Timeline Russia 1988-1995

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1988        Jan 6, Soviet Foreign Minister Eduard Shevardnadze was quoted by the Afghan news agency as saying the Kremlin wanted to pull an estimated 115,000 soldiers from Afghanistan in the coming year.
    (AP, 1/6/98)

1988        Jan 10, Soviet media reported on an interview given to Chinese journalists by Mikhail S. Gorbachev, who praised the state of Sino-Soviet relations and called for a summit. The Beijing government turned aside the summit call, saying Soviet-backed Vietnamese forces first had to withdraw from Cambodia.
    (AP, 1/10/98)

1988        Jan 11, The Soviet Union announced it would participate in the 1988 Seoul Summer Olympics.
    (AP, 1/11/98)

1988        Feb 12, The Pentagon charged that two Soviet Navy vessels deliberately bumped two U.S. warships in the Black Sea as the American vessels sailed through waters claimed by the Soviet Union.
    (AP, 2/12/98)

1988        Feb 15, The Soviet Union was defeated by Afghanistan, and a total withdrawal by the Soviets occurred. In 2003 George Crile authored "Charlie Wilson's War: The Extraordinary Story of the largest Covert Operation in History."
    (www.afghan, 5/25/98)(SSFC, 5/25/03, p.M1)

1988        Feb 18, Soviet Communist Party leaders dropped former Moscow party chief Boris N. Yeltsin from the ruling Politburo.
    (AP, 2/18/98)

1988        Feb 26, The Soviet Union's hockey team clinched the gold medal at the Winter Olympics in Calgary, Canada.
    (AP, 2/26/98)

1988        Feb 28, There was an anti-Armenian pogrom in the town of Sumgait in Azerbaijan.
    (WSJ, 8/7/96, p.A15)

1988        Apr 7, Soviet leader Mikhail S. Gorbachev and Afghan leader Najibullah met in the Soviet Central Asian city of Tashkent. They later issued a joint statement announcing an end to the civil war in Afghanistan and withdrawal Soviet troops.
    (AP, 4/7/97)

1988        Apr 14, Afghanistan, Pakistan, the United States and the Soviet Union signed agreements providing for the withdrawal of Soviet forces from Afghanistan and creation of a nonaligned Afghan state. Soviet leader Mikhail Gorbachev announced the withdrawal of Soviet troops. The Soviets pulled out of Afghanistan after nine years of fighting. Afghan rebels rejected the pact and continued fighting.
    (SFC, 9/28/96, p.A8)(WA, 1997,p.737)(TMC, 1994, p.1988)(AP, 4/14/98)

1988        Apr 22, Secretary of State George P. Shultz, visiting the Soviet Union, met with President Mikhail S. Gorbachev, who reportedly criticized the Reagan administration for its "confrontational" approach to U.S.-Soviet relations.
    (AP, 4/22/98)

1988        Spring, Soviet germ scientists transferred hundreds of tons of anthrax bacteria into canisters with bleach and sent them for storage to Vozrozhdeniye Island (Renaissance Island) in the Aral Sea, shared by Kazakhstan and Uzbekistan. Western estimates had 100-200 tons buried at 5-8 feet. In 2002 Pentagon engineers dug up the site and neutralized the anthrax.
    (SFC, 6/2/99, p.A10,11)(SFC, 3/24/03, p.A5)

1988        May 11, Master spy Harold "Kim" Philby, the notorious "Third Man" of a British espionage ring, died in the Soviet Union at age 76. In 2014 Ben Macintyre authored “A Spy Among Friends: Kim Philby and the Great Betrayal" and Tim Milne authored “Kim Philby: The Unknown Story of the KGB’s Master Spy."
    (AP, 5/11/98)(Econ, 4/19/14, p.76)

1988        May 12, Secretary of State George P. Shultz and Soviet Foreign Minister Eduard Shevardnadze, meeting in Geneva, resolved nearly all remaining questions on an intermediate-range missile treaty.
    (AP, 5/12/98)

1988        May 15, The Soviet Union began the process of withdrawing its 115,000 troops from Afghanistan, more than eight years after Soviet forces had entered the country.
    (AP, 5/15/98)(HN, 5/15/98)

1988        May 18, A cheering crowd in the Soviet town of Termez greeted the first Soviet soldiers as they withdrew from Afghanistan. Experts agree that at least 40,000-50,000 Soviets lost their lives in action, besides the wounded, suicides, and murders. Mujahedeen continued to fight against Najibullah's regime. Some 130,000 Red Army troops fought in Afghanistan and 15,000 were lost.
    (AP, 5/18/98)(www.afghan, 5/25/98)(SFC, 10/18/01, p.A3)

1988        May 21, The Soviet news agency Tass reported that the Communist Party leaders of Armenia and Azerbaijan had been dismissed after fresh outbreaks of ethnic tensions in the two southern Soviet republics.
    (AP, 5/21/98)

1988        May 22, Janos Kadar, installed by the Soviet Union as head of Hungary's Communist Party in 1956, was replaced by Prime Minister Karoly Grosz.
    (AP, 5/22/98)

1988        May 25, President Reagan left for a trip to the Soviet Union and a superpower summit with Mikhail S. Gorbachev.
    (AP, 5/25/98)

1988        May 29, President Reagan began his first visit to the Soviet Union as he arrived in Moscow for a superpower summit with Soviet leader Mikhail S. Gorbachev.
    (AP, 5/29/98)

1988        May 30, On the second day of the Moscow summit, Soviet leader Mikhail S. Gorbachev, giving a toast at a state dinner, called for closer contacts with Americans, adding, "This should be done without interfering in domestic affairs, without sermonizing or imposing one's views and ways."
    (AP, 5/30/98)

1988        May 31, On the third day of the Moscow superpower summit, Soviet leader Mikhail S. Gorbachev said maybe it was "time to bang our fists on the table" to complete work on a strategic arms treaty. President Reagan responded: "I'll do anything that works." Reagan received a standing ovation from students at Moscow Univ. following a short speech with questions and answers.
    (AP, 5/31/98)(HN, 5/31/99)(WSJ, 6/18/04, p.A11)

1988         Jun 1, President Reagan and Soviet leader Mikhail S. Gorbachev concluded their Moscow summit by exchanging documents of ratification of the intermediate-range nuclear arms treaty they'd signed the previous December.
    (AP, 6/1/98)

1988        Jun 30, There was a surprising display of "glasnost" during a Soviet Communist Party conference as delegate Vladimir I. Melnikov bluntly criticized President Andrei A. Gromyko and other longtime Kremlin figures.
    (AP, 6/30/98)

1988        Jul 1, A four-day national conference of Soviet Communist Party members ended in Moscow, with Mikhail S. Gorbachev winning approval for sweeping changes.
    (AP, 7/1/98)

1988        Jul 7, Russia’s PHOBOS 1 Mars Orbiter and lander was launched. Contact was lost on September 2, 1988.
    (SFC, 11/19/96, p.B1)(www.windows.ucar.edu/tour/link=/mars/space_missions.html)

1988        Jul 12, Russia’s PHOBOS 2 Flyby and lander was launched. It failed within 480 miles of Mar’s moon Phobos.
    (SFC, 11/19/96, p.B1)(www.windows.ucar.edu/tour/link=/mars/space_missions.html)

1988        Jul 14, The Soviet press agency Tass reported that Azerbaijan has rejected an attempt by Nagorno-Karabakh, a predominantly Armenian enclave, to secede and join Armenia. Some 200,000 demonstrated in Soviet Armenia for the incorporation of Nagorno-Karabakh.

1988        Aug 3, The Soviet Union released Mathias Rust, the West German who landed a small plane in Moscow's Red Square in May 1987.
    (AP, 8/3/97)

1988        Sep 2, A command error to the PHOBOS 1 Orbiter and lander caused it be lost en route to Mars.
    (SFC, 11/19/96, p.B1)

1988        Sep 6, A 25-hour drama began as technical problems kept a two-man Soviet space crew from returning to Earth aboard a Soyuz space capsule. The problems were cleared up, and the crew landed safely the next day.
    (AP, 9/6/98)

1988        Sep 18, The Soviet Union won the first gold medal of the Summer Olympics in Seoul, South Korea, in the women's air rifle event, while U.S. divers picked up silver and bronze medals in women's platform.
    (AP, 9/18/98)

1988        Sep 21, The Soviet women's gymnastics team won the gold medal at the Seoul Summer Olympics, with Romania placing second and East Germany third.
    (AP, 9/21/98)

1988        Sep 23, Soviet Foreign Minister Eduard A. Shevardnadze concluded two days of talks in Washington with Secretary of State George P. Shultz on the subjects of arms control and human rights.
    (AP, 9/23/98)

1988        Sep 30, Mikhail S. Gorbachev retired President Andrei A. Gromyko from the Politburo and fired other old-guard leaders in a Kremlin shake-up.
    (AP, 9/30/98)

1988        Oct 1, In a continuing shake-up of the Soviet leadership, Mikhail Gorbachev was confirmed as president, succeeding Andrei A. Gromyko.
    (AP, 10/1/98)

1988        Oct 16, Rescue workers near Point Barrow, Alaska, continued their efforts to save three California gray whales trapped in Arctic Ocean ice [see Oct 26].
    (AP, 10/16/98)

1988        Oct 26, US-Soviet effort freed 2 gray whales from frozen Arctic near Barrow, Alaska [see Oct 16].

1988        Oct 27, The government of the Soviet Union unveiled an $804 billion budget containing a deficit of $58 billion that officials blamed on past mistakes.
    (AP, 10/27/98)

1988        Oct 29, The maiden voyage of the Soviet Union's space shuttle was delayed because of problems with ground equipment.
    (AP, 10/29/98)

1988        Nov 3, The Soviet Union agreed to allow the teaching of Hebrew.

1988        Nov 24, A state of emergency was declared in the cities of Kirovabad and Nakhichevan in Azerbaijan.
    (WSJ, 8/7/96, p.A15)

1988        Nov, The Russian Buran space shuttle made its 1st unmanned flight. It was designed by Gleb Lozino-Lozinsky (d.2001 at 97). The Buran orbited Earth twice, landed, and never flew again. Russia built about a dozen shuttles, mostly test models, and later scrapped the program.
    (SFC, 12/5/01, p.A23)(WSJ, 4/11/05, p.A18)

1988        Dec 1, Soviet President Mikhail S. Gorbachev won nearly unanimous approval for a more dynamic political structure from the Supreme Soviet, which voted itself out of existence in favor of a new Congress of People's Deputies.
    (AP, 12/1/98)

1988        Dec 2, The 5 gunmen, who hijacked Soviet Aeroflot jet, surrendered in Israel.

1988        Dec 6, Soviet President Mikhail Gorbachev arrived for his second U.S. visit to address the United Nations and meet with President Reagan and President-elect Bush.
    (AP, 12/6/98)

1988        Dec 7, A magnitude 6.9-8.0 earthquake devastated Spitak in northern Armenia; an estimated 25,000 people died with some $14 billion in losses.
    (AP, 12/7/97)(AP, 6/22/02)(www.who.int/archives/inf-pr-1997/en/pr97-08.html)

1988        Dec 10, Soviet President Mikhail Gorbachev visited the republic of Armenia, the scene of a devastating earthquake that had killed an estimated 25,000 people.
    (AP, 12/10/98)

1988        Dec 11, A Soviet military transport plane crashed, killing nearly 80 people involved in Armenian earthquake relief efforts.
    (AP, 12/11/98)

1988        "Dr. Zhivago" by Boris Pasternak was first published in the Soviet Union.
    (SFC,11/27/97, p.B3)
1988        Yuri Churbanov, husband of Galina Brezhnev (d.1998), was convicted of taking bribes after a trial that exposed corruption at the highest levels of the Kremlin. Galina was the daughter of former Soviet leader Leonid Brezhnev.
    (SFC, 7/1/98, p.A22)
1988        In Russia Mikhail Khodorkovsky started a bank and began to manage government money. The bank later rigged the auction that allowed him and associates to acquire a majority stake in the Yukos oil company.
    (Econ, 5/21/05, p.25)
1988        In South Korea Elena Shushunova (1969-2018), a Soviet gymnast, won the women's all-around gold medal at the Seoul Olympics.
    (AP, 8/16/18)

1989        Jan 8, Soviet Union promised to eliminate stockpiles of chemical weapons.

1989        Feb 4, Soviet Foreign Minister Eduard Shevardnadze wrapped up four days of high-level talks in China, the first visit by a Soviet foreign minister in three decades.
    (AP, 2/4/99)

1989        Feb 5, The Soviet Union announced that all but a small rear-guard contingent of its troops had left Afghanistan.
    (AP, 2/5/99)

1989        Feb 15, The Soviet Union announced that the last of its troops had left Afghanistan, after more than nine years of military intervention.
    (SFC, 9/28/96, p.A8)(AP, 2/15/98)

1989        Mar 7, US Secretary of State James A. Baker III met with Soviet Foreign Minister Eduard Shevardnadze in Vienna, Austria. Baker agreed to visit Moscow the following May to discuss prospects for a summit between Pres. Bush and Soviet Pres. Mikhail S. Gorbachev.
    (AP, 3/7/99)

1989        Mar 9, Soviet Union officially submitted to jurisdiction of the World Court.

1989        Mar 15, Soviet President Mikhail S. Gorbachev convened a two-day meeting of the Communist Party's Central Committee to decide on agricultural reforms.
    (AP, 3/15/99)

1989        Mar 26, The first free elections took place in the Soviet Union. Boris Yeltsin was elected. Voters in the Soviet Union filled 1,500 of more than 2,000 seats in the new Congress of People's Deputies, beginning embarrassing defeats for the Communist Party.
    (AP, 3/26/99)(HN, 3/25/98)

1989        Mar 27, Boris N. Yeltsin and other anti-establishment candidates claimed victory in parliamentary elections for the new Congress of People's Deputies.
    (AP, 3/27/99)

1989        Apr 2, Soviet leader Mikhail S. Gorbachev began a visit to Cuba amid differences with President Fidel Castro over the type of reforms Gorbachev was instituting in the Soviet Union.
    (AP, 4/2/99)

1989        Apr 6, Soviet leader Mikhail S. Gorbachev met with British PM Margaret Thatcher in London, holding daylong talks that were characterized as argumentative, but friendly.
    (AP, 4/6/99)

1989        Apr 7, A Soviet nuclear-powered submarine, the Komsomolets, caught fire and sank in the Norwegian Sea, claiming 42 of 69 lives.
    (AP, 4/7/99)(SFC, 8/14/00, p.A13)

1989        Apr 8, The Soviet Union acknowledged that one of its nuclear submarines, the Komsomolets, caught fire and sank 210 miles north of Norway the day before. 42 of 69 lives were reported lost.
    (AP, 4/8/99)(SFC, 8/14/00, p.A13)

1989        Apr 9, Troops under Gen’l Lebed killed 18 protestors, including 16 women and children, in Tbilisi, Georgia. Colonel Gen’l. Igor Rodionov ordered troops to break up anti-Kremlin protests in Tbilisi.
    (WSJ, 6/18/96, p.A12)(SFC, 6/26/96, p.A11)(WSJ, 8/7/96, p.A15)

1989        May 15, Soviet President Mikhail S. Gorbachev arrived in Beijing for the first Sino-Soviet summit in 30 years. His 3-day visit was overshadowed by pro-democracy demonstrations led by Chinese students.
    (SFC, 2/20/96, p.A4)(AP,  5/15/99)

1989        May 16, During his visit to Beijing, Soviet President Mikhail S. Gorbachev met with Chinese leader Deng Xiaoping, formally ending a 30-year rift between the two Communist powers.
    (AP, 5/16/99)

1989        May 18, Soviet President Mikhail S. Gorbachev concluded his historic visit to China, which officially marked the end of a 30-year Sino-Soviet rift.
    (AP, 5/18/99)

1989        May 25, Mikhail Gorbachev was elected Executive President in the Soviet Union.
    (SC, 5/25/02)

1989        Jun 3, An explosion of a liquefied gas pipeline engulfed two Trans-Siberian Railroad trains parked outside the Central Asian city of Ufa in the Soviet Union. 575 people were killed.
    (AP, 4/23/04)

1989        Jun 16, Hungarians paid homage to former premier Imre Nagy and four associates executed for leading the anti-Soviet revolt of 1956. At least 250,000 people attended the ceremonial reburial of PM Imre Nagy and four others hanged 31 years earlier and buried face down in unmarked graves. The reburial, broadcast live on TV from Budapest's Heroes' Square, came as Hungary's communist leadership and the democratic opposition were beginning to negotiate the country's transition to democracy. Sandor Racz, a 1956 veteran, called on the world to "help the Soviet Union" withdraw its troops from Hungary. Viktor Orban, then 26 and later to become prime minister, also urged the Russians to withdraw but blasted the country's communist leadership for making the 1956 revolution a taboo subject.
    (AP, 6/16/99)(AP, 6/16/09)

1989        Jun 20, Soviet President Mikhail S. Gorbachev greeted the speaker of Iran's parliament, Hashemi Rafsanjani, who was visiting Moscow.
    (AP, 6/20/99)

1989        Jul 2, Andrei Gromyko (79), former Soviet Foreign Minister died in Moscow.
    (AP, 7/2/99)

1989        Jul 4, Unmanned Russian Mig-23 crashed in Bellegem-Kooigem, Belgium, and 1 person died. The pilot had ejected over Poland.

1989        Sep 20, Soviet leader Mikhail S. Gorbachev pulled off a major shake-up of the Soviet Communist Party, dropping three Politburo members.
    (AP, 9/20/99)

1989        Sep 26, In a speech to the U.N. General Assembly, Soviet Foreign Minister Eduard Shevardnadze accepted President Bush's call for deep cuts in U.S. and Soviet chemical weapon stockpiles. Shevardnadze called for the total destruction of Soviet and US chemical weapons
    (AP, 9/26/99)(www.fas.org/nuke/control/bwc/chron.htm)

1989        Oct 9, The official Soviet news agency Tass reported that a spaceship of some kind, complete with a trio of tall aliens, had visited a park in the city of Voronezh.
    (AP, 10/9/99)

1989        Oct 25, Soviet leader Mikhail S. Gorbachev began a three-day visit to Finland.
    (AP, 10/25/99)

1989        Nov 30, President Bush left Washington for his first summit with Soviet President Mikhail S. Gorbachev that took place aboard ships off the Mediterranean island of Malta.
    (AP, 11/30/99)

1989        Dec 1, In an extraordinary encounter, Soviet President Mikhail S. Gorbachev met with Pope John Paul II at the Vatican.
    (AP, 12/1/99)

1989        Dec 2, President Bush and Soviet President Mikhail S. Gorbachev held the first talks of their wind-tossed Malta summit aboard the Soviet cruise ship "Maxim Gorky."
    (AP, 12/2/99)

1989        Dec 3, Presidents George Bush and Mikhail Gorbachev, in Malta, announced  the official end to the Cold War.
    (SSFC, 12/2/18, p.A13)

1989        Dec 14, Nobel Peace laureate (1975) Andrei D. Sakharov died in Moscow at age 68.
    (AP, 12/14/99)

1989        Dec 17, More than 100,000 Soviet citizens turned out to honor the late human rights advocate Andrei D. Sakharov, a day before he was buried in Moscow.
    (AP, 12/17/99)

1989        Dec 18, An agreement on trade and commercial and economic cooperation between the European Community and the Soviet Union is signed in Brussels, Belgium.

1989        The Supreme Soviet issued a resolution that criticized the 1939 Molotov-Ribbentrop Pact as "a personal decision by (Soviet leader Josef) Stalin that contradicted the interests of the Soviet people."
    (AP, 5/6/05)
1989        Vladimir Pasechnik defected to the US from the Biopreparat biological weapons program. He revealed that the Soviet program was ten times larger than US estimates.
    (WSJ, 3/10/98, p.A22)
1989        Alexander Smolensky established Bank Stolichny, one of the Soviet Union’s 1st private banks.
    (WSJ, 10/4/00, p.A10)
1989        Soviet nuclear test explosions ended in Kazakhstan. Between 1949 and the cessation of atomic testing in 1989, 456 explosions were conducted at the STS, including 340 underground shots and 116 atmospheric.
    (SFC,11/20/97, p.B2)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Semipalatinsk_Test_Site)
1989        Mintimer Shaimiyev became First Secretary of Tatar Regional CPSU Committee in Kazan, Tatarstan.
    (Econ, 6/2/07, p.56)(www.kcn.ru/tat_en/politics/dfa/presid/car.htm)
1989        In Russia a group of sociologists led by Yuri Levada began to study what they called the Soviet Man, an artificial construct of doublethink, paternalism, suspicion and isolationism.
    (Econ, 12/10/11, p.27)
1989        The Kremlin appointed Islam Karimov as the communist boss of Uzbekistan.
    (Econ, 9/3/16, p.33)

1989-1991    In 1999 Angela E. Stent authored "Russia and Germany Reborn," which focused on this period.
    (WSJ, 8/5/99, p.A16)

1989-1992    The state enterprise natural gas monopoly Gazprom was run by Victor Chernomyrdin.
    (WSJ, 3/5/96, p. A-11)
1989-1992    South Ossetia defended itself from Georgia with aid from Russia and about 1,000 people died in the fighting. Some 25-40,000 people fled the area.
    (SFC, 9/1/98, p.A10)

1990        Jan 11, Soviet President Mikhail S. Gorbachev visited Lithuania, where he sought to assure supporters of independence that they would have a say in their republic's future.
    (AP, 1/11/00)

1990        Jan 15, Soviet leader Gorbachev and the Soviet Presidium declared a state of emergency in parts of Azerbaijan and Armenia in the wake of escalating ethnic violence.
    (AP, 1/15/00)

1990        Jan 16, The Soviet Union sent more than 11,000 reinforcements to the Caucasus to halt a civil war between Armenians and Azerbaijanis.
    (AP, 1/16/00)

1990        Jan 20, The Soviets attacked Baku, leaving dozens dead and wounded. Gen’l. Lebed led Russian forces in Baku to crush the nationalist Azeri Popular Front. 62 civilians were killed and more than 200 wounded when the Soviet army stormed into the city of Baku to end what Soviet leader Mikhail Gorbachev called fratricidal killing between Muslim Azerbaijanis and Christian Armenians.
    (WSJ, 12/18/96, p.A21)(CO, Grolier’s Amer. Acad. Enc./ Azerbaijan)(WSJ, 8/7/96, p.A15)(AP, 1/20/00)

1990        Jan 21, Azerbaijan Pres. Aliyev made his first public appearance since his 1987 resignation from the Soviet Politburo. He broke the information blackout and urged int’l. condemnation of the Soviet attack. Mutinous military cadets fired on troops patrolling the capital during a crackdown on a nationalist uprising.
    (WSJ, 12/18/96, p.A21)(AP, 1/21/00)

1990        Jan 31, McDonald's Corp. opened its first fast-food restaurant in Moscow.
    (AP, 1/31/98)

1990        Feb 4, Cheering protesters thronged Moscow streets to demand that the Communists surrender their stranglehold on power.
    (AP, 2/4/00)

1990        Feb 5, Soviet leader Mikhail S. Gorbachev told the Communist Party it had to earn the right to rule, instead of treating it as an unchallenged right.
    (AP, 2/5/00)

1990        Feb 6, Soviet Communist Party leaders decided to extend a two-day party session by an extra day amid controversy over Soviet leader Mikhail S. Gorbachev's proposals to revamp the country's political structure.
    (AP, 2/6/00)

1990        Feb 7, The Soviet Union's Communist Party agreed to let other political parties compete for control of the country, thereby giving up its monopoly on power.
    (AP, 2/7/00)

1990        Feb 26, USSR agreed to withdraw all 73,500 troops from Czechoslovakia by July, 1991.
    (SC, 2/26/02)

1990        Mar 4, Voters in the Soviet republics of Russia, Byelorussia and the Ukraine participated in local and legislative elections, resulting in notable gains for reformists and nationalists.
    (AP, 3/4/00)

1990        Mar 13, The Soviet Congress of People's Deputies approved Mikhail S. Gorbachev's proposals for a multiparty political system headed by a powerful president.
    (AP, 3/13/00)

1990        Mar 14, The Soviet Congress elected Mikhail S. Gorbachev president of the Soviet Congress, a day after creating the post.
    (HN, 3/14/98)(AP, 3/14/00)

1990        Mar 19, Kremlin warned Lithuania against taking over factories, putting up border posts.
    (AP, 3/19/03)

1990        Mar 24, Soviet military vehicles rumbled through the heart of the Lithuanian capital of Vilnius as lawmakers in the breakaway Baltic republic voted to transfer their power to foreign soil if they were attacked or arrested.
    (AP, 3/24/00)

1990        Apr 1, More Soviet military vehicles rolled through the Lithuanian capital of Vilnius, a day after Soviet President Mikhail S. Gorbachev warned the Baltic republic to annul its declaration of independence.
    (AP, 4/1/00)

1990        Apr 13, The Soviet Union accepted responsibility for the World War II murders of thousands of imprisoned Polish officers in the Katyn Forest, a massacre the Soviets had previously blamed on the Nazis.
    (AP, 4/13/97)

1990        Apr 18, The Soviet Union shut off a pipeline that supplied the rebellious republic of Lithuania with crude oil; a day later, the Soviets severely reduced the flow of natural gas.
    (AP, 4/18/00)

1990        May 1, Soviet President Mikhail S. Gorbachev and other Kremlin leaders were jeered by thousands of people during the annual May Day parade in Red Square.
    (AP, 5/1/00)

1990        May 14, In separate decrees, Soviet President Gorbachev declared that the republics of Estonia and Latvia had no legal basis for moving toward independence.
    (AP, 5/14/00)

1990        May 17, Soviet President Mikhail S. Gorbachev met in Moscow with Lithuanian Prime Minister Kazimiera Prunskiene, Gorbachev's first face-to-face meeting with a senior official of the defiant Baltic republics.
    (AP, 5/17/00)

1990        May 26, Soviet maverick politician Boris N. Yeltsin failed in a second round of voting to win the presidency of the Russian Federation. He succeeded in a third round of balloting three days later.
    (AP, 5/26/00)

1990        May 27, Soviet President Mikhail S. Gorbachev tried to calm his nation’s economic nerves with a hastily scheduled television address. The radical Democratic Party held its 1st political meetings in Moscow.
    (AP, 5/27/00)

1990        May 29, Boris N. Yeltsin was elected president of the Russian republic in the third round of balloting by the Russian parliament. This gave him a base from which to attack Soviet president Mikhail Gorbachev.
    (AP, 5/29/97)(HN, 5/29/99)

1990        May 30, Soviet President Mikhail S. Gorbachev arrived in Washington for his summit with President Bush.
    (AP, 5/30/00)

1990        May 31, President Bush and his wife, Barbara, welcomed Soviet President Mikhail S. Gorbachev in a ceremony on South Lawn of the White House. The two leaders and their aides then held talks on German reunification.
    (AP, 5/31/00)

1990        Jun 1, President Bush and Soviet President Mikhail S.  Gorbachev signed more than a dozen bilateral accords in the second day of their Washington summit. Meanwhile, Barbara Bush and Raisa Gorbachev traveled to Wellesley College in Massachusetts to deliver commencement addresses.
    (AP, 6/1/00)

1990        Jun 2, On the third day of their Washington summit, President Bush and Soviet President Mikhail S. Gorbachev held informal talks at the Camp David presidential retreat in Maryland.
    (AP, 6/2/00)

1990        Jun 3, President Bush and Soviet President Mikhail S. Gorbachev concluded their Washington summit with a joint news conference at the White House. During their 4-day meeting they sealed agreements to slash long-range nuclear weapons, halt production of chemical weapons and lift trade barriers. Gorbachev and his delegation then flew to Minnesota for a whirlwind tour of Minneapolis-St. Paul.
    (AP, 6/3/00)(SSFC, 12/2/18, p.A13)

1990        Jun 5, Vasily V. Kuznetsov (b.1901), president of USSR supreme soviet (1982-83, 85), died in Moscow.

1990        Jun 12, In a speech to the Supreme Soviet legislature, President Mikhail S. Gorbachev eased his objection to a reunified Germany holding membership in NATO.
    (AP, 6/12/00)
1990        Jun 12, Boris Yeltsin led a vote at the Congress of Peoples Deputies on a "declaration of Sovereignty for Russia." Russia Day became a national holiday honoring this day, when Russian lawmakers decided that Russian laws should take priority over Soviet Union laws.
    (SFC, 6/10/96, p.A16)(AP, 6/12/12)

1990        Jun 20, The Communist Initiative created its neoconservative Russian Communist Party. Among the founders were Gennady Zyuganov, Valentin Kuptsov, and Alexander Rutskoi. Gorbachev still ran the country.
    (SFC, 6/10/96, p.A16)

1990        Jun, In Kyrgyzstan about 300 people were killed in a violent land dispute between Kyrgyz and Uzbeks  in Osh, and only the quick deployment of Soviet troops quelled the fighting.
    (SFC, 10/21/99, p.AA5)(AP, 6/13/10)(Econ, 6/19/10, p.27)

1990        Jul 2, The Soviet Union’s 28th Communist Party congress opened with an address by President Mikhail S. Gorbachev, who conceded mistakes while defending perestroika.
    (AP, 7/2/00)

1990        Jul 3, In Moscow, Kremlin hard-liner Yegor K. Ligachev received an enthusiastic reception at a Communist Party congress as he criticized reforms by President Mikhail S. Gorbachev, saying perestroika had been marred by "limitless radicalism."
    (AP, 7/3/00)

1990        Jul 10, Mikhail S. Gorbachev handily won re-election as leader of the Soviet Communist Party.
    (AP, 7/10/00)

1990        Jul 11, Leaders of the so-called "Group of Seven" nations concluded their summit in Houston by encouraging Soviet President Mikhail S. Gorbachev to enact reforms in return for Western aid.
    (AP, 7/11/00)

1990        Jul 12, Russian republic president Boris N. Yeltsin shocked the 28th congress of the Soviet Communist Party by announcing he was resigning his party membership.
    (AP, 7/12/97)

1990        Jul 13, Soviet President Mikhail S. Gorbachev closed the Communist Party’s 28th congress by saying he would welcome Western aid without political strings.
    (AP, 7/13/00)

1990        Jul 15, Soviet President Mikhail S. Gorbachev and visiting West German Chancellor Helmut Kohl held talks on the issue of a united Germany’s membership in NATO.
    (AP, 7/15/00)
1990        Jul 15, Tens of thousands of people marched in Moscow to protest the Communist Party’s control of the government, the army and the KGB.
    (AP, 7/15/00)

1990        Jul 27, White Russia declared independence.
    (MC, 7/27/02)

1990        Aug 24, Sergei Dovlatov (b.1941), one of the most popular Russian writers of the late 20th century, died in NYC. Dovlatov had circulated his writings through samizdat and by having them smuggled into Western Europe for publication in foreign journals; an activity that caused his expulsion from the Union of Soviet Journalists in 1976. He emigrated to American in 1979. His books included “The Invisible Book" (1977).
    (https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sergei_Dovlatov)(Econ, 10/22/16, SR p.14)

1990        Aug 30, Tatarstan proclaimed sovereignty. This was not recognized by Russia. The declaration on the Republic of Tatarstan state sovereignty was adopted immediately after the declaration on the sovereignty of the Russian Federation, which provided the peoples' right "to self-determination in the national-state and national-cultural forms they have chosen."

1990        Aug, South Ossetia, a region of north central Georgia with a population of about 100,000, declared itself sovereign. Ethnic Ossetians speak a language similar to Persian. Georgia abolished South Ossetia’s autonomous status following the attempted break. Georgian leader Zviad Gamsakhurdia declared South Ossetia part of Georgia and marched on Tskhinvali, the declared capital.
    (SFC, 9/1/98, p.A10)(WSJ, 8/27/08, p.A12)

1990        Sep 5, In Moscow, Soviet President Mikhail S. Gorbachev met with Iraqi Foreign Minister Tariq Aziz.
    (AP, 9/5/00)

1990        Sep 9, Alexandr Men, Russian Biblical scholar and writer, was murdered by an ax-wielding assailant just outside his home of Semkhoz, Russia.
    (Econ, 3/6/10, p.103)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Alexander_Men)

1990        Sep 12, Representatives of the World War Two allies and West and East Germany signed the Two Plus Four Treaty in Moscow giving international sanction to German unity.
    (AP, 9/12/00)(www.foothill.fhda.edu/divisions/unification/finalset.html)

1990        Sep 21, During a meeting of the Supreme Soviet, President Mikhail S. Gorbachev scolded legislators for dragging its feet on an economic rescue plan, and asked for sweeping new emergency powers to stabilize the economy.
    (AP, 9/21/00)

1990        Sep 24, The Supreme Soviet voted to give preliminary approval to a plan for switching the Soviet Union to a free-market economy.
    (AP, 9/24/00)
1990        Sep 24, East Germany signed a treaty with the Soviet Union ending its membership in the Warsaw Pact.

1990        Oct 13, The 1st Russian Orthodox service in 70 yrs was held in St. Basil's Cathedral.

1990        Oct 16, Soviet President Mikhail S. Gorbachev submitted to the Soviet legislature a scaled-back plan to transform the Soviet economy to a free-market system.
    (AP, 10/16/00)

1990        Oct 19, The Supreme Soviet voted to approve President Mikhail S. Gorbachev’s economic reform plan.
    (AP, 10/19/00)

1990        Oct 30, In Russia the Solovetsky stone was erected in Moscow. It was from the Stalin-era Solovki prison camp as a memorial to victims of Soviet repression.
    (Econ, 12/22/12, p.82)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Solovetsky_Stone)

1990        Nov 9, Soviet President Mikhail S. Gorbachev signed a historic non-aggression treaty with Germany, winning praise from German leaders in Bonn for his role in the peaceful fall of the Berlin Wall.
    (AP, 11/9/00)

1990        Nov 16, Soviet President Mikhail S. Gorbachev told an angry Soviet legislature he would fire government and military officials blocking his reform plans.
    (AP, 11/16/00)

1990        Nov 19, US Pres. George H.W. Bush met with Soviet President Mikhail S. Gorbachev in Paris for a 3-day meeting between NATO members and Warsaw Pact nations.
    (SSFC, 12/2/18, p.A13)
1990        Nov 19, Leaders of 16 NATO members and the remaining six Warsaw Pact nations signed treaties in Paris making sweeping cuts in conventional arms throughout Europe and pledging non-aggression toward one another. The Treaty on Conventional Armed Forces in Europe (CFE) was signed by the United States and 21 other NATO and WTO countries at a CSCE summit in Paris.
    (AP, 11/19/00)(www.fas.org/nuke/control/cfe/chron.htm)

1990        Nov 20, The Soviet Union again rebuffed President Bush’s efforts to rally support for a UN Security Council resolution authorizing military force against Iraq.
    (AP, 11/20/00)

1990        Dec 10, A stand-in for Mikhail Gorbachev accepted the 1990 Nobel Peace Prize.
    (AP, 12/10/00)

1990        Dec 20, Soviet Foreign Minister Eduard Shevardnadze shocked Soviet lawmakers by announcing his resignation, warning that "dictatorship is coming."
    (AP, 12/20/00)

1990        Dec 25, Soviet President Mikhail S. Gorbachev won sweeping new powers from the Congress of People’s Deputies.
    (AP, 12/25/00)

1990        The Moscow Union of Lesbians and Gays was founded.
    (SFC, 6/23/96, BR, p.6)
1990        Vladimir Putin began working as an aide to Leningrad city boss Anatoly Sobchak.
    (WSJ, 2/23/05, p.A14)
1990        The Soviets pulled out of the Hradcany air force base north of Prague, Czechoslovakia, and left behind some 6,500 tons of jet fuel soaked into nearly 15 acres of foul-smelling land.
    (WSJ, 4/5/96, p.B-3A)(Econ, 5/31/08, SR p.11)
1990         The Russian city of Dubna began a sister-city relationship with La Crosse, Wisconsin.
    (http://tinyurl.com/mrtq7n9)(SFC, 12/31/00, p.B5)
1990        East Germany halted food shipments to Cuba and the Soviet Union cut back on deliveries of butter.
    (Econ., 12/12/20, p.38)

1991        Jan 8, Pro Soviet demonstrators protested price rises and surrounded the parliament in Vilnius. Fresh Soviet troops began rolling across Baltic borders from Pskov, Russia, allegedly to deal with Baltic youth who have been evading the Soviet draft.

1991        Jan 13, Soviet troops besieged the Vilnius TV tower and crushed a woman under a tank, but failed to quash the drive for independence. The assault claimed 14 lives. The Soviets occupied strong points in Vilnius, Lithuania, in an attempt to stop the independence movement.
    (Wired, Dec., '95, p.94)(DrEE, 9/28/96, p.1)(AP, 1/13/01)(LHC, 1/12/03)

1991        Jan 26, Soviet President Mikhail S. Gorbachev granted the KGB and Soviet Interior Ministry sweeping search-and-seizure powers to combat economic crime.
    (AP, 1/26/01)

1991        Jan, Valentin Pavlov (d.2003), former finance minister, became the Soviet prime minister.
    (AP, 3/31/03)

1991        Feb 9, In a national poll 3 quarters of Lithuanian citizens called for independence from the Soviet Union in a non-binding plebiscite.
    (AP, 2/9/01)(LHC, 2/9/03)

1991        Mar 3, Latvia and Estonia voted to become independent of the USSR.
    (SC, 3/3/02)

1991        Mar 10, Hundreds of thousands of people demonstrated in Moscow, demanding that President Mikhail S. Gorbachev resign.
    (AP, 3/10/01)

1991        Mar 17, Millions of people voted in a landmark referendum on whether to preserve the splintering Soviet Union.
    (AP, 3/17/01)

1991        Mar 18, Results from a non-binding Soviet referendum showed overwhelming support for preserving the union, a victory for President Mikhail S. Gorbachev. However, in a boost for Russian President Boris N. Yeltsin, voters in his republic also endorsed electing the federation president by direct ballot.
    (AP, 3/18/01)

1991        Mar 28, Fire seriously damaged the US Embassy in Moscow.
    (AP, 3/27/01)
1991        Mar 28, Tens of thousands of supporters of Boris N. Yeltsin marched in Moscow in defiance of President Mikhail S. Gorbachev’s ban on rallies.
    (AP, 3/28/01)

1991        Apr 1, The Warsaw Pact was officially dissolved.

1991        Apr 9, Georgia SSR declared independence from the USSR.

1991        Apr 16, Soviet President Mikhail S. Gorbachev began a visit to Japan.
    (AP, 4/16/01)

1991        Apr 18, Soviet President Mikhail S. Gorbachev ended a summit in Japan without winning the major aid package he’d been hoping for.
    (AP, 4/18/01)

1991        Apr 19, Soviet President Mikhail S. Gorbachev arrived in South Korea for talks with President Roh Tae-woo.
    (AP, 4/19/01)

1991        Apr 23, In Russia Pres. Gorbachev signed the so-called '9+1' agreement on a new Union Treaty. Under this agreement he accepted in principle the transfer of a major share of his central presidential authority to the republics, not only in economic management but also in important areas of political power.

1991        Apr 25, Soviet President Mikhail S. Gorbachev, facing harsh criticism during a closed-door meeting of the Communist Party’s Central Committee, offered to resign as party leader, an offer that was rejected.
    (AP, 4/25/01)

1991        May 10, Alexander Bessmertnykh became the first Soviet foreign minister to visit Israel as he met with Prime Minister Yitzhak Shamir and Foreign Minister David Levy.
    (AP, 5/10/01)

1991        May 18, Helen Sharman became the first Briton to rocket into space as she flew aboard a Soviet Soyuz spacecraft.
    (AP, 5/18/97)

1991        May 20, Lawmakers in the Soviet Union voted to liberalize foreign travel and emigration.
    (AP, 5/20/01)

1991        May, The Victory Day parade, celebrating the WW II Soviet victory over Germany, was suspended with the collapse of the Soviet Union. It was revived in 1996 without the display of military hardware.
    (SFEC, 5/10/98, p.A22)

1991        Jun 5, Soviet President Mikhail S. Gorbachev delivered his delayed Nobel Peace lecture in Oslo, Norway, warning that Western failure to heed his call for economic aid could dash hopes for a peaceful new world order.
    (AP, 6/5/01)

1991        Jun 12, Russians went to the polls and elected Boris Yeltsin as president.
    (AP, 6/12/01)(www.cs.indiana.edu/~dmiguse/Russian/bybio.html)

1991        Jun 18, Russia’s newly elected president, Boris Yeltsin, arrived in the United States for visits with American officials, including President Bush.
    (AP, 6/18/01)

1991        Jun 20, Boris Yeltsin, the newly elected president of the Russian republic, was welcomed to the White House by President Bush.
    (AP, 6/20/01)

1991        Jun 23, The Group of Seven finance ministers and central bankers, meeting in London, agreed that the Soviet Union should become the first associate member of the International Monetary Fund.
    (AP, 6/23/01)

1991        Jul 10, Boris N. Yeltsin took the oath of office as the first elected president of the Russian republic.
    (AP, 7/10/97)

1991        Jul 17, Soviet President Mikhail S. Gorbachev made a personal appeal for Western aid at the conclusion of the Group of Seven economic summit in London.
    (AP, 7/17/01)

1991        Jul 20, Russian President Boris N. Yeltsin banned political activity in government offices and republic-run businesses, effectively curtailing the influence of the Communist Party.
    (AP, 7/20/01)

1991        Jul 23, The draft of a new platform for Soviet Communist Party was published, calling for private property, economic integration into world market and freedom of religion.
    (AP, 7/23/97)

1991        Jul 24, Soviet President Mikhail S. Gorbachev announced a final agreement on a treaty designed to preserve the Soviet federation while giving more power to the republics.
    (AP, 7/24/01)

1991        Jul 25, Soviet President Mikhail S. Gorbachev urged Communist leaders at a Central Committee meeting to reject "outdated ideological dogmas" and embrace a market economy.
    (AP, 7/25/01)

1991        Jul 29, President Bush arrived in Moscow for a superpower summit with Soviet President Mikhail S. Gorbachev that included the signing of the Strategic Arms Reduction Treaty.
    (AP, 7/29/01)

1991        Jul 31, President Bush and Soviet President Mikhail S. Gorbachev signed START I, the Strategic Arms Reduction Treaty in Moscow. The agreement included the deactivation and removal by May, 1995, of 150 Minuteman II missiles in Missouri. The treaty was set to expire in Dec, 2009.
    (AP, 7/31/01)(WSJ, 5/23/96, p.A-1)(WSJ, 12/1/07, p.A8)(Econ, 3/14/09, p.64)
1991        Jul 31, In Lithuania 7 border guards were shot to death and one was wounded as OMON commandos from the Soviet Interior Ministry raided the Medininkai checkpoint on the border of Lithuania and Belarus.
    (AP, 5/11/11)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Medininkai)

1991        Aug 16, In Moscow, Alexander Yakovlev, a top adviser to Soviet President Mikhail S. Gorbachev, resigned from the Communist Party, warning that hard-liners were plotting "a party and state coup."
    (AP, 8/16/01)

1991        Aug 18, Soviet hard-liners (State Emergency Committee), led in part by PM Valentin Pavlov, launched a coup aimed at toppling President Mikhail S. Gorbachev, who was vacationing in the Crimea. They were unhappy with the drift toward the collapse of the USSR. Gorbachev and members of his family remained effectively imprisoned until the coup collapsed three days later.
    (AP, 8/18/97)(HN, 8/18/98)(AP, 4/1/03)

1991        Aug 19, A putsch began in Moscow. Soviet hard-liners, Gennady Yanayev (1937-2010) and the KGB, removed Soviet President Mikhail S. Gorbachev from power. Yanayev was one of 12 members of the so-called State Emergency Committee that announced Gorbachev was being replaced. KGB Chief Vladimir Kryuchkov was the top mastermind behind the coup attempt. In defiance Russian federation Pres. Boris N. Yeltsin called for a general strike. The coup collapsed two days later.
    (DrEE, 1/4/97, p.4)(AP, 8/19/04)(AP, 9/24/10)(SFC, 8/20/21, p.A4)

1991        Aug 20, More than 100,000 people rallied outside the Russian Parliament building as protests against the Soviet coup increased. President Bush said he would never deal with the coup leaders.
    (AP, 8/20/01)

1991        Aug 21, The hard-line coup against Soviet President Mikhail S. Gorbachev collapsed in the face of a popular uprising led by Russian federation President Boris N. Yeltsin. The coup failed in part when General Alexander Lebed refused to move troops to surround Yeltsin’s Moscow stronghold. 3 young men were killed on the night of the failed coup.
    (SFC, 10/18/96, A15)(AP, 8/21/97)(Econ, 12/3/11, p.101)
1991        Aug 21, Boris Yeltsin assured the Foreign Ministers of NATO, who were convened in Brussels, that the coup attempt was failing.
    (DrEE, 1/4/97, p.4)

1991        Aug 22, Soviet President Mikhail S. Gorbachev returned to Moscow following the collapse of the hard-liners' coup. Later that day, he purged his government of the men who'd tried to oust him.
    (AP, 8/22/01)

1991        Aug 23, In the wake of a failed coup by hard-liners in the Soviet Union, President Mikhail S. Gorbachev and Russian President Boris N. Yeltsin acted to strip the Communist Party of its power and take control of the army and the KGB.
    (AP, 8/23/01)

1991        Aug 24, Soviet President Mikhail S. Gorbachev resigned as head of the Communist Party, culminating a stunning Kremlin shakeup that followed the failed coup by hard-liners. In Moscow, thousands of people held a martyrs' funeral for three men killed fighting the coup.
    (AP, 8/24/01)
1991        Aug 24, Ukraine declared independence from USSR.

1991        Aug 25, White-Russia (Belarus) declared it's independence.

1991        Aug 26, In an address to the Supreme Soviet, President Mikhail S. Gorbachev promised national elections in a last-ditch effort to preserve his government, but leaders of Soviet republics told him the hour of central power had passed.
    (AP, 8/24/01)

1991        Aug 27, Moldova (Moldavia) declared independence from USSR.

1991        Aug 28, Soviet President Mikhail S. Gorbachev ordered a shake-up of the KGB and sacked his cabinet in the wake of the failed coup by hard-liners.
    (AP, 8/28/01)

1991        Aug 29, In a stunning blow to the Soviet Communist Party, the Supreme Soviet legislature voted to suspend the activities of the organization and freeze its bank accounts because of the party's role in the failed coup.
    (AP, 8/29/01)

1991        Aug 31, Uzbekistan and Kirghizia declared their independence, raising to 10 the number of republics seeking to secede from the Soviet Union.
    (AP, 8/31/01)

1991        Sep 2, In Moscow, the Soviet Congress of People's Deputies opened its first session since the failed coup, taking up proposals aimed at drastically restructuring the country.
    (AP, 9/2/01)

1991        Sep 5, In Moscow, Soviet lawmakers approved the creation of an interim government to usher in a new confederation.
    (AP, 9/5/01)

1991        Sep 6, In the Soviet Union, the State Council, a new executive body composed of President Mikhail S. Gorbachev and republic leaders, recognized the independence of the Baltic states of Estonia Latvia, and Lithuania. All three were admitted into the UN later this month.
    (AP, 9/6/01)(http://countrystudies.us/lithuania/25.htm)

1991        Sep 11, Soviet President Mikhail S. Gorbachev announced the Kremlin would withdraw thousands of troops from Cuba, a move bitterly denounced by the Havana government.
    (AP, 9/11/01)

1991        Sep 28, Soviet President Mikhail S. Gorbachev praised President Bush's pledge to drastically reduce the U.S. nuclear arsenal, and promised to "reciprocate."
    (AP, 9/28/01)

1991        Oct 5, Soviet President Mikhail S. Gorbachev announced sweeping cuts in nuclear weapons in response to President Bush's arms reduction initiative.
    (AP, 10/5/01)

1991        Oct, Vil S. Mirzayanov, a veteran of the Soviet chemical weapons program, went public with disclosures that a binary chemical weapon was under development.
    (SFC, 9/5/98, p.A12)

1991        Nov 2, Chechnya proclaimed independence following the collapse of the Soviet Union.
    (SSFC, 11/10/02, p.A11)

1991        Nov 6, Pres. Yeltsin fired Ivan Silayev as prime minister. Yeltsin served as acting prime minister until Yegor Gaidar (1956-2009) was appointed in Jun 1992.
    (SFC, 5/13/99, p.A19)(Econ, 12/19/09, p.149)
1991        Nov 6, Russian president Yeltsin outlawed Communist Party.

1991        Nov 7, Pro- and anti-Communist rallies took place in Moscow on the 74th anniversary of the Bolshevik Revolution.
    (AP, 11/7/01)

1991        Nov 11, Yegor Gaidar (1956-2009), appointed by Pres. Boris Yeltsin, began serving as Russia’s finance minister. Foreign-exchange reserves stood at $27 million and the foreign debt, inherited from the soviet Union, was $72 billion. Gaidar and his team were forced to adopt price regulation and to allow free trade.
    (Econ, 12/19/09, p.149)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Yegor_Gaidar)

1991        Nov 28, Soviet President Mikhail S. Gorbachev expressed unhappiness over reports that the United States might move toward diplomatic recognition of Ukraine after the republic's upcoming independence referendum.
    (DTnet, 11/28/97)

1991        Nov 30, Boris Yeltsin's Russian Federation agreed to bail out Mikhail S. Gorbachev's central Soviet government from a budget crisis that threatened to cut off the salaries of millions of workers and paralyze the country.
    (AP, 11/30/01)

1991        Dec 8, Russia, Byelorussia and Ukraine declared the Soviet national government dead, forging a new alliance to be known as the Commonwealth of Independent States. Boris Yeltsin, Ukrainian Pres. Leonid Kravchuk, and Belarus Pres. Stanislav Shuskevich met in a hunting lodge to proclaim the Soviet Union null and void and to form a loose Commonwealth of Independent States. The declaration later became known as the "Belavezha Accords."
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Stanislau_Shushkevich)(SFC, 9/9/98, p.A10)(AP, 12/8/01)

1991        Dec 9, Soviet President Mikhail S. Gorbachev challenged Boris Yeltsin's declaration that the Soviet Union was dead, branding a new Slavic commonwealth "illegal and dangerous."
    (AP, 12/9/01)

1991        Dec 12, Russian President Boris Yeltsin won landslide approval in the Russian legislature for his new commonwealth, while Soviet President Mikhail S. Gorbachev edged closer to resigning, saying, "The main work of my life is done."
    (AP, 12/12/01)

1991        Dec 13, Five Central Asian republics of the Soviet Union (Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan, Uzbekistan) agreed to join the new Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS) being organized by Russian President Boris Yeltsin.
    (AP, 12/13/01)(www.therussiasite.org/legal/laws/CISagreement.html)

1991        Dec 15, Russian Foreign Minister Andrei Kozyrev asked U.S. Secretary of State James Baker for formal U.S. recognition of the various Soviet republics that had declared independence.
    (AP, 12/15/01)

1991        Dec 16, Russian President Boris Yeltsin met for four hours with visiting U.S. Secretary of State James Baker, after which Yeltsin said the new Commonwealth of Independent States would begin operating by the end of the year.
    (AP, 12/16/01)

1991        Dec 17, Russian President Boris Yeltsin and Soviet President Mikhail S. Gorbachev agreed to dissolve the Soviet Union by the new year.
    (AP, 12/17/01)

1991        Dec 21, 11 of the 12 former Soviet republics proclaimed the birth of the Commonwealth of Independent States.
    (AP, 12/21/97)

1991        Dec 23, President George H.W. Bush spoke by telephone with Russian President Boris Yeltsin, after which a senior Bush administration official said the United States would extend diplomatic recognition to the Russian republic.
    (AP, 12/23/01)

1991        Dec 24, A day before resigning, Soviet President Mikhail S. Gorbachev briefed Russian President Boris Yeltsin on nuclear weapons-firing procedures. Gorbachev also held a farewell meeting with staff members.
    (AP, 12/24/01)

1991        Dec 25, Soviet President Mikhail S. Gorbachev went on television to announce his resignation as the eighth and final leader of a Communist superpower that had already gone out of existence. He was ousted as Soviet leader Boris Yeltsin established his position. This effectively ended the cold war. In 2002 Derek Leebaert authored "A Fifty-Year Wound," a history of the cold war.
    (TMC, 1994, p.1991)(SFC, 12/3/97, p.C6)(AP, 12/25/97)(WSJ, 4/16/02, p.D7)

1991        Dec 26, The Republic of Tatarstan declared entry into the Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS).

1991        Dec 28, Russian President Boris Yeltsin ordered state land privatized as he pushed ahead with his reforms.
    (AP, 12/28/01)

1991        Dec 29, Russian President Boris Yeltsin announced that Russia would create its own army; in a separate year-end address, he also congratulated his countrymen for avoiding the kind of violence seen in Yugoslavia.
    (AP, 12/29/01)

1991        Dec 30, Leaders of the Commonwealth of Independent States (Russia et al) agreed to establish unified command over nuclear weapons, while allowing member states to form their own armies.
    (AP, 12/30/01)

1991        Dec 31, This was the last day of existence for the USSR.

1991        Dec, Some remains of Russia’s Czar Nicholas II, his wife Empress Alexandra, and their five children, executed in 1918, were exhumed from a mine shaft in Yekaterinburg. The remains were identified using DNA analysis in 1992, but the skeletons of 2 children remained unaccounted for.

1991        Russian sculptor Zurab Tsereteli built a colossal statue of Christopher Columbus, titled "Birth of a New World," to commemorate the 500th anniversary of Columbus' 1492 arrival in the Western Hemisphere. Several US cities including New York, Miami and Baltimore refused to accept it for reasons ranging from cost to appearance. Puerto Rico accepted the statue as a gift in 1998, using $2.4 million in public funds to bring it to the island after a former mayor envisioned it as the main attraction for Catano, a seaside suburb of San Juan. But officials said it would block airplane flight paths while residents protested plans to demolish homes to make room for it. In 2008 it was placed in storage in Mayaguez. In 2011 San Juan Mayor Jorge Santini said he would consider setting up the statue somewhere in Puerto Rico’s capital. Itt was unveiled in 2016.
    (AP, 8/20/11)(Econ, 9/10/16, p.45)
1991        The Afghan War Invalids Fund was founded in Russia to serve 14,000 amputees and other seriously injured veteran of the 10-year war.
    (SFC, 11/11/96, p.A13)
1991        In Russia the St. Petersburg Organization of Soldier’s Mothers was founded.
    (SFC, 11/6/98, p.A14)
1991        Yuri Luzhkov, vice-mayor of Moscow, issued Decision No. 285 transferring ownership of prime city real estate to a private company called AO Orgkomitet, of which he was president.
    (WSJ, 5/20/99, p.A14)
1991        Anatoly Sobchak, a law professor, was elected mayor of St. Petersburg. Vladimir Putin, an agent in the KGB, was soon named as his deputy mayor.
    (SFC, 1/1/00, p.D2)
1991        Vadim Bakatin (b.1937), head of the Soviet KGB, presented US Ambassador Robert Strauss with blueprints for the bugs in the US Embassy. Bakatin served as the interior minister of the Soviet Union from 1988 to 1990. He was the last chairman of KGB in 1991 before it ceased to exist with the collapse of the Soviet Union. He later served as the first chairman of Interrepublican Security Service between 1991 and 1992. In 1993 he noted that although the myth about the KGB’s invincibility had collapsed, the agency itself was very much alive.
    (SFC, 7/8/00, p.A12)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Vadim_Bakatin)(Econ, 8/25/07, p.26)
1991        The Russian government, following Soviet collapse, scrapped the national anthem, and replaced it with an instrumental piece by 19th-century Russian composer Mikhail Glinka.
    (AP, 8/27/09)
1991        The Moscow Radisson-Slavyanskaya hotel and the adjoining Americom Business Center was founded by US businessman, Paul Tatum (1955-1996).
    (WSJ, 11/4/96, p.A1)(SFC, 11/5/96, p.A8)(WSJ, 11/5/96, p.A19)
1991        Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan and Uzbekistan were left with numerous tailings dumps of radioactive waste following the collapse of the soviet Union. By 2015 cancer rates were rising as radioactive waste leached into the water supply.
    (Econ, 7/11/15, p.40)

1991-1994    In Russia the life expectancy for males fell by five years during this period. The drop was later attributed to mass privatization.
    (Econ, 1/24/09, p.15)

1991-1996    Anatoly Sobchak served as mayor of St. Petersburg.
    (SFC,11/11/97, p.A14)

1991-1997    Russia went into an economic downfall called the Great Contraction. The decline wiped out the US equivalent of $3 trillion.
    (WSJ, 1/28/98, p.A1)

1991-2005    The US spent some $7 billion on Russian nuclear security.
    (WSJ, 9/26/05, p.A1)

1992        Jan 2, Russian shoppers experienced their first day of "sticker shock" after President Boris Yeltsin lifted price controls to stimulate production.
    (AP, 1/2/02)

1992        Jan 28, A multinational Middle East peace conference opened in Moscow.
    (AP, 1/28/02)

1992        Jan 29, Russian President Boris Yeltsin unveiled an ambitious plan to cut nuclear weapons spending and said his republic's weapons would no longer be aimed at any U.S. targets.
    (AP, 1/29/02)
1992        Jan 29, A multinational Middle East peace conference ended in Moscow with participants sounding upbeat.
    (AP, 1/29/02)

1992        Feb 1, President George H.W. Bush and Russian President Boris N. Yeltsin met at Camp David.
    (AP, 2/1/02)

1992        Feb 7, President Boris N. Yeltsin and French President Francois Mitterrand signed a cooperation treaty in Paris.
    (AP, 2/7/02)

1992        Feb 23, In Moscow, thousands of pro-Communist demonstrators, some shouting, "Down with the Russian government!," clashed with police.
    (AP, 2/23/02)

1992        Mar 5, In Copenhagen the Ministers for Foreign Affairs of Denmark, Estonia, Finland, Germany, Latvia, Lithuania, Norway, Poland, Russia and Sweden, in the presence of the representative from the European Commission, opened a 2-day meeting and decided to establish a Council of the Baltic Sea States to serve as a forum for guidance and overall coordination among the participating states. Iceland joined the CBSS in 1995
    (Econ, 6/7/08, p.63)(www.bmwi.de/English/Navigation/European-policy/baltic-market.html)

1992        Mar 14, Soviet newspaper "Pravda" suspended publication.

1992        Mar 19, Soviet Commonwealth leaders open their 4th summit with hopes of solving military disputes and stopping ethnic fighting.
    (AP, 3/19/03)

1992        Mar 25, Soviet cosmonaut Sergei Krikalev, who'd spent 10 months aboard the orbiting Mir space station, thereby missing the upheaval in his homeland, finally returned to Earth.
    (AP, 3/24/98)

1992        Apr 1,    President Bush pledged the United States would help finance a $24 billion international aid fund for the former Soviet Union.
    (AP, 4/1/97)

1992        Apr 11, The Russian Congress of People's Deputies rejected an appeal by President Boris Yeltsin for another six months to carry out his reforms, ordering him to select a new Cabinet by July; a compromise was worked out a few days later.
    (AP, 4/11/97)

1992        Apr 15, Russia's deeply divided Congress of People's Deputies formally endorsed President Boris Yeltsin's economic reforms.
    (AP, 4/15/97)

1992        Apr 20, The Russian congress adopted a resolution affirming Russia's membership in the Commonwealth of Independent States in a victory for President Boris Yeltsin.
    (AP, 4/20/97)

1992        Apr 26, Worshippers celebrated the first Russian Orthodox Easter in Moscow in 74 years.
    (AP, 4/26/02)

1992        Apr 27, Russia and 12 other former Soviet republics won entry into the International Monetary Fund and the World Bank.
    (AP, 4/27/97)

1992        May 4, India and Russia sign a five-year agreement on trade and economic cooperation.

1992        May 7, The Russian Federation applied to join the Council of Europe. It acceded to the council on Feb 28, 1996.

1992        May 25, Viktor Grishin (78), hardline soviet communist, died.
    (SC, 5/25/02)

1992        Jun 1, Russia was granted full membership to the IMF.
    (WSJ, 4/28/99, p.A18)

1992        Jun 8, US Secretary of State James A. Baker III and Russian Foreign Minister Andrei Kozyrev met in Washington to try to pave the way for a new round of strategic arms cuts.
    (AP, 6/8/97)

1992        Jun 9, US Secretary of State James A. Baker III concluded two days of arms talks with Russian Foreign Minister Andrei Kozyrev without an agreement on deep cuts in long-range missiles.
    (AP, 6/9/97)

1992        Jun 12, In a letter to U.S. senators, Russian President Boris N. Yeltsin said the Soviet Union had shot down nine U.S. planes in the early 1950's and held 12 American survivors.
    (AP, 6/12/97)

1992        Jun 18, Russian President Boris Yeltsin met with Democrat Bill Clinton in Washington before flying on to Kansas and then Canada.
    (AP, 6/18/97)

1992        Jun 21, Russian President Boris Yeltsin returned home from his North America tour.
    (AP, 6/21/97)

1992        Jun 22, Anastasia, a daughter of Czar Nicholas II and his wife Alexandra, was identified as one of the skeletons excavated in Ekaterinburg, Russia.

1992        Jun, Yegor Gaidar was appointed as prime minister.
    (SFC, 5/13/99, p.A19)

1992        Jul 8, Russian President Boris Yeltsin met with Group of Seven leaders holding their economic summit in Munich, Germany, where he offered a startling proposal to swap factories, energy resources and other properties for Russian debt.
    (AP, 7/8/97)

1992        Jul, Russia brokered a cease fire between South Ossetia and Georgia.
    (SFC, 9/1/98, p.A10)(WSJ, 8/27/08, p.A12)

1992        Sep 9, Russian President Boris Yeltsin called off a trip to Japan in the face of growing pressure to resolve a dispute over four Kurile islands seized by the former Soviet Union in 1945.
    (AP, 9/9/97)

1992        Oct 14, Russia's worst serial killer, Andrei Chikatilo, was convicted of mutilating and killing 52 women and children. The Rostov Ripper was executed in 1994.
    (AP, 10/14/97)(Reuters, 12/10/18)

1992        Nov 9, Visiting London, Russian President Boris Yeltsin appealed for help in rescheduling his country's debt, and urged British businesses to invest.
    (AP, 11/9/97)

1992        Nov 11, By letter, Russian President Boris Yeltsin told U.S. senators that Americans had been held in prison camps after World War II and some were "summarily executed," but that others were still living in his country voluntarily.
    (AP, 11/11/97)

1992        Dec 1, President Boris Yeltsin survived an impeachment attempt by hard-liners at the opening of the Russian Congress.
    (AP, 12/1/97)

1992        Dec 5, Russian President Boris Yeltsin narrowly kept the power to appoint Cabinet ministers, defeating a constitutional amendment that would have put his team of reformers under the control of Russia's Congress.
    (AP, 12/5/97)

1992        Dec 14, Russian President Boris Yeltsin lost a battle with hard-liners as he was forced to abandon his reformist PM Yegor Gaidar, in favor of Communist-era technocrat Viktor Chernomyrdin (1938-2010).
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Viktor_Chernomyrdin)(AP, 12/14/97)(Econ, 11/6/10, p.109)

1992        Dec 29, The United States and Russia announced agreement on a nuclear arms reduction treaty.
    (AP, 12/29/97)

1992        Dec 30, President Bush embarked on the final foreign trip of his term in office, heading to a Black Sea summit with Russian President Boris Yeltsin, with a stopover in Somalia to visit U.S. troops helping famine victims.
    (AP, 12/30/97)

1992        Vice-Mayor Yuri Luzhkov was elected as Mayor of Moscow. Under his lead Moscow began acquiring stakes in privatized companies. By 2010 his wife had become the richest woman in Russia by means of her construction business. She denied that her success was related to her husband’s position.
    (WSJ, 5/20/99, p.A14)(Econ, 2/6/10, p.57)

1992        The tax police force was established to fight tax crime. A TV show based on their fictional exploits began production in 1998.
    (SFC, 6/26/98, p.D2)

1992        Alexandre Konanykhine, a director of the Russian Exchange Bank, allegedly stole $8.1 mil through falsified financial transactions and fled the country with his wife. They were arrested in the US in 1996.
    (WP. 6/29/96, p.A1)

1992        Yeltsin broke up the Soviet Oil Ministry into private companies. Valdimir Bogdanov became the head of Surgutneftegaz.
    (WSJ, 6/4/96, p.A8)

1992        Victor Chernomyrdin joined Yeltsin's cabinet in mid 1992 and was succeeded at Gazprom by Rem Vyakhirev, his former deputy.
    (WSJ, 3/5/96, p. A-11)

1992        In Nizhny Novgorod (named Gorky under Stalin) Sergei Kiriyenko (29) founded the Bank Garantiya and helped privatize most of the provinces enterprises.
    (SFC, 4/1/98, p.A6)

1992        Kanatjan Alibekov, a director of Biopreparat, defected to the US. He reported that the agency ran a massive biological warfare development program with over 25,000 employees and had developed 52 biological agents before he left. He also reported that the agency had ballistic missile warheads loaded with plague, anthrax, and smallpox intended for delivery against American cities.
    (WSJ, 3/10/98, p.A22)

1992        KGB archivist Vasili Mitrokhin walked into the British embassy in Riga with copies of intelligence files he had smuggled out of Russia. Mitrokhin defected to British intelligence and brought along 6 trunkfuls of KGB files. The pages of the “Mitrokhin Archive" were published in 1999.
    (SFEC, 9/12/99, p.A16)(Econ, 11/12/16, SR p.3)
1992        The Golden ADA company was set up to export diamonds to the West. Yevgeny Bychkov, head of the Russian Committee on Precious Metals and Gems, arranged a $180 million shipment to Golden ADA. Andrei Kozlekov and associates sold the shipment and moved to San Francisco. Kozlekov was returned to Moscow in 1998 to face charges of stealing.
    (SFC, 6/20/98, p.B1)
1992        Liantor, Siberia, was incorporated as a town. Oil had been discovered in the 1980s and the population grew to 15,000. The area had been inhabited by the Khanty tribe, a Finno-Ugric speaking people.
    (WSJ, 7/1/98, p.A1)

1992        St. Petersburg organized its 1st annual White Nights Festival.
    (SSFC, 5/27/01, p.T14)

1992        Russian reactionaries fought against the Soviet breakup and repulsed Moldova’s bid to hold on to Transdniestria.
    (WSJ, 7/8/97, p.A1,8)(Econ, 1/29/05, p.52)

1992        A bloody conflict took place between Ingushetia and North Ossetia that left hundreds dead and forced 30,000 Ingush to flee their homes.
    (SFC, 3/20/99, p.A3)

1992-1994    Russia's Alexander Lebed commanded troops in Moldova’s break-away region of Transdniestria, where ethnic conflict rose between the Moldovan government and Slav separatists. He ended the bloodshed there.
    (SFC, 10/18/96, A18)

1993        Jan 2, President Bush arrived in Moscow to sign a strategic arms treaty with Russian President Boris Yeltsin, who hailed the agreement as "our joint gift to the people of the Earth."
    (AP, 1/2/98)

1993        Jan 3, The START II Treaty was signed between the US and Russia by President Bush and Russian President Boris Yeltsin. It was to eliminate land-based multiple-warhead missiles and reduce the long-range nuclear arsenals. The treaty was not ratified by the Russian parliament.
    (SFEC, 12/1/96, Par p.6)(AP, 1/3/98)(SFC, 11/4/99, p.A14)

1993        Jan 4, President-elect Clinton spoke by telephone with Russian President Boris Yeltsin about the newly signed START II treaty; Clinton pledged to do all he could to get early ratification.
    (AP, 1/4/98)

1993        Feb, Communists of all stripes gathered in the village of Sorokino outside Moscow and created the Communist Party of the Russian Federation, KPRF, and chose Gennady Zyuganov to lead. The Russian Federation is made up of 89 regions, 21 of which are classified as republics. Udmurtiya, 650 miles east of Moscow, is a republic.
    (SFC, 6/10/96, p.A16)(SFC, 3/25/97, p.A13)

1993        Mar 13, The Russian Congress adjourned after a session that seriously weakened President Boris Yeltsin's power.
    (AP, 3/13/98)

1993        Mar 19, Georgia shot down a Russian warplane over the separatist Abkhazia region, killing its pilot and heightening tensions.
    (AP, 3/19/03)

1993        Mar 20, Russian President Boris Yeltsin declared emergency rule, setting a referendum on whether the people trusted him or the hard-line Congress to govern.
    (AP, 3/20/98)

1993        Mar 28, Russian President Boris Yeltsin and his chief political rival, parliament speaker Ruslan Khasbulatov, claimed victory after surviving attempts by the Russian Congress to oust them.
    (AP, 3/28/98)

1993        Apr 1, In an impassioned plea for Russian aid, President Clinton told newspaper editors in Annapolis, Md., that America should help "not out of charity" but as a crucial investment in peace and prosperity.
    (AP, 4/1/98)

1993        Apr 3, President Clinton and Russian President Boris Yeltsin opened a weekend summit in Vancouver, B.C., beginning talks after a luncheon with Canadian Prime Minister Brian Mulroney.
    (AP, 4/3/98)

1993        Apr 4, President Clinton and Russian President Boris Yeltsin wrapped up their two-day summit in Vancouver, B.C. Clinton extended $1.6 billion in aid; Yeltsin proclaimed the two countries "partners and future allies."
    (AP, 4/4/98)

1993        Apr 15, The Group of Seven nations unveiled a $28.4 billion aid package for Russia at the conclusion of an emergency two-day meeting in Tokyo.
    (AP, 4/15/98)

1993        Apr 25, Voters in Russia participated in a referendum, giving President Boris N. Yeltsin a sturdy vote of confidence.
    (AP, 4/25/98)
1993        May 1, Violence erupted during a May Day protest in Moscow.
    (AP, 5/1/98)

1993        Jul 24, The Russian government announced it would invalidate billions of pre-1993 rubles.
    (AP, 7/24/98)

1993        Aug 26, Russian President Boris Yeltsin signed a friendship treaty with the Czech Republic after condemning the 1968 Soviet-led invasion of Czechoslovakia.
    (RTH, 8/26/99)

1993        Aug 31, Russia withdrew its last soldier from Lithuania, the first Baltic nation to eject all former Soviet troops.
    (AP, 8/31/98)

1993        Sep 2, The United States and Russia formally ended decades of competition in space by agreeing to a joint venture to build a space station.
    (AP, 9/2/98)

1993        Sep 21, Russian President Boris Yeltsin announced he was ousting the hard-line, Communist-dominated Congress that had long opposed his reforms.
    (AP, 9/21/98)

1993        Sep 22, Russia’s President Boris Yeltsin disbanded the Supreme Soviet. Yeltsin issued Decree No. 1400 that dissolved the Congress on the ground that the president as a guarantor of the spirit of the constitution could not let a legal deadlock last. Hard-line supporters of the legislature soon rebelled and over 100 people died in Moscow.
    (www.cs.indiana.edu/~dmiguse/Russian/bybio.html)(SFC, 9/9/98, p.A10)

1993        Oct 2, Hundreds of opponents of Russian President Boris Yeltsin battled police in Moscow and set up burning barricades in the biggest clash of Russia's 12-day-old political crisis.
    (HN, 10/2/98)

1993        Oct 3, Boris Yeltsin declared a state of emergency in Moscow, as fighting erupted in the streets between pro- and anti-Yeltsin forces. 62 people died in the violence, that ended two days later when the rebel vice president and speaker of parliament surrendered. A battle at the TV station Ostankino, Moscow, killed as many as 100 people. Cameraman Rory Peck (b.1956) was shot dead by members of the "Vitez" special forces unit of the Russian Interior Ministry while filming the storming by opposition supporters of the Ostankino TV Center.
    (AP, 10/3/98)(http://tinyurl.com/8cg4r)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Rory_Peck)

1993        Oct 4, The Russian White House was shelled. In Moscow, the occupation of the Russian parliament building ended as tanks and paratroopers flushed out hard-line opponents of Boris Yeltsin. Rebel parliamentarians led by Vice  President Alexander Rutskoi and Chairman Ruslan Khasbulatov surrendered after a total of 10 hours. As many as 150 people were killed.
    (HFA, '96, p.40)(AP, 10/4/98)(http://tinyurl.com/8cg4r)

1993        Nov 2, Leon Theremin (97), physicist and inventor of the eerie-sounding theremin instrument, died.
    (ON, 11/01, p.8)

1993        Nov 8, Russian President Boris Yeltsin approved a draft constitution that would strengthen executive power; it was ratified in a referendum the following month.
    (AP, 11/8/98)

1993        Nov 16, Russian President Yeltsin shut the Lenin museum.

1993        Nov, A replica of the Cathedral of the Ikon of Our lady of Kazan on Red Square was dedicated by Pres. Yeltsin and Orthodox Patriarch Alexei II.
    (AM, Jul/Aug ‘97 p.27)
1993        Dec 3, Georgia became a member of Russia's Commonwealth of Independent States; Russia, in return, backed Shevardnadze against Abkhaz rebels.

1993        Dec 12, A new democratic constitution was adopted and the war with Chechnya was begun. The constitution permitted land sales but no laws to implement sales were enacted until 1997. The preamble began with the words We the multinational people of the Russian Federation... The Constitution also gave members of both chambers of the legislature immunity from search and arrest while in office.
    (SFC, 12/27/96, p.B2)(WSJ, 11/13/97, p.A1)(SFC, 7/7/98, p.B3)(SFC, 11/16/99, p.E1)

1993        Dec 18, The United States and Germany pledged close cooperation to help Boris Yeltsin through Russia's political and economic crises in a meeting in Oggersheim between Vice President Al Gore and Chancellor Helmut Kohl.
    (AP, 12/18/98)

1993        Dec 26, In Russia a 4-day drama ended as four masked kidnappers, who had abducted 11 teen-agers, landed their explosives-packed helicopter, freed their last hostages and fled with $10 million in ransom. The four men were captured the next morning.
    (AP, 12/26/98)

1993        Antonio de Almeida (1928-1997) became the conductor and musical director of the Moscow Symphony.
    (SFC, 2/22/96, p.A21)
1993        Boris Yeltsin freed the military from the grip of the "special departments." The FSB, the Federal Security Service, continued with a reduced roll.
    (SFC, 2/17/00, p.D3)
1993        Russia annulled an agreement obliging it to come to the aid of North Korea in case of attack.
    (SFC, 4/13/96, p.A-9)
1993        Russia signed the Chemical Weapons Convention and ratified it in 1996.
    (SFC, 9/5/98, p.A12)
1993        Residents of the Kalmykia Region elected Kirsan Ilyumzhinov after her promised every citizen $100 if he won.
    (SFC, 9/24/97, p.A10)
1993        The state legislature of Primorye appointed Yevgeny Nazdratenko to govern the territory. He was then a director of an ore-processing factory and a member of the Supreme Soviet. His corruption later became legendary.
    (SFC, 9/25/97, p.A11)
1993        Vladimir Potanin left the Foreign Trade Ministry to form the Uneximbank.
    (WSJ, 2/15/96, p.A-14)
1993        Gleb Yakunin (d.2014), a dissident Russian Orthodox priest, was defrocked for ignoring a ban on priests running for elections in the post-Soviet Russian parliament. He served for two years. Four years later, he was excommunicated for unspecified reasons.
    (AP, 12/30/14)
1993        The Afghan War Invalids Fund split into rival factions when the leader, Col. Valery Radchikov, was accused by regional branches of squandering funds.
    (SFC, 11/11/96, p.A13)
1993        Bjorgolfur Bjorgolfsson (26) left Iceland and started a soft-drink company in St. Petersburg, Russia. He later expanded into brewing, banking, telecommunications and discount pharmaceuticals. By 2006 his stake in the Iceland-based Actavis Group was valued at $1 billion.
    (SFC, 4/1/06, p.C3)
1993        Eduard Rossel, governor of the Sverdlovsk region, tried to declare an independent Ural Republic. Yeltsin, who had appointed him to the position, fired him. In 1995 Rossel won the election for governor against  a Yeltsin candidate.
    (WSJ, 6/4/96, p.A8)
1993        In Russia some 30 journalists broke from the Komsomolskaya Pravda newspaper and formed Novaya Gazeta. Early success came with support from Mikhail Gorbachev, but lack of funds forced the paper to close briefly in 1995.
    (WSJ, 12/8/06, p.A1)
1993        Vladimir Gusinsky, head of the banking concern Most Group, set up NTV, the country’s main independent TV network.
    (WSJ, 6/10/96, p.A14)
1993        The US nuclear-powered submarine Grayling collided in the Barents Sea with a Russian Delta-3 class, nuclear-powered submarine. Both vessels were able to return to base.
    (SFC, 8/15/00, p.A15)

1994        Jan 13, President Clinton held talks in Moscow with Russian President Boris Yeltsin.
    (AP, 1/13/99)

1994        Jan 14, In post-Cold War breakthroughs, President Clinton and Russian President Boris Yeltsin signed Kremlin accords to stop aiming missiles at any nation and to dismantle the nuclear arsenal of Ukraine.
    (AP, 1/14/99)

1994        Jan 16, In Moscow, Yegor Gaidar, first deputy prime minister and architect of Russia's market reforms, announced his resignation.
    (AP, 1/16/99)

1994        Jan 26, Russian President Boris Yeltsin accepted the resignation of Finance Minister Boris Fyodorov, who warned of economic collapse and social unrest.
    (AP, 1/26/99)

1984        Feb 9, Soviet leader Yuri V. Andropov (69) died, less than 15 months after succeeding Leonid Brezhnev. He was succeeded by Konstantin U. Chernenko. US Pres. Ronald Reagan said he wouldn’t go to any memorial for Andropov: “I don’t want to honor that prick."
    (AP, 2/9/99)(Econ, 2/4/06, p.75)

1994        Feb 15, Andrei Tsjikatilo, [Rostov Ripper], Russian mass murderer, was executed.
    (MC, 2/15/02)

1994        Feb 23, Russia's new parliament took a swipe at President Boris Yeltsin by granting amnesty to leaders of the 1991 Soviet coup and the hard-liners who'd fought him in 1993.
    (AP, 2/23/99)

1994        Mar 16, Russia agreed to phase out production of weapons-grade plutonium.
    (AP, 3/16/99)

1994        Mar 23, A Russian Airbus A-310 crashed in Siberia and some 70 people were killed.

1994        Mar, Sergei Stepashin was appointed as head of the new KGB. He later played a central role in sending troops into Chechnya.
    (SFC, 5/13/99, p.A16)

1994        May, Sergei Skorochkin, parliamentarian and owner of a distillery in suburban Moscow, escaped an assassination attempt by "the mob." He killed his alleged assailant and fled to England with his family.
    (WSJ, 6/4/96, p.A8)

1994        Jun 16, Boris Alexandrov (88), conductor (Red Army Song and Dance Ensemble), died.

1994        Jun 23, The United States and Russia signed agreements in Washington on cooperating in space and economic development.
    (AP, 6/23/04)

1994        Jun 24, The EU and Russia signed a Partnership and Cooperation Agreement (PCA). It went into force on Dec 1, 1997.

1994        Jul 10, In the first meeting of its kind, Russian President Boris Yeltsin joined leaders of the Group of Seven nations for political talks following their annual economic summit in Naples, Italy.
    (AP, 7/10/99)

1994        Jul 23, The Goodwill Games opened in St. Petersburg, Russia.

1994        Aug 31, Russia officially ended its military presence in the former East Germany and the Baltics after a half-century.
    (AP, 8/31/99)

1994        Sep 3, China and Russia proclaimed an end to any lingering hostilities, pledging they would no longer target nuclear missiles or use force against each other.
    (AP, 9/3/99)

1994        Sep, The Taliban was formed in southern Afghanistan. Its fighters were initially trained by the Frontier Constabulary, a paramilitary force of Pakistan’s Interior Ministry (ISI). Taliban forces captured the southern town of Kandahar. 800 truckloads of arms and ammunition were gained from a Soviet cache. They continued to gain land over the next 2 years. The Taliban took Kabul in 1996.
    (SFC, 9/28/96, p.A8)(SFC, 1/1/97,p.C3)(SSFC, 7/30/06, p.A10)    (WSJ, 9/14/01, p.A6)(Econ, 2/9/13, p.44)

1994        Oct, Uneximbank linked up with the International Finance Company (ranked by Izvestia as the fourth largest Russian bank) to form Interros, a financial industrial group with holdings in metal processing, auto making, retail distribution, mining and other industries.
    (WSJ, 2/15/96, p.A-14)

1994        Oct, Russian Journalist Dmitry Kholodov was killed by an exploding briefcase. He had been investigating corruption in the military. He had targeted former defense minister Gen’l. Pavel Grachev and former troop commander Gen’l. Matvei Burlakov. In 1998 a prosecutor charged retired colonel Pavle Popovskikh with organizing the killing. In 2004 a Russian court acquitted 6 men for lack of evidence.
    (SFC, 12/30/96, p.A8)(WSJ, 6/11/04, p.A1)

1994        Nov 10, Colonel Mikhail Likhodey chairman of the Afghan War Invalids Fund was killed by a bomb blast outside his apartment. The Fund had been granted lucrative tax exemptions on the import and export of alcohol and tobacco with an estimated value of $800 million.
    (SFC, 11/11/96, p.A13)(SFC, 11/12/96, p.A11)

1994        Nov 26, A major offensive by the Russian-backed opposition failed to wrest Grozny, the capital of Chechnya from its government.
    (AP, 11/26/02)

1994        Dec 5, President Clinton, on a whirlwind visit to the Conference on Security and Cooperation in Budapest, Hungary, urged European leaders to "prevent future Bosnias." In the so-called Budapest memorandum Britain, Russia and the US affirmed their commitment to respect the independence, sovereignty and existing borders of Ukraine.
    (AP, 12/5/99)(AFP, 3/3/14)

1994        Dec 11, Thousands of Russian troops backed by armored columns and jets rolled into breakaway republic of Chechnya in a bid to restore Moscow's control over the region. Russia under Yeltsin sent in troops to put down the Chechnya rebellion but met strong resistance and suffered heavy casualties. There was no attempt by Pres. Yeltsin to legitimize the military action in parliament.
    (SFC, 9/5/96, p.A10)(SFC, 12/26/96, p.B1)(SFC, 5/13/97, p.A12)(SFC, 9/9/98, p.A10) (AP, 12/11/99)

1994        Dec 31, Russian ground forces launched a ferocious assault on the Chechen capital of Grozny.
    (AP, 12/31/99)

1994        Dec, Bulat Okudzhava (d.1997 at 74), dissident poet and singer, won the Russian Booker literary prize.
    (SFC, 6/14/97, p.C2)
1994        Dec, A Russian presidential decree expropriated the property of Franz Sedelmayer, a German security expert, as part of a St. Petersburg residence for Boris Yeltsin. Sedelmayer  lost his business and some $3 million in assets. Sedelmayer fought for years to seize Russian assets in retaliation and in 2006 won a judgement in Germany for control of a $40 million Russian-owned apartment complex in Cologne.
    (WSJ, 3/6/06, p.A1)

1994        Thane Gustafson and Daniel Yergin authored "Russia 2010," their idea of where Russia would be in 2010. Gustafson updated his ideas in 1999 with his book "Capitalism Russian-Style."
    (WSJ, 1/5/00, p.A20)

1994        Oleg Kalugin, the KGB’s former chief of counterintelligence, published his memoir: "The First Chief Directorate: My 32 Years in Intelligence and Espionage Against the West." Russia convicted Kalugin of treason in absentia in 2002.
    (WSJ, 11/21/96, p.B12)(SFC, 6/27/02, p.A14)

1994        President Boris Yeltsin wrote his memoirs: "The View From the Kremlin."
    (WSJ, 5/30/96, p.A6)

1994        The Russian film "Burnt by the Sun" won the Oscar for best foreign-language film. It starred Oleg Menshikov and was directed by Nikita Mikhalkov. It was set in 1930s and was about a war hero who takes and holiday that is disrupted by the Stalinist purges.
    (SFC, 10/1/96, p.B4)(WSJ, 2/7/97, p.A14)(SFEC, 4/12/98, DB p.52)

1994        Alexander Solzhenitsyn returned to Russia after living in the US. He had completed a 10-volume novel-cycle about the Russian Revolution called "The Red Wheel." The 2nd volume, "November 1916," was to be published in 1999. In Russia he wrote his political analysis "Russia in Collapse."
    (WSJ, 12/11/98, p.W15)

1994        Anatoly Chubais was promoted to First Deputy Prime Minister.
    (WSJ, 6/20/96, p.A10)

1994        Nikolai Yegerov (d.1997 at 45) was appointed prime minister in charge of nationalities and regional policy and a promotion put him in charge of the Chechnya region. His policy endorsed sending troops to crush the rebellion there. He was removed as nationalities minister in 1995.
    (SFEC, 4/27/97, p.B8)

1994        The Army general staff signed a deal with Orthodox Church leaders to start putting chaplains in army units.
    (WSJ, 6/4/96, p.A8)

1994        The Russian Federal Securities Commission began operating under Dmitry Vasiliev. Vasiliev resigned in 1999 and complained that the government was showing little interest in enforcing laws to protect shareholder rights.
    (WSJ, 10/18/99, p.A37)

1994        Gazprom, a natural gas monopoly, was privatized on terms highly favorable to company insiders.
    (WSJ, 3/5/96, p. A-11)

1994        The single independent newspaper of Kalmykia, Sovyetskaya Kalmykia, was shut down.
    (SFC, 9/24/97, p.A12)

1994        The Russian Ministry of Atomic Energy contracted with the US Energy Dept. to improve security at nuclear facilities. $10 mil was allocated the first year, but by 1998 the Americans spent $150 million and the total was expected to reach $1 billion by completion in 2002.
    (SFC, 5/28/98, p.A5)

1994        Russian scientists detected a large lake beneath 2½ miles of Antarctic ice. It was named Lake Vostok.
    (SFC, 8/2/04, p.A6)

1994        Sofka Dolgorouky (b.1907), Russian princess, died. She published an autobiography in 1968 called “Sofka: the Autobiography of a Princess." In 2007 Her granddaughter authored the biography “Red Princess: A Revolutionary Life."
    (Econ, 2/3/07, p.86)(http://tinyurl.com/2e43hx)

1994-1996    Russia’s Defense Minister, Pavel Grachev, approved the transfer of more than $1 billion worth of weaponry to Armenia.
    (WSJ, 5/14/97, p.A22)

1995        Jan 7, Major General Viktor Vorobyov, a senior commander leading Russian troops in their advance on the secessionist capital of Chechnya, was killed by a mortar shell.
    (AP, 1/7/00)

1995        Jan 8, Russian forces in Chechnya pounded the capital of Grozny with rocket and mortar fire in an attempt to scatter Chechen fighters defending the presidential palace.
    (AP, 1/8/00)

1995        Jan 10, Russia announced a 48-hour truce in breakaway Chechnya, but the cease-fire fell apart after a few hours.
    (AP, 1/10/00)

1995        Jan 14, Russian troops in the breakaway republic of Chechnya captured the Council of Ministers building, a key rebel position in the capital Grozny.
    (AP, 1/14/00)

1995        Jan 19, Russian troops regained control of the presidential palace in Grozny, the capital of the breakaway republic of Chechnya.
    (AP, 1/19/00)

1995        Jan 25, A team of Norwegian and American scientists launched a Black Brant XII four-stage sounding rocket from the Andoya Rocket Range off the northwest coast of Norway to study the aurora borealis over Svalbard. Nuclear forces in Russia were put on alert, and the nuclear-command suitcase was brought to President Boris Yeltsin, who then had to decide whether to launch a nuclear barrage against the United States. This became known as the Norwegian rocket incident or Black Brant scare.

1995        Feb 1, Sergei Skorochkin returned to Russia on a business trip and was kidnapped by gunmen from a restaurant in his home town of Zaraisk. He was found dead the next day with a single bullet hole in the head.
    (WSJ, 6/4/96, p.A8)

1995        Feb 16, In a dark and defensive address to his nation, Russian President Boris Yeltsin berated his military leaders for big losses and human rights abuses in Chechnya, but insisted Russia had to use force to defend its unity.
    (AP, 2/16/00)

1995        Mar 14, American astronaut Norman Thagard became the first American to enter space aboard a Russian rocket as he and two cosmonauts blasted off board a Soyuz spacecraft, headed for the Mir space station.
    (AP, 3/14/97)

1995        May 9, President Clinton arrived in Moscow for a summit with Russian President Boris Yeltsin.
    (AP, 5/9/00)

1995        May 28, An earthquake with a magnitude of seven-point-five devastated the Russian town of Neftegorsk, killing at least 2,000 people.
    (AP, 5/28/00)

1995        Jun 14, Shamil Basayev, Chechen commander, led a hostage raid on the a Russian hospital in Budyonnovsk [Budennovsk]. Chechen rebels took some 1,500 people hostage in a hospital in Russia. After a 4-day standoff Sergei Stepashin ordered troops to storm the hospital and the rebels escaped with some 100 hostages. Some 100-150 people were killed in the fighting.
    (SFC, 1/25/97, p.A8)(HN, 6/14/98)(SFC, 5/13/99, p.A16)(SSFC, 11/10/02, p.A11)

1995        Jun 30, In a stunning Kremlin purge, Russian President Boris Yeltsin fired three top security ministers for the botched handling of a bloody hostage-taking by Chechen rebels in southern Russia.
    (AP, 6/30/00)
1995        Jun 30, US vice pres. Al Gore signed a secret agreement with Viktor Chernomyrdin, prime minister of Russia, that called for an end to Russian sales of conventional weapons to Iran by the end of 1999.
    (SFC, 10/13/00, p.A14)

1995        Jun, Playboy Magazine reached the newsstands in the new Russia.
    (WSJ, 2/15/96, p.A-11)

1995        Jul 1, Russian President Boris Yeltsin’s government survived a critical no-confidence vote.
    (AP, 7/1/00)

1995        Jul 4, The space shuttle "Atlantis" and the Russian space station "Mir" parted after spending five days in orbit docked together.
    (AP, 7/4/00)
1995        Jul 4, President Boris Yeltsin announced that Russian troops would be permanently stationed in Chechnya.
    (AP, 7/4/00)

1995        Jul 30, Russia and Chechen rebels signed an agreement calling for a gradual withdrawal of Russian troops and the disarmament of rebel fighters.
    (AP, 7/30/00)

1995        Sep, A video was shot at the nightclub hangout of the Solntsevo crime gang of Valentin Kovalev, justice minister, cavorting with nude women in a sauna. In 1997 the newspaper Top Secret published the story. The video was acquired from the vault of banker Arkady Angelevich, arrested Apr 17,1997 on suspicion of embezzlement.
    (SFEC, 6/22/97, p.D8)(SFC, 6/23/97, p.A8)

1995        Oct 14, An armed gunman seized a bus carrying South Korean tourists in Moscow’s Red Square. Commandos stormed the bus the next day, killing the gunman and freeing four remaining hostages.
    (AP, 10/14/00)

1995        Nov, President Boris Yeltsin laid sick after suffering his second heart attack in four months. Popular political candidates such as Lebed, a former general turned charismatic nationalist politician, and Zhirinovsky, an ultra-nationalist politician, struck fear in Russia's new political and economic elites. Victor Chernomyrdin was the Prime Minister and legal successor should Yeltsin have died. Yuri Luzhkov was the mayor of Moscow. Yuri Skokov was a hardline nationalist. Yegor Gaidar, a former prime minister, led Russia's Reformist Choice party.
    (Fin. Post, 11/2/95, p.8)

1995        Nov, An agreement was reached to re-schedule debt with the London Club of 600 commercial banks to cover $25.5 bil. of principal and $7 bil. of overdue interest. The talks set a precedent for $87.5 bil. in Soviet debt to foreign governments.
    (WSJ, 11/17/95, p.A-11)

1995        Nov, A lead container of radioactive cesium was found buried in Izmailovo Park in Moscow following a tip by Shamil Basayev, a Chechen rebel.
    (SFC, 12/10/01, p.A1)

1995         Dec, 6, A jetliner apparently crashed on a flight from Sakhalin Island to Khabarovsk with 95 people.
    (WSJ, 12/8/95, p.A-1)
1995        Dec 6, Dmitri Antonovich Volkogonov (67), ex-Soviet soldier and historian, died. He wrote biographies of Stalin, Lenin and Trotsky based on archival material of the Soviet Union. From 1991 until his death he was the head of the Russian Archive Declassifying Commission.
    (www.msu.edu/~daggy/cop/bkofdead/obits-vo.htm)(SFC, 7/7/96, BR p.4)

1995        Dec 14, Heavy fighting erupts in Gudermes, Chechnya, when rebels disrupted Kremlin-imposed elections. At least 267 Chechen civilians were reported killed in the following 10 days.
    (AP, 12/14/02)

1995        Dec 17, Angry voters handed Russian President Boris Yeltsin a stinging rebuff as Communists and right-wing nationalists scored big wins in parliamentary elections on a platform of rolling back democratic reforms. Communists led in early returns in elections for the Duma, the lower house of Russia's parliament. The party was led by Gennady Zyuganov. The CP pulled in 21.9% of the vote with 11.1% for the party of Vladimir Zhirinovsky.
    (WSJ, 12/18/95, p.A-1,10) (WSJ, 12/19/95, p.A-13)(AP, 12/17/00)

1995        Dec 31, Russian ground forces launched a ferocious assault on the Chechen capital of Grozny.
    (AP, 12/31/00)

1995         Dec, The 450 seats of the Duma were divided into two parts: party and single seats. On the party side the Communist won 21.5% of the seats. Alexander Lebed was elected to the State Duma.
    (WSJ, 12/20/95, p.A-1)(SFC, 10/18/96, A18)

1995        Nikolai Dezhnev authored his novel "In Concert Performance." It was made available in English in 1999.
    (SFEC, 10/24/99, BR p.3)
1995        Ryszard Kapyscinski (b.1932), Polish journalist, authored “Imperium," a book about the crumbling Soviet empire.
    (Econ, 6/26/10, p.60)
1995        General Alexander Lebed wrote his memoir: "Feeling Sorry for the State." A former aide, Alexander Barkhatov, later wrote an unflattering book on Lebed.
    (WSJ, 6/18/96, p.A12)(WSJ, 1/28/98, p.A14)
1995        Aleksandr Solzhenitsyn, Russian novelist and author of "The Gulag Archipelago," published two new books: a volume of memoirs: "Invisible Allies" and a collection of secret documents from the Kremlin archives: "The Solzhenitsyn Files."
    (WSJ, 12/14/95, p.A-12)
1995        Alexander Sokurov, film maker, made his 5 1/2 hour video "Spiritual Voices: the Diaries of War." It was about a Russian army unit stationed at the Tajikistan border.
    (SFC, 1/16/99, p.E4)
1995        In Russia Theodore Shakin, a British sociologist, founded Moscow School of Social and Economic Sciences. In 2018 the school, known colloquially as Shaninka, was a stripped of its government accreditation.
    (SFC, 7/23/18, p.A2)
1995        Russia agreed to assist China with manned spaceflight technology and training of Chinese astronauts in cosmonaut academy near Moscow.
    (AP, 10/15/03)
1995        Russia banned liquor ads on TV.
    (Econ, 9/4/04, p.59)
1995        Banker Ivan Kivelidi and his secretary Zara Izmailova were killed by a high-tech lethal poison.
    (SFC, 12/30/96, p.A8)
1995        Colonel Valery Radchikov was shot and nearly killed in what some supporters claimed was a retaliation for the death of Col. Likhodey in 1994.
    (SFC, 11/11/96, p.A13)

1995-2000    Sergei Tretyakov, served as deputy head of intelligence at Russia's UN mission. In 2000 he defected to the US and in 2008 said "Inside the UN, we were fishing for knowledgeable diplomats who could give us first of all anti-American information."
    (AP, 1/27/08)

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