President Nelson Mandela, was sentenced to four years in prison for her conviction on fraud and theft charges.
    (AP, 4/25/03)

2003        May 1, In South Africa a bus believed to be carrying about 90 people plunged into a reservoir in South Africa. 10 survivors were rescued outside the town of Bethlehem. 51 people were killed.
    (AP, 5/2/03)

2003        May 5, In South Africa Walter Sisulu (b.1912), anti-apartheid hero, died. He brought Nelson Mandela into the ANC and together with Oliver Tambo formed the ANC Youth League in 1944.
    (AP, 5/6/03)

2003        Jul 9, Pres. Bush met with South African President Thabo Mbeki in Pretoria for discussions on AIDS, the war on terror, trade issues and to seek common ground in their attempts to deal with the political and economic crisis in neighboring Zimbabwe. Pleading for patience, President Bush, continuing his Africa tour, said the United States would "have to remain tough" in Iraq despite attacks on U.S. soldiers. Bush said he was "absolutely confident" in his actions despite the discovery that one claim he'd made about Saddam Hussein's weapons pursuits was based on false information.
    (AP, 7/9/03)(SFC, 7/10/03, p.A3)(AP, 7/9/04)(AP, 7/9/08)

2003        Aug 7, F.T. Prince (90), South African poet, died in Southampton, England. His work included the WWII poem "Soldiers Bathing."
    (SFC, 8/13/03, p.A23)

2003        Aug 19, South African police and the FBI arrested Craig Michael Pritchert, 41, and Nova Ester Guthrie, 28, in Capetown. The couple are suspected of armed robberies in Arizona, Colorado, Montana, New Mexico, Texas, and Oregon between 1993 and 1996.
    (AP, 8/21/03)

2003        Sep 2, Two South China tigers, the first ever to leave the country, arrived in South Africa as part of a project to save the endangered species.
    (AP, 9/3/03)

2003        Oct 2, South Africa's J.M. Coetzee, whose stories tell of innocents and outcasts oppressed by the cruel weight of history, won the 2003 Nobel Prize for literature. His books included "Dusklands" (1974), "In the heart of the Country" (1977), "Waiting for the Barbarians" (1980), "Life and Times of Michael K" (1983) and "Disgrace" (1999).
    (AP, 10/2/03)(WSJ, 10/14/03, p.D10)

2003        Nov 19, South Africa said it would provide free AIDS drugs.
    (WSJ, 1/2/04, p.R12)

2003        Nov 29, Beyonce Knowles, Bono, Peter Gabriel and other musicians from around the world took to the stage for an AIDS benefit concert hosted by former South African President Nelson Mandela.
    (AP, 11/30/03)

2003        Neil Turok created the African Institute for Mathematical Sciences (AIMS) in Cape Town, South Africa.
    (Econ, 5/25/13, p.84)(Econ, 3/12/15, p.76)
2003        In South Africa Ben Sassman launched Internet dating service for people with HIV/AIDS.
    (Econ, 10/14/06, p.54)(www.thepositiveconnection.co.za)

2004        Jan 1, Pres. Thabo Mbeki of South Africa joined Pres. Aristide for Haiti’s independence celebrations.
    (WPR, 3/04, p.29)
2004        Jan 1, In South Africa a minibus full of British and Canadian tourists headed to a scenic mountain area crashed, killing eight Britons and the pedestrian.
    (AP, 1/1/04)

2004        Jan 9, In South Africa Pres. Mbeki signed the Broad-Based Black Economic Empowerment Act. It imposed a host of obligations on companies that wished to do business with the government.
    (www.labour.gov.za/useful_docs/doc_display.jsp?id=9479)(Econ, 4/8/06, Survey p.8)

2004        Jan 29, Widespread drought was reported across southern Africa. Lesotho, Malawi, South Africa and Zimbabwe were all affected.
    (SFC, 1/29/04, p.A16)

2004        Jan, General Motors announced the purchase of a 51% share of Delta Motors, South Africa’s 4th largest car firm.
    (Econ, 2/14/04, p.62)

2004        Mar 29, Margaret McCord Nixon (87), South-African-born author of "The Calling of Katie Makanya" (1997), died in Venice, Ca.
    (SFC, 4/13/04, p.B7)

2004        Apr 10, Some 11% of South Africans, 5 million people, were reported to be infected with AIDS. An earlier government report said 100,000 civil servants were HIV positive.
    (Econ, 4/10/04, p.39)

2004        Apr 14, South Africans of all races voted for a new government for the third time in a decade. The African National Congress, the party that led them out of apartheid, won nearly 70% of the vote.
    (AP, 4/14/04)(WSJ, 4/15/04, p.A1)(WSJ, 4/16/04, p.A1)

2004        Apr 23, President Thabo Mbeki was elected unopposed for a second term. He pledged to fight poverty and improve opportunities for all South Africans after his party scored its biggest victory yet in a decade of multiracial democracy.
    (AP, 4/23/04)

2004        Apr-2005 Mar, Statistics for this period showed that 18,793 people were murdered in South Africa, an average of 51 a day in a nation of 47 million.
    (AP, 8/26/06)

2004        May 9, Brenda Fassie (39), South Africa's first black pop star, who gave a voice to disenfranchised blacks at the height of apartheid, died of complications from an asthma attack.
    (AP, 5/10/04)

2004        May 31, Ousted Haitian President Jean-Bertrand Aristide and his family received a first-class diplomatic welcome from South Africa, his new home in exile.
    (AP, 5/31/04)

2004        Jul 13, In an Ohio court De Beers ended a 60-year impasse and agreed to pay a $10 million fine for the price fixing of industrial diamonds.
    (Econ, 7/17/04, p.60)

2004        Aug 9, Officials in South Africa prepared to kill some 30,000 ostriches following the deaths of over 1,500 due to avian influenza.
    (SFC, 8/10/04, p.A3)

2004        Aug 24, In South Africa Mark Thatcher, the son of former British PM Margaret Thatcher, was arrested and charged with helping to finance a foiled coup attempt in oil rich Equatorial Guinea. Thatcher was later fined three million rand (approximately $500,000) and received a four-year suspended jail sentence. In 2008 Equatorial Guinea issued an international arrest warrant against Mark Thatcher, accusing him of being an instigator of the abortive coup plot.
    (AP, 8/25/04)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mark_Thatcher)(FP, 3/29/08)

2004        Sep 3, In South Africa Johan Meyer (53), head of a engineering company, was charged with trafficking in nuclear-related materials that could be used to make weapons of mass destruction.
    (AP, 9/3/04)

2004        Sep 15, South Africa formally recognized the pro-independence government in the annexed Moroccan territory of Western Sahara, prompting Rabat to recall its ambassador from Pretoria in protest.
    (AP, 9/16/04)

2004        Nov 7, The NYC Marathon was won by Hendrik Ramaala of South Africa in 2:09:28; Paula Radcliffe won the women's title in 2:23:10.
    (WSJ, 11/8/04, p.A1)

2004        R.W. Johnson authored “South Africa: The First Man, The Last Nation," a history of South Africa.
    (Econ, 10/23/04, p.84)
2004        South Africa launched the Mzansi bank account, a basic account designed to bring citizens into the nation’s financial system. In May, 2005, it won its millionth customer.
    (Econ, 5/28/05, p.77)
2004        The government of South Africa launched Project Consolidate, an effort to help troubled municipalities by sending them managers from comparatively well-run cities.
    (Econ, 3/4/06, p.44)
2004        South Africa introduced its first-ever mining charter. It was revised six years later.
    (Econ 7/8/17, p.44)
2004         In South Africa the Incwala mining firm was born out of Lonwin Platinum (Lonplats), the world’s 3rd largest platinum producer. It was a product of South Africa’s black economic empowerment policy.
    (Econ, 2/10/07, p.72)
2004        South Africa reported some 19,000 murders for the year, about 9 times the rate in the US and 27 times the rate in Britain.
    (Econ, 10/1/05, p.44)
2004        Mark Shuttleworth of South Africa began funding the Ubuntu project, which made a user-friendly version of Linux, an open source operating system.
    (Econ, 6/9/07, TQ p.33)
2004        In South Africa white people, who were 8% of the population, made up 86% of those in the top bracket of living conditions. By 2015 that share had fallen to 49%.
    (Econ 5/20/17, p.40)

2005        Jan 1, South Africa was forecast for 3.3% annual GDP growth with a population at 47.1 million and GDP per head at $4,110.
    (Econ, 1/8/05, p.94)

2005        Jan 6, In South Africa former Pres. Nelson Mandela announced that his son, Makgatho Mandela, had died of illness related to AIDS.
    (SFC, 1/7/05, p.A10)

2005        Feb 11, In South Africa Thabo Mbeki gave his state of the nation speech. He called for faster economic growth and a quicker transfer of wealth from white to black pockets.
    (Econ, 2/19/05, p.45)(www.info.gov.za/speeches/son/)

2005        Feb 18, The government of south Africa said the number of deaths increased by 57 percent in the five years ending in 2003, with AIDS and related illnesses among the leading causes in adults. The rate is far lower than that reported by world health groups.
    (AP, 2/19/05)

2005        Feb, Some 40 current and former South African lawmakers were arrested on fraud charges for falsifying travel expenses.
    (Econ, 1/29/05, p.46)

2005        Mar 7, Officials in South Africa's capital voted to rename the city Tshwane, retaining the name Pretoria for the city center only.
    (AP, 3/7/05)

2005        Mar 9, In South Africa investigators began digging up the first of hundreds of unmarked graves in a bid to close a chapter in South Africa's horrific history.
    (AP, 3/9/05)
2005        Mar 9, An earthquake shook parts of northern South Africa, trapping 16 miners underground.
    (AP, 3/9/05)

2005        Mar 11, South Africa’s Pres. Mbeki nominated Pius Langa to become chief justice when incumbent Arthur Chaskalson retires in May. Langa would be the 1st black to hold the office.
    (Econ, 3/19/05, p.54)

2005        Mar 13, In Musina, South Africa, thousands of protesters held an 18-hour vigil on the border with Zimbabwe to demonstrate against mounting repression in the neighboring country two weeks before a key parliamentary election there.
    (AP, 3/13/05)

2005        Mar 23, In South Africa some 21,000 Harmony Gold Mining Co. Ltd. mineworkers went on strike after mediation efforts with the union over pay and working conditions failed.
    (AP, 3/24/05)

2005        Apr 9, In South Africa the federal council of the New National Party, the successor to the National Party that led apartheid, overwhelmingly approved the party's dissolution at a meeting in Johannesburg. The National Party, which came to power in 1948, presided over 48 years of systematic and often brutal oppression of the country's black majority, who were denied the right to vote or to mix with whites.
    (AP, 4/9/05)

2005        May 21, In South Africa several hundred people, most of them white, demonstrated to protest a proposal to change the capital's name from Pretoria, the name given to it by white settlers, to Tshwane, as the site was once known to its original African inhabitants.
    (AP, 5/22/05)

2005        May 22, In South Africa 7 teenage girls drowned in a rip tide off the east coast and a boy was missing after a beach outing turned tragic when the swimmers ventured out before lifeguards were on duty.
    (AP, 5/23/05)

2005        May 26, The South Africa state agency responsible for names of towns and cities approved plans to rename the capital of Pretoria as Tshwane.
    (AP, 5/26/05)

2005        May, South Africa’s ruling ANC issued a paper suggesting that the nations massive unemployment, estimated at over 40%, could be reduced if the labor market was more flexible.
    (Econ, 5/28/05, p.49)

2005        Jun 2, Schabir Shaik, the financier of the African National Congress during its struggle to end apartheid, was convicted of corruption by a South African court. He was found to have given Jacob Zuma over $100,000 in bribes from a French arms company. Shaik served 2 years and 4 months of his 15 year sentence before he was freed in 2009, supposedly on medical grounds.
    (AP, 6/2/05)(Econ, 3/14/09, p.51)

2005        Jun 10, In South Africa Pius Langa (66), a former shirt factory worker was handed the chief justice's robes at a ceremony marking the appointment of the first black South African to head a court system assailed by allegations of racism.
    (AP, 6/10/05)

2005        Jun 12, In South Africa Makobo Modjadji (27), the famed rain queen of the Bolobedu people, died of unspecified causes.
    (AP, 6/13/05)

2005        Jun 14, President Thabo Mbeki dismissed his deputy Jacob Zuma, after he was implicated in a corruption scandal, throwing wide open the question of who will become the next leader of South Africa. Mbeki soon picked Phumzile Mlambo-Ngcuka, his minister for minerals and energy, to replace Zuma.
    (AP, 6/14/05)(Econ, 6/25/05, p.46)

2005        Jun 27, South African trade unions staged a one-day nationwide strike to protest high unemployment and job losses, with employers reporting a mixed response at job sites and tens of thousands of protesters marching in major cities.
    (AP, 6/27/05)

2005        Jun 28, Swedish truck and bus maker Volvo AB said it will close an assembly plant in Botswana and open a new factory in Durban, South Africa.
    (AP, 6/28/05)

2005        Jul 11, A SA government report said more than 6.5 million of South Africa's 47 million people could be infected with HIV.
    (AP, 7/12/05)

2005        Jul 15, In South Africa a passenger bus plunged down a ravine near the southcentral coast, killing at least 24 people.
    (AP, 7/15/05)

2005        Aug 7, Thousands of miners stopped work for the first strike in South Africa's key gold sector since 1987 after wage negotiations collapsed last week.
    (AP, 8/7/05)

2005        Aug 9, South Africa’s Johannesburg Women’s Jail reopened its doors as a museum.
    (Econ, 8/13/05, p.74)

2005        Aug 11, The two unions representing 90,000 striking South African gold miners agreed to accept management's latest offer and return to work, ending the worst strike in 18 years in the world's largest gold-producing nation.
    (AP, 8/11/05)

2005        Aug 30, South Africa's foreign ministry called a halt to its role as peace mediator in strife-torn Ivory Coast, saying it was in "no mood" to consider new demands from rebels threatening to boycott October elections.
    (AP, 8/30/05)

2005        Aug 31, A South African inventor unveiled a new anti-rape female condom that hooks onto an attacker's penis and aims to cut one of the highest rates of sexual assault in the world.
    (Reuters, 8/31/05)
2005        Aug 31, Conservationists in South Africa unveiled a $30 million plan to save the great apes of Africa, which are under threat of extinction from man and disease. The plan designated 12 sites in five countries for emergency programs: Cameroon, Gabon, Congo, Central African Republic, and Equatorial Guinea.
    (AP, 8/31/05)

2005        Sep 22, South Africa's government moved for the first time to seize land from a white farmer, saying that negotiations to buy the property to hand over to black claimants were taking too long.
    (AP, 9/22/05)

2005        Sep 27, In South Africa Brett Kebble (41), a mining entrepreneur, African National Congress supporter and cultural philanthropist, was found shot to death in Johannesburg. His business dealings had come under scrutiny. Drug trafficker Glen Agliotti was implicated in the murder. Jackie Selebi, South Africa’s chief of police, later admitted to being a friend to Agliotti. In 2010 a judge dropped murder charges against Agliotti.
    (AP, 9/28/05)(Econ, 1/19/08, p.50)(Reuters, 11/25/10)

2005        Sep 30, In South Africa Mark Scott-Crossley, a white farmer convicted in the murder of one of his former black workers, was sentenced to life in prison. Co-defendant Simon Mathebula was sentenced to 15 years. In Jan 31, 2004, Nelson Chisale (41), who had been fired two months earlier for apparently running a personal errand during work hours, was beaten with machetes, tied up, driven to a nearby lion reserve, and thrown over the fence.
    (AP, 9/30/05)

2005        Oct 17, South Africa's government vowed to press ahead with legislative attempts to take greater control of the nation's diamonds and weaken the grip of diamond-producer De Beers, dismissing arguments that this could disrupt global markets and lead to job losses.
    (AP, 10/17/05)

2005        Oct 25, A panel of experts highlighted the darker side of South Africa's booming wildlife industry and recommended a total ban on "canned hunting" — the release of captive-bred animals to be killed for sport with no chance of escaping their human predators.
    (AP, 10/25/05)

2005        Oct 27, South Africa said the G8, the world's richest nations, should allow duty- and quota-free access to all products from poor countries without demanding anything back as part of a deal on global trade.
    (Reuters, 10/27/05)

2005        Oct 28, In South Africa former President Nelson Mandela launched the first edition of a series of comic books about his life aimed at encouraging young South Africans to read.
    (AP, 10/28/05)

2005        Oct, Oando, a Nigerian energy group, became the first company from another African country to be listed on the Johannesburg stock exchange (JSE).
    (Econ, 6/10/06, p.72)

2005        Nov 4, South Africa's former deputy president was indicted on a corruption charge in a scandal involving his financial adviser and two French arms companies. Jacob Zuma, who had been seen as President Thabo Mbeki's successor, was fired in June after being implicated in the scandal involving his financial adviser and friend, Schabir Shaik.
    (AP, 11/5/05)

2005        Nov 10, In South Africa the southern hemisphere's largest single optical telescope with the power to study the most distant galaxies was inaugurated. The giant eye in the sky, that took five years to build, cost $20 million.
    (AP, 11/10/05)

2005        Nov 12, Africa Union leaders from Algeria, Ethiopia, Ghana, Nigeria, South Africa and Senegal met in Abuja for a 2-day summit titled: "Africa and the challenges of the global order: Desirability of union government," with the leaders discussing the broad principles of integration.
    (AFP, 11/12/05)

2005        Nov 14, Iraqi and US troops, trying to stem the flow of insurgent fighters from Syria, launched a dawn assault on a border town killing 37 militants. Police in Baghdad said a car bomb detonated near one of their patrols outside a gate leading into the fortified Green Zone, killing two South Africans.
    (AP, 11/14/05)

2005        Nov 29, In South Africa the mother of Deon van der Walt (47), acclaimed opera singer, found her son in his bedroom with two gunshot wounds to his chest. She also found her husband with a gunshot wound to the temple and a gun by his side. The family lived on a wine estate in the town of Paarl, just outside Cape Town.
    (AP, 11/30/05)

2005        Dec 1, South Africa's highest court ruled it is unconstitutional to prevent gay people from marrying, paving the way for the country to become the first to legalize same-sex unions on a continent where homosexuality remains largely taboo.
    (AP, 12/01/05)

2005        Dec 6, South Africa charged ex-Deputy Pres. Jacob Zuma with rape.
    (WSJ, 12/7/05, p.A1)(Econ, 12/10/05, p.56)

2005        Dec 7, The governing African National Congress accepted the withdrawal of Jacob Zuma, its popular deputy president from leadership duties for the duration of his rape trial.
    (AP, 12/07/05)

2005        Dec 14, In South Africa several hundred Sesotho-speaking Soweto orphans on a beach holiday clashed with police in Durban after officers failed to arrest several Zulu-speaking youths who accosted 4 girls and threatened rape.
    (SFC, 12/17/05, p.A9)

2005        In South Africa a survey estimated that between 1994 and 2004, 942,303 people were evicted from their homes on farms, which are often part of their employment package, compared to 737,114 the previous decade. Some 2.9 million people worked on farms and 950,000 lived on them, it estimated. The Confederation of South African Trade Unions blamed many of the evictions on the trend toward turning farms into luxurious golf estates, safari lodges and tourist accommodation in preparation for the 2010 World Cup.
    (AP, 2/10/07)

2006        Jan 18, Gervan Lubbe, a South African inventor, was reported to have developed an anti-malaria wristwatch to help combat one of Africa's biggest killers by monitoring the blood of those who wear it and sounding an alarm when the parasite is detected.
    (AP, 1/18/06)

2006        Feb 12, In South Africa British PM Tony Blair, Brazilian President Luiz Inacio Lula da Silva and 5 other leaders pledged to push for a new global trade deal that will help poor countries. The 2-day summit in Hammanskraal was the 7th meeting of center-left leaders since the Progressive Governance Network was created in 1999 by Blair and former US president Bill Clinton. Also attending were South Africa President Thabo Mbeki, South Korean PM Lee Hae-Chan, Ethiopian PM Meles Zenawi, Swedish PM Goeran Persson and New Zealand PM Helen Clark.
    (AFP, 2/12/06)

2006        Feb 4, In South Africa Zoliswa Nkonyana (19), a lesbian, was stoned, kicked and stabbed to death just meters (yards) from her Cape Town home. In 2011 four men were convicted of her murder. On Feb 1, 2012, the 4 men were sentenced to 18 years in prison.
    (www.tac.org.za/userfiles/Zoliswa%20Nkonyana%20Joint%20Statement.pdf)(AFP, 2/1/12)   

2006        Mar 2, In South Africa early results put the ruling African National Congress well ahead in local elections, despite voter unhappiness with the rate of progress in improving the lives of poor blacks.
    (AP, 3/2/06)
2006        Mar 2, South Africa joined a growing list of countries inviting Hamas leaders for talks, raising Israeli concerns that the international front against the Islamic militants is crumbling.
    (AP, 3/2/06)

2006        Mar 4, Final results showed that South Africa's governing African National Congress won two-thirds of council seats in local elections. President Thabo Mbeki vowed to repay the confidence shown by voters in the ruling African National Congress and speed up delivery of services to millions of poor blacks.
    (AP, 3/4/06)(AP, 3/5/06)

2006        Mar 29, In South Africa a fire swept through a downtown Johannesburg building, killing 12 people and injuring 33 others trapped inside by locked security gates and belongings piled in passageways.
    (AP, 3/29/06)

2006        Mar, In South Africa a program was launched to train 375 traditional healers to test patients for AIDS, keep records, and refer patients to clinics for antiretroviral drugs.
    (WSJ, 5/5/06, p.A1)
2006        Mar, In Soweto, South Africa, construction began on the black-owned $96 million Maponya Mall, the first of its kind in the township.
    (AFP, 5/20/06)

2006        Apr 3, A senior South African policeman went on a shooting rampage in Johannesburg, killing eight people, including a 2-year-old baby, before being shot dead by colleagues. A pedestrian was killed during a police chase of the suspect.
    (AP, 4/4/06)

2006        Apr 7, It was reported that some AIDS patients in South Africa were choosing cash disability grants over advanced AIDS drugs in order to sustain their families.
    (WSJ, 4/7/06, p.A1)

2006        Apr, In South Africa the government unveiled a project to build a luxury, four-star hotel at Freedom Square in Soweto.
    (AFP, 5/20/06)

2006        May 3, The Alexandros T, a bulk carrier, sank off the South African coast with 33 crewmen. The sip sank in heavy seas on its way from Brazil to China. Five managed to reach life rafts in time and one was rescued with a life vest.
    (AP, 5/4/06)

2006        May 5, In South Africa Anthony Wakaba Mutheki, a Kenyan-born artist who once hawked his works for as little as $1 apiece, was reported to have become one of Africa's hottest young talents, fetching up to $12,000 for his paintings.
    (Reuters, 5/5/06)

2006        May 8, A judge acquitted former Deputy President Jacob Zuma of rape in a politically charged trial that left in tatters his aspirations to lead South Africa.
    (AP, 5/8/06)

2006        May 18, In South Africa a one-day national strike organized by the main trade union movement to protest poverty and unemployment hit production in the mining and car-manufacturing industries and had a patchy response in other sectors.
    (AP, 5/18/06)

2006        May 19, In South Africa Noziphu Bhengu (32), a victim of AIDS and quackery, died.
    (Econ, 6/10/06, p.89)

2006        May 27, In South Africa 13 were killed on a highway after a pickup truck slammed into the back of a minibus taxi which exploded into flames.
    (Reuters, 5/28/06)

2006        Jun 5, In South Africa the Johannesburg stock exchange (JSE) became a listed company on its own exchange. The JSE was the 17th largest in the world and the largest in Africa. It listed only 25 foreign companies.
    (Econ, 6/10/06, p.72)

2006        Jun 6, Qatar Petroleum and South Africa’s Sasol unveiled a new plant in Qatar to transform natural gas into a synthetic fuel similar to diesel by a process knows as gas-to-liquids (GTL). Sasol was also building a GTL plant in Nigeria with Chevron Texaco.
    (Econ, 6/3/06, p.58)

2006        Jun 21, Chinese Premier Wen Jiabao flew into South Africa on the fifth leg of an African tour where he is due to sign a nuclear cooperation pact and hold talks on the thorny question of textile imports from Beijing.
    (AP, 6/21/06)

2006        Jul 10, South African writer Mary Watson was named the 7th winner of the Caine Prize for African writing her 2004 book “Moss," a collection interlinked stories. The prize was created in honor of the late Sir Michael Caine, a British businessman with a deep interest in Africa who for almost 25 years chaired the management committee of what is today known the Man Booker Prize.
    (AP, 7/12/06)(Econ, 7/15/06, p.83)

2006        Jul, Willie Hofmeyr, head of South Africa’s Special Investigating Unit, said 400,000 civil servants had been identified getting welfare payments to which they were not entitled.
    (http://tinyurl.com/yflgrxl)(Econ, 2/6/10, p.52)

2006        Aug 2, South Africans faced one of their harshest winters in years, with at least four deaths blamed on flooding from heavy rain that has caused travel delays in the south and west of the country.
    (AP, 8/2/06)

2006        Aug 16, The presidents of South Africa, Mozambique and Zimbabwe gathered for the official opening the new Giriyondo border post linking South Africa and Mozambique. This was another step in the creation of the 14,000 square mile Greater Limpopo Transfrontier Park, which would span the 3 countries.
    (SFC, 8/17/06, p.A2)

2006        Aug 24, South Africa's cabinet gave the green light for a bill allowing gay marriage, which would make it the first country in Africa to accord homosexual couples the same rights as their straight counterparts.
    (Reuters, 8/24/06)

2006        Aug 26, Vladimir Tretchikoff (92), Manchurian-born artist, died in Cape Town. In 2013 his iconic painting "Chinese Girl," said to be one of the most reproduced in the world, sold at auction for 982,050 British pounds (nearly $1.5 million).
    (AP, 3/21/13)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Vladimir_Tretchikoff)

2006        Aug 28, In South Africa Adriaan Vlok, whose ministry helped suppress anti-apartheid protests, last weekend visited the offices of the Rev. Frank Chikane, a top presidential aide, to apologize. Vlok brought his Bible and washed Chikane's feet in an attempt to atone for the sins of the white racist regime that ruled the country until 1994.
    (AP, 8/29/06)

2006        Sep 5, Russian President Vladimir Putin met South African leader Thabo Mbeki at the start of a visit intended to forge closer ties between the mineral and diamond superpowers.
    (Reuters, 9/5/06)

2006        Sep 6, More than 80 international scientists and academics released a letter that condemned South Africa's AIDS policies as ineffective and immoral and called for the firing of the health minister in a letter to President Thabo Mbeki.
    (AP, 9/6/06)

2006        Sep 7, Medical experts said a killer strain of drug-resistant tuberculosis has been found in at least 28 hospitals across South Africa and that it jeopardized efforts to deal with AIDS.
    (SFC, 9/8/06, p.A3)

2006        Sep 8, In South Africa Hilda Bernstein (b.1915), a London-born anti-apartheid activist and author, died. Her husband was tried for treason alongside Nelson Mandela in 1964. Rusty Bernstein (d.2002) was the only defendant acquitted and freed. Police harassment made life afterward so difficult for the Bernsteins that the couple was forced into exile, leaving their children behind. They crossed the border to Botswana on foot, a journey described in Hilda Bernstein's book "The World That Was Ours."
    (AP, 9/11/06)

2006        Sep 13, The presidents of Brazil and South Africa, at a trilateral trade meeting in Brasilia, said they supported changes in international rules to allow India to buy nuclear fuel and reactors from the United States and other countries. The trio created the India-Brazil-South Africa Dialogue Forum (IBSA) in 2003 to promote the interests of their emerging markets.
    (Reuters, 9/13/06)(AFP, 9/14/06)

2006        Sep 20, In South Africa a judge dismissed corruption charges against Jacob Zuma after the prosecution said it was not ready to proceed against a powerful, populist politician who could be South Africa's next president.
    (AP, 9/20/06)

2006        Sep 30, In South Africa the 4th annual Homeless World Cup tournament ended. It brought together 500 players from 48 countries in a project aimed at helping homeless people turn their lives around. The first was held in Austria in 2003 with just five countries competing.
    (AP, 9/29/06)
2006        Sep 30, India’s PM Manmohan Singh arrived in South Africa to expand trade links and commemorate the passive resistance movement initiated by Mahatma Gandhi in the African nation 100 years ago.
    (AP, 9/30/06)

2006        Oct 2, Indian PM Manmohan Singh and South African President Thabo Mbeki signed a sweeping pact to buttress ties between the regional powerhouses. The Pretoria agreement was followed by the signing of a pact on cooperation in education and another between Indian Railways which runs one of the world's biggest networks and South African railway company Spoornet.
    (AP, 10/2/06)

2006        Oct 30, South African miner Gold Fields announced it was listing on the Dubai International Financial Exchange (DIFX), becoming the first African company to list shares on the fledgling Gulf market.
    (AP, 10/30/06)

2006        Oct 31, In South Africa P.W. Botha (b.1916), the apartheid-era leader (1978-1989) known as the “great crocodile," died. In the 1980s he had resisted pressure to release Nelson Mandela from prison.
    (AP, 11/1/06)(Econ, 11/4/06, p.56)

2006        Nov 6, South Africa's top appeals court dented ex-Deputy President Jacob Zuma's chances of becoming the next president when it confirmed corruption convictions against a former financial adviser.
    (Reuters, 11/6/06)

2006        Nov 13, In South Africa up to 20 people were killed near Cape Town when a train smashed into a truck carrying farm workers.
    (AFP, 11/13/06)

2006        Nov 14, The South African parliament approved new legislation recognizing gay marriages, a first for a continent where homosexuality is largely taboo.
    (AP, 11/14/06)

2006        Nov 20, In South Africa police said Ananias Mathe, a Mozambican national awaiting trial on rape, murder and other charges, escaped from Pretoria's C-Max prison  by greasing himself up with petroleum jelly and squeezing out of a tiny window. This was the first reported escape at the top security prison in its 36-year history. On Dec 4 Mathe was shot and captured.
    (AP, 11/20/06)(AFP, 12/4/06)

2006        Nov 30, South Africa became the first country in Africa, and only the fifth in the world, to legalize same sex marriages.
    (AP, 11/30/06)

2006        Dec 1, South Africa unveiled plans to halve the number of people being infected with the AIDS virus within five years by persuading youngsters to delay the start of their sex lives. Some 5.5 million South Africans suffered from HIV and about 950 were dying from AIDS every day.
    (AFP, 12/1/06)(Econ, 12/9/06, p.53)

2006        Dec 5, In South Africa the findings of a new report said nearly 300 million dollars worth of gold is stolen every year by underground pirates from mines. The report found that 41% of gold thieves were mine employees and 56% were unemployed.
    (AFP, 12/5/06)

2006        Dec 7, The South African central bank raised its key lending rate by half a percentage point to 9.0%. In the wake of the repo rate increase, the country's four main commercial banks announced increases of their prime lending rates by half a point to 12.5%.
    (AFP, 12/7/06)

2006        Dec 8, President George W. Bush and visiting South African President Thabo Mbeki pressed for urgent deployment of international peacekeepers in violence-torn Darfur.
    (AFP, 12/8/06)

2006        Dec 9, UN Special Envoy Stephen Lewis said South Africa had made "a breakthrough" on AIDS after sidelining its controversial health minister and unveiling a new program for helping people with HIV. Health Minister Manto Tshabalala-Msimang contended that eating a mixture of garlic and vegetables can fight HIV.
    (AFP, 12/9/06)

2006        Dec 12, Czech president Vaclav Klaus pledged to forge closer ties with Prague's biggest African trade partner as he became the first leader from the eastern European nation to visit South Africa.
    (AP, 12/12/06)

2006        Dec 14, South Africa’s cabinet released details of its newly approved codes of good practice for black economic development (BEE). They were mandatory only for government and state-owned companies, but pretty much required for anyone wanting to do business with the state.
    (Econ, 12/23/06, p.99)(www.dispute.co.za/)

2006        In South Africa an investigation was commissioned by the government into the UN oil-for-food program in Iraq. The probe was ordered by president Thabo Mbeki, into what has become known in the country as "Oilgate," to look at allegations of kickbacks sourced by senior members of the ruling party from the State Oil Marketing Organization of Iraq (SOMO).
    (AFP, 12/7/11)
2006        In South Africa over 18,000 people were murdered this year. The number of South Africans with AIDS reached 5.5 million.
    (Econ, 3/3/07, p.13)
2006        In South Africa blacks made up 80% of the population of some 48 million people.
    (Econ, 12/2/06, p.52)

2007        Jan 2, In South Africa Oprah Winfrey opened a school for disadvantaged girls south of Johannesburg, fulfilling a promise she made to former President Nelson Mandela six years ago and giving more than 150 students a chance for a better future. The school later became embroiled in allegations of abuse; Winfrey apologized and promised an overhaul.
    (AP, 1/2/07)(AP, 1/2/08)

2007        Jan 4, Marais Viljoen (91), former president of South Africa (1979-1984), died. The post of president in the then apartheid state was largely ceremonial during his term.
    (AP, 1/5/07)

2007        Jan 26, In South Africa historian David Rattray (48) was found shot dead at his home in the eastern Kwa-Zulu Natal province. On Feb 5 a court handed Sethe Nkwanyana (23) a 25-year prison term for armed robbery and the murder of Rattray. Nkwanyana said in court that Banozi Ndlovu shot Rattray.
    (AFP, 2/5/07)(Econ, 2/10/07, p.91)

2007        Jan 30, Researchers said South Africa's AIDS epidemic, often regarded by health workers as a disease of the poor, is in fact spreading quickly among the country's richest and best educated people.
    (AP, 1/30/07)

2007        Feb 1, In South Africa 20 people, including four children, were killed in a car accident in Mpumalanga province.
    (AFP, 2/1/07)

2007        Feb 6, China’s President Hu Jintao vowed to forge a partnership of equals with South Africa as he held talks with his counterpart Thabo Mbeki.
    (AP, 2/6/07)

2007        Feb 7, In South Africa Chin’s President Hu Jintao promised to increase imports from Africa, responding to fears about the trade deficit that increased as China pumped unprecedented aid, investment and loans into the poor but resource-rich continent.
    (AP, 2/7/07)

2007        Feb 8, South Africa, burdened with one of the world's major HIV/AIDS epidemics, unveiled plans for its biggest AIDS vaccine trial.
    (Reuters, 2/8/07)

2007        Feb 12, South Africa said it will build a second nuclear power plant generating more than 1,000 megawatts of electricity.
    (AFP, 2/12/07)

2007        Feb 20, South Africa's environment minister announced long-awaited restrictions on hunting, declaring he was sickened by wealthy tourists shooting tame lions from the back of a truck and felling rhinos with a bow and arrow.
    (AP, 2/20/07)

2007        Feb 21, South Africa's finance minister painted an upbeat picture of the economy, forecasting five-percent annual growth to the end of the decade as he posted the first budget surplus in recent memory. Two people were arrested over the theft of jewelry worth more than 500,000 dollars from the home of Winnie Madikizela-Mandela, the former wife of South Africa's anti-apartheid icon Nelson Mandela.
    (AP, 2/21/07)

2007        Feb, In South Africa 6 US nationals employed by the embassy in Pretoria were forced at gunpoint to lie on the floor during a raid on their home during which a gang stole thousands of dollars worth of equipment.
    (AFP, 2/14/07)
2007        Feb, Close to 12 million of South Africa’s 47 million people received some type of government assistance.
    (Econ, 2/24/07, p.89)

2007        Mar 8, South Africa launched a new national plan to combat one of the world's highest rates of domestic violence on International Woman's Day.
    (AFP, 3/8/07)

2007        Mar 10, The South African government took possession of the first farm to be expropriated, in a move designed to silence criticism it is dragging its feet over land reform. Local people had been forced off Pniel Farm near Kimberley and into a shantytown in 1967.
    (AFP, 3/10/07)

2007        Mar 19, In South Africa waves reaching up to eight meters (26 feet) high pounded Durban, smashing windows and flooding businesses.
    (AFP, 3/20/07)

2007        Mar 23, Australia called on South Africa to pressure Zimbabwe's President Robert Mugabe to quit, saying the 83-year-old leader was a disaster for his country. South Africa defended its policy on Zimbabwe as the only way to approach Mugabe's authoritarian government and said African nations might convene a summit to deal with the crisis.
    (AFP, 3/23/07)(Reuters, 3/23/07)

2007        Apr 8, The body of a murdered South African national, Kenneth Scott Andrew (26), was found in a plastic bag on the outskirts of the northwestern Pakistani city of Peshawar.
    (AFP, 4/9/07)

2007        Apr 10, South African President Thabo Mbeki arrived in Khartoum to join the international push for UN peacekeepers in Darfur, amid fears of a regional spillover after clashes between Sudan and Chad. Officials said the UN, the African Union and the Sudanese government have reached agreement to beef up the African force in Sudan's violence-wracked Darfur region with UN troops, police and equipment.
    (AP, 4/10/07)

2007        Apr 13, African health ministers meeting in South Africa adopted a health strategy to deal with the host of diseases on the continent, a dearth of health workers and failing health systems.
    (AFP, 4/13/07)

2007        Apr 30, The South African government and AIDS campaigners launched a joint national body to oversee a program aimed at halving the country's rate of new infections.
    (AP, 4/30/07)

2007        May 1, Thousands of South Africans marched in Durban to protest the renaming of streets after heroes of the ruling African National Congress, sparking warnings of violence in the Zulu heartland.
    (AP, 5/1/07)

2007        May 6, In South Africa Helen Zille, mayor of Cape Town, was elected as leader of the Democratic Alliance (DA).
    (Econ, 5/12/07, p.51)

2007        May 7, In South Africa Dina Rodrigues was found guilty of murder for orchestrating the June 2005 killing of 6-month-old Jordan-Leigh Norton, her lover's baby daughter from a previous marriage. This was South Africa's first known contract killing of an infant.
    (AP, 5/7/07)

2007        May 10, South Africa's common law was rewritten to classify forced anal sex with a woman or girl, previously considered indecent assault, as rape.
    (AP, 5/11/07)

2007        May 14, In South Africa deputies and experts attending the Pan African Parliament called for Western countries to help reverse the environmental damage to the continent that they had helped create.
    (AP, 5/14/07)

2007        May 22, South African lawmakers passed amended legislation to broaden the definition of rape in a country with sky-high rates of sex crimes and HIV/AIDS. The heaviest snowfalls in 20 years blocked major highways, as a severe cold snap tightened its grip on South Africa. At least 17 deaths, mostly in Eastern Cape province, were blamed on the cold weather.
    (AP, 5/22/07)(AFP, 5/22/07)(SFC, 5/26/07, p.B6)

2007        May 24, In South Africa's Eastern Cape province 9 children were among 14 people killed in a multiple-vehicle crash.
    (AP, 5/25/07)

2007        May 25, In South Africa tens of thousands of nurses, teachers and other public service workers took to the streets to press their demands for a 12 percent pay increase.
    (AP, 5/25/07)

2007        May 31, In South Africa Britain's PM Blair also said that Africa's leaders must get tough on authoritarian governments, such as those in Sudan and Zimbabwe.
    (Reuters, 5/31/07)

2007        Jun 1, In South Africa hundreds of thousands of public servants embarked on an indefinite strike.
    (AP, 6/1/07)
2007        Jun 1, CNBC Africa was launched from new headquarters in South Africa. Dubai investors put in some $22.5 million for the 24-hour African business channel broadcasting to 14 African countries.
    (Econ, 6/9/07, p.75)

2007        Jun 2, The UN Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species (CITES) decided to permit a one-off sale of 60 tons of ivory from Botswana, Namibia and South Africa to Japan, saying it would monitor closely the impact on poaching and population levels.
    (Reuters, 6/3/07)

2007        Jun 4, The Institute for Democracy in South Africa (IDASA) said a study of mortality patterns in South Africa, Malawi, Namibia, Zambia, Tanzania and Senegal indicated Africa's HIV/AIDS crisis was reaching deep into elected governments.
    (Reuters, 6/4/07)
2007        Jun 4, South African police fired stun grenades and made a dozen arrests as they cracked down on union hardliners who were preventing nurses from turning up for work at a hospital in Durban.
    (AP, 6/4/07)

2007        Jun 7, South Africa launched a new scheme by which citizens in crime-ridden areas will be able to use text messages to anonymously tip-off the police. South African police used stun grenades and a water cannon to disperse striking hospital workers in the port city of Durban as a crippling public sector strike entered its 7th day.
    (AP, 6/7/07)

2007        Jun 12, The Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development said South Africa is to become the first African country to join an OECD convention requiring adherents to crack down on bribery of foreign public officials.
    (AP, 6/12/07)

2007        Jun 13, In South Africa tens of thousands of public sector workers marched to government offices across the country, escalating a 12-day-old strike and bringing the largest cities to a standstill.
    (AP, 6/13/07)

2007        Jun 13, In South Africa tens of thousands of public sector workers marched to government offices across the country, escalating a 12-day-old strike and bringing the largest cities to a standstill.
    (AP, 6/13/07)

2007        Jun 14, In South Africa former UN chief Kofi Annan said he would head a new green group bankrolled by Microsoft chairman Bill Gates to help reverse Africa's declining food production and double output.
    (AP, 6/14/07)
2007        Jun 14, In the Netherlands four African states (South Africa, Namibia, Botswana and Zimbabwe), after an 18-year ban, were allowed to put their ivory stocks on the market in a one-time sale as part of a hard-fought compromise reached with other Africans who tried to block the sale. The 171-member Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species, or CITES, approved the deal by consensus.
    (AP, 6/14/07)

2007        Jun 22, South African unions turned down a revised offer of a 7.5% pay rise, ensuring that the country's biggest strike since the end of apartheid will go into a fourth week.
    (AFP, 6/22/07)

2007        Jun 27, South Africa's main international airport faced major disruption after a deadly cold snap which saw the heaviest snowfalls in Johannesburg for more than two decades.
    (AP, 6/27/07)

2007        Jun 28, In South Africa public sector unions representing one million members called off a nearly monthlong strike, bringing an end to a labor action that shut down schools and crippled hospitals across the country.
    (AP, 6/28/07)

2007        Jul 12, South Africa banned the import of poultry products from Germany after an outbreak of the potentially fatal H5N1 strain of bird flu.
    (AFP, 7/12/07)

2007        Jul 16, Public schools reopened in South Africa after seven weeks following a month-long strike by teachers and winter holidays.
    (AP, 7/16/07)

2007        Jul 20, President Thabo Mbeki hailed the launch of a rolling news network in South Africa as an opportunity to break free of Western news agendas and give a more rounded picture of the continent.
    (AP, 7/20/07)
2007        Jul 20, Angola, Namibia and South Africa launched a joint commission designed to lay the groundwork for a sustainable and environmental approach of their shared fishing grounds in the Atlantic Ocean.
    (AFP, 7/20/07)

2007        Jul 23, Abel Mutsakani, the editor of an independent Zimbabwean news service based in South Africa, was shot and seriously wounded in Johannesburg.
    (AP, 7/26/07)

2007        Jul 30, Officials said at least 19 people have been killed and hundreds of homes destroyed by a series of forest fires which have swept through parts of northeastern South Africa.
    (AP, 7/30/07)

2007        Aug 6, South Africa stated its readiness to assist Guinea Bissau in tackling drug trafficking as the tiny west African nation has been used as a transit hub for European-bound cocaine.
    (AP, 8/6/07)

2007        Aug 8, In South Africa Pres. Mbeki dismissed deputy health minister Nozizwe Madlala-Routledge following reports that she had gone to Spain to attend an AIDS conference without his permission. AIDS activists have been highly critical of her boss, Health Minister Manto Tshabalala-Msimang, who promoted garlic and lemons as a remedy for AIDS and mistrusted antiretroviral medicines.
    (AP, 8/10/07)

2007        Aug 9, Officials said a total of 28 people died and hundreds of homes were destroyed by a series of forest fires which swept through parts of South Africa and Swaziland since the end of last month.
    (AP, 8/9/07)

2007        Aug 15, Maputo's interior ministry said South Africa has intensified the repatriation of Mozambican illegal immigrants, going from 400 to a weekly average of more than 600.
    (AFP, 8/15/07)

2007        Aug 17, In the first trial of a minister from South Africa’s white racist government, former law and order Minister Adriaan Vlok and his police chief Johannes Van der Merwe were both sentenced to 10 years. However, they will not have to spend any time in prison if they commit no crimes for five years. Three other former top security officials were given five-year suspended sentences for their role in the 1989 plot to assassinate Frank Chikane.
    (AP, 8/17/07)

2007        Aug 20, South African President Thabo Mbeki arrived in Kinshasa for a working visit aimed at boosting relations with the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC).
    (AFP, 8/20/07)

2007        Aug 21, The leader of India's ruling party, Sonia Gandhi, arrived in South Africa for a three-day visit in a bid to strengthen ties between the two nations.
    (AP, 8/21/07)

2007        Aug 27, In South Africa Hewlett-Packard became the first multinational to be exempted from selling 30 percent of its business in South Africa to black investors. Under an agreement reached with the government, the company will instead invest millions of dollars in a new business institute to provide training for 1,800 students over the next six years.
    (AFP, 8/27/07)

2007        Aug 29, Britain unveiled a statue of Nelson Mandela outside the houses of Parliament, honoring the South African anti-apartheid campaigner as one of the great leaders of his era.
    (AP, 8/29/07)

2007        Sep 25, In South Africa a two-week strike by some 50,000 workers that had halted output at Volkswagen AG , DaimlerChrysler (DAIGn.DE) and other car makers ended.
    (Reuters, 9/26/07)

2007        Oct 3, A pressurized air pipe snapped at the mine near Johannesburg and tumbled down a shaft, causing extensive damage to an elevator and stranding 3,200 miners more than a mile underground. More than 2,000 trapped gold miners were rescued in a dramatic all-night operation, and efforts gathered speed to bring hundreds more to the surface. By the next night all the miners had emerged safely.
    (AP, 10/4/07)

2007        Oct 4, The head of South Africa's main union body stood down from his office pending the outcome of an investigation into the disappearance of a large cash donation.
    (AFP, 10/5/07)
2007        Oct 4, Prominent world figures led by former President Carter and Desmond Tutu of South Africa said they were shocked by the suffering in Darfur and criticized Sudan's government in exceptionally harsh terms.
    (AP, 10/4/07)

2007        Oct 5, South African prosecutors said they had obtained an arrest warrant for national police chief and Interpol president Jackie Selebi, as one of his friends appeared in court on murder charges.
    (AFP, 10/5/07)

2007        Oct 9, The impoverished Nama tribe won back diamond-rich land confiscated by a government mining company more than 80 years ago, ending South Africa's longest running court case. The Nama had lodged their claim to the coastal plain in 1997.
    (AP, 10/10/07)

2007        Oct 10, Two suspects were remanded in custody by a South African court in connection with the murders of ten women whose bodies were found dumped in sugarcane fields.
    (AP, 10/10/07)

2007        Oct 11, South Africa's central bank chief Tito Mboweni announced the key lending rate is to increase by half a percentage point to 10.5% to ward off a threat of higher inflation.
    (AP, 10/11/07)

2007        Oct 12, In central South Africa the Oerlikon GDF-005, a German-made computer-controlled anti-aircraft gun, went haywire during a training exercise killing 9 South African soldiers and wounding 14 others.
    (AP, 10/12/07)(http://blog.wired.com/defense/2007/10/robot-cannon-ki.html)

2007        Oct 17,     In South Africa the leaders of Brazil, India and South Africa vowed to push the interests of poor nations in stalled international trade talks and said any agreement would have to benefit the developing world.
    (AP, 10/17/07)

2007        Oct 18, South African reggae star Lucky Dube (43) was shot in an apparent carjacking attempt in Johannesburg's southern Rosettenville suburb. He died as he tried to drive away and crashed into a car and a tree. On Oct 21 police arrested five men in the killing. His albums included “Rastas never Die" (1984) and “Slave" (1987). In 2009 three men were sentenced to life in prison for the botched carjacking and murder.
    (AP, 10/19/07)(AP, 10/21/07)(Econ, 10/27/07, p.102)(AP, 4/2/09)

2007        Oct 21, Springboks, the South African rugby team, beat England (15-6) in the Rugby World Cup Final at the Stade France in Paris.
    (AFP, 10/23/07)(Econ, 10/27/07, p.57)

2007        Oct 25, The Industrial and Commercial Bank of China announced that it was buying 20% of Standard Bank in South Africa for $5.6 billion.
    (Econ, 11/3/07, p.80)

2007        Oct 27, An official of the Vietnamese embassy to South Africa was shot and seriously injured in a robbery at his Pretoria residence.
    (AFP, 10/28/07)

2007        Nov 6, Sudanese President Omar al-Beshir met with South African President Thabo Mbeki in Cape Town for talks on the situation in war-torn Darfur and political upheaval in Khartoum.
    (AP, 11/6/07)
2007        Nov 6, In northern South Africa a blaze swept through a nursing home, killing 12 people and injuring five.
    (AP, 11/7/07)

2007        Nov 17, In South Africa finance ministers from the world's largest 20 economies began talks focusing on reforming the World Bank and the International Monetary Fund (IMF).
    (AP, 11/17/07)

2007        Nov 21, A South African police officer died when a helicopter carrying 14 police officers and five air force officials crashed near the border with Lesotho.
    (AFP, 11/21/07)

2007        Nov 22, In South Africa De Beers announced that it was selling the Cullinan diamond mine, which it has owned since 1930, to a consortium led by Petra Diamonds.
    (Econ, 12/1/07, p.82)

2007        Dec 1, In South Africa Nelson Mandela drew a crowd of about 15,000 to his fifth international awareness concert, held this year to coincide with World AIDS Day.
    (AP, 12/2/07)

2007        Dec 4, Tens of thousands of mineworkers downed tools in South Africa in a one-day strike over safety standards, accusing their bosses of putting lives at risk for the sake of profits.
    (AFP, 12/4/07)

2007        Dec 12-2007 Dec 14, In South Africa 49 patients, all with multidrug resistant (MDR) and extremely drug resistant (XDR) TB, escaped through holes they had cut through the perimeter fences of Jose Pearson Hospital in Port Elizabeth.

2007        Dec 18, In South Africa delegates of the governing African National Congress cast their votes for party leader. Zuma defeated President Thabo Mbeki by 2,329 votes to 1,505 at the party convention and moved into position to become president in 2009.
    (AP, 12/18/07)(AP, 12/19/07)

2007        Dec 20, South Africa's top prosecutor said he had enough evidence to bring corruption charges against Jacob Zuma, the man standing in line to be the country's next president.
    (AP, 12/20/07)

2007        Dec 28, Jacob Zuma (65), the newly elected leader of South Africa's ruling party, was ordered to stand trial on corruption and other charges next year, raising doubts about whether the party would back his candidacy for the 2009 presidential election.
    (AP, 12/29/07)
2007        Dec 28, Tanzania's ambassador to South Africa and his wife were attacked by armed robbers at a farewell dinner hosted for them in the capital Pretoria.
    (AFP, 12/29/07)

2007        Mark Gevisser, a South African journalist, authored a biography of South Africa’s Pres. Thabo Mbeki “Thabo Mbeki: The Dream Deferred."
    (Econ, 12/1/07, p.97)
2007        Padraig O’Malley authored “Shades of Difference: Mac Maharaj and the Struggle for South Africa."
    (SSFC, 4/15/07, p.M1)
2007        South Africa's Parliament passed the Astronomy Geographic Advantage Act, which declares the Northern Cape an "astronomy advantage area", giving the Minister of Science and Technology powers to protect the area from future radio interference.
2007        Industrial and Commercial Bank of China (ICBC) spent $5.5 billion to acquire a 20% stake in South Africa-based Standard Bank. This was China’s largest corporate foreign investment to date.
    (Econ, 5/15/10, SR p.18)

2007-2008    South Africa’s MTN mobile phone company invested over $1.5 billion in Iran to provide coverage for over 40% of Iranians.
    (Econ, 2/6/10, p.49)

2008        Jan 5, Jacob Zuma, the new African National Congress leader and would-be national president, took another wife, in a Zulu tradition of polygamy that coexists uneasily with calls for gender equality in modern South Africa.
    (AP, 1/5/08)

2008        Jan 12, South African national police chief Jackie Selebi was placed on extended leave, a day after prosecutors announced plans to charge him with corruption over his links to a murder suspect. Selebi resigned as president of Interpol and planned to fight corruption allegations.
    (AP, 1/12/08)(WSJ, 1/14/08, p.A1)

2008        Jan 13, Irish PM Bertie Ahern arrived in Cape Town as part of a five-day visit to South Africa and Tanzania.
    (AP, 1/13/08)

2008        Jan 14, In South Africa Johan Nel (18), wearing camouflage and carrying a rifle, began firing on a group of children as he took a path through the settlement just outside the village of Swartruggens. His shooting rampage in the black settlement left four people dead, including a mother and her infant. His father handed him over to police. In November Nel pleaded guilty as his trial started.
    (AP, 1/24/08)(AP, 11/17/08)

2008        Jan 19, Nationwide power outages shut down basic services across Zambia and Zimbabwe as anger mounted in South Africa over power cuts that have wreaked havoc in the continent's economic hub.
    (AP, 1/20/08)

2008        Jan 23, Canada bowed out of the 2009 UN conference on racism in Durban, South Africa, saying it would likely "degenerate into ... expressions of intolerance and anti-Semitism."
    (AFP, 1/24/08)

2008        Jan 25, In South Africa gold production ground to a halt as the industry became the latest victim of a spiraling electricity crisis which the government labeled a national emergency.
    (AP, 1/25/08)
2008        Jan 25, Gold and platinum prices reached new highs after mine stoppages in South Africa, a leading producer of the precious metals, led to buying on supply concerns. An ounce of gold for February delivery spiked to $924.30, a fresh record, on the New York Mercantile Exchange before easing back to settle at $910.70, up $4.90. April platinum peaked at a new high of $1,694.90 an ounce. Prices later settled at $1,670, up $57.
    (AP, 1/26/08)

2008        Jan 30, South African police raided a downtown Johannesburg church late at night where hundreds of Zimbabweans had taken refuge, hauling people in pajamas to a police station in scenes reminiscent of apartheid-era raids.
    (AP, 1/31/08)
2008        Jan 30, Auto giant Ford announced a multi-million dollar investment in South Africa, brushing aside fears about an electricity crisis which has alarmed other international investors.
    (AP, 1/30/08)

2008        Feb 5, A South African court sentenced Daniel Geiges (69), a Swiss engineer, for his part in an international nuclear smuggling ring. Geiges was given a 13-year suspended sentence on charges relating to a network run by disgraced Pakistan nuclear scientist A.Q. Khan. Geiges' former boss and co-accused, German engineer Gerhard Wisser was given an 18-year suspended sentenced last year in a plea agreement for his role in the network.
    (AP, 2/5/08)
2008        Feb 5, In South Africa 12 patients, including two children, were killed when their minibus overturned en route to a hospital in South Africa's Northern Cape province.
    (AP, 2/5/08)

2008        Feb 11, In London the price of platinum struck an historic high nearing $1,900 on supply disruptions caused by power shortages in South Africa, the white metal's biggest producer.
    (AP, 2/11/08)

2008        Feb 12, South Africa’s security minister announced that the government is dissolving an elite graft-busting unit set up by prosecutors, in the latest twist in a struggle between South Africa's crime-fighting agencies.
    (AP, 2/12/08)

2008        Feb 18, Platinum hit a record high for the 13th successive day on lingering power supply shortages which have disrupted mining in main producer South Africa.
    (AP, 2/18/08)

2008        Feb 22, South Africa and India agreed to allow businessmen traveling between the two countries multiple entry visas, as part of several agreements signed in Pretoria.
    (AFP, 2/22/08)

2008        Feb 25, South Africa announced that it was reversing a 1995 ban on killing elephants to help control their booming population, drawing instant outrage from animal-rights activists.
    (AP, 2/25/08)

2008        Feb 28, French President Nicolas Sarkozy, following talks with South African President Thabo Mbeki in South Africa, announced a "renegotiation" of all French military accords with African nations, arguing that France no longer had a "policing" role to play on the continent. French power giant Alstom announced a 1.36 billion euro (two-billion-dollar) contract for the construction of a coal-fuelled power plant in South Africa which is suffering from a severe electricity shortage.
    (AFP, 2/28/08)

2008        Feb 29, France and energy-hungry South Africa signed three economic accords, including one for the construction of a 1.36-billion euro coal-fuelled power plant by French energy giant Alstom.
    (AP, 2/29/08)

2008        Mar 1, BHP Billiton, Melbourne-based mining giant, said it plans to invest $975 million to upgrade and expand its thermal coal mines in South Africa to sustain coal exports amid soaring coal prices.
    (Reuters, 3/3/08)

2008        Mar 17, Indonesia and South Africa agreed to reduce obstacles to trade and business and jointly explore new avenues for electricity generation.
    (AFP, 3/17/08)

2008        Mar 28, South Africa launched a four million dollar program to track down tuberculosis patients who have defaulted treatment, leading to resistant strains of the illness.
    (AP, 3/28/08)

2008        Mar, In South Africa tens of thousands of swallows fell dead in Limpopo province as wet weather prevented them from eating properly less than a week before their migration for Europe.
    (SFC, 4/12/08, p.B6)

2008        Apr 13, In South Africa 2 Americans and a Norwegian tourist on a shark cage diving adventure drowned when their boat was hit by a freak wave.
    (AP, 4/13/08)

2008        Apr 17, A government spokesman said South Africa has waived Cuban debt totaling more than 100 million dollars.
    (AFP, 4/17/08)

2008        Apr 18, South Africa's main transport union thwarted the delivery of a controversial shipment of Chinese arms destined for Zimbabwe, saying its workers would not offload the cargo. The Chinese ship left the South African harbor and headed for neighboring Mozambique. Angola and Mozambique said the ship is not welcome. China defended the cargo against international criticism.
    (AFP, 4/18/08)(AP, 4/19/08)(AFP, 4/22/08)(SFC, 4/23/08, p.A2)

2008        Apr 24, China said a shipment of arms bound for Zimbabwe will be recalled after South African workers refused to unload the vessel and other neighboring countries barred it from their ports.
    (Reuters, 4/24/08)

2008        May 1, South Africa lifted a 13-year ban on killing elephants. The country had some 18,000 elephants.
    (WSJ, 5/2/08, p.A8)

2008        May 9, South African President Thabo Mbeki held intensive talks with veteran counterpart Robert Mugabe over Zimbabwe's post-election crisis as doctors reported a dramatic rise in violence.
    (AP, 5/9/08)

2008        May 12, The US Supreme Court affirmed a lower court ruling that multinational companies can be sued in a US court for allegedly aiding and abetting the former apartheid government in South Africa. Financial holdings prevented 4 justices from taking the case.
    (www.csmonitor.com/2008/0513/p02s01-usju.htm)(SFC, 5/13/08, p.A5)

2008        May 18, In South Africa mobs killed at least six people and injured 50 in anti-foreigner violence that has spread through poor suburbs of Johannesburg. Zimbabweans were mainly targeted. The trouble started last week in the sprawling township of Alexandra, where angry residents accused foreigners of taking scarce jobs and housing.
    (AP, 5/18/08)

2008        May 19, In South Africa police fired rubber bullets and made arrests to try to quell outbursts of anti-foreigner violence in and around Johannesburg, as the death toll reached 22.
    (AP, 5/19/08)

2008        May 20, The International Organization for Migration (IOM) said a wave of violence against foreigners in South Africa has forced 13,000 people to flee their homes and seek shelter in churches and other social centers. Violence against foreigners had killed at least 24 people and unnerved investors.
    (AFP, 5/20/08)(Reuters, 5/20/08)

2008        May 21, In South Africa xenophobic violence, that has killed at least 24 people, spilled over to the volatile Zulu heartland and security officials discussed whether to use troops to quell unrest.
    (Reuters, 5/21/08)

2008        May 22, The South African army mobilized in support of embattled police trying to quell a wave of violence against immigrants that has claimed 42 lives and displaced 16,000. More than 10,000 Mozambicans have fled home from South Africa to escape the xenophobic attacks.
    (AP, 5/22/08)

2008        May 23, South Africa's security chief accused right wingers, linked to the former apartheid government, of fanning xenophobic violence that has spread to Cape Town, the second largest city and tourist center.
    (Reuters, 5/23/08)

2008        May 24, In South Africa thousands of people marched through Johannesburg, calling for an end to xenophobic violence that has killed over 40 African migrants and displaced tens of thousands.
    (Reuters, 5/24/08)

2008        May 25, South African President Thabo Mbeki made a rare national address in which he condemned anti-immigrant violence as "an absolute disgrace." The death toll from two weeks of anti-immigrant violence rose to 50. Concerns mounted for some 35,000 people who have been displaced by the backlash.
    (AFP, 5/25/08)(AP, 5/25/08)
2008        May 25, It was reported that an estimated 5.4 million of South Africa's 48 million people have the AIDS virus, the highest total of any country. The epidemic was killing nearly 1,000 South Africans a day and infecting even more.
    (AP, 5/25/08)

2008        May 27, South African President Thabo Mbeki came under fire for traveling to Japan as anti-immigrant violence spread to a new province and aid groups struggled with thousands of displaced victims.
    (AP, 5/27/08)

2008        May 31, South African police said on a wave of attacks on foreigners has killed 62 people since the violence broke out three weeks ago.
    (AP, 5/31/08)

2008        Jun 2, Nigeria's President Umaru Yar-Adua arrived in South Africa for a four-day state visit to forge closer ties between Africa's most populous country and its biggest economy.
    (AFP, 6/2/08)

2008        Jun 9, South Africa's ruling African National Congress party chief Jacob Zuma kicked off a visit to India with talks with PM Manmohan Singh in New Delhi.
    (AP, 6/9/08)

2008        Jun 11, Zimbabwean President Robert Mugabe's party said it would deploy more war veterans to campaign in some opposition areas ahead of a presidential election run-off marred by violence. South African President Thabo Mbeki said levels of violence in the approach to Zimbabwe's run-off presidential election on June 27 are a cause for "serious concern."
    (Reuters, 6/11/08)(AFP, 6/11/08)

2008        Jun 25, In South Africa striking local police opened fire on officers from South Africa's national force when they tried to stop them from blocking roads in Johannesburg. Patients with drug-resistant forms of the disease went on a rampage to protest prison-like conditions at the Jose Pearson hospital, near the coastal city of Port Elizabeth, which treats about 300 patients.
    (AFP, 6/26/08)(AP, 6/27/08)

2008        Jun 26, A South African court ordered Jackie Selebi, the nation's top cop, to stand trial on corruption charges next year, widening a leadership vacuum in law enforcement agencies struggling to control one of the world's highest crime rates.
    (AP, 6/26/08)

2008        Jul 2, Zimbabwe opposition leader Morgan Tsvangirai rejected an African Union decision to keep South Africa's president alone in charge of efforts to resolve Zimbabwe's political crisis. The European Commission insisted that Zimbabwe opposition leader Morgan Tsvangirai should be named at the head of any new government. South African President Thabo Mbeki rejected the EU position.
    (AP, 7/2/08)(AFP, 7/2/08)

2008        Jul 7, The South African Reserve Bank said 5 million coins featuring a smiling Nelson Mandela will go into circulation on July 18, the former president's 90th birthday.
    (AP, 7/7/08)

2008        Jul 11, Zimbabwe’s opposition Movement for Democratic Change said a total of 113 MDC supporters have now been killed in politically-related violence. Zimbabwe's ruling party and opposition held a second day of talks in South Africa. A UN Security Council bid to pass sanctions against Zimbabwe’s Robert Mugabe was vetoed by Russia and China.
    (AP, 7/11/08)(AFP, 7/11/08)(AFP, 7/12/08)

2008        Jul 16, Gold production was severely disrupted in parts of South Africa as thousands of mineworkers downed tools to protest rising living costs.
    (AFP, 7/16/08)

2008        Jul 16, The United States signed a pair of agreements to boost trade and investment ties with countries in southern and eastern Africa. These included the Trade, Investment and Development Cooperation Agreement with the Southern Africa Customs Union (SACU), which includes Botswana, Lesotho, Namibia, South Africa and Swaziland; and the Trade Investment and Framework Agreement (TIFA) with the East African Community, which includes Burundi, Kenya, Rwanda, Tanzania and Uganda.
    (Reuters, 7/17/08)

2008        Jul 18, South Africa’s Pres. Thabo Mbeki announced plans to work with the UN and African Union as he attempts to mediate a settlement in Zimbabwe.
    (SFC, 7/19/08, p.A8)

2008        Jul 21, In Zimbabwe mediator South African Pres. Thabo Mbeki oversaw a ceremony in Harare at which Robert Mugabe and opposition leader Morgan Tsvangirai signed an agreement for negotiations to bring the country out of political chaos in their first meeting in a decade.
    (AFP, 7/21/08)

2008        Jul 24, In South Africa talks began in earnest on resolving Zimbabwe's political crisis after President Robert Mugabe gave his senior lieutenants the final go-ahead to negotiate power-sharing with the opposition.
    (AP, 7/24/08)

2008        Jul 25, The EU and South Africa began their first-ever summit in the French city of Bordeaux. Brussels solidly backed Pretoria's mediating role in Zimbabwe as the only way of ending ruinous political chaos.
    (AFP, 7/25/08)

2008        Jul 28, Navanethem Pillay, a judge from South Africa, was confirmed as the new UN chief of human rights.
    (SFC, 7/29/08, p.A3)

2008        Jul 29, Talks in South Africa on Zimbabwe's political crisis broke up with no power-sharing deal between President Robert Mugabe and his bitter rival Morgan Tsvangirai in sight.
    (AFP, 7/29/08)

2008        Aug 6, Thousands protested in South Africa as workers disrupted gold mining and other major industries in a national strike over price hikes rattling the continent's economic powerhouse.
    (AP, 8/6/08)

2008        Aug 10, South African President Thabo Mbeki spent more than eight hours in talks with Zimbabwe's president and opposition leaders to try to resolve a deadly political dispute.
    (AP, 8/10/08)

2008        Aug 13, South African President Thabo Mbeki left Zimbabwe after failing to secure a power-sharing deal between its main rivals during marathon talks, adding to doubts over chances of an agreement.
    (Reuters, 8/13/08)

2008        Aug 15, South African authorities closed camps that have housed thousands of foreigners displaced by xenophobic violence, in a move that has drawn concern they could face more attacks when they return home.
    (AFP, 8/15/08)

2008        Aug 16, In South Africa a regional summit of southern African leaders opened with Zimbabwe's crisis high on the agenda, and with the country's main political rivals in attendance.
    (AP, 8/16/08)

2008        Aug 17, Southern African countries launched a regional trade zone at a Johannesburg summit that aims to eliminate import tariffs, with plans for a common currency by 2018. Eleven of the 14 countries that are part of the Southern African Development Community (SADC) will participate in the free trade area, including Zimbabwe. Angola, the Democratic Republic of Congo and Malawi planned to join at a later date due to weak economies.
    (AFP, 8/17/08)

2008        Aug 23, Environmental experts said Nigeria and South Africa are the main emitters of greenhouse gases in Africa, accounting for almost 90 percent of the emissions in the continent.
    (AFP, 8/23/08)

2008        Aug 31, In South Africa strong winds fanned runaway fires across the country killing at least 16 people, including two children.
    (AFP, 9/1/08)

2008        Sep 2, South Africa signed an energy agreement with oil-rich Venezuela as President Hugo Chavez arrived on his first state visit. Political, trade and economic relations were on the agenda with President Thabo Mbeki.
    (AFP, 9/2/08)(AFP, 9/3/08)

2008        Sep 10, Officials said at least 89 people have died in wildfires sweeping through Mozambique, South Africa and Swaziland.
    (AP, 9/10/08)

2008        Sep 12, A South African judge ruled that prosecutors were wrong to charge ANC President Jacob Zuma with corruption, effectively clearing way for the 66-year-old former freedom fighter to become the country's next president.
    (AP, 9/12/08)

2008        Sep 20, South African President Thabo Mbeki agreed to resign after the ruling party ordered him to step down, a move that could heighten turmoil in Africa's economic powerhouse. A Sep 19 ruling threw out corruption charges against Zuma it appeared Mbeki and his justice minister had colluded with prosecutors against Zuma as part of the "titanic power struggle" within the ANC. Mbeki indignantly denied this.
    (AP, 9/20/08)

2008        Sep 22, In South Africa ANC members of parliament said the ruling African National Congress will name party deputy head Kgalema Motlanthe as South Africa's caretaker leader after the ousting of President Thabo Mbeki. His resignation will take effect Sep 25.
    (Reuters, 9/22/08)

2008        Sep 23, South Africa's finance minister resigned along with most leading Cabinet members but tried to reassure a shaken business community and stock market by saying he was willing to serve the country's new administration.
    (AP, 9/23/08)

2008        Sep 25, South Africa's parliament elected Kgalema Motlanthe, former trade unionist, freedom fighter deputy leader of the ruling ANC, as interim president of a country gripped by the worst political crisis since the end of apartheid. He was expected to step aside after elections next year, when Jacob Zuma was expected to become president. Motlanthe, within hours of taking office , won instant praise by announcing that Manto Tshabalala-Msimang would be removed as health minister and given a lesser post in his office. She had promoted nutritional supplements instead of conventional medicine for people with HIV.
    (AP, 9/25/08)(AP, 9/26/08)

2008        Sep 27, The AIDS virus was reported to afflict some 5.5 million of South Africa’s 49 million population.
    (Econ, 9/27/08, p.19)

2008        Oct 7, Zambia's ambassador said Zambia and the World Health Organization (WHO) have joined the hunt for a mystery illness that has killed four people in South Africa. A South Africa, health official said the mystery disease may be Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever.
    (AFP, 10/7/08)(Reuters, 10/7/08)

2008        Oct 13, Barbara Hogan, South Africa’s new health minister, broke from a decade of discredited government policies declaring that AIDS is caused by HIV and must be treated by conventional medicine.
    (SFC, 10/14/08, p.A3)

2008        Oct 23, South Africa’s National Assembly approved new legislation to disband the Scorpions investigating unit and incorporate it into the police force.
    (AP, 10/24/08)

2008        Nov 1, In South Africa thousands of dissidents in the African National Congress met to pave the way for a new South African party, the Congress of the People (COPE) in a bitter split from the movement that led the anti-apartheid struggle.
    (AFP, 11/1/08)(Econ, 12/13/08, p.58)

2008        Nov 9, Southern African leaders opened a regional summit on Zimbabwe, hoping to break a deadlock over the allocation of cabinet posts which has prevented formation of a power-sharing government.
    (AP, 11/9/08)

2008        Nov 10, Miriam Makeba (b.1932), the South African folk singer and anti-apartheid activist fondly known as "Mama Africa," died in southern Italy after performing at a concert against organized crime.
    (AP, 11/10/08)(SFC, 11/11/08, p.B5)

2008        Nov 12, In South African a truck carrying workers collided with another truck, killing 23 people and injuring nine.
    (AP, 11/12/08)

2008        Nov 20, South Africa said it will withhold aid for Zimbabwe until a representative government is in place, in what appeared to be the first punitive measure by a regional country to enforce a power-sharing agreement.
    (AP, 11/20/08)

2008        Nov 26, South Africa's health minister said Zimbabwe faced a humanitarian crisis after a major outbreak of cholera, vowing not to turn away anyone who crosses the border for treatment. Botswana's foreign minister said Zimbabwe's neighbors should close their borders in an attempt to bring down Pres. Robert Mugabe, in the strongest call yet for action from Africa.
    (AFP, 11/26/08)

2008        Nov, In South Africa a verdict by the tribunal of the regional Southern African Development Community (SADC) found that Zimbabwe had wrongly taken land from nearly 80 farmers, saying they had been targeted because of their race. In 2010 white farmers whose land was seized under Zimbabwe President Robert Mugabe's land reforms claimed a house owned by his government in South Africa based on the SADC verdict.
    (AFP, 3/30/10)

2008        Dec 1, South Africa used World AIDS Day to urge its menfolk to get themselves tested for the HIV virus that leads to the illness.
    (AP, 12/1/08)

2008        Dec 9, A South African man accused of attempting to smuggle hundreds of rare chameleons, snakes, lizards and frogs out of Madagascar inside his jacket and luggage was convicted and sentenced to a year in jail.
    (AP, 12/9/08)

2008        Dec 11, The South African Reserve Bank cut a key interest rate by a half percentage point to 11.5 percent in a bid to stimulate the flagging economy.
    (AP, 12/11/08)

2008        Dec 13, In South Africa scores of international beauties took to the stage as the Miss World pageant started. Russian blonde Kseniya Sukhinova was crowned the 58th Miss World after a two-hour spectacle that combined elements of travelogue and reality show, and the kind of flag-waving usually seen at sports events.
    (AP, 12/13/08)

2008        Dec 17, South African President Kgalema Motlanthe said Zimbabwe's neighbors will launch an urgent humanitarian campaign in the hope of saving the country from economic collapse and a cholera epidemic. Motlanthe also said South Africa would not join international calls for Zimbabwe's President Robert Mugabe to step down, saying it was "not for us" to do so.
    (AP, 12/17/08)(AFP, 12/17/08)

2008        Tony Leon, former head of South Africa’s Democratic Alliance, authored “On the Contrary: Leading the Opposition in a Democratic South Africa."
    (Econ, 8/16/08, p.81)
2008        In South Africa the top 10% of households pocketed 58% of the nation’s income this year, making it one of the most unequal countries in the world.
    (Econ, 12/15/12, p.74)
2008        South Africa this year had over 100 policemen killed while on duty. They in turn shot dead some 600 suspects and innocent bystanders.
    (Econ, 10/3/09, p.58)
2008        In South Africa anti-foreigner violence left some 62 people dead this year.
    (Econ., 4/25/15, p.44)

2009        Jan 1, Helen Suzman (91), South African anti-apartheid activist, died. She won international acclaim as one of the few white lawmakers to fight against the injustices of racist rule. Suzman, who was twice nominated for the Nobel Peace Prize, fought a long and lonely battle in the South African parliament against government repression of the country's black majority and the imprisonment of Nelson Mandela.
    (AP, 1/1/09)

2009        Jan 4, Jimmy Mohlala, a South African official who blew the whistle on alleged corruption in the building of a stadium for the 2010 World Cup, was shot dead by unknown gunmen. The 46,000-capacity Mbombela stadium, scheduled for completion this year, is one of 10 venues for the 2010 World Cup.
    (AFP, 1/6/09)
2009        Jan 4-2009 Jan 5, In South Africa a lethal storm on the eastern coast killed 18 people over the weekend, including four family members struck dead by lightning.
    (AFP, 1/6/09)

2009        Jan 14, South Africa’s health ministry said the death toll from a cholera outbreak has risen to 15, with more than 2,100 cases registered in a spillover from Zimbabwe's epidemic. The UN said the death toll from Zimbabwe's cholera outbreak has risen to 2,106.
    (AP, 1/14/09)

2009        Jan 16, South African police and game park rangers said they have arrested 11 suspects in an international rhinoceros poaching ring. Some of the rhinos had their horns hacked from them while they were still alive.
    (AP, 1/16/09)

2009        Jan 26, Southern African leaders opened fresh talks in Pretoria to end Zimbabwe's political crisis amid a new threat by President Robert Mugabe to form a government excluding his arch rival from power.
    (AFP, 1/26/09)

2009        Jan 27, In South Africa the 15-nation SADC grouping said after a meeting, its fifth attempt to secure a deal on forming a unity government, it had agreed that opposition MDC leader Morgan Tsvangirai should be sworn in as prime minister by February 11. An analyst said chances for a deal appeared slim. The recently introduced 10 trillion Zimbabwean dollar note cannot buy a loaf of bread, which costs Z$30 trillion. Two weeks ago, a loaf of bread cost Z$30 billion.
    (Reuters, 1/27/09)

2009        Jan 30, South African President Kgalema Motlanthe signed legislation that disbands the country's elite anti-crime investigating unit, known as the Scorpions. The unit will now be part of the standard police forces.
    (AP, 1/30/09)

2009        Feb 5, The South Africa Reserve Bank slashed its benchmark interest rate by a full point to 10.5 percent, following a half-point cut in December, saying inflation is headed downward.
    (AFP, 2/5/09)

2009        Feb 24, British mining group Lonmin announced up to 5,500 job cuts in South Africa, dealing a new blow to the continent's biggest economy as it contracted for the first time in a decade.
    (AP, 2/24/09)

2009        Mar 14, In South Africa Moss Phakoe, a municipal councilor in North West province, was shot and killed in Rustenburg after handing over a file detailing corruption in the municipality to a high-ranking ANC official. In 2012 former Rustenburg mayor Matthew Wolmarans was jailed for 20 years for the murder of Phakoe. His former bodyguard Enoch Mtshaba was sentenced to life in prison.
    (Econ, 10/20/12, p.23)(http://tinyurl.com/9m8hrx2)

2009        Mar 22, In South Africa the Sunday Independent said the Chinese embassy in South Africa had confirmed its government had appealed to South Africa not to allow the Dalai Lama into the country for a peace conference on March 27. Archbishop Tutu threatened to pull out of the meeting and to demand an explanation from the authorities. On March 24 organizers postponed the South African peace conference of Nobel laureates after the government denied a visa to Tibet's spiritual leader the Dalai Lama.
    (AP, 3/22/09)(AP, 3/24/09)

2009        Apr 6, In South Africa prosecutors dropped corruption charges against Jacob Zuma, saying the case had been manipulated for political reasons and clearing the way for him to become the next president without the looming threat of a trial. 783 charges of corruption, fraud, money-laundering and tax evasion against Zuma were dropped shortly before he came to power.
    (Reuters, 4/6/09)(Econ, 4/9/15, p.50)
2009        Apr 6, In Zambia western nations and lending agencies meeting in Lusaka agreed a financing package of more than $1 billion to improve infrastructure in southern and central Africa at an investment conference meant to expand transport links and trade. Britain said it would separately provide 100 million pounds ($149.2 million) to transform the region's infrastructure to increase trade and mitigate the effects of the global financial crisis. New projects will link businesses in 8 African countries: Tanzania, the Democratic Republic of Congo, Zambia, Malawi, Botswana, Zimbabwe, Mozambique and South Africa.
    (AP, 4/6/09)

2009        Apr 9, In South Africa an armed mob invaded a major land reform project in the eastern Mpumalanga province. The invaders were unhappy with the progress of the project, despite warnings that it would take up to three years before a return from what had been badly neglected farms.
    (Reuters, 4/15/09)

2009        Apr 22, South Africans voted in general elections set to launch the ruling ANC party's controversial leader Jacob Zuma (67) into the presidency. The African National Congress took 65.9 percent of the nearly 18 million votes cast, failing to get its coveted two-thirds of the seats in the 400-member parliament. The Democratic Alliance (DA), under Helen Zille, won nearly 17% and 17 seats, while the new COPE Party got barely 7% of the vote. The Inkatha Freedom Party got 5% of the vote winning 18 seats.
    (AFP, 4/22/09)(AP, 4/25/09)(Econ, 4/25/09, p.53)(Econ, 5/2/09, p.13)(Econ, 5/2/09, p.50)

2009        Apr 23, In South Africa with early returns giving the ANC a 66% lead, the party said it would block off downtown Johannesburg streets around its offices for Zuma to address his supporters in the evening to celebrate victory.
    (AFP, 4/23/09)

2009        May 6, South Africa's parliament has elected Jacob Zuma as the country's president. Zuma won 277 votes in the 400 member National Assembly. Zuma's African National Congress won elections last month with 65.9% of the vote. He is due to be inaugurated on May 9.
    (AP, 5/6/09)

2009        May 9, In South Africa Jacob Zuma became president, vowing to work to fulfill the dreams of all South Africans after he overcame corruption and sex scandals to reach the nation's highest office.
    (AP, 5/9/09)

2009        May 28, It was reported that scientists have identified a lethal new virus in Africa that causes bleeding like the dreaded Ebola virus. The so-called "Lujo" virus infected five people in Zambia and South Africa last fall. Four of them died, but a fifth survived, perhaps helped by a medicine recommended by the scientists.
    (AP, 5/28/09)

2009        May 30, In South Africa 55 pilot whales beached near Cape Point, prompting a massive rescue operation. The rescue efforts failed and 44 of the whales were shot to end their suffering. The rest died of stress and organ failure.
    (AP, 5/30/09)(AP, 5/31/09)

2009        Jun 2, In South Africa 61 prospectors died from a fire in an abandoned gold mine belonging to Harmony Gold mining company, which had ceased working its Eland shaft. Illegal miners, often called "gold pirates," are hired through organized crime rackets that produce about $250 million in gold a year.
    (AP, 6/2/09)(AP, 6/4/09)(AP, 7/21/09)

2009        Jun 6, It was reported that in South Africa HIV-AIDS continued to claim some 3,000 lives a week.
    (Econ, 6/6/09, p.48) 

2009        Jun 9, South African health activist Thembi Ngubane (24) died of tuberculosis leaving behind a daughter (4). Her radio diaries of her struggle against the AIDS virus won her audiences and admiration around the world. Ngubane was 19 when she was given a tape recorder to make an audio diary about living with HIV in a country where nearly one third of young women are infected with the virus.
    (AP, 6/12/09)

2009        Jun 13, In Australia it was reported Barry Tannenbaum (43), an expatriate South African businessman, has denied any wrongdoing in an alleged investment scandal. Tannenbaum has been accused of fleecing rich South Africans in what has been billed as one of the country's biggest Ponzi-style investment scandals, according to local and South African media. The massive pyramid scheme reportedly cost wealthy investors up to $1.2 billion.
    (AFP, 6/13/09)

2009        Jun 19, A leading South African research group said one in four male South Africans it surveyed admitted to committing rape, a finding that cast a harsh light on a culture of sexual violence that victims groups say is deeply embedded in society.
    (AP, 6/19/09)

2009        Jul 2, South Africa urged its public service doctors to halt wildcat strikes and accept a revised wage offer after low salaries and abysmal working conditions led them to abandon patients.
    (AFP, 7/2/09)

2009        Jul 9, In South Africa World Cup organizers said a strike by construction workers entered its second day as negotiators meet to try and resolve the standoff.
    (AP, 7/9/09)

2009        Jul 20, In South Africa 9 workers died when the roof of the mine shaft they were working in collapsed and trapped them about half a mile (1 km) underground in Rustenburg.
    (AP, 7/21/09)

2009        Jul 22, South Africa reported that wave of protests have erupted in townships across the country over shoddy housing and public services, adding to pressure on President Jacob Zuma to deliver on promises to fight poverty.
    (AFP, 7/22/09)

2009        Jul 23, South Africa’s President Jacob Zuma's new government warned protesters they must respect the law as violent demonstrations against shoddy public services spread across townships.
    (AP, 7/23/09)

2009        Jul 27, Thousands of South African council workers went on strike to press for wage hikes, crippling public services in Africa's biggest economy and piling political pressure on new President Jacob Zuma.
    (AP, 7/27/09)

2009        Jul 29, In South Africa a ceremony was held for “Fire Walker," a new four-story sculpture in Johannesburg. A plaque was unveiled with the names of the South African artists who created it: William Kentridge and Gerhard Marx. The three-dimensional steel conception by Marx was of a Kentridge watercolor.
    (AP, 7/29/09)

2009        Jul 30, South African President Jacob Zuma accepted "very substantial damages" from Britain's Guardian newspaper over an article that wrongly suggested he was a rapist.
    (AP, 7/30/09)

2009        Aug 8, In South Africa US Secretary of State Hillary Clinton and South African President Jacob Zuma pledged to cement closer ties between their new administrations.
    (AFP, 8/8/09)

2009        Aug 11, In South Africa a report to the Parliament said first year students at 4 universities were found to be unable to read or write properly. The country’s education system was described as dysfunctional.
    (SSFC, 8/16/09, p.A4)

2009        Aug 20, Angola and South Africa signed a number of trade agreements including cooperation in the oil sector, following major bilateral talks aimed at strengthening economic relations.
    (AFP, 8/20/09)

2009        Aug 24, In Rustenberg, South Africa some 13,000 platinum miners at Impala Platinum, the world's second-largest producer, downed tools over a pay dispute.
    (AFP, 8/26/09)

2009        Aug 26, In South Africa soldiers, demanding higher wages, tried to scale the fence at the Union Buildings where President Jacob Zuma has his office. Police used teargas, rubber bullets and water cannons to disperse the soldiers, who marched despite a court order barring their protest.
    (AP, 9/1/09)

2009        Aug, In South Africa construction began on the Northern Cape of the MeerKAT Precursor Array (also known as KAT-7). The 7-dish array was a precursor for MeerKAT which will consist of 64 dishes of 13.5 meters in diameter, the most powerful in the southern hemisphere.
    (Econ, 11/5/11, p.96)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/MeerKAT)

2009        Sep 1, South Africa’s defense ministry said it has issued around 2,000 letters of dismissal to soldiers who staged an illegal march on Aug 26 and tried to storm the seat of government.
    (AFP, 9/1/09)

2009        Sep 11, In South Africa reports on gender testing on running sensation Caster Semenya has determined she has male and female sexual organs. This triggered outrage and dealt a blow to her family, who may have been unaware of the reported condition. There was worry about how the 18-year-old will handle all this. Testing determined that Semenya has internal testes, meaning the runner herself, who was raised in a poor village, may have been unaware of such a condition. The condition is generally referred to as intersexuality. The older term for someone who has both male and female organs is hermaphrodite.
    (AP, 9/11/09)
2009        Sep 11, South Africa and the European Union started a summit expected to be dominated by calls from African nations for sanctions against Zimbabwe to be lifted.
    (AP, 9/11/09)

2009        Sep 27, In Venezuela Pres. Hugo Chavez proposed that South American and African nations unite to create a cross-continental mining corporation to keep control of their resources. Chavez made diplomatic inroads in Africa at a summit of South American and African leaders where he offered Venezuela's help in oil projects, mining and financial assistance. Venezuela signed agreements to work together on oil projects with South Africa, Mauritania, Niger, Sudan and Cape Verde.
    (Reuters, 9/27/09)(AP, 9/28/09)

2009        Oct 9, Japanese officials said they have obtained rights to develop platinum mines in South Africa and Botswana in a bid to ensure a stable supply of the metal. The government-backed Japan Oil, Gas and Metals National Corp. (JOGMEC) said it has signed a contract with Discovery Metals in Australia to jointly develop nickel and platinum mines in northeast Botswana. It has also inked another deal with Canadian firm Platinum Group Metals to explore for platinum in South Africa.
    (AFP, 10/9/09)

2009        Oct 13, In South Africa police fired tear gas and rubber bullets, wounding several protesters demanding better sanitation, electricity and housing in impoverished black townships. Tires burned and rubbish littered the streets of Standerton, 150 km (90 miles) south-east of Johannesburg, and shops were closed after thousands of people marched on the municipal offices in the town from nearby Sakhile township.
    (Reuters, 10/13/09)

2009        Oct 15, South African police fired rubber bullets at residents in Diepsloot, a poor settlement north of Johannesburg, injuring 19 people protesting poor living standards. The protests have spread from Standerton, about 90 miles (150km) southeast of Johannesburg, to at least four other towns in eastern South Africa this week.
    (AP, 10/15/09)

2009        Oct 21, South Africa’s President Jacob Zuma said Zimbabwe must not return to instability, after holding talks with PM Morgan Tsvangirai who has cut ties within his unity government. Tsvangirai flew to South Africa after meeting Mozambican President Armando Guebuza a day earlier and then headed to the Democratic Republic of Congo and Angola to brief leaders on Zimbabwe's worst impasse in eight months.
    (AFP, 10/22/09)

2009        Oct 26, In South Africa Harmony Gold Mining Co. said four workers were trapped underground at its Target mine in the country's Free State province after ground fell on them in a section of the mine.
    (Reuters, 10/26/09)

2009        Nov 11, Scientists in South Africa said that a newly discovered dinosaur species that roamed the Earth about 200 million years ago may help explain how the creatures evolved into the largest animals on land. The Aardonyx celestae was a 23-foot- (7-meter-) long small-headed herbivore with a huge barrel of a chest. The species walked on its hind legs but could drop to all fours.
    (AP, 11/11/09)

2009        Nov 13, South Africa’s President Jacob Zuma said police do not have a "license to kill," a day after his deputy police minister urged officers to "shoot the bastards" in fighting criminals.
    (AFP, 11/13/09)

2009        Nov 14, In South Africa a civilian pilot was killed when his fighter jet crashed shortly before he was to participate in an air show near Bredasdorp, about 200 km west of Cape Town.
    (Reuters, 11/14/09)
2009        Nov 14, In South Africa Kavisha Seevnarain (26) was carjacked and then forced at gunpoint to go to ATMs to take out money. She was then thrown off a 200-foot tall bridge south of Durban and survived with seven broken ribs and a fractured pelvis.
    (AP, 11/16/09)

2009        Nov 18, South African police fired rubber bullets to disperse a mob who attacked shacks belonging to hundreds of migrants following several days of tension. Up to 2,700 Zimbabwean asylum seekers have set up a temporary "safety camp" in a rural South African town following attacks on their shacks in a dispute over jobs.
    (Reuters, 11/18/09)

2009        Nov 27, Zimbabwe and South Africa signed a bilateral investment agreement which would protect investments made by nationals of both countries in each other's territory.
    (AFP, 11/27/09)

2009        Nov 28, South Africa seized a shipment of spare parts for North Korean tanks destined for the Republic of Congo. South Africa’s government confirmed the seizure on Feb 26, 2010.
    (AP, 2/26/10)   

2009        Dec 1, In South Africa Pres. Zuma said on World AIDS Day that all HIV-positive babies will be treated and testing expanded, a dramatic and eagerly awaited shift in a country that has more people living with HIV than any other.
    (AP, 12/1/09)

2009        Dec 7, South Africa offered to slash the growth of its greenhouse gas emissions by 42 percent by 2025, but in exchange wants rich nations to expand aid for poor countries to cope with climate change.
    (AP, 12/7/09)

2009        Dec 10, South Africa said it has suspended dozens of immigration officials being investigated for giving South African citizenship to foreigners, mainly from Pakistan.
    (AP, 12/10/09)
2009        Dec 10, In South Africa the Industrial Development Corporation of South Africa (IDC) said it has approved a 10-million-dollar grant to fund the expansion of Zimbabwe's Freda Rebecca gold mine.
    (AFP, 12/10/09)

2009        Dec 12, In South Africa drums and traditional dancers kicked off the Miss World pageant in Johannesburg. The glitzy night began in the shadow of reports that one contestant was linked to a religious cult. Kaiane Aldorino from Gibraltar was named the new Miss World.
    (AFP, 12/12/09)(AP, 12/13/09)
    (AP, 12/16/09)

2009        Dec 16, South Africa's former health minister Manto Tshabalala-Msimang (69) died. She gained notoriety for her dogged promotion of lemons, garlic and olive oil to treat AIDS.
    (AP, 12/16/09)
2009        Dec 16, In South Korea at least 14 elderly people were killed and 17 injured when their bus plunged off a mountain road.
    (AFP, 12/16/09)

2009        Dec 30, In Burundi the last South African soldiers from the African Union Special Task Force still operating in Burundi completed their mission and left the country for good to return to South Africa.
    (AFP, 12/31/09)

2009        Andre Brink, South Africa novelist, authored his memoir “A Fork in the Road."
    (Econ, 2/14/09, p.95)
2009        Mark Gevisser, a South African journalist, authored A Legacy of Liberation," a condensed version of his 2007 biography “Thabo Mbeki: The Dream Deferred."
    (WSJ, 4/17/09, p.W6)
2009        R.W. Johnson authored “South Africa’s Brave New World: The Beloved Country Since the End of Apartheid."
    (Econ, 4/18/09, p.88)
2009        Alec Russell authored “Bring Me My Machine Gun: The Battle for the Soul of South Africa from Mandela to Zuma."
    (WSJ, 4/17/09, p.W6)
2009        The South African directed film “District 9" depicted Nigerians eating the flesh of, and prostituting themselves, to aliens.
    (Econ, 2/11/17, p.44)
2009        South Africa’s population stood at about 50 million. The white population was about 4.5 million It was one of the world’s most violent countries with some 50 murders, 100 rapes, 700 burglaries and 500-plus violent assaults per day. Only one in ten rapes was believed to be recorded.
    (Econ, 10/3/09, p.58)(Econ, 4/10/10, p.52)

2010        Jan 4, In South Africa Pres. Jacob Zuma formalized his marriage to a third wife in a traditional ceremony in rural KwaZulu-Natal province.
    (AP, 1/4/10)

2010        Jan 14, Key southern African leaders gathered in the Mozambican capital Maputo for a special summit on the political crises in Zimbabwe and Madagascar. Leaders called for a return to dialogue in the ongoing political crisis in Madagascar. A medical aid group said Zimbabweans crossing illegally into neighboring South Africa after holidays at home are being raped and robbed by gangs on both sides of the border.
    (AFP, 1/14/10)(AP, 1/14/10)

2010        Jan 22, In South Africa the national parks authority said poachers have killed 14 rhinos this year. The parks authority announced military patrols in Kruger National Park, where 7 of the rhinos were killed. The other 7 were killed in the North West province.
    (AFP, 1/23/10)

2010        Jan 24, In India environment ministers from Brazil, South Africa, India and China said that talks in New Delhi had further cemented their alliance following the Copenhagen climate change summit. The group, known by the acronym BASIC, pledged to strengthen its unified stance but would seek consensus with developed countries.
    (AP, 1/24/10)

2010        Jan 30, Ashes of Indian independence hero Mahatma Gandhi, kept for decades by a family friend after his assassination, were scattered off South Africa's coast.
    (AFP, 1/30/10)

2010        Feb 3, South Africa's polygamist Pres. Jacob Zuma confirmed that he recently fathered a child with a woman who is not one of his three wives or fiancee, and criticized those who said his actions undermined the country's campaign against HIV/AIDS. The nation of about 50 million has an estimated 5.7 million people infected with HIV, more than any other country.
    (AP, 2/3/10)

2010        Feb 9, In South Africa a fire raged through the Hope in Christ Home orphanage at Newcastle in the eastern province of KwaZulu-Natal. The blaze killed Sarah Holland, the director and founder of the Hope of Christ Home in KwaZulu-Natal province, along with two adults and eight children between the ages of 4 and 15. Holland died a hero, rescuing nine children as their rural home burned.
    (AFP, 2/9/10)(AP, 2/10/10)

2010        Feb 23, South African’s National Energy Regulator said approved electricity rate increases of about 25% would become effective April 1, and that the increases would continue for each of the next three years.
    (AP, 2/24/10)

2010        Mar 8, In South Africa hip-hop artist Molemo Maarohanye, known as "Jub Jub," (Marshmallow) was involved in a drag race that left 4 children dead. He and another defendant, Themba Tshabalala, tested positive for cocaine and morphine. On March 19 Maarohanye was freed on $ 1,300 bail, as protesters chanted for their execution.
    (AP, 3/19/10)

2010        Mar 17, In Zimbabwe South African President Jacob Zuma began talks with Zimbabwe's political leaders on his first trip as chief regional mediator to patch up differences in the troubled coalition government.
    (AP, 3/17/10)

2010        Mar 18, Zimbabwe's rival leaders faced fresh pressure to mend their differences and push toward new elections, as South African President Jacob Zuma led talks on the fragile unity government.
    (AP, 3/18/10)

2010        Apr 3, In South Africa Eugene Terreblanche (69), the leader of a white supremacist group, was attacked and killed by a 21-year-old man and a 15-year-old boy who worked for him on his farm outside Ventersdorp, about 110 km (68 miles) northwest of Johannesburg, following a dispute over pay. The alleged attackers were arrested and charged with murder.
    (AP, 4/4/10)

2010        Apr 7, South Africa's governing party said it has asked all its wings to stop singing controversial songs including one with lyrics that encourage people to shoot white farmers which some blame for the slaying of a white supremacist leader.
    (AP, 4/7/10)

2010        Apr 8, The World Bank approved a $3.75 billion loan to help South Africa build a coal-fired power plant over opposition from the United States and environmental groups. The USD 3.75 billion loan to Eskom Holdings Limited, which has proved highly controversial, will help Eskom bring online new power generation capabilities designed to help South Africa meet growing power demand and avoid power blackouts similar to those that occurred in 2008.
    (AP, 4/9/10)(http://tinyurl.com/2ceah45)(Econ, 4/17/10, p.53)

2010        Apr 14, The US and South Africa signed a deal in Washington, DC, to boost diplomatic exchanges, a new sign of the importance the US administration accords Pretoria's role in the region.
    (AFP, 4/15/10)

2010        Apr 16, In South Africa 7 suspects waived their right to bail in a case in which they are accused of recruiting women and at least one 16-year-old from across South Africa and bringing them to Ermelo, where they were treated like slaves and forced into prostitution.
    (AP, 4/16/10)

2010        Apr 20, South Africa’s biggest agricultural union, Agri SA, said 2 farmers are attacked every day in South Africa and two killed per week.
    (AFP, 4/20/10)

2010        Apr 21, A South African luxury train carrying foreign tourists, most of them Americans, sped out of control downhill and derailed near Pretoria, killing two Rovos Rail crew members as coaches flipped and crumpled against one another. A 3rd crew member soon died from injuries in a hospital. 
    (AP, 4/21/10)(AP, 4/22/10)

2010        May 3, In South Africa police officers found Emmanuel "Lolly" Jackson's body, a flamboyant strip club owner, shot several times in a house near Johannesburg after receiving a call from a man who said he wanted to surrender. The caller, known as George Smith or George Louca, fled to his native Cyprus. In Sep, 2011, the charred body of Jackson's lawyer was found in the burned remains of his car near Johannesburg. Days later, Jackson's former business partner, Mark Andrews, was found dead on an isolated stretch of highway near Johannesburg. Local media have linked other deaths since 2009 to Jackson.
    (AP, 5/4/10)(AP, 10/2/11)

2010        May 5, In South Africa 23 people died and 15 were badly injured when a bus overturned. The privately-registered bus accident was on the road despite being suspended for poor roadworthiness. The owner of the bus was soon charged with murder.
    (AFP, 5/5/10)(AFP, 5/7/10)

2010        May 7, It was reported that JetBlue has formed a partnership with South African Airways that will allow travelers to fly on both airlines with a single ticket. Starting May 12 JetBlue customers will be able to travel to 40 international cities served by South African Airways.
    (AP, 5/7/10)

2010        May 13, South African and Chinese companies announced plans to build a $217 million cement plant in South Africa, in one of China's biggest investments in the country.
    (AFP, 5/13/10)

2010        May 14, In South Africa Frederik Van Zyl Slabbert (70), anti-apartheid activist, died. The former South African legislator helped chart a way out of apartheid by leading fellow whites into talks with exiled black leaders.
    (AP, 5/14/10)

2010        May 17, In South Africa a strike by rail workers left two million commuters stranded just 24 days from the kick-off of the World Cup.
    (AP, 5/17/10)

2010        May 27, South Africa's state-owned logistics group Transnet said it had signed a wage deal with a transport union, ending a three-week rail and ports strike.
    (Reuters, 5/27/10)

2010        May 28, In South Africa an expert with the country's national parks said poachers killed a record number of rhinos in South Africa last year and are already on track to surpass that number again in 2010.
    (AP, 5/28/10)

2010        May 31, South Africa’s African National Congress decided to discipline trade union boss Zwelinzima Vavi, who last week said the Congress of South African Trade Unions (COSATU), which he heads, was concerned that senior ANC members were exploiting political connections to accumulate personal wealth.
    (Reuters, 6/1/10)

2010        Jun 5, In South Africa AIDS awareness groups said they are protesting a ban by the world soccer body FIFA on distributing health related information and condoms at World Cup stadiums and fan events in South Africa.
    (AP, 6/5/10)

2010        Jun 8, South Africa opened the continent's first high-speed rail link, just in time to whisk a mass influx of World Cup fans Cup from the country's main airport into uptown Johannesburg.
    (AFP, 6/8/10)

2010        Jun 9, In South Africa an armed gang stole electronic equipment from a team of Portuguese journalists during a robbery at their lodge near Johannesburg. The next day China’s state media reported that an armed gang had stolen money and a camera from four Chinese journalists covering the World Cup.
    (AFP, 6/10/10)

2010        Jun 10, In South Africa a third British national was confirmed dead after an overland truck carrying British students crashed.
    (AFP, 6/11/10)

2010        Jun 11, The World Cup kicked off with unfancied hosts South Africa taking on Mexico in front of 85,000 spectators in a packed Soccer City stadium in Johannesburg. Host nation South Africa got their continent's first World Cup off to a thrilling start by scoring the tournament's opening goal in a spirited 1-1 draw with Mexico.
    (AFP, 6/11/10)(AFP, 6/12/10)
2010        Jun 11, In South Africa Sackey Namugongo, the former Ministry of Environment and Tourism Deputy director, was sentenced to 8 years in prison on 19 corruption charges stemming from payments of large sums for casino licenses.

2010        Jun 18, North Korea cancelled a scheduled World Cup press conference, just hours after being confronted by rumors that four of their players had defected while in South Africa.
    (AFP, 6/19/10)

2010        Jun 19, In South Africa exiled Rwandan Lt.-General Faustin Kayumba Nyamwasa was shot and wounded in what his wife called a Rwandan-backed assassination attempt, a charge the Kigali government dismissed as "preposterous." In 2011 six accused men, three Rwandans and three Tanzanians, stood trial for the shooting.
    (Reuters, 6/19/10)(AFP, 7/1/11)

2010        Jun 22, South Africa went out with heads high, despite being the only hosts ever to exit the World Cup's first round, but France headed home in shame and Latin American giants Argentina cruised into the second round. Troubled France crashed out of the World Cup losing 2-1 to South Africa.
    (AP, 6/22/10)(AFP, 6/23/10)

2010        Jun 26, In South Africa the 3-day FORTUNE/TIME/CNN Global Forum got under way with the theme "The New Global Opportunity."
2010        Jun 26, In South Africa Ghana became only the third African team ever to make the World Cup quarter-finals, as its team beat the US 2-1.
    (AP, 6/27/10)

2010        Jun 28, South African media said Mozambicans and Thais children (9-16) were discovered a week earlier by South African border police during an inspection at the Komatipoort crossing between South Africa and Mozambique.
    (AFP, 6/29/10)

2010        Jun 30, A South African health official said botched circumcisions performed during traditional initiation rites have killed 40 boys and put more than 100 in hospital this month.
    (AFP, 6/30/10)

2010        Jul 2, In South Africa Jackie Selebi, former state police commissioner, was found guilty of corruption.
    (SFC, 7/2/10, p.A2)

2010        Jul 6, In South Africa Basic Education Minister Angie Motshekga announced that pupils will have the option of learning in their mother language in their first three years of schooling. Children were currently taught either in English or Afrikaans, both languages inherited from the eras of colonialism and apartheid.
    (AP, 7/6/10)
2010        Jul 6, Britain's Queen Elizabeth (84) addressed the UN for the first time since1957. The queen's 10-minute speech to a special session of the General Assembly was finished before Netherlands and Uruguay returned to their soccer match in Cape Town. Netherlands moved to the finals after beating Uruguay 3-2.
    (Reuters, 7/6/10)

2010        Jul 11, In South Africa President Jacob Zuma convened leaders from Burkina Faso, Kenya, Togo, Mozambique, the Netherlands and neighboring Zimbabwe at an education summit, before inviting them to join him at the World Cup final. The summit was the culmination of 1GOAL, a campaign supported by football's governing body FIFA to use the attention the World Cup commands to publicize the need to get more children into school.
    (AP, 7/11/10)
2010        Jul 11, In South Africa Spain beat Holland for soccer’s World Cup.
    (AP, 7/12/10)

2010        Jul 23, In South Africa a police helicopter crashed, killing seven officers on board, as it flew to the scene of a suspected hostage-taking northeast of Johannesburg.
    (AFP, 7/23/10)

2010        Jul 27, In South Africa 4 white former students pleaded guilty to charges surrounding a 2007 video they made humiliating black university employees at the University of the Free State in Bloemfontein. The video emerged in 2008 and the case prompted bitter protests that racism remains entrenched in South Africa more than a decade after the end of racist white rule. A court on July 30 ordered the 4 students to pay fines of nearly $3,000 each for making the video.
    (AP, 7/27/10)(AP, 7/30/10)

2010        Jul 28, South African wildlife authorities said poachers killed 152 endangered rhinoceros in the country so far this year, about 20 more than the number killed in the whole of 2009.
    (AP, 7/28/10)

2010        Jul 29, President Jacob Zuma announced that South Africa would stop recognizing half the nation's traditional kings and queens, dismissing them as artificial creations of the apartheid regime. Leaders of the six kingships affected by the move have said they will challenge their demotion in court.
    (AFP, 7/29/10)

2010        Aug 1, In South Africa 22 elderly people died when a fire swept through their old age and frail care center outside of Johannesburg.
    (AP, 8/2/10)(AP, 8/3/10)

2010        Aug 3, In South Africa a judge sentenced former national police chief Jackie Selebi (60)  to 15 years in prison on corruption charges, saying he was an embarrassment to the crime-plagued country and the police officers who had served under him.
    (AP, 8/3/10)

2010        Aug 4, In South Africa vigilantes used whistles and vuvuzelas, the deafening horns used by fans during the World Cup, to arouse a mob to assault and kill 3 suspected thieves in their neighborhood. The victims, suspected of stealing power cables in the Lenasia district of southern Johannesburg, were burned alive. 2 others were beaten to death for wearing stolen clothes.
    (AP, 8/4/10)

2010        Aug 8, South African journalists launched a campaign to fight what they say is an attempt to curtail media freedoms in a nation known for one of Africa's freest and most open constitutions.
    (AP, 8/8/10)

2010        Aug 9, In South Africa 4 miners were shot dead by mine guards in an abandoned gold mine near Johannesburg. Their bodies were found on Aug 12. The mine was owned by Zuma's nephew Khulubuse Zuma and Mandela's grandson Zondwa Mandela. Their company, Aurora Empowerment Systems, was embroiled in a pay dispute with mineworkers they inherited from several mines they bought from an insolvent company. In January, 2012, a court ordered Khulubuse Zuma to pay $1.25 million (955,000 euro) in debt.
    (AP, 8/13/10)(AFP, 4/15/12)

2010        Aug 17, In South Africa media watchdogs slammed proposed media regulations as a "draconian" ploy to muzzle the press and protect corrupt officials.
    (AP, 8/17/10)

2010        Aug 18, In South Africa teachers left their classrooms and trials were postponed after court workers walked out when hundreds of thousands of civil servants went on strike for higher wages across the country.
    (AP, 8/18/10)

2010        Aug 19, In South Africa police fired rubber bullets on protesting teachers throwing bricks and stones and nurses tore down a gate at a hospital as a the 2nd day of a nationwide civil servants' strike for higher wages took hold.
    (AP, 8/19/10)

2010        Aug 20, South African unions representing more than 1 million striking civil servants began talks with the government to end a stoppage that could damage Africa's largest economy if it drags on into next month.
    (AP, 8/20/10)

2010        Aug 23, South African President Jacob Zuma flew to China on a three-day trip aimed at strengthening business ties. Zuma was accompanied by a delegation of over 370 business representatives - the biggest ever for a South African leader's visit abroad.
2010        Aug 23, South Africa deployed soldiers to 37 hospitals to help keep basic health services running, as a nationwide strike by more than one million public workers entered its sixth day.
    (AFP, 8/23/10)

2010        Aug 25, In South Africa a driver taking children to school went around a closed railroad crossing gate and was hit by an oncoming train that killed 10 pupils and injured 5 others. Driver Jacob Humphreys was convicted of murder in 2011 and in 2012 was sentenced to an effective 20 years in prison.
    (AP, 8/25/10)(AFP, 2/28/12)

2010        Aug 26, In South Africa thousands of civil servants took to the streets across the country in a peaceful demonstration for higher wages. Police management tried to bar officers from joining the nationwide strike entering its second week.
    (AP, 8/26/10)

2010        Aug 31, South Africa’s public service ministry said it was increasing its salary hike offer from 7 to 7.5 percent and housing allowance from 700 rand ($96) to 800 rand ($110). Workers were demanding an 8.6 percent raise and 1,000 rand ($137) for housing.
    (AP, 8/31/10)

2010        Sep 2, South Africa's government said it is withdrawing the April, 2009, special status granted to illegal Zimbabwean immigrants who fled their country's economic meltdown and political violence. A government said South Africa will begin deportations after Dec 31.
    (AP, 9/2/10)
2010        Sep 2, Striking South African state workers staged a protest march after rejecting a revised wage offer aimed at ending their three-week strike that has the government and the labor movement at loggerheads.
    (Reuters, 9/2/10)

2010        Sep 6, A South African labor leader said civil servants are suspending a 20-day nationwide strike for higher wages to give union members time to consider the government's offer.
    (AP, 9/6/10)
2010        Sep 6, Oxford press said it has published a new Zulu-English dictionary, four decades after the last such reference book was released for one of South Africa's most widely spoken languages.
    (AFP, 9/6/10)
2010        Sep 6, In Swaziland armed police arrested 50 members the Swaziland Democracy Campaign as they prepared for a protest march in Mbabane. The umbrella group had been set up jointly with Cosatu, South Africa’s main union. South African participants were deported and Swazis were harshly interrogated. More people were arrested and beaten during the march the next day.
    (Econ, 9/18/10, p.63)

2010        Sep 9, South Africa released new statistics indicating that its murder rate, one of the highest in the world, has dropped by 8.6 percent to its lowest level in nearly two decades.
    (AP, 9/9/10)

2010        Sep 13, South African police fatally shot Nontsikelelo Anna Nokela (17) who was part of a group protesting that a teachers strike gave them insufficient time to prepare for exams. Investigators the next day arrested a police officer after determining "the shooting was premeditated." Investigators said the officer had earlier threatened to hurt the students if they protested.
    (AP, 9/14/10)(AP, 9/15/10)

2010        Sep 14, The South Africa-based retailer Massmart confirmed that it was in negotiations to be acquired by Wal-Mart for $4.1 billion.
    (Econ, 10/2/10, p.68)

2010        Sep 21, South African police said 11 suspected members of an alleged rhino poaching syndicate have been arrested, as part of an ongoing investigation. The suspects included 2 veterinarians and a game farmer.
    (AFP, 9/21/10)(SFC, 9/23/10, p.A2)

2010        Sep 23, In South Africa 8 prisoners, charged with murder and robbery, escaped from a court in Johannesburg. Police re-arrested seven but were still searching for one. 13 officers were arrested on charges of aiding the escape.
    (AP, 9/24/10)

2010        Oct 2, South African authorities arrested Henry Okah, an ex-leader of a militant group that claimed responsibility for the Oct 1 dual car bombing that killed 12 people in Nigeria. A day before the bombings, security agencies in South Africa had raided Okah's home and seized a laptop, though they did not arrest him. On Jan 21, 2013, a South African court found Okah guilty of masterminding the bombings. On March 26, 2013, Okah was sentenced to 24 years in prison.
    (AP, 10/3/10)(AP, 1/21/13)(AP, 3/26/13)

2010        Oct 5, South Africa launched a special wildlife crime unit to tackle a dramatic surge in rhino poaching driven by demand for the animal's horn in Asia for use in traditional medicines.
    (AFP, 10/5/10)

2010        Oct 12, At the United Nations Colombia, Germany, India, Portugal and South Africa were elected to join the big guns on the UN Security Council for two years, starting in January.
    (http://news.yahoo.com/s/csm/20101012/ts_csm/331624)(Reuters, 10/13/10)

2010        Oct 19, Egyptian and South African leaders met in Cairo for talks aimed at strengthening economic ties between the two African powerhouses and working towards a free trade deal for the continent.
    (AFP, 10/19/10)

2010        Oct 19, South African journalist Mzilikazi wa Afrika, arrested after writing about alleged police corruption, said a proposed media bill could transform a country known for being among Africa's most free and transparent to one more like autocratic Zimbabwe. He spoke at a protest of more than 300 people marching against the government's media proposals.
    (AP, 10/19/10)

2010        Oct 20, Swiss mining giant Xstrata said that it would spend 4.9 billion rands (710 million dollars, 510 million euros) on expanding a ferrochrome smelter in South Africa.
    (AFP, 10/20/10)

2010        Oct 25, South African soldiers strayed into neighboring Mozambique and exchanged fire with civilians, leaving 2 people dead and one injured.
    (AP, 10/26/10)(AP, 10/27/10)

2010        Nov 13, In South Africa Anni Dewani (28), a British tourist, was found dead after being abducted by armed men in Cape Town just days after she and her new British husband, Shrien Dewani, arrived for a holiday. By Nov 18 two suspects, both 26, were arrested. A 3rd suspect (31) was arrested on Nov 20. On Dec 7 a court heard allegations that her husband had connived with a taxi driver to stage a robbery and have his wife shot dead.
    (AFP, 11/14/10)(AP, 11/18/10)(AP, 11/21/10)(AFP, 12/7/10)

2010        Nov 16, Chinese Vice President Xi Jinping began a trip to mineral-rich South Africa aimed at securing resources for the Asian economic power, looking to extend its influence in the African continent.
    (Reuters, 11/16/10)

2010        Nov 19, South African officials said wildlife officials found the decomposing bodies of 18 rhinos, dehorned victims of poaching, on a private game preserve near Kruger National Park.
    (SFC, 11/20/10, p.A2)

2010        Nov 22, A South African court said a Zimbabwean government property in Cape Town can be auctioned to compensate three evicted white farmers in Zimbabwe for legal fees.
    (AP, 11/22/10)

2010        Nov 25, South Africa said it has launched an anti-corruption unit to investigate government officials misusing funds and receiving bribes.
    (AP, 11/25/10)

2010        Nov 26, South African President Jacob Zuma arrived in Harare to try to smooth over disputes threatening Zimbabwe's troubled power-sharing government. Zuma said he had persuaded President Mugabe and PM Tsvangirai to start talking again to address the rifts in their power-sharing government.
    (AFP, 11/26/10)(Reuters, 11/26/10)
2010        Nov 26, In South Africa a study led by the government-funded Medical Research Foundation says that in Gauteng province, home to Johannesburg, more than 37% of men said they had raped a woman. A quarter of the women interviewed said they'd been raped, but the study said only one in 25 rapes are reported to police.
    (AP, 11/26/10)
2010        Nov 26, In South Africa lightning and a storm killed seven people and injured 67 at a Christmas party at a nursery school in KwaZulu Natal.
    (AFP, 11/27/10)

2010        Nov 29, Wal-Mart said it will pay $2.3 billion for a 51% stake in Massmart, giving the world's largest retailer a substantial presence in South Africa and paving the way for further expansion across the continent.
    (AP, 11/29/10)

2010        Dec 1, South African white farmer Attie Potgieter (40), his wife Wilna (36) and their 3-year-old daughter were murdered on their farm in Lindley. 6 men were later charged with the murders. Attie was slashed over 150 times.
    (Econ, 9/17/11, p.48)(http://tinyurl.com/3ru3qom)
2010        Dec 1, On World AIDS Day South Africa counted the world’s largest HIV-positive population with an estimated 5.7 million people infected, over 11% of its 50 million people.
    (SFC, 12/2/10, p.A9)

2010        Dec 4, It was reported that South African gangsters were stealing supplies of the antiretroviral drug Stocrin. They were mixing it with cannabis, rat poison and some other ingredients to make a lethal new drug called whoonga (wunga), used to produce a cheap high.
    (Econ, 12/4/10, p.60)   

2010        Dec 6, A South African newspaper, The New Age, debuted with denials it is an agent of the governing African National Congress. The owners, members of the Gupta family, which has mining, computer and other businesses in South Africa and India, was seen as close to President Jacob Zuma.
    (AP, 12/6/10)

2010        Dec 8, South African President Jacob Zuma announced a 210 million rand ($30 million) credit package for Cuba and forgave Cuba's debt to South Africa during a state visit to the island nation, a decision his opponents criticized.
    (AP, 12/8/10)

2010        Dec 9, South Africa unveiled its national space agency, aiming to become a leader in earth observation technology across the continent in 10 years.
    (AFP, 12/9/10)

2010        Dec 14, Angolan President Jose Eduardo dos Santos started a historic first state visit to South Africa, a trip aimed at ending decades-long enmity between two of the region's major economies.
    (AFP, 12/14/10)

2010        Dec 23, In South Africa serial killer Thozamile Taki (36) was convicted of murdering 13 women and dumping their bodies in sugarcane plantations around the country. The bodies of the women had decomposed in the fields when they were found in 2007. On Jan 19 Taki received the maximum 13 life sentences. He was also sentenced to 208 years for robbery charges.
    (AP, 12/23/10)(AP, 1/19/11)

2010        Dec 24, South Africa's minister of international relations and cooperation said South Africa has been invited by China to join the four-member "BRIC" grouping of fast-growing emerging markets. South Africa is the world's 31st-largest economy, according to World Bank data for 2009 and is less than a quarter the size of the smallest BRIC economy, Russia.
    (Reuters, 12/24/10)

2010        Dec 31, In South Africa thousands of Zimbabwean immigrants crowded outside immigration offices as a deadline approached for them to obtain permits or face deportation.
    (AP, 12/31/10)

2010        Sasha Polakow-Suransky authored “The Unspoken Alliance: Israel’s Secret Alliance with apartheid South Africa.
    (Econ, 5/22/10, p.88)
2010        In South Africa 566 people were reported killed this year as a result of police action.
    (Econ, 8/27/11, p.41)
2010        South Africa lost 333 rhinos to poaching in 2010, the highest number ever recorded and almost triple the previous year's losses.
    (AP, 1/12/11)

2011        Jan 1, In South Africa 10 people were killed in a stampede during the early hours of New Year's Day at a tavern in the Ipelegeng township in the largely rural North West province.
    (AP, 12/31/10)

2011        Jan 2, In South Africa 7 people from neighboring families have been killed in a lightning strike in Eshowe, KwaZulu-Natal province. In neighboring Eastern Cape province, four others were killed and 20 injured in a New Year's Day lightning strike.
    (AP, 1/3/11)

2011        Jan 7, South African authorities said at least 39 people have died in flooding and thunderstorms in the eastern part of the country since mid-December.
    (AP, 1/7/11)

2011        Jan 15, In central South Africa 20 people died when a burst tire sent a passenger bus out of control and caused it to veer into a muddy stream.
    (AP, 1/15/11)

2011        Jan 17, South Africa's Cooperative Governance Ministry said at least 40 people have been killed or gone missing following heavy rains from late December through most of January and that thousands of homes in neighboring Mozambique have been destroyed.
    (Reuters, 1/17/11)

2011        Jan 20, South African police found two dead bodies in the rural west. They were identified as Philippe Meniere and Agnes Jardel, a French couple wanted for allegedly shooting at a police officer last week.
    (AP, 1/21/11)

2011        Jan 23, South African police raided apartments linked to a Nigerian man facing terrorism charges in South Africa, killing one tenant and wounding another person.
    (AP, 1/24/11)

2011        Jan 24, South Africa’s government declared 33 municipalities as disaster areas following flooding that killed more than 100 people over the last month and saturated the farms of the major food producer for the continent.
    (Reuters, 1/22/11)

2011        Feb 6, In South Africa game park rangers shot and killed 3 suspected rhinoceros poachers in confrontations in Kruger National Park. A 4th poacher was killed a day earlier in a KwaZulu-Natal park.
    (AP, 2/7/11)

2011        Feb 8, In South Africa a private plane carrying nine people, including the chief executive of tile company Italtile Ltd., crashed in a nature reserve 320 miles east of Cape Town. There were no survivors. The Johannesburg-based retailer of ceramic tiles and bathroom accessories has been publicly traded on the Johannesburg Stock Exchange since 1988.
    (AP, 2/9/11)

2011        Feb 10, South Africa’s President Jacob Zuma announced a raft of economic incentives to create jobs, including tax breaks for the manufacturing sector, in his second State of the Nation address.

2011        Feb 15, In South Africa one person was killed in demonstrations in the eastern town of Ermelo that turned violent with live fire exchanged between police and protesters. Demonstrators angered by what they see as poor government service had fired on police and attacked journalists.
    (AP, 2/15/11)

2011        Mar 3, South Africa's highest court ordered a top Johannesburg-based mining company to compensate the family of a dead mineworker, overturning a law which prohibited mineworkers with lung diseases from claiming compensation.
    (AP, 3/3/11)

2011        Mar 17, American actor Danny Glover arrived in South Africa to escort former Haitian President Jean-Bertrand Aristide home.
    (AP, 3/17/11)

2011        Mar 23, South Africa’s University of Johannesburg voted to sever ties with Israel's Ben-Gurion University, acting on calls from hundreds of South African academics and intellectuals for an academic boycott in a growing campaign to isolate Israel for its attacks on Palestinians in Gaza. It will end a 25-year relationship on April 1, but professors can continue to work individually with Ben-Gurion.
    (AP, 3/24/11)

2011        Mar 27, South Africa's newly appointed government spokesman Jimmy Manyi said the government is launching a newspaper to rectify media censorship of government information. Its bimonthly magazine will launch next month as a 20-page, free, monthly newspaper called Vuk'uzenzele, which means "Wake up and do it for yourself" in Zulu.
    (AP, 3/27/11)

2011        Mar 29, South African counterterrorism police arrested Andre Visagie, a white supremacist, and seized weapons including five homemade rifles, a pistol, and more than 690 rounds of ammunition.
    (AP, 3/30/11)

2011        Apr 2, South African judge Richard Goldstone said he had been wrong to say Israel had targeted civilians in his 2009 report on Israel’s 2008-2998 offensive in Gaza. He had faced down enormous criticism in Israel at the time over the report which accused both Israel and the Hamas rulers of Gaza of potential war crimes during the 22-day conflict. He said his assessment had also been changed by the fact that whereas Israel had thoroughly investigated the concerns raised by his panel, Hamas had not.
    (AFP, 4/3/11)

2011        Apr 13, In South Africa Andries Tatane, a demonstrator in a central town protesting lack of basic services, was beaten to death by police. Eight police officers soon faced murder and other charges after state television showed images of the beating.
    (AP, 4/28/11)

2011        Apr 18, Italian chocolate tycoon Pietro Ferrero (47) fell off his bike while riding in South Africa and died. A heart attack was suspected.
    (AFP, 4/19/11)

2011        Apr 19, Investors announced that West Africa Cable System (WACS), a new $650 million undersea telecommunications cable, has landed in South Africa, saying the link would double the broadband capacity of the continent's largest economy.
    (AFP, 4/19/11)

2011        Apr 24, In South Africa the body of Noxolo Nogwaza (24) was found in a drainage ditch choked with trash and high reeds. The lesbian activist had been repeatedly stabbed with broken glass, and beaten so severely with chunks of concrete that her teeth had been knocked out.
    (AP, 5/10/11)(http://wherethegirlsgo.com/tag/noxolo-nogwaza/)

2011        May 5, In South Africa Sheryl Cwele, the wife of the South African Cabinet minister in charge of intelligence, was convicted of dealing in illegal drugs. Cwele and her co-defendant faced a minimum of 15 years in prison for recruiting women to smuggle drugs from Turkey and South America.
    (AP, 5/5/11)

2011        May 18, South Africa held municipal elections with growing anger over corruption scandals and poor basic services expected to dent support for the powerful ruling African National Congress. The ANC was expected to win in the overwhelming majority of the country's 278 municipalities. Voters handed the ANC a 63.6% majority, with most of the votes counted. The Democratic Alliance saw its support jump to 22.1%.
    (AFP, 5/18/11)(Reuters, 5/20/11)

2011        May 19, In South Africa more than 700 people were injured, 70 of them seriously, when two commuter trains collided in the Soweto township outside Johannesburg.
    (Reuters, 5/20/11)

2011        May 22, In South Africa 2 officers were shot dead and their guns stolen in a Cape Town squatter camp. On May 19 two officers were killed after raiding a building in eastern KwaZulu-Natal province. The national police chief called the violence against police a crises. 
    (AP, 5/22/11)

2011        May 27, It was reported that South African scientists have found a new species of cockroach, the world’s only jumping cockroach, at Cape Town’s Table Mountain National Park.
    (SFC, 5/27/11, p.A2)

2011        May 30, South Africa President Jacob Zuma arrived in Tripoli for talks on ending the Libyan conflict as NATO chief Anders Fogh Rasmussen said Moamer Kadhafi's "reign of terror" was near its end. 5 generals, 2 colonels and a major announced they had defected from Kadhafi's forces, and said the regime's army was now at 20-percent capacity.
    (AFP, 5/30/11)(AFP, 5/31/11)

2011        May 31, The South African Human Rights Commission said South Africa's ambassador to Uganda, a country criticized for threatening the rights of gays, has been found guilty of hate speech for an anti-gay column he wrote before his appointment. Jon Qwelane  was ordered to apologize and pay a fine of 100,000 rand (about $14,000) that the human rights commission will donate to a gay rights organization.
    (AP, 5/31/11)
2011        May 31, South African regulators approved Wal-Mart's 17 billion rand (about $2.4 billion) bid to buy a 51% controlling share of South Africa’s Massmart chain in a ruling that culminated a fierce debate over protectionism in the country with the continent's most promising economy.
    (AP, 5/31/11)

2011        Jun 2, In South Africa Albertina Sisulu (92), apartheid fighter and former leader of the United Democratic Front, died.
    (SSFC, 6/19/11, p.A4)

2011        Jun 16,  Swedish arms-maker Saab said that it had unwittingly paid over $3 million to a South African ANC defense consultant. Saab said payments had been made in 2003 through the British arms producer, BAE Systems.
    (Econ, 7/23/11, p.43)(www.bbc.co.uk/news/world-africa-13813281)

2011        Jun 26, In South Africa a head-on collision between two mini-bus taxis on a rural road in the northern province of Limpopo killed 15 people and seriously injured 10.
    (AFP, 6/27/11)

2011        Jul 4, In South Africa more than 110,000 engineers and metalworkers launched a strike to demand a 13 percent wage increase.
    (AFP, 7/5/11)
2011        Jul 4, The WWF said South Africa lost 193 rhinos in the first six months of the year, with 126 of them killed in Kruger National Park.
    (AFP, 7/4/11)

2011        Jul 11, In South Africa some 70,000 workers at oil refineries and related industries joined a week-old strike, raising fears of potential fuel shortages.
    (AFP, 7/11/11)

2011        Jul 18, Former South African defense minister Magnus Malan (b.1930) died. He had militarized the country to battle a perceived "total onslaught" on the apartheid regime.
    (AFP, 7/18/11)
2011        Jul 18, British PM David Cameron sought to bridge the gap with South African President Jacob Zuma over the Libya conflict on a visit overshadowed by the phone-hacking scandal back home. The focus of Cameron's trip was on boosting trade with a continent.
    (AP, 7/19/11)

2011        Jul 24, South Africa’s Johannesburg City Press reported that the African National Congress' Youth League firebrand Julius Malema has an alleged "secret fund" into which local businessmen are reported to have paid large sums of money in return for help winning government contracts.
    (AP, 7/24/11)

2011        Aug 1, South African coal miners ended their weeklong strike after signing a pay rise agreement ranging from 7.5 to 10.5 percent.
    (AFP, 8/2/11)

2011        Aug 2, In South Africa the main link on Africa's fastest railway opened to thousands of commuters who shuttled at 160 km (100 miles) per hour between Johannesburg and Pretoria.
    (AFP, 8/2/11)
2011        Aug 2, South Africa agreed to a $368-million loan to neighboring Swaziland, just one quarter of the amount sought by King Mswati III to avoid his government's financial collapse.
    (AP, 8/3/11)

2011        Aug 4, US investigators confronted Jesse Osmun in Connecticut and obtained a written confession that as a Peace Corps volunteer, he had sexually molested at least 5 girls at a South African shelter for AIDS orphans and other children. None of the girls were older than 6.
    (AP, 8/11/11)

2011        Aug 8, In South Africa drivers operating feeder buses to high-speed train service went on a one-day strike, only six days after a new link between Johannesburg and the capital Pretoria opened. Drivers were demanding a wage increase from 4,600 rand ($660, 467 euros) to 5,000 rand a month. Train drivers earned about 21,000 rand per month.
    (AFP, 8/8/11)

2011        Aug 11, South Africa announced it has approved a national health insurance proposal aimed at overhauling weak public facilities that serve more than 80 percent of the population. The National Health Insurance (NHI) scheme will be piloted in 10 areas next year and rolled out nationally over 14 years.
    (AFP, 8/11/11)
2011        Aug 11, Burundi and South Africa signed several cooperation deals including in defense, education and agriculture during Pres. Zuma's visit to the central African country.
    (AFP, 8/11/11)

2011        Aug 14, In eastern South Africa two planes carrying 13 people went missing. The wreckage was spotted from a helicopter on Aug 16 and there were no survivors.
    (AP, 8/16/11)

2011        Aug 20, In South Africa some 2,000 women draped sexy lingerie over their street clothes and marched through Cape Town, bringing the international "SlutWalks" campaign against the notion that a woman's appearance can excuse attacks to a country where rape is seen as a national crisis.
    (AP, 8/20/11)

2011        Aug 23, In South Africa a new study on the country’s renowned wine and fruit farms said workers face unfit housing and exposure to pesticides and are blocked from forming labor unions. Industry groups criticized HRW's research methods, accusing the organization of bias.
    (AFP, 8/23/11)

2011        Aug 29, South African municipal workers called off a 16-day nationwide strike without reaching an agreement with employers.
    (AFP, 8/29/11)

2011        Aug 30, South African police detonated stun grenades and fired a water cannon at hundreds of stone-throwing members of the ruling party's youth league, who burned party flags and called for the president's ouster as their leaders were brought before a party disciplinary committee.
    (AP, 8/30/11)
2011        Aug 30, In South Africa a bus overturned on a road in Eastern Cape province, killing 11 people including one child.
    (AFP, 8/31/11)

2011        Sep 9, A South African court jailed Robert McBride, a former city police chief and anti-apartheid militant, for five years over a drunken car crash that he tried to cover up.
    (AFP, 9/9/11)

2011        Sep 12, A South African judge said Julius Malema (30), the black man who leads the youth wing of the governing party, has no right to sing "Shoot the Boer," a song some whites find offensive. The next day the ANC said it would appeal the decision.
    (AP, 9/12/11)(AFP, 9/14/11)

2011        Sep 17, South African politicians joined hundreds of people who marched outside parliament to protest against the controversial secrecy bill which will be tabled in parliament next week.
    (AFP, 9/18/11)

2011        Sep 19, South Africa's ruling African National Congress shelved a controversial secrecy bill after a widespread outcry that it would muzzle investigations into government wrongdoing.
    (AFP, 9/19/11)

2011        Sep 28, Officials said South Africa and Vietnam have launched talks toward an agreement to curb rhino poaching, which has soared in recent years driven by booming demand in Asia.
    (AFP, 9/28/11)

2011        Oct 2, In South Africa a tornado in Nigel in Gauteng province left an eight-year-old boy dead and injured 166 people. Over 150 houses were lost. Lightning killed two more people in the eastern province of KwaZulu-Natal.
    (AFP, 10/3/11)

2011        Oct 6, Desmond Tutu's last-ditch appeal to South Africa to grant a visa to the Dalai Lama on the eve of his 80th birthday was rejected, marring the start of the celebrations. The Dalai Lama cancelled a planned trip to South Africa because of delays with his visa, provoking a furious response from Tutu who blasted President Jacob Zuma's government as worse than apartheid and accused him of kowtowing to China.
    (AFP, 10/6/11)

2011        Oct 7, In South Africa 4 men were convicted of murdering a lesbian in Cape Town, in a case that dragged on for five years and heightened concerns about "corrective rape" targeting gay women. In 2006 The men stoned, kicked and stabbed to death Zoliswa Nkonyana (19) just meters (yards) from her home.
    (AFP, 10/7/11)

2011        Oct 10, South Africa launched its census count, with officials pleading for residents in the crime-plagued nation to open their often formidably barricaded doors to teams of yellow-shirted enumerators.
    (AFP, 10/10/11)

2011        Oct 20, South Africa's President Jacob Zuma was at the centre of a row over the millions spent on the renovation of South Africa's government and presidential buildings. A day later backtracked on a slammed lavish upgrade of President Jacob Zuma's official residence, saying the wrong details were supplied to parliament.
    (AFP, 10/20/11)(AFP, 10/21/11)

2011        Oct 21, South Africa's ruling party's young wing saluted Libya's slain former leader Moamer Kadhafi calling him an "anti-imperialist martyr" and a fighter against the recolonization of the African continent.
    (AFP, 10/21/11)

2011        Oct 22, In South Africa an allegedly drunk driver killed five runners who were training for a marathon. A sixth runner preparing for next month's Soweto Marathon was badly injured in the accident in Johannesburg. South Africa's leading road cyclist, Carla Swart, died after being hit by a truck earlier this year while she was training.
    (AP, 10/23/11)

2011        Oct 23, In South Africa Kirsty Theologo (18) was doused in petrol and burned alive by her friends in a Johannesburg park, in what police suspect was a satanic ritual. Two men aged 19 and 21 who took part in the incident turned themselves in. Theologo suffered burns over three quarters of her body, damaging her lungs and throat, and remained in a coma. Theologo died on Oct 28. A 2nd girl (16) survived her burns.
    (AFP, 10/24/11)(AP, 10/28/11)

2011        Oct 24, South Africa's President Jacob Zuma said the national police chief has been suspended and a Cabinet minister fired after the two were caught up in a police headquarters leasing scandal.
    (AP, 10/24/11)

2011        Oct 25, South Africa threw its weight behind Palestine's bid to become a full member of the United Nations and called on the international body to settle the bid quickly.
    (AFP, 10/25/11)
2011        Oct 25, South Africa’s Finance Minister, Pravin Gordhan, said South Africa will launch a $3.2 billion package to boost the economy, as he revised the 2011 growth forecast for the country down to 3.1 percent.
    (AFP, 10/25/11)

2011        Oct 27, Young South Africans, led by Julius Malema, brought their frustration over poverty and joblessness to the streets, responding to a call by the tough-talking youth leader of the governing ANC who has clashed with older party leaders over economic policy.
    (AP, 10/27/11)

2011        Nov 3, Wildlife group WWF said rhino poaching in South Africa has hit a new record high, with 341 of the animals lost to poachers so far this year as black-market demand for rhino horn soars.
    (AFP, 11/3/11)

2011        Nov 4, The Anglo-American mining firm agreed to pay the Oppenheimer family $5.1 billion for their 40% stake in De Beers, the world’s leading diamond miner.
    (Econ, 11/12/11, p.73)

2011        Nov 7, In South Africa Greenpeace activists chained themselves to a gate and climbed a crane at the Kusile coal-fired power station to protest dependence on coal, weeks before the country hosts a global conference on climate change. 9 people were arrested.
    (AP, 11/7/11)(SFC, 11/8/11, p.A2)

2011        Nov 10, South Africa's governing party fired Julius Malema (30), its controversial youth leader, and suspended him from the African National Congress for five years for sowing intolerance and disunity. Malema said he would appeal.
    (AP, 11/10/11)

2011        Nov 11, South Africa's former finance minister Trevor Manuel unveiled a plan to end poverty by creating 11 million jobs by 2030.
    (AFP, 11/11/11)

2011        Nov 12, In South Africa renowned cricket writer Peter Roebuck (55) was about to be detained over the alleged sexual assault of a Zimbabwean man when he plunged to his death.
    (AFP, 11/14/11)

2011        Nov 15, South African teacher Guilford Shapo (53) was hacked to death with a machete in front of a shocked classroom of primary school students in the northern town of Polokwane. His 40-year-old brother was charged in the case.
    (AFP, 11/17/11)
2011        Nov 15, Hong Kong customs officers intercepted a record haul of 33 rhino horns, 758 ivory chopsticks and 127 bracelets hidden inside a container shipped from South Africa.
    (AFP, 11/16/11)

2011        Nov 22, South Africa’s governing African National Congress pushed a bill through parliament (229-107) to protect state secrets, despite strong objections from the opposition. Pres. Zuma was expected to approve the secrecy bill. Pretoria’s Mayor Kgosientso Ramokgopa said the city will be renamed Tshwane by the end of 2012, with main roads also given names of anti-apartheid leaders.
    (AP, 11/22/11)(AFP, 11/22/11)(Econ, 11/19/11, p.62)
2011        Nov 22, A survey of some 6,000 people over the last 12 months in Democratic Republic of Congo, Malawi, Mozambique, South Africa, Zambia and  Zimbabwe said police are the most corrupt institution in the six countries.
    (AFP, 11/22/11)

2011        Nov 25, A study by Canadian scientists found that South Africa and Zimbabwe suffer the worst economic losses due to doctors emigrating, while Australia, Canada, Britain and the United States benefit the most from recruiting doctors trained abroad.
    (Reuters, 11/25/11)

2011        Nov 28, UN climate negotiations opened in Durban, South Africa, with pressure building to salvage the only treaty limiting greenhouse gas emissions.
    (AP, 11/28/11)

2011        Nov 30, In South Africa Rajendra Pachauri, the UN's top climate scientist, cautioned climate negotiators that global warming is leading to human dangers and soaring financial costs, but containing carbon emissions will have a host of benefits.
    (AP, 11/30/11)

2011        Dec 1, South Africa’s President Jacob Zuma unveiled a 5-year plan to halve the number of HIV infections, cementing South Africa's turnaround from years of deadly denial.
    (AFP, 12/1/11)
2011        Dec 1, In eastern South Africa a crash involving a van and a truck killed all 18 people aboard the two vehicles, including a baby.
    (AP, 12/1/11)

2011        Dec 5, Johannesburg police fired rubber bullets to break up a group of demonstrators gathered in front of the ruling ANC party headquarters to protest South Africa's alleged involvement in fraud in the November 28 election in the Democratic Republic of Congo.
    (AFP, 12/5/11)
2011        Dec 5, In South Africa Global Witness said it has left the Kimberley Process, accusing the international diamond regulatory group of refusing to address links between diamonds, violence and tyranny. The rights watchdog cited what it called failures in Ivory Coast, Venezuela and Zimbabwe.
    (AP, 12/5/11)

2011        Dec 6, The South African National Parks authority said rhino poaching has climbed to a record for a 2nd year. As many as 405 rhinos have been killed so far this year, 22% more than in 2010.
    (SFC, 12/7/11, p.A2)

2011        Dec 7, In South Africa an investigation commissioned by the government into the UN oil-for-food program in Iraq cleared Deputy President Kgalema Motlanthe of corruption. The probe was ordered in 2006 by then president Thabo Mbeki, into what has become known in the country as "Oilgate," to look at allegations of kickbacks sourced by senior members of the ruling party from the State Oil Marketing Organization of Iraq (SOMO). The UN oil-for-food program ran from 1996 until 2003.
    (AFP, 12/7/11)

2011        Dec 10, In South Africa a day after their scheduled close, UN climate talks fought against despondency as 194 countries grappled for a deal to tame greenhouse gases. Research presented at Durban said the world is on track for a 3.5 C (6.3 F) rise, a likely recipe for droughts, floods, storms and rising sea levels that will threaten tens of millions.
    (AFP, 12/10/11)
2011        Dec 10, In central South Africa the driver of an overloaded van lost control, veered into the oncoming lane and collided with a truck, leaving 30 people dead.
    (AP, 12/10/11)
2011        Dec 10, South Africa's ruling African National Congress offered to help President Robert Mugabe's ruling ZANU-PF win the next elections in neighboring Zimbabwe.
    (AFP, 12/11/11)

2011        Dec 11, In South Africa a UN climate conference reached a hard-fought agreement on a far-reaching program meant to set a new course for the global fight against climate change. The 194-party conference agreed to start negotiations on a new accord that would ensure that countries will be legally bound to carry out any pledges they make. It would take effect by 2020 at the latest. The conference also agreed on a Green Climate Fund, which would funnel some of the $110 billion, promised by rich countries to poor ones, to help them cut emissions and adopt to climate change.
    (AP, 12/11/11)(Econ, 12/17/11, p.140)

2011        Dec 12, China executed Janice Linden (35), a South African woman, by lethal injection for drug smuggling after rejecting last-minute pleas for clemency from her government. She was convicted of trying to sneak three kg (6.6 pounds) of methamphetamine into the country in her luggage through the southern city of Guangzhou in 2008. Amnesty International says China executes more people every year than the rest of the world combined.
    (AFP, 12/12/11)

2011        Dec 16, Zimbabwe state media said the national airline has suspended flights to South Africa over a debt of $500,000, fearing creditors might impound more of its planes.
    (AFP, 12/16/11)

2011        Dec 20, In South Africa Julius Malema (30), the suspended youth leader of the ruling African National Congress, was elected to a senior party post by members in his home province of Limpopo.
    (AFP, 12/20/11)

2011        Dec 21, In South Africa the Limpopo branch of the African National Congress adopted controversial plans for the expropriation of land and the nationalization of mines. It said compensation must be paid not on the land itself but only on improvements.
    (AFP, 12/21/11)

2011        Dec 26, In South Africa 19 people were killed when an overtaking car smashed head-on into a minibus taxi in central Free State.
    (AP, 12/27/11)

2011        In South Africa General Mdluli, head of the police crime intelligence, was arrested over alleged involvement in the 1999 murder of his former lover's husband. He also faced charges of financial mismanagement, abuse of power and nepotism. In March, 2012, the charges were provisionally withdrawn pending an investigation and he went back to work. In late May he was again suspended as fresh accusations emerged.
    (AFP, 5/27/12)
2011        The World Health Organization estimated that 62% of South Africa’s men and 73% of its women were overweight.
    (Econ, 3/26/11, p.77)
2011        The group Stop Rhino Poaching estimated that 446 rhinos were killed in South Africa this year, a sharp jump from the 13 lost in 2007, 83 in 2008, 122 in 2009 and 333 in 2010.
    (AFP, 1/3/12)

2012        Jan 6, South Africa’s Media24 said its famous Boekehuis bookshop in Johannesburg will close at the end of January, a victim of the country's poor reading culture.
    (AFP, 1/6/12)

2012        Jan 10, In South Africa a stampede broke out as thousands tried to enroll at the Univ. of Johannesburg, killing one woman and injuring at least 22 people. South Africa's national university system has room for some 150,000 first-year students this year. Another 180,000 high school graduates are expected to be turned away.
    (AFP, 1/10/12)
2012        Jan 10, South African rangers found eight dead rhinos that had been stripped of their horns, an unprecedented one-day toll, in Kruger National Park.
    (AP, 1/11/12)

2012        Jan 11, In South Africa 2 suspected rhino poachers were shot dead by rangers in Kruger National Park, a day after eight dehorned carcasses were found there.
    (AFP, 1/11/12)

2012        Jan 13, Ratings agency Fitch revised South Africa's outlook from stable to negative, citing the country's failure to create enough jobs and to speed up economic growth.
    (AFP, 1/13/12)

2012        Jan 31, South African Airways launched non-stop flights to Beijing. China became South Africa's top trade partner in 2009.
    (AFP, 1/31/12)

2012        Feb 1, South Africa’s national parks agency said 3 young Mozambican poachers will spend 25 years behind bars after they were found with two fresh rhino horns in Kruger Park.
    (AFP, 2/2/12)

2012        Feb 2, In South Africa Impala Platinum, the world's number two producer, fired 13,000 miners who went on an illegal strike. Over the past month, the Johannesburg-based company has sacked a total of about 17,200 workers at its mine in the northwestern town of Rustenburg, more than half of the 30,000 people employed in the town.
    (AFP, 2/2/12)

2012        Feb 4, South Africa's ruling ANC threw out an appeal by its fiery youth league leader, Julius Malema (30), to overturn his suspension, but said he could argue for a lighter sentence.
    (AFP, 2/4/12)

2012        Feb 9, South Africa’s Pres. Zuma said the government will invest 300 billion rand ($39.6 billion, €29.7 billion) in rail and port projects over the next seven years in a bid to create jobs.
    (AFP, 2/9/12)

2012        Feb 11, South Africa launched a new line of bank notes bearing the image of its first democratically elected president, Nelson Mandela (93), on the 22nd anniversary of his release from prison.
    (AFP, 2/11/12)

2012        Feb 12, In South Africa the Impala Platinum worker’s union said the world's number two producer has agreed to take back 17,200 workers who were fired for going on strike.
    (AFP, 2/12/12)

2012        Feb 19, South African police said at least 350 people have been arrested after deadly violence during an illegal strike at the world's largest platinum mine run by Impala Platinum. At least 2 miners were killed since violence began on Feb 16. A 3rd death was reported on Feb 24.
    (AFP, 2/19/12)(AFP, 2/20/12)(AFP, 2/24/12)

2012        Feb, In South Africa an alleged police hit squad, known as the “Cato Manor" unit was disbanded after being accused of carrying out scores of assassinations of suspects.
    (Econ, 6/23/12, p.54)(www.allzanews.com/2012/06/20/hawks-arrest-15-cato-manor-cops/)

2012        Mar 1, In South Africa fiery youth leader Julius Malema vowed to keep fighting after the ruling ANC expelled him in a dramatic move seen as clearing an obstacle to President Jacob Zuma's reelection.
    (AFP, 3/1/12)

2012        Mar 5, In South Africa a miner escaped from underground mine collapse at the Grootvlei mine near Johannesburg and alerted police. At least 20 illegal miners were killed in the rockfall. A search was called off after 5 days. The mine, owned by President Jacob Zuma's nephew and a grandson of Nelson Mandela, had been officially closed but not made secure.
    (AFP, 3/12/12)

2012        Mar 7, In South Africa tens of thousands of protesters marched through 32 towns and cities in a protest by the powerful Cosatu labor body, the latest sign of tensions within the ANC-led government.
    (AFP, 3/7/12)

2012        Mar 8, South Africa's government insisted it would go ahead with plans to set highway tolls, despite threats of more protests a day after tens of thousands of people marched against the scheme.
    (AFP, 3/8/12)
2012        Mar 8, South Africa apologized for barring 125 Nigerians from the country and unveiled new immigration procedures aimed at ending a diplomatic row between the continent's two powerhouses. Immigration officials at Johannesburg's main airport on March 2 refused entry to Nigerians, on the pretext that their yellow fever vaccination cards might be fake.
    (AFP, 3/8/12)

2012        Mar 9, A South African court cleared the way for the world's top retailer Wal-Mart to take its first foothold in Africa by dismissing a government bid to set aside its $2.2 billion takeover of local chain Massmart.
    (AFP, 3/9/12)

2012        Mar 13, South African wildlife dealer Jacques Els (39) was sentenced to eight years in jail over 38 horns cut off sedated rhinos. Els was arrested in 2010 after buying the horns for 760,000 rands ($100,000, 77,000 euros) from game farm manager Tommie Fourie who drugged the animals and cut off their trademark spikes. Els claimed the horns were removed from the animals "to protect them from poaching."
    (AFP, 3/14/12)

2012        Mar 19, South African officials said 135 endangered rhinoceros have been killed by poachers so far this year, about a third of the number killed during all of 2011.
    (AP, 3/19/12)

2012        Mar 20, South Africa’s Supreme Court ruled to allow a review of a 2009 decision by the National Prosecuting Authority that dropped charges of corruption, racketeering, tax-evasion and money laundering against Pres. Zuma.
    (Econ, 3/24/12, p.49)

2012        Mar 23, In South Africa Julius Malema (31), the radical youth leader whom the ruling ANC is trying to rid itself of, repeated a call for the expropriation of white-owned farms at the press club in Pretoria after receiving its Newsmaker of the Year 2011 award.
    (AFP, 3/24/12)

2012        Mar 24, South Africa launched a plan to diagnose tuberculosis in the country's gold mines, where the disease's incidence is the highest in the world.
    (AFP, 3/24/12)

2012        Mar 25, Six South African rugby players from a local club in Port Elizabeth drowned after a rip-current pulled 21 people out to sea. 7 lifeguards rescued 15 people.
    (AFP, 3/26/12)

2012        Mar 26, South African rights activists began a legal bid to compel South Africa to investigate and prosecute citizens of neighboring Zimbabwe suspected of crimes against humanity.
    (Reuters, 3/26/12)

2012        Mar 29, A collection of about 100 African films went online, offering rentals for $5 to view classics from directors like Senegal's Ousmane Sembene and Egypt's Youssef Chahine. The African Film Library was 3 years in the making, sponsored by South African satellite television service M-Net, which digitally remastered the movies and placed them online for rental.
    (AFP, 3/28/12)

2012        Apr 4, South Africa's ruling ANC suspended its fiery youth leader Julius Malema (30) with immediate effect, banning him from all party activities.
    (AFP, 4/4/12)

2012        Apr 8, In South Africa Andreas Derleth, a towering German who lives in New Zealand, took the title of Mr Gay World. He beat out 21 other men, including the first black African contestants. Most of the contestants came from Europe and the Americas, with none from the Muslim world and few from Africa and Asia.
    (AFP, 4/9/12)

2012        Apr 10, South Africa's state-owned logistics company Transnet announced plans to create 588,000 jobs in its seven-year, $37.8-billion expansion program. The scheme included plans to develop railways, sea ports and pipelines to expand freight transport and ease bottlenecks that hamper mining exports.
    (AFP, 4/10/12)

2012        Apr 12, The South African anti-trust tribunal said it has approved a $5.1-billion deal by Anglo American to buy 40 percent of De Beers, allowing it to take control of the world's largest diamond firm. The deal was announced late last year and was formally approved by Anglo shareholders in January.
    (AFP, 4/12/12)

2012        Apr 14, Nigeria's militant group MEND threatened to attack South Africa's investments, including telecoms firm MTN, in the Niger Delta, because of the terror trial of its leader, Henry Okah, in Johannesburg.
    (AFP, 4/14/12)

2012        Apr 15, South African newspapers reported that authorities have seized assets of Khulubuse Zuma, a nephew of President Jacob Zuma, to cover debts to a security company, Aurora Empowerment Systems, that guarded now-liquidated gold mines he co-owned with a grandson of Nelson Mandela.
    (AFP, 4/15/12)

2012        Apr 17, South Africa Police arrested seven youths, aged 14 to 20, for the gang rape of a teenage girl (17) after they were identified based on video images. She was said to have the mental capacity of a four-year-old. A day earlier the Johannesburg High Court heard 62 rape cases, including a father-son pair charged with attacking 21 women together.
    (AFP, 4/19/12)

2012        Apr 19, In South Africa a man was killed by a shark while body boarding at a bay in Cape Town in the country’s second deadly mauling this year.
    (AFP, 4/19/12)

2012        Apr 20, South Africa's President Jacob Zuma married his fourth current wife, marking the sixth time the 70-year-old has tied the knot.
    (AFP, 4/20/12)

2012        Apr 27, South African police snipers shot dead a 30-year-old man who had taken two women hostage inside a Durban hospital. Police believed the man was a teacher who suffered from bipolar disorder, and was receiving treatment at the hospital.
    (AFP, 4/27/12)

2012        Apr 28, A South African court halted the roll-out of tolls on major highways around Johannesburg in the latest delay for the project which has met widespread opposition.
    (AFP, 4/28/12)
2012        Apr 28, South Africa Officials said some 14,600 inmates will be released to ease overcrowding. Violent criminals would not be freed.
    (SSFC, 4/29/12, p.A4)
2012        Apr 28, A South African policeman was shot dead by a game ranger in the Kruger National Park while searching for rhino poachers in a deadly exchange that also claimed the gunman's life.
    (AFP, 4/29/12)

2012        May 8, A South African judge ordered prosecutors to investigate whether Zimbabwean President Robert Mugabe's government committed human rights abuses against his rivals ahead of 2008 elections. The Southern Africa Litigation Center (SALC) and the Zimbabwe Exiles Forum wanted South Africa to arrest and prosecute 17 Zimbabweans accused of torture in 2007 if they enter the country for holiday, shopping or seeking medical treatment.
    (AP, 5/8/12)(AFP, 5/8/12)

2012        May 9, South African authorities seized assets worth almost $7 million from game farm owner Dawie Groenewald and veterinary surgeons, Karel Toet and Manie Du Plessis, accused of rhino poaching. They were charged with 1,872 counts of racketeering.
    (AFP, 5/9/12)

2012        May 15, South African police fired teargas during clashes between the opposition Democratic Alliance, angered by youth unemployment over 50%, and supporters of Cosatu, the most powerful trade union in Johannesburg.
    (AFP, 5/15/12)
2012        May 15, South African police officers, tipped off by an anonymous informer, forced their way into a Johannesburg apartment where they found 10 rhinoceros horns and an elephant tusk and arrested a Vietnamese man.
    (AP, 5/16/12)

2012        May 22, South African President Jacob Zuma and his African National Congress sought a court order to have a painting depicting the president's genitals removed from an art gallery, but two men took matters into their own hands by defacing the portrait with gobs of paint. The painting, titled “The Spear," by Brett Murray went on display in a Johannesburg gallery earlier this month.
    (AP, 5/22/12)(SSFC, 5/27/12, p.A4)
2012        May 22, A South African court convicted Chris Mahlangu, one of the two accused black farmworkers in the April 3, 2010, murder of white supremacist leader Eugene Terre'Blanche. Co-accused Patrick Ndlovu, who was a minor at the time of the crime, was found guilty only of house-breaking, and not guilty on charges of murder and robbery.
    (AFP, 5/22/12)
2012        May 22, In South Africa 10 illegal diamond miners were killed in a disused mine tunnel in the Northern Cape province.
    (AFP, 5/27/12)

2012        May 25, A long-running joust to host a radio telescope, the Square Kilometer Array (SKA), that would give mankind its farthest peek into the Universe, ended with a Solomon-like judgement to split the $2 billion project between two groups, Australia and New Zealand and South Africa.
    (AFP, 5/25/12)(Econ, 6/2/12, p.94)(Econ, 1/7/17, p.38)

2012        Jun 12, South Africa's disgraced former police chief Bheki Cele was sacked by Pres. Zuma due to his handling of leases for police headquarters that were signed at far above market rates. Cele was suspended in October when a commission of enquiry was launched.
    (AFP, 6/13/12)
2012        Jun 12, South African authorities said the slaughter of rhinos driven by the soaring illegal trade in their horns continues at a record pace with 245 killed since January. Police have arrested 161 suspects, including 138 poachers, since the start of the year.
    (AFP, 6/12/12)

2012        Jun 21, In South Africa former Rwandan Gen. Faustin Kayumba Nyamwasa said Rwandan President Paul Kagame ordered the 1994 killing of President Juvenal Habyarimana that sparked Rwanda's genocide, as he testified in a Johannesburg courtroom about an attempt on his own life in 2010 in South Africa.
    (AP, 6/21/12)

2012        Jun 22, In South Africa 18 police officers, recently arrested on charges of murder, assault and possession of ammunition, appeared in court in Durban. They were freed on 5,000 rand (less than $600) bail each.
    (AP, 6/22/12)

2012        Jun 25, In South Africa a bus plunged off a bridge killing at least 19 people and injuring 55 in the small town of Meyerton.
    (AP, 6/25/12)

2012        Jun 28, In South Africa chimpanzees at the Jane Goodall Institute Chimpanzee Eden near Nelspruit pulled Andrew F. Oberle, an American graduate student working there, into their enclosure, bit him and dragged him nearly a half mile.
    (AP, 6/29/12)(AP, 6/30/12)

2012        Jun 30, In South Africa a fire at the Gold Fields Kloof-Driefontein mine near Johannesburg left five workers dead. On July 2 the mineral resources ministry issued a compulsory order that halted operations pending investigations. On July 3 Gold Fields reopened the east section of the Kloof Driefontein Complex.
    (AP, 7/2/12)(AFP, 7/2/12)(AFP, 7/3/12)

2012        Jul 6, A South African newspaper cartoon depicting President Jacob Zuma as a penis drew condemnation from the ruling ANC just weeks after furor over a painting which exposed his genitals.
    (AFP, 7/6/12)

2012        Jul 12, South African scientists said they have uncovered the most complete skeleton yet of an ancient relative of man, hidden in a rock excavated from an archaeological site three years ago. Other parts of the A. sediba skeleton, dubbed Karabo, were first discovered in 2009 and were thought to be about 2 million years old.
    (AFP, 7/12/12)

2012        Jul 13, In eastern South Africa a cargo train loaded with coal collided with a truck carrying farm workers at a crossing, killing at least 25 people in Mpumalanga. The driver of the farm truck was charged the next day with murder.
    (AP, 7/13/12)(AP, 7/14/12)

2012        Jul 15, South Africa's Nkosazana Dlamini-Zuma, a former wife of Pres. Zuma, won a tightly fought vote to become the first woman to head the African Union Commission.
    (AFP, 7/16/12)(Econ, 7/21/12, p.43)

2012        Jul 17, In South Africa Madagascar's exiled former president Marc Ravalomanana was served with a summons at his hotel in Pretoria over a $23 million lawsuit filed by victims of 2009 unrest that led to his ouster.
    (AFP, 7/17/12)

2012        Jul 21, In South Africa two busses collided in the country's southeast killed 18 people near the Eastern Cape town of Cradock. Three of them were elementary school children headed to a sports event.
    (AP, 7/21/12)

2012        Jul 26, A South African court convicted "Boeremag" kingpin Mike du Toit of high treason in a white supremacist plot to kill Nelson Mandela and drive blacks out of the country in a trial that has spanned nearly a decade. The next day  his brother, former policeman Andre du Toit, received the same verdict in a Pretoria court. The men were said to be behind nine bomb blasts that shook the Johannesburg township of Soweto on October 30, 2002.
    (AFP, 7/27/12)

2012        Jul 27, In South Africa Germany-born conservationist Rita Miljo (81) died in a fire that destroyed much of her Center for Animal Rehabilitation and Education in the bush of Limpopo province. Sha had cared for and reintroduced packs of baboons into the wilds of South Africa.
    (SSFC, 7/29/12, p.A2)

2012        Aug 7, The Competition Tribunal of South Africa fined Telkom, the one-time monopoly state telephone company, with a $54.8 million fine over unfair competition.
    (AP, 8/7/12)
2012        Aug 7, South African officials recorded snowfall across every South African province except Limpopo. South African Weather Service records show it has snowed in Johannesburg on only 22 other days in the last 103 years. The last snow fell there in June 2007.
    (AP, 8/7/12)

2012        Aug 8, In South Africa Mziwamadoda Qwabe (27), one of the men accused of killing Swedish honeymooner Anni Dewani, pleaded guilty and was sentenced to 25 years in prison in a plea deal. South Africa was still awaiting the extradition of the victim's British husband Shrien Dewani, who is accused of masterminding the November 2010 killing in a murder set up to look like a botched carjacking. On Aug 15 Xolile Mngeni, named by Qwabe as the gunman, denied charges of murder, kidnapping, robbery and illegal possession of a firearm and ammunition. On Nov 19 Mngeni was convicted of premeditated murder. In October, 2014, Mngeni died in a hospital unit of a Cape Town prison. He had been diagnosed in 2011 with brain cancer.
    (AFP, 8/8/12)(AFP, 8/15/12)(AP, 11/19/12)(AP, 10/19/14)
2012        Aug 8, In South Africa at least two people died and two went missing as heavy snow and rain battered the southeast.
    (AFP, 8/8/12)

2012        Aug 9, In South Africa 9 members of a vigilante group guarding against cattle theft were shot dead in and some 30 were missing after a revenge attack by villagers.
    (AFP, 8/11/12)

2012        Aug 10, South African protesters calling for better government services shut down a national highway leading into top tourist city Cape Town where they hurled a petrol bomb at police officers, blocked roads and set tires alight.
    (AFP, 8/10/12)

2012        Aug 12, In South Africa violent clashes broke out at the mine run by Lonmin, the world's third largest platinum producer, in a battle for dominance between the leading National Union of Mineworkers (NUM) and the smaller Association of Mineworkers and Construction Union (AMCU). 8 people were killed in the clashes. The next day two police officers, responding to the clashes, were hacked to death. In 2015 South African prosecutors charged 17 miners with murder over the killing of 10 people during a violent wildcat strike at Lonmin's Marikana mine.
    (AFP, 8/14/12)(Reuters, 10/21/15)
2012        Aug 12, In South Africa Bulelani Mabhayi (39) was arrested after an elderly woman was founded hacked to death the night before in the Eastern Cape village of Tholeni. He was being charged with a string of unresolved rapes and murders in the village where 19 women have been slain since 2009.
    (AFP, 8/15/12)

2012        Aug 16, South African police fired on strikers at the Lonmin platinum mine leaving 34 dead. This was the deadliest police action since the end of white-minority rule in 1994.
    (AFP, 8/17/12)
2012        Aug 16, It was reported that lion bones have become a hot commodity for their use in Asian traditional medicine, driving up exports from South Africa to the East and creating new fears of the survival of the species.
    (AFP, 8/16/12)

2012        Aug 19, In South Africa Platinum producer Lonmin ordered employees at its mine where police killed 34 people to return to work or risk dismissal but workers vowed to stay on strike.
    (AFP, 8/19/12)

2012        Aug 20, A South African court convicted the last of 20 men accused of high treason for a plot to kill Nelson Mandela and drive blacks out of the country, in a trial that spanned nearly a decade. The "Boeremag" organization had planned a right-wing coup in 2002 to overthrow the post-apartheid government by creating chaos in the country. Judge Eben Jordaan found that Kobus Pretorius was the group's "master explosives manufacturer" and "took the lead in the production process" throughout their bomb-making activity.
    (AFP, 8/20/12)
2012        Aug 20, In South Africa only 27% of workers answered an ultimatum to return for morning shifts at the platinum mine where police shot and killed 34-44 striking workers last week. Lonmin PLC said they were enough for it to resume operations.
    (AP, 8/20/12)(AFP, 8/23/12)

2012        Aug 21, In South Africa Platinum giant Lonmin eased off its threat to fire miners who failed to return to work, as the government pleaded for time to mourn the 44 people killed during a wildcat strike. The company said about one-third of Lonmin's 28,000 employees at the Marikana platinum mine reported for work today.
    (AFP, 8/21/12)

2012        Aug 23, Israel's foreign ministry summoned South Africa's envoy to formally protest Pretoria's decision to place "Occupied Palestinian Territory" labels on goods from Jewish settlements.
    (AFP, 8/23/12)
2012        Aug 23, In Switzerland the Green Climate Fund, which aims to channel $100 billion a year in aid to poor countries, selected as leaders Zaheer Fakir, head of international relations for South Africa's environment agency, and Ewen McDonald, deputy head of Australia's international development agency.
    (AP, 8/23/12)

2012        Aug 25, South Africa’s platinum giant Lonmin said nearly 60 percent of workers reported for duty at one of its two sets of shafts as it sought an accord to end a labor dispute that has claimed 44 lives.
    (AFP, 8/25/12)

2012        Aug 27, In South Africa strikers threatened retaliation against non-strikers at the London-listed Lonmin mine where most of the 28,000-workforce did not show up for shift 11 days after the country's worst police violence since apartheid.
    (AFP, 8/27/12)

2012        Aug 30, In South Africa about 270 miners were charged with the murders of 34 striking colleagues who were shot by South African police officers. The decision to charge the miners came under an arcane Roman-Dutch common purpose law used under the apartheid regime. It suggested Pres. Jacob Zuma's government wants to shift blame for the killings from police to the striking miners.
    (AFP, 8/30/12)

2012        Aug 30, In South Africa three crates of "more than 5,000 rounds of ammunitions" of various sizes were found concealed under a wooden floor beneath the pulpit of a Dutch Reformed Church in the town of Schweizer-Reneke.
    (AFP, 9/1/12)

2012        Sep 2, South Africa's top public prosecutor said that controversial murder charges against 270 miners for the killing of fellow workers shot dead by police, will be provisionally dropped.
    (AFP, 9/2/12)

2012        Sep 3, South African police and security guards fired rubber bullets and tear gas at sacked gold miners who were attacking colleagues to block them from working. Police said four people were wounded at the Gold Fields mine that used to be partially owned by the president's nephew. Lonmin warned that a nearly four week strike at its mine was threatening 40,000 jobs, as the government moved to calm jitters in the sector.
    (AFP, 9/3/12)

2012        Sep 7, South Africa said it will allow fracking to explore for shale gas in the semi-desert Karoo region known for its vast plains and tender lamb.
    (AP, 9/7/12)

2012        Sep 11, In South Africa firebrand politician Julius Malema called for a national strike in all of the nation's mines, encouraging a step-up of a strike that has already halted production at several platinum and gold mines.
    (AP, 9/11/12)

2012        Sep 12, South Africa’s labor unrest grew. Police said 1,000 strikers were blocking access to the main shaft at Anglo American Platinum, stopping some operations at the world's largest platinum mine.
    (AP, 9/12/12)

2012        Sep 14, South African police fired stun grenades to disperse striking miners, acting hours after President Jacob Zuma's government vowed to halt illegal protests and disarm strikers it fears are threatening the country's biggest industry.
    (AP, 9/14/12)

2012        Sep 15, South African police fired rubber bullets and tear gas sending men, women and children scattering as they herded them into their shacks in a crackdown on striking miners at the at Lonmin PLC platinum mine.
    (AP, 9/15/12)

2012        Sep 18, Striking platinum miners in South Africa signed a wage deal ending a bloody 5-week strike at the Lonmin PLC mine that had spread to the gold and chrome sectors of the industry which anchors the economy of Africa's richest economy.
    (AP, 9/18/12)

2012        Sep 25, South Africa's labor unrest spread from its mines to the transport sector. The country's transport union said more than 20,000 road freight employees were on strike demanding a pay increase.
    (AP, 9/25/12)

2012        Sep 26, South Africa’s AngloGold Ashanti said that it has halted all its operations in the country in response to persistent strikes. It provided 32 percent of the multinational's gold production.
    (AP, 9/26/12)(Economist, 9/29/12, p.53)

2012        Oct 2, In South Africa thousands of striking truck drivers protested amid heavy police presence in central Johannesburg as labor unrest continued across the country, leading to fears of renewed violence.
    (AP, 10/2/12)

2012        Oct 4, In South Africa a mineworker killed as police fired rubber bullets trying to disperse striking miners near an Anglo American Platinum mine in Rustenburg.
    (AP, 10/5/12)

2012        Oct 5, In South Africa Anglo American Platinum fired 12,000 striking miners for staging an unlawful strike that is one of several that are slowly paralyzing South Africa's crucial mining sector.
    (AP, 10/5/12)

2012        Oct 11, In South Africa striking miners killed one man by setting him on fire while another was shot and seriously wounded in rekindled labor unrest that saw police firing tear gas and rubber bullets near an Anglo American Platinum (Amplats) mine.
    (AP, 10/11/12)
2012        Oct 11, It was reported that upgrades for South African President Jacob Zuma's rural private home will cost more than $23 million in taxpayer money.
    (AP, 10/12/12)

2012        Oct 12, In South Africa a strike by some 20,000 truckers ended in a three-year wage deal that gives them a 10 percent pay raise in the first year.
    (AP, 10/12/12)

2012        Oct 15, South Africa’s Nkosazana Dlamini-Zuma took charge of the African Union, the first woman to assume its top leadership.
    (SFC, 10/16/12, p.A2)

2012        Oct 22, In  South Africa a blast outside a prison in central Johannesburg killed three prisoners and seriously wounded four others in an attempted escape plan.
    (AP, 10/22/12)

2012        Oct 27, South African police fired rubber bullets at striking miners at the Anglo American Platinum mine in Rustenburg as the company announced it had agreed to reinstate 12,000 South African workers dismissed earlier this month for staging illegal strikes. Some of the miners had vowed not to return to work until their wage demands were met.
    (AP, 10/27/12)

2012        Nov 2, In South Africa AngloGold Ashanti said it has suspended operations at two mines after hundreds of workers staged a sit-in over pay.
    (AP, 11/2/12)
2012        Nov 2, In South Africa low cost 1Time Airline said that all of its operations have been grounded with immediate effect after it applied for business liquidation.
    (AP, 11/3/12)

2012        Nov 4, South African police said 14 rhinos in provinces have been found illegally dehorned in the past week. Three of them died. At least 458 of the country's endangered rhinos have been illegally hunted and killed this year.
    (AP, 11/5/12)

2012        Nov 6, In South Africa Gold Fields said that thousands of employees returned to work at the company's KDC East mine ending a 23-day strike. The National Union of Mineworkers that the 12,000 miners fired from platinum mining company Anglo American Platinum in Rustenburg for staging illegal strikes since September had still not returned to work, and negotiations were underway.
    (AP, 11/6/12)
2012        Nov 6, New South African banknotes, featuring the image of former president and anti-apartheid icon Nelson Mandela, went into circulation.
    (AP, 11/6/12)

2012        Nov 8, South African opposition parties submitted a motion of no confidence against President Jacob Zuma saying that corruption and unemployment have risen, the justice system has been politicized and the economy has weakened. The ruling party called the move a publicity stunt.
    (AP, 11/8/12)

2012        Nov 9, South African police with bulldozers destroyed homes in Lenasia township that authorities say were constructed on illegally sold land, despite efforts by protesters to stop the demolition. About 7 houses were demolished by midday, bringing to about 44 the number of houses destroyed since last week.
    (AP, 11/9/12)
2012        Nov 9, A South Africa court sentenced a Thai national to 40 years in prison for selling rhino horns. Chumlong Lemtongthai had pleaded guilty to 59 charges on Nov 5. At least 458 of South Africa's endangered rhinos have been illegally killed this year.
    (AP, 11/9/12)

2012        Nov 11, In South Africa thieves posing as eager art students with their teacher stole more than $2 million worth of paintings from the Pretoria Art Museum in a daring armed robbery. On Nov 13 police officers found four of the missing five pieces of art in a private cemetery in Port Elizabeth, hundreds of miles away from where they had been stolen.
    (AP, 11/12/12)(AP, 11/13/12)

2012        Nov 13, In South Africa police arrested a man (25) at O.R. Tambo Int’l. Airport who had swallowed 220 polished diamonds in an attempt to smuggle them out of the country.
    (SFC, 11/15/12, p.A2)

2012        Nov 14, In South Africa television images showed protesters overturn a police truck and set fires in the streets in a town in the Western Cape. Workers have been protesting their wages, saying they want a minimum wage of $17 a day. Currently, workers make about half that amount a day.
    (AP, 11/14/12)

2012        Nov 20, Police in South Africa arrested three men, including a game ranger, they suspect shot 7 rhinoceros to death and dehorned them. South Africa's Department of Environmental Affairs said 570 rhinos had been hunted illegally and killed this year alone.
    (AP, 11/20/12)

2012        Nov 22, In South Africa two workers at Harmony Gold’s Kusasalethu mine near Carletonville were killed and another injured in violence as unrest continued in the industry.
    (AP, 11/23/12)

2012        Nov 24, Police in South Africa shot dead seven suspected robbers and wounded nine others in a botched theft at an armored car company. A gunfight began as officers tried to arrest the suspects.
    (AP, 11/25/12)

2012        Nov 24, In South Africa Christopher Preece (54), a British man, was killed in an attack at his farm near Ficksburg, a town near the border with Lesotho. Preece had gone outside to check to see why the power had been cut at his farm called Fleur des Lis when three men attacked him with machetes. His wife was seriously wounded.
    (AP, 11/26/12)

2012        Dec 5, A South African judge sentenced Xolile Mngeni, the triggerman in the 2010 honeymoon slaying of Swedish bride Anni Dewani, to life in prison, calling the shooter "a merciless and evil person" who deserved the maximum punishment for his crime.
    (AP, 12/5/12)
2012        Dec 5, The Passenger Rail Agency of South Africa announced that it has accepted a $5.8 billion deal with French company Alstom SA to refurbish the nation's passenger trains.
    (AP, 12/5/12)
2012        Dec 5, A South African judge sentenced hip-hop star Molemo Maarohanye, best known by his stage name Jub Jub, and Themba Tshabalala, to 25 years each in prison for the killings of four schoolchildren in a drag-race crash on March 8, 2010.
    (AP, 12/5/12)
2012        Dec 5, A South African military aircraft on an unknown mission to an area near former President Nelson Mandela's village crashed in a mountain range, killing all 11 people onboard.
    (AP, 12/6/12)

2012        Dec 10, South Africa said its diplomats have signed an agreement with Vietnam to try and halt the trade of horns taken from poached rhinoceros.
    (AP, 12/11/12)
2012        Dec 10, In South Africa heavy rains caused a bridge to collapse, killing 14 people in Mpumalanga province.
    (AP, 12/11/12)

2012        Dec 16, South African President Jacob Zuma acknowledged that corruption and violence have marred the image of the African National Congress (ANC) under his watch, but called on members to again support him to be the political party's leader.
    (AP, 12/16/12)
2012        Dec 16, In South Africa 4 white men were arrested and faced treason and terrorism charges over an alleged plot that included plans to attack the ongoing African National Congress political party convention and kill President Jacob Zuma and others. On Dec 18 prosecutors identified them as Mark Trollip, Johan Prinsloo, Martin Keevy and Hein Boonzaaier during a court hearing in Bloemfontein. On Nov 6, 2014, Johan Prinsloo was convicted of "high treason and possession of ammunition" and jailed for eight years. Co-accused Mark Trollip had last year pleaded guilty to a charge of conspiracy and was also handed an eight-year jail term. Martin Keevy, was found mentally unfit to stand trial and charges against him were withdrawn. Charges against Hein Boonzaaier, then the party leader, were dropped due to insufficient evidence.
    (AP, 12/18/12)(AFP, 11/6/14)

2012        Dec 19, South Africa said at least 633 rhinoceros have been killed this year alone as a poaching epidemic continues to threaten the animals.
    (AP, 12/19/12)

2012        Dec 30, State-owned South African Broadcasting Corporation reported that several tens of thousands of people took a traffic officer fitness test late last week and that many collapsed from dehydration and heat exhaustion. 7 deaths were reported.
    (AP, 12/30/12)

2013        Jan 1, In South Africa three people died and 4,000 were displaced when fires swept through shacks in poor settlements in the Cape Town area on New Year's Day.
    (AP, 1/1/13)

2013        Jan 6, The South African presidency announced that is sending 400 army troops to Central African Republic to help the country's army as it faces a threat from a coalition of rebel groups. Neighboring countries Cameroon, Gabon and Republic of Congo already have sent about 120 troops each to help stabilize the country confronted by the rebellion.
    (AP, 1/6/13)

2013        Jan 7, In South Africa a Johannesburg hotel manager discovered the body of American movie director David R. Ellis (60). Police said Ellis, who directed the movie "Snakes on a Plane," was last seen Jan 5 in a restaurant by a friend.
    (AP, 1/8/13)

2013        Jan 9, South African police fired rubber bullets at striking farm workers who set up barricades and threw stones at motorists and security forces in Western Cape province whose vineyards are vital to the wine industry. At least 50 demonstrators were arrested.
    (AP, 1/9/13)

2013        Jan 13, In South Africa Christopher "Norm" Bates (41), an American Embassy employee, was allegedly stabbed to death around 3 a.m. at a Johannesburg apartment. A 29-year-old woman was arrested.
    (AP, 1/15/13)

2013        Jan 18, A South African government official said two prisoners were killed and 65 injured when a fight broke out between two gangs at St. Albans prison Port Elizabeth.
    (AP, 1/18/13)

2013        Jan 22, In South Africa police fired rubber bullets at protesters during a third day of violent clashes. Residents of Sasolburg were angry over a proposed change in municipal boundaries, which they say could affect the delivery of services.
    (AP, 1/22/13)

2013        Jan 25, Regional civic campaign group AfriForum said it is taking legal action to stop Zimbabwe from taking delivery of helicopter gunships from neighboring South Africa.
    (AP, 1/25/13)

2013        Jan 31, South African officials said that 57 rhinos have been killed by poachers across the country so far this year. A record 668 rhinos were killed in South Africa in 2012, an increase of nearly 50 percent over the previous year.
    (AP, 1/31/13)

2013        Feb 2, South Africa teenager Anene Booysen (17) was gang-raped, mutilated and left for dead on a building construction site in the Western Cape. She lived long enough to identify one of her attackers. Police on Feb 7 said they have arrested a second suspect for the gang-rape. On May 21 a magistrate said there was not enough evidence to try suspect Jonathan Davids (22), her rejected boyfriend. On Nov 1 Johannes Kana (21), a man convicted of raping and murdering the girl, was sentenced to life in jail.
    (AP, 2/7/13)(AP, 5/21/13)(AFP, 11/1/13)

2013        Feb 4, South Africa’s Minister Mildred Oliphant said in a prepared speech that a new daily wage for manual laborers on the nation's farms would be 105 rand (about $12) up from 69 rand ($7.80).
    (AP, 2/4/13)

2013        Feb 5, South African police arrested 19 suspected members of a Congolese rebel group, accusing them of plotting to overthrow their nation's government after it recently came under attack by militants said to be backed by neighboring Rwanda.
    (AP, 2/5/13)

2013        Feb 8, Police in South Africa arrested the "ringleader" of a group of 19 Congolese rebels who now face charges of allegedly plotting a war to unseat Congolese President Joseph Kabila. Prosecutors last week identified Etienne Kabila  as being in charge of the group.
    (AP, 2/10/13)

2013        Feb 13, South African authorities said at least 96 rhinoceros have been killed so far this year, as rampant poaching for their horns to sell to buyers in Asia continues. From the 1990s to 2007, rhino killings in South Africa by poachers averaged about 15 a year.
    (AP, 2/13/13)

2013        Feb 14, In South Africa Reeva Steenkamp (b.1983), the girlfriend of double-amputee Olympian runner Oscar Pistorius, was shot dead. Police arrested Pistorius on a charge of murder.
    (AP, 2/14/13)

2013        Feb 18, In South Africa Mamphela Ramphele, an academic and co-founder of the nation’s Black Conscious Movement, announced the creation of Agang, a new political party "to build the South Africa of our dreams," lambasting the 101-year-old African National Congress of Nelson Mandela for corruption and power abuse.
    (AP, 2/18/13)(Econ, 2/23/13, p.47)
2013        Feb 18, In South Africa 9 miners and 4 guards were injured when a machete-wielding mob attacked union stewards and security guards opened fire with rubber bullets amid ongoing labor rivalry at an Anglo American Platinum mine. Some miners accuse the National Union of Mineworkers (NUM), which is allied with the governing ANC, of becoming elitist, cozying up to business and putting those interests before that of mine workers.
    (AP, 2/18/13)

2013        Feb 26, A South African study was released showing that donkey, water buffalo and other unconventional ingredients have been found in almost two thirds of hamburgers and sausages tested in South Africa.
    (AP, 2/26/13)
2013        Feb 26, In South Africa Mido Macia (27), a taxi driver from Mozambique, was bound and dragged behind a police vehicle in the Daveyton township east of Johannesburg. The scene was captured on video. He was found dead in a cell hours later by another policeman. On Feb 28  eight police officers were charged with murder. On July, 2014, the eight officers, on bail on charges of murder, were sacked. In November, 2015, the eight former officers were each sentenced to 15 years in prison. 
    (AP, 2/28/13)(AP, 3/1/13)(AFP, 7/4/14)(AP, 11/11/15)

2013        Mar 6, In South Africa Dirk Coetzee (57), a former commander of the Vlakplaas covert police unit in apartheid-era South Africa, died of kidney failure. Coetzee had fled South Africa in 1989. He pledged allegiance to the ANC, returned in 1993 and was a witness at the trial of former police Col. Eugene de Kock. In testimony to the Truth and Reconciliation Commission, Coetzee confessed to plotting the 1981 murder of attorney Griffiths Mxenge.
    (AP, 3/7/13)

2013        Mar 7, A South African police officer allegedly dragged a man from a police vehicle in the second such incident in recent weeks. The officer was later arrested.
    (AP, 3/15/13)

2013        Mar 8, In South Africa statistics say someone gets raped every four minutes. A woman is also killed by an intimate partner every eight hours, a probable underestimate because no perpetrator is identified in 20 percent of killings.
    (AP, 3/8/13)

2013        Mar 12, In South Africa  forensic scientists exhumed bodies believed to belong to two young activists last seen 24 years ago at the home of Winnie Madikizela-Mandela. South Africa's Truth and Reconciliation Commission in the late 1990s found that Madikizela-Mandela was responsible for the disappearances of Lolo Sono (21) and his friend Sibuniso Tshabalala (19).
    (AP, 3/12/13)

2013        Mar 15, In South Africa  24 people died when a bus veered off a road and rolled over near Cape Town.
    (AP, 3/15/13)

2013        Mar 19, In South Africa  two robbers stealing a safe shot and killed five Pakistani men and wounded a sixth in a ghetto outside the tourist resort of Cape Town. Police soon arrested a 28-year-old South African who had a gun and the safe.
    (AP, 3/20/13)

2013        Mar 20, South African trade unions said they are shocked at the disappearance of 24.8 billion rand ($2.75 billion) from provincial governments. The auditor general reported last week that the money had "disappeared" in "irregular, fruitless and wasteful spending."
    (AP, 3/20/13)

2013        Mar 24, In South Africa 6 of 19 stranded pilot whales on a beach in Cape Town died and authorities said they planned to euthanize some of the surviving whales.
    (AP, 3/24/13)

2013        Mar 25, South Africa's president said 13 South African soldiers were killed and 27 wounded in weekend fighting in the Central African Republic.
    (AP, 3/25/13)

2013        Mar 27, In South Africa leaders of the five BRICS nations (Brazil, Russia, India, China, South Africa) agreed to create a development bank to help fund their $4.5 trillion infrastructure programs — a direct challenge to the World Bank that they accuse of Western bias.
    (AP, 3/27/13)

2013        Mar 30, Five South African air force members died in the crash of a helicopter that was patrolling in an anti-rhino poaching operation in Kruger National Park.
    (AP, 3/31/13)(SFC, 4/1/13, p.A2)

2013        Apr 2, South Africa said most of its 200 troops in the Central African Republic have been withdrawn from the country where 13 died as rebels ousted the president.
    (AP, 4/2/13)

2013        Apr 9, South African officials said they have detected bird flu on an ostrich farm near Oudtshoorn, but that it is unrelated to the strain that has killed 8 people in China. The EU imposed a ban on imports of South African ostrich meat after a 2011 outbreak of the H5N2 strain.
    (SFC, 4/10/13, p.A2)

2013        Apr 15, In South Africa a handler at the Elephant Sanctuary near Hartbeespoort Dam was trampled to death while taking elephants out for exercise. The handler got caught in the midst of an altercation between two of the animals.
    (AP, 4/16/13)
2013        Apr 15, The annual Goldman Environmental Prize was awarded to six activists for their efforts to protect the world ecosystem. They included Nohra Padilla (50) of Colombia, who began organizing waste pickers in Bogota in 1990 into the Bogota Recyclers’ Assoc.; Rossano Ercolini (57) of Italy for setting up a trash collection and conservation system; Kimberly Wasserman (36) of Chicago her grassroots campaign to close polluting coal-fired power plants; Aleta Baun (50) of Indonesia for organizing villages on west Timor against mining companies clearing forests for marble; Azzam Alwash (54) of Iraq for his efforts to restore Mesopotamian marshland; Jonathan Deal of South Africa for his efforts against hydraulic fracturing in Karoo.
    (SFC, 4/15/13, p.A10)

2013        Apr 18, South Africa said 232 rhino had been illegally killed so far this year, 70% of them in Kruger National Park. Poachers killed 668 rhinos in South Africa in 2012, a 50% increase over the previous year.
    (AP, 4/24/13)

2013        Apr 25, South Africa's parliament passed a bill designed to protect state secrets despite the concerns of some activists who fear it could undermine the country's young democracy.
    (AP, 4/25/13)

2013        Apr 30, In South Africa a chartered plane carrying about 200 guests from India to a lavish family wedding was allowed to land at the Waterkloof Air Force Base, bypassing customs procedures, and then to fly on to a civilian international airport in Johannesburg. The guests attended the wedding of Vega Gupta, whose Indian immigrant family has powerful business interests in South Africa. Five South African officials, including police and military commanders, were soon suspended over the incident.
    (AP, 5/3/13)

2013        May 3, A new report, called “The Real State of the Nation," said South Africa is fighting a losing battle against corruption which sucked up nearly 1 billion rand ($111 million) in taxpayers' money last year — nearly three times the amount lost in 2010.
    (AP, 5/3/13)

2013        May 13, In South Africa thieves stole several hundred thousand dollars from a safe at Soccer City, a Johannesburg stadium where Justin Bieber and Jon Bon Jovi performed over the weekend. Police believed it was an inside job.
    (AP, 5/14/13)

2013        May 17, South Africa police said 23 youths have died in the past nine days at initiation ceremonies that include circumcisions and survival tests in the northeastern province of Mpumalanga.
    (AP, 5/17/13)

2013        May 21, In South Africa a forced auction to pay off a debt of Nelson Mandela's ex-wife failed to take place because no one would open her home to the sheriff.
    (AP, 5/21/13)

2013        May 27, In Yemen gunmen in Taiz abducted South African citizens, Pierre Korkie (56) and his wife. Police said lawmaker Abdel-Hamid el-Batra was behind the kidnapping to pressure the government to hand over a disputed piece of land.
    (AP, 5/27/13)(AP, 1/18/14)

2013        Jun 3, In South Africa at least two people were shot, one fatally, in ongoing union rivalry at the troubled Lonmin platinum mine.
    (AP, 6/3/13)

2013        Jun 28, Pres. Obama departed Senegal saying Washington had a "moral imperative" to help the world's poorest continent feed itself and he then left for South Africa hoping to see ailing Nelson Mandela.
    (AP, 6/28/13)

2013        Jun 29, Pres. Obama in South Africa encouraged leaders in Africa and around the world to follow former South African President Nelson Mandela's example of country before self. Obama met privately with the family of ailing Nelson Mandela.
    (AP, 6/29/13)

2013        Jun 30, President Barack Obama  flew from Johannesburg to Cape Town and announced a new initiative to double access to electric power in sub-Saharan Africa.
    (AP, 6/30/13)

2013        Jul 12, It was reported that initiation ceremonies in South Africa have led to the deaths of 60 young men and the hospitalization of hundreds since May, sparking concern from officials about regulations surrounding a national tradition that determines when a boy becomes a man.
    (AP, 7/12/13)

2013        Jul 25, In South Africa Sifiso Makhubo (42), accused of committing 36 rapes while being HIV positive, hanged himself using a prison blanket, before he was to stand trial for attempted murder, rape, robbery and kidnapping.
    (AP, 7/26/13)

2013        Jul 28, In South Africa a 49-year-old worker was shot dead near Lonmin's Marikana mine, stirring worries of new labor tension in the troubled platinum mining belt that has been racked by a violent union dispute over the last year.
    (Reuters, 7/30/13)

2013        Aug 15, In South Africa education officials closed 16 schools, affecting some 12,000 students, in an impoverished area near Cape Town because of a spike in gang violence that has left teachers too afraid to go to work.
    (SFC, 8/16/13, p.A2)

2013        Aug 19, A South African court formally indicted Olympian sprinter Oscar Pistorius on charges of premeditated murder and illegal possession of ammunition in the Valentine’s Day death of his girlfriend, model Reeva Steenkamp. His will begin on March 3, 2014.
    (AP, 8/19/13)

2013        Aug 19, The cargo ship SMART, carrying 47,650 metric tons (52,525 tons) of coal, ran aground a few hundred meters off of South Africa's Richards Bay port. The ship broke in two and large parts went underwater.
    (Reuters, 8/20/13)

2013        Aug 26, In South Africa tens of thousands of construction workers downed tools, adding to strike chaos that has crippled output and disrupted air traffic while fanning fears of new violence.
    (AFP, 8/26/13)

2013        Aug 27, South Africa's petrol station and car dealership workers announced a strike for higher wages next week, signaling further labor disruption to a struggling economy that also faces looming stoppages in its gold mines.
    (Reuters, 8/27/13)

2013        Sep 2, In South Africa industrial action paralysed construction and automotive sectors, but tens of thousands of petrol attendants delayed a strike.
    (AFP, 9/2/13)

2013        Sep 4, In South Africa two of the seven gold mine producers touched by a pay strike said they have struck a wage settlement with unions as the work stoppage entered day two.
    (AFP, 9/4/13)

2013        Sep 5, South Africa’s department of environmental affairs said poachers have killed more than 600 rhinos in South Africa so far this year, with losses close to the total number of animals slaughtered in 2012.
    (AFP, 9/5/13)

2013        Sep 6, Some South African gold miners ended their strike for higher wages and were heading back to work after just three days, bolstering confidence the strike could be formally called off today.
    (Reuters, 9/6/13)

2013        Sep 9, In South Africa a strike by petrol station attendants got off to a slow start despite their union calling for them to join a wave of stoppages over wages sweeping the country.
    (AFP, 9/9/13)

2013        Sep 11, South African police fired rubber bullets and tear gas at protesters who took to the streets in Johannesburg in anger over the lack of government services.
    (AFP, 9/11/13)

2013        Sep 13, South African construction workers ended a three week strike after reaching a 12 percent wage hike deal with employers.
    (AFP, 9/13/13)

2013        Sep 22, In South Africa poachers have killed a record 688 rhinos so far this year, more than the entire number slaughtered in 2012, according to figures issued on today’s World Rhino Day.
    (AFP, 9/22/13)

2013        Sep 30, In South Africa some 2,000 striking miners from Anglo American Platinum rallied to protest planned job cuts at the world's top producer of the precious metal.
    (Reuters, 9/30/13)
2013        Sep 30, A South African woman was killed and another injured on after police fired into a crowd of protesters who had attacked a police vehicle in Durban.
    (Reuters, 9/30/13)

2013        Oct 13, In South Africa Julius Malema, former head of the ANC’s Youth League, launched his Economic Freedom Fighters (EFF) party in Marikana.
    (Econ, 10/19/13, p.54)

2013        Oct 14, French President Francois Hollande, on a visit to South Africa, announced the signing with South Africa of a $2-billion pact for a thermal power plant in South Africa.
    (AFP, 10/14/13)

2013        Oct 15, In South Africa the bodies of 2 girls, two and three years old, were discovered in the Diepsloot area north of Johannesburg after being reported missing on the weekend. 2 other toddlers were found dead in Katlehong, east of Johannesburg. Police suspect they were poisoned. The killings in Diepsloot fueled angry accusations from residents that police were failing to provide security.
    (AP, 10/16/13)

2013        Oct 17, In South Africa a senior union official at a Lonmin mine in Marikana was shot dead.
    (AFP, 10/18/13)

2013        Oct 18, South African police fired rubber bullets to disperse thousands of people who rioted after five people were arrested for the rape and murder of two toddlers in a shantytown.
    (AFP, 10/18/13)

2013        Oct 21, South African prosecutors said a man arrested on suspicion of raping and murdering two toddlers in a Johannesburg slum has confessed, after the case sparked violent riots last week.
    (AFP, 10/21/13)

2013        Oct 25, South African official figures showed poachers have killed more than 100 rhinos over the past four weeks, pushing the death toll so far this year towards 800.
    (AP, 10/25/13)

2013        Oct 28, A South African court began sentencing 20 right-wing extremists convicted of high treason for a plot to kill Nelson Mandela and drive blacks out of the country.
    (AFP, 10/28/13)
2013        Oct 28, British security group G4S denied that its workers had electrocuted and drugged prisoners at South Africa's Mangaung prison, the maximum security facility it ran before the government stepped in to restore order earlier this month.
    (Reuters, 10/28/13)

2013        Oct 29, In South Africa Mike du Toit, the mastermind behind the 2002 right-wing extremist plot to kill former President Nelson Mandela and drive blacks out of the country, was sentenced along with four others to 35 years in jail. The rest of the 20 militia members on trial received 10 and 30 years sentences depending on their degree of involvement in the plot. The judge suspended 10 years of the sentences for some and took into account the time behind bars during the trial.
    (AFP, 10/29/13)
2013        Oct 29, South Africa signed an agreement to buy over half of the power generated by the first phase of the Grand Inga hydroelectric project in the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC).
    (Reuters, 10/29/13)

2013        Oct 30, In South Africa thousands of angry demonstrators took the streets of central Cape Town, looting shops to protest against poor public services.
    (AFP, 10/30/13)

2013        Nov 1, A South African court sentenced Johannes Kana, a man convicted of raping and murdering Anene Booysen (17) in a gruesome case that shocked the country, has been sentenced to two life terms in jail.
    (AFP, 11/1/13)

2013        Nov 3, In South Africa 6 people were killed when residents of a township on the outskirts of Johannesburg attacked a group of suspected gang members. Attackers gunned down a former senior union official at platinum producer Lonmin, stoking political and industrial tensions in the nation’s volatile platinum belt.
    (AFP, 11/3/13)(Reuters, 11/6/13)

2013        Nov 5, South African police fired rubber bullets to disperse a protest march organized by the Economic Freedom Fighters (EFF), headed by Julius Malema, and arrested four people.
    (Reuters, 11/5/13)

2013        Nov 8, South Africa's government took to the courts to delay the release of an investigation into a $19 million taxpayer-funded upgrade of President Jacob Zuma's private residence at Nkandla in rural KwaZulu-Natal province. Police said 14 police officers and tax officials have been arrested since last month as part of a crackdown on crimes committed by police or people impersonating police officials.
    (Reuters, 11/8/13)(AP, 11/8/13)

2013        Nov 9, About 2,000 South African mineworkers staged an underground sit-in at Northam Platinum's Dechaba mine, saying they will not leave until a fired union leader is reinstated. The strikers were safely brought to the surface on Sunday night, Nov 10.
    (Reuters, 11/10/13)(AFP, 11/11/13)

2013        Nov 11, In South Africa 29 people died and several others were injured after a bus collided with a truck in eastern Mpumalanga province.
    (Reuters, 11/12/13)

2013        Nov 19, In South Africa a shopping mall under construction partially collapsed, killing one person and injuring 29 in Tongaat, near Durban.
    (AP, 11/20/13)

2013        Nov 21, In South Africa 8 construction workers were killed when lightning struck their tent northeast of Johannesburg.
    (AFP, 11/22/13)

2013        Nov 22, In South Africa global diamond watchdog, the Kimberley Process, gave its backing for the lifting of a 2005 UN embargo on diamond sales from Ivory Coast.
    (AFP, 11/22/13)
2013        Nov 22, In South Africa Radovan Krejcir (b.1968), a Czech businessman and fugitive, was arrested on charges of kidnapping and assault in connection with a botched 24 million rand ($2.3 million) crystal meth deal.

2013        Nov 30, Thousands of South Africans called online for the impeachment of President Jacob Zuma, after a newspaper revealed a government document detailing the use of public funds for lavish upgrades to his private home.
    (Reuters, 11/30/13)
2013        Nov 30, In South Africa dozens of Indonesian fishermen, who spent months stranded in Cape Town's harbor, sleeping in cramped and suffocating quarters, were taken ashore to a repatriation center after being stuck at sea on Taiwanese vessels for years without pay.
    (AFP, 12/1/13)

2013        Dec 3, South Africa's government launched a widely unpopular road toll around the economic hub of Johannesburg, a move likely to heighten tensions with its union allies and alienate some voters in the run-up to next year's elections.
    (AP, 12/3/13)

2013        Dec 5, The South African Cabinet ordered that an inter-ministerial task team report on the funding of controversial security upgrades to President Jacob Zuma's private home be released to the public.
    (AP, 12/5/13)

2013        Dec 5, In South Africa former President and anti-apartheid leader Nelson Mandela (b.1918) died. He shared the Nobel Peace Prize in 1993.
    (AP, 12/6/13)

2013        Dec 10, In South Africa world leaders, family, friends and thousands of mourners paid tribute to South Africa's anti-apartheid icon Nelson Mandela. Thousands attending the commemoration booed and jeered President Jacob Zuma. President Barack Obama was cheered and shook hands with Cuban President Raul Castro in a simple gesture stoked talk of a possible rapprochement between the leaders of two Cold War foes.
    (AP, 12/10/13)(Reuters, 12/11/13)

2013        Dec 16, In South Africa a statue of Nelson Mandela was unveiled outside the government complex in Pretoria, a day after his funeral. It was later revealed that sculptors Andre Prinsloo and Ruhan Janse van Vuuren had added a small rabbit inside one ear, said to be a discreet signature on their work. Officials soon ordered the rabbit removed.
    (AP, 1/22/14)

2013        Dec 19, South Africa's government dismissed criticisms that a $21 million state-funded security upgrade of Pres. Jacob Zuma's private home was extravagant. The upgrades included a swimming pool, chicken coop and cattle pen.
    (Reuters, 12/19/13)
2013        Dec 19, South Africa’s environmental ministry said the country has lost nearly 1,000 rhinos this year in a poaching surge to feed the black-market demand for their horns.
    (AFP, 12/19/13)

2013        Dec 20, South Africa’s biggest trade union called for President Jacob Zuma to resign and said it will not support the ANC in next year's elections.
    (AP, 12/20/13)

2013        Stephen Ellis authored “External Mission: The ANC in Exile, 1960-1990."
    (Econ, 1/12/13, p.75)
2013        In South Africa Mzukisi Qobo and Prince Mashele authored “The Fall of the ANC: What Next?"
    (http://tinyurl.com/ycy87fgk)(Econ 5/20/17, p.40)
2013        In South Africa 1,004 rhinos were poached in the country this year, a 50 percent increase from 2012.
    (AFP, 1/17/14)

2014        Jan 1, South African police found Patrick Karegeya, Rwanda's former spy chief, dead, possibly strangled, in Johannesburg's plush Michelangelo Towers hotel. Rwanda opposition leaders immediately accused President Paul Kagame of ordering his assassination. Karegeya had died a day earlier. The Kigali government swiftly denied any involvement and said the former intelligence chief was himself to blame.
    (AP, 1/2/14)(AP, 1/17/19)

2014        Jan 7, South African authorities revealed that a phosphate mine spillage, into a tributary of the Olifants River in late December, has killed thousands of fish and caused "extensive pollution" to the river in the country's famed Kruger National Park.
    (AFP, 1/7/14)

2014        Jan 13, In South Africa Mike Tshele and Osia Rahube were killed during a clash with police when residents of a village marched to the Madibeng municipality buildings in North West province to protest about water shortages. A 3rd person shot by police died on Jan 19.
    (Reuters, 1/13/14)(http://tinyurl.com/ogeafwt)(AFP, 1/20/14)

2014        Jan 14, In South Africa protester Lerato Theodore Seema (27) was allegedly pushed from a moving police van during violent demonstrations near Pretoria. He was confirmed dead the next day from head wounds.
    (AFP, 1/15/14)(http://tinyurl.com/ogeafwt)

2014        Jan 15, Mozambican police say they have arrested four Rwandans, including Lt. Col. Francis Gakwerere, a senior official in the Rwandan armed forces, for the Jan 1 murder in South Africa of former Rwandan spymaster Col. Patrick Karegeya. The four were arrested last week.
    (AP, 1/15/14)

2014        Jan 17, South Africa said 1,004 rhinos were poached in the country last year, a 50 percent increase from 2012. This January saw at least 40 rhinos killed by poachers in Krueger National Park. Rangers and defense forces killed at least 11 poachers this month.
    (AFP, 1/17/14)(SSFC, 1/26/14, p.A4)

2014        Jan 19, South African press reported that at least two police officers who took part in the deadly crackdown on Marikana miners in 2012 were implicated in the killing of three protesters this week.
    (AFP, 1/19/14)

2014        Jan 21, In South Africa Petra Diamonds said a 29.6-carat blue diamond has been found at the Cullinan mine, source of some of the world's most famous diamonds.
    (AP, 1/22/14)

2014        Jan 22, US hotel giant Marriott announced it had finalised a deal to buy the South Africa-based Protea group, Africa's largest hotel chain, for $186 million.
    (AFP, 1/22/14)

2014        Jan 23, In South Africa tens of thousands of platinum miners went on strike, demanding higher wages. Striking workers at the top three platinum producers agreed to take part in government-brokered talks aimed at ending the dispute and limiting economic damage.
    (AP, 1/23/14)(AFP, 1/23/14)

2014        Jan 24, In South Africa four police officers were arrested after the fatal shooting of a protester during a demonstration that turned violent on the outskirts of Johannesburg. A 28-year-old man was shot and killed earlier this week after protesters blocked roads with stones and burning tires in the Roodepoort area.
    (AP, 1/24/14)

2014        Jan 27, South Africa’s Pres. Zuma signed a “DNA Act" to match more sexual offenders, including many who break the law more than once, with their crimes, exonerate the wrongly accused and crack cold cases.
    (AP, 2/21/14)

2014        Jan 28, South Africa's main opposition Democratic Alliance party under Helen Zille merged with the smaller Agang group to jointly challenge the ruling ANC party. Mamphela Ramphele will stand as the presidential candidate of the new coalition.
    (AP, 1/28/14)
2014        Jan 28, South African police shot dead two protestors in a northern village during a siege a day earlier of their station by an angry mob throwing stones and petrol bombs. The violence near Tzaneen was sparked by community anger over a recent killing in the area.
    (AFP, 1/29/14)

2014        Jan 29, South Africa's Reserve Bank announced a shock rise of half a percentage point in its main interest rate, amid sustained pressure on the rand and rising inflation.
    (AFP, 1/29/14)

2014        Feb 1, In South Africa Duduzane Zuma (29), the son of President Jacob Zuma, crashed his Porsche into a minibus taxi just before midnight. Zimbabwean national Phumzile Dube (30) was killed. Police later confirmed an investigation of manslaughter against Duduzane.
    (AP, 2/9/14)

2014        Feb 4, In South Africa a fire broke out about 1.7 km beneath the surface at the Doornkop mine, triggered by 2.4 earthquake. Emergency workers raced to rescue nine miners missing deep underground in the burning gold mine west of Johannesburg. Eight of the miners were found dead the next day.
    (AFP, 2/5/14)(AFP, 2/6/14)(SFC, 2/7/14, p.A2)

2014        Feb 5, In South Africa demonstrators set several buildings, including a clinic, on fire in the Bronkhorstspruit district, east of Pretoria, to protest what they say are high utility bills.
    (AP, 2/5/14)

2014        Feb 6, South African police fired stun grenades, tear gas and rubber bullets to disperse thousands of rioters demanding basic government services in communities near Pretoria and Johannesburg.
    (AFP, 2/6/14)

2014        Feb 7, In South Africa striking miners clashed with police after using rocks and burning tires to block a road leading to Anglo American Platinum's Union mine near Northam town. One protester was killed.
    (AP, 2/8/14)

2014        Feb 11, South Africa issued a black-and-white commemorative stamp to celebrate the life and legacy of anti-apartheid hero Nelson Mandela who died last year.
    (AFP, 2/11/14)

2014        Feb 12, South African police fired rubber bullets and stun grenades at supporters of the ruling ANC party who attacked an opposition rally in Johannesburg, amid escalating tensions ahead of a crunch general election.
    (AFP, 2/12/14)

2014        Feb 16, South African rescuers worked to reach more than 200 illegal miners reported trapped underground in an abandoned gold shaft in Benoni, a suburb just east of Johannesburg. 22 miners were arrested as they emerged over the next 24 hrs. An unknown number of other miners refused to come up.
    (AP, 2/16/14)(Reuters, 2/17/14)

2014        Feb 19, South Africa's top three platinum companies issued a take-it-or-leave-it wage ultimatum to striking miners, hoping to break a month-long stoppage that has crippled production. Anglo American Platinum, Impala Platinum and Lonmin said they would not raise an already rejected wage offer and warned of impending job losses.
    (AFP, 2/19/14)

2014        Feb 25, In South Africa 5 illegal miners were found dead in an abandoned shaft near Johannesburg.
    (Reuters, 2/26/14)

2014        Mar 2, South Africa's biggest trade union, the 340,000-strong National Union of Metalworkers (NUMSA), said it was laying the ground for a new "working class" political party. The United Front Movement for Socialism would group together left-leaning organizations to fight for better education, healthcare and municipal services for South Africa's poor.
    (AFP, 3/2/14)

2014        Mar 6, South Africa imposed rolling power cuts for the first time since 2008 as it struggled to cope with coal shortages and technical problems caused by recent heavy rains.
    (AFP, 3/6/14)

2014        Mar 7, A diplomatic source said South Africa has expelled three Rwandan diplomats it says were linked to an attack by gunmen this week on the Johannesburg home of an exiled dissident Rwandan general. Rwanda retaliated by ordering out six South African diplomats.
    (Reuters, 3/7/14)
2014        Mar 7, South Africa's under-fire police faced a fresh scandal after footage emerged of uniformed officers punching and kicking a half-naked and unarmed man on a Cape Town street.
    (AFP, 3/7/14)

2014        Mar 10, South Africa said it will ask Mozambican authorities to investigate reports of sexual abuse of its female nationals held in the neighbouring country's jails.
    (AFP, 3/10/14)
2014        Mar 10, A Burundian official said South Africa has expelled a diplomat from Burundi's embassy in connection with a raid on an exiled Rwandan general's Johannesburg home and Burundi is considering a response.
    (Reuters, 3/10/14)

2014        Mar 14, Howard Buffett, son of investor Warren Buffett, pledged nearly $24 million for protecting rhinos in South Africa, earmarking the money for ranger teams, sniffer dogs and other security measures in what he hopes can be a robust model for fighting what he calls the "overwhelming" problem of poaching in parts of Africa.
    (AP, 3/15/14)

2014        Mar 15, In South Africa Takalani Tshivhase (59), the executive director of Pinnacle Holdings, was arrested by the police's elite anti-corruption unit and released on bail the same day. He was charged with offering a $460,000 bribe to a senior police official in an attempt to win an equipment deal for the technology company.
    (Reuters, 3/25/14)
2014        Mar 15, In South Africa 3 people were killed when their small plane crashed near a landing strip in KwaZulu Natal province.
    (Reuters, 3/15/14)

2014        Mar 17, South Africa’s government said 32 people had died because of the rains over the past two weeks in the northern and eastern provinces of North West, Limpopo, Mpumalanga, Gauteng and KwaZulu-Natal. The toll included 25 drownings and six people killed by lightning.
    (Reuters, 3/17/14)
2014        Mar 17, South Africa's state-owned rail freight firm Transet said it was ordering 1,064 new locomotives, in what it hailed as the country's biggest single corporate infrastructure investment. It ordered 599 electric locomotives from China's Zhuzhou and the South African subsidiary of Canada's Bombardier, as well as 465 diesel trains from General Electric.
    (AFP, 3/17/14)
2014        Mar 17, In Palm Springs, South Africa, Sizwe Kubheka (16) returned home complaining of a headache following a beating by a teacher at school. Kubheka died at a hospital a week later and his teacher faced a possible murder charge.
    (AP, 4/2/14)

2014        Mar 19, South Africa's public ombudsman said that some of the $23 million taxpayer-funded refurbishments at Pres. Jacob Zuma's luxurious residence were unlawful and ordered him to repay part of the cost.
    (AFP, 3/19/14)

2014        Mar 24, South Africa's platinum producers said a two-month strike was causing "irreparable" damage to the sector, which has to date lost nearly a billion dollars in revenue.
    (AFP, 3/25/14)

2014        Apr 7, Police in South Africa arrested Makhele Lehlohonolo Joseph Scott (27), a fugitive from neighboring Lesotho. He had escaped from a prison where he was awaiting trial after allegedly confessing to cannibalism and two murders in 2012.
    (AP, 4/25/14)

2014        Apr 16, South Africa's central bank fined four of the country's biggest commercial banks for weak controls against money laundering and financing for terrorism.
    (AFP, 4/16/14)

2014        Apr 18, In South Africa a rhino was found killed in the Dinokeng Game Reserve with a single bullet from a high-powered rifle. Poachers cut off its horns in the first such incident since the reserve officially opened in 2011. About 300 have been killed so far this year in South Africa.
    (AP, 5/2/14)

2014        Apr 19, In South Africa robbers broke into a provincial parks office in Nelspruit and used a machine tool called a grinder to break into a safe holding several dozen rhino horns worth a fortune on the illegal market in parts of Asia. On June 9 police said two men have been arrested in connection with the theft, worth about $5.2 million.
    (AP, 4/22/14)(Reuters, 6/9/14)

2014        Apr 28, Six environmental advocates won this year's Goldman Prize. India's Ramesh Agrawal received the prize for helping villagers fight a large coal mine in Chhattisgarh state. American lawyer Helen Slottje received the award for helping communities fight fracking in New York State. Peru's Ruth Buendia was recognized for helping to prevent construction of two large dams that would have displaced nearly 10,000 indigenous people in the Peruvian Amazon. Russian zoologist Suren Gazaryan won for defending protected areas around Sochi from illegal land seizures for Olympic construction projects. South Africa's Desmond D'Sa won for helping to close down one of the country's largest toxic waste dumps. Indonesian biologist Rudi Putra won for helping to shutter 26 illegal palm oil plantations that were causing deforestation in northern Sumatra.
    (AP, 4/28/14)

2014        May 7, South Africans voted in the first "Born Free" election, with polls suggesting the allure of the ruling African National Congress as the conqueror of apartheid will prevail even among those with no memory of white-minority rule. The ANC won the 2014 national election with 62.15 percent of the votes.
    (Reuters, 5/7/14)(AP, 5/10/14)

2014        May 9, South African police used rubber bullets and stun grenades to disperse demonstrators who burned tires and barricaded roads in the Alexandra township north of Johannesburg in post-election unrest.
    (Reuters, 5/10/14)

2014        May 10, South Africa deployed its armed forces overnight to quell post-election unrest in a Johannesburg slum and police arrested 59 people as the ANC government clamped down on disorder following its victory at the polls. A vote count confirmed the ruling ANC as election winners.
    (Reuters, 5/10/14)(SSFC, 5/11/14, p.A6)

2014        May 12, In South Africa 2 Lonmin workers were killed as they reported for work at their strike-hit platinum mine, threatening the firm's plans to end the walkout this week.
    (Reuters, 5/12/14)

2014        May 16, South Africa said it has suffered its first elephant poaching incident in 10 years this week at the country's largest game reserve.
    (Reuters, 5/16/14)

2014        May 28, In South Africa constable Bonginkosi Makaula (33) spoke to his female partner at Cape Town's international airport. He opened fire during an altercation, injuring the woman and two employees in the airport food court, and then shot and killed himself.
    (AP, 5/29/14)

2014        Jun 10, In South Africa Andrew Chimboza stabbed Mbuyiselo Manona (62) to death at the home of Manona's lover in Cape Town's Gugulethu township. He then ate his victim's heart with a knife and fork. On April 29, 2015, Chimboza was sentenced to 18 years in prison.
    (http://tinyurl.com/kf72mby)(AFP, 4/29/15)

2014        Jun 12, In South Africa the world's biggest platinum producers said they had reached "in principle undertakings" with union leaders which could end a crippling strike.
    (AFP, 6/12/14)

2014        Jun 13, In South Africa’s Johannesburg-based African Parks group said that since mid-May at least 68 elephants have been slaughtered by poachers over the last two months using chain saws and helicopters in the 5,000 square km (1,900 square mile) Garamba National Park in Congo.
    (AP, 6/13/14)

2014        Jun 21, In South Africa 4 suspected illegal miners were found dead with gun shots wounds to the head at a gold mine near Johannesburg.
    (Reuters, 6/22/14)
2014        Jun 21, Albie Sachs (79), the South African judge who rose to fame for his role in the anti-apartheid struggle, was awarded the Tang Prize, touted as Asia's version of the Nobels, for his contributions to human rights and justice. Earlier this week, Norwegian ex-premier Gro Harlem Brundtland was named as the first recipient of the prize for her work as the "godmother" of sustainable development, while noted Chinese American historian Yu Ying-shih was awarded for his accomplishment in sinology. Immunologists James P. Allison of the United States and Tasuku Honjo of Japan became joint recipients in the biopharmaceutical sciences category for their contributions in the fight against cancer. Named after China's Tang Dynasty (AD 618-907), the Asian prize was founded by Taiwanese billionaire Samuel Yin in 2012 with a donation of Tw$3 billion.
    (AP, 6/21/14)

2014        Jun 23, South Africa's AMCU union declared a five-month platinum strike "officially over" as thousands of miners roared their approval when leader Joseph Mathunjwa asked if they wanted to end the longest work stoppage in the country's history. A South African labor court declared unlawful a planned gold mining strike by the country's radical union AMCU, which has staged a crippling work stoppage at platinum mines.
    (Reuters, 6/23/14)(AFP, 6/23/14)

2014        Jun 24, In South Africa the world's three biggest platinum firms signed a wage deal with the AMCU union, but said that fallout from a five-month strike made job cuts and restructuring inevitable, setting the scene for more labor turmoil in the sector.
    (Reuters, 6/24/14)
2014        Jun 24, South African police in Kloof seized heroin worth more than two billion rand ($190 million). Police arrested two Chinese nationals and one South African in the biggest drugs bust in the country's history.
    (Reuters, 6/25/14)

2014        Jun 25, In South Africa tens of thousands of platinum miners returned to work after wage deals ended the longest and most damaging strike in the country's history.
    (Reuters, 6/25/14)

2014        Jun 26, The South African government said 11 young men have died so far this year in botched circumcision rituals that have killed hundreds in past years.
    (AP, 6/26/14)

2014        Jul 1, In South Africa nearly a quarter of a million members of the National Union of Metalworkers downed tools, beginning an indefinite strike that threatens to bring the engineering sector to a halt.
    (AFP, 7/1/14)

2014        Jul 3, South African police fired rubber bullets to disperse workers who blocked the entrance to the construction site of state power utility Eskom's Medupi power station on the third day of a wage strike.
    (Reuters, 7/3/14)

2014        Jul 13, In South Africa Nadine Gordimer (90), a Nobel literature laureate (1991) and anti-apartheid activist, died at home in Johannesburg. Her work included 15 novels and volumes of short stories that explored the complex of relationships and racial conflict in apartheid-era South Africa.
    (AFP, 7/14/14)(SFC, 7/15/14, p.A3)

2014        Jul 15, In Brazil leaders of the BRICS nations (Brazil, Russia, India, China and South Africa) met for their 6th annual summit. They created two financial institutions: The New Development Bank (NDB) to finance infrastructure with $50 billion to start and the $100 billion Contingent Reserve Arrangement (CRA) to tide over members in financial difficulties.
    (AP, 7/15/14)(Econ, 7/19/14,p.62)

2014        Jul 16, Master Builders South Africa said a major strike by engineering and metal workers, which has already hit the vital auto manufacturing sector, is now disrupting building construction.
    (AFP, 7/16/14)

2014        Jul 23, A South African court jailed a rhino poacher for 77 years, one of the heaviest sentences handed out for the crime as poaching continues to escalate. Mandla Chauke was arrested in the iconic Kruger National Park in 2011 after he killed three rhino calves. This month two Mozambicans were each jailed 16 years for killing and dehorning rhino.
    (AFP, 7/23/14)

2014        Aug 12, South Africa said around 250,000 Zimbabweans living in the country on temporary visas due to expire this year can get three-year extensions, delaying a possible mass expulsion of workers.
    (AFP, 8/12/14)

2014        Aug 28, South Africa's Supreme Court of Appeals ordered the release of taped phone conversations about corruption charges against President Jacob Zuma, a move that could resurrect a case that has dogged the leader since before he took office.
    (AP, 8/28/14)

2014        Sep 5, A representative of the Dalai Lama said South Africa has denied a visa to the Nobel peace Prize laureate. The Tibetan spiritual leader had hoped to attend a Nobel peace conference in Cape Town next month. This was South Africa’s 3rd denial in five years. Concerns about angering China have been cited.
    (SFC, 9/6/14, p.A2)

2014        Sep 12, In Nigeria a multistory building serving as a shopping mall and guesthouse at the sprawling campus of televangelist T.B. Joshua's Synagogue, Church of All Nations, collapsed on the outskirts of Lagos. Four days later one woman was saved from the rubble. The final death toll was 115 people killed. 74 of the dead were from South Africa.
    (AFP, 9/14/14)(AP, 9/16/14)(AP, 9/22/14)(AP, 11/16/14)

2014        Sep 19, South Africa’s police said the nation has recorded about 17,000 murders in the year ending in March, reflecting a 5 percent increase over the previous year.
    (AP, 9/19/14)
2014        Sep 19, A Nigerian watchdog group demanded an international investigation into the Nigerian government for flying $9.3 million in cash to South Africa to buy weapons. South African customs officials last week seized the money in $100 bills in three suitcases that arrived on a private jet from Nigeria at Johannesburg's Lanseria airport. The plane was leased by Ayo Oritsejafor, leader of the Christian Association of Nigeria and a close friend of Pres. Jonathan.
    (AP, 9/19/14)(Econ, 10/4/14, p.58)

2014        Sep 21, In South Africa a ranger and two other employees of the country’s parks service were arrested on suspicion of rhino poaching in Kruger National Park, the country's flagship wildlife reserve.
    (AP, 9/22/14)

2014        Oct 2, In South Africa Cape Town's mayor announced that a planned summit of Nobel peace laureates had been "suspended", citing the government's "intransigence" in not providing a visa to the Dalai Lama.
    (AFP, 10/2/14)

2014        Oct 14, French Foreign Minister Laurent Fabius and South African Tina Joematt Pettersson signed an intergovernmental agreement on cooperation in nuclear energy development which is necessary for any commercial deal.
    (AFP, 10/14/14)

2014        Oct 16, South African power utility Eskom [ESCJ.UL] said it has plugged its wind farm into the national grid, the first major step in a drive to reduce heavy reliance on coal to power Africa's most advanced economy.
    (Reuters, 10/16/14)

2014        Oct 21, In South Africa Olympic and Paralympic sprinter Oscar Pistorius was sentenced to five years in prison for killing his girlfriend Reeva Steenkamp on Feb 13, 2013.
    (Reuters, 10/21/14)

2014        Oct 24, South African police fired rubber bullets to disperse workers at a mine operated by London-listed DiamondCorp and said members of the hardline AMCU union were involved in the protest.
    (Reuters, 10/24/14)

2014        Oct 26, In South Africa Senzo Meyiwa (27), goalkeeper and captain national soccer team, was killed in an apparent robbery after two gunmen entered a house he was visiting in Vosloorus township near Johannesburg.
    (AP, 10/27/14)

2014        Nov 5, Russia gave 12 South African firms rights to supply canned and frozen fish. South Africa will resume seafood exports to Russia for the first time in almost two decades as Moscow looked elsewhere for food sources following Western sanctions over Ukraine.
    (Reuters, 11/11/14)

2014        Nov 7, South Africa said it has signed a nuclear energy cooperation agreement with China as the government looks to expand the critical power supply system.
    (AFP, 11/7/14)

2014        Nov 11, In South Africa a parliamentary committee released the findings of its investigation in the upgrades of Pres. Zuma’s personal home which cleared the president.
    (AP, 11/12/14)

2014        Nov 12, In South Africa opposition parties released their own report on the upgrades of Pres. Zuma’s personal home calling for Zuma to be removed from office. They also demanded a criminal investigation and that Zuma pay back a portion of the more than $20 million in state funds used to improve his rural homestead in Nkandla in the Kwazulu-Natal province.
    (AP, 11/12/14)

2014        Dec 3, In South Africa golfer Jacques van der Sandt (29) was grabbed and killed by a crocodile while retrieving gold balls from Lake Panic dam in Kruger National Park. Rangers killed the crocodile after a two-hour search.  
    (SFC, 12/5/14, p.A2)

2014        Dec 8, A South African court cleared British businessman Shrien Dewani of charges that he paid hitmen to kill his wife while they were on honeymoon in Cape Town in Nov, 2010.
    (AP, 12/8/14)

2014        Dec 11, South Africa said its loss-making national airline will be placed under the control of the Treasury, as the carrier battles to turn around its fortunes.
    (AFP, 12/11/14)
2014        Dec 11, South African police expressed shock at the gruesome and mysterious murder of six men, aged 18-30, found with their hands bound and their heads apparently crushed by rocks.
    (AFP, 12/11/14)
2014        Dec 11, South African doctors performed the world's first successful penis transplant in a nine-hour operation at the Tygerberg Hospital in Cape Town. This followed a botched circumcision at a traditional initiation ceremony. On March 13, 2015, doctors announced that the man (21) had made a full recovery.
    (AP, 3/14/15)

2014        Dec 13, South African authgorities said rangers killed 3 rhino poachers in the past week in a flurry of shootouts in Kruger National Park.
    (AP, 12/13/14)

2014        Robin Renwick authored “Helen Suzman: Bright Star in a Dark Chamber." Suzman (1917-2009) served as a liberal MP in South Africa from 1953 to 1989. In 1959 she helped form the Progressive Party.
    (Econ, 1/18/14, p.82)
2014        The slaughter of rhinos in South Africa hit a new record this year with poachers killing 1,215 of the iconic savannah animals as Asian-led demand for their horn showed no sign of abating.
    (AFP, 1/22/15)
2014        South Africa raised $500 million in Africa’s first int’l. Islamic bond issue.
    (Econ 7/15/17, p.64)

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