Timeline Sierra Leone

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1787        British settlers bought land from African tribal leaders in Sierra Leone and used it as a haven for freed African slaves. The indigenous community, dominated by the Mende, wiped out the first settlers. A 2nd group followed in 1792. The settlers intermarried but held themselves aloof, monopolized power and discriminated against the original population. In 2005 Simon Schama authored “Rough Crossings: Britain, the Slaves and the American Revolution."
    (SFC, 3/11/98, p.A10)(SFC, 2/14/98, p.A8)(WSJ, 5/31/00, p.A26)(Econ, 8/27/05, p.66)(MT, summer 2003, p.8)

1792        The British St. George’s Bay Company transported a 2nd group of settlers to Freetown. This included 1,196 Blacks from Nova Scotia, 500 Jamaicans and dozens of rebellious slaves from other colonies.
    (MT, summer 2003, p.8)

1807        After Britain outlawed the slave trade people called “Recaptives," those freed from slave ships, were sent to join the settlers in Sierra Leone. The settlers formed a new tribe called the Kri and created a language called Krio.
    (MT, summer 2003, p.8)

1820        Feb 6, The American Colonization Society sent its 1st organized emigration of blacks back to Africa from NY to Sierra Leone.
    (AH, 2/05, p.17)

1839        Jun 27, The Spanish coasting vessel La Amistad (The Friendship) set sail from Cuba to Porta Prince with a load of African slaves. Cinque, originally Senghbe, and over 50 other Africans had been kidnapped in Sierra Leone and sold into slavery in Cuba. They were carried on a Spanish ship, the Tecora, to Cuba. Cinque and 49 other slaves and 4 children were placed on the ship La Amistad destined for Haiti. They revolted, killed the captain, and ordered the crew back to Africa but the ship sailed north and ran aground. It was captured by the US Navy on August 26. A legal battle ensued in New London, Conn., that went to the Supreme court where former Pres. John Quincy Adams argued for their freedom and won. An 1855 novella by Herman Melville, "Benito Cereno" looked at the rebellion through the eyes of an American interloper. Barbara Chase-Ribaud later wrote "Echo of Lions," a novel based on the Amistad. In 1996 Steven Spielberg announced plans to direct a film based on the incident titled "Amistad." The film was to be released in 1997. A 1997 opera production, "Amistad," by Anthony Davis premiered in Chicago.
    (http://law2.umkc.edu/faculty/projects/ftrials/amistad/AMI_BCIN.HTM)(SFEC,10/26/97, DB p.57)(USAT, 11/19/97, p.2D)(WSJ, 12/5/97, p.A16)(SFEC,12/797, DB p.44)(SFC,12/26/97, p.C6)(HN, 6/28/99)

1841        Mar 9, The rebel slaves who seized a Spanish slave ship, the Amistad, two years earlier were freed by the US Supreme Court despite Spanish demands for extradition. John Quincy Adams (74), former US president, defended “the Mendi people," a group of Africans who rebelled and killed the crew aboard the slave ship Amistad, while en route to Cuba. They faced mutiny charges upon landing in New York but Adams won their acquittal before the Supreme Court. In thanks they bestowed to him an 1838 English Bible. In 1996 the Bible was stolen from the Adams National Historic Site in Quincy, Mass.
    (WSJ, 1/3/97, p.A7)(HN, 3/9/99)

1841        Nov, Freed African survivors of the slave ship Amistad returned to Sierra Leone, Africa. Abolitionists had raised money to help the freed slaves of the Amistad return home. When Cinque, the leader of the revolt, reached home, he found that his family had been captured and sold into slavery.
    (http://law2.umkc.edu/faculty/projects/ftrials/amistad/AMI_CHR.HTM)(SFEC,12/797, DB p.44)

1879        Cinque, the leader of the 1839 Amistad revolt, died in Sierra Leone.

1895        Dec 7, Sir Milton Margay, first Prime Minister of Sierra Leone, was born.
    (HN, 12/7/98)

1898        The imposition of a hut tax sparked an indigenous rebellion in which many settlers were killed. Britain declared a protectorate and assumed formal administration until independence.
    (WSJ, 5/31/00, p.A26)

1936        Graham Green (1904-1991), English writer, authored “Journey Without Maps," a travel account about a 350-mile, 4-week walk through the interior of Liberia and Sierra Leone in 1935.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/A_Burnt-Out_Case)(Econ, 9/4/10, p.90)

1961        Apr 27, United Kingdom granted Sierra Leone independence.
    (SFC, 7/1/97, p.A9)(SFC, 3/11/98, p.A10)(HN, 4/27/98)

1968        Apr 26, In Sierra Leone Pres. Siaka Stevens (1905-1988) re-assumed the post of prime minister following brief military rule. He led a one-party socialist state that was later described as a “17-year plague of locusts."
    (WSJ, 5/31/00, p.A26)(Econ, 8/4/07, p.42)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Siaka_Stevens)

1973        Oct 3, Sierra Leone’s President Stevens engineered the creation of the Mano River Union, an economic federation of Sierra Leone and Liberia. Guinea joined in 1980.

1975        May 25, ECOWAS Treaty1 was signed. The Economic Community of West African States (ECOWAS) was formed in Nigeria with 15 members that included: Benin, Cape Verde, Côte d'Ivoire, Gambia, Ghana, Guinea, Guinea-Bissau, Liberia, Mali, Niger, Nigeria, Senegal, Sierra Leone, Togo and Upper Volta (later Burkina Faso).

1980        Jul 1, Sierra Leone’s President Stevens began serving as Chairman of the Organization of African Unity (OAU) and continued until 24 June 1981.

1980        Guinea joined the Mano River Union, an economic federation of Sierra Leone and Liberia created in 1973. Due to conflicts involving the countries the objectives of the Union could not be achieved. The union was reactivated in 2004.

1985        Oct 28, In Sierra Leone Pres. Siaka Stevens retired from office at the end of his term. After pressuring all other potential successors to step aside, Major-General Joseph Saidu Momoh was sworn in as the new President of the Republic.

1985-1992    Pres. Joseph Saidu Momoh presided over a one-party state. In 1998 he was convicted of a 1997 conspiracy to commit treason.
    (SFC, 11/7/98, p.A14)

1991        RUF guerrillas including Sam Bockerie invaded Sierra Leone from Liberia. Charles Taylor formed the guerrillas in 1989.
    (SFC, 5/7/03, p.A11)

1991        In Sierra Leone an 11-year civil war began and by 1996 10,000 had been killed. Foday Sankoh’s Revolutionary United Front began fighting the bush war. In 1998 Sankoh was charged with treason. By 2002 some 50-200 thousand people were killed and a third of the country’s 6 million people were forced to flee.
    (WSJ, 5/7/96, p.A-1)(SFC, 6/6/97, p.E2)(SFC, 9/5/98, p.A12)(Econ, 6/2/07, p.48)

1992        In Sierra Leone Valentine Strasser (25) took over rule in a coup, that toppled Pres. Joseph Momoh, and became the world’s youngest head of state.
    (WSJ, 1/17/96, p.A-1)(SFC, 2/21/98, p.A9)(SFC, 7/25/02, p.A16)

1992        ULIMO, The United Movement of Liberia arose as a guerilla force to stop cooperation between Sierra Leone’s rebel leader Foday Sankoh and Charles Taylor.
    (SFC, 4/17/96, p.A-8)

1995        Sierra Leone hired a private army to battle rebels. Mercenaries from Executive Outcomes, a South Africa-based group, played a key role in routing the murderous rebels of the Revolutionary United Front.
    (WSJ, 6/19/01, p.A1)(Econ., 5/30/20, p.38)

1996         Jan, Sierra Leone Military ruler Valentine Strasser was ousted in a bloodless coup by Brig. Julius Maada Bio, who immediately suspended elections set for next month.
    (WSJ, 1/17/96, p.A-1)(SFC, 7/25/02, p.A16)

1996        Feb, Ahmed Tejan Kabbah was elected.
    (SFC, 5/27/97, p.A12)

1996        Mar, Ahmad Tejan Kabbah was elected president. The vote ended the rule by military government which announced a cease fire was with rebels after 5 years of civil war. Rebels chopped off the hands of the voters they opposed.
    (WSJ, 3/18/96, A-1)(WSJ, 5/14/02, p.A1)

1996        Apr 24, Sierra Leone reached a truce with rebels after a five-year war and will seek a permanent peace accord. The truce came after Ivory Coast talks between the new civilian president and the rebel leader.
    (WSJ, 4/24/96, A-1)

1996        May 7, Peace talks for Sierra Leone opened in the Ivory Coast to resolve a civil war that has killed 10,000 people since 1991.
    (WSJ, 5/7/96, p.A-1)

1996        Aug 26, Rebels killed 31 villagers and 7 soldiers in the eastern village of Foindu.
    (SFC, 8/29/96, p.A14)

1996        Oct 20, In northern Sierra Leone rebels killed 36 people including 6 patients at the Masanga hospital.
    (SFC, 10/21/96, p.A10)

1996        Nov 30, Pres. Ahmad Tejan Kabbah and rebel leader Foday Sankoh signed a peace accord. Nearly 1 million displaced people had settled in camps around the capital, Freetown. The accord failed to hold.
    (SFC, 11/30/96, p.A13)(SFC, 6/6/97, p.E2)

1997        Jan 29, The UN World Food Program announced a 6-month $19.4 million food aid operation.
    (SFC, 1/30/97, p.A10)

1997        May 25, In Sierra Leone rebellious soldiers seized power. Pres. Ahmed Tejan Kabbah fled to Guinea. Exiled rebel leader Foday Sankoh, leader of the Revolutionary Unite Front and held in a Nigerian jail, was invited by Major Johnny Paul Koroma to join a new government. Some 15 people were killed and 40 injured in the coup.
    (SFEC, 5/26/97, p.A8)(SFC, 5/27/97, p.A12)

1997        Jun 2, Nigerian naval vessels opened fire on Sierra Leone.
    (SFC, 6/2/97, p.A8)

1997        Jun 3, Reinforcements from a peace-keeping force in Liberia was sent in to help Nigerian troops against the insurrectionist troops of Sierra Leone.
    (SFC, 6/4/97, p.A10)

1997        Jun 4, The 53-nation Organization of African Unity unanimously condemned the coup in Sierra Leone. The 16-member Nigerian-led Economic Community of West African states pledged not to tolerate military coups on the continent a day after it approved the use of force to restore the government of Sierra Leone.
    (SFC, 6/5/97, p.C3)

1997        Jun 17, In Sierra Leone Major Johnny Paul Koroma was sworn in as head of state and pledged to work to restore democracy.
    (SFC, 6/18/97, p.A10)

1997        Jul 1, Thailand let its currency, the baht, float and it devalued about 20%. This event marked the beginning of the Asian economic crises. In 1999 Thailand sought to extradite Rakesh Saxena, a currency trader, from Canada for his role in an alleged fraud that drained over $2 billion from the Bangkok Bank of Commerce, which led to the devaluation of the baht. Pin Chakkaphak was blamed for the collapse of the currency and fled Asia. He was ordered back from Britain in 2001 to face accounting and theft charges. In 2009 Saxena (57) arrived in Thailand after his extradition from Canada to face charges he embezzled $88 million from the Bangkok Bank of Commerce, which collapsed in 1995. Saxena was also implicated in backing the attempted 1997 coup in Sierra Leone.
    (SFC, 7/3/97, p.D4)(WSJ, 7/21/97, p.A1)(SFEC, 5/31/98, p.D1)(WSJ, 5/7/99, p.A1)(SFC, 3/9/01, p.A16)(Econ, 3/25/06, p.80)(AP, 10/30/09)(Econ, 11/7/09, p.42)

1997        Jul 18, Leaders of the ruling junta pledged to implement an immediate cease fire and to restore constitutional government.
    (SFC, 7/19/97, p.A11)

1997        Jul 30, Major Johnny Komora announced that elections for civilian rule would be held in Nov of 2001.
    (SFC, 8/1/97, p.A16)

1997        Sep 8, In Liberia some 200,000 refugees from Sierra Leone had spilled over from escalating violence.
    (WSJ, 9/9/97, p.A1)

1997        Oct 8, The UN imposed sanctions on Sierra Leone to pressure for the restoration of civilian government.
    (SFC, 10/9/97, p.C3)

1997        Oct 19, At least 70 people fleeing air raids in Freetown were killed when their truck overturned. Nigerian jets were bombing the city and at least 10,000 people had already fled.
    (SFC,10/20/97, p.A9)

1997        Dec 15, At least 60 people died in a canoe mishap on the Manor River near the Liberian border while fleeing renewed violence.
    (SFC,12/16/97, p.B2)

1998        Jan 27, In Sierra Leone fighting broke out between junta troops and Nigerian peacekeepers trying to restore Pres. Kabbah.
    (WSJ, 1/28/98, p.A1)

1998        Feb 5, In Sierra Leone fighting began as Nigerian led intervention forces moved to oust the military junta.
    (SFC, 2/12/98, p.A12)(SFC, 2/13/98, p.D5)

1998        Feb 8, A jet belonging to West African peacekeepers fired on a tank with a mounted anti-aircraft gun in Freetown and killed 6 people. Nigerian led peacekeepers were moving toward Freetown in an effort to drive the military junta from power.
    (SFC, 2/9/98, p.A12)

1998        Feb 12, In Sierra Leone the Nigerian led intervention force captured the country’s State House in Freetown.
    (SFC, 2/13/98, p.D5)

1998        Feb 13, Freetown fell to Nigerian led forces. Two helicopter gunships with some 50 senior members of the military junta were captured near Monrovia.
    (SFC, 2/14/98, p.A8)

1998        Feb 17, In Sierra Leone 7 Western relief workers were reported kidnapped.
    (SFC, 2/18/98, p.C3)

1998        Feb 20, Former pres. Joseph Momoh was caught while trying to escape the capital under disguise as a woman. He was alleged to be a close advisor to the junta that ousted Pres. Kabbah.
    (SFC, 2/21/98, p.A9)

1998        Feb 25, Bo was captured by Nigerian-led peacekeeping troops. The city was reported badly damaged with many dead.
    (WSJ, 2/26/98, p.A1)

1998        Mar, Ahmed Kabbah was restored to power with the help of a Nigerian-led African force that ousted the military junta. In May it was reported that Sandline Int’l. was paid $10 million on behalf of Kabbah to arm and train a force to return him to power. Peter Penfield, the British ambassador, coordinated the operation. The planeloads of weaponry that were brought were in direct violation of a UN arms embargo on Sierra Leone. The US was reportedly kept informed of the entire operation.
    (SFC, 5/13/98, p.A11)

1998        May 25, In Sierra Leone Borboh Jeff Kamara (14) was walking to school with classmates when rebels grabbed him, held him down and cut off his fingers, leaving only his thumbs.
    (AP, 11/16/12)

1998        May 29, Defeated rebels were conducting a campaign of terror in the countryside and hundreds have been killed since the rebels were driven from the cities in March.
    (WSJ, 5/29/98, p.A1)

1998        Jun 3, It was reported that 243,000 refugees had fled to camps in Liberia and Guinea in terror of the ousted junta’s loyalists.
    (WSJ, 6/3/98, p.A1)

1998        Jul 29, A report called “Sowing Terror" was published that documented the violence of the Armed Forces Revolutionary Council and the Revolutionary United Front. The rebel campaign code-named “No Living Thing" maimed civilians and sent them as messengers to the government of Pres. Ahmad Kabbah. Rebel leader Foday Sankoh was turned over by Nigeria to face charges in Sierra Leone.
    (SFC, 7/30/98, p.A12,14)

1998        Aug 24, A jury found 16 people, including 5 journalists, guilty of collaborating with the ousted military junta.
    (SFC, 8/25/98, p.A8)

1998        Sep 24, In Sierra Leone troops from the ECOMOG peacekeeping force killed at least 50 traditional Kapra hunters after the hunters opened fire on them. The hunters claimed to have mistaken the troops for rebels.
    (SFC, 9/28/98, p.A10)

1998        Oct 12, In Sierra Leone a military court condemned 34 officers to death for their participation in a 1997 coup.
    (SFC, 10/13/98, p.A11)

1998        Oct 19, In Sierra Leone a firing squad executed 24 soldiers for taking part in the May, 1997, coup.
    (SFC, 10/20/98, p.C12)

1998        Nov 4, Former Pres. Joseph Saidu Momoh was convicted of conspiracy to commit treason in the May 1997 coup.
    (SFC, 11/7/98, p.A14)

1998        Nov 15, Rebels attacked a village on the northern border and killed 16 people with guns and machetes. Another 50 were abducted.
    (SFC, 11/16/98, p.A13)

1998        Dec 6, In Sierra Leone at least 51 rebels were killed in fierce fighting north of Freetown.
    (WSJ, 12/9/98, p.A1)

1998        Dec 8, It was reported that Chief Samuel Hinga Norman, the deputy minister of defense, had founded a cult-based militia, the Kamajors, to help fight the rebels.
    (SFC, 12/8/98, p.A12,16)

1998        Dec 13, As many as 200 died in weekend battles 35 miles from the capital. The Nigerian-led military said that a large force of rebels had been cut off and annihilated.
    (WSJ, 12/15/98, p.A1)

1998        Dec 19, In Sierra Leone rebels overran the eastern diamond city of Koidu and many were killed.
    (WSJ, 12/21/98, p.A1)

1998        Dec 25, In Sierra Leone Sam Bockarie of the Revolutionary United Front said that his rebels would march into Freetown on New Year's Day unless the government agreed to terms that included the release of Foday Sankoh. Rebels had captured Makeni and were battling for Kenema.
    (SFC, 12/26/98, p.A14)

1998        Dec 26, In Sierra Leone residents in Freetown burned alive 2 suspected rebel spies. The rebel United Front reported that it had killed 60 Nigerian soldiers of ECOMOG. Defenses in Freetown were bolstered by Kamajor militia.
    (SFEC, 12/27/98, p.A23)

1998        Dec 27, In Sierra Leone Nigerian jets killed some 50 rebels in Makeni and ECOMOG forces took control following fierce fighting.
    (SFC, 12/28/98, p.B1)

1998        Johnny Paul Koromo, the junta leader, was run out of Freetown by a Nigerian led intervention force.
    (SFEC, 6/4/00, p.C15)

1998        Foday Sankoh was sentenced to death for treason.
    (SFC, 10/4/99, p.A16)

1999        Jan 4, In Sierra Leone Nigerian troops repelled a rebel attack on Freetown's airport. Gambia and Mali agreed to send troops to join the Nigerian forces.
    (WSJ, 1/5/99, p.A1)

1999        Jan 6, In Sierra Leone rebels shot their way into Freetown and captured the presidential state house.
    (SFC, 1/7/99, p.A8)

1999        Jan 7, In Sierra Leone rebels rampaged through Freetown as Pres. Kabbah announced an agreement with jailed rival leader, Foday Sankoh, for a cease-fire.
    (SFC, 1/8/99, p.A13)

1999        Jan 8, In Sierra Leone Sam Bockarie of the rebel army rejected a cease-fire and pushed to the western parts of Freetown.
    (SFC, 1/9/99, p.A9)

1999        Jan 10, In Sierra Leone Myles Tierney (34), an AP TV producer, was killed in Freetown by a rebel fighter. AP journalist Ian Stewart was wounded. In 2002 Stewart authored “Ambushed: A War Reporter's Life on the Line."
    (SFC, 1/11/99, p.A10)(SSFC, 11/30/02, p.M3)

1999        Jan 14, In Sierra Leone the rebel alliance was prepared for a cease-fire after Nigerian led forces took control of Freetown.
    (SFC, 1/15/99, p.A15)

1999        Jan 21, In Sierra Leone the rebels were killing and mutilating civilians as they fell back before Nigerian led troops.
    (WSJ, 1/22/99, p.A1)

1999        Jan 25, A mortuary worker reported that at least 2,000 men, women and children were killed in Freetown.
    (SFC, 2/12/99, p.A8)

1999        Jan 31, In Sierra Leone rebels freed 11 Indian nationals abducted a week ago. The government said that as many as 3,000-5000 people died during the fighting in Freetown. The number of dead was raised to 6,350.
    (WSJ, 2/1/99, p.A1)(SFC, 2/12/99, p.A8)(SFC, 3/26/99, p.A14)

1999        Jan, The RUF assault on Freetown was dubbed “Operation No Living Things." Over 4,500 children under 18, close to 60% girls, were reported missing from Freetown following the rebel invasion.
    (SFC, 6/28/00, p.A12)(SFC, 7/22/01, p.A12)

1999        Feb 3, A boatload of refugees from Sierra Leone sank near Guinea and 50 people were killed.
    (WSJ, 2/4/99, p.A1)

1999        Mar 2, In Sierra Leone the Kamajors militia won the battle for Moyamba after 6 days of heavy fighting. They reported that 200 rebels were killed.
    (SFC, 3/3/99, p.A10)

1999        Mar 9, A Sierra Leone rebel leader made a radio appeal to his followers for a cease-fire and peace talks.
    (WSJ, 3/10/99, p.A1)

1999        Mar 10, Rebels rejected a cease fire plea by their jailed leader.
    (WSJ, 3/11/99, p.A1)

1999        Mar 22, In Sierra Leone at least 150 people drowned when an overloaded motorized canoe capsized near Tasso.
    (SFC, 3/26/99, p.A14)

1999        Apr 6, In Sierra Leone rebels ambushed 2 passenger boats on the Mabang River and 60 people were killed.
    (SFC, 4/7/99, p.C12)

1999        Apr 16, Rebel troops fled Songo and killed over 100 men, women and children as the ECOMOG West African and loyalist militia entered the town.
    (SFC, 4/22/99, p.D12)

1999        Apr 26, Foday Sankoh, Sierra Leone rebel leader, offered a cease-fire following a meeting with his commanders in Togo.
    (SFC, 4/27/99, p.A10)

1999        May 18, In Sierra Leone the government and the rebels agreed to a cease-fire to begin next week along with peace talks.
    (SFC, 5/19/99, p.A12)

1999        Jun 3, From Sierra Leone a new wave of mutilations was reported by Doctors Without Borders.
    (SFC, 6/3/99, p.C3)

1999        Jun 30, In Sierra Leone the rebel movement accepted a government offer of power-sharing and a peace accord.
    (SFC, 7/1/99, p.A14)

1999        Jul 7, Pres. Ahmed Tejan Kabbah of Sierra Leone signed a peace accord, the Lome Accord, with rebel leader Foday Sankoh in Togo. Sankoh was given the vice-presidency and the rebels were promised 4 ministerial and 4 deputy ministerial posts.
    (SFC, 7/8/99, p.A8)

1999        Aug 5, In Sierra Leone former RUF soldiers kidnapped over 2 dozen UN military observers, aid workers and journalists at Okra Hills during a meeting for a hostage handover.
    (SFC, 8/6/99, p.A18)

1999        Aug 8, In Sierra Leone rebels freed at least 19 of 35 captives taken on Aug 5.
    (SFC, 8/9/99, p.A10)

1999        Aug 10, In Sierra Leone rebels released the remaining hostages along with 200 civilians taken prisoner earlier.
    (SFC, 8/11/99, p.A10)

1999        Aug 20, It was reported that tens thousands of refugees from Sierra Leone had fled to northern Liberia and that many were robbed and killed by retreating rebels.
    (SFC, 8/20/99, p.D3)

1999        Sep 28, Officials called for a 6,000 member UN force to safeguard the fragile peace accord.
    (SFC, 9/29/99, p.C14)

1999        Oct 3, Foday Sankoh returned home with former junta leader Johnny Paul Koroma and met with Pres. Ahmed Tejan Kabbah. Sankoh gave a radio speech and pleaded for forgiveness.
    (SFC, 10/4/99, p.A16)

1999        Oct 18, In Sierra Leone US Sec. Albright paid a visit and promised $55 million in US aid and $65 million in debt forgiveness, conditioned on the implementation of an IMF economic program.
    (SFC, 10/19/99, p.A11)

1999        Oct 22, The UN Security Council voted to send a 6,000 member peacekeeping force to safeguard the July 7 peace deal.
    (SFC, 10/23/99, p.A10)

1999        Oct 24, In Sierra Leone some 100 soldiers were killed over the weekend as the Revolutionary United Front battled former junta soldiers between Makeni and Lunsar.
    (SFC, 10/27/99, p.A13)

1999        Nov 30, Kenyan soldiers began to arrive as part of a 6,000 member 2-year peacekeeping force that would include 3,000 soldiers from ECOMOG.
    (SFC, 12/1/99, p.C8)

1999        Dec, Sam Bockerie fell out with RUF leader Foday Sankoh over diamonds and fled to Liberia with several hundred loyalists.
    (SFC, 5/7/03, p.A11)

1999        Yair Klein, a former lieutenant colonel in the Israeli army, began a prison term in Sierra Leone. He spent 16 months in prison on charges that he was smuggling arms to rebels from the Revolutionary United Front (RUF). Klein, through his private mercenary company, Spearhead Ltd., had provided arms and training to armed forces in South America, Lebanon, and Sierra Leone.
    (AP, 11/20/10)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Yair_Klein)

2000        Jan 15, Three hundred child soldiers were released. They had been held by AFRC rebels in Kabala for months.
    (SFC, 1/22/00, p.A11)

2000        Jan 20, A hundred child soldiers arrived in Freetown. They had been held by RUF rebels in Kabala for months.
    (SFC, 1/22/00, p.A11)

2000        Feb 7, The UN Security Council voted to expand the peacekeeping force in Sierra Leone from 6,000 to 11,100.
    (SFC, 2/8/00, p.A14)

2000        Mar 6, It was reported that RUF rebels earned tens of millions of dollars annually from the sale of diamonds.
    (SFC, 3/6/00, p.A11)

2000        Mar 6, In Sierra Leone some 150 former rebel fighters were reported killed after a clandestine diamond mine they were working collapsed.
    (SFC, 3/8/00, p.C4)

2000        May 2, Revolutionary United Front rebels seized 50 UN workers over the last 2 days as the West African intervention force completed its pullout. The seizures took place in Makeni, Kailahun and Magburaka.
    (SFC, 5/3/00, p.A13)

2000        May 3, Rebels of the Revolutionary United Front killed 7 UN Kenyan peacekeepers. The number was later reduced to 4 presumed dead.
    (SFC, 5/4/00, p.A1)(WSJ, 5/5/00, p.A1)

2000        May 4, Rebels seized more UN troops and brought the total of hostages to 90.
    (SFC, 5/5/00, p.A18)

2000        May 5, Rebels seized more UN troops and were reported to be holding 300 troops and observers hostage. Gen. Vijay Kumar Jetley of India scrambled to consolidate his UN troop positions.
    (SFC, 5/6/00, p.A1)

2000        May 6, Rebels clashed with UN peacekeepers and advanced on Freetown.
    (SFEC, 5/7/00, p.A1)

2000        May 8, In Sierra Leone bodyguards of Foday Sankoh fired into a crowd of pro-government protestors in Freetown and killed 7 people. Sankoh later disappeared.
    (SFC, 5/9/00, p.A1)(SFC, 5/10/00, p.A12)

2000        May 10, In Sierra Leone the cease-fire ended as pro-government forces rushed to fight rebels moving toward Freetown as refugees clogged the roads. The rebels were pushed back 23 miles to Newton.
    (SFC, 5/11/00, p.A18)(WSJ, 5/11/00, p.A1)

2000        May 14, Rebels handed over 139 UN peacekeepers to Liberia while officials in Freetown secured the release of 18 others. Meanwhile fighting continued for control of Masiaka town 30 miles east of Freetown.
    (SFC, 5/15/00, p.A12)

2000        May 17, In Sierra Leone pro-government troops captured rebel leader Foday Sankoh.
    (SFC, 5/18/00, p.A10)

2000        May 21, Rebels freed 54 more UN workers as government forces advanced on rebel positions.
    (SFC, 5/22/00, p.A10)

2000        May 22, In Liberia 29 captured UN peacekeepers were freed while in Sierra Leone a half dozen men with UN uniforms and Zambian insignia were found dead.
    (SFC, 5/23/00, p.A10)

2000        May 24, In Sierra Leone 2 journalists and 4 soldiers were killed by rebel soldiers some 60 miles northeast of Freetown. Kurt Schork (53) of Reuters was one the journalists killed.
    (SFC, 5/25/00, p.C16)(SFEC, 5/28/00, p.C14)

2000        May 26, In Sierra Leone rebels released another 180 UN hostages. Pres. Kabbah announced plans to prosecute rebel leader Foday Sankoh. The government issued a statement promising not to recruit children under 18.
    (SFC, 5/27/00, p.A12,14)

2000        May 28, In Sierra Leone the last 85 UN peacekeepers were released by rebels into Liberia and returned to Freetown.
    (SFC, 5/29/00, p.A1)

2000        Jun 26, RUF rebels looted food and burned down the villages of Komrabai, Mamilla and Robis near the town of Mile 91.
    (SFC, 6/28/00, p.A12)

2000        Jun 29, In Sierra Leone 21 UN peacekeepers were freed by rebels and arrived in Liberia.
    (SFC, 6/30/00, p.A18)

2000        Jul 5, The UN Security Council placed a diamond ban on the rebels of Sierra Leone to strangle their ability to finance the civil war. 90% of the diamond mines were in rebel hands.
    (SFC, 7/6/00, p.A12)

2000        Jul 15, In Sierra Leone UN troops freed 222 Indian peacekeepers and 11 military observers held by rebels since May 1. One Indian peacekeeper was killed and 7 others injured.
    (SFEC, 7/16/00, p.B9)(SFC, 7/18/00, p.A12)

2000        Aug 21, In Sierra Leone Issa Sesay, the top field commander of the Revolutionary United Front, replaced Foday Sankoh as head.
    (SFC, 8/22/00, p.A11)(WSJ, 8/22/00, p.A1)

2000        Aug 26, Eleven British soldiers were seized by the “West side Boys," a faction of a former pro-government alliance.
    (SFEC, 8/27/00, p.C11)

2000        Sep 10, In Sierra Leone British troops stormed the jungle base of the West Side Boys and freed 7 hostages. 25 rebels were killed along with 1 British soldier. 18 rebels were taken prisoner including leader Foday Kallay. SAS troopers eradicated the West Side Boys led by Commanders Mega-Rapist, Slaughter and others.
    (https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Operation_Barras)(SFC, 9/11/00, p.A8)(Econ, 10/22/05, p.61)

2000        Oct 25, The 1,800 man peacekeeping contingent from Jordan began to withdraw and charged that rich nations were not doing their share.
    (WSJ, 10/26/00, p.A1)

2000        Oct 26, Diamonds from Sierra Leone arrived in Antwerp under a new UN plan to keep diamond revenues from financing civil war.
    (SFC, 10/28/00, p.A12)

2001        Jan 19, In Liberia Pres. Charles Taylor said that he has ended support of the RUF in Sierra Leone and would submit to int’l. scrutiny of his finances.
    (SFC, 1/20/01, p.A14)

2001        Mar 7, The UN Security Council imposed an embargo on Liberia’s trade in weapons and diamonds in an effort to halt arms to rebels in Sierra Leone.
    (SFC, 3/8/01, p.A13)

2001        Mar 20, Liberia ordered its security forces to seal its border with Sierra Leone.
    (SFC, 3/21/01, p.A14)

2001        May 16, Rebels and pro-government militias agreed to end hostilities and begin disarmament.
    (SFC, 5/17/01, p.A12)

2001        May 23, Pres. Bush banned the import of rough diamonds from Liberia in an effort to deprive rebels in Sierra Leone of a source of funds.
    (SFC, 5/24/01, p.C3)
2001        May 23, The UN reported that in Sierra Leone some 2,300 fighters turned in their weapons in the 1st 6 days of a new disarmament deal.
    (SFC, 5/24/01, p.C3)

2001        May 25, In Sierra Leone the Revolutionary United Front surrendered 581 boys and 10 girls (6-11) to the UN.
    (SFC, 5/26/01, p.A10)

2001        Aug 21, It was reported that rebels were still mining diamonds using conscripts and children. Sales were being made to middlemen who smuggled the stones out of the country. The UN mandate to enforce a cease-fire did not include enforcing a mining ban.
    (SFC, 8/21/01, p.A6)

2001        Sep 3, Pres. Ahmed Tejan Kabbah shook hands with RUF Gen. Issa Sesay in Koidu and declared himself convinced that the war was over.
    (SFC, 9/4/01, p.B1)

2001        Sep 6, Britain announced that it would wrap up its mission in Sierra Leone by the end of the month.
    (SFC, 9/7/01, p.A16)

2001        Nov 2, It was reported that Ibrahim Bah, a Libyan-trained former Senegalese rebel, lived in Burkina Faso and selected diamond dealers to handle deals in Liberia between rebels from Sierra Leone and the al Qaeda network.
    (SFC, 11/2/01, p.A8)

2002        Jan 3, The UN made public a decision by Kofi Annan to pursue war crimes in Sierra Leone with a war crimes tribunal.
    (SFC, 1/5/02, p.A7)

2002        May 14, UN sponsored voting for the presidency and parliament took place for the 1st time since the war ended in 2000. Pres. Kabbah posted a strong lead.
    (WSJ, 5/14/02, p.A1)(SFC, 5/15/02, p.A14)(WSJ, 5/16/02, p.A1)(SSFC, 5/19/02, p.A18)

2002        May 19, The National Election Committee declared Pres. Kabbah the winner with 70.6% of the votes.
    (SFC, 5/20/02, p.A6)

2002        Jul 26, Liberian attackers crossed into eastern Sierra Leone and abducted 18 villagers, in the second such raid in just over a week.
    (AP, 7/26/02)

2003        Jan 11, It was reported that former combatants from Liberia and Sierra Leone were pouring into Ivory Coast to fight with the rebels.
    (SFC, 1/11/03, p.A8)

2003        Jan 19, Sierra Leone declared ex-junta leader Johnny Paul Koroma a wanted man linking him to an alleged plot to destabilize the country.
    (AP, 1/19/03)

2003        Mar 3, A Special Court for Sierra Leone indicted Liberian Pres. Charles Taylor on charges including murder, rape, sexual slavery, conscripting child soldiers and terrorizing civilians for his support of rebels during Sierra Leone civil war. The Indictment was unsealed on June 4, 2003, during Taylor's first overseas trip since his indictment.
    (AP, 7/14/09)

2003          Mar 10, In Sierra Leone Foday Sankoh, a former rebel leader whose followers were known for mutilating civilians, was indicted along with 6 others by Sierra Leone’s war crimes tribunal. Sam Bockerie was among the indicted.
    (AP, 3/11/03)(SFC, 5/7/03, p.A11)

2003        Apr 14, Sierra Leone began holding truth commission public hearings across the nation.
    (AP, 4/15/03)

2003        cApr 19, In Sierra Leone an international war crimes tribunal indicted Augustine Gbao, a former rebel battlefield commander in the decade-long civil war declared over in 2002. He was the 8th person indicted by the special court.
    (AP, 4/20/03)

2003        Apr 25, Fighters from Sierra Leone and Liberia killed rebel leader Sgt. Felix Doh near the town of Gbinta, in western Ivory Coast.
    (AP, 4/29/03)

2003        Jun 4, The UN Security Council agreed to end a ban on the export of so-called "blood diamonds" from Sierra Leone because of government efforts to control the diamond industry.
    (AP, 6/4/03)

2003        Jul 29, Foday Sankoh (65), an indicted Sierra Leone war criminal whose rebel forces were notorious for hacking off the limbs, lips and ears of civilians, died in UN custody at a Freetown hospital.
    (AP, 7/30/03)

2003        Dec 4, Interpol put ousted Liberian leader Charles Taylor on its most-wanted list, issuing a "red notice" calling for his arrest on war crimes charges in Sierra Leone's civil war.
    (AP, 12/4/03)

2003        Daniel Bergner authored "In the Land of Magic Soldiers: A Story of White and Black in West Africa," an account of the war in Sierra Leone.
    (Econ, 8/30/03, p.62)
2003        Peter Griffiths authored "The Economist's Tale: A Consultant Encounters Hunger and the World Bank," an account of the factors that caused the war in Sierra Leone.
    (Econ, 8/30/03, p.62)

2004        Feb 4, In Sierra Leone Pres. Ahmed Tejah Kabbah and international sponsors declared a successful end to disarmament, closing a final chapter in an 11-year war that was one of the modern world's most vicious.
    (AP, 2/4/04)

2004        May 22, Voters in Sierra Leone choose local councils for the first time in 30 years.
    (AP, 5/23/04)

2004        Jun 15, In Sierra Leone a U.N.-backed war crimes trial began. The court was trying alleged crimes including rape, burning and looting, use of child soldiers and forced marriage committed during the 1991-2002 war.
    (AP, 6/16/04)

2004        Jun 29, A UN helicopter crashed in Sierra Leone and all 24 aboard were killed.
    (WSJ, 6/30/04, p.A1)

2004        Jul 5, In Sierra Leone a UN-sponsored war crimes court opened the first trials for rebel military commanders accused in the 10-year campaign for control of the diamond-rich country.
    (AP, 7/5/04)

2004        Oct, Fanny An Eddy, Sierra Leone’s best known lesbian, was found murdered.
    (Econ, 10/9/04, p.42)

2004        Dec 20, Ten men charged with plotting to overthrow Sierra Leone's government last year were convicted of treason and sentenced to death by hanging.
    (AP, 12/20/04)

2004        In Sierra Leone a government sponsored Truth and Reconciliation Commission published its conclusions and decided that rampant corruption during the preceding decades was a major cause of the civil war that erupted in 1991.
    (Econ, 11/21/09, p.50)

2005        Feb 21, In Sierra Leone an Australian investigator for a U.N.-backed war-crimes tribunal was convicted of sexually assaulting a 13-year-old girl who sought a job as a nanny in his household.
    (AP, 2/21/05)

2005        Feb, Emmerson Bockarie released an album called “Bor Bor Belleh" (Fat Belly Boys), a reference to corrupt officials hampering Sierra Leone development.
    (Econ, 6/25/05, p.46)

2005        Oct 4, UN peacekeepers preparing to pull out of Sierra Leone said they have completed the mission they began six years ago but warn the country still has a long way to go before it recovers from one of Africa's most brutal wars.
    (AP, 10/4/05)

2005        Dec 30, In Sierra Leone the last soldiers, in what was once the United Nations' biggest peacekeeping force, packed up old refrigerators and fax machines, striking camp after six years helping end the civil war there.
    (AP, 12/30/05)

2005        P.W. Singer authored “Children at War," a detailed analysis of the use of child soldiers around the world, including Liberia and Sierra Leone.
    (SSFC, 1/30/05, p.C3)

2006        Apr 4, Charles Taylor appeared in a UN-backed court in Sierra Leone with 11 counts of crimes against humanity and other violations of int’l. law.
    (Econ, 4/8/06, p.46)

2006        Sep 11, Taxi drivers in Sierra Leone went on strike, bringing the capital to a standstill after police jailed 100 of their colleagues for driving with bald tires, broken lights or without a valid license.
    (AP, 9/11/06)

2006        Aminatta Forna authored “Ancestor Stones," a novel that tells the stories of 4 women in Sierra Leone following independence in 1961.
    (SSFC, 10/1/06, p.G5)

2007        Feb 22, Sam Hinga Norman (67), a former government minister on trial for allegedly overseeing a militia accused of torturing and mutilating civilians during Sierra Leone's 1991-2002 civil war, died at a Senegalese hospital.
    (AP, 2/23/07)

2007        May 30, Outgoing British PM Tony Blair arrived in the small west African nation of Sierra Leone on the second leg of a three-nation African tour.
    (AP, 5/30/07)

2007        Jun 3, In Sierra Leone a helicopter ferrying passengers to the main airport crashed, bursting into flames and killing 22 people, mostly Togo soccer fans.
    (AP, 6/4/07)(AP, 6/5/07)

2007        Jun 20, In Sierra Leone 3 former military leaders were found guilty of war crimes by a UN-backed court, the first verdicts from the country's civil war and the first convictions in an international court for using child soldiers. Alex Tamba Brima, Brima Bazzy Kamara and Santigie Borbor Kanu were indicted in 2003 as the alleged leaders of a junta, called the Armed Forces Revolutionary Council, which toppled the government in 1997 and then teamed up with rebels to control the country until 1998.
    (AP, 6/20/07)

2007        Jun 25, In the Netherlands former Liberian president Charles Taylor boycotted the resumption of his war crimes trial.
    (AP, 6/25/07)

2007        Jul 19, A UN-backed court sentenced three former rebel leaders to prison, the first punishments handed down by the war crimes tribunal since it was set up five years ago after Sierra Leone's decade-long conflict ended. Alex Tamba Brima (35) and Santigie Borbor Kanu (42) were each given 50-year jail terms, while Brima Bazzy Kamara (39) received 45 years.
    (AP, 7/19/07)

2007        Aug 2, In Sierra Leone 2 former members of a pro-government militia were convicted of war crimes, the second round of rulings by a UN-backed court attempting to punish those most responsible for brutalities committed during Sierra Leone's decade-long civil war. A boat traveling from Freetown to the northern town of Kassiri capsized in the mouth of the Little Scarcies River. At least 10 people were killed and 45 others left missing.
    (AP, 8/2/07)(AP, 8/3/07)(AP, 8/4/07)

2007        Aug 4, Unemployment in Sierra Leone, with a population of some 6 million, stood at close to 80% with poverty and corruption widespread and endemic. The country’s Anti-Corruption Commission was now a lame duck as its $2 million annual funding was suspended by exasperated British donors.
    (Econ, 8/4/07, p.42)

2007        Aug 7, ECOWAS said the last refugees from Liberia and Sierra Leone in Nigeria have been allowed to settle and they will have access to work, education and health on the same terms as Nigerians, West African regional bloc.
    (AP, 8/8/07)

2007        Aug 11, Sierra Leone held its first elections since UN peacekeepers left nearly two years ago, a vote that will test whether the diamond-rich West African country can transfer power peacefully after years of conflict. The opposition won a parliamentary majority, but the presidential race faced a runoff in September.
    (AP, 8/11/07)(WSJ, 8/24/07, p.A1)

2007        Sep 8, Voting began in Sierra Leone's presidential runoff, a ballot to choose the West African nation's first new leader since UN peacekeepers withdrew two years ago.
    (AP, 9/8/07)

2007        Sep 15, In Sierra Leone with three-quarters of the vote counted opposition leader Ernest Bai Koroma held a commanding lead in the presidential runoff.
    (AP, 9/15/07)

2007        Sep 17, Sierra Leone election officials declared opposition candidate Ernest Bai Koroma has won the presidential run-off.
    (AP, 9/17/07)

2007        Oct 9, In Sierra Leone a UN-backed court sentenced Moinina Fofana and Allieu Kondewa, two former leaders of a pro-government militia, to six and eight years in prison for brutalities committed during Sierra Leone's civil war (1991-2002). In 2008 a UN-backed war crimes court more than doubled the prison terms for the two ex-militia leaders.
    (AP, 10/9/07)(AP, 5/28/08)

2007        Nov 21, Ishmael Beah (27), a former child soldier and survivor of Sierra Leone's civil war, was appointed UNICEF's first Advocate for Children Affected by War.
    (AP, 11/22/07)

2007        Dec 21, In Freetown, Sierra Leone, a two-story building of apartments and shops caught fire and exploded, killing 14 people and injuring 40.
    (AP, 12/21/07)

2007        Ishmael Beah (26), former child soldier in Sierra Leone, authored “A Long Way Gone."
    (WSJ, 2/10/07, p.P8)

2007        In Sierra Leone Abdul Tejan-Cole, a human rights lawyer, took over as head of the country’s Anti-Corruption Commission.
    (Econ, 11/21/09, p.51)

2008        Jan 22, A UN report said a newborn in Sierra Leone has the lowest chance in the world of surviving until age 5, and the prospects are almost as bad for children in Angola and Afghanistan.
    (AP, 1/22/08)

2008        Jul 13, In Sierra Leone a passenger plane loaded with 1,540 pounds of cocaine was found abandoned at the main airport.
    (SFC, 7/14/08, p.A11)

2008        Sep 2, Sierra Leone's President Ernest Koroma signed-off on legislation to fight corruption, then fulfilled his obligations by handing over a declaration of his assets. Abdul Tejan-Cole, head of the country’s Anti-Corruption Commission, had introduced a system whereby every public official must declare his or her assets.
    (AFP, 9/2/08)(Econ, 11/21/09, p.51)

2008        Nov 26, Off Sierra Leone pirates from neighboring Guinea attacked a Chinese fishing vessel in a rare attack that ended with four suspects dead. Two pirates were shot, two drowned and the other pirates were arrested by the Sierra Leone navy.
    (AP, 11/27/08)

2008        Dec, Sierra Leone again earned the distinction of being the world’s least developed country. Over 70% of the population lived on less than 70 American cents per day.
    (Econ, 12/13/08, p.55)

2009        Feb 25, In Sierra Leone an international court modeled after the Nuremberg tribunal convicted 3 top rebel leaders of crimes against humanity. Revolutionary United Front leader Issa Sesay and one of his battlefield commanders Morris Kallon were found guilty on 16 of 18 counts, including mutilation, terrorism, rape, forced marriage, sexual slavery and the enlistment of child soldiers. Commander, Augustine Gbao, was found guilty on 14 of the 18 counts. On April 8 Sesay was sentenced to 51 years in prison, Kallon to 40 years, and Gbao to 25 years.
    (AP, 2/25/09)(WSJ, 4/9/09, p.A10)

2009        Apr 21, Sierra Leone sent three men convicted of drug smuggling to the US, where they are wanted on similar charges, shortly after they were sentenced to five-year prison terms along with five other foreign nationals.
    (AP, 4/22/09)

2009        Sep 9, In Sierra Leone at least 221 people, including many schoolchildren returning from holidays, remained missing a day after the wooden Teh Teh ferry capsized at sea. 39 people survived. 30 bodies were recovered and all the missing were feared dead.
    (AP, 9/10/09)(AP, 9/12/09)

2009        Sep 17, Spanish oil major Repsol YPF said it had discovered oil off the coast of Sierra Leone, its first find in the west African nation, along with its Australian, American and British partners.
    (AFP, 9/17/09)

2009        Sep 22, The UN Office for the Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs announced that flash floods and lighting have claimed 187 lives and affected 635,273 people in west Africa since the rainy season started in June. This included 103 dead in Sierra Leone, followed by Ghana (24), Mali (20), Ivory Coast (19), Burkina Faso (8), Niger (7) and Senegal (6).
    (AFP, 9/22/09)

2009        Dec 15, In Sierra Leone a woman barred from running for chief of her district because of her gender said she has appealed for a new election and a place on the ballot. Elizabeth Kumba Simbiqa Torto said she wants a new election because she believes the officials' decision barring her from running in the Dec 5 Kono District election is discriminatory.
    (AP, 12/15/09)

2009        In Sierra Leone the African Minerals Corp. discovered magnetite at Tonkolili. This was said to be the world’s largest desposit of the mineral, used among other things, to coat industrial boilers.
    (Econ, 11/27/10, p.57)(http://tinyurl.com/2d33v6h)

2010        Feb 26, Sierra Leone and five other west African countries (Mauritania, Senegal, Guinea-Bissau, Gambia and Guinea) signed onto an action plan in Freetown for sustainable mangrove management.
    (AFP, 2/27/10)

2010        Jul 29, In Sierra Leone 'Papa Jacques,' Montouroy (63), French legendary aid worker, died of complications from an ulcer. He spent 41 years as a humanitarian worker for Catholic Relief Services and was known for delivering food in parts of the world no one else dared enter.
    (AP, 8/3/10)

2010        Sep 29, The UN Security Council lifted a 13-year-old arms embargo against Sierra Leone after being assured that the nation is sufficiently stable following the civil war that ended in 2002.
    (AP, 9/29/10)

2010        Nov 27, Guinea's government announced border closures with Sierra Leone by land, sea and air this evening stranding hundreds of people from Sierra Leone on Guinea's side.
    (AP, 11/28/10)

2010        Nov 29, A Sierra Leone-flagged cargo ship, Karam 1, sank after colliding with the Dutch tanker Alessandro DP, 10 miles (16 km) off Cape Emine in the Black Sea. 5 sailors were rescued and 5 were missing.
    (AP, 11/30/10)

2010        Dec 28, West African leaders Boni Yayi of Benin, Sierra Leone's Ernest Bai Koroma and Pedro Pires of Cape Verde met with incumbent Ivory Coast leader Laurent Gbagbo to deliver an ultimatum from the ECOWAS regional bloc to step down or face removal by force. But Gbagbo's government signaled he was unlikely to agree to cede power to Alassane Ouattara.
    (Reuters, 12/28/10)(SFC, 12/29/10, p.A4)

2010        Sierra Leone writer Olufemi Terry won the 2010 Caine Prize for African Writing.
    (www.caineprize.com/about.php)(Econ, 7/10/10, p.82)
2010        In Sierra Leone the UN radio station merged with the government-controlled Sierra Leone Broadcasting Service.
    (Economist, 9/1/12, p.51)

2011        Mar 11, In the Netherlands the war crimes trial of former Liberian President Charles Taylor, once among West Africa's most powerful figures, ended with judges expected to take months to reach a verdict on whether he can be linked to murders and amputations during Sierra Leone's civil war.
    (AP, 3/11/11)

2011        May 17, Sierra Leone police seized three tons of marijuana with an estimated street value of some $10 million, one of its biggest seizures in recent years. Authorities said they are fighting the increased production of marijuana, mainly by unemployed youths looking for ways to earn money.
    (Reuters, 5/18/11)

2011        Jul 25, Sierra Leone said it has launched a five-year plan to regulate the sale and use of small arms, which still abound a decade after the end of a civil war, causing insecurity.
    (AFP, 7/25/11)

2011        Sep 2, Sierra Leone said its tourism industry raked in $19 million in the first half of the year, as the country lures travellers to its white beaches after a brutal civil war.
    (AFP, 9/2/11)

2011        Sep 6, Sierra Leone said it has struck 27 political parties off the register for failing to submit audited 2010 accounts. This left only four parties in the running for next year's polls.
    (AFP, 9/6/11)

2011        Sep 9, In Sierra Leone violence broke out in the second largest city Bo when people pelted Julius Maada Bio of the Sierra Leone People's Party (SLPP), the main opposition presidential candidate with stones, hitting him on the head.
    (AFP, 9/10/11)

2011        Sep 22, Police in Sierra Leone, where elections are due next year, ordered a moratorium on all political party rallies and public meetings until further notice.
    (AFP, 9/22/11)

2011        Sep 23, Sierra Leone's albinos launched an association to defend their rights and asked the government for jobs and scholarships to help them fight marginalization.
    (AFP, 9/23/11)

2011        Oct 10, An undersea telecommunications table landed in Sierra Leone, part of a 17,000-km fiber optic line that aims to connect countries along the west African coast to Europe.
    (AFP, 10/11/11)

2011        Dec 3, Sierra Leone's Pres. Ernest Bai Koroma officially declared the Gola Rainforest a national park.
    (AP, 12/3/11)

2011        In Sierra Leone the annual income per person averaged $340.
    (Econ, 12/1/12, p.56)

2012        Jan 15, Sierra Leone police used live bullets and tear gas to quell rioting between followers of the ruling party and opposition where several people suffered stab wounds.
    (AFP, 1/16/12)

2012        Feb 6, Sierra Leone’s Pres. Ernest Bai Koroma forced the UN mission chief Michael von der Schulenburg out of his job in order to improve his re-election chances. Schulenburg had warned of this possibility in December.
    (Econ, 2/18/12, p.52)

2012        Mar 22, UN envoy Michael von der Schulenburg called on the impoverished Sierra Leone government to explain why it imported several million dollars worth of assault weapons last January for a police paramilitary wing. A leaked shipping bill indicated the arms included machine guns and even grenade launchers.
    (AFP, 3/22/12)

2012        Apr 4, Sierra Leone's government defended a multi-million dollar weapons shipment as part of routine procurement, after the United Nations called for an explanation over the import.
    (AFP, 4/4/12)

2012        Apr 26, In the Netherlands an international court convicted former Liberian President Charles Taylor (64) of aiding and abetting war crimes and crimes against humanity for supporting notoriously brutal rebels in neighboring Sierra Leone in return for "blood diamonds." Taylor became the first head of state convicted by an international court since the post-World War II Nuremberg military tribunal.
    (AP, 4/26/12)

2012        May 30, In the Netherlands international judges sentenced former Liberian President Charles Taylor to 50 years in prison for atrocities in Sierra Leone during the 1990s.
    (AP, 5/30/12)(SFC, 5/31/12, p.A2)

2012        Jul 20, Sierra Leone's health ministry said an outbreak of cholera in the west African country has killed 66 people and sickened more than 3,800 since January.
    (AFP, 7/21/12)

2012        Jul 24, Sierra Leone's government said it has issued provisional offshore oil prospecting awards to nine companies.
    (AFP, 7/24/12)

2012        Aug 21, Sierra Leone said it has signed a $15 million (12 million euro) loan agreement with China for the installation of a fiber optic cable which will boost Internet capabilities.
    (AFP, 8/21/12)

2012        Aug 23, A cholera epidemic in Guinea and Sierra Leone has left 250-300 people dead. 846 deaths were reported this year in the 14 countries of West and Central Africa. Sierra Leone's health ministry said that deaths from a cholera outbreak had reached 220.
    (SFC, 8/23/12, p.A5)(AFP, 8/23/12)

2012        Aug 24, Sierra Leone lawmakers passed a sexual offences law introducing stiff minimum sentences for offenders that has been hailed as a victory in a nation where sexual abuse is rife.
    (AFP, 8/24/12)

2012        Sep 8, Sierra Leone said that 10 suspected Iranian ships "hiding" under the Sierra Leonean flag "have recently been removed from the register." The action was in relation to a vessel that was seized in Lebanon recently carrying arms for Syria, and allegedly flying the Sierra Leone flag.
    (AP, 9/9/12)

2012        Nov 17, Sierra Leone held elections for the 3rd time since the 2002 end of an 11-year civil war. Final results made public on Nov 23 said incumbent Pres. Ernest Bai Koroma, who has expanded health care and paved roads, won with 58.7% of the vote over former military leader Julius Maada Bio.
    (AP, 11/17/12)(SFC, 11/24/12, p.A2)

2012        Dec 21, In Sierra Leone the OCTEA diamond mining company said that the company is increasing the year-end salary bonus for workers from 20% to 30%. Officials said a deadly strike at the Koidu diamond mine is now over. Two people were killed in violence there, where workers went on strike over bonuses and work conditions.
    (AP, 12/21/12)

2013        May 11, Sierra Leone state radio said that opposition politician Charles Francis Margai has been detained for alleged subversion. Margai earlier in the week spoke about a land displute he has with Sierra Leone's first lady, Sia Koroma. Margai was reported released on May 13.
    (AP, 5/13/13)

2013        Aug 5, A Sierra Leone court issued an arrest warrant for Ibrahim Bah, one of the most notorious arms dealers of its brutal 11-year civil war, but a justice official later said the ally of imprisoned former Liberian President Charles Taylor had already been kicked out.
    (AP, 8/5/13)

2013        Aug 9, In Sierra Leone at least 6 homeless people sleeping under a bridge in the heart of Freetown were crushed to death when the bridge collapsed in a landslide caused by heavy rain.
    (Reuters, 8/9/13)

2013        Sep 11, In Sierra Leone a statement from the office of the president said Mamoud Tarawalie, the country's deputy education minister, has been relieved of his duties "with immediate effect" because he was facing "sexual assault and rape" allegations.
    (AP, 9/12/13)

2013        Nov 13, The Afrobarometer survey, a poll of Africans in 34 countries across the continent, found that nearly one-third of people have been forced to pay bribes including for medical treatment. Sierra Leone fared the worst overall when it came to bribes, with 63 percent of respondents saying they'd paid up at least once in the previous year. Morocco and Guinea came next, each with 57 percent.
    (AP, 11/13/13)

2013 - 2015    The Ebola outbreak in Guinea, Liberia and Sierra Leone killed more than 11,000 people.
    (Econ, 4/18/20, p.13)

2014        Mar 9, A Sierra Leone airport official said International airlines have cancelled flights to and from Sierra Leone after a UN aviation regulator discovered that the only functioning fire engine at its main airport had broken down.
    (Reuters, 3/9/14)

2014        Apr 4, Mali, Liberia and Sierra Leone geared up to tackle killer haemorrhagic fevers including Ebola, which has claimed 86 lives in Guinea. Mali claimed 3 suspect cases; Liberia claimed 14; Sierra Leone claimed several more.
    (AFP, 4/4/14)

2014        May 27, In Sierra Leone a woman died from the Ebola virus, the second person in the country to succumb to the haemorrhagic fever.
    (AFP, 5/28/14)

2014        Jun 3, In Sierra Leone the death toll from an Ebola outbreak rose to at least five victims. The Ebola disease has had a 70 percent fatality rate during the first crisis of its kind in West Africa.
    (AP, 6/3/14)

2014        Jun 9, Sierra Leone's Pres. Ernest Bai Koroma fired his powerful chief of staff, Richard Conteh, over how he negotiated a mining agreement and his granting of another company the right to log unlimited amounts of timber.
    (AP, 6/10/14)

2014        Jun 11, The Sierra Leone government announced a state of emergency in the Kailahun district from the outbreak of the Ebola virus which has claimed 17 lives in this West African nation, banning public gatherings and closing schools. Local parliamentarian Momoh Moiwai said the death toll was actually 28.
    (AP, 6/12/14)

2014        Jun 18, The World Health Organization said an Ebola outbreak continues to spread in Guinea, Liberia and Sierra Leone, and the death toll in the outbreak has risen to more than 330.
    (AP, 6/18/14)

2014        Jun 23, The World Health Organization (WHO) said that the latest figures show 567 cases of Ebola with 350 deaths in Guinea, Liberia and Sierra Leone. The virus has no cure and causes internal bleeding and organ failure, spreading through contact with infected people.
    (AP, 6/23/14)

2014        Jul 8, The World Health Organization (WHO) said fifty new cases of Ebola and 25 deaths have been reported in Sierra Leone, Liberia and Guinea since July 3.
    (Reuters, 7/8/14)

2014        Jul 11, The World Health Organization (WHO) reported 44 new cases of Ebola including 21 deaths. 539 deaths in Guinea, Liberia, Senegal and Sierra Leone have been attributed to the outbreak.
    (AP, 7/14/14)

2014        Jul 22, In Sierra Leone Sheik Umar Khan (39), the head doctor fighting the deadly tropical virus Ebola, was reported to have caught the disease. Across Guinea, Liberia and Sierra Leone, 632 people have died from the illness according to the latest WHO report.
    (Reuters, 7/23/14)

2014        Jul 25, The World Health Organization the death toll in West Africa's Ebola outbreak has risen to 660, with the number of cases surpassing 1,000. In Guinea fatalities reached 314, with 127 in Liberia and 219 in Sierra Leone.
    (AFP, 7/25/14)

2014        Jul 26, In Sierra Leone a patient with Ebola, whose family sparked a nationwide hunt when they forcefully removed her from a treatment center and took her to a traditional healer, died in an ambulance on the way to hospital following a struggle with police.
    (Reuters, 7/27/14)

2014        Jul 29, In Sierra Leone Dr. Sheik Humarr Khan, who was praised as a national hero for treating Ebola, died from the disease. ASKY regional airline announced it was suspending flights to the cities hardest hit by an outbreak that has killed more than 670 people.
    (AP, 7/30/14)

2014        Jul 31, Sierra Leone leader Ernest Bai Koroma declared a state of emergency and as the country struggled to contain the deadly Ebola epidemic.
    (Yahoo News, 7/31/14)
2014        Jul 31, The World Health Organization said the deaths of 57 more people from Ebola in west Africa have pushed the overall fatality toll from the epidemic to 729, including 339 in Guinea, 156 in Liberia and 233 in Sierra Leone.
    (AFP, 7/31/14)

2014        Aug 1, The leaders of Guinea, Liberia and Sierra Leone agreed to a $100 million emergency action plan to beef the response to Ebola.
    (AFP, 8/2/14)

2014        Aug 4, The World Bank said that it would provide up to $200 million to Guinea, Liberia and Sierra Leone to help the west African nations contain the deadly outbreak.
    (AP, 8/4/14)

2014        Aug 7, In Sierra Leone police and soldiers blockaded rural areas hit by the deadly Ebola virus, after neighboring Liberia declared a state of emergency to tackle the worst-ever outbreak of the disease, which has killed 932 people.
    (Reuters, 8/7/14)

2014        Aug 9, Guinea announced the closure of its borders with Sierra Leone and Liberia in a bid to halt the spread of Ebola.
    (Reuters, 8/9/14)

2014        Aug 14, The UN health agency said the death toll from the worst outbreak of Ebola in four decades had now climbed to 1,069 in Guinea, Liberia, Nigeria and Sierra Leone. The WHO said the scale of the Ebola epidemic has been vastly underestimated and that "extraordinary measures" were needed to contain the killer disease.
    (AFP, 8/15/14)

2014        Aug 19, Air France said some of its flight crews were refusing to board planes bound for Guinea, Sierra Leone and Nigeria over fears of the Ebola outbreak.
    (AFP, 8/19/14)

2014        Aug 22, Sierra Leone passed a new law imposing possible jail sentences for anyone caught hiding an Ebola patient.
    (SSFC, 8/24/14, p.A6)

2014        Aug 27, Sierra Leone said a third top doctor has died from Ebola, as health workers tried to determine how a fourth scientist also contracted the disease before being evacuated to Europe.
    (AP, 8/27/14)

2014        Sep 5, Sierra Leone said it will impose a four-day, countrywide "lockdown" starting Sept. 18, in an escalation of efforts to halt the spread of Ebola across the West African country.
    (Reuters, 9/5/14)

2014        Sep 14, A fourth Sierra Leonean doctor, a woman, died after contracting the dreaded Ebola virus.
    (AFP, 9/14/14)

2014        Sep 19, In Sierra Leone thousands of health workers began knocking on doors across the country in search of hidden Ebola cases as the entire West African nation was locked down in their homes in an unprecedented effort to combat the deadly disease.
    (AP, 9/19/14)

2014        Sep 21, West Africa intensified its response to the deadly Ebola epidemic, with Sierra Leone uncovering scores of dead bodies during a 72-hour shutdown and Liberia announcing 1,000 hospital beds.
    (AFP, 9/21/14)

2014        Sep 22, Sierra Leone ended a 3-day unprecedented nationwide shutdown during which officials said about 75 percent of 1.5 million households were checked for Ebola patients and given information on the deadly disease. At least 130 cases of Ebola were identified and scores of bodies were buried during the shutdown.
    (AP, 9/22/14)(SFC, 9/23/14, p.A2)

2014        Sep 25, Sierra Leone began a quarantine of more than one million people in the largest open-ended lockdown in the Ebola outbreak.
    (AFP, 9/25/14)

2014        Oct 2, The Save the Children charity warned that five people are being infected with Ebola every hour in Sierra Leone and demand for treatment beds is far outstripping supply.
    (AFP, 10/2/14)

2014        Oct 20, In Sierra Leone 49 confirmed cases of Ebola emerged just today in two Ebola zones in and around the capital. So many people were dying that removing bodies was a problem.
    (AP, 10/21/14)
2014        Oct 20, China was reported to have donated $6 million to help stave off food shortages in Guinea, Liberia and Sierra Leone, the countries worst affected by the Ebola virus.
    (AP, 10/20/14)

2014        Oct 21, In Sierra Leone a machete-wielding mob clashed with security personnel in the eastern town of Koidu and then went on a rampage, after preventing a medical team from taking the blood from the 90-year-old mother of a youth leader. Two people were killed.
    (AP, 10/22/14)

2014        Oct 24, China's president pledged to provide $81 million in aid to help fight Ebola in the three West African countries at the heart of the crisis.
    (AP, 10/24/14)

2014        Oct 30, The World Bank said it was immediately providing $100 million to support the deployment of more health workers to Ebola-stricken West Africa.
    (AFP, 10/30/14)

2014        Oct 31, Doctors Without Borders (MSF) said Ebola has wiped out whole villages in Sierra Leone and may have caused many more deaths than the nearly 5,000 official global toll.
    (AFP, 10/31/14)

2014        Nov 2, Sierra Leone confirmed that a fifth doctor has tested positive. The other four all have died from the virus that has killed nearly 5,000 across West Africa.
    (AP, 11/2/14)

2014        Nov 3, In Sierra Leone Dr. Godfrey George, medical superintendent of Kambia Government Hospital, died overnight becoming the 5th local doctor to die of Ebola.
    (AP, 11/3/14)

2014        Nov 4, Sierra Leone aid agencies said thousands of people were being forced to violate Ebola quarantines to find food because deliveries are not reaching them.
    (AP, 11/4/14)

2014        Nov 8, The African Union, African Development Bank and regional business leaders meeting in in Ethiopia announced a crisis fund to help areas hit by the Ebola outbreak.
    (AFP, 11/9/14)

2014        Nov 11, Sierra Leone said it was holding a journalist at the Pademba Road prison, built for 324 inmates but currently houses around 1,200, because he had accused the government of provoking the kind of unrest seen in Burkina Faso through mismanagement of the Ebola crisis. David Tam Baryoh was arrested a week ago on the orders of President Ernest Bai Koroma.
    (AP, 11/11/14)

2014        Nov 14, Sierra Leone authorities freed journalist David Tam-Baryoh arrested 11 days ago for making supposedly disparaging comments about the country's effort to fight Ebola.
    (Reuters, 11/15/14)
2014        Nov 14, Senegal partially reopened air and sea borders with Guinea, Liberia and Sierra Leone, countries worst hit by the Ebola virus.
    (AFP, 11/15/14)

2014        Nov 17, In Sierra Leone a member of the 165-member medical team Cuba sent to fight Ebola in Sierra Leone was diagnosed with the disease. Dr. Felix Baez Sarria caught the disease when he rushed to help a patient who was falling over. On Nov 19 the Swiss government said it planned to bring Baez for medical treatment in Geneva.
    (AP, 11/19/14)

2014        Nov 24, Italy’s health ministry said an Italian doctor, who has been working in Sierra Leone, has tested positive for the Ebola virus and is being transferred to Rome for treatment. In Freetown Dr. Aiah Solomon Konoyeima also tested positive for Ebola.
    (AP, 11/24/14)(AP, 11/25/14)

2014        Dec 5, In Sierra Leone two more doctors died of Ebola bringing to 9 the number of local doctors killed by the disease.
    (SSFC, 12/7/14, p.A4)

2014        Dec 9, Sierra Leone's junior doctors struck for a 2nd day to demand better care for medical workers after a spate of recent Ebola deaths.
    (AP, 12/9/14)

2014        Dec 10, Sierra Leone authorities launched a two-week "lockdown" in an eastern diamond mining district, hoping to halt the spread of Ebola after the area recorded seven confirmed cases in a day.
    (AP, 12/10/14)(SFC, 12/11/14, p.A4)

2014        Dec 12, Sierra Leone said it was banning any public Christmas celebrations as the spiraling caseload of Ebola infections continues to spread alarm.
    (AFP, 12/12/14)

2014        Dec 14, Sierra Leone confirmed that Dr. Victor Willoughby has tested positive for Ebola, the 12th local physician to become infected — 10 of whom have died.
    (AP, 12/14/14)

2014        Dec 17, Sierra Leone Ebola surveillance teams fanned out in Freetown in a house to house search for sick people, as the president imposed new restrictions on movement and gatherings in a bid to stop the disease's spread.
    (AP, 12/17/14)(Econ, 1/3/15, p.33)

2014        Dec 18, In Sierra Leone Dr. Victor Willoughby became the 11th doctor in the country to die from Ebola.
    (SFC, 12/19/14, p.A2)

2014        Dec 20, The World Health Organization said the death toll from Ebola in Guinea (1,550), Liberia (3,346) and Sierra Leone (2,477), the three worst-affected countries in West Africa, has risen to 7,373 among 19,031 cases known to date there.
    (Reuters, 12/20/14)

2014        Dec 23, In Sierra Leone a village chief became the first person in the country to be jailed under laws aimed at preventing the spread of Ebola. Amadu Kargbo was sentenced to six months in jail by a court in the southwestern city of Moyamba for secretly burying the dead and failing to report a sick patient.
    (AFP, 12/23/14)

2014        Dec 25, In Sierra Leone nurses at a public hospital went on strike to demand hazard pay for treating Ebola patients.
    (AFP, 12/25/14)

2015        Jan 2, The World Health Organization said deaths last year from Ebola had reached 7,989 with 2,827 from Sierra Leone, 3,423 from Liberia and 1,739 from Guinea.
    (SFC, 1/3/15, p.A2)

2015        Jan 13, In Sierra Leone a Red Cross male nurse who worked at an Ebola treatment center in Kenema, died and was confirmed to have been suffering from the disease. He was the first Red Cross worker or volunteer to succumb to the disease there.
    (AP, 1/15/15)

2015        Jan 23, Sierra Leone lifted quarantine measures imposed at the height of the Ebola epidemic, as the World Health Organization warned the crisis was still "extremely alarming" despite a drop in new cases.
    (AFP, 1/23/15)
2015        Jan 23, The World Health Organization (WHO) said Guinea, Liberia, and Sierra Leone have recorded falling numbers of new Ebola cases for four successive weeks.
    (SFC, 1/24/15, p.A2)

2015        Feb 13, Sierra Leone placed some 700 hundred homes in a fishing district of the capital under quarantine following the death of a fisherman who was later diagnosed Ebola positive. At least five new cases were confirmed in the area.
    (AFP, 2/13/15)(SSFC, 2/15/15, p.A5)

2015        Feb 16, Sierra Leone's government promised a full investigation after an internal audit found that nearly one-third of the money received to fight Ebola was spent without saving the necessary receipts and invoices to justify the spending.
    (AP, 2/16/15)

2015        Feb 28, Sierra Leone President Ernest Bai Koroma reinstated restrictions as 18 new cases of Ebola were recorded this week.
    (AP, 3/1/15)

2015        Mar 6, In Sierra Leone Vice Pres. Sam-Sumana was kicked out of the ruling party, the All Peoples Congress, after a meeting of the party's National Advisory Council. A statement said he was expelled for several reasons including allegations that he presented a fake Master's degree certificate and that he was involved in the formation of a new political party.
    (AP, 3/7/15)

2015        Mar 12, Moinina Fofana, convicted in 2007 by a special UN-backed court of war crimes and crimes against humanity including murder, cruel treatment, pillage and collective punishment, was transferred from a Rwanda prison back to Sierra Leone and granted provisional release to serve out the remainder of his term in his community.
    (AP, 3/13/15)
2015        Mar 12, The World Health Organization (WHO) estimated that the Ebola outbreak has killed over 10,000 people, mostly in Guinea, Liberia, and Sierra Leone.
    (SFC, 3/13/15, p.A2)

2015        Mar 14, Sierra Leone's vice president Samuel Sam-Sumana sought asylum from the United States, saying he no longer felt safe in the country after soldiers disarmed the security team at his residence.
    (AP, 3/14/15)
2015        Mar 14, In Sierra Leone 10 American aid workers were evacuated following contact with a colleague who was evacuated a day earlier after showing signs of illness.
    (SSFC, 3/15/15, p.A10)(SFC, 3/16/15, p.A5)

2015        Mar 18, Sierra Leone President Ernest Bai Koroma sacked Vice President Samuel Sam-Sumana for seeking asylum in a foreign embassy.
    (Reuters, 3/18/15)

2015        Mar 21, Sierra Leone's President Ernest Koroma ordered the country's entire population to stay in their homes for three days in a bid to stem the spread of the deadly Ebola epidemic.
    (AFP, 3/21/15)

2015        Mar 27, Sierra Leone's 6 million people were told to stay home for three days, except for religious services, beginning today as the West African nation attempted a final push to rid itself of Ebola.
    (AP, 3/27/15)

2015        Mar 29, Sierra Leone announced the end of a three-day nationwide lockdown aimed at preventing a resurgence of the deadly Ebola virus.
    (AFP, 3/30/15)

2015        Mar 30, Guinea closed its border with Sierra Leone as part of new efforts to stamp out Ebola.
    (SFC, 3/31/15, p.A2)

2015        Apr 2, Sierra Leone police raided a funeral and arrested 13 people suspected of organizing an unsafe burial, risking the spread of Ebola.
    (AFP, 4/7/15)

2015        Apr 17, Guinea, Liberia, and Sierra Leone, the three West African countries hit hardest by the Ebola epidemic, called for an $8 billion "Marshall Plan" to help rebuild their economies and boost prevention efforts at a meeting with heads of the World Bank, IMF, and UN. World Bank President Jim Yong Kim announced a new $650 million in funds for the three countries, in addition to $1 billion committed last year to fight the outbreak.
    (AFP, 4/17/15)

2015        May 7, The WHO said the number of Ebola cases reported in Guinea and Sierra Leone had dropped to its lowest total last week with nine in each country.
    (SFC, 5/8/15, p.A2)

2015        May 12, Italy’s health ministry said a nurse who returned from Sierra Leone last week has tested positive for Ebola.
    (SFC, 5/13/15, p.A2)

2015        Jun 12, Sierra Leone Pres. Ernest Bai Koroma imposed new restrictions preventing people from entering or leaving two northern districts that were experiencing a resurgence of Ebola. Sierra Leone reported 15 new cases in the week ending June 7.
    (SFC, 6/13/15, p.A2)

2015        Jun 23, Sierra Leone’s National Ebola Response Center (NERC) said three cases of Ebola had emerged in the east-end slum of Magazine Wharf -- three weeks after the last known infections in the capital.
    (AFP, 6/24/15)

2015        Jun 25, Sierra Leone said it has quarantined three doctors and 28 nurses in the capital Freetown when a mother tested positive for Ebola after giving birth.
    (AFP, 6/25/15)

2015        Aug 3, Sierra Leone said two new cases of Ebola have surfaced in the Tonkolili District after a man died last week in the area where the deadly virus had been gone for months. Following the death authorities quarantined 500 people.
    (AP, 8/3/15)

2015        Aug 4, Liberian state radio said 14 men from Sierra Leone illegally mining for gold fell victim to a landslide last week. They were trapped under rubble and were presumed dead.
    (AP, 8/4/15)

2015        Aug, Spanish authorities arrested Michael Desaedeleer, a businessman with dual American-Belgian citizenship, who has been accused of enslavement and pillaging "blood diamonds" during Sierra Leone's civil war.
    (AP, 8/30/15)   

2015        Sep 1, In Sierra Leone a food trader (67) died of Ebola in Sella Kafta village in the northern district of Kambia, after being sick for up to 10 days without the authorities' knowledge. The entire village of almost 1,000 was soon placed under quarantine.
    (AFP, 9/4/15)

2015        Sep 13, In Sierra Leone a girl (16) died from Ebola, dealing a blow to optimism that the west African country has finally turned the page on the devastating epidemic.
    (AFP, 9/14/15)

2015        Sep 15, Sierra Leone health authorities said they had quarantined almost 700 people as they battled to contain a new outbreak of Ebola.
    (AFP, 9/15/15)

2015        Sep 16, In Sierra Leone severe flooding followed torrential rain. In Freetown at least 10 people were killed. A week later an estimated 9,000 survivors were still sheltering in tents.
    (AFP, 9/23/15)

2015        Nov 7, The World Health Organization said that Ebola-ravaged Sierra Leone had beaten an 18-month outbreak that killed almost 4,000 citizens and plunged the economy into severe recession.
    (AFP, 11/7/15)

2016        Jan 15, The World Health Organization confirmed a new death from Ebola in Sierra Leone just a day after west Africa celebrated the end of an outbreak which killed 11,000 people.
    (AFP, 1/15/16)

2016        Mar 26, Sierra Leone police and military arms experts began destroying nearly 5,000 "unserviceable weapons" in an operation set to last two weeks.
    (AFP, 3/26/16)

2016        Jul 1, In Nigeria kidnappers seized Alfred Nelson-Williams, Sierra Leone's deputy high commissioner, as he was on his way to Kaduna from Abuja. They demanded a $40 million ransom in the first kidnapping of a diplomat from the west African country in more than half a century. The diplomat was freed on July 5 but it was not clear whether or not a ransom was paid.
    (AFP, 7/2/16)(SFC, 7/2/16, p.A2)(Reuters, 7/6/16)

2017        Jan 31, In Sierra Leone human rights defender Abdul Fatoma appeared on a radio show in which he challenged the government and the anti-corruption commission to do more to make authorities accountable, in a system that he says answers only to itself. He was later arrested, bailed without charge, and summoned twice to parliament to answer questions, yet denied an audience when he showed up.
    (AFP, 3/7/17)

2017        Mar 15, In Sierra Leone a 709-carat diamond was presented to President Ernest Bai Koroma. Pastor Emmanuel Momoh found the diamond in Yakadu village in the country's diamond-rich eastern Kono District. It was among the 20 largest diamonds ever found. In October the stone was taken by a sales team from the National Minerals Agency to Antwerp, Belgium, to meet sales agents, auction houses and potential buyers.
    (AP, 3/16/17)(AP, 10/3/17)

2017        May 2, Greenpeace said authorities in West Africa have detained eight Chinese vessels for fishing illegally and the boat owners could be subject to millions of dollars in fines. Inspectors from Guinea, Sierra Leone and Guinea-Bissau boarded the ships off their respective coasts. They found them to be violating regulations on catching protected fish and using nets with small holes to facilitate bigger hauls.
    (Reuters, 5/3/17)

2017        Aug 14, In Sierra Leone hundreds of people were believed killed when a mudslide struck the outskirts of Freetown. Upper estimates were in the thousands.
    (Reuters, 8/14/17)(Econ, 9/30/17, p.74)

2017        Aug 15, Sierra Leone's Pres. Ernest Bai Koroma appealed for urgent help for the flood-hit capital of Freetown where more than 300 people have died, as rescue workers resumed the grim search for bodies. The Red Cross estimated that 600 people were still missing.
    (AFP, 8/15/17)(AP, 8/15/17)

2017        Aug 18, In Sierra Leone aid workers warned of a humanitarian crisis as the official death toll passed 400, with more than a hundred children among the victims -- and a similar number orphaned.
    (AFP, 8/18/17)

2017        Aug 30, Guinea’s government said that the bodies of 19 people thought to have perished in an August 14 mudslide in Sierra Leone have washed up on the shores of Guinea. The mudslide at Freetown's crowded Mount Sugar Loaf killed an estimated 500 people, with hundreds of others still missing.
    (Reuters, 8/30/17)

2017        Nov 4, In Sierra Leone an investigation found that as much as $2 million disappeared as the result of "likely collusion" between Red Cross staff and employees at a Sierra Leonean bank during the 2014-2016 Ebola epidemic.
    (AP, 11/4/17)

2018        Mar 7, Sierra Leone held presidential elections. It was unlikely any one of 16 candidates will receive 55 percent of the vote.
    (AP, 3/7/18)

2018        Mar 24, Sierra Leone's High Court ordered the electoral commission to halt preparations for a March 27 presidential run-off following a legal filing by a lawyer linked to the ruling party.
    (AFP, 3/24/18)

2018        Mar 26, Sierra Leone's High Court canceled an injunction to delay the second round of presidential elections, saying the vote could go ahead as planned.
    (Reuters, 3/26/18)

2018        Mar 31, Sierra Leone voted in a poll delayed by fraud allegations to choose a successor to President Ernest Bai Koroma who leaves a country still struggling after the Ebola epidemic. Opposition candidate Julius Maada Bio won 51.8 percent beating ruling party candidate Samura Kamara, who received 48.2 percent.
    (Reuters, 3/31/18)(SFC, 4/5/18, p.A2)

2018        May 28, The Residual Special Court for Sierra Leone allowed Moinina Fofana to walk free after serving a 15-year sentence. Fofana was the leader of a notorious paramilitary unit that shot, hacked and burned to death civilians suspected of collaborating with rebels during the 1991-2002 conflict in the West African state.
    (AFP, 5/28/18)

2018        Jul 5, Sierra Leone's former vice-president Victor Bockarie Foh and former mines minister Minkailu Mansaray were arrested on corruption charges, a day after a report alleged "rampant" graft in the previous regime.
    (AFP, 7/5/18)

2018        Dec 4, Doctors in Sierra Leone's public hospitals began a strike to protest against low wages and poor working conditions. Nurses said they may follow suit.
    (Reuters, 12/5/18)

2018        Dec 17, The Sierra Leone health ministry said late today it had agreed a timeline with doctors to respond to their demands, announcing the agreement in a statement signed by the heads of two doctors' associations.
    (Reuters, 12/18/18)

2018        Dec 18, Sierra Leone doctors returned to work, ending a 13-day strike over pay and conditions that paralyzed hospitals nationwide.
    (Reuters, 12/18/18)

2019        Feb 7, Sierra Leone's Pres. Julius Maada Bio declared a national emergency over rape and sexual violence, saying perpetrators are getting younger and their acts more violent.
    (AP, 2/8/19)

2019        Sep 26, Sierra Leone Pres. Julius Maada Bio called for "urgent and imperative" reform of the UN Security Council to give more representation and "an equal say" to Africa in international decision making.
    (AP, 9/26/19)

2019        Sierra Leone issued 1,566 different postage stamps this year with the help of Stamperija, a Lithuania-based outfit that designs and prints stamps.
    (Econ., 8/22/20, p.40)

2020        Mar 24, Sierra Leone declared a 12-month state of emergency to help deal with the spread of the coronavirus., despite not having a single confirmed case.
    (https://tinyurl.com/yd9vww62)(Econ, 3/28/20, p.41)

2020        Mar 30, Sierra Leone overturned a ban on pregnant girls attending school in a victory for human rights activists who had fought against it for five years.
    (Reuters, 3/30/20)

2020        Mar 31, Sierra Leone announced its first coronavirus case.
    (SFC, 4/1/20, p.A5)

2020        Apr 29, Rioting broke out at the central prison in Sierra Leone's capital Freetown following confirmation of a coronavirus case there.
    (Reuters, 4/29/20)

2020        Sep 23, Sierra Leone, a West African country of 7.6 million people, has reported 2,174 confirmed cases of COVID-19, including 72 deaths.
    (AP, 9/23/20)

2020        Sep 30, It was reported that authorities in Sierra Leone have imposed a travel ban on former President Ernest Bai Koroma and several officials who served during his term over allegations of corruption.
    (BBC, 9/30/20)

2020        In Sierra Leone the Black Street Boys recruited members for breaking into cars, picking pockets or robbing people at knifepoint. More than half of the country's population paid bribes for public services.
    (Econ., 7/4/20, p.40)

2021        Jul 23, Lawmakers in Sierra Leone voted unanimously to abolish the death penalty, making it the 23rd African country to prohibit capital punishment.
    (SFC, 7/24/21, p.A2)

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