Timeline Somaliland

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Government: http://www.somalilandgov.com/

1855        British traveler Richard Burton said Berbera is the true key of the Red Sea. The port, later part of Somaliland, marked the southern tip of the Ottoman Empire.
    (Econ, 4/8/17, p.42)

1895        Abdullah Hassan, the “Mad Mullah" of Somaliland, returned from a pilgrimage to Mecca with inspiration to defy the British in emulation of the Mahdi in Sudan.
    (Econ, 8/26/06, p.20)

1904        Jan 11, British troops massacred 1,000 dervishes in Somaliland.
    (HN, 1/11/99)

1908        Jan 9, Italians reported that Somaliland was under siege by the Abyssinians.
    (HN, 1/9/98)

1909        Abdullah Hassan, the “Mad Mullah" of Somaliland, waged jihad against local tribesmen who had accepted British rule. He slaughtered a third of the territory’s inhabitants.
    (Econ, 8/26/06, p.20)

1920        Britain ferried 6 RAF planes to East Africa and used them to bomb the fort of Abdullah Hassan, the “Mad Mullah" of Somaliland. The mullah escaped with 700 riflemen.
    (Econ, 8/26/06, p.20)

1940        Aug 11, Italian forces attacked Observation Hill in British Somaliland. Capt. Wilson and Somali gunners under his command beat off the attack and opened fire on the enemy troops attacking Mill Hill, another post within his range. The enemy finally overran the post at 5 p.m. on the 15th August when Capt. Wilson, fighting to the last, was reportedly killed. 2 months later he was awarded a Victoria Cross. In April 1941, however, Wilson was found alive in a prisoner of war camp in Eritrea. Wilson died at age 96 on Dec 23, 2008.
    (AP, 12/30/08)

1960        Jun 26, British Somaliland became independent and five days later was united with Italian Somaliland as the Somali Republic.
    (SFC, 4/10/96, A-5)

1960        Jul 1, Italian Somaliland joined the British Somaliland Protectorate to form the Republic of Somalia. The French Somali Coast (Côte française des Somalis) continued as a French colony until 1967 when it became an overseas territory of France as ‘Territoire Francais des Afars et des Issas’, achieving independence in 1977 as Djibouti.
    (https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Italian_Somaliland)(Econ, 3/22/08, p.55)

1967        Jul, Mohamed Ibrahim Egal (d.2002) served as the prime minister until 1969.
    (SFC, 5/4/02, p.A21)

1969        Oct 21, In Somalia Marxist dictator Maj. Gen. Mohamed Siad Barre (1919-1995) staged a coup and threw PM Mohamed Ibrahim Egal in jail, where he spent 12 years.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Siad_Barre)(SFC, 8/16/96, p.A18)(SFEC, 8/31/97, Par p.16)

1981        Northern Somali rebelled against dictator Mohammed Siad Barre. A national civil war followed. During the civil was an estimated 40,000 people were killed and about 400,000 refugees fled to Ethiopia. 
    (SFC, 4/10/96, A-5)

1938        Dec 28, France ordered the doubling of forces in Somaliland; two warships were sent.
    (Historynet, 12/28/98)

1988        Hargeysa, the capital, was shelled for 2 months. Some 2,000 people were later believed killed and buried in mass graves.
    (SFC, 7/11/98, p.A12)

1989-1991    A civil war was fought with the regime of Somali Pres. Mohamed Siad Barre.
    (SFC, 4/15/98, p.C2)

1991        Jan, Dictator Siad Barre was ousted. Power fractured into some 27 warring sides and Ali Mahdi Mohamed declared himself president.
    (SFEC, 8/31/97, Par p.16,17)(SFC,11/18/97, p.B2)

1991        The northeast corner of the country declared itself the independent Republic of Somaliland under former Pres. Mohamed Ibrahim Egal.
    (SFC, 4/10/96, A-5)(SFEC,11/23/97, p.A25)(SFC, 5/4/02, p.A21)

1993        May, Clan leaders chose Mohamed Ibrahim Egal as President.
    (SFC, 8/16/96, p.A18)(SFC, 5/4/02, p.A21)

1996        Apr, Pres. Mohhamed Ibrahim Egal is the leader of the Pennsylvania size region of Somalia. The five year old state flag, army, police and currency but does not have international recognition.
    (SFC, 4/10/96, A-5)

1997        Jan 25, It was reported that many wells and bore holes had dried up and that cattle and goats were dying in large numbers.
    (SFC, 1/25/97, p.A18)

1997        Feb 24, Mohammed Ibrahim Egal was re-elected by clan leaders as president.
    (SFC, 2/25/96, p.a14)

1997        Dec, In Hargeysa a mass grave with some 200 bodies was excavated
    (SFC, 7/11/98, p.A12)

1997        Clan warfare ended.
    (SFC, 4/15/98, p.C2)

1998        Feb 6, Saudi Arabia imposed a ban on livestock imported from Somaliland, allegedly due to the threat of Rift Valley Fever.
    (SFC, 4/15/98, p.C2)

1998        Apr, Authorities in Hargeysa established a war crimes committee to investigate the Barre-era human rights violations.
    (SFC, 7/11/98, p.A12)

2001        May 31, The people of Somaliland voted 97.1% in a referendum for independence. The referendum was opposed by the government of Somalia and did not lead to any state recognising the independence of Somaliland.

2002        May 3, Pres. Mohammed Ibrahim Egal (73) died. VP Dahir Riyale Kahin became acting president.
    (SFC, 5/4/02, p.A21)

2003        Apr 14, In Somaliland elections incumbent Dahir Riyaleh Kahin was re-elected president of the breakaway republic by 80 votes. The opposition candidate said he would not accept the results.
    (AP, 4/20/03)

2003        Oct 21, Two British teachers working for an aid agency in Somaliland were found dead after being shot at their apartment at the school.
    (AP, 10/21/03)

2005        Sep 23, Police in the breakaway republic of Somaliland raided houses in the capital, Hargeisa, where al-Qaida militants were believed holed up and captured four suspects after a shootout. A fifth suspect was arrested 20 miles away. Pres. Dahir Riyale Kahnin said the men were mostly locals trained at a camp outside Mogadishu, Somalia.
    (AP, 9/23/05)(Econ, 10/1/05, p.43)

2005        Sep 29, Residents of the breakaway Somaliland voted in the 1st multiparty parliamentary elections since the region separated from Somalia more than a decade ago.
    (AP, 9/29/05)

2005        Somaliland’s population was about 2.5 million at this time.
    (Econ, 10/1/05, p.43)

2007        Jul, The Sanaag region of Somaliland, a former sultanate, declared independence and renamed itself Makhir with Badhan as its capital.
    (Econ, 10/6/07, p.56)

2007        Oct 1, Fighting broke out between Somaliland and Puntland in the disputed Sool region and at least 10 people were killed in a battle for control of Las Anod.
    (Econ, 10/6/07, p.56)

2007        Oct 15, Fresh fighting in northern Somalia left several combatants dead in an escalating boundary dispute between the breakaway regions of Somaliland and Puntland.
    (AFP, 10/15/07)

2008        Oct 29, In northern Somalia 5 suicide car bombs attacks killed 28 people in Hargeisa, the capital of Somaliland, and in Bosasso, Puntland. Somali authorities arrested Cleric Sheik Mohamed Ismail in connection with the attacks. One of the suicide bombers was an American of Somali origin.
    (AP, 10/30/08)(SFC, 10/30/08, p.A4)(Econ, 5/23/09, p.48)

2009        Nov 1, Somaliland defense minister Saleban Warsame Guled said a roadside bomb in the country's semiautonomous northern region has killed two people, including Osman Yusuf, an infantry division commander.
    (AP, 11/1/09)

2010        Jun 26, Voters in Somaliland queued for hours and thronged polling stations for the second presidential election held in the self-declared republic. Early indications showed Pres. Kahin losing to Ahmed Silanyo.
    (AP, 6/26/10)(Econ, 7/3/10, p.45)

2010        Sep 14, Authorities in the self-declared republic of Somaliland said their troops have surrounded up to 300 Ethiopian rebels who entered the territory illegally.
    (AP, 9/14/10)

2010        The population of Somaliland was about 2.5 million.
    (Econ, 7/3/10, p.45)

2011        Jan 13, A Somaliland judge sentenced a German man to four years in jail for making pornographic films and pictures in Somalia. Gunter Pischof Albert (72) was ordered jailed and fined him $10,000. A woman (23) was also sentenced to one year in jail and fined $880.
    (AP, 1/13/11)

2012        Jun 28, In Dubai Somali President Sharif Sheikh Ahmed and his counterpart Ahmed Mohamed Silanyo of Somaliland agreed to boost cooperation between their different factions. The two men signed the "Dubai Charter" in the presence of the leaders of Puntland and Galmudug, two self-proclaimed autonomous regions in Somalia.
    (AFP, 6/28/12)

2012        Oct 23, Somali journalist Ahmed Farah Sakin, a reporter for the Somali television station Universal, was shot to death in the town of Lasanod in the breakaway region of Somaliland. This brought the number of journalists killed in Somalia this year to 16.
    (AP, 10/24/12)

2013        May 12, It was reported that an upsurge of gang rapes has hit the breakaway region of Somaliland. Rights activists and medical officials said least 84 women have been raped since the beginning of this year.
    (AP, 5/12/13)

2016        May 18, Somaliland, with a population of approximately 4 million people, celebrated 25 years since the region proclaimed independence from Somalia renewing calls for international recognition of its self-declared independence from Somalia.
    (AP, 5/18/16)

2017        Feb 12, Somaliland said the United Arab Emirates can establish a military base in its territory. The UAE government in January submitted a formal application seeking permission from the Somaliland government to open a military base in the port town of Berbera. Ethiopia and Djibouti opposed the plan.
    (AP, 2/12/17)

2017        Feb, In Yemen Saudi amd Emirati-backed forces fought each other over control of Aden’s airport.
    (Econ, 4/8/17, p.42)

2017        Mar 1, In Somaliland DP World, a Dubai-based port operator, began working from Berbera’s beachside hotel. Three weeks later the UAE revealed plans for 25-year lease of air and naval bases alongside.
    (Econ, 4/8/17, p.42)

2017        Apr 8, A journalists' rights group said court in the breakaway region of Somaliland has sentenced reporter Abdimalik Muse Oldon to two years in jail for what it said was endangering peace and security.
    (Reuters, 4/8/17)

2017        Nov 13, People in Somalia's semi-autonomous region of Somaliland voted to elect their fifth president as the ruling party faces a strong challenge from opposition candidates. This election was the first in Africa to use iris-scan biometric technology to prevent anyone from voting more than once. No country has so far recognized it as an independent state.
    (AP, 11/13/17)

2018        Mar 1, Ethiopia acquired a stake in the Berbera port in the breakaway state of Somaliland, as a legal dispute raged over another major Horn of Africa shipping hub. Dubai-based DP World last week accused Djibouti of illegally seizing a port that is the main transit route to landlocked Ethiopia.
    (AP, 3/1/18)

2018        May 19, Tropical cyclone Sagar made landfall in north-western Somaliland and Djibouti, three days after it formed in the Gulf of Aden.
    (Reuters, 5/23/18)

2018        May 22, Somaliland officials said more than 50 people have died, livestock has been wiped out and hundreds of farms destroyed by heavy rains and floods caused by a tropical cyclone.
    (Reuters, 5/23/18)

2018        May 24, Tensions in the unrecognized breakaway northern state of Somaliland and the semi-autonomous Somali state of Puntland erupted into violence around the border town of Tukaraq in Sool, a disputed desert region claimed by both sides. Troops from both camps were reported killed.
    (AFP, 5/26/18)
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