Timeline Scotland

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The Picts: http://members.tripod.com/~Halfmoon/
Travel Docs:

  The Picts drank a heather ale and fought the Romans in Scotland.
 (Hem., 8/96, p.113)
  Dunnottar Castle. Located just off the mainland of Scotland, Dunnottar Castle played Elsinore in Shakespeare’s Hamlet. Much of the original castle still stands, though some of the roofs were replaced for the filming of Hamlet.
 (HNQ, 10/19/01)
  St. Andrew’s Day (Nov. 30): People of Scotland celebrate the achievements of their country and their forefathers.
 (SFC, 11/29/02, p.A29)

425Mil BC    In 2020 it was reported that a fossilized millipede-like creature discovered in Scotland may represent the oldest-known land animal. The humble pioneer of terrestrial lived about this time. Researchers said the fossil of the Silurian Period creature, called Kampecaris obanensis and unearthed on the island of Kerrera in the Scottish Inner Hebrides, inhabited a lakeside environment and likely ate decomposing plants.
    (Reuters, 5/30/20)

355Mil BC-344Mil BC    In 2002 it was reported that a 1971 fossil from Scotland, initially believed to be an extinct fish, was actually a tetrapod, one of the earliest creatures to have walked on land. It was identified as a member of the Whatcheeriidae family and named Pederpes finneyae.
    (SFC, 7/4/02, p.A3)

350Mil BC    Time of the Caledonian orogeny in Scotland.
    (DD-EVTT, p.135)

170Mil BC    In 2015 a giant prehistoric reptile that patrolled the waters off Scotland about this time was identified. Scientists named the new species Dearcmhara shawcrossi in honor of Brian Shawcross, an amateur fossil collector who gathered many of the fossils in 1959.
    (AFP, 1/13/15)

50Mil BC    A sheet of ice 2 miles thick covered Scotland.
    (Econ, 9/9/06, p.11)

3200BC-2200BC    The Orkney Island village of Skara Brae was inhabited during this period. A huge storm in 1850 revealed its ruins. Inhabitants were settled farmers who ate sheep, cattle, grain and fish.
    (www.orkneyjar.com/history/skarabrae/)(SFEC, 3/23/97,  p.T3)

3000-2000BC    The Clava cairns, a mile from Culloden, are 3 sizable stone burial chambers encircled by stone monoliths.
    (SFEC,12/797, p.T4)

2500BC    Shards of pottery dating to about this time were later excavated in Wiltshire, England, close to Stonehenge, followed patterns originating in Orkney, a Scottish archipelago.
    (Econ, 12/21/13, p.94)

2500BC-2000BC    Scotland’s Ring of Brogar in Orkney’s West Mainland dates to about this time. In 2005 36 of the original 60 stones remained standing. The original stones stood in a perfect circle 340 feet in diameter.
    (SFEC, 3/23/97,  p.T3)(SSFC, 11/13/05, p.F10)

122AD        Jun, Emp. Hadrian visited Britain as part of a tour of the northern frontiers. He ordered a wall built to protect the Romans from the Picts of Scotland.
    (AM, 7/01, p.17)

c140AD    Emperor Antoninus Pius ordered Hadrian’s Wall to be abandoned and a more northerly defense to be established 80 miles up. Remnants could later be seen of the Antonine Wall around Falkirk, Scotland. Roman troops advanced northwards into the Scottish lowlands, driving the barbarians back before them and establishing a new frontier called the Antonine Wall, named for the new Emperor, Antoninus Pius. The Antonine Wall was later abandoned, reoccupied, and abandoned a second and final time under the Emperor Marcus Aurelius.
    (NG, 12/97, forum)(HNQ, 9/9/00)(AM, 11/00, p.13)

c160AD    The Romans abandoned their garrison at Cramond, Scotland, and retreated to Hadrian’s Wall.
    (AM, Jul/Aug ‘97 p.14)

c197AD    The sculpture of a lioness devouring a man made about this time was found in 1997 in the mud of the Almond River near Edinburgh, Scotland.
    (SFC, 1/22/97, p.A9)(AM, Jul/Aug ‘97 p.14)

297        The Roman poet Eumenius first mentioned the Picts. The 2 most important Pictish groups were the Verturiones and the Caledones.
    (AM, 7/01, p.46)(AM, 11/04, p.41)

c400AD    People from the chiefdom Dal Riata in northern Ireland crossed the Irish Sea and settled along the Scottish coast of County Argyll.
    (AM, 7/01, p.46)

410        Rome abandoned its British provinces.
    (AM, 11/04, p.41)

c500-600    In England the 6th century Gildas was the only historian whose work survived. He made no mention of King Arthur. He described the Picts as “Loathsome hordes, dark swarms of worms that emerge from the narrow crevices of their holes when the sun is high, preferring to cover their villainous faces with hair rather than their private parts and surrounding areas with clothes.
    (WSJ, 3/27/98, p.W10)(AM, 11/04, p.41)
c500-600    The Picts of Scotland developed a script about this time made up of 30 symbols. In 2005 it still defied interpretation.
    (AM, 11/04, p.43)

542        The St. Columbas monastery was founded on Iona. [see 563]
    (SSFC, 8/12/01, p.T8)

563        The Irish Catholic monk Columba (Colum Cille) arrived on the Scottish island of Iona. [see 542]
    (SFC, 2/10/99, p.A10)(AM, 7/01, p.51)

700-800    Vikings began arriving to the Orkney Islands.
    (SFEC, 3/23/97,  p.T3)

729        Apr 24, Egbertus (89), English bishop, St. Egbert, died in Iona.
    (MC, 4/24/02)

794        Jan 8, Vikings attacked Lindsfarne Island.
    (MC, 1/8/02)

802        Vikings stage their 1st raid of Iona.
    (AM, 7/01, p.50)

804        Vikings returned to Iona and killed 68 of the monastic community.
    (AM, 7/01, p.50)

839        The Stone of Scone was first believed to be used in the coronation of a Scottish king at the village of Scone in southeast Scotland.
    (SFC, 11/16/96, p.A11)

844        The Scotti and Picts united under Cinaed (Kenneth) mac Ailpin. The Pict language disappeared following the union.
    (AM, 7/01, p.46)

878        Monks packed up their shrine of Collum Cille at Iona and moved to Kells, Ireland.
    (AM, 7/01, p.50)

1040        Aug 15, In Scotland Donnchad led an army into Moray, where he was killed by Mac Bethad at Pitgaveny near Elgin.

1040-1057    Macbeth ruled over Scotland. He succeeded King Duncan.
    (WSJ, 5/23/96, p.B-1)

1057        Aug 15, Macbeth, the King of Scotland, was mortally wounded at the Battle of Lumphanan, by Malcolm Canmore, the eldest son of King Duncan I, who was killed by Macbeth 17 years earlier.
    (AP, 8/15/07)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Macbeth_of_Scotland)

1124        Apr 27, Alexander I, king of Scotland (1107-24), died.
    (MC, 4/27/02)

1128        Scotland’s Royal High School in Edinburgh was founded by a group of Friars to prepare children for a life in the church. It was not described as a high school until 1505. In the early 19th century it served as a model for America’s first public secondary school.
    (SFC, 4/22/98, p.A10)(Econ, 8/27/16, p.41)

1138        Aug 22, English defeated Scots at Cowton Moor. Banners of various saints were carried into battle which led to its being called Battle of the Standard.
    (MC, 8/22/02)

1140        Somerled first appeared in historical chronicles as the regulus, or King, of Kintyre (Cinn Tìre) when he marries Raghnailt the daughter of Olaf (or Amhlaibh), King of Mann and the Scottish Isles.

1153        May 23, David I (~68), king of Scotland (1124-53), died.
    (MC, 5/23/02)

1153        May 24, Malcolm IV became king of Scotland.
    (MC, 5/24/02)

1164        Somerled, military and political leader of the Scottish Isles, assembled an army to repel the Stuarts. He advanced to the centre of the their territory at Renfrew, where a great battle was fought. Much confusion surrounds the manner of the battle, and indeed whether a battle occurred at all, but what is certain is that Somerled was assassinated, after which his army retreated from the area. DNA evidence later suggested that Somerled was of Viking descent.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Somerled)(AM, 7/05, p.14)

1165        Dec 9, Malcom IV (24), king of Scotland (1153-65), died.
    (MC, 12/9/01)

1197        Scotland’s new Glasgow Cathedral was consecrated. The first stone building was consecrated in about 1136 in the presence of King David I and his Court when John (1117-1147) was Bishop.
    (SSFC, 3/10/13, p.H4)( www.glasgowcathedral.org.uk/history/)

1200-1300    Urquhart Castle was originally built to guard the strategically important route along the western shores of Loch Ness. It is now used by tourists hoping to spy the Loch Ness Monster. The most conspicuous of the ruins visible today actually rest upon the even older remains of an iron-age stone and timber fort. The castle has historically been the setting for conflict since at least the 13th century and Edward I's invasion of Scotland. Its defenses were improved over the centuries until the late 17th century, when advances in artillery signaled an end to such fortifications.
    (HNQ, 7/7/01)

1263        Oct 2, At Largs, King Alexander III of Scotland repelled an amphibious invasion by King Haakon IV of Norway.
    (HN, 10/2/98)

1274        Jul 11, Robert the Bruce, King of Scotland (1306-1329), was born in Turnberry, Scotland.
    (HN, 7/11/01)(MC, 7/11/02)

1288        Feb 29, Scotland made it legal for women to propose to men. The Scottish Parliament passed a Leap Year Act whereby women could propose to men. The tradition had begun in 5th century Ireland.
    (SFEC, 6/8/97, Z1 p.6)(SFC, 2/29/00, p.A1)

1291        May 10, Scottish nobles grudgingly recognized the authority of English king Edward I.
    (MC, 5/10/02)

1296        Apr 27, England’s King Edward I defeated the Scots at the Battle of Dunbar. He deposed King John and exiled him to France.
    (HN, 4/27/99)

1296        England's King Edward I invaded Scotland but his army was defeated by Scotsman William Wallace. After a series of battles England regains some control over Scotland.
    (Reuters, 2/16/12)
1296        King Edward I of England stole the 458-pound Stone at Scone from Scotland. It was returned to Scotland in 1996.
    (SFC, 11/16/96, p.A11)

1297        Sep 11, Scots under William Wallace "Braveheart" defeated the English army at Stirling Bridge, Scotland. The 1995 epic film Braveheart dramatized the life of 13th-century Scot William Wallace. While many Scots and others praised the film for reviving the legend of the Scottish hero, just as many people criticized the film for its numerous historical inaccuracies. For instance, the Battle of Stirling Bridge is an excellent example of Wallace's military genius and what led him to being knighted in the film and real life. However, in the film, the battle takes place on an open field. (Reportedly, when a local asked actor/director Mel Gibson why the battle was being filmed with such an obvious discrepancy, Gibson explained that the bridge got in the way. The local responded, "Aye. That's what the English found!") In addition, one of the film's most intriguing twists is pure Hollywood invention. A calendar puts the lie to the tale of Wallace's affair with Princess Isabella, wife of Prince Edward II, and his fathering of her child. Isabella and Edward II married in 1307, two years after Wallace's execution. Her son, Edward III, was born in the years that followed.
    (WSJ, 9/9/97, p.A1)(HN, 9/11/98)(HNQ, 3/19/01)

1298        Jul 22, King Edward I combined bowmen and cavalry to defeat William Wallace's Scots at Falkirk.
    (HN, 7/22/98)

c1300s    The Dunrobin Castle in the northern Highlands dates top the early 1300s.
    (SFEM, 1/31/99, p.6)

1305        Aug 23, Scottish patriot William Wallace was hanged, drawn, beheaded, and quartered in London.
    (HN, 8/23/98)(SFEC, 4/11/99, Z1 p.8)

1306        Mar 25, Robert the Bruce (1274-1329) was crowned king of Scotland as the successor to King John.
    (HN, 7/11/01)(ON, 2/08, p.6)

1306        English forces defeated Scottish forces under Robert Bruce at Methven near Perth. Bruce escaped to Rathlin Island.
    (ON, 2/08, p.6)

1307        May 10, Forces under Robert Bruce of Scotland defeated the English at Loudoun Hill. Over the next few years Bruce gained control over much of the Scottish countryside.
    (ON, 2/08, p.6)

1308        Nov 8, John Duns Scotus (42), Scottish-born theologian and philosopher, died in Germany. Scotus and his adherents came under attack by critics in the 16th century, giving rise to the term "dunce."
    (AP, 11/8/08)(www.catholic-forum.com/saints/saintj55.htm)

1310        English forces under Edward II crossed into Scotland to regain control of the territory.
    (ON, 2/08, p.6)

1312        Scots under Robert Bruce attacked Perth, held by the English, and gained control of the city and castle.
    (ON, 2/08, p.6)

1314        Jun 24, King Robert I (Robert the Bruce) of Scotland with 6,000 men and 500 horses routed English King Edward II with his army of 20,000 at Bannockburn. Bruce secured Scotland’s independence from England and ruled until his death in 1329. A film "The Bruce" was made in 1995 on a $500,000 budget.
    (AP, 6/24/97)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Battle_of_Bannockburn)(ON, 2/08, p.7)

1315        Scotland assaulted the English border city of Carlisle during the First War of Scottish Independence. Robert the Bruce was driven off with heavy casualties finally giving up when the siege tower got stuck.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Siege_of_Carlisle_%281315%29)(Econ., 4/11/15, p.52)

1316        Mar 2, Robert II the Steward, King of Scotland (1371-90), was born.
    (SC, 3/2/02)

1320        Apr 6, Scotland declared its independence in the Declaration of Arbroath. In a letter to the Pope they said: “As long as only one hundred of us remain alive we will never on any conditions be brought under English rule."
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Declaration_of_Arbroath)(Econ, 7/12/14, p.50)

1324        Mar 5, David II Bruce, king of Scotland (1331-71), was born.
    (MC, 3/5/02)

1329        Jun 7, Robert Bruce (b.1274), King of Scotland (1306-1329), died.

1332        Aug 12, Battle of Dupplin Moor; Scottish dynastic battle.
    (SC, 8/12/02)

1346        Oct 17, English forces defeated the Scots under David II during the Battle of Neville's Cross, Scotland.
    (HN, 10/17/98)

1371        Feb 22, David II Bruce (46), king of Scotland (1331-1371), died.
    (MC, 2/22/02)

1385        Aug 31, English King Richard the Second invaded Scotland with a force estimated at 80-thousand men.
    (MC, 8/31/01)

c1392        Sir Jean Froissart authored "The Chronicles of England, France and Scotland."
    (ON, 4/00, p.6)

1402        In Scotland the Duke of Rothesay, son of King Robert III and heir apparent, died under mysterious circumstances while in the custody of Robert Stewart, the 1st Duke of Albany. Stewart had built Duane Castle at the end of the 14th century.
    (SSFC, 11/23/03, p.C6)

1406        Apr 4, Robert III, King of Scotland (1390-1406), died.
    (MC, 4/4/02)

1420        Scotland's Duke of Albany died. The governorship of Scotland and Doune Castle passed to his son, Murdoch.
    (SSFC, 11/23/03, p.C6)

1424        James I (1394-1437) returned from exile and was crowned King of Scotland.

1446        In Scotland Sir William St. Clair, a grand master in the Knights Templar, founded the Rosslyn Chapel. It was built in the shape of a cross in the Pentland Hills outside Edinburgh. It became famous as part of the Dan Brown’s 2003 thriller “The Da Vinci Code."
    (SFC, 5/25/06, p.E2)

1449        The giant Scottish bombard known as Mons Meg was built. It was retired from active service in 1680, after splitting her barrel while firing a ceremonial shot. She can still be seen in Edinburgh castle.
    (HNQ, 6/20/02)

1451        The Univ. of Glasgow was built. It was the 4th oldest university in the English speaking world.
    (SSFC, 3/10/13, p.H4)

1457        King James II (1430-1460) of Scotland (James of the Fiery Face) banned "Futeball" on the grounds that it threatened national defense by drawing young men away from archery practice. He banned "Golfe" for the same reason. "Nocht usit and utterlie cryit doun."
    (SFC, 8/10/96, p.E4)(Hem., 1/97, p.47)

1473        James IV, King of Scotland (1488-1513), was born.

1473        The game of golf was played in Scotland at the Old course at St. Andrews.
    (SFC, 6/25/95, p.T-7)

1482        The border town of Berwick-upon-Tweed ended up in English hands after changing hands 13 times in wars between England and the Scots.
    (WSJ, 7/8/08, p.A14)

1488        Jun 11, James III, king of Scotland, died in the battle of Sauchieburn, Scotland.
    (SC, 6/11/02)(PC, 1992, p.157)

1494        The earliest report of Scots making whiskey was made. [see 1495]
    (WSJ, 1/11/99, p.R49)

1495        Jun 1, The first written record of Scotch Whiskey appeared in the Exchequer Rolls of Scotland. Friar John Cor was the distiller. The later J&B brand stood for Justerini and Brooks. [see 1494]
    (DT internet 6/1/97)(SFEC,12/28/97, Z1 p.2)

1495        Nov 27, Scottish king James IV received Perkin Warbeck (21), a pretender to the English throne. James gave Warbeck, a Walloon, Lady Catherine Gordon in marriage.
    (MC, 11/27/01)(PCh, 1992, p.160)

1497        Henry VII defeated the Cornishmen at Blackheath. An insurrection in Cornwall had developed over taxes to support English defenses against Scottish invasion forces.
    (PCh, 1992, p.161)

1497        The Declaration of Education Act required children to go to school.
    (SFEC, 12/27/98, Z1 p.8)

1498        The Shore Porters’ Society was founded as a semi-public body controlled by the town of Aberdeen, Scotland.
    (Econ, 12/18/04, p.104)

1512        Apr 10, James V, king of Scotland (1513-42), was born.
    (PCh, 1992, p.167)(MC, 4/10/02)

1513        Sep 9, James IV (40), King of Scotland (1488-1513), was defeated and killed by English at the Battle of Flodden Field. The Scottish navy was sold to France.
    (TL-MB, 1988, p.10)(HN, 9/9/98)(MC, 9/9/01)

1522        England declared war on France and Scotland. Holy Roman Emp. Charles V visited Henry VIII and signed the Treaty of Windsor. Both monarchs agreed to invade France.
    (TL-MB, p.12)

1524        Jul 26, James I became king of Scotland at age 12.
    (MC, 7/26/02)   

1542        Nov 24, The English defeated the Scots under King James at the Battle of Solway Moss, in England.
    (HN, 11/24/98)(MC, 11/24/01)

1542        Dec 7, Mary Stuart, Queen of Scotland (1560-1587), was born. [see Dec 8]
    (MC, 12/7/01)

1542        Dec 8, Mary, Queen of Scotland (1542-67), was born. She became the Queen of England when she was a week old, but was forced to abdicate her throne to her son because she became a Catholic. She was executed for plotting against Elizabeth I. [see Dec 7]
    (HN, 12/8/00)

1542        Dec 14, James V (b.1512), king of Scotland (1513-42), died.
    (MC, 12/14/01)

1543        Jul 1, England and Scotland signed the peace of Greenwich.
    (HN, 7/1/98)

1543        Sep 3, Cardinal Beaton replaced Earl Arran as regent for Mary of Scotland.
    (MC, 9/3/01)

1543        Sep 9, Mary, Queen of Scots, was crowned Queen of England.
    (HN, 9/9/01)

1544        May 17, Scot earl Matthew van Lennox signed a secret treaty with Henry VIII.
    (MC, 5/17/02)

1547        Sep 10, The Duke of Somerset led the English to a resounding victory over the Scots at Pinkie Cleugh. This was the last battle to be fought between English and Scottish royal armies and the last in which the longbow was used tactically en masse.
    (HN, 9/10/98)(WSJ, 11/4/04, p.D10)

1548        Aug 15, Mary Queen of the Scots (6), who was engaged to the Dauphin, landed in France.
    (TL-MB, 1988, p.17)(MC, 8/15/02)

1550        Mar 24, France and England signed the Peace of Boulogne. It ended the war of England with Scotland and France. France bought back Boulogne for 400,000 crowns.
    (TL-MB, 1988, p.18)(MC, 3/24/02)

1557        Dec 3, The 1st Covenant of Scottish protestants formed.
    (MC, 12/3/01)

1558        Apr 24, Mary, Queen of Scotland, married the French dauphin, Francis.
    (HN, 4/24/98)

1558        John Knox authored "The First Blast of the Trumpet against the Monstrous Regiment of Women." He was referring to the governments of Mary Tudor in England and Mary, Queen of the Scots.
    (TL-MB, 1988, p.19)(Econ, 8/6/11, p.14)

1559        May 10, Scottish Protestants under John Knox rose against Queen Mary. Knox preached an inflammatory sermon at Perth and incited the Protestants lords to rise. They captured Edinburgh and sacked religious houses in other cities.
    (TL-MB, 1988, p.19)(MC, 5/10/02)

1559        Jul 10, Henry II of France died following a wound to the head by a tournament lance on June 30. This allegedly fulfilled a prophecy by Nostradamus. Gabriel de Lorges de Montgomery, captain of the Scottish Guards, accidentally killed Henry II as they jousted in front of the Hotel Royal des Tournelles. The widowed queen, Catherine de Medicis (d.1589), had the royal residence demolished.
    (TL-MB, 1988, p.19)(SFEM, 3/15/98, p.16)

1561        Aug 19, Mary Queen of Scots arrived in Leith, Scotland, to assume the throne after spending 13 years in France.
    (MC, 8/19/02)

1565        Jul 29, Mary Queen of Scots married her cousin, Henry Stuart, Lord Darnley.
    (TL-MB, 1988, p.21)(MC, 7/29/02)

1560        The Church of Scotland was founded. The Presbyterian branch of Protestant Christianity was started in Scotland and the British Isles by John Knox.
    (TL-MB, 1988, p.20)(SFC, 7/21/97, p.A11)

1563-1727    In Prestonpans, Scotland, 81 people were convicted and executed for being witches. In 2004 they were officially pardoned.
    (WSJ, 9/15/06, p.A10)(http://forejustice.org/wc/sp/scottish_pardons.html)

1566        Jun 19, King James I (d.1625 at 59), son of Mary Queen of Scots, was born. James, aka King James VI of Scotland ruled Scotland from 1567-25 and England from 1603-25.
    (WUD, 1994, p.763)(WSJ, 4/16/97, p.A13)(DT internet 6/19/97)(HN, 6/19/99)

1567        Feb 9, Henry Stuart, earl of Darnley, Lord Darnley, the second husband of Mary, Queen of Scots, was murdered in his sick-bed in a house in Edinburgh when the house blew up. In 2003 Alison Weir authored "Mary, Queen of the Scots, and the Murder of Lord Darnley."
    (HN, 2/9/99)(MC, 2/9/02)(WSJ, 5/1/03, D10)

1567        May 15, Mary, Queen of Scots married James Hepburn, Earl of Bothwell.

1567        Jun 11, At Borthwick Castle a thousand Scottish nobles cornered Mary, Queen of Scots, who fled the castle by jumping out the window, disguised as a pageboy. The nobles cornered the newly-wed Mary and her third husband, the dubious James Hepburn, Earl of Bothwell. They demanded Bothwell's head and Mary's renunciation of the Earl and his influence. Bothwell, a suspect in the murder of Queen Mary's second husband, Lord Darnley, just a few months before, fled the castle's sheltering 110-foot towers and the asylum offered by the 6th Lord Borthwick, leaving his wife and queen behind.
    (HNQ, 4/13/01)

1567        Jun 16, Mary, Queen of Scots, was imprisoned in Lochleven Castle in Scotland.
    (AP, 6/16/98)

1567        Jul 24, Mary, Queen of Scots, was imprisoned and forced to abdicate her throne to her 1-year-old son James VI.
    (HN, 7/24/98)

1567        Mary, Queen of Scots, played one of the 1st recorded games of golf at Seton Castle. In 2005 the 14-bedroom castle was put on the market asking $27 million.
    (SFC, 8/31/05, p.C2)

1568        May 13, Mary Queen of Scots was defeated by English at battle of Langside, south of Glasgow.

1568        May 16, Mary Queen of Scotland fled to England.

1568        May 19, Defeated by the Protestants, Mary, Queen of Scots, fled to England where Queen Elizabeth imprisoned her.
    (HN, 5/19/99)

1572        Nov 24, John Knox (67), Scottish preacher, died.
    (MC, 11/24/01)

1583        Nov, Francis Throckmorton, who was born in 1554, was arrested. He made a full confession of the Throckmorton Plot for the overthrow of Queen Elizabeth I and the restoration of papal authority in England after being tortured on the rack. He was tried and then executed on July 20, 1584. Throckmorton was the central figure in the conspiracy involving France and Spain, which called for a French invasion of England and the release from prison of Mary, Queen of Scots.
    (HNQ, 10/8/98)

1583        The Scottish Presbyterian Church began discouraging Christmas celebrations as having no basis in the Bible.

1585        Dec 13, William Drummond (d.1649), Scottish poet and laird of Hawthornden, was born. His chief collection, "Poems," appeared in 1616. "He, who will not reason, is a bigot; he, who cannot, is a fool; and he, who dares not, is a slave."
    (HN, 12/13/99)(AP, 6/22/00)

1586        Oct 14, Mary, Queen of Scots, went on trial in England, accused of committing treason against Queen Elizabeth the First. Mary was beheaded in February 1587.
    (AP, 10/14/06)

1587        Feb 1, Elizabeth I, Queen of England, signed the Warrant of Execution for Mary Queen of Scots.
    (HN, 2/1/99)

1587        Feb 8, Mary Stuart, Queen of Scots (1560-67), was beheaded at age 44 in Fotheringhay Castle for her alleged part in the conspiracy to usurp Elizabeth I. In 2004 Jane Dunn authored "Elizabeth and Mary: Cousins, Rivals, Queens." In 2006 studies identified an oil painting of Mary as the only one made of Mary as queen.
    (HN, 2/8/99)(PCh, 1992, p.203)(USAT, 2/5/04, p.5D)(SFC, 8/18/06, p.E2)

1588        Aug 18, A storm struck the remaining 60 ships of the Spanish Armada under the Duke of Medina Sidonia after which only 11 were left. Many of the ships went to Ireland where most of the Spaniards were killed by the English. 600 Spaniards wrecked in Scotland were later returned to Spain.
    (ON, 3/02, p.6)

1600        Dec 12, John Craig, Scottish church reformer and James VI's court vicar, died.
    (MC, 12/12/01)

1603        Mar 24, Tudor Queen Elizabeth I (69), the "Virgin Queen," died. She had reigned from 1558-1603. Scottish King James VI, son of Mary, became King James I of England in the union of the crowns. Each country retained its own parliament until 1707. In 2006 Leanda de Lisle authored “After Elizabeth."
    (WSJ, 4/16/97, p.A13)(WSJ, 2/4/06, p.P9)(Reuters, 2/16/12)

1603-1625    King James I (1566-1625)  ruled over England and Scotland.
    (WUD, 1994, p.763)(WSJ, 4/16/97, p.A13)

1606        Apr 12, England's King James I decreed the design of the original Union Flag (also referred to as the Union Jack), which combined the flags of England and Scotland.
    (HN, 4/12/98)(AP, 4/12/06)

1616        The collection, "Poems," by William Drummond (b.1585), laird of Hawthornden, appeared.
    (HN, 12/13/99)

1617        Apr 4, John Napier, Scottish mathematician, inventor (logarithms), died.
    (MC, 4/4/02)

1617        James VI of Scotland, aka James I of England, made a homecoming to Edinburgh Castle.
    (SFEC, 11/8/98, p.T3)

1625        Mar 27, James I (VI), Stuart king of Scotland (1567), England (1603-25), died. He was described as the “wisest fool in Christendom."
    (www.jesus-is-lord.com/kingbio.htm)(Econ, 12/18/04, p.130)
1625        Mar 27, Charles I (d.1649) became the English king. He was King of England, Ireland and Scotland until he was beheaded.
    (AP, 3/27/97)(WSJ, 6/13/96, p.A12)

1633        Oct 14, James II Stuart, king of England and Scotland (James VII) (1685-88), was born.
    (MC, 10/14/01)

1638        Feb 28, Scottish Presbyterians signed the National Covenant at Greyfriars, Edinburgh.
    (MC, 2/28/02)

1641        Oct 21, A Catholic uprising took place in Ulster. Thousands of English and Scots were killed. [see Oct 23]
    (MC, 10/21/01)

1641        Oct 23, Catholics in Ireland, under Phelim O'Neil, rose against the Protestants and cruelly massacred men, women and children to the number of 40,000 (some say 100,000). [see Oct 21]
    (HN, 10/23/98)

1646        May 5, King Charles I surrendered at Scotland.
    (MC, 5/5/02)

1646        Charles I (1600-1649), king of England, Scotland and Ireland, licensed the Silver Cross to serve as both a brothel and drinking establishment.
    (https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Charles_I_of_England)(SFEC, 8/11/96, p.T7)

1647        Jan 23, Scottish Presbyterians sold captured Charles I to English Parliament.
    (MC, 1/23/02)

1650        Apr 27, Scottish general Montrose was defeated.
    (MC, 4/27/02)

1650        May 21, James, Marquis of Montrose, Scottish general, was hanged.
    (MC, 5/21/02)

1650        May, Oliver Cromwell left Ireland to fight the Third English Civil War against the new Scottish-Royalist alliance. He passed his command onto Henry Ireton.
    {Britain, Ireland, Scotland}

1650        Jun 28, Lord Cromwell set off for Scotland at the head of an army of 16,354 men.
    (HNQ, 8/8/00)

1650        Sep 3, The English under Cromwell defeated a superior Scottish army under David Leslie at the Battle of Dunbar.
    (HN, 9/3/98)

1650        Charles II (20) arrived in Scotland.
    (ON, 12/00, p.1)

1651        Jan 1, Charles II (20), Charles Stuart, was crowned king of Scotland at Scone.
    (PC, 1992, p.243)(ON, 8/12, p.1)

1651        Sep 3, In the Battle at Worcester Oliver Cromwell destroyed English royalists. Charles II led the Scots Covenanters to a disastrous defeat at the battle of Worcester. Some 3,000 of his soldiers were killed and 10,000 taken prisoner.
    (WSJ, 2/28/00, p.A36)(ON, 12/00, p.1)

1653        Dec 16, Oliver Cromwell took on dictatorial powers with the title of lord protector" of England, Scotland and Ireland. He served as dictator of England to 1658.
    (CFA, '96, p.44)(AHD, p.315)(AP, 12/16/97)(HN, 12/16/98)

1654        Apr 12, England, Ireland and Scotland united.
    (MC, 4/12/02)

1661        May 27, Archibald Campbell (~53), Scottish politician, was beheaded.
    (MC, 5/27/02)

1667        Apr 29, John Arbuthnot (d.1735), Scottish mathematician, was born. With Alexander Pope, Jonathan Swift, John Gay and Thomas Parnell he founded the Scriblerus Club in 1714, whose purpose was to satirize bad poetry and pedantry. The club was short-lived.
    (MC, 4/29/02)

1671        Mar 7, In Scotland Rob Roy MacGregor (d.1734) was baptized. He was later forced to become a highland fugitive.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Rob_Roy_MacGregor)(SFC, 8/19/96, p.D7)(Econ, 12/22/12, p.109)

1671        John Law (d.1729), later financier and gambler, was born. His story was told in 2000 by Cynthia Crossen in "The Rich and How They got That Way."
    (WSJ, 7/19/00, p.B1,4)

1679        Jun 1, Battle at Bothwell Bridge on Clyde: Duke of Monmouth beat the Scottish. (MC, 6/1/02)

1685        Feb 2, Charles II (54), King of England, Scotland, Ireland (1660-85), died. He made a deathbed conversion to the Roman Catholic faith. He had earlier ordered Christopher Wren to build an observatory and maritime college at Greenwich. In 2000 Stephen Coote authored the biography: "Royal Survivor."
    (WSJ, 2/28/00, p.A36)(www.britannia.com/history/monarchs/mon49.html)

1685        Jun 30, Archibald Campbell (~55), Scottish politician, was beheaded.
    (MC, 6/30/02)

1689        Apr 21, William III and Mary II were crowned joint king and queen of England, Scotland and Ireland.
    (HN, 4/21/98)

1689        Jul 27, Government forces defeated the Scottish Jacobites at the Battle of Killiecrankie.
    (HN, 7/27/98)

1692        Feb 13, In the Glen Coe highlands of Scotland, 38 members of the MacDonald clan, the smallest of the Clan Donald sects, were murdered by soldiers of the neighboring Campbell clan for not pledging allegiance to William of Orange. Ironically the pledge had been made but not communicated to the clans. The event is remembered as the Massacre of Glencoe.

1696        The Company of Scotland began raising money for a colony at Darien on the Isthmus of Panama. The venture collapsed after 4 years and only 3 of 13 ships returned home.
    (Econ, 8/28/10, p.74)

1698        Jul 14, The first Company of Scotland expedition of five ships (Saint Andrew, Caledonia, Unicorn, Dolphin, and Endeavour) set sail from the east coast port of Leith  to avoid observation by English warships, with around 1,200 people on board. After calling at Madeira and the West Indies, the fleet made landfall off the coast of Darien on 2 November. The settlers christened their new home "New Caledonia."

1699        Apr 17, Robert Blair, Scottish poet (Grave), was born.
    (MC, 4/17/02)

1700        Sep 11, James Thomson, Scottish poet and songwriter, was born. He wrote the song "Rule Britannia."
    (HN, 9/11/00)(MC, 9/11/01)

1700        Apr, A siege by Spanish forces shut down a Company of Scotland colony called "New Caledonia" on the Isthmus of Panama. As the Darien company was backed by nearly half the money circulating in Scotland, its failure left the country, which had suffered a run of bad harvests, completely ruined and was an important factor in weakening resistance to the Act of Union (finally consummated in 1707) among the political elite.

c1700-1800    William Cullen, an 18th century Scottish physician, thought emotional and mental problems were at the root of almost all human sickness. He coined the words "neurosis" and "paranoia."
    (SFEC, 7/11/99, Z1 p.8)

1700-1800    In 2003 James Buchan authored "Crowded With Genius," a history of 18th century Edinburgh, and how the Scottish city rose to produce leading lights of classically liberal philosophy and economics.
    (WSJ, 12/2/03, p.D10)

1702        Mar 19, On the death of William III of Orange, Anne Stuart, sister of Mary, succeeded to the throne of England, Scotland and Ireland.
    (HN, 3/19/99)

1706        The Treaty of Union between Scotland and England was set up. Daniel Defoe worked as a British agent in Scotland and sent back reports on agitation against the yielding of autonomy.
    (WSJ, 8/25/98, p.A12)

1707        Jan 16, Scotland ratified the Treaty of Union by a majority of 110 votes to 69. The Acts created a new state, the Kingdom of Great Britain, by merging the Kingdom of England and the Kingdom of Scotland together.

1707        Apr 29, English-Scottish parliament accepted Act of Union and formed Great Britain. [see May 1]
    (MC, 4/29/02)

1707        May 1, Effective on this day Scotland and England, which already included Wales, were united by an act of Parliament to form Great Britain.
    (WSJ, 4/16/97, p.A13)(AP, 5/1/07)

1707        Oct 23, The first Parliament of Great Britain, created by the Acts of Union between England and Scotland, held its first meeting.
    (AP, 10/23/07)

1707        England granted Scotland 400,000 pounds to clear debts from the Darien disaster.
    (Reuters, 2/16/12)

1709        Feb 2, British sailor Alexander Selkirk was rescued after being marooned on a desert island for 5 years. His story inspired "Robinson Crusoe." [see Feb 12]
    (MC, 2/2/02)

1709        Feb 12, Alexander Selkirk, the Scottish seaman whose adventures inspired the creation of Daniel Defoe's Robinson Crusoe, was taken off Juan Fernandez Island after more than four years of living there alone. [see Feb 2]
    (HN, 2/12/99)

1711        Apr 26, David Hume (d.1776), Scottish historian and philosopher, was born. His work included the “Treatise of Human Nature" and the 6-volume “History of England." Use of the new calendar puts his birthday on May 7.
1711        May 7, David Hume (d.1776), Scottish historian and philosopher, was born. His work included the “Treatise of Human Nature" and the 6-volume “History of England."  The old style calendar puts his birthday on April 26.

1715        Sep 6, A pro-James III uprising took place in Scotland.
    (MC, 9/6/01)

1715        May 4, A French manufacturer debuted the first folding umbrella.
    (HN, 5/4/98)

1715        Nov 12, Forces of King George I fought a rebel army at Preston, Lancashire. The rebels were defeated as government reinforcements arrived the next day. 1468 rebels, including over 1000 Scots, were taken prisoner. William Maxwell (36), Fifth Earl of Nithsdale, was soon condemned to death and taken to the Tower of London.
    (ON, 8/20/11, p.9)(www.information-britain.co.uk/famdates.php?id=323)

1715        Nov 13, English and Scottish rebels supporting James Francis Edward Stuart surrendered following the battle at Preston, Lancashire.
1715        Nov 13, The English fought the Scots at the Battle of Sheriffmuir in Scotland. The battle was inconclusive with both sides claiming victory. However in strategic terms Argyll had halted the Jacobite advance.

1716        Feb 23, Lady Nithsdale (25) planned and executed the escape of her husband, William Maxwell (36), Fifth Earl of Nithsdale, as he awaited execution in the Tower of London. They both escaped to France and settled in Rome as members of James Francis Stuart’s court-in-exile.
    (ON, 8/20/11, p.10)(http://tinyurl.com/7hdz7oe)

1718        May 23, William Hunter (d.1783), obstetrician, surgeon, anatomy teacher, was born near Glasgow, Scotland. In 1768 he opened a medical school. The Glasgow Hunterian Museum opened in 1807.
    (MC, 5/23/02)(http://www.hunterian.gla.ac.uk/index.html)

1719        Jun 11, Scottish rebels, aided by Spanish troops, who are defeated at Glenshiels surrendered.
    (AP, 6/11/03)

1721        Mar 19, Tobias George Smollett, Scottish satirical author and physician (Roderick Random, Humphrey Clinker), was born (baptized).
    (HN, 3/19/01)(MC, 3/19/02)

1723        Jun 5, Economist Adam Smith (d.1790) was baptized in Kirkcaldy, Scotland. He was the author of "An Inquiry into the Nature and Causes of the Wealth of Nations." Smith studied at the Univ. of Glasgow, and then went to Balliol College, Oxford. He then returned to the Univ. of Glasgow as a Prof. of logic and then of moral philosophy. He promoted Laissez faire economics and wrote "An Inquiry into the Nature and Causes of the Wealth of Nations." His most famous statement is: "It is not from the benevolence of the butcher, the brewer, or the baker, that we expect our dinner, but from their regard to their own interest. We address ourselves, not to their humanity, but to their self-love." He also wrote the Theory of Moral Sentiments in 1759. In 1995 Ian Simpson Ross wrote a biography of Smith titled: The Life of Adam Smith. Smith also wrote "The Theory of Moral Sentiments." In 1999 Charles L. Griswold wrote "Adam Smith and the Virtues of Enlightenment.
    (WSJ, 11/30/95, p.A-20) (AP, 6/5/97) (WSJ, 1/11/99, p.R20) (WSJ, 2/09/99, p.A20)(MC, 6/5/02)

1723        Jun 20, Adam Ferguson, Scottish man of letters, philosopher, historian, and patriot, was born. He wrote "Principals of Moral and Political Science."
    (HN, 6/20/99)

1726        Jun 3, James Hutton, Scottish geologist, was born. He founded the science of geology and wrote "A Theory of the Earth."
    (HN, 6/3/99)

1727        The Royal Bank of Scotland (RBS) was founded.
    (Econ, 1/31/09, p.74)

1728        Apr 16, Joseph Black, Scottish chemist and physicist, was born.
    (HN, 4/16/01)

1729        Mar 21, John Law, Scottish gambler and financier (57 or 58), died in Venice. An inventory of his wealth included 488 paintings with works by Titian, Raphael, Michelangelo and Leonardo da Vinci. His story was told in 2000 by Cynthia Crossen in "The Rich and How They got That Way."
    (WSJ, 7/19/00, p.B4)(MC, 3/21/02)

1732        In Scotland the Beggar’s Benison Club was founded by members of the upper middle-class. It was devoted to "the convivial celebration of male sexuality."
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/The_Beggar%27s_Benison)(Econ, 2/11/12, p.82)

1736        Jan 19, James Watt, Scottish inventor of the steam engine who gave his name to a unit of power, was born. [see 1705]
    (AP, 1/19/98)(HN, 1/19/99)

1740        Oct 29, James Boswell, Samuel Johnson's biographer, was born in Scotland.
    (MC, 10/29/01)

1740-1790    The period that approximates the years of the Scottish Enlightenment. Centered in the intellectual environment of Glasgow and Edinburgh, Scotland, men such as Adam Smith and David Hume produced work that greatly influenced James Madison and Alexander Hamilton. This environment is well described in The Life of Adam Smith by Ian Simpson Ross in 1995.
    (WSJ, 11/30/95, p.A-20)

1744        Mar 13, David Allan, Scottish painter, was born.
    (MC, 3/13/02)

1745        Feb 18, Bonnie Prince Charlie's troops occupied Inverness, Scotland.
    (MC, 2/18/02)

1745        Feb 20, Bonnie Prince Charlie's troops occupied Fort August, Scotland.
    (MC, 2/20/02)

1745        Jul 23, Charles Stuart (1720-1788), the Younger, and 7 companions landed at Eriskay Island, in the Hebrides.

1745        Aug 16, Skirmish at Laggan: Glengarry beat the Royal Scots.
    (MC, 8/16/02)

1745        Aug 20, Bonnie Prince Charlie reached Blair Castle, Scotland.
    (MC, 8/20/02)

1745        Sep 21, A Scottish Jacobite army commanded by Lord George Murray routed the Royalist army of General Sir John Cope at Prestonpans. At the Battle at Preston Pans Bonnie Prince Charles beat the English army.
    (HN, 9/21/98)(MC, 9/21/01)

1745        Sep 22, Bonnie Prince Charlie's army returned to Edinburgh.
    (MC, 9/22/01)

1745        Sep 28, Bonnie Prince Charlie became "king" of Scotland.
    (MC, 9/28/01)

1745        Nov 11, Bonnie Prince Charlie's army entered England.
    (MC, 11/11/01)

1745        Dec 6, Bonnie Prince Charlie's army retreated to Scotland.
    (MC, 12/6/01)

1745        Dec 17, Bonnie Prince Charlie's army retreated to Scotland. [see Dec 6]
    (MC, 12/17/01)

1745        Dec 31, Bonnie Prince Charlie's army met with de Esk.
    (MC, 12/31/01)

1745        During the Jacobite uprising some prisoners captured by the Jacobites were kept at Doune Castle, Scotland. These included John Witherspoon, who later moved to the American colonies, became president of Princeton, a delegate to the Continental Congress and a signer of the American Declaration of Independence.
    (SSFC, 11/23/03, p.C6)

1746        Jan 8, Bonnie Prince Charlie's troops occupied Stirling.
    (MC, 1/8/02)

1746        Jan 17, Charles Edward Stuart, the young pretender, defeated the government forces at the battle of Falkirk in Scotland.
    (HN, 1/17/99)

1746        Feb 20, Bonnie Prince Charlie occupied the Castle of Inverness. [see Mar 3]
    (MC, 2/20/02)

1746        Mar 3, Bonnie Prince Charlie occupied the Castle of Inverness. [see Feb 20]
    (SC, 3/3/02)

1746        Mar 5, Jacobin troops left Aberdeen, Scotland.
    (MC, 3/5/02)

1746        Mar 8, Cumberland's troops occupied Aberdeen, Scotland.
    (MC, 3/8/02)

1746        Apr 16, Bonnie Prince Charles was defeated at the battle of Culloden, the last pitched battle fought in Britain. King George II won the battle of Culloden. Bonnie Prince Charlie used English rifleman and virtually annihilated the sword-wielding, rebellious, Highlander clans of Scotland at Culloden. It was the last major land battle fought on British soil. The Battle of Culloden was a crushing defeat for Bonnie Prince Charlie and the Highlander clans that backed him. About 50 English soldiers were killed. The Highlanders lost about 1,500 men.
    (PCh, 1992, p.297)(SFC, 6/25/95, p.T-7)(SFC, 12/4/96, p.B1)(SFEC,12/797, p.T4)(SSFC, 7/6/14, p.L6)

1746        Sep 20, Bonnie Prince Charlie fled to France from Scotland. [see Oct 1]
    (MC, 9/20/01)

1746        Oct 1, Bonnie Prince Charlie fled to France. [see Sep 20]
    (MC, 10/1/01)

1746        Britain’s King George II banned the kilt in Scotland following the Jacobite rebellion.
    (Econ, 7/31/10, p.67)

1746        William, the Duke of Cumberland, led an English military force into Scotland to defeat the rebels there.
    (SFC, 10/14/00, p.B3)

1747        Jul 6, John Paul Jones, naval hero of the American Revolution, was born near Kirkcudbright, Scotland. As a US naval commander he invaded England during the American War of Independence.
    (HN, 7/6/98)(MC, 7/6/02)

1747        The British government swiftly acted to break Scots' resistance. The wearing of tartan, teaching Gaelic and even playing the bagpipes were outlawed by the Act of Proscription.
    (Reuters, 2/16/12)
1747        A Scottish chemist found out that beets contained sugar.
    (SFC, 4/22/00, p.E3)

1748        Mar 10, John Playfair, clergyman, geologist, mathematician, was born in Scotland.
    (MC, 3/10/02)

1748        Scottish economist David Hume wrote an essay setting out the first coherent theory of the links between money, inflation and growth. Inflation is the consequence of too much money chasing too few goods and services.
    (Econ, 9/13/14, p.84)(Econ., 7/6/20, p.9)

c1750-1880s    The period of the Clearances. The peasants were swept aside to allow clan chiefs to raise sheep on clan lands until protests on the isle of Skye led to legal reform for the Highlands.
    (SFEC, 6/29/97, p.T9)

1754        In Scotland the Royal and Ancient Golf Club of St. Andrews was founded.
    (Econ, 12/20/14, p.110)

1759        Jan 25, Robert Burns (d.1796), poet and song writer, who wrote "Auld Lang Syne" and "Comin’ Thru the Rye," was born in Alloway, Scotland. He took traditional Scottish songs and fiddle tunes, and improved upon existing words, or added verses where they had been lost. "Should auld acquaintance be forgot, and never brought to mind, should auld acquaintance be forgot, and auld lang syne. For old lang syne, my dear, for old lang syne, we'll take a cup of kindness yet, for old lang syne."
    (EMN, 1/96, p.4,6)(HN, 1/25/99)(SFC, 12/30/99, p.A13)(MC, 1/25/02)

1759        Economist Adam Smith (1723-1790), Glasgow professor on moral philosophy and pioneering economist, authored "The Theory of Moral Sentiments."
    (WSJ, 11/13/02, p.D10)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/The_Theory_of_Moral_Sentiments)

1761        James Macpherson (1736-1796), Scottish poet, announced the discovery of an epic on the subject of Fingal (related to the Irish mythological character Fionn mac Cumhaill/Finn McCool) written by Ossian (based on Fionn's son Oisín). He then published poems by Ossian, the blind 3rd century poet, which became very popular and later exposed as a fraud.
    (WSJ, 7/26/08, p.W8)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/James_Macpherson)

1764        In Scotland the St. Andrew’s golf course remodeled and cut its hole number from 22 to 18. The 40 yard fairways were also enlarged.
    (SFEC, 8/10/97, Z1 p.4)

1765        Scotsman James Watt further refined Thomas Newcomen’s piston system steam engine innovation by adding a separate condenser. Watt took out a patent on his improved engine in 1769.
    (HNQ, 1/18/01)

1768        William Smellie, a young Edinburgh botanist, was given the task of editing the first edition of the Encyclopedia Britannica.
    (NH, 5/96, p.3)(WSJ, 4/22/99, A1)

1771        Aug 15, Sir Walter Scott (d.1832), Scottish novelist who wrote "Ivanhoe" and "Rob Roy," was born.
    (WUD, 1994, p.1281)(HN, 8/15/98)

1773        Apr 6, James Mill (d.1836), English philosopher, historian (Hist of British India) and economist, was born in Scotland.
    (V.D.-H.K.p.253)(WUD, 1994 p.909)(MC, 4/6/02)

1773        Jul 20, Scottish settlers arrived at Pictou, Nova Scotia (Canada).
    (MC, 7/20/02)

1774        A Scottish printer finally overturned a copyright monopoly that had allowed English booksellers to lock up the works of Shakespeare and other authors for nearly 2 centuries.
    (WSJ, 3/26/04, p.W6)

1776        Dec 29, Charles Macintosh, patented waterproof fabric, was born in Scotland.
    (MC, 12/29/01)

1776        David Hume, Scottish philosopher, died. He was the first prominent European atheist. Hume said "the overriding force in all our actions is… the desire for self-gratification. In order to survive, society has to devise strategies to channel our passions in constructive directions." "The most unhappy of all men is he who believes himself to be so."
    (WSJ, 5/10/96, p.A-8)(SFC, 3/20/99, p.B4)(WSJ, 12/14/01, p.W14)

1777        Jul 27, Thomas Campbell, Scottish writer (The Pleasures of Hope), was born.
    (HN, 7/27/01)

1780        Mar 17, Thomas Chalmers, 1st moderator (Free Church of Scotland 1843-47), was born.
    (MC, 3/17/02)

1781        Dec 11, David Brewster, physicist and inventor (kaleidoscope), was born in Scotland.
    (MC, 12/11/01)

1782-1854     Susan Edmonstone Ferrier, Scottish novelist: "There are plenty of fools in the world; but if they had not been sent for some wise purpose, they wouldn't have been here; and since they are here they have as good a right to have elbow-room in the world as the wisest."
    (AP, 10/3/97)

1783-1881    In the Highland Clearances about 150,000 people were forced off their land to make way for large-scale sheep farming, an act many blame on Britain's ruling establishment.
    (Reuters, 2/16/12)

1786        Scotsman Gregor MacGregor (d.1845), later known as His Serene Highness Gregor I, Prince of Poyais, was born in Scotland. [see 1811]
    (SSFC, 1/18/04, p.M2)(WSJ, 1/30/04, p.W9)

1786        Robert Burns published his first book of poetry in Kilmarnock.
    (SFC, 9/30/98, Z1 p.3)

1786        The National Lighthouse Board was created to minimize the dangers of the seacoast to ships. In 1999 Bella Bathurst authored "The Lighthouse Stevensons," an account of the family that built 97 lighthouses between 1790 and 1940.
    (SFEC, 10/3/99, BR p.3)

1788        May 18, Hugh Clapperton, African explorer, was born in Annan, Scotland.
    (SC, 5/18/02)

1789-1793    Alexander Mackenzie, Scottish-born fur trader, became the 1st European to cross the North American continent.
    (SFC, 1/31/04, p.D12)

1790        Jul 17, Economist Adam Smith (b.1723), Scottish moral philosopher and a pioneer of political economy, died. In 2001 Emma Rothschild authored "Economic Sentiments: Adam Smith, Condorcet, and the Enlightenment." In 2002 Peter J. Dougherty authored "Who’s Afraid of Adam Smith." In 2010 Nicholas Phillipson authored “Adam Smith: An Enlightened Life."
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Adam_Smith)(WSJ, 6/21/01, p.A16)(WSJ, 11/13/02, p.D10)(Econ, 8/7/10, p.84)

1792        In Scotland gas lighting was developed.
    (SFC, 7/14/99, p.4)

1794        Jul 13, James Lind (b.1716) Scottish doctor, died. He was a pioneer of naval hygiene in the Royal Navy. By conducting one of the first ever clinical trials, he developed the theory that citrus fruits cured scurvy. He argued for the health benefits of better ventilation aboard naval ships, the improved cleanliness of sailors' bodies, clothing and bedding, and below-deck fumigation with sulfur and arsenic. He also proposed that fresh water could be obtained by distilling sea water. His work advanced the practice of preventive medicine and improved nutrition.

1795-1881    Thomas Carlyle, English (Scot) essayist, critic and historian, friend of Ralph Waldo Emerson. "A man doesn’t know what he knows, until he knows what he doesn’t know." "No great man lives in vain. The history of the world is but the biography of great men."
    (V.D.-H.K.p.400)(SFEC, 6/28/98, Z1 p.8)(AP, 7/2/98)

1796        Feb 17, James Macpherson (b.1736), Scottish poet, died. In 1761 he had announced the discovery of an epic on the subject of Fingal written by Ossian (based on Fionn's son Oisín). He then published poems by Ossian, the alleged blind 3rd century poet, which became very popular and later exposed as a fraud.
    (WSJ, 7/26/08, p.W8)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/James_Macpherson)

1796        Jul 21, Robert Burns (b.1759), Scottish poet and a lyricist (Auld Lang Syne), died. In 2009 Robert Crawford authored “The Bard: Robert Burns."
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Robert_Burns)(SSFC, 1/25/09, Books p.3)

1796        Jul, Mungo Park, Scottish surgeon, reached the Niger River at Segou, (Mali). Mansong, the African chief at Segou, gave Park enough money to return to the coast. Park described his journey in his book: "Travels in the Interior Districts of Africa" (1799).
    (ON, 7/00, p.10)(Econ 5/13/17, p.74)

1799        Some 70 ships were lost in the Firth of Tay.
    (SFEC, 10/3/99, BR p.3)

1801        French artist Girodet depicted Ossian, the mythical 3rd century blind Scottish poet, before the story was exposed as a fraud.
    (WSJ, 7/26/08, p.W8)

1805        Walter Scott (1771-1832) of Edinburgh, Scotland, published his first long poem: “The Lay of the Last Minstrel."
    (Econ, 7/31/10, p.67)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Walter_Scott)

1806        Feb, Mungo Park (b.1771), Scottish explorer of West Africa, died of drowning during an attack by armed men early this year in Bussa, Nigeria. He had traveled some 1500 miles down the Niger River. Mungo was the author of "Travels in the Interior Districts of Africa" (1799).
    (https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mungo_Park_(explorer))(ON, 7/00, p.12)

1807        Aug 18, Robert Stevenson (1772-1850) began work on the 117-foot Bell Rock lighthouse at the mouth of Scotland’s Firth of Forth based on a proposal he submitted in 1800. The lighthouse began operating on Feb 1, 1811.
    (ON, 5/06, p.6)

1808        A 56-foot oarfish washed ashore in Scotland. This was the first documented sighting of the rare fish.
    (SFC, 12/4/10, p.A7)

1809        Sibbet House of Georgian design in Edinburgh, Scotland was constructed.
    (SFC, 7/7/96, T8)

1811        Feb 1, Scotland’s Bell Rock lighthouse, at the mouth of Scotland’s Firth of Forth, began operations. Robert Stevenson (1772-1850) had begun work on the lighthouse in 1807.
    (ON, 5/06, p.8)

1811        Scotsman Gregor MacGregor (1786-1845), later known as His Serene Highness Gregor I, Prince of Poyais (in modern Honduras), received a commission from Simon Bolivar in Venezuela to serve in the Army of Liberation. After he returned to London in 1820, he began selling land in the fictional kingdom of Poyais. He served 8 months in jail after English and French expeditions revealed the hoax. In 1839 he returned to Venezuela. In 2004 David Sinclair authored "The Land That Never Was: Sir Gregor MacGregor and the Most Audacious Land Fraud in History."
    (SSFC, 1/18/04, p.M2)(WSJ, 1/30/04, p.W9)(Econ, 12/22/12, p.109)

1812        Dec 23, Samuel Smiles (d.1904), doctor and writer, was born in Scotland.  He later authored “Self-Help" 1859), a classic work on self-improvement.
    (Econ, 4/24/04, p.86)

1813        Mar 19, David Livingston, explorer found by Stanley in Africa, was born in Scotland.
    (HN, 3/19/98)

1813        The Clark family of Paisley, Scotland, began manufacturing cotton thread. By the 1840s members of the family moved to the US and in 1866 developed a twisted cotton thread for sewing machines, which they named O.N.T. (Our New Thread).
    (SFC, 10/5/05, p.G3)

1814        Jul 7, Sir Walter Scott's (1771-1832) novel "Waverly" was published anonymously so as not to damage his reputation as a poet.
    (HN, 7/7/01)(WUD, 1994 p.1281)

1815        Jan 11, Sir John A. Macdonald, the first prime minister of Canada, was born in Glasgow, Scotland.
    (AP, 1/11/98)

1817        John Bradbury, Scottish naturalist, authored "Travels in the Interior of America in the Years 1809, 1810 and 1811."
    (ON, 10/99, p.6)

1819        Aug 25, Allan Pinkerton (d.1884) was born in Glasgow, Scotland. He fled Scotland in 1842 to avoid capture for his involvement with the revolutionary group called the Chartists. In 1850 he founded the Pinkerton detective agency in Chicago and later worked as Abe Lincoln's bodyguard.
    (www.crimelibrary.com/gangsters2/pinkerton/)(ON, 2/12, p.9)

1821        William Playfair, Scottish engineer, political economist and scoundrel, published a visual chart that displayed the “weekly wages of a good mechanic" along with the price of a “quarter of wheat" with the reigns of monarchs displayed along the top.
    (Econ, 12/22/07, p.74)

1822        In Scotland the 31-mile Union Canal was built to connect the Forth and Clyde Canal with Edinburgh. The 2 canals linked at Falkirk and required 11 locks to bridge a 115-foot difference.
    (WSJ, 1/7/06, p.P14)

1823        Oct 12, Charles Macintosh of Scotland began selling raincoats (Macs).
    (MC, 10/12/01)

1819        Aug 25, Scotsman James Watt (b.1736), Scottish inventor, died. His 1775 improved steam engine advanced coal mining and made the Industrial Revolution possible.
    (ON, 6/10, p.5)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/James_Watt)

1826        The first exhibition of Clydesdale horses for show occurred at the Glasgow Exhibition. The horses had been bred for hauling coal.
    (SFEC, 1/30/00, Z1 p.2)

1826        Major Gordon Laing, Scottish explorer, became the 1st European to enter Timbuktu, Mali, where some 12,000 people lived. He was killed by a Tuareg nomad spear when he tried to leave. In 2005 Frank T. Kryza authored “The Race for Timbuktu: In Search of Africa’s City of Gold."
    (SSFC, 4/11/04, p.D6)(SSFC, 1/1/06, p.M2)(Econ, 1/7/06, p.75)

1827        Apr 13, Hugh Clapperton, Scottish traveler and explorer of West and Central Africa, died in Sokoto, Nigeria, of dysentery.

1828        Nov 1, Balfour Steward, Scottish physicist and meteorologist, was born.
    (HN, 11/1/00)

1829        Jan 28, In Scotland William Burke was hanged for murder following a scandal in which he was found to have provided extra-fresh corpses for anatomy schools in Edinburgh. His partner William Hare had turned king’s witness. The scandal led to the 1832 Anatomy Act.
    (Econ, 11/15/08, p.99)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/William_Burke)

1830        Apr 5, Alexander Muir, poet (Maple Leaf Forever), was born in Lesmahagow, Scotland.
    (MC, 4/5/02)

1830-1867     Alexander Smith, Scottish poet and essayist: "Christmas is the day that holds all time together."
    (AP, 12/24/97)

1831        Mar 31, Archibald Scott, Scottish chemist, was born.
    (MC, 3/31/02)

1831        Patrick Matthew, a Scottish landowner, provided a description of natural selection in an appendix to a book about growing the best trees to make warships.
    (Econ, 2/7/09, p.73)
1831        The Lewis chessman, 92 walrus ivory pieces, were unearthed on the Isle of Lewis off the coast of Scotland. In 2010 Gudmundur Thorarinsson tried to convince scholars that these pieces were the work of Margret, an Icelandic woman carver commissioned by medieval Norse Bishop Paul Jonsson. In 2015 Nancy Marie Brown authored "Ivory Vikings: The Mystery of the Most Famous Chessmen in the World and the Woman Who Made Them."
    (Econ, 8/29/15, p.68)

1832        Feb 6, There was an appearance of cholera at Edinburgh, Scotland.
    (MC, 2/6/02)

1832        Sep 21, Sir Walter Scott (b.1771), Scottish poet and novelist, died at Abbotsford near Melrose in the Scottish Borders. His novels included "Ivanhoe" and "Rob Roy." Scott was later credited with inventing the genre of historical fiction. In 2010 Stuart Kelley authored “Scott-land: The Man Who Invented a Nation."
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Walter_Scott)(SSFC, 3/11/07, p.G3)(Econ, 7/31/10, p.67)

1834        Nov 14, William Thomson entered Glasgow Univ. at 10 yrs 4 months.
    (MC, 11/14/01)

1835        Nov 25, Andrew Carnegie (d.1919), American industrialist, was born to a poor weaver in Dunfermline, Scotland. He emigrated to the US in 1848 and worked as a superintendent for the Pennsylvania Railroad. In invested in iron manufacturing, railroad cars and oil and moved into the steel business by 1873 where he improved quality and lowered costs. He sold his interests at age 65 and retired to Scotland. He donated $5 million to a pension fund for his workers and gave away an estimated $350 million over the next 2 decades for public libraries, church organs and other causes: There is no idol more debasing than the worship of money."
    (WSJ, 1/11/98, p.R18)(AP, 11/25/99)

1835        James Hogg (b.1770), Scottish writer, died. His novels included “The Private Memoirs and Confessions of a Justified Sinner" (1824).

1837        Feb 7, Sir James Augustus Henry Murray, Scottish lexicographer and editor, was born. He created the Oxford Dictionary.
    HN, 2/7/01)(MC, 2/7/02)

1837        Scottish essayist Thomas Carlyle authored “The French Revolution."
    (Econ, 4/15/17, p.71)   
1837        Fife Pottery in Kirkcaldy was purchased by Mary and Robert Heron. They developed a new style of decoration for pottery and called the pieces Wemyss Ware. the pottery was decorated on the clay before it was glazed. the factory closed in 1920 and rights were purchased by a pottery in Devon.
    (SFC, 9/2/98, Z1 p.6)
1837        Artist Alfred Jacob Miller (1810-1874) accompanied British Capt. William Drummond Stewart on a hunting expedition to the Rocky Mountains. In October 1840 Miller traveled with his paintings to Stewart's Murthly Castle in Scotland, where a collection of his commissioned work was ultimately hung. Miller later settled in Baltimore, Md., painting portraits.
    (ON, 4/2011, p.8)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Alfred_Jacob_Miller)

1838        Apr 21, John Muir (d.1914), naturalist, was born in Dunbar, Scotland.
    (SFEC, 1/2/00, DB p.23)(SFC, 2/2/00, p.A21)

1839        Apr 11, John Galt (59), Scottish writer (Last of the Lairds), died.
    (MC, 4/11/02)

1841        Scottish essayist Thomas Carlyle authored “On Heroes, hero Worship and the heroic in History."
    (Econ, 4/15/17, p.71)

1843        May 18, United Free Church of Scotland formed.
    (SC, 5/18/02)

1843        Sep, James Wilson (1805-1860), a Scottish hat maker, founded “The Economist" in London, England, a magazine devoted to free trade and laissez-faire principles from its very beginning.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/The_Economist)(WSJ, 6/6/95, p.A-14)(Econ, 6/28/03, p.13)

1843        Alexander Bain, Scottish inventor, received a British patent for “improvements in producing and regulating electric currents and improvements in timepieces and in electric printing and signal telegraphs." His fax machine evolved from the telegraph technology.

1845        Dec, Scotsman Gregor MacGregor (b.1786), con artist known as the Prince of Poyais, died in Caracas.
    (Econ, 12/22/12, p.112)

1847         Mar 3, The inventor of the telephone, Alexander Graham Bell (teacher of the deaf, inventor: telephone; founder of Bell Telephone Company), was born in Edinburgh, Scotland. For two generations the family of Alexander Graham Bell was recognized as leading authorities on elocution and speech correction. Graham's father, Alexander Melville Bell's Standard Elocutionist went through nearly 200 editions in English.
    (SFEM, 1/11/98, p.12)(AP, 3/3/98)(HC, Internet, 3/3/98)(HNQ, 12/20/98)

1849        Feb, Thomas Carlyle (1795-1881), Scottish essayist, anonymously authored the article: "Occasional Discourse on the Negro Question," in which he 1st used the phrase "the dismal science" to describe political economics: It is “not a gay science… no, a dreary, desolate, and indeed quite abject and distressing one; what we might call, by way of eminence, the dismal science." Carlyle himself argued in this essay for the reintroduction of slavery into the West Indies. In 2001 David M. Levy authored "How the Dismal Science Got Its Name."
    (WSJ, 12/10/01, p.A15)(http://cepa.newschool.edu/het/texts/carlyle/carlodnq.htm)

1850        May 10, Thomas Johnstone Lipton, yachtsman, tea magnate (Lipton Tea), was born in Glasgow.
    (MC, 5/10/02)

1850        Nov 13, Robert Lewis Stevenson (d.1894), novelist, was born in Scotland. His books included: "Treasure Island" and "The Strange Case of Dr. Jekyll and Mr. Hyde." In 1996 R.C. Terry edited and published “Robert Louis Stevenson: Interviews and Recollections."
    (Smith., 8/95, p.54)(SFC, 9/1/96, Par. p.12)(HN, 11/13/98)   

1850-1860    John Cameron was a clockmaker in Kilmarnock during this time.
    (SFC, 12/30/98, Z1 p.2)

1852        James Young (1811-1883), Scottish chemist, took out a US patent for the production of paraffin oil by distillation of coal. Both the US and UK patents were subsequently upheld in both countries in a series of lawsuits and other producers were obliged to pay him royalties.
    (WSJ, 12/6/08, p.A10)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/James_Young)

1854        Apr 3, John Wilson (b.1785), Scottish advocate, literary critic and author, the writer most frequently identified with the pseudonym Christopher North of Blackwood's Edinburgh Magazine, died in Edinburgh. A scene from his play "The City of the Plague" was adapted by Alexander Pushkin as "A Feast in Time of Plague" and become a subject of a number of adaptations.
    (https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/John_Wilson_%28Scottish_writer%29)(Econ., 7/6/20, p.70)

1855-1905    Fiona MacLeod (William Sharp), Scottish author and poet: "My heart is a lonely hunter that hunts on a lonely hill."
    (AP, 9/15/98)

1857        Nov 7, Dennistoun, Cross and Co., an American bank with branches in Liverpool, Glasgow, New York and New Orleans, collapsed taking with it the Western Bank of Scotland with 98 branches. In the last three months of this year there were 135 bankruptcies.
    (Econ, 4/12/14, p.52)

1859        Mar 8, Kenneth Grahame, Scottish author who created the children’s classic "The Wind in the Willows," was born.
    (HN, 3/8/99)

1859        Mar 21, The Scottish National Gallery opened in Edinburgh.
    (MC, 3/21/02)

1859        May 22, Sir Arthur Conan Doyle (d.1930), author of the Sherlock Holmes series, was born in Edinburgh, Scotland. He wrote 4 novels featuring Sherlock Holmes. "Mediocrity knows nothing higher than itself, but talent instantly recognizes genius." In 1999 Daniel Stashower published the biography: "Teller of Tales."
    (AP, 6/17/97)(HN, 5/22/98)(WSJ, 4/12/99, p.A21)

1859        Samuel Smiles (1812-1904), Scottish doctor and writer, authored “Self-Help." It became a classic work on self-improvement.
    (Econ, 4/24/04, p.86)

1860        May 9, James Matthew Barrie (d.1937), novelist (Margaret Ogilvy, Peter Pan), was born in Kirriemuir, Scotland.

1860        Oct 17, The British Open was 1st held at the Prestwick Golf Club in Scotland. The prize was a red leather belt with a silver buckle. The belt was retired in 1872 and replaced with a silver claret jug.
    (https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/The_Open_Championship)(WSJ, 7/21/00, p.W9)

1860-1937     Sir James Matthew Barrie, Scottish dramatist-author: "The life of every man is a diary in which he means to write one story, and writes another; and his humblest hour is when he compares the volume as it is with what he hoped to make it."
    (AP, 8/6/97)

1861        Nov 10, Robert T.A. Innes, astronomer (Proxima Centauri), was born in Edinburgh, Scotland.
    (MC, 11/10/01)

1861        Dr. Joseph Lister, British surgeon, was appointed head of the surgical wards at the Glasgow Royal Infirmary.
    (ON, 7/00, p.8)

1862        In Glasgow, Scotland, the Kelvinside Parish Church was built. It was later converted to Oran Mor, a west end performing arts center.
    (SSFC, 2/10/13, p.H4)

1864        Oct 1, George Spencer (b.1799), a priest of the Passionist religious order, died in Scotland. Spencer had left the Anglican Church and taken the name "Ignatius of St. Paul" after he became a Catholic priest. In 2021 Pope Francis put him on the path to sainthood.
    (https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ignatius_Spencer)(AP, 2/20/21)

1864        Nov 25, David Roberts (b.1796), Scottish painter, died. He toured Egypt and the Holy Land from 1838-1840. His work there made him a prominent Orientalist painter.
    (SSFC, 7/24/11, p.F7)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/David_Roberts_%28painter%29)

1864        Composer Eugen D'Albert was born in Glasgow. He considered himself a German and set only German text in his works, which included his Cello Concerto and the operas "Tiefland" and "Die Toten Augen" (The Dead Eyes).
    (SFEC, 1/30/00, DB p.33)
1864        Scottish author W.R. chambers published “Book of Days: A Miscellany of Popular Antiquities in Connection with the Calendar, Including Anecdote, Biography, & History, Curiosities of Literature and Oddities of Human Life and Character."

1865        Mar, Thomas Sutherland of Scotland founded the Hong Kong and Shanghai Banking Corporation (HSBC) to finance  the growing trade between China and Europe. It established the Shanghai branch on April 3, 1865.

1865        The Killiechassie House, near Aberfeldy, was built by a Scottish general. In 2001 it was purchased by J.K. Rawling, author of the Harry Potter books.
    (SFC, 11/23/01, p.C15)

1866        Apr 21, Jane Walsh Carlyle (b.1801), the wife of Scottish essayist Thomas Carlyle, died.

1866        Nov 10, William Thompson (1824-1907), Irish-born Scottish professor, was knighted by Queen Victoria as Sir William Thompson. On his ennoblement in 1892 in honor of his achievements in thermodynamics, and of his opposition to Irish Home Rule, he adopted the title Baron Kelvin of Largs.
    (ON, 10/2010, p.3)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/William_Thomson,_1st_Baron_Kelvin)

1867        British surgeon Joseph Lister, Professor of Surgery at Glasgow University, published the results of his antiseptic system in the Lancet medical journal.
    (ON, 7/00, p.8)
1867        Scottish physicist James Clerk Maxwell first imagined an atom-size device dubbed Maxwell's Demon.
    (Reuters, 1/31/07)

1868-1952    Norman Douglas, Scottish [British] author: Justice is too good for some people and not good enough for the rest. "You can tell the ideals of a nation by its advertisements."
    (AP, 11/3/97)(AP, 5/22/99)

1869        Aug 18, Dr. Joseph Lister, British surgeon, was appointed head of Clinical Surgery at the Univ. of Edinburgh.
    (ON, 7/00, p.9)

1869        In Scotland the tea clipper Cutty Sark was launched. The name referred to the Scottish word for short shift or dress.
    (SSFC, 6/19/05, p.E6)

1870        The 1st place golf prize for the British Open, a red leather belt with a silver buckle, was retired.
    (https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/The_Open_Championship)(WSJ, 7/21/00, p.W9)

1871        Apr 11, James Burns (1808-1871), Scottish publisher and author, died. He had founded The Englishman’s Library in the 1840s, a series that went up to 31 volumes.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/James_Burns_%28publisher%29)(Econ, 12/20/14, p.86)

1872        A police raid in Glasgow found only 2 pubs in 30 serving real Scotch whiskey.
    (WSJ, 1/4/02, p.A7)

1873        The British Open was played at St. Andrews in Scotland for the first time. Nine Scots and an Englishman competed for the first prize of £11.
    (Econ, 7/18/15, p.51)

1874        Feb 20, Mary Garden, opera star, was born in Aberdeen, Scotland.
    (MC, 2/20/02)

1875        Aug 26, John Buchan (d.1940), Lord Tweedsmuir, was born in Perth, Scotland. He became a writer and governor general of Canada (1935), and was famous for his spy story "The Thirty-Nine Steps" (1915). "There may be Peace without Joy, and Joy without Peace, but the two combined make Happiness."
    (HN, 8/26/99)(WSJ, 12/9/06, p.P12)(AP, 1/7/98)

1875        Stuart Cranston, Scottish tea merchant, setup the world’s first tea room in Glasgow.
    (WSJ, 4/7/07, p.P14)

1877        The coal-carrying ship W. Gordon was on a voyage from Scotland to Australia when it disappeared with 10 crew aboard. Wreckage of the ship was believed found on May 19, 2015.
    (AP, 5/3/18)

1878        The 266-foot square-rigger Falls of Clyde was built in Glasgow, Scotland. From 1899-1922 the Matson shipping line used it to haul molasses to California and back to Hawaii with kerosene. The ship was then demasted and sent to Alaska where it became a floating fuel dock. In 1963 enthusiasts towed the ship back to Hawaii, where it later came under the ownership of the Bishop Museum. In 2008 new owners hoped to save an renovate the ship.
    (SSFC, 10/19/08, p.A11)

1879        Robert Louis Stevenson (1850-1894), the future author of "The Amateur Emigrant" and other works, authored “Travels with a Donkey." It covered 12 days spent trekking in the Cevennes Mountains in France with the donkey, Celestine. He embarked this year on a 6,000-mile journey from his native Scotland to see his ailing-and married-lover in California. Stevenson, the author of "Treasure Island," must have realized the recklessness of this venture. There was no guarantee that the object of his affection-Frances (Fanny) Vandegrift Osbourne, would abandon her comfortable life and run off with the then-little-known author. Yet he seemed compelled to make the appeal, telling a friend that "No man is of any use until he has dared everything." The pair married on May 19, 1880.
    (HNQ, 9/6/98)(WSJ, 9/23/06, p.P8)

1879        Dec 28, The new Tay Bridge in Scotland, opened in 1877 over the Firth of Tay, collapsed during a storm as a train was crossing. Some 75 people were killed.
    (AFP, 5/16/08)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Tay_Rail_Bridge)

1880-1954    B.C. Forbes, Scottish journalist: "You have no idea how big the other fellow's troubles are."
    (AP, 12/17/98)

1881        Feb 5, Thomas Carlyle (b.1795), Scottish essayist and historian, died in London.

1881        Aug 6, Alexander Fleming (d.1955), Scottish bacteriologist who discovered penicillin (1928), was born. He won the Nobel Prize in 1945. Fleming first observed the antibiotic properties of the mold that makes penicillin, but it was Ernst Boris Chain and Howard Walter Florey who developed it into a useful treatment.
    (AHD, 1971, p.501)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Alexander_Fleming)

c1881-1927     Mary Webb, Scottish religious leader: The more anybody wants a thing, the more they do think others want it. "The well of Providence is deep. It's the buckets we bring to it that are small."
    (AP, 7/7/97)(AP, 12/9/98)

1883        Jun 2, Four gentlemen departed London on velocipedes and spent the next 2 weeks bicycling 800 miles to John O’Grouts in Scotland.
    (ON, 1/00, p.5)

1883        Jul 3, SS Daphne sank on Clyde River in Scotland and 195 died.
    (MC, 7/3/02)

1883        Oct 18, The weather station at the top of Ben Nevis, Scotland, the highest mountain in Britain, was declared open.
    (HN, 10/18/98)

1886        The ship Balclutha was built in Glasgow, Scotland. It was named in Gaelic for Clyde’s rock. For 16 years it sailed from the British Isles with a load of coal around Cape Horn to SF where it picked up grain and returned to Europe. It was later preserved at the National Maritime Museum in San Francisco.
    (SFEC,11/23/97, p.D3)(www.nps.gov/safr/historyculture/balclutha.htm)

1887        The Earl of Lovelace built a shooting lodge that was later converted to the Loch Torridon Hotel.
    (SFEC,12/797, p.T5)

1888        Feb 22, John Reid of Scotland demonstrated golf to Americans at Yonkers, NY. Reid converted his lawn to six hole for golf in Yonkers N.Y., the first golf course in the US.
    (SFEC, 7/18/99, Z1 p.8)(MC, 2/22/02)

1888        Aug 13, John Logie Baird, inventor (father of TV), was born in Scotland.
    (MC, 8/13/02)

1889        John Alexander MacWilliam, Scottish physiologist, discovered that he could restore heart rhythms in cats using a metronome and a needle electrode. His work went unrecognized until his paper on the subject resurfaced in 1972.
    (Econ, 3/7/09, TQ p.25)

1892        Aug 11, Hugh MacDiarmid, founder of the Scottish Nationalist Party, was born.
    (HN, 8/10/98)

1893        Jan 13, Britain's Independent Labour Party, a precursor to the current Labour Party, had its 1st meeting. Scottish socialist Keir Hardie (1856-1915) helped form the Independent Labour Party (ILP). In 1900 he helped form the union-based Labour Representation Committee, soon renamed the Labour Party, with which the ILP later merged.
    (AP, 1/13/00)(https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Keir_Hardie)

1896        Jul 19, A.J. Cronin, Scottish novelist (The Citadel, The Keys of the Kingdom), was born.
    (HN, 7/19/01)

1898        Apr 28, William Soutar, Scottish poet, was born.
    (HN, 4/28/01)

1900        Jan 31, Scottish peer Sir John Sholto Douglas (56), 8th Marquis of Queensberry, died. He supervised the formulation by John Graham chambers of the rules of boxing, which became known as the Queensberry Rules. In 1895 Irish writer Oscar Wilde had unsuccessfully sued the Marquis for libel following allegations of a homosexual relationship with Queensberry’s son Lord Alfred Douglas, allegations which ultimately led to Wilde’s imprisonment in Reading Gaol, England.
    (HC, 2003, p.64)

1900        Aug 4, Elizabeth Bowes-Lyon (d.2002), later known as the Queen Mum (mother of Queen Elizabeth II), was born in Scotland as the daughter of Lord Glamis, who became the 14th Earl of Strathmore and Kinghorne. She later became the wife of King George VI.
    (SFC, 8/4/00, p.A18)(SFC, 8/5/00, p.A12)(WSJ, 8/10/00, p.A16)(MC, 8/4/02)

1901        William James presented his Gifford Lectures at the Univ. of St. Andrews in Scotland. They were published in 1902 as "The Varieties of Religious Experience." In 1999 it was rated the 2nd best work of non-fiction in the English language by the Modern Library.
    (WSJ, 11/11/97, p.A16)(SFC, 4/29/99, p.C5)(WSJ, 12/24/01, p.A9)

1902        Sep 29, William McGonagall (b~1825), poet, died in Edinburgh, Scotland. He was mocked by literary critics and had food thrown at him during public readings. He died penniless and was buried in an unmarked grave. Critics later awarded him the "world's worst" label because of the crashing lack of subtlety in terms of rhyme, imagery, vocabulary or repetition. His most famous poem is about the Tay Bridge disaster of 1879, in which 75 people died. In 2008 35 broadsheets of his original poems were auctioned for $13,200.
    (AFP, 5/16/08)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/William_McGonagall)(WSJ, 5/17/08, p.A1)

1902        J.M. Barrie featured Peter Pan as a minor character in his book “The Little White Bird."
    (USAT, 9/2/04, p.2D)

1903        Aug 23, William Primrose, violist (Method for Violin & Viola), was born in Glasgow, Scotland.
    (MC, 8/23/02)

1906        W.D. McKay authored “The Scottish School of Painting."
    (McKay, 1906, 369pp)

1907        Mar 16 The British cruiser Invincible, the world's largest, was completed at Glasgow shipyards.
    (HN, 3/16/98)

1907        Dec 17, William Thompson (b.1824), Belfast-born mathematical physicist and engineer, (aka Lord Kelvin), died in Scotland.

1908        Kenneth Grahame (1859-1952) of Edinburgh, Scotland, wrote the classic British children’s book "Wind in the Willows." It was made into a movie in 1997.
    (SFC, 1/9/98, p.D3)(WSJ, 11/24/07, p.W8)

1908        Scotland’s Johnny Walker whiskey began using a striding man, drawn by cartoonist Tom Browne, on its label. This became one of the world’s first  globally established advertising icons.
    (Econ, 2/23/13, p.54)( www.johnniewalker.com/en-us/timeline/)

1909        Mar 1, David Niven, actor (Casino Royale, Eye of the Devil), was born in Kirriemuir Angus, Scotland.
    (SC, 3/1/02)

1909        Nov 3, James "Scotty" Reston, New York Times reporter, editor and columnist, was born in Clydebank, Scotland.
    (HN, 11/3/00)(MC, 11/3/01)

1910        Oct 4, Scottish surgeon Joseph Bell died. He was the real-life model for Arthur Conan Doyle's character Sherlock Holmes.
    (MC, 10/4/01)

1912        Scotland’s Unionist Party, as with the Conservative and Unionist Party in England and Wales, was formed in 1912 by the merger of the Conservatives and Liberal Unionists, and existed as the dominant force in Scottish politics from the 1930s to the late 1950s.

1914        Jun 6, The 1st air flight out of sight of land was made from Scotland to Norway.
    (MC, 6/6/02)

1914        Jul 15, Gavin Maxwell, Scottish writer and naturalist (Ring of Bright Water), was born.
    (HN, 7/15/01)

1914        The British Royal Navy's Grand Fleet moved to a new base in Scapa Flow, in Scotland’s Orkney Islands. They needed a safe place to take on a German Fleet based in the Baltic.

1915        May 22, Near Gretna, Scotland, a passenger train collided with a troop train, killing 227 people.
    (SFC, 6/4/98, p.A15)(AP, 2/18/04)

1916        Mar 10, James Herriot (d.1995), Scottish writer and country veterinarian (All Creatures Great and Small), was born as James Alfred Wight, in Sunderland, England. [See Oct 3]
    (HN, 3/10/01)

1916        Oct 3, James Herriot (d.1995), Yorkshire veterinarian and author, was born in Sunderland, England. His books include "All Creatures Great and Small." [see Mar 10]
    (HN, 10/3/00)

1917        Jul 9, British warship "Vanguard" exploded at Scapa Flow killing 804.
    (MC, 7/9/02)

1917        D'Arcy Wentworth Thompson (1860-1948), Scottish classicist, mathematician and biologist, produced his work "On Growth and Form,"  the first formal attempt to analyze patterns and shapes in nature. His work also included "A Glossary of Greek Birds" and "A Glossary of Greek Fishes."
    (NH, 12/98, p.10)(Econ, 3/7/09, p.92)

1919        Jun 21, German sailors under Admiral von Reuter scuttled 72 warships at Scapa Flow in the Orkneys even though Germany had surrendered. It was the greatest act of self-destruction in modern military history.
    (HN, 6/21/98)(Camelot, 6/21/99)(MC, 6/21/02)

1922        Aug 2, Alexander Graham Bell (b.1847), Scottish-US physicist (telephone), died in Nova Scotia. He and Gardiner Hubbard, his father-in-law, were the founders of the National Geographic Society.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Alexander_Graham_Bell)(ON, 1/03, p.5)

1922        Scotland joined the United Kingdom of England, Scotland, Wales and Northern Ireland.
    (WSJ, 4/16/97, p.A13)

1926        Apr 22, James Stirling, Scottish D-day-parachutist, architect, knight, was born.
    (MC, 4/22/02)

1927-1989    R.D. Laing, Scottish psychiatrist: "We live in a moment of history where change is so speeded up that we begin to see the present only when it is disappearing."
    (AP, 1/31/99)

1928        Feb 8, Scottish inventor J. Blaird demonstrated color TV.
    (MC, 2/8/02)

1928        Sep 3, Scottish bacteriologist Alexander Fleming (1881-1955) discovered, by accident, that the mold penicillin has an antibiotic effect. It wasn't until 1941 that it was tested on humans with promising results.
    (V.D.-H.K.p.354)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Alexander_Fleming)(AP, 8/3/19)

1928        Dec 10, Charles Rennie Mackintosh (b.1868), Scottish architect and designer, died. He designed the walls of Kate Cranston’s first tea rooms in Glasgow (1903). His watercolors included "The Rock" (1927).
    (WSJ, 1/29/97, p.A9)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Charles_Rennie_Mackintosh)(WSJ, 4/7/07, p.P14)

1929        Dec 31, Guy Lombardo and his Royal Canadians played "Auld Lang Syne" as a New Year’s Eve song for the first time. Scottish poet Robert Burns is credited with writing the song, although a similar poem by Robert Ayton (1570-1638), not to mention even older folk songs, use the same phrase, and may well have inspired Burns. The literal translation means "old long since" which less literally meant "days gone by."
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Auld_Lang_Syne)(WSJ, 12/29/06, p.W10)

1929        Sir Alexander Fleming co-discovered penicillin. [see 1928,1941]
    (WUD, 1994, p.541)

1930        Aug 21, Princess Margaret Rose (d.2002), sister to Elizabeth, was born to King George VI and Queen Elizabeth at Glamis Castle, Scotland.
    (WSJ, 8/10/00, p.A16)(SSFC, 2/10/02, p.A12)

1930        Aug 25, Sean Connery, Scottish actor famous for playing the character James Bond in the Ian Flemming movie series, was born in Edinburgh, Scotland. Connery is well noted actor as James Bond in many of the Bond movies.  He has acted in more serious film roles since retiring from the 007 series which won him great accolades including an Oscar (Academy Award-winning actor: The  Untouchables [1987]; The Rock, First Knight, The Hunt  for Red October, Highlander, Rising Sun, Outland, The  Longest Day; "Bond. James Bond.": Dr. No, From Russia with  Love, Goldfinger, Thunderball, You Only Live Twice, Diamonds  are Forever)
    (HN, 8/25/98)(MC, 8/25/02)

1930        In Scotland’s Outer Hebrides the human population of the St Kilda archipelago was removed. In 1931 St Kilda was sold to the Marquess of Bute, a keen ornithologist. He bequeathed them to The National Trust for Scotland in 1957.
    (SFC, 2/9/08, p.B6)(www.kilda.org.uk/frame1.htm)

1933        May 22, Loch Ness Monster was 1st "sighted"  by John Mackay.
    (SFEC,12/797, p.T4)(MC, 5/22/02)

1934        The Scottish National Party, advocating home rule for Scotland, was formed with the merger of the National Party of Scotland and the Scottish Party.
    (Reuters, 2/16/12)

1935        Mar 16, John J.R. Macleod (58), Scottish-Canadian physiologist (Nobel 1923), died.
    (MC, 3/16/02)

1935        Apr 28, Alexander Campbell Mackenzie (87), Scottish composer, died.
    (MC, 4/28/02)

1935        John Buchan (1875-1940), Scottish novelist and Unionist politician, became Governor General of Canada and was created Baron Tweedsmuir. Canadian PM William Lyon Mackenzie King had wanted him to go to Canada as a commoner, but King George V insisted on being represented by a peer.

1937        Apr 28, Jean Redpath, Scottish folk singer, was born.
    (HN, 4/28/01)

1937        Jun 19, James M. Barrie (b.1860), Scottish writer (Dear Brutus, Peter Pan), died. In 2004 the film "Finding Neverland," was based on Barrie’s life.
    (www.angus.gov.uk)(AP, 9/5/04)

1938        Sep 27, Ocean liner Queen Elizabeth was launched at Glasgow. The RMS  Queen Elizabeth, the largest passenger liner built to that date, boasted a 200,000-horsepower engine and beautiful art deco style. The elegant ocean liner was named to honor Queen Elizabeth, a consort of King George VI of England and mother to Queen Elizabeth II. 
    (MC, 9/27/01)

1938        Karl Barth, Swiss theologian, presented his Gifford Lectures at the Univ. of St. Andrews in Scotland. He held that our existence and the existence of the universe testified best to the truths of Christianity.
    (WSJ, 12/24/01, p.A9)

1939        Oct 14, The German U-47, commanded by Kapitan Gunther Prien, sank the British battleship HMS Royal Oak at Scapa Flow, Scotland, and 833 people were killed. This prompted Churchill to order the creation of concrete barriers at the eastern entrance of Scapa Flow.
    (SFEM, 10/10/99, p.49)(http://www.undiscoveredscotland.co.uk/hoy/scapa/)

1939        Reinhold Niebuhr presented his Gifford Lectures at the Univ. of St. Andrews in Scotland. The purpose of religion for him shifted from salvation to economic and scientific progress on earth.
    (WSJ, 12/24/01, p.A9)

1941        Feb 5, The SS Politician wrecked off the coast of the Isle of Eriskay in the Hebrides. It carried some 20,000 cases of whisky, which the natives hid from customs agents. The story was told in the 1947 book “Whisky Galore" by Compton Mackenzie. The book was made into a film in 1949.

1941        May 10, Rudolf Hess (d.93), a deputy of Adolf Hitler, parachuted into Scotland to see the Duke of Hamilton on what he claimed was a peace mission. Hess ended up serving a life sentence at Spandau prison until 1987, when he apparently committed suicide.
    (AP, 5/10/97)(ON, 4/02, p.7)

1941        Nov 22, Tom Conti, actor (Reuben Reuben, American Dreamer), was born in Paisley, Scotland.
    (MC, 11/22/01)

1941        Penicillin was discovered by Dr. Alexander Fleming. [see 1928,1929]   
    (TMC, 1994, p.1941)

1942        Oct 22, The 1st ships of invasion fleet for Oran (Algeria) left Scotland.
    (MC, 10/22/01)

1942        Nov 3, The 12th day of battle at El Alamein (Egypt): Scottish assault.
    (MC, 11/3/01)

1942        In Scotland the testing of anthrax was sanctioned on the island of Gruinard amid fears the Germans might attack the UK with biological or chemical weapons. A film was made of their work and it remained classified until 1997.
    (AH, 6/03, p.46)(http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/uk_news/scotland/1457035.stm)

1943        May 10, Donovan Leitch, guitarist, folk singer (Mellow Yellow), was born in Scotland.
    (MC, 5/10/02)

1944        Sep 12, A US submarine patrol that included the USS Pampanito, the Growler and the Sealion II, came upon a Japanese convoy carrying war material. The Japanese transport Kachidoki Maru, carrying over 900 British soldier, was sunk by the Pampanito. Much of the convoy was sunk including most of some 2,000 Allied prisoners of war. The subs after chasing stragglers of the convoy returned to find 159 British and Australian survivors clinging to wreckage [see Sep 14]. Some 1000 POWs from Australia were on the Japanese freighter Enoura Maru sunk by the USS Sealion. Alistair Urquhart of Scotland, a prisoner on the Kachidoki Maru, was picked up 5 days later by a Japanese whaling ship and taken to Japan, where he was forced to work in a coal mine. Kachidoki Maru had been captured earlier in the war as the President Harrison home ported in SF. The Pampanito was later berthed as a visitor attraction in SF. In 2008 Urquhart (89) visited the Pampanito.
    (SFC, 5/27/97, p.A17)(SFC,12/5/97, p.C3)(SFC, 9/17/08, p.B1)

1944        Sep 14, The submarine USS Pampanito picked up 73 allied prisoners left adrift following the Sep 12 submarine attack on a Japanese convoy that included the transport ship Rakuyo Maru.
    (SFC, 3/18/09, p.B2)

1945        May 12, The Churchill Barriers were formally opened by the first Lord of the Admiralty. They were built to protect Scapa Flow from enemy submarines. The 5 causeways linked Orkney’s Mainland to South Ronaldsay and marked a dividing line between the North Sea and the Atlantic Ocean. Thousands of Italian prisoners of war carried out the project and left behind their decorated Italian Chapel.
    (SSFC, 11/13/05, p.F10)(www.undiscoveredscotland.co.uk/eastmainland/churchill/)

1946        May 10, Donovan, rocker (Mellow Yellow), was born as Donovan Leitch in Scotland.

1947        Aug 10, Ian Anderson, rocker (Jethro Tull-Bungle in the Jungle), was born in Scotland.
    (MC, 8/10/02)

1947        In Scotland the Edinburgh International Festival (EIF) was started as an antidote to war-time austerity. Accompanying the EIF when it first opened was the Edinburgh Festival Fringe. The Fringe started life as a more accessible and less highbrow accompaniment to the "main" festival, literally on the fringe of it.
    (Econ, 5/5/07, SR p.15)(www.undiscoveredscotland.co.uk/edinburgh/festival/index.html)

1950        Feb 26, Harry Lauder (b.1870), notable Scottish entertainer, died. He was, at one time, the highest-paid performer in the world, making the equivalent of £12,700 a night plus expenses, and was the first British performer to sell more than a million records.

1950        Dec 25, Scottish nationalists stole the Stone of Scone from the British coronation throne in Westminster Abbey. The 485 pound stone was recovered in April 1951.
    (HN, 12/25/98)

1953        Aug 3, Ian Bairnson, guitarist (Alan Parsons Project, Pilot), was born in Shetland Isles, Scotland.
    (SC, 8/3/02)

1953        The Scottish film "Rob Roy, The Highland Rogue" starred Ian MacNaughton as Callum MacGregor.
    (SFC, 1/4/03, p.A15)

1955        Nov 12, Leslie Richard McKeown, Scottish pop singer, was born He was the lead singer of the Bay City Rollers during their most successful period.

1956        Sep 24, The first transatlantic telephone cable system from Newfoundland to Scotland began operation.
    (HN, 9/24/98)(MC, 9/24/01)

1956        The Scottish sci-fi film "X the Unknown" starred Ian MacNaughton.
    (SFC, 1/4/03, p.A15)

1957        Construction began on Scotland’s Hunterston A nuclear power plant. The 1st of its 2 reactors began supplying power in 1964.

1958        Colin Tennant (1926-2010), Scottish noble and later Lord Glenconner, acquired the island of Mustique, part of St. Vincent and the Grenadines, and turned it into a luxury playground for his friends.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Colin_Tennant,_3rd_Baron_Glenconner)(Econ, 9/11/10, p.103)
1958        The Scottish Presbyterian Church ended its 375-year ban on the Catholic feast of Christmas. Christmas remained a normal working day in Scotland until this year.

1959        May 29, Mel Gaynor, rock drummer (Simple Minds-Water Front), was born in  Glasgow, Scotland.
    (SC, 5/29/02)

1960        Mar 28, In Glasgow, Scotland, a factory exploded burying 20 fire fighters.
    (MC, 3/28/02)

1964        Peter Higgs of the Univ. of Edinburgh proposed the existence of a particle to account for why some bosons have no mass. The Higgs mechanism, a way that the massless gauge bosons in a gauge theory get a mass by interacting with a background Higgs field, was proposed in 1964 by Robert Brout and Francois Englert, independently by Peter Higgs and by Gerald Guralnik, C. R. Hagen, and Tom Kibble. It was inspired by the BCS theory of superconductivity, vacuum structure work by Yoichiro Nambu, the preceding Ginzburg–Landau theory, and the suggestion by Philip Anderson that superconductivity could be important for relativistic physics. Physicist’s search for the Higgs boson continued in 2007 with the Large Hadron Collider in Geneva, Switzerland.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Higgs_mechanism)(SFC, 9/18/00, p.A6)(Econ, 3/10/07, p.77)

1965        The modern Scottish Conservative Party was established with the merger of the Unionist Party into the Conservative Party in England and Wales.

1967        Jan 3, Mary Garden (b.1874), Scottish opera star, died in Inverurie, Scotland.

1967        Sep 20, The 963-foot passenger ship Queen Elizabeth II was launched. The RMS Queen Elizabeth 2 was christened by Britain's Queen Elizabeth II in Clydebank, Scotland.
    (www.cunard.co.uk)(AP, 9/20/07)

1967        Construction began on Scotland’s Hunterston B nuclear power plant. It was commissioned in 1976.

c1970        Peter Higgs of the Univ. of Edinburgh postulated the Higgs boson, a particle responsible for mass.
    (SFC, 9/18/00, p.A6)

1975        Apr 3, Mary Ure (b.1933), Scottish actress (Sons & Lovers, Where Eagles Dare), died.

1975        Jun 5, The Scottish National Party (SNP) wanted to leave the European project in a referendum as Britain voted to stay.
    (Econ, 3/18/17, p.60)

1976        The Isle of Eigg, Scotland, was sold to Keith Schellenberg, an industrial heir, for $375,000. He sold it in 1995 for $2.3 million to the German artist Marlin Eckhardt.  Eckhardt put the isle up for sale in 1996 as he was in debt and unable to sell his "pictures from the world beyond matter," produced by igniting paint on a fireproof canvas.
    (SFC, 8/29/96, p.A14)

1977        Tam Dalyell, British MP for the Scottish constituency of Linlithgow, posed the so-called West Lothian question during the debate on Scottish and Welsh devolution.
    (Econ, 7/8/06, p.52)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/West_Lothian_question)

1978        The Barnett Formula, devised by Joel Barnett, was introduced as mechanism used by The Treasury in the UK to adjust the amounts of public expenditure allocated to Northern Ireland, Scotland and Wales automatically to reflect changes in spending levels allocated to public services in England, England and Wales or Great Britain, as appropriate.
    (Econ, 10/26/13, p.65)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Barnett_formula)

1979        Mar, A referendum in Scotland failed to produce clear support for the devolution of power from London to a Scottish assembly.
    (Reuters, 2/16/12)

1979        Oct, The Royal Bank of Scotland (RBS) and partners Fortis of Belgium and Santander of Spain acquired Dutch lender ABN AMRO in banking’s biggest takeover.
    (https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ABN_AMRO)(Econ 5/6/17, SR p.5)

1980        Nov 13, Britain's Sexual Offenses Act, which partially decriminalized sexual behavior between consenting males over 21, was extended to Scotland in the Criminal Justice (Scotland) Act 1980. It took effect on 1 February 1981.

1980        Construction began on Scotland’s Torness nuclear power plant. It was commissioned in 1988.

1988        Dec 21, Pan Am Flight 103 was downed over Lockerbie, Scotland by a terrorist bomb. 259 people were killed aboard the Boeing 747 and 11 more people on the ground. Libya was accused of responsibility for the bombing. Two Libyan operatives, Abdel Basset al-Megrahi and A-Amin Khalifa Fahimah, were indicted in 1991 and thought to be in hiding in Libya. They were sent to the Netherlands for trial in 1999 and implicated Mohammed Abu Talb, a Palestinian terrorist jailed in Sweden. In 2000 Ahmad Behbahani (32) told a 60 Minutes journalist from a refugee camp in Turkey that he proposed the Pan Am operation and coordinated the 1996 bombing of the Khobar Towers in Saudi Arabia. He also claimed that Iran was behind the 1994 bombing in Argentina that killed 86 people. Behbahani was later called a fraud by the CIA and FBI. In 2001 a Scottish court convicted Abdel Basset Ali al-Megrahi, a Libyan intelligence officer, of murder in the 1998 bombing of Pan am Flight 103. A 2nd Libyan, Lamen Khalifa Fhimah, was acquitted. The conviction was upheld in 2002. In 2003 Libya set up a $2.7 billion fund for families of 270 people killed. Al-Megrahi was released in 2009 after he was diagnosed with prostate cancer. He later died in Tripoli.
    (WSJ, 12/18/95, p.A-9)(SFC, 5/11/96, p.A-8)(SFC, 6/7/97, p.A4)(AP, 12/21/97)(WSJ, 4/6/99, p.A1)(SFC, 11/25/99, p.A14)(SFC, 6/5/00, p.A9)(SFC, 6/6/00, p.A10)(SFEC, 6/11/00, p.A20)(SFC, 1/31/01, p.A11)(SFC, 3/15/02, p.A9)(AP, 8/15/03)(SFC, 12/17/20, p.A4)

1988        Dec 25, Christmas services were held in Lockerbie, Scotland, where residents mourned the loss of 270 lives in the bombing of Pan Am Flight 103 with relatives of the victims.
    (AP, 12/25/98)

1988        Dec 26, Another body from the bombing of Pan Am Flight 103 was found, bringing the confirmed death toll to 240.
    (AP, 12/26/98)

1988        Dec 27, Hundreds of residents of Lockerbie, Scotland, paid silent tribute to five of the Americans killed in the bombing of Pan Am Flight 103, as coffins containing victims' remains began the journey home.
    (AP, 12/27/98)

1988        Dec 28, British authorities investigating the explosion that destroyed Pan Am Flight 103 over Lockerbie, Scotland, concluded that a bomb caused the blast aboard the jumbo jet.
    (HN, 12/28/98)

1988        The Scottish National Party adopted “Independence in Europe" as a slogan.
    (Econ, 9/27/14, p.53)

1989        Feb 16, Investigators in Lockerbie, Scotland, said a bomb hidden inside a radio-cassette player was what brought down Pan Am Flight 103 the previous December, killing all 259 people aboard and 11 on the ground.
    (AP, 2/16/99)

1989        Dec, Reactor 2 of Scotland’s Hunterston A nuclear power plant was shut down. Reactor 1 was shut down the following March.

1989        British PM Margaret Thatcher's government introduces the hugely unpopular poll tax in Scotland a year before England. The tax was abolished across Britain in 1993.
    (Reuters, 2/16/12)

1991        Luke Cresswell and Steve McNicholas introduced their dance and rhythm ensemble show at the Edinburgh Festival.
    (SFEC, 2/2/97, DB. p.27)

1991        In Margate, Scotland, Vicky Hamilton (15) was last seen. In 2007 her skeleton was discovered at a house where handyman Peter Tobin used to live. Her remains were found during a search for another missing teenager, Dinah McNicol (18) from the county of Essex, eastern England, who was last seen returning from a 1991 music festival. The remains of McNicol were found a few days after the Hamilton find. Tobin (61) was charged with the murders.
    (AP, 11/16/07)(AFP, 11/17/07)

1993        Jan 5, The Braer, a Liberian-registered tanker, ran aground in Scotland's Shetland Islands, spilling some 26 million gallons of light crude oil.
    (AP, 1/5/98)(SFC, 11/20/02, p.A14)

1994        James Kelman won the Booker Prize for his novel "How Late It Was, How Late." He was the first Scot to be awarded the prize.
    (SFEC, 11/10/96, p.C17)

1996        Mar 13, Thomas Hamilton (43) killed 16 kindergarten children, a teacher and himself in a classroom in Dunblane, Scotland.
    (WSJ, 3/14/96, p.A-1)(AP, 3/13/01)

1996        Apr 13, George Mackay Brown (b.1921), Scottish poet and novelist, died in his hometown of Stromness, on the Orkney Mainland. In 2006 Maggie Ferguson authored “George Mackay Brown: The Life."
    (Econ, 6/3/06, p.81)(http://tinyurl.com/fdgky)

1996        Jul 5, A cloned lamb, named Dolly (d.2003) after Dolly Pardon, was born in Edinburgh Scotland. The event was not announced until Feb 23, 1997 when it was made public that researchers under Dr. Ian Wilmut at Edinburgh, Scotland, created a clone lamb from adult sheep DNA. In 2001 it was reported that Dolly suffered from arthritis, a sign of premature aging.
    (SFEC, 2/23/96, p.C1)(SFC, 1/5/02, p.A2)(SFC, 2/15/03, p.A2)

1996        Residents of the island of Eigg organized the purchase of the 7,400-acre island for $2.4 million. It had been in private hands since 1828.
    (Hem., 6/98, forum)

1997        Jan 20, An 1800-year-old sculpture of a lioness devouring a man was found in the mud of the Almond River near Edinburgh.
    (SFC, 1/22/96, p.A9)

1997        Feb 23, It was announced that researchers under Dr. Ian Wilmut at Edinburgh, Scotland, created a clone lamb from adult sheep DNA. The lamb was born in Jul, 1996, and named Dolly after Dolly Pardon. Dolly was put down Feb. 14, 2003, after a short life marred by premature aging and disease.
    (SFEC, 2/23/97, p.C1)(AP, 2/23/98)
1997        Sep 11, In Scotland voters went to the polls on a referendum for a separate Scottish Parliament. In a two-part referendum, 74.3% of Scots voted for a 129-member parliament to administer many aspects of Scottish life. 63.5% said 'yes' to giving it modest tax changing powers. The parliament controls schools, the health service, environmental affairs and farm support programs.
    (SFC, 9/11/97, p.A10)(SFC, 9/12/97, p.A12)(Reuters, 2/16/12)

1998        Apr 21, It was reported that the US and Britain had begun a secretive removal of nuclear materials near Tbilisi. Britain volunteered to accept the material and had already taken 270 pounds. The unused highly enriched uranium was to be processed by a Scottish plant.
    (SFC, 4/21/98, p.A18)(SFC, 4/23/98, p.A16)

1998        Aug 19, In Scotland Campbell Aird was to be fitted with a new bionic arm developed by the Prosthetics Research and Development Team at Princess Margaret Rose Orthopedic Hospital. It was to have the first fully powered electrical shoulder.
    (SFC, 8/20/98, p.A17)

1998        Aug 24, The United States and Britain agreed to allow two Libyan suspects in the bombing of Pan Am flight 103 to be tried by a Scottish court sitting in the Netherlands. A former Libyan intelligence agent was later convicted of murder; the other suspect was acquitted.
    (AP, 8/24/08)

1998        Nov 17, The Scotland Act of this year, introduced by the Labour government, was passed by the UK Parliament and received royal assent two days later. It established the devolved Scottish Parliament.

1998        The film "My Name Is Joe" was directed by Ken Loach and set in working-class Glasgow.
    (SFEC, 9/20/98, DB p.50)

c1998    Fried candy bars began to show up at US fairs, imported from the fish-and-chip shops of Scotland.
    (WSJ, 10/21/03, p.A1)

1999        Apr 5, Libya handed over to UN officials 2 men accused in the 1988 bombing of Pan Am flight 103. They were then flown to the Hague to be tried under Scottish law. UN Sec. Gen'l. Kofi Annan immediately suspended economic sanctions on Libya.
    (SFC, 3/20/99, p.A8)(SFC, 4/6/99, p.A1)

1999        May 6, In Scotland elections for the 129-member Edinburgh parliament were scheduled. Its powers would include control over taxes, health, transport, education, legal affairs, sports and the arts. Reversing decades of overwhelming loyalty to Britain's governing Labor Party, Scottish and Welsh voters elected strong nationalist oppositions to their first separate assemblies of modern times. The Scottish National Party won 56 of 129 seats, the Liberal Democrats won 17 and the Conservatives won 18.
    (SFEC, 5/2/99, p.A28)(SFC, 5/8/99, p.A10)(AP, 5/6/00)

1999        May 12, A new Scottish parliament sat for the first time in 292 years after elections. "This was the parliament adjourned on the 25th of March in 1707 and is hereby reconvened," says the oldest member of the house, the SNP's Winnie Ewing.
    (Reuters, 2/16/12)

1999        Jul 1, Scotland celebrated the opening of its 129-member Parliament.
    (SFC, 7/2/99, p.A13)

2000        Mar 23, It was reported that John MacLeod, the 29th chief of the MacLeod clan, offered for sale the 35-sq. mile Cuillin mountain range on the Isle of Skye for $16 million. The land was held by the clan for some 1200 years and the proceeds were to be used for the repair of Dunvegan Castle.
    (SFC, 3/23/00, p.D2)

2000        Oct 11, Donald Dewar, the 1st Minister of the new Parliament, died at age 63.
    (SFC, 10/12/00, p.C2)

2001        Jan 31, In the Netherlands a Scottish court sentenced Abdel Basset Ali al-Megrahi, a Libyan intelligence officer, to life in a Scottish prison for the 1998 bombing of Pan Am Flight 103. A second Libyan was acquitted.
    (SFC, 1/31/01, p.A11)(SFC, 2/1/01, p.A1)(WSJ, 2/1/01, p.A1)(AP, 12/19/03)

2001        Mar 26, Two US Air Force F15C fighter jets were lost during training. The body of one pilot, Lt. Col. Kenneth John Hyvonen, and F15 wreckage was found the next day.  Wreckage of the 2nd F15 was found after 2 days. The body of Capt. Kirk Jones was found Mar 30.
    (SFC, 3/27/01, p.F1)(SFC, 3/28/01, p.A10)(SFC, 3/29/01, p.A11)(SFC, 3/31/01, p.A14)

2001        Jun 17, Cardinal Thomas Winning, leader of Scotland’s Roman Catholics, died at age 76. He had called homosexuality a disorder and supported the Pro-Life Initiative.
    (SFC, 6/18/01, p.A15)

2001        Arthur Herman authored "How the Scots Invented the Modern World."
    (WSJ, 12/14/01, p.W14)

2001        Stanley Hauer was delivered the 2001 Gifford Lectures at the Univ. of St. Andrews in Scotland. The lectures were published as "With the Grain of the Universe." He said modern economic and scientific progress have created a warped the understanding of man and god.
    (WSJ, 12/24/01, p.A9)

2002        Feb 13, The Scottish Parliament outlawed fox hunting with dogs.
    (SFC, 2/14/02, p.A8)

2002        May, In Scotland the Falkirk Wheel, the world’s 1st rotating boat lift, opened to connect boats on the Union Canal with the Forth and Clyde Canal. The 2 canals were separated by a height of 115 feet.
    (WSJ, 1/7/06, p.P14)

2002        Scotland named the 720 square miles of Loch Lomond and the Trossachs as its 1st national park.
    (SSFC, 12/7/03, p.C8)

2003        Feb 14, Dolly (b.1996), the world’s 1st clone sheep and mother of 6 lambs, was put to sleep by veterinarians in Scotland after they failed to cure her of a severe lung infection.
    (AP, 2/15/03)(SFC, 2/15/03, p.A2)

2003        Aug, A $65 million da Vinci painting was stolen from Drumlanrig Castle in southern Scotland after two men join a public tour and overpower a guide. It was recovered four years later.
    (AP, 2/11/08)

2003        Scotland named the 1,467 square miles of Cairngorms as its 2nd national park.
    (SSFC, 12/7/03, p.C8)

2004        Jan 7, In Scotland Stephen Gough (44) was convicted of breaching the peace and sentenced to three months in jail for trying to walk the length of Britain naked to promote public nudity.
    (AP, 1/7/04)

2004        Jan 31, In southern Scotland a fire broke out at nursing home, killing 10 residents and injuring six others.
    (AP, 1/31/04)

2004        May 11, In Scotland an explosion destroyed part of a plastics factory in Glasgow. 7 people were killed and 44 injured. 2 remained missing.
    (AP, 5/11/04)(AP, 5/12/04)

2004        May 16, It was reported that a Scottish bus firm had begun issuing DNA “spit kits" to help drivers verify assault charges on passengers spitting at drivers.
    (SSFC, 5/16/04, p.A2)

2004         Jul 26, Banco Santander Central Hispano of Spain, with the help of Royal Bank of Scotland, announced a deal to acquire Abbey National Bank in the UK. The $16 billion deal created the tenth largest bank in the world.

2004        Jul 27, In Prestonpans, Scotland, Baron Gordon Prestoungrange granted posthumous pardons to 81 people convicted and executed for being witches from 1563-1727.
    (WSJ, 9/15/06, p.A10)(http://forejustice.org/wc/sp/scottish_pardons.html)

2004        Aug 7, The Edinburgh Festival Fringe, a three-week cultural jamboree, began this weekend. This year's event featured 1,700 shows, a big jump on last year's 1,541.
    (AP, 8/7/04)

2004        Oct 9, Queen Elizabeth opened Scotland's new parliament building in the HolyRood section of Edinburgh. It was finished late and cost 430 million pounds ($845 million), 10 times over budget.
    (Reuters, 2/16/12)(Econ, 5/20/06, p.27)(Econ, 7/27/19, p.52)

2004        Nov 10, The Scottish cabinet voted to ban smoking in public.
    (Econ, 11/13/04, p.61)

2004        James Robertson became the Scottish Parliament’s first writer in residence. In 2007 he authored his novel “The Testament of Gideon Mack."
    (WSJ, 4/21/07, p.P11)

2005        Jun 18, In Scotland a couple was wed in Britain's first legally recognized humanist ceremony. 12 members of the Humanist Society of Scotland were granted the right to legally conduct marriages by the country's registrar general starting June 1.
    (AP, 6/19/05)

2005        Jul 2, In Scotland tens of thousands of protesters clad in white streamed through the cobbled streets of Edinburgh, demanding that the leaders of the world's richest nations act to better the lives of the poorest.
    (AP, 7/2/05)

2005        Jul 4, In Edinburgh, Scotland, police scuffled with black-clad anarchists and antiglobalization protesters, and 450 demonstrators sat down in the road blocking an entrance to a naval base for nuclear submarines.
    (AP, 7/4/05)

2005        Jul 6, In Scotland G-8 leaders scaled back goals for relieving African poverty and combating global warming under US opposition to British PM Tony Blair's ambitious objectives. Riot police with attack dogs beat back demonstrators as thousands marched near the site of the Group of Eight summit, demanding action from the world's leaders on poverty reduction and climate change. “Make Poverty History" set out a timescale revolving around the 31st G8 summit in Gleneagles.
    (http://tinyurl.com/y8397wl7)(AP, 7/6/05)(AP, 7/7/05)

2005        Jul 7, In Scotland world leaders united in a show of solidarity to condemn the deadly bombings in London as an attack on all nations and vowed to defeat the terrorists responsible.
    (AP, 7/7/05)

2005        Jul 8, In Scotland G8 world leaders concluded an economic summit shaken by terrorism, offering an "alternative to the hatred," a $50 billion aid package for Africa and up to $3 billion in additional support for the Palestinians. They pledged new joint efforts against terrorism in response to the deadly London bombings the day before.
    (AP, 7/8/05)(Econ, 7/16/05, p.74)

2005        Aug 21, In Scotland Rory Blackhall (11), from Livingston in West Lothian, was found asphyxiated.
    (AFP, 8/23/05)

2005        Sep 22, In Scotland a judge sentenced a British lord to 16 months in prison for causing a fire at a hotel. Lord Mike Watson (56) admitted to setting fire to a curtain after having several drinks at the Scottish Politician of the Year awards ceremony in Edinburgh on Nov. 12.
    (AP, 9/22/05)

2005        Michael Fry authored “Wild Scots: Four Hundred Years of Highland History."
    (Econ, 9/3/05, p.74)
2005        Allan Massie authored “The Thistle and the Rose: Six Centuries of Love and Hate Between the Scots and the English."
    (Econ, 9/3/05, p.74)

2006        Mar 26, A smoking ban in enclosed public places took effect in Scotland, although a poll showed that a fifth of all Scottish smokers planned to ignore the new law.
    (AP, 3/26/06)

2006        Apr 6, Britain's national farming union said tests have confirmed a dead swan found in Scotland had the deadly H5N1 strain of bird flu.
    (AP, 4/6/06)

2006        Apr, Mohammed Atif Siddique (21), a British-born Muslim student, was arrested as he tried to board a flight from Glasgow to Lahore, Pakistan. He had stored and posted guides to bomb-making, guns and explosives on a network of Web sites.
    (AP, 2/9/10)   

2006        Aug 6, In Scotland the Fringe Festival kicked off when an estimated 100,000-strong crowd turned out on the streets of Edinburgh to watch a parade by 3,000 performers from the Fringe and the Edinburgh Military Tattoo.
    (AFP, 8/7/06)

2006        Sep 29, In Scotland police found the body of Angelika Kluk (23), a missing Polish student, at Saint Patrick's Roman Catholic Church in the Anderston area of Glasgow.
    (AFP, 9/30/06)

2007        Apr 12, A Norwegian oil rig support vessel carrying 15 people capsized off northern Scotland and five crew members were missing.
    (AP, 4/13/07)

2007        Apr 25, Royal Bank of Scotland, Fortis, a Belgian-Dutch lender and Santander of Spain launched a blockbuster 72-billion-euro takeover battle for Dutch group ABN Amro, outgunning by far an agreed offer by Barclays.
    (AFP, 4/25/07)(Econ, 4/28/07, p.85)(Econ, 7/19/08, p.84)

2007        May 3, Scotland held parliamentary elections. Labor was knocked out of the top spot for the 1st time in 50 years by the Scottish National Party. The SNP supported a future referendum on independence. The SNP won 47 of the 129 seats.
    (AFP, 5/3/07)(Econ, 5/12/07, p.61)(Reuters, 2/16/12)

2007        May 16, Scottish National Party leader Alex Salmond was elected to become first minister of the devolved Edinburgh parliament, after the pro-independence party's historic election victory this month.
    (AP, 5/16/07)
2007        May 16, Indian company United Spirits bought Scottish liquor maker Whyte and Mackay for more than one billion dollars, emphasizing India's growing economic clout abroad.
    (AP, 5/16/07)

2007        Jun 29, British police thwarted a devastating terrorist plot, discovering two Mercedes loaded with nails packed around canisters of propane and gasoline set to detonate and kill possibly hundreds in London's crowded theater and nightclub district. On Dec 16, 2008, Bilal Abdulla (29), an Iraqi doctor who claimed he intended only to frighten Britons, was convicted of conspiracy to murder with car bombs in London and Scotland.
    (AP, 6/30/07)(AP, 12/16/08)

2007        Jun 30, In Scotland a four-wheel-drive Jeep rammed into the main terminal at Glasgow airport and exploded in flames; the attack came a day after two cars rigged as bombs were found in London. Police arrested two men for the attack, one of them under guard in the hospital after being engulfed in flames when the Jeep crashed into the airport. The driver was later identified as Kafeel Ahmed (28), an Indian aeronautical engineer.
    (Reuters, 6/30/07)(AP, 7/1/07)(SFC, 7/9/07, p.A8)(AP, 6/30/08)

2007        Jul 1, Britain police arrested two people, a 26-year-old man and a 27-year-old woman, on a major highway in Cheshire, northern England, in a joint swoop by officers from London and Birmingham, Scotland Yard said in London in relation to the attack in Glasgow and 2 car bombs in London. A fifth suspect was arrested in Liverpool. 2 more arrests in the failed car bombings brought the total to 7.
    (AP, 7/1/07)(AP, 7/2/07)

2007        Jul 5, British media reported that a Scottish house had been used as a makeshift bomb factory to carry out the terror attacks in London and Scotland. Three "cyber-jihadis" who used the Internet to urge Muslims to wage holy war on non-believers were jailed for between six-and-a-half and 10 years in the first case of its kind in Britain.
    (AP, 7/5/07)(AFP, 7/5/07)

2007        Jul 16, The University of Edinburgh confirmed that it had withdrawn an honorary doctorate awarded to Zimbabwe’s president Robert Mugabe in 1984, because of concern over his human rights record.
    (AP, 7/16/07)

2007        Aug 2, Kafeel Ahmed (27), the suspect who was critically burned in a botched car bomb attempt at Glasgow Airport, died after 5 weeks in hospital from burns to 90% of his body.
    (AP, 8/3/07)

2007        Aug 28, Organizers in Scotland said the Edinburgh Festival Fringe, the world's biggest arts festival, this year broke its attendance record by selling 1.7 million tickets.
    (AFP, 8/28/07)

2007        Sep 15, Former world rally champion Colin McRae (39) and his five-year-old son were among four people killed in a helicopter crash in southern Scotland.
    (AFP, 9/16/07)

2007        Sep 17, In Scotland a jury at Glasgow's High Court found Mohammed Atif Siddique (21) guilty of four offenses under British terrorism laws and a separate offense of breaching the peace, carried out between March 1, 2003, and April 13, 2006. This included causing a disturbance by telling fellow students he planned to become a suicide bomber.
    (AP, 9/18/07)(AP, 2/9/10)

2007        Oct 23, Mohammed Atif Siddique (21), a British-born Muslim student, described at his trial as a "wannabe suicide bomber," was jailed in Scotland for 8 years after being convicted of promoting Islamist extremism on the Internet. On Feb 9, 2010, his conviction was overturned after a court in Scotland ruled that the trial judge did not properly instruct the jury.
    (AFP, 10/23/07)(AP, 2/9/10)

2007        Oct, The first commercial wave farm was set up off the coast of Portugal. The system was created at Pelamis Wave Power, a firm based in Scotland.
    (Econ, 6/7/08, TQ p.22)

2007        Dec 29, The Scottish government said a new case of bluetongue has been detected for the first time in Scotland.
    (AFP, 12/29/07)

2007        Scotland gained control over its railways.
    (Econ, 9/27/14, p.55)

2008        Apr 1, A woman's severed head was found on a Scottish beach. She was later identified as Jolanta Bledaite (35) from Alytus, Lithuania. On April 4 police arrested two Lithuanian men in connection with the murder.
    (AP, 4/4/08)

2008        Apr 22, The Royal Bank of Scotland announced a record share issue of 12 billion pounds to shore up its finances after huge subprime-related writedowns and the blockbuster takeover of Dutch giant ABN Amro.
    (AP, 4/22/08)

2008        Apr 27, Hundreds of workers at Scotland's only oil refinery began a 48-hour strike. This forced BP PLC to shut a pipeline system that delivers almost a third of Britain's North Sea oil.
    (AP, 4/27/08)

2008        Apr 29, Workers returned to the Grangemouth refinery in central Scotland after a 48-hour strike that forced the closure of a major North Sea pipeline system.
    (AP, 4/29/08)

2008        Jun 4, Scientists issued warnings about the puffin’s future as the population of the orange-beaked seabird off Scotland's east coast has dropped by nearly a third in less than five years.
    (AP, 6/5/08)

2008        Jul 25, British PM Gordon Brown suffered another serious blow to his leadership after Scottish nationalists won a longtime Labour seat in Glasgow.
    (AFP, 7/25/08)(WSJ, 7/26/08, p.A1)

2008        Aug 3, In Scotland the Int’l. Primatological Society Congress opened a 6-day conference. On August 5 scientists released a report saying the nearly half of the world’s 634 types of primates are in danger of becoming extinct due to human activity.
    (SFC, 8/5/08, p.A3)

2008        Nov 3, The Scottish government approved controversial plans by US tycoon Donald Trump to build a huge luxury golf resort on the country's east coast.
    (AFP, 11/3/08)

2008        Dec 29, Scottish police charged Justice Ngema (35) with attempting to murder Magdeline Makola (38), a nurse who was found locked in the trunk of her car, where police say she may have been kept for up to 10 days. Makola had been reported missing after she failed to show up for work at the Edinburgh Royal Infirmary on Dec. 18. She was last seen Dec. 15.
    (AP, 12/29/08)

2008        “The Invention of Scotland" by Hugh Trevor-Roper (1914-2003), English historian, was published posthumously.
    (WSJ, 7/26/08, p.W8)
2008        Scotland gained control over its planning rules.
    (Econ, 9/27/14, p.55)

2009        Feb 26, The Royal Bank of Scotland posted a 2008 loss of 24.1 billion pounds, the largest in British corporate history, because of the credit crunch and the mis-timed takeover of ABN Amro. The British government has meanwhile agreed to insure RBS "toxic" assets worth 325 billion pounds in its Asset Protection Scheme (APS) and will cover 90 percent of losses stemming from such holdings. Sir Fred Goodwin (50), head of RBS for a decade, insisted that he is entitled to his full pension of over £700,000 ($980,000) a year. In March Goodwin received a $4 million tax-free advance as part of his negotiated pension package. In 2013 Iain Martin authored “Making it Happen: Fred Goodwin, RBS and the men who blew Up the British Economy."
    (AFP, 2/26/09)(Econ, 3/7/09, p.22)(SFC, 3/18/09, p.A2)(Econ, 10/26/13, p.95)

2009        Mar 25, In Edinburgh, Scotland, vandals attacked the home of former Royal Bank of Scotland head Fred Goodwin, smashing windows at the house of the ex-CEO whose 700,000 pound ($1.2 million) annual pension has prompted public outrage.
    (AP, 3/25/09)

2009        Apr 1, A helicopter returning to Aberdeen with 16 people from an oil platform crashed in the North Sea. The Bond Super Puma helicopter went down off the northeast coast of Scotland. 8 bodies were recovered and the others were presumed dead. 7 bodies were later found inside the wreckage of the helicopter.
    (AFP, 4/1/09)(AP, 4/2/09)(AP, 4/5/09)

2009        May 23, The Church of Scotland voted in favor of appointing an openly gay minister, the latest case involving sexuality to create a division in the Anglican Communion. The church's ruling body voted 326 to 267 to support the appointment of the Rev. Scott Rennie (37), who was previously married to a woman and is now in a relationship with a man.
    (AP, 5/24/09)

2009        May 30, Susan Boyle (48), Scottish singing sensation, was been beaten in the televised finals of "Britain's Got Talent," by the street dance group "Diversity," who jumped, kicked and shook their way to victory against her. "Diversity" mesmerized audiences with a frenetic but perfectly choreographed dance routine.
    (AP, 5/31/09)

2009        Jun 18, The Bank of Scotland said Fred Goodwin, its disgraced former boss, has agreed to take a 40% pension cut, after widespread pressure to do so. He will see his annual pension reduced to 342,500 pounds from 555,000 pounds. The agreement was condemned by trade unions who said it did not go far enough.
    (AFP, 6/18/09)

2009        Jul 10, Earl Haig (91), Scottish artist and son of WWI Field Marshal Douglas Haig, died. He developed his gift for painting as a prisoner of war in World War II.
    (AP, 7/15/09)

2009        Aug 2, Stanley Robertson (69), the last of Scotland’s traveling storytellers, died. He had spent 47 years filleting fish for a living.
    (Econ, 9/5/09, p.94)

2009        Aug 13, Scottish officials said they were considering early release for the Lockerbie bomber, leading to sharp debate among victims' relatives in the US and Britain over whether he should be allowed to return home to Libya. British media said Abdel Baset Ali al-Megrahi could soon be freed on compassionate grounds because he is terminally ill with cancer.
    (AP, 8/13/09)

2009        Aug 20, Kenny MacAskill, Scotland’s justice secretary, freed Abdel Baset al-Megrahi (57), former Libyan intelligence agent and alleged Lockerbie bomber (Dec 21, 1988), on compassionate grounds after eight years in jail allowing him to go home to Libya to die. Al-Megrahi has terminal prostate cancer and has been given less than three months to live. In 2010 Professor Karol Sikora, who assessed for the Libyan authorities, told The Sunday Times it was "embarrassing" that he had outlived his three-month prognosis and that al-Megrahi could survive for 10 years or longer. It was later reported that BP had promoted the deal in order to protect a $900 million oil and gas exploration deal off the Libyan Mediterranean coast.
    (AP, 8/20/09)(Econ, 8/29/09, p.48)(AP, 7/03/10)(SFC, 7/16/10, p.A2)

2009        Nov 6, In Scotland finance ministers from the world's leading rich and developing countries to begin the difficult negotiations over how to even out the imbalances weighing on the world economy.
    (AP, 11/6/09)

2009        Nov 25, The British government said Scotland will be given greater tax-raising powers under the biggest shake-up of the nation's finances for 30 years.
    (Reuters, 2/16/12)

2009        Nov 30, Scotland First Minister Alex Salmond set out plans which could pave the way for a referendum on independence.
    (Reuters, 2/16/12)

2009        Colin Kidd authored “Union and Unionisms: Political Thought in Scotland 1500-2000.
    (Econ, 1/10/09, p.74)

2010        Mar 31, Scotland and Northern Ireland were battered by snow, gale force winds and torrential rain, leaving thousands of people without power and causing havoc on roads.
    (AP, 3/31/10)

2010        May 16, Aviation officials closed airports in northern England, Scotland and Northern Ireland due to a drifting, dense cloud of volcanic ash from Iceland.
    (AP, 5/16/10)

2010        May 19, John Shepherd-Barron (84), the Scotsman credited with inventing the world's first automatic cash machine, died after a short illness. The first automatic teller machine, now known as ATMs, was installed at a branch of Barclays Plc in a north London suburb on June 27, 1967.
    (AP, 5/19/10)

2010        Aug 4, In Edinburgh, Scotland, the 3 children Theresa Riggi (46), an American mother, were found dead after a suspected gas explosion. On Aug 6 she was charged with murder. On March 7, 2010, California-born Theresa Riggi pled guilty to a charge of culpable homicide on the grounds of diminished responsibility at the High Court in Edinburgh. On April 27, 2011, Riggi was sentenced to 16 years in prison.
    (SFC, 8/7/10, p.A2)(AFP, 3/7/11)(AP, 4/27/11)

2010        Sep 16, Pope Benedict XVI, arrived in Edinburgh beginning a controversial visit to Britain. He acknowledged that the Catholic Church had failed to act decisively or quickly enough to deal with priests who rape and molest children. He said the church's top priority now was to help the victims heal.
    (AP, 9/16/10)

2010        Dec 15, Scottish engineering firm Weir was fined £3 million for paying illegal kickbacks to Saddam Hussein's Iraqi regime to secure contracts. Weir admitted making payments of £3.1 million to the Iraqi regime through an agent to get contracts worth £35 million between September 2001 and April 2004 to supply spare pumps for drinking water and oil projects.
    (AFP, 12/15/10)

2010        Marine biologists predicted that Scotland’s Firth of Clyde was about to become Britain’s first ecological desert. This was based on historic catch data in the area.
    (Econ, 8/31/13, p.50)

2011        Jan 9, Chinese Vice Premier Li Keqiang kicked off a business-focused state visit to Britain with the sealing of a renewable energy deal between Scottish and Chinese companies.
    (AFP, 1/9/11)

2011        Jan 13, Scotland's First Minister Alex Salmond announced that online retailer Amazon is to create 950 full-time jobs at two Scottish locations.
    (AP, 1/13/11)

2011        Mar 8, In Scotland Ezedden Khalid Ahmed Al Khaledi (30) was arrested on suspicion of aiding a suicide bomber who had targeted Christmas shoppers in Sweden's capital on Dec 11.
    (AP, 3/14/11)

2011        May 5, Scotland held parliamentary elections. The Scottish National Party, led by first minister Alex Salmond, won a historic majority in elections for the Scottish parliament, bringing an independence referendum a step closer.
    (AFP, 5/6/11)(Econ, 5/14/11, p.73)

2011        May 18, Scotland's pro-independence First Minister Alex Salmond called for Edinburgh to have greater powers and more say in European affairs as he was officially re-elected for a second term.
    (AFP, 5/18/11)

2011        Jun 4, Greenpeace said 18 of its members have climbed a 53,000-ton oil rig in the Arctic waters off Greenland to protest deepwater drilling by a Scottish oil company there. The activists demanded Cairn Energy release a plan for how to manage a potential oil spill.
    (AP, 6/4/11)

2011        Jun 9, London said it will allow the Scottish Government to start borrowing money for infrastructural investment from 2011, earlier than a proposal to give Scotland full borrowing powers from April 2015.
    (Reuters, 2/16/12)

2011        Jul 12, Scottish couple Colin Weir (64) and his wife Chris (55), who have been married for 30 years and live in the seaside town of Largs near Glasgow, became Europe's biggest ever lottery winners, scooping £162 million ($262 million) in the EuroMillions jackpot.
    (AFP, 7/16/11)

2011        Jul 23, Rescuers in Scotland said they have guided 44 pilot whales stranded in an estuary back to sea, but 25 other whales from the pod did not survive the incident and died.
    (AP, 7/23/11)

2011        Jul 27, Scottish teenager Jake Davis (18) was arrested with 16 computers in the Shetland Islands. This was the alleged nerve center of Lulz Security (LulzSec), a group of internet hackers whose targets included computer-security and online gaming firms. The group had broken from Anonymous, another hacker group, three months earlier. Ryan Cleary (19) was arrested in June at his home in Wickford, Essex, charged with attacking websites as part of LulzSec.
    (Econ, 8/6/11, p.49)(http://shetlopedia.com/Jake_Davis)(AFP, 8/30/11)

2011        Aug 12, Royal Dutch Shell PLC said it is trying to stop oil leaking from a flow line at one of its drilling platforms in the North Sea off the coast of Scotland. On Aug 15 Shell estimated that 54,600 gallons had leaked from the Gannet Alpha oil rig. On Aug 16 Shell said a 2nd smaller leak had been found at the rig.
    (AP, 8/13/11)(SFC, 8/16/11, p.A4)(SFC, 8/17/11, p.A3)

2011        Sep 27, Scotland's First Minister Alex Salmond announced a new 35-million-pound offshore wind technology fund at the start of a two-day Scottish low carbon investment conference.
    (Reuters, 9/27/11)

2011        Dec 2, Royal Bank of Scotland said it has sold its 918 tenanted pubs in Britain to Dutch brewer Heineken for 422 million pounds, another step in its exit from non-core businesses following a government bailout.
    (Reuters, 12/2/11)

2011        Dec 5, Scottish artist Martin Boyce (44), whose works include a modernist reworking of a library table and artificial trees, won Britain's Turner Prize at a ceremony in Gateshead, north-east England.
    (AFP, 12/5/11)

2011        T.M. Devine authored “To the Ends of the Earth: Scotland’s Global Diaspora, 1750-2010."
    (Econ, 8/20/11, p.77)
2011        The Hunterston B nuclear power station in Ayrshire, Scotland, was set to close in 2011. Torness, in East Lothian, will last until 2023.

2012        Jan 9, Britain’s PM David Cameron said Scotland should hold an independence referendum as early as 2013, clashing with the SNP which does not want to hold a one before autumn 2014 - the 700th anniversary of the Battle of Bannockburn.
    (Reuters, 2/16/12)

2012        Jan 10, The British government set out conditions under which Scotland would be allowed to hold a referendum - limiting it to a single yes-or-no question and rejecting a second question on greater powers of devolution.
    (Reuters, 2/16/12)

2012        Jan 25, Scotland’s first minister, Alex Salmond, announced the wording of a referendum on the nation’s independence, scheduled for the autumn of 2014, in a consultation document. His wording kept open the option maximum self-government.
    (Econ, 1/28/12, p.57)

2012        Jan 31, Britain stripped Fred Goodwin, the former head of Royal Bank of Scotland, of his knighthood. He had steered one of Britain's largest banks to near collapse with the catastrophic buyout of a Dutch bank, a disaster that helped bring on the global financial crisis.
    (Reuters, 2/1/12)

2012        Feb 16, Britain’s PM David Cameron, on a trip to meet first minister Alex Salmond in Edinburgh, made an impassioned plea to the Scots to remain within the United Kingdom, offering instead more devolved power.
    (Reuters, 2/16/12)

2012        Mar 5, The Scottish government said Scotland plans to fit all its existing coal-fired power plants with carbon capture and storage (CCS) technology by 2025 and require new coal stations to be fully equipped with CCS from the turn of the decade.
    (Reuters, 3/5/12)

2012        Mar 27, A cloud of explosive natural gas boiling out of the North Sea from a leak at Total's abandoned Elgin platform forced wider evacuations off the Scottish coast as the French firm warned it may take six months to halt the flow.
    (Reuters, 3/27/12)

2012        Mar 30, A flare on Total's Elgin platform off Scotland's east coast was extinguished, diminishing the looming threat of an explosion.
    (Reuters, 3/31/12)

2012        Mar 30, A flare on Total's Elgin platform off Scotland's east coast was extinguished, diminishing the looming threat of an explosion. Total said it is preparing to sink two relief wells to stop the gas leak at the North Sea platform in parallel with a plugging operation.
    (AFP, 3/30/12)(Reuters, 3/31/12)

2012        Apr 14, French energy giant Total said it had made progress on plans to fix the gas leak at well G4 on its Elgin platform, 150 miles (240km) off Aberdeen on Scotland's east coast.
    (AFP, 4/14/12)

2012        Apr 18, At Edinburgh High Court a man was sentenced to life in prison for the murder of his ex-lover in a hearing which was the first of its kind in Britain to be filmed by television cameras. David Gilroy (49) must spend a minimum of 18 years behind bars for killing his colleague Suzanne Pilley (38) two years ago, after she ended their affair.
    (AFP, 4/18/12)

2012        Apr 23, Ferrovial-owned BAA said it had agreed to sell Edinburgh airport to Global Infrastructure Partners (GIP) for 807 million pounds ($1.3 billion), adding the Scottish hub to an investment portfolio that includes London's Gatwick and City airports.
    (Reuters, 4/23/12)

2012        May 1, The Scotland Act 2012, an Act of the Parliament of the United Kingdom, received Royal Assent. It set out amendments to the Scotland Act 1998 with the aim of devolving further powers to Scotland in accordance with the recommendations of the Calman Commission.

2012        May 16, French energy giant Total said it had plugged a gas leak under the North Sea Elgin platform that cost the firm hundreds of millions of dollars and threatened to trigger a major explosion off the coast of Scotland.
    (AFP, 5/16/12)

2012        Jun 7, In Scotland the number of confirmed and suspected cases of Legionnaires' disease in Edinburgh rose to 51, as officials continued to search for the source of the deadly outbreak. One man, who had existing health problems, died a day earlier while being treated for the lung infection. A 2nd death was reported on June 15. A probe so far focused on industrial cooling towers in the southwest of the city.
    (AFP, 6/7/12)(AFP, 6/15/12)

2012        Jun 15, A Scottish authority in Argyll lifted its ban stopping a nine-year-old Scottish girl from photographing her school lunches and posting them on her blog, after the move sparked outrage online. Six weeks ago, Martha Payne began taking photos of the uninspiring lunches provided by her school canteen and posting them on her blog, "NeverSeconds."
    (AFP, 6/15/12)

2012        Jun 25, In Scotland the TED Global conference, known for taking an innovative look at cutting-edge issues, opened in Edinburgh. with the theme “radical openness." The 5-day event  was set to explore the implications of crowd sourcing, blogs, smartphones and other culture-changing features of the Internet Age.
    (AFP, 6/25/12)
2012        Jun 25, State-rescued Royal Bank of Scotland battled to repair an already battered reputation as it struggled to fix a week-old computer glitch that has affected millions of customers. Software problems that left customers at the bank and at RBS-owned lenders NatWest and Ulster Bank unable to pay bills, access accounts and receive wages have been fixed, but a huge backlog of unprocessed transactions remain.
    (AFP, 6/25/12)

2012        Jul 3, Two British Tornado GR4s from Royal Air Force Lossiemouth, each piloted by a two member crew, went down in the Moray Firth in northeast Scotland. A helicopter airlifted two airmen to a hospital in Inverness while efforts to find the missing pair were called off due to poor visibility and bad weather.
    (AFP, 7/4/12)

2012        Sep 2, A wildlife rescue organization said 13 whales have died following a mass stranding off the Scottish coast. British Divers and Marine Life Rescue said that the mammals were among a group of 26 pilot whales stranded at Pittenweem in eastern Scotland.
    (AP, 9/2/12)

2012        Oct 12, In Scotland heavy rain and flooding hit large swathes of the country, bursting riverbanks, turning roads into torrents and stranding people in their homes.
    (AP, 10/12/12)

2012        Oct 15, Scotland set up a historic independence referendum after PM Alex Salmond signed an agreement with Britain's PM David Cameron finalizing arrangements for a 2014 vote which could lead to the demise of its 3-centuries-old union with England.
    (Reuters, 10/15/12)

2012        Oct 19, Britain's financial regulator fined Bank of Scotland (BoS) 4.2 million pounds for failures in its systems which meant it held inaccurate mortgage records for 250,000 of its customers.
    (Reuters, 10/20/12)

2012        Ann Glover (b.1956), Scottish molecular biologist, became the EU’s first chief scientific advisor. She continued to 2014 when her mandate expired without renewal.
    (Econ, 12/20/14, p.83)
2012        The population of Scotland was about 5 million.
    (Econ, 4/14/12, p.16)

2013        Jan 19, In Scotland an avalanche killed four climbers at Glencoe in the Scottish Highlands.
    (AP, 1/19/13)

2013        Feb 6, The Royal Bank of Scotland announced a settlement in which it agreed to pay American regulators $475 million and another $137 million to Britain’s Financial Services Authority for rigging the London Interbank Offered Rate (LIBOR).
    (Econ, 2/9/13, p.71)

2013        Feb 20, Scottish singer Emeli Sande won the coveted best album honour at the BRIT Awards for "Our Version of Events", confirming her status as favourite going into British pop's big night of the year.
    (Reuters, 2/20/13)

2013        Feb 22, BP tanker drivers have begun a 3-day strike at Petroineos's Grangemouth refinery in Scotland over a plan to transfer some of them to another employer, which would affect their pensions and pay.
    (AP, 2/22/13)

2013        Mar 3, Scottish Cardinal Keith O’Brien acknowledged having engaged in unspecified sexual misbehavior, apologized for his actions a d recused himself from the conclave to select a new pope.
    (SFC, 3/4/13, p.A3)

2013        Mar 26, The Scottish government approved an offshore wind farm near Aberdeen. American tycoon Donald Trump vowed to bring a lawsuit to stop the $349 million development. He feared it would spoil the views at his nearby luxury golf course.
    (SFC, 3/27/13, p.A2)

2013        May 15, The Vatican ordered disgraced Scottish Cardinal Keith O'Brien to leave Scotland for several months to pray and atone for sexual misconduct, issuing a rare public sanction against a "prince of the church" and the first such punishment meted out by Pope Francis.
    (AP, 5/15/13)

2013        May 23, A rising tide of seaweed halted a nuclear power station near Edinburgh, Scotland, threatening to clog up its cooling system.
    (Reuters, 5/24/13)00000000

2013        Jul 24, The Vatican named a new Scottish archbishop to replace disgraced Cardinal Keith O'Brien, who resigned in February after admitting sexual misconduct. Monsignor Leo Cushley (52) was named the new Roman Catholic archbishop of St Andrews and Edinburgh after years working in the Vatican bureaucracy.
    (AP, 7/24/13)

2013        Aug 23, Four people were killed when a helicopter carrying 16 oil workers and two crew crashed off Scotland's Shetland islands, the fourth incident in the area involving different models of the widely used aircraft in just over four years. The Super Puma L2, made by EADS unit Eurocopter, was operated by CHC Helicopter for France's Total.
    (Reuters, 8/24/13)

2013        Sep 17, The video game “Grand Theft Auto V," made in Edinburgh, Scotland, by Rockstar North, was released. Take-Two Interactive, the American owner of Rockstar North, expected to take as much as £1 billion in revenues.
    (Econ, 9/21/13, p.60)

2013        Oct 23, Swiss-based petrochemical firm Ineos said it would close its Grangemouth plant in Scotland with the loss of hundreds of jobs after failing to resolve a bitter labor dispute.
    (AFP, 10/23/13)

2013        Nov 1, State-rescued Royal Bank of Scotland announced plans to create an internal 'bad bank' to run down £38 billion of high-risk assets and accelerate its return to the private sector.
    (AFP, 11/1/13)

2013        Nov 11, Drugs group Shire, based in Scotland, said that it has agreed to buy US-based rare disease specialist ViroPharma for about $4.2 billion (3.1 billion euros) in cash.
    (AFP, 11/11/13)

2013        Nov 26, Scotland’s first minister Alex Salmond launched an independence campaing and unveiled a 667-page plan for independence. A referendum was scheduled for September, 2014.
    (Econ, 11/30/13, p.55)

2013        Nov 29, In Scotland a police helicopter crashed onto a crowded Glasgow pub. 10 people were killed with more than two dozen injured.
    (AP, 11/30/13)(AFP, 12/1/13)(AFP, 12/2/13)(AP, 2/14/14)

2013        Dec 5, Hurricane-force gusts hit Scotland, causing a fatal truck accident, halting all trains and leaving tens of thousands of homes without electricity.
    (AP, 12/5/13)

2014        Jan 13, Britain vowed to honor all government debt up until the date of Scotland's possible independence, should Scottish people vote to break away from the United Kingdom later this year.
    (AFP, 1/13/14)

2014        Jan 17, In Scotland the body of a missing Edinburgh youngster was found in Fife shortly before midnight. The mother of  Mikaeel Kular (3) was detained following the discovery. The boy was last seen on Jan 15.
    (AFP, 1/18/14)

2014        May 31, In Scotland the Edinburgh tram system finally opened to the public -- four years late, half the size and twice the cost originally planned.
    (AFP, 5/31/14)

2014        Sep 10, Britain’s PM David Cameron begged Scots not to rip apart Britain's "family of nations", visiting Scotland in an attempt to stem a steep last minute rise in secessionist support ahead of a Sept. 18 referendum on independence.
    (Reuters, 9/10/14)

2014        Sep 18, Scotland voted on whether to stay within the United Kingdom or end the 307-year-old union with England and become an independent nation. In a record 85 percent turnout opponents of independence won 55 percent of the vote while separatists won 45 percent with all 3.6 million votes counted.
    (Reuters, 9/18/14)(Reuters, 9/19/14)

2014        Sep 19, Scottish nationalist Alex Salmond resigned as leader of his party and will quit as First Minister of his country after losing an independence referendum.
    (Reuters, 9/19/14)

2014        Nov 20, British regulators fined Royal Bank of Scotland PLC 56 million pounds ($87 million) for computer problems that made it impossible for customers to get access to their accounts.
    (AP, 11/20/14)

2014        Nov 27, Britain's main political parties agreed to grant Scotland new tax and spending powers to fulfill a promise of greater autonomy made as politicians scrambled to persuade Scots to reject independence in a recent referendum.
    (AP, 11/27/14)

2014        Dec 10, Up to 17,000 residents in the west of Scotland were left without power as a "weather bomb" of wet and windy conditions battered parts of Britain with gusts expected to reach up to 80 miles per hour.
    (Reuters, 12/10/14)

2014        Dec 22, In Scotland a refuse truck crashed into a group of pedestrians in Glasgow killing 6 people.
    (Reuters, 12/22/14)

2014        Dec 25, Some 2,725 employees of Scottish Citylink, a long distance express coach operator in Scotland and Ireland (where it operates as Irish Citylink), learned that the company had gone into administration.
    (Econ, 1/3/15, p.42)

2015        Jan 3, A cargo ship carrying cement overturned off the coast of Scotland.  The Cypriot-registered Cemfjord sank the next day. The crew of seven Poles and one Filipino were missing.
    (AFP, 1/4/15)

2015        Feb 10, Scotland’s Royal and Ancient Golf Club announced its first seven female members, including Swedish great Annika Sorenstam and Britain's Princess Anne.
    (AP, 2/10/15)

2015        Apr 12, In Scotland Karen Buckley (24) from Cork was last seen leaving a Glasgow nightclub in the early hours. On April 15 officers arrested a 21-year-old man and said they were "following a definite line of enquiry". On April 16 police said they have recovered human remains on a farm close to the city.
    (AFP, 4/16/15)

2015        Apr 20, The annual Goldman Environmental Prize was awarded in San Francisco to six activists. They included: Marilyn Baptiste (44) of Canada, for her work to stop the development of an open pit gold and copper mine that threatened lakes in British Columbia; Berta Caceres (42) of Honduras for her efforts fighting the Agua Zarca Dam, which threatened to cut off the water and hunting grounds of the Lenca people; Phyllis Omido (35) of Kenya for her work exposing lead fumes from a smelting plant; Jean Wiener of Haiti (50) for his efforts to protect and restore marine wildlife; Howard Wood (60) of Scotland for his efforts to restore undersea ecology; and Myint Zaw (39) of Myanmar for halt the construction of a hydroelectric plant on the Irrawaddy River that would submerge 50 villages and displace 18,000 people.   
    (SFC, 4/20/15, p.A6)

2015        Apr 23, British coastguard seized more than two tons of cocaine off the east coast of Scotland. French customs shared "specific information allowing two ships from the Royal Navy and the British coastguards to board a tug 100 km (60 miles) east of Scotland carrying the cocaine. Nine men were soon charged with drug trafficking.
    (AFP, 4/26/15)

2015        May 7, Britain held general elections. PM David Cameron won a stunning election victory with a clear majority. He will form the first majority Conservative government since John Major's surprise victory in 1992. The Scottish National Party (SNP) obliterated its opponents, taking 56 of Scotland's 59 seats in the Westminster parliament.
    (AP, 5/7/15)(Reuters, 5/8/15)

2015        May 20, JPMorgan Chase, Citigroup, Barclays and The Royal Bank of Scotland announced a settlement with the US Justice Dept. and will pay $2.5 billion in fines and plead guilty to criminally manipulating global currency market going back to 2007. UBS, has agreed to plead guilty to manipulating key interest rates and will pay a separate $203 million criminal penalty.
    (AP, 5/20/15)

2015        Aug 9, Scotland's devolved government said it intended to ban the growing of genetically modified (GM) crops on its territory to protect its "clean and green brand" and because there was little evidence that Scottish consumers wanted GM products.
    (Reuters, 8/9/15)

2015        Oct 15, Scottish prosecutors said that Scottish and US investigators have identified two Libyan suspects believed to have been involved in the 1988 Lockerbie airline bombing which killed 270 people.
    (Reuters, 10/15/15)

2015        Nov 24, A Scottish court handed oil major Royal Dutch Shell a 22,500 pound ($33,919) fine by for a spill of more than 200 tons of oil into the central North Sea in August 2011.
    (Reuters, 11/24/15)

2015        Dec 24, The Churches of England and Scotland said they have reached an historic agreement to work more closely together.
    (AFP, 12/24/15)

2015        Gavin Francis, a Scottish doctor, authored “Adventures in Human Being".
    (Econ, 6/13/15, p.80)
2015        In Scotland a package of changes, contained in a Land Reform Bill, defined land as a finite resource that must be protected in law for the common good and in the public interest. The third stage of a detailed, 10 part Bill passed in March, 2016, paved the way for a new Land Register to ensure greater transparency of land ownership and improvements to community rights to roam common land. Centuries-old traditions had led to 430 people owning half of Scotland's privately held land.
    (Reuters, 4/8/16)

2016        Mar 14, Peter Maxwell Davies (81), an experimental, socially radical composer who served as Queen Elizabeth II's official master of music, died of leukemia at his home in Scotland's Orkney islands.
    (AP, 3/14/16)(Econ, 4/9/16, p.90)

2016        Mar 24, In Scotland shopkeeper Asad Shah (40), a Muslim of the pacifist Ahmadiya sect, was killed in Glasgow. Another Muslim man was soon arrested in connection with Shah's death. On July 7 suspect Tanveer Ahmed (32), A Sunni Muslim from Bradford in northern England, pleaded guilty at Glasgow's High Court. Ahmed said he killed Shah because he felt he had disrespected Islam.
    (AP, 3/26/16)(AP, 7/7/16)(Econ, 5/21/16, p.52)

2016        May 5, Scotland held elections.
    (Econ, 4/30/16, p.54)

2016        May 21, The Church of Scotland voted to let its ministers enter same-sex marriages, but its clergy will not be allowed to conduct same-sex weddings.
    (SSFC, 5/22/16, p.A6)

2016        Jun 23, Britons voted to exit the European Union. Scotland voted decisively to stay in the EU by 62 to 38 percent in the referendum, putting it at odds with the United Kingdom as a whole, which voted 52-48 percent in favor of an exit from the EU, or Brexit. 17.4 million people voted to leave.
    (Reuters, 6/23/16)(Reuters, 6/24/16)(Econ, 7/2/16, p.14)

2016        Jun 29, Scottish First Minister Nicola Sturgeon made a dash to Brussels to tell the EU that Scots were intent on staying in the bloc, hours after David Cameron told a summit that Britain was pulling out.
    (Reuters, 6/29/16)

2016        Jul 15, British PM Theresa May visited Scotland and met with First Minister Nicola Sturgeon in Edinburgh seeking to dampen speculation about another Scottish vote for independence, while insisting she is willing to listen to proposals about Scotland's future relationship with the European Union.
    (AP, 7/15/16)

2016        Jul 29, Scottish police said 77 people have been charged following a six-week operation against online child abuse. Police found more than 30 million pictures of young people being abused during the operation.
    (SFC, 7/30/16, p.A2)

2016        Jul 30, In Scotland around 3,000 people rallied in Glasgow demanding a second referendum on Scottish independence in the wake of Britain's vote to leave the EU.
    (AFP, 7/30/16)

2016        Aug 12, In Scotland two Turkish sailors were jailed for a total of 42 years after their attempt to smuggle a huge haul of cocaine into Europe was thwarted in April 2015, partly due to some swift international co-operation between Britain and Tanzania.
    (Reuters, 8/12/16)

2016        Sep 2, Scotland's First Minister Nicola Sturgeon launched a major new survey on independence, saying the Brexit vote had changed the conditions that existed when Scotland voted against secession in 2014.
    (AFP, 9/2/16)

2016        Oct 5, A trio of European scientists has won the 2016 Nobel Prize for Chemistry for developing molecular machines that could one day be injected to fight cancer or used to make new types of materials and energy storage devices. Frenchman Jean-Pierre Sauvage, Scotland's J. Fraser Stoddart and Dutchman Bernard Feringa developed molecules that produce mechanical motion in response to a stimulus, allowing them to perform specific tasks.
    (Reuters, 10/5/16)

2016        Dec 24, Officials said engineers have restored service in the vast majority of homes in northern Scotland that lost power during the intense winds of Storm Barbara.
    (AP, 12/24/16)

2017        Mar 13, Scottish First Minister Nicola Sturgeon demanded a new independence referendum in late 2018 or early 2019, once the terms of Britain's exit from the European Union have become clearer. Britain’s PM Theresa May chided Sturgeon for demanding an independence referendum, saying the Scottish National Party (SNP) had "tunnel vision" on breaking away from the United Kingdom.
    (Reuters, 3/13/17)

2017        Mar 16, British PM Theresa May rejected a call for a referendum on Scottish independence before Britain leaves the European Union — a move condemned as a "democratic outrage" by Scotland's nationalist leader.
    (AP, 3/16/17)

2017        Mar 31, The Scottish government formally asked British PM Theresa May for a second referendum on independence, deepening a constitutional crisis sparked by the Brexit vote.
    (AFP, 3/31/17)

2017        May 4, Electoral contests were held for local councils in Scotland, Wales and many parts of England, as well as mayoral competitions in several cities. PM Theresa May's Conservatives scored big gains in the local elections.
    (AP, 5/5/17)

2017        Jun 8, The Scottish Episcopal Church voted in Edinburgh to allow its clerics to marry same-sex couples.
    (SFC, 6/9/17, p.A2)
2017        Jun 8, In Britain’s general election the separatist Scottish National Party (SNP) lost 21 seats of their 56 parliamentary seats.
    (AFP, 6/9/17)

2017        Jun 9, Scotland's leader Nicola Sturgeon promised to "reflect" on major losses for her Scottish National Party in Britain's general election, admitting the poor performance was in part down to her independence plans.
    (AFP, 6/9/17)

2017        Jun 27, First Minister Nicola Sturgeon said Scotland's devolved government has shelved its immediate plans to hold a second independence referendum until after the terms of Britain's exit from the United Kingdom are clear.
    (Reuters, 6/27/17)

2017        Jul 12, The Royal Bank of Scotland said it has reached a $5.5 billion settlement in the United States over the mis-selling of mortgage-backed securities before the financial crisis. The bank must still resolve outstanding civil and criminal claims with the Department of Justice.
    (AP, 7/12/17)

2017        Sep 5, Scotland's First Minister Nicola Sturgeon said Scotland plans to phase out new petrol and diesel cars by 2032, eight years earlier than under proposals set out by the London government.
    (Reuters, 9/5/17)

2017        Sep 12, Scotland's devolved government recommended that its parliament at Holyrood withhold consent for legislation to withdraw Britain from the European Union, on the grounds that it could water down their powers.
    (Reuters, 9/12/17)

2017        Nov 7, Scotland's devolved government issued an apology to men convicted in the past for same-sex activity and passed a new law which will allow them to clear their names.
    (Reuters, 11/7/17)

2018        Mar 1, Heavy snowfall and deadly blizzards lashed Europe. Exceptional snow and wind forced airports to close in Scotland, Switzerland and France and stranded several hundred drivers in their cars.
    (AFP, 3/1/18)

2018        Mar 19, In northern England Cardinal Keith O'Brien (80), an outspoken critic of gay marriage, died in Newcastle-upon-Tyne. The disgraced former head of the Roman Catholic Church in Scotland had stepped down in 2013 after a sex scandal.
    (Reuters, 3/19/18)

2018        Mar 20, A legal attempt by anti-Brexit campaigners to establish that Britain could unilaterally reverse Brexit was given a boost by Scotland's top court, which said it wants to examine the case in greater depth.
    (Reuters, 3/20/18)

2018        Mar 28, In Scotland former Catalan minister Clara Ponsati, facing extradition to Spain on charges of rebellion, turned herself in to authorities in Edinburgh. Ponsati was granted bail after appearing for an extradition hearing at a Scottish court.
    (AP, 3/28/18)(Reuters, 3/28/18)

2018        Mar 30, In Scotland Drue Heinz (103), widow of the former head of the H.J. Heinz Co. and a longtime patron of the literary arts, died in Lasswade.
    (AP, 3/30/18)

2018        Apr 25, European law enforcement agencies said a British and Dutch-led operation brought down webstresser.org, a website linked to more than four million cyberattacks around the world, with banking giants among the victims. Authorities in five countries including the Netherlands, Serbia, Croatia and Canada, with support from Police Scotland and Europol, targeted six members of the crime group.
    (AFP, 4/24/18)

2018        May 1, Scotland became the first country in the world to introduce minimum unit pricing for alcohol n an effort reduce deaths from alcohol-related illnesses.
    (AP, 5/1/18)

2018        May 9, In Scotland Frightened Rabbit singer Scott Hutchison (36) was reported missing after leaving a hotel in South Queensferry, near Edinburgh. On May 11 police confirmed that a body discovered at a Scottish marina is that of Scott Hutchison.
    (AP, 5/11/18)

2018        May 10, It was reported that the Royal Bank of Scotland (RBS) has agreed to pay US regulators $4.9 billion in fines to settle litigation over subprime mortgage products it sold before the 2008 financial meltdown.
    (AFP, 5/10/18)

2018        May 11, In Scotland the five tenants on the Isle of Ulva celebrated after reaching an agreement to buy their home, fending off bids from tycoons. A Community Right to Buy was granted over the bulk of the estate at a price set by an independent valuation ordered by the Scottish Government.
    (AFP, 5/11/18)

2018        Jun 13, Lawmakers from the Scottish National Party (SNP) staged a dramatic walkout from the British parliament after their leader was ordered to leave the House of Commons in a row over Brexit.
    (Reuters, 6/13/18)

2018        Jun 16, In Scotland Glasgow suffered a major blow as a second severe fire in four years gutted the historic Glasgow School of Art, one of the Scottish city's most beloved cultural treasures.
    (AP, 6/16/18)

2018        Jul 2, In Scotland the body of Alesha MacPhail (6), who was visiting relatives on the Isle of Bute, was found in woodland near the town of Rothesay. Extra officers were soon brought in from the mainland to hunt for the killer.
    (Reuters, 7/4/18)

2018        Jul 14, In Scotland thousands of people staged colorful, peaceful protests against Donald Trump as the US president played golf at one of his luxury retreats.
    (AP, 7/14/18)

2018        Jul 24, US President Donald Trump's family business unveiled plans to invest 150 million pounds ($196 million) in the second phase of development at its controversial golf course in northeastern Scotland.
    (AP, 7/24/18)

2018        Aug 13, Influential British publisher John Calder (b.1927) died in Edinburgh. He championed avant-garde authors, battled censorship and published such European writers as Anton Chekhov, Leo Tolstoy and Emile Zola, as well as newer authors, notably Samuel Beckett, and edgy Americans including Henry Miller and William S. Burroughs.
    (AP, 8/15/18)

2018        Aug 16, Peter Morgan, a Scottish man with far-right views, was sentenced in Edinburgh to 12 years in prison for attempting to build a bomb that prosecutors say could have caused carnage.
    (AP, 8/16/18)

2019        Jan 24, Former Scottish First Minister Alex Salmond denied committing any crime after he appeared in court, charged with multiple sex offences including attempted rape.
    (Reuters, 1/24/19)

2019        Feb 7, The council of Scotland's capital Edinburgh said it will become the first British city to introduce a tourist tax to try to better manage the impact of swelling visitor numbers and booming hotel occupancy. The idea needs a final sign-off by Scotland's devolved parliament.
    (Reuters, 2/7/19)

2019        Feb 25, Kim Vincent Avis (55), aka Ken Gordon-Avis, reportedly vanished after going for a nighttime swim in treacherous waters in Monterey, Ca. Detectives soon began to suspect a hoax. Avis was wanted on 24 counts of rape in Scotland. In July he was arrested in Colorado Springs, Colorado.
    (AP, 7/27/19)

2019        Aug 23, Scotland's University of Glasgow said it would spend 20 million pounds ($24.4 million) to make amends for the historic financial support it received from people who profited from the slave trade.
    (Reuters, 8/23/19)

2019        Aug 29, Ruth Davidson (40) quit as leader of the Conservative Party in Scotland, saying she could no longer juggle the demands of being a politician with family life and after doing everything she could to mitigate the risks of Brexit.
    (Reuters, 8/29/19)

2019        Sep 4, A Scottish judge declined to block Boris Johnson’s plan to suspend Parliament, dealing a blow to lawmakers who argued that there isn’t enough time to thwart a no-deal Brexit.
    (Bloomberg, 9/4/19)

2019        Sep 11, Britain's PM Boris Johnson lost a Scottish court ruling on the suspension of Parliament, throwing the deadlocked British political system into even greater confusion ahead of the Oct. 31 Brexit date.
    (Bloomberg, 9/11/19)

2019        Sep 26, US President Donald Trump's real estate company received approval in Scotland to build hundreds of homes on the property where it already has a golf course.
    (AP, 9/26/19)

2019        Oct 3, The Scottish government said that the imposition of US tariffs on various goods including Scottish whisky indicated that the United Kingdom could not offset the damage from Brexit by striking a trade deal with US President Donald Trump.
    (Reuters, 10/3/19)

2019        Oct 5, Tens of thousands of Scottish independence supporters marched in Edinburgh, as calls grew for a fresh vote on Scotland breaking away from the United Kingdom with Brexit scheduled for within weeks.
    (AFP, 10/5/19)

2019        Nov 14, A Scottish court ordered bail for Clara Ponsatí (62), the fugitive Catalan former politician whose extradition is sought by Spain on charges of sedition for her role in a secession drive by Catalonia.
    (AP, 11/14/19)

2019        Dec 12, Britain voted in a deeply divisive election that posed a historic choice between an imminent split from the EU or another referendum that could scrap the entire Brexit process. PM Boris Johnson's Conservative Party won a resounding victory that all but seals a divorce from the EU bloc. The Scottish National Party took back most of the districts it lost two years ago. Such a dramatic outcome, winning 48 of the 59 seats available in Scotland, will galvanize the party in its pursuit of the independence referendum leader Nicola Sturgeon.
    (AP, 12/12/19)(AFP, 12/13/19)(Bloomberg, 12/13/19)

2019        Dec 17, Scottish First Minister Nicola Sturgeon reiterated her plan to demand the right to hold another independence referendum.
    (Bloomberg, 12/17/19)

2020        Mar 23, In Scotland an Edinburgh jury acquitted former leader Alex Salmond (65) of sex crimes involving allegations from nine women.
    (SFC, 3/24/20, p.A2)

2020        Mar 31, The death toll in England from the coronavirus outbreak rose 29% to 1,651. Scotland said 60 people had died. Wales said 69 people had died.
    (Reuters, 3/31/20)

2020        May 30, It was reported that a fossilized millipede-like creature discovered in Scotland may represent the oldest-known land animal, a humble pioneer of terrestrial living 425 million years ago. Researchers said the fossil of the Silurian Period creature, called Kampecaris obanensis and unearthed on the island of Kerrera in the Scottish Inner Hebrides, inhabited a lakeside environment and likely ate decomposing plants.
    (Reuters, 5/30/20)

2020        Jun 26, In Scotland a suspected attacker was shot dead by police in Glasgow. One police officer was stabbed and five people were hospitalized with injuries.
    (SFC, 6/27/20, p.A2)

2020        Aug 5, Officials in Scotland ordered bars, cafes and restaurants in the city of Aberdeen to close, re-imposing anti-virus restrictions after a cluster of 54 confirmed COVID-19 cases in the area was linked to a single bar.
    (AP, 8/5/20)

2020        Aug 12, In Scotland a driver was among 3 people killed this morning when a ScotRail train derailed in Aberdeenshire. An investigation later revealed that the train had struck a pile of washed-out rock and gravel before derailing.
    (AP, 8/12/20)(SFC, 9/11/20, p.A2)

2020        Aug 26, Scotland said it is buying 300 COVID-19 testing machines that can give results in 12 minutes, helping to locate potential outbreaks in remote locations.
    (Reuters, 8/26/20)

2020        Nov 25, Scotland's Parliament passed legislation making sanitary products free to all girls and women. Scotland became the first country to make period products freely available.
    (SFC, 11/26/20, p.A3)

2020        Dec 24, First Minister Nicola Sturgeon said it was time for Scotland to become “an independent, European nation" after a trade deal was sealed with Brussels, and accused Boris Johnson of "cultural vandalism" for pulling out of the Erasmus student program.
    (The Telegraph, 12/24/20)

2021        Jan 4, Scottish First Minister Nicola Sturgeon announced a new lockdown in response to a highly transmissible variant of the coronavirus. Sturgeon said the new COVID-19 variant accounts for nearly half of new cases in Scotland, and is 70% more transmissible.
    (Reuters, 1/4/21)

2021        Jan 7, It was reported that many Scottish fishermen have halted exports to European Union markets after post-Brexit bureaucracy shattered the system that used to put fresh langoustines and scallops in French shops just over a day after they were harvested.
    (Reuters, 1/7/21)

2021        Feb 15, Scotland's First Minister Nicola Sturgeon confirmed that the "phased and gradual return to school" will go ahead in Scotland as planned from Feb 22.
    (The Telegraph, 2/15/21)

2021        Feb 18, It was reported that Scotland's First Minister Nicola Sturgeon has ordered that the EU flag is flown from Scottish government buildings every day, despite Britain no longer being a member of the bloc.
    (The Telegraph, 2/18/21)

2021        May 7, Scotland held parliamentary elections. The governing Scottish National Party was on course to win its fourth straight term in office. Final results of the local elections showed that the SNP won 64 of the 129 seats in the Edinburgh-based Scottish Parliament, one seat short of securing an overall majority.
    (AP, 5/8/21)(AP, 5/9/21)

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