Timeline South Ossetia

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The capital of  South Ossetia is Tskhinvali.
    (Econ, 8/21/04, p.41)

1395        Tamerlane, a Turkic conqueror, swept into Southern Russia and Georgia driving locals into the hills.
    (WSJ, 8/27/08, p.A12)

1801        South Ossetia was absorbed into the Russian Empire along with Georgia.
    (WSJ, 8/27/08, p.A12)

1918        South Ossetians made a bid to break away from Georgia and thousands fled in the ensuing violence. Menshevik Georgia waged a brutal war to absorb Abkhazia and South Ossetia. In 1921 the Red Army regained control and absorbed all three into the Soviet Union.
    (WSJ, 8/27/08, p.A12)(Econ, 10/23/10, p.102)

1922        South Ossetia became an autonomous region within the Soviet Republic of Georgia.
    (WSJ, 8/27/08, p.A12)

1989-1992    South Ossetia defended itself from Georgia with aid from Russia and about 1,000 people died in the fighting. Some 25-40,000 people fled the area.
    (SFC, 9/1/98, p.A10)

1990        Aug, South Ossetia, a region of north central Georgia with a population of about 100,000, declared itself sovereign. Ethnic Ossetians speak a language similar to Persian. Georgia abolished South Ossetias autonomous status following the attempted break. Georgian leader Zviad Gamsakhurdia declared South Ossetia part of Georgia and marched on Tskhinvali, the declared capital.
    (SFC, 9/1/98, p.A10)(WSJ, 8/27/08, p.A12)

1992        Jul, Russia brokered a cease fire between South Ossetia and Georgia.
    (SFC, 9/1/98, p.A10)(WSJ, 8/27/08, p.A12)

2001        Dec 18, Eduard Kokoity (b.1964), former champion of the Soviet Union national wrestling team, assumed office as president of South Ossetia. He had won 45% of the votes in the first round of elections on November 18 and 53% in the 2nd round on December 6.

2002        Russia changed its citizenship law to allow massive distribution of passports to people in the Abkhazia and South Ossetia regions of Georgia.
    (Econ, 10/3/09, p.65)

2004        Aug 15, Sporadic gunfire and shelling took place overnight in the disputed Georgian region of South Ossetia in violation of a fragile ceasefire, wounding seven Georgian servicemen.
    (AFP, 8/15/04)

2004        Aug 17, Georgian President Mikhail Saakashvili appealed to world leaders to convene an international conference on the conflict in breakaway South Ossetia, where daily exchanges of gunfire threaten to spark a war. The province operated as a conduit for smuggling between Georgia and Russia.
    (AP, 8/17/04)(Econ, 8/21/04, p.40)

2004        Aug 18, In South Ossetia 3 Georgian peacekeepers were killed in overnight shooting.
    (AP, 8/18/04)

2006        Sep 11, Leaders of the breakaway Georgian region of South Ossetia said they would hold a referendum on independence in November, a move likely to infuriate the government in Tbilisi and stoke already spiraling tensions.
    (AP, 9/11/06)

2006        Nov 12, Voters in the breakaway Georgian province of South Ossetia declared overwhelming backing for its independence drive in a referendum that underlined a sharp split between Russia and the West and is likely to increase tensions in the Caucasus region. A similar 1992 referendum proclaiming the province's independence went unnoticed by the international community, leaving it in limbo.
    (AP, 11/12/06)(AP, 11/13/06)

2007        May 11, Authorities in Georgia's breakaway region of South Ossetia launched a blockade of all ethnic Georgian villages in the province and demanded that the central government withdraw its police troops from the settlements.
    (AP, 5/11/07)

2007        Jun 28, Hundreds of ethnic Georgians confronted Russian peacekeeping forces in the breakaway region of South Ossetia, throwing paint and gasoline on the troops and forcing them to stop blocking a road project.
    (AP, 6/28/07)

2008        Mar 5, South Ossetia appealed for international recognition as an independent nation, further adding to simmering tensions in Georgia and throughout the strategic South Caucasus region.
    (AP, 3/6/08)

2008        Apr 29, Russia announced it was beefing up its peacekeeping force in Georgia's breakaway Abkhazia and South Ossetia regions, saying it had evidence Tbilisi was readying its forces for an attack.
    (Reuters, 4/29/08)

2008        Jul 29, Russian proxies in South Ossetia started shelling pro-Georgian villages there.
    (Econ, 1/23/10, p.78)

2008        Aug 2, Overnight fighting that included sniper and mortar fire between Georgian forces and separatists in the breakaway South Ossetia region left six people dead and 13 wounded.
    (AP, 8/2/08)

2008        Aug 3, The breakaway republic of South Ossetia began sending hundreds of children across the border to its Russian ally amid increasing violence between the republic and Georgian government forces.
    (AP, 8/3/08)

2008        Aug 7, Heavy shelling overnight in the Georgian breakaway province of South Ossetia wounded at least 21 people. Cyber attacks from Russia began to target Georgian government Web sites. An organization known as the Russian Business Network was the leading suspect in the attacks. Georgias Pres. Saakashvili ordered the shelling of Tskhinvali, the capital of South Ossetia.
    (AP, 8/7/08)(WSJ, 8/12/08, p.A9)(Econ, 8/30/08, p.49)

2008        Aug 8, Georgian troops launched a major military offensive to regain control of South Ossetia, prompting a furious response from Russia, which sent tanks into the region. The convoy was expected to reach the provincial capital by evening. Georgia said it shot down two Russian combat planes. Separatist officials in South Ossetia said 15 civilians had been killed in fighting overnight. Georgia later acknowledged that it used M85 cluster munition near the Roki tunnel that connects South Ossetia with Russia, while Russia denied use of cluster bombs.
    (AP, 8/8/08)(AP, 9/1/08)

2008        Aug 9, Georgia, the third largest contributor to the U.S.-led coalition in Iraq, said it's pulling out its 2,000-strong contingent from Iraq to join the fighting in the breakaway province of South Ossetia.
    (AP, 8/9/08)
2008        Aug 9, Russia sent hundreds of tanks and troops into the separatist province of South Ossetia and bombed Georgian towns in a major escalation of the conflict that has left scores of civilians dead and wounded. Russian Foreign Minister Sergey Lavrov told reporters in Moscow that some 1,500 people have been killed, with the death toll rising. The death toll in South Ossetia was later put at fewer than 200. Russian military aircraft bombed the Georgian town of Gori. Georgia's President Mikhail Saakashvili proposed a cease-fire. As part of his proposal, Georgian troops were pulled out of Tskhinvali and had been ordered to stop responding to Russian shelling.
    (AP, 8/9/08)(Econ, 8/30/08, p.49)

2008        Aug 10, Georgian troops retreated from the breakaway province of South Ossetia and their government pressed for a truce, overwhelmed by Russian firepower as the conflict threatened to set off a wider war. Georgia said it has shot down 10 Russian planes, including four brought down Aug 9. It also claimed to have captured two Russian pilots, who were shown on Georgian television. Ukraine warned Russia it could bar Russian navy ships from returning to their base in the Crimea because of their deployment to Georgia's coast.
    (AP, 8/10/08)

2008        Aug 11, Swarms of Russian jets launched new raids on Georgian territory and Georgia faced the threat of a second front of fighting as Russia demanded that Georgia disarm troops near the breakaway province of Abkhazia.
    (AP, 8/11/08)

2008        Aug 12, Georgia's Pres. Mikhail Saakashvili said his government will declare that its breakaway regions are occupied territories and will designate Russian peacekeepers as occupying forces. Russia ordered a halt to military action in Georgia, after five days of air and land attacks sent Georgia's army into headlong retreat and left towns and military bases destroyed. A Dutch television journalist was killed overnight when Russian warplanes bombed the central Georgian city of Gori. Russia later counted 133 civilian deaths in South Ossetia. Rights activists later said fewer than 100 civilians were killed in South Ossetia. The war cost some 850 lives and left over 35,000 displaced civilians, mot of the Georgian.
    (AP, 8/12/08)(Econ, 8/23/08, p.43)(WSJ, 9/12/08, p.A1)(Econ, 10/3/09, p.65)

2008        Aug 13, Russian tanks rolled into the crossroads city of Gori then thrust deep into Georgian territory, violating the truce designed to end the six-day war. Georgia said that 175 Georgians had died in five days of air and ground attacks that left homes in smoldering ruins. EU foreign ministers agreed in principle to send monitors to supervise a French-brokered ceasefire between Russia and Georgia in the breakaway Georgian region of South Ossetia. Finance Minister Alexei Kudrin said Russia will spend at least $400 million in 2008 on restoring South Ossetia's battered capital Tskhinvali.
    (AP, 8/13/08)(Reuters, 8/13/08)

2008        Aug 14, Georgian and Russian troops faced off at a checkpoint outside the key city of Gori, calling an already shaky cease-fire into question. An American official said Russia appears to be sabotaging airfields and other military infrastructure as its forces pull back. The Russian General Prosecutor's office said it has formally opened a genocide probe into Georgian treatment of South Ossetians. For its part, Georgia this week filed a suit against Russia in the International Court of Justice, alleging murder, rape and mass expulsions in both provinces.
    (AP, 8/14/08)

2008        Aug 25, Russia's parliament voted unanimously to urge the president to recognize the independence of Georgia's two breakaway regions, a move likely to stoke further tensions between Moscow and the small Caucasus nation's Western allies. Russian President Dmitry Medvedev warned ex-Soviet Moldova against repeating Georgia's mistake of trying to use force to seize back control of Transdniestria, a pro-Moscow breakaway region.
    (AP, 8/25/08)(Reuters, 8/25/08)

2008        Aug 26, Russia formally recognized Abkhazia and South Ossetia, the breakaway Georgian territories at the heart of its war with Georgia, heightening tensions with the West as the US dispatched a military ship bearing aid to a port city still patrolled by Russian troops. In a direct challenge to Russia, the US announced it intends to deliver humanitarian aid to the beleaguered Georgian port city of Poti, which Russian troops still control through checkpoints on the city's outskirts.
    (AP, 8/26/08)

2008        Aug 28, Russian forces turned over 12 Georgian soldiers on the border of Abkhazia. Georgia's foreign minister said ethnic Georgians were being cleared from their homes in South Ossetia. A joint declaration from the Shanghai Cooperation Organization denounced the use of force and called for respect for every country's territorial integrity. Mikhail Mindzayev, the interior minister of South Ossetia, said an unmanned Georgian spy plane was shot down over South Ossetia by local forces.
    (AP, 8/28/08)

2008        Aug 31, President Dmitry Medvedev says Russia will follow the recognition of Georgia's breakaway provinces with agreements on economic and military aid.
    (AP, 8/31/08)

2008        Sep 8, French President Nicolas Sarkozy pressed Moscow to honor its pledge to withdraw troops from Georgia, while Russian soldiers prevented international aid convoys from visiting Georgian villages in a tense zone around the breakaway province of South Ossetia. Pres. Medvedev and Sarkozy revised the EU-brokered deal to end the fighting between Russia and Georgia. Medvedev said 200 EU monitors would deploy to regions surrounding South Ossetia and Abkhazia by next month. After that, Russian troops would pull out of those regions by Oct. 11 to a line that preceded last month's fighting.
    (AP, 9/8/08)(AP, 9/9/08)

2008        Sep 9, Russia said it will station 7,600 troops in South Ossetia and in Abkhazia, announcing an imposing long-term presence less than a day after agreeing to pull forces back from areas surrounding the provinces.
    (AP, 9/9/08)(WSJ, 9/10/08, p.A1)

2008        Sep 10, A Georgian police officer was killed by gunfire that came from the direction of a Russian checkpoint near separatist South Ossetia.
    (AP, 9/10/08)

2008        Sep 13, Hundreds of Russian forces packed up and withdrew from positions in western Georgia. A Georgian official said Russia had met a deadline for a partial pullout a month after the war between the two former Soviet republics. A Georgian policeman at a post near Abkhazia was killed by gunfire that came from the direction of a position where Abkhazian and Russian forces have been based. Some 1,200 Russian servicemen still remained at 19 checkpoints and other positions, 12 outside South Ossetia and seven outside Abkhazia.
    (AP, 9/13/08)

2008        Sep 16, Georgias government said intercepted mobile phone calls show that Russian tanks and troops invaded before Georgia unleashed its offensive against South Ossetia, pressing its claim that Russia was the aggressor in the war last month.
    (AP, 9/16/08)

2008        Sep 17, Russian President Dmitry Medvedev signed friendship treaties with Georgia's breakaway regions of Abkhazia and South Ossetia and promised them the backing of Russia's armed forces.
    (AP, 9/17/08)

2008        Oct 3, A car exploded outside the Russian military's headquarters in South Ossetia, killing 7 people and wounding 3. The South Ossetian government said a car, that had been confiscated in an ethnic Georgian village after weapons were found in it, exploded near a building where leaders of the Russian peacekeeping force were located.
    (AP, 10/3/08)(www.foxnews.com/story/0,2933,432172,00.html)

2008        Oct 29, Russia's parliament quickly ratified treaties cementing close economic and military ties with Georgia's two breakaway provinces.
    (AP, 10/29/08)

2008        Nov 10, An explosion killed two Georgian police officers near the disputed region of South Ossetia. EU monitors called the attack an unacceptable breach of the cease-fire that ended the Georgia-Russia war.
    (AP, 11/10/08)

2008        Nov 29, Georgia said it is cutting diplomatic relations with Nicaragua after the Central American nation recognized the breakaway regions of South Ossetia and Abkhazia.
    (AP, 11/29/08)

2008        Dec 22, OSCE talks on the Georgia collapsed, when Russia demanded the group join Moscow in recognizing the statehood of the provinces of South Ossetia and Abkhazia. The mission will expire on Dec 31.
    (AP, 12/23/08)

2009        Feb 18, Georgia and Russia agreed to let monitors visit anywhere they want in Georgia and its 2 breakaway provinces.
    (WSJ, 2/19/09, p.A1)

2009        Apr 30, Russia signed a deal with Georgia's two breakaway regions giving Moscow the power to guard the borders of Abkhazia and South Ossetia, a move sharply criticized in Tbilisi.
    (AP, 4/30/09)

2009        May 31, South Ossetia held elections condemned as "illegitimate" by the EU. Eduard Kokoity tightened his grip on the Georgian region after Yedinstvo (Unity), a party loyal to him, won the elections.
    (AFP, 6/1/09)

2009        Aug 1, Authorities in the separatist Georgian region of South Ossetia said two mortar shells were fired into the territory from Georgia proper. Georgia denied the claim and suggested it was a provocation ahead of the anniversary of last year's war with Russia.
    (AP, 8/1/09)

2009        Aug 8, Russian President Dmitry Medvedev hailed the Russian victory in a war with Georgia a year ago, saying the war had redrawn the map of the Caucasus for good.
    (Reuters, 8/8/09)

2009        Sep 10, In Russia Venezuelas President Hugo Chavez recognized the pro-Russian rebel regions of Abkhazia and South Ossetia as independent states, a rare boost to the Kremlin's campaign for their international acceptance.
    (Reuters 9/10/09)

2009        Sep 30, An EU-commissioned report said Georgia's attack on its breakaway South Ossetia region marked the start of last year's war with Russia, which retaliated with excessive force.
    (AP, 9/30/09)

2010        Thomas de Waal authored The Caucasus: An Introduction.
    (Econ, 10/23/10, p.102)

2011        Nov 13, Voters in Georgia's breakaway republic of South Ossetia chose a new president for the first time since Georgia and Russia fought a brief war over control of the territory in 2008. South Ossetia has been led since 2001 by Eduard Kokoiti, who has served two terms as president and is now stepping down. Among those favored to succeed him is Anatoly Bibilov, who heads South Ossetia's emergencies services and has the support of Russia's dominant pro-Kremlin party. Anatoly Bibilov and former education minister Alla Dzhioyeva each won about 25 percent of the vote forcing a runoff in two weeks.
    (AP, 11/13/11)(AP, 11/14/11)

2011        Nov 27, South Ossetia held runoff elections. Opposition candidate and former Education Minister Alla Dzhioyeva won, defeating Emergencies Minister Anatoly Bibilov, the Kremlin's chosen candidate.
    (AP, 11/28/11)

2011        Nov 29, South Ossetias Supreme Court invalidated the results of the election due to alleged violations and barred Alla Dzhioyeva from a new election set for March.
    (AP, 11/30/11)

2011        Nov 30, In South Ossetia Alla Dzhioyeva, a former school principal and anti-corruption crusader, declared herself president after she led with about 57% of the Nov 27 run-off vote with ballots from 74 of the 85 precincts counted. Troops fired warning shots into the air as thousands rallied to support Dzhioyeva. Former defense minister Anatoly Barankevich told the crowd that he obtained the final election results, which confirmed her victory.
    (AP, 11/30/11)

2012        Apr 8, South Ossetia held a runoff presidential vote. Leonid Tibilov (60), who led the region's KGB before falling out with the former local president, won over 40% of the vote in the first round last month. Tibilov won with 54.1% of the vote. Rival David Sanakoyev trailed with 42.6% and conceded the race.
    (AP, 4/8/12)(AP, 4/9/12)

2012        Apr, The population of South Ossetia was about 50,000.
    (AP, 4/9/12)

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