Timeline Russia (F) 2007-2014

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2007        Jan 6, Belarus stepped up its dispute with Russia over energy sales by announcing Saturday it has started a customs case against Transneft, Russia's pipeline operator.
    (AP, 1/6/07)

2007        Jan 7, Russia stopped pumping oil into a pipeline network that crossed Belarus. The line delivered 12.5% of the EU’s oil needs.
    (Econ, 1/13/07, p.44)

2007        Jan 8, A senior Russian official said that Russia has been forced to stop delivering oil to Europe via Belarus after disruptions to the flow of exports it blamed on Minsk.
    (AP, 1/8/07)

2007        Jan 9, Mikhail Prokhorov (41), chief executive of Russian mining giant OAO Norilsk Nickel, was detained in France for questioning as part of a crackdown on a suspected prostitu-tion ring at an upscale ski resort.
    (AP, 1/11/07)

2007        Jan 10, In Russia Liana Askerova said she was detained as part of the investigation into the killing of Andrei Kozlov, the Central Bank first deputy chairman who was shot point-blank on Sept. 13 as he left a soccer game in Moscow.
    (AP, 1/12/07)
2007        Jan 10, Belarus lifted a duty it had imposed on Russian fuel transiting the country.
    (SFC, 1/11/07, p.A7)

2007        Jan 11, Oil flowed again through the main pipeline from Russia to Europe after Moscow and Belarus agreed to settle a dispute that has hurt Russia's reputation as an energy supplier.
    (AP, 1/11/07)

2007        Jan 12, Russia reportedly agreed to slash the duty on oil exports to Belarus by 70% and Belarus will share with Moscow a substantial amount of profits from the refined oil products it sells to Europe.
    (AP, 1/12/07)
2007        Jan 12, Roman Abramovich, Russian oil magnate, was reported to have ordered a new yacht called the Eclipse. It was under construction in Germany and was expected to measure over 525 feet, making it the largest privately owned yacht in the world.
    (WSJ, 1/12/07, p.W1)
2007        Jan 12, China and Russia blocked the Security Council from demanding an end to political repression and human rights violations in military-ruled Myanmar, rejecting a resolution pro-posed by the United States. South Africa sided with China and Russia.
    (AP, 1/13/07)(Econ, 1/27/07, p.47)
2007        Jan 12, French authorities freed Mikhail Prokhorov, a Russian billionaire, following four days of questioning in connection with an investigation into a suspected prostitution ring at the swank Alpine ski resort of Courchevel.
    (AP, 1/12/07)

2007        Jan 15, Russian authorities began cracking down on millions of illegal migrants throughout Russia as new rules tightening government control of migration came into effect, prompting concerns that the country could face serious shortages of low-wage laborers.
    (AP, 1/15/07)
2007        Jan 15, More than 500 armed militants in Chechnya and other parts of Russia's troubled North Caucasus surrendered to authorities as part of an amnesty that expired at day’s end.
    (AP, 1/15/07)

2007        Jan 16, Russia said it had delivered new anti-aircraft missile systems to Iran and would consider further requests by Tehran for defensive weapons.
    (Reuters, 1/16/07)

2007        Jan 17, Russian prosecutors charged Alexei Frenkel, a bank officer, with organizing the murder of a senior Central Bank official who sought to clean up Russia's banking industry. Charges were formally entered against Frenkel in connection with the killing of Andrei Kozlov, who was shot at point-blank range on Sept. 13 as he left a soccer game in Moscow.
    (AP, 1/17/07)
2007        Jan 17, Russian lawmakers sharply criticized Estonia for possible plans to remove a 1947 statue that honors Red Army soldiers who helped drive Nazi forces from the Baltic nation. Last week the Estonian president signed into law a bill allowing for the removal of the statue. The monument upset many in the country that suffered five decades of Soviet occupation.
    (AP, 1/18/07)

2007        Jan 18, President Vladimir Putin ordered Russia's ambassador to Georgia to return to the Georgian capital after recalling him four months ago, saying that the two countries must "normalize" badly strained ties.
    (AP, 1/18/07)

2007        Jan 20, Konstantin Borovko (25), a Russian television journalist, was beaten to death in Vladivostok. Colleagues said they did not think the killing was related to his work.
    (AP, 1/22/07)
2007        Jan 20, The Russian population was reported to be shrinking by some 750,000 people per year. New rules put severe restrictions on foreign workers in retail operations. Russia planned to make available 6 million work permits for migrants from poor ex-Soviet republics.
    (Econ, 1/20/07, p.61)
2007        Jan 20, Czech PM Mirek Topolanek said the US wants to build a radar base in the Czech Republic as part of its global missile defense system. Poland was also mentioned as a potential site. Russia in response warned of an arms race.
    (AP, 1/20/07)(WSJ, 1/22/07, p.A1)

2007        Jan 21, German Chancellor Angela Merkel met with Pres. Vladimir Putin in the Black Sea resort of Sochi for talks set to focus on securing guarantees for energy supplies to the EU. Putin promised to smooth energy flow to Europe.
    (AP, 1/21/07)(WSJ, 1/22/07, p.A1)
2007        Jan 21, Russian border police seized a Japanese fishing boat and its six crew members in disputed waters between the two countries, prompting the Japanese government to protest. The No. 38 Zuisho Maru was captured off Kunashiri Island, one of four disputed islands in a group the Japanese call the Northern Territories and the Russians call the Kurils.
    (AP, 1/22/07)

2007        Jan 22, Rosoboronexport chief Sergei Chemezov said Russia had fulfilled a contract to sell air defense missiles to Iran. This included 29 sophisticated missile systems under a $700 million contract signed in December 2005.
    (AP, 1/23/07)

2007        Jan 24, India and Russia agreed two arms deals meant to bring bilateral military ties into a new era, a day before Russian President Vladimir Putin's arrival for a two-day summit.
    (AP, 1/24/07)

2007        Jan 25, Russian President Vladimir Putin arrived in India, hoping to use the two nations' decades-long friendship to push for deals in civilian nuclear cooperation, military hardware and trade expansion. Putin sealed a deal to construct more nuclear power plants in India.
    (AP, 1/25/07)

2007        Jan 27, Andrei Lugovoi, the man reported by British media to be a suspect in the murder of a former Russian agent in London hit out at "lies, provocation and government propaganda," denying any role in the radiation poisoning death of Alexander Litvinenko.
    (AP, 1/27/07)

2007        Jan, Russia's Supreme Court upheld a lower court's ruling that the Russian-Chechen Friendship Society must close its doors. Rights advocates denounced the ruling, charging it was a Kremlin attempt to silence criticism of its conduct in the violence-wracked Chechnya region. The group has campaigned against the Russian government's war on separatists in Chechnya, and published reports alleging torture, abductions and killings of civilians by Russian forces and their pro-Moscow Chechen allies.
    (AP, 9/14/07)

2007        Feb 1, Russia's Emergency Ministry planned to fly a chemical laboratory to the Omsk region in southern Siberia to analyze oily yellow and orange snow which has covered an area home to 27,000 people. Omsk is a heavily industrial city with a number of oil and gas refineries.   
    (Reuters, 2/2/07)

2007        Feb 5, Britain pressed ahead with a cull of 160,000 turkeys after the nation's first outbreak of a deadly strain of bird flu in farmed poultry as Russia and Japan banned British poultry imports.
    (Reuters, 2/5/07)
2007        Feb 5, A Cold War-era Soviet submarine that was being towed to Thailand sank off northwestern Denmark. The Soviet Union built more than 200 Whiskey-class submarines during the Cold War, many of which are now being offered for sale by private companies.
    (AP, 2/6/07)

2007        Feb 7, Russia's defense minister laid out an ambitious plan for building new intercontinental ballistic missiles, nuclear submarines and possibly aircraft carriers.
    (AP, 2/7/07)
2007        Feb 7, Japan's PM Shinzo Abe pledged to regain four disputed northern islands from Russia, saying it was time to end the bickering between Tokyo and Moscow over the prime fishing grounds.
    (AP, 2/7/07)

2007        Feb 8, India’s air force chief S.P. Tyagi told reporters at the Bangalore air show that the government expects to sign a contract to buy 40 Russian Sukhoi-30 aircraft by the end of the fiscal year March 31.
    (AFP, 2/8/07)

2007        Feb 9, The Kremlin said oil tycoon and Chelsea soccer club owner Abramovich will stay on as governor of the Chukotka region in northeastern Russia. Abramovich had submitted his resignation in December.

2007        Feb 10, Russian President Vladimir Putin, while visiting Munich for a security conference, warned that the increased use of military force by the US is creating a new arms race, with smaller nations turning toward developing nuclear weapons.
    (AP, 2/10/07)(WSJ, 2/12/07, p.A1)

2007        Feb 11, President Vladimir Putin, making the first visit by a Russian leader to Saudi Arabia, met King Abdullah and other senior officials for talks that touched on regional tensions including Iraq and the Palestinian territories.
    (AP, 2/11/07)

2007        Feb 12, Russian military prosecutors pledged to investigate allegations that young conscripts were forced into prostitution by fellow soldiers, the latest claim of rampant abuse in the nation's armed forces.
    (AP, 2/12/07)
2007        Feb 12, In Qatar Russia’s Putin and Qatari Emir Sheik Hamad bin Khalifa Al Thani announced they would explore the creation of a natural gas cartel to represent the interests of producer countries. Qatar sits atop the world's single largest gas field.
    (AP, 2/12/07)

2007        Feb 13, Jordan's King Abdullah II and Russian President Vladimir Putin called for a stronger international push for lasting Mideast peace and urged for a diplomatic solution to Iran's nuclear standoff.
    (AP, 2/13/07)
2007        Feb 13, In Geneva the US clashed with China and Russia during a disarmament debate over how to prevent an arms race in outer space, and Washington criticized Beijing for its recent test of an anti-satellite missile. Russia and China, in turn, condemned the "one state" that refuses to consider a treaty banning space weapons, a reference to the US.
    (AP, 2/13/07)

2007        Feb 15, Russia’s President Vladimir Putin dismissed Alu Alkhanov, the president of the republic of Chechnya, and named its widely feared PM Ramzan Kadyrov as acting president.
    (AP, 2/16/07)(Econ, 2/24/07, p.62)
2007        Feb 15, Russia’s Pres. Vladimir Putin named Anatoly Serdyukov as defense minister, the country’s first civilian defense minister in 90 years.
    (AP, 11/5/10)(http://newstopics.jpost.com/topic/Anatoliy_Serdyukov)

2007        Feb 16, Russian prosecutors released more details on new theft and money laundering charges against Mikhail Khodorkovsky, a jailed former oil tycoon, and increased by $2 billion the amount of money they say he and his partner stole from subsidiaries of OAS Yukos.
    (AP, 2/16/07)

2007        Feb 18, In St. Petersburg, Russia, an explosion hit a McDonald's restaurant in the city center, injuring at least six people.
    (AP, 2/18/07)

2007        Feb 19, Gen. Nikolai Solovtsov, a top Russian general, warned that Poland and the Czech Republic risk being targeted by Russian missiles if they agree to host a proposed US missile defense system.
    (AP, 2/19/07)

2007        Feb 21, Finance Minster Alexei Kudrin said that a new domestic offering for shares in Russia's largest state-controlled bank had brought in $8.8 billion.
    (AP, 2/21/07)

2007        Feb 22, Russia’s government approved a five-year financing plan aimed to decrease mortality from diseases including diabetes, tuberculosis, HIV/AIDS and cancer. The news came as the state statistics agency said Russia's population dropped by more than 560,000 last year to 142.2 million, a new post-Soviet low.
    (AP, 2/22/07)

2007        Feb 28, Japan and Russia looked to expand trade despite rocky relations as they agreed to cooperate on nuclear energy and in preventing disasters in disputed islands.
    (AP, 2/28/07)
2007        Feb 28, Vladimir Nikolayev, the mayor of Vladivostok, was stripped of his authority amid a criminal investigation into suspect land deals and embezzlement in the latest bout of corruption to hit the long-troubled Pacific port.
    (AP, 2/28/07)

2007        Mar 1, President Vladimir Putin nominated Ramzan Kadyrov, a widely feared security chief, as the new president of Chechnya. Europe's human rights chief denounced torture and other rampant abuses in the war-battered region. Kadyrov, who previously had served as Chechnya's prime minister, has run a security force that is accused of abducting and abusing suspected rebels and civilians believed to be connected to them.
    (AP, 3/1/07)

2007        Mar 2, Ivan Safronov, a Russian military affairs writer for the daily Kommersant, fell to his death from a fifth-story window in Moscow. On Mar 6 his newspaper said he had received threats while gathering material for a report claiming Russia planned to provide sophisticated weapons to Syria and Iran.
    (AP, 3/6/07)

2007        Mar 3, Russian police violently broke up an unauthorized opposition rally in St. Petersburg, clubbing dozens of activists before dragging them into waiting buses.
    (AP, 3/3/07)

2007        Mar 6, Interfax news agency said 2 American women were hospitalized in Moscow for treatment of thallium poisoning. The women became ill Feb. 24 and were being treated at Moscow's Sklifosovsky clinic.
    (AP, 3/6/07)

2007        Mar 7, Russian nuclear energy officials hosted an Iranian delegation for talks on the construction of a Russian-built plant that has fallen behind schedule because of what Moscow said were delays in payments by Tehran.
    (AP, 3/7/07)
2007        Mar 7, In Russia Vladimir Nikolayev, the mayor of Vladivostok, was ordered arrested amid a criminal investigation into suspect land deals and embezzlement in the latest bout of corruption to hit the long-troubled port.
    (AP, 3/7/07)

2007        Mar 11, Russians voted in scattered regional ballots marred by complaints that opposition forces are being frozen out of the country's politics.
    (AP, 3/11/07)
2007        Mar 11, In Georgia’s Kodori Valley Russian helicopters coordinated a ground and air attack on 3 settlements and fired a guided missile at a Georgian government building.
    (WSJ, 1/5/07, p.A8)

2007        Mar 12, A new party, Just Russia, that promotes itself as an opposition group but supports Vladimir Putin took a prominent place on Russia's political stage after regional elections that further consolidated the president's hold on power.
    (AP, 3/12/07)

2007        Mar 13, Russian President Vladimir Putin and Pope Benedict XVI met for the highest-level Kremlin-Vatican talks in more than three years, focusing on easing tension between Roman Catholics and Orthodox Christians and finding common ground in denouncing intolerance and extremism.
    (AP, 3/13/07)

2007        Mar 14, The Russian state-run company building a nuclear plant in Iran warned that Iranian payment delays may cause "irreversible" damage to the project, another strong signal of Moscow's annoyance with Tehran.
    (AP, 3/14/07)
2007        Mar 14, Italy and Russia said they wanted talks between Moscow and the European Union on a new strategic partnership agreement to start as soon as possible.
    (AP, 3/14/07)

2007        Mar 15, Bulgaria, Russia and Greece signed a deal in Athens to build a 175-mile pipeline to transport Russian oil to a port in northern Greece.
    (AP, 3/15/07)
2007        Mar 15, In St. Petersburg Nikolai Zavadsky, the husband of a late curator at Russia's most famous museum, was convicted in the theft of dozens of art objects and sentenced to five years in prison. He was also ordered to pay $283,000 in damages to the Hermitage.
    (AP, 3/15/07)

2007        Mar 16, Government officials said that Russia will build two nuclear reactors annually through 2015, and increase to four a year by 2020 in an effort to sharply increase atomic power generation, according to Russian news agencies.
    (AP, 3/16/07)

2007        Mar 17, A Russian Tu-134 airliner crash landed in heavy fog in the central Russian city of Samara, killing 6 people and injuring 26.
    (AP, 3/17/07)

2007        Mar 19, A methane gas explosion ripped through a Siberian coal mine, killing 110 miners in the country's worst mining disaster in more than a decade.
    (WSJ, 3/21/07, p.A1)(AP, 3/19/08)

2007        Mar 20, Russia confirmed that it has begun pulling out experts from the Iranian nuclear power plant they were helping build and that it is withholding nuclear fuel for Iran’s reactors.
    (SFC, 3/21/07, p.A3)
2007        Mar 20, Fire swept through a nursing home in southern Russia after the night watchman ignored two alarms, killing 62 people in the Azov Sea coast village of Kamyshevatskaya, where the closest fire station was nearly an hour's drive away.
    (AP, 3/20/07)

2007        Mar 24, Russian authorities broke up a demonstration against the government in Nizhny Novgorod, detaining hundreds of activists.
    (AP, 3/24/07)

2007        Mar 25, Fire broke out in a Moscow striptease club in the early hours, killing 10 people.
    (AP, 3/25/07)

2007        Mar 26, Chinese President Hu Jintao arrived in Russia on his third visit as national leader, seeking energy deals but also offering Moscow business opportunities and international cooperation as they expand ties.
    (Reuters, 3/26/07)

2007        Mar 27, In Kiev, Ukraine, a Russian businessman allied with Ukraine's president was killed by a sniper as he was escorted from a courthouse during a break in his extortion trial.
    (AP, 3/28/07)

2007        Mar 28, Russia's scientific elite, in a rare show of disobedience to the Kremlin, voted against a government-proposed charter that would have transferred control of the historically independent Academy of Sciences to the state.
    (AP, 3/28/07)

2007        Apr 2, Russia's foreign spy service released previously classified files on a double agent who, under the codename "Britt", passed secrets to Moscow from inside British intelligence in the 1940s.
    (AP, 4/2/07)

2007        Apr 5, Ramzan Kadyrov was inaugurated as the new president of Chechnya on a blessing from the Kremlin, which has relied on him to stabilize the region after more than a decade of separatist fighting.
    (AP, 4/5/07)

2007        Apr 7, A Russian rocket carrying the American billionaire who helped develop Microsoft Word roared into the night skies over Kazakhstan, sending Charles Simonyi and two cosmonauts soaring into orbit on a two-day journey to the international space station.
    (AP, 4/7/07)

2007        Apr 9, Two Russian cosmonauts and US billionaire Charles Simony bringing a gourmet meal arrived at the international space station, to a warm welcome from current crewmen.
    (AP, 4/10/07)
2007        Apr 9, Iran announced that it has begun enriching uranium with 3,000 centrifuges, dramatically expanding a program that the UN has demanded it halt. An Iranian Revolutionary Guard general visited Russia despite a UN travel ban over Tehran nuclear defiance. Russia denied any violation.
    (AP, 4/9/07)(WSJ, 4/10/07, p.A1)

2007        Apr 11, Royal Dutch Shell PLC and its partners ceded a controlling stake in the Sakhalin-2 gas project to Russia’s state owned OAO Gazprom. The deal also entitled Gazprom a percentage of profits from oil and gas and increased managerial control.
    (WSJ, 4/26/07, p.A3)(http://tinyurl.com/39c2yh)

2007        Apr 12, Russian authorities said they have halted the work of all foreign adoption agencies for several months, virtually shutting down the placement of children from one of the most important countries for US families seeking to adopt.
    (AP, 4/12/07)

2007        Apr 13, Boris Berezovsky, the exiled Russian tycoon who has emerged as one of the Kremlin's most vocal opponents, called for the use of force to oust President Vladimir Putin and claimed he has support from some in the country's political elite. In response, Russia's chief prosecutor opened a criminal case against Berezovsky on charges of plotting a coup. Britain, granted Berezovsky refugee status in 2003.
    (AP, 4/13/07)

2007        Apr 14, Russian police detained Garry Kasparov, former world chess champion and leader of one of Russia's strongest opposition movements, and at least 100 other activists as they gathered for a forbidden anti-Kremlin demonstration in central Moscow.
    (AP, 4/14/07)

2007        Apr 15, Russia launched its first new generation nuclear submarine since the fall of the Soviet Union, as the Kremlin seeks to upgrade its undersea nuclear strike force. Russia began construction of its first floating nuclear power plant, and planned to build at least six more despite long-standing environmental concerns that they are vulnerable to accidents at sea. In St. Petersburg, Russia, club-swinging riot police clashed with opposition supporters as an anti-Kremlin protest dispersed. Police chased small groups of demonstrators, beating some on the ground and hauling them into police buses.
    (AP, 4/15/07)(Reuters, 4/15/07)
2007        Apr 15, In Russia a keel-laying ceremony was held in Severodvinsk, on the White Sea, for the new 460-foot Mikhail Lomonosov, a $360 million demonstration ship capable of providing 76-megawatts of nuclear power to an onshore location. Completion was expected in 2010 with construction of new ships to start annually.
    (WSJ, 8/21/07, p.A13)

2007        Apr 18, Russian police raided Educated Media Foundation, an independent Russian organization. Police said the search was linked to a criminal case launched against the director after she failed to declare some $12,500 in cash she brought into the country on January 21. Foundation President Manana Aslamazyan said this was likely linked to growing government pressure on Western-funded NGOs. Aslamazyan fled to Paris and authorities shuttered the foundation.
    (AP, 4/20/07)(AP, 4/24/07)(SFC, 6/30/07, p.A7)

2007        Apr 21, Charles Simonyi, an American billionaire who paid $25 million for a 13-day trip to outer space, returned to Earth in a space capsule that also carried a cosmonaut and an American astronaut, making a soft landing on the Kazakh steppe.
    (AP, 4/21/07)

2007        Apr 23, Boris Yeltsin (b.1931), former Russian leader (1991-1999), died. He engineered the final collapse of the Soviet Union (1991) and pushed Russia to embrace democracy and a market economy. His 1994 memoir was titled "The Struggle for Russia."
    (AP, 4/23/07)
2007        Apr 23, The WWF said hunters in Russia's Far East have shot and killed one of the last seven surviving female Amur leopards living in the wild.
    (Reuters, 4/23/07)

2007        Apr 24, At a conference in Moscow titled “Megaprojects of Russia’s East," supporters proposed a 68-mile tunnel under the Bering Strait. The tunnel linking Alaska and Siberia would cost $65 billion and take some 20 years to build.
    (SFC, 4/25/07, p.A6)

2007        Apr 26, Russian President Vladimir Putin, in his last annual address to lawmakers, attacked US foreign policy and embraced traditional values in a hawkish speech that laid out a route for his successor to follow when he steps down next year.
    (AP, 4/26/07)
2007        Apr 26, In Estonia protesters gathered at a Soviet war grave in downtown Tallinn, as authorities prepared to remove the bodies despite Russia's angry objections. Estonia's government intends to relocate the Soviet grave, believed to contain the remains of 14 soldiers, and the Bronze Soldier statue next to it.
    (AP, 4/26/07)

2007        Apr 27, A Russian military helicopter crashed in Chechnya, killing all 18 people aboard, emergency officials said. There were conflicting reports about whether the craft was shot down.
    (AP, 4/27/07)
2007        Apr 27, Mstislav Rostropovich (b.1927), master cellist, died. He had fought for the rights of Soviet-era dissidents and later triumphantly played Bach suites below the crumbling Berlin Wall.
    (AP, 4/27/07)(Econ, 5/12/07, p.92)
2007        Apr 27, Estonia removed a Soviet war memorial from downtown Tallinn under cover of darkness, carrying out a plan that has rankled Russia and provoked protests that left one person dead and dozens injured.
    (AP, 4/27/07)

2007        Apr 28, In Estonia minority Russian youths angry over the government's decision to remove a Soviet war memorial from Tallinn rioted for a second night, with unrest spreading to at least two other towns. 66 people were injured in the capital, including six policemen. More than 500 people, many of them adolescents, were detained overnight as vandals prowled the streets, breaking shop windows and looting stores.
    (AP, 4/28/07)

2007        Apr, Stanislovas Jucys, a Lithuanian businessman, disappeared. He was the CEO of a Kaliningrad-based construction company with a majority stake in Lithuanian hands. Jucys' replacement was killed a few months later, and the company was taken over by a Russian firm.
    (Reuters, 3/20/08)

2007        May 2, Russian oil firms rushed to re-route a quarter of their refined products exports away from ports in Estonia after Russia's railways halted the route amid a political dispute with Tallinn. Young Russians staged raucous protests in Moscow to denounce neighboring Estonia for removing a Soviet war memorial from its capital, and the Estonian ambassador said pro-Kremlin activists tried to attack her as she arrived at a news conference.
    (Reuters, 5/2/07)

2007        May 3, Russia lashed out at the EU and NATO for supporting Estonia in its row with Moscow over the relocation of a Soviet war monument.
    (AP, 5/3/07)

2007        May 7, Russia’s state security service said fugitive Rustam Dzhumaliyev had evaded arrest and become a minor celebrity by masquerading as a US citizen hitch-hiking across the country for a record attempt.
    (AP, 5/7/07)

2007        May 8, Amnesty Int’l. said in a report that China and Russia are supplying arms to Sudan that are being used to fuel the violence in the Darfur region in violation of a UN arms embargo. China and Russia quickly rejected the report and Sudan's government said it was "not justified." China confirmed it would send military engineers for a planned UN peacekeeping force to Sudan's Darfur region.
    (AP, 5/8/07)

2007        May 9, In the early hours Internet traffic in Estonia spiked to thousands of times the normal flow. May 10 was heavier still, forcing Estonia’s biggest bank to shut down its online service for more than an hour. Hansabank continued under assault and worked to block access to 300 suspect Internet addresses. On March 12, 2009, Konstantin Goloskokov, an activist with Russia's Nashi youth group and aide to a pro-Kremlin member of parliament, said he had organized a network of sympathizers who bombarded Estonian Internet sites with electronic requests, causing them to crash.
    (www.lunchoverip.com/2007/05/estonia_under_c.html)(Reuters, 3/12/09)

2007        May 10, Talks in Brussels between NATO's top generals and their Russian counterpart failed to narrow the gap between Moscow and the West over missile defense and arms control in Europe.
    (AP, 5/10/07)

2007        May 11, Austrian authorities said they have arrested 40 suspects and seized thousands of videos, CDs and DVDs as part of a yearlong crackdown on child pornography. Police in Italy made two arrests in connection with the investigation, which was code-named Operation Max. The server was located in St. Petersburg, Russia, and since has been shut down.
    (AP, 5/11/07)

2007        May 12, The leaders of Kazakhstan, Russia, and Turkmenistan reached a landmark pipeline deal that will strengthen Moscow's control over Central Asia's energy export routes. The deal will dramatically increase the amount of natural gas Russia moves from Central Asia to Europe.
    (AP, 5/12/07)
2007        May 12, Russia said that it could not accept elements of a draft UN resolution on Kosovo worked out by the US and EU nations, maintaining its strong opposition to a Western-backed plan for the Serbian province's independence.
    (AP, 5/12/07)
2007        May 12, An unmanned Russian cargo ship carrying 2.5 tons of supplies, equipment and gifts blasted off en route to the international space station.
    (AP, 5/12/07)

2007        May 14, In Russia 10 people were found dead after a fire swept through a cafe in Orsk near the border with Kazakhstan. Prosecutors indicated they suspect arson.
    (AP, 5/14/07)

2007        May 15, Russia's top AIDS specialist said Russia's AIDS epidemic is worsening with as many as 1.3 million people infected with HIV as the virus spreads further into the heterosexual population.
    (AP, 5/15/07)

2007        May 17, Russian Orthodox leaders signed a pact to heal an 80-year schism between the church in Russia and an offshoot, the Church Abroad, set up following the Bolshevik Revolution. At least 10 of 145 Church Abroad parishes in the US opposed the canonical union. Most of the New York-based Russian Orthodox Church Outside Russia (ROCOR) agreed to unite with the Patriarchate of Moscow.
    (AP, 5/17/07)(WSJ, 1/18/07, p.A12)(Econ, 10/18/08, p.69)
2007        May 17, Estonia's defense minister said that the massive cyber attacks that have crippled the high-tech country's Web sites are a threat to national security, and that it's possible the Russian government was behind them.
    (AP, 5/17/07)
2007        May 17, US lawmakers branded China and Russia the world's two biggest copyright thieves.
    (Reuters, 5/17/07)

2007        May 18, In Russia EU leaders criticized Russia's human rights record, and were faulted in return, at the end of a summit that produced no formal agreements but helped illustrate the widening political chasm between Moscow and the West.
    (AP, 5/18/07)

2007        May 17, Russia filed a suit against the Bank of New York for $22.5 billion for its role in a money laundering scheme that was broken up by US authorities in 1999.
    (WSJ, 5/18/07, p.A3)

2007        May 18, In Russia EU leaders criticized Russia's human rights record, and were faulted in return, at the end of a summit that produced no formal agreements but helped illustrate the widening political chasm between Moscow and the West. Russia barred activists, including chess grandmaster Kasparov, from protests near the Volga summit.
    (AP, 5/18/07)(WSJ, 5/19/07, p.A1)

2007        May 19, German Gref, Russia’s Economy Minister, told reporters that Russia will not allow indebted state companies to default. It was reported that more than a half-dozen journalists with the Russian News Service, have resigned to protest the new pro-Kremlin management's policy that at least 50 percent of coverage must be positive.
    (Reuters, 5/19/07)(AP, 5/19/07)

2007        May 20, Hundreds of demonstrators gathered outside the Moscow’s main broadcast facility to protest what they called lies and censorship on TV stations that are either controlled by the state or under its influence.
    (AP, 5/20/07)

2007        May 22, Prosecutors in London accused Andrei Lugovoi, a former KGB agent, of murder in the radioactive poisoning of fellow ex-operative Alexander Litvinenko and sought his extradition from Russia. The Russian prosecutor-general's office said it will not turn over Lugovoi to British authorities.
    (AP, 5/22/07)

2007        May 24, A methane explosion tore through a coal mine in southern Siberia, killing 38 miners and injuring seven others. One worker died days later raising the toll to 39.
    (AP, 5/24/07)(AP, 5/27/07)

2007        May 25, Russia's lower house of parliament gave preliminary backing to a new wide-ranging restrictions on smoking in public. In southern Russia a brawl between hundreds of Caucasus migrants and local Russians, all armed with metal rods, baseball bats and knives, killed an ethnic Chechen in Stravropol.
    (AP, 5/26/07)(AP, 5/25/07)

2007        May 27, Russian police detained gay protesters calling for the right to hold a Gay Pride parade in central Moscow while nationalists shouting "death to homosexuals" punched and kicked the demonstrators.
    (AP, 5/27/07)

2007        May 29, Russia pledged to write off an additional $500 million of African debt. Russia test-launched a new intercontinental ballistic missile that is capable of carrying multiple independent warheads. President Vladimir Putin warned that US plans for an anti-missile shield in Europe would turn the region into a "powder keg."
    (Reuters, 5/29/07)(AP, 5/29/07)(AP, 5/30/07)

2007        May 31, President Vladimir Putin said that tests of new Russian missiles were a response to the planned deployment of US missile defense installations and other forces in Europe, suggesting Washington has triggered a new arms race.
    (AP, 5/31/07)
2007        May 31, The chief suspect in the murder of Russian ex-agent Alexander Litvinenko accused the British secret service of being behind the killing and said Litvinenko himself had been spying for MI6.
    (AFP, 5/31/07)
2007        May 31, The US and Russia agreed to put nuclear radiation monitors at all of Russia’s int’l. border crossings by 2011.
    (WSJ, 6/1/07, p.A1)

2007        Jun 1, The Norwegian environmental group Bellona warned that a nuclear waste dump in the Russia Arctic may be in danger of exploding because of corrosion caused by salt water in enormous storage tanks.
    (AP, 6/1/07)

2007        Jun 2, In Russia former PM Mikhail Kasayanov was nominated by his opposition movement to run in next year's presidential election and promised to stop the Kremlin orchestrating the vote in its favor.
    (AP, 6/2/07)

2007        Jun 3, President Vladimir Putin warned that Moscow could take "retaliatory steps" if Washington proceeds with plans to build a missile defense system for Europe, including possibly aiming nuclear weapons at targets on the continent.
    (WSJ, 6/4/07, p.A1)
2007        Jun 3, A severe landslide has nearly obliterated one of Russia's most noted natural wonders, the Valley of Geysers. A snow-covered mound collapsed "within seconds" and caused a massive landslide, about a mile long and 600 feet wide, burying two-thirds of the valley.
    (AP, 6/5/07)
2007        Jun 3, Nigerian gunmen kidnapped six foreign staff of United Company RUSAL after blowing up their apartment with explosives in the southeastern town of Ikot Abasi.
    (Reuters, 6/3/07)

2007        Jun 5, US President George W. Bush sought to soothe Moscow's fury at Washington's plans to extend its anti-missile shield in Europe, saying in Prague on the eve of the G8 summit that Russia was "not our enemy."
    (AFP, 6/5/07)

2007        Jun 6, PM Andrus Ansip said Estonia is seeking help from Russia to find the culprits behind a massive wave of attacks on the country's Internet infrastructure.
    (AP, 6/6/07)

2007        Jun 7, In Germany Chancellor Angela Merkel said that the G8 has agreed on a plan calling for "substantial cuts" to greenhouse gas emissions. Riot police used water cannons to turn protesters away from the fence surrounding the Group of Eight summit. G8 leaders reached an agreement on climate change, adopting a statement that says they should "seriously consider" proposals to cut the emissions of greenhouse gases by 50 percent by 2050. Russian President Vladimir Putin, bitterly opposed to a US missile shield in Europe, told President Bush that Moscow would drop its objections if the radar-based system were installed in Azerbaijan.
    (AP, 6/7/07)(AP, 6/7/08)
2007        Jun 7, An international conservation group said Russia has established the Zov Tigra National Park to protect Siberian tigers. According to the WWF the 200,000-acre park will protect the big cat's habitat while simultaneously allowing for nature tourism.
    (AP, 6/8/07)

2007        Jun 9, Russia's most vocal opposition movement, headed by former chess champion Garry Kasparov, demonstrated in St. Petersburg without police violence or interference for the first time in months of protests.
    (AP, 6/10/07)
2007        Jun 9, Boeing and Aeroflot signed a deal for the Russian carrier to acquire 22 Dreamliner jets from the American plane maker.
    (AP, 6/9/07)

2007        Jun 10, Russian President Vladimir Putin called for creating an alternative to the World Trade Organization that would favor developing economies and suggested giving a greater role to regional currencies.
    (AP, 6/10/07)

2007        Jun 12, Pres. Putin led ceremonies to honor Russia Day. The holiday is one of several that have been shifted or renamed as Putin's Kremlin seeks to shape Russia's image. It was introduced by his predecessor, Boris Yeltsin, to commemorate Russia's 1990 declaration of sovereignty and was long known to many as Independence Day.
    (AP, 6/12/07)

2007        Jun 15, Russia's security agency announced an espionage investigation based on statements by the suspect in Andrei Litvinenko's radiation poisoning, a move apparently targeting a Kremlin foe in Britain.
    (AP, 6/15/07)

2007        Jun 16, North Korea sent a letter to the UN nuclear watchdog, inviting inspectors to the country to discuss procedures for shutting down its main nuclear reactor. Top US nuclear negotiator Christopher Hill said technical problems in Russia are holding up the transfer of North Korean funds linked to a nuclear disarmament deal.
    (AP, 6/16/07)

2007        Jun 17, Iran said it had received indications from Russia's president that he would not follow through with an offer to allow the US to use a radar station in neighboring Azerbaijan for missile defense against Tehran.
    (AP, 6/17/07)

2007        Jun 19, A new survey reported that Moscow is the world's most expensive city for the second year in a row, thanks to an appreciating ruble and rising housing costs.
    (AP, 6/19/07)
2007        Jun 19, A Russian court sentenced four men to prison terms of between seven and 14 years for the racially motivated killing of a Congolese student. The slaying of Roland Epassak in St. Petersburg two years ago prompted outrage and protests among Russian and foreign exchange students and other young people.
    (AP, 6/19/07)

2007        Jun 21, In Russia a fire swept through a nursing home in Western Siberia's Omsk region and killed at least 10 people.
    (AP, 6/21/07)
2007        Jun 21, The European Court of Human Rights found the Russian authorities responsible for the killings of four members of a Chechen family in 2003 and ordered Moscow to pay a relative $114,000.
    (AP, 6/21/07)

2007        Jun 22, British energy group BP, facing pressure from the Kremlin, said that it had agreed to sell its stakes in a Siberian gas field and company to Russian gas giant Gazprom for up to 900 million dollars (669 million euros).
    (AP, 6/22/07)(WSJ, 6/22/07, p.A3)

2007        Jun 23, Italian energy company Eni SpA and Russia's state-controlled OAO Gazprom said they signed a memorandum of understanding on the possibility of supplying Russian gas to European Union countries through a pipeline under the Black Sea.
    (AP, 6/23/07)

2007        Jun 26, A CD of the Russian National Orchestra performing Dead Symphony No. 6: An Orchestral Tribute to the Grateful Dead, was released in the US. The work was directed by composer Lee Johnson.
    (SFC, 6/27/07, p.E3)
2007        Jun 27, Moscow legislators approved a fifth term for Mayor Yuri Luzhkov, whom critics accuse of running the city like a personal fiefdom.
    (AP, 6/27/07)

2007        Jun 28, President Vladimir Putin welcomed Venezuelan leader Hugo Chavez for talks at the Russian presidential retreat outside Moscow, saying economic affairs and military-technical cooperation were on the agenda.
    (AP, 6/29/07)
2007        Jun 28, Hundreds of ethnic Georgians confronted Russian peacekeeping forces in the breakaway region of South Ossetia, throwing paint and gasoline on the troops and forcing them to stop blocking a road project.
    (AP, 6/28/07)
2007        Jun 28, The European Commission said all Indonesian airlines and several from Russia, Ukraine and Angola will be banned from flying to the EU due to safety concerns.
    (AP, 6/28/07)

2007        Jun, Wenda, a question-and-answer    “knowledge community" product, developed by Google in China, was launched in Russia.
    (Econ, 10/13/07, SR p.7)

2007        Jul 1, Russia’s Pres. Putin arrived in Maine for talks with Pres. Bush.
    (AP, 7/2/07)

2007        Jul 2, Russia’s Pres. Putin, while visiting Pres. Bush in Maine, proposed an alternative missile shield system to be jointly developed by the NATO-Russia Council.
    (SFC, 7/3/07, p.A3)

2007        Jul 4, Russia’s parliament authorized an exemption to Gazprom and OAO Transneft from limits on wielding arms. They would now be able to employ their own armed operatives.
    (WSJ, 1/5/07, p.A4)
2007        Jul 4, The Black Sea resort of Sochi was elected the host city of the 2014 Winter Olympics, taking the Winter Games to Russia for the first time. Russia proposed to spend $12 million to stage the games at Sochi. Costs ended at $50 billion.
    (AP, 7/4/08)(Econ, 7/13/13, p.45)(Econ, 11/22/14, p.22)

2007        Jul 5, Larisa Arap, a member of a Russian opposition group, was hospitalized in a psychiatric facility for criticizing a clinic's use of violence against mentally ill patients.
    (Reuters, 7/30/07)

2007        Jul 6, Russian lawmakers passed a bill that cracks down on dissent and expands police surveillance authority ahead of 2008 elections.
    (WSJ, 1/7/07, p.A1)

2007        Jul 8, Russia’s top security agency said it has declassified documents on millions of victims of Soviet-era repression (1920-1950), allowing relatives to request information about those who were executed or died of disease and starvation in prison.
    (AP, 7/8/07)

2007        Jul 10, Russian newspapers reported that thieves had stolen a collection of rare paintings worth millions of dollars from retired judge Kamo Manukyan. They were stored unguarded in his empty apartment. The 13 paintings stolen included works by Frenchman Georges-Pierre Seurat, the founder of neo-impressionism, Russian seascape painter Ivan Aivazovsky, and Russian expressionist Alexej Jawlenski.
    (Reuters, 7/10/07)

2007        Jul 14, Russia suspended its participation in a key European arms control treaty that governs deployment of troops on the continent. Under the moratorium, Russia will halt inspections and verifications of its military sites by NATO countries and will no longer limit the number of its conventional weapons. The treaty, between Russian and NATO members, was signed in 1990 and amended in 1999 to reflect changes since the breakup of the Soviet Union, adding the requirement that Moscow withdraw troops from the former Soviet republics of Moldova and Georgia. Russia has ratified the amended version, but the United States and other NATO members have refused to do so until Russia completely withdraws.
    (AP, 7/14/07)

2007        Jul 15, Marina Pisareva (47), the deputy head of a small Russian division of German media company Bertelsmann AG, was found dead at her summer house near Moscow, possibly stabbed with her own dagger.
    (AP, 7/16/07)

2007        Jul 16, Britain ordered the expulsion of four Russian diplomats because of Moscow's refusal to extradite the lead suspect in the fatal poisoning of a former KGB officer in London.
    (AP, 7/17/07)

2007        Jul 17, Russia vowed a "targeted and appropriate" response to Britain's expulsion of four diplomats in a mounting confrontation over the probe into the radiation poisoning death of a former KGB officer.
    (AP, 7/17/07)

2007        Jul 18, An explosion tore through a crowd of mourners at a cemetery in southern Russia, wounding at least 10 people, including four police officers. The funeral was for an ethnic Russian woman who had been fatally shot along with her two grown children July 16 in Ingushetia.
    (AP, 7/19/07)

2007        Jul 19, Russia announced the tit-for-tat expulsion of four British diplomats, a visa ban on British officials and the suspension of bilateral counter-terrorism cooperation amid a mounting diplomatic row. US Secretary of State Condoleezza Rice called on Russia to honor Britain's request to extradite the chief suspect over the murder of former agent Alexander Litvinenko.
    (AFP, 7/19/07)

2007        Jul 21, Attackers dressed in dark clothes and wielding metal pipes raided a camp of environmental protesters near Angarsk, Siberia, leaving one dead and several injured. Over 20 demonstrators belonging to Autonomous Action had been camped out by a reservoir, about 2,600 miles east of Moscow, to protest nuclear waste processing at the state-owned Angarsk Electrolysis Chemical Plant. Ilya Borodayenko (26) died from a cracked skull. One of the attackers was later identified as Pavel Rikhvanov, the son of Marina Rikhvanov, founder of the Baikal Ecological Wave environmental group.
    (AP, 7/21/07)(WSJ, 10/29/07, p.A1)

2007        Jul 26, The European Court of Human Rights ordered the Russian government to pay damages of $196,000 to the family members of 11 Chechen civilians killed by Russian soldiers in 2000, when security forces rampaged through Novye Aldi, setting fire to houses and killing at least 50 civilians.
    (AP, 7/27/07)

2007        Jul 27, Russia said it planned to send a small submarine to the ocean floor under the North Pole to stake a claim to the region.
    (WSJ, 1/28/07, p.A1)

2007        Jul 29, A 43-year-old Russian cargo plane crashed minutes after taking off from a Moscow airport, killing all seven crew on board.
    (AP, 7/29/07)

2007        Aug 1, Russian explorers readied for a historic descent to the bottom of the Arctic Ocean under the North Pole as part of an expedition to claim the area for Russia.
    (AP, 8/1/07)       
2007        Aug 1, Russia's state-controlled gas monopoly said that it will reduce natural gas supplies to Belarus by 45 percent as of Aug 3 after Minsk failed to pay in full for previous gas shipments.
    (AP, 8/1/07)

2007        Aug 2, Two deep-diving Russian mini-submarines descended more than 2 1/2 miles under North Pole ice to stake a flag on the ocean floor, part of a quest to bolster Russian claims to much of the Arctic's oil-and-mineral wealth.
    (AP, 8/2/07)
2007        Aug 2, A 6.4-magnitude quake struck on the southern tip of Sakhalin island, just north of Japan. At least 2 people were killed and some 2,000 in Nevelsk moved to tent camps after the powerful earthquake left apartment buildings in ruins.
    (AP, 8/3/07)
2007        Aug 2, An unmanned Russian cargo ship carrying over 2.5 tons of supplies, equipment and gifts blasted off for the international space station.
    (AP, 8/2/07)
2007        Aug 2, Canada dismissed Russia's claim to a large chunk of the resource-rich Arctic, saying the tactic was more suited to the 15th century than the real world.
    (AP, 8/2/07)

2007        Aug 3, About 50 women occupied a central square in Makhachkala, Dagestan, declaring a hunger strike and vowing not to leave until authorities tell them what happened to their missing children. The president of Dagestan, Mukhu Aliev, admitted last month that 76 people have been kidnapped so far this year in Dagestan. In six of those cases, the abductors wore camouflage uniforms similar to those worn by law enforcement officers.
    (AP, 8/4/07)

2007        Aug 6, A Moscow court convicted Alexei Pichugin, former top security officer with the dismantled Yukos oil company in the deaths of 3 people, sentencing him to life in prison in a retrial. Russia deployed new air defense systems capable of shooting down ballistic missiles, and the air force chief said the weapon could be used to protect 2014 Winter Olympics in the Black Sea resort of Sochi.
    (AP, 8/6/07)(AP, 8/6/07)

2007        Aug 7, A European diplomat said that Russian officials told the Iranians about two weeks ago that Russian fuel roads to the Bushehr reactor would be held back as long as unresolved questions about Tehran's past nuclear activities remained.
    (AP, 8/7/07)
2007        Aug 7, Georgia accused Russia of "undisguised aggression," saying two Russian fighter jets intruded on its airspace and fired a missile that landed near a house. Russia denied the allegation.
    (AP, 8/7/07)
2007        Aug 7, In Nigeria 6 Russian hostages, kidnapped on June 3, were freed in the oil producing Niger Delta after two months in captivity. Rusal, the world's largest aluminium producer, acquired 77 percent of the Nigerian company Alscon in February.
    (AFP, 8/7/07)

2007        Aug 12, A video was posted on Russian ultranationalist sites of the Internet showing the brutal execution of two men from Central Asia and the Caucasus. The man who posted the video turned himself on Aug 14 in Maikop, capital of the southern Russian republic of Adygei.
    (AP, 8/15/07)

2007        Aug 13, A bomb explosion threw the Neva Express train, which was en route from Moscow to St. Petersburg, off the tracks and injuring 60 people. Suspicion fell on representatives of extremist nationalist organizations.
    (AP, 8/14/07)(AP, 8/15/07)

2007        Aug 14, Tikhon Khrennikov (94), Stalin’s music master, died. His 1939 opera “Into the Storm," based on a novel by Nikolai Virta, was the first in which Lenin appeared as a character on the stage.
    (Econ, 9/1/07, p.77)

2007        Aug 15, Sergei Sinkonen and another conscript came upon the officers celebrating a wedding not far from their unit at the Plesetsk cosmodrome in northwestern Russia. The officers thought the conscripts had fled and beat them with army belts, and put Sinkonen in a kennel with guard dogs, where he was found the next morning in serious condition. Sinkonen died Aug 27.
    (AP, 8/29/07)

2007        Aug 16, US authorities indicted Igor Klopow (24), a Russian national, for his role in an ID theft gang that targeted wealthy individuals. Klopow was lured to the US and arrested under the Brooklyn Bridge.
    (WSJ, 8/17/07, p.B2)

2007        Aug 17, Russia’s President Vladimir Putin said that he had ordered the military to resume regular long-range flights of strategic bombers.
    (AP, 8/17/07)
2007        Aug 17, The six members of the Shanghai Cooperation Organization (SCO) held their first joint maneuvers on Russian land in a demonstration of their growing military ties and a shared desire to counter US global clout. The presidents of Russia, China, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan and Uzbekistan attended the unprecedented joint military exercises in Chelyabinsk near the Kazakh border.
    (AFP, 8/17/07)

2007        Aug 21, Russian news agencies reported that authorities have detained a high-level narcotics officer they say was behind large-scale drug sales over the Internet.
    (AP, 8/21/07)

2007        Aug 22, Russia nominated Josef Tosovsky, a former Czech prime minister and head of that country's central bank, to head the International Monetary Fund, a move that put the Kremlin and the European Union at odds. The Czech Republic repudiated the move and endorsed the EU’s choice.
    (AP, 8/22/07)(WSJ, 8/23/07, p.A1)
2007        Aug 22, In Ingushetia, Russia, one serviceman was killed and five were wounded when gunmen attacked their armored personnel carrier with grenades and automatic weapons fire.
    (AP, 8/24/07)

2007        Aug 23, A Russian scientist said that fresh test results back his country's legal bid to take control of the Arctic. Russian geologists have previously estimated the Arctic seabed has at least 9 to 10 billion tons of fuel equivalent, about the same as Russia's total oil reserves.
    (AP, 8/23/07)
2007        Aug 23, A shootout in Chechnya's capital left two policemen and a rebel dead. A group of about 30 camouflage-clad gunmen set on fire the houses of two police officers and the local administration building in the Chechen village of Yandi.
    (AP, 8/24/07)
2007        Aug 23, In Dagestan, Russia, gunmen ambushed security forces, killing three people and wounding 17.
    (AP, 8/24/07)

2007        Aug 24, Russia issued an international warrant for the arrest of Mikhail Gutseriyev, two days after the death in Moscow of his 21-year-old son. Chingiskhan Gutseriyev died in his sleep after a minor car accident, raising suspicions that he was killed to send a message to his father. On Sep 5 a court upheld a warrant for his arrest and refused to lift a freeze on the shares of his company, Russneft. The freeze has blocked a sale that would have handed him an estimated $3 billion.
    (AP, 9/6/07)
2007        Aug 24, Georgia said it fired on a Russian plane flying over its territory. The Tbilisi City Court, behind closed doors, convicted 13 people from minor opposition parties for plotting a violent overthrow of the government. Maia Topuria, the lead defendant and head of the pro-Moscow Justice party, was sentenced to 8 ½ years in prison.
    (WSJ, 8/25/07, p.A1)(www.geotimes.ge/index.php?m=home&newsid=6353)

2007        Aug 25, A senior official of the separatist region said a plane of uncertain origin went down over Abkhazia, a day after Georgia reported that its forces fired on a plane believed to be Russian that had violated the country's airspace.
    (AP, 8/25/07)

2007        Aug 27, Russia announced the arrest of 10 people in the killing of journalist and Kremlin critic Anna Politkovskaya. Russia's top prosecutor said a Chechen crime boss, Russian police and security officers were involved in the death of the journalist Anna Politkovskaya. But he suggested that someone outside Russia masterminded the killing of the frequent Kremlin critic.
    (AP, 8/27/07)(AP, 8/27/08)

2007        Aug 31, Russian Foreign Minister Sergei Lavrov said Russia will accept a partition of Serbia's Kosovo province if that is the solution agreed by Belgrade and Kosovo's ethnic Albanian majority. Both Serbia and the Kosovo Albanians have said they oppose partition but they have shown no sign of reaching agreement on the central issue of independence for Kosovo.
    (Reuters, 8/31/07)
2007        Aug 31, A car bomb exploded near a police vehicle in Russia's troubled North Caucasus region, killing four police officers in Nazran, Ingushetia.
    (AP, 8/31/07)

2007        Sep 4, In Russia’s Voronezh region an explosion killed three people at a sugar refinery owned by Prodimex Group, one of the country's largest producers.
    (Reuters, 9/4/07)
2007        Sep 4, Alain Robert climbed to the top of Moscow’s 795-feet-high West Federation Tower, in less than a half-hour using a ladder.
    (AP, 9/5/07)

2007        Sep 6, Indonesia and Russia signed a $1 billion defense deal that will allow Indonesia to buy dozens of helicopters, tanks and submarines, part of visiting Russian President Vladimir Putin's efforts to boost his country's military clout in Asia.
    (AP, 9/6/07)
2007        Sep 6, An unmanned Russian rocket carrying a Japanese communications satellite malfunctioned after liftoff, sending parts crashing in an uninhabited part of Kazakhstan and triggering concerns about environmental damage.
    (AP, 9/6/07)
2007        Sep 6, Australian PM John Howard said he would tell Russian President Vladimir Putin that he would not approve the sale of uranium to Moscow if there was any possibility it could be resold to Iran or Syria.
    (Reuters, 9/6/07)

2007        Sep 7, Leaders of Australia and Russia signed a deal to export Australian uranium to fuel Russian nuclear reactors, but promised it would not be transferred to Iran's disputed atomic program.
    (AP, 9/7/07)

2007        Sep 10, Lithuanian PM Gediminas Kirkilas said at a Seimas session that Lithuania will increase its tariffs for transiting natural gas to the Kaliningrad region proportionally to any gas hikes in the price Russia charges its Lithuanian customers.

2007        Sep 11, State television reported that the Russian military has successfully tested what it described as the world's most powerful non-nuclear air-delivered bomb. The Russian bomb is a "thermobaric" weapon that explodes in an intense fireball combined with a devastating blast. It explodes in a terrifying nuclear bomb-like mushroom cloud and wreaks destruction through a massive shock wave created by the air burst and high temperature.
    (AP, 9/12/07)
2007        Sep 11, American, Russian and Chinese nuclear experts began a rare visit to North Korea to examine ways of disabling the country's main nuclear facilities so they can no longer produce bombs.
    (AP, 9/11/07)

2007        Sep 12, Russia’s President Vladimir Putin dismissed his long-serving PM Mikhail Fradkov and nominated little-known Cabinet official Victor Zubkov (b.1941) to replace him in a surprise move that could put Zubkov in the running to replace Putin next year.
    (AP, 9/12/07)(WSJ, 9/13/07, p.A3)(Econ, 9/15/07, p.64)
2007        Sep 12, Serbia warned the EU it would not accept any decision on Kosovo taken outside the UN, and its ally Russia told the US to stop backing Kosovo independence while talks continue.
    (AP, 9/12/07)

2007        Sep 13, In Moscow Shamil Burayev, the former head of a district in Chechnya, was arrested on suspicion of organizing the execution-style murder of investigative journalist Anna Politkovskaya.
    (AP, 9/15/07)

2007        Sep 16, In Russia former KGB officer Andrei Lugovoi, the sole suspect in the radiation poisoning death of former KGB agent Alexander Litvinenko, announced plans to run for parliament on the ticket of a pro-Kremlin ultranationalist party.
    (AP, 9/16/07)

2007        Sep 17, Sotheby's canceled a London auction Set for Sep 18 after Alisher Usmanov, a Russian tycoon paid about 25 percent more than the estimated price for the art collection of the late cellist Mstislav Rostropovich. A government agency "presented some guarantees to Sotheby's that this transaction would be in the interest of the Russian Federation."
    (AP, 9/18/07)

2007        Sep 19, In Moscow Iraq's foreign minister said Iraqi authorities have arrested a man suspected of organizing the murder of four Russian diplomats in Baghdad last year. Hoyshan Zebari identified the suspect as a man named Abu Nur and said he was a member of the terrorist group al-Qaida in Iraq.
    (AP, 9/19/07)

2007        Sep 20, Estonia decided it will not allow a German-Russian consortium to conduct a survey of its exclusive economic zone in the Baltic Sea for a planned underwater gas pipeline.
    (AP, 9/20/07)

2007        Sep 24, Russia’s President Vladimir Putin named a new government, tapping new economics and health ministers and retaining his foreign and defense ministers in an expected but largely cosmetic shuffle before parliamentary and presidential elections.
    (AP, 9/25/07)

2007        Sep 26, Russia unveiled its regional 95-seat Superjet-100, a government-backed effort to re-energize the country's ailing aviation industry and get into a market now dominated by Bombardier and Embraer.
    (AP, 9/26/07)

2007        Sep 30, Garry Kasparov, former world chess champion, entered Russia's presidential race, elected overwhelmingly as the candidate for the country's beleaguered opposition coalition.
    (AP, 9/30/07)

2007        Sep, In Russia construction began in Moscow on Russia Tower, slated to be Europe’s tallest building, at over 1900 feet, on completion in 2012.
    (WSJ, 6/25/08, p.C14)
2007        Sep, Lotte, South Korea’s biggest department store chain, opened its first foreign store in Moscow, Russia.
    (Econ, 6/28/08, p.72)

2007        Oct 1, President Vladimir Putin said he would lead the dominant party's ticket in December parliamentary elections and suggested he could become prime minister, the strongest sign yet that he will try to keep power after he leaves office.
    (AP, 10/1/07)

2007        Oct 3, In Russia workers rebuilding a 19th century Moscow house dug up the remains of nearly three dozen people. An estimated 34 people were found. Some of the remains, which were found under a basement of a house on the estate, had gunshot wounds to the skull and appeared to date back to the 1930s. Sergei Buluchevsky, a government investigator, later said preliminary forensic findings indicated the remains were at least a century old and that there were no signs of violent death.
    (AP, 10/4/07)(AP, 10/18/07)
2007        Oct 3, Russian and US space chiefs signed agreements in Moscow to cooperate on unmanned missions that would search for potential water deposits beneath the surface of the moon and Mars.
    (AP, 10/3/07)

2007        Oct 6, Russia’s President Vladimir Putin said former Prime Minister Mikhail Fradkov will be appointed head of the country's foreign intelligence service.
    (AP, 10/6/07)

2007        Oct 9, Alexander Pichushkin (33), a Russian man accused of murdering 49 people, asked a Moscow court to add another eleven victims to his tally, and told a jury when he first strangled a man it was like falling in love for the first time. He has been branded the 'chessboard murderer' by Russian newspapers because he hoped to put a coin on every square of a 64-place chessboard for each murder.
    (Reuters, 10/9/07)

2007        Oct 10, A spokeswoman for Other Russia said Russian electoral officials have barred the vocal opposition alliance from participating in December parliamentary elections. Election commission chief Vladimir Churov said Other Russia was barred because it was not registered as a political party.
    (AP, 10/10/07)
2007        Oct 10, A Russian rocket blasted off from Kazakhstan's Baikonur launch pad, carrying 3 astronauts to the international space station. Sheikh Muszaphar Shukor, an orthopedic surgeon and university lecturer from Kuala Lumpur, left Earth alongside Russian cosmonaut Yuri Malenchenko and American astronaut Peggy Whitson. Shukor was selected from among 11,000 Malaysian candidates to fly aboard the ISS in a deal his government arranged with Russia as part of a $1 billion purchase of Russian fighter jets. Whitson will be the first woman to command the outpost.
    (Reuters, 9/20/07)(AP, 10/10/07)(SFC, 10/11/07, p.A8)

2007        Oct 13, US Secretary of State Condoleezza Rice, after meeting with human-rights activists in Moscow, told reporters the Russian government under Vladimir Putin had amassed so much central authority that the power-grab could undermine its commitment to democracy.
    (AP, 10/13/08)

2007        Oct 15,     In Germany Pres. Putin held talks with German Chancellor Angela Merkel on the sidelines of a German-Russian political conference called the Petersburg Dialogue.
    (AFP, 10/15/07)
2007        Oct 15, Russia’s Agriculture Minister Alexei Gordeyev said that major food producers and retailers had agreed to fix their prices at the current level following talks with the government. The prices for basic foods will be fixed until January 31, 2008, a period which covers parliamentary elections.
    (www.prime-tass.com/news/show.asp?topicid=54&id=428507)(Econ, 10/27/07, p.63)

2007        Oct 16, In Iran    Russian leader Vladimir Putin met his Iranian counterpart and implicitly warned the US not to use a former Soviet republic to stage an attack on Iran. He also said nations should not pursue oil pipeline projects that are not backed by regional powers.
    (AP, 10/16/07)
2007        Oct 16, A revolt at a Russian prison for minors, in the Sverdlovsk region in the Ural Mountains, swelled into a mass uprising that left two people dead and buildings gutted before guards and riot police restored order.
    (AP, 10/17/07)

2007        Oct 17, Interfax reported that Russia has charged a lieutenant colonel in the security service and 8 others for the Oct 7, 2006, slaying of anti-Kremlin journalist Ann Politkovskaya.
    (WSJ, 10/18/07, p.A1)(Reuters, 10/17/07)   

2007        Oct 18,     Israeli PM Ehud Olmert flew to Moscow in a surprise visit to discuss Iran's nuclear program with President Vladimir Putin, who just returned from talks with Iranian leaders in Tehran. Olmert pressed Russian President Vladimir Putin to support new sanctions against Iran over its nuclear activities and urged Russia not to sell arms to Iran or Syria.
    (AP, 10/18/07)

2007        Oct 20, In Moscow a group of teens killed Sergei Nikolayev (46), a professional chess player from Yakutia. The group attacked more than 10 people over several months late this year. In 2008 a Moscow court convicted 12 teenage boys and a man of committing the series of vicious ethnic attacks, which were videotaped, set to heavy music and widely disseminated on Web sites.
    (http://english.pravda.ru/russia/history/23-09-2008/106430-skinheads-0)(AP, 9/23/08)

2007        Oct 21, A technical glitch sent a Soyuz spacecraft on a wild ride home, forcing Malaysia's first space traveler and two Russian cosmonauts to endure eight times the force of gravity before their capsule landed safely.
    (AP, 10/21/07)

2007        Oct 23,     A bomb courier accidentally blew up a taxi in Russia's Dagestan region, killing herself and wounding eight other people.
    (AP, 10/23/07)

2007        Oct 24, Alexander Pichushkin (33), a Russian former grocery clerk, was found guilty of murdering 48 people in Moscow. On Oct 29 he was sentenced to life in a hard labor colony.
    (AP, 10/24/07)(AP, 10/29/07)

2007        Oct 25, Amnesty International said human rights violations in the Russian region of Ingushetia have increased with a surge in abductions and beatings.
    (AP, 10/25/07)

2007        Oct 28, A Moscow court sentenced Alexander Pichushkin, convicted of 48 murders, to life imprisonment, ending one of Russia's worst serial killer cases.
    (AP, 10/29/08)

2007        Oct 31, A bomb ripped through a passenger bus in the central Russian city of Togliatti, killing eight people and injuring 48. Togliatti is a city on the Volga River known as the headquarters of Russia's largest carmaker, AvtoVAZ, which returned to state control in 2005. The city has a reputation for gang violence as varying groups have competed for control over the lucrative factory.
    (AP, 10/31/07)

2007        Oct, Russian oil production peaked at 9.9 million barrels a day. The state creamed off as much as 92% of profits hindering incentives for production and development.
    (Econ, 5/10/08, p.71)

2007        Nov 2, Igor Moiseyev (101), called the king of folk dance, died in Moscow. In 1937 he founded the Moiseyev Dance Company which went on to inspire folk dance companies in many other countries.
    (SFC, 11/3/07, p.B5)

2007        Nov 3, In Russia some 1,500 people, half of them pensioners, marched through St. Petersburg chanting anti-Kremlin slogans and banging saucepans in protest against rising food prices.
    (Reuters, 11/3/07)

2007        Nov 4, Some 5,000 nationalists turned out for the Russian March, held for the third year on National Unity Day, a holiday the Kremlin created in 2005 to replace the traditional Nov. 7 celebration of the 1917 Bolshevik rise to power. Preston Wiginton (43), a white supremacist from Texas, addressed thousands of Russian nationalists at the rally. A fire tore through a nursing home in Russia, killing at least 31 people, the latest in a series of deadly blazes that have underscored negligence and other problems plaguing state-run institutions.
    (AP, 11/4/07)(AP, 11/5/07)

2007        Nov 11, A severe storm broke the Volganeft-139, a small Russian oil tanker, in two in the Strait of Kerch, spilling at least 560,000 gallons of fuel into the strait between the Sea of Azov and the Black Sea. A Russian official said it was an "environmental disaster." 8 seamen were left missing. Two freighters nearby also sank under 18-foot waves in storm. As many as 10 ships sank or ran aground in the area.
    (AP, 11/11/07)(Reuters, 11/12/07)(SFC, 11/12/07, p.A15)

2007        Nov 12, Alexander Tkachyov, governor of Russia’s Krasnodar region, said more than 30,000 birds and countless fish have been killed in an "ecological catastrophe" wrought by thousands of tons of oil from a tanker that broke apart in a heavy storm near the Black Sea. 3 bodies washed ashore and 20 sailors remained missing after the sinking of at least 11 ships.
    (AP, 11/12/07)(SFC, 11/13/07, p.A10)

2007        Nov 13, The British Virgin Islands told the US there is overwhelming evidence that Leonid Reiman, Russia’s Telecommunications Minister owns much of Russia’s telecom industry through an offshore fund.
    (WSJ, 11/14/07, p.A1)

2007        Nov 15, Sergei Storchak, one of Russia’s top authorities on international financial relations, was detained. Investigators on Nov 19 revealed details in the arrest of the deputy finance minister who allegedly tried to embezzle $43 million in budget funds.
    (AP, 11/19/07)
2007        Nov 15, A top Russian general said that Russia has completed its withdrawal of troops that had been based in Georgia since the Soviet collapse. He said peacekeepers remained in Abkhazia along with forces in South Ossetia with the participation of Georgia.
    (AP, 11/14/07)

2007        Nov 16, The Organization for Security and Cooperation in Europe (OSCE) said its election observers would be unable to monitor next month's Russian parliamentary balloting because Moscow had refused to issue them visas. All 56 OSCE member countries, including Russia, agreed in 1990 to invite international observers to monitor their elections.
    (AP, 11/16/07)

2007        Nov 19, The US and Russia announced an agreement on how to safely dispose 34 metric tons of Russian weapons-grade plutonium.
    (SFC, 11/20/07, p.A11)

2007        Nov 20, President Vladimir Putin said that Russia's decision to suspend its participation in a key arms control treaty was a necessary response to NATO "muscle-flexing" near its frontiers. The 1990 Conventional Forces in Europe (CFE) treaty, which originally set limits on weapons of NATO and Warsaw Pact countries, was revised in 1999. Russia ratified the updated treaty in 2004, but the US and other NATO members have refused to follow suit, saying Moscow first must fulfill obligations to withdraw forces from Georgia and from Moldova's separatist Trans-Dniester region.
    (AP, 11/20/07)

2007        Nov 22, A passenger bus caught fire and exploded in southern Russia, killing at least five people and wounding 12. Investigators in North Ossetia said terrorism was the likely cause.
    (AP, 11/23/07)

2007        Nov 23, Vladimir Kryuchkov (83), the Soviet Union's former KGB chief and one of Russia's most influential hardline spy masters, died. Kryuchkov's biggest failure was the defection to Britain in 1985 of Oleg Gordievsky, the highest ranking KGB defector in its history.
    (Reuters, 11/25/07)

2007        Nov 24, Russian police in Moscow detained opposition leader and former world chess champion Garry Kasparov and several other anti-Kremlin protesters when thousands of people marched against President Vladimir Putin.
    (Reuters, 11/24/07)

2007        Nov 25, Dozens of members of a Russian opposition party and other activists were detained by police as they tried to gather for a protest rally in central St. Petersburg.
    (AP, 11/25/07)

2007        Nov 27, PM Donald Tusk announced that Poland will drop its opposition to Moscow's bid to join the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) in a drive to improve ties with Russia.
    (AP, 11/27/07)

2007        Nov 29, In Russia tycoon and Kremlin critic Boris Berezovsky was convicted in absentia of embezzling millions of dollars from the national airline, Aeroflot, and reportedly sentenced to six years in prison.
    (AP, 11/29/07)

2007        Nov 30, President Vladimir Putin signed a law suspending Russia's participation in the Conventional Forces in Europe treaty.
    (AP, 11/30/07)
2007        Nov 30, In Russia fund manager Oleg Shvartsman said in an interview in Kommersant, a mainstream business newspaper, that his $3.2 billion fund was closely connected to the Kremlin’s administration and security services. Shvartsman said he reported indirectly to Igor Sechin, chair of the Rosneft oil company.
    (Econ, 12/8/07, p.60)

2007        Dec 2, Russians voted in a parliamentary election. Putin's United Russia party swept 70 percent of seats in parliament.
    (AP, 12/2/07)(AP, 12/3/07)

2007        Dec 3, Foreign observers and Russian opposition groups accused authorities of manipulating a sweeping parliamentary election victory for the party of President Vladimir Putin, who hailed the results as a validation of his leadership. With ballots from nearly 98 percent of precincts counted, Putin's United Russia party was leading with 64.1 percent of the vote. Europe joined the US in demanding Russia investigate alleged abuses in the election, and Germany denounced the poll as undemocratic.
    (AP, 12/3/07)(Reuters, 12/3/07)
2007        Dec 3, A Moscow court convicted Igor Reshetin, the head of the company TsNIIMASH-Export, a rocket and space technology company, on charges of leaking sensitive technology to China. This was the latest case involving a Russian scientist who was prosecuted despite claims the sensitive materials were in the public domain. Reshetin was sentenced to 11 1/2 years in prison after prosecutors said the information Reshetin had handed over to the Chinese could be used for building missiles capable of carrying nuclear warheads.
    (AP, 12/3/07)

2007        Dec 9, A blast on a bus in Russia’s Stavropol region killed two people. An exploding gas canister was suspected.
    (Reuters, 12/9/07)

2007        Dec 10, President Vladimir Putin threw his support behind first Deputy PM Dmitry Medvedev (b.1965) as his successor, saying that electing him president would keep Russia on the same course of the past eight years. Medvedev also served as chairman of AOA Gazprom, the state-controlled energy giant.
    (AP, 12/10/07)(WSJ, 12/11/07, p.A22)

2007        Dec 11, A judge from the top court in southern Russia's violence-plagued Dagestan region was fatally shot by an unidentified attacker. Dagestan Supreme Court Justice Kurban Pashayev was shot more than 10 times with a pistol in the entranceway of his apartment building in the provincial capital, Makhachkala. In Ingushetia an 18-year-old rookie in an elite police unit was fatally shot by attackers who fired at him at close range from a passing car as he was walking home after work.
    (AP, 12/11/07)

2007        Dec 12, Russia ordered a British cultural organization to suspend all of its operations outside Moscow at the beginning of 2008, the latest move in a long-running dispute. Russian officials accused the British Council, a non-governmental organization that acts as the cultural department of the British Embassy, of operating illegally in St. Petersburg and Yekaterinburg.
    (AP, 12/12/07)
2007        Dec 12, Veteran diplomat Yuli Vorontsov (78), who served the Soviet Union and Russia as ambassador to Afghanistan (1988-99) and the United States (1994-2000) in a career spanning the Cold War and the Gulf War, died in Moscow.
    (AP, 12/14/07)

2007        Dec 13, Opposition leader Garry Kasparov said the Kremlin has stopped him from running for president by preventing his supporters from meeting to nominate him.
    (AP, 12/13/07)
2007        Dec 13, Russia and Iran reached agreement on a schedule for finishing construction of a nuclear power plant that plays a central role in the international tensions over Iran's atomic program, Russian news agencies reported.
    (AP, 12/13/07)
2007        Dec 13, Japan said that Russia seized four Japanese fishing boats in disputed waters between the two countries, calling the detention unacceptable and demanding an explanation from Moscow.
    (AP, 12/13/07)

2007        Dec 14, The leaders Belarus and Russia pledged closer cooperation on military, economic and foreign policy but gave no indication that the ex-Soviet neighbors were moving closer to a long-discussed full merger.
    (AP, 12/14/07)

2007        Dec 15, Russia's state-controlled gas monopoly said Belarus will pay nearly 20 percent more for Russian gas beginning next year.
    (AP, 12/15/07)

2007        Dec 16, Russian authorities expelled a Moldovan journalist critical of the Kremlin in a move condemned by media watchdogs.
    (AP, 12/16/07)

2007        Dec 17, Russian President Vladimir Putin said he was ready to become prime minister if his close ally Dmitry Medvedev succeeds him, giving Putin a way to keep a grip on power after he leaves the Kremlin.
    (Reuters, 12/17/07)
2007        Dec 17, Iranian Vice President Gholam Reza Aghazadeh said the first nuclear fuel shipment for the Bushehr atomic power plant has arrived in Iran from Russia. Aghazadeh said the Bushehr plant was 95 percent complete and would begin operations next year.
    (AP, 12/17/07)

2007        Dec 19, Time magazine named Russian President Vladimir Putin its 2007 "Person of the Year."
    (AP, 12/19/07)

2007        Dec 25, Russia's military successfully test-fired a new intercontinental ballistic missile capable of carrying multiple nuclear warheads, a weapon intended to replace aging Soviet-era missiles.
    (AP, 12/25/07)
2007        Dec 25, Oleg Ugnivenko, a spokesman for the regional branch of Russia's Emergency Situations Ministry, said more than 600,000 chickens on the Gulyai-Borisovskaya farm in the Rostov-on-Don region have been destroyed to prevent the virus from spreading.
    (AP, 12/25/07)

2007        Dec 26, An unmanned Russian cargo ship carrying 2 tons of supplies including holiday gifts, docked at the international space station.
    (AP, 12/26/07)
2007        Dec 26, Iran's defense minister said that Iran had agreed to buy an S-300 surface-to-air missile system from Russia.
    (Reuters, 12/26/07)

2007        Dec 28, Iran received the second shipment of nuclear fuel from Russia for a power plant being constructed in the southern Iranian town of Bushehr.
    (AP, 12/28/07)

2007        Dec, In Russia a fraudulent tax refund of $230 million was paid to companies stolen from Hermitage Capital Management. Bill Browder, the firm's founder, hired lawyer Sergei Magnitsky to expose the scam.
    (Econ., 1/23/21, p.58)

2007        Arkady Babchenko, Russian soldier, authored “A Soldier’s War in Chechnya," an account of his service in Chechnya. In 2008 it was translated to English by Nick Allen and published as “One Soldier’s War."
    (Econ, 11/17/07, p.100)(WSJ, 1/22/08, p.D8)
2007        Yegor Gaidar (1956-2009), former Russian finance minister and prime minister, authored “Collapse of an Empire."
2007        Garry Kasparov, world chess champion (1985-2000) and current candidate for the presidency of Russia, authored “How Life Imitates Chess: Making the Right Moves from the Board to the Boardroom."
    (WSJ, 10/25/07, p.D8)
2007        Pres. Putin promoted a new Russian history manual for teachers entitled “A Modern History of Russia: 1945-2006." Professor Oksana Gaman-Golutvina said the material published in the book did not correspond to what she wrote and said: "I really do not want my name to be associated with this disgrace."
    (Econ, 11/10/07, p.67)(http://tinyurl.com/355n8p)
2007        Four Russian defense officials were sentenced this year to up to 11 years in jail for selling missile delivery technologies to Beijing for $2 million.
    (AP, 10/5/11)

2007        The US with a population of 301,139,947 counted 1,498,157 soldiers on active duty (~4.9%); China with a population of 1,321,851,888 counted 2,105,000 soldiers on active duty (~.159%). Russia with a population of 141,377,752 counted 1,027,000 soldiers on active duty (~7.2%); These numbers excluded paramilitary troops in China and Russia.
    (WSJ, 8/30/08, p.W5)

2008        Jan 1, Britain defied a Russian order to close the regional offices of its cultural arm from New Year's day, but there was no evidence of Russian attempts to forcibly close British Council centers.
    (Reuters, 1/1/08)

2008        Jan 4, Russian rescuers saved 11 people stranded for nearly three months in a remote area of the Pacific coast after a fishing trip went wrong. Their two boats were damaged in a storm on October 10 during a fishing expedition off the Kamchatka Peninsula.
    (Reuters, 1/4/08)

2008        Jan 9, A natural gas blast ripped through an apartment building in Russia's Tatarstan region, killing at least seven people.
    (AP, 1/9/08)

2008        Jan 10, Russia’s President Vladimir Putin named a prominent nationalist politician as ambassador to NATO at a time of severely strained ties between the two.
    (AP, 1/10/08)

2008        Jan 14, Russia’s Foreign Ministry said no more visas will be issued for new British Council expatriate employees in Saint Petersburg and Yekaterinburg, accreditation renewals for existing employees will be blocked and a tax inquiry will be launched against the Saint Petersburg office after a British cultural organization reopened offices in defiance of an order to close. Russia last month ordered the closure of the two regional offices of the British Council, a nonprofit organization that acts as the cultural arm of the British Embassy, saying they were operating illegally.
    (AFP, 1/14/08)(AP, 1/14/08)

2008        Jan 15, Britain and Russia traded threats and recrimination as a diplomatic feud over the role of the British government's cultural arm worsened.
    (Reuters, 1/15/08)

2008        Jan 16, Russia warned Kosovo's leaders that if they declare independence the territory will never become a member of the UN or other international political institutions.
    (AP, 1/16/08)
2008        Jan 16, A British cultural organization accused Russian authorities of harassing its staff and said it had temporarily closed its offices in St. Petersburg.
    (AP, 1/17/08)

2008        Jan 17, Britain accused Russia of "conduct not worthy of a great country" after what it called a campaign of intimidation by security services forced its cultural centers in two Russian cities to halt operations.
    (AP, 1/17/08)

2008        Jan 18, Russian President Vladimir Putin clinched a key pipeline deal with Bulgaria that strengthens Moscow's grip on European gas markets before issuing a stern warning about the future status of Kosovo.
    (AP, 1/18/08)

2008        Jan 21, Latvia's Foreign Ministry declared a Russian diplomat persona non grata, citing a report that he was a threat to national security. On Jan 25 Russia said it will expel a Latvian diplomat in apparent retaliation. Some 400,000 non-citizens lived in Latvia. Ethnic Russians accounted for a third of the country's population of 2.3 million.
    (AP, 1/25/08)

2008        Jan 22, Serbia agreed to a multi-billion-dollar gas pipeline project as part of an energy deal with Russia. This would boost Moscow’s control over gas supplies to Europe.
    (WSJ, 1/23/08, p.A4)

2008        Jan 23, Russia said a new draft UN resolution on Iran's disputed nuclear program does not call for any harsh sanctions, and the Iranian president said new measures would not deter the country in its pursuit of nuclear technology.
    (AP, 1/23/08)
2008        Jan 23, Police in Moscow arrested Semyon Mogilevich, a suspected crime boss with alleged links to Russia's multibillion dollar gas business. Mogilevich, a Ukrainian-born Russian citizen, has long been sought by the FBI and Interpol.
    (AP, 1/25/08)

2008        Jan 24, Russian election officials said Mikhail Kasyanov, the only liberal Kremlin critic in the presidential race, stands to be kept off the ballot because tens of thousands of signatures on his nominating petitions were forgeries. In Moscow Semyon Mogilevich, a businessman wanted by Interpol, was arrested on tax evasion charges.
    (AP, 1/24/08)(Econ, 3/15/08, p.73)
2008        Jan 24, Iran received a sixth shipment of nuclear fuel from Russia, destined for a power plant being constructed in the southern port of Bushehr.
    (AP, 1/24/08)
2008        Jan 24, In Switzerland the country's supreme court said prosecutors acted within the law when they froze funds belonging to the Russian central bank at the behest of a Swiss firm. The funds were frozen over a legal dispute with Geneva-based trading firm Noga dating back to the end of the Soviet era.
    (AP, 1/24/08)

2008        Jan 25, Russia's lower house of parliament annulled an agreement with Ukraine on using Soviet-built military radars, citing Kiev's bid to join NATO.
    (AP, 1/25/08)

2008        Jan 26, Russian riot police fired warning shots into the air and beat demonstrators who tried to rally against alleged vote-rigging in the Muslim region of Ingushetia.
    (AP, 1/26/08)

2008        Jan 27, Mikhail Kasyanov, former prime minister and the most vocal Kremlin critic in Russia's presidential contest, was barred from the ballot by election authorities who said tens of thousands of signatures on his nominating petitions were faked. Kasyanov denounced the Central Election Commission's ruling as politically motivated and described the election as "farce." "I have no doubt that Putin personally made the decision not to register my candidacy," he said in a statement.
    (AP, 1/27/08)

2008        Jan 28, Iran received the final shipment of uranium fuel from Russia for its first nuclear plant, state media reported, a key step toward the launch of the reactor's operations expected later this year.
    (AP, 1/28/08)

2008        Jan 30, President Vladimir Putin and his likely successor called for sweeping environmental improvements, saying cleaning up Soviet-era pollution and reducing industrial waste are crucial for Russia's economy and public health.
    (AP, 1/30/08)
2008        Jan 30, Imprisoned Russian oil tycoon Mikhail Khodorkovsky launched a hunger strike to protest authorities' refusal to give his jailed ex-lawyer AIDS medication.
    (AP, 1/30/08)

2008        Feb 6, A Russian court suspended the trial of Vasily Aleksanian, an ailing former executive of the dismantled oil giant Yukos, but refused to release him from jail to be treated for AIDS-related cancer and tuberculosis.
    (AP, 2/6/08)

2008        Feb 7, The OSCE’s election monitoring organization said that it will not observe Russia's presidential election next month because of the "severe restrictions" imposed by the Kremlin.
    (AP, 2/7/08)

2008        Feb 8, Iraqi President Jalal Talabani welcomed an expected Russian decision to write off 91 percent of Iraq's estimated $13 billion debt, calling it a "historic turning point" in relations between the two countries. 5 American soldiers were killed in two roadside bombings, 4 in Baghdad and one in Tamim province.
    (AP, 2/8/08)(AP, 2/9/08)

2008        Feb 12, Russia agreed to eliminate a murky middleman company from its gas trade with Ukraine in exchange for 50% share of Ukraine’s domestic gas market.
    (WSJ, 2/13/08, p.A5)
2008        Feb 12, China and Russia challenged the United States at a disarmament debate by formally presenting a plan to ban weapons in space, a proposal that Washington has called a diplomatic ploy by the two nations to gain a military advantage.
    (AP, 2/12/08)

2008        Feb 15, Sova, a Russian human rights group, said hate crimes in Russia have killed 17 people and injured more than 50 others since the beginning of the year.
    (AP, 2/15/08)

2008        Feb 17, Kosovo declared itself a nation, mounting a historic bid to become an "independent and democratic state" backed by the US and key European allies but bitterly contested by Serbia and Russia. Kosovo’s parliament approved a new flag, a blue background with a yellow map of the Connecticut-sized province. Russia denounced Kosovo's independence declaration and called for an emergency meeting of the UN Security Council, underlining its opposition.
    (AP, 2/17/08)(SFC, 2/18/08, p.A13)

2008        Feb 20, Yevgeny Adamov, the former atomic energy minister whom Washington accused of stealing millions in U.S. government funds earmarked for bolstering security at Russian nuclear plants, was sentenced Wednesday to 5 ½ years in prison.
    (AP, 2/20/08)

2008        Feb, Renault SA invested $1 billion for a 25% stake in Russian car maker OAO Avtovaz.
    (WSJ, 3/21/08, p.A1)(Econ, 6/7/08, p.74)

2008        Mar 2, Russians voted for a new president in an election likely to hand victory to First Deputy Prime Minister Dmitry Medvedev, President Vladimir Putin's chosen successor, but criticized by the opposition for a lack of real competition. With 99.45 percent of the votes counted, Medvedev had 70.23 percent.
    (Reuters, 3/2/08)(AP, 3/3/08)

2008        Mar 3, Russia quelled protests in Moscow following the elections and reduced natural gas supplies to Ukraine over $600 million in alleged nonpayments for past deliveries.
    (WSJ, 3/4/08, p.A1)

2008        Mar 4, China and Russia scuttled a Western attempt to introduce a resolution on Iran's nuclear defiance at a meeting of the International Atomic Energy Agency.
    (AP, 3/4/08)

2008        Mar 5, Russia's state gas monopoly announced that it was ending a reduction in natural gas supplies to Ukraine after the two countries' presidents and gas company chiefs reached an agreement aimed at ending a debt and contract dispute.
    (AP, 3/5/08)

2008        Mar 6, Viktor Bout, a suspected Russian arms dealer, was arrested at a five-star hotel in downtown Bangkok on allegations that he supplied Colombian rebels with arms and explosives. He had been accused of flouting UN embargoes and was wanted by Interpol.
    (AP, 3/6/08)

2008        Mar 8, India awarded Russia a 965-million-dollar contract to upgrade its multi-role MiG-29 warplanes. The two post-Cold War allies signed the deal to extend the life of India's fleet of 70 MiG-29 jets another 15 years from their current 25 years.
    (AFP, 3/10/08)

2008        Mar 11, Serbia and Russia demanded that the UN administration in Kosovo halt the transfer of authority to the European Union, calling a handover illegal and declaring they will never recognize the independence of the Serb province.
    (AP, 3/12/08)

2008        Mar 12, Russia agreed to extradite Yair Gal Klein, an Israeli mercenary, to Colombia. He was arrested last year and is accused of training FARC guerrillas.
    (Econ, 3/15/08, p.73)

2008        Mar 14, Russian forces raided a forest camp in the volatile North Caucasus province of Dagestan, leading to a shootout in which six suspected militants, a police officer and an Interior Ministry servicemen died.
    (AP, 3/14/08)

2008        Mar 19, In the Russian region of Chechnya 9 people were been killed in an hour-long clash between police and unidentified gunmen.
    (AP, 3/20/08)

2008        Mar 20, A Russian air force Su-25 fighter jet blew up in flight near the Far East city of Vladivostok and the pilot was killed.
    (AP, 3/20/08)

2008        Mar 21, In Moscow firefighters found the body of Channel One correspondent Ilyas Shurpayev (32) in his apartment with stab wounds and a belt around his neck. He was a native of the mostly Muslim Dagestan province and had worked in Russia's violence-ridden North Caucasus, which includes Dagestan and war-scarred Chechnya. Dagestan. On March 31 officials said that two men from Tajikistan have admitted robbing and killing Shurpayev.
    (AP, 3/21/08)(AP, 3/31/08)

2008        Mar 24, A car bomb exploded outside a bank in southern Russia's violence-plagued Ingushetia region, wounding at least five people.
    (AP, 3/24/08)

2008        Mar 25, Air travel between Georgia and Russia resumed, more than 17 months after Moscow suspended flights because of tension between the ex-Soviet neighbors.
    (AP, 3/25/08)

2008        March 29, Azerbaijan customs halted a shipment of Russian equipment for Iran’s first nuclear power plant. The equipment was released May 1.
    (WSJ, 5/2/08, p.A8)

2008        Apr 2, Russia's foreign minister said that Moscow will not allow newly independent Kosovo to become a member of the UN.
    (AP, 4/2/08)
2008        Apr 2, Pyotr Kuznetsov, leader of a Russian doomsday cult, apparently tried to kill himself after most of his followers abandoned a bunker where they had been awaiting the end of the world for five months. The last 9 of 35 cult members emerged on May 16.
    (Reuters, 4/4/08)(SFC, 5/17/08, p.A3)

2008        Apr 4, Russian President Vladimir Putin strongly criticized NATO's eastward expansion plans but ruled out chances of a new Cold War, insisting that Moscow wants to be friends with the Western military alliance.
    (AP, 4/4/08)
2008        Apr 4, In Russia an explosion, apparently caused by an accident with gas-powered welding equipment in an apartment, ripped through a Moscow apartment tower, blowing out exterior walls, sparking a fire and killing at least three people.
    (AP, 4/4/08)

2008        Apr 6, In Russia President George W. Bush and Russia's Vladimir Putin ended their last face-to-face meeting as heads of state with warm words for each other but no solution to their row over missile defense.
    (Reuters, 4/6/08)

2008        Apr 8, A Russian capsule carrying South Korea's first astronaut and two cosmonauts blasted off from the Baikonur cosmodrome in Kazakhstan, en route to the international space station.
    (AP, 4/8/08)

2008        Apr 13, Khasan Yandiyev (51), a top judge in Russia's southern troubled province of Ingushetia, was shot dead. He had led trials of Islamic rebels.
    (Reuters, 4/13/08)
2008        Apr 13, The winners of this year’s Goldman Awards were reported to be: Feliciano dos Santos (43) of Mozambique, the director of Estamos, an environmental group promoting sanitation, sustainable development and reforestation; Marina Rikhvanova (46), founder of Baikal Environmental Wave, which forced the rerouting of an oil pipeline in the Baikal basin; Pablo Fajardo (35) and Luis Yanza (48) of Ecuador, co-founders of the Amazon Defense Front, which accused Texaco (now Chevron) of dumping oil and wastewater into local streams; Rosa Hilda Ramos (63) of Puerto Rico, head of a movement to protect the Las Cicharillas Marsh; Ignace Schops (43) of Belgium, head of a movement to establish Belgium’s 1st and only national park; Jesus Leon (42) of Mexico, co-founder of the Center for Integral Small Farmer Development of the Mixtec (CEDICAM).
    (SSFC, 4/13/08, p.A4)

2008        Apr 15, President Vladimir Putin accepted the leadership of the dominant United Russia party, securing his grip on power after he leaves the Kremlin and becomes PM next month.
    (AP, 4/15/08)
2008        Apr 15, Brazil and Russia signed an agreement to jointly develop top-line jet fighters and satellite launch vehicles.
    (AP, 4/16/08)

2008        Apr 16, Libyan leader Moamer Kadhafi hailed Russian President Vladimir Putin's official visit as "historic and strategic" during a state dinner at the Bab Azizia palace.
    (AFP, 4/17/08)

2008        Apr 17, Russian President Vladimir Putin wrapped up his two-day visit with Libyan leader Moammar Gadhafi by writing off $4.5 billion in Libyan debts in exchange for multibillion-dollar deals for Russian companies.
    (AP, 4/17/08)
2008        Apr 17, In Italy     Silvio Berlusconi returned to the world diplomatic stage by hosting Russian President Vladimir Putin at his villa in Sardinia. The event lost some of its luster when Putin was forced, before the glare of television cameras, to deny reports he had secretly divorced his wife and planned to marry an Olympic gymnast.
    (Reuters, 4/18/08)

2008        Apr 19, In northern Kazakhstan a Soyuz capsule, carrying South Korean bioengineer Yi So-yeon, American astronaut Peggy Whitson and Russian flight engineer Yuri Malenchenko, landed 260 miles off its mark.
    (AP, 4/19/08)

2008        Apr 20, Russia closed down a plutonium producing reactor in Seversk, marking a milestone in US nuclear nonproliferation efforts.
    (AP, 4/20/08)
2008        Apr 20, A Georgian unmanned reconnaissance flight was shot down over the Georgian rebel region of Abkhazia. The next day Georgia's air force commander said a Russian fighter jet shot down the spy plane as it flew over Abkhazia, but Russia said it had been shot down by separatist forces and that the flight violated UN ceasefire agreements. A UN report on May 26 said a Russian jet shot down the spy drone.
    (Reuters, 4/22/08)(AP, 4/22/08)(SFC, 5/27/08, p.A12)

2008        Apr 28, Iran and Russia discussed the outlines of "serious proposals" aimed at assuring the international community that Tehran's nuclear program is peaceful, state media reported.
    (AP, 4/28/08)
2008        Apr 28, Russia ordered two American military attaches at the US Embassy in Moscow to leave the country following the expulsion of a pair of Russian diplomats from Washington. One Russian military officer was ordered to leave Washington in November last year. The second was ordered to leave on April 22.
    (AP, 5/8/08)

2008        Apr 29, Russia announced it was beefing up its peacekeeping force in Georgia's breakaway Abkhazia and South Ossetia regions, saying it had evidence Tbilisi was readying its forces for an attack.
    (Reuters, 4/29/08)
2008        Apr 29, European nations failed to convince Lithuania to allow the EU to launch talks on a new partnership pact with Russia.
    (AFP, 4/29/08)

2008        May 1, Russia said an extra contingent of its troops had begun arriving in Georgia's breakaway region of Abkhazia, a move Tbilisi said was an illegal act of military aggression.
    (AP, 5/1/08)

2008        May 6, Russia and the US signed a long awaited civilian nuclear cooperation pact that will allow firms from the world's two biggest atomic powers to expand bilateral nuclear trade.
    (AP, 5/6/08)

2008        May 7, Dmitry Medvedev was inaugurated as Russia's president, pledging to bolster the country's economic development and civil rights, in what may signal a departure from his predecessor's heavy-handed tactics.
    (AP, 5/7/08)

2008        May 8, Vladimir Putin was named prime minister of Russia after a fervent speech full of ambitious plans that overshadowed his low-key successor and suggested that he will keep a strong hand in ruling the country.
    (AP, 5/8/08)

2008        May 15, An unmanned Russian cargo ship blasted off with supplies, equipment and gifts for the international space station.
    (AP, 5/15/08)

2008        May 20, In Russia Pres. Medvedev convened top officials and lawyers to set up a task force aimed at cleaning up the weak and often corrupt court system.
    (WSJ, 5/21/08, p.A13)

2008        May 21, In Moscow, Russia, Manchester United prevailed over Chelsea in the soccer final of the Champions League.
    (Econ, 5/24/08, p.77)

2008        May 23, China and Russia jointly condemned a US plan for a global missile defense system at the start of a highly symbolic visit by new Russian President Dmitry Medvedev.
    (AP, 5/23/08)

2008        May 24, Russia won the Eurovision song contest in Belgrade with "Believe", sung by Dima Bilan, giving an eastern European nation victory for the third time in five years.
    (AFP, 5/25/08)

2008        May 25, EU foreign ministers approved much delayed plans to begin talks with Russia aimed at forging a new "strategic partnership."
    (AP, 5/26/08)

2008        May 26, A Russian an An-12 cargo plane crashed near Chelyabinsk, Siberia, killing all 9 people onboard.
    (SFC, 5/27/08, p.A3)

2008        Jun 1, Gay rights activists held small, scattered protests in Moscow, flouting repeated refusals from city authorities for permission to hold parades or demonstrations.
    (AP, 6/1/08)

2008        Jun 3, In Sweden world chess star turned political activist Garry Kasparov told world news industry leaders that PM Vladimir Putin had assaulted press freedoms in Russia, and urged them to challenge Kremlin leaders over the issue.
    (AP, 6/4/08)

2008        Jun 5, The European Parliament called for the peacekeeping mandate for Russian troops in the breakaway Georgian region of Abkhazia to be revised. The chamber also demanded the EU sends its own border mission into the conflict zone in Abkhazia.
    (AP, 6/5/08)

2008        Jun 6, Russia's new Pres. Medvedev met with leaders of a fractious alliance of ex-Soviet republics, warning Ukraine and Georgia not to lead their countries into NATO.
    (AP, 6/6/08)

2008        Jun 8, An unidentified gunman shot and killed a police officer in the city of Nazran in the province of Ingushetia.
    (AP, 6/9/08)

2008        Jun 9, Russia and Norway met for 2-days talks in the hope of making progress in a decades-old dispute over their maritime border in the Barents Sea, a part of the Arctic that could hold large oil and gas reserves. After visiting the Norwegian town of Kirkenes, the ministers will go to Murmansk in northwest Russia.
    (AP, 6/9/08)
2008        Jun 9, A soldier and a police officer were killed when unidentified gunmen fired at a train carrying troops from Chechnya that had pulled in to the town of Khasavyurt in the republic of Dagestan.
    (AP, 6/9/08)

2008        Jun 12, UN Secretary-General Ban Ki-moon told Kosovo's leaders he intends to reshape the UN mission there to allow the EU to take on key tasks, according to a letter in the letter to Kosovo President Fatmir Sejdiu. Russia demanded disciplinary action against the head of the UN mission in Kosovo for preparing to hand over powers to a EU mission that Moscow says is illegal.
    (Reuters, 6/12/08)

2008        Jun 13, Russian officials said four people were killed in Nazran, the biggest city in the Ingushetia region, in an explosion that destroyed a building.
    (Reuters, 6/13/08)

2008        Jun 22, A Russian film about a teenager surprised by the sudden appearance of the father she thought to be dead won the top prize at the 11th Shanghai International Film Festival. Vladimir Kott's directorial debut "Mukha" was named best feature film in the Jin Jue Awards announced at the conclusion of the nine-day festival.
    (AP, 6/23/08)

2008        Jun 27, EU and Russian leaders, meeting in Siberia, agreed to launch formal negotiations on a new strategic agreement governing relations. A first round of negotiations will be held in Brussels on July 4.
    (Reuters, 6/27/08)

2008        Jun 28, Police in Russia’s Dagestan province killed three suspected militants, including a woman.
    (AP, 6/29/08)

2008        Jun, Andrey Melnichenko (36), founder of MDM Bank, took delivery of his new yacht designed by Philippe Starck. The Russian billionaire’s fortune was estimated at over $4 billion.
    (WSJ, 7/17/08, p.A1)

2008        Jul 8, In Russia’s Caucasus region the Interior Ministry of Kabardino-Balkaria province said unidentified gunmen had riddled the police car with bullets in the village of Baksan. 3 police officers were killed.
    (AP, 7/8/08)

2008        Jul 10, The Interfax news agency, citing a source in Russia's secret services, reported that the head of the embassy's trade and investment section, Christopher Bowers, was believed to be a senior British intelligence officer.
    (AP, 7/11/08)

2008        Jul 11, The Czech Republic’s Industry and Trade Ministry announced that Russia has reduced its oil shipments to the country without providing an explanation. The cutback was announced three days after the nation signed a military agreement with Washington that the Kremlin strongly opposes.
    (AP, 7/11/08)
2008        Jul 11, Zimbabwe’s opposition Movement for Democratic Change said a total of 113 MDC supporters have now been killed in politically-related violence. Zimbabwe's ruling party and opposition held a second day of talks in South Africa. A UN Security Council bid to pass sanctions against Zimbabwe’s Robert Mugabe was vetoed by Russia and China.
    (AP, 7/11/08)(AFP, 7/11/08)(AFP, 7/12/08)

2008        Jul 14, Russia agreed to write off $242 million in Tajikistan debt and take control of the Okno mountaintop station, operational since 2004. It was designed to track satellites and even fragments of space debris.
    (AP, 7/15/08)

2008        Jul 17, A survey team member said a Russian government audit has revealed that up to 50,000 pieces are missing from the country’s museums, everything from Pre-Revolutionary medals and weapons to precious works of art.
    (AP, 7/18/08)

2008        Jul 21, China and Russia signed an agreement that demarcated their 2,700 mile border ending a long running border dispute.
    (WSJ, 7/22/08, p.A1)

2008        Jul 29, Russian news said 2 small, manned submarines reached the bottom of Lake Baikal, the world's deepest freshwater lake. The "Mir-1" and "Mir-2" submersibles descended 1.05 miles (1,680 meters) to the bottom of the vast Siberian lake.
    (AP, 7/29/08)
2008        Jul 29, Russian proxies in South Ossetia started shelling pro-Georgian villages there.
    (Econ, 1/23/10, p.78)

2008        Jul 30, Alexander Tsygankov, a Russian oil executive detained in Libya since last November, was freed, hours before Russian PM Vladimir Putin was due to host the country's prime minister.
    (Reuters, 7/31/08)

2008        Jul 31, Russia’s Pres. Medvedev said that he had signed an anticorruption plan and that he was serious about clamping down on graft.
    (WSJ, 7/31/08, p.A6)

2008        Aug 1, Leonid Nevzlin, a top manager of the now defunct YUKOS business empire, was sentenced by a Russian court to life in prison for ordering a series of high profile murders, a verdict he dismissed as the result of a show trial organized by the Kremlin.
    (Reuters, 8/1/08)

2008        Aug 3, The breakaway republic of South Ossetia began sending hundreds of children across the border to its Russian ally amid increasing violence between the republic and Georgian government forces.
    (AP, 8/3/08)
2008        Aug 3, Alexander Solzhenitsyn (b.1918), Russian Nobel literature laureate (1970), died of heart failure in his Moscow home. His books, which included “One Day in the Life of Ivan Denisovich" (1962) and "Gulag Archipelago" (1973), chronicled the horrors of dictator Josef Stalin's slave labor camps. In 1974, he was stripped of his citizenship and put on a plane to West Germany for refusing to keep silent about his country's past.
    (Reuters, 8/4/08)(WSJ, 8/9/08, p.W12)
2008        Aug 3, Venezuelan President Hugo Chavez says 24 Sukhoi fighter jets have been delivered to Venezuela, and are ready to defend his country from "imperialist" aggressions.
    (AP, 8/4/08)

2008        Aug 7, A device exploded on a beach in Sochi, a Black Sea Russian resort that will host the 2014 Winter Olympics, killing two people and wounding three.
    (AP, 8/7/08)
2008        Aug 7, Heavy shelling overnight in the Georgian breakaway province of South Ossetia wounded at least 21 people. Cyber attacks from Russia began to target Georgian government Web sites. An organization known as the Russian Business Network was the leading suspect in the attacks. Georgia’s Pres. Saakashvili ordered the shelling of Tskhinvali, the capital of South Ossetia.
    (AP, 8/7/08)(WSJ, 8/12/08, p.A9)(Econ, 8/30/08, p.49)

2008        Aug 8, Georgian troops launched a major military offensive to regain control of South Ossetia, prompting a furious response from Russia, which sent tanks into the region. The convoy was expected to reach the provincial capital by evening. Georgia said it shot down two Russian combat planes. Separatist officials in South Ossetia said 15 civilians had been killed in fighting overnight. Georgia later acknowledged that it used M85 cluster munition near the Roki tunnel that connects South Ossetia with Russia, while Russia denied use of cluster bombs.
    (AP, 8/8/08)(AP, 9/1/08)

2008        Aug 9, Russia sent hundreds of tanks and troops into the separatist province of South Ossetia and bombed Georgian towns in a major escalation of the conflict that has left scores of civilians dead and wounded. Russian Foreign Minister Sergey Lavrov told reporters in Moscow that some 1,500 people have been killed, with the death toll rising. The death toll in South Ossetia was later put at fewer than 200. Russian military aircraft bombed the Georgian town of Gori. Georgia's President Mikhail Saakashvili proposed a cease-fire. As part of his proposal, Georgian troops were pulled out of Tskhinvali and had been ordered to stop responding to Russian shelling.
    (AP, 8/9/08)(Econ, 8/30/08, p.49)

2008        Aug 10, Georgian troops retreated from the breakaway province of South Ossetia and their government pressed for a truce, overwhelmed by Russian firepower as the conflict threatened to set off a wider war. Georgia said it has shot down 10 Russian planes, including four brought down Aug 9. It also claimed to have captured two Russian pilots, who were shown on Georgian television. Ukraine warned Russia it could bar Russian navy ships from returning to their base in the Crimea because of their deployment to Georgia's coast.
    (AP, 8/10/08)

2008        Aug 11, Swarms of Russian jets launched new raids on Georgian territory and Georgia faced the threat of a second front of fighting as Russia demanded that Georgia disarm troops near the breakaway province of Abkhazia.
    (AP, 8/11/08)

2008        Aug 12, Georgia's Pres. Mikhail Saakashvili said his government will declare that its breakaway regions are occupied territories and will designate Russian peacekeepers as occupying forces. Russia ordered a halt to military action in Georgia, after five days of air and land attacks sent Georgia's army into headlong retreat and left towns and military bases destroyed. A Dutch television journalist was killed overnight when Russian warplanes bombed the central Georgian city of Gori. Russia later counted 133 civilian deaths in South Ossetia. Rights activists later said fewer than 100 civilians were killed in South Ossetia. The war cost some 850 lives and left over 35,000 displaced civilians, mot of the Georgian.
    (AP, 8/12/08)(Econ, 8/23/08, p.43)(WSJ, 9/12/08, p.A1)(Econ, 10/3/09, p.65)

2008        Aug 13, Russian tanks rolled into the crossroads city of Gori then thrust deep into Georgian territory, violating the truce designed to end the six-day war. Georgia said that 175 Georgians had died in five days of air and ground attacks that left homes in smoldering ruins. EU foreign ministers agreed in principle to send monitors to supervise a French-brokered ceasefire between Russia and Georgia in the breakaway Georgian region of South Ossetia. Finance Minister Alexei Kudrin said Russia will spend at least $400 million in 2008 on restoring South Ossetia's battered capital Tskhinvali.
    (AP, 8/13/08)(Reuters, 8/13/08)

2008        Aug 14, Georgian and Russian troops faced off at a checkpoint outside the key city of Gori, calling an already shaky cease-fire into question. An American official said Russia appears to be sabotaging airfields and other military infrastructure as its forces pull back. The Russian General Prosecutor's office said it has formally opened a genocide probe into Georgian treatment of South Ossetians. For its part, Georgia this week filed a suit against Russia in the International Court of Justice, alleging murder, rape and mass expulsions in both provinces.
    (AP, 8/14/08)

2008        Aug 15, Russian troops allowed some humanitarian supplies into Georgia’s city of Gori but kept up their blockade of the strategically located city, raising doubts about Russia's intentions. Relief planes swooped into Tbilisi with tons of supplies for the estimated 100,000 people uprooted by the fighting. An international rights group said it has evidence that Russian warplanes dropped cluster bombs in civilian areas in Georgia.
    (AP, 8/15/08)

2008        Aug 16, Russian forces pulled back from the center of a town not far from Georgia's capital after Russia's president signed a cease-fire deal. Russia’s Foreign Minister Sergey Lavrov later suggested there would be no immediate broader withdrawal. Georgia's Foreign Ministry said Saturday that Russian-backed separatists from the province of Abkhazia had taken over 13 villages in Georgia and a power plant. Russian troops blew up a key railroad bridge linking the Caucasus to the Black Sea coast.
    (AP, 8/16/08)(SSFC, 8/17/08, p.A4)

2008        Aug 17, The Kremlin promised to start withdrawing combat troops from Georgia on August 18, as Western pressure mounted on Russia to quit the ex-Soviet republic.
    (AFP, 8/17/08)

2008        Aug 18, Russia said its military began to withdraw from the conflict zone in Georgia, but left unclear exactly where troops and tanks will operate under the cease-fire that ended days of fighting in the former Soviet republic.
    (AP, 8/18/08)

2008        Aug 19, Russian soldiers took 20 Georgian troops prisoner at a key port in western Georgia and commandeered American Humvees awaiting shipment back to the United States after taking part in earlier US-Georgian military exercises. Georgia and Russia exchanged prisoners captured during their brief war.
    (AP, 8/19/08)

2008        Aug 20, A top Russian general said 64 of the country's soldiers were killed and 323 wounded in this month's fighting with Georgia. Russia informed Norway that it plans to suspend all military ties with NATO, a day after the military alliance urged Moscow to withdraw its forces from Georgia. Georgia later reported that 170 of its soldiers were killed in the war.
    (AP, 8/20/08)(AP, 8/21/08)(SSFC, 8/24/08, p.A10)

2008        Aug 21, Russian forces blocked the only land entrance to Georgia's main port city, a day before Russia promised to complete a troop pullout from its ex-Soviet neighbor.
    (AP, 8/21/08)

2008        Aug 22, A Russian armored column moved away from a base in western Georgia and Russian forces also were leaving the key central city of Gori, the day that Russia's president had said a pullback would be complete.
    (AP, 8/22/08)

2008        Aug 23, A top Russian general said his country's forces will keep patrolling the key Georgian Black Sea port of Poti even though it lies outside the areas where Russia claims it has the right to station soldiers in Georgia.
    (AP, 8/23/08)

2008        Aug 24, The USS McFaul, a US Navy warship carrying humanitarian aid, anchored at the Georgian port of Batumi, sending a strong signal of support to an embattled ally as Russian forces built up around two separatist regions. In central Georgia, an oil train exploded and caught fire, sending plumes of black smoke into the air. A Georgian official said the train hit a land mine and blamed the explosion on departing Russian forces.
    (AP, 8/24/08)
2008        Aug 24, The Beijing Olympics, played out against a background of political intrigue and featuring 16 days of compelling and controversial action, drew to a spectacular close. China's haul of 51 gold medals was the largest since the Soviet Union won 55 in Seoul in 1988. The US won 36 gold medals and Russia came in 3rd with 23. Jamaica ended up with 11 medals including 6 gold. Cuba took home 24 medals, but only 2 gold.
    (AP, 8/24/08)(Econ, 8/30/08, p.38)

2008        Aug 25, Russia's parliament voted unanimously to urge the president to recognize the independence of Georgia's two breakaway regions, a move likely to stoke further tensions between Moscow and the small Caucasus nation's Western allies. Russian President Dmitry Medvedev warned ex-Soviet Moldova against repeating Georgia's mistake of trying to use force to seize back control of Transdniestria, a pro-Moscow breakaway region.
    (AP, 8/25/08)(Reuters, 8/25/08)

2008        Aug 26, Russia formally recognized Abkhazia and South Ossetia, the breakaway Georgian territories at the heart of its war with Georgia, heightening tensions with the West as the US dispatched a military ship bearing aid to a port city still patrolled by Russian troops. In a direct challenge to Russia, the US announced it intends to deliver humanitarian aid to the beleaguered Georgian port city of Poti, which Russian troops still control through checkpoints on the city's outskirts.
    (AP, 8/26/08)

2008        Aug 27, A US military ship docked at the southern Georgian port of Batumi. Meanwhile, Russia's missile cruiser, the Aurora, and two missile boats, anchored at the port of Sukhumi, the capital of Abkhazia. The moves by both sides underscored an escalating standoff between Moscow and the West over this small Caucasus nation devastated by war with Russia.
    (AP, 8/27/08)
2008        Aug 27, The Group of Seven (G7) industrialized democracies condemned Russia for its actions in Georgia, underlining the country's growing estrangement from the West.
    (AP, 8/28/08)

2008        Aug 28, A Russian military spokesman said Russia successfully tested a long-range Topol missile, designed to avoid detection by anti-missile defense systems, from its Plesetsk launch site. The RS-12M Topol, called the SS-25 Sickle by NATO, has a maximum range of 10,000 km (6,125 miles) and can carry one 550-kiloton warhead.
    (AP, 8/28/08)
2008        Aug 28, Russian forces turned over 12 Georgian soldiers on the border of Abkhazia. Georgia's foreign minister said ethnic Georgians were being cleared from their homes in South Ossetia. A joint declaration from the Shanghai Cooperation Organization denounced the use of force and called for respect for every country's territorial integrity. Mikhail Mindzayev, the interior minister of South Ossetia, said an unmanned Georgian spy plane was shot down over South Ossetia by local forces.
    (AP, 8/28/08)
2008        Aug 28, Russia’s PM Vladimir Putin said 19 US poultry producers will be barred from exporting their products to Russia. He said the unnamed American producers had ignored warnings from Russian inspectors who examined poultry companies last year and that another 29 producers would receive warnings.
    (AP, 8/29/08)

2008        Aug 29, A Georgian Foreign Ministry official says Georgia is to recall all diplomatic staff from its embassy in Moscow because of the Russian military presence in Georgia.
    (AP, 8/29/08)

2008        Aug 30, The UN says Russian soldiers are telling thousands of refugees in Georgia who want to return to their homes that their security can't be guaranteed. All hoped to return to villages that are in the "security zones" that Russia has claimed for itself. Russian PM Vladimir Putin urged the EU to ignore calls to punish Moscow over the Georgia conflict as Tbilisi appealed for targeted punishment of the Russian leadership.
    (AP, 8/30/08)(AFP, 8/30/08)

2008        Aug 31, President Dmitry Medvedev says Russia will follow the recognition of Georgia's breakaway provinces with agreements on economic and military aid.
    (AP, 8/31/08)
2008        Aug 31, Police arrested Magomed Yevloyev, the owner of the Ingushetiya.ru web site, taking him off a plane that had just landed in Ingushetia province. Police whisked Yevloyev away in a car and later dumped him on the road with a gunshot wound in the head. Yevloyev died in a hospital shortly afterward.
    (AP, 8/31/08)

2008        Sep 2, Prime Minister Vladimir Putin said that Russia will respond calmly to an increase in NATO ships in the Black Sea in the aftermath of the short war with Georgia, but promised that "there will be an answer."
    (AP, 9/2/08)
2008        Sep 2, In Russia's troubled North Caucasus journalist Telman Alishaev was shot in Dagestan. Islamic TV reporter Telman Alishaev died at a hospital in Makhachkala the next day. Journalist Miloslav Bitokov was left with a fractured skull after a beating in Nalchik, Kabardino-Balkariya. Police and co-workers said the two men were likely targeted for their work.
    (AP, 9/3/08)

2008        Sep 4, In Moscow officials said BP PLC and its billionaire Russian partners in the joint venture TNK-BP have agreed on a deal that forces out its embattled CEO and signals an end to a bitter struggle for control of the Russian-British company.
    (AP, 9/4/08)
2008        Sep 4, Russian troops killed 5 suspected Muslim rebels in Dagestan.
    (WSJ, 9/5/08, p.A1)
2008        Sep 4, In Georgia US Vice President Dick Cheney condemned Russia for what he called an "illegitimate, unilateral attempt" to redraw this US ally's borders by force.
    (AP, 9/4/08)

2008        Sep 5, EU nations called for an international probe to find out which country should shoulder responsibility for starting the conflict between Georgia and Russia.
    (AP, 9/5/08)

2008        Sep 8, French President Nicolas Sarkozy pressed Moscow to honor its pledge to withdraw troops from Georgia, while Russian soldiers prevented international aid convoys from visiting Georgian villages in a tense zone around the breakaway province of South Ossetia. Pres. Medvedev and Sarkozy revised the EU-brokered deal to end the fighting between Russia and Georgia. Medvedev said 200 EU monitors would deploy to regions surrounding South Ossetia and Abkhazia by next month. After that, Russian troops would pull out of those regions by Oct. 11 to a line that preceded last month's fighting.
    (AP, 9/8/08)(AP, 9/9/08)

2008        Sep 9, Russia said it will station 7,600 troops in South Ossetia and in Abkhazia, announcing an imposing long-term presence less than a day after agreeing to pull forces back from areas surrounding the provinces.
    (AP, 9/9/08)(WSJ, 9/10/08, p.A1)
2008        Sep 9, Serbian lawmakers ratified a pre-membership agreement with the EU and an oil and gas deal with Russia after months of heated debate over the direction of the country's policies.
    (AP, 9/9/08)

2008        Sep 10, An unmanned Russian cargo ship blasted off successfully carrying supplies, equipment and gifts for the international space station.
    (AP, 9/10/08)
2008        Sep 10, Israeli defense officials say the government has told all businessmen involved in military sales to Georgia to immediately cease visits to the former Soviet republic. The officials said the directive was decided upon this week because Israel is concerned about damage to its relations with Russia.
    (AP, 9/10/08)

2008        Sep 12, Russia’s Itar-Tass news reported that Syria’s Tartous port is being renovated to provide a permanent facility for the Russian navy.
    (SFC, 10/3/08, p.A14)

2008        Sep 13, Hundreds of Russian forces packed up and withdrew from positions in western Georgia. A Georgian official said Russia had met a deadline for a partial pullout a month after the war between the two former Soviet republics. A Georgian policeman at a post near Abkhazia was killed by gunfire that came from the direction of a position where Abkhazian and Russian forces have been based. Some 1,200 Russian servicemen still remained at 19 checkpoints and other positions, 12 outside South Ossetia and seven outside Abkhazia.
    (AP, 9/13/08)

2008        Sep 14, Aeroflot Flight 821, traveling from Moscow to the Ural Mountains city of Perm, crashed near residential buildings as it was preparing to land, killing all 88 people aboard, including 21 foreign nationals. A Russian investigator said the crash of the Boeing-737-500 was most likely caused by engine failure.
    (AP, 9/14/08)

2008        Sep 16, Georgia’s government said intercepted mobile phone calls show that Russian tanks and troops invaded before Georgia unleashed its offensive against South Ossetia, pressing its claim that Russia was the aggressor in the war last month.
    (AP, 9/16/08)

2008        Sep 17, Russian President Dmitry Medvedev signed friendship treaties with Georgia's breakaway regions of Abkhazia and South Ossetia and promised them the backing of Russia's armed forces.
    (AP, 9/17/08)

2008        Sep 18, Russia ordered its main stock exchanges closed for a second day as President Dmitry Medvedev unveiled an expanded $120 billion rescue package and called for pouring 500 billion rubles ($20 billion) into blue-chip shares in an effort to stabilize them.
    (AP, 9/18/08)(WSJ, 9/19/08, p.A8)
2008        Sep 18, Australia’s PM Kevin Rudd said the west's relations with Russia are at a turning point after its intervention in Georgia and a pact to sell Australian uranium to Moscow is in the balance.
    (AP, 9/18/08)

2008        Sep 19, Russian stock exchanges halted trading after stocks shot higher, rebounding off a two-day closure amid a financial crisis as the government rushed through emergency measures that included more money for banks and purchases of shares to stem plunging prices. Trading resumed later in the day.
    (AP, 9/19/08)

2008        Sep 22, Georgian forces shot down a Russian drone near the breakaway province of South Ossetia.
    (AP, 9/23/08)

2008        Sep 24, Ruslan Yamadayev (46), a former Russian lawmaker and brother of a Chechen warlord, was assassinated as he was stopped at a traffic light just outside the British Embassy in Moscow.
    (AP, 9/25/08)(www.newstin.com/rel/us/en-010-005544799)
2008        Sep 24, In Nicaragua Russia's ambassador to Managua said that his country will replace the Nicaraguan army's aging weaponry.
    (AP, 9/25/08)

2008        Sep 25, The Czech counterintelligence service said Russian spies operating in the Czech Republic have tried to increase public opposition to a planned US missile defense facility. Most Czechs oppose the base, according to recent polls. The Czech Republic's government has approved the missile defense treaty, but it still requires the approval of the Czech parliament, where it faces strong opposition.
    (AP, 9/25/08)
2008        Sep 25, Pirates seized the 530-foot, Ukrainian cargo vessel, MV Faina, with 21 people aboard off eastern Somalia. Russia's navy soon sent a warship to Somalia's coast a day after pirates seized the Ukrainian vessel loaded with 33 tanks, ammunition and 3 Russian crew members. The ITAR-Tass news agency said the military equipment had been sold to Kenya. It was later reported that the arms were destined for southern Sudan and that Kenya’s cooperation would be rewarded in the future with cheap oil. The shipped was released on Feb 5, 2009, following a ransom of $3.2 million.
    (AP, 9/26/08)(SFC, 9/27/08, p.A5)(Econ, 10/4/08, p.49)(AP, 2/5/09)

2008        Sep 26, Russian President Dmitry Medvedev announced plans to create an upgraded nuclear deterrence system for Russia by 2020, including a space defense system and new nuclear submarines.
    (AP, 9/26/08)

2008        Sep 28, President Hugo Chavez said that Russia will help Venezuela develop nuclear energy, a move likely to raise US concerns over increasingly close cooperation between Caracas and Moscow.
    (AP, 9/29/08)

2008        Sep 29, US warships and helicopters surrounded a hijacked cargo ship loaded with Sudan-bound tanks and other arms to keep the weapons from falling "into the wrong hands." The shipment of 33 Russian-designed tanks, rifles and ammunition on the Ukrainian-operated Faina was headed for Sudan, not Kenya as previously claimed by Kenyan officials. Somali pirates demanded a $20 million ransom.
    (AP, 9/29/08)(SFC, 9/29/08, p.A12)
2008        Sep 29, South Korea said its state run Korea Gas Corp. signed a memorandum of understanding with Russia’s Gazprom to import gas from Russia for 30 years starting in 2015 as part of a $102 billion bilateral gas and chemical deal.
    (WSJ, 9/30/08, p.A9)

2008        Sep 30, Alexander Lebedev, a Russian billionaire said he is teaming up with former Soviet President Mikhail Gorbachev to form a new political party that will challenge the country's recent steps away from democracy.
    (AP, 9/30/08)

2008        Oct 1, The Russian Supreme Court declared the last czar and his murdered family to be victims of political repression, a decision that helps Russia move toward closing a chapter in its tortured history.
    (AP, 10/1/08)

2008        Oct 3, Russian share prices dropped sharply despite a nearly $200 billion Kremlin rescue plan. Oleg Deripaska, billionaire tycoon, was reported to have given up his 20% stake in Magna Int’l., a Canadian auto parts maker, to creditors.
    (WSJ, 10/4/08, p.A4)
2008        Oct 3, A car exploded outside the Russian military's headquarters in South Ossetia, killing 7 people and wounding 3. The South Ossetian government said a car, that had been confiscated in an ethnic Georgian village after weapons were found in it, exploded near a building where leaders of the Russian peacekeeping force were located.
    (AP, 10/3/08)(www.foxnews.com/story/0,2933,432172,00.html)

2008        Oct 5, A Georgian Interior Ministry official said Russian troops have begun dismantling positions in the so-called security zones inside Georgia that they have occupied since August's brief but intense war.
    (AP, 10/5/08)

2008        Oct 6, Israeli PM Ehud Olmert visited Moscow, aiming to focus on Russian arms sales to Israel's enemies. By contrast, Russia hoped the meeting will bolster its image as a Middle East peacemaker.
    (AP, 10/6/08)

2008        Oct 7, Iceland nationalized its second-largest bank under day-old legislation and negotiated a euro4 billion ($5.4 billion) loan from Russia to shore up the nation's finances amid a full-blown financial crisis.
    (AP, 10/7/08)

2008        Oct 8, Russian forces pulled back from positions outside South Ossetia, bulldozing a camp at a key checkpoint and withdrawing into the separatist region as EU monitors and relieved Georgian residents looked on.
    (AP, 10/8/08)

2008        Oct 11, Russia launched a ballistic missile from a submarine in a record flight of over 7,100 miles, hitting a target in the middle of the Pacific Ocean for the first time. Russian TV showed what it said was the Sineva missile launching from the submarine Tula.
    (AP, 10/11/08)

2008        Oct 12, A Soyuz spacecraft with two Americans and a Russian on board lifted off from Kazakhstan for the international space station. The Soyuz TMA-13 capsule carried American computer game millionaire Richard Garriott, US astronaut Michael Fincke and Russian cosmonaut Yuri Lonchakov.
    (AP, 10/12/08)

2008        Oct 18, At least two Russian soldiers were killed and 10 others were wounded when rebels ambushed a military convoy in the Sunzha region of Ingushetia.
    (AP, 10/18/08)

2008        Oct 21, Top US and Russian military officers held an unannounced meeting in Helsinki in an effort to maintain dialogue after Moscow's crushing defeat of American ally Georgia.
    (Reuters, 10/21/08)
2008        Oct 21, Iran, Russia and Qatar discussed the formation of an OPEC-style cartel among some of the largest natural gas producing nations, a prospect that has unnerved energy-importing nations in Europe and the United States.
    (AP, 10/21/08)

2008        Oct 22, Russia's foreign minister said Moscow wants to negotiate an extension of its lease at Ukraine's Black Sea port of Sevastopol. The move would keep Russia's Black Sea Fleet in the port where it has been stationed for centuries.
    (AP, 10/22/08)

2008        Oct 23, Russia, which sent a warship to Somalia's coast to combat pirates, asked the African nation for carte blanche to use force in its territorial waters.
    (Reuters, 10/23/08)
2008        Oct 23, Rebel attacks using land mines in Chechnya killed one Russian soldier and wounded 10 other servicemen and police.
    (AP, 10/24/08)
2008        Oct 23, The Ukrainian currency plunged against the dollar as people raced to exchange booths to convert their savings into US currency. Ukraine's Foreign Ministry said in a statement that the Russia’s desire to extend its port lease at Sevastopol "cannot be a subject of discussion." It said that Russian ships will have to leave Ukrainian waters in 2017.
    (AP, 10/23/08)

2008        Oct 24, A Soyuz capsule carrying an American and two Russians touched down on target in Kazakhstan after a descent from the international space station, safely delivering the first two men to follow their fathers into space.
    (AP, 10/24/08)

2008        Oct 25, Muslim Magomayev (66), an Azeri-born Soviet-era opera and pop singer, died in Moscow. His fame was at its peak in the 1960s and 70s.
    (AP, 10/25/08)

2008        Oct 28, A Moscow jury said Alexei Frenkel (36), former chairman of VIP Bank, ordered the September, 2006, murder of Andrei Kozlov (41), a Central Bank official. 3 Ukrainians were found guilty of the killing. A 4th Ukrainian and 2 people from Moscow were found guilty as accessories to the murder.
    (WSJ, 10/29/08, p.A14)
2008        Oct 28, The bodies of Russian Otto Messmer and Victor Betancourt of Ecuador were found in their Moscow apartment at the Jesuit Moscow headquarters. Several days later, police announced a 38-year-old man had confessed to the killings but gave few details. In 2009 a federal Investigative Committee announced the man had been drinking with Betancourt, and when Betancourt suggested they have sex, the man bludgeoned Betancourt with a dumbbell. The man allegedly killed Messmer later to cover up the first killing.
    (AP, 7/17/09)

2008        Oct 29, Russia's parliament quickly ratified treaties cementing close economic and military ties with Georgia's two breakaway provinces.
    (AP, 10/29/08)
2008        Oct 29, In Germany Viswanathan Anand of India retained his world chess title by drawing with the white pieces against Russian challenger Vladimir Kramnik.
    (AP, 10/30/08)

2008        Oct 30, Murat Zyazikov (51), the unpopular leader of Russia's violence-plagued republic of Ingushetia, said he has resigned. Pres. Medvedev named an apparent unknown, Yunus-Bek Yevkurov, to take over as the republic's acting president.
    (AP, 10/30/08)

2008        Oct 31, Libyan leader Muammar Gaddafi, starting his first visit to post-Soviet Russia, planned to discuss opening a Russian naval base in Libya to counterbalance US interests in the region.
    (AP, 10/31/08)

2008        Nov 4, In Moscow ultranationalists and anti-immigrant activists tossed smoke grenades and scuffled with riot police on a national holiday celebrating Russian unity. Youths assaulted a Turkmen diplomat outside his Moscow consulate and killed an Uzbek in separate attacks.
    (AP, 11/5/08)
2008        Nov 4, Human Rights Watch reported that both Georgia and Russia used cluster bombs during their brief summer war. Georgia’s bombs, purchased from Israel, killed at least 3 Georgian civilians, including 2 who touched unexploded bombs and died after the fighting ended. Many of the bombs were said to have malfunctioned.
    (WSJ, 11/4/08, p.A12)

2008        Nov 5, Russia will deploy missiles near NATO member Poland in response to US missile defense plans, President Dmitry Medvedev said Wednesday in his first state of the nation speech.
    (AP, 11/5/08)

2008        Nov 6, A suspected suicide explosion hit a minibus unloading passengers in Vladikavkaz, the capital of Russia's North Ossetia province, killing 12 people.
    (AP, 11/6/08)(Reuters, 11/7/08)

2008        Nov 7, General Motors Corp. dedicated its first Russian assembly plant, a $300 million, 70,000-car-a-year factory just outside of St. Petersburg.
    (AP, 11/7/08)

2008        Nov 8, The fire safety system on a brand-new Russian nuclear submarine accidentally turned on as the sub was being tested in the Sea of Japan, spewing chemicals that suffocated 20 people and sent 21 others to the hospital. The dead included 17 civilians and 3 seamen. Construction of the Nerpa, an Akula II class attack submarine, started in 1991 but was suspended for years because of a shortage of funding. Testing on the submarine began last month and it submerged for the first time last week.
    (AP, 11/9/08)

2008        Nov 11, Russia’s central bank widened its target band for the currency’s rate against the dollar by about 1% in each direction. Weeks of rigid defense had fueled a $112 billion decline in reserves. The central bank also raised interest rate by 1% in an effort to keep money from flowing out of the country.
    (WSJ, 11/12/08, p.A8)

2008        Nov 12, Pirates commandeered the Karagol, a Turkish chemical tanker, off the coast of Yemen. 14 Turkish personnel were aboard the tanker. The Russian frigate Neustrashimy and the British frigate Cumberland foiled pirates who fired automatic weapons toward a Danish ship and twice tried to seize it in the Gulf of Aden. The Karagol was released on Jan 12, 2009. 
    (AP, 11/12/08)(AP, 1/13/09)

2008        Nov 14, Russian lawmakers gave preliminary approval for extending presidential terms from four years to six, a move observers say could pave the way for Vladimir Putin to return to the presidency.
    (AP, 11/14/08)

2008        Nov 16, Russian liberals launched a pro-Kremlin political party promising to defend middle class values but rivals said it was just a tool for the authorities to suck support away from genuine opposition groups.
    (Reuters, 11/16/08)

2008        Nov 19, Vladimir Kuznetsov, a former UN diplomat convicted in the US of money laundering and fraud, arrived in Moscow and will serve the last 16 months of his sentence in a Russian prison. Kuznetsov once chaired the UN's powerful budget oversight committee.
    (AP, 11/19/08)
2008        Nov 19, Georgia and Russia held their first major, mediated talks since their August war.
    (WSJ, 11/20/08, p.A1)

2008        Nov 20, Boris Fyodorov (50), Russian economic reformer, died.
    (Econ, 11/29/08, p.88)

2008        Nov 21, Vadim Pokrovsky, Russia's anti-AIDS coordinator, said the number of registered HIV cases is growing 10 percent a year despite increased government funding. He said that the actual number of people with HIV was likely higher than 1 million.
    (AP, 11/21/08)

2008        Nov 23, In Georgia gunfire that broke out as Pres. Saakashvili and Polish Pres. Lech Kaczynski were traveling near a roadblock at the edge of Georgia-controlled territory. Russian Foreign Minister Sergey Lavrov said there was no gunfire from Russian or South Ossetian positions and suggested Georgia engineered the incident to discredit Russia and South Ossetia. In Tbilisi Nino Burjanadze, a former ally of Pres. Saakashvili, founded a new party: the Democratic Movement-United Georgia.
    (AP, 11/24/08)(WSJ, 11/24/08, p.A8)

2008        Nov 25, Russian warships arrived in Venezuela in a show of strength aimed at the United States as Moscow seeks to expand its influence in Latin America.
    (AP, 11/25/08)

2008        Nov 26, In Venezuela Russian President Dmitry Medvedev agreed to help start a local nuclear energy program and said Moscow is willing to participate in a socialist trade bloc in Latin America led by President Hugo Chavez.
    (AP, 11/27/08)

2008        Nov 28, In Cuba Russia's president Medvedev met with Fidel Castro, discussing Guantanamo Bay and hopes for a multipolar world with Cuba's former leader during a tour of Latin America aimed at raising Moscow's presence in the region.
    (AP, 11/28/08)

2008        Dec 5, Russian Orthodox Patriarch Alexy II (79) died. He had presided over a vast post-Soviet revival of faith but struggled against the influence of other churches.
    (AP, 12/5/08)
2008        Dec 5, India and Russia signed a civilian nuclear deal that would see Russia build four nuclear reactors for power-starved India.
    (AP, 12/5/08)

2008        Dec 6, In Moscow, Russia, ultranationalist attacked 2 migrant workers, one of whom escaped. On Dec 10 the severed head of Salekh Azizov (20), the other Tajik migrant worker, was found in a trash bin. A group calling itself the Militant Organization of Russian Nationalists claimed responsibility. For the year some 85 people were reported killed by violent nationalists.   
    (SSFC, 12/14/08, p.A25)

2008        Dec 11, In northern Russia an explosion and fire ripped through a mine, killing 12 workers.
    (AP, 12/12/08)

2008        Dec 13, In Russia former chess champion Garry Kasparov and other prominent liberals launched a new anti-Kremlin movement.
    (AP, 12/13/08)
2008        Dec 13, Russian troops retook Perevi village near the breakaway region of South Ossetia just hours after withdrawing. The move drew criticism from Georgia, the EU and US Senator John Kerry, who was on a half-day visit to Tbilisi.
    (AP, 12/13/08)

2008        Dec 14, In Russia police thwarted an anti-Kremlin protest organized by Garry Kasparov's opposition group, seizing demonstrators and shoving them into trucks. They detained at least 25 people including the group's co-leader.
    (AP, 12/14/08)

2008        Dec 15, A Moscow court sentenced seven young Russian men to prison for murdering 19 people in a string of hate attacks. 2 leaders of a skinhead group, also convicted of 12 attempted murders, received 10-year prison sentences.
    (AP, 12/15/08)

2008        Dec 16, In Israel a bus filled with 49 passengers plunged into a desert ravine near the resort town of Eilat. 24 Russian travel agents were killed. In 2014 the bus driver was sentenced to 8 years in prison.
    (AP, 12/16/08)(SFC, 12/17/08, p.A8)(Reuters, 2/23/14)

2008        Dec 17, The Russian ruble suffered its largest drop in three months after the Central Bank signaled it would accelerate the devaluation of the national currency.
    (AP, 12/17/08)

2008        Dec 19, Russia’s PM Vladimir Putin said that new tariffs were designed to prop up demand for Russian-made cars and secure jobs in the ailing Russian auto industry. The tariff hike would send prices for used foreign-made cars up 50 percent, while prices for new foreign-made cars could jump up to 15 percent.
    (AP, 12/20/08)
2008        Dec 19, In Nigeria's Niger Delta gunmen in speedboats attacked three oil services ships and kidnapped at least two Russians in separate incidents. The pair escaped on foot from a militant camp on Feb 15 and were found by naval personnel on patrol on Feb 19.
    (AP, 12/20/08)(AP, 2/19/09)

2008        Dec 20, Some 500 motorists rallied in Russia's far east to protest the government's decision to raise car import tariffs. Thousands of others were expected to stage similar demonstrations across Russia on Dec 21.
    (AP, 12/20/08)
2008        Dec 20, In Russia Olga Lepeshinskaya (b.1916), a Soviet-era prima ballerina who danced with the Bolshoi Ballet for decades, died.
    (AP, 12/20/08)

2008        Dec 21, In far east Russia riot police in Vladivostok clubbed, kicked and detained dozens of people as hundreds across the country protested an increase in car import tariffs.
    (AP, 12/21/08)(WSJ, 12/22/08, p.A1)
2008        Dec 21, Iran reported that Russia has begun delivering S-300 air defense systems, which could help repel any Israeli and US air strikes on its nuclear sites.
    (AP, 12/21/08)

2008        Dec 22, The ruble dropped further as the Central Bank again eased its support of the Russian currency, under constant pressure from plunging oil prices and economic woes.
    (AP, 12/22/08)
2008        Dec 22, OSCE talks on the Georgia collapsed, when Russia demanded the group join Moscow in recognizing the statehood of the provinces of South Ossetia and Abkhazia. The mission will expire on Dec 31.
    (AP, 12/23/08)
2008        Dec 22, In Egypt 7 Russian tourists died when their bus flipped over along the winding mountain roads north of the Egyptian Red Sea resort of Sharm el-Sheik.
    (AFP, 12/23/08)

2008        Dec 23, Russia's PM Vladimir Putin said that the world financial crisis and rising costs mean the price of natural gas is going to rise.
    (AP, 12/23/08)

2008        Dec 24, Russian energy giant Gazprom threatened to cut gas deliveries to Ukraine on January 1 if a new contract is not signed by then for 2009 but pledged to honor its supply obligations to Europe.
    (AFP, 12/24/08)

2008        Dec 26, Russia's ruble fell to a three-year low against the dollar after the Central Bank allowed a third sharp drop in the currency in five days as the government continues to feel the heat of the global meltdown.
    (AP, 12/26/08)

2008        Dec 29, Top brass from the Chinese and Russian armies hailed closer ties in their first-ever conversation over a newly installed military hot line.
    (AP, 12/29/08)

2008        Dec 30, The Kremlin said President Dmitry Medvedev has signed a law extending presidential terms from four years to six, a move seen as paving the way for Vladimir Putin's return to the presidency.
    (AP, 12/30/08)
2008        Dec 30, Russia's natural gas company Gazprom said it will stop energy shipments to Ukraine and sharply raise the price for future deliveries if it doesn't pay a $2 billion debt by New Year's Eve. The Ukrainian government issued a decree saying two state banks would lend state energy company Naftogaz Ukrainy up to $2 billion to pay its arrears to Russia’s Gazprom. Disagreements remained on future gas costs.
    (AP, 12/30/08)(WSJ, 12/31/08, p.A5)

2008        Dec, Moscow agreed to provide Lebanon with 10 MiG-29 fighter jets. A few days later Washington promised to deliver tanks to Beirut.
    (AP, 1/21/09)
2008        Dec, Russia’s Finance Leasing Co. (FLC), a subsidiary of United Aircraft Corp., defaulted on $250 million of bonds, the first default by a state-owned company on foreign debt since the country’s 1998 financial meltdown.
    (WSJ, 3/23/09, p.A1)
2008        Dec, Serbia sold its state oil monopoly NIS to Russia’s Gazprom at a discount. Officials expected the payoff would be a steady fuel supply. In January gas supplies to Serbia stopped as Russia halted deliveries via Ukraine.
    (SFC, 1/12/09, p.A6)

2008        Jonathan Brent authored “Inside the Stalin Archives: Discovering the New Russia."
    (WSJ, 12/2/08, p.A17)
2008        Marshall Goldman authored “Petrostate: Putin, Power and the New Russia."
    (WSJ, 6/19/08, p.A13)
2008        Steve LeVine authored “Putin’s Labyrinth: Spies, Murder, and the Dark Heart of the New Russia."
    (Econ, 7/19/08, p.92)
2008        Edward Lucas authored “The New Cold War: Putin’s Russia and the Threat to the West."
    (WSJ, 2/26/08, p.D6)
2008        Lewis H. Siegelbaum authored “Cars for Comrades: The Life of the Soviet Automobile."
    (Econ, 7/12/08, p.94)

2008        Russia proposed to China that both countries dump their holdings of debt issued by lenders Fannie Mae and Freddie Mac so as to exacerbate the US financial crises and force a bail-out. China declined the offer.
    (Econ, 4/19/14, p.22)
2008        The US signed weapons agreements this year valued a $37.8 billion, or 68.4% of all business in the global arms bazaar, up from $25.4 billion in 2007. Italy was 2nd with $3.7 billion and Russia 3rd with $3.5 billion.
    (SFC, 9/7/09, p.A3)
2008        BP bypassed its private Russian partners and negotiated a deal with Gazprom, Russia’s state controlled gas company.
    (Econ, 2/5/11, p.73)

2009        Jan 1, Russia’s Pres. Medvedev signed a bell ending jury trials in cases involving treason, terror, armed revolt and sabotage. Instead, defendants will have to face three judges.
    (WSJ, 1/2/09, p.A1)
2009        Jan 1, Russia cut off the gas to Ukraine after a contract dispute but increased supplies to other European states to try to reassure customers worried about possible disruption.
    (Reuters, 1/1/09)

2009        Jan 2, Ukraine sought support in European capitals a day after Russia cut off gas supplies and hardened its stance on prices. The cutoff came after Ukraine made a $1.5 billion overdue payment, but Russia demanded another $600 million, including $450 million penalties for the late payment for gas shipped in November and December. The two sides also have not agreed on prices for 2009. Russia accused Ukraine of stealing gas destined for the rest of Europe.
    (AP, 1/2/09)(Reuters, 1/2/09)

2009        Jan 3, Russian gas flows to four European Union countries fell normal levels after Moscow cut off supplies to Ukraine in a pricing row with no talks in sight to resolve the dispute. Bulgaria's Bulgargaz joined energy firms in Poland, Romania and Hungary in saying they had noted falls in supply.
    (Reuters, 1/3/09)

2009        Jan 4, Russia's military leaders approved a plan by the navy to station warships permanently in friendly ports across the globe.
    (AP, 1/4/09)
2009        Jan 4, Russia asked the EU to provide monitoring of Ukraine's gas transit system and charged Ukraine was stealing gas bound for Europe, as Kiev leveled its own charges. Gazprom CEO Alexei Miller said that the state-controlled company wanted $450 per 1,000 cubic meters, up from its last offer of $418. The reductions in gas supplies spread to the Czech Republic and Turkey.
    (AP, 1/4/09)(Reuters, 1/4/09)

2009        Jan 6, A natural gas crisis loomed over Europe, as a contract dispute between Russia and Ukraine shut off Russian gas supplies to six countries and reduced gas deliveries to several others. Bulgaria, Greece, Macedonia, Romania, Croatia and Turkey all reported a halt in gas shipments.
    (AP, 1/6/09)

2009        Jan 7, The EU said Russia and Ukraine will accept using international monitors to verify the transit of natural gas from Russia through Ukraine's pipelines. Russia's gas giant Gazprom completely stopped sending gas to European consumers at 7:44 a.m. (0544 GMT). 80% of Russian gas shipped via Ukraine.
    (AP, 1/7/09)

2009        Jan 8, Russia's state-controlled gas monopoly said it would restore supplies to Europe through Ukraine, cut off after a dispute between Moscow and Kiev, as soon as international monitors are in place.
    (Reuters, 1/8/09)

2009        Jan 9, A Russian helicopter owned by the state gas giant Gazprom crashed while on a hunting trip in the mountains of Western Siberia, killing eight aboard. 3 people survived. The crash involved government officials on an illegal hunt.
    (AP, 1/11/09)(WSJ, 4/28/09, p.A8)

2009        Jan 10, Russia and the EU took a step toward securing the resumption of gas flows to Europe when the two signed a deal on monitoring the supplies through Ukraine. PM Vladimir Putin said Russia will restart gas supplies to Europe once an EU-led monitoring mission begins to track gas transit via Ukraine.
    (AP, 1/10/09)(Reuters, 1/10/09)

2009        Jan 11, Russia, Ukraine, and the EU struck an agreement to try to resume Russian supplies through Ukraine to Europe. President Dmitry Medvedev said energy giant Gazprom would only resume gas supplies once Russia had a copy of the document signed by Ukraine and once the various teams of international observers were in place. The text of the accord calls for the EU, Russia and Ukraine to each provide 25 experts to "carry out checks on the basis of equal parity both on Ukrainian and Russian territory.
    (Reuters, 1/11/09)(AFP, 1/11/09)

2009        Jan 12, Russia's state-run monopoly Gazprom announced it will resume shipping natural gas to Europe, where tens of thousands of homes and buildings have been left without heat in freezing weather.
    (AP, 1/12/09)

2009        Jan 13, Russia and Ukraine hotly blamed each other as Russia restarted natural gas supplies but little or no gas flowed toward Europe. EU officials watched in dismay and criticized both nations for their intransigence.
    (AP, 1/13/09)
2009        Jan 13, A Russian warship helped foil an attack on a Dutch container ship by suspected Somali pirates in the dangerous Gulf of Aden.
    (AP, 1/14/09)
2009        Jan 13, In Austria Umar Israilov (27), a Chechen refugee, was shot dead on a Vienna street. Officials said they had no proof the killing was political, but human rights activists said his death was linked to his opposition to Chechnya's pro-Moscow president. On Jan 28 Austrian authorities arrested seven suspects, all Chechens, in the killing. On February 19 Polish police arrested Turpal Ali J. (31), a man suspected of killing Israilov. In 2010 Austrian investigators concluded that Chechnya Pres. Ramzan Kadyrov ordered the kidnapping of one of his critics and former bodyguards and that Israilov was shot to death when the abduction went awry.  In 2011 an Austrian prosecutor sought life sentences for three Russian men on charges they carried out the murder of the Israilov.
    (AP, 1/28/09)(AP, 2/22/09)(AP, 4/27/10)(AP, 6/1/11)

2009        Jan 14, Russia and Ukraine wrangled over gas supplies again. Bulgaria and Slovakia, cut off by the row for a freezing week, launched missions to plead for Russian gas flow to be restored.
    (Reuters, 1/14/09)

2009        Jan 15, Ukraine rejected Russia's latest request to pipe natural gas westward to increasingly frustrated EU consumers, deepening the bitter economic and political dispute that has paralyzed energy shipments to Europe.
    (AP, 1/15/09)
2009        Jan 15, The US dollar strengthened against the ruble to a record 32.40 rubles, well above the high set in 2003. The depreciation was expected to continue.
    (WSJ, 1/16/09, p.C8)

2009        Jan 17, Russia and Ukraine held gas crisis talks in Moscow that the European Union said were the "last and best chance" to resolve the row that has left Europe struggling without key gas supplies.
    (AFP, 1/17/09)

2009        Jan 18, Russia and Ukraine announced a deal to end the bitter dispute that has blocked Russian natural gas from Europe following talks between Russian PM Vladimir Putin and his Ukrainian counterpart Yulia Tymoshenko. Under the terms, Ukraine will pay 20 percent less than the European "market price" price for gas this year, which Russia says is $450 per 1,000 cubic meters. That's more than twice as much as the $179.50 Ukraine paid in 2008.
    (AP, 1/18/09)
2009        Jan 18, Kyrgyzstan began to come under a massive cyber attack attributed to Russian “cyber-militia." Less than 20% of the country’s 5.3 million population had online access. Proposed reasons for the attacks included the US use of an air base for operations in Afghanistan or a hit on the fledgling Kyrgyz opposition, which has used the Internet to express its discontent.    
    (WSJ, 1/28/09, p.A10)

2009        Jan 19, Russia released a text by President Dmitry Medvedev ordering the government to introduce economic sanctions against countries supplying weapons to Georgia.
    (AP, 1/19/09)
2009        Jan 19, Russia and Ukraine signed a deal that restores natural gas shipments to Ukraine and paves the way for an end to the nearly two-week cutoff of most Russian gas to a freezing Europe.
    (AP, 1/19/09)
2009        Jan 19, In Russia a girl disappeared after leaving her home in St. Petersburg for school. Vity prosecutor's spokesman later Sergei Kapitonov she was killed that night, and that body parts believed to be hers were found in plastic bags scattered around the city. Yuri Mozhnov (19), a florist, and Maxim Golovatskikh (19), a street-market butcher, were arrested on Jan 31 on suspicion of killing her and eating parts of her body.
    (AP, 2/4/09)
2009        Jan 19, In Russia Stanislav Markelov (34), a human-rights lawyer who unsuccessfully fought the early release of a Russian colonel convicted of murdering a Chechen woman, was shot dead on a Moscow street along with reporter Anastasia Baburova (b.1983). Markelov had told reporters he was considering file an international court appeal against the early release of Col. Yuri Budanov, who was convicted in 2003 and sentenced to 10 years, including time served, for strangling 18-year-old Heda Kungayeva in 2000. He admitted to killing her, saying he believed she was a Chechen insurgent sniper. Budanov was freed last week with more than a year left on his murder sentence. On Nov 4 Nikita Tikhonov and a female comrade were detained for the murder and Tikhonov confessed to the crime. On May 6, 2011, Tikhonov was sentenced to life in prison, and his girlfriend received an 18-year sentence.
    (AP, 1/19/09)(Econ, 2/7/09, p.79)(AP, 11/6/09)(Econ, 11/14/09, p.63)(AP, 5/6/11)
2009        Jan 19, Afghan President Hamid Karzai's office said that Russia is ready to cooperate on defense matters with Afghanistan. The announcement coincided with an increasingly public tussle between Afghan and Western officials.
    (AP, 1/19/09)

2009        Jan 20, Russian gas reached Europe via Ukraine for the first time in two weeks after Moscow and Kiev ended a contract row that cut supplies to about 20 European countries.
    (Reuters, 1/20/09)
2009        Jan 20, The head of US Central Command said the US has struck deals with Russia and neighboring countries allowing it to transport supplies to American troops in Afghanistan through their territory. US officials have said that one likely route is overland from Russia through Kazakhstan and on through Uzbekistan using trucks and trains. Another possible route is via Azerbaijan across the Caspian Sea to the Kazakh port of Aktau and then through Uzbekistan.
    (AP, 1/20/09)

2009        Jan 21, Russia's military said that an old Soviet-built nuclear-powered satellite has spewed fragments in orbit, but insisted they do not threaten the international space station or people on Earth.
    (AP, 1/21/09)

2009        Jan 22, Russia's Central Bank said it will widen the ruble's trading range to allow an effective 10 percent devaluation of the national currency.
    (AP, 1/22/09)

2009        Jan 27, Russian Orthodox bishops, monks and laymen voted for a new head for the world's second largest Christian church in a contest between a powerful modernizer and an influential conservative. Metropolitan Kirill (62) defeated a conservative rival, Metropolitan Kliment, with 508 of 700 votes.
    (AP, 1/27/09)(SFC, 2/2/09, p.A3)
2009        Jan 27, Japan’s No. 38 Yoshi Maru fishing boat was seized by Russian authorities in waters between the two countries and was taken to the Russian port of Nakhodka. On Feb 7 Russian authorities released all 10 Japanese crew members seized after allegedly straying into Russian waters.
    (AFP, 1/28/09)(AP, 2/7/09)

2009        Jan 28, Russia’s military said it has halted plans to deploy missiles near the Polish border, in what could be a sign Moscow is seeking better ties with the new US president.
    (Reuters, 1/28/09)
2009        Jan 28, Cuba’s President Raul Castro began the first visit to Russia by a Cuban leader since the end of the Cold War, the latest sign of reviving ties between the two countries.
    (Reuters, 1/28/09)
2009        Jan 28, Japan’s territorial row with Russia was re-ignited as Japan announced that it had cancelled humanitarian aid to the four disputed Russian-held islands, north of Japan's main northern island of Hokkaido, following new Russian demand that a disembarkation card be submitted in addition to the usual procedures.
    (AP, 1/28/09)
2009        Jan 28, In Switzerland some 2,500 business and political leaders met at Davos for the World Economic Forum, as the worst financial crisis since the Great Depression served to mute the enthusiasm of previous years. China’s Premier Wen Jiabao and Russia’s PM Vladimir Putin blamed the US-led financial system for the global economic slump.
    (AP, 1/28/09)(WSJ, 1/29/09, p.A1)

2009        Jan 30, Russia moved to rebuild ties with Cold War ally Cuba, granting it loans and signing deals on energy and industrial cooperation.
    (AP, 1/30/09)

2009        Jan 31, Thousands of protesters rallied across Russia to criticize the government's economic course and its response to the global financial crisis. In Moscow minutes after protesters unfurled anti-Kremlin banners and chanted "Down with KGB power" and "Russia without Putin," a dozen young men jumped out of cars and started to beat them with fists and metal rods. Police ignored the attacks by alleged members of "Young Russia," a pro-Kremlin youth group.
    (AP, 1/31/09)(AP, 2/13/09)

2009        Feb 3, A Russian military Mi-24 helicopter gunship crashed about 700 kilometers (450 miles) southeast of Moscow, killing all three people aboard.
    (AP, 2/3/09)
2009        Feb 3, The Kremlin said Russia and Belarus will create a new military system to monitor and defend their air space.
    (WSJ, 2/4/09, p.A10)
2009        Feb 3, Kyrgyzstan said it would end the US lease of an air base that supports military operations in Afghanistan. Kyrgyzstan President Kurmanbek Bakiyev announced his intention to shut the base, at least for the moment, after Russia agreed to provide Kyrgyzstan with $2 billion in loans plus another $150 million in financial aid. The lease deal obliges Kyrgyzstan to give the US 180 days notice to clear the base.
    (AP, 2/4/09)

2009        Feb 4, Russia sought to bolster its security alliance with six other ex-Soviet nations (Armenia, Belarus, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan and Uzbekistan) by forming a joint rapid reaction force in a continuing effort to curb US influence in energy-rich Central Asia.
    (AP, 2/4/09)

2009        Feb 6, Russia granted transit rights to nonlethal US military supplies headed to Afghanistan, but only after pressuring Kyrgyzstan to close an air base leased to the US.
    (SFC, 2/7/09, p.A3)

2009        Feb 7, Russian authorities released all 10 Japanese crew members seized aboard a fishing boat in late January after allegedly straying into Russian waters.
    (AP, 2/7/09)

2009        Feb 10, An unmanned Russian cargo ship lifted off from Kazakhstan carrying supplies and a space suit to the international space station and its three-member crew. American astronauts Michael Fincke and Sandra Magnus are aboard the station along with Russian Yuri Lonchakov. The crew size will be doubled to six members later this year.
    (AP, 2/10/09)
2009        Feb 10, The first-ever collision between two satellites occurred over Siberia when a derelict Russian military communications satellite, Cosmos 2251, crossed paths with a US Iridium satellite.
    (AP, 2/12/09)(Econ, 8/21/10, p.65)

2009        Feb 12, In Russia's restive southern republic of Ingushetia insurgents and police clashed, leaving four officers and three attackers dead.
    (AP, 2/13/09)
2009        Feb 12, Off Somalia an American helicopter from the USS Vella Gulf fired warning shots at gunmen in two skiffs that had opened fire and tried to board the Indian-flagged vessel Premdivya. US forces searched the skiff and found weapons including rocket-propelled grenades, then took nine suspected pirates aboard the American ship. A Russian nuclear-powered heavy missile cruiser, Peter The Great, detained 10 Somali pirates closing in on an Iranian-flagged fishing trawler. The men, were caught with rifles, grenade-launchers, illegal narcotics and a large sum of money.
    (AP, 2/13/09)

2009        Feb 14, Irish authorities learned about an oil spill through surveillance carried out by the European Maritime Safety Agency in Lisbon, Portugal. Irish military aircraft flew over the area and saw the Russian aircraft carrier Admiral Kuznetsov, a Russian oil tanker, and a Russian oceangoing tug near the slick. this was the biggest oil spill in the waters around Ireland in the last ten years.
    (AP, 2/17/09)

2009        Feb 15, In southern Russia a fire ripped through a wooden apartment building, killing 16 people in Molodyozhny, a village in the Astrakhan region.
    (AP, 2/15/09)
2009        Feb 15, Shots from a Russian naval vessel sank the Chinese-owned cargo ship the New Star off Russia's east coast. 8 the 16 crew members on board were killed. The Sierra Leone-flagged, Chinese-owned vessel New Star had earlier fled the Russian port of Nakhodka where it had been impounded for alleged smuggling.
    (AFP, 2/20/09)

2009        Feb 16, Russia’s Pres. Medvedev replaced four provincial governors for their poor performance amid financial crisis and named new governors for the western Oryol, Pskov and Voronezh regions and the northern Nenets region.
    (AP, 2/16/09)
2009        Feb 16, Russia Pres. Medvedev said Bolivia will receive helicopters from Russia to help fight drugs as well as assistance to develop energy resources.
    (AP, 2/16/09)

2009        Feb 17, China and Russia signed a $25 billion energy deal in Beijing that will see the Asian country secure oil supplies from Moscow for the next 20 years in return for loans.
    (AP, 2/17/09)

2009        Feb 18, Japanese PM Taro Aso met Russian President Dmitry Medvedev on an island near disputed resource-rich maritime territory, hoping to make progress toward resolving a dispute lingering since World war II.
    (AP, 2/18/09)
2009        Feb 18, Georgia and Russia agreed to let monitors visit anywhere they want in Georgia and its 2 breakaway provinces.
    (WSJ, 2/19/09, p.A1)

2009        Feb 19, A Moscow court acquitted three men accused of helping murder Kremlin critic and journalist Anna Politkovskaya, leaving Russia's most politically charged killing in years still unsolved. This decision was overturned in June.
    (Reuters, 2/19/09)(AP, 6/25/09)

2009        Feb 21, A few hundred Russian opposition sympathizers held an anti-Kremlin rally in central Moscow demanding the resignation of the government. Former chess champion Garry Kasparov and former Prime Minister Mikhail Kasyanov addressed the crowd from a truck.
    (AP, 2/21/09)
2009        Feb 21, In Russia assailants with automatic rifles blocked a car of 2 bank employees on a highway in Tula province south of Moscow and stole about 43 million rubles ($1.2 million; euro 940,000) in cash at gunpoint. The bank employees, a cashier and a driver, were traveling in a Toyota with no armed escort despite the large amount of cash.
    (AP, 2/23/09)

2009        Feb 25, Russian news agencies quoted Chief Military Prosecutor Sergei Fridinsky as saying that his office has exposed an attempt by military officers to smuggle $18 million worth of stolen Russian weapons to China via Tajikistan.
    (AP, 2/25/09)
2009        Feb 25, Russia issued a DVD and a thick book of historical documents to dispute claims that the Ukrainian famine of the 1930s amounted to genocide. It was argued that the Stalin-era famine was a common tragedy across Soviet farmlands.
    (SFC, 2/26/09, p.A2)
2009        Feb 25, Iranian and Russian technicians conducted a test run of Iran's first nuclear power plant, a major step toward launching full operations at the facility.
    (AP, 2/25/09)

2009        Mar 1, Russia's ruling party cemented its grip on elected posts with big victories in local elections despite an economic crisis, but the opposition complained of widespread cheating.
    (Reuters, 3/2/09)

2009        Mar 3, Igor Panarin, dean at the Russian Foreign Ministry's school for future diplomats and a regular on Russia's state-guided TV channels, told dozens of students, professors and diplomats that: "There is a high probability that the collapse of the US will occur by 2010." He also said the US will break up into six autonomous regions and Alaska will revert to Russian control.
    (AP, 3/4/09)

2009        Mar 5, NATO foreign ministers agreed to resume high-level formal ties with Russia, suspended last year after Moscow's military thrust into Georgia.
    (AP, 3/5/09)
2009        Mar 5, Ukraine’s Naftogaz paid its February bill for Russian gas just hours after Pres. Putin said Russia would halt supplies if Ukraine failed to meet a March 7 deadline.
    (WSJ, 3/6/09, p.A10)

2009        Mar 13, Russia’s Kontinental Management said it has closed for good its Baikal Pulp and Paper Mill, located on the southern edge of Lake Baikal. It halted production in October. The plant has polluted the world's largest freshwater lake with chemical effluent for decades.
    (AP, 3/13/09)

2009        Mar 14, A Russian Air Force chief said that Venezuelan President Hugo Chavez has offered an island as a temporary base for strategic Russian bombers. Maj. Gen. Anatoly Zhikharev also said Cuba could be used to base the aircraft.
    (AP, 3/14/09)

2009        Mar 15, Russia's President Dmitry Medvedev said that he will publicly declare his income and encouraged other officials to fight corruption by disclosing relatives' incomes and assets.
    (AP, 3/15/09)
2009        Mar 15, President Hugo Chavez dispatched the navy to Venezuela's seaports, warning that state governors who challenge a new law bringing transportation hubs under federal control could end up in prison. Chavez also said that Russian bombers would be welcome in Venezuela, but he denied that his country would offer Moscow its territory for a military base.
    (AP, 3/15/09)

2009        Mar 17, Russia's defense minister charged that the US and NATO were beefing up their military presence near Russia's borders in a bid for natural resources that could ignite new conflicts.
    (AP, 3/17/09)

2009        Mar 18, Russian news agencies cited a top defense official as confirming that a contract to sell powerful air-defense missiles to Iran was signed two years ago, but saying no such weapons have yet been delivered.
    (AP, 3/18/09)
2009        Mar 18, Russia said it was banning the hunting of baby harp seals, weeks after PM Putin reportedly called the hunt a bloody industry.
    (SFC, 3/19/09, p.A2)

2009        Mar 21, Russia’s Pres. Medvedev replaced Gov. Yuri Yevdomikov of the northwest region of Murmansk, apparently seeking to ensure that the ruling party remained in control there after it suffered a surprising defeat in local elections.
    (SSFC, 3/22/09, p.A5)

2009        Mar 25, In northwestern Russia Kirovsk mayor Ilya Kelmanzon was shot dead in his office. A local utilities chief who was in Kelmanzon's office, then shot himself dead.
    (AP, 3/25/09)

2009        Mar 26, In central Russia a head-on collision between a bus and a truck in Petushki, about 120 kilometers (75 miles) east of Moscow, killed 14 people.
    (AP, 3/26/09)
2009        Mar 26, In Kazakhstan a Soyuz capsule carrying a Russian-American crew and US billionaire space tourist Charles Simonyi blasted off for the international space station.
    (AP, 3/26/09)

2009        Mar 27, Russian media reported that the presidential Security Council has released a document outlining government policy for the Arctic that includes creating a special group of military forces.
    (AP, 3/27/09)

2009        Mar 28, In Dubai Sulim Yamadayev, a former Chechen rebel and brother of Ruslan Yamadaev (d.2008), was shot in a brazen attack and died on March 30. He had switched sides to the government during Chechnya's long-running conflict with Moscow. On April 5 Dubai authorities said they had arrested two suspects in the slaying. They said Adam Delimkhanov, a Chechen member of Russia’s lower house and the Chechen president's right-hand man, had masterminded the killing. On April 12, 2010, Mahdi Tagi Dhurnia of Iran and Tajik national Mahsoudjan Asmanov were sentenced to 25 years in prison after being found guilty of aiding and abetting the assassination of Yamadayev.
    (AP, 3/31/09)(SFC, 3/31/09, p.A5)(AP, 4/5/09)(SFC, 4/6/09, p.A3)(AP, 4/12/10)(AP, 12/22/10)(Econ., 3/14/15, p.55)

2009        Mar 29, In Russia the film "Olympius Inferno," was first broadcast on state television. It offering the Kremlin's version of the August war with Georgia and contained anti-American overtones, reflecting Russia's anger over US support for Georgia.
    (AP, 3/31/09)

2009        Mar 30, In Russia PM Putin pledged over $1 billion in state support to its ailing car industry in a bid to avoid heavy job losses and potential social unrest.
    (WSJ, 3/31/09, p.B2)(http://tinyurl.com/csyby9)
2009        Mar 30, In Russia Sergei Protazanov, a newspaper employee in a Moscow suburb, died one day after being beaten near his home in the in the town of Khimki. Protazanov had been compiling an issue that included reports on alleged falsifications in local mayoral elections.
    (AP, 4/1/09)

2009        Mar 31, In Russia prominent human rights activist Lev Ponomaryov (67) was beaten outside his Moscow home by unknown attackers. His daughter, Yelena Liptser, said she believed Ponomaryov, the head of the All-Russia Movement for Human Rights, was attacked because of his rights work and his strident criticism of the Kremlin.
    (AP, 4/1/09)
2009        Mar 31, In Moscow, Russia, the hatch slammed shut behind six volunteers from Europe and Russia who will spend three months isolated in a capsule to simulate conditions for a manned mission to Mars.
    (AFP, 3/31/09)

2009        Apr 1, In London Presidents Dmitry Medvedev and Barack Obama said Russia and the United States will pursue a new deal to cut nuclear warheads, making good on a pledge to rebuild relations from a post-Cold War low. The US and China agreed to establish a "strategic and economic dialogue" group that would first meet in Washington later this year.
    (Reuters, 4/1/09)

2009        Apr 8, A Russian spacecraft carrying a crew of three including US billionaire space tourist Charles Simonyi landed safely in Kazakhstan.
    (AP, 4/8/09)
2009        Apr 8, In Turkmenistan a blast on a Central Asian pipeline halted the supply of Turkmen gas to Russia. The explosion was later said to have resulted from Gazprom’s decision to stop importing gas due to high prices and falling demand. Gazprom blamed the explosion on poor maintenance.
    (AP, 4/9/09)(Econ, 12/12/09, p.46)

2009        Apr 10, In Moscow Iraqi PM Nouri al-Maliki met with Russian President Dmitry Medvedev and PM Vladimir Putin. Al-Maliki told Medvedev in the Kremlin that Iraq is interested in Russian investment, and Putin said at a joint news conference that talks focused on oil and gas cooperation.
    (AP, 4/11/09)

2009        Apr 11, In Moscow Iraqi PM Nouri al-Maliki met with Russian business leaders to encourage them to take an active part in rebuilding Iraq's economy.
    (AP, 4/11/09)

2009        Apr 13, A Russian court ruled that tycoon Alexander Lebedev's registration as a candidate in the mayoral race in the Olympic city of Sochi is illegitimate.
    (AP, 4/13/09)

2009        Apr 16, Russia ordered an end to its counterterrorism operation in Chechnya, a move that could lead to the withdrawal of tens of thousands of troops from the southern republic battered by two separatist wars in the past 15 years.
    (AP, 4/16/09)

2009        Apr 17, In Russia the Sochi Elections Commission decided to strike billionaire and Russian government critic Alexander Lebedev from the ballot, after an appeals court a day earlier upheld a ruling that he had misfiled financial statements when registering his candidacy last month.
    (AP, 4/18/09)

2009        Apr 19, The annual Goldman Environmental Prize was awarded to 7 activists from 6 nations. Rizwana Hasan (40) of Bangladesh was awarded for exposing environmental damage and exploitative practices used in the country’s ship dismantling industry; Marc Ona Essangui (45) of Gabon, the founder of Brainforest, was awarded for exposing secret agreements for a Chinese mine project that threatened Gabon’s rain forests; Yuyun Ismawati of Indonesia was awarded for designing environmentally safe waste management systems for poor Indonesia n communities; Olga Speranskaya (46) of Eco-Accord in Russia was awarded for her efforts to control and store chemicals in Russia and former Soviet republics; Wanze Eduards (52) and Hugo Jabini (44) of Suriname, leaders of the maroon community, were awarded for their efforts that led to a landmark ruling ending tribal exploitation by the government. Maria Gunnoe (40) of West Virginia was awarded for her fight against the practice of removing of the tops of mountains and filing valleys below with tailings.
    (SSFC, 4/19/09, p.A18)

2009        Apr 20, Vladimir Lukin, Russia's parliament-appointed human rights ombudsman, presented an annual report on human rights in Russia that included violations of religious freedoms, prisoners' rights and freedom of political expression. He said he is concerned about a growing number of claims that police and judicial authorities committed abuses.
    (AP, 4/20/09)

2009        Apr 23, Russia’s central bank said it will cut its key lending rates by half a percentage point and increase reserve requirements.
    (WSJ, 4/22/09, p.A10)

2009        Apr 24, In Italy US and Russian arms negotiators held a "very productive" initial round of talks aimed at agreeing a new treaty to curb nuclear weapons as part of a broader effort to improve relations.
    (AP, 4/24/09)

2009        Apr 26, The Russian city of Sochi, host for the 2014 Winter Olympics, elected a mayor after a campaign that a liberal opposition candidate called a fraud and disgruntled voters said favored the Kremlin-backed front-runner. The Kremlin favorite won an overwhelming victory in Sochi, but the top opposition candidate claimed fraud and said he would challenge the result.
    (AP, 4/26/09)(AP, 4/27/09)

2009        Apr 27, A Moscow district police chief opened fire on the street and in a supermarket, killing three people and wounding seven others, four of them critically. Maj. Denis Yevsyukov killed a cab driver and wounded several passers-by in the street, then gunned down a cashier and a customer in the market. He then held two dozen people hostage for several hours and shot at police officers before they disarmed and detained him. On Feb 19, 2010, a Moscow court sentenced the police precinct chief to life in prison for the drunken shooting spree.
    (AP, 4/27/09)(AP, 2/19/10)

2009        Apr 28, Ekaterina Maximova (70), legendary Russian ballerina, died. Maximova's dancing career at the Bolshoi spanned three decades, from her debut as Masha in "The Nutcracker" in 1958 until 1988.
    (AP, 4/28/09)
2009        Apr 28, The Russian destroyer Admiral Panteleyev seized a vessel with 29 suspected pirates off the coast of Somalia. A Russian tanker fended off an attack by the same group earlier in the day. On May 4 the Russian warship freed 8 Iranians who were seized along with the suspected Somali pirates.
    (AP, 4/29/09)(AP, 5/4/09)

2009        Apr 29, NATO and Russia resumed formal contacts eight months after they were suspended because of last year's war with Georgia.
    (AP, 4/29/09)

2009        Apr 30, Russia signed a deal with Georgia's two breakaway regions giving Moscow the power to guard the borders of Abkhazia and South Ossetia, a move sharply criticized in Tbilisi.
    (AP, 4/30/09)

2009        May 3, A gas explosion tore through a Siberian apartment block and sparked a fire that engulfed the building, killing eight people, including two children.
    (AP, 5/3/09)

2009        May 4, South Korean snipers hovering in a helicopter chased away pirates pursuing a North Korean freighter, while the Russian destroyer Admiral Panteleyev freed eight Iranian citizens held hostage for more than three months.
    (AP, 5/4/09)

2009        May 6, Russia said it is expelling two Moscow-based NATO employees who are Canadian diplomats in retaliation for NATO's recent expulsion of two Russian envoys from its headquarters in Belgium.
    (AP, 5/6/09)
2009        May 6, In Russia retired Gen. Valentin Varennikov (85), a hawkish World War II veteran who directed the Soviet war in Afghanistan, died. He had joined the rebellion against Mikhail Gorbachev that sped the collapse of the Soviet Union.
    (AP, 5/6/09)

2009        May 7, Russian Mission Control said the unmanned Progress M-02M lifted off from Kazakhstan on schedule and should dock with the int’l. space station on May 12.
    (AP, 5/7/09)

2009        May 12, The US won a seat on the UN Human Rights Council for the first time along with Cuba, Saudi Arabia, China and Russia, four countries accused of serious human rights violations.
    (SFC, 5/13/09, p.A2)

2009        May 13, Russian news agencies reported that Russia, in agreement with the US, will charge US astronauts $51 million per return trip to the International Space Station (ISS) from 2012 and will resume selling seats to space tourists. In 2006 Russia charged the US $21.8 million per return flight to the ISS. Since then the price for of a space tourist ticket to the ISS has climbed to $35 million from $20 million.
    (Reuters, 5/13/09)

2009        May 14, Russia said it was proposing a new version of a key European arms-control treaty it suspended more than a year ago, and could once again honor the agreement if the US and its NATO allies accept the changes.
    (AP, 5/14/09)

2009        May 16, In Russia riot police violently broke up several gay rights demonstrations in Moscow, hauling away scores of protesters hours before the Russian capital hosted the major Eurovision international pop music competition.
    (AP, 5/16/09)
2009        May 16, Norway’s fiddle-wielding Alexander Rybak (23), dubbed 'Alexander the Great' by Norwegian media, won a landslide victory in the Eurovision Song Contest in Moscow for his song "Fairytale," gaining the most points in Eurovision's 53-year history.
    (AP, 5/17/09)

2009        May 19, Russia announced it has created a commission to fight what President Dmitry Medvedev says are efforts to hurt his country by falsifying history, part of a campaign to promote the Kremlin's views and silence those who question them.
    (AP, 5/19/09)
2009        May 19, Russia and the US held talks in Moscow aimed at cutting stockpiles of nuclear weapons, a move that could herald a thaw in relations between the former Cold War foes.
    (AP, 5/19/09)

2009        May 22, Russian President Dmitry Medvedev challenged EU leaders meeting at a summit in Khabarovsk to help Ukraine pay its gas bills in order to prevent disruption of Russian supplies to Europe.
    (Reuters, 5/22/09)

2009        May 26, Russia's uranium export company signed a groundbreaking $1 billion package of contracts to supply three US utilities with enriched fuel for nuclear power plants. Tenex signed contracts to provide enriched uranium fuel to San Francisco, California-based Pacific Gas & Electric Company; St. Louis, Missouri-based AmerenUE; and Dallas, Texas-based Luminant. Tenex will supply fuel to the US utilities from 2014 through 2020 under the contracts, which provide the option for renewal.
    (AP, 5/26/09)

2009        May 27, A Russian space capsule, carrying Canadian Bob Thirsk, Russian Roman Romanenko and Belgian Frank De Winne, blasted off from Kazakhstan for a 2 day journey to the ISS.
    (SFC, 5/28/09, p.A2)

2009        May 28, Russian PM Vladimir Putin met Belarus President Alexander Lukashenko in Minsk amid talk of massive loans to Minsk, just days after the Belarussian strongman made a furious attack on his Moscow ally.
    (AFP, 5/28/09)

2009        May 29, Russian and American officials formally dedicated a high-tech plant in southern Siberia, built with the help of $1 billion from the US and designed to destroy about 2 million chemical weapons shells.
    (AP, 5/29/09)

2009        Jun 7, Egypt's public prosecutor ordered the return of a shipment of Russian wheat impounded last month on health grounds. The decision to ship back the 52,000 tons of wheat, worth 9.6 million dollars (6.8 million euros), came after an investigation found the grain was contaminated with insects and unspecified heavy metals.
    (AFP, 6/7/09)

2009        Jun 8, Interfax news agency reported that Russian forces have killed Doku Umarov, the leader of the Chechen separatist movement.
    (Reuters, 6/8/09)
2009        Jun 8, In Britain van maker LDV was placed in administration after the collapse of a rescue deal by Malaysian firm Weststar collapsed. Up to 850 jobs and thousands more in the supply chain were threatened. The company, owned by Russian giant GAZ, applied to Birmingham County Court for administrators to be appointed.
    (AFP, 6/8/09)

2009        Jun 9, Russia’s Pres. Medvedev visited Dagestan. He went to police bases and reviewed troops, lavishly covered by state-controlled TV. Medvedev blamed what he called foreign "freaks" for inciting the violence. Hours after Medvedev left Dagestan, a riot police officer was shot and killed as he headed home after work not far from a base where Medvedev had watched counterterrorism exercises. In another part of the Dagestan capital, a road police officer was killed after trying to stop a car to check documents.
    (AP, 6/10/09)

2009        Jun 10, In southern Dagestan a group of 10 gunmen attacked a police post with automatic weapons and mortars, battling police troops for more than an hour. The gunmen later escaped into the forested mountains.
    (AP, 6/10/09)

2009        Jun 14, Belarus boycotted a Moscow-led security summit to protest a Russian ban on Belarusian dairy products, deepening a politically charged dispute between the two ex-Soviet neighbors. Russian President Dmitry Medvedev and the other Organization of the Collective Security Treaty (CSTO) leaders signed an agreement creating a joint rapid-reaction force that could bolster the power and prestige of the seven-nation alliance, seen largely as an ex-Soviet answer to NATO.
    (AP, 6/14/09)

2009        Jun 15, Moscow vetoed a Western-proposed resolution to extend the mandate of UN monitors in the breakaway region of Abkhazia. It designed to buy time to negotiate a long-term plan for the 16-year-old monitoring mission in the Black Sea rebel region.
    (Reuters, 6/16/09)
2009        Jun 15, Leaders from Central Asia, China and Afghanistan joined Russia's President Dmitry Medvedev at a summit. Members of the six-nation Shanghai Cooperation Organization (China, Russia, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan and Uzbekistan) and leaders of observer nations (Iran, Pakistan, India and Mongolia) met in the Ural Mountains city of Yekaterinburg for two days of talks that are expected to include extensive discussions of Afghanistan.
    (AP, 6/15/09)

2009        Jun 16, In Russia leaders from the world's top emerging economic powers met for their first summit to plot a strategy to increase their clout amid the global crisis.
    (AFP, 6/16/09)
2009        Jun 16, Russia welcomed Iranian President Mahmoud Ahmadinejad on his first trip abroad since his bitterly disputed re-election, a show of support for a leader facing major protests at home and questions from the West about the legitimacy of the vote count.
    (AP, 6/16/09)
2009        Jun 16, China’s Pres. Hu Jintao announced a $10 billion loan to the Shanghai Cooperation Organization, founded in 2001. The SCO grouped China, Russia, Kazakhstan, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan, and Uzbekistan.
    (http://tinyurl.com/pr5v65j)(Econ, 1/30/10, p.51)

2009        Jun 17, Belarus set up customs posts on its border with Russia for the first time in 14 years as a trade dispute between the two countries escalated.
    (AP, 6/17/09)
2009        Jun 17, China and Russia expressed serious concern about tension on the Korean peninsula and, in the face of North Korea's rhetoric, joined international pressure for it to return to nuclear talks.
    (AP, 6/17/09)

2009        Jun 22, In Ingushetia a suicide car bomber attacked a convoy carrying Yunus Bek Yevkurov (45), the president of the troubled Russian province, critically wounding him and killing two bodyguards. A 3rd guard died later from his wounds. A group, which calls itself the Riyadus Salikhin Martyrs' Brigade, later said it staged the attack on the president of Ingushetia because of his support for Kremlin policies and because of his role in the second war in Chechnya that began in 1999.
    (AP, 6/22/09)(SFC, 6/23/09, p.A2)

2009        Jun 23, Swedish retailer IKEA announced that it was suspending its investment in Russia because of “the “unpredictable character of administrative procedures, a euphemism for graft.
    (Econ, 7/4/09, p.63)

2009        Jun 24, Russia’s Pres. Medvedev arrived in Nigeria to sign gas and nuclear energy pacts, becoming the first Kremlin leader to visit Africa's most populous and energy-rich nation.
    (AFP, 6/24/09)

2009        Jun 25, In Namibia Russian Pres. Dmitry Medvedev called for boosting trade ties with Namibia, at the start of the first-ever visit by a Kremlin chief to the southern African nation. Pres. Hifikepunye Pohamba said his nation was also keen to strengthen cooperation and build a durable economic partnership.
    (AFP, 6/25/09)
2009        Jun 25, Russia's Supreme Court overturned the acquittal of three men charged with the 2006 murder of Anna Politkovskaya, a journalist whose reporting on Chechnya directly challenged the country's most powerful leaders.
    (AP, 6/25/09)

2009        Jun 27, NATO and Russia agreed to resume military ties and agree to cooperate on Afghanistan, counterterrorism and anti-piracy patrols at their first high-level meeting since last year's war between Russia and Georgia.
    (AP, 6/27/09)
2009        Jun 27, In Dagestan Interior Ministry troops patrolling a village south of Makhachkala clashed with a group of 10 gunmen who tried to hole up in village houses, but were driven into surrounding hillsides. A police officer was killed. Officials then called in helicopter gunships and armored vehicles to shell the forests where the gunmen hid out. Troops sweeping the forest the next morning found the bodies of four gunmen.
    (AP, 6/28/09)

2009        Jun 28, In Ingushetia in a region bordering Chechnya to the east, police troops clashed with militants in an overnight gunbattle that killed four militants and one police officer.
    (AP, 6/28/09)

2009        Jul 1, In Russia thousands of casinos, slot-machine parlors and betting halls across the country shut down, complying with sweeping new restrictions that require all gambling business to relocate to four remote regions of the country. Lawmakers had signed the casino closure law in 2006. Under the new law, casinos and slot machines will be allowed to operate only in Kaliningrad on the Baltic Sea; the Primorsky region on the Pacific coast; the mountainous Altai region in Siberia; and near the southern cities of Krasnodar and Rostov.
    (AP, 7/1/09)
2009        Jul 1, US car giants General Motors and Ford suspended operations on their production lines in Russia as the deepening economic crisis squeezes Russian consumers' demand for new cars.
    (AP, 7/1/09)

2009        Jul 3, A top Kremlin aide said Russia will allow the US to ship weapons across its territory to Afghanistan, in a gesture aimed at bolstering US military operations and improving strained ties between Washington and Moscow.
    (AP, 7/3/09)

2009        Jul 6, In Russia President Barack Obama opened his first Moscow summit with confidence. Obama and Russian President Dmitry Medvedev struck a preliminary deal to reduce their stockpiles of nuclear warheads to as few as 1,500 each, pointing the two countries' arsenals toward lower levels than in any previous arms control agreement.
    (AP, 7/6/09)
2009        Jul 6, Vasily Aksyonov (b.1932), Russian novelist and Soviet dissident, died in Moscow. He was forced into exile in 1980 after being branded as “anti-Soviet" and lived in the US for over two decades. His over 20 novels included “The Moscow Saga" (1994), which was adopted for a popular TV series in 2004.
    (SFC, 7/8/09, p.D5)

2009        Jul 7, In Moscow President Barack Obama asked the Russian people to "forge a lasting partnership" with the US, but he acknowledged after talks with PM Vladimir Putin that on divisive issues there won't be "a meeting of the minds anytime soon.
    (AP, 7/7/09)

2009        Jul 13, In Russia 5 suspected militants and two law enforcement officers were killed in separate attacks in the south. The militants were killed in two separate gunbattles in Chechnya, while Interior Ministry troops in Dagestan died in an ambush by insurgents.
    (AP, 7/13/09)

2009        Jul 14, In Russia 6 men emerged from three months of isolation in Soviet-era metal tubes after completing an experiment simulating a mission to Mars.
    (AP, 7/14/09)

2009        Jul 17, Russia said it would lift a ban on live pigs and raw pork imports from the US state of Wisconsin and Canada's Ontario province from July 18 due to what it said was a "stabilization" of the situation of the H1N1 virus in those places.
    (Reuters, 7/17/09)

2009        Jul 20, The Russian rights group, where slain activist Natalia Estemirova worked, said it has suspended operations in Chechnya because of safety fears for her co-workers. Memorial said it will continue tracking human rights abuses in nearby Ingushetia. A spokesman for Chechen leader Ramzan Kadyrov, who has condemned the murder and promised to find those responsible, said a Moscow court had accepted a lawsuit from Kadyrov against Memorial head Oleg Orlov for libel after the group's chairman blamed Kadyrov for Estemirova's death.
    (Reuters, 7/20/09)

2009        Jul 24, The Arctic Sea, a Maltese-flagged bulk carrier, was boarded by 8 attackers posing as police. The timber carrying vessel was boarded off the Swedish coast, searched by attackers, who reportedly tied up the crew for 12 hours. It disappeared following its last communication on July 28. The failed to arrive at the Algerian port of Bejaia on August 4 as planned. The 4,700-ton ship, originally called Okhotsk, built in 1991, had a Russian crew of 13 and was operated by a firm based in the Russian port of Arkhangelsk. Russian naval warships tracked down the ship off the Cape Verde islands and freed the crew. On August 18 Russia reported that eight people from Latvia, Estonia and Russia had been arrested for piracy. On Aug 19 Yulia Latynina, a leading Russian opposition journalist and commentator, reported that “the Arctic Sea was carrying some sort of anti-aircraft or nuclear contraption intended for a nice, peaceful country like Syria, and they were caught with it." In March 2011 six men were convicted and sentenced to 6-12 years in prison. Two others were already convicted.
    (Reuters, 8/9/09)(Reuters, 8/18/09)(AP, 8/19/09)(AP, 3/24/11)

2009        Jul 27, Russia’s Interior Ministry said Semyon Mogilevich, an alleged organized crime boss who is also wanted in the US, was released from pretrial detention 18 months after his arrest in Moscow. He has been on the FBI's wanted list since 2003, accused of manipulating the stock of a Pennsylvania-based company, YBM Magnex Inc., which collapsed in 1998.
    (AP, 7/27/09)
2009        Jul 27, The leader of the Russian Orthodox Church, Patriarch Kirill, led solemn prayers in Kiev on the first day of 10-day visit aimed at reasserting Moscow's dominance over church leaders in Ukraine.
    (AP, 7/27/09)

2009        Jul 29, An unmanned Russian cargo ship has docked successfully at the international space station to deliver supplies for its six-member crew.
    (AP, 7/29/09)
2009        Jul 29, Cuban state media said Russia and Cuba have signed agreements to search for oil in the Gulf of Mexico. Moscow extended the island $150 million in credit for construction materials and farm machinery.
    (AP, 7/29/09)

2009        Aug 1, Kyrgyzstan allowed Russia to open a second military base on its territory, expanding Moscow's military reach to balance against the US presence.
    (Reuters, 8/1/09)

2009        Aug 5, Venezuela’s President Hugo Chavez said his government will buy dozens of Russian tanks because Venezuela feels threatened by a pending deal for the US military to increase its presence in neighboring Colombia.
    (AP, 8/6/09)

2009        Aug 6, Russia’s PM Putin and his Turkish counterpart, Recep Tayyip Erdogan, signed an agreements in Ankara that included the construction of part of the South Stream gas pipeline through the Black Sea.
    (AP, 8/6/09)(Econ, 8/15/09, p.47)

2009        Aug 8, Russian President Dmitry Medvedev hailed the Russian victory in a war with Georgia a year ago, saying the war had redrawn the map of the Caucasus for good.
    (Reuters, 8/8/09)

2009        Aug 11, A Thai court rejected a US request to extradite Viktor Bout, an alleged Russian arms smuggler dubbed the "Merchant of Death," dealing a setback to American efforts to try him on charges of plotting to supply weapons to Colombian rebels. The court rejected the extradition request because Bout had not been accused of committing any crimes against Thailand, which has not listed FARC as a terrorist group.
    (AP, 8/11/09)

2009        Aug 12, Russian PM Vladimir Putin made a surprise visit to Abkhazia and said Russia will spend at least 15 billion rubles ($470 million) next year to build Russian military bases in Abkhazia and tighten the separatist Georgian region's borders.
    (AP, 8/12/09)
2009        Aug 12, Chechen Interior Ministry spokesman Magomed Deniyev said 2 policemen were killed in separate attacks during the night as they returned to their homes.
    (AP, 8/12/09)
 2009        Aug 12, Ruslan Amerkhanov, the construction minister in Russia's violence-plagued Ingushetia, was shot to death in his office. Ingush Security Council secretary Alexei Vorobyov said investigators believe the killing could be related to recent audits of construction projects that turned up building violations and misuse of funds.
    (AP, 8/12/09)

2009        Aug 16, Two Russian air force fighters rehearsing acrobatic maneuvers collided near Moscow, killing one pilot and sending the jets crashing into nearby vacation homes.
    (AP, 8/16/09)

2009        Aug 17, In Russia powerful explosion took place during repair work at the Sayano-Shushinskaya hydroelectric plant in southern Siberia. The death toll soon reached 69 with 6 still missing and feared dead after an engine room was suddenly flooded. The accident produced an oil spill and the slick that floated down the Yenisei River.
    (AP, 8/17/09)(AP, 8/18/09)(AP, 8/21/09)(AP, 8/23/09)
2009        Aug 17, Russian media reported that the Arctic Sea has been found near Cape Verde and that the ship's 15-man Russian crew has been taken aboard a Russian naval vessel.
    (AP, 8/17/09)
2009        Aug 17, It was reported that 200,000 Russian military officers faced early retirement, as the government conducts a sweeping reform that will eliminate the jobs of six out of every 10 members of its top-heavy officer corps.
    (AP, 8/17/09)
2009        Aug 17, In Ingushetia a suicide bomber attacked a police station in Nazran city in Russia's North Caucasus with an explosives-laden truck, killing at least 21 people and wounding more than 100 others. 9 officers were still missing.
    (AP, 8/17/09)(AP, 8/18/09)
2009        Aug 17, Czech media reported that two Russians have been ordered out of Prague, including a deputy military attache. Prague has previously complained about an increase in Russian spying that it linked to the US plans. Russia responded by ordering two Czech diplomats out of Russia.
    (Reuters, 8/18/09)

2009        Aug 18, Russia's President Dmitry Medvedev hosted Israeli counterpart Shimon Peres for talks that were expected to focus on the Middle East and the Iranian nuclear standoff.
    (AP, 8/18/09)

2009        Aug 20, Russia’s PM Vladimir Putin ordered that key parts of Russia's aging infrastructure be checked and upgraded after a power plant accident in Siberia left scores feared dead and strained the vast region's power supply. The confirmed death toll in the power plant accident rose to 17 after three more bodies were found. 57 were still missing.
    (AP, 8/20/09)
2009        Aug 20, Russian authorities flew the suspected hijackers of the cargo vessel Arctic Sea to Moscow and took off them for interrogation, dismissing suggestions that the ship may have been carrying weapons.
    (Reuters, 8/20/09)

2009        Aug 26, Top Russian officials acknowledged for the first time that the Arctic Sea, a ship hijacked last month in the Baltic Sea, might have been carrying a suspicious cargo, deepening the mystery around its seizure.
    (AFP, 8/26/09)
2009        Aug 26, Russia, worried about North Korean missile and nuclear tests, said it has deployed sophisticated air defenses in its Far East region to protect against any potential test mishap.
    (AFP, 8/26/09)
2009        Aug 26, In the Republic of Congo 7 people, including five Russian crew members, were killed when a cargo plane crashed on the outskirts of Brazzaville.
    (AFP, 8/26/09)

2009        Aug 27, In Russia Sergei Mikhalkov (96), an author favored by Stalin who wrote the lyrics for the Soviet and Russian national anthems, died. He fathered two noted film directors. As a functionary and later chairman of the government-regulated Soviet Writers' Union, Mikhalkov became an integral part of the propaganda machine designed to indoctrinate Soviet citizens and weed out dissidents.
    (AP, 8/27/09)(Econ, 9/12/09, p.96)

2009        Aug 31, Deere & Co., the world's largest agricultural-equipment maker, said its board of directors has approved a plan to establish a new manufacturing and parts center in Russia.
    (AP, 8/31/09)

2009        Sep 1, Ukrainian PM Yulia Tymoshenko said Russia and Ukraine have resolved a long standing dispute over natural gas supplies, after meeting her Russian counterpart Vladimir Putin at a resort on the Baltic coast in northern Poland.
    (Reuters, 9/1/09)

2009        Sep 3, Russian’s Foreign Ministry spokesman Andrei Nesterenko warned Georgia that attempts to block ships from reaching a Moscow-aligned separatist region of Georgia could end in military intervention.
    (AP, 9/3/09)

2009        Sep 7, Israel officially approved the construction of hundreds of new homes in the West Bank, deepening an already unprecedented rift with the US over Israeli settlement expansion. Israel PM Netanyahu vanished from public view in Israel for most of the day. His office said he had visited a secret security facility. It was later confirmed that he had made a secret trip to Russia, which included a meeting with the Russia’s Pres. Dmitry Medvedev.
    (AP, 9/7/09)(AP, 9/20/09)

2009        Sep 8, Russia's foreign minister rejected speculation that the Arctic Sea, a hijacked Russian-crewed freighter, was carrying S-300 missiles possibly destined for Iran. A Russian shipping expert and an EU anti-piracy official have speculated that the vessel was carrying a clandestine cargo, possibly S-300 surface-to-air missiles for Iran or Syria.
    (AP, 9/8/09)

2009        Sep 10, In Russia Venezuela’s President Hugo Chavez recognized the pro-Russian rebel regions of Abkhazia and South Ossetia as independent states, a rare boost to the Kremlin's campaign for their international acceptance.
    (Reuters 9/10/09)
2009        Sep 10, GM announced that it agreed to the sale of 55% of Ruesselsheim-based Adam Opel and Vauxhall unit to Canadian auto parts maker Magna International Inc. and Russian lender Sberbank. Detroit-based GM will keep a 35% stake and continue to work with Opel on developing vehicles, sharing technology and engineering resources.
    (AP, 9/11/09)

2009        Sep 12, President Evo Morales said Bolivia has decided to buy a presidential plane from Russia after Moscow offered to set up an aircraft maintenance center in the South American nation. Defense Minister Walker San Miguel announced in early August that Bolivia had agreed to purchase an Antonov presidential plane with satellite phone, Internet links and a meeting room from Russia for $30 million.
    (AP, 9/12/09)

2009        Sep 13, In central Russia 5 soldiers died in a fire at a military base in Tambov. A state news report said the blaze may have destroyed sensitive security documents.
    (SFC, 9/14/09, p.A2)

2009        Sep 15, Russian news agencies said the country's coast guard warned that it will detain Georgian ships entering the territorial waters of Abkhazia. Viktor Turfanov, the head of the coastal division of the border guards service, said that Georgia this year has intercepted more than 20 ships in Abkhazian waters.
    (AP, 9/15/09)

2009        Sep 16, Russia’s Finance Minister Alexei Kudrin said Russia has reached a settlement with Bank of New York Mellon over a $22.5 billion lawsuit against the bank stemming from a 1990s money laundering scheme by one of its executives. Russia would receive no less than $14 million for court costs under the long-anticipated, out-of-court deal. The government would also get a $4 billion discounted loan from the bank, an "act of goodwill." The two-year court case stems from a decade-old scandal in which a Bank of NY vice president and her husband were convicted of illegally wiring $7.5 billion of Russian money into accounts at the bank.
    (AP, 9/16/09)

2009        Sep 19, Russia said it will scrap a plan to deploy missiles near Poland since Washington has dumped a planned missile shield in Eastern Europe. It also harshly criticized Iran's president for new comments denying the Holocaust.
    (AP, 9/19/09)
2009        Sep 19, Lt. Col. Yelizaveta Mukasei (97), a Soviet spy who worked undercover in the West with her husband, died in Moscow. Mukasei, whose code name was Elza, lived in Los Angeles from 1939 to 1943 when her husband, Mikhail, was working undercover there. Mikhail, whose code name was Zephyr, died last year at age 101.
    (AP, 9/21/09)

2009        Sep 30, An EU-commissioned report said Georgia's attack on its breakaway South Ossetia region marked the start of last year's war with Russia, which retaliated with excessive force.
    (AP, 9/30/09)
2009        Sep 30, In Kazakhstan Canadian circus billionaire Guy Laliberte blasted off in a Russian Soyuz spaceship to become the world's seventh space tourist.
    (Reuters, 9/30/09)

2009        Oct 9, Vyacheslav Ivankov (69), a Russian crime boss who spent nearly 10 years in a US prison, died in a Moscow hospital, two months after being shot several times coming out of a restaurant on July 28. He was arrested by the FBI in 1995 and convicted of trying to extort millions of dollars from an investment firm run by Russian emigres in New York. He was extradited to Russia from the US in 2004 to face murder charges, but was acquitted.
    (AP, 10/9/09)

2009        Oct 11, The United Russia party won an overwhelming victory in more than 7,000 local elections in 75 of Russia's 83 regions. In Moscow, the party won all but three seats on the 35-member city council. United Russia served as a power base for PM Vladimir Putin, who has not ruled out a return to the presidency in 2012.
    (AP, 10/14/09)
2009        Oct 11, The Russian Soyuz capsule carrying Cirque du Soleil founder Guy Laliberte and two other space travelers landed safely in Kazakhstan, ending the entertainment tycoon's mirthful space odyssey.
    (AP, 10/11/09)

2009        Oct 12, Russian PM Vladimir Putin landed in China in an effort to bolster energy, political and military ties between the former rival nations turned strategic partners.
    (AP, 10/12/09)

2009        Oct 13, China and Russia signed a framework agreement that could see a steady flow of natural gas to energy-hungry China from its resource-rich neighbor.
    (AP, 10/13/09)

2009        Oct 14, Dozens of Russian lawmakers staged a rare walkout from parliament to protest what they and independent monitors describe as rigged local elections across Russia.
    (AP, 10/14/09)
2009        Oct 14, A security summit between China, Russia and their Central Asian neighbors wrapped up in Beijing with vague promises to deepen economic cooperation but no public mention of regional flashpoints like Afghanistan.
    (Reuters, 10/14/09)
2009        Oct 14, US Secretary of State Hillary Clinton wrapped up a European tour by calling on Russia to uphold human rights and prevent attacks on activists who challenge the Kremlin.
    (AP, 10/14/09)

2009        Oct 16, A Russian court sentenced an army sergeant to nine years in jail for passing on information to Georgia during the time of its war with Russia. Aleksandar Georgijevic, a Serbian national, was jailed for 8 years for attempting to collect information on a number of Russian military projects in 1998.
    (Reuters, 10/16/09)

2009        Oct 18, Russia's unmanned Progress M-03M docked with the orbital station after a three-day trip up from Earth. It delivered food, fuel, oxygen and other supplies to the International Space Station.
    (AP, 10/18/09)

2009        Oct 20, Russian President Dmitry Medvedev brought a euro1 billion ($1.5 billion) loan to recession-hit Serbia, as Moscow sought to expand its political and economic influence in the Balkans with the first-ever visit to Belgrade by a Russian president.
    (AP, 10/20/09)

2009        Oct 22, The EU's parliament awarded its annual Sakharov Prize for freedom of thought to three prominent Russian rights activists, in recognition of the difficult conditions they face in defending human rights in Russia today. The prize was awarded to Lyudmila Alexeyeva (82), Sergei Kovalyov (79) and Oleg Orlov (56) on behalf of the human rights organization Memorial and "all other human rights defenders in Russia."
    (AP, 10/22/09)

2009        Oct 25, In southern Russia Maksharip Aushev a prominent opposition activist in Ingushetia was shot and killed by unidentified gunmen in at least the third such killing in the North Caucasus region in just over three months. Aushev died when several assailants sprayed his vehicle with automatic gunfire from a passing car. A woman traveling with him was badly wounded in the attack on a road in the neighboring province of Kabardino-Balkariya.
    (AP, 10/25/09)

2009        Oct 29, Somali pirates continued their rampage around the Seychelles and seized a Thailand-flagged trawler, believed to be Russian-owned with a crew of 25. Somali pirates currently held a total of nine ships and around 200 crew.
    (AP, 10/29/09)

2009        Oct 30, President Dmitry Medvedev told Russians that there can be no justification for the Soviet government's crimes against its own people, lamenting millions of deaths and "maimed destinies" in some of the strongest criticism of the Communist era to come from the Kremlin since Vladimir Putin came to power a decade ago.
    (AP, 10/31/09)

2009        Oct 31, A Russian news agency reported that Moscow plans to buy a French amphibious assault ship, the first such purchase from a NATO country, as the Kremlin seeks to reaffirm Russia's global reach.
    (AP, 10/31/09)

2009        Nov 1, A Russian heavy-lift military cargo plane crashed on takeoff in Siberia, killing all 11 crew members on board.
    (AP, 11/1/09)

2009        Nov 2, In Russia Shabattai Kalmanovitch (60), a prominent businessman, was shot dead in Moscow. He had been convicted in Israel of being a KGB spy.
    (SFC, 11/3/09, p.A2)

2009        Nov 5, A Moscow court approved the arrest of a man and a woman suspected in the January 19 killing of Stanislav Markelov and Anastasia Baburova. The male suspect, ultranationalist Nikita Tikhonov, confessed to the crime after his arrest saying he did so out of “personal enmity" for one of the victims.
    (AP, 11/6/09)(SFC, 11/7/09, p.A2)
2009        Nov 5, Memorial, a Russian rights group, said Chechen authorities have abducted Arbi Khachukayev, a human rights advocate in Moscow, who has been critical of Chechnya's Kremlin-backed leader.
    (AP, 11/5/09)

2009        Nov 7, British boxer David Haye (29) won the WBA Heavyweight crown against 7-foot, 2-inch Russian Nikolai Valuev in a 12-round bout in Germany. Haye became the first Briton to hold a world heavyweight crown since Lennox Lewis retired in 2003.
    (AFP, 11/8/09)

2009        Nov 12, Russia’s Pres. Medvedev called on his country to shed its dependence on exports of raw materials and to adopt a more pragmatic foreign policy aimed at attracting investment and promoting growth.
    (SFC, 11/13/09, p.A5)

2009        Nov 13, In Russia huge explosions and fire ripped through a naval munitions facility in the Ulyanovsk province for hours, killing two firefighters and prompting the evacuation of thousands of civilians nearby. 11 civilians and military personnel were unaccounted for.
    (AP, 11/13/09)
2009        Nov 13, In Russia prosecutors said police have arrested three homeless people suspected of eating a 25-year-old man they had butchered and selling other bits of the corpse to a local kebab house. Parts of a human body had been found near a bus stop in the outskirts of the Russian city of Perm, 1,150 km (720 miles) east of Moscow.
    (Reuters, 11/16/09)

2009        Nov 15, In Singapore President Barack Obama said the United States and Russia would have a replacement treaty on reducing nuclear arms ready for approval by year's end, an announcement designed as an upbeat ending to a summit with Asia-Pacific leaders. Obama also attended a second summit with leaders of the 10 southeast Asian countries that make up the ASEAN group. Obama then arrived in Shanghai, launching a three-day visit to an important global US partner and his first travels ever in China.
    (AP, 11/15/09)

2009        Nov 16, In Russia Ivan Khutorskoi (26), an anti-hate crimes campaigner, was killed in the entrance of his Moscow apartment building with a shot to the head. The former punk rocker, known as the Bonebreaker, had provided security for meetings of antifascists. He also was known for organizing underground bare-knuckle boxing matches among them, and taking part in violent attacks on ultranationalists.
    (AP, 11/17/09)(AP, 11/18/09)
2009        Nov 16, Russian lawyer Sergei Magnitsky (37) died after being denied medical assistance for pancreatitis while in pretrial detention at Moscow's Butyrskaya jail. He was arrested in November 2008 on tax-evasion charges linked to his work with William Browder, a British investor barred from Russia in 2005, as an alleged security risk. On Nov 15, 2010, authorities claimed that Magnitsky was suspected of stealing the $230 million that he said Interior Ministry officers had defrauded from the state. Magnitsky originally testified against Interior Ministry officers Pavel Karpov and Artyom Kuznetsov, accusing them of stealing the money before the same officers initiated proceedings against him. On Nov 28, 2011, a private investigation, compiled by Browder, a US-born investor, concluded that Magnitsky was severely beaten and denied medical treatment in prison, and accused the government of failing to prosecute those responsible.
    (http://tinyurl.com/yc25jyq)(Econ, 11/28/09, p.57)(AP, 11/15/10)(AP, 11/28/11)

2009        Nov 19, Russia's Constitutional Court effectively outlawed the death penalty, saying a moratorium on capital punishment should remain in force until the nation fully bans executions.
    (AP, 11/19/09)
2009        Nov 19, In Russia a gunman killed Rev. Daniil Sysoyev, a Russian Orthodox priest, in his Moscow church and seriously wounded the reverend's assistant.
    (AP, 11/20/09)

2009        Nov 21, Russia’s PM Vladimir Putin pledged to widen the country’s anti-crisis aid package with a car scrappage scheme and mortgage support to jolt the economy out of the worst recession in 15 years. President Dmitry Medvedev sharply criticized officials in the ruling Kremlin-backed party for manipulating recent regional votes, saying it must learn to win fairly.
    (AP, 11/21/09)
2009        Nov 21, Russian spaceship designer Konstantin Feoktistov (83), the only non-Communist space traveler in the history of the Soviet space program, died. In 1964, he traveled aboard the Voskhod spaceship as part of the first group space flight in history.
    (AP, 11/22/09)

2009        Nov 23, In Russia 8 military personnel were killed when a truckload of ammunition exploded as they cleaned up after the huge Nov 13 conflagration at a munitions depot in Ulyanovsk.
    (AP, 11/23/09)

2009        Nov 25, The Canadian dollar rose to a one-week high against the US dollar after the Russian central bank said it was preparing to invest some of its foreign exchange reserves in the Canadian currency.
    (Reuters, 11/25/09)

2009        Nov 27, In Russia a homemade bomb planted on the tracks of the high-speed Moscow-to-St. Petersburg route, caused a derailment of the 14-car Nevsky Express. 26 people were killed and dozens more injured. Chechen militants later claimed responsibility and vowed further "acts of sabotage" in a letter posted on a rebel website.
    (AP, 11/28/09)(AP, 12/2/09)

2009        Nov 28, French Transport Minister Dominique Bussereau said Russia has given the green light for Air France's A380 superjumbo to overfly Siberia, opening the way for a projected Paris-Tokyo service. The accord was approved by PM Vladimir Putin at the end of a two-day visit to France which saw a number of business deals concluded. Putin's trip also secured a deal for French investment in a key pipeline project and the struggling Avtovaz car maker, as well as a promise that France will consider selling Moscow a huge amphibious assault ship.
    (AFP, 11/28/09)

2009        Nov, In Russia police officer Maj. Alexey Dymovsky posted three videos on YouTube in which he said he was promised a promotion in return for jailing an innocent person. He also accused his superiors of forcing officers to fake reports on unsolved crimes. In December prosecutors in the southern Krasnodar region filed fraud charges against Dymovsky, saying that Dymovsky had embezzled about $800 while working as a narcotics investigator.
    (AP, 12/28/09)

2009        Dec 3, Pope Benedict XVI and visiting Russian Pres. Dmitry Medvedev agreed to upgrade Vatican-Kremlin relations to full diplomatic ties.
    (SFC, 12/4/09, p.A2)
2009        Dec 3, Rusal, the world’s largest aluminium company, said it had reached a deal to restructure debts of $17 billion, including $7 billion held by foreigners, clearing the way for an IPO. Russia’s state-owned Vnesheconobank (VEB) had recently agreed to extend a $4.5 billion loan to Rusal, lead by Oleg Deripaska, one of the country’s richest tycoons.
    (Econ, 12/5/09, p.73)

2009        Dec 5, In Russia a blaze sparked by onstage fireworks tore through the Lame Horse nightclub ceiling covered in decorative twigs and plastic sheeting, killing at least 136 people and critically injuring about 90 in the industrial city of Perm in the Ural Mountains. It was the country’s deadliest fire since the fall of the Soviet Union. By late December the death toll reached 152 with 74 people still hospitalized. In 2013 club owner Anatoly Zak was convicted of creating conditions that violate safety regulations. He was sentenced to nine years and 10 months in prison.
    (AP, 12/5/09)(AP, 12/10/09)(AP, 12/25/09)(AP, 4/30/13)

2009        Dec 7, President Hugo Chavez said that Venezuela has received thousands of Russian-made missiles and rocket launchers as part of his government's military preparations for a possible armed conflict with neighboring Colombia.
    (AP, 12/7/09)

2009        Dec 8, Russia's highest court upheld a ruling halting the activities of a regional branch of Jehovah's Witnesses and banning dozens of its publications in what the group deplored as an unfair move.
    (AP, 12/8/09)

2009        Dec 9, Russia's error-prone Bulava intercontinental ballistic missile suffered its eighth failure in 12 tests.
    (AP, 12/10/09)

2009        Dec 12, Iraq sold Russian firm Lukoil rights to the West Qurna-2 oil field, one of the world's biggest untapped oil fields, on the 2nd day of an auction. Lukoil will work with junior partner StatoilHydro of Norway.
    (AP, 12/12/09)

2009        Dec 16, Yegor Gaidar (53), Russian economist and former acting prime minister (1992), died at his Moscow-area home. He oversaw Russia's painful economic transition from communism to the free market in the 1990s.
    (AP, 12/16/09)(Econ, 12/19/09, p.149)
2009        Dec 16, In Dagestan, Russia, police killed three suspected militants in a clash.
    (AP, 12/17/09)
2009        Dec 16, Vietnam said it has ordered submarines and fighter jets from Russia, its former communist ally, in a deal reportedly worth hundreds of millions of dollars.
    (AP, 12/16/09)

2009        Dec 17, In Ingushetia, Russia, a suicide car bomber attacked a group of police and soldiers in Nazran, wounding at least 23 people. Also in Nazran 2 security officers were killed in a drive-by shooting.
    (AP, 12/17/09)

2009        Dec 22, Hansjoerg Haber, EU monitoring mission chief, said Russia has failed to fully observe an EU-brokered peace deal that ended last year's war with Georgia. He said Russia has not met an obligation to withdraw its forces to positions held before the August 2008 conflict.
    (AP, 12/23/09)

2009        Dec 23, Georgia's Foreign Ministry reached a deal with Russia to open a border crossing that has been closed for three years. The two sides agreed during Swiss-brokered talks that the Verkhny Lars transit point will open in March.
    (AP, 12/24/09)

2009        Dec 24, Russia’s President Dmitry Medvedev ordered reform of the country's Interior Ministry, saying it was a necessary response to police abuses that have angered Russians and eroded public trust in the government.
    (AP, 12/24/09)

2009        Dec 27, Isaac Schwartz (b.1923), Russian composer, died at his home just outside St. Petersburg. His music adorned some of the most popular movies of the Soviet era. Schwartz wrote the music for a total of 110 movies and 35 theatrical performances.
    (AP, 12/28/09)

2009        Dec 28, Slovakia said that Russia had warned it might halt oil supplies through Ukraine to three European Union countries over a price dispute.
    (AFP, 12/28/09)

2009        Dec 29, Russia’s PM Vladimir Putin said that Russia will build new weapons to offset the planned US missile defense and urged Washington to share detailed data about its missile shield under a new arms control deal. The Kremlin said President Dmitry Medvedev has signed a bill banning the jailing of people suspected of tax crimes and has fired another senior prison official following the death in custody of a tax lawyer in November.
    (AP, 12/29/09)

2009        Dec 31, Moscow police detained dozens of people at an anti-Kremlin protest, including Lyudmila Alexeyeva (82), a prominent rights activist. The New Year's Eve protest is a repeat of actions held on the 31st of July, August and October. The timing is a nod to the 31st Article of the Russian constitution, which guarantees the right of assembly.
    (AP, 12/31/09)

2009        Vladislav Yuryevich Surkov (b.1964), Russian businessman and politician, wrote the preface to the pseudonymous bestselling satirical novel “Almost Zero." The author was "Natan Dubovitsky", readable as a male form of Surkov’s wife's name. Conflicting statements in the preface added to speculation that Surkov was the author of the novel.
    (Econ, 12/10/11, p.30)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Vladislav_Surkov)
2009        Russia began to modernize the Syrian port of Tartus, its only military base outside the former Soviet Union.
    (Econ, 1/14/12, p.47)
2009        In Russia Oleg Deripaska, owner of the Gorky Automobile Plant (GAZ), brought in Bo Andersson, formerly of General Motors, to turn GAZ around.
    (Econ, 7/14/12, p.55)

2010        Jan 1, The Russian government set a minimum price for vodka that more than doubles the cost of the cheapest vodka on the market in an effort to fight rampant alcoholism.
    (AP, 1/1/10)

2010        Jan 6, In Russia a suicide bomber blew up an explosives-packed car at a police station in Dagestan province, killing six officers and wounding at least 16 people on the outskirts of Makhachkala. Investigators determined that the homemade bomb packed into the Niva, a small Russian-made SUV, was equivalent to 80 to 100 km (175 to 220 pounds) of TNT.
    (AP, 1/6/10)

2010        Jan 7, Russian police in Dagestan killed two suspected militants in a counterterrorism operation launched in response to a suicide blast that took the lives of six officers. One of the slain militants was named as Ismail Ichakayev, a man reportedly wanted for masterminding several bombings and other attacks on officials.
    (AP, 1/7/10)

2010        Jan 8, An avalanche in Russia's southern Caucasus mountain range killed five climbers including an instructor. The novice climbers, all from Moscow or St. Petersburg had undergone an intensive, six-day training course in the climbing base of Bezengi, in the province of Kabardino-Balkaria. Four climbers in a party of nine survived the snow slide, which struck as they were ascending the Gedan-tau peak.
    (AP, 1/9/10)

2010        Jan 14, A Russian Su-27 fighter jet disappeared while on a training mission in the country's far east. Late-night traffic on one of Moscow’s roads slowed as a couple's explicit escapades appeared across the 9-by-6-meter (yard) display. A hacker attack was likely to blame. City police said they have yet to receive any complaints and have not opened an investigation.
    (AP, 1/14/10)(AP, 1/15/10)

2010        Jan 15, Russian lawmakers ended years of resistance and ratified an international agreement intended to strengthen and speed up the work of the European Court of Human Rights. The measure still needed to be approved by the upper house and signed by Pres. Medvedev, but both steps were expected to occur soon.
    (AP, 1/15/10)

2010        Jan 20, A French court ruled that a Russian Orthodox cathedral built on the French Riviera nearly a century ago under Czar Nicholas II now belongs to Moscow. The ruling was a defeat for an association founded by Russians who fled the Bolshevik Revolution that has been fighting to maintain its control over the Saint Nicholas Cathedral in Nice, and its archbishop is accusing the Russian government of a land grab as part of a national pride campaign.
    (AP, 1/20/10)
2010        Jan 20, In Siberia Konstantin Popov (47), a reporter for Tomskaya Nedelya weekly, died after nearly two weeks in a coma. He had been taken in police custody to sober up. Police officer Alexei Mitayev (26) shot him in the genitals after beating him up. On Feb 11, 2011, Mitayev was convicted of beating and shooting Popov and was sentenced to 12 years in prison.
    (AP, 2/11/11)

2010        Jan 22, In Russia a court sanctioned on fraud charges the arrest of Alexei Dymovsky, a police officer who has complained on YouTube of abuse and corruption in the country's law enforcement system. In November Dymovsky posted 3 videos on YouTube in which he said he was promised a promotion in return for jailing an innocent person. He also accused his superiors of forcing officers to fake reports on unsolved crimes. Dymovsky was fired and founded a rights defense group.
    (AP, 1/22/10)

2010        Jan 23, Russian PM Vladimir Putin declared that peace has returned to North Caucasus, the center of a growing Islamist insurgency, and called for the region's economy to be rebuilt. He also ordered officials in the North Caucasus to ensure what he called the "normal work" of human rights groups operating in the volatile region.
    (Reuters, 1/23/10)(AP, 1/23/10)

2010        Jan 26, NATO and Russia formally resumed military ties in the latest sign of improving relations between the Cold War rivals as they move to boost cooperation in the fight against insurgents in Afghanistan.
    (AP, 1/26/10)

2010        Jan 27, NATO's top officer said that Russia had agreed to boost cooperation with the alliance in Afghanistan, including opening more transit routes for supplies to international troops and helping service Soviet-built helicopters used by the security forces. NATO said it had finalized an agreement with Kazakhstan to open the last leg on an overland route to Afghanistan from Europe via Russia, Kazakhstan and Uzbekistan, offering an alternative to the one through Pakistan.
    (AP, 1/27/10)(AP, 1/28/10)

2010        Jan 29, Russia test-flew a long-awaited new fighter aircraft, determined to challenge the United States for technical superiority in the skies and impress weapons buyers.
    (Reuters, 1/29/10)

2010        Jan 30, Russian PM Vladimir Putin was quoted as saying that Libya has signed an arms deal with Russia worth 1.3 billion euros ($1.8 billion).
    (Reuters, 1/30/10)
2010        Jan 30, Russia opened its first new casino, under a plan to limit legalized gambling to 4 comparatively remote areas, since it closed all casinos a half year earlier. Along with the opening in Azov city, the new law limits legalized gambling to the Kaliningrad enclave on the Baltic Sea, the Altai region of Siberia, and the Primorski region of the Far East.
    (SSFC, 1/31/10, p.A6)

2010        Jan 31, In Russia several hundred demonstrators shouting "Shame!" gathered in a central Moscow square, defying a ban imposed by authorities. Moscow police detained dozens of people at an anti-Kremlin protest, including several prominent opposition leaders. A separate demonstration was held by dozens of residents of the Rechnik settlement to protest the demolition of their homes ordered by Mayor Yury Luzhkov.
    (AP, 1/31/10)(Econ, 2/6/10, p.57)

2010        Jan, Scientists at Russia’s Flerov Laboratory of Nuclear Reactions announced internally that they had succeeded in detecting the decay of a new element with Z=117 using the reactions.
    (SFC, 4/8/10, p.C5)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ununseptium)
2010        Jan, Russian authorities confiscated the computers of Baikal Environmental Wave in Irkutsk in an alleged search for pirated software. The group was protesting a decision by PM Putin to reopen a paper factory that had long polluted nearby Lake Baikal. Similar raids in recent years have taken place against dozens of outspoken advocacy groups.
    (SSFC, 9/12/10, p.A10)

2010        Feb 3, Ukraine's security service said 5 Russian FSB agents were detained last month after being caught trying to obtain confidential military information from a Ukrainian citizen. The FSB said the Ukrainian citizen its agents were working with had himself been apprehended in November while allegedly spying on neighboring Moldova's Moscow-backed breakaway Trans-Dniester republic.
    (AP, 2/3/10)

2010        Feb 4, A leading Russian lawmaker said Russia and Western powers have moved closer to agreement on the need for new sanctions against Iran over its nuclear program.
    (AP, 2/4/10)
2010        Feb 4, Russia hailed a new agreement with the United States intended to boost joint anti-drug efforts, but urged the US and NATO to do more to stem a flow of drugs from Afghanistan that has sickened millions of Russians.
    (AP, 2/4/10)

2010        Feb 5, Russian PM Vladimir Putin criticized his party following an unusually large opposition protest, saying it has fed the country with empty promises.
    (AP, 2/5/10)
2010        Feb 5, Latvia sold a deserted town built around a Soviet-era radar station to a Russian investor who bid $3.1 million at an unusual auction. The town, formerly known as Skrunda-1, housed about 5,000 people during the Cold War but was abandoned over a decade ago.
    (AP, 2/5/10)

2010        Feb 6, Interfax reported that French Pres. Sarkozy has sanctioned the sale of a Mistral amphibious assault ship to Russia.
    (SSFC, 2/7/10, p.A6)

2010        Feb 11, Italy's Fiat SpA and Russian automobile company Sollers announced a euro2.4 billion ($3.3 billion) joint venture to produce up to 500,000 vehicles per year in Russia in a bid to become the country's second-largest car maker.
    (AP, 2/11/10)
2010        Feb 11, Russian government forces killed 4 innocent civilians in the North Caucasus. 4 garlic pickers died along with 18 suspected Islamic militants in a three-day shootout in the mountainous forests that straddle the North Caucasus provinces of Ingushetia and Chechnya.
    (AP, 4/3/10)

2010        Feb 12, Russian officials said that at least 14 suspected Islamic militants had been killed and one police officer wounded in two days of fighting in the southern province of Ingushetia.
    (AP, 2/13/10)

2010        Feb 15, Israel's PM Netanyahu called for "crippling sanctions" against Iran over its nuclear program after a meeting in Moscow with Russia's top officials, whom he praised for showing "an understanding" over the issue.
    (AP, 2/15/10)

2010        Feb 16, Georgia's breakaway Abkhazia region said it would allow sponsor Russia to build a military base on its soil for land troops, strengthening the region's dependence on Moscow and provoking ire from Tbilisi.

2010        Feb 25, In Russia the Moscow City Court said in a statement that 12 mostly underage neo-Nazis who called themselves "White Wolves" have been charged with 11 murders and one assault since April 2007. Nine ultranationalists were sentenced to up to 23 years in jail for 6 hate-motivated killings and one assault.
    (AP, 2/25/10)(SFC, 2/26/10, p.A2)

2010        Feb, RT America, a TV channel based in Washington, D.C., was launched as part of the RT network, a global multilingual television news network based in Moscow, Russia, and funded by the Russian government.

2010        Mar 1, France and Russia pursued their burgeoning courtship with a formal state visit by Russian President Dmitry Medvedev to Paris, which is angling to sell Moscow a massive warship and secure stakes in pipelines pumping Russian gas to western Europe.
    (AP, 3/1/10)
2010        Mar 1, Georgia and Russia reopened their only direct border crossing, more than three years after it was closed amid rising tension that erupted into war in 2008.
    (AP, 3/1/10)

2010        Mar 10, In London self-exiled Russian tycoon Boris Berezovsky won his libel case against RTR, a Kremlin-owned broadcaster, that aired allegations he masterminded the 2006 murder in London of former KGB renegade agent Alexander Litvinenko. RTR, which did not take part in the hearings, called the judgment illegal.
    (AP, 3/10/10)

2010        Mar 12, India signed 5 deals in New Delhi to purchase more than $7 billion in hardware and expertise from Russia. The agreements included the construction of at least 12 civilian nuclear reactors, an aircraft carrier and a fleet of MiG-29 fighters.
    (AFP, 3/12/10)(SFC, 3/13/10, p.A2)

2010        Mar 14, Millions of Russians voted in regional elections in a mid-term test of President Dmitry Medvedev's pledge to loosen the Kremlin's grip on the political system. The ruling United Russia party appeared headed for an expected victory in regional elections, although many disgruntled voters threw their support behind opposition candidates.
    (Reuters, 3/14/10)(AP, 3/15/10)

2010        Mar 18, Astronauts from the US and Russia landed safely in northern Kazakhstan's chilly steppes after spending almost six months on the International Space Station.
    (AP, 3/18/10)
2010        Mar 18, UN Secretary General Ban Ki-moon signed a cooperation agreement with Nikolai Bordyuzha, the head of the Collective Treaty Organization, a Moscow-dominated alliance that includes Russia and six other former Soviet republics.
    (AP, 3/18/10)

2010        Mar 19, In Russia the international Quartet for the Middle East met in Moscow in a bid to revive the peace process despite tensions after Israel's announcement of new settler homes and a deadly rocket attack.
    (AFP, 3/19/10)

2010        Mar 20, In Russia thousands of protesters rallied in several cities to protest the government's economic policy and demand more political freedoms.
    (AP, 3/20/10)

2010        Mar 21, India successfully tested a new, more maneuverable version of its BrahMos supersonic cruise missile that was jointly developed with Russia.
    (AP, 3/21/10)

2010        Mar 24, The US and Russia reached a breakthrough agreement for a historic treaty to reduce their nuclear arsenals. Prague announced it will host the signing of a new US-Russian treaty to reduce long-range nuclear weapons. The deal would replace the 1991 Strategic Arms Reduction Treaty.
    (AP, 3/24/10)(SFC, 3/25/10, p.A10)

2010        Mar 26, Pres. Obama concluded a new strategic arms reduction treaty in a call with Russian President Dmitry Medvedev.
    (AFP, 3/26/10)

2010        Mar 27, In Russia an apartment block west of Moscow partially collapsed following a suspected gas explosion, killing three people and possibly trapping others under the rubble.
    (AP, 3/27/10)
2010        Mar 27, In Russia former Soviet world chess champion Vasily Smyslov (89) died of heart failure. Smyslov beat Mikhail Botvinnik in 1957 to become the seventh world champion, before losing in a re-match the following year. His career in the top flight of world chess spanned some four decades. He was beaten by Garry Kasparov  in 1984 in the Candidates Final match for the right to challenge Anatoly Karpov for the world title, which Kasparov went on to capture.
    (Reuters, 3/27/10)

2010        Mar 28, Russia's Pres. Medvedev thought the country had too much time on its hands, so on Sunday he eliminated two of its 11 time zones.
    (AP, 3/28/10)
2010        Mar 28, In Russia thousands of angry people demonstrated in the northwestern city of Arkhangelsk against the high cost of living and demanded that the government of PM Vladimir Putin quits.
    (AP, 3/28/10)
2010        Mar 28, President Barack Obama made a surprise visit to Afghanistan for a firsthand look at the 8-year-old war he inherited and dramatically escalated. German Interior Minister Thomas de Maiziere held talks in Afghanistan on stuttering progress in training the country's security forces. Russia accused the US of conniving with Afghanistan's drug producers by refusing to destroy opium crops, the second time in a week Moscow has taken a swipe at the West over drug policy.
    (AP, 3/28/10)(AFP, 3/28/10)(Reuters, 3/28/10)

2010        Mar 29, In Russia 2 female suicide bombers blew themselves up in twin attacks on Moscow subway stations jam-packed with rush-hour passengers, killing 39 people. Officials blamed the carnage on rebels from the Caucasus region. Five people remained in critical condition out of 71 hospitalized after the blasts. The death toll soon rose to 40 as one of the injured died in a hospital.
    (AP, 3/29/10)(AP, 3/30/10)(AP, 4/2/10)
2010        Mar 29, Russia and the International Atomic Energy Agency set up the world's first nuclear fuel bank, signing into life a plan meant to bridge shortages caused by snags in deliveries of low enriched uranium to power reactors.
    (AP, 3/29/10)

2010        Mar 30, Russia's Pres. Medvedev signed an order formally implementing UN Security Council-approved sanctions against North Korea. The sanctions were passed in June by the Security Council, which includes Russia.
    (AP, 3/30/10)

2010        Mar 31, In southern Russia 2 suicide bombers, including one impersonating a police officer, killed 12 people in Dagestan. PM Vladimir Putin said the blasts may have been organized by the same militants who attacked the Moscow subway. Russian police broke up anti-Kremlin protests in Moscow and St. Petersburg, detaining dozens of demonstrators who had defied bans in holding the rallies.
    (AP, 3/31/10)
2010        Mar 31, In Dagestan 2 suicide bombers struck near the border with Chechnya, killing 12 people.
    (AP, 4/3/10)

2010        Apr 1, An explosion near Dagestan's border with Chechnya killed two suspected militants.
    (AP, 4/3/10)

2010        Apr 2, The Russian Kommersant newspaper reported that Dzhanet Abdurakhmanova (17) of Dagestan, a widow of a slain Islamist rebel, was one of the two female suicide bombers who attacked Moscow's subway on March 31. Her husband, Umalat Magomedov, was described as an Islamist militant leader killed by government forces in December. The paper said the 2nd subway bomber has been has been tentatively identified as Markha Ustarkhanova  (20) from Chechnya, the widow of a militant leader killed last October while he was preparing to assassinate Chechen Pres. Ramzan Kadyrov. The 2nd female was later identified as Maryam Sharipova (28), a teacher from Dagestan.
    (AP, 4/2/10)(AP, 4/6/10)
2010        Apr 2, Russia’s PM Vladimir Putin made his first visit to Venezuela. Pres. Chavez, ahead of the visit, said Russia has offered to help Venezuela set up its own space industry, including a satellite launch site. Officials planned to sign new agreements for energy projects in Venezuela, as well as industrial, commercial and agriculture projects. Putin also planned to hold talks with Bolivian President Evo Morales.
    (AP, 4/2/10)
2010        Apr 2, In southern Kazakhstan a Russian rocket carrying 2 Russian and one American astronauts blasted off, kicking off a tightly packed schedule at the International Space Station in the coming days.
    (AP, 4/2/10)

2010        Apr 3, In Dagestan 3 militants there opened fire on police in a drive-by shooting, killing one and injuring another.
    (AP, 4/3/10)

2010        Apr 4, A US-Russian space team sent their Easter greetings down to Earth after their Soyuz spacecraft docked flawlessly at the International Space Station. The rotating calendars of the Christian West and the Christian East agreed on the same date for Easter.
    (AP, 4/4/10)(Econ, 4/3/10, p.85)

2010        Apr 5, PM Vladimir Putin said Russia may sell $5 billion worth of weapons to Venezuela following his visit to the South American nation.
    (AP, 4/5/10)
2010        Apr 5, In Russia’s Ingushetia region a suicide bomber killed two policemen.
    (Reuters, 4/5/10)

2010        Apr 6, Russia's foreign minister, Sergey Lavrov, said the new US-Russian arms control treaty is a much better deal for Russia than its predecessor, but Moscow reserves the right to withdraw from it if a planned US missile defense system grows into a threat.
    (AP, 4/6/10)

2010        Apr 8, President Barack Obama and Russian President Dmitry Medvedev signed the biggest nuclear arms pact in a generation and envisioned a day when they can compromise on the divisive issue of missile defense. Obama and Medvedev warned Iran of possible sanctions over its nuclear program shortly after signing the disarmament deal in Prague.
    (AP, 4/8/10)(AFP, 4/8/10)
2010        Apr 8, The European Space Agency launched CryoSat 2 on a Russian rocket from the Baikonur Cosmodrome in Kazakhstan. The satellite was designed to measure the effects of climate change on the Earth’s polar ice caps.
    (SFC, 4/9/10, p.A2)

2010        Apr 9, In Ingushetia a female suicide bomber killed herself after shooting dead a policeman in Ekazhevo. 3 other militants were killed in Ekazhevo in gunfights with police.
    (Reuters, 4/9/10)

2010        Apr 10, Polish President Lech Kaczynski (60) and some of the country's highest military and civilian leaders died when the presidential plane crashed as it came in for a landing in thick fog in western Russia, killing 97. The 26-year-old Tupolev was taking the president, his wife and staff to events marking the 70th anniversary of the massacre in Katyn forest of thousands of Polish officers by Soviet secret police. On board were the army chief of staff, the navy chief commander, and heads of the air and land forces. Also killed were the national bank president, deputy foreign minister, army chaplain, head of the National Security Office, deputy parliament speaker, Olympic Committee head, civil rights commissioner and at least two presidential aides and three lawmakers.
    (AP, 4/10/10)

2010        Apr 12, In Russia Eduard Chuvashov, a judge of Moscow's City Court, was found shot to death in the stairwell of his apartment building. He was the judge in several high-profile cases, including the February sentencing of 9 skinhead gang members who killed 6 non-Slavs.
    (AP, 4/12/10)

2010        Apr 14, In Argentina Dmitry Medvedev used the first-ever visit by a Russian president to Argentina to urge the countries to boost economic ties and cooperate more on nuclear energy.
    (AP, 4/15/10)

2010        Apr 15, Russia’s Foreign Ministry said Russia has suspended all adoptions to US families until the two countries can agree on procedures, a week after Torry Hansen, an American woman in Tennessee, sent her adopted son, Artyom Saveliev (7), back to Russia on a plane by himself.
    (AP, 4/15/10)(SFC, 5/19/12, p.A5)
2010        Apr 15, German authorities said they have targeted nine suspects, including former staff of Hewlett-Packard, in a probe into whether the world's top PC maker paid bribes to win business in Russia.
    (Reuters, 4/15/10)

2010        Apr 21, The presidents of Ukraine and Russia agreed to extend the stay of Russia's Black Sea Fleet in the Ukrainian port of Sevastopol to 2042 after the existing lease expires in 2017. Russian President Dmitry Medvedev said that Kiev will receive large discounts on gas shipments in return for certainty over the base's future, $100 for every 1,000 cubic meters of gas or 30 percent if the benchmark price falls below $330.
    (AP, 4/21/10)(SFC, 4/22/10, p.A2)
2010        Apr 21, In the Philippines an electrical fire forced a cargo plane's pilots to attempt an emergency landing in a Philippine rice field when the Russian-made Antonov-12 aircraft burst into flames, killing three of its six crew. The dead included two Russian ground engineers and a Bulgarian.
    (AP, 4/22/10)

2010        Apr 23, In Russia two-time Olympic rhythmic gymnastics champion Natalia Lavrova (25) was killed with her sister in a car accident. Lavrova was Russia's only rhythmic gymnast to win two Olympic gold medals, in team competitions at the Sydney and Athens Olympics in 2000 and 2004.
    (AP, 4/23/10)

2010        Apr 24, A Russian Proton rocket carrying a US AMC 49 telecommunications satellite was launched into orbit from the Baikonur cosmodrome in Kazakhstan.
    (AFP, 4/25/10)

2010        Apr 28, Dunkin' Donuts said it is returning to Russia, following an 11-year absence, with plans to tap growing appetite for coffee and sweets by opening up to 20 outlets in Moscow this year.
    (AP, 4/28/10)

2010        Apr 30, In Russia Vera Trifonova (53), who was reported to have diabetes and chronic kidney failure, died in the Matrosskaya Tishina jail. Trifonova, the head of a real estate company, had been jailed since December on fraud charges. The next day Pres. Medvedev ordered investigators to determine why another person has died in the same Moscow jail where lawyer Sergei Magnitsky died last year of an untreated illness.
    (AP, 5/1/10)

2010        May 1, Hundreds of Russian opposition activists rallied in Moscow, shouting slogans comparing PM Vladimir Putin to Soviet dictator Josef Stalin in a rare protest approved by the authorities.
    (AP, 5/1/10)

2010        May 5, Somali pirates hijacked the China-bound oil tanker MV Moscow University 350 miles off the coast of Yemen with 23 Russian crew and crude oil worth $52 million on board.
    (Reuters, 5/5/10)

2010        May 6, Russian forces freed a hijacked Russian oil tanker and rescued its crew in a helicopter-backed operation that killed a Somali pirate. Investigators said the 10 captured pirates, who seized the China-bound MV Moscow University in the Gulf of Aden, will be brought to Moscow for prosecution.
    (Reuters, 5/6/10)

2010        May 7, Russia’s Defense Ministry said the pirates seized by a Russian warship off the coast of Somalia have been released because of "imperfections" in international law, a claim that sparked skepticism, and even suspicion the pirates might have been killed.
    (AP, 5/7/10)
2010        May 7, Russia's parliament defeated a motion that would have prevented Americans from adopting Russian children.
    (AP, 5/7/10)

2010        May 8, Russian President Dmitry Medvedev turned over scores of volumes from an investigation into the Katyn massacre to his Polish counterpart, a move underlining Moscow's new willingness to repair long-troubled relations with Warsaw.
    (AP, 5/8/10)
2010        May 8, In western Siberia 2 explosions tore through the Raspadskaya mine just before midnight, killing at least 66 workers and injuring 41 others. A further 24 people remained trapped in the mine, Russia's largest underground coal mine, including rescue workers.
    (AP, 5/9/10)(AP, 5/10/10)(AP, 5/11/10)(AP, 5/12/10)(AP, 5/13/10)

2010        May 11, Russia's Pres. Medvedev said that Israeli-Arab tensions threaten to draw the Middle East into a new catastrophe, as he added Moscow's weight to a diplomatic push to ease antagonism between Israel and Syria. While in Syria, Medvedev unnerved Israel by paying a visit to Khaled Meshaal, the exiled leader of the Palestinian Islamist group Hamas.
    (AP, 5/11/10)(AP, 5/14/10)

2010        May 12, Turkey and Russia signed agreements for the construction of Turkey's first nuclear power plant and the development of a pipeline project to carry Russian oil from the Black Sea, through Turkey to the Mediterranean.
    (AP, 5/12/10)

2010        May 13, In Dagestan 5 repairmen on their way to fix a cell phone tower in the southern province of Russia were killed in an explosion and subsequent gun attack.
    (AP, 5/13/10)

2010        May 14, Russia’s Itar-Tass news agency quoted a senior Russian arms trader as saying Russia has signed deals with Syria under which it will sell it warplanes, anti-tank weapons and air defense systems. Federal Service for Military-Technical Cooperation chief Mikhail Dmitriyev said Russia will sell MiG-29 fighter jets, Pantsyr short-range air defense systems and armored vehicles. He didn't give any numbers or provide any further details.
    (Reuters, 5/14/10)(AP, 5/15/10)

2010        May 17, Russian Pres. Medvedev visited Kiev, Ukraine, and oversaw the signing of several cooperation deals with the new Moscow-friendly leadership of Pres. Viktor Yanukovych.
    (SFC, 5/18/10, p.A2)

2010        May 18, The boss of Russia's Raspadskaya mine quit after PM Vladimir Putin assailed him over explosions that killed 66 people and could be prosecuted following a safety probe into the tragedy.
    (Reuters, 5/18/10)

2010        May 19, NATO and Russia said they will boost efforts to develop a joint system to protect their troops from attack by short-range missiles.
    (AP, 5/19/10)

2010        May 25, In southern Turkey a bus carrying Russian tourists skidded off a highway and fell off a bridge, killing 16 people and injuring 25 others.
    (AP, 5/25/10)

2010        May 26, In southern Russia an explosion tore through the center of Stavropol killing 5 people and wounding at least 20 as locals gathered for a Chechen dance concert.
    (SFC, 5/27/10, p.A2)

2010        May 28, Konstantin Yaroshenko (41) was arrested in Monrovia, Liberia's capital, by US agents for alleged drug smuggling, and then extradited to New York. On July 21 the Russian Foreign Ministry accused the US of "kidnapping" the Russian pilot.
    (AP, 7/21/10)

2010        May 29, In Russia 2 Gay Pride parades were held without arrests in Moscow, the first time the notoriously intolerant Russian authorities have not intervened since the inaugural attempt to hold the event in the capital in 2006.
    (AP, 5/29/10)
2010        May 29, In Russia DDT rock star Yuri Shevchuk engaged PM Putin during a televised meeting to promote a charity concert for children. Shevchuk called for anti government protests to be allowed and accused police of serving “their bosses and their pockets, not the people." Putin said “People’s rights to express their disapproval should be protected."
    (SFC, 6/1/10, p.A6)

2010        Jun 3, In Russia a male crew of three Russians, a Frenchman, an Italian-Colombian and a Chinese began a 520-day experiment in a windowless capsule, to simulate a 250-day journey to Mars, a 30-day surface exploration phase and 240 days return trip.
    (AP, 6/2/10)

2010        Jun 5, Russian President Dmitry Medvedev called for a global fund to fight ecological catastrophes like the Gulf of Mexico oil spill, as he sought to burnish his credentials as a green leader.
    (AP, 6/5/10)
2010        Jun 5, Germany and Russia declared that the five world powers negotiating with Iran support a fresh set of international sanctions, and Chancellor Angela Merkel said they could pass soon.
    (AP, 6/5/10)

2010        Jun 6, Russia urged NATO forces in Afghanistan to crack down harder on drug production and smuggling, and offered to help put a security ring around the country.
    (AP, 6/6/10)

2010        Jun 8, A Russian source close to Security Council talks told reporters that UN sanctions against Iran over its nuclear program have been "completely agreed upon."
    (Reuters, 6/8/10)
2010        Jun 8, In Russia 4 soldiers were charged with stealing bank cards belonging to an official who died in the April 10 crash that killed Poland’s Pres. Lech Kaczynski and 95 others.
    (SFC, 6/9/10, p.A2)

2010        Jun 9, The US, Russia and France dismissed a proposal by Iran to swap some of its enriched uranium for reactor fuel hours before an expected UN Security Council vote on new sanctions. The UN Security Council adopted a resolution imposing a 4th round of sanctions on Iran. It banned Iran from undertaking any activity related to ballistic missiles capable of delivering nuclear weapons.
          (AP, 6/9/10)(Econ, 6/12/10, p.15)(SFC, 10/17/15, p.A3)
2010        Jun 9, Russia said it had captured Ali Taziyev, from Ingushetia province, an insurgent ringleader responsible for hundreds of deaths in the troubled North Caucasus region, where the Kremlin is struggling to contain an Islamist insurgency.
    (Reuters, 6/9/10)

2010        Jun 10, Iran said it will review relations with the UN nuclear watchdog a day after the UN Security Council approved a fourth round of sanctions against Tehran over its disputed nuclear program. Russia looked set to freeze the sale to Tehran of S300 air defense missiles in response to new UN sanctions on Iran.
    (AP, 6/10/10)(AFP, 6/10/10)

2010        Jun 11, Russia signaled it was scrapping the controversial sale of S-300 missiles to Iran in a major shift the Kremlin said was needed after fresh UN sanctions over Tehran's nuclear program.
    (AFP, 6/11/10)

2010        Jun 16, In Russia’s North Caucasus region 4 policemen were killed and 3 wounded in the Kostek village in the province of Dagestan during a siege that left five militants dead. In a separate incident, four gunmen were killed after they refused police orders to pull over and opened fire on the officers. Two police died in further attacks, one in Dagestan and another in the nearby Kabardino-Balkaria province.
    (AP, 6/16/10)
2010        Jun 16, In Kazakhstan 2 US and a Russian crewmate blasted off for the int’l. space station in a Soyuz TMA-19 spacecraft. A woman in the US crew doubled the ISS female crew to an all time high.
    (SFC, 6/16/10, p.A2)(SFC, 6/18/10, p.A10)

2010        Jun 17, Russia's children's rights ombudsman said Russian and US negotiators have agreed to set up licensed adoption agencies and allow monitors to visit the homes of adopted children as part of a new accord.
    (AP, 6/17/10)
2010        Jun 17, Russia PM Putin agreed to support a $1 billion joint US-Russian venture to drill for oil in the Black Sea. San Ramon, Ca., based Chevron and Russia’s state-owned Rosneft signed the agreement to develop the Val Shatsky deposit, which could contain up to 860 million tons of crude.
    (SFC, 6/18/10, p.D3)

2010        Jun 21, Russia started cutting most natural gas supplies to ex-Soviet neighbor Belarus over what it claims is a debt of nearly $200 million, threatening to rekindle political disputes in the region over energy policy.
    (AP, 6/21/10)

2010        Jun 22, Russia’s Pres. Medvedev arrived in California, where he planned to have dinner in San Francisco with Gov. Schwarzenegger. A tour of Silicon Valley was scheduled for the next day along with a speech at Stanford Univ.
    (SFC, 6/22/10, p.D1)
2010        Jun 22, Belarussian President Alexander Lukashenko ordered the shutdown of transit of Russian gas to Europe, escalating a new "gas war" after Moscow slashed supplies to Minsk in a debt dispute. Belarus said Gazprom owes it 217 million dollars in transit fees.
    (AFP, 6/22/10)

2010        Jun 23, Lithuania said its Russian gas supplies, which transit through Belarus, had been cut by 30 percent as a result of Russia's energy dispute with Belarus.
    (AP, 6/23/10)

2010        Jun 24, President Barack Obama hosted Russian President Dmitry Medvedev at the White House. They appeared to get along like a couple of buddies.
    (AP, 6/24/10)

2010        Jun 25, Russian fisheries official Boris Simonov, suspected of accepting bribes, tossed 10 million rubles ($322,000) from his car after a police chase and a crash on a busy Moscow highway. Simonov's boss, Roman Postnikov, who oversaw two Moscow rivers, was arrested on suspicion of forging a contract that allowed a fishing firm operate without the proper documents.
    (Reuters, 6/28/10)

2010        Jun 28, The FBI announced the arrests of 10 alleged deep cover Russian agents after tracking the suspects for years. They were accused of attempting to infiltrate US policymaking circles while posing as ordinary citizens. All 10 were charged with conspiracy to act as an agent of a foreign government without notifying the US attorney general. The offense carries a maximum penalty of five years in prison. An 11th person allegedly involved in the Russian spy ring  was arrested the next day in Cyprus. A Russian spy couple lived in Canada and were models for the TV show "The Americans." In 2019 their son, Alexander Vavilov, was allowed to keep his Canadian citizenship.
    (AP, 6/29/10)(SFC, 12/21/19, p.A2)

2010        Jun 29, In Cyprus the alleged paymaster of a Russian spy ring was arrested on an Interpol warrant while trying to board a flight to Budapest, Hungary, two days after his 10 alleged co-conspirators were arrested in the United States. His companion, a beautiful younger woman, was allowed to fly out. The suspect, who called himself Christopher Metsos, vanished after handing over a Canadian passport that claimed he was 54 and got released on bail.
    (AP, 7/11/10)

2010        Jul 2, An unmanned Russian space capsule carrying supplies to the International Space Station failed in a docking attempt. The Progress space capsule was carrying more than two tons of food, water and other supplies for the orbiting laboratory. NASA said the failure was due to an antenna problem. Space station commander Alexander Skvortsov reported the Progress was "rotating uncontrollably" as it neared the space station. The capsule docked successfully with the ISS on July 4.
    (AP, 7/2/10)(SFC, 7/5/10, p.A2)

2010        Jul 4, Russia’s NTV, a TV channel controlled by Gazprom, aired “Godfather," a documentary that portrayed Belarus Pres. Lukashenka as a brutal election-rigging, opposition-repressing tyrant.
    (Econ, 7/24/10, p.53)

2010        Jul 5, Belarus signed a customs union with Russia and Kazakhstan.
    (Econ, 7/24/10, p.53)

2010        Jul 9, The US and Russia orchestrated the largest spy swap since the Cold War, exchanging 10 spies arrested in the US for four convicted in Russia in a tightly choreographed diplomatic dance at Vienna's airport.
    (AP, 7/9/10)

2010        Jul 12, Two Russian curators who angered the Russian Orthodox Church with an exhibition that included images of Jesus Christ portrayed as Mickey Mouse and Vladimir Lenin were convicted of inciting religious hatred and fined, but not sentenced to prison.
    (AP, 7/12/10)

2010        Jul 13, A US law enforcement official said the FBI's investigation into a Russian spy ring that operated in the United States has resulted in another Russian being detained, and he soon will be deported.
    (Reuters, 7/13/10)
2010        Jul 13, German government sources said industrial group Siemens has won a major contract from Russian Railways to be signed during a visit by Chancellor Angela Merkel this week. The 2.2-billion-euro (2.8-billion-dollar) sale of regional trains is the second major coup for Siemens in Russia this year.
    (AFP, 7/13/10)

2010        Jul 15, German Chancellor Angela Merkel and Russian President Dmitry Medvedev met for talks and are expected to oversee the signing of an array of deals between German and Russian companies worth billions of dollars.
    (AP, 7/15/10)
2010        Jul 15, A last-minute deal at a meeting of the Kimberley Process certification scheme in Russia authorized Zimbabwe to sell two batches of diamonds under strict monitoring and regulation through Sept. 1.
    (AP, 7/16/10)

2010        Jul 19, The upper house of Russia's parliament passed a bill (121-1) granting expanded powers to the country's main security agency, a move that critics say echoes the era of the Soviet KGB. The bill would allow the Federal Security Service to issue warnings to people suspected of preparing to commit crimes against Russia's security.
    (AP, 7/19/10)
2010        Jul 19, In Russia the Khamovniki District Court in Moscow said in a statement it has convicted Tariel Oniani (58) on extortion and abduction charges. The native of Georgia had been convicted seven times and is wanted in Spain since 2005 on money laundering charges.
    (AP, 7/20/10)

2010        Jul 21, In southern Russia 2 carloads of assailants attacked a hydroelectric station, killing two workers and setting off bombs in Kabardino-Balkariya.
    (AP, 7/21/10)

2010        Jul 24, Russia said it plans its biggest sell-off of state assets since the early 1990s as it seeks to raise over $29 billion to plug budget gaps over the next three years.
    (Reuters, 7/24/10)
2010        Jul 24, In southern Russia gunmen opened fire on security guards at a provincial food market in the city of Samara, killing at least two and wounding at least five other people. 3 soldiers in Dagestan were killed when assailants attacked their convoy in a drive-by shooting.
    (AP, 7/24/10)

2010        Jul 27, In central Russia a Tver city court sentenced Dmitry Orlov (22), a neo-Nazi leader, to life in jail and imprisoned 13 others for four hate killings and multiple assaults.
    (AP, 7/27/10)
2010        Jul 27, Iran vowed to press ahead with its nuclear program even as it expressed readiness to resume talks on the thorny issue despite being slapped with tough new EU sanctions. Russia condemned new EU sanctions on Iran, tempering hopes of closer cooperation between Moscow and the West over Iran's nuclear program.
    (AFP, 7/27/10)(Reuters, 7/27/10)

2010        Jul 28, In Russia a band of 100 masked people staged a violent environmental protest in a quiet Moscow suburb, hurling Molotov cocktails and fireworks at city hall while objecting to plans for clearing a local forest for highway construction.
    (AP, 7/29/10)

2010        Jul 29, Russia’s President Dmitry Medvedev signed a new security law which restored Soviet-era powers to the Federal Security Service (FSB), the KGB's main successor agency, a move that rights advocates fear could be used to stifle protests and intimidate the Kremlin's political opponents.
    (AP, 7/29/10)

2010        Jul 30, In Russia the Nashi movement, a Kremlin-backed youth organization, welcomed the resignation of Ella Pamfilova, President Dmitry Medvedev's human rights adviser. The group had threatened her with a libel suit for her harsh criticism. The Russian opposition has claimed Nashi activists have assaulted and intimidated its leaders.
    (AP, 7/30/10)
2010        Jul 30, Forest fires swept across central Russia, killing at least 25 people and forcing the evacuation of thousands during the hottest summer since records began 130 years ago.
    (AP, 7/30/10)

2010        Jul 31, Russian police arrested a leading Kremlin opponent and dozens of fellow activists at a demonstration demanding freedom of assembly.
    (AP, 7/31/10)
2010        Jul 31, In Russia raging wildfires spread across parts of western Russia, engulfing 30 percent more land in just 24 hours. PM Vladimir Putin described the situation as very difficult.
    (AP, 7/31/10)

2010        Aug 1, In Russia hundreds of new fires broke out in forests and fields that have been dried to a crisp by drought and record heat.
    (AP, 8/1/10)

2010        Aug 2, Russia declared a state of emergency in seven regions after wildfires killed at least 34 people and left thousands homeless in the worst heatwave since records began 130 years ago. Officials said wildfires were also destroying what was left of wheat crops, decimated by severe drought. Expectations of slashed exports sent wheat prices soaring.
    (AP, 8/2/10)(SFC, 8/3/10, p.A2)

2010        Aug 3, Russia's Emergencies Minister Sergei Shoigu said some of the devastating wildfires sweeping western Russia are out of control. PM Putin said he would personally supervise the reconstruction of fire-ravaged homes via video cameras to be installed at each construction site.
    (AP, 8/3/10)
2010        Aug 3, In northern Siberia a twin-engine Antonov-24 turboprop passenger plane crashed near Igarka, killing at least 11 of the 15 people on board.
    (AP, 8/3/10)

2010        Aug 4, Moscow was engulfed by the thickest blanket of smog yet this summer, an acrid, choking haze from wildfires that have wiped out Russian forests, villages and a military base.
    (AP, 8/4/10)

2010        Aug 5, In Russia wildfires were raging close to a shelter housing hundreds of dogs and retired circus animals, as the death toll from weeks of blazes across the country rose to 50.
    (AP, 8/5/10)

2010        Aug 6, In Russia a choking smog from raging wildfires shrouded Moscow, grounding flights, plunging the city's iconic Red Square into a sea of dirty mist and stinging eyes and throats across the Russian capital.
    (AP, 8/6/10)

2010        Aug 9, A top Russian health official said deaths in Moscow have doubled to an average of 700 people a day as the city is engulfed by poisonous smog from wildfires and a sweltering heat wave. Some 830 forest fires were burning nationwide.
    (AP, 8/9/10)(SFC, 8/9/10, p.A2)

2010        Aug 11, Russia said it has deployed high-precision air defense missiles in the breakaway Georgian region of Abkhazia, sending a defiant signal to Tblisi and the West two years after a war with Georgia.
    (Reuters, 8/11/10)

2010        Aug 12, President Dmitry Medvedev said drought has destroyed a quarter of Russia's grain crop this year, pushing some farmers to the brink of bankruptcy and hurting Russia's bid to expand food exports.
    (Reuters, 8/12/10)

2010        Aug 14, In Russia the number of wildfires in the Moscow region fell sharply overnight, but hundreds of blazes continued to rage in other areas of Russia, and officials warned that some of them are in hard-to-reach regions. At least 53 people were killed in the fires.
    (AP, 8/14/10)(Econ, 8/14/10, p.39)

2010        Aug 16, Russia’s ruling party said it would not re-nominate Georgy Boos, the unpopular governor of Kaliningrad, for a new term.
    (Reuters, 8/16/10)
2010        Aug 16, In Russia Gabriel Grecu, first secretary in the political department of the Romanian Embassy in Moscow, was detained while trying to obtain secret military information from a Russian citizen. He was given 48 hours to leave the country.
    (AP, 8/16/10)

2010        Aug 17, In southern Russia a vehicle exploded outside a cafe, injuring at least 15 people in downtown Pyatigorsk, a city in Russia's North Caucasus. A suicide bomb attack earlier in the day in North Ossetia killed one police officer.
    (AP, 8/17/10)(Reuters, 8/17/10)
2010        Aug 17, A Russian scientist said several thousand Muscovites are thought to have died in July alone from this year's unprecedented heatwave and August could add more fatalities to the grim statistics.
    (Reuters, 8/17/10)

2010        Aug 18, Russian President Dmitry Medvedev offered Pakistan support in dealing with catastrophic floods as he hosted the leaders of Afghanistan, Pakistan and Tajikistan for talks on efforts to stabilize the region.
    (AP, 8/18/10)

2010        Aug 20, Russia secured a long-term foothold in the energy-rich and unstable Caucasus region by signing a deal with Armenia that allows a Russian military base to operate until 2044 in exchange for a promise of new weaponry and fresh security guarantees.
    (AP, 8/20/10)

2010        Aug 21, In Russia Madomedali Vagabov, the man suspected of organizing suicide bombings that killed 40 people on the Moscow subway in March, was killed in a shootout with Russian security forces. The National Antiterrorism Committee told Russian news agencies that Vagabov was effectively second in command in the separatist insurgency in Russia's mountainous North Caucasus region.
    (AP, 8/21/10)
2010        Aug 21, Hundreds of residents of Kaliningrad, Russia's Baltic exclave, gathered on a central square to demand the resignation of Prime Minister Vladimir Putin's government.
    (AP, 8/21/10)
2010        Aug 21, Iranian and Russian engineers began loading fuel into Iran's first nuclear power plant, which Moscow has promised to safeguard to prevent material at the site from being used in any potential weapons production.
    (AP, 8/21/10)

2010        Aug 22, In Dagestan a Russian border guard was found killed and another who disappeared with him remained missing.
    (AP, 8/23/10)

2010        Aug 23, In Dagestan at least 3 people were wounded in other attacks, while four suspected militants died when explosives they were transporting by car unexpectedly blew up.
    (AP, 8/23/10)

2010        Aug 27, In Russia 9 suspected militants were killed in two separate shootouts with police in the Kabardino-Balkariya republic. Separately 5 suspected militants and a police officer were killed in another shootout in the republic of Dagestan.
    (AP, 8/28/10)

2010        Aug 29, In Russia scores of skinheads attacked a crowd of some 3,000 people at a rock concert in Miass. State new reported one girl (14) was killed.
    (SFC, 8/30/10, p.A2)

2010        Aug 30, Russia's PM Vladimir Putin hinted he would return to the presidency in 2012 for six more years and said democracy protesters marching without permission deserved to be beaten.
    (Reuters, 8/30/10)
2010        Aug 30, In Russia a fire killed nine people at a nursing home in Vishny Volochek, 120 miles (200 km) north of Moscow, and investigators say it apparently started when an elderly resident doused himself in gasoline and set himself on fire.
    (AP, 8/30/10)

2010        Aug 31, Russian police detained Kremlin critic Boris Nemtsov and several other people at a protest in Moscow in defense of the right to free assembly, which activists say is restricted by the Russian government.
    (Reuters, 8/31/10)

2010        Sep 3, Russia’s Emergencies Ministry said 8 people have been killed and 400 houses set ablaze in the latest wave of the forest fires plaguing the country. The fires were most intense in the Volgograd region, where 380 houses were burned in 20 populated areas. In Saratov, 20 houses burned.
    (AP, 9/3/10)

2010        Sep 5, In Dagestan a suicide car-bomber killed 3 soldiers and wounded 32 others in an attack on a Russian military base. In Kabardino-Balkariya, another republic of the Caucasus region that includes Dagestan, a policeman was shot to death by a man whom he'd stopped for a document check.
    (AP, 9/5/10)

2010        Sep 9, In Russia's North Caucasus a suicide car bomber hit the Vladikavkaz central market, North Ossetia, killing 19 people and wounding more than 130 people in one of the worst attacks in the volatile region in years. On Oct 12 Federal Security Service chief Alexander Bortnikov said 3 organizers were arrested in late September in Ingushetia. He said two other suspects were killed by security forces.
    (AP, 9/9/10)(Reuters, 9/10/10)(AP, 10/12/10)

2010        Sep 10, In Dagestan, Russia, clashes between police and alleged militants left six more people dead in the volatile North Caucasus. A police officer was gunned down on the outskirts of the regional capital, Makhachkala.
    (AP, 9/10/10)(AP, 9/11/10)

2010        Sep 10, In Ingushetia a policeman was killed. The gunmen shot and killed him outside an auto repair shop in the region's main city of Nazran.
    (AP, 9/11/10)

2010        Sep 12, An Egyptian security official said 16 Russians and Moldovans, who killed an Egyptian smuggler, have handed themselves over to police. Some of the would-be migrants to Israel attacked and fatally stabbed smuggler Massud Salim (31) after he attempted to rape one of the female members of the group.
    (AFP, 9/12/10)

2010        Sep 15, Russia and Norway ended a 40-year dispute in signing an Arctic border treaty which opens the door to offshore oil and gas exploration. President Dmitry Medvedev and Norway's PM Jens Stoltenberg presided over the signing in Murmansk.
    (AP, 9/15/10)

2010        Sep 16, Some of Russia's prominent opposition leaders have formed a coalition to challenge the rule of President Dmitry Medvedev and PM Vladimir Putin. Former deputy premier Boris Nemtsov said the coalition aims to compete in next year's parliamentary elections and field a presidential candidate in 2012.
    (AP, 9/16/10)
2010        Sep 16, In Poland Akhmed Zakayev (51), a senior Chechen separatist wanted in Russia for alleged murder, kidnapping and terrorism, was arrested in Warsaw where he was to attend a conference organized by the World Chechen Congress. Zakayev, who lives in Britain, was apprehended "without any trouble" on an international warrant issued by Russia. Zakayev was released the next day.
    (AP, 9/17/10)(AP, 9/18/10)

2010        Sep 19, Moscow mayor Yuri Luzhkov (74) left the country for what his spokesman said was a holiday in Austria, amid growing speculation that he could be dismissed from one of Russia's most powerful jobs. Luzhkov and his billionaire property mogul wife Yelena Baturina were viewed as having fallen out of favor.
    (Reuters, 9/19/10)

2010        Sep 21, The UN’s World Health Organization (WHO) said 40 young Europeans are murdered every day, with Russia, Albania and Kazakhstan having the highest homicide rates for people aged 10-29.
    (AP, 9/21/10)

2010        Sep 22, Russian news agencies reported that Russia has dropped plans to supply Iran with S-300 missiles because they are subject to international sanctions.
    (AFP, 9/22/10)

2010        Sep 23, Russia turned over to Poland 20 new files from a probe into the 1940 Katyn massacre that could be key in proving that Soviet secret police carefully planned the killing of thousands of Poles.
    (AP, 9/23/10)

2010        Sep 25, A Russian Soyuz space capsule landed in Kazakhstan returning 3 astronauts from a 6-month mission to the Int’l. Space Station.
    (SSFC, 9/26/10, p.A5)

2010        Sep 28, Russia's Pres. Medvedev fired defiant Moscow Mayor Yury Luzhkov, ousting the man who gave the crumbling capital a modern facelift but was maligned for his wife's hold on construction projects and for staying on vacation while forest fires choked his city. Luzhkov's deputy, Vladimir Resin, was named acting mayor pending the appointment of a successor.
    (AP, 9/28/10)

2010        Sep 29, A Russian firm announced an ambitious bid to fill the vacuum in the space tourism market by stationing an orbiting hotel in the cosmos. Orbital Technologies wants to launch a seven-room station by 2016 but may increase or decrease that capacity based on customer demand.
    (AP, 9/29/10)

2010        Oct 1, Moscow police detained several gay rights opponents at the first sanctioned gay rights protest in years. Former Mayor Yuri Luzhkov, fired on Sep 28, had compared gay people to the devil and forbade gay rights rallies.
    (SFC, 10/2/10, p.A2)

2010        Oct 4, In Russia Yuri Luzhkov, the former mayor of Moscow who was fired by Pres. Medvedev, said in a published interview that he plans to form his own political movement.
    (AP, 10/4/10)
2010        Oct 4, Russia's VimpelCom Ltd and Weather Investments, the investment company headed by Egyptian telecom mogul Naguib Sawiris, said they are merging to form what would become the world's fifth largest mobile telecommunication service provider in a deal valued at over $6.5 billion. Under the agreement VimpelCom, which is Russia's second largest mobile phone service provider, would own via Weather 51.7 percent of Egypt's Orascom Telecom and all of Italy's Wind Telecomunicazioni SpA, both of which are headed by Sawiris.
    (AP, 10/5/10)

2010        Oct 6, Russia’s President Dmitry Medvedev headed a top level business delegation to Algeria, seeking to use his clout to push through delicate energy and telecoms deals with a traditional Moscow ally. Algeria and Russia signed six deals in sectors including energy and transportation.
    (AFP, 10/6/10)(AP, 10/6/10)
2010        Oct 6, A Moscow court said it has sentenced 3 ultranationalists, convicted of hate killings and bombings, to long prison sentences. They were part of a militant neo-pagan cult that preyed on labor migrants from Central Asia and the Caucasus. From 2008-2009 they killed 10 people and arranged a number of bombings.
    (SFC, 10/7/10, p.A2)

2010        Oct 7, Russian Technologies chief Sergei Chemezov told reporters that Russia is reimbursing Iran for its down payments on a deal for advanced S-300 ground-to-air missiles, which Moscow halted in the face of tough new UN sanctions.
    (AFP, 10/7/10)
2010        Oct 7, In Kazakhstan a Russian Soyuz TMA-01M rocket blasted off for the Int’l. Space Station carrying one American and 2 Russian astronauts.
    (SFC, 10/8/10, p.A2)

2010        Oct 11, Russia's ruling party swept regional elections in several provinces this weekend, easily maintaining its grip on power, according to early returns.
    (AP, 10/11/10)
2010        Oct 11, Russian researchers said traces of a previously unknown Bronze Age civilization have been discovered in the peaks of the Caucasus Mountains thanks to aerial photographs taken 40 years ago. the civilization dated from the 16th to the 14th centuries BC, high in the mountains south of Kislovodsk.
    (AP, 10/11/10)

2010        Oct 15, Russian PM Vladimir Putin's chief of staff, Sergei Sobyanin, was nominated as Moscow's next mayor, a move seen as bringing the capital's sizable political and business interests under the direct control of the Kremlin.
    (AP, 10/15/10)
2010        Oct 15, Russia agreed to help build Venezuela's first nuclear power plant and buy $1.6 billion of oil assets, reinforcing ties with President Hugo Chavez, who shares Moscow's opposition to US global dominance.
    (Reuters, 10/15/10)

2010        Oct 16, Russia’s state-owned RIA news agency reported that flooding in the southern region of Krasnodar has killed 11 people with three missing.
    (Reuters, 10/16/10)

2010        Oct 21, In Russia the Moscow legislature voted to approve Sergei Sobyanin, PM Putin’s chief of staff, as mayor of the city replacing Yuri Luzhkov, who was fired by Pres. Medvedev last month after 18 years in office. Luzhkov has said he believes the true reason behind his ouster was the Kremlin's desire to have a more pliant mayor before parliamentary elections next year and the 2012 presidential vote.
    (AP, 10/21/10)

2010        Oct 28, In southern Afghanistan a roadside bomb targeting the car of a district police chief killed three police officers in Zabul province. Militants shot and killed a government official in charge of the water supply in Dand district of Kandahar province as he was walking near his home. A NATO service member died following a bomb attack in southern Afghanistan. In Khost province a NATO airstrike killed one insurgent believed to be a senior leader of the Haqqani network. In neighboring Mando Zayi district of Khost, one civilian was killed and two others were wounded in fighting. US and Russian special forces ended an operation raiding drug labs in an unprecedented collaborative military operation, destroying what a Russian official said was $250 million worth of heroin and morphine in Nangarhar province. Months earlier Russia had provided US officials in Kabul with the coordinates of 175 laboratories where heroin is processed but the US failed to act. A NATO helicopter killed more than 20 insurgents after it was fired on during an operation in Afghanistan's restive Kandahar province.
    (AP, 10/28/10)(AP, 10/29/10)

2010        Oct 30, A Russian unmanned cargo ship manually docked with the International Space Station, bringing 2.5 tons of food, water, oxygen and fuel for the orbiting laboratory and its US-Russian crew.
    (AP, 10/30/10)

2010        Nov 1, Russia's Pres. Medvedev visited Kunashiri Island in the Pacific Ocean claimed by both Russia and Japan, triggering immediate protests from Tokyo, which is already involved in a heated dispute with China over islands to the south.
    (AP, 11/1/10)

2010        Nov 2, Russia said Pres. Medvedev planned more trips to a group of islands seized by the Soviet Union from Japan at the end of World War Two, deepening a serious rift with Tokyo.
    (Reuters, 11/2/10)

2010        Nov 3, Viktor Chernomyrdin (72), former Russian prime minister (1992-1998), died. He served as the country was throwing off communism and developing as a market economy.
    (AP, 11/3/10)

2010        Nov 4, In Russia on National Unity Day a group of men armed with knives killed 12 people, including four children, who had gathered for a celebration at a home in Kushchevskaya village. One of the children was strangled and another died of smoke inhalation when the attackers tried unsuccessfully to burn down the house. On Nov 15 prosecutors said that they had arrested Sergei Tsapok, and a member of his gang, Sergei Tsepovyaz. Four other suspects, including two teenagers, were arrested a week earlier. The farmer who was killed had refused to hand over some of his land.
    (AP, 11/15/10)(Econ, 12/11/10, p.30)

2010        Nov 5, Georgia's government announced the arrests of 13 people, including four Russian citizens, who are accused of spying for Russia's armed forces. The arrests, which took place in October, were announced on the day Russia's military intelligence agency celebrates its professional holiday, Day of the Military Intelligence Officer.
    (AP, 11/5/10)

2010        Nov 6, In Russia Oleg Kashin (30), a reporter for the Kommersant newspaper, was left in a coma after two men smashed his head, legs and fingers in an attack that prosecutors believe was linked to his work. Among his more contentious reporting topics has been efforts by environmentalists and opposition activists to protect trees in the Khimki forest near Moscow from being cut down for a new highway.
    (AP, 11/6/10)

2010        Nov 7, In Russia more than 1,000 military veterans and active servicemen rallied to demand the ouster of Defense Minister Anatoly Serdyukov, a civilian who is carrying out a radical reform of Russia's armed forces. Many of the participants in the rally said they were angry that Serdyukov did not want to see churches built on military bases.
    (AP, 11/7/10)

2010        Nov 8, In Russia Anatoly Adamchuk, a journalist who works for a suburban Moscow paper, was beaten up by two unknown men. He had written about efforts to protect forests around Moscow.
    (AP, 11/8/10)

2010        Nov 10, In Russia Mikhail Beketov, a muckraking reporter left handicapped by a 2008 beating, was convicted of defaming an official he criticized when writing about highway corruption and the destruction of the Khimki forest near Moscow. A symbolic fine was ordered.
    (AP, 11/10/10)(Econ, 11/13/10, p.52)

2010        Nov 11, A Russian paper said the head of Russia's deep cover US spying operations betrayed the network and defected, potentially giving the West one of its biggest intelligence coups since the end of the Cold War. Kommersant named the man as Col. Shcherbakov and said he had left Russia days before US authorities announced the spy ring arrests on June 28.
    (Reuters, 11/11/10)

2010        Nov 13, Japan's PM Naoto Kan strongly protested Russian Pres. Medvedev's Nov 1 visit to the disputed island of Kunashiri and said in a meeting on the sidelines of a Pacific Rim leaders' conference that the two nations must build mutual trust. Pres. Obama attended the 2-day APEC summit in Yokohama.
    (AP, 11/13/10)(Econ, 11/13/10, p.48)

2010        Nov 15, In Switzerland Russian billionaire Dmitry Rybolovlev (43) warned reporters not to cover his divorce case as his wife Elena demanded $6 billion from the man known as the “fertilizer king" for a fortune amassed in potash mining. According to Forbes, he was the 60th richest person in the world in 2008.
    (SFC, 11/16/10, p.A2)(http://tinyurl.com/32lymtu)

2010        Nov 16, Viktor Bout (43), a suspected Russian arms dealer dubbed the "Merchant of Death," was flown out of Thailand to face trial in the United States following a long legal battle and fierce opposition from Moscow.
    (AFP, 11/16/10)

2010        Nov 20, NATO nations meeting in Portugal formally agreed to start turning over Afghanistan's security to its military next year and give them full control by 2014. The US and its allies appeared to take conflicting views on when NATO combat operations would end. NATO Secretary-General Anders Fogh Rasmussen said he did not expect NATO troops to stay in the fight against the Taliban after 2014. Russia was receptive but stopped short of accepting a historic NATO invitation to join a missile shield protecting Europe against Iranian attack.
    (AP, 11/20/10)(Reuters, 11/20/10)

2010        Nov 21, A global tiger summit meeting in St. Petersburg, Russia, approved a wide-ranging program with the goal of doubling the world's tiger population in the wild by 2022 backed by governments of the 13 countries that still have tiger populations: Bangladesh, Bhutan, Cambodia, China, India, Indonesia, Laos, Malaysia, Myanmar, Nepal, Thailand, Vietnam and Russia. Experts said wild tigers could become extinct in 12 years if countries where they still roam fail to take quick action to protect their habitats and step up the fight against poaching.
    (AP, 11/21/10)

2010        Nov 26, Russia said it will miss an April, 2012, deadline for destroying all of its chemical weapons, as officials inaugurated a major new plant to dispose of them. Pochep, the latest of six plants built in Russia in recent years, will process nearly 19 percent of Russia's stockpile, or 7,500 tons of nerve agent used in aircraft-delivered munitions. The US has acknowledged it will also miss the deadline.
    (AP, 11/26/10)

2010        Dec 1, Russia’s PM Vladimir Putin warned that his country will find it necessary to build up its nuclear forces, if the United State's doesn't ratify a new arms reduction treaty.
    (AP, 12/1/10)

2010        Dec 2, Russia won the bid to host the 2018 World Cup following a vote by FIFA's executive committee members.
    (AFP, 12/2/10)
2010        Dec 2, PepsiCo agreed to buy one of Russia's top drinks companies in a deal that would make the US food giant a dominant force in the Russian market and extend its reach deep into former Soviet lands. Pepsi announced that it will buy 66% Wimm-Bill-Dann for $3.8 billion and launch a tender offer for the rest of the company.
    (AFP, 12/2/10)(Econ, 12/11/10, p.75)

2010        Dec 4, In Russia a Dagestan Airlines passenger jet, carrying at least 155 people, made an emergency landing at a snowy Moscow airport after its engines failed. It skidded off the runway and slammed into buildings, killing two people and injuring around 40.
    (AP, 12/4/10)

2010        Dec 5, Russian news reported that a Proton rocket and its payload of three GLONASS-M navigation satellites has fallen into the Pacific Ocean after failing to reach orbit. They were to be part of Russia's satellite navigation system competing with the U.S. Global Positioning System (GPS). The mishap eventually cost space chief Anatoly Perminov his job.
    (AP, 12/5/10)(AP, 8/18/11)
2010        Dec 5, Mike Hancock (64), a member of the British House of Commons Defense Committee, and the European Security and Defense Assembly of the Western EU, said that his Russian assistant, Katia Zatuliveter (25), is facing deportation as a suspected spy.
    (AP, 12/5/10)

2010        Dec 6, In Russia Yegor Sviridov (28) was shot dead with rubber bullets during a fight in northwest Moscow. A suspect arrested in the shooting was from Kabardino-Balkaria in the Caucasus. Russian media later said Sviridov was a member of the Spartak Ultras, a group linked to soccer fan violence in the past. In Oct 2011 a jury at Moscow City Court convicted Aslan Cherkesov of premeditated murder. The court's Judge sentenced him to 20 years in prison. Five other people who took part in the brawl were sentenced to five years in jail each for hooliganism and inflicting light bodily injury.
    (AP, 12/11/10)(SSFC, 12/12/10, p.A10)(AP, 10/28/11)

2010        Dec 7, Georgia said it has arrested six people, all of them Georgian citizens, suspected of being agents for Russia and accused them of staging a series of explosions, including one outside the US Embassy in the capital.
    (AP, 12/7/10)

2010        Dec 8, In Russia drug control agencies from Afghanistan, Pakistan, Russia and Tajikistan agreed to step up cooperation to stop the flow of drugs through Afghan borders.
    (AP, 12/8/10)

2010        Dec 13, Mikhail Prokhorov, the Russian billionaire owner of the New Jersey Nets, introduced a new line of hybrid cars — called "Yo" — that he hopes to begin selling in 2012.
    (AP, 12/13/10)

2010        Dec 16, Russian cardiologist Ivan Khrenov told PM Putin during a live call-in show that his bosses instructed doctors and nurses to show fake pay slips and pose as recovering patients surrounded by new equipment during the premier's November visit to a hospital in the central town of Ivanovo. Putin's visit to the hospital was nationally televised, just like the call-in show where Khrenov made his claims.
    (AP, 12/17/10)
2010        Dec 16, Astronauts from the US, Russia and Italy blasted off in a Soyuz spacecraft from Kazakhstan on a mission to the Int’l. Space Station.
    (SFC, 12/16/10, p.A2)

2010        Dec 17, North Korea said it would strike again at the South if a live-firing drill by Seoul on a disputed island went ahead, with an even stronger response than last month's shelling that killed four people. Russia urged South Korea to halt plans for the artillery drill.
    (AP, 12/17/10)(Reuters, 12/17/10)

2010        Dec 18, Russian news agencies said Moscow police have arrested 500 people to stop them attending rival protests over the killing of a soccer fan and the ethnic violence that erupted after the slaying. Seven hunters and forest rangers were shot dead in a wooded area in the Caucasus province of Kabardino-Balkaria.
    (AP, 12/18/10)

2010        Dec 21, In India Russia’s Pres. Medvedev clinched agreements with its Cold War-era ally to deepen nuclear energy cooperation and develop a supersonic fighter to rival a US jet. Russia and India pledged to share intelligence and work together to fight international terror.
    (Reuters, 12/21/10)(AP, 12/21/10)

2010        Dec 22, The UN nuclear agency said tons of highly radioactive nuclear waste from a defunct Serbian reactor have been repatriated to Russia. The 2.5 metric tons (2.76 tons) of the spent fuel arrived at a secure Russian facility from Serbia's Vinca reactor.
    (AP, 12/22/10)

2010        Dec 24, Russia's parliament gave preliminary approval to a landmark nuclear arms reduction treaty with the United States, supporting ratification of the new START pact in the first of three required votes.
    (Reuters, 12/24/10)
2010        Dec 24, Russia's central bank raised interest rates on its deposit operations to contain surging inflation, its first step away from the loose policy implemented after the financial crisis hammered the Russian economy.
    (Reuters, 12/24/10)
2010        Dec 24, Russia announced a deal to buy at least two of France’s advanced Mistral-class amphibious warships. This was the first time in modern history that Russia has made a major defense acquisition abroad.
    (SFC, 12/25/10, p.A2)

2010        Dec 26, In Russia several thousand people rallied in Moscow to protest the ethnic clashes that have rocked Russia, holding posters reading "Fascists disgrace Russia" and chanting "No to Fascism!"
    (AP, 12/26/10)
2010        Dec 26, In Russia icy rain shut down Moscow's largest airport for nearly 15 hours, coated roads with ice and left more than 300,000 people and 14 hospitals without electricity.
    (AP, 12/26/10)

2010        Dec 27, In Russia jailed ex-tycoon Mikhail Khodorkovsky was found guilty of money laundering and theft of billions of dollars at a trial that has renewed doubts about the Kremlin's commitment to the rule of law.
    (Reuters, 12/27/10)

2010        Dec 28, A former Russian senator was sentenced to life in jail for ordering multiple killings and financing a criminal group. The Moscow City Court said that Igor Izmestyev, a former senator and oil trader from the central region of Bashkiriya, financed a mob that killed 14 people between 1992 and 2004. The court sentenced 4 more mobsters to up to 23 years in jail. Their so-called Kingisepp mob was known for finishing their victims off with a shot in the eye.
    (AP, 12/28/10)
2010        Dec 28, In Russia robbers carrying assault rifles in a baby carriage fatally shot two guards outside a commercial bank and a man walking his dog and got away with more than $800,000 worth of cash in St. Petersburg.
    (AP, 12/28/10)
2010        Dec 28, An aging Russian military cargo plane crashed, killing all 12 people aboard. The An-22 plane was on a flight from the southwestern region of Voronezh region when it crashed in the Tula region, about 120 miles (190 km) south of Moscow.
    (AP, 12/29/10)

2010        Dec 29, A Russian a court ordered 3 men to be them held in custody at least until the end of the week. Investigators had arrested two men and Andrei Chernyshev, a government official, who is believed to have ordered the November attack and brutal beating of environmental activist Konstantin Fetisov.
    (AP, 12/29/10)

2010        Dec 30, Jailed Russian oil tycoon Mikhail Khodorkovsky was sentenced to six more years in prison following a trial seen as payback for his defiance of Vladimir Putin.
    (AP, 12/30/10)

2010        Dec 31, In Russia Boris Nemtsov, a former deputy Russian prime minister during Boris Yeltsin's presidency, was among 68 people arrested at an unsanctioned rally in Moscow. He and other protesters had gathered on the opposite side of a square from an authorized protest. On Jan 2 he was sentenced to 15 days in jail for failure to follow police orders. Nemtsov was released on Jan 15. A female suicide bomber was killed on the outskirts of Moscow by a bomb that was to have been deployed in the city's central Manezh Square where Muscovites throng for holiday celebrations. A 2nd female suicide bomber was arrested and sentenced to 10 years in jail in May, 2012. On Nov 28, 2012, Ilyas Saidov of Dagestan, who brought the suicide belts, was sentenced to 15 years in jail.
    (AP, 1/3/11)(AP, 1/15/11)(AP, 2/3/11(AP, 11/28/12)
2010        Dec 31, In Russia 13 villages remained without power following a freezing rain that caused trees and power lines to snap. Power was cut off to 789 villages and towns with a total of 400,000 inhabitants in the region around Moscow.
    (AP, 1/1/10)

2010        Thane Gustafson and Daniel Yergin in 1994 authored "Russia 2010," their idea of where Russia would be in 2010. Gustafson updated his ideas in 1999 with his book "Capitalism Russian-Style."
    (WSJ, 1/5/00, p.A20)
2010        Thomas de Waal authored “The Caucasus: An Introduction."
    (Econ, 10/23/10, p.102)
2010        Russian authorities closed the Moscow square, Triumfalnaya Ploshad, saying an underground car park would be built there. It had become the main venue for anti-Putin rallies. No car park was built and the site became an archaeological dig for two years. The square only reopened long after the 2012 presidential election. It has since been landscaped in a way to make protests impossible.
    (Reuters, 3/20/17)
2010        Yury Kovalchuk, a friend of Pres. Vladimir Putin, bought Video Int’l., Russia’s largest advertising agency. Kovalchuk already had large stakes in Gazprom Media and National Media Group.
    (Econ, 2/15/14, p.45)

2011        Jan 1, A Russian passenger jet carrying 124 people caught fire as it taxied down a snowy runway and then exploded at a Siberian airport, killing three people and injuring 43, including six who were badly burned.
    (AP, 1/1/10)

2011        Jan 7, A Russia fishing vessel with about a dozen on board went missing off Russia's Pacific coast after sending a distress signal that it was sinking.
    (AP, 1/7/11)

2011        Jan 14, BP and Russian state-run firm Rosneft unveiled an agreement to swap shares and launch a joint venture to exploit the Arctic's vast untouched energy resources. BP’s share in Rosneft would increase to 10.8% and Rosneft would get 5% of BP.
    (AFP, 1/15/11)(Econ, 1/22/11, p.74)

2011        Jan 18, Palestinians welcomed Russian President Dmitry Medvedev to the West Bank. Medvedev gave a political boost to the Palestinians, backing their claim to east Jerusalem as a capital and their demand that Israel must freeze all settlement construction before peace talks can resume.
    (AP, 1/18/11)

2011        Jan 21, Afghan leader Hamid Karzai paid his first state visit to Russia amid political mayhem at home that saw a delay in the seating of a new parliament and renewed questions about his ability to lead the war-ravaged state. A joint statement said Pres. Medvedev has gratefully accepted Hamid Karzai's invitation to visit Afghanistan.
    (AFP, 1/21/11)

2011        Jan 24, In Russia 37 people were killed and 180 injured in a suicide bombing at Moscow's Domodedovo airport. An autopsy later showed "a huge amount of highly potent narcotic and psychotropic substances in parts of the suicide bomber's body." On Feb 6 unnamed officials in the North Caucasus region said they believed Magomed Yevloyev (20) of Ingushetia, was the suicide bomber. On Feb 9 Itar-TASS reported that Yevloyev’s brother Akhmed (16) and sister Fatima (22) have been arrested. Also detained was Akhmed Aushev, a resident of the same village, Ali-Yurt, Ingushetia. On March 29 Russian investigators charged Doku Umarov, a Chechen warlord, and another militant with organizing the airport bombing. Media reports said that Umarov might be among 17 militants killed in a security raid in the province of Ingushetia west of Chechnya on March 28. On Nov 11, 2013, brothers Islam and Ilez Yandiyev and Bashir Khamkhoyev received life sentences in maximum security penal colonies on terrorism and other charges. Akhmed Yevloyev was sentenced to 10 years in a penal colony.
    (Reuters, 1/24/11)(Reuters, 1/25/11)(AP, 1/29/11)(AP, 2/3/11)(Reuters, 2/6/11)(Reuters, 2/9/11)(AP, 3/29/11)(AP, 11/11/13)

2011        Jan 25, Russia's lower house of parliament ratified a landmark nuclear arms pact with the United States, virtually assuring passage of an agreement President Barack Obama has described as the most significant arms control deal in nearly two decades.
    (AP, 1/25/11)

2011        Jan 26, Russia's upper house of parliament unanimously ratified the New START nuclear arms pact with the United States.
    (AP, 1/26/11)

2011        Jan 28, Russian President Dmitry Medvedev signed the ratification of a nuclear arms cut pact with the US, the centerpiece of Pres. Obama's efforts to reset ties with Moscow.
    (AP, 1/28/11)

2011        Jan 30, An unmanned Russian cargo spacecraft docked at the Int’l. Space Station delivering 2.6 tons of supplies to the US-Russian-Italian crew. 
    (SFC, 1/31/11, p.A2)

2011        Jan 31, In Russia several hundred people demonstrated on a central Moscow square to call for the ouster of PM Vladimir Putin. The demonstrations are held on the last day of every month with 31 days to call attention to the 31st Article of Russia's Constitution, which guarantees freedom of assembly.
    (AP, 1/31/11)

2011        Feb 1, Russia’s President Dmitry Medvedev unveiled a huge monument to his predecessor Boris Yeltsin, praising him for leading Russia through its difficult first years after the 1991 collapse of the Soviet Union.
    (AP, 2/1/11)
2011        Feb 1, Ireland ordered a Russian diplomat to be expelled, after an investigation concluded that the country's intelligence service used stolen Irish identities as cover for spies operating in the United States.
    (AP, 2/1/11)

2011        Feb 2, In southern Russia 2 masked gunmen burst into a cafe in Kabardino-Balkaria and shot dead four traffic policemen on their lunch break. In Dagestan two suspected insurgents were killed in an overnight gunbattle with police.
    (AP, 2/2/11)

2011        Feb 4, Russian Defense Minister Anatoly Serdyukov inspected military facilities on the disputed southern Kuril islands also claimed by Japan, prompting a sharp protest from Tokyo.
    (AP, 2/4/11)

2011        Feb 5, The United States and Russia formally inaugurated their new START nuclear arms treaty, capping two years of work to "reset" the sometimes strained ties between the former Cold War enemies.
    (Reuters, 2/5/11)

2011        Feb 7, RIA News reported that a Russian man, Yevgeny Anikin (27), has pleaded guilty in court to stealing $10 million from former Royal Bank of Scotland division World Pay in 2008 by hacking into accounts. "I want to say that I repent and fully admit my guilt," Anikin said in his final comments to the court in Novosibirsk in Siberia, where he was charged with theft.
    (Reuters, 2/7/11)
2011        Feb 7, Japan's PM Naoto Kan led a large rally demanding the return of the southern Kuril islands held by Russia since the end of World War II and calling the recent visit there by Russia's president an outrage. Japan has designated Feb. 7 as "Northern Territories Day," saying that a treaty dating back to that day in 1855 supports its claim to the islands.
    (AP, 2/7/11)

2011        Feb 9, Russian President Dmitry Medvedev made it clear he will not give up the southern Kuril islands to Japan. In fact, he said Russia will send more weapons to the disputed islands to keep them secure.
    (AP, 2/9/11)

2011        Feb 10, Russian environmental activist Alla Chernysheva (35) was detained with her 2 daughters (3&6), the latest victim in a campaign to silence opponents of a new Moscow-St. Petersburg highway that is tearing up the ancient Khimki forest. Authorities announced a March start date for the highway. According to police Chernysheva was arrested on suspicion of taking a fake bomb to a Feb. 1 protest rally.
    (AP, 2/10/11)

2011        Feb 11, A top US diplomat for arms control said Poland and other Eastern European countries are expressing concern to the United States about an arsenal of tactical nuclear weapons believed to be at their doorsteps in Russia's Kaliningrad exclave.
    (AP, 2/11/11)

2011        Feb 12, Russian police detained Sergei Udaltsov, head of the anti-Kremlin Left Front group, and 13 other activists during a rally in Moscow that drew hundreds of protesters. A regional leader of the pro-Kremlin Just Russia party was gunned down in the province of Adygeya. Alexander Loboda was sprayed with bullets from a passing car in the town of Maykop. Two suspected Islamic militants were gunned down in Nazran, the largest city in the province of Ingushetia. Dagestan police found the body of a man apparently killed a day earlier by an improvised explosive device. The man was said to be an Islamic militant who triggered the device by mistake in the Kyzyl-Yurt district.
    (AP, 2/12/11)

2011        Feb 14, In Russia the assistant to the judge, who convicted oil tycoon Mikhail Khodorkovsky on Dec 30, said the judge did not write the verdict and read it against his will in the Moscow courtroom.
    (AP, 2/14/11)

2011        Feb 17, Russian riot police raided the offices of Inteko, a building company belonging to Yelena Baturina, Russia’s richest woman and wife of former Moscow Mayor Yuri Luzhkov. The raid was part of an investigation into the alleged embezzlement of $444 million from the Bank of Moscow.
    (SFC, 2/18/11, p.A3)
2011        Feb 17, Pope Benedict XVI and Russian President Dmitry Medvedev met at the Vatican, stressing the need for better ties and the promotion of shared Christian values.
    (AP, 2/17/11)

2011        Feb 18, In Russia masked gunmen shot dead three vacationers from the Moscow area on a road in Kabardino-Balkaria in the violence-plagued North Caucasus region.
    (AP, 2/19/11)
2011        Feb 18, Ford Motor Co. said it plans to team up with a Russian automaker to make and distribute cars in the country. The announcement came shortly after Italian automaker Fiat SpA backed out of a potential partnership with the same Russian company.
    (AP, 2/18/11)

2011        Feb 21, In Russia former Soviet leader Mikhail Gorbachev described Russia as an imitation of democracy and accused its current rulers of conceit and contempt for voters, in his harshest criticism of the government yet.
    (AP, 2/21/11)

2011        Feb 25, The US returned to Russia a trove of historic archive documents dating back to Catherine the Great that were stolen after the Soviet breakup. Some of the documents returned were stolen from archives in St. Petersburg in the early 1990s. Russian authorities have accused Vladimir Feinberg, a Russian antiques dealer in Israel, of stealing the documents and have been unsuccessful in obtaining his extradition.
    (AP, 2/25/11)

2011        Feb 26, Russia joined other UN Security Council members in ordering an arms embargo against Libya and other sanctions (Resolution 1970). Russia stood to lose a total of up to $10 billion in arms sales, including almost $4 billion with Libya, from the wave of unrest currently destabilizing regimes in north Africa and the Middle East. The UN Security Council agreed to tell the prosecutor of the Int’l. Criminal Court (ICC) to probe the Libyan crisis.
    (AFP, 2/27/11)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/United_Nations_Security_Council_Resolution_1970)
2011        Feb 26, In Russia a man, apparently distraught after an argument with his wife, died after pulling the pin on a grenade and blowing himself up at the entrance of a discount retail store in northeast Moscow.
    (Reuters, 2/26/11)(SSFC, 2/27/11, p.A4)

2011        Mar 5, A mid-sized Russian-built plane crashed during a training flight in Belgorod province, killing all six people on board including two pilots from Myanmar.
    (Reuters, 3/5/11)
2011        Mar 5, Lawmakers in Russia's Chechnya region handed strongman leader Ramzan Kadyrov a new five-year term, unanimously approving the Kremlin nominee in a vote whose outcome was never in doubt.
    (Reuters, 3/5/11)

2011        Mar 13, Russians from the Bering Strait to the Baltic voted in regional elections, testing Vladimir Putin's ruling party before December parliamentary polls and a presidential vote next March. Russia's ruling party swept the local elections.
    (Reuters, 3/13/11)(AP, 3/14/11)

2011        Mar 16, NASA astronaut Scott Kelly and two Russian cosmonauts landed safely in central Kazakhstan after a five-month stint on the International Space Station. They left behind Russian cosmonaut Dmitry Kondratyev, Italy's Paolo Nespoli and NASA astronaut Catherine Coleman, who are due to return to earth in about three months.
    (AP, 3/16/11)

2011        Mar 28, In Russia at least 17 rebels and three law enforcement officers were killed in Ingushetia. Authorities also detained two brothers in the security raid on charges of helping stage the January 24 Domodedovo airport bombing.
    (Reuters, 3/28/11)(AP, 3/29/11)

2011        Mar 30, Russia’s Pres. Medvedev ordered government ministers to vacate their seats on the boards of state firms.
    (Econ, 4/9/11, p.57)

2011        Apr 8, In Russia a cyber attack paralyzed the website of a popular independent newspaper, days after similar attacks knocked off Russia's most popular blogging site.
    (AP, 4/8/11)

2011        Apr 11, In San Francisco the annual Goldman Environmental prize was awarded 6 people from around the world. The winners included Hilton Kelly for his efforts to cut pollution in Port Arthur, Texas; Francisco Pineda for resisting mining in El Salvador; Ursula Sladek of Germany for creating for reducing her community’s reliance on nuclear power; Prigi Arisandi for her efforts to protect Indonesia’s Surabaya River; Dmitry Lisitsyn for his efforts to protect the Russia’s Sakhalin island; and Raoul du Toit for defending wildlife in Zimbabwe.
    (SFC, 4/11/11, p.A12)

2011        Apr 14, Russia was reported to have banned the hunting of polar bears this year, thanks to a group with close ties to Prime Minister Vladimir Putin, a longtime defender of large endangered animals.
    (AP, 4/14/11)

2011        Apr 17, Russian President Dmitry Medvedev became the first Kremlin chief to tour Hong Kong, seeking fresh investment as aides and executives signaled a rise in Russian listings in the city.
    (AFP, 4/17/11)

2011        Apr 18, US investor William Browder said a Moscow tax official, who approved a fraudulent $230 million tax return in 2007, has bought luxury real estate in Moscow, Dubai and Montenegro and wired money through her husband's bank accounts worth $39 million. Browder has been campaigning against Russian corruption since 2009 when his lawyer, Sergey Magnitsky, died a year after being sent to prison.
    (AP, 4/18/11)

2011        May 3, Russia's domestic intelligence agency said it had established the guilt of Alexander Poteyev, a man Russian media have identified as the spymaster who betrayed a ring of agents operating in the United States last year.
    (Reuters, 5/3/11)
2011        May 3, The Church of Scientology said Russia's Justice Ministry has dropped 29 books and lectures by the movement's founder, L. Ron Hubbard, from its list of extremist literature. They had been banned in late April after a court in the Siberian city of Surgut found them "extremist."
    (AP, 5/3/11)

2011        May 6, Russia’s PM Vladimir Putin proposed creating a "broad popular front" ahead of Russia's parliamentary election, in an apparent attempt to counter growing public discontent with his political party and solidify support.
    (AP, 5/6/11)

2011        May 8, In Dagestan a Russian officer and three rebels were killed when police discovered an encampment in the woods near Chechnya. Police reported that an insurgent was killed and two others detained in an operation in the city of Astrakhan in the Volga delta.
    (AP, 5/8/11)

2011        May 12, Russia and Pakistan pledged to boost economic ties and coordinate efforts to fight terror as the Kremlin welcomed the Pakistani president for a key visit after the killing of Osama bin Laden.
    (AFP, 5/12/11)

2011        May 16, Russian billionaire Mikhail Prokhorov, owner of the New Jersey Nets basketball team, announced plans to lead Right Cause, a liberal Russian political party with close ties to the Kremlin. Critics referred to the party as fake opposition to help give Russia a semblance of multiparty democracy.
    (SFC, 5/17/11, p.A2)

2011        May 17, Doku Umarov, leader of an Islamist insurgency in the North Caucasus, posted an interview saying Osama bin Laden's death would not stop violence and hinted at more attacks, calling all of Russia a "battleground."
    (Reuters, 5/17/11)

2011        May 21, Russia's oil pipeline monopoly said it would appeal a court ruling ordering it to release board meeting minutes, saying an anti-corruption blogger wanted the information as part of a conspiracy against Russia.
    (Reuters, 5/21/11)

2011        May 24, A Moscow appeals court upheld the second conviction of oil magnate Mikhail Khodorkovsky (47), but it also reduced his 14-year prison sentence by one year.
    (AP, 5/24/11)

2011        May 27, NATO reported that Moamer Kadhafi's forces had laid landmines in Misrata. Russia joined the call of Western powers for Kadhafi to step down as G8 leaders met in France.
    (AFP, 5/27/11)

2011        May 28, Moscow police arrested more than 30 people trying to hold two unauthorized gay-rights demonstrations in the capital.
    (AP, 5/28/11)

2011        May 30, Russia banned the import of all vegetables from Germany and Spain and warned the sanction could soon be applied to the rest of Europe because of the deadly E. coli bacteria scare. German officials suspect the deadly strain, which has already killed 12 people, may have come from organic cucumbers imported from Spain.
    (AFP, 5/30/11)

2011        May 31, Russian officials said the suspected triggerman in the 2006 killing of journalist Anna Politkovskaya has been arrested. Rustam Makhmudov, was arrested in Chechnya and would be transferred to Moscow.
    (AP, 5/31/11)
2011        May 31, Europe's human rights court ruled that Russia was guilty of violations in its jailing of former oil tycoon Mikhail Khodorkovsky, but found no firm proof that the case was politically motivated.
    (Reuters, 5/31/11)

2011        Jun 3, In Russia fire tore through an ammunition depot in the central region of Udmurtia, causing shells to explode all day. More than 28,000 people were evacuated from their homes. Interfax news said that 106 of the arsenal's 152 buildings were destroyed.
    (AP, 6/3/11)

2011        Jun 7, A Russian Soyuz spacecraft took off from Kazakhstan, bound for the International Space Station. In the three-man crew were Russian cosmonaut Sergei Volkov, American astronaut Michael Fossum, and Japanese astronaut Satoshi Furukawa of Japan's JAXA space agency. The trio will spend six months on the space station.
            (AP, 6/7/11)(Reuters, 6/7/11)
2011        Jun 7, The EU imposed sanctions on 6 ports still held by Colonel Qaddafi. Russian President Dmitri Medvedev sent an envoy to Libya for the first time to meet with rebel leaders in the city of Benghazi and promise support. At least 40 NATO strikes hit Tripoli as Khadafy spoke in an audio address and vowed never to surrender.
    (Econ, 6/18/11, p.53)(AFP, 6/7/11)(SFC, 6/8/11, p.A4)

2011        Jun 9, Russian officials said a wave of wildfires this year have already torched 1.48 million acres of mainly Siberian forests and left 3 fire fighters dead.
    (SFC, 6/10/11, p.A2)

2011        Jun 10, In Russia disgraced army Col. Yuri Budanov was gunned down in central Moscow. He had been convicted to 10 years in prison for kidnapping and strangling Heda Kungayeva (18), a Chechen girl, in 2000, but was released on parole in 2009.
    (SFC, 6/11/11, p.A2)

2011        Jun 20, In northwestern Russia a TU-134 passenger jet slammed into the ground and caught fire while trying to land on a foggy night at Petrozavodsk, killing 44 people and leaving eight survivors badly hurt. 3 more victim died days later bringing the death toll to 47. Russian authorities later reported that the navigator was in a state of “light alcoholic intoxication."
    (Reuters, 6/21/11)(AP, 6/22/11)(AP, 6/26/11)(SFC, 9/20/11, p.A2)

2011        Jun 22, Russia denied registration to the People's Freedom Party, a new political party created by three prominent opposition leaders, effectively barring them from participating in upcoming parliamentary and presidential elections.
    (AP, 6/22/11)
2011        Jun 22, Russia and the EU signed a deal agreeing conditions for the resumption of EU fresh vegetable imports to Russia, which banned them because of a deadly E.coli outbreak.
    (Reuters, 6/22/11)

2011        Jun 23, Russia’s PM Putin said his government would not revoke a ban on European vegetable imports until Brussels met Kremlin conditions.
    (SFC, 6/24/11, p.A4)
2011        Jun 23, In Russia Vladislav Achalov (65), a former Soviet general who supported two botched anti-Kremlin coups and recently organized a protest against the government's military reform, died in Moscow. Achalov supported the 1991 hardline coup that briefly ousted Soviet President Mikhail Gorbachev but didn't face trial. In October 1993, he played an active role in a rebellion against President Boris Yeltsin and spent several months in custody before being released under amnesty.
    (AP, 6/23/11)

2011        Jun 25, Russian tycoon and New Jersey Nets basketball team owner Mikhail Prokhorov was confirmed as the new head of a Kremlin-friendly political party.
    (AP, 6/25/11)
2011        Jun 25, Russian police detained 14 gay rights activists trying to hold an unsanctioned demonstration in St. Petersburg, as well as one person suspected of attacking the protesters.
    (AP, 6/25/11)

2011        Jun 27, In Russia Col. Alexander Poteyev, a former senior Russian intelligence officer, was convicted in absentia of betraying a ring of 10 Russian spies in the United States. Poteyev had reportedly fled to Belarus and then on to Germany and, finally, the United States using a passport belonging to another person.
    (AP, 6/27/11)

2011        Jun 30, Russian officials said a court in a Moscow suburb banned works by the founder of the Church of Scientology. A court in the Siberian city of Surgut had earlier made a similar decision, but then overturned it. The decision did not yet taken effect due to a still-pending appeal by the Scientologists.
    (AP, 6/30/11)(AP, 1/8/12)

2011        Jul 2, Russia restored power to Belarus after a 4-day cutoff due to unpaid bills.
    (SSFC, 7/3/11, p.A5)

2011        Jul 10, In Russia a 55-year-old double-decker boat, called Bulgaria, sank on the Volga River in the Tatarstan region, killing at least 100 people with 29 missing. A total of 208 people are believed to have sailed on the boat. Officials said it was overloaded when it sank.
    (AP, 7/10/11)(AP, 7/11/11)(AP, 7/13/11)

2011        Jul 11, Russia's Investigative Committee said a Tangara airline plane carrying 33 people crashed as it tried to make an emergency landing on the Ob river in Siberia, killing five people.
    (AP, 7/11/11)

2011        Jul 14, The Canadian head of the NATO mission over Libya said Gaddafi has ordered his troops to blow up refineries and other facilities if they have to retreat. Russia’s special envoy to Libya told the Izvestia newspaper that Libyan leader Moamer Kadhafi has a "suicidal plan" to blow up the capital Tripoli if it is taken by rebels.
    (Reuters, 7/14/11)(AFP, 7/14/11)

2011        Jul 31, Russian police detained dozens of antigovernment activists in Moscow and St. Petersburg. Opposition leaders have called for demonstrations on the last day of every month with 31 days in reference to the 31st Article of the Russian Constitution, which guarantees freedom of assembly.
    (SFC, 8/1/11, p.A2)
2011        Jul 31, In Russia an overloaded motor boat crashed into the docked Oka barge on the Moscow River in pre-dawn darkness, killing nine of the 16 people on board.
    (AP, 7/31/11)

2011        Aug 17, Iran's foreign minister Ali Akbar Salehi, speaking in Russia, said Iran is ready to resume negotiations on its nuclear program and a Russian proposal will aid the process.
    (AP, 8/17/11)

2011        Aug 18, Russia lost contact with its Express-AM4 communications satellite shortly after its launch, the latest in a series of failures that has dogged the nation's space program. Failure of the upper stage, the Briz-M, resulted in the loss of communications.
    (AP, 8/18/11)
2011        Aug 18, The chief of Russia's state arms trader Rosoboronexport, Anatoly Isaikin, said Moscow will keep supplying combat jets and other military gear to Syria under contracts totaling about $3.5 billion (euro2.43 billion).
    (AP, 8/19/11)

2011        Aug 19, Russia's Foreign Ministry cautioned the West against encouraging the Syrian opposition, and said it doesn't support Western calls for President Bashar Assad to resign.
    (AP, 8/19/11)
2011        Aug 19, Russia and North Korea both announced that Moscow will provide food assistance, including some 50,000 tons of wheat, to Pyongyang. North Korea might face another food crisis this year due to heavy rains.
    (AP, 8/20/11)

2011        Aug 20, Reclusive North Korea's autocratic leader Kim Jong Il crossed into Russia on his armored train to discuss with President Dmitry Medvedev the possible renewal of nuclear disarmament talks and the construction of a pipeline that will stream Russian natural gas to both Koreas.
    (AP, 8/20/11)

2011        Aug 22, Russian military officers flew to North Korea for talks about renewing military ties as North Korean leader Kim Jong Il's armored train rolled through the resource-rich far east of Russia on his secretive journey to a summit with President Dmitry Medvedev.
    (AP, 8/22/11)

2011        Aug 23, Russian investigators arrested Lt. Col. Dmitry Pavlyuchenkov, a retired police officer, on suspicion of organizing the 2006 killing of journalist Anna Politkovskaya, who was gunned down in the elevator of her Moscow apartment building.
    (AP, 8/23/11)
2011        Aug 23, In southern Russia an explosion of old ammunition at the Ashuluk military base in the Astrakhan region killed six soldiers and wounded 12.
    (AP, 8/23/11)

2011        Aug 24, North Korean leader Kim Jong Il met with Russian President Dmitry Medvedev near Lake Baikal. A spokesman for Medvedev said North Korea is ready to impose a moratorium on nuclear missile tests if international talks on its nuclear program resume.
    (AP, 8/24/11)
2011        Aug 24, A Russian unmanned supply spaceship, launched from the Baikonur cosmodrome in Kazakhstan, crashed and exploded in a forested area in Siberia. It was the 44th launch of a Progress supply ship to the int’l. space station, and the first failure in the nearly 13-year life of the complex.
    (AP, 8/25/11)

2011        Aug 31, Russian bailiffs raided the offices of BP in Moscow to uncover documents over its failed deal with Rosneft. The search came less than a day after Rosneft and ExxonMobil agreed to a stunning Arctic exploration deal overseen by Prime Minister Vladimir Putin.
    (AFP, 8/31/11)

2011        Sep 1, Russia recognized Libya's rebels as the governing authority in the country.
    (AFP, 9/1/11)

2011        Sep 3, In Tajikistan leaders from eight former Soviet states (Armenia, Azerbaijan, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Russia, Tajikistan, Ukraine and Uzbekistan) gathered to celebrate enduring cooperation over the two decades since their nations collectively gained independence, but mutual acrimony and recriminations cast a shadow over the event.
    (AP, 9/3/11)

2011        Sep 7, A Russian Yak-42 jet carrying the Lokomotiv Yaroslavl ice hockey team crashed while taking off near the city of Yaroslavl, killing 43 of 45 people. One of the 2 survivors died on Sep 12. Flight crew member Alexander Sizov remained in intensive care at Moscow's Sklifosovsky hospital. The Kontinental Hockey League included 24 teams from Russia, Belarus, Kazakhstan, Latvia and Slovakia.
    (AP, 9/7/11)(AP, 9/10/11)(AP, 9/12/11)

2011        Sep 9, Syria's opposition leaders said they expected more support from Russia after the Russian upper house of parliament's foreign affairs chief Mikhail Margelov met a visiting Syrian delegation that included National Organization for Human Rights in Syria head Ammar Qurabi.
    (AFP, 9/9/11)

2011        Sep 12, In Syria raids around Hama began after security forces cut all roads leading to the area along with electricity and telephone lines. Security forces shot dead 17 people and arrested more than 60 around Hama. 3 others were reported killed in Douma and Al Rastan. Russia’s President Dmitry Medvedev defended the Russian position for “open direct talks" in talks in Moscow with British PM David Cameron even as the Syrian security forces pressed their deadly crackdown on dissent.
    (AP, 9/12/11)(AFP, 9/13/11)

2011        Sep 15, Russian tycoon Mikhail Prokhorov (46) abandoned his efforts to build up the Right Cause political party and enter parliament, saying he was unwilling to tolerate interference from the Kremlin. He also lambasted Vladislav Surkov, the Kremlin's seldom-glimpsed political strategist.
    (AP, 9/15/11)

2011        Sep 22, In Dagestan 2 early morning car bombs killed a Russian policeman and wounded 60 other people in the capital of Makhachkala. A few hours before the car bombs, four suspected Islamic insurgents died when explosives they were carrying in their car detonated on a capital street.
    (AP, 9/22/11)

2011        Sep 24, Russia’s PM Vladimir Putin (58) declared he planned to reclaim the presidency at March elections that could open the way for the former KGB spy to rule until 2024.
    (Reuters, 9/24/11)

2011        Sep 26, Russia’s influential finance minister, Alexei Kudrin, was forced out after a television confrontation with Pres. Dmitri Medvedev.
    (SFC, 9/27/11, p.A2)

2011        Sep 29, British police and medical regulators said Russian gangs and their Chinese associates are making billions of dollars from selling fake and unlicensed medicines over the Internet, putting thousands of people at risk. More than 2.5 million doses of counterfeit, controlled and withdrawn drugs were seized across 79 countries in seven days of raids coordinated by international police organization Interpol under an operation codenamed Pangea that ended on Sep 27.
    (Reuters, 9/29/11)

2011        Sep, Two professors of a military academy in St. Petersburg were charged with espionage for allegedly selling Russian military secrets to China.
    (AP, 10/6/11) 

2011        Oct 4, China and Russia vetoed a UN Security Council resolution threatening action against Syria's deadly crackdown on protests.
    (AP, 10/5/11)

2011        Oct 5, Russia's intelligence service said it has detained an alleged Chinese spy who tried to obtain designs of an advanced missile system as part of Beijing's efforts to update its weaponry. Prosecutors submitted the case to the Moscow City Court today, although the man was detained late last October.
    (AP, 10/5/11)

2011        Oct 7, Syrian security forces opened fire at protesters in several parts of the country, killing at least eight people and wounding scores. Leading opposition figure Riad Seif was beaten up by pro-government gunmen and rushed to a hospital in Damascus. Russia’s Pres. Dmitry Medvedev told Syrian leader Bashar al-Assad to either reform or resign. In Qamishli Mashaal Tammo, a prominent and charismatic Kurdish opposition figure, was gunned down by masked gunmen.
    (AP, 10/7/11)(AP, 10/8/11)

2011        Oct 15, Russian opposition activist Sergei Udaltsov, the leader of the Left Front movement was sent back to jail after visiting a hospital where he was denied proper medical attention. Udaltsov was  on the 3rd day of a hunger strike and fell ill in a courtroom where he was appealing a 10-day jail sentence for disobeying police orders.
    (AP, 10/16/11)

2011        Oct 21, Russia's parliament adopted a law limiting abortions but rejected even tougher restrictions backed by the country's conservative Orthodox Church. The country's birth rate has become a serious concern for Russia as it fights to stem a steep population decline.
    (AP, 10/21/11)
2011        Oct 21, A Russian rocket launched the first 2 satellites of the EU’s Galileo navigation system from French Guiana, in an ambitious bid to rival the American GPS network.
    (SFC, 10/22/11, p.A2)

2011        Oct 22, Russia’s Foreign Ministry said in a statement it was blacklisting unspecified US officials it claims were involved in the abductions of alleged terrorism suspects, the torture of inmates at Guantanamo prison, the killings of civilians in Afghanistan and Iraq, and the abductions or abuse of Russians in the United States. The action was in response to the US State Department's decision in July to ban entry to dozens of unidentified Russian officials allegedly involved in the death of lawyer Sergei Magnitsky.
    (AP, 10/22/11)

2011        Oct 26, Russian newspaper journalist Igor Karmazin, working on a report about the opposition in Belarus, said he was deported overnight from the authoritarian ex-Soviet nation by the secret police. Lukashenko said that his government has learned the lessons of the Arab Spring uprisings and knows how to deal with protests organized through social networks.
    (AP, 10/26/11)

2011        Oct 30, An unmanned Russian cargo ship headed for the Int’l. Space Station after it launched from the Baikonur cosmodrome in Kazakhstan.
    (SFC, 10/31/11, p.A2)

2011        Nov 2, Bangladesh and Russia signed a deal to build a nuclear power plant in the energy-starved South Asian nation.
    (AP, 11/2/11)
2011        Nov 2, Transparency Int’l., a Berlin-based campaigning group, published an update of its 2008 Bribe Payers Index. Russia and China scored worst. The index ranked 28 countries accounting for 80% of global trade and investment.
    (Econ, 11/5/11, p.72)

2011        Nov 4, In Russia thousands of far-right nationalists and neo-Nazis marched through Moscow to call for ethnic Russians to "take back" Russia, as resentment grows over dark-complexioned Muslim migrants from Russia's Caucasus and the money the Kremlin sends to those restive regions.
    (AP, 11/4/11)
2011        Nov 4, In Russia an international crew of researchers walked out of a set of windowless modules in Moscow after a grueling 520-day simulation of a flight to Mars. The all-male crew consisted of three Russians, a Frenchman, an Italian-Colombian and a Chinese.
    (AP, 11/4/11)

2011        Nov 7, Russia's Interior Ministry said police have arrested Anatoly Moskvin (45) of Nizhny Novgorod. Police said he had kept 29 mummified bodies at his apartment and dressed them up like dolls. The man reportedly had only selected the remains of young women for his grisly collection.
    (AP, 11/7/11)(SFC, 11/8/11, p.A2)

2011        Nov 9, A Russian space probe aiming to land on a Mars moon was stuck circling the Earth after equipment failure. Scientists raced to fire up its engines before the whole thing came crashing down. The unmanned Phobos-Ground craft was successfully launched by a Zenit-2 booster rocket just after midnight. On Dec 2 the European Space Agency said it had abandoned efforts to contact the probe.
    (AP, 11/9/11)(SFC, 12/3/11, p.A2)

2011        Nov 14, Two Russians and an American blasted off from Kazakhstan to the ISS orbiting laboratory on a Soyuz-FG rocket, Russia's first manned mission since the failed launch of the unmanned Progress supply ship in August temporarily grounded its Soyuz rockets.
    (AFP, 11/14/11)

2011        Nov 21, Vitaly Shlykov (77), a former Soviet intelligence agent who spent years in a Swiss prison (1983-1986) after being convicted of espionage, died in Moscow. After his retirement two years later, he became a prominent scholar specializing in military policy and wrote extensively on security issues.
    (AP, 11/21/11)
2011        Nov 21, A Russian Soyuz capsule with 3 astronauts returned from the Int’l. Space Station landed in Kazakhstan after spending 165 days in space.
    (SFC, 11/22/11, p.A2)

2011        Nov 23, President Dmitry Medvedev said Russia will deploy new missiles aimed at US missile defense sites in Europe if Washington goes ahead with the planned shield despite Russia's concerns. The stern warning to the US and NATO seemed to be directed at rallying nationalist votes in the polls.
    (AP, 11/23/11)

2011        Nov 29, President Dmitry Medvedev officially commissioned a new military early warning radar in the Kaliningrad region, saying it shows Russia's readiness to respond to US missile defense plans.
    (AP, 11/29/11)

2011        Dec 1, Russian prosecutors launched a probe against Golos, the country's main independent election watchdog, on suspicion of election law violations — just three days before the national parliamentary vote. It has recorded more than 4,500 complaints related to the Dec 4 election, most involving the dominant United Russia party.
    (AP, 12/1/11)

2011        Dec 2, A Russian court found Golos, the country’s only independent election watchdog, guilty of violations, casting doubt on its ability to monitor the Dec 4 parliamentary election as voters complain of record violations by the Kremlin party.
    (AP, 12/2/11)

2011        Dec 4, Russians cast their ballots with muted enthusiasm in parliamentary elections. Several parties complained of extensive election violations aimed at boosting the vote count of United Russia, the party of PM Vladimir Putin. An election official later described how he had manipulated the vote at his polling station to give Putin's party the desired 65 percent, when in fact it had won no more than 25 percent.
    (AP, 12/4/11)(AP, 3/4/12)

2011        Dec 5, In Russia PM Vladimir Putin's party saw its majority in parliament weaken sharply, according to preliminary election results. International observers pointed to procedural violations and serious indications of ballot stuffing after a campaign slanted in favor of United Russia. Only seven parties were allowed to field candidates for parliament this year, while the most vocal opposition groups were barred from the race.
    (AP, 12/5/11)

2011        Dec 7, Former Soviet leader Mikhail Gorbachev said Russian authorities should annul the results of the parliamentary vote and hold a new one, as popular indignation grew over widespread allegations of election fraud. Thousands of Russians have rallied in Moscow and St. Petersburg in the last two days, facing off against tens of thousands of police and Interior Ministry troops. Popular anger boiled over into a 3rd straight night of protests with scores arrested in Moscow and St. Petersburg.
    (AP, 12/7/11)(SFC, 12/8/11, p.A5)

2011        Dec 9, In China two exchange students accepted the Confucius Peace Prize on behalf of Russian PM Vladimir Putin, who was honored for enhancing Russia's status and crushing anti-government forces in Chechnya.
    (AP, 12/9/11)

2011        Dec 10, Tens of thousands of Muscovites thronged to a square across the river from the Kremlin to protest alleged electoral fraud and urge an end to PM Vladimir Putin's rule, demands repeated at other rallies across this vast country in the largest public show of discontent in post-Soviet Russia.
    (AP, 12/10/11)

2011        Dec 11, Russian President Dmitry Medvedev posted a comment on his Facebook page saying he has ordered a probe into the allegations of electoral fraud during the Dec. 4 parliamentary vote.
    (AP, 12/11/11)

2011        Dec 12, Mikhail Prokhorov (46), one of Russia's richest tycoons and the owner of the New Jersey Nets basketball team, said he will run against PM Vladimir Putin in the March presidential election. Prokhorov made his fortune, estimated by Forbes at $18 billion, in metals and banking.
    (AP, 12/12/11)

2011        Dec 13, A convoy of 25 Russian trucks was stopped by US soldiers guarding the Kosovo border with Serbia, increasing tensions in the volatile region. Peacekeepers said the convoy's cargo consisting of canned food, blankets, tents and power generators looked to be intended for those manning the roadblocks, and not for the general Kosovo Serb population. EU officials in Kosovo said the Russians can pass if they allow an international police escort. Three EU police vehicles escorted the convoy on Dec 16 after taking a roundabout way through Serbia to bypass roadblocks.
    (AP, 12/14/11)(AP, 12/17/11)

2011        Dec 14, In Russia a loyalist to PM Vladimir Putin who served as the speaker of parliament resigned in a move that appeared to be part of the government's effort to stem public anger over alleged fraud in this month's parliamentary election.
    (AP, 12/14/11)
2011        Dec 14, In Russia Boris Chertok (99), a rocket designer who played a key role in engineering Soviet-era space programs, died in Moscow. He was closely involved in putting the world's first satellite in orbit on Oct. 4, 1957, and preparing the first human flight to space by Yuri Gagarin on April, 12 1961.
    (AP, 12/14/11)

2011        Dec 15, Khadzhimurad Kamalov (46), the founder of a newspaper critical of authorities in the restive province of Dagestan in Russia's North Caucasus, died after he was gunned down in a hail of bullets outside his office. Kamalov founded the independent weekly paper Chernovik (Rough Draft) in 2003 and remained its publisher until his killing.
    (AP, 12/16/11)

2011        Dec 16, Russia gained approval to join the World Trade Organization (WTO). Formal membership was expected in early 2012.
    (SFC, 12/17/11, p.A4)

2011        Dec 17, In Russia about 1,000 demonstrators demanding a rerun of parliamentary elections gathered in central Moscow for a second weekend of protests against the recent fraud-tainted vote.
    (AP, 12/17/11)

2011        Dec 18, In Russia thousands took to the streets of Moscow and St. Petersburg, braving strong winds and torrential rains for a second week of protests over the recent fraud-tainted parliamentary vote.
    (AP, 12/18/11)
2011        Dec 18, Russia’s Kolskaya oil drilling platform capsized and later sank amid fierce storms off the coast of Sakhalin Island, plunging dozens of workers into the churning, icy waters. Of the 67 men aboard, 14 were plucked alive immediately after the accident.
    (AP, 12/18/11)(AP, 12/19/11)

2011        Dec 18, Iranian state media reported that Russia’s Tatneft has signed a preliminary accord valued at $1 billion with the Persian Gulf country to develop the Zagheh oil field located in southwestern Iran. The next day Tatneft said no accord has been signed.
    (SFC, 12/18/11, p.A2)(http://tinyurl.com/7j78scn)

2011        Dec 20, The European Court of Human Rights ordered Russia to pay more than €1 million ($1.3 million) to dozens of plaintiffs over the country's bungled efforts to end a 2002 Moscow theater siege by Chechen militants.
    (AP, 12/20/11)

2011        Dec 23, A Russian Soyuz spacecraft arrived at the Int’l. Space Station delivering a Russian, an American and a Dutchman, restoring the permanent crew to six.
    (SFC, 12/24/11, p.A2)

2011        Dec 24, In Russia an estimated 80,000 demonstrators cheered opposition leaders and jeered the Kremlin in the biggest show of outrage yet against PM Vladimir Putin's 12-year rule.
    (AP, 12/24/11)(Econ, 12/31/11, p.36)

2011        Dec 25, Prominent Russian opposition activist Sergei Udaltsov, leader of the Left Front, had barely half an hour of freedom before being sentenced to 10 more days in jail, making it the 14th time this year he's been detained.
    (AP, 12/25/11)
2011        Dec 25, Russian and Japanese rescue vessels and a helicopter searched for five people missing in a fierce storm off Russia's east coast after a Cambodia-flagged fishing ship, the Ginga, sank early in the day. 3 bodies were recovered from the icy waters of the La Perouse Strait, between the Sea of Okhotsk and the Sea of Japan.
    (AP, 12/25/11)

2011        Katerina Clark, a Yale historian, authored “Moscow: The Fourth Rome: Stalinism, Cosmopolitanism, and the Evolution of Soviet Culture, 1931-1941".
2011        Russia’s population was about 140 million.
    (Econ, 9/17/11, p.49)

2012        Jan 6, In Russia a former Cabinet member close to PM Vladimir Putin called for a rerun of the country's fraud-tinged parliamentary elections, an apparent bid to soothe public outrage as Putin seeks to reclaim the presidency.
    (AP, 1/6/12)

2012        Jan 9, In Russia a gas explosion and fire at the Il Pittore restaurant in Moscow killed two people and injured at least 26. The explosion was believed to have been caused by improper use of gas canisters.
    (AP, 1/9/12)

2012        Jan 12, Russia’s PM Vladimir Putin promised that his government will become more accountable to the Russian people if he wins a third presidential term in March as he laid out his priorities for the future on a campaign website.
    (AP, 1/12/12)
2012        Jan 12, Turkish officials said a Russian ship, allegedly carrying tons of weapons, made a dash for Syria after Cypriot officials allowed it to leave their waters. The Chariot was ferrying cargo owned by Russia's state arms trader Rosoboronexport.
    (AP, 1/12/12)

2012        Jan 14, Russian police detained two officials of a liberal opposition party after a protest rally in Moscow against election fraud. The rally by the Yabloko party was sanctioned for 300 participants, but police counted about 350.
    (AP, 1/14/12)

2012        Jan 15, A failed $170 million Russian space probe, Phobos-Ground, crashed into the southern Pacific, 770 miles off the southern coast of Chile.
    (SFC, 1/16/12, p.A2)

2012        Jan 23, Russia's business daily Kommersant reported that Moscow has signed a contract to sell 36 Yak-130 combat jets to Syria, a deal that, if confirmed, would openly defy international efforts to pressure Assad's regime.
    (AP, 1/23/12)
2012        Jan 23, Indian navy personnel took command of the country's first nuclear-powered submarine in two decades after collecting the vessel near the Russian port of Vladivostok. India decommissioned its last Soviet-built vessel in 1991.
    (AFP, 1/22/12)

2012        Jan 24, Russia's elections commission said prominent opposition leader Grigory Yavlinsky will be disqualified from running for president in March, after finding that hundreds of thousands of the signatures submitted on his nominating petition were invalid. The move would prevent his liberal Yabloko party from fielding observers. His party had fielded thousands of election observers in the December election who documented evidence of fraud in favor of Putin's United Russia party.
    (AP, 1/24/12)

2012        Jan 25, Russian billionaire Mikhail Prokhorov was registered as a presidential candidate and will be the only political newcomer in the race. He joined PM Vladimir Putin and three veteran party leaders on the ballot for the March vote.
    (AP, 1/25/12)

2012        Jan 27, Russian officials said the leader of Islamist separatists in the province of Ingushetia was killed in a shootout in the village of Ekazhevo along with two other militants. 4 Russian military officers and five militants were killed in the neighboring province of Dagestan. In Kabardino-Balkariya, three masked militants stormed into a school and stabbed a volleyball player in the gym.
    (AP, 1/27/12)

2012        Jan 28, The foreign ministers of Japan and Russia agreed to strengthen economic and security cooperation but made no progress on resolving a long-standing territorial dispute that has kept the two nations from concluding a peace treaty.
    (AP, 1/28/12)

2012        Jan 29, In Russia thousands of cars flying white ribbons or balloons circled central Moscow on Sunday in a show of protest against PM Vladimir Putin.
    (AP, 1/29/12)

2012        Jan 30, Russia's Foreign Ministry said it has invited Syrian authorities and opposition for talks in Moscow.
    (AP, 1/30/12)

2012        Feb 3, Ukraine's government blamed Russia for natural gas shortages in some European countries as a severe cold spell grips the region. Germany, Italy and Austria have reported cutbacks in Russian gas supplies, but Russia's energy giant Gazprom has blamed them on Kiev, accusing Ukraine of siphoning off gas destined for European consumers.
    (AP, 2/3/12)

2012        Feb 4, The Ukrainian Security Service detained a man sought by Russian authorities on charges of terrorism and two of his accomplices in Odessa. On Feb 27 the detainees were reported to be linked to an anti-Putin plot.
    (AP, 2/27/12)

2012        Feb 6, Russian researchers said that they had succeeded in drilling through four km (2.5 miles) of ice to the surface of Lake Vostok, a sub-glacial Antarctic lake which could yield important scientific discoveries.
    (AFP, 2/6/12)(SFC, 2/7/12, p.A7)

2012        Feb 7, Syrian forces renewed their assault on the flashpoint city of Homs as Russia's foreign minister stressed the need for reform and dialogue during talks in Damascus with President Bashar Assad about the country's escalating violence. Activists reported that at least 15 people, including a 15-year-old boy, were killed in violence across the country. The six-nation Gulf Cooperation Council said it is pulling its ambassadors from Syria. France said it is recalling its ambassador to Syria for consultations. Other Western powers including Britain, the United States and Italy have called back their top envoys in the wake of new violence.
    (AP, 2/7/12)

2012        Feb 8, A senior European Union official said the EU will impose harsher sanctions on Syria, as Russia tried to broker talks between the vice president and the opposition to calm violence. Activists reported at least 50 killed in military assaults targeting government opponents in Homs.
    (AP, 2/8/12)

2012        Feb 10, A Russian military court convicted Lt. Col. Vladimir Nesterets of providing the CIA with secret information on Russia's new intercontinental ballistic missiles and sentenced him to 13 years in prison. The Federal Security Service said Nesterets pleaded guilty to passing on that classified information in exchange for money.
    (AP, 2/10/12)

2012        Feb 15, Authorities said more than 600 people in Eastern Europe have died during a record-breaking cold snap. Officials in the Czech Republic blamed two massive car pile-ups on blinding snow. Authorities in Russia said 205 people have died, while in Ukraine there have been 112 fatalities; in Poland, 107. Authorities said 7 people have died in Romania in the past 24 hours, bringing the total there to 86 deaths.
    (AP, 2/15/12)

2012        Feb 18, Russian police said 17 officers have been killed during a 4-day operation to wipe out several militant bands in Chechnya and Dagestan. At least 20 rebels were reported killed.
    (SSFC, 2/19/12, p.A4)
2012        Feb 18, Latvia voted in a referendum on whether Russian should become the Baltic country's second national language. The Russians and other minorities who organized the referendum admit they have virtually no chance at winning the plebiscite. According to the current law, anyone who moved to Latvia during the Soviet occupation, or was born to parents who moved there, is considered a noncitizen and must pass the Latvian language exam in order to become a citizen. Latvian voters resoundingly rejected the proposal.
    (AP, 2/18/12)

2012        Feb 19, In Russia hundreds of cars circled central Moscow during an opposition demonstration to demand that PM Vladimir Putin allow free elections. A similar protest in support of Putin a day earlier drew what police said were 2,000 cars.
    (AP, 2/19/12)

2012        Feb 21, In Russia Pussy Riot performed a punk rock song in the Cathedral of Christ the Savior of the Russian Orthodox Church in Moscow. In the song, the group prayed to the “Holy Mother, Blessed Virgin" to “chase Putin out," in part of the growing protest movement against Vladimir Putin.
2012        Feb 21, It was reported that a team of Russian scientists have revived a plant, Silene stenophylla, whose seeds came from a squirrel’s chamber in Siberian permafrost dating back 30k-32k years.
    (SFC, 2/21/12, p.A4)

2012        Feb 22, Russia expressed "serious concern" about the humanitarian situation in Syria and said it backed an International Committee of the Red Cross call for a daily two-hour truce that could provide help to civilians.
    (AFP, 2/22/12)

2012        Feb 24, Russia welcomed the appointment of Kofi Annan as the UN and Arab League envoy for the crisis in Syria and called for an immediate ceasefire to evacuate wounded from the city of Homs.
    (AFP, 2/24/12)

2012        Feb 27, Russian state television reported that security forces have uncovered a plot to assassinate PM Vladimir Putin and have arrested suspects linked to a Chechen rebel leader known for other terror attacks. The suspects were arrested in Ukraine's Black Sea port city of Odessa after an accidental explosion Jan. 4 while they were trying to manufacture explosives at a rented apartment.
    (AP, 2/27/12)

2012        Mar 1, Russia's top investigative agency said it has launched a probe regarding videos that have shown up on Internet purporting to show fraud taking place during the country's presidential election, even though it hasn't taken place yet.
    (AP, 3/1/12)

2012        Mar 3, In Russia Maria Alyokhina and Nadezhda Tolokonnikova, two alleged members of Pussy Riot, were arrested by Russian authorities and accused of “hooliganism." belting out an anti-Putin "punk prayer" in front of the church's gilded altar wearing garishly colored balaclavas.
    (AFP, 5/13/12)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pussy_Riot)

2012        Mar 4, Russians voted in presidential elections expected to return Vladimir Putin to the Kremlin. The independent elections watchdog agency Golos said it was receiving reports of so-called "carousel voting," in which busloads of voters are driven around to cast ballots multiple times. Putin won more than 63% of the vote according to the nearly complete official returns. The opposition and independent observers said the election was marred by widespread fraud.
    (AP, 3/4/12)(AP, 3/5/12)
2012        Mar 4, In Astrakhan, Russia, Oleg Shein lost his bid for mayor to an incumbent from the pro-Kremlin United Russia party. Shein alleged massive fraud and on March 16 began a hunger strike.
    (Econ, 4/21/12, p.69)

2012        Mar 5, Thousands of Russians gathered in Moscow for a massive rally to challenge PM Vladimir Putin's victory in the presidential election. Police at night arrested hundreds of protesters who remained on Moscow's Pushkin Square after an officially approved rally finished.
    (AP, 3/5/12)(AP, 3/6/12)

2012        Mar 9, Russia said it opposed an "unbalanced" Washington-backed UN draft resolution on Syria because it failed to call for a simultaneous halt in violence by the government and rebels.
    (AFP, 3/9/12)

2012        Mar 10, In Russia more than 20,000 protesters streamed down a central Moscow avenue to denounce Vladimir Putin's presidential election win, but the crowd's relatively small size compared to recent protests suggested the opposition movement has lost some momentum.
    (AP, 3/10/12)
2012        Mar 10, Arab and Russian foreign ministers meeting in Cairo called for an end to the violence in Syria "whatever its source," as they struggled try to find common ground on ways to resolve the deadly conflict. Qatari Foreign Minister Sheikh Hamad bin Jassim al-Thani said that it was time to send Arab and foreign troops to Syria.
    (AFP, 3/10/12)

2012        Mar 11, In Russia a law took effect in St. Petersburg which, in part prohibits "the propaganda of homosexuality and pedophilia among minors. Gay rights activists said it would criminalize even reading, writing or speaking about gay, lesbian, or transgender people. Violations carry hefty fines up to $16,700.

2012        Mar 13, Russian Deputy Defense Minister Anatoly Antonov said Russia will abide by existing contracts to deliver weapons to Syria despite Pres. Assad's yearlong crackdown on the opposition.
    (AP, 3/13/12)
2012        Mar 13, Russian and South Korean scientists signed a deal on joint research intended to recreate a woolly mammoth, an animal which last walked the earth some 10,000 years ago.
    (AFP, 3/13/12)

2012        Mar 14, Russian Foreign Minister Sergei Lavrov accused Pres. Assad of "inertia" and said Russia's hugely controversial policy on Syria was not aimed at defending his regime.
    (AFP, 3/14/12)

2012        Mar 16, Russia said it has encouraged the Syrian government to cooperate with Kofi Annan, the envoy charged with trying to help end the violence there, and urged the West to do the same with the Syrian rebels.
    (AP, 3/16/12)

2012        Mar 20, Russia said it is ready to support a UN resolution endorsing Kofi Annan's plan for settling the Syrian crisis, signaling it is prepared to raise the pressure on its old ally.
    (AP, 3/20/12)

2012        Mar 22, Russia’s Lukoil signed a $1 billion deal with South Korea's Samsung Engineering to develop Iraq's second-biggest oil field, in which the energy giant has a majority stake.
    (AFP, 3/22/12)

2012        Mar 20, Russian banker German Gorbuntsov (45) was shot outside his home in east London and was put into a medically induced coma. Hew was days away from giving evidence to an investigation into the attempted murder of a former business associate. His lawyer believed the attack was connected to an assassination attempt on Gorbuntsov's partner and co-owner of Konvers Group, Alexander Antonov, in 2009. A bank he owned in Moldova, Universalbank, was closed down in February and he was wanted there for financial crimes. The Kommersant business daily wrote that Gorbuntsov said he himself was a victim of a raider attack that caused him to lose his stake of more than 70 percent in Universalbank.
    (AFP, 3/24/12)(Reuters, 3/25/12)

2012        Mar 25, Russian spacecraft controllers intentionally plunged a defunct communications satellite, called Express-AM4, into the ocean. The $265 million satellite was launched into the wrong orbit on Aug 18,2011, and had been languishing in space ever since. The company Polar Broadband Systems Ltd. tried in vain to save and recycle the Russian satellite.
    (AFP, 3/28/12)

2012        Mar 29, Russia's top investigative agency filed new charges against police officers accused of torturing detainees amid growing public outrage over police brutality. Kazan resident Sergei Nazarov (52) died earlier this month of injuries suffered when officers sodomized him with a champagne bottle. Four officers charged in Novokuznetsk were accused of causing a detainee's death by asphyxiation by putting a gas mask on him and cutting off his access to air. 
    (AP, 3/29/12)

2012        Apr 1, Russian police detained about 55 protesters outside the gates to Red Square, which was unexpectedly closed to all visitors and tourists to prevent an anti-Kremlin demonstration.
    (AFP, 4/1/12)

2012        Apr 2, A Russian passenger plane, an ATR-72 turboprop operated by UTair, crashed into a snowy field in Siberia shortly after takeoff from Tyumen, killing 31 of the 43 people on board. The 12 survivors were hospitalized in serious condition.
    (AP, 4/2/12)

2012        Apr 3, Russia's Foreign Ministry announced that the Syrian government said it has begun implementing a UN envoy Kofi Annan’s peace plan that requires it to withdraw its forces from towns and cities within a week.
    (AP, 4/3/12)
2012        Apr 3, In Russia a blaze at Moscow’s Kachalovsky market killed 17 migrant workers who were unable to escape from the metal shed where they were sleeping. All were citizens of former Soviet nations in Central Asia.
    (AP, 4/3/12)

2012        Apr 4, A Russian antivirus company claimed that some 600,000 Macs, most in the US and Canada, have been infected with a trojan horse virus called "Flashback." Flashback was originally discovered in Sep 2011, and was designed to disguise itself as an Adobe Flash Player installer, using Flash player logos. After installing Flashback, the malware seeks out user names and passwords that are stored on your Mac.

2012        Apr 5, Alexei Kudrin, Russia's former finance minister (2000-2011), announced the creation of an independent committee to shape policies alternative to those of the government.
    (AP, 4/5/12)
2012        Apr 5, In NYC Russian arms dealer Viktor Bout (45), dubbed the Merchant of Death, received the mandatory minimum 25 years in prison in a case that demonstrated the US government's determination to bring him to justice. The judge also ordered a $15 million forfeiture.
    (AFP, 4/6/12)

2012        Apr 6, A Russian-Ukrainian crew of 8 on board the 29-meter Scorpius yacht, that set sail in September on an historic expedition around the South and North Poles, went missing in the Antarctic.
    (AFP, 4/6/12)

2012        Apr 9, Russia's top investigative body said it has dropped charges against a doctor suspected of negligence in the case of Sergei Magnitsky, a prominent lawyer who reported official corruption in Russia, then died in custody in November, 2009, while suffering from untreated pancreatitis.
    (AP, 4/9/12)

2012        Apr 11, In Russia a large opposition faction stormed out of parliament to protest Vladimir Putin's refusal to look into claims of vote-rigging in a mayoral election that has sparked nationwide anger. Oleg Shein, a member of the Just Russia party who ran for mayor in the southern city of Astrakhan, has been on a hunger strike for 27 days to protest the results of the March 4 poll that he and other opposition figures said was marred by rampant fraud in favor of a Kremlin-backed candidate.
    (AP, 4/11/12)

2012        Apr 16, In San Francisco the annual Goldman Environmental Prizes were presented 6 individuals. They included Sofia Gatica of Argentina work on diseases related to agrochemicals; Caroline Canon of Alaska for her village efforts against oil drilling in the Arctic Ocean; Ma Jun of China for his efforts on air and water violations by major manufacturers; Ikal Angelei of Kenya for her efforts to protect Lake Turkana; Evgenia Chirikova of Russia for her efforts to protect the Khimki Forest; and Father Edwin Gariguez of the Philippines for advocating against mining developments on indigenous lands.
    (SFC, 4/16/12, p.A10)

2012        Apr 18, ExxonMobil finalized the terms of a deal with Russia’s Rosneft to invest up to $500 billion in developing offshore reserves, including in Russia’s Arctic Kara Sea.
    (Econ, 6/16/12, SR p.5)

2012        Apr 22, China and Russia launched their first joint naval exercises, with 6 days of war games in the Yellow Sea that come amid tensions between China and its Asian neighbors over territorial claims.
    (AFP, 4/22/12)

2012        Apr 27, In Kazakhstan a Soyuz space capsule landed with 2 Russians and an American ending their 163-day stay at the Int’l. Space Station.
    (SFC, 4/28/12, p.A2)

2012        May 5, Russia's secret service agency FSB discovered ten caches of arms and ammunition over the last 48 hours in Abkhazia. The region is very close to Black Sea resort of Sochi, host of the 2014 Winter Olympics. The FSB said it suspects the attacks targeting Sochi were being masterminded by Chechen rebel leader Doku Umarov.
    (AP, 5/10/12)

2012        May 6, In Russia at least 20,000 opposition demonstrators marched through Moscow, shouting "enough lies," in a final show of protest before Vladimir Putin is inaugurated once again as president.
    (AP, 5/6/12)

2012        May 7, In Russia Vladimir Putin was inaugurated as president. Putin signed a decree calling for the sale of all state holdings in firms outside the defense and energy industries by 2016.
    (AP, 5/8/12)(Econ, 1/19/12, p.56)

2012        May 8, In Russia Dmitry Medvedev was confirmed as prime minister. Police broke up a demonstration by hundreds of opposition activists who had spent the night outside the presidential administration offices to protest Vladimir Putin's return as president.
    (AP, 5/8/12)(SFC, 5/9/12, p.A4)

2012        May 9, In Indonesia a Russian Sukhoi Superjet 100 crashed into a volcano south of Jakarta during a demonstration flight. All 45 people on board were feared dead. The Superjet, Russia's first new model of passenger jet since the fall of the Soviet Union two decades ago, was in Indonesia as part of a 6-nation tour of Asia aimed at drumming up new customers.
    (AFP, 5/9/12)(AP, 5/10/12)

2012        May 15, In southern Kazakhstan a three-man crew, NASA astronaut Joseph Acaba and Russian cosmonauts Gennady Padalka and Sergei Revin, blasted off from the Baikonur space center on board a Soyuz craft for a four-and-half-month stay at the International Space Station. Russian charges for use of the Soyuz were $450 million per year.
    (AP, 5/15/12)(Econ, 5/5/12, p.77)

2012        May 18, A Tennessee judge said Torry Hansen must pay $150,000 and $1000 per month to support Artyom Saveliev (10) until he turns 18. She had sent the adopted boy back to Russia by himself in 2010 saying she did not want him anymore.
    (SFC, 5/19/12, p.A5)(AP, 7/13/12)

2012        May 22, Russia’s President Vladimir Putin targeted those who dare oppose him, introducing draconian new fines for protesters and handing out Kremlin jobs to widely detested lieutenants despite the public anger they have generated. Police quickly rounded up several members of the liberal Yabloko party who attempted to protest the new bill outside parliament.
    (AP, 5/22/12)

2012        May 27, In Russia gay activists tried to stage two demonstrations in Moscow to demand the right to hold a gay pride parade in the Russian capital, but they were blocked first by Orthodox Christian opponents and then by police, who detained a total of about 40 people from both sides.
    (AP, 5/27/12)

2012        May 28, Kaspersky Lab, a Russian-based internet security firm, said a powerful computer virus, dubbed “Flame," with unprecedented data-snatching capabilities has attacked machines in Iran and elsewhere in the Middle East.
    (AP, 5/29/12)

2012        May 30, In Moscow world chess champion Viswanathan Anand of India retained his title, beating Israeli challenger Boris Gelfand 2.5-1.5 in a rapid tiebreaker round of four games.
    (AP, 5/30/12)

2012        May 31, Russia’s intelligence agency said a court has convicted Vladimir Lazar, a reserve colonel, of spying on behalf of the US and sentenced him to 12 years in prison. Prosecutors alleged Lazar purchased a disk with more than 7,000 images of classified topographical maps of Russia from a collector in 2008 and smuggled it to neighboring Belarus where he gave it to an American agent.
    (AP, 5/31/12)

2012        Jun 1, BP said it was ready to offload its stake in troubled Russian joint venture TNK-BP after the shock resignation of the partnership's chief executive earlier this week. Russian tycoon Mikhail Fridman resigned on May 28 as TNK-BP head and threw one of BP's most profitable overseas operations into turmoil.
    (AFP, 6/1/12)

2012        Jun 5, Russian police detained at least two dozen people protesting outside the parliament in Moscow as it debated a controversial bill that would raise fines 150-fold for people taking part in unsanctioned rallies. The Kremlin controlled Parliament rammed through the bill.
    (AP, 6/5/12)(SFC, 6/6/12, p.A2)

2012        Jun 6, Russian Pres. Vladimir Putin visited China and emphasized burgeoning military ties on the second day of a visit to his nation's eastern neighbor.
    (AP, 6/6/12)

2012        Jun 8, Russia’s Pres. Putin signed into law a measure that will impose heavy fines on people who organize or take part in unsanctioned demonstrations.
    (SFC, 6/9/12, p.A2)

2012        Jun 12, In Russia tens of thousands flooded Moscow's tree-lined boulevards in the first massive protest against President Putin's rule since his inauguration in May. Investigators a day earlier searched the homes of several key opposition figures and summoned them for questioning shortly before the start of the rally. Opposition leaders included Alexei Navalny (36), corruption-fighting lawyer, Sergei Udaltsov (35), leader of the Left Front opposition movement, Ksania Sobchak (30), socialite and TV host, and Ilya Yashin (28), a member of the leadership of the opposition Solidarity movement. The protest had city approval.
    (AP, 6/12/12)

2012        Jun 18, Iran and six world powers sought elusive common ground in talks in Moscow meant to reduce tensions over Tehran's nuclear activities that both sides see as crucial to their interests but which are stalled by reluctance to commit to each other's demands.
    (AP, 6/18/12)

2012        Jun 19, The world powers known as "P5+1," permanent UN Security Council members Britain, China, France, Russia and the United States, plus Germany, failed to win any concession from Iran that would give the talks a new impulse. Negotiators in Moscow managed to prevent the diplomatic process from complete collapse by agreeing a new meeting at expert-level in Istanbul on July 3.
    (AFP, 6/20/12)
2012        Jun 19, A Russian ship allegedly carrying refurbished attack helicopters and missiles destined for Syria has stopped off the Scottish coast after its British insurer, Standard Club, withdrew cover for the MV Alaed. On June 24 the ship was re-flagged as a Russian vessel.
    (AFP, 6/19/12)(SFC, 7/13/12, p.A4)

2012        Jun 24, A Russian ship that tried to deliver repaired attack helicopters to Syria entered the northern port of Murmansk after being forced to abandon its initial attempt.
    (AFP, 6/24/12)

2012        Jun 25, Russian President Vladimir Putin unveiled a World War II memorial during a rare trip to Israel where he is expected to hold talks on the situation in Syria and Iran's nuclear program.
    (AFP, 6/25/12)

2012        Jun 26, Visiting Russian Pres. Putin spoke at the end of a visit to the biblical West Bank town of Bethlehem, with Palestinian President Mahmoud Abbas by his side. Putin praised his Abbas for what he said was a "responsible" position in negotiations with Israel, frozen for nearly four years, and said Russia has no problem recognizing a Palestinian state.
    (AP, 6/26/12)

2012        Jun 27, Russian President Vladimir Putin ordered an overhaul of the upper house of Parliament in an apparent reaction to criticism that the Federation Council is little more than a vacation retreat for officials.
    (AP, 6/27/12)

2012        Jul 1, A Russian Soyuz space capsule landed in Kazakhstan bringing an end to a 193-day mission for American astronaut Donald Petit, Dutchman Andre Kuipers and Russian Oleg Kononenko.
    (SFC, 7/2/12, p.A2)

2012        Jul 5, Russia's chief investigator ordered a review of a closed probe against prominent opposition leader Alexei Navalny, raising the pressure on those leading protests against President Vladimir Putin.
    (AP, 7/5/12)
2012        Jul 5, In Panama the International Whaling Commission rejected a request from Denmark for a whaling quota for indigenous groups in Greenland. Two days earlier it approved the renewal of bowhead whale quotas for indigenous subsistence whaling in Alaska and Russia and for St. Vincent and the Grenadines in the Caribbean. The United States says it doesn't support a South Korean plan to restart whale hunting for purportedly scientific purposes.
    (AP, 7/6/12)

2012        Jul 7, In Russia overnight rains dumped as much as 28 cm (about 11 inches) of water on parts of the Krasnodar region. Water rushed into the hard-hit town of Krymsk with such speed and volume that residents said they suspected that water had been released from a reservoir in the mountains above. Federal investigators acknowledged that water had been released from the reservoir, but they insisted it did not cause the flooding and the dam had not been breached. The death toll in the southern Black Sea region soon reached 171.
    (AP, 7/7/12)(AP, 7/8/12)(AP, 7/9/12)
2012        Jul, In Russia’s Republic of Tatarstan assassins shot dead  Islamic leader Valiulla Yakupov and nearly killed the chief mufti, Ildus Faizov, with a car bomb. Over half of the republic’s people are Sunni Muslims.
    (Economist, 9/1/12, p.55)
2012        Jul 7, In Ukraine a bus carrying Russian religious pilgrims crashed killing 14 of 45 people onboard near Chernihiv.
    (SSFC, 7/8/12, p.A4)

2012        Jul 10, A Moscow Regional Court said that Elena Osina (24) and her brother (21) pleaded guilty to attempted murder regarding a May 2011 incident. The young mother and her brother were sentenced to eight years in prison after they admitted putting the woman's 9-month son on a four-lane highway in hopes he would get killed.
    (AP, 7/10/12)

2012        Jul 11, Russia’s parliament passed legislation imposing limits on the Internet, presented as a way to protect children.
    (SFC, 7/12/12, p.A5)

2012        Jul 15, A Russian Soyuz rocket blasted off from Kazakhstan with an international crew of three toward the International Space Station in a mission testing the reliability of Russia's crisis-prone space program. On board were NASA's Sunita Williams, Japan's Akihiko Hoshide and Yury Malenchenko of Russia.
    (AFP, 7/15/12)

2012        Jul 19, In Russia a top Muslim cleric in Tatarstan province was shot dead and another was wounded by a car bomb. The province's leader and local religious authorities said the attacks were probably related to the priests' criticism of radical Islamists.
    (AP, 7/19/12)
2012        Jul 19, At the United Nations permanent Security Council members Russia and China vetoed resolutions on Syria for the third time in nine months.
    (AFP, 7/19/12)

2012        Jul 21, Russia reported that President Vladimir Putin has signed into law a new measure that requires from non-governmental groups receiving funding from abroad and engages in political activity to register as a foreign agent.
    (AP, 7/21/12)

2012        Jul 31, Russian authorities charged Alexei Navalny (36), an anti-corruption crusader and critic of Pres. Putin, of organizing a scheme to steal assets from a state timber company totaling about half a million dollars.
    (SFC, 8/1/12, p.A5)
2012        Jul 31, Russian internet entrepreneur Yuri Milner announced that he will give $3 million each year to the most influential thinker in fundamental physics.
    (Econ, 8/4/12, p.70)

2012        Aug 6, Russia launched an unmanned Proton-M rocked carrying Russian and Indonesian communications satellites. A secondary booster module failed shortly after launch from Kazakhstan.
    (SFC, 8/8/12, p.A2)

2012        Aug 7, Russia began hosting a 3-day meeting of the Asia Pacific Economic Cooperation forum (APEC) on Russky Island, just off the coast of Vladivostok. A 3,100 meter cable bridge to the island was the longest cable bridge in the world.
    (Economist, 9/8/12, p.52)

2012        Aug 8, Russian prosecutors said a reclusive sect in Kazan, Tatarstan, that literally went underground to stop contact with the outside world, kept 27 children in dark and unheated cells, many of them for more than a decade. The children have been freed and the parents charged with child abuse. Child abuse charges were brought against members of the sect and leader Faizrakhman Satarov (83), who declared himself a Muslim prophet in contradiction with the principles of Islam, has also been charged with negligence.
    (AP, 8/8/12)

2012        Aug 17, A Russian judge found three members of the provocative punk band Pussy Riot guilty of hooliganism. A court sentenced the women to two-year jail sentences for their anti-Putin stunt performed in a prominent Moscow church.
    (AP, 8/17/12)(AFP, 8/17/12)

2012        Aug 18, In southern Russia’s republic of Dagestan, two masked gunmen burst into a Shiite mosque during evening prayers and opened fire, wounding eight people.
    (AFP, 8/19/12)

2012        Aug 19, In southern Russia a suicide bomber blew himself up as policemen in Ingushetia gathered for the funeral of a slain colleague, killing at least seven of the policemen and badly wounding 12 other people. Gov. Yunus-Bek Yevkurov said militants had killed the police officer in the town of Malgobek to set up the suicide attack at the funeral.
    (AFP, 8/19/12)

2012        Aug 24, Greenpeace activists were first offered hot soup, then sprayed with blasts of cold water after they stormed a floating Russia oil platform and erected climbing tents on the side of the rig to protest drilling in the Arctic.
    (AP, 8/24/12)

2012        Aug 24, A Russian court unexpectedly acquitted opposition leader and chess grandmaster Garry Kasparov of participating in an unauthorized rally.
    (AP, 8/24/12)

2012        Aug 26, In Russia members of the punk band Pussy Riot said two members have fled the country to avoid prosecution for a protest that sent 3 bandmates to prison.
    (SFC, 8/27/12, p.A2)

2012        Aug 27, Greenpeace said in a statement that 14 activists have chained themselves to the anchor chain of the vessel which was carrying Gazprom's workers to the Prirazlomnaya platform in the Pechora Sea.
    (AP, 8/27/12)

2012        Aug 28, Russian opposition leader Boris Nemtsov said President Vladimir Putin is spending billions of taxpayers' rubles on 20 luxurious residences, 43 jets and four yachts. In a report titled “The Life of a Galley Slave," Nemtsov, a former deputy prime minister, estimated that the maintenance of Putin's residences, jets and cars alone costs $2.5 billion a year.
    (AP, 8/28/12)
2012        Aug 28, Russian opposition activist Taisiya Osipova was sentenced to eight years in prison in a review of her drug-related case —twice as long as prosecutors had requested in a ruling that drew immediate opposition outrage. A witness for the defense testified at her trial that he saw a police officer put the drugs in Osipova's apartment. She and her supporters have maintained that police planted four grams of heroin in her home in 2010 in revenge for her refusal to testify against her husband, Sergei Fomchenkov, also a senior figure in The Other Russia opposition movement.
    (AP, 8/28/12)
2012        Aug 28, The Russian presidential human rights council questioned the guilty verdict and two-year prison sentences against three members of punk provocateurs Pussy Riot. The council said in a statement that "criminal law was used to deal with actions which entail administrative liability only" in the case.
    (AP, 8/29/12)
2012        Aug 28, In Dagestan Said Afandi (75) a powerful leader of a Sufi Muslim brotherhood was killed along with six other people, including an 11-year-old boy and a woman, in the central village of Chirkei after a bomber disguised as a pilgrim approached him in his house. Police the next day said that the bomber was Aminat Kurbanova, a 30-year-old resident of Makhachkala.
    (AP, 8/29/12)

2012        Aug 29, At least 3 Georgian commandos and 11 militants from Dagestan were killed during an operation to free hostages held along Georgia's border with Russia.
    (AP, 8/29/12)

2012        Aug 30, Russia officials said the bodies of two slain women were found beneath a scrawled message demanding freedom for the jailed members of the Pussy Riot band. Russia's Investigative Committee said the women, aged 76 and 38, were killed late last week in their apartment in the central city of Kazan with the words "Free Pussy Riot" written on the wall in English, "presumably" with blood. Police detained Igor Danilevsky, a 38-year-old university professor. Investigators said Danilevsky wrote "Free Pussy Riot" because he wanted the deaths of the 38-year-old woman he dated and her mother, 76, to appear as if they were a "ritual killing."
    (AP, 8/30/12)(AP, 8/31/12)

2012        Sep 5, Moscow police arrested 10 environmental activists, including four dressed in polar bear costumes, who were protesting outside the main office of Gazprom. The protest by members of Greenpeace called upon Gazprom to halt its offshore drilling in the Arctic.
    (AFP, 9/5/12)

2012        Sep 8, A Russian MI-35 military helicopter crashed into a mountain in the republic of Dagestan, killing all three crewmen aboard.
    (AP, 9/9/12)

2012        Sep 9, In Vladivostok, Russia, Pacific Rim leaders pledged to fend off the deepening damage from the European crisis and revive flagging growth in the region by supporting open trade, reforming their economies and strengthening public finances as the 21-member Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation (APEC) forum wrapped up an annual summit.
    (AP, 9/9/12)

2012        Sep 11, Russia’s Gazprom accused the European Commission of pressuring the Russian firm into slashing gas prices for its customers soon after President Vladimir Putin signed a decree that could hinder the EU probe. Putin signed a decree barring strategic Russian enterprises from disclosing information to foreign regulators, changing contracts and selling property abroad without government permission.
    (AP, 9/11/12)

2012        Sep 12, In Russia’s far east an Antanov-28 plane crashed into a forest in western Kamchatka killing 10 people and injuring four.
    (AP, 9/12/12)

2012        Sep 14, Russia's parliament expelled Gennady Gudkov (56), a former Kremlin loyalist who joined the growing opposition movement, propelling President Vladimir Putin's crackdown on political dissent into the halls of power.
    (AP, 9/14/12)

2012        Sep 15, In Russia tens of thousands of people marched across downtown Moscow in the first major protest in three months against President Vladimir Putin, a sign of the opposition's strength despite the Kremlin's efforts to muzzle dissent.
    (AP, 9/15/12)

2012        Sep 19, Russia’s foreign ministry said that the US Agency for Int’l. Development was being barred from operating in the country beginning October 1 because it had meddled in elections. Golos, an independent Russian organization whose monitors reported massive fraud during elections, was a recipient of US AID grants and would be one of the first victims of the ruling.
    (SFC, 9/20/12, p.A3)

2012        Sep 22, Russian officials said 4 police officers ad 4 suspected militants have been killed over the last two days in fighting in Chechnya.
    (SSFC, 9/23/12, p.A6)
2012        Sep 22, In Russia Alexander Maximov (29) crashed his car into a bus stop in Moscow, killing 5 teenagers from an orphanage and their 2 carers. He had been drinking for 2 days and was traveling more than 200 km per hour (120 miles per hour) when he lost control of his car. On May 22, 2013 Maximov was sentenced to eight and a half years in prison.
    (AP, 9/23/12)(AP, 5/22/13)(http://tinyurl.com/ov55fyf)

2012        Sep 27, Leading Russian non-government organizations said they would defy a new Kremlin law requiring those who receive funding from abroad to register as "foreign agents."
    (AP, 9/27/12)
2012        Sep 27, Venezuelan and Russian officials signed eight agreements to boost cooperation in energy projects. Igor Sechin, the CEO of Russia's state-controlled Rosneft oil company, was quoted by Russian news agencies as saying he also gave Chavez a 3-month-old black terrier puppy as a present from Putin.
    (AP, 9/27/12)

2012        Oct 1, Russia’s PM Dmitry Medvedev signed a long-expected strategy for reforming the pension system.
    (Economist, 10/6/12, p.64)
2012        Oct 1, A Moscow court found the film “Innocence of Muslims" offensive and banned its broadcast in Russia effective Nov 6.
    (SFC, 10/2/12, p.A2)

2012        Oct 3, A US federal indictment filed in Brooklyn named Alexander Fishenko, an immigrant from Kazakhstan, as a secret agent for the Russian military. Fishenko had made millions off his Texas export firm, Arc Electronics Inc., which shipped about $50 million worth of technologies to Russia between 2002 and 2012. He was among 11 defendants named in the indictment. On July 21, 2016, Fishenko was sentenced to 10 years in prison.
    (SFC, 10/4/12, p.A6)(SFC, 7/23/16, p.A7)

2012        Oct 4, London listed steelmaker Evraz, part-owned by tycoon Roman Abramovich, is to gain control of one of Russia's largest coal mines after acquiring a half stake in Cyprus-based investment vehicle Corber Enterprises for an undisclosed sum.
    (AP, 10/4/12)

2012        Oct 9, In Russia a series of unplanned shell detonations rocked a military test site, releasing giant clouds of smoke over the city of Orenburg near the Kazakhstan border and causing aftershocks.
    (AP, 10/9/12)

2012        Oct 10, Russia said it had no intention to automatically extend a 20-year old deal with the United States helping secure the nation's nuclear stockpiles, a move that comes amid a growing isolationist streak in Kremlin policy. The deal expires in 2013 without a major overhaul.
    (AP, 10/10/12)
2012        Oct 10, In Russia a Moscow court freed Yekaterina Samutsevich, one of the 3 jailed Pussy Riot band members, because she had been thrown out of the cathedral by guards before she could remove her guitar from its case.
    (SFC, 10/11/12, p.A3)
2012        Oct 10, Canadian naval intelligence officer Sub-Lieutenant Jeffrey Paul Delisle (41) pleaded guilty to handing over secrets to a foreign country. He had been selling secrets to the Russians for about $3,000 a month.
    (Reuters, 10/10/12)(SFC, 10/11/12, p.A2)

2012        Oct 14, Russia held local elections. President Vladimir Putin's loyalists swept to victory in most local election races that were marred by opposition claims of vote manipulations.
    (AP, 10/14/12)(AP, 10/15/12)

2012        Oct 15, Russia said it is appealing to the Afghan authorities and the public to provide information on some 265 Soviet troops — including 30-40 who may still be alive — listed as missing since Soviet forces ended their occupation of Afghanistan in 1989.
    (AP, 10/15/12)

2012        Oct 17, Russian investigators opened a criminal probe against leftist leader Sergei Udaltsov and several other activists for allegedly plotting mass riots in a new sign of a widening crackdown on Russia's opposition.
    (AP, 10/17/12)

2012        Oct 18, Russia's top investigative agency filed criminal charges against Konstantin Lebedev (33), the opposition leader's assistant, continuing a widespread crackdown on the movement against President Vladimir Putin.
    (AP, 10/18/12)
2012        Oct 18, Rosneft, Russia’s state-controlled oil giant, offered British Petroleum $28 billion for its half of the TNK-BP joint venture. A day earlier AAR, a consortium of Russian billionaires, had agreed to sell its half of the TNK-BP joint venture for the same amount.
    (Econ, 10/20/12, p.57)

2012        Oct 22, Russia's top investigative agency announced that Leonid Razvozzhayev, a government opponent, has turned himself in and confessed to orchestrating riots. The activist's supporters reported over the weekend that he had been kidnapped in Ukraine by Russian security officers outside a UN office where he was going to apply for political asylum.
    (AP, 10/22/12)

2012        Oct 23, A Russian Soyuz spacecraft launched in Kazakhstan carrying a 3-man crew, including an American and 2 Russians, to the Intl. Space Station.
    (SFC, 10/24/12, p.A2)

2012        Oct 25, Russia's top investigative agency launched a criminal probe into alleged fraud in the selloff of Defense Ministry assets, a high-profile case that could shake up the nation's scandal-marred military establishment.
    (AP, 10/25/12)

2012        Oct 27, Several Russian opposition leaders were detained in Moscow while protesting what they say was the torture of a fellow activist.
    (AP, 10/27/12)
2012        Oct 27, Mikhail Prokhorov, the billionaire New Jersey Nets owner and former Russian presidential candidate, said he's leaving business to focus full-time on politics, returning to the political arena after remaining silent through a five-month Kremlin crackdown on the opposition.
    (AP, 10/27/12)

2012        Oct 28, A Russian vessel with a nine-person crew and 700 tons of gold ore onboard went missing in stormy seas off Russia's Pacific Coast. The ship sent a distress call as it was sailing from the coastal town of Neran to Feklistov Island in the Sea of Okhotsk.
    (AP, 10/29/12)

2012        Oct 30, Several hundred demonstrators rallied in Moscow to press for the release of opposition activists on the same day that Russia commemorated the victims of Soviet-era repression.
    (AP, 10/30/12)

2012        Nov 4, In Russia some 6 thousand of nationalists marched through Moscow on Unity Day, chanting slogans including "Moscow is a Russian city" to express their resentment of dark-complexioned migrants from the Caucasus and Central Asia.
    (AP, 11/4/12)

2012        Nov 6, Russia’s Pres. Putin fired Anatoly Serdyukov, his powerful defense minister, after police raided the property of a real estate company involved the privatization of valuable ministry land near Moscow.
    (SFC, 11/7/12, p.A4)
2012        Nov 6, Russia wheeled out one of its treasured Cold War trophies, publishing a rare interview with George Blake, a 90-year-old British double agent. Blake worked for the British Secret Intelligence Service, MI6, from the 1940s. He became a committed communist while a North Korean prisoner during the Korean war, and worked for Moscow after being posted by MI6 to Berlin in 1955.
    (AP, 11/6/12)

2012        Nov 8, In Russia Israeli President Shimon Peres opened the new Jewish Museum and Center of Tolerance. It tells the history of Jewry through people's stories, which come alive in video interviews and interactive displays. The $50 million museum was built under the patronage of President Vladimir Putin, who in a symbolic move in 2007 donated a month of his salary — about $5,600 — to its creation.
    (AP, 11/16/12)(http://en.rian.ru/russia/20121108/177294289.html)

2012        Nov 10, Alexander Perepilichny (44) collapsed and died not far from his home on an upmarket, heavily protected estate in the county of Surrey, south of London. The Russian businessman had helped Swiss prosecutors uncover a powerful fraud syndicate. He had also provided evidence against those linked to the 2009 death of anti-corruption lawyer Sergei Magnitsky. He is now the fourth person linked to the Magnitsky case to have died in strange circumstances. In 2015 a toxicologist at a pre-inquest hearing reported that his stomach contained a compound associated with the poisonous plant gelsemium. In 2018 a British coroner said he probably died of natural causes.
    (AP, 11/29/12)(Econ, 5/23/15, p.47)(Reuters, 12/19/18)

2012        Nov 14, A new law expanding Russia's definition of treason took effect today. Under the new law, anyone possessing information deemed secret — whether a politician, a journalist, an environmentalist or a union leader — could potentially be jailed for up to 20 years for espionage.   
(AP, 11/14/12)

2012        Nov 21, In Russia dozens of non-governmental organizations refused to comply with a new law restricting their activities as part of the Kremlin's crackdown on its critics. A law passed several months ago obliged all NGOs that receive foreign funding and are involved in loosely defined political activities to register as "foreign agents" by today.
    (AP, 11/21/12)

2012        Nov 24, Russian physicist Valentin Danilov, convicted in 2004 of spying for China, was released on parole and continued to protest his innocence.
    (AP, 11/24/12)

2012        Nov 27, Russia’s Rossiya-1 channel aired a documentary linking former agricultural minister, Yelena Skrynnik, to a reported $1.2 billion fraud.
    (Econ, 12/1/12, p.57)
2012        Nov 27, In Russia a world martial arts champion, Rasul Mirzayev (26) from Dagestan, was convicted of involuntary manslaughter but set free after a trial that inflamed the country's ethnic tensions. The verdict led to protests by nationalists outside the Moscow court.
    (AP, 11/27/12)

2012        Dec 5, In Russia’s North Caucuses region journalist Kazbek Gekkiyev was gunned down in Nalchik, the capital of Kabardino-Balkariya province.
    (SFC, 12/7/12, p.A2)

2012        Dec 9, Russian and US diplomats met with UN peace envoy Lakhdar Brahimi for more talks on the civil war in Syria.
    (AP, 12/9/12)

2012        Dec 12, Russia's President Vladimir Putin vowed to strengthen the country's economy and its military might and rejected what he described as foreign lecturing about democracy and attempts at foreign interference in the nation's internal affairs.
    (AP, 12/12/12)

2012        Dec 13, Russia's President Vladimir Putin lambasted a US bill imposing sanctions on Russian officials accused of human rights violations, saying that it hurts Russian-American relations. The US Congress last week passed a bill penalizing Russian officials accused of rights violations.
    (AP, 12/13/12)
2012        Dec 13, Russian Deputy Foreign Minister Mikhail Bogdanov said that President Bashar Assad is losing control of his country and the rebels might win the civil war.
    (AP, 12/13/12)

2012        Dec 14, Russian investigators accused Alexei Navalny (36), a prominent opposition leader, and his brother of fraud and money-laundering, intensifying legal pressure on the anti-Kremlin protest movement as it prepares to hold its next big demonstration this weekend.
    (AP, 12/14/12)
2012        Dec 14, In Russia Dmitry Pavlyuchenkov, a former senior police officer, was found guilty for his role in the slaying of journalist Anna Politkovskaya in 2006. He was sentenced to 11 years in prison.
    (SFC, 12/15/12, p.A6)

2012        Dec 15, In Russia thousands of opposition supporters gathered in central Moscow for an unauthorized rally to mark a year of a wave of massive protests against Vladimir Putin and the government. Police dispersed the rally after 2 ½ hours.
    (AP, 12/15/12)

2012        Dec 21, The lower house of the Russian parliament overwhelmingly passed a bill that would ban adoption of Russian children by Americans, sending the controversial legislation a step closer to President Vladimir Putin's desk. This was part of a larger measure by angry lawmakers retaliating against a recently signed US law that calls for sanctions against Russians deemed to be human rights violators.
    (AP, 12/21/12)
2012        Dec 21, Kyrgyzstan's state-owned natural gas company said it is to be sold to Russia's energy monopoly Gazprom, raising hopes of an end to debilitating energy shortages in the impoverished Central Asian nation.
    (AP, 12/21/12)

2012        Dec 26, Russia’s upper chamber of parliament unanimously voted in favor of a measure banning Americans from adopting Russian children. It now goes to President Vladimir Putin to sign or turn down.
    (AP, 12/26/12)

2012        Dec 27, Russian President Vladimir Putin said he will sign a controversial bill barring Americans from adopting Russian children, as the Kremlin's children's rights advocate recommended extending the ban to the rest of the world.
    (AP, 12/27/12)
2012        Dec 27, Russia and Lakhdar Brahimi, UN envoy for Syria, both said that they want to revive a long-shelved peace initiative that would call for a transitional government to run the country until elections can be held.
    (AP, 12/27/12)

2012        Dec 28, Russia’s President Vladimir Putin signed a law banning Americans from adopting Russian children, abruptly terminating the prospects for more than 50 youngsters preparing to join new families and sparking critics to liken him to King Herod.
    (AP, 12/28/12)
2012        Dec 28, The only official charged with the 2009 death of Sergei Magnitsky, a Russian whistleblowing lawyer, walked free after a Moscow court acquitted prison doctor Dmitry Kratov of negligence. The case has become a rallying point for human rights advocates and sparked escalating legislation in the US and Russia.
    (AP, 12/28/12)

2012        Dec 29, In Russia a Red Wings Tu-204 passenger airliner careered off the runway at Vnukovo Airport, on the outskirts of Moscow, broke into pieces and caught fire. Four of 8 people died in the crash and a 5th died the next day.
    (AP, 12/29/12)(AP, 12/30/12)

2012        Dec 31, About 25 people reportedly were arrested in Moscow on New Year's Eve for trying to hold an unsanctioned protest. For about two years, activists have tried to rally on the 31st of each month with that many days, a reference to Article 31 of the Russian constitution that guarantees free assembly.
    (AP, 12/31/12)

2012        Geraldine Fagan authored “Believing in Russia: Religious Policy after Communism."
    (Econ, 4/29/17, p.39)
2012        Masha Gessen authored “The Man Without a Face: The Unlikely Rise of Vladimir Putin."
    (SSFC, 3/25/12, p.F1)
2012        Andrei Kovalev authored “Russia’s Dead End: An Insider’s Testimony from Gorbachev to Putin," a two-volume unsparing account of the Soviet collapse. In 2017 it was published in English in a condensed and edited version by Steven Levine.
    (Econ, 9/16/17, p.78)

2013        Jan 3, Russia announced that President Vladimir Putin has approved French actor Gerard Depardieu's application for citizenship.
    (AP, 1/3/13)
2013        Jan 3, In Russia Denis Burakov (27), was killed when a transparent plastic ball, known as a zorb, veered off course and sailed over a rock ledge at the Dombai ski resort in the rugged Caucasus Mountains. His friend Vladimir Shcherbakov survived.
    (AP, 1/9/13)

2013        Jan 4, Six Russians were killed and two seriously injured when the snowmobile and sled they were riding veered off an Italian Alpine ski slope at night, slammed into a barrier and flew through the air into a ravine.
    (AP, 1/5/13)

2013        Jan 10, Russia said that an adoption deal with the US will remain valid until 2014 despite a new Russian law banning the practice, but no new adoptions will be permitted and only those already cleared by Russian courts before the ban will be allowed to complete.
    (AP, 1/10/13)

2013        Jan 13, In Russia thousands marched through Moscow to protest a new law banning Americans from adopting Russian children.
    (AP, 1/13/13)

2013        Jan 15, Russian authorities charged Yelena Kotova, a former Russia director at the European Bank for Reconstruction and Development, with conspiracy to take a $1.4 million bribe.
    (AP, 1/15/13)
2013        Jan 15, In Russia Aslan Usoyan (75), aka Grandpa Khasan, was gunned down in Moscow. He headed one of the region's most powerful criminal groups, which trafficked in drugs and weapons and controlled underground casinos and legal businesses. Since 2006 Usoyan had been at war with a criminal group headed by another Georgian, Tariel Oniani.
    (AP, 1/16/13)

2013        Jan 16, In the Netherlands Alexander Dolmatov (36), a rocket engineer who feared arrest in Russia after an opposition protest turned violent in May, was taken to the prison-like deportation center in Rotterdam. The next morning he was found dead in his cell. Dutch authorities had denied his asylum request on Dec 14.
    (AP, 2/7/13)
2013        Jan 16, Chief Judge Royce Lamberth of the US District Court ruled that Russia should pay a $50,000 fine until it complies with his 2010 order to return thousands of religious books and manuscripts stolen from Jews during the Russian revolution and World War II to the Brooklyn-based Chabad-Lubavitch group. Following Lamberth's 2010 ruling, Russia completely halted the loan of its art treasures for exhibit in the US, for fear that they would be seized and held hostage in the court battle.
    (AP, 1/17/13)

2013        Jan 17, In Moscow, Russia, a masked assailant, later identified as Yuri Zarutsky (35), threw acid on the face of Sergei Filin, artistic director of the Bolshoi Ballet. Filin suffered 3rd degree burns and underwent eye surgery to save his sight. On March 6 police said that star dancer Pavel Dmitrichenko (29) had confessed to masterminding the attack, and two other men, Zarutsky and Andrei Lipatov, confessed to being accomplices.
    (SFC, 1/19/13, p.A3)(AP, 3/6/13)

2013        Jan 21, In Texas Max Shatto (3), an adopted boy born in Russia as Maxim Kuzmin, died in Gardendale. Russian authorities alleged “inhuman tratement" as the cause of death. Laura Shatto told authorities that Max and his half-brother were playing outside the family's home. Shatto said she came out and found the boy unconscious on the ground. A medical examiner later determined that the boy’s death was not intentional.
    (SFC, 2/19/13, p.A4)(AP, 2/22/13)(SFC, 2/2/13, p.A4)

2013        Jan 22, Syrian government forces and rebels battled in the suburbs of Damascus and elsewhere. Four buses carrying Russian citizens escaping the civil war crossed into Lebanon, in the first evacuation organized by Moscow since the start of the conflict nearly two years ago.
    (AP, 1/22/13)

2013        Jan 23, In Russia Lyudmila Garifulina (63), a member of the legislature in the town of Staraya Kupavna, was attacked outside her apartment building. She was stabbed four times with a knife. She opposed a construction project that would destroy a forest just outside Moscow.
    (AP, 1/25/13)

2013        Jan 25, Russian police detained 20 gay rights campaigners and militant Orthodox Christian activists near the country's parliament as it overwhelmingly backed a bill that would ban "homosexual propaganda."
    (AP, 1/25/13)

2013        Jan 26, In Russia a fire ripped through a new Moscow building's underground parking lot, killing 10 Tajikistan migrant workers and injuring 13 others who had been working and living there.
    (AP, 1/26/13)

2013        Jan 30, Russia pulled out of an anti-crime accord with the United States in a move the US called "self-defeating," the latest sign of rising tensions between Moscow and Washington.
    (AP, 1/30/13)

2013        Jan 31, Volgograd, the southern Russian city where the Red Army decisively turned back Nazi forces in a key World War II battle, passed a measure to use the name Stalingrad in city statements on the commemoration day, on Russia's May 9 Victory Day and on four other days connected with the battle.
    (AP, 1/31/13)

2013        Feb 8, A Moscow city court sentenced Vladimir Kvachkov (64), a retired military intelligence colonel, to 13 years in prison for attempting to organize an armed uprising. Retired police captain, Alexey Kiselev (62), was sentenced to 11 years as a co-conspirator. Prosecutors said they had organized a group who planned to seize power by training crossbow-wielding men to seize military depots and then descend upon Moscow with tanks.
    (AP, 2/8/13)
2013        Feb 8, Finnish customs officers confiscated a container on a Finnish freighter, en route to Syria from Russia, because it did not have a transit license and found 9.6 tons of tank spare parts.
    (AP, 2/15/13)

2013        Feb 9, In Russia Sergei Udaltsov, a top opposition figure, was placed under house arrest for two months. The move also banned him from using most forms of communication, including the Internet, telephone and mail. He faced charges in connection with a protest in May that ended in clashes with police and for allegedly plotting to conduct mass disorder aimed at overthrowing the government.
    (AP, 2/9/13)

2013        Feb 12, The Kremlin said President Vladimir Putin has submitted a bill that would ban Russian Cabinet members and other senior officials from having foreign bank accounts and owning foreign stock.
    (AP, 2/12/13)

2013        Feb 15, In Russia a meteor, estimated to be about 10 tons, streaked through the sky and exploded over Chelyabinsk in the Ural Mountains with the power of an atomic bomb. Its sonic blasts shattered countless windows and injured some 1200 people.
    (AP, 2/15/13)(AP, 2/16/13)(Econ, 2/23/13, p.78)

2013        Feb 16, G20 leaders meeting in Moscow said there would be no currency war and deferred plans to set new debt-cutting targets, underlining broad concern about the fragile state of the world economy.
    (AP, 2/16/13)

2013        Feb 18, In Russia the body of Lipetsk city councilman Mikhail Pakhomov (37), kidnapped last week, was found in a cement barrel. Investigators have arrested eight people in the case. Evgeny Kharitonov, a former deputy minister in Moscow's provincial government, was charged with organizing the kidnapping over what police called an $80 million debt.
    (AP, 2/19/13)

2013        Feb 19, Russia said it had sent two jets carrying humanitarian aid to Syria and are inviting Russians who want to leave the country to take the flights back.
    (AP, 2/19/13)

2013        Feb 20, In Russia Vladimir Pekhtin, a senior lawmaker of the ruling United Russia party, resigned over revelations that he owned more than $1.3 million worth of luxury real estate in Florida.
    (SFC, 2/21/13, p.A2)

2013        Mar 1, Andrey Borodin (45), former head of Russia's fifth largest bank, told a Russian newspaper his application for asylum has been granted in Britain after an application by his lawyers on the grounds that he faced political persecution in Russia. Borodin fled Russia in March, 2011.
    (Reuters, 3/1/13)

2013        Mar 11, A lab analyzing Russian findings of a new form of microbial life in Lake Vostok, a giant freshwater lake hidden under kilometers of Antarctic ice, said it was not new bacteria that generated the signal, but contamination.
    (AP, 3/11/13)

2013        Mar 16, A Soyuz space capsule carrying an American and 2 Russians landed in Kazakhstan. The men had spent 144 days on the Int’l. Space Station. 3 astronauts remained on the ISS.
    (SSFC, 3/17/13, p.A4)

2013        Mar 21, Russian prosecutors searched the offices of Memorial, one of the country's oldest and most respected human rights groups, as part of a new, wide-ranging campaign targeting hundreds of nongovernmental organizations.
    (AP, 3/21/13)

2013        Mar 23, Boris Berezovsky (67), fervent critic of Russian President Vladimir Putin, died in unclear circumstances at his home in Ascot, 25 miles (40 km) west of London. A Home Office pathologist soon found the cause of death to be consistent with hanging.
    (Reuters, 3/24/13)(Reuters, 3/25/13)

2013        Mar 25, Russian prosecutors and tax police searched the Moscow headquarters of Amnesty International and several other rights groups, continuing a wave of pressure that activists say is part of President Vladimir Putin's attempt to stifle dissent.
    (AP, 3/25/13)

2013        Mar 28, In northwest Russia a bus crash killed six people and injured at least 18 others, including orphans returning from a field trip.
    (AP, 3/28/13)

2013        Mar 29, A Soyuz capsule carrying 3 astronauts docked with the Int’l. Space Station (ISS) after traveling just 6 hours from launch in Kazakhstan.
    (SFC, 3/30/13, p.A3)

2013        Apr 5, Russia's foreign minister said Moscow doesn't understand why North Korea has suggested that Moscow and other countries close their embassies in Pyongyang, and he says he's concerned about the high tensions on the Korean peninsula.
    (AP, 4/5/13)

2013        Apr 8, In Amsterdam President Vladimir Putin defended Russia's treatment of homosexuals, as 1,000 gay rights activists waved pink and orange balloons and blasted out dance music to press home their protest.
    (Reuters, 4/8/13)

2013        Apr 12, In Russia Anti-Drugs Special Forces, widely known by their Russian acronym, MAS, issued a low-key statement on vk.com saying that it has halted drug raids. MAS was formed last year to track down spice pushers. Spice in over 900 versions, mass produced in China and Southeast Asia, was reportedly being exported to Russia as bath salts, incense and slimming additives, often in mail packages.
    (AP, 4/25/13)
2013        Apr 12, The United States announced sanctions for 18 Russians under the Magnitsky Law, named for Russian lawyer Sergei Magnitsky, who was arrested in 2008 for tax evasion after accusing Russian police officials of stealing $230 million in tax rebates.
    (AP, 4/13/13)

2013        Apr 13, Russia named 18 Americans banned from entering the country in response to Washington imposing sanctions on 18 Russians for alleged human rights violations.
    (AP, 4/13/13)

2013        Apr 14, In Belgium a Polish bus carrying Russian youngsters crashed through the guardrails of a bridge and plunged 5 meters (16 feet) to a field below, killing at least five people and injuring 12.
    (AP, 4/14/13)

2013        Apr 17, In Russia  Alexei Navalny (36), the Kremlin's public enemy No.1., went on trial in Kirov on embezzlement charges but was granted an adjournment for more time to prepare. The web-savvy lawyer overcame a state-imposed national media blackout and minimal funds by exploiting his blog and Twitter account to reach hundreds of thousands of Russians.
    (AP, 4/17/13)

2013        Apr 22, In southwest Russia Sergei Pomazun (32) opened fire outside a department store in Belgorod, killing five people immediately, including a girl (16). Another girl (14) died in hospital. The man opened fire while he tried to rob a hunting store. Pomazun was captured on April 23 as he tried to leave on a freight train.
    (AP, 4/22/13)(SFC, 4/24/13, p.A5)

2013        Apr 26, Russian police and security agents detained 140 people at a mosque in Moscow on suspicion of involvement with Islamic extremism.
    (AP, 4/26/13)
2013        Apr 26, In Russia a fire swept through a psychiatric hospital outside Moscow, killing 38 people, some of them sedated and in their beds.
    (AP, 4/26/13)

2013        May 1, In Russia a bomb exploded in a busy shopping area in Makhachkala, the capital of Dagestan, killing at least two people.
    (AP, 5/1/13)

2013        May 2, In Russia Valery Gergiev, the artistic director of the Mariinsky theater in St. Petersburg, opened the new Mariinsky theater next door to the old imperial structure.
    (Econ, 5/11/13, p.87)

2013        May 6, In Russia about 20,000 protesters thronged Bolotnaya Square across from the Kremlin, a year after a protest at the same spot turned violent on the eve of President Vladimir Putin's inauguration.
    (AP, 5/7/13)

2013        May 7, The US and Russia agreed to try to convene an int’l. conference this month to come to a political solution in end the 2-year civil war in Syria.
    (SFC, 5/8/13, p.A2)

2013        May 8, In Russia Vladislav Surkov, a longtime Kremlin strategist considered the architect of the tightly controlled political system created under President Vladimir Putin, resigned his post of deputy prime minister. His ouster followed an unusually public feud with investigators over a criminal investigation into Skolkovo, a government project to promote innovation modeled on Silicon Valley. Surkov was overseeing the ambitious project.
    (AP, 5/8/13)

2013        May 10, In Russia a 23-year-old man was brutally beaten and left to die by his companions in Volgograd after drunkenly telling them he was gay. A former schoolmate of the victim and another man were soon arrested for the killing.
    (AP, 5/13/13)

2013        May 14, Russian President Vladimir Putin met Israeli PM Benjamin Netanyahu in Moscow for talks that focused on the situation in Syria, amid concerns that Russia could soon provide Syria with advanced missiles.
    (AP, 5/14/13)
2013        May 14, Russia's security services said they have caught a US diplomat who they claim is a CIA agent in a red-handed attempt to recruit a Russian agent. Ryan Fogle, a third secretary at the US Embassy in Moscow, was carrying special technical equipment, disguises, written instructions and a large sum of money when he was detained overnight.
    (AP, 5/14/13)

2013        May 16, Levada Center, Russia's only independent polling agency, was told by prosecutors to register as a foreign agent.
    (Econ, 6/1/13, p.53)

2013        May 18, Russia's Sergey Karjakin won the €100,000 ($130,000) Norway chess championship after drawing against Veselin Topalov of Bulgaria.
    (AP, 5/18/13)

2013        May 19, A Russian capsule carrying mice, lizards and other small animals returned to Earth after spending a month in space for what scientists said was the longest experiment of its kind. Fewer than half of the 53 mice and other rodents who blasted off on April 19 from the Baikonur Cosmodrome survived the flight.
    (AP, 5/20/13)

2013        May 20, Russia's only independent polling agency, said it may have to close after prosecutors targeted it for "political activity" under a law spearheading Pres. Putin's crackdown on foreign-funded NGOs. Levada Center receives between 1.5 and 3% of its funding from foreign sources.
    (AP, 5/20/13)
2013        May 20, Russia's counterterrorism agency said that its special forces killed two militants and detained a third believed to have been planning a terrorist act in Moscow (see June 6).
    (AP, 5/20/13)

2013        May 22, An imprisoned member of the punk band Pussy Riot said she is going on hunger strike after a judge refused to allow her to attend a court hearing where she was seeking release on parole. Maria Alekhina, watching the trial from a prison colony via video link, ordered her defense not to participate in today’s hearing, saying the court was violating her rights.
    (AP, 5/22/13)

2013        May 24, Russia's foreign ministry said the Syrian government has agreed in principle to a conference on the country's future proposed by Russia and the United States.
    (AP, 5/24/13)
2013        May 24, An earthquake in the Sea of Okhotsk, east of the Russian coast and north of Japan registered 8.0 on the Richter scale. Tremors were felt as far away as Moscow, about 7,000 km (4,400 miles) west of the epicenter.
    (AP, 5/24/13)

2013        May 25, Russian police arrested at least 30 gay rights campaigners and Christian Orthodox vigilantes in Moscow as gay-rights campaigners and their opponents clashed at an unsanctioned rally in Moscow.
    (AP, 5/25/13)

2013        May 28, Israel's defense minister signaled that his military is prepared to strike shipments of advanced Russian weapons to Syria, in a rare implied threat to Moscow.
    (AP, 5/28/13)

2013        May 29, A Soyuz capsule carrying an American, Russian and Italian successfully docked with the International Space Station, where the new crew will spend six months conducting a variety of experiments.
    (AP, 5/29/13)

2013        May 30, Russian scientists said a perfectly preserved woolly mammoth carcass with liquid blood has been found on a remote Arctic island, fueling hopes of cloning the Ice Age animal.
    (AP, 5/30/13)

2013        May 31, Sergei Korotkov, general director of the MiG company that makes MiG jets, told Russian news agencies that a Syrian delegation was in Moscow to discuss terms and deadlines of a new contract supplying at least 10 MiG-29 M/M2 fighters to Syria.
    (AP, 5/31/13)

2013        Jun 1, In Russia a ban on smoking in public places took effect.
    (SSFC, 6/2/13, p.A6)
2013        Jun 1, In Russia Maria Alekhina , a jailed member of the punk group Pussy Riot, reportedly ended her 11-day hunger strike after prison authorities met her demands. She had complained that officials at her prison colony in the Ural Mountains attempted to turn fellow inmates against her with a security crackdown.
    (AP, 6/1/13)
2013        Jun 1, Russian security forces conducted a military-style operation to detain Said Amirov (59), the mayor of Makhachkala, Dagestan, on murder charges. Amirov was accused of staging the killing of a senior investigator with the local branch of the Investigative Committee in 2011.
    (AP, 6/1/13)

2013        Jun 6, Russia’s Pres. Putin (60) and his wife, Lyudmila (55), announced the end of their marriage less than two months shy of their 30th anniversary in an interview with Russian television.
    (AP, 6/7/13)
2013        Jun 6, Russia said it has deployed a naval unit, 16 warships and three ship-based helicopters, to the Mediterranean Sea.
    (Reuters, 6/6/13)
2013        Jun 6, Russian special forces arrested Yulai Davletbayev, a man who is accused of planning a terrorist attack on Moscow that the agency foiled on May 20. Two suspected militants from the group Davletbayev is accused of leading were killed and a third, Robert Amerkhanov was arrested in an FSB operation in May.
    (AP, 6/6/13)

2013        Jun 11, Russia’s State Duma voted 434-0 with one abstention to approve Kremlin-backed legislation which imposes hefty fines for holding gay pride rallies or providing information about the lesbian, gay, bisexual and transgender community to minors.
    (AP, 6/11/13)

2013        Jun 12, Thousands of Russian opposition activists marched through Moscow on Russia Day, decrying President Vladimir Putin's authoritarian rule and calling for the release of people they consider political prisoners.
    (AP, 6/12/13)

2013        Jun 17, G8 leaders began meeting in Northern Ireland. They dedicated themselves to a political solution to Syria's bloody civil war, even as President Barack Obama and Russian President Vladimir Putin staked out diametrically opposite stands on which side deserves military support.
    (AP, 6/17/13) (AP, 6/18/13)

2013        Jun 18, Russian PM Dmitry Medvedev said that authorities will shut down a paper mill on the shores of Lake Baikal, which environmentalists say is a major pollutant threatening one of the world's largest fresh water lakes.
    (AP, 6/18/13)

2013        Jun 21, President Vladimir Putin said Russia will channel at least $43.5 billion in reserve funds on three ambitious infrastructure projects to upgrade aging roads and railways across the vast country.
    (AP, 6/21/13)(SFC, 6/21/13, p.A2)
2013        Jun 21, In Russia dozens of police officers stormed the headquarters of the For Human Rights movement in Moscow, changed the locks on the doors, and told employees to leave. Officials in the mayor’s office said the group had rented the office from the city and the lease ended in February.
    (AP, 6/21/13)

2013        Jun 23, Former US National Security Agency contractor Edward Snowden flew from Hong Kong to Russia. A report said he intended to fly to Cuba on June 24 and then on to Caracas, Venezuela.
    (AP, 6/23/13)

2013        Jun 25, Russia's foreign minister bluntly rejected US demands to extradite National Security Agency leaker Edward Snowden, saying that Snowden hasn't crossed the Russian border.
    (AP, 6/25/13)

2013        Jun 29, Russian police arrested several gay rights activists and Russian nationalists who confronted them at a rally in St. Petersburg that was declared illegal under a new law against "gay propaganda."
    (AP, 6/29/13)
2013        Jun 29, In Chechnya police said rebels have killed a Russian policeman and injured 14 others.
    (AP, 6/29/13)

2013        Jun 30, The Kremlin said Pres. Putin has singed into law a measure that stigmatizes gay people and bans giving any information about homosexuality. The propaganda law banned anything considered “propaganda of non-traditional relationships".
    (SFC, 7/1/13, p.A2)(The Daily Beast, 7/22/20)

2013        Jun, Russian property developer Sergei Polonsky was charged with embezzling more than 5.7 billion rubles ($175 million) from 80 property investors. He insisted he was innocent of embezzlement charges, and claimed to have owned property worth as much as $4 billion. Polonsky fled to Cambodia and later described the case against him as extortion carried out by people who wished to put him in prison so they could take control of his holdings.
    (AP, 4/25/14)

2013        Jul 2, In Russia Alexander Lebedev, a banking tycoon who financed a newspaper critical of the Kremlin, was found guilty of assault for punching a talk show guest in Sep, 2011, and sentenced to 150 hours of community service.
    (AP, 7/2/13)
2013        Jul 2, A Russian helicopter packed with passengers crashed in Siberia, killing at least 19 of the 28 people aboard.
    (Reuters, 7/2/13)
2013        Jul 2, A Russian Proton rocket carrying navigation satellites crashed a few seconds after takeoff from the Kazakhstan’s Baikonur Cosmodrome. This was the 4th Proton failure at Baikonur in 14 years.
    (SFC, 7/3/13, p.A2)(Econ, 11/8/14, p.45)

2013        Jul 3, Russian Authorities arrested Evgeny Urlashov, the only opposition mayor of a major Russian city, for allegedly soliciting bribes, and said they found vast sums of cash stashed in his apartment building. The Investigative Committee in Yaroslavl said that it arrested Urlashov and three of his deputies for allegedly demanding a bribe of 14 million rubles (about $420,000) from an unidentified contractor.
    (AP, 7/3/13)

2013        Jul 6, Russia's Interior Ministry said French authorities have detained Alexei Kuznetsov, a former Russian politician. He has been on an Interpol wanted list since November, accused of fraud worth 3.5 billion roubles. ($105 million).
    (Reuters, 7/6/13)

2013        Jul 9, In Russia Anatoly Iksanov (61), the chief of Moscow's Bolshoi Theater, was fired after months of infighting following an acid attack on its artistic director that has stained the reputation of one of the legendary names in world ballet.
    (AP, 7/9/13)(SFC, 7/10/13, p.A2)

2013        Jul 11, A Moscow court found the late investment fund lawyer Sergei Magnitsky guilty of tax evasion in Russia's first posthumous trial. The court also convicted Magnitsky's former client William Browder, a Briton who has spearheaded an international campaign to expose corruption and punish Russian officials he blames for Magnitsky's death in a Moscow jail while awaiting trial in 2009.
    (Reuters, 7/11/13)

2013        Jul 12, In Russia Edward Snowden, former NSA analyst, said he was ready to meet Pres. Putin’s condtion to stop leaking secrets if it means Russia would give him shelter that could eventually help him get to asylum in Latin America.
    (SFC, 7/13/13, p.A3)

2013        Jul 13, In Russia 18 people were killed and 25 injured when a truck ploughed into a bus in a Moscow suburb.
    (Reuters, 7/13/13)
2013        Jul 13, In Ingushetia Mikhail Musikhanov was killed by security forces along with another militant in a shootout in the Sunzha region. He was the personal bodyguard of rebel leader Doku Umarov, Russia's most wanted insurgent, who has vowed to use "maximum force" to prevent President Vladimir Putin staging the 2014 Games in Sochi.
    (Reuters, 7/13/13)

2013        Jul 16, National Security Agency leaker Edward Snowden submitted a request for temporary asylum in Russia, claiming he faces persecution from the US government and could face torture or death.
    (AP, 7/16/13)

2013        Jul 17, In Russia senior central bank officials disclosed their personal wealth, many of them for the first time. First Deputy Chairman Sergei Shvetso declared ownership of six apartments in Mexico and a home in the United States, possibly leaving him open to criticism as President Vladimir Putin campaigns to curtail holdings of foreign assets.
    (Reuters, 7/17/13)

2013        Jul 18, In Russia Alexei Navalny (37), a leading opposition figure, was convicted of embezzlement and sentenced to five years in prison. He was found guilty of heading a group that embezzled 16 million rubles' ($500,000) worth of timber from state-owned company Kirovles in 2009 while he worked as an unpaid adviser to the provincial governor in Kirov. Co-defendant Pyotr Ofitserov, who was given a four-year sentence.
    (AP, 7/18/13)

2013        Jul 19, Russia unexpectedly freed opposition leader Alexei Navalny on bail, bending to the will of thousands of protesters who denounced his five-year jail sentence as a crude attempt by President Vladimir Putin to silence him.
    (Reuters, 7/19/13)

2013        Jul 20, In Russia G20 finance ministers, meeting in Moscow, said their countries consider strengthening economic growth and creating jobs to be top priorities.
    (AP, 7/21/13)

2013        Jul 24, A Russian state news agency said National Security Agency leaker Edward Snowden has been given a document that allows him to leave the transit zone of a Moscow airport and enter the country.
    (AP, 7/24/13)

2013        Jul 25, Strasboug-based European Court of Human Right dismissed claims that Russian tycoon Mikhail Khodorkovsky was prosecuted for political reasons, but said that some procedures during a trial against him were unfair.
    (AP, 7/25/13)

2013        Jul 26, Interpol rejected a second request from Moscow to put British investment fund head William Browder on its search list, dealing a fresh blow to Russia's drive to jail the man behind a campaign to expose corruption and rights violations.
    (Reuters, 7/26/13)

2013        Jul 27, In London, England, Ilya Segalovich (48) died of brain cancer. He was the co-founder of Russia's largest search engine, Yandex.
    (AP, 7/28/13)

2013        Jul 31, In Russia police in Moscow detained 1,200 Vietnamese who were in the country illegally during a pre-dawn raid on a complex of small workshops.
    (AP, 8/1/13)

2013        Aug 1, US National Security Agency leaker Edward Snowden left the transit zone of a Moscow airport and entered Russia after authorities granted him temporary asylum to July 31, 2014.
    (AP, 8/1/13)(SFC, 8/2/13, p.A2)
2013        Aug 1, In Sweden two topless activists climbed over a fence into the Russian embassy in Stockholm to protest against the country's anti-gay bill and stigmatization of homosexuals.
    (AP, 8/1/13)

2013        Aug 6, Russia's highest court reduced by two months the 11-year prison terms for jailed former oil tycoon Mikhail Khodorkovsky and his business partner Platon Lebedev. They had asked the court to overturn their verdicts and release them immediately. Khodorkovsky was now set to be released in August 2014, and Lebedev to be set free in May 2014.
    (AP, 8/6/13)
2013        Aug 6, Latvia's government approved the extradition of  Deniss Calovskis (b.1985), a man accused by the United States of helping create a virus that affected over a million computers worldwide, including many at NASA, and that allowed hackers to steal millions of dollars from victims' bank accounts. US authorities earlier this year accused Calovskis, along with Romanian citizen Mihai Ionut Paunescu and Russian national Nikita Kuzmin, of participating in a conspiracy that started in 2005 to create and disseminate the so-called Gozi virus.
    (AP, 8/6/13)

2013        Aug 7, President Barack Obama canceled his Moscow summit with Russian President Vladimir Putin. The decision reflected both US anger over Russia's harboring of National Security Agency leaker Edward Snowden and growing frustration within the Obama administration over what it sees as Moscow's stubbornness on other key issues, including missile defense and human rights.
    (AP, 8/7/13)

2013        Aug 15, Ukrainian politicians accused Russia of starting a trade war to pressure the country against signing a cooperation pact with the EU, bringing relations between the two former Soviet states to a new low.
    (AP, 8/15/13)

2013        Aug 17, Russian media said as many as 100,000 people may be evacuated from their homes near Russia's border with China if the region's biggest floods for 120 years get worse. Floodwater has already led to the evacuation of about 170,000 people from the Amur, Khabarovsk and Jewish Autonomous regions.
    (AP, 8/17/13)
2013        Aug 17, In Russia a boat, piloted by a captain suspected of being drunk, crashed into a barge on the Irtysh river, 10 km from the Siberian city of Omsk. 4 people were killed and 49 injured.
    (AP, 8/17/13)

2013        Aug 20, In Russia’s Caucasus region police killed 5 people in a clash in Dagestan. Among the dead was Bammatkhan Sheikov, a prominent warlord who was said to be competing to oversee all militant operations in Dagestan.
    (AP, 8/20/13)

2013        Aug 26, Greenpeace said that Russian authorities have boarded their ship which is in the Arctic to protest against oil drilling. The Greenpeace ship entered the waters of the Kara Sea on Aug 24.
    (AP, 8/26/13)

2013        Aug 28, Russian police said they have raided an exhibition and confiscated a painting that portrayed President Vladimir Putin and PM Dmitry Medvedev lounging together in women's lingerie. Artist Konstantin Altunin left Russia in fear of being arrested after the show's closure.
    (AFP, 8/28/13)

2013        Aug 30, Russia banned pork imports from Belarus, stepping up a diplomatic and trade war over the arrest of Uralkali's CEO, Vladislav Baumgertner, a Russian businessman, and threatening to deepen the isolation of its former Soviet ally. The dispute followed the collapse this month of a Russia-Belarus sales cartel that controlled two-fifths of the $20-billion global market for potash, an ingredient used in mineral fertilizers.
    (Reuters, 8/30/13)

2013        Sep 2, Belarus authorities issued an arrest warrant for Suleyman Kerimov (47), a Russian billionaire who co-owns the Moscow-based potash company Uralkali, as a power struggle escalated over exports of the fertilizer.
    (AP, 9/2/13)

2013        Sep 5, President Barack Obama flew to St. Petersburg, Russia, for meetings with world leaders at the Group of 20 summit.
    (AP, 9/5/13)

2013        Sep 6, G20 leaders meeting in Russia committed to crack down on cross-border companies that use tax havens. They also agreed on a plan to share information on individual taxpayers by the end of 2015.
    (AP, 9/6/13)
2013        Sep 6, Turkish PM Tayyip Erdogan said almost all leaders at the G20 summit in St. Petersburg accepted the need for an operation to be carried out against Syria following a chemical weapons attack there last month.
    (Reuters, 9/6/13)

2013        Sep 8, Russian opposition leader Alexei Navalny (37) faced off against Sergei Sobyanin, a Kremlin ally, in a Moscow mayoral election with high stakes for both President Vladimir Putin and his foes.
    (AP, 9/8/13)

2013        Sep 9, A senior Russian diplomat in Georgia's Moscow-backed breakaway Abkhazia region was shot dead by an unidentified gunman.
    (Reuters, 9/9/13)
2013        Sep 9, The Moscow Election Commission said that former Kremlin chief of staff Sergei Sobyanin got just over 51% of the vote while Alexei Navalny garnered 27% in second place. Navalny demanded a recount.
    (AP, 9/9/13)
2013        Sep 9, The Syrian government accepted a Russian proposal to put its chemical weapons under international control to avoid a possible US military strike.
    (Reuters, 9/10/13)

2013        Sep 10, Shareholders of Cyprus' largest bank elected six Russians to sit on its new, 16-member board of directors, a consequence of the country's bailout agreement with international creditors.
    (AP, 9/10/13)

2013        Sep 11, A Russian Soyuz capsule carrying three astronauts touched down in Kazakhstan after undocking from the International Space Station following 166 days in space.
    (AP, 9/11/13)
2013        Sep 11, The European Union rejected Russian pressure to deter Ukraine and other former Soviet republics from deepening trade ties with Europe, saying any kind of retaliation was unacceptable.
    (Reuters, 9/11/13)

2013        Sep 13, In Russia a fire killed 37 people in a psychiatric hospital in Luka, a provincial village north of Moscow. This was the second deadly blaze at such a facility this year.
    (Reuters, 9/13/13)
2013        Sep 13, Lithuania made a formal protest to Russia over extra border checks imposed over the last month that are hampering trade as the countries spar over trade relations with Ukraine. Russia and the EU, of which Lithuania holds the rotating presidency, are each trying to convince Georgia, Moldova and Ukraine to join their respective trade blocs.
    (Reuters, 9/13/13)

2013        Sep 14, The United States and Russia agreed a "framework for elimination of Syrian chemical weapons." General Selim Idris, the head of the opposition Syrian Supreme Military Council, said a US-Russian agreement to eliminate Syria's chemical weapons was a blow to the two-and-a-half-year uprising to remove President Bashar al-Assad from power.
    (Reuters, 9/14/13)

2013        Sep 18, Russian coast guards fired warning shots and arrested two Greenpeace activists who scaled the Prirazlomnaya Arctic oil platform in a protest over the potential threat to the environment from operations slated to start this year.
    (Reuters, 9/18/13)

2013        Sep 19, The Russian Coast Guard began towing a Greenpeace ship to Murmansk after armed officers stormed it following a protest against oil drilling in Arctic waters.
    (AP, 9/20/13)

2013        Sep 22, Russia re-opened a railway link with North Korea, holding out the prospect of increased trade for the reclusive nation with its biggest neighbors after years of international sanctions.
    (Reuters, 9/22/13)

2013        Sep 23, In Russia Nadezhda Tolokonnikova, one of the imprisoned members of the punk group Pussy Riot, said she is beginning a hunger strike to protest harsh working conditions and threats to her life.
    (AP, 9/23/13)

2013        Sep 24, Russian investigators said they will file piracy charges against Greenpeace activists who tried to climb onto an offshore drilling platform in the Arctic owned by Gazprom. 30 activists from 18 countries were aboard the Arctic Sunrise seized last week.
    (AP, 9/24/13)

2013        Sep 25, Russian authorities introduced a state of emergency in Sochi, the host city of the 2014 Winter Olympics, as floods and mudslides covered highways and a few residential areas in the Black Sea resort.
    (AP, 9/25/13)

2013        Sep 26, A Russian court ordered two Greenpeace activists to be detained for two months over a protest on an Arctic oil platform, as the Netherlands called for the activists' immediate release and threatened legal action against Moscow.
    (AFP, 9/26/13)

2013        Sep 27, Russian security forces killed five suspected militants in the North Caucasus province of Dagestan including one believed to be a local Islamist insurgent leader.
    (Reuters, 9/27/13)

2013        Sep 29, A Russian court in the northern city of Murmansk sent six more Greenpeace activists to jail for two months and showed no sign that the remaining two activists would be treated any differently for a protest at a drilling platform in Arctic waters.
    (AP, 9/29/13)
2013        Sep 29, In  Poland Pavel Khodorkovsky, a son of Russian tycoon Mikhail Khodorkovsky, received a $100,000 human rights award on behalf of his imprisoned father during a ceremony conducted by Solidarity founder Lech Walesa.
    (AP, 9/29/13)

2013        Oct 1, Tajikistan's parliament ratified a deal with Russia to extend by three decades Moscow's military presence in the Central Asian nation. A forthcoming vote in the docile upper house is seen as a formality in Tajikistan, where Pres. Imomali Rakhmon wields vast powers.
    (Reuters, 10/1/13)
2013        Oct 1, In Russia Nadezhda Tolokonnikova, an imprisoned member of the punk band Pussy Riot, ended her 9-day hunger strike to protest working conditions at the women’s prison where she is serving 2-year sentence.
    (SFC, 10/2/13, p.A2)

2013        Oct 2, Russian investigators charged 14 Greenpeace campaigners with piracy over an open-sea protest against Arctic oil drilling.
    (AFP, 10/2/13)(AP, 10/3/13)
2013        Oct 2, In Libya security guards fired shots to disperse a group of about 60 people who tried to storm the Russian embassy. One of the attackers was killed by the gunfire. Unconfirmed reports said that a Russian woman had murdered a Libyan.
    (AP, 10/2/13)(Reuters, 10/3/13)
2013        Oct 2, Lithuania’s foreign minister said his country could block Russia's road and rail access to its enclave of Kaliningrad if Moscow keeps pressuring its neighbors over their ties to the European Union.
    (Reuters, 10/2/13)
    (AP, 10/3/13)

2013        Oct 3, Russian investigators charged 16 more crew members of a Greenpeace ship with piracy for a protest at a Russian oil platform in the Arctic. All 30 crew members from 17 countries now faced 15-year prison terms if convicted.
    (AP, 10/3/13)

2013        Oct 4, Russia's Investigative Committee said it has confiscated 57,000 diamonds and 19 kg (42 pounds) of jewelry from Yevgenia Vasilyeva, a former defense ministry official, in an ongoing investigation into corruption charges. Vasilyeva was charged in 2012 with fraud related to the sale of military assets.
    (AP, 10/4/13)
2013        Oct 4, The Netherlands launched legal proceedings against Russia, saying it had unlawfully detained activists and others on the Dutch-registered ship last month as it protested against drilling in the Arctic.
    (Reuters, 10/5/13)

2013        Oct 5, Russia shrugged off Dutch legal action over its detention and prosecution of Greenpeace activists for piracy, saying the group's protest at an Arctic oil platform had been "pure provocation."
    (Reuters, 10/5/13)\

2013        Oct 7, Russia suspended imports of dairy products from neighboring Lithuania, turning up trade pressure on the European Union member weeks before it hosts a summit that could pull former Soviet republics further from Moscow's orbit.
    (Reuters, 10/7/13)

2013        Oct 9, Russian investigators said several of the 30 Greenpeace activists already charged with piracy over an open-sea protest were set to face new charges for "other grave crimes" after finding drugs on their ship.
    (AFP, 10/9/13)
2013        Oct 9, Credit Suisse reported that a staggering 35% of household wealth in Russia is owned by just 110 people, the highest level of inequality in the world barring a few small Caribbean islands.
    (AP, 10/9/13)
2013        Oct 9, The Dutch foreign minister apologized to Moscow for the detention of a Russian diplomat in The Hague, saying his right to diplomatic immunity had been violated. Dutch child protection services said earlier they were investigating a complaint from neighbors of diplomat Dmitry Borodin about his treatment of his children.
    (Reuters, 10/9/13)

2013        Oct 12, Russian police arrested 67 people after a fight broke out between gay rights activists and their opponents at a demonstration in St. Petersburg.
    (Reuters, 10/12/13)

2013        Oct 13, In Russia a mob of nationalists, joined by locals and pensioners in the Moscow suburb of Biryulyovo, smashed up a vegetable market over the murder of an ethnic Russian by a Caucasian migrant.
    (Econ, 10/19/13, p.58)

2013        Oct 14, Russian police swept through a vegetable warehouse earlier targeted by rioters, rounding up over a thousand migrant workers, checking their documents and loading them onto waiting vans to be investigated for criminal activity on the southern outskirts of Moscow.
    (AP, 10/1413)

2013        Oct 15, In Russia unknown attackers posing as electricians broke into the apartment of a Dutch diplomat, forced him to the ground, hit him and drew a heart containing the letters LGBT (lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender) on a mirror in pink lipstick.
    (Reuters, 10/16/13)

2013        Oct 16, A Russian court suspended a five-year prison sentence for top opposition leader Alexei Navalny, but upheld his conviction for theft that will prevent him from running in future elections.
    (AP, 10/16/13)
2013        Oct 16, In Russia a migrant worker was found stabbed to death in a Moscow neighborhood rocked this week by race riots, in what a community leader suggested was a revenge attack for the killing of an ethnic Russian.
    (Reuters, 10/16/13)

2013        Oct 21, In Russia female suicide bomber Naida Asiyalova (30) struck a passenger bus in the southern city of Volgograd, killing 6 people and injuring 32 others. The suspected bomber was from Dagestan.
    (AP, 10/21/13)(AP, 10/22/13)(SFC, 10/22/13, p.A2)

2013        Oct 23, Russia said it will boycott maritime court hearings sought by the Netherlands in a bid to free 30 crew members of a Greenpeace ship who were detained during a protest against Arctic oil drilling. Russia dropped piracy charges against 30 people involved in a Greenpeace protest against Arctic oil drilling, replacing them with lesser offences and cutting the maximum jail sentence they face to seven years from 15.
    (AFP, 10/23/13)(Reuters, 10/23/13)

2013        Oct 27, In Russia some 5 thousand people marched through central Moscow in a new protest at President Vladimir Putin's rule and a judicial crackdown against opponents.
    (AFP, 10/27/13)(SFC, 10/28/13, p.A2)

2013        Oct 29, Russian PM Dmitry Medvedev says Russia will ask Ukraine to start pre-paying for gas supplies in case Ukraine doesn't settle outstanding debts. He was reacting to a complaint of Alexei Miller, chief executive of Russian gas giant Gazprom, who said Ukraine owes Russia $882 million for the August deliveries and was due to pay for it by Oct 1.
    (AP, 10/29/13)
2013        Oct 29, Russian investigators announced new theft and money laundering charges against opposition politician Alexei Navalny, increasing pressure against one of Pres. Putin's biggest domestic critics.
    (Reuters, 10/29/13)

2013        Oct 30, Bomb blasts in shops in Russia's volatile North Caucasus province of Dagestan killed one person and injured several others.
    (Reuters, 10/30/13)

2013        Oct 31, A Moscow court revoked the registration of web-based news agency Rosbalt for posting videos it said contained profane language, including a clip by punk band Pussy Riot.
    (Reuters, 10/31/13)

2013        Nov 1, In Russia a man facing an assault charge detonated a grenade in a courthouse, killing himself and a court officer and wounding two other people in the Ural Mountains city of Kurgan.
    (Reuters, 11/1/13)
2013        Nov 1, In Tasmania int’l. negotiations ended after China, Russia and Ukraine scuttled plans to create the world's largest ocean sanctuary in Antarctica. The sanctuary plans were led by the Antarctic Ocean Alliance which campaigns for protecting the Antarctic seas. For the sanctuary proposals to pass, they needed backing from all 200 delegates from 25 member countries, many of which have conflicting interests.
    (Reuters, 11/1/13)(SFC, 11/2/13, p.A2)

2013        Nov 2, Meeting in Tokyo Japan and Russia held their first joint defense and foreign ministers' meeting and agreed to boost security cooperation in the Asia-Pacific as they both warily watch neighboring China's rising influence. Japan and Russia have never signed a treaty to mark the end of World War II because of a territorial dispute.
    (Reuters, 11/2/13)

2013        Nov 4, Some ten thousand Russian nationalists rallied in Moscow, venting against the migrants they accuse of pushing up the crime rate and taking their jobs.
    (AFP, 11/4/13)

2013        Nov 7, In Russia concern for jailed Pussy Riot member Nadezhda Tolokonnikova mounted on her 24th birthday, after her husband said she could not be found in the Russian prison colony where authorities reportedly sent her in October.
    (AFP, 11/7/13)

2013        Nov 9, In Russia Gabriela Isler (25) of Venezuela was crowned in the Miss Universe pageant at an exhibition hall on Moscow's outskirts.
    (AP, 11/10/13)

2013        Nov 10, Russian performance artist Pyotr Pavlensky nailed his genitals to the ground outside Moscow's Red Square in protest over Russia's "police state" as the country marked national police day.
    (AP, 11/11/13)

2013        Nov 11, Cambodian police arrested Russian real estate tycoon Sergei Polonsky (40) for the second time this year and said they planned to extradite him at Moscow's request to face embezzlement charges there.
    (Reuters, 11/11/13)
2013        Nov 11, A Russian space capsule carrying the Sochi Olympic torch and three astronauts returned to Earth from the International Space Station in a flawless landing on the steppes of Kazakhstan.
    (AP, 11/11/13)
2013        Nov 11, Violence marred Polish independence day as ultra-nationalist rioters went on the rampage outside the Russian embassy in Warsaw, igniting a diplomatic row with Moscow.
    (AFP, 11/12/13)

2013        Nov 12, A Russian court in Moscow froze the assets of protest leader Alexei Navalny as part of an investigation into alleged fraud and money laundering by him and his brother Oleg.
    (AFP, 11/12/13)
2013        Nov 12, The Strasbourg-based Council of Europe, a leading human rights body, urged President Vladimir Putin to overhaul Russia's creaking judicial system, long criticized as vulnerable to political meddling and as an obstacle to business.
    (Reuters, 11/12/13)
2013        Nov 12, China, Cuba, Russia and Saudi Arabia won seats on the UN Human Rights Council, despite fierce international criticism of their records.
    (AP, 11/13/13)

2013        Nov 13, In Russia protesters threw firecrackers at the Polish embassy in Moscow in response to a similar attack on the Russian mission in Warsaw, further straining ties between countries with a history of troubled relations.
    (Reuters, 11/13/13)

2013        Nov 14, Egypt's foreign minister sought to downplay speculation of a major foreign policy shift, saying during a rare top-level Russian visit that Cairo wants to boost ties with Moscow and not replace the United States as its key ally. The defence ministers of Russia and Egypt held discussions on military collaboration between their countries.
    (AP, 11/14/13)(AFP, 11/14/13)

2013        Nov 14, A 20-year program to convert highly enriched uranium from dismantled Russian nuclear weapons into fuel for US power plants ended with the final shipment loaded at the port of St. Petersburg, Russia.
    (SFC, 11/15/13, p.A2)

2013        Nov 16, Russia handed over a $2.3 billion aircraft carrier to India after years of delays, extending India's maritime reach in the Indian Ocean as it looks to counter China's assertive presence in the region.
    (Reuters, 11/16/13)
2013        Nov 16, In Dagestan Dmitri Sokolov, the husband of suicide bomber Naida Asiyalova, died after a stand-off with police. The Oct 21 Volgograd bombing killed six people on a bus.
    (AP, 11/16/13)

2013        Nov 18, Russia hosted Syrian and Iranian delegations for separate rounds of talks in a renewed diplomatic push for a Syrian peace conference in which Moscow says Tehran must also play a role.
    (Reuters, 11/18/13)
2013        Nov 18, A Russian court in Saint Petersburg released on bail one of the 30 Greenpeace crewmembers arrested for an Arctic protest, the first of the activists to be freed. Yekaterina Zaspa, a Russian doctor with the Arctic Sunrise icebreaker, was released. Two courts in the city said bail would be granted to three Russian activists but ordered Australian activist Colin Russell to remain in pre-trial detention until February 24.
    (AFP, 11/18/13)(AFP, 11/19/13)
2013        Nov 18, A Tatarstan airlines flight from Moscow crashed in Kazan, killing all 44 passengers and six crew in a blaze that left little of the Boeing 737 plane.
    (Reuters, 11/18/13)
2013        Nov 18, The head of Russia's state-controlled industrial holding company said Moscow has signed a deal to provide Egypt with air defense missile systems.
    (AP, 11/18/13)

2013        Nov 19, Russian courts granted bail to seven foreign Greenpeace activists detained for an oil drilling protest, bringing to 10 the number released over the last days and raising hopes of a solution to a case which has raised global concern.
    (AFP, 11/19/13)

2013        Nov 20, In Russia six more Greenpeace activists arrested by Russian coast guards during a protest against Arctic oil drilling were granted bail on Wednesday, including the US captain of their ship. Eighteen of the 30 people detained on September 18 have now been granted bail this week.
    (Reuters, 11/20/13)

2013        Nov 21, In Russia three more of the 30 people arrested during a Greenpeace protest walked free on bail. 24 of those detained on September 18 have been granted bail this week.
    (Reuters, 11/21/13)
2013        Nov 21, The Ukrainian government announced it was suspending its preparations for the signing of a landmark agreement with the EU. President Vladimir Putin's spokesman said that Russia welcomed Kiev's desire to improve trade ties with Moscow, signaling satisfaction with the Ukrainian government decision.
    (AP, 11/21/13)(Reuters, 11/21/13)

2013        Nov 22, Russia concluded bail hearings and ruled to release all but one of the 30 Greenpeace crew members who have spent more than two months in prison over a protest against Arctic drilling.
    (AFP, 11/22/13)
2013        Nov 22, Russia's space agency successfully launched three European Space Agency's satellites intended to study Earth's magnetic field. A Rokot booster rocket at the Plesetsk launchpad in northwestern Russia put the three Swarm satellites into their designated orbits.
    (AP, 11/22/13)
2013        Nov 22, The Hamburg-based International Tribunal for the Law of the Sea, an international maritime tribunal, ordered Russia to release a Greenpeace ship and 30 people arrested in a protest against Russian Arctic oil drilling.
    (Reuters, 11/22/13)

2013        Nov 27, Russian security forces detained 15 suspected Islamist militants in Moscow after confiscating improvised bombs and other weapons in a raid on an apartment.
    (Reuters, 11/27/13)

2013        Nov 28, In Russia criminal charges were filed against Anatoly Serdyukov, a former defense minister (2007-2012). He was accused of using servicemen and government funds to build a road to a vacation home and do landscaping work on the property.
    (AP, 11/28/13)
2013        Nov 28, A Russian court granted bail to the last Greenpeace activist still in custody over a protest against offshore oil drilling in the Arctic. Greenpeace said Australian Colin Russell (59) will be released from pre-trial detention in St. Petersburg when 2-million-rouble ($60,000) bail is posted.
    (AP, 11/28/13)

2013        Nov 29, Russian poet Natalia Gorbanevskaya (77) died in Paris. She was among the eight demonstrators arrested in in 1968 in Moscow’s Red Square for protesting the Soviet invasion of Czechoslovakia.
    (Econ, 12/7/13, p.94)

2013        Dec 2, In Armenia some 500 people marched through Yerevan to denounce visiting Russian President Vladimir Putin and to protest against plans to join a Moscow-led customs union.
    (Reuters, 12/2/13)

2013        Dec 3, In Russia Bolshoi star dancer Pavel Dmitrichenko was sentenced to six years in prison over an acid attack on the ballet's director that exposed vicious backstage bickering and intrigue at the renowned theater.
    (AP, 12/3/13)

2013        Dec 5, Russia said it has begun a criminal inquiry into suspected child trafficking in the US following a Reuters investigation which found that adopted children, some born in Russia, were being traded via the Internet.
    (Reuters, 12/5/13)

2013        Dec 9, President Vladimir Putin tightened his control over Russia's media by dissolving the main state news agency and replacing it with an organization that is to promote Moscow's image abroad. Putin appointed Dmitry Kiselyov to head the resources of the former RIA Novosti, which was renamed Rossiya Segodnya (Russia Today).
    (Reuters, 12/9/13)(SFC, 12/10/13, p.A3)

2013        Dec 10, Russia’s President Vladimir Putin ordered the military to step up its presence in the Arctic after Canada signalled its intention to claim the North Pole and surrounding waters.
    (AFP, 12/10/13)

2013        Dec 12, Russian President Vladimir Putin used his state-of-the-nation address to defend conservative values, referring obliquely to his government's anti-gay stance as he chided the West for treating "good and evil" equally. Putin also made a new attempt to woo Ukraine after the EU and US stepped up efforts to pull Kiev out of its former Soviet master's orbit. He also announced a set of initiatives to crack down on Russian companies who register and pay taxes in offshore jurisdictions.
    (AP, 12/12/13)

2013        Dec 16, Russia’s Izvestia newspaper reported that Russia has deployed Iskander missiles with a range of hundreds of kilometers in its Baltic Sea exclave of Kaliningrad, which borders Poland and Lithuania.
    (Reuters, 12/16/13)
2013        Dec 16, Russia said its security forces have killed four alleged militants including the leader of a group suspected of carrying out attacks on tourists and ski facilities in the North Caucasus. The National Anti-Terrorist Committee said the dead men included Arsen Khandokhov, described as the leader of a militant cell suspected of crimes including the killing of two tourists and attacks on a ski lift.
    (Reuters, 12/16/13)

2013        Dec 17, Russian and Ukrainian officials signed a series of agreements in Moscow to boost trade and industrial cooperation.
    (AP, 12/17/13)

2013        Dec 18, Russia's parliament passed an amnesty bill that will likely apply to the 30-member crew of a Greenpeace ship detained after an Arctic protest, but it wasn't immediately clear if and when the activists would be allowed to leave the country.
    (AP, 12/18/13)

2013        Dec 19, Russia’s President Vladimir Putin said he will pardon jailed oil tycoon Mikhail Khodorkovsky. The move, along with an amnesty for the two jailed members of the Pussy Riot punk band and the 30-member crew of a Greenpeace ship, appears designed to assuage international criticism of Russia's rights record ahead of February's Winter Olympics in Sochi.
    (AP, 12/19/13)

2013        Dec 20, In Russia oligarch Mikhail Khodorkovsky, who has been pardoned by Pres. Putin, left jail after 10 years and left for Germany.
    (AP, 12/20/13)
2013        Dec 20, Russia closed a deal to buy Ukraine's newly-issued $3 billion Eurobond, part of a $15 billion bailout of its smaller neighbor.
    (Reuters, 12/23/13)

2013        Dec 22, In Germany  Mikhail Khodorkovsky vowed to do all he can to ensure the release of other political prisoners in Russia.
    (AP, 12/22/13)

2013        Dec 23, In Russia two jailed members of the punk band Pussy Riot were released following an amnesty law that both described as a Kremlin public relations stunt ahead of the Winter Olympics.
    (AP, 12/23/13)
2013        Dec 23, Russia said it has sent 25 armored trucks and 50 other vehicles to Syria to help transport toxins that are to be destroyed under an international agreement to rid the nation of its chemical arsenal.
    (Reuters, 12/23/13)
2013        Dec 23, Russia bought $3 billion worth of Ukrainian bonds, the first batch of a promised $15 billion, in a bid to support its neighbor's economy.
    (AP, 12/24/13)
2013        Dec 23, Russia’s Mikhail Kalashnikov (b.1919), the designer of the AK-47 assault rifle, died in Izhevsk, the capital of the Udmurtia republic.
    (AP, 12/23/13)(SFC, 12/25/13, p.D4)

2013        Dec 24, Russian news agency RIA reported that Russia is preparing to lift a suspension it imposed on the import of Lithuanian dairy products on October 7.
    (Reuters, 12/24/13)

2013        Dec 25, Russia's Supreme Court said it will review two convictions against former oil tycoon Mikhail Khodorkovsky, including a ruling the Kremlin critic said was preventing him from returning to Russia despite a presidential pardon.
    (Reuters, 12/25/13)
2013        Dec 25, Russia’s Pres. Putin announced $2 billion in loans to Belarus next year following talks with Belarus Pres. Alexander Lukashenko.
    (SFC, 12/26/13, p.A2)
2013        Dec 25, Greenpeace said Russian investigators have dropped charges against all but one of the 30 crew, who were accused of hooliganism following a protest outside a Russian oil rig in the Arctic. Cristian d'Alessandro of Italy failed to get his criminal case closed due to the lack of an interpreter and will have to visit the St. Petersburg branch of Russia's Investigative Committee again Dec 26.
    (AP, 12/25/13)
2013        Dec 25, Syria’s government signed a major oil and gas exploration deal with a Russian company in Damascus, which will allow for exploration in a section of Syrian waters.
    (AFP, 12/25/13)

2013        Dec 26, A Russian probe into the 2004 death of Palestinian leader Yasser Arafat said it has found no trace of radioactive poisoning.
    (AP, 12/26/13)
2013        Dec 26, Russian authorities issued visas to seven of 30 members of a Greenpeace ship crew that allow them to leave the country after dropping criminal charges against them over a protest outside an Arctic oil rig.
    (AP, 12/26/13)
2013        Dec 26, A Russian plane crashed in Siberia, killing nine people. The Soviet-built Antonov An-12 plane belonging to an aircraft factory in Novosibirsk was carrying six crew and three others on a flight to another factory in Irkutsk.
    (Reuters, 12/26/13)

2013        Dec 27, Two Russian astronauts began a spacewalk to install cameras and perform other work on the International Space Station. This was the third spacewalk in a week at the orbiting laboratory.
    (AP, 12/27/13)
2013        Dec 27, In Russia at least two people were killed in the explosion of an automobile in Pyatigorsk in the restive North Caucasus region.
    (AP, 12/28/13)

2013        Dec 29, In southern Russia 18 people were killed and scores were wounded as a female suicide bomber struck at a railway station in Volgograd, heightening concern about terrorism ahead of February's Olympics in the Black Sea resort of Sochi.
    (AP, 12/29/13)(Reuters, 12/30/13)

2013        Dec 30, In Russia a suicide bomber blew himself up in a crowded trolleybus in the southern city of Volgograd, killing 15 people. It was the second bloody terrorist attack to hit Volgograd in as many days and the third in recent months.
    (AP, 12/30/13)(Reuters, 12/30/13)

2013        Catherine Merridale authored “Red Fortress: History and Illusion in the Kremlin."
    (Econ, 11/23/13, p.81)

2014        Jan 2, A Chinese helicopter rescued all 52 passengers from the  MV Akademik Shokalskiy Russian research ship that has been trapped in Antarctic ice since Christmas Eve after weather conditions finally cleared enough for the operation. The passengers were all transported to an Australian icebreaker in the area.
    (AP, 1/2/14)

2014        Jan 4, Russian President Vladimir Putin reversed a blanket ban on protests at the Winter Olympics in Sochi, bowing to pressure from the International Olympic Committee (IOC).
    (AFP, 1/4/14)
2014        Jan 4, Senegal said its navy has boarded a Russian ship that was allegedly illegally fishing in its waters and is escorting it toward Dakar. The Russian trawler left the port of Dakar on Jan 22 following an agreement by Moscow to pay $1 million.
    (AFP, 1/4/14)(AP, 1/23/14)

2014        Jan 7, Russia launched the largest security operation in Olympic history with one month to go before Vladimir Putin kicks off the Winter Games in Sochi amid renewed fears of suicide bombings.
    (AFP, 1/7/14)
2014        Jan 7, A Chinese icebreaker and a Russian research vessel -- broke free from thick Antarctic ice where they had been trapped for days.
    (AFP, 1/7/14)

2014        Jan 8, In southern Russia the bodies of 6 men were found shot to death in four cars abandoned on the outskirts of Pyatigorsk.
    (AP, 1/9/14)

2014        Jan 10, Russia designated a park in the town of Khosta as a protest zone for the Winter Olympics. Khosta is 7 miles away from there the athletes will compete in Sochi.
    (SFC, 1/11/14, p.A2)
2014        Jan 10, Russia's powerful Orthodox Church proposed a referendum on banning gay relations in the face of Western pressure over human rights ahead of next month's Winter Olympics in Sochi.
    (AFP, 1/10/14)

2014        Jan 11, Russian authorities detained five terror suspects in Nalchik, Kabardino-Balkar Republic, 185 miles east of Sochi, site of the upcoming Winter Olympics.
    (SSFC, 1/12/14, p.A8)

2014        Jan 13, A Cambodian court freed Russian real estate tycoon Sergei Polonsky and he will not be extradited to Russia to face embezzlement charges there.
    (Reuters, 1/13/14)

2014        Jan 14, Russia’s Foreign Ministry said that journalist David Satter, author of three books on Russia and the Soviet Union, was prevented from returning to Russia last month after grossly violating visa regulations. Satter, who is critical of President Vladimir Putin, was barred from returning for five years.
    (Reuters, 1/14/14)
2014        Jan 14, In Russia’s Dagestan region a shootout between security forces and militants killed 5 people.
    (AP, 1/15/14)

2014        Jan 17, Sources said that Russia in recent weeks has stepped up supplies of military gear to Syria, including armored vehicles, drones and guided bombs, boosting President Bashar al-Assad just as rebel infighting has weakened the insurgency against him.
    (Reuters, 1/17/14)
2014        Jan 17, It was reported that Sochi residents are blaming the Olympic Games for ecological damage. Environmental experts said that Russia’s Olympic construction, which has consisted of pouring soil into lowland swamps, helped cause the flooding that created a state of emergency in the area in September and could increase the risk for more flooding.
    (Reuters, 1/17/14)
2014        Jan 17, Chechen strongman Ramzan Kadyrov said rebel leader Doku Umarov, who vowed to disrupt the Sochi Winter Olympics, is dead. Russian security services did not confirm the claim.
    (AFP, 1/17/14)

2014        Jan 18, Russian news said 7 suspected militants were killed today by security forces in a shootout near Makhachkala, Dagestan.
    (Reuters, 1/18/14)

2014        Jan 19, Pres. Putin in broadcast comments defended Russia's anti-gay law by equating gays with pedophiles and said Russia needs to "cleanse" itself of homosexuality if it wants to increase its birth rate. At the asame time he offered new assurances to gay athletes and fans attending the 2014 Sochi Winter Olympics next month.
    (AP, 1/19/14)

2014        Jan 21, Russia’s National Anti-Terror Committee said police have killed Eldar Magatov, a senior Islamist militant, in a shootout in the Dagestan region ahead of the Winter Olympics in Sochi.
    (Reuters, 1/21/14)

2014        Jan 23, Russia's Supreme Court ordered the release of Platon Lebedev (57), Kremlin critic Mikhail Khodorkovsky's business partner, after a decade in jail, but refused to drop a tax claim that is keeping the former oil tycoon abroad.   
    (AP, 1/23/14)

2014        Jan 27, Russian anti-corruption activist Alexei Navalny launched an interactive website painting a vivid picture of the suspected cost overruns and conflicts of interest at the Sochi Winter Olympics.
    (AP, 1/27/14)

2014        Jan 28, In Sudan a Russian diplomat and his wife were stabbed in Khartoum by a man anguished by the death of his brother in violence-plagued Central African Republic.
    (AFP, 1/28/14)

2014        Jan 30, Russia’s Anti-Terrorism Committee identified the Dec 29 Volgograd bombers as Asker Samedov and Suleiman Magomedov and called them members of the "Buinaksk Terrorist Group." It also said two suspected accomplices have been arrested in Dagestan province.
    (Reuters, 1/30/14)

2014        Feb 2, In Russia several thousand protesters marched through central Moscow to call for the release of 20 people who were arrested after clashes between police and demonstrators in May 2012.
    (AP, 2/2/14)

2014        Feb 3, In Russia a Moscow high-school student shot a teacher and a police officer dead and held more than 20 other students hostage in a classroom in a possible revenge attack. The student was disarmed and detained less than two hours after the shooting following negotiations aided by his father.
    (Reuters, 2/3/14)
2014        Feb 3, A pest control company which has been killing stray dogs in Sochi for years said that it has a contract to exterminate more of the animals throughout the Olympics.
    (AP, 2/3/14)

2014        Feb 5, Russian security forces surrounded a group of militants who had holed up in the Dagestani town of Izberbash. Dzhamaldin Mirzayev (30), who was suspected of having been involved in training the bombers and sending them to Volgograd, was killed in an exchange of gunfire.
    (AP, 2/5/14)

2014        Feb 6, Hungary's parliament authorized a deal with Russia to build two reactors at the country's only nuclear power plant in Paks.
    (AP, 2/6/14)

2014        Feb 7, Russia opened the Winter Olympics in Sochi. Police arrested four gay rights activists protesting in St. Petersburg.
    (AP, 2/7/14)

2014        Feb 8, In Russia some 40 people gathered in downtown Moscow to protest the decision of leading Russian cable and satellite companies to drop the channel, Dozhd (TV Rain). Except for women with children, most were immediately detained.
    (AP, 2/8/14)
2014        Feb 8, A Russian animal rights activist was detained in Moscow after he and two others protested the country's policy of killing stray dogs in Sochi.
    (AP, 2/8/14)

2014        Feb 9, In Russia a man employed as a private security guard (24) opened fire in a cathedral on Russia's Sakhalin Island in the Pacific, killing a nun and a parishioner and wounding six others.
    (AP, 2/9/14)

2014        Feb 12, Russian geologist Yevgeny Vitishko, a leading activist who campaigned against environmental damage caused by preparations for the Winter Olympics, was sentenced to three years in a penal colony. A court in Krasnodar converted a 2012 suspended sentence to a prison term.
    (AFP, 2/12/14)(SFC, 2/13/14, p.A2)

2014        Feb 17, Iran's ambassador to Moscow said Russia could build the Islamic republic a second nuclear power reactor under a proposed oil-for-goods swap that has raised grave concern in Washington.
    (AFP, 2/17/14)

2014        Feb 21, In Russia 200 people were arrested near a Moscow court as it convicted eight defendants of mass riots and attacking police at a 2012 protest against Pres. Putin, a case widely seen as a crackdown on dissent.
    (AFP, 2/21/14)(SFC, 2/22/14, p.A2)

2014        Feb 23, Vladimir Putin ordered officials to start work on taking control of Crimea. This was weeks before a referendum which, the Kremlin later asserted, prompted the region's annexation from Ukraine. This information was not made public until March 8. , 2015.
    (Reuters, 3/9/15)
2014        Feb 23, The Winter Olympics In Sochi, Russia, ended after 17 days with a handoff to the next Winter Games host city, Pyeongchang in South Korea. Russian athletes claimed 33 medals, their largest haul ever.
    (AP, 2/24/14)

2014        Feb 24, A Russian court sentenced seven activists to prison terms of up to four years over a protest against President Vladimir Putin as police detained hundreds of supporters outside.
    (AFP, 2/24/14)
2014        Feb 24, Russian opposition leader Alexei Navalny was jailed for a week by a court for resisting arrest at a protest over the convictions of activists for attacking police at a 2012 rally against President Putin. On Feb 28 a Moscow court put Navalny under house arrest, forbidding him from using the Internet or communicating with anyone outside his family.
    (Reuters, 2/25/14)(AP, 2/28/14)

2014        Feb 26, Moscow granted Ukrainian President Viktor Yanukovych protection "on the territory of Russia," shortly after the fugitive leader sought help from the Kremlin.
    (AP, 2/27/14)
2014        Feb 26, In Ukraine fistfights broke out between pro- and anti-Russian demonstrators in the strategic Crimea region as Russian President Vladimir Putin ordered massive military exercises just across the border.
    (AP, 2/26/14)
2014        Feb 26, Estonian Foreign Minister Urmas Paet told EU foreign policy chief Catherine Ashton in a phone call that the Ukrainian opposition to president Viktor Yanukovych may have been involved in sniper attacks (Feb 18-20). News of the call was leaked in early March and prompted Russian Foreign Minister Sergei Lavrov to call for an OSCE investigation.
    (AFP, 3/8/14)(SFC, 3/8/14, p.A4)

2014        Feb 27, Ukraine's new PM Arseny Yatseniuk accused the government of ousted President Viktor Yanukovich of stripping state coffers bare and said 37 billion dollars of credit it had received had disappeared. Russian soldiers without insignias, later known as “little green men," seized the parliament in the Crimea region and raised the Russian flag, alarming Kiev's new rulers, who urged Moscow not to abuse its navy base rights on the peninsula by moving troops around.
    (Reuters, 2/27/14)(Econ., 3/7/15, p.51)

2014        Feb 28, Ukraine accused Russia of a "military invasion and occupation," saying Russian troops have taken up positions around a coast guard base and two airports on its strategic Crimea peninsula. Russia kept silent on the accusations, as the crisis deepened between two of Europe's largest countries.
    (AP, 2/28/14)

2014        Feb, An Indian team visited Moscow to firm up a deal under which it will pay Russia to supply arms and equipment to the Afghan military as foreign combat troops prepare to leave the country. An agreement was signed in  April in a move that risked infuriating Pakistan.
    (Reuters, 4/30/14)

2014        Mar 1, Russia's parliament granted Pres. Vladimir Putin permission to use the country's military in Ukraine and also recommended that Moscow's ambassador be recalled from Washington over comments made by Pres. Obama. Ukrainian PM Arseny Yatsenyuk opened a Cabinet meeting in Kiev by calling on Russia not to provoke discord in Crimea.
    (AP, 3/1/14)
2014        Mar 1, Sergei Aksyonov, the pro-Russian prime minister of Ukraine's Crimea region, claimed control of the military and police there and appealed to Russia's President Vladimir Putin for help in keeping peace.
    (AP, 3/1/14)
2014        Mar 1, Ukraine's Pres. Viktor Yanukovich sent a letter to Russian Pres. Vladimir Putin, asking him to use Russian army and police forces to restore order in Ukraine.
    (Reuters, 1/24/19)

2014        Mar 2, Ukraine mobilized for war and Washington threatened to isolate Russia economically, after President Vladimir Putin declared he had the right to invade his neighbor.
    (Reuters, 3/2/14)
2014        Mar 2, Ukraine's new PM Arseniy Yatsenyuk and world leaders urged Russian President Vladimir Putin to pull back his military as hundreds of armed men surrounded a Ukrainian military base in Crimea. Ukraine's navy chief announced he had switched allegiance to the pro-Russian authorities of the flashpoint peninsula of Crimea, a day after he was appointed to the post by interim leader Oleksandr Turchynov.
    (AP, 3/2/14)(AFP, 3/2/14)

2014        Mar 3, In Ukraine pro-Russian demonstrators occupied the first floor of the regional government building in Donetsk, the latest in days of rallies that Kiev says are organized by Moscow as a pretext to invade. Interfax news agency quoted a source in the Ukrainian Defense Ministry as saying Russia's Black Sea Fleet has told Ukrainian forces in Crimea to surrender by 5 a.m. on March 4 or face a military assault. The OSCE said it will start deploying in Ukraine late today, but Russian objections mean the body has yet to agree on a full-scale mission. The UN said 16,000 Russians have been deployed in Crimea.
    (Reuters, 3/3/14)(AFP, 3/3/14)(SFC, 3/4/14, p.A2)

2014        Mar 4, Vladimir Putin said that Moscow reserves the right to use its military to protect Russians in Ukraine but voiced hope it won't need to do so as he accusing the West of encouraging an "unconstitutional coup."
    (AP, 3/4/14)

2014        Mar 6, A new video showed two members of the Russian protest group Pussy Riot attacked by a group of men who poured rubbish and bright green paint over them and shouted obscenities at them at a McDonald's restaurant in Nizhny Novgorod.
    (Reuters, 3/7/14)
2014        Mar 6, The Obama administration slapped new visa restrictions against pro-Russian opponents to the new Ukraine government in Kiev as lawmakers in Crimea declared their intention to split from Ukraine and join Russia instead. They scheduled a referendum in 10 days for voters to decide the fate of the disputed peninsula. Russia's parliament, clearly savoring the action, introduced a bill intended to make this happen.
    (AP, 3/6/14)
2014        Mar 6, European leaders said Russia will face sanctions over its military incursion in Ukraine's Crimean peninsula unless it withdraws its troops or engages in credible talks to defuse the situation. The EU froze the assets of ousted Ukraine leader Viktor Yanukovych, ex-premier Mykola Azarov and 16 former ministers, businessmen and security chiefs, all on grounds of fraud.
    (AP, 3/6/14)(AFP, 3/6/14)

2014        Mar 7, Russia rallied support for a Crimean bid to secede from Ukraine, with Russia's top lawmaker assuring her Crimean counterpart that the region would be welcomed as "an absolutely equal subject of the Russian Federation." Russia said that Organization for Security and Co-Operation in Europe (OSCE) observers, who were barred from Crimea, had failed to obtain "official invitations" from the Crimean authorities.
    (AP, 3/7/14)(AFP, 3/7/14)
2014        Mar 7, BAE Systems Applied Intelligence, the cyber arm of Britain's premier defense contractor, published its own research on suspected Russian spyware known as Turla, which it called "snake." The sophisticated piece of spyware has been quietly infecting hundreds of government computers across Europe and the United States in one of the most complex cyber espionage programs uncovered to date.
    (Reuters, 3/7/14)

2014        Mar 8, Russia was reported to be reinforcing its military presence in Crimea as Moscow's foreign minister ruled out any dialogue with Ukraine's new authorities, whom he dismissed as puppets. Warning shots were fired when an unarmed OSCE military observer mission was turned back while trying to cross into Ukraine's Crimea region.
    (AP, 3/8/14)(Reuters, 3/8/14)

2014        Mar 9, Russians took over a Ukrainian border post on the western edge of Crimea, trapping about 15 personnel inside. Germany's Angela Merkel delivered a rebuke to President Vladimir Putin, telling him that a planned Moscow-backed referendum on whether Crimea should join Russia was illegal and violated Ukraine's constitution.
    (Reuters, 3/9/14)

2014        Mar 10, Russian troops opened fire with automatic rifles during a takeover of a Ukrainian naval post in Crimea.
    (Reuters, 3/10/14)

2014        Mar 11, Russia signed a preliminary agreement to build at least two more nuclear power plants in the Iranian port city of Bushehr.
    (AFP, 3/12/14)
2014        Mar 11, Two Russian cosmonauts and an American astronaut landed back on Earth in Kazakhstan after a stay aboard the International Space Station (ISS) of over half a year.
    (AFP, 3/11/14)
2014        Mar 11, The parliament of Ukraine's Crimea peninsula voted for full independence from Ukraine in preparation for a referendum to join Russia. France threatened sanctions against Moscow as early as this week. Gunmen took over air traffic control of the airport in the regional capital Simferopol and refused landing rights to a flight from the Ukrainian capital.
    (AFP, 3/11/14)
2014        Mar 11, The European Commission agreed to extend nearly 500 million euros worth of trade benefits to Ukraine, removing duties on a wide range of agricultural goods, textiles and other imports in an effort to support the Ukrainian economy.  G7 leaders called on Russia to stop all efforts to "annex" Ukraine's Crimea region.
    (Reuters, 3/11/14)(Reuters, 3/12/14)

2014        Mar 12, Ukraine's acting president said the country would not use its army to stop Crimea from seceding, the latest sign that a Russian annexation of the strategic peninsula may be imminent.
    (AFP, 3/12/14)
2014        Mar 12, European Union member states agreed on the wording of sanctions on Russia, including travel restrictions and asset freezes against those responsible for violating the sovereignty of Ukraine.
    (Reuters, 3/12/14)

2014        Mar 13, Russia said it will impose symmetrical sanctions if the United States and European Union impose their own.
    (Reuters, 3/13/14)
2014        Mar 13, Germany's Angela Merkel warned Moscow that it risked "massive" political and economic damage if it refused to change course on Ukraine.
    (AP, 3/13/14)
2014        Mar 13, The Paris-based OECD said it has postponed all activities related to Russia's accession to the organization following a request from its 34 members.
    (Reuters, 3/13/14)
2014        Mar 13, Ukraine's parliament appealed to the UN to discuss the occupation by Russian forces of its Crimea peninsula and said it reserved the right to ask individual countries for help in resolving the issue. A man (22) was stabbed to death in Donetsk in clashes between pro-Russian protesters and a crowd favoring European integration and denouncing Russian forces' seizure of Crimea.
    (Reuters, 3/13/14)(Reuters, 3/14/14)

2014        Mar 14, Russia called on the Organization for Security and Cooperation in Europe (OSCE) to send its observers to monitor Crimea's controversial referendum on independence from Ukraine.
    (AFP, 3/14/14)
2014        Mar 14, Hackers knocked out the Russian presidency's website several times and brought down the central bank website.
    (Reuters, 3/14/14)
2014        Mar 14, EU officials said they have drawn up a list of 120-130 names of Russians who could be hit with travel bans and asset freezes to punish Russia for its seizure of Ukraine's Crimea region.
    (Reuters, 3/14/14)

2014        Mar 15, Russia vetoed a UN resolution declaring the March 15 referendum on the future of Ukraine's Crimean Peninsula illegal, but close ally China abstained in a show of Moscow's isolation.
    (AP, 3/15/14)
2014        Mar 15, In Russia tens of thousands have gathered in downtown Moscow in the largest anti-government demonstration since 2012, protesting against the March 16  Kremlin-backed referendum in Crimea on whether to break away from Ukraine and merge with Russia.
    (AP, 3/15/14)
2014        Mar 15, Ukraine's military scrambled aircraft and paratroops to repel an attempt by Russian forces to enter a long spit of land belonging to a region adjacent to Crimea. Russian forces seized a natural gas distribution station in Strelkova, about 10 km outside Crimea.
    (Reuters, 3/15/14)(AP, 3/15/14)

2014        Mar 16, Residents in Ukraine's strategic Crimean Peninsula voted to leave Ukraine and join Russia, overwhelmingly approving a referendum that sought to unite the Black Sea region with the country it was part of for some 250 years. In eastern Ukraine thousands of pro-Russian protesters in the city of Donetsk rallied in support of Crimea's right to join Russia and to press for their own referendum. Ukraine's defense minister said his forces in Crimea have reached a temporary truce with Russia aimed at easing tensions surrounding the Black Sea peninsula's high-stakes secession referendum.
    (AP, 3/16/14)(AFP, 3/16/14)

2014        Mar 17, Russia's government acknowledged for the first time on that the economy was in crisis, undermining earlier attempts by officials to suggest albeit weakening growth could weather sanctions over Ukraine.
    (Reuters, 3/17/14)
2014        Mar 17, Ukraine's Crimean peninsula declared itself independent after its residents voted overwhelmingly to secede and join Russia, while the United States and the European Union slapped sanctions against some of those who promoted the divisive referendum. Ukraine recalled its ambassador to Russia for consultations on the international ramifications of the situation in its Crimea region.
    (AP, 3/17/14)(Reuters, 3/17/14)

2014        Mar 18, Russia’s President Vladimir Putin signed a treaty to annex Crimea, describing the move as correcting past injustice and a necessary response to what he called Western encroachment upon Russia's vital interests.
    (AP, 3/18/14)
2014        Mar 18, French foreign minister Laurent Fabius said that leaders of the Group of Eight world powers have suspended Russia's participation in the club amid tensions over Ukraine and Russia's incursion into Crimea.
    (AP, 3/18/14)
2014        Mar 18, US Vice President Joe Biden warned Russia that the US and Europe will impose further sanctions as Moscow seeks to annex the Ukrainian territory.
    (AP, 3/18/14)

2014        Mar 19, Syria and its Russian ally criticized the decision by the United States to suspend the operations of Syria's embassy in Washington and consulates in other cities.
    (Reuters, 3/19/14)

2014        Mar 20, Pro-Russian crowds seized two Ukrainian warships and Ukraine said its troops were being threatened in Crimea as the European Union considered new sanctions against Russia for its annexation of the Black Sea peninsula.
    (AP, 3/20/14)
2014        Mar 20, President Barack Obama said the US is levying a new round of economic sanctions on individuals in Russia in retaliation for the Kremlin's actions in Ukraine. Obama says he has also signed a new executive order that would allow the US to sanction key sectors of the Russian economy. Rossiya, Russia’s 17th largest bank, was included on the sanctions list. Its owners had ties with Pres. Putin.
    (AP, 3/20/14)(Econ, 2/14/15, p.59)

2014        Mar 21, Russia’s Pres. Vladimir Putin completed his annexation of Crimea, signing a law making the Black Sea peninsula part of Russia just as Ukraine itself sealed a deal pulling it closer into Europe's orbit.
    (AP, 3/21/14)
2014        Mar 21, France said it is suspending military cooperation with Russia as Defense Minister Jean-Yves Le Drian visited Baltic states in a trip designed to reassure them as tensions mount with Russia over its seizure of Ukraine's Crimea region.
    (Reuters, 3/21/14)

2014        Mar 22, Ukraine Col. Yully Mamchur, the commander of Belbek Air Force base in Crimea, was seized by pro-Russian forces as they stormed the base near Sevastopol.
    (SFC, 3/24/14, p.A4)
2014        Mar 22, In eastern Ukraine more than 5,000 pro-Russia residents of Donetsk demonstrated in favor of holding a referendum on whether to seek to split off and become part of Russia.
    (AP, 3/22/14)

2014        Mar 24, Russia's SMP Bank said around 9 billion rubles had been withdrawn by depositors since U.S. sanctions were announced last week.
    (Reuters, 3/24/14)
2014        Mar 24, Russian historian Andrei Zubov was fired from his teaching position at the Moscow State Institute of Int’l. Relations for drawing parallels between Russia’s occupation of Crimea and Germany’s annexation of Austria and Sudetenland territories in 1938-39.
    (Econ, 3/29/14, p.53)
2014        Mar 24, Ukraine announced the evacuation of its troops and their families from Crimea, effectively acknowledging defeat in the face of Russian forces, who stormed one of the last remaining Ukrainian bases on the peninsula.
    (Reuters, 3/24/14)

2014        Mar 25, NATO member Norway suspended all joint activities with the Russian military through May because of Moscow's annexation of Crimea.
    (AP, 3/25/14)

2014        Mar 26, Russian forces took over the Ukrainian minesweeper Cherkasy, the last military ship controlled by Ukraine in Crimea.
    (Reuters, 3/26/14)
2014        Mar 26, A Soyuz spacecraft carrying two Russians and NASA’s Steve Swanson blasted off from Kazakhstan. A software glitch delayed their docking with the International Space Station until March 27.
    (SFC, 3/27/14, p.A2)(AP, 3/28/14)
2014        Mar 26, The Norwegian Academy of Science and Letters said Russian mathematician Yakov G. Sinai (78) has won this year's $1 million Abel Prize in mathematics.
    (AP, 3/26/14)

2014        Mar 27, Russia’s President Vladimir Putin said that Russia would develop its own credit card system to reduce reliance on Western-based companies and soften the potential blow from US and EU sanctions.
    (Reuters, 3/27/14)
2014        Mar 27, The UN passed a non-binding resolution declaring invalid Crimea's Moscow-backed referendum on seceding from Ukraine  with 100 votes in favor, 11 against and 58 abstentions in the 193-nation General Assembly. Russia threatened several Eastern European and Central Asian states with retaliation if they voted in favor of a United Nations General Assembly resolution.
    (Reuters, 3/28/14)(Reuters, 3/29/14)

2014        Mar 28, Russia's Pres. Vladimir Putin said Ukraine could regain some arms and equipment of military units in Crimea that did not switch their loyalty to Russia.
    (AP, 3/28/14)
2014        Mar 28, Russia said Switzerland has imposed restrictions on military exports to Russia over events in Ukraine which were counterproductive and not in line with the country's policy of neutrality.
    (Reuters, 3/28/14)

2014        Mar 29, Russia said it had "no intention" of invading eastern Ukraine, responding to Western warnings over a military buildup on the border following Moscow's annexation of the Crimean peninsula.
    (Reuters, 3/29/14)
2014        Mar 29, Crimea's Tatars held a vote on whether to push for self-rule in their historic homeland following its annexation by Russia. The Crimean Tatars, who make up about 12 percent of Crimea's population, strongly opposed and largely boycotted the hastily-organized March 16 referendum.
    (AFP, 3/29/14)
2014        Mar 29, In southern Iraq commercial production on one of the biggest undeveloped oilfields in the world. Russian energy giant Lukoil was the principal firm developing the enormous West Qurna-2 field.
    (AFP, 3/29/14)

2014        Mar 31, Russia’s PM Medvedev said Crimea will be made a special economic zone offering tax breaks and reduced bureaucracy to attract investors.
    (Reuters, 3/31/14)
2014        Mar 31, Ukraine reported a gradual withdrawal of Russian troops from its border that may be linked to Washington's latest push for a diplomatic solution to the worst East-West standoff since the Cold War.
    (AFP, 3/31/14)

2014        Apr 1, Russia warned Ukraine against integration with NATO, saying Kiev's previous attempts to move closer to the bloc had strained ties with Russia and caused problems between Moscow and the defense alliance. Russia sharply hiked the price for natural gas to Ukraine and threatened to reclaim billions previous discounts. Ukrainian police moved to disarm members of a radical nationalist group after a shooting spree in the capital.
    (Reuters, 4/1/14)(AP, 4/1/14)
2014        Apr 1, NATO foreign ministers agreed to suspend all practical cooperation with Russia, draft measures to strengthen defenses and reassure nervous eastern European countries in the worst East-West crisis since the Cold War ended in 1991.
    (Reuters, 4/2/14)

2014        Apr 2, A Russian soldier shot dead Ukrainian naval officer Stanislav Karachevsky in eastern Crimea, the second Ukrainian death reported since Russia took control of the Black Sea peninsula.
    (Reuters, 4/7/14)
2014        Apr 2, The Swiss government said it has decided not to adopt European Union sanctions against 33 people in connection with Russia's annexation of Crimea, but will prevent them from using Switzerland to get around the visa bans and asset freezes.
    (AP, 4/2/14)
2014        Apr 2, Ukraine's ousted president, Viktor Yanukovych, said that he was "wrong" to invite Russian troops into Crimea, and vowed to try to persuade Russia to return the Black Sea peninsula.
    (AP, 4/2/14)

2014        Apr 3, Russia’s gas giant Gazprom urged Ukraine to pay its debt, and announced a 70 percent rise in the charge for future supplies.
    (AP, 4/3/14)

2014        Apr 4, The Secretary General of the International Road Transport Union said  Russia is inflicting $2.2 billion of annual costs on cross-border trade by enforcing illegal customs charges and inspections on trucks.
    (Reuters, 4/5/14)
2014        Apr 4, Ukraine's Western-backed leaders scrambled to find new sources of energy after Russia hiked its gas price by 81 percent in response to the overthrow of Kiev's pro-Kremlin regime.
    (AFP, 4/4/14)(AFP, 4/5/14)

2014        Apr 5, Ukraine rejected Russia's latest gas price hike and threatened to take its energy-rich neighbor to arbitration court over a dispute that could imperil deliveries to western Europe.
    (AFP, 4/5/14)

2014        Apr 7, Latvia said it is joining Lithuania in banning Russian state TV broadcasts because it found that several programs about the Ukraine crisis were tendentious and not in the Baltic nation's security interests. A three-month suspension of RTR Rossiya broadcasts will begin April 8.
    (AP, 4/7/14)

2014        Apr 9, The Dutch government scrapped a trade mission to Russia that was intended to forge closer ties between the two countries' energy sectors, blaming developments in eastern Ukraine.
    (AP, 4/9/14)

2014        Apr 10, President Vladimir Putin warned European leaders Russia would cut natural gas supplies to Ukraine if it did not pay its bills and said this could lead to a reduction of onward deliveries to Europe.
    (Reuters, 4/10/14)

2014        Apr 12, A Russian Su-24 tactical bomber flew over the USS Donald Cook in the Black Sea. An electronic device disabled all radars, control circuits, systems, information transmission, etc. on board the US destroyer. The unarmed Russian aircraft  repeated a simulated missile attack 12 times before flying away.

2014        Apr 13, In Moscow more than 10,000 people rallied to denounce Russian state TV news coverage particularly of the crisis in Ukraine.
    (SFC, 4/14/14, p.A2)

2014        Apr 14, Ukraine's acting President Oleksandr Turchynov called for the deployment of UN peacekeeping troops in the east of the country, where pro-Russian insurgents have occupied buildings in nearly 10 cities. During the storming of a police station in Horlivka earlier today, one man identified himself as a lieutenant colonel of the Russian army. About 100 pro-Russian protesters armed with bats and rocks stormed a police station in the eastern town of Gorlivka, smashing its windows and grabbing metal shields from police. Pro-Russian militants seized two of Ukrainian soldiers "hostage" in the separatist eastern region of Lugansk.
    (AP, 4/14/14)(AFP, 4/14/14)(AFP, 4/16/14)
2014        Apr 14, The EU threatened Russia with more sanctions over its actions in eastern Ukraine.
    (Reuters, 4/14/14)

2014        Apr 16, In Ukraine a column of 6 armored vehicles flying Russian flags drove into Slovyansk, a city controlled by pro-Russian insurgents. Ukraine's defense ministry said pro-Russia separatists had seized the six armored personnel carriers from Ukrainian armed forces with the help of Russian agents. Ukraine's security service said it had intercepted communications showing that Russian commanders in the separatist east had issued pro-Kremlin militants with "shoot-to-kill" orders.
    (AP, 4/16/14)(Reuters, 4/16/14)(AP, 4/16/14)

2014        Apr 17, In Ukraine 3 pro-Russian protesters were killed and 13 injured during an attempted raid overnight on a National Guard base in the Black Sea port of Mariupol. High-level talks aimed at calming soaring tensions over the crisis in Ukraine went into overtime with top diplomats from the United States, European Union, Russia and Ukraine attempting to forge a common position on how to de-escalate the situation. Ukrainian town councilor Volodymyr Rybak and a second man disappeared. He was seen being bundled into a car by masked men in camouflage. His body was found on April 29 near Slaviansk.
    (AP, 4/17/14)(Reuters, 4/23/14)

2014        Apr 20, Ukraine and Russia traded blame for a shootout at a checkpoint manned by pro-Russia insurgents in Slovyansk that left three people dead in a mysterious shooting.
    (AP, 4/20/14)(Econ, 4/26/14, p.50)

2014        Apr 21, Russian President Vladimir Putin signed a decree to rehabilitate Crimea's Tatars and other minorities who suffered under Soviet dictator Josef Stalin, courting a group that largely opposed Moscow's annexation of the region from Ukraine.
    (Reuters, 4/21/14)

2014        Apr 22, Russia’s top opposition leader Alexei Navalny was found guilty of slandering a lawmaker and ordered to pay a hefty fine. He was found guilty of calling municipal lawmaker Alexei Lisovenko "a lawmaker-drug addict" and ordered to pay 300,000 rubles ($8,300, 6,000 euros).
    (AFP, 4/22/14)
2014        Apr 22, Ukrainian PM Arseny Yatseniuk said that Russian special forces were operating in eastern Ukraine to undermine a presidential election due on May 25 and he called on Moscow to pull them out.
    (Reuters, 4/22/14)

2014        Apr 24, Ukrainian government troops moved against pro-Russia forces in the east of the country and killed at least two of them in clashes at checkpoints manned by the insurgents. Russian President Vladimir Putin decried what he described as a "punitive operation."
    (AP, 4/24/14)

2014        Apr 25, Russia’s Central Bank said it has increased its one-week auction rate by 0.5 percentage points to 7.5 percent in an effort to stem inflation as the country begins to feel the impact of its policies in Ukraine. Standard & Poor's credit agency cut Russia's credit rating for the first time in more than five years, citing the flight of capital and the risk to investment in Russia since the Ukraine crisis blew up late last year.
    (AP, 4/25/14)
2014        Apr 25, Cambodia's highest court ruled that a prominent Russian property developer wanted in his homeland for allegedly embezzling millions of dollars cannot be extradited. Sergei Polonsky expressed satisfaction with the ruling and said he will spend up to $100 million developing an island he purchased off Cambodia's southern coast. Polonsky was charged in Russia in June last year with embezzling more than 5.7 billion rubles ($175 million) from 80 property investors.
    (AP, 4/25/14)

2014        Apr 26, Leaders of the G7 major economies agreed to impose more sanctions on Russia over the crisis in Ukraine, where armed pro-Moscow separatists have detained a group of international observers they accuse of being NATO spies.
    (Reuters, 4/26/14)

2014        Apr 28, The European Union added 15 more officials to its Russian sanctions list to protests Moscow's meddling in Ukraine.
    (AP, 4/28/14)
2014        Apr 28, The United States levied new sanctions on seven Russian government officials, as well as 17 companies with links to Vladimir Putin's close associates, as the Obama administration seeks to pressure the Russian leader to deescalate the crisis in Ukraine.
    (AP, 4/28/14)
2014        Apr 28, Six environmental advocates won this year's Goldman Prize. India's Ramesh Agrawal received the prize for helping villagers fight a large coal mine in Chhattisgarh state. American lawyer Helen Slottje received the award for helping communities fight fracking in New York State. Peru's Ruth Buendia was recognized for helping to prevent construction of two large dams that would have displaced nearly 10,000 indigenous people in the Peruvian Amazon. Russian zoologist Suren Gazaryan won for defending protected areas around Sochi from illegal land seizures for Olympic construction projects. South Africa's Desmond D'Sa won for helping to close down one of the country's largest toxic waste dumps. Indonesian biologist Rudi Putra won for helping to shutter 26 illegal palm oil plantations that were causing deforestation in northern Sumatra.
    (AP, 4/28/14)

2014        Apr 29, In Russia 10 people died after a fire broke out at a military warehouse in the Siberian Baikal region.
    (AP, 4/30/14)
2014        Apr 29, The EU released the names of 15 new people it is targeting for sanctions because of their roles in the Ukraine crisis.
    (AP, 4/29/14)
2014        Apr 29, Moldova's PM Iurie Leanca said neighboring Romania will export gas to his country this year, reducing the former Soviet republic's dependence on Russia for gas.
    (AP, 4/29/14)
2014        Apr 29, US payment-card firm Visa said it would suspend network services to Russian banks SMP and InvestCapitalbank, which were sanctioned a day earlier by the US, in order to comply with US law.
    (Reuters, 4/29/14)

2014        Apr, Russia-based Gasprom took over Kyrgyzstan’s gas network, pledging a stable gas supply. Days later Uzbekistan stopped exporting gas to Kyrgyzstan saying it had no contract to sell to Gasprom.
    (Econ, 7/26/14, p.35)

2014        May 1, Ukraine ordered the expulsion of Russia's military attaché, saying it had caught him "red-handed" a day earlier receiving classified information on the country's cooperation with NATO. A crowd of some 300 pro-Russian militants attacked the prosecutor's office in the eastern city of Donetsk.
    (Reuters, 5/1/14)(AFP, 5/1/14)

2014        May 5, Russia’s Pres. Putin signed a new law requiring popular bloggers and commentators with more than 3,000 followers to register as media outlets.
    (Econ, 5/10/14, p.49)

2014        May 7, Russia’s President Vladimir Putin urged that a planned May 11 referendum on autonomy in southeast Ukraine be postponed. In a meeting with Swiss president Didier Burkhalter, Putin also called on Ukraine's military to halt all operations against pro-Russia activists who have seized government buildings and police stations across at least a dozen towns in eastern Ukraine.
    (AP, 5/7/14)

2014        May 9, Russia’s President Putin watched as about 11,000 Russian troops proudly marched across Red Square in celebration of Victory Day. He then flew to Crimea and extolled its return to Russia before tens of thousands during his first trip there since its annexation.
    (AP, 5/9/14)

2014        May 11, Moldovan authorities said they have stopped Russia's deputy prime minister from leaving the country with a petition calling on Moscow to recognize the separatist Trans-Dniester region, but Dmitry Rogozi claimed he had delivered most of the signatures supporting it.
    (AP, 5/11/14)

2014        May 12, Russia made it clear that Moscow has no intention of immediately annexing two regions in eastern Ukraine after a weekend referendum there showed most voters allegedly backing sovereignty.
    (AP, 5/12/14)

2014        May 13, In Ukraine 7 soldiers were ambushed and killed by rebels armed with grenade launchers outside the town of Kramatorsk. Ukrainian PM Arseny Yatseniuk urged Russia not to use natural gas as a "weapon" against his country, and accused Moscow of seizing tens of billions of dollars' worth of its assets and energy resources in Crimea.
    (AP, 5/13/14)(Reuters, 5/13/14)(Econ, 5/17/14, p.50)

2014        May 15, Russia ratcheted up pressure on Ukraine, with President Vladimir Putin saying in a letter released today that it only will deliver gas to its struggling neighbor next month if it pays in advance.
    (AP, 5/15/14)

2014        May 16, Russia's Proton-M booster rocket failed and broke apart during a test launch, just months after a shake-up in the country's space agency that was meant to boost its dented image.
    (AP, 5/16/14)

2014        May 19, Russian President Vladimir Putin ordered troops deployed near Ukraine to return to their home bases and praised the launch of a dialogue between the Ukrainian government and its opponents even as fighting continued in the eastern parts of the country.
    (AP, 5/19/14)

2014        May 20, A Moscow court convicted five men of involvement in the 2006 murder of journalist Anna Politkovskaya. Four of the men  were of Chechen origin.
    (SFC, 5/21/14, p.A2)
2014        May 20, In Russia a collision between a cargo train and a passenger train near Moscow killed at least 6 people and left up to 45 others injured.
    (AP, 5/20/14)

2014        May 21, Russian President Vladimir Putin said he ordered troops to pull out from the regions near Ukraine to help create a positive environment ahead of the nation's presidential vote. Putin spoke from Shanghai, China, where he attended a security summit.
    (AP, 5/21/14)
2014        May 21, China signed a landmark deal to buy Russian natural gas worth about $400 billion, giving a boost to diplomatically isolated President Vladimir Putin and expanding Moscow's ties with Asia.
    (AP, 5/21/14)

2014        May 22, China and Russia vetoed a draft UN Security Council resolution to refer Syria to the International Criminal Court for war crimes committed by both sides in its civil war.
    (AFP, 5/22/14)

2014        May 23, In Russia’s North Caucasus 4 militants and a member of Russia's security service were killed during clashes in Karbadino-Balkaria.
    (Reuters, 5/24/14)

2014        May 24, President Vladimir Putin said that Russia is ready for talks with Japan over disputed Pacific Islands, but Japan may not be ready for negotiations. Japan has imposed a set of measures against Russia for its annexation of Ukraine's Crimea.
    (Reuters, 5/24/14)
2014        May 24, Russian authorities said 7 militants in the North Caucasus province of Ingushetia died in a three-hour gun battle with Russian security forces after which their hide-out was consumed by fire.
    (Reuters, 5/24/14)

2014        May 29, Russian President Vladimir Putin signed a deal creating an economic union with ex-Soviet states Belarus and Kazakhstan.
    (AFP, 5/29/14)
2014        May 29, A Russian spacecraft carrying a three-man crew docked successfully at the International Space Station following a flawless launch.
    (AP, 5/29/14)

2014        May 30, Ukraine told Russia a $786 million partial payment on a bill that Russia says could exceed $5 billion by next week was on its way to Moscow. That averted an immediate threat that Russia would stop supplying the former Soviet republic with gas if it fails to make advance payments.
    (Reuters, 5/31/14)

2014        May 31, In northern Russia a helicopter crashed into a lake and 16 of the 18 people on board were missing. Two passengers, who floated to the surface still strapped into their seats, were rescued by fishermen and hospitalized for treatment of broken legs and other injuries. The helicopter belonged to the fertilizer company Apatit.
    (AP, 6/1/14)

2014        Jun 2, Russia granted Ukraine another week before it will start demanding prepayment for gas, without which it has threatened to cut off supplies.
    (AP, 6/2/14)

2014        Jun 6, Russian President Vladimir Putin and Ukraine's newly elected leader Petro Poroshenko met in France at the sidelines of ceremonies to celebrate the 70th anniversary of the D-Day landing in Normandy. They spoke of their desire for a quick end to hostilities in southeastern Ukraine.
    (AP, 6/6/14)

2014        Jun 9, A Russian court sentenced two men to life in prison and three others to terms ranging from 12 to 20 years for the 2006 killing of renowned journalist Anna Politkovskaya. Despite the convictions, it remained unclear who ordered the killing and Politkovskaya's family said it will continue to push for the case to be fully solved.
    (AP, 6/9/14)

2014        Jun 10, Russia’s PM Dmitry Medvedev gave the government's blessing to Aeroflot’s new low-cost airline serving newly-annexed Crimea, as he inspected a Dobrolyot (Good Flight) Boeing-737 ahead of its maiden flight from Moscow's Sheremetyevo Airport.
    (Reuters, 6/10/14)

2014        Jun 11, Russia offered to restore the discounted prices it granted Ukraine under the ousted pro-Russian president, but Ukraine demanded an even better deal and called for arbitration to settle the dispute.
    (AP, 6/11/14)

2014        Jun 12, Ukraine's Pres. Petro Poroshenko signaled he would be ready to hold talks with opponents in eastern Ukraine if pro-Russian separatists waging an insurgency there agreed to lay down their weapons. Interior Minister Arseny Avakov accused Russia of allowing three tanks and other military vehicles to cross the border into east Ukraine to help pro-Russian separatists there.
    (Reuters, 6/12/14)

2014        Jun 13, Ukraine said it was ready to pay a compromise price for Russian natural gas for 18 months to avert the threat of Moscow cutting off supplies and allow time to reach a long-term pricing agreement.
    (Reuters, 6/13/14)

2014        Jun 15, NATO Secretary-General Anders Fogh Rasmussen said NATO is preparing measures to help Ukraine defend itself in its stand-off with Russia, and must adapt to the fact that Moscow now views it as an adversary.
    (Reuters, 6/15/14)

2014        Jun 16, Russia cut gas supplies to Ukraine as a payment deadline passed and negotiators failed to reach a deal on gas prices and unpaid bills amid continued fighting in eastern Ukraine. Gazprom announced that it is suing Ukraine's state energy company Naftogaz in an international court for the $4.5 billion. Naftogaz said it has also filed a suit against Gazprom, seeking a "fair and market-based price" for gas, as well as a repayment of $6 billion for what it said were overpayments for gas from 2010.
    (AP, 6/16/14)

2014        Jun 17, In Ukraine Russian correspondent Igor Kornelyuk (37) died during surgery in a hospital after being wounded by mortar fire while on assignment in Luhansk. Sound engineer Viktor Denisov was also confirmed dead.
    (AP, 6/17/14)(SFC, 6/18/14, p.A2)
2014        Jun 17, In central Ukraine an explosion rocked the main pipeline carrying Russian natural gas to the rest of Europe but a source at Russian gas producer Gazprom said the blast has not disrupted the gas flow.
    (Reuters, 6/17/14)

2014        Jun 18, Ukrainian President Petro Poroshenko set out proposals for a peace plan for eastern Ukraine involving a unilateral ceasefire by government forces. This followed a late-night telephone call with Russian President Vladimir Putin.
    (Reuters, 6/18/14)

2014        Jun 22, Ukraine's Pres. Petro Poroshenko agreed to dialogue with separatists not implicated in "murder and torture" as he laid out a peace plan that Russian President Vladimir Putin promised to back as fighting flared between government and pro-Moscow separatist forces.
    (AFP, 6/22/14)(Reuters, 6/22/14)

2014        Jun 24, Russian President Vladimir Putin asked parliament to cancel a resolution sanctioning the use of military force in Ukraine.
    (AP, 6/24/14)

2014        Jun 25, On Russian President Vladimir Putin's demand, the upper house of the Russian parliament canceled a resolution allowing the use of military in Ukraine.
    (AP, 6/25/14)

2014        Jun 27, The UN said some 110,000 people have fled to Russia from Ukraine since the start of 2014 while more than 54,000 have been displaced inside the conflict-torn country.
    (AFP, 6/27/14)

2014        Jun 29, In eastern Ukraine veteran cameraman Anatoly Klyan (68), who worked for Russia's Channel One, was killed when a bus carrying journalists and soldiers' mothers was hit by gunfire near Avdiivka, just north of Donetsk.
    (AP, 6/30/14)

2014        Jun 30, France said the leaders of Russia and Ukraine have agreed to work on the adoption of a ceasefire in Ukraine as well as the establishment of effective border controls.
    (Reuters, 6/30/14)

2014        Jul 3, Ukraine's Pres. Poroshenko shook up the leadership of his struggling military, appointing a new defense minister and top general tasked with stamping out the corruption that has left the country's armed forces faltering before a pro-Russian insurgency. Three helicopters bearing the markings of the Russian armed forces violated Ukrainian airspace several times. Ukraine followed up with protests to Russia.
    (AP, 7/3/14)(Reuters, 7/4/14)

2014        Jul 4, Ukraine National Security Council Secretary Andriy Parubiy said government troops have recaptured more than a dozen eastern villages from pro-Russia separatists but Russia is allowing the rebels to attack Ukrainian border posts from its territory. At least 13 military personnel were killed in separate incidents in fighting against pro-Russian rebels in the east. Insurgents in the Luhansk province said that they have killed 125 Ukrainian troops since July 2.
    (AP, 7/4/14)(Reuters, 7/4/14)

2014        Jul 5, The US Secret Service arrested Roman Valerevich Seleznev (30), a Russian national, in an airport in the Maldives for hacking into US retailers' computer systems to steal credit card data from 2009 to 2011. Federal agents found 1.7 million stolen credit card numbers on his laptop computer.
    (Reuters, 7/8/14)(AP, 8/16/16)

2014        Jul 9, Russian officials said Ukrainian air force pilot Nadezhda Savchenko (31), has been arrested in Russia and charged with abetting the June 17 killing of two Russian journalists. She was captured by separatist rebels last month.
    (AP, 7/9/14)

2014        Jul 11, Russia’s President Vladimir Putin arrived in Havana to begin a six-day Latin American tour seeking to boost trade and ties in the region.
    (AP, 7/11/14)
2014        Jul 11, The Canadian government of PM Stephen Harper added 14 individuals to a list of people facing economic sanctions and travel bans related to the Ukrainian crisis. This brings to 43 the number of Russians targeted by Canada in sanctions coordinated with the US and the EU. Thirty pro-Russian Ukrainians have also been hit with visa bans and other measures by Ottawa.
    (AFP, 7/12/14)

2014        Jul 12, Russia’s President Vladimir Putin made a surprise stop in Nicaragua after visiting Cuba. His six-day trip will also take him to Argentina and Brazil, where he will take part in a summit of the BRICS group of emerging countries.
    (AFP, 7/12/14)
2014        Jul 12, In Buenos Aires Russian and Argentine delegations signed a series of bilateral deals, including one on nuclear energy that comes as Argentina ramps up work on its fourth nuclear plant, the $3-billion Atucha III reactor. Russia’s President Putin and Argentine counterpart Cristina Kirchner called for a multipolar world order as Moscow sought to boost ties with Latin America amid heightened East-West tensions.
    (AFP, 7/13/14)

2014        Jul 13, Russia threatened Ukraine with "irreversible consequences" after a man was killed by a shell fired across the border from Ukraine. Kiev said it had bombarded a convoy of 100 armored vehicles and trucks that had crossed into Ukraine carrying in rebel fighters from Russia. It also said 7 of its troops had been killed in attacks. The Donetsk city council said that 12 people had been killed at a mining settlement nearby. Municipal authorities in Luhansk said 6 people were killed in clashes there.
    (Reuters, 7/13/14)

2014        Jul 14, Russia’s foreign ministry said it has invited monitors from the OSCE European security and rights body to two of its border crossings with Ukraine as a sign of goodwill. A NATO military officer said Russia has been building up its forces again along the Ukrainian border and now has an estimated 10,000-12,000 troops in the area.
    (Reuters, 7/14/14)
2014        Jul 14, Ukraine's Defense Minister said a military transport plane has been shot down along the country's eastern border with Russia. All eight aboard the plane managed to bail out safely. President Petro Poroshenko accused Russian military staff officers of fighting alongside separatists in the east of the country and said a newly-developed Russian missile system was being used against government forces.
    (AP, 7/14/14)(Reuters, 7/14/14)(SFC, 7/15/14, p.A3)

2014        Jul 15, In Russia a rush-hour subway train derailed in Moscow, killing 22 people and sending 150 others to the hospital. Investigators soon detained two metro workers for alleged safety breaches.
    (AP, 7/15/14)(AFP, 7/16/14)
2014        Jul 15, In Brazil leaders of the BRICS nations (Brazil, Russia, India, China and South Africa) met for their 6th annual summit. They created two financial institutions: The New Development Bank (NDB) to finance infrastructure with $50 billion to start and the $100 billion Contingent Reserve Arrangement (CRA) to tide over members in financial difficulties.
    (AP, 7/15/14)(Econ, 7/19/14,p.62)

2014        Jul 16, A Russian security source said Russia has quietly reached a provisional agreement with Cuba on reopening a big Soviet-era base at Lourdes from which it spied in the United States.
    (Reuters, 7/16/14)
2014        Jul 16, Russian jets reportedly shot down a Ukrainian SU-25 fighter plane that was on military operations near Amvrosiyivka, about 15 km (about 9 miles) from the border with Russia, where government forces fought to quell a pro-Russian separatist rebellion. Russia denied that it shot down the plane.
    (Reuters, 7/17/14)
2014        Jul 16, President Barack Obama announced broader sanctions against Russia, targeting two major energy firms including Rosneft, a pair of powerful financial institutions, eight weapons firms and four individuals.
    (AP, 7/17/14)(SFC, 7/17/14, p.A2)

2014        Jul 17, Russia’s President Vladimir Putin lamented the latest round of US sanctions against Russia, saying they will stalemate bilateral relations and hurt not only Russian but also American businesses.
    (AP, 7/17/14)
2014        Jul 17, A European court ordered Russia to pay damages for putting defendants in metal cages in court, a practice it condemned as "degrading treatment." The enclosures have held opposition figures, Greenpeace activists and untold numbers of less-prominent suspects across the country.
    (AP, 7/17/14)
2014        Jul 17, Malaysia Airlines flight MH17 with 298 people on board was shot down over eastern Ukraine. Officials strongly suspected the Boeing 777 was downed by a missile fired by Ukrainian separatists backed by Moscow. More than half of the dead passengers, 189 people, were Dutch. Twenty-nine were Malaysian, 27 Australian, 12 Indonesian, 9 British, 4 German, 4 Belgian, 3 Filipino, one Canadian, one New Zealand and 4 as yet unidentified. All 15 crew were Malaysian.
    (Reuters, 7/18/14)
2014        Jul 17, Ukraine's SBU security agency released recordings of what it claimed were phone talks involving rebels and a Russian military intelligence officer admitting that they had hit a passenger jet after mistaking it for a military aircraft.
    (AFP, 7/20/14)

2014        Jul 18, Russian President Vladimir Putin called for a ceasefire by pro-Russian separatists and Ukrainian government forces fighting in eastern Ukraine to allow for negotiations.
    (Reuters, 7/18/14)
2014        Jul 18, The European Union took the next step towards imposing tougher sanctions on Russia for its role in the Ukraine crisis by agreeing the legal basis for widening its list of targets.
    (AFP, 7/19/14)

2014        Jul 19, In Buenos Aires, Argentina, visiting Russian Pres. Putin met with Pres. Cristina Fernandez and signed a deal on nuclear power as well as other projects.
    (SFC, 7/19/14, p.A3)
2014        Jul 19, Ukraine accused Russia and pro-Moscow rebels of destroying evidence of "international crimes" as guerrillas and foreign observers faced off over access to the wreckage of the downed Malaysian airliner.
    (Reuters, 7/19/14)

2014        Jul 22, The EU agreed to impose new sanctions against officials deemed responsible for Russia's actions in Ukraine, amid mounting international anger after a Malaysia Airlines plane was shot down over rebel-held territory.
    (AP, 7/22/14)

2014        Jul 24, A Russian court found two protest leaders guilty of inciting mass riots in a case that the opposition sees as part of a clampdown on President Vladimir Putin's foes. Sergei Udaltsov, who has been under house arrest since February 2013, and Leonid Razvozhayev were accused of coordinating protests which turned violent on May 6, 2012.
    (Reuters, 7/24/14)
2014        Jul 24, The United States said it had evidence Russian forces were firing artillery from inside Russia on Ukrainian troops, in what officials called a "clear escalation" of the conflict.
    (AFP, 7/24/14)

2014        Jul 25, A Russian security official said up to 40 mortar shells fired by Ukrainian forces fell on the Russian province of Rostov near the border with eastern Ukraine where Kiev is fighting pro-Russian separatists.
    (Reuters, 7/25/14)
2014        Jul 25, The Russian agency in charge of agricultural products said it is banning imports of Ukrainian dairy starting because of numerous quality flaws found in its products. Russia is a key market for Ukrainian dairy products. Kiev dismissed the move as politically motivated.
    (AP, 7/25/14)
2014        Jul 25, Russia’s central bank said it has lifted its one-week auction rate by 0.5 percentage points to 8 percent. It cited "heightened geopolitical risks" that are likely to push down the Russian ruble, fueling consumer price inflation.
    (AP, 7/25/14)
2014        Jul 25, The European Union extended its Ukraine-related sanctions to target top Russian intelligence officials and leaders of the pro-Russia revolt in eastern Ukraine. The action brought the total number of people under EU sanction in connection with Russia's annexation of Crimea and the revolt in eastern Ukraine to 87.
    (AP, 7/26/14)
2014        Jul 25, Ukraine government forces took the strategically-important city of Lysychansk. It also reported losing 13 soldiers in the past 24 hours. Local authorities in the region of rebel strongholds of Donetsk and Lugansk said 16 people have been killed. A military spokesman said troops were coming under increased fire from the Russian side of the border and that the Ukrainian military had shot down three Russian surveillance drones.
    (AFP, 7/25/14)(SFC, 7/26/14, p.A4)

2014        Jul 27, The US stepped up pressure on Moscow by releasing satellite images it says show that rockets have been fired from Russia into neighboring eastern Ukraine and that heavy artillery for pro-Russian separatists has crossed the border.
    (AP, 7/27/14)

2014        Jul 28, The international Permanent Court of Arbitration ordered Russia to pay over $50 billion in compensation to the former majority shareholder of now-defunct oil producer Yukos over the expropriation of the company more than 10 years ago. Russia planned to appeal.
    (AP, 7/28/14)
2014        Jul 28, Japan said it is imposing more sanctions against Russia over its support for pro-Moscow rebels in Ukraine who are accused of shooting down a Malaysian jet.
    (AP, 7/29/14)

2014        Jul 29, US officials said that roughly 30 percent of Russia's banking sector assets are now constrained by sanctions. The West halted future sales to lucrative Russian economic sectors, with the US announcing plans to block future technology sales to the oil industry and Europe approving an arms embargo. The Europeans also backed sanctions against state-owned banks and the energy sector.
    (AP, 7/30/14)

2014        Jul 30, Russia's central bank promised to support financial institutions hit by US sanctions as stocks took a tumble in Moscow.
    (AP, 7/30/14)
2014        Jul 30, The EU targeted Russian President Vladimir Putin's inner circle for the first time for the Kremlin's actions in Ukraine.
    (AP, 7/31/14)

2014        Jul 31, The European Court of Human Rights awarded awarded fhe shareholders of now-defunct oil producer Yukos $2.6 billion in compensation for Russia’s seizure of its assets in 2006.
    (Econ, 8/2/14, p.51)

2014        Jul, Russia wrote off 90% of Cuba’s $35 billion Soviet debt.
    (Econ, 7/19/14, p.33)

2014        Aug 1, Britain's state-rescued Royal Bank of Scotland said it has capped lending in Russia after the imposition this week of new economic sanctions against Moscow linked to the Ukraine crisis.
    (AFP, 8/1/14)

2014        Aug 2, Russia’s Labirint (Labyrinth) travel company announced it had halted operations, leaving 27,000 Russians "abroad without return tickets." After making emergency arrangements they were able to bring a third home, cutting the number stuck abroad to just under 16,000. Labirint was the fourth Russian tour operator to go bust in the past three weeks, stranding more than 50,000 abroad.
    (AFP, 8/4/14)

2014        Aug 4, Germany's Economy Ministry confirmed it has halted Rheinmetall's export of combat simulation gear to Russia, going beyond recently imposed EU sanctions which block future defense contracts.
    (Reuters, 8/4/14)
2014        Aug 4, Ukraine said 5 government soldiers were killed and 15 wounded over the last 24 hours in fighting in the east where Kiev forces recaptured an important railway hub from pro-Russian rebels.  A Russian border security official said more than 400 Ukrainian soldiers crossed into Russia. It wasn't immediately clear why the soldiers entered Russia, with both sides giving conflicting accounts.
    (Reuters, 8/4/14)(AP, 8/4/14)

2014        Aug 5, Japan unveiled details of financial sanctions against 40 individuals and two groups involved in the annexation of Crimea and destabilization of eastern Ukraine.
    (AFP, 8/5/14)

2014        Aug 6, The Kremlin released the text of President Vladimir Putin’s order for government agencies to restrict imports of food and agricultural products from the countries that have imposed sanctions against Russia over the conflict in Ukraine.
    (AP, 8/6/14)
2014        Aug 6, Russian photographer Andrei Stenin (33) was believed killed while travelling along with a convoy of refugees that came under fire from Ukrainian tanks and armored personnel carriers. His death was confirmed on Sep 3.
    (AFP, 9/3/14)

2014        Aug 7, Moscow imposed a total ban on imports of many Western foods in retaliation against sanctions over Ukraine, a stronger than expected measure that isolates Russian consumers from world trade to a degree unseen since Soviet days.
    (Reuters, 8/7/14)
2014        Aug 7, It was reported that Russia has granted former US intelligence contractor Edward Snowden an extension to stay in Russia for three more years.
    (Reuters, 8/7/14)

2014        Aug 9, Russian President Vladimir Putin began talks with the leaders of arch-foes Armenia and Azerbaijan after recent clashes that have left 22 soldiers dead and fueled fears that one of the bloodiest post-Soviet wars is restarting.
    (AFP, 8/9/14)
2014        Aug 9, Ukraine said it had headed off an attempt by Russia to send troops into Ukraine under the guise of peacekeepers with the aim of provoking a large-scale military conflict. Government forces reportedly seized  Krasnyi Luch, which lies on one of two main roads between Donetsk and the other rebel-held city of Luhansk.
    (Reuters, 8/9/14)(AP, 8/9/14)

2014        Aug 10, In southeastern Ukraine artillery pounded the rebel bastion of Donetsk as the West warned Russia that any attempt to send "humanitarian" troops into the conflict-torn region would be unacceptable.
    (AFP, 8/10/14)
2014        Aug 10, Interfax news reported that five Ukrainian soldiers, who were detained after crossing the border into Russia, have been released back to their unit. The five were among 18 against whom Russia had opened criminal investigations. Twenty-eight Ukrainian border guard officers were also being held in Russia.
    (Reuters, 8/10/14)

2014        Aug 11, It was revealed that Serbian police were investigating the 2008 privatization of NIS, Serbia’s main oil company. Russia was said to have gotten fantastic terms for the deal after siding with Serbia over Kosovo. Russia’s Gazprom Neft held a 51% stake in NIS.
    (Econ, 8/23/14, p.51)

2014        Aug 12, Russian President Vladimir Putin hosted his Egyptian counterpart Abdel Fattah al-Sisi for talks about Cairo's purchase of advanced surface-to-air missiles and membership in a Moscow-led free trade zone.
    (AFP, 8/12/14)
2014        Aug 12, Russia said it has begun military exercises in the Kurile Islands in the Pacific Ocean, a move likely to anger Japan, which also lays claim to them.
    (Reuters, 8/12/14)
2014        Aug 12, A convoy of 280 Russian trucks reportedly packed with aid traveled some 500 km (300 miles) to the southwestern Russian town of Voronezh as it headed for eastern Ukraine, but Kiev said it would only allow the goods through under the close supervision of the international Red Cross.
    (AP, 8/12/14)(Reuters, 8/13/14)

2014        Aug 13, A Russian convoy of nearly 300 trucks, carrying what Russia says is humanitarian aid for victims of fighting in eastern Ukraine, moved slowly towards the border despite concerns by Kiev and the West over the shipment. The UN said the death toll in fighting in eastern Ukraine had doubled in the last two weeks to over 2,000. Ukraine said it could allow Russian aid to enter the country after it was inspected by Ukrainian border guards and foreign monitors.  
    (Reuters, 8/13/14)(AFP, 8/13/14)(AFP, 8/14/14)
2014        Aug 13, In eastern Ukraine 12 nationalist fighters, battling a pro-Russian insurgency, were killed early today and an unknown number taken captive when rebels ambushed their bus. More than 100 Russian soldiers were killed near the town of Snizhnye, Donetsk Province, while helping pro-Russian separatists fight Ukrainian troops.
    (Reuters, 8/13/14)(Reuters, 8/28/14)

2014        Aug 14, Agricultural officials from all 28 European Union countries began emergency talks to weigh the impact of Russia's ban on Western food imports and whether to compensate EU farmers.
    (Reuters, 8/14/14)
2014        Aug 14, The Ukrainian parliament approved a law to impose sanctions on Russian companies and individuals supporting and financing separatist rebels in eastern Ukraine.
    (Reuters, 8/14/14)
2014        Aug 14, In eastern Ukraine artillery shells hit close to the center of Donetsk for the first time, killing at least one person. Kiev repeated that a Russian aid convoy could not enter until Ukrainian authorities had cleared its cargo. Shelling over the last 24 hours killed at least 22 residents in the besieged rebel-held bastion of Lugansk. Valery Bolotov, head of the self-proclaimed Luhansk People's Republic, announced his resignation, saying he was injured and could not carry on in his role. Igor Strelkov (aka Igor Girkin), an alleged Russian intelligence colonel, quit as a key rebel chief.
    (Reuters, 8/14/14)(AFP, 8/14/14)

2014        Aug 15, Dozens of heavy Russian military vehicles massed near the border with Ukraine, while Ukrainian border guards crossed the frontier to inspect a huge Russian aid convoy. Shelling killed 11 civilians and wounded eight more over the past 24 hours in the besieged rebel stronghold of Donetsk. NATO and Ukraine said Russian military vehicles did cross into Ukraine during the night and the Ukrainian president said most of them were destroyed by his troops.
    (Reuters, 8/15/14)(AFP, 8/15/14)(AP, 8/15/14)
2014        Aug 15, Finnish President Sauli Niinisto told his counterpart Vladimir Putin that Western sanctions against Moscow and the food ban Russia introduced in response were damaging bilateral ties and proposed to seek ways to end the Ukraine crisis.
    (Reuters, 8/15/14)
2014        Aug 15, A Japanese whaling vessel, the 712-ton Shonan-maru No.2, was ordered into a Russian port after sailing through the Sea of Okhotsk off Sakhalin island without going through the proper procedures.
    (AFP, 8/21/14)
2014        Aug 19, Ukraine said it has blocked 14 Russian television channels from its cable networks to stop them spreading war propaganda.
    (Reuters, 8/19/14)

2014        Aug 20, Russian police arrested four people who climbed a Moscow skyscraper and attached a Ukrainian flag to its spire. They were charged with vandalism and may face three years in jail.
    (Reuters, 8/20/14)

2014        Aug 21, Russian natural gas exporter Gazprom said that Ukraine's outstanding debt for gas supplies stood at $5.3 billion as of Aug. 1 and called on Kiev to ensure that gas continues to transit without disruption to Europe.
    (Reuters, 8/21/14)
2014        Aug 21, Russia said it was investigating dozens of McDonald's restaurants, in what many businessmen said was retaliation for Western sanctions over Ukraine they fear could spread to other symbols of Western capitalism.
    (Reuters, 8/21/14)
2014        Aug 21, Ukrainian border guards began to inspect a Russian truck convoy carrying aid earmarked for humanitarian relief in eastern Ukraine that has been stranded at the frontier for nearly a week. A Ukrainian military spokesman said 3 refugees including a child (5) were killed near Luhansk when rebel gunfire hit their car. 5 Ukrainian servicemen were also reported killed overnight.
    (Reuters, 8/21/14)

2014        Aug 22, Ukraine declared that Russia had launched a "direct invasion" of its territory after Moscow sent a convoy of aid trucks across the border into eastern Ukraine where pro-Russian rebels are fighting government forces. Ukrainian officials said only 34 or 35 of over 100 trucks had been properly checked.
    (Reuters, 8/22/14)

2014        Aug 23, Hundreds of trucks from a disputed Russian aid convoy to rebel-held eastern Ukraine rolled back across the border into Russia but questions about alleged Russian artillery in Ukraine still remained.
    (AP, 8/23/14)

2014        Aug 25, Russia announced plans for a second aid convoy into Ukraine. The Ukrainian military said a group of Russian forces, in the guise of separatist rebels, had crossed into south-east Ukraine with 10 tanks and two armored infantry vehicles. It said border guards had halted the column outside Novoazovsk.
    (AFP, 8/25/14)(Reuters, 8/25/14)
2014        Aug 25, Ukraine forces captured 10 Russian paratroopers, near a village about 30 miles southeast of the rebel-controlled city of Donetsk, and about 15 miles away from the Russian border.
    (Reuters, 8/26/14)

2014        Aug 26, In Belarus Russian President Vladimir Putin met with Ukrainian President Petro Poroshenko, urged him not to escalate an offensive against pro-Moscow rebels, and threatened economic retaliation for signing a trade accord with the EU. Poroshenko replied by demanding a halt to arms shipments from Russia to the separatist fighters.
    (Reuters, 8/26/14)

2014        Aug 27, Switzerland said Russian banks will require approval to issue long-term financial instruments in Switzerland, as it detailed measures to ensure it does not become a place for individuals or funds to avoid European sanctions on Moscow.
    (Reuters, 8/27/14)
2014        Aug 27, In southeastern Ukraine pro-Russian rebel forces entered the key town of Novoazovsk after three days of heavy shelling. The new southeastern front has raised fears the separatists are seeking to create a land link between Russia and Crimea. The Ukrainian military said that more Russian soldiers had crossed the border entering the small town of Amvrosiyivka in five armored infantry carriers and a truck.
    (AP, 8/27/14)(Reuters, 8/27/14)

2014        Aug 28, In central Russia several dozen women gathered outside a military base in Kostroma to demand that commanders come clean about the whereabouts of their husbands after reports of secret funerals for soldiers covertly sent to Ukraine.
    (AFP, 8/28/14)
2014        Aug 28, Ukrainian President Petro Poroshenko said that Russian forces had entered his country and the military conflict was worsening after Russian-backed separatists swept into a key town in the east. NATO said well over 1,000 Russian troops are now operating inside Ukraine. 15 civilians were reported killed in shelling in Donetsk.
    (Reuters, 8/28/14)

2014        Aug 29, In Russia Lev Shlosberg, a parliamentarian from the liberal Yabloko party, was attacked and badly beaten this evening close to his home. His newspaper this week had reported mysterious funerals of soldiers from the Pskov region.
    (Reuters, 8/30/14)
2014        Aug 29, Ukraine said it would seek the protection of NATO membership after what Kiev and its Western allies say is the open participation of the Russian military in the war in the eastern provinces. Pro-Moscow rebels said they would comply with a request from the Kremlin and open up a 'humanitarian corridor' to allow the withdrawal of Ukrainian troops they have encircled.
    (Reuters, 8/29/14)

2014        Aug 30, EU leaders agreed to ask the executive European Commission to draw up more sanctions measures against Russia, as armored columns of Russian troops came to the aid of the rebellion in eastern Ukraine.
    (Reuters, 8/31/14)
2014        Aug 30, In eastern Ukraine a group of pro-government fighters broke out of encirclement by Russian-backed separatists near Donetsk, but other reports suggested many were still trapped. Ukraine handed over 10 captured Russian paratroops and Russia returned 63 Ukrainian soldiers who crossed into its territory last week.
    (Reuters, 8/30/14)(Reuters, 8/31/14)

2014        Aug 31, Russian President Vladimir Putin called for immediate talks on "statehood" for southern and eastern Ukraine, although his spokesman said this did not mean Moscow now endorsed rebel calls for independence for territory they have seized.
    (Reuters, 8/31/14)

2014        Aug, In Russia the Soldiers’ Mothers of St Petersburg, a group seeking information about Russian servicemen thought to have been killed or wounded im Ukraine, was declared a foreign agent, despite protestations that it receives no money from abroad.
    (Econ, 9/13/14, p.68)

2014        Sep 1, Ukrainian President Petro Poroshenko accused Russia of "direct and undisguised aggression" which he said had radically changed the battlefield balance as Kiev's forces suffered a further reverse in their war with pro-Moscow separatists. Ukrainian forces were forced to retreat from Lugansk airport in the face of a Russian troop attack as Moscow soldiers moved into key eastern cities.
    (Reuters, 9/1/14)(AFP, 9/1/14)
2014        Sep 1, Australia ratcheted up sanctions against Russia in line with the United States and EU in response to Russian soldiers openly violating Ukraine sovereignty.
    (AP, 9/1/14)
2014        Sep 1, In Belarus pro-Russian rebels softened their demand for full independence, saying they would respect Ukraine's sovereignty in exchange for autonomy — a shift that reflects Moscow's desire to strike a deal at a new round of peace talks.
    (AP, 9/1/14)

2014        Sep 2, Moscow declared NATO a "threat" to its security after the Western military alliance announced plans to reinforce defenses in eastern Europe because of Russia's alleged stoking of war in Ukraine.
    (AFP, 9/2/14)
2014        Sep 2, Ukraine’s military said Russian troops were strengthening their positions in the east and using aid shipments to smuggle in arms and other supplies to separatist forces. 15 more Ukrainian servicemen were killed in fighting in the past 24 hours.
    (Reuters, 9/2/14)
2014        Sep 2, Islamic State militants issued a threat to President Vladimir Putin, vowing to oust him and "liberate" the volatile North Caucasus over his support of the Syrian regime.
    (AFP, 9/4/14)

2014        Sep 3, Russian President Vladimir Putin said a deal to end fighting in eastern Ukraine could be reached this week. The announcement was timed by the Kremlin to wrong-foot NATO on the eve of a summit that will discuss the crisis and to sow doubt in the European Union over imposing new sanctions against Moscow.
    (Reuters, 9/3/14)
2014        Sep 3, Australia banned uranium sales to Russia over its actions in Ukraine while announcing it will set up an embassy in Kiev and may offer military assistance.
    (AFP, 9/3/14)
2014        Sep 3, President Francois Hollande's office said France is suspending the delivery of a hulking warship to Russia amid security concerns about Moscow's actions in neighboring Ukraine. The Vladivostok, the first of two Mistral-class helicopter carriers ordered by Russia, was to be delivered by late October.
    (AP, 9/3/14)

2014        Sep 5, Estonia said that security service officer Eston Kohver was abducted by unknown gunmen and taken across the border, but Russia said the man was detained on its territory and suspected of being a spy.
    (AP, 9/5/14)
2014        Sep 5, In Ukraine fighting raged between government forces and pro-Russian rebels just east of the strategic port of Mariupol despite the start of talks between envoys from Ukraine and Russia in Minsk on a ceasefire and a peace plan. Ukraine and pro-Russian rebels agreed to a ceasefire.
    (Reuters, 9/5/14)

2014        Sep 6, Russia sent six ships carrying personnel and equipment to a Soviet-era military base in the Arctic that it is reopening to bolster its presence in the region.
    (AFP, 9/6/14)
2014        Sep 6, In eastern Ukraine shelling resumed near the port of Mariupol on the Sea of Azov late today, just hours after Russian President Vladimir Putin and Ukrainian counterpart Petro Poroshenko had agreed in a phone call that the truce was holding.
    (Reuters, 9/7/14)

2014        Sep 8, Lithuania's central bank cut its 2014 economic growth forecast, citing in part Russia's ban on imports on certain foods from several Western countries.
    (Reuters, 9/8/14)

2014        Sep 9, Ukraine said it was drafting a list of food and other products it plans to ban from Russia in retaliation for Moscow's own painful and politically-charged restrictions.
    (AFP, 9/9/14)

2014        Sep 10, Ukrainian President Petro Poroshenko said that Russia has withdrawn most of the troops it allegedly sent across the border to back a bloody pro-Kremlin uprising.
    (AFP, 9/10/14)

2014        Sep 11, The EU slapped more sanctions on Russia for helping separatists in Ukraine.
    (SFC, 9/12/14, p.A2)
2014        Sep 11, The Shanghai Co-operation Organization (SCO) opened its 14th annual summit. The 2-day meeting in Dushanbe, Tajikistan, included the groups six member countries: China, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Russia, Tajikistan and Uzbekistan. The SCO agreed to adopt procedures for expansion with India and Pakistan likely to join next year.
    (Econ, 9/20/14, p.39)

2014        Sep 12, The US imposed sanctions on Gazprom, Gazprom Neft, Lukoil, Surgutneftegas and Rosneft, banning Western firms from supporting their activities in exploration or production from deep water, Arctic offshore or shale projects.
    (Reuters, 9/13/14)

2014        Sep 13, A Russian convoy of more than 200 white trucks crossed the border to deliver humanitarian aid to Luhansk, a move made without Kiev's consent yet met with silence by Ukraine's top leaders.
    (AP, 9/13/14)

2014        Sep 14, Ukraine's defense minister said that NATO countries were delivering weapons to his country to equip it to fight pro-Russian separatists and "stop" Russian President Vladimir Putin.
    (Reuters, 9/14/14)

2014        Sep 16, Russia’s Investigative Committee placed Vladimir Yevtushenkov (65), the head of Sistema, under house arrest. His sprawling conglomerate included MTS, Russia’s largest mobile operator, and Bashneft, a profitable oil company. Yevtushenkov was charged with money laundering. Market watchers saw this as an attempt by the government and state-owned Rosneft to take over Bashneft.
    (SFC, 9/18/14, p.A5)
2014        Sep 16, Romania's energy minister said Russia was playing games with gas supplies to cause concerns in EU states, after analysts warned that Moscow could use the flows to retaliate against sanctions imposed over its role in Ukraine.
    (Reuters, 9/16/14)
2014        Sep 16, Slovak gas importer SPP reported a 25 percent reduction in gas supplies from Russia via Ukraine, the biggest drop since a decline in deliveries was first reported last week.
    (Reuters, 9/16/14)

2014        Sep 17, Alexander Fomin, the head of a Russian state arms agency, said Russia and Egypt have reached a preliminary deal for Cairo to buy arms worth $3.5 billion from Moscow.
    (Reuters, 9/17/14)

2014        Sep 18, Russia’s President Vladimir Putin said Western sanctions against Russia violated the principles of the World Trade Organization and the main way to combat them was to develop the domestic market.
    (Reuters, 9/18/14)
2014        Sep 18, The Lithuanian fishing vessel "Juros Vilkas" (Sea Wolf) and its 28-member crew was in international waters when it was seized by Russia’s Navy in the Barents Sea.
    (AP, 10/1/14)

2014        Sep 19, In Russia victims aged between 18 and 35 began dying after smoking a legal synthetic drug which they had bought in Surgut. By Sep 24 six had died and dozens had been hospitalized. By Sep 26 the substance in the fatal drug was identified and Russia's Federal Drug Control Agency was in the process of adding it to a banned list.
    (AFP, 9/26/14)

2014        Sep 20, The Ukrainian city of Donetsk was rocked by blasts, even as government forces and pro-Russian separatists prepared to create a buffer zone to separate the warring sides. One Ukrainian soldier was killed and seven others were wounded in overnight violence. A nine-point memorandum was signed earlier in the day in the Belarussian capital of Minsk by the separatists and envoys from Moscow and Kiev.
    (Reuters, 9/20/14)

2014        Sep 21, In Russia thousands marched through Moscow to protest against the Kremlin's involvement in the Ukraine crisis, in the country's first major anti-war rally since fighting erupted in April.
    (AFP, 9/21/14)
2014        Sep 21, The Ukrainian military accused separatists and Russian troops of continuing to shoot at government forces despite a Sept. 5 ceasefire and said Kiev would not go ahead with setting up a proposed buffer zone until the truce violations stopped.
    (Reuters, 9/21/14)

2014        Sep 24, Japan said that it has stepped up sanctions against Russia over the unrest in Ukraine to be in line with other Group of Seven nations before their upcoming meeting in New York.
    (AP, 9/24/14)
2014        Sep 24, In Poland some 200 coal miners blocked railway tracks on the border with Russia to protest imports of cheap Russian coal, saying it threatens their jobs.
    (AP, 9/24/14)

2014        Sep 25, The Rafto Foundation, a Norwegian human rights group, gave its annual prize to Russian lawyer Pavel Chikov (36) and the Agora group, for their work defending the right to fair trial.
    (Reuters, 9/25/14)
2014        Sep 25, A US-Russian space crew blasted off from Kazakhstan for a 6-month stint at the Int’l. Space Station.
    (SFC, 9/26/14, p.A2)

2014        Sep 29, Russia launched a criminal case against "unidentified representatives of Ukraine's senior political and military leadership", National Guard and nationalist organizations, in which it accused them of committing "genocide."
    (Reuters, 9/30/14)

2014        Sep 30, US ambassador John Tefft expressed regret that the Russian authorities have suspended the FLEX (Future Leaders Exchange) program that saw over 8,000 Russians study in US high schools over the past two decades. Russia pulled the plug after a Russian teenage boy befriended a gay couple and sought asylum in the US on the grounds that he faced persecution at home.
    (AP, 10/1/14)(SSFC, 10/5/14, p.A11)
2014        Sep 30, Ukrainian state prosecutors said they have opened a criminal investigation against a Russian law enforcement agency, accusing it of supporting separatist and "terrorist" groups in the east of the country.
    (Reuters, 9/30/14)

2014        Oct 5, Yuri Lyubimov (b.1917), founder and director of Moscow’s Taganka Theater (1964-1983 and 1989-2011), died in Moscow.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Taganka_Theatre)(Econ, 10/25/14, p.94)

2014        Oct 6, Russian opposition politician Vladimir Ashurkov announced on Twitter that he was seeking asylum in the UK due to political persecution by authorities. Ashurkov was the right-hand man of anticorruption blogger Alexei Navalny, who had been  under house arrest since February.
    (SFC, 10/7/14, p.A2)

2014        Oct 16, In Serbia Russian President Vladimir Putin was guest of honour at a military parade in Belgrade to mark 70 years since the city's liberation by the Red Army.
    (Reuters, 10/16/14)

2014        Oct 17, In Russia Lyudmila Bogatenkova (73), a veteran activist who investigated the deaths and disappearances of Russian soldiers in Ukraine, was charged with fraud and ordered to be jailed.
    (AP, 10/18/14)
2014        Oct 17, Meeting in Milan, Italy, Russia and Ukraine made progress towards resolving a row over gas supplies, but European leaders said Moscow had to do much more to prop up a fragile ceasefire and end fighting in eastern Ukraine.
    (Reuters, 10/17/14)

2014        Oct 18, Ukraine’s President Petro Poroshenko said in a television interview that Russia has agreed to supply Ukraine with gas through March 31 at a price of $385 per 1,000 cubic meters.
    (AP, 10/19/14)

2014        Oct 20, In Russia Christophe de Margerie, the charismatic CEO of Total SA, was killed at a Moscow airport late today when his private jet collided with a snowplow whose driver, Vladimir Martynenko, was reportedly drunk. 3 French crew members also died when the Dassault Falcon 50 burst into flames after it hit the snowplow. Relatives said Martynenko was sober in the morning and that he doesn't drink at all due to chronic heart disease.
    (AP, 10/21/14)(Reuters, 10/21/14)

2014        Oct 23, The general director of Moscow's Vnukovo Airport and his deputy resigned and Russian investigators detained four other airport employees following a plane crash that killed a top French oil executive and three crew members.
    (AP, 10/23/14)

2014        Oct 24, Russia’s agricultural safety agency said some 600 tons of banned meat from Europe were discovered disguised as other items such as frozen mushrooms, juice, fruit jellies and chewing gum.
    (AFP, 10/24/14)
2014        Oct 24, US Air Force General Philip Breedlove, NATO's military commander, said Russia still has troops in eastern Ukraine and retains a very capable force on the border despite a partial withdrawal.
    (Reuters, 10/24/14)

2014        Oct 30, Moscow, Kiev and the European Union clinched an agreement to resume supplies of Russian gas to Ukraine over the winter and secure transit of gas via Ukraine to Europe.
    (Reuters, 10/31/14)

2014        Oct 31, Russia’s Gazprom said it may restart gas supply to Ukraine as soon as next week if Kiev pays $2.2 billion worth of debt and pre-payments, under a deal that is also vital to ensure deliveries to Europe.
    (Reuters, 10/31/14)
2014        Oct 31, Russia's central bank raised its main interest rate 1.5% to 9.5% in its latest attempt to shore up the plummeting national currency.
    (AP, 10/31/14)
2014        Oct 31, In Australia the Commission for the Conservation of Antarctic Marine Living Resources (CCAMLR) wound up a 10-day meeting in Hobart without the consensus needed for a deal to conserve and manage the marine ecosystems in the Southern Ocean. China and Russia thwarted an international attempt to create the world’s largest ocean sanctuary in Antarctica.
    (Reuters, 10/31/14)

2014        Oct, Russia’s Pres. Putin signed legislation banning foreign firms from owning more than 20% of any media outlet based in Russia.
    (Econ, 11/8/14, p.65)

2014        Nov 2, Former Yugoslav Gen. Veljko Kadijevic (88), who was accused of war crimes in Croatia and who fled to Russia in 2001 to avoid testifying at a UN tribunal, died in Moscow.
    (AP, 11/3/14)

2014        Nov 5, Russia gave 12 South African firms rights to supply canned and frozen fish. South Africa will resume seafood exports to Russia for the first time in almost two decades as Moscow looked elsewhere for food sources following Western sanctions over Ukraine.
    (Reuters, 11/11/14)

2014        Nov 7, Russia signed a contract to build two more nuclear reactors in Iran to be possibly followed by another six, a move intended to cement closer ties between the two nations.
    (AP, 11/11/14)
2014        Nov 7, In Russia a lesbian couple tied the knot in a quiet ceremony seen as the first such marriage in the country where gay unions are illegal. The marriage went through in St. Petersburg because one of the women was born male but is now transgender and undergoing hormone therapy.
    (AFP, 11/9/14)
2014        Nov 7, Ukraine’s military said a column of 32 tanks, 16 howitzer artillery systems and trucks carrying ammunition and fighters has crossed into eastern Ukraine from Russia. 5 Ukrainian soldiers were killed and 16 wounded in the past 24 hours despite the ceasefire.
    (Reuters, 11/7/14)

2014        Nov 9, Chinese President Xi Jinping and his Russian counterpart Vladimir Putin promised ever-closer cooperation as they met for the 10th time in less than two years. They signed agreements to boost energy cooperation, including an understanding to develop a second major route to supply the Chinese side with Russian gas following an initial $400 billion deal in May.
    (AP, 11/9/14)
2014        Nov 9, East Ukraine's rebel stronghold Donetsk was pummeled by the heaviest shelling in a month, and the OSCE said it spotted an armored column of troops without insignia in rebel territory that Kiev said proved Moscow had sent reinforcements. 3 Ukrainian soldiers were reported killed in the past 24 hours and a further 13 injured.
    (Reuters, 11/9/14)

2014        Nov 10, Russia launched a new state-funded foreign news service to challenge the "aggressive propaganda" of the West and provide an "alternative interpretation" of global events.
    (AFP, 11/10/14)
2014        Nov 10, Russia’s central bank decided to freely float the currency in markets and stop regularly spending billions in a vain attempt to stem its fall. The ruble has lost about half its value since the start of the year.
    (AP, 11/10/14)
2014        Nov 10, A Russian Soyuz space capsule carrying three astronauts from the International Space Station landed safely on the frozen Kazakhstan steppe.
    (AP, 11/10/14)

2014        Nov 15, In Australia the G20 summit opened in Brisbane. Western leaders warned Vladimir Putin that he risked more economic sanctions if he failed to end Russian backing for separatist rebels in Ukraine.
    (Reuters, 11/15/14)
2014        Nov 15, In Georgia tens of thousands of people rallied in the capital to protest a planned agreement between Russia and Georgia's separatist province of Abkhazia. A proposed agreement envisages the creation of joint Russian and Abkhazian military forces.
    (AP, 11/15/14)

2014        Nov 16, In Australia leaders from the G20 group of nations agreed to boost flagging global growth, tackle climate change and crack down on tax avoidance. Leaders completed a plan to boost global GDP by more than $2 trillion over five years. Russian President Vladimir Putin left summit in Brisbane early as US President Barack Obama accused Russia of invading Ukraine and Britain warned of a possible "frozen conflict" in Europe.
    (Reuters, 11/16/14)(SFC, 11/17/14, p.A6)
2014        Nov 16, French President Francois Hollande said he would not be pressured into delivering two warships to Russia, after delaying their handover due to the Ukraine crisis.
    (AFP, 11/16/14)

2014        Nov 17, Russia expelled several Polish diplomats for spying, deepening the worst East-West crisis since the Cold War as the EU eyed fresh sanctions against Moscow over the violence in Ukraine.
    (AFP, 11/17/14)

2014        Nov 19, Russia urged Ukraine's leaders to talk directly to separatists to end the conflict in the east, but Kiev rejected the call and told Moscow to stop "playing games" aimed at legitimizing "terrorists".
    (Reuters, 11/19/14)

2014        Nov 24, Russia further tightened its control over Georgia's breakaway province of Abkhazia with a new treaty envisaging closer military and economic ties, a move that has drawn outrage in Georgia.
    (AP, 11/24/14)
2014        Nov 24, Russia’s Finance Minister Anton Siluanov said lower oil prices and Western financial sanctions imposed over the Ukraine crisis will cost Russia around $130-140 billion a year, equivalent to around 7 percent of its economy.
    (Reuters, 11/24/14)
2014        Nov 24, A Russian Soyuz rocket blasted off from the Baikonur Cosmodrome in Kazakhstan to deliver three new crew members to the International Space Station, including Italy's first female astronaut.
    (Reuters, 11/24/14)

2014        Nov 25, France suspended the delivery of a warship to Russia, after months of speculation about what would be the biggest arms sale ever by a NATO country to the Kremlin.
    (AP, 11/25/14)

2014        Nov 30, In Russia some 5000 people marched through Moscow to protest plans to lay off thousands of doctors and close hospitals amid a flagging economy.
    (SFC, 12/1/14, p.A4)
2014        Nov 30, Ukraine said that a convoy of 106 vehicles had entered its eastern territory from Russia without Kiev's permission and accused Moscow of once again using humanitarian aid shipments to send weapons and ammunition to separatist rebels.
    (Reuters, 11/30/14)

2014        Dec 2, NATO Secretary-General Jens Stoltenberg said the alliance member countries have approved a new interim quick-reaction military force to protect themselves from Russia or other threats. Foreign ministers from the 28 NATO countries and Ukraine condemned a Russian military build-up in Crimea and what they called Russia's "deliberate destabilization" of eastern Ukraine.
    (AP, 12/2/14)(4, 12/2/14)

2014        Dec 4, Russia’s President Vladimir Putin said money collected in one of the country’s two "rainy day" funds should be used to support domestic banks, as he set out efforts to help Moscow counteract Western sanctions and overcome its economic woes. Putin also proposed an amnesty for those returning capital to Russia, indicating they would not face tax or other penalties. 
    (Reuters, 12/4/14)

2014        Dec 5, In Russia a court in Volgograd convicted four men for their roles in the twin suicide bombings that killed 34 people a year earlier.
    (SFC, 12/6/14, p.A2)
2014        Dec 5, The British Museum plunged into a geopolitical tempest by lending one of the disputed Greek Elgin Marbles to Russia’s Hermitage Museum.
    (SFC, 12/6/14, p.A2)

2014         Dec 6, French President Francois Hollande met with Russian President Putin in Moscow.
    (Reuters, 12/6/2014)

2014        Dec 7, Russia’s Pres. Vladimir Putin discussed energy collaboration with leaders of Hungary and Serbia.
    (Reuters, 12/7/14)

2014        Dec 9, Russia resumed shipments of natural gas to Ukraine.
    (Reuters, 12/9/14)
2014        Dec 9, The Hungarian government said it has signed three contracts with a Russian company which will allow construction in 2018 of new reactors at the country's only nuclear power plant.
    (AP, 12/9/14)

2014        Dec 10, Russia’s lower house of parliament voted unanimously to approved a treaty allowing Armenia to join the Eurasian Economic Union, a trade block that already includes Russia, Belarus and Kazakhstan.
    (SFC, 12/11/14, p.A2)

2014        Dec 11, Indian PM Narendra Modi told President Vladimir Putin that Russia will remain India's top defense supplier. Modi spoke after a one-day summit in which the two sides signed billions of dollars of deals in nuclear power, oil and defense. The Russian Direct Investment Fund and India's IDFC agreed to invest up to $1 billion in Indian infrastructure projects including in ports, toll roads and hydropower, to deepen economic ties between the two countries.
    (Reuters, 12/11/14)

2014        Dec 13, Russia's Deputy Foreign Minister Sergei Ryabkov said Russia will take counter measures if Washington imposes new sanctions on Moscow over the Ukraine crisis. The US Congress has readied new sanctions on Russian weapons companies and investors in the country's high-tech oil projects, but President Barack Obama has yet to sign a corresponding bill into law.
    (Reuters, 12/13/14)

2014        Dec 15, The Russian dropped 10%  of its value against the US dollar.
    (Econ, 12/20/14, p.111)

2014        Dec 16, The Russian currency crashed to unprecedented lows as it reached 80 rubles to the dollar and 100 to the euro, testing Vladimir Putin's ability to ride out an economic storm and prevail in his confrontation with the West. Russia's emergency move a day earlier to raise interest rates to 17 percent failed to arrest the collapse of the ruble.
    (AFP, 12/16/14)
2014        Dec 16, Pres. Obama signed legislation imposing further sanctions on Russia and authorizing additional aid to Ukraine.
    (SFC, 12/17/14, p.A5)

2014        Dec 18, Russia’s President Vladimir Putin promised to fix his nation’s economic woes within two years by diversifying and voiced confidence that the plummeting ruble will soon recover.
    (AP, 12/18/14)
2014        Dec 18, The EU imposed additional sanctions on Crimea, banning all investment and cruise ships from its ports to force home the message the bloc will not recognize Russia's "illegal annexation" of Ukraine territory.
    (AFP, 12/18/14)

2014        Dec 19, A Moscow court extended a term of house arrest for Kremlin critic Alexei Navalny on trial for stealing more than 30 million rubles (£317,743), charges he dismisses as part of a campaign by President Vladimir Putin to stifle dissent. Oleg Navalny was sentenced to 3½ years in jail for defrauding a cosmetics company in a verdict which was largely seen as retribution for the political ambitions of his brother, who got a suspended sentence in the same trial.
    (Reuters, 12/19/14)(AP, 8/3/16)
2014        Dec 19, The United States imposed sanctions on Russian-controlled Crimea as Ukraine announced the loss of five soldiers ahead of peace talks meant to end a war against Russian-backed insurgents.
    (AFP, 12/19/14)

2014        Dec 22, Russia bailed out a mid-sized bank for about $500 million to save it from bankruptcy. The Central Bank said it will give Trust Bank 30 billion rubles that will allow it to continue operating as normal.
    (AP, 12/22/14)
2014        Dec 22, Activists said Russia's Internet watchdog is working to block social networking sites rallying support for a mass protest next month backing Kremlin critic Alexei Navalny.
    (Reuters, 12/22/14)

2014        Dec 23, The Russian government instructed five of the country's biggest exporters to reduce their foreign currency assets to October levels and to not raise them again until March. The companies targeted were gas giant Gazprom, oil companies Rosneft and Zarubezhneft and diamond producers Alrosa and Kristall.
    (AP, 12/23/14)
2014        Dec 23, Russia and four other ex-Soviet nations completed the creation of a new economic alliance intended to bolster their integration. The Eurasian Economic Union, which includes Russia, Belarus, Kazakhstan, Armenia and Kyrgyzstan, comes to existence on Jan 1. Belarus President Alexander Lukashenko cracked the ceremonial veneer of the meeting by launching a harsh attack on Moscow for damaging Belarus' economic interests with moves to restrict its exports to Russia.
    (AP, 12/23/14)

2014        Dec 24, Russia said it would respond adequately by severing ties with NATO if Ukraine becomes a member of the Atlantic bloc.
    (Reuters, 12/24/14)
2014        Dec 24, Russia's central bank said it will look to help companies with their foreign debts, a move it hopes will ease the pressure on the national currency.
    (AP, 12/24/14)
2014        Dec 24, A leak on a major Russian oil pipeline caused a spill in the Black Sea near the port of Tuapse where officials said stormy weather was hampering efforts to assess and respond to the mishap.
    (Reuters, 12/24/14)

2014        Dec 25, An agreement to swap 125 Ukrainian servicemen for 225 rebels held by Kiev followed peace talks between envoys of Ukraine, Russia, the separatists and European security watchdog OSCE.
    (Reuters, 12/26/14)

2014        Dec 26, The Kremlin said President Vladimir Putin has signed a new military doctrine, naming NATO expansion among key external risks.
    (Reuters, 12/26/14)
2014        Dec 26, International credit and debit card company Visa Inc said it could no longer support bank cards being used in Crimea, following US sanctions imposed earlier this month.
    (Reuters, 12/26/14)
2014        Dec 26, Ukraine suspended train and bus services to the Russia-annexed Crimean Peninsula, citing security concerns.
    (AP, 12/26/14)

2014        Dec 27, Russia said it has agreed on a new deal to supply coal and electricity to Ukraine, which is struggling with a lack of raw fuel for power plants due to a separatist conflict in the industrial east.
    (Reuters, 12/27/14)

2014        Dec 29, The Russian currency extended its losses after a report showed the economy has started shrinking in annual terms for the first time since 2009, buffeted by falling oil prices and Western sanctions.
    (AP, 12/29/14)
2014        Dec 29, In Russia new road safety regulations, signed by PM Dmitry Medvedev, barred transexuals, transvestites and others with “sexual disorders," from driving, ostensibly for medical reasons.
    (SFC, 1/10/15, p.A2)(http://tinyurl.com/pltzas3)
2014        Dec 29, The US said it has imposed sanctions on four Russians under a law targeting Russian human rights violators. They included the prime minister and another senior official of Russia's Chechen Republic.
    (AP, 12/29/14)

2014        Karen Dawisha authored “Putin’s Kleptocracy: Who Owns Russia?" She noted that 110 individuals controlled 35% of Russia’s wealth.
    (Econ, 11/22/14, p.77)
2014        Masha Gessen authored “Words Will Break Cement: The Passion of Pussy Riot."
    (Econ, 1/11/14, p.69)
2014         In Russia a 40-foot-wide, circular structure made from the skulls, skeletons and tusks of more than 60 woolly mammoths was discovered at a site called Kostenki 11, 300 miles south of Moscow. The site was dated back 25,000 years.
    (NY Times, 3/18/20)

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