Timeline Romania

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Dacia was an ancient kingdom and later a Roman province in southern Europe between the Carpathian Mountains and the Danube corresponding generally to modern Rumania and adjacent regions.
 (WUD, 1994, p.363)

104Mil BC    In 1914 Romanian Baron Franz Nopcsa (1877-1933) found fossils of small dinosaurs in Romania that dated to about this time in the Cretaceous period.
    (SFC, 6/8/06, p.A7)

80Mil BC-70Mil BC    A dinosaur the size of a gigantic turkey lived in Europe during the late Cretaceous. In 2010 Romanian fossil hunters unearthed the remains of the velociraptor and named it Balaur Bondoc (stocky dragon). Europe at this time was an archipelago of islands.
    (SFC, 8/31/10, p.A4)

36-34k BCE    In 2002 the jawbone of a cave-man living in what is now Romania was found in Pestera cu Oase. It was reported as the oldest fossil from an early modern human to be found in Europe and was carbon-dated to this time.
    (AP, 9/22/03)

1400BC-1200BC    In 2018 it was reported that Romanian and German archaeologists have discovered a prehistoric fortress dating back as far as 3,400 years in western Romania. They had recently completed a dig uncovering 55 hectares (135 acres) of the 80-hectare (198-acre) site, built between 1,400 BC and 1,200 BC, located near the town of Santana.
    (AP, 8/7/18)

650 BC    The Transylvanian Dacians are first known from their contacts with the Greeks about this time.
    (WSJ, 6/18/97, p.A20)

82BC        A Dacian Kingdom of variable size existed between 82 BC until the Roman conquest in AD 106. The capital of Dacia, Sarmizegetusa, located in modern Romania, was destroyed by the Romans, but its name was added to that of the new city (Ulpia Traiana Sarmizegetusa) built by the latter to serve as the capital of the Roman province of Dacia.
    (https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Dacia)

103-105AD    Apolodorus of Damascus built a bridge over the Danube for Emperor Trajan. It connected the Roman provinces of Moesia Superior and Dacia (the Yugoslavian and Romanian banks respectively).
    (AM, Mar/Apr 97 p.26)

105        Flavius Cerialis, prefect of Cohort IX of Batavians at Vindolanda in northern England, was transferred to the Danube to join Trajan’s forces gathering for the Second Dacian War.
    (AM, May/Jun 97 p.17)

106         King Decebal, the last king of Dacia, committed suicide. Rather than being captured only to be exhibited and humiliated at Rome, Decebalus committed suicide by slashing his own throat, as depicted on Trajan's Column (spiral 22, panel b). He is famous for fighting three wars, with varying success, against the Roman Empire under two emperors. After raiding south across the Danube, he defeated a Roman invasion in the reign of Domitian, securing a period of independence during which he consolidated his rule.
    (https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Decebalus)

700-800    Invading Slavs assimilated the Thracians in the area of modern Bulgaria and parts of Greece, Romania, Macedonia and Turkey.
    (SFC, 8/17/05, p.A2)

1200-1300    The Csango people of Romania's remote eastern Carpathian mountains began settling around this time, dispatched by Hungarian rulers to defend the kingdom's easternmost frontier.
    (AP, 3/21/12)

1300-1400    The Sihastra Monastery was founded in the 14th century.
    (SFC, 12/7/98, p.A25)

1382        In Romania Brasov Saxons built a castle at Bran, Transylvania.
    (SSFC, 10/23/11, p.H6)

1431-1476    In Romania Vlad Tepes, aka Vlad the Impaler, the son of Vlad Dracul (Vlad the Dragon), was a 15th century gruesome Wallachian nobleman. Dracula means son of the dragon. He punished disobedient subjects and “unchaste" women by impaling them on sharpened logs, often dining amid the victims as they died. The family name changed to Kretzulesco and grew in stature with members upgraded to princes and princesses.
    (WSJ, 10/30/97, p.A20)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Vlad_the_Impaler)

1437        Sep 18, Farmers revolted in Transylvania.
    (MC, 9/18/01)

1459        Vlad Tepes used Turkish prisoners to haul stones brick and mortar for his Poienari Citadel in Romania’s Transylvania region. Much of it fell down the mountain during a landslide in 1888.
    (SSFC, 10/23/11, p.H6)

1660        May 29, Gyorgy Rakosi II prince of Transylvania, died in battle.
    (SC, 5/29/02)

1691        In northwest Romania an icon was painted at a monastery in Nicula. According to legend, the icon of the Weeping Virgin, wept for 26 days in 1699. The first recorded miracle occurred in 1701 when it is said to have cured an army officer's wife who was going blind. The church attached to the monastery is named after St. Mary and pilgrimages there are made every year on Aug. 15, Mary's name day. In 1977, the church burned down, but the icon was unharmed. In 2005 low water level revealed its skeleton.
    (AP, 8/15/05)

1723        Dimitrie Cantemir (b.1673), 2-time Prince of Moldavia (1693 & 1710-1711), died near Kharkov, Ukraine. He was born in what is now Romania and became a prolific man of letters with talents as a philosopher, historian, composer, musicologist, linguist, ethnographer, and geographer. Between 1687 and 1710 he lived in forced exile in Istanbul, where he learned Turkish and studied the history of the Ottoman Empire at the Patriarchate's Greek Academy, where he also composed music.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Dimitrie_Cantemir)(Econ, 9/15/07, p.104)

1801        Apr 8, Soldiers rioted in Bucharest and killed 128 Jews.
    (MC, 4/8/02)

1812        Russia acquired Bessarabia, the north eastern part of the original principality of Moldavia, in the aftermath of the Russo-Turkish War (1806-1812).
    (Econ, 1/6/07, p.43)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bessarabia)

1821        Jun 2, Ion Bratianu (Lib), premier of Romania (1876-88), was born.
    (SC, 6/2/02)

1840-1860    Slavery existed on the territory of present-day Romania from before the founding of the principalities of Wallachia and Moldavia in 13th–14th century, until it was abolished in stages during the 1840s and 1850s. Most of the slaves were of Roma (Gypsy) ethnicity.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Slavery_in_Romania)

1853        Jul, Supported by Britain, the Turks took a firm stand against the Russians, who occupied the Danubian principalities (modern Romania) on the Russo-Turkish border. The Crimean War got under way in October. It was fought mainly on the Crimean Peninsula between the Russians and the British, French, and Ottoman Turkish, with support, from January 1855, by the army of Sardinia-Piedmont. The war aligned Anglican England and Roman Catholic France with Islam’s sultan-caliphs against the tsars, who saw themselves as the world’s last truly Christian emperors.
    (www.britannica.com/EBchecked/topic/143040/Crimean-War)(Econ, 10/2/10, p.89)

1856        Mar 30, Russia signed the Treaty of Paris ending the Crimean War. It guaranteed the integrity of Ottoman Turkey and obliged Russia to surrender southern Bessarabia, at the mouth of the Danube. The Black Sea was neutralized, and the Danube River was opened to the shipping of all nations. In 2010 Allen Lane authored “Crimea: The Last Crusade."
    (www.britannica.com/EBchecked/topic/143040/Crimean-War)

1856        Feb 20, Romania abolished the slavery of Gypsies, or Roma, but discrimination persisted against the group.
    (AP, 3/11/11)

1864        Dec 4, Romanian Jews were forbidden to practice law.
    (MC, 12/4/01)

1873        In Romania a 130-km (80-mile) rail line was built from the city of Brasov to the medieval fortress town of Sighisoara.
    (AP, 1/23/19)

1876        Feb 21, Constantin Brancusi (d.1957), Romanian-French sculptor (Princesse X), was born in Hobitza, Romania. He made it to Paris in 1902. His works include “The Kiss" (1908) and the “Sleeping Muse" (1910).
    (WSJ, 10/19/95, A-18)(WSJ, 11/30/01, p.W12)(MC, 2/21/02)

1878        Mar 3, Russia and the Ottomans signed the Treaty of San Stefano, granting independence to Serbia. With the Treaty of San Stefano (and subsequent negotiations in Berlin) in the wake of the last Russo-Turkish War, the Ottoman Empire lost its possession of numerous territories including Bulgaria, Montenegro, Romania, and Serbia. The Russo-Turkish wars dated to the 17th century, the Russians generally gaining territory and influence over the declining Ottoman Empire. In the last war, Russia and Serbia supported rebellions in the Balkans. In concluding the Treaty of San Stefano, the Ottomans released control of Montenegro, Romania and Serbia, granted autonomy to Bosnia and Herzegovina, and allowed an autonomous state of Bulgaria to be placed under Russian control.
    (HN, 3/3/99)(HNQ, 2/23/01)

1878        Jul 13, The Treaty of Berlin was the final act of the Congress of Berlin (13 June – 13 July 1878), by which the United Kingdom, Austria-Hungary, France, Germany, Italy, Russia and the Ottoman Empire under Sultan Abdul Hamid II revised the Treaty of San Stefano signed on 3 March the same year. The Treaty of San Stefano had ended the Russo-Turkish War of 1877-78. The Congress of Berlin divided the Balkans among European powers. The Slavic converts to Islam in the Sandzak region of southwestern Serbia were separated from their ethnic cousins in Bosnia.
    (https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Treaty_of_Berlin_(1878))    (AP, 7/13/97)(HN, 7/13/98)(WSJ, 6/16/99, p.A20)

1881        Aug 19, Georges Enescu, composer (Romanian Dances), was born in Romania.
    (MC, 8/19/02)

1882        May 15, May Laws: Czar Alexander III banned Jews from living in rural Romania.
    (MC, 5/15/02)

1887        Rabbi Joel Teitelbaum (1887-1979) founder of the Satmar Hassids in Satu Mare, Romania, was born. The ultra-orthodox sect of Judaism later established itself in NYC.
    (Econ, 4/29/06, p.37)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Joel_Teitelbaum)

1889        Jun 15, Mihai Eminescu, born in 1850 as Mihail Eminovici, died in Bucharest. He was a Romantic poet, novelist and journalist, and often regarded as the most famous and influential Romanian poet.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mihai_Eminescu)

1895        Oct 1, Romanians in Constantinople were massacred.
    (MC, 10/1/01)

1902        Sep 17, The US protested anti-Semitism in Romania.
    (MC, 9/17/01)

1902        Sep 22, John Houseman, director, producer and actor, was born in Bucharest, Romania.
    (HN, 9/22/00)(MC, 9/22/01)

1906        Mar 3, Vuia I aircraft, built by Romanian Traja Vuia, was tested in France.
    (SC, 3/3/02)

1907        Mar 31, Romanian Army put down a Moldavian farmers' revolt.
    (MC, 3/31/02)

1909        Nov 13, Eugene Ionesco, Romanian-born dramatist, was born. His work included “The Bald Soprano" and “Rhinoceros." [see Nov 26, 1909 and Nov 26, 1912]
    (HN, 11/13/00)

1909        Nov 26, Eugene Ionesco (d.1994), Romanian-born French dramatist, was born. [see Nov 13, 1909 and Nov 26, 1912]
    (AP, 11/26/02)

1912        Jun 28, Sergiu Celibidache, Romanian conductor, was born.
    (MC, 6/28/02)

1912        Nov 26, Eugene Ionesco, dramatist (Rhinoceros), was born in Slatina, Romania. [see Nov 13 and Nov 26, 1909]
    (WUD, 1994 p.750)(MC, 11/26/01)

1913        Jun 1, Serbia and Greece concluded a secret treaty for joint action against Bulgaria; joined by Romania. Dissatisfied with their share of the spoils, Serbia, denied its proposed outlet to the Adriatic Sea, sought compensation in Macedonia along the Vardar River which the Bulgarians rejected while Greece asked for control of Thessaloniki and "a certain part" of the eastern Macedonian territories, which Bulgaria rejected as well.
    (www.maknews.com/html/articles/stefov/stefov61.html)

1913        Jul 10, Rumania entered the Second Balkan War and four days later the Ottoman Empire joined the general assault on Bulgaria. Faced with four fronts, Bulgarian armies were defeated piecemeal and the government at Sofia was forced to seek peace. Atrocities were widespread. For example, in pursuing the Bulgarian army Greek forces systematically burnt to the ground all Macedonian villages they encountered, mass-murdering their entire populations. Likewise, when the Greek army entered Kukush (Kilkis) and occupied surrounding villages, about 400 old people and children were imprisoned and killed. Nor did the Serbian "liberators" lag behind in destruction and wanton slaughter throughout Macedonia. In Bitola, Skopje, Shtip and Gevgelija, the Serbian army, police and chetniks (guerrillas) committed their own atrocities.
    (www.maknews.com/html/articles/stefov/stefov61.html)

1913        Aug 10, The Treaty of Bucharest ended the Second Balkan War. It was concluded by the delegates of Bulgaria, Romania, Serbia, Montenegro, and Greece. The entire "disputed zone" was taken by Serbia, Greece secured its position in Thessaloniki and southeastern Macedonia, the Ottomans regained all the territories lost in the First Balkan War to Bulgaria with the exception of eastern (Pirin) Macedonia, and the Romanians seized Southern Dobruja. 
    (www.maknews.com/html/articles/stefov/stefov61.html)

1914        Jun 15, Saul Steinberg, American cartoonist (New Yorker), was born in Romania.
    (HN, 6/15/01)

1914        Baron Franz Nopcsa (1877-1933) found fossils of small dinosaurs in Romania that dated to the Cretaceous period.
    (SFC, 6/8/06, p.A7)

1915        Marie, the queen of Romania, visited San Francisco.
    (SFC, 3/8/08, p.F2)

1916        Aug 28, Germany declared war on Romania.
    (MC, 8/28/01)

1916        Sep 1, Bulgaria declared war on Romania as the First World War expanded.
    (HN, 9/1/99)

1917        Jan 5, Bulgarian and German troops occupied the Port of Braila in East Romania.
    (HN, 1/5/99)(WUD, 1994, p.178)

1917        Aug 6, The battle of Marasesti began and continued to Sep 8. This was the last major battle between the German Empire and the Kingdom of Romania on the Romanian front during World War I.
    (http://tinyurl.com/ya4hhpcq)

1917        Sep 8, The battle of Marasesti, begun on August 6, ended. This was the last major battle between the German Empire and the Kingdom of Romania on the Romanian front during World War I. The Battle of Mărășești kept the northeastern region of the country free from occupation. Romania lost over 27,000 men, including 610 officers, while Germany and Austria-Hungary lost over 47,000.
    (http://tinyurl.com/ya4hhpcq)

1918        Jan 26, Nicolae Ceausescu, Romanian president (1967-90), was born.
    (MC, 1/26/02)

1918        The heir to Romania's throne, Prince Carol, secretly married Zizi Lambrino, a Romanian aristocrat. The marriage was later annulled because by law Romania's heir to the throne was obliged to marry a foreign princess. Their child, Mircea Grigore, was then regarded as an illegitimate son. Mircea, filed a request in a Lisbon court in 1955, demanding to be recognized as Carol's legitimate son. His request was granted.
    (AP, 2/15/12)
1918        An attempt to establish a Moldovan Soviet failed and Romanian troops occupied the province.
    (WSJ, 1/2/02, p.A18)

1920         Jun 4, The Treaty of Trianon, signed at Versailles, was forced upon Hungary by the victorious Allies after WWII and resulted in Hungary giving up nearly three-fourths of its territory to Romania, Czechoslovakia and the Kingdom of Serbs, Croat and Slovenes. Hungary lost more than half its population, including some 3 million Hungarians. Hungary ceded the hills of Transylvania to Romania.
    (HNQ, 7/5/98)(WSJ, 1/2/97, p.1)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Treaty_of_Trianon)

1920        Aug 10, Allies recognized Poland, Czechoslovakia and Romania.
    (MC, 8/10/02)

1920        Paul Celan, Romanian poet (d.1970), was born.
    (AP, 11/23/02)

1922        May 29, Iannis Xenakis, Greek mathematician, architect and composer, was born in Romania. In 2004 James Harley authored “Xenakis: His Life in Music."
    (SSFC, 7/25/04, p.M4)

1924        May 4, The summer Olympics opened in Paris. The French rugby team beat the Rumanians 61-3.
    {France, Olympics}
    (Ind, 2/16/02, 6A)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/1924_Summer_Olympics)

1924        The Bolsheviks formed the Moldovan Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic (ASSR), aka Transdniestria, as a basis for later taking over a chunk of Romania.
    (WSJ, 7/8/97, p.A1,8)(http://tinyurl.com/b7m4b)

1925        Miron Cristea (1868-1939) was enthroned as the first Patriarch of the Romanian Orthodox Church.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Miron_Cristea)
1925        Brother Cleopa entered the Sihastra Monastery at age 25.
    (SFC, 12/7/98, p.A25)

1926        Queen Marie of Romania spoke at the dedication ceremony of the unfinished Maryhill Museum in Washington state. Sam Hill, railroad magnate, built a replica of Stonehenge as a monument to Klickitat County soldiers who lost their lives in the World War on the premises. His nearby mansion later became the Maryhill Museum of Art.
    (AM, 9/01, p.10)

1927        In Romania Michael I (1921-2017), a great-great grandson to Britain's Queen Victoria, acceded to the throne when he was six years old after his father Carol II eloped with his mistress and abdicated.
    (AP, 12/5/17)
1927        The Legion of the Archangel Michael was formed and later became the Iron Guard. It was committed to the “Christian and racial" renovation. The Fascist organization fed on anti-Semitism and mystical nationalism and was a major social and political force in Romania between 1930 and 1941. It was finally destroyed when in 1941 when it staged a revolt against the government of General Ion Antonescu.
    (HNQ, 11/27/01)

1928        Sep 30, Elie Wiesel, Holocaust survivor, writer (Souls on Fire), best known for his first book “Night" about his own experiences in concentration camps, was born in Romania. He won the Nobel Prize in 1986.
    (HN, 9/30/98)(MC, 9/30/01)

1930        In Romania Carol II returned to the throne and stayed there until abdicating again in 1940 when Michael I became king for a second time.
    (AP, 12/5/17)

1933        Apr 25, Romanian Baron Franz Nopcsa von Felso-Szilvas (b.1877) killed his long time companion and secretary, an Albanian named Bajazid Elmas Doda, and committed suicide.
    (SFC, 6/8/06, p.A7)(http://tinyurl.com/jffdw)

1933        In Romania a gold-embellished hunting rifle was commissioned for King Carol II. Decades later it came into the possession of dictator Nicolae Ceauscescu, who engraved his name on it. In 2017 the gun sold at auction for $37,000.
    (SFC, 7/12/17, p.A2)

1934        The wife of PM Gheorghe Tatarascu asked Constantin Brancusi to commemorate the citizens of Targu Jiu, who died trying to hold back the WW I Austro-German invasion. Brancusi agreed and created sculptures titled: “Endless Column," “Gate of the Kiss" and “Table of Silence." The 97-foot Endless Column was taken down for restoration in 1996. A 2nd restoration was completed in 2001.
    (WSJ, 11/30/01, p.W12)

1935-1944    In 2000 the memoir of Mihail Sebastian, a Jewish Romanian playwright, was published: “Journal, 1935-1944: The Fascist Years." Sebastian died soon after the war in a traffic accident.
    (SSFC, 12/17/00, Par p.19)

1938        Feb 11, In Romania Carol II, who had banned political parties and established a royal dictatorship, chose Miron Cristea (1868-1939) to be the Prime Minister, a position from which he served for about a year. Patriarch Miron Cristea, who led the Romanian Orthodox Church from 1925 to 1939, was responsible for revising the citizenship law, stripping about 225,000 Jews, or 37% of the Jewish population, of their Romanian citizenship.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Miron_Cristea)(AP, 8/3/10)

1938        Jul 18, Queen Marie of Romania died. She was the wife of King Ferdinand I, who reigned from 1914 to 1927. Born in England in 1875 as Princess Marie of Edinburgh, her father was Prince Alfred, a son of Queen Victoria. The heart of Marie was finally laid to rest on Nov 3, 2015, after criss-crossing the nation for 77 years.
    (https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Marie_of_Romania)(AP, 11/3/15)

1938        The documentary film “Tara Motilor" by Paul Calinescu won the documentary section at the Venice Film Festival.
    (SFC, 3/28/00, p.E2)
1938        In Romania Bran Castle, owned by Queen Marie, was bequeathed to her daughter Princess Ileana. In 1948 it was confiscated by the Communists. In 2006 the fabled “Dracula’s Castle" was transferred to Dominic van Hapsburg, a New York architect who inherited it from Princess Ileana.
    (SFC, 5/24/06, p.A2)

1939        Mar 6, Miron Cristea, PM of Romania (1938-1939), died. Cristea was also the first Patriarch of the Romanian Orthodox Church (1925-1939).
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Miron_Cristea)

1939        Aug 13, Saul Steinberg, American artist (The Art of Living, New Yorker Magazine), was born in Romania.
    (MC, 8/13/02)

1940        Jun 26, The Soviet Union delivered an ultimatum to Romania and 2 days later occupied Bessarabia and North Bukovina.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Occupation_of_Bessarabia_by_the_Soviet_Union)

1940        Oct 8, German troops occupied Romania.
    (MC, 10/8/01)

1940        Nov 27, Astonescu's Iron Guard massacred over sixty aides of the exiled king, including Nicolae Iorga, a former minister and acclaimed historian. Two months prior General Ion Antonescu seized power in Romania and forced King Carol II to abdicate.
    (MC, 11/27/01)

1940        King Carol II abdicated for the 2nd time and Michael became king for a 2nd time.
    (SFC, 10/20/00, p.A16)

1941        Jan 9, Some 6,000 Jews were exterminated in a pogrom in Bucharest, Romania. [see Jan 22]
    (MC, 1/9/02)

1941        Jan 22, The 1st mass killing of Jews took place in Romania. [see Jan 9]
    (MC, 1/22/02)

1941        Feb 10, London severed diplomatic relations with Romania. Romania's indigenous fighter, the IAR 80, saw service in defense of its homeland and against the Soviets.
    (HN, 2/10/97)

1941        Jun 19, Romania ordered Jews to evacuate Darabani.
    (MC, 6/19/02)

1941        Jun 28, German and Romanian soldiers killed 11,000 Jews in Kishinev.
    (MC, 6/28/02)

1941        Jun, In the northeastern city of Iasi, Romania, up to 12,000 people are believed to have died as Romanian and German soldiers swept from house to house to killing Jews. Those who did not die were systematically beaten, put in cattle wagons in stifling heat and taken to a small town, where what happened to them would be concealed. Of the 120 people on the train, just 24 survived. In 2010 a mass grave was found containing the bodies of an estimated 100 Jews killed by Romanian troops in a forest near the town of Popricani, about 350 km northeast of Bucharest. It contained the bodies of men, women and children who were shot in 1941.
    (AP, 6/14/03)(AP, 11/5/10)

1941        Jul 23, German and Romanian troops reoccupied Moldova as part of Operation Barbarossa.
    (WSJ, 1/2/02, p.A18)

1941        Jul, The 16,000 sq. mile area of the Ukraine named Transnistria was granted by Hitler to the Romanian dictator Ion Antonescu for Romania’s participation in the war against the soviet Union. Jews from Bessarabia, Bukovina and Moldova were transferred here and many thousands were murdered from 1941-1944 by the Romanian Gendarmeric, the Einsatrzgruppe D, Ukrainian police and Sonderkommando R.
    (WSJ, 7/30/97, p.A15)

1941        Aug 7, In Romania 551 Jews were shot in the Kishinev ghetto.
    (MC, 8/7/02)

1941        Oct 8, The Romanian government gave the order to deport 11,000 Jews remaining in Kishinev across the Dniester to Rybnitsa and into Nazi hands.
    (WSJ, 1/2/02, p.A18)

1941        Oct 22-23, Some 39,000 Jews were killed by Romanian troops over 2 days in Odessa. Many of them were burned to death in a public square or in warehouses that were locked shut. Some 90,000 Jews were killed in Odessa altogether.
    (SFC, 6/15/98, p.A11)

1941        Dec, In Romania authorities ordered the dissolution of all Jewish organizations. Chief Rabbi Alexander Safran (1910-2006) helped set up the Jewish Council, an underground organization comprising all sectors of the Jewish population. The council used its links with Romanian church officials, the Vatican and the royal family in a bid to prevent the mass deportation of Romania's Jews to the Nazi extermination camps.
    (AP, 7/28/06)

1941-1945    Some 148,000 Bessarabian Jews were killed in Rybnitsa and other ghettos and concentration camps on the East bank of the Dniester during the Nazi occupation.
    (WSJ, 1/2/02, p.A18)
1941-1945    In 2000 Radu Ioanid authored "The Holocaust In Romania," which described how 250,000 people died under Ion Antonescu. 25,000 Gypsies were deported to Transnistria (later in the Ukraine), of whom 1,500 died.
    (WSJ, 1/19/00, p.A20)

1942        Jun 12, American bombers struck the oil refineries of Ploesti, Rumania for the first time.
    (HN, 6/12/98)

1943        Aug 1, Over 177 B-24 Liberator bombers attacked the German oil fields in Ploesti, Romania, for a second time. Of 1,762 airmen on the mission, 532 were killed, captured, interned or listed as missing in action. In 2007 Duane Schultz authored “Into the Fire: Ploesti" The Most Fateful Mission of World War II.
    (HN, 8/1/98)(WSJ, 11/13/07, p.D5)

1943        Dec 11, U.S. Secretary of State, Cordell Hull, demanded that Hungary, Rumania, and Bulgaria withdraw from the war.
    (HN, 12/11/98)

1943        Former King Michael I purchased the Savarsin castle. It was later used as a hospital and then a private residence for Ceausescu. A local court in 2000 awarded the castle back to Michael.
    (SFC, 4/6/00, p.C16)

1944        Mar 18, The Russians reached the Rumanian border in the Balkans.
    (HN, 3/18/98)

1944        Apr 2, Soviet forces entered Romania, one of Germany's allied countries.
    (HN, 4/2/01)

1944        May, Elie Wiesel (1928-2016) and his family were among an estimated 14,000 Jews who were deported to the Auschwitz death camp from a town in northwest Romania. His mother and younger sister died there.
    (AP, 10/9/18)

1944        Jun 23, In one of the largest air strikes of the war, the U.S. Fifteenth Air Force sent 761 bombers against the oil refineries at Ploesti, Romania.
    (HN, 6/23/98)

1944        Aug 23, Romanian PM Ion Antonescu was dismissed by King Michael, paving the way for Romania to abandon the Axis in favor of the Allies. King Michael organized a coup against the pro-Nazi dictator, Marshal Ion Antonescu, but was double-crossed by Joseph Stalin and betrayed by the Allies who ceded the country to the Russians at the Yalta summit in 1945.
    (SFC, 6/27/97, p.A16)(AP, 8/23/97)

1944        Aug 25, Romania declared war on Germany.
    (AP, 8/25/99)

1944        Aug 30, Ploesti, the center of the Rumanian oil industry, fell to Soviet troops.
    (HN, 8/30/00)

1944        The Soviet army re-conquered Bessarabia. Only then were the two parts of present-day Moldova joined together to form the Moldavian SSR. At the same time, about one-third of Bessarabia, including its entire Black Sea coastline, was incorporated into the Ukrainian SSR. The Transdniester region, having long been part of the Russian Empire and then the Soviet Union, remained more Russified and Sovietized than Right-Bank Moldavia.
    (http://tinyurl.com/b7m4b)
1944        Some 350,000 Romanian Jews survived WWII and many soon migrated to Israel.
    (WSJ, 10/4/06, p.A11)

1945        Mar 2, King Michael of Romania gave in to Communist government.
    (SC, 3/2/02)

1945        Mar 12, USSR returned Transylvania to Romania.
    (MC, 3/12/02)

1945        Nov 30, Radu Lupu, pianist (Enesco 1st prize-1967), was born in Galati, Romania.
    (MC, 11/30/01)

1946        The communist regime imprisoned hundreds of thousands of priests, intellectuals, peasants and politicians deemed dangerous and impossible to convert to communist ideals.
    (SFC, 5/25/02, p.A27)

1946-1989     Romania under Communist rule imprisoned some 617,000 political prisoners during this period. Some 120,000 died in the gulags.
    (SFC, 7/12/13, p.A3)

1947        Dec 30, Rumania's King Michael was exiled when the Soviet backed Communists took over. King Michael of Romania agreed to abdicate, but charged he was being forced off the throne by Communists.
    (SFC, 6/27/97, p.A16)(AP, 12/30/97)(HN, 12/30/98)

1947        Chief Rabbi Alexander Safran was dismissed from his post and forced to leave Romania, making his home in Geneva. He had refused to cooperate with the new Jewish Democratic Committee, saying it was a Communist body intent on breaking up traditional Jewish organizations and bringing Jewish life in Romania to a standstill.
    (AP, 7/28/06)
1947        In Romania Ion Diaconescu (1917-2011), an anti-communist activist, was arrested after Communists came to power. He was released in 1964 under an amnesty for political prisoners, and helped re-establish the center-right Peasants' Party after communism ended in Romania in 1989.
    (AP, 10/12/11)

1948        Jan 3, King Michael left Romania. His Peles Castle in Sinaia was confiscated by the Communists. In 2006 it was returned to the former king.
    (SFC, 10/20/00, p.A16)(SFC, 5/24/06, p.A2)

1948        The communist state banned the Eastern Rite Catholic Church.
    (SFC, 5/25/02, p.A27)

1948-1951    Father Alexandru Todea escaped from prison and went into hiding. During this time he was secretly made a bishop.
    (SFC, 5/25/02, p.A27)

1949        In Romania Ticu Dumitrescu (1928-2000) was sentenced to 27 years prison for being an enemy of the state. From 1949 to 1964, he was incarcerated in communist jails or kept under house arrest.
    (AP, 12/5/08)

1950            Dec 2, Dinu Lipatti (b.1917), Romania-born pianist, died of leukemia in Geneva, Switz.
    (www.inkpot.com/classical/lipatti.html)

c1950        Brother Cleopa under pressure from the Communist party to stop receiving visitors, who sought his guidance, left the Sihastra Monastery and became a hermit in the mountain forests for 3 years. He ate 1 potato a day.
    (SFC, 12/7/98, p.A25)

1951        Sep 17, Romanian bishop A. Pacha of Timisoara was sentenced to 18 years.
    (MC, 9/17/01)

1951        Bishop Alexandru Todea was caught and sentenced to 12 years in prison.
    (SFC, 5/25/02, p.A27)

1954        Marin Sorescu published his poetry “Alone Among Poets."
    (SFC, 12/11/96, p.A24)

1954        May 17, In Romania Monsignor Vladimir Ghika (b.1873) died in Jilava Communist prison. He had been born into a family of Moldovan nobles in Constantinople and spent decades traveling around the world helping the sick and the poor. On Aug 31, 2013, he was beatified.
    (AP, 8/31/13)(http://tinyurl.com/kcj67sc)

1954        A new bridge across the Danube linked the cities of Ruse, Bulgaria, and Giurgiu, Romania.
    (AP, 6/14/13)

1955        May 4, Georges Enescu (73), Romanian-French violist, composer (Oedipe), died.
    (MC, 5/4/02)

1955        May 14, Representatives from eight Communist bloc countries: Soviet Union, Albania, Bulgaria, Czechoslovakia, East Germany, Hungary, Poland & Romania, signed the Warsaw Pact in Poland. Andras Hegedues signed for Hungary.
    (AP, 5/14/97)(SFC, 10/26/99, p.B4)(MC, 5/14/02)

1956-1963    In Romania 6 political prisoners died at the Ramnicu Sarat prison, under the command of Alexandru Visinescu. In 2014 Visinescu (87) denied genocide charges as he faced prosecutors in a closed session.
    (AP, 1/14/14)

1957        Mar 16, Constantin Brancusi (b.1876), Romanian-born French sculptor, died. He willed his studio and work to France.
    (WSJ, 3/30/00, p.A28)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Constantin_Br%C3%A2ncu%C5%9Fi)

1957        May 29, George Bacovia [Vasiliu] Romanian poet, composer (Plumb), died at 75.
    (SC, 5/29/02)

1958        Jan 7, Petru Groza (74), premier and president (Romania, 1945-58), died.
    (MC, 1/7/02)

1958        In Romania Veronica Antal was stabbed repeatedly as she resisted being raped. In 2018 Pope Francis approved a decree recognizing the martyrdom of Antal.
    (AP, 1/27/18)   

1958-1963    In Romania Ion Ficior served as commander of the Periprava labor camp during this period. In 2013 Ficior (85) was charged with genocide for his alleged role in the deaths of 103 political prisoners. In 2017 a court upheld the verdict.
    (SFC, 10/25/13, p.A2)(AP, 3/29/17)
1958-1964 In Romania Col. Gheorghe Craciun (d.2001) commanded the Aiud Prison. He was later charged with the deaths of 216 prisoners but died before the trial was completed.
    (SFC, 6/16/01, p.A17)

1959        The first International Mathematical Olympiad (IMO), a World Championship Mathematics Competition for High School students, was held in Romania, with 7 countries participating. In 1978 Dr. George Lenchner (1917-2006 created the Mathematical Olympiads for Elementary and Middle Schools (MOEMS, originally LIMOES).
    (http://imo.math.ca/)(www.moems.org/memoriam.htm)

1961        Nov 12, Nadia Comaneci, [Gheorghe], Romanian gymnast (1st 10/Olympic-gold-1976), was born.
    (MC, 11/12/01)

1963        Gheorghe Gheorghiu-Dej gave amnesties to political prisoners and Bishop Alexandru Todea was released from prison.
    (SFC, 5/25/02, p.A27)

1964        In Romania a number of political prisoners, including Alexandru Salca (d.2001 at 78), were released in a general amnesty. Salca served 7 years for opposing the pro-Moscow government and another 8 for opposing the 1956 Soviet invasion of Hungary. He later authored 4 books on the horrors of Communist prisons and the Black Sea Canal forced labor camps where tens of thousands perished.
    (SFC, 6/16/01, p.A17)

1965        Mar 19, In Romania State Council Pres. Gheorghiu-Dej (b.1901) died. Gheorghe Apostol was defeated in a contest for Communist Party leader by Ceausescu, who ended up ruling Romania with an iron fist for 25 years.
    (AP, 8/25/10)(http://tinyurl.com/37bdv5x)

1965        Mar 24, Chivu Stoica (1908-1975), former Romanian prime minister (1955-1961), became President of the Council State of Romania.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Chivu_Stoica)

1966-1974    Ilie Verdet served as deputy prime minister.
    (SFC, 3/22/01, p.A20)

1967        Dec 9, Nicolae Ceausescu became president (dictator) of Romania.
    (MC, 12/9/01)

1967        Soviet Gen. Sakharovsky became chief intelligence adviser in Romania. He helped bring Yasser Arafat to the Soviet Union via Romania for training and indoctrination. The soviets maneuvered to have Arafat named chairman of the PLO with help from Egypt’s ruler, Gamal Abdel Nasser. Sakharovsky was later reported to be responsible for killing 50,000 Romanians.
    (WSJ, 1/10/02, p.A12)

1969         Aug 2, Richard Nixon visited Romania becoming the first president to visit a communist nation since the start of the Cold War.
    (HNQ, 11/20/01)(www.u-s-history.com/pages/h1464.html)

c1970s        Gheorghe Gheorghiu-Dej was the Stalinist predecessor of Ceausescu.
    (SFC, 6/15/98, p.A10)

1972        The jellyfish population in the Black Sea exploded following the completion of a dam in a section of the Danube that runs between Serbia and Romania.
    (WSJ, 11/27/07, p.A14)

1974        Mar 28, In Romania the position of President of the Republic was created especially for Nicolae Ceausescu, who is then named President for life by Grand National Assembly.
    (www.ceausescu.org/ceausescu_texts/ceausescu_chronology.htm)

1976        Nadia Comaneci of Romania scored 7 perfect 10s in gymnastics during the Olympic games in Montreal.
    (NG, 8/04, Geographica)

1977        Mar 4, A 7.4 earthquake in Romania killed about 1,570 people and was felt across southern and eastern Europe.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/1977_Bucharest_Earthquake)(AP, 3/4/98)(SFC, 4/28/99, p.A15)

1977        In Romania Gen. Nicolae Plesita helped stifle striking coal miners in the Jiu Valley whose unrest posed a threat to Pres. Ceausescu.
    (AP, 9/30/09)

1978        Romania’s Gen. Ion Pacepa, a top ranking Securitate officer, defected to the United States. Pres. Ceausescu hired Ilich Ramirez Sanchez, aka Carlos the Jackal,  to assassinate Pacepa but he failed.
    (AP, 9/30/09)

1980        Ilie Verdet (d.2001 at 75) was appointed prime minister and served for 2 years.
    (SFC, 3/22/01, p.A20)

1980-1989    In Romania a huge building spree, inspired by Nicolae Ceausescu’s visit to North Korea, leveled entire neighborhoods in Bucharest and left a large number of stray dogs roaming the streets. Their number reached 100-200,000 in 1997. Ceausescu ripped out 80% of the historical center to create the Civic Center district.
    (SFEC,11/30/97, p.A20)(SSFC, 6/18/17, p.F6)

1981        Feb 21, A bombing in Munich of Radio Free Europe injured 9 people. Romania’s Pres. Ceausescu ordered Gen. Ion Pacepa to find temporary shelter for Ilich Ramirez Sanchez, aka Carlos the Jackal, in Romania after the bombing. Ceausescu sold arms and explosives to Ramirez and enabled him to produce counterfeit passports and driver's licenses.
    (AP, 9/30/09)(www.hoover.org/publications/digest/3475896.html)

1982        Feb 9, Mihai Anton Prodea, artist, was born in Sibiu, Romania.
    (KMB, 2003)

1982        In Romania Doina Cornea, a French professor at Cluj's Babes Bolyai University, sent her first letter protesting the communist regime to Radio Free Europe and went on to send dozens of similar letters, attracting the attention of the Securitate secret police. In 1987 Cornea and her son were arrested after releasing manifestos in support of a workers' uprising in the city of Brasov.
    (AP, 5/4/18)

1982-1988    In Romania thousands of buildings were razed in the heart of Bucharest to make way for a plan by Communist leader Nicolae Ceausescu to build a giant House of the People and Soviet-style apartment buildings.
    {Romania}
    (AP, 1/6/19)

1985        Nov 17, Gheorghe Emil Ursu (b.1926), Romanian construction engineer, poet, diarist and dissident, died after being beaten for weeks by police. Security police had raided his home and discovered his diary, in which he had joted down scathing secret poems by Nina Cassian about Nicolae Ceausescu self-importance and stupidity. In 2016 military prosecutors said four former communist officials, including the former chief of the feared Securitate secret police, will stand trial for Ursu’s death.
    (Econ, 5/17/14, p.86)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Gheorghe_Ursu)(AP, 8/1/16)

1986        The church bishops secretly elected Bishop Alexandru Todea leader of the church with the rank of Metropolitan.
    (SFC, 5/25/02, p.A27)

1986        Ion Cioaba, Gypsy leader, was jailed and tortured on alleged charges of cheating the government on a copper contract.
    (SFC, 2/28/97, p.A24)

1989        Nov 24, Romanian leader Nicolae Ceausescu was unanimously re-elected Communist Party chief. Within a month, he was overthrown in a popular uprising and executed along with his wife, Elena, on Christmas Day.
    (AP, 11/24/04)

1989        Dec 15, A popular uprising that resulted in the downfall of Romania's Nicolae Ceausescu began as demonstrators gathered in Timisoara to prevent the arrest of the Reverend Laszlo Tokes, a dissident clergyman.
    (AP, 12/15/99)

1989        Dec 16, In Romania a revolt began in Timisoara when authorities tried to forcibly move ethnic Hungarian pastor Laszlo Toekes to a remote rural parish. Supporters gathered outside his house and soon the site was teeming with protesters. 6 days of fighting left 118 people killed.
    (AP, 12/16/09)

1989        Dec 21, Romanian President Nicolae Ceausescu delivered what turned out to be his final public speech. The hard-line Communist ruler was visibly stunned as his listeners began booing. Ceausescu fled from power and was executed four days later.
    (AP, 12/21/99)

1989        Dec 22, In Romania there was a revolt and miners riots. Romania's hard-line Communist ruler, Nicolae Ceausescu, was toppled in a popular uprising following 23 years of dictatorial rule. Ion Ileascu and other top Communist functionaries of Ceausescu seized control. Ileascu ruled until Nov 1996.
    (SFC, 11/18/96, p.A10)(SFC, 11/20/96, p.C4)(AP, 12/22/97)(SFC, 6/15/98, p.A11)

1989        Dec 23, Ousted Romanian President Nicolae Ceausescu and his wife, Elena, were captured as they were attempting to flee their country.
    (AP, 12/23/99)

1989        Dec 25, Ousted Romanian President Nicolae Ceausescu and his wife, Elena, were executed following a popular uprising. His regime had mobilized some 700,000 informants to keep tabs on the population of 23 million people.
    (SFC, 12/27/96, p.B1)(AP, 12/25/97)(SSFC, 8/20/06, p.A20)

1989        Dec 26, Romanian television broadcast videotape of ousted President Nicolae Ceausescu and his wife, Elena, at their secret trial and footage of Ceausescu's body after his execution. That same day, a provisional government took control of Romania.
    (AP, 12/26/99)

1989        Some 1,200 deaths occurred during the revolution after the army officially changed sides.
    (SFC, 6/15/98, p.A11)

1989        Orthodox Patriarch Teoctist resigned after the fall of Ceausescu. He was accused of collaborating with the Ceausescu regime. Church leaders pressed him to return 3 months later.
    (SFC, 5/8/99, p.A10)

1989        The church was recognized by the state following the collapse of communism.
    (SFC, 5/25/02, p.A27)

1989        The village of Copsa Mica was exposed as one of the most polluted places in Europe. Despite cleanup efforts heavy contamination persisted in 2002.
    (WSJ, 1/9/02, p.A1)

1990        Jan 8, Military tribunals in Romania began trials of the country's dreaded security forces who stood accused of resisting the revolution that toppled Nicolae Ceausescu.
    (AP, 1/8/00)

1990        Jan 27, In Romania, four top associates of executed dictator Nicolae Ceausescu went on trial, charged with abetting genocide.
    (AP, 1/27/00)

1990        Mar 5, To the cheers of onlookers, workers in Bucharest, Romania, finally succeeded in removing a 25-foot, seven-ton bronze statue of Vladimir Lenin from its foundation.
    (AP, 3/5/00)

1990        Mar, Several people were killed and hundreds injured in clashes between Romanians and ethnic Hungarians in the Transylvanian city of Targu Mures. The Szeklers make up about a third of Romania's 1.4 million Hungarian minority.
    (AP, 10/8/06)

1990        May 20, Romania's ruling National Salvation Front scored victories in the country's first free elections in more than 50 years.
    (AP, 5/20/00)

1990        Jun, In Romania antigovernment protests left 6 people dead. In 2015 former Pres. Ion Iliescu (85) faced charges for the deaths of 4 people, the shooting of three others and depriving 1,000 people of their freedom.
    (SFC, 10/22/15, p.A6)
1990        Jun, Miners, transported into Bucharest in government vehicles, destroyed hundreds of Interior Ministry files. Over 2 years well organized mobs of rural coal miners descended on Bucharest 4 times to knock the heads of student leaders, opposition politicians and others.
    (SFC, 6/15/98, p.A11)

1990        Sep, Transdniestria declared its independence over fears that Moldova planned to reunite with Romania. It was not recognized internationally.
    (www.aliciapatterson.org/APF1803/Meier_Foster/Meier_Foster.html)(AP, 1/5/12)

1990        Dec 25, Romania’s former monarch, King Michael, arrived on his first visit to his homeland since Communist rulers forced him to abdicate four decades earlier. Michael and his companions were stopped by tanks, taken to the airport and forced to leave the country less than 12 hours later.
    (AP, 12/25/00)(AP, 12/5/17)

1990        In Romania former prime minister Ilie Verdet formed the Socialist Party.
    (SFC, 3/22/01, p.A20)
1990        Israelis began investing in Romania and by 2006 had put in as much as $2 billion, much of it routed through 3rd countries in order to take advantage of tax deals.
    (WSJ, 10/4/06, p.A1)

1991        Sep 24, Some 5,000 coal miners led by Miron Cozma rampaged through Bucharest leaving 3 dead and nearly 300 injured. This prompted the resignation of Prime Minister Petre Roman.
    (SFC, 2/16/99, p.A8)

1991        The Vatican raised Metropolitan Alexandru Todea to the rank of Cardinal
    (SFC, 5/25/02, p.A27)

1992        Sep, Ion Cioaba (1935-1997), had himself crowned as King of the Gypsies with a 13-pound crown in front of 5,000 followers.
    (SFC, 2/28/97, p.A24)

1992        Andrei Ivantoc, a member of the Popular Moldovan Front, was arrested by separatist authorities  of Trans-Dniester. A year later he and the three others were sentenced on charges of committing terrorist acts against citizens of Trans-Dniester. The Popular Moldovan Front called for the reunification of Moldova with neighboring Romania. The group's members were seen as martyrs by some in Moldova and Romania for their opposition to the separatists. Ivantoc was released in 2007.
    (AP, 6/2/07)

1992-1996    Nicolae Vacaroiu led Romania’s authoritarian ex-communist government.
    (Econ, 4/28/07, p.61)

1993        Nov, Marin Sorescu became the minister of culture in the leftist government of Nicolae Vacaroiu.
    (SFC, 12/11/96, p.A24)

1994        In Romania the Civic Center district with its massive Palace of the Parliament, the largest building in Europe, was completed.
    (SSFC, 6/18/17, p.F6)

1995        Mar 27, Bernard Cornfeld (67), Romanian-US financier (Fund of Funds), died.
    (MC, 3/27/02)

1995        The capital is Bucharest. National Day is Dec 1. The average monthly wage is $150. Premier Nicolae Vacaroiu says the government is prepared to adopt new taxes to reduce imports and help support the national currency.
    (WSJ, 11/6/95, p.B-8F)

1996        The government rejected the Dec. 24, '95 results of an election in the Dnestr region of neighboring Moldava, a former Soviet state. The region voted for independence and closer ties to Russia.
    (WSJ, 1/4/96, p.A-1)

1996        May, Ilie Alexandru, aka the J.R. of Romania, opened his copy of the Southfork Ranch of the TV “Dallas" series in Slobozia as part of his Hermes Vacation park.
    (SFC, 6/16/96, Zone 1 p.5)

1996        Jun 2, Victor Ciorbia of the Democratic Convention won over Ilie Nastase, int’l tennis star representing the Party of social Democracy, in preliminary elections for the mayorship of Bucharest.
    (SFC, 6/14/96, p. A14)

1996        Sep 16, Romania and Hungary signed a treaty over the status of 1.6 million Hungarians in Romania and a guarantee of borders.
    (SFC, 9/17/96, p.A12)

1996        Nov 3, The opposition party won parliamentary elections ending control by ex-Communists.
    (WSJ, 11/4/96, p.A1)

1996        Nov 17, Centrist reformer Emil Constantinescu (57), professor of geology, defeated Ion Ileascu in presidential elections.
    (SFC, 11/18/96, p.A11)

1996        Nov 19, In Romania Victor Ciorbea, mayor of Bucharest, was named by the Peasant Party the next prime minister.
    (SFC, 11/20/96, p.C4)

1996        Nov 29, Emil Constantinescu was sworn in as president.
    (SFC, 11/30/96, p.A14)

1996        Dec 8, Marin Sorescu (1936-1996), poet and former minister of culture, died.
    (SFC, 12/11/96, p.A24)

1996        Sergiu Celibidache (b.1912), conductor, died. In 2001 Deutsche Grammophon released a box set of his selected performances.
    (WSJ, 4/24/01, p.A22)

1997        Feb, A new economic package was introduced that would reduce state subsidies, deregulate food and energy prices, close unprofitable state enterprises and private others.
    (SFC, 2/24/96, p.A10)

1997        May 1, Romania apologized for deporting tens of thousands of ethnic Germans to labor camps during Communist rule or “selling" them by demanding cash from the Bonn government for emigration permits.
    (SFC, 5/2/97, p.A17)

1997        Jul 11, President Clinton was cheered by tens of thousands of people in Bucharest, Romania, where he raised hopes for NATO membership.
    (AP, 7/11/98)

1997        Aug 7, Prime Minister Victor Ciorbea announced the closure of 17 factories at the urging of the IMF. 30,000 jobs would be lost and the following day thousands protested the closing of the essentially bankrupt companies.
    (SFC, 8/9/97, p.C1)

1997        Romanian Orthodox Bishop Nicolae Corneanu (1924-.2014) confessed he had been an informer since 1948 and had excommunicated five dissident priests in 1981 who had accused church leaders of prostituting the church to the demands of communist rulers.
    (AP, 9/29/14)

1998        Jan, In Romania the IMF froze the disbursement of a $530 million lending program.
    (WSJ, 5/6/98, p.A18)

1998        Mar 30, Prime Minister Victor Ciorbea resigned and stepped down from his role as mayor of Bucharest.
    (SFC, 3/31/98, p.B3)

1998        Apr 2, In Romania Radu Vasile, an economist and leader of the national Peasant Party, was named by Pres. Emil Constantinescu as the new prime minister. He soon began reforms with an economic program to restore domestic and foreign confidence.
    (SFC, 4/3/98, p.B5)(WSJ, 5/6/98, p.A18)

1998        Apr 8, It was reported that 22 Romanian ships carrying 500 sailors were stranded worldwide due to economic problems of the state shipping firm, Navrom.
    (SFC, 4/898, p.A12)

1998        Jun 25, The Senate voted to keep some 125 million secret police files locked away.
    (SFC, 6/26/98, p.D2)

1998        Jun, Sorin Moisescu (d.2000), independence leader, was appointed president of the Supreme Court.
    (SFC, 4/7/00, p.D5)

1998        Aug 4, A heat wave swept over Eastern Europe and caused 20 deaths in Romania.
    (SFC, 8/5/98, p.A10)

1998        Nov 23, An Arctic cold wave was reported to have killed 71 people across Europe over the last 3 days. 36 deaths were in Poland and 24 in Romania and Bulgaria.
    (SFC, 11/24/98, p.A14)

1998        Dec 3, Brother Cleopa, an Orthodox monk, died at age 87 at the 14th century Sihastra Monastery. He was renowned for his lectures and sermons, some of which were published under the title “Talks with Brother Cleopa," in Sobornost, an ecumenical Orthodox and Anglican journal published in Oxford.
    (SFC, 12/7/98, p.A25)

1999        Jan 19, In Romania ten thousand coal miners clashed with police on the 15th day of a strike to protest low wages and possible layoffs.
    (USAT, 1/20/99, p.8A)(SFC, 1/20/99, p.A10)

1999        Jan 21, In Romania striking miners stormed through police lines, killed one officer and took 50 captive. The interior minister was fired.
    (WSJ, 1/22/99, p.A1)

1999        Jan 22, In Romania miners halted a violent strike after reaching a settlement with Prime Minister Rady Vasile.
    (SFC, 1/23/99, p.C1)

1999        Feb 15, In Romania the Supreme Court sentenced in absentia Miron Cozma, leader of the coal miners, to an 18 year prison term.
    (SFC, 2/16/99, p.A8)

1999        Feb 16, Romanian miners began a fresh march on Bucharest.
    (WSJ, 2/17/99, p.A1)

1999        Feb 17, In Romania police crushed a coal miners protest and arrested Miron Cozma. One person was killed and a hundred were injured.
    (SFC, 2/18/99, p.A12)

1999        Mar 24, Tens of thousands of workers in Bucharest and other cities protested for lower taxes and a cut in utility rates.
    (SFC, 3/25/99, p.A10)

1999        Apr 20, Bulgaria and Romania offered to let NATO use their airspace to bomb Yugoslavia.
    (WSJ, 4/21/99, A22)

1999        Apr 21, Romania and the IMF reached a preliminary agreement for a $500 million loan.
    (SFC, 4/22/99, p.A15)

1999        May 7, In Romania the Pope began a 3-day visit. This was his first visit to a country with an Orthodox Christian majority. The Pope was greeted by Orthodox Patriarch Teoctist (84).
    (WSJ, 5/7/99, p.A1)(SFC, 5/8/99, p.A10)

1999        Sep, A plastic polymer called Guardian replaced the paper 2,000 leu bank note.
    (WSJ, 9/3/99, p.A9)

1999        Nov 2, In Bucharest dozens of orphaned and homeless teenagers protested and urged the government to provide jobs and housing.
    (SFC, 11/3/99, p.C5)

1999        Nov 7, Radu Teposu, writer, died in a car crash at age 45. His work included a book on postmodernism in Romania that was banned under the Communists.
    (SFC, 11/8/99, p.C2)

1999        Nov 23, In Romania some 5,000 workers of the CNSLR-Fratia trade union gathered in Bucharest to protest plummeting living standards.
    (SFC, 11/24/99, p.C5)

1999        Dec 10, The EU granted preliminary consideration for membership to Bulgaria, Latvia, Lithuania, Romania, Slovakia, and Malta.
    (SFC, 12/11/99, p.A16)

1999        Dec 14, In Romania Pres. Constantinescu fired Prime Minister Radu Vasile, though the constitution did not grant him that power. Alexandru Athanasiu, the Labor and Social Welfare minister, was named to replace Vasile. The average monthly salary was down to $89.
    (SFC, 12/14/99, p.B2)

1999        Dec 16, Mugur Isarescu, the central bank chief, was appointed prime minister following a revolt by Peasants party ministers.
    (WSJ, 12/17/99, p.A1)

1999        Dec, In an effort to exorcise some of its past the government began an auction of the personal goods of former dictator Nicolae Ceausescu and his wife Elena.
    (WSJ, 12/8/99, p.A1)
 
1999        Romania passed legislation to allow the opening of files in the archive of Securitate, Ceausescu’s hated security police. Disclosures began in 2006.
    (SSFC, 8/20/06, p.A20)

1999        Renault of France spent $50 million to acquire a controlling stake in Dacia, a sickly Romanian car maker formerly owned by the state. The first Renault-Dacia Logan was produced in 2004. The millionth Logan was produced in mid 2008.
    (Econ, 11/15/08, SR p.14)

2000        Jan 30, In Romania a dam at the Baia Mare gold mine overflowed and caused cyanide to pout into the Lapus River and then into the Somes River. It flowed into Hungary and within weeks into the Tisa (Tisza) River in Yugoslavia.
    (SFC, 2/12/00, p.A9)(SFC, 2/18/00, p.A1)

2000        Feb 13, In Yugoslavia the cyanide spill from Romania reached the Danube and weakened to nonlethal levels. Life in the Tisa (Tisza) River in Hungary and Serbia was devastated and Serbia threatened to demand compensation at an int'l. court.
    (SFC, 2/14/00, p.A16)

2000        Mar 10, In Romania some 20,000 tons of metal pollutants escaped into the Vaser River from the state-owned Baia Borsa mine after a dam broke following heavy rains and melting snow.
    (SFC, 3/11/00, p.A9)

2000        Mar 25, Paul Calinescu, the father of Romanian cinema, died at age 98.
    (SFC, 3/28/00, p.E2)

2000        Apr 6, Sorin Moisescu (61), president of the Supreme Court, died.
    (SFC, 4/7/00, p.D5)

2000        Nov 26, Presidential elections were held. A Dec 10 runoff was expected between Social Democrat Ion Iliescu and ultranationalist Corneliu Vadim Tudor. Annual inflation stood at 45%.
    (SSFC, 11/26/00, p.A18)

2000        Dec 10, In Romania Ion Iliescu, former Communist turned social democrat, won the presidential runoff elections over nationalist Corneliu Vadim Tudor 70-30%.
    (SFC, 12/11/00, p.A12)

2000        Dec 28, Parliament approved Adrian Nastase, former foreign minister, as prime minister of a new leftist minority government.
    (SFC, 12/29/00, p.B6)

2001        Jan 18, There was a cyanide spill in the Siret River. 72 people were later hospitalized after eating river fish.
    (WSJ, 1/25/01, p.A1)

2001        Feb, Romania enacted Law 10 to govern restitution for properties confiscated between 1945 and 1989. In 2006 Romania passed legislation to return property that had been confiscated under Communist rule, to former owners and to establish a fund to pay damages for assets that could not be returned.
    (www.state.gov/p/eur/rls/or/64425.htm)(SFC, 5/24/06, p.A2)

2001        Mar 7, The Parliament voted to require citizens to notify police if foreign guests stay over 15 days. It also voted to make it a crime for anyone to divulge state secrets.
    (WSJ, 3/8/01, p.A1)

2001        Mar 21, Ilie Verdet, former prime minister, died at age 75.
    (SFC, 3/22/01, p.A20)

2001        Jun 5, Ten people were killed In Constanta when workers set off an explosion while welding the hull of a Maltese oil tanker.
    (SFC, 6/6/01, p.C3)

2001        Aug 7, A gas explosion in the Vulcan coal mine killed at least 14 miners.
    (SFC, 8/8/01, p.A9)

2001        Sep 27, Gellu Naum, surrealist poet, playwright and translator, died at age 86. His work included 20 poetry books, of which the 1st was “The Incendiary Traveler" (1936) and the novel “Zenobia" (1985).
    (SFC, 10/6/01, p.A18)

2001        Oct, Mohammad F. Abdul Razak, the 1st secretary at the Iraqi Embassy in Romania, was asked to leave for unsavory practices.
    (WSJ, 12/20/01, p.A12)

2001        Nov, New bonds were to be issued to finance the Sighisoara Tourism Development Fund and a planned Dracula theme park to open in 2003.
    (WSJ, 10/30/01, p.A1)

2001        Dec 3, US Sec. of State Powell met in Romania with officials from 55 nations in a conference on fighting terrorism.
    (WSJ, 12/3/01, p.A1)

2001        Daniel Morar (b.1966), Chief Attorney of the Romanian National Anticorruption Directorate, began prosecuting corruption related offenses. His term ended in 2008.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Daniel_Morar)(Econ, 8/2/08, p.53)

2002        May 21, Cardinal Alexandru Todea (89), symbol of Catholic resistance to communism, died in Targu Mures.
    (SFC, 5/25/02, p.A27)

2002        Jun 11, Thousands of Romania state workers jammed a square in downtown Bucharest, blaming the government for a decline in living standards and calling for its resignation.
    (AP, 6/12/02)

2002        Jul 14, A bus with 52 passengers, mostly Polish students, crashed in western Romania, killing five people and injuring 26.
    (AP, 7/14/02)

2002        Sep 26, NATO planned to issue invitations in November to Bulgaria, Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania, Romania, Slovakia and Slovenia. Expansion would commit the current 19 members to defend the borders of the new members.
    (SFC, 9/26/02, p.A1)

2002        Oct 9, The European Union's executive Commission declared Bulgaria, the Czech Republic, Cyprus, Estonia, Hungary, Latvia, Lithuania, Malta, Poland, Romania, Slovenia, and Slovakia nearly ready for EU membership and recommended they be invited to join in 2004. Romania and Bulgaria likely will be delayed until 2007 because of weak economies, the Commission said, adding Turkey was the weakest link among candidates.
    (AP, 10/9/02)

2002        Nov 21, The Baltic nations of Latvia, Estonia and Lithuania joined former communist states Bulgaria, Romania, Slovakia and Slovenia as the next wave of NATO states.
    (AP, 11/21/02)

2002        Nov 23, President Bush visited Vilnius, Lithuania, and Bucharest, Romania, where he vowed to defend hard-won freedoms behind the former Iron Curtain.
    (AP, 11/23/03)

2002        Nov 29, Romania urged the EU on to reject a request by Hungarian producers for the exclusive right to sell a regional brandy in EU countries under the generic name "palinka." The Eastern European brandy, made from fermented fruit pears, plums, apricots or grapes, has been produced in the region under different names. In Hungary and in Romania's northwest region of Transylvania, it is called "palinka," or "palinca," while in southern Romania it is called "tuica," and in Moldova and Bulgaria "rakiya."
    (AP, 11/30/02)

2002        Dec, In Romania Kurt W. Treptow of Miami Beach, Fl., was sentenced to the maximum of seven years in for offenses involving two girls, ages 10 and 13, whom he invited into his home in Iasi. A Romanian woman was also convicted of being his accomplice. Treptow was released in 2007 after writing a book entitled "The life and Times of Vlad Dracul" while in prison.
    (AP, 2/27/07)

2002        Romania decriminalized homosexuality as it prepared to join the EU.
    (AP, 2/19/18)
2002        In Romania almost 90% of the country’s people at this time were Eastern Orthodox and 1% Eastern Rite Catholics.
    (SFC, 5/25/02, p.A27)

2003        Jan 1, Dumitru Tinu (62), a leading Romanian journalist who covered the Soviet invasion of Czechoslovakia and steered his newspaper along independent lines after communism ended, died in a car accident.
    (AP, 1/1/03)

2003          Mar 8, In Romania 5 Iraqi diplomats were expelled for “activities incompatible with their status."  Last week the US expelled two U.N.-based Iraqi diplomats and identified 300 Iraqis in 60 countries, some operating as diplomats out of Iraqi embassies, whom it wanted expelled.
    (AP, 3/10/03)

2003        Mar 20, Some 600 US and Romanian ground troops in Afghanistan began Operation Valiant Strike, an intensified search for Taliban, al Qaeda and loyalists to Gulbuddin Hekmatyar.
    (SSFC, 3/23/03, p.A1)

2003        Jun 17, Romania's government acknowledged that its former leaders deported and exterminated Romanian Jews during World War II.
    (AP, 6/17/03)

2003        Sep 22, The jawbone of a cave-man living in what is now Romania, found in 2002 in Pestera cu Oase, was reported as the oldest fossil from an early modern human to be found in Europe. It was carbon-dated to between 34,000 and 36,000 years ago.
    (AP, 9/22/03)

2003        Sep, Abd al-Rahim Al Nashiri, a Saudi national later sent to Guantanamo Bay, was detained and abused in Romania at a secret US prison. His detention continued to Oct. 2005. Romania later denied hosting such CIA facilities.
    (AP, 5/31/18)

2003        Oct 6, Elisabeta Rizea (91), a Romanian anti-communist resistance fighter whose defiance of the regime made her a symbol of the fight against tyranny, died.
    (AP, 10/7/03)

2003        Oct 19, In Romania government leaders held an emergency session as many voters avoided the polls, throwing into doubt a referendum on a new constitution aimed at helping the country join the European Union.
    (AP, 10/19/03)

2003        Oct 21, Romanians overwhelmingly approved a new constitution designed to prepare the formerly communist country for membership in the EU.
    (AP, 10/21/03)

2004        Mar 29, Pres. Bush hosted a White House ceremony to welcome Bulgaria, Estonia, Lithuania, Latvia, Romania, Slovakia and Slovenia into the NATO alliance.
    (WSJ, 3/30/04, p.A1)

2004        Apr 2, In Brussels an official ceremony welcomed Bulgaria, Estonia, Lithuania, Latvia, Romania, Slovakia and Slovenia into the NATO alliance.
    (SFC, 4/3/04, p.A11)

2004        Jun 2, Romania’s Pres. Ion Iliescu unveiled the new Logan sedan, a joint venture between Renault and Romania’s Dacia. Starting prices were around $6,100. In 2007 nearly 80,000 Logans were sold in western Europe.
    (SFC, 6/3/04, C5)(Econ, 5/31/08, SR p.7)

2004        Aug 7, The Romanian sitcom "The Winding Road to Europe" featured villagers in the fictional La Europa pub and swapping stories about how joining the EU will change their lives. The European Union's Romania office has funded 12 15-minute episodes of "Winding Road" at $16,800 each, 4 of which had already aired.
    (AP, 8/7/04)

2004        Nov 28, Romanians voted for a president to succeed Ion Iliescu and lead the former communist country into the European Union. A run off was scheduled for Dec 12 when neither ruling Socialist’s Nastase nor Bucharest Mayor Basescu received 50%.
    (AP, 11/28/04)(WSJ, 11/29/04, p.A1)

2004        Dec 4, A car accident in Bucharest killed Teofil Peter of the rock band Compact. In 2006 US Marine Sgt Christopher VanGoethem, a US embassy guard, was acquitted of negligent homicide by a Marine court in Virginia.
    (SFC, 2/1/06, p.A3)

2004        Dec 12, Romanians returned to the polls for a presidential runoff between PM Adrian Nastase and Bucharest Mayor Traian Basescu. Reformist opposition candidate Traian Basescu won Romania's presidential runoff election.
    (AP, 12/13/04)

2004        Dec 14, In Romania Pres.-elect Traian Basescu opened talks to form a coalition government with a party formerly allied with his opponent and one representing ethnic Hungarians.
    (AP, 12/14/04)

2004        Romania’s main political parties formed the Coalition for a Clean Parliament, an anti-corruption pact.
    (Econ, 4/28/07, p.61)

2005        Jan 1, Romania enacted a law forbidding int’l. adoptions except to biological grandparents in an effort to help it win EU membership.
    (WSJ, 1/3/05, p.A1)
2005        Jan 1, Romania was forecast for 5.2% annual GDP growth with a population at 21.7 million and GDP per head at $3,720.
    (Econ, 1/8/05, p.89)

2005        Jan 16, A 66-year-old Romanian woman became the world's oldest woman recorded to give birth when she delivered a daughter by cesarean section.
    (AP, 1/17/05)

2005        Mar 28, In Iraq 3 Romanian journalists and their translator were abducted near their Baghdad hotel. The journalists were freed by US forces on May 22. In 2015 Iraqi-born Mohammad Munaf, sentenced in absentia to 10 years prison in 2008 by the Bucharest Appeals Court, was brought to Romania. Munaf was the journalists' guide at the time of the kidnapping and had been held by the US military since May 2005. A Syrian businessman was serving a 20-year sentence in Romania for masterminding the kidnapping.
    (AP, 3/29/05)(SSFC, 10/15/06, p.A20)(AP, 8/27/15)

2005        Apr 13, The European Parliament approved the entry of Bulgaria and Romania into the EU in 2007, but it said both countries still need to carry out necessary reforms.
    (AP, 4/13/05)

2005        Apr 18, The annual Goldman Environmental Prizes were awarded in San Francisco. Recipients included Stephanie Daniel Roth of Romania for fighting an open-cast gold mine.
    (SFC, 4/18/05, p.B2)

2005        Apr 22, Al Jazeera television reported  that insurgents gave Romania 4 days to withdraw its troops from Iraq in order to save the lives of 3 journalists kidnapped last month.
    (Reuters, 4/22/05)

2005        Apr 29, Heavy rains in western Romania have flooded hundreds of villages, forcing 3,700 people to abandon their homes and disrupting rail and road traffic.
    (Reuters, 4/29/05)

2005        May 6, Romania's foreign minister said his government would keep its troops in Iraq supporting postwar operations despite the kidnapping of three Romanian journalists.
    (AP, 5/6/05)

2005        May 12, Austrian authorities reported the break up a major human trafficking ring led by Romanian, Moldovan and Ukrainian criminals who smuggled more than 5,000 East Europeans to the West, many enduring horrific conditions in tiny hiding spaces in cars, trucks and trailers.
    (AP, 5/12/05)

2005        May 22, In Iraq 3 Romanian journalists and their Iraqi-American guide were freed after nearly two months in captivity. Mohammed Munaf, their Iraqi-American translator, was later tried and convicted on charges that he assisted in the kidnapping. In 2006 Munaf was sentenced to death.
    (AP, 5/22/05)(SSFC, 10/15/06, p.A20)

2005        Jun 15, In Romania Maricica Irina Cornici (23), an Orthodox nun, was found dead, gagged and chained to a cross. Father Daniel (29), the superior of the Holy Trinity monastery, had ordered the crucifixion of the young nun because she was "possessed by the devil."  The Orthodox priest faced murder charges and was unrepentant as he celebrated a funeral mass for his alleged victim. [see Jun 22]
    (AFP, 6/18/05)

2005        Jun 22, A Romanian monk and four nuns were charged with murder after a nun died during an exorcism. Maricica Irina Cornici (23) was crucified and left without food for three days. [see Jun 15] In 2007 the monk and 4 nuns were given prison sentences from 5-14 years.
    (AP, 6/23/05)(AP, 2/19/07)

2005        Jul 7, Romania's PM Calin Popescu Tariceanu said his Cabinet would resign and early elections would be called after a court blocked essential justice reforms required by the EU.
    (AP, 7/7/05)

2005        Jul 17, Officials said heavy rains and flash floods have killed 20 people in the past week and inundated tens of thousands of homes in Romania. Death for the month reached 26.
    (AP, 7/17/05)

2005        Jul 27, The UN started evacuating more than 400 refugees from a camp in Kyrgyzstan and will fly them to a third country to keep them from being sent home to Uzbekistan where they fear prosecution. Uzbekistan has been pressuring Kyrgyzstan to hand over the refugees, and Kyrgyz officials relented in recent weeks, sending at least 87 of them back.
    (AP, 7/27/05)

2005        Jul 29, A plane with 440 Uzbek refugees left Kyrgyzstan for Romania.
    (AP, 7/29/05)

2005        Aug 22, Romania’s PM Calin Tariceanu reshuffled his center-right government, replacing four ministers including those in charge of finance and European integration after criticism of several cabinet members.
    (AP, 8/22/05)

2005        Oct 6, Romania said it has deported five students accused of having ties to al-Qaida and trying to recruit members of the country's Muslim community.
    (AP, 10/6/05)

2005        Oct 8, Romania reported new cases of avian flu in the Danube delta on the Black Sea and started to cull hundreds of birds to prevent the disease from spreading.
    (AP, 10/8/05)

2005        Oct 9, The slaughter of thousands of domestic fowl in Romania and Turkey began as a precaution against the spread of bird flu after both countries confirmed their first cases of the disease over the weekend.
    (AP, 10/10/05)

2005        Oct 15, The European Commission said tests have confirmed a link between the bird flu found in Romania and the virus that has devastated flocks in Asia and turned up in Turkey.
    (AP, 10/15/05)

2005        Nov 3, European Union officials said they would investigate a report that the CIA set up secret jails in Eastern Europe to interrogate top al-Qaida suspects. The international Red Cross also said it asked the US to let a representative visit detainees if such a facility exists. At least 10 nations denied that the prisons were in their territory. Human Rights Watch in New York said it has evidence indicating the CIA transported suspected terrorists captured in Afghanistan to Poland and Romania.
    (AP, 11/3/05)

2005        Dec 6, US Sec. of State Condoleeza Rice signed an agreement with Romania to open US military bases there. One site was identified by Human Rights Watch as the site for a clandestine prison.
    (WSJ, 12/7/05, p.A16)

2005        Dec 22, Romania's prime minister rejected US calls to allow adoptions by foreigners of about 1,000 Romanian children.
    (AP, 12/22/05)

2005        Romania introduced a flat tax of 16%.
    (Econ, 3/5/05, p.54)
2005        Romania’s GDP per head was $4,490.
    (Econ, 1/6/07, p.43)

2006        Jan 14, In southwestern Romania 7 miners were killed and five injured in a gas explosion at a mine. Union leaders blamed it on a lack of investment in safety measures.
    (AP, 1/14/06)

2006        Jan 29, In Bucharest, Romania, a stray dog killed a Japanese businessman. The mayor called for a crash program of canine sterilization and euthanasia to control the city’s 60,000 stray dogs.
    (www.inyourpocket.com/romania/bucharest/en/)(Econ, 2/4/06, p.48)

2006        Feb 16, In Romania authorities investigating the leak of secret military documents, including details on coalition troops in Iraq and Afghanistan, arrested Marian Garleanu, a Romanian journalist, for possession of leaked material. Garleanu denied any wrongdoing and said he was targeted because he has repeatedly exposed corruption in the Ministry of Defense.
    (AP, 2/17/06)

2006        Apr 5, Home Secretary Charles Clarke said London would press for Romania to be granted membership of the European Union "as soon as possible" as he praised the country's work against people trafficking.
    (AFP, 4/5/06)

2006        Apr 13, The Danube reached record-high levels in Bulgaria, Romania and Serbia, flooding fertile farmland as authorities in southeastern Europe considered ordering evacuations.
    (AP, 4/13/06)

2006        Jun 20, In southern Afghanistan an explosion tore apart a coalition tank, killing one Romanian soldier and wounding four others.
    (AP, 6/20/06)

2006        Jun 29, Romania's PM Calin Popescu Tariceanu proposed withdrawing 890 troops from Iraq because of high casualty levels and the cost of the operation.
    (AP, 6/29/06)

2006        Aug 18, In Greece a 700-year-old icon, said to have the power to work miracles, was discovered stolen from the cliff-side Elona Monastery. In September police arrested a Romanian national in Crete and recovered the Madonna and Child icon.
    (SSFC, 10/8/06, p.A26)(http://tinyurl.com/grxc8)

2006        Aug 22, The Orizont, a leased Romanian oil rig off the coast of Iran, came under fire from Iranian military vessels and was later occupied by Iranian troops. A 2nd Romanian rig had recently been towed from Iranian waters due to unpaid bills.
    (AP, 8/22/06)(WSJ, 10/14/06, p.A8)

2006        Aug, In Romania the heads of the leading spy agencies quit along with the top prosecutor after they failed to keep track of Omar Hayssam. The Syrian-born businessman, arrested on terrorism charges, fled Romania after being paroled for health reasons.
    (Econ, 9/16/06, p.62)

2006        Sep 2, In Romania liberal leaders expelled Mona Musca, one of the country's most popular politicians, from the party after she admitted to having collaborated with the Securitate secret police under the communist dictatorship of Nicolae Ceausescu.
    (AP, 9/2/06)

2006        Sep 26, The European Commission recommended that Bulgaria and Romania join the EU next year, but under some of the harshest terms ever faced by new members.
    (AP, 9/26/06)

2006        Oct 24, Britain said Bulgarians and Romanians will have only limited rights to work in Britain for at least a year after their countries join the European Union on January 1.
    (AP, 10/24/06)

2006        Dec 10, In Romania more than 6,000 inmates at 24 prisons took part in hunger strikes and other protests to demand amnesty and better living conditions.
    (AP, 12/10/06)

2006        In Romania  the Institute for Investigating the Crimes of Communism and the Memory of the Romanian Exile was founded by Liberal PM Calin Popescu Tariceanu.
    (AP, 7/11/13)
2006        Romania handed over key Securitate files and a master index to an independent institute. In 2008 the government issued an emergency decree to keep the institute open after a court ruled its work unlawful.   
    (Econ, 5/31/08, SR p.13)
2006        At least 2 million of Romania’s 22 million people worked abroad, mostly in farm jobs.
    (Econ, 2/4/06, p.48)

2007        Jan 1, Bulgaria and Romania joined the EU. Some 30,000 Israelis gained EU citizenship due to their dual registration in Romania.
    (WSJ, 10/4/07, p.A11)(AP, 1/1/07)

2007        Feb 1, Romanian President Traian Basescu told Microsoft co-founder Bill Gates that pirated Microsoft software helped Romania to build a vibrant technology industry.
    (AP, 2/1/07)

2007        Feb 19, Daniel Petru Corogeanu, a Romanian priest, was sentenced to 14 years in prison. In 2005 he had led a dayslong exorcism ritual with 4 nuns for Maricica Irina Cornici (23), a young nun, that ended with the woman's death. One of the nuns, Nicoleta Arcalianu, was sentenced to eight years in prison, and the other three, Adina Cepraga, Elena Otel and Simona Bardanas, received five-year sentences.
    (AP, 2/19/07)

2007        Apr 19, Romania's parliament voted to suspend the popular president who ushered in economic and social reforms to help the country join the European Union, accusing him of abusing his constitutional powers. President Traian Basescu had earlier vowed to resign "within five minutes" if lawmakers voted to suspend him. His resignation would prompt a new election within three months, and he has said he would run again for office. Former president Nicolae Vacaroiu (1992-1996) became acting president.
    (AP, 4/19/07)(Econ, 4/28/07, p.61)

2007        May 2, Romania’s Parliament approved an agreement allowing the US to use four military bases and station up to 3,000 troops in the former communist country.
    (AP, 5/3/07)

2007        May 19, Romanians voted on whether to impeach President Traian Basescu, who has been accused of violating the constitution but remains popular among the public. Basescu, suspended on grounds he abused power, easily survived a referendum on his impeachment, with partial results indicating about three-fourths of the votes supporting the leader.
    (AP, 5/19/07)(AP, 5/20/07)

2007        May 23, Romania's suspended President Traian Basescu was reinstated after he won a referendum on his removal from office.
    (AP, 5/23/07)

2007        May 27, Christian Mungiu, a Romanian director, won the Cannes Film Festival Palme d’Or for his “3 Weeks and 2 Days," which looked at abortion during the communist era. Michael Moore’s “Sicko," a film on the inequities of America’s health system, also featured at Cannes.
    (WSJ, 5/29/07, p.A1)(Econ, 5/26/07, p.32)

2007        Jun 8, A European investigator issued a report saying the CIA ran secret prisons in Poland and Romania from 2003 to 2005 to interrogate detainees in the war on terror.
    (AP, 6/8/07)

2007        Jun 9, In Romania police used tear gas against protesters who hurled stones at the annual gay rights parade in Bucharest.
    (AP, 6/9/07)

2007        Jun 14, Romania's government defended its decision to return "Dracula's Castle" to members of the former royal family, denying allegations that the decision was illegal.
    (AP, 6/14/07)

2007        Jun 19, In Romania hundreds of retirees took to the streets in Bucharest and about 20 other towns to demand that pensions be raised to at least 45% of the average national salary and other benefits. Romania numbered 6 million retirees out of a population of 22 million.
    (AP, 6/20/07)

2007        Jun 23, In Romania a bear attacked a group of US tourists on a remote trail in the Carpathian Mountains, killing a woman and injuring two other people.
    (AP, 6/24/07)

2007        Jun 26, Sizzling temperatures in Greece, Italy and Romania brought power cuts and brush fires in a heat wave that has led to at least 38 deaths in southeast Europe in recent days.
    (AP, 6/26/07)

2007        Jul 22, The death toll from Romania's heat wave rose to 15 after 6 more people died as temperatures hovered around 40 degrees Celsius (104 Fahrenheit).
    (AP, 7/22/07)

2007        Jul 27, Victor Frunza (72), a Romanian anti-communist dissident and writer, died in Denmark of a heart attack. He was forced to leave Romania in 1980 after writing a letter critical of the communist regime led by dictator Nicolae Ceausescu. While in Romania, Frunza secretly wrote a history of communism in the country that was published in Denmark in 1984. He also wrote essays championing human rights and published a political magazine.
    (AP, 7/30/07)

2007        Jul 30, Patriarch Teoctist (b.1915), head of the Romanian Orthodox Church, died in Bucharest, He made history when he invited the late John Paul II to his Orthodox country in 1999 but was criticized for being too close to former Communists.
    (AP, 7/30/07)

2007        Aug 1, It was reported that more than 100 Serbian Gypsies have crossed the border illegally into neighboring Romania in recent days and filed applications for asylum claiming they were subject to abuse and attacks in Serbia.
    (AP, 8/1/07)

2007        Aug 5, Florian Pittis (63), Romanian actor and folk musician, died of cancer. He helped popularize Western rock bands in communist Romania.
    (AP, 8/6/07)

2007        Aug 17, Romania and the US started military training exercises to test installations that will become the first US facilities in the former Soviet bloc, a plan opposed by Russia.
    (Reuters, 8/30/07)

2007        Sep 15, It was reported that nearly 90% of Romania’s 22 million people adhere to the Romanian Orthodox Church. Its $4 billion fortune makes it the country’s 6th biggest enterprise.
    (Econ, 9/15/07, p.66)

2007        Oct 22,     Romania's President Traian Basescu apologized for the deportation of thousands of Gypsies to Nazi death camps during World War II, the first time a government official has done so publicly.
    (AP, 10/23/07)

2007        Oct 30, In Italy Giovanna Reggiani (47) was brutally attacked as she returned home in northern Rome. She died 2 days later. Nicolae Mailat, a Romanian Gypsy, admitted to snatching her bag but denied her murder. Her attack triggered a public outcry.
    (Econ, 11/10/07, p.63)

2007        Nov 1, Italy's president signed a decree allowing the expulsion of EU citizens "for reasons of public safety" to fight "episodes of heavy violence and ferocious crime." This followed the Oct 30 attack on a 47-year-old woman as she walked along a road after dark toward barracks where she lived. She was beaten, dragged through mud and left half naked in a ditch. The woman died 2 days later. Police arrested Nicolae Mailat a Romanian in his 20s, who lives in a shack in one of several sprawling settlements on the outskirts of Rome.
    (AP, 11/2/07)

2007        Nov 2, Italy began deporting Romanians with criminal records in response to a streak of violent crime blamed on immigrants. In Rome up to 10 people wearing motorcycle helmets attacked a group of Romanians with knives, metal bars and sticks in the parking lot of a supermarket. Three Romanians were injured. As part of the crackdown, bulldozers in Rome for a second day knocked down shantytowns where thousands of foreigners lived without permits.
    (AP, 11/3/07)

2007        Dec 1, At the 20th annual European Film Awards in Berlin Romanian director Cristian Mungiu's "4 Months, 3 Weeks and 2 Days" won the best film prize.
    (AP, 12/1/07)

2007        New amendments to Romania’s penal code prescribed jail sentences of up to 7 years for journalists who publish material showing officials involved in bribe-taking. The code also raised the financial threshold for corruption charges.
    (Econ, 11/3/07, p.64)
2007        In Romania agriculture ministers Decebal Traian Remes resigned his Cabinet post after prosecutors accused him of taking a bribe of $21,000 (euro15,800) and the promise of homemade sausages and plum brandy from Ioan Muresan, a former agriculture minister who allegedly was acting on behalf of businessman Gheorghe Ciorba.
    (AP, 2/14/12)
2007        The population of Romania numbered about 22 million people and counted 4.5 million farms and smallholdings. This represented almost a third of all the farm holdings in the EU.
    (Econ, 11/17/07, p.63)

2008        Jan 24, In Britain almost two dozen Romanians were arrested after police swooped on a child slave gang.
    (Reuters, 1/24/08)

2008        Jan 31, Romania’s Constitutional Court struck down the 1999 law that opened Romania's secret police archives. It effectively forced the Council for the Study of the Securitate Archives to shut down, and makes its previous decisions null.
    (AP, 2/1/08)

2008        May 19, The US Justice Department said international investigators have busted a vast Internet fraud network and charged 38 suspects, most of them Romanians living in the US.
    (AFP, 5/19/08)

2008        Jun 13, In southern Afghanistan a suicide bomber hit a NATO military convoy, causing casualties. A Romanian soldier was killed and three others injured in Qalat, the capital of southern Zabul province. In south-central Uruzgan province, Afghan and NATO-led forces killed 17 Taliban. In eastern Paktia province, an operation by US-led coalition forces resulted in the deaths of a woman and a number of militants. In Ghazni province a coalition air strike killed seven Taliban militants.
    (AFP, 6/13/08)

2008        Jun 30, Brahim Deby, the eldest son of Chad’s President Idriss Deby, was found dead in the basement of his apartment building in a Paris suburb. He was asphyxiated by chemicals from a fire extinguisher that lay near his body. In late November Romanian police arrested a French-Romanian national identified as Marius C. after on a warrant from France.
    (AP, 11/28/08)(www.alertnet.org/thenews/newsdesk/L02560147.htm)

2008        Jul 27, Floods in western Ukraine killed 22 people, including 4 children, and 5 in neighboring Romania after 5 days of nonstop rain. A senior government official described them as the worst in a century. Heavy rain in the southwestern Carpathian Mountains caused the Prut and Dniestr rivers to overflow. The flooding affected more than 40,000 houses and led to the evacuation of some 20,000 people.
    (Reuters, 7/27/08)(AP, 7/28/08)

2008        Aug 5, The UN said heavy rains and storms have led to some of the worst floods in 40 years in parts of Ukraine, Moldova and Romania since July 22, causing great damage to homes, infrastructure and farmland. In Ukraine, 34 people have been killed in the west of the country along the Dnestr and Prut rivers; in Moldova, three people are reported to have drowned in the capital Chisinau; in Romania five people have been killed.
    (AFP, 8/5/08)

2008        Oct 7, In Romania some 7,000 workers and trade unionists marched around the parliament in Bucharest to demand higher salaries and better working conditions.
    (AP, 10/7/08)

2008        Oct 23, In Romania vandals rampaged through a sprawling Jewish cemetery in Bucharest, toppling tombstones and smashing markers for as many as 200 graves.
    (AP, 10/24/08)

2008        Nov 6, Romania's defense minister says the country's 501 peacekeepers in Iraq will all leave by the end of the year.
    (AP, 11/6/08)
2008        Nov 6, A Romanian computer programmer who hacked into computers used by the U.S. Navy, the Department of Energy and NASA was convicted on Romanian charges and ordered to pay thousands in damages. Victor Faur (28) was also given a 16-month suspended prison sentence. In 2006 Faur was indicted in the United States on nine federal counts of computer intrusion and one of conspiracy.
    (AP, 11/10/08)

2008        Nov 15, In southwestern Romania two explosions in a coal mine killed eight miners and four emergency workers.
    (AP, 11/15/08)

2008        Nov 23, In southern Brazil weekend rains caused rivers to overflow their banks. The resulting floods and mudslides left at least 99 people dead. In northeastern Paragominas a mob of about 3,000 people, enraged by a crackdown on illegal logging, trashed a government office, and tried to attack environmental workers.
    (AP, 11/25/08)(AP, 11/24/08)(AP, 11/27/08)

2008        Nov 30, Romanians trickled to the polls to elect a new parliament, as the leftist Social Democrats and right-wing Liberal Democrats battled it out ahead of PM Calin Tariceanu's Liberals. The leftist Social Democrats won the most votes, but failed to get enough support to take power outright.
    (AP, 11/30/08)(SFC, 12/1/08, p.A4)

2008        Dec 1, Romania's parliamentary election results showed the centrist and leftist parties less than a percentage point apart with more than 90 percent of the vote counted, raising the prospect of tough negotiations to form a coalition.
    (AP, 12/1/08)

2008        Dec 5, In Romania Constantin Ticu Dumitrescu (80), once jailed as a communist-era "enemy of the state," died after years of fighting to reveal details of the country's troubled past.
    (AP, 12/5/08)

2008        Dec 10, In Romania Theodor Stolojan (65), former World Bank economist, was chosen to become the next prime minister. On Dec 15 Stolojan renounced the job and was replaced by Emil Boc (42), the leader of the same centrist Democratic Liberal Party.
    (SFC, 12/11/08, p.A4)(AP, 12/15/08)

2009        Jan 3, Russian gas flows to four European Union countries fell normal levels after Moscow cut off supplies to Ukraine in a pricing row with no talks in sight to resolve the dispute. Bulgaria's Bulgargaz joined energy firms in Poland, Romania and Hungary in saying they had noted falls in supply.
    (Reuters, 1/3/09)

2009        Jan 6, A natural gas crisis loomed over Europe, as a contract dispute between Russia and Ukraine shut off Russian gas supplies to six countries and reduced gas deliveries to several others. Bulgaria, Greece, Macedonia, Romania, Croatia and Turkey all reported a halt in gas shipments.
    (AP, 1/6/09)

2009        Feb 4, Romania’s central bank cut interest rates by a quarter point to 10%, still the highest in the EU.
    (WSJ, 2/5/09, p.A8)

2009        Feb 8, Voters in Switzerland approved an expanded labor deal with the European Union that allows Romanians and Bulgarians to work in the Alpine republic.
    (AP, 2/8/09)

2009        Mar 25, Romania was given a loan totaling 20 billion euros (27 billion dollars) by the IMF, the EU, the World Bank and the European Bank for Reconstruction and Development (EBRD). An austerity program accompanied the loans.
    (AP, 3/26/09)

2009        Apr 23, Former King Michael of Romania took the unusual step of endorsing his son-in-law as a candidate in the country's next presidential election.
    (AP, 4/23/09)

2009        Jun 8, Final results showed a British far-right party won its first-ever parliamentary seats in EU elections. The British National Party, which does not accept nonwhite members and calls for the "voluntary repatriation" of immigrants, won two of Britain's 72 seats in the European Parliament. Austria's Freedom Party, which also campaigned on an anti-Islam platform, more than doubled its share of the vote to 13.1%. Hungary's Jobbik party, which describes itself as Euro-skeptic and anti-immigration and wants police to crack down on what it calls "Gypsy crime," won three of the country's 22 seats and almost 15% of the vote. The Greater Romania Party, which is, among other things, pro-religion, anti-gay and anti-Hungarian, made surprise gains, winning almost 9% of the vote and taking two of Romania's 33 seats. A bloc of center-right parties remained the largest group.
    (AP, 6/8/09)

2009        Jun 23, Northern Ireland’s government said more than 100 Romanian Gypsies who suffered racist attacks and intimidation in Belfast are being flown back home at taxpayer expense.
    (AP, 6/24/09)

2009        Jul 13, Turkey and four EU countries (Austria, Bulgaria, Romania and Hungary) formally agreed to route the Nabucco natural gas pipeline across their territories, pushing ahead with a US- and EU-backed attempt to make Europe less dependent on Russian gas.
    (AP, 7/13/09)(Econ, 7/18/09, p.47)

2009        Aug 26, In Bucharest, Romania, fans at first politely applauded the Roma performers sharing a stage with Madonna. Then the pop star condemned widespread discrimination against Roma, or Gypsies, and the cheers gave way to jeers. Official Romanian data put the local Roma population at 500,000.
    (AP, 8/27/09)

2009        Sep 28, In Romania Gen. Nicolae Plesita (b.1929), a die-hard Communist and ruthless chief of the Securitate secret police (1980-1984), died. He had arranged shelter in Romania for terrorist Carlos the Jackal, and was tried for the 1981 bombing in Munich of Radio Free Europe.
    (AP, 9/30/09)

2009        Oct 1, Romania's coalition government collapsed after nine ministers from the Social Democrats quit to protest the firing of interior minister Dan Nica. Social Democratic Party leader Mircea Geoana said the ministers resigned "in solidarity" with Nica, who was fired by PM Emil Boc on Sep 28 over a statement about potential fraud in the upcoming Nov 22 election.
    (AP, 10/1/09)

2009        Oct 8, Herta Mueller (56) won the Nobel Prize in literature in an award seen as a nod to the 20th anniversary of communism's collapse. She was member of Romania's ethnic German minority persecuted for her critical depictions of life behind the Iron Curtain. She made her debut in 1982 with a collection of short stories titled "Niederungen," or "Nadirs," depicting the harshness of life in a small, German-speaking village in Romania. It was promptly censored by the communist government. Some of her works have been translated into English, French and Spanish, including "The Passport," "The Land of Green Plums," "Traveling on One Leg" and "The Appointment."
    (AP, 10/8/09)
2009        Oct 8, Romania unveiled a monument in memory of some 300,000 Jews and Gypsies killed during the Holocaust in the country, which at times denied that the extermination even happened.
    (AP, 10/8/09)

2009        Oct 13, Romania's government fell in a confidence vote in Parliament. Lawmakers said it failed to improve the economy after going into recession following 3 years of growth. A total of 254 parliamentary deputies and senators voted to oust PM Emil Boc, more than the 236 needed, and 176 voted against. Under the constitution it was up to Pres. Traian Basescu to name a new prime minister.
    (AP, 10/13/09)

2009        Nov 22, Romania held elections. President Traian Basescu received 32.7% of the vote, while Mircea Geoana won 30.1%, in first official results based on around 85% of the vote counted in an election tainted by accusations of fraud.
    (AP, 11/23/09)

2009        Dec 6, Romanians voted in a presidential run-off hoping to put an end to a political standoff holding up crucial international aid to the recession-wracked EU member. Center-right President Traian Basescu, a former sea captain promising tough state reforms, faced Social-Democrat Mircea Geoana, an ex-diplomat who has pledged to maintain jobs and "reunite Romania" after years of political squabbling. Basescu won with 50.33% of the vote. Supporters of Geoana charged that the election was marred by fraud. The final result was determined by Romanians abroad who favored Basescu by 78%.
    (AFP, 12/6/09)(SFC, 12/8/09, p.A4)(Econ, 12/12/09, p.60)

2009        Dec 11, Romania's Constitutional Court ordered a re-examination of ballots declared void in the Dec 6 presidential election amid allegations of widespread fraud.
    (AP, 12/11/09)

2009        Romanian Intelligence Service signed a secret protocol in which the agency promised to provide technical infrastructure for prosecutors and protect classified data obtained from legal phone and electronic tapping. In 2018 a human rights group criticized the phone tapping agreement, saying it exposes ordinary citizens to potential abuse.
    (AP, 6/19/18)

2010        Feb 4, Romania’s Pres. Traian Basescu says the country's top defense body has approved a US proposal to place anti-ballistic interceptors in Romania as part of a revamped US missile shield. The measure passed the Supreme Defense Council and must be approved by Parliament.
    (AP, 2/4/10)

2010        Feb 23, In Afghan Gen. Stanley McChrystal apologized for the Feb 21 strike in central Uruzgan province that Afghan officials say killed at least 21 people. The video was also posted on a NATO Web site. The civilian deaths occurred as 15,000 NATO, US and Afghan soldiers were in their 10th day of fighting insurgents in Marjah, Helmand province. A Romanian soldier was killed and another was wounded in a bombing in the south unrelated to the offensive. A morning explosion in Lashkar Gah, the capital of Helmand, left eight people dead and at least 16 others wounded. The death toll of US troops in the Afghan war surpassed the grim milestone of 1,000.
    (AP, 2/23/10)

2010        May 19, Tens of thousands of Romanians rallied in Bucharest to protest planned wage cuts as a budget crises impacted the ailing economy.
    (SFC, 5/20/10, p.A2)

2010        Jun 18, Romania's finance ministry said the cash-strapped government is asking for donations to a solidarity fund set up to boost budget revenues and cushion the impact of the economic crisis.
    (Reuters, 6/18/10)

2010        Jun 23, Romania's most notorious television journalist and his producer were formally arrested and detained for 29 days on charges of blackmailing and threatening a mayor. Dan Diaconescu and producer Doru Parv were arrested after a 7-hour overnight court hearing. They were charged with demanding money from Ion Motz, the mayor of Zarand village, to avoid broadcasting compromising material about him.
    (AP, 6/23/10)

2010        Jun 29, In Romania authorities said ten people have died and three were missing after heavy rains and flooding in the northeast.
    (AP, 6/29/10)

2010        Jul 5, A Romanian military plane crashed near the Black Sea, killing 10 people and injuring three. The Antonov AN-2 plane with 13 people on board took off for parachuting training and crashed soon after takeoff.
    (AP, 7/5/10)

2010        Jul 21, In Romania forensic scientists exhumed what are believed to be the bodies of Romanian dictator Nicolae Ceausescu and his wife Elena to solve the mystery of where they are truly buried.
    (AP, 7/21/10)

2010        Jul 26, In central Romania an Israeli helicopter crashed with no survivors among the six Israeli and one Romanian soldiers on board.
    (AP, 7/27/10)

2010        Aug 2, Romania's central bank issued a special coin commemorating Miron Cristea, a prime minister (1938-1939) and religious leader, who stripped Jews of their citizenship before World War II. The move prompted protest from Romanian Jews as well as a director at the US Holocaust Memorial Museum.
    (AP, 8/3/10)

2010        Aug 16, In Romania a fire at a Bucharest maternity hospital killed 3 babies. A 4th died the next day and seven remained in critical condition. The accident provoked a wave of public indignation, throwing light on Romania's poorly funded and understaffed health system.
    (AP, 8/17/10)
2010        Aug 16, In Russia Gabriel Grecu, first secretary in the political department of the Romanian Embassy in Moscow, was detained while trying to obtain secret military information from a Russian citizen. He was given 48 hours to leave the country.
    (AP, 8/16/10)

2010        Aug 19, France deported nearly 100 Gypsies, or Roma, to their native Romania as part of a very public effort by conservative President Nicolas Sarkozy to dismantle Roma camps and sweep them out of the country.
    (AP, 8/19/10)

2010        Aug 20, France put about 100 Gypsies, or Roma, on a charter flight headed to their native Romania, the second day in a row that it has expelled Roma in a much criticized government crackdown.
    (AP, 8/20/10)

2010        Aug 21, In Romania Gheorghe Apostol (b.1913), a veteran Communist politician, died. He gained international attention in 1989 by publicly criticizing Romanian dictator Nicolae Ceausescu.
    (AP, 8/25/10)

2010        Sep 9, The European Parliament called on France to suspend its expulsion of gypsies. The rare criticism of an EU state was backed by 337 lawmakers meeting in Strasbourg, France, with 245 opposed and 51 abstentions. To date France had deported 8,000 people to Romania and Bulgaria this year alone.
    (AP, 9/9/10)(Econ, 9/18/10, p.73)

2010        Sep 24, In Romania some 6,000 police officers protested plans to cut their wages by 25 percent, part of government's austerity measures to reduce the budget deficit. Pres. Basescu asked the interior ministry to withdraw his police protection shortly after the protest.
    (AP, 9/26/10)

2010        Sep 27, The Romanian government was in an uproar over austerity protests. The interior minister resigned, the opposition demanded the prime minister go as well and top police officials held emergency talks with the president.
    (AP, 9/27/10)

2010        Oct 1, In southern Afghanistan 2 coalition soldiers were killed in a blast while on patrol. NATO said it has captured more insurgent leaders and announced it has detained at least 438 suspected militants over the last month. Just north of Kandahar, two Romanian soldiers were killed and one injured when their Humvee was struck by an improvised explosive device some 25 miles (40 km) northeast of Qalat in Zabul province.
    (AP, 10/1/10)

2010        Oct 27, Romania government survived a no-confidence, as some 30,000 people demonstrated in Bucharest against the nation's wage cuts and austerity measures.
    (AP, 10/27/10)(SFC, 10/28/10, p.A2)

2010        Nov 1, In Romania a MiG-21 Lancer fighter jet crashed during a training exercise, killing two experienced pilots.
    (AP, 11/1/10)

2010        In Romania Emil Boc's government increased sales tax from 19 percent to 24 percent and cut public workers' salaries by a quarter to reduce the budget deficit.
    (AP, 2/6/12)

2011        Jan 6, Romanian witches angry about having to pay income taxes for the first time hurled poisonous mandrake into the Danube River to cast spells on the president and government.
    (AP, 1/6/11)

2011        Feb 5, In Romania five miners died in an explosion at a coal mine in the Jiu Valley mining region.
    (AP, 2/5/11)

2011        Feb 22, Ion Hobana (80), Romania's best-known science fiction writer, died in Bucharest. His works were translated abroad has died. His last book, a history of French science fiction before 1900, was published in November.
    (AP, 2/23/11)

2011        Mar 10, Romania's Pres. Traian Basescu signed a law making Feb. 20 an official holiday to mark when the slavery of Gypsies, or Roma, was abolished. Roma slavery was abolished Feb. 20, 1856, but discrimination persists against the group.
    (AP, 3/11/11)

2011        Jul 16, Bulgarian railway workers found seals on a train carriage door broken, and the door not properly closed. 64 unarmed missile warheads from the train transporting military equipment to Bulgaria from Romania were missing. The components were said to not be dangerous.
    (AP, 7/18/11)

2011        Aug 16, Romania’s controversial Tourism Minister Elena Udrea sparked outrage with a frock she admitted cost as much as many Romanians make in more than a month. She defended the $1290 dress, insisting it cost less than the thousands of euros that media has reported.
    (AP, 8/17/11)

2011        Aug, In Romania Florin Nicolae Ghinea was arrested for trafficking at least 38 women to brothels in Ireland from 2007-2010.
    (SSFC, 9/4/11, p.A4)

2011        Sep 13, Romania signed a deal to host a crucial part of a US missile defense system. Romania's President Traian Basescu announced the deal after meeting with President Obama in Washington. Under NATO plans, a limited system of US anti-missile interceptors and radars planned for Europe include interceptors in Romania and Poland as well as radar in Turkey.
    (AP, 9/14/11)

2011        Oct 18, Romania's anti-discrimination council voted 5-2 to caution President Traian Basescu for making discriminatory remarks about Gypsies and disabled people.
    (AP, 10/18/11)

2011        Oct 19, Romania's government approved a draft law that permits the building of an anti-ballistic interceptor site in the country as part of a US missile shield.
    (AP, 10/19/11)

2011        Nov 16, A court in Romania ordered the arrest of a Romanian man accused of hacking into NASA's servers in December, 2010, causing NASA losses of about $500,000 (euro371,000). A court spokesman said Robert Butyka (26) would be arrested for 29 days as he awaits trial.
    (AP, 11/16/11)

2011        Nov 22, Romanian lawmakers voted to make it legal to euthanize the thousands of stray dogs that roam the country's streets, angering animal rights activists who have lobbied for months to stop the measure. The law will allow officials to round up homeless dogs from the street, hold them in shelters for 30 days and then have them killed. President Traian Basescu was expected to sign the law.
    (AP, 11/22/11)

2011        Dec, Romania’s former PM Adrian Nastase (2000-2004) a key member of the opposition Social Democracy Party, was cleared of corruption charges in a trial where he was accused of paying a bribe to a government official in charge of preventing money laundering to destroy documents regarding a bank deposit of $400,000 (euro308,000) by Nastase's wife.
    (AP, 1/30/12)

2012        Jan 13, In Romania demonstrations began on behalf of Raed Arafat, a popular health care official. He had quit over a plan to privatize a medical emergency system, which he had set up. On Jan 17 the government gave him back his job and said it would rethink its health plans.
    (Econ, 1/21/12, p.57)

2012        Jan 15, In Romania protests continued in cities for a 4th day reflecting widespread anger against austerity measures and an unpopular government.
    (AP, 1/15/12)

2012        Jan 16, In Romania dozens of demonstrators gathered in downtown Bucharest as PM Emil Boc warned that violent protests, that left 59 injured over the weekend, could jeopardize stability and economic growth.
    (AP, 1/16/12)

2012        Jan 20, In Romania crowds gathered in Bucharest for the eighth day as a US official urged Romanians to avoid the violence that has tarred anti-government protests that have left more than 60 people injured.
    (AP, 1/20/12)

2012        Jan 24, Romania's PM Emil Bloc used a national Day of Unity holiday to call for unity as thousands of protesters angry at the government's failure to reverse falling living standards turned their ire toward state media.
    (AP, 1/24/12)

2012        Jan 30, Romania's highest court sentenced former PM Adrian Nastase (2000-2004) to two years in prison after convicting him of illegally raising funds for a failed presidential campaign.
    (AP, 1/30/12)

2012        Feb 3, The death toll from a severe cold spell in Eastern Europe rose to 222, including 101 in the Ukraine, 37 in Poland, 24 in Romania and 16 in Bulgaria.
    (AFP, 2/1/12)

2012        Feb 6, Romania's government collapsed following weeks of protests against austerity measures, the latest debt-stricken government in Europe to fall in the face of raising public anger over biting cuts. President Traian Basescu appointed Justice Minister Catalin Predoiu, the only minister in Emil Boc's Cabinet who is not a member of any political party, to be interim prime minister pending the formation of a new government.
    (AP, 2/6/12)

2012        Feb 9, Romania's Parliament approved a government led by former spy chief Mihai Razvan Ungureanu (43), which the ruling coalition hopes will improve its popularity ahead of parliamentary elections this year. His Cabinet has seven ministers from the previous cabinet, but new, younger ministers for the key portfolios of economy, finance, interior ministry and agriculture.
    (AP, 2/9/12)

2012        Feb 13, Military planes flew in tons of emergency food to towns and villages in eastern Romania where thousands have been stranded by blizzards.
    (AP, 2/13/12)

2012        Feb 14, A Romania court in Bucharest ruled that former agriculture ministers Decebal Traian Remes and Ioan Muresan took bribes and engaged in influence-peddling. Both were sentenced to 3 years in prison.
    (AP, 2/14/12)
2012        Feb 14, Romania's top court recognized Prince Paul Hohenzollern as the legitimate grandson of former King Carol II, ending a 21-year-legal battle.
    (AP, 2/15/12)
2012        Feb 14, Snow as deep as 15 feet (4.5m) isolated areas of Albania, Moldova and Romania, and helicopters and army trucks were used to deliver food and medicine, and to transport sick people to hospitals. Officials said 5 Romanians died in the past 24 hours due to frigid temperatures, bringing the total to 79 weather-related deaths since the nation's cold spell began.
    (AP, 2/14/12)

2012        Feb 15, Authorities said more than 600 people in Eastern Europe have died during a record-breaking cold snap. Officials in the Czech Republic blamed two massive car pile-ups on blinding snow. Authorities in Russia said 205 people have died, while in Ukraine there have been 112 fatalities; in Poland, 107. Authorities said 7 people have died in Romania in the past 24 hours, bringing the total there to 86 deaths.
    (AP, 2/15/12)

2012        Apr 9, In Spain four people died in a fire that destroyed a makeshift hut in which they were living in the northeastern city of Barcelona. Spanish National Radio cited police at the scene as saying they were Romanians.
    (AP, 4/9/12)

2012        Apr 27, Romania's government fell in a no-confidence vote, as opposition parties seized on widespread public anger over biting austerity measures, cronyism and corruption. Some 235 lawmakers voted against the government of PM Mihai Razvan Ungureanu, four more votes than needed.
    (AP, 4/27/12)

2012        May 7, In Romania Victor Ponta (b.1972), head of the Social Democratic party, took office as prime minister. Ponta's government quickly moved to remove both speakers of Parliament and replace them with figures from the governing coalition.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Victor_Ponta)(AP, 7/17/12)

2012        Jun 19, Romania’s PM Victor Ponta faced claims that he had plagiarized half of his doctoral thesis. Two of his education ministers had already resigned for allegedly copying academic work. On June 29 an academic panel ruled that Ponta had plagiarized large sections of his thesis and called for him to be stripped of his doctorate. Ponta soon fired the academic body that upheld the charges.
    (SFC, 6/20/12, p.A2)(SFC, 6/30/12, p.A2)(Econ, 7/14/12, p.47)

2012        Jun 20, In Romania former PM Adrian Nastase shot himself and was hospitalized hours after a court upheld a 2-year prison sentence on corruption charges.
    (SFC, 6/21/12, p.A2)

2012        Jul 6, Romanian lawmakers impeached President Traian Basescu (60) in a 216-114 vote, paving the way for a national referendum that could see the divisive and increasingly unpopular leader ousted from the powerful position he's held for eight years. Basescu's opponents accused him of overstepping his authority by meddling with the prime minister's office and trying to influence judicial affairs.
    (AP, 7/6/12)

2012        Jul 17, Romania's interim President Cris Antonescu signed a new law that requires a majority of registered voters to take part in a referendum for it to be valid, giving suspended President Traian Basescu a fighting chance of remaining in office when his impeachment comes up for a public vote.
    (AP, 7/17/12)

2012        Jul 29, Romanians voted on whether to oust Pres. Traian Basescu (60), part of a political battle that has raised questions about the rule of law in the fledgling European Union member. A rule required turnout to be more than half of the total electorate. The effort failed because of low voter turnout.
    (AP, 7/29/12)(SFC, 7/30/12, p.A4)

2012        Oct 23, Romania's highest court upheld the conviction of Archbishop Pimen (83) for serving as an informant sent by the church and the Securitate to spy on fellow clergy and members of Romania's expatriate community in the United States in the 1970s.   
    (AP, 10/23/12)

2012        Nov 1, In Romania prosecutors interviewed 100 people and raided some 50 homes and offices in Bucharest, Giurgiu and Calarasi. 33 bankers and government officials were detained on suspicion of money laundering and fraud that cost the state €22 million ($28.5 million).
    (AP, 11/2/12)

2012        Dec 9, Romanians voted in a parliamentary election. PM Victor Ponta's coalition won nearly three-fifths of the seats in the legislature. His battle with President Traian Basescu threatened to throw the country into a political standoff no matter the outcome.
    (AP, 12/9/12)(AP, 12/10/12)

2012        Dec 20, Authorities declared a state of emergency in northeastern Bulgaria as heavy snow and freezing temperatures are causing disruptions in both Bulgaria and Romania.
    (AP, 12/20/12)

2012        Dec 28, In Romania influential banker Bogdan Baltazar (73) died. He became Romania's first government spokesman in 1990 after the collapse of communism.
    (AP, 12/28/12)

2013        Feb 9, The French and British governments promised to punish those found responsible for selling horsemeat in beef products. French consumer safety authorities said companies from Romania, Cyprus and the Netherlands were part of a supply chain that resulted in horsemeat being disguised as beef in frozen lasagna sold around the continent.
    (Reuters, 2/9/13)(AP, 2/10/13)

2013        Feb 22, In Romania gangster Ian Balint was arrested with dozens of others on charges of attempted murder, kidnapping, blackmail and possession of illegal weapons.
    (SFC, 2/28/13, p.A2)

2013        Mar 19, Romania's defense minister said US plans to deploy anti-missile interceptors in his country are going ahead and that Romania has an "exceptional" partnership with the United States. US officials have stressed they will deploy shorter-range missiles to Poland and Romania.
    (AP, 3/19/13)

2013        May 27, The Romanian village of Clinceni unfurled the world’s largest flag. The Romanian flag measured 1,145 by 744.5 feet.
    (SFC, 5/28/13, p.A3)

2013        Jun 14, A new bridge linking Vidin in Bulgaria with Calafat in Romania opened. It was just the 2nd on the 500-km stretch of the Danube River that forms the common border between the Balkan neighbors.
    (AP, 6/14/13)

2013        Jun 23, In Montenegro a bus fell from a bridge over the Moraca river during a rainstorm and crashed some 40 meters (130 feet) into a ravine. 18 Romanian tourists were killed and 28 hospitalized.
    (AP, 6/24/13)

2013        Jul 12, Romania's Transport Minister Relu Fenechiu was handed a five year prison sentence for corruption, becoming the country's first government minister convicted while in office.
    (Reuters, 7/12/13)

2013        Jul 17, A Romanian museum official said that ash from the oven of a woman whose son is charged with stealing 7 multi-million-dollar paintings from Rotterdam’s Kunsthal Musum (Nov 16, 2012) contains paint, canvas and nails. Olga Dogaru has claimed to have burned the stolen paintings last February after police began searching the village of Caracliu, where she lived. On July 22 Olga Dogaru told a Bucharest court that she did not burn the paintings in her stove.
    (SFC, 7/18/13, p.A2)(AP, 7/22/13)

2013        Jul 19, Romania's Pres. Traian Basescu said that Romanian authorities have carried out "an unauthorized operation" abroad to capture Omar Hayssam, a fugitive Syrian-Romanian businessman convicted of ordering the kidnapping of three Romanian journalists in Iraq in 2005.
    (AP, 7/19/13)

2013        Aug 6, Latvia's government approved the extradition of Deniss Calovskis (b.1985), a man accused by the United States of helping create a virus that affected over a million computers worldwide, including many at NASA, and that allowed hackers to steal millions of dollars from victims' bank accounts. US authorities earlier this year accused Calovskis, along with Romanian citizen Mihai Ionut Paunescu and Russian national Nikita Kuzmin, of participating in a conspiracy that started in 2005 to create and disseminate the so-called Gozi virus.
    (AP, 8/6/13)

2013        Aug 13, In Romania a trial opened on artwork stolen last october in the Netherlands. Lawyers for the defendents said the paintings have not been burned and that the gang responsible would like to cut a deal so the artwork can be returned.
    (SFC, 8/14/13, p.A2)

2013        Sep 1, In Romania thousands of people took to the streets to protest against shale gas exploration and a controversial Canadian gold mine project using cyanide.
    (AFP, 9/1/13)

2013        Sep 3, Romania launched a criminal inquiry against Alexandru Visinescu (88), a communist jail commander from the 1960s, who is accused of crimes against humanity.
    (Reuters, 9/3/13)

2013        Aug 8, Nicolae Gheorghe (b.1946), Romanian Gypsy campaigner for rights of the Roma, died of cancer.
    (Econ, 8/17/13, p.78)(http://tinyurl.com/pudxsh7)

2013        Sep 10, Romanian lawmakers voted overwhelmingly for a law allowing stray dogs to be put down after a four-year-old boy was mauled to death by a pack of strays last week.
    (AFP, 9/10/13)

2013        Sep 11, In eastern Romania some 700 houses were flooded after 12 villages were hit by a six-hour downfall. 8 people died and hundreds were evacuated as torrential rains caused flash flooding.
    (AP, 9/12/13)

2013        Sep 15, Romanian gold miners, who staged a five-day protest underground against plans to halt development of the site, ended their sit-in after PM Victor Ponta went into the pit to meet them. Ponta promised them a parliamentary commission to assess the proposed mine (before a vote in parliament.
    (Reuters, 9/15/13)

2013        Sep 21, Thousands of Romanians formed a human chain around parliament to protest against a Canadian company's plan to open Europe's largest gold mine in a picturesque Transylvanian village.
    (AFP, 9/21/13)

2013        Sep 25, Romania's constitutional court ruled that a bill allowing stray dogs to be euthanized is legal, prompting hundreds of dog lovers to block a main road outside Parliament in protest.
    (AP, 9/25/13)

2013        Oct 13, In Romania thousands marched across the country to protest against a Canadian company's plans to open a gold mine seen as a threat to the environment, and called for the government's resignation.
    (AFP, 10/13/13)

2013        Oct 19, Thousands of Romanians protested against plans by US energy group Chevron to explore for shale gas in a poor eastern region and a Canadian company's project to set up Europe's biggest open cast gold mine in a Carpathian town.
    (Reuters, 10/19/13)

2013        Oct 27, In Romania thousands of ethnic Hungarians held rallies in 14 communities of Transylvania to demand autonomy in the areas where they live.
    (AP, 10/27/13)

2013        Nov 11, A Romanian parliamentary commission rejected a bill that would have premitted Europe’s largest gold mine to be developed in Rosai Montana by Canada’s Gabriel Resources.
    (SFC, 11/12/13, p.A2)

2013        Nov 12, A company owned by Canada's Gabriel Resources said it still hopes to start digging for gold in Romania in 2014, despite a negative vote by a parliamentary committee.
    (AFP, 11/12/13)

2013        Nov, Chinese officials signed two agreements to import 500,000 cattle and three million pigs from Romania over the next few years.
    (AP, 11/31/13)

2013        Dec 5, Moldova’s Constitutional Court ruled that Romanian is now the official language. The language, basically the same as Romanian, had been renamed Moldovan under Soviet rule.
    (SFC, 12/6/13, p.A2)

2013        Dec 6, Romania's Interior Ministry said Adrian Procop (21), a Romanian man accused of stealing seven masterpieces from a Dutch museum, was arrested in Britain after months on the run. Procop entered the Kunsthal museum at night in Oct 2012 with a friend, Radu Dogaru, and stole artworks worth 18 million euros ($24 million).
    (AFP, 12/6/13)

2013        Dec 7, In northeastern Romania Chevron Oil Co. suspended exploration for shale gas after hundreds of anti-fracking protesters tore down fences.
    (SSFC, 12/8/13, p.A4)

2013        Dec 8, Chevron said it has resumed activities to build its first shale gas exploration well in Romania, a day after protests forced the US energy giant to suspend work.
    (AFP, 12/9/13)

2013        Dec 18, Romanian media reported that some 26 police officers and ambulance employees have been charged with calling undertakers to tell them that someone had died, or in some cases were not yet dead, in exchange for money.
    (AP, 12/18/13)

2013        A change in Romanian legislation allowed convicts to claim 30 days off their sentences for every work they publish while in prison.
    (Econ, 10/24/15, p.50)
2013        In Romania's a law that came into effect that made it illegal for lawmakers to employ close relatives to work in their parliamentary offices.
    (AP, 6/22/16)

2014        Jan 1, The European Commission said Romanians and Bulgarians now have the right to work in any of the European Union's 28 countries but "no major increase" in emigration is expected.
    (AFP, 1/1/14)

2014        Jan 6, Former Romanian prime minister Adrian Nastase was sentenced to four years in jail for taking hundreds of thousands of dollars in bribes to appoint a businesswoman to a senior government post. He was released from prison in 2013 after serving a third of a previous corruption sentence.
    (AFP, 1/6/14)(SFC, 1/7/14, p.A2)

2014        Jan 10, Romanian education authorities fired a teacher Dana Blandu, who was filmed aggressively demanding money as gifts from students in a case that has made local headlines. It is customary in Romania to give presents to teachers.
    (AP, 1/10/14)

2014        Jan 17, In Romania a British diplomat (46) plummeted from the highest floor of a hotel in the northern city of Baia Mare after leaving a farewell note.
    (AFP, 1/17/14)

2014        Jan 20, In Romania a small British plane crashed on a mountain. All seven aboard initially survived but two people died while waiting for medical assistance. Hypothermia was among the causes of death.
    (AP, 1/22/14)

2014        Jan 30, Romania’s National Center of Cinematography viewed Danish director Lars von Trier's movie "Nymphomaniac II" for a second time and decided to lift the ban it had imposed the day before.
    (AP, 1/31/14)

2014        Feb 5, A Romanian court charged and arrested Rudel Obreja, a former chairman of Romania's Boxing Federation (2004-2012), with influence peddling for allegedly offering to try to influence a sentencing hearing in return for money.
    (AP, 2/5/14)

2014        Feb 25, The Norwegian defense group Kongsberg says it has been charged with corruption relating to its activities in Romania. The charges were linked to deliveries of communication equipment to Romania from 1999 to 2008.
    (AP, 2/25/14)

2014        Feb 26, Ministers from Romania's Liberals resigned from the government, a day after the party quit the ruling coalition in a break-up that will trigger a confidence vote and has changed the dynamics of a presidential election in November.
    (Reuters, 2/26/14)

2014        Mar 3, Romania's ethnic Hungarian opposition party UDMR voted to join the leftist government of PM Victor Ponta, and will be given the environment and culture ministry portfolios.
    (Reuters, 3/3/14)

2014        Mar 4, A Bucharest court has handed prison sentences to eight Romanian football officials for tax evasion and money laundering in connection with the transfer of 12 players.
    (AP, 3/4/14)

2014        Mar 11, Romania's lower house of parliament overwhelmingly voted to block an investigation by state prosecutors of former Finance Minister Daniel Chitoiu who they suspect abused his power to further the interests of a private insurance company. Romania ranks only behind Greece and Bulgaria in terms of corruption in the 28-nation EU, according to Transparency International.
    (Reuters, 3/11/14)

2014        Mar 30, In southeastern Afghanistan a Romanian serviceman was killed and five troops wounded by a roadside bomb on the Kabul-Kandahar highway outside Qalat, Zabul province. Romania has 1,029 troops serving in the NATO mission in Afghanistan; 23 have been killed.
    (AP, 3/30/14)

2014        Apr 9, Radu Mazare, the mayor of Romania's Black Sea port city of Constanta, was charged with taking a bribe of 175,000 euros ($241,400) in 2011 in return for awarding a company the tender to build 900 low-cost apartments for socially deprived residents. Businessman Avraham Morgenstern was also charged in the 10 million euro project.
    (AP, 4/10/14)

2014        Apr 10, Some 450 US and Romanian troops and technical staff kicked off joint military exercises in northwestern Romania, flying US F-16 fighter jets alongside Romanian ones.
    (AP, 4/10/14)

2014        Apr 14, Romanian poet and translator Nina Cassian (89) died in NYC. She had obtained political asylum in the US after the Communist-era secret police found her critical poems scribbled in a friend's diary.
    (AP, 4/16/14)(Econ, 5/17/14, p.86)

2014        Apr 21, Romanian authorities said 3 people have died and 250 were evacuated after heavy rain and flooding hit over the weekend. Worst affected were three southern counties that lie along the River Vedea.
    (AP, 4/21/14)

2014        Apr 29, Moldova's PM Iurie Leanca said neighboring Romania will export gas to his country this year, reducing the former Soviet republic's dependence on Russia for gas.
    (AP, 4/29/14)

2014        May 15, A woman and a firefighter drowned in Serbia and hundreds of people in the Balkans were evacuated from their homes as rain-swollen rivers flooded roads, bridges and railways, closed schools and cut off power and phone service in Bosnia, Serbia, Croatia and Romania.
    (AP, 5/15/14)

2014        Jun 6, Romania's second-richest businessman, Dan Adamescu, was arrested on charges that he bribed judges to rule in his favor in court cases over several insolvency cases involving his companies in Dec 2013.
    (AP, 6/6/14)

2014        Jun 25, Romania's Parliament called on President Traian Basescu to resign, saying suspicions that his brother took a bribe from the family of a well-known convict have damaged the prestige of his office. Basescu’s brother was arrested last week on charges that he took a 250,000 euros ($340,000) bribe from the son of convict imprisoned for attempted murder to get his sentence reduced.
    (AP, 6/25/14)

2014        Jul 29, Flooding in eastern Europe left at least 3 people dead in Bulgaria and Romania.   
    (SFC, 7/30/14, p.A2)

2014        Aug 27, Moldova and Romania inaugurated a new pipeline that will pump gas from Romania to Moldova in an attempt to reduce the former Soviet republic's dependence on Russian energy. However, 43-km (28-mile) pipeline will provide only five percent of its gas needs.
    (AP, 8/27/14)

2014        Sep 3, Romania said it has given the green light to NATO to base fighters there as the crisis in neighboring Ukraine deepens.
    (AFP, 9/3/14)

2014        Sep 16, Romania's energy minister said Russia was playing games with gas supplies to cause concerns in EU states, after analysts warned that Moscow could use the flows to retaliate against sanctions imposed over its role in Ukraine.
    (Reuters, 9/16/14)

2014        Oct 7, In Romania thousands of workers and health workers protested against low salaries and endemic underfunding of the health system which have led to thousands of doctors and nurses seeking work abroad.
    (AP, 10/7/14)

2014        Oct 10, The US Navy took control of a new missile defense base in southern Romania, one of two European land-based interceptor sites for a NATO missile shield that Russia strongly opposes.
    (AP, 10/10/14)

2014        Nov 2, Romanians voted to elect a new leader as President Traian Basescu steps down after 10 years. PM Victor Ponta won the first round of the presidential election with 40.3%. Klaus Iohannis, an ethnic German mayor backed by two center-right parties took 30.4%.  A run-off vote will take place on Nov 16.
    (AP, 11/2/14)(Reuters, 11/3/14)

2014        Nov 8, In Romania some 10,000 people protested, accusing the government of limiting voting from citizens living abroad in last weekend's presidential polls.
    (AFP, 11/8/14)

2014        Nov 16, Romanians voted to choose their next president, with current PM Victor Ponta (42) the overwhelming favorite to win. Klaus Iohannis won a surprise victory against the leftist PM Victor Ponta.
    (AFP, 11/16/14)(Reuters, 12/21/14)

2014        Nov 21, In central Romania a helicopter on a training mission crashed, killing 8 military personnel and injuring two others.
    (AP, 11/21/14)

2014        Nov, In northeastern Romania a woman (18) was gang raped by seven men (18-27) after she accepted a ride home. The case became a national story after a court ruled in June that the suspects could remain free pending trial. On August 17, 2015, the men, aged 18 to 27, were sentenced to between five years and eight months and eight years and four months in prison.
    (AP, 8/14/15)(AP, 8/17/15)

2014        Dec 15, In Romania a helicopter carrying a medical team crashed in Lake Siutghiol, near the Black Sea, killing all 4 people onboard.
    (AP, 12/16/14)

2014        Dec 16, Romania's PM Victor Ponta gave up the title of "doctor," more than two years after he was accused of plagiarism in writing his doctoral thesis.
    (AP, 12/16/14)

2014        Dec 21, In Romania center politician Klaus Iohannis (55) was sworn in as president. He promised to crack down on corruption and strengthen institutions.
    (Reuters, 12/21/14)(SFC, 12/22/14, p.A2)

2014        In Romania the National Anti-corruption Directorate (DNA) secured convictions this year of 1,138 people, including 24 mayors, 5 members of parliament, two ex-ministers and former PM Adrian Nastase.
    (Econ., 2/21/15, p.52)

2015        Jan 19, Romanian inventor Justin Capra (81) died. He claimed to have beaten the Americans to make the world's first jetpack and went on to design and build dozens of vehicles, calling the modern-day car a disgrace.
    (AP, 1/20/15)

2015        Jan 22, Romanian prosecutors arrested Cristian David, a senator and former minister, on suspicion of taking a bribe of 500,000 euros ($580,000) in a 2008 land ownership case. In a separate case Constitutional Court judge Toni Grebla was indicted on suspicion of trying to violate Russia's embargo on the EU by exporting food there via Turkey.
    (AP, 1/22/15)

2015        Jan 27, Romania’s High Court of Cassation and Justice handed Former Economy Minister Codrut Seres a sentence of four years and eight months for treason and transmitting state secrets; and Zsolt Nagy, former communications minister, a four-year sentence for being part of a criminal group.
    (AP, 1/27/15)
2015        Jan 27, Romania’s chief of Intelligence Service, George Maior, resigned after criticizing the country's top court for rejecting security laws which allowed the government to collect data on people without court approval.
    (AP, 1/27/15)

2015        Jan 30, NATO said it will deploy small units in six Eastern European nations to help coordinate a spearhead force set up in response to Russia's actions in Ukraine. The units in Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania, Poland, Bulgaria and Romania will be the first of their kind there.
    (AP, 1/30/15)

2015        Feb, In Romania former tourism minister Elena Udrea was indicted on two counts of influence peddling and one count of money laundering.
    (Econ., 2/21/15, p.52)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Elena_Udrea)

2015        Mar 4, Romania began transporting natural gas to Moldova, as the former Soviet republic moves toward the European Union and becomes less dependent on Russia.
    (AP, 3/4/15)

2015        Mar 14, In Romania Bucharest district mayor Marian Vanghelie, an influential figure in the ruling Social Democracy Party until recently, was arrested and charged with taking a 20 percent cut of contracts worth 2 billion lei ( 450 million euros or $475 million ) from 2007 until 2015.
    (AP, 3/14/15)

2015        Mar 16, Romanian prosecutors questioned and detained Horia Georgescu on suspicion that in 2008-2009 he overvalued property being restituted to former owners who lost it when the communists nationalized real estate. He denied wrongdoing. Georgescu stepped down as head of the National Integrity Agency the next day.
    (AP, 3/16/15)(AP, 3/17/15)

2015        Apr 4, Romania said it will expel seven foreign nationals accused of recruiting members for the Islamic State group and Al-Qaeda and propagating their ideas in the eastern European country.
    (AFP, 4/4/15)

2015        Apr 7, Romania's PM Victor Ponta announced that the sales tax on food and non-alcoholic drinks will be slashed by more than half this summer in an effort to generate jobs and help the poor.
    (AP, 4/7/15)

2015        Apr 24, Romanian prosecutors detained 14 people suspected of belonging to a network of well-dressed robbers who were trained to rob luxury items in Romania and the European Union.
    (AP, 4/24/15)
2015        Apr 24, A Romanian court sentenced Stan Mustata, a senior judge, to 10 years and eight months in prison for demanding money from defendants in exchange for favorable verdicts.
    (AP, 4/24/15)

2015        Apr 27, Former Romanian president Ion Iliescu (2000-2004) acknowledged approving the CIA's request for a site in Romania in 2002-2003, but said he would have refused had he known how it would be used.
    (AP, 4/27/15)

2015        May 7, Romania’s PM Victor Ponta said the European Union has suspended 1 billion euros ($1.13 billion) in funding for Romanian projects because of allegations of corruption and irregularities.
    (AP, 5/7/15)

2015        Jun 1, Romania slashed its sales tax on food and non-alcoholic drinks in a move the government hopes will generate jobs, boost consumer spending and help the poor.
    (AP, 6/1/15)

2015        Jun 3, A Romanian court handed Mihai Necolaiciuc, the former general manager of the state railway company (2000-2004), a 10-year prison sentence for his role in defrauding the company of 56.7 million euros (63 million). Two former railway managers were handed eight-year sentences in the same case. Necolaiciuc was arrested in the United States in 2009.
    (AP, 6/3/15)

2015        Jun 5, Romania’s PM Victor Ponta refused to step down after being hit by corruption allegations, the highest sitting Romanian leader targeted in a long-running anti-graft campaign in one of the EU's poorest nations.
    (AFP, 6/5/15)

2015        Jun 9, Romania's parliament voted 231-120 to keep the immunity of PM Victor Ponta, who is a suspect in a corruption probe.
    (AP, 6/9/15)

2015        Jun 18, Romania’s High Court of Justice and Cassation sentenced Mihail Vlasov, chairman of the Chamber of Commerce and Industry from 2007 to 2014, to five years in prison for influence peddling and taking bribes.
    (AP, 6/18/15)

2015        Jun 19, In Romania a court ruled that seven suspected rapists should be put under judicial control, meaning they have to report to police but are free. They were suspected of raping an 18-year-old woman last November. On July 24 a court in Vaslui County said that magistrates who freed the suspects from house arrest are being investigated for gross negligence.
    (AP, 7/24/15)

2015        Jun 23, US Defense Secretary Ash Carter announced that the United States will pre-position tanks, artillery and other military equipment in eastern and central Europe, moving to reassure NATO allies unnerved by Russian involvement in Ukraine. Carter, during a trip to Tallinn, said the Baltic states - Estonia, Lithuania, Latvia -- as well as Bulgaria, Romania and Poland agreed to host elements of this heavy equipment.
    (Reuters, 6/23/15)

2015        Jun 24, Romanian lawmaker Sebastian Ghita, an aide to PM Victor Ponta, was charged with influence peddling, tax evasion and money laundering worth millions of euros, being involved in the misuse of European Union funds and of cheating the elections.
    (AP, 6/24/15)   

2015        Jul 13, Romania’s National Anti-Corruption Directorate (DNA) indicted PM Victor Ponta as part of a wide-ranging corruption investigation and seized his assets, increasing pressure on him to resign.
    (AP, 7/13/15)(Econ, 2/11/17, p.39)

2015        Jul 17, Romania's President Klaus Iohannis refused to pass into law a series of tax cuts backed by the center-left governing coalition saying they could lead to "domestic and external risks," including unsustainable economic growth. Iohannis said Romania needed higher revenues in order to hike spending in defense to 2 percent in 2017 in line with NATO demands.
    (AP, 7/17/15)

2015        Jul 22, Romania's Pres. Klaus Iohannis signed into law legislation that punishes Holocaust denial and the promotion of the fascist Legionnaires' Movement with prison sentences of up to three years.
    (AP, 7/22/15)

2015        Jul 23, Romanian police detained Gabriel Berca, a former interior minister (2012), on charges of illegally receiving 185,000 euros ($203,000) from a businessman.
    (AP, 7/23/15)

2015        Jul 24, A Romanian court sentenced Alexandru Visinescu (1925-2018), a Stalinist-era political prison commander, to 20 years in jail for murder, the first such ruling against a prison head since the collapse of the dictatorship of Nicolae Ceausescu in 1989. Visinescu commanded the jail on the outskirts of the small town of Ramnicu Sarat between 1956 and 1963.
    (Reuters, 7/24/15)(AP, 11/5/18)

2015        Jul 28, Romania’s the anti-corruption agency said that 61 homes and offices were searched in Bucharest and in the northwest Transylvania region for evidence that drug companies offered doctors vacations and other incentives in exchange for prescribing cancer drugs.
    (AP, 7/28/15)

2015        Aug 13, Romanian education authorities were reported investigating some 400 cases in which students are suspected of getting into high schools without having the necessary grades.
    (AP, 8/13/15)
2015        Aug 13, Sergio Morate (29), wanted by Spain for murdering his girlfriend and another woman, was detained in the western city of Lugoj, Romania. A Romanian court ruled the next day that he can be extradited to his home country to face charges.
    (AP, 8/14/15)

2015        Aug 26, Romania's PM Victor Ponta hiked doctors' and nurses' wages, among the lowest in Europe, by 25 percent after medics threatened to strike following a court ruling that they could no longer accept informal payments and gifts.
    (AP, 8/26/15)

2015        Aug 27, Romania's PM Victor Ponta gave Moldova 100 million euros ($117 million) in financial aid in a gesture of support for the former Soviet republic's EU membership bid, as Moldova marked its 24th anniversary of independence. Ponta called for a Romanian gas pipeline to be extended to Chisinau, the Moldovan capital.
    (AP, 8/27/15)

2015        Sep 6, Romanian anti-corruption prosecutors detained Bucharest Mayor Sorin Oprescu on suspicion that he took bribes of 25,000 euros ($28,000) from firms working for city hall.
    (AP, 9/6/15)

2015        Sep 11, A Romanian government agency said it has discovered undeclared bank accounts holding 780,000 euros ($880,000) in the name of Radu Mazare, former mayor of Constanta, being investigated for bribery.
    (AP, 9/11/15)   

2015        Sep 15, In Romania city officials suspended Bucharest Mayor Sorin Oprescu (63), who is under arrest on suspicion of taking bribes worth 25,000 euros ($28,000) from companies working for the city hall.
    (AP, 9/15/15)

2015        Sep 17, Romanian prosecutors formally indicted Prime Minister Victor Ponta (42) on corruption charges, including tax evasion and money-laundering, and said he will be tried by the country's top court.
    (AP, 9/17/15)

2015        Sep 28, Romania’s anti-corruption prosecutors' office said that parliamentary Deputy Speaker Dan Motreanu and former presidential adviser George Scutaru have been indicted and will be tried by the High Court of Cassation and Justice on money laundering charges.
    (AP, 9/28/15)

2015        Oct 17, In Romania three journalists were detained on suspicion of extorting money from public figures in exchange for not writing negative articles about them.
    (AP, 10/17/15)

2015        Oct 20, In Romania policeman Bogdan Gigina died after driving his motorbike into a hole while easing a route in Bucharest for Interior Minister Gabriel Oprea.
    (AP, 10/2515)

2015        Oct 25, Romania's President Klaus Iohannis demanded that the prime minister and interior minister address public anger over the on-duty death of a police motorcyclist on Oct 20. Hundreds of protesters took to the streets of Bucharest calling for the resignation of Interior Minister Gabriel Oprea.
    (AP, 10/2515)

2015        Oct 31, In Romania an overnight fire in a Bucharest nightclub killed at least 27 people and injured 184 during a rock concert that featured fireworks used indoors. 146 people remained in hospital from the Colectiv Club fire. By Mar 14, 2016, the death toll rose to 64 as another victim died from their burns.
    (Reuters, 10/31/15)(Reuters, 11/3/15)(AP, 3/14/16)

2015        Nov 2, Romanian prosecutors opened a criminal manslaughter investigation against the three owners of the Bucharest nightclub.
    (Reuters, 11/2/15)(AP, 11/3/15)

2015        Nov 4, Romanian PM Victor Ponta announced the resignation of his government following huge protests in the wake of a nightclub fire that killed more than 30 people. The outgoing government approved an emergency ordinance to raise wages for staff in the state education sector by 15 percent from December.
    (AP, 11/4/15)(Reuters, 11/4/15)

2015        Nov 10, In Romania former EU agriculture commissioner Dacian Ciolos was appointed as the new prime minister, following the resignation last week of Victor Ponta after mass anti-government protests sparked by a deadly nightclub fire.
    (AFP, 11/10/15)

2015        Nov 15, In Romania 3 handball players from the CSU Targoviste men's team died and 11 were injured when the bus they were traveling in was hit by a truck.
    (AP, 11/16/15)

2015        Nov 25, Romania's Parliament approved a law that restricts what banks can reclaim from people who default on their mortgage payments. Lawmakers passed a law allowing banks to seize the property the loan was taken for, but not to seize other assets or claim further payment.
    (AP, 11/25/15)

2015        Dec 11, Romanian prosecutors detained Prince Paul in a case of alleged real estate fraud involving a top aide to a former prime minister and a newspaper editor. Prosecutors also ordered businessman Remus Truica, the former head of Cabinet of ex-Premier Adrian Nastase, be put under house arrest.
    (AP, 12/11/15)

2015        Dec 14, Romanian lawmakers voted to ban all advertising of prescription drugs and radio and television advertising of over-the-counter medicines in a bid to stop what they say is harmful self-diagnosis.
    (AP, 12/14/15)

2015        Dec 15, In Romania thousands of angry shepherds engaged in a tense standoff with riot police outside the parliament building in protest at a law that restricts the number of sheepdogs they can use and bans them from grazing sheep during the winter. The law was introduced by supporters of hunting, a popular pastime among Romania's elite.
    (AP, 12/15/15)
2015        Dec 15, Romanian lawmakers approved a ban on smoking in public places, one of the last countries in the European Union to do so.
    (AP, 12/15/15)

2015        Dec 18, NATO and US officials certified an anti-missile defense site in southern Romania that is scheduled to become operational next year.
    (AP, 12/18/15)

2016        Jan 26, Romania offered Moldova emergency economic aid and a loan of 60 million euros ($65 million) in hopes of preventing economic collapse and keeping the impoverished ex-Soviet republic on a pro-European course.
    (AP, 1/26/16)

2016        Feb 9, A sweep involving teams of sniffer dogs and a helicopter was conducted simultaneously in Paris and Craiova, in southern Romania. The joint operation by Romania and France against pickpockets targeting visitors to Disneyland Paris and other French tourist sites nabbed the ringleaders. The probe began last March after local police noted a spike in pickpocketing by Romanians and ethnic Roma outside Disneyland and on the train that links Paris to the amusement park.
    (AFP, 2/19/16)

2016        Feb 17, Romania's Pres. Klaus Iohannis  urged Moldova to reform its justice and banking systems so the government can get a $65 million loan that Moldova needs to prevent an economic collapse.
    (AP, 2/17/16)

2016        Feb 24, Romanian officials said about 40 coal miners are continuing an underground protest in western Romania over fears of job losses and mine closures.
    (AP, 2/24/16)

2016        Mar 4, It was reported that Romania's top court has approved a request by US authorities to extradite a convicted hacker for prosecution. Marcel Lazar Lehel, known by aliases including "Guccifer" and "Small Fume", had broken into the emails of former US President George W. Bush's family, entertainment figures and the head of the Romanian secret service.
    (Reuters, 3/4/16)

2016        Mar 11, Romania’s PM Dacian Ciolos said citizens now have full access to the revenue and spending data of state institutions in move which could help fight corruption.
    (Reuters, 3/11/16)

2016        Mar 12, Romania opened the official residence of the Ceausescu family to 300 people for free, 26 years since the hated pair were overthrown. Visitors will begin to tour the one-storied palace starting March 19 for tickets costing 15 lei to 30 lei ($3.70-$7.40).
    (AP, 3/12/16)

2016        Mar 27, Thousands of Moldovans marched through their capital calling for reunification with Romania, restoring a union which lasted from 1918 to 1940.
    (AP, 3/27/16)

2016        Mar 30, In Romania Ioan Ficior (88), head of the Periprava camp in southeast Romania between 1958 and 1963, was sentenced to 20 years in prison for crimes against humanity. At least 103 prisoners died at the camp, considered one of the country's worst, while he was in command.
    (AFP, 3/30/16)

2016        Apr 7, In Romania a businessman and five others suspected of defrauding a spa that dates from the Roman empire of 30 million euros (about $34 million) were detained. Iosif Armas, chairman of a company that manages the Herculaneum Spa, and other shareholders were suspected of illegally selling assets and taking out loans in the spa's name that could not be repaid.
    (AP, 4/7/16)

2016        Apr 22, The European Broadcasting Union said Romania has been barred from this year's Eurovision Song Contest for failing to pay millions in debts to the EBU.
    (AFP, 4/22/16)

2016        May 6, Romania's Pres. Klaus Iohannis approved a 150 million euro ($171 million) loan to neighboring Moldova needed to pay state sector salaries and pensions.
    (AP, 5/6/16)

2016        May 12, The United States switched on an $800 million missile shield in Romania that it sees as vital to defend itself and Europe from so-called rogue states but the Kremlin says is aimed at blunting its own nuclear arsenal.
    (Reuters, 5/12/16)

2016        May 22, In Romania Dan Condrea, the head of Hexi Pharma, was killed as his car slammed into a tree. Condrea was due to be questioned May 23 and would have been charged with aggravated fraud. His company was indicted this month on charges that disinfectants it provided to hospitals and Romania's troops in Afghanistan were highly diluted and ineffective.
    (AP, 5/23/16)

2016        May 27, Romania's President Klaus Iohannis said his government has ordered an action plan for the country's beleaguered health service following public outrage over the use of diluted disinfectants in Romanian hospitals.
    (AP, 5/27/16)
2016        May 27, Romania's top appeals court upheld an earlier decision and sentenced Dan Adamescu, one of Romania's richest businessmen, to four years and four months in prison for bribing judges to rule in his favor in court cases.
    (AP, 5/27/16)

2016        Jun 1, Police in Romania detained 26 people, including a number of border police officers, on charges of smuggling cigarettes and fake Rolex watches and helping migrants illegally enter from Serbia.
    (AP, 6/1/16)
2016        Jun 1, Thousands of Romanian teachers demonstrated to demand higher salaries, rallying outside the government's main offices in Bucharest then marching through the capital.
    (AP, 6/1/16)

2016        Jun 2, A Romanian medical helicopter crashed in southern Moldova, killing all four people on board.
    (AP, 6/2/16)

2016        Jun 5, Romanians began voting for local officials in administrations that are plagued with corruption. According to Romania's anti-corruption prosecutors' office, more than 100 mayors, deputy mayors, county council presidents and vice presidents were indicted for corruption in 2015.
    (AP, 6/5/16)

2016        Jun 17, In central Romania 4 people were killed when a bus carrying children and teachers traveling to a folklore festival overturned near the village of Persani.
    (AP, 6/17/16)

2016        Jun 22, Romania's parliament said lawmakers can't be prosecuted for hiring close relatives to work in their offices before it became illegal to do so. A law that came into effect in 2013, made it illegal for lawmakers to employ close relatives to work in their parliamentary offices.
    (AP, 6/22/16)

2016        Jun 23, A Romanian court sentenced Dumitru Dragomir, the former chairman of the Romanian Professional Football League, to seven years in prison for tax evasion, embezzlement, and money laundering.
    (AP, 6/23/16)

2016        Jun 29, A rights lawyer at the European Court of Human Rights said Romania was paid millions of dollars by the CIA to host secret prisons from 2003-2005.
    (SFC, 6/30/16, p.A2)

2016        Jul 1, In Romania organized crime prosecutors said they have found more than 2.3 tons of cocaine stashed away in banana crates on ships with a street value of 625 million euros ($694 million). A Bucharest court ruled that the Moroccan suspected leader of the smuggling ring, as well as four Lithuanians and a Colombian, be arrested for 30 days.
    (AP, 7/1/16)

2016        Jul 6, Romania's Constitutional Court ruled that mayors who are handed suspended prison sentences for corruption must resign.
    (AP, 7/6/16)

2016        Jul 11, Romania's President Klaus Iohannis signed into law legislation obliging supermarkets to sell at least 51% locally-produced meat, fruit, eggs and vegetables.
    (AP, 7/11/16)

2016        Jul 13, In central Romania anti-mafia police broke up a human trafficking gang which forced dozens of kidnapped victims including children into beggary and slavery, rescuing five people in the town of Berevoesti. 38 members of an extended Roma family in the village of Gamacesti were formally detained.
    (Reuters, 7/13/16)(AP, 7/14/16)

2016        Jul 19, Romania's PM Dacian Ciolos launched a national anti-corruption strategy in a bid to crack down on widespread corruption that plagues every walk of life.
    (AP, 7/19/16)

2016        Jul 20, Romania's Constitutional Court ruled that a request from an anti-gay group to change the constitution to state that marriage is a union between a man and a woman is constitutional. Any change would need to be approved by two-thirds of lawmakers.
    (AP, 7/20/16)

2016        Jul 22, Romania's Court of Appeal has upheld prison sentences for eight people for money laundering and embezzlement worth 83.5 million euros ($92 million). Sorin Ovidiu Vantu was sentenced to six years and two months in prison. Trade union leader Liviu Luca was sentenced to six years in prison for misusing the funds of Petromservice, a petroleum-facility maintenance company. The court also confirmed sentences for six other former company employees to prison terms.
    (AP, 7/22/16)

2016        Jul 27, Romania’s National Council for Attesting Titles, Diplomas and University Certificates voted 37-10 to strip former PM Victor Ponta of his doctorate after a council upheld a verdict that he plagiarized his thesis.
    (AP, 7/27/16)

2016        Nov 7, Romania's parliament approved double-digit public sector wage increases. The next day PM Dacian Ciolos said his government would challenge the increases because they are against the law.
    (Reuters, 11/8/16)

2016        Nov 14, The Int’l. Criminal Court's chief prosecutor said in a report that US forces in Afghanistan may have committed the war crime of torture when interrogating detainees, opening the possibility of Americans being prosecuted even though their country is not a member of the court. The report added that CIA operatives may have subjected at least 27 detainees in Afghanistan, Poland, Romania and Lithuania to "torture, cruel treatment, outrages upon personal dignity and/or rape" between December 2002 and March 2008.
    (AP, 11/15/16)

2016        Nov 24, German defense company Rheinmetall and Romania's Uzina Automecanica Moreni launched a joint venture to produce eight-wheeled armored military vehicles in Romania.
    (AP, 11/24/16)

2016        Dec 11, Romanians voted in parliamentary elections that are forecast to see the corruption-tainted left stage a remarkable comeback, a year after a deadly nightclub fire forced them from office. Romania's leftist Social Democrat Party (PSD) won 46% of the vote and the most seats in both houses of parliament for a combined 221 deputies and senators.
    (AFP, 12/11/16)(AP, 12/12/16)(Reuters, 12/15/16)(Econ, 12/17/16, p.46)

2016        Dec 13, Romania's Pres. Klaus Iohannis reiterated his refusal to appoint a prime minister with legal problems, in an apparent swipe at convicted Social Democrat leader Liviu Dragnea whose party scored a resounding election win on the weekend. Dragnea is serving a suspended jail sentence for electoral fraud, which in theory under Romanian law bars him from office.
    (AFP, 12/13/16)

2016        Dec 14, US and Polish defense officials said the United States has decided to accelerate the deployment of troops to Poland, the Baltic states and Romania as part of raising the security of the region.
    (AP, 12/14/16)

2016        Dec 27, Romania's president sparked fresh political turmoil after blocking a proposal by the leftist Social Democrats (PSD) party that won elections this month to appoint Sevil Shhaideh (52), as the EU country's first female and first Muslim prime minister.
    (AFP, 12/27/16)

2016        Dec 30, Romania's Pres. Klaus Iohannis named social-democrat Sorin Grindeanu (43) as the nation's new prime minister, bringing to a close weeks of uncertainty since the left won a parliamentary vote on December 11.
    (AFP, 12/30/16)

2017        Jan 3, In Romania Sevil Shhaideh, poised to become the country's first female and Muslim prime minister, was offered a job as deputy premier after the country's president declined to nominate her for the top government job.
    (AP, 1/3/17)
2017        Jan 3, Moldova's new Pres. Igor Dodon stripped the ex-president of Romania of his recently-acquired Moldovan citizenship, saying he obtained it illegally. Traian Basescu and his wife Maria were awarded citizenship of the troubled ex-Soviet republic, formerly part of Romania. Dodon favors closer relations with Russia, while Basescu has called for the reunification of Romania and Moldova.
    (AP, 1/3/17)

2017        Jan 4, Romania's Parliament approved a left-leaning government led by Sorin Grindeanu, who vowed to stop thousands of Romanians emigrating, build highways and encourage the consumption of local produce.
    (AP, 1/4/17)

2017        Jan 6, In Bulgaria snowstorms paralyzed traffic and cut electricity to hundreds of thousands of people. In Romania atomic energy producer Nuclearelectrica was forced to shut down its No. 1 reactor.
    (Reuters, 1/6/17)

2017        Jan 10, Romania announced six more deaths in recent days as temperatures plunged across Europe.
    (AFP, 1/10/17)

2017        Jan 12, In Romania two tigers were among a number of animals that died when a fire broke out at an animal shelter which houses animals retired from the circus.
    (AP, 1/12/17)

2017        Jan 17, Senior Romanian intelligence official Florin Coldea announced his retirement after a businessman indicted on wide-ranging corruption charges claimed he had a close relationship with the officer.
    (AP, 1/17/17)

2017        Jan 22, In Romania thousands marched through Bucharest and other cities to protest a government proposal to pardon thousands of prisoners which critics say could reverse the anti-corruption fight.
    (AP, 1/22/17)

2017        Jan 25, The EU's executive arm said Bulgaria and Romania must do more to meet European Union standards on crime, corruption and judicial reform.
    (AFP, 1/25/17)

2017        Jan 26, Romania’s High Court of Cassation and Justice gave Alina Bica, the former chief prosecutor for the agency that investigates organized crime and terrorism, a 3 ½-year sentence for aiding a wrongdoer. The former head of the tax authority, Serban Pop, received five years for influence trafficking. Businessman Horia Simu received a 4-year term for buying influence.
    (AP, 1/26/17)

2017        Jan 29, In Romania thousands of people marched through Bucharest and other cities to protest a government proposal to pardon thousands of prisoners.
    (AP, 1/29/17)

2017        Jan 31, Romania’s government passed an emergency decree that in effect decriminalized official misconduct resulting in financial damage of less than $200,000. Within an hour more than 10,000 protesters were on the streets. The decree was rescinded on Feb 5.
    (Econ, 2/11/17, p.39)

2017        Feb 1, Romania’s top judicial watchdog announced a court challenge on to a government decree decriminalizing some graft offences in what critics say is the biggest retreat on reforms since the country joined the European Union a decade ago.
    (Reuters, 2/1/17)

2017        Feb 2, Romania's PM Sorin Grindeanu insisted that the government will press ahead with decrees decriminalizing certain corruption offences, defying the country's biggest protests since the end of communism.
    (AFP, 2/2/17)

2017        Feb 4, The leaders of Romania's coalition government suggested it could back down on its emergency decree to decriminalize official misconduct as thousands of citizens took to the streets in protest for the fifth consecutive day.
    (AP, 2/4/17)

2017        Feb 5, Romania's government repealed an emergency decree that decriminalizes some official misconduct following massive demonstrations and condemnation from abroad. Protests still raged on for a sixth straight day.
    (AP, 2/5/17)(AFP, 2/5/17)

2017        Feb 7, Romania's President Klaus Iohannis told lawmakers the country is in a "fully-fledged" political crisis, after hundreds of thousands demonstrated against a government measure that would weaken the country's anti-corruption drive.
    (AP, 2/7/17)

2017        Feb 8, Romania's defiant PM Sorin Grindeanu easily survived a no-confidence vote even as his government continued to face nationwide protests over its efforts to weaken anti-corruption laws.
    (AFP, 2/8/17)

2017        Feb 13, Romania's Parliament agreed to hold a referendum on public support for fighting official corruption.
    (AP, 2/13/17)

2017        Feb 21, Romanian MPs voted to definitively shelve a controversial decree that had sought to water down anti-corruption legislation but ended up unleashing the nation's biggest protests in a quarter-century.
    (AFP, 2/21/17)

2017        Feb 25, In southern Romania thousands of people turned out for a pro-government rally in the town of Targoviste, hoping to boost the popularity of the center-left government following massive anti-corruption protests.
    (AP, 2/25/17)

2017        Mar 10, Romania's health minister said thousands of people have caught measles in an ongoing outbreak in the country, which has claimed 17 lives. Around 3,400 people had contracted the disease since the outbreak began in September 2016.
    (AP, 3/10/17)

2017        Mar 15, Romanian authorities extradited Chilean fugitive Rafael Garay. He was accused of embezzling almost a billion dollars.
    (Reuters, 3/15/17)

2017        Mar 16, In Romania some 1,000 police officers protested in Bucharest to demand higher salaries, saying tens of thousands of officers are earning the minimum wage or less.
    (AP, 3/16/17)

2017        Mar 22, Romanian rail workers staged a walk-out after unions and management failed to agree about wage hikes. More than 150 trains were affected by the strike.
    (AP, 3/22/17)

2017        Mar 28, Romania’s former tourism minister Elena Udrea was handed a six-year sentence for bribery and abuse of office connected to a boxing gala that she organized in 2011. Former chairman of Romania's Boxing Federation Rudel Obreja received a five-year sentence for tax evasion. Udrea's assistant received three years for complicity to bribery.
    (AP, 3/28/17)   

2017        Apr 14, Serbian police took Sebastian Ghita, a fugitive Romanian businessman and former lawmaker indicted on wide-ranging corruption charges, into custody overnight in Belgrade.
    (AP, 4/14/17)

2017        Apr 20, NATO member Romania said it plans to buy Patriot missiles from US company Raytheon to help protect its airspace.
    (Reuters, 4/20/17)

2017        Apr 22, In western Romania two teenagers died in an avalanche after the country was hit by a blast of wintry weather.
    (AP, 4/22/17)

2017        Apr 26, In Romania hundreds of taxi and bus drivers protested outside government offices in Bucharest to demand that Uber and other online ride services be outlawed.
    (AP, 4/26/17)

2017        May 5, Romanian Kitsch Museum opened in Bucharest. It showcasing national kitsch items, ranging from a life-size Dracula to communist-era glass fish.
    (AP, 5/5/17)

2017        May 10, Switzerland's government said it will temporarily limit the number of workers from European Union member states Bulgaria and Romania who can access Swiss jobs, after an influx from the countries in recent months.
    (AP, 5/10/17)

2017        May 13, Romanian carmaker Dacia, owned by France's Renault, said some of its production had been hit by yesterday’s global ransomware cyber-attack that has infected computers in nearly 100 countries. Renault stopped production at several sites.
    (Reuters, 5/13/17)

2017        May 15, In Romania some 20,000 finance workers from the public sector went on strike to protest a move to cut their salaries.
    (AP, 5/15/17)

2017        May 19, Romania's parliament approved legislation allowing direct financial support to Holocaust survivors in the former Nazi ally state during World War Two. The law will set a monthly payment of up to 400 lei ($97.98) per month for each year of deportation or detention and will be enforced from July 1.
    (Reuters, 5/19/17)

2017        May 30, Romanian air traffic controllers staged a four-hour strike to demand better working conditions, leading to some cancellations and delays. The strike ended after officials struck an agreement with trade unions.
    (AP, 5/30/17)   

2017        Jun 1, Thousands of troops from NATO and its partner nations began training on land and sea in Poland and Romania, in two major exercises that aim to demonstrate their cooperation and rapid response capabilities at a time when the region feels threatened by Russia.
    (AP, 6/1/17)

2017        Jun 12, The prime ministers of Croatia and Romania signed agreements to boost trade and protect classified information as Romanian Premier Sorin Grindeanu made a one-day visit to his Croatian counterpart, Andrej Plenkovic.
    (AP, 6/12/17)

2017        Jun 17, Romanian border police detained 32 Iraqis hidden in a truck transporting furniture who told authorities they were trying to reach Italy, a country in Europe's visa-free Schengen travel zone.
    (AP, 6/17/17)

2017        Jun 21, Romania's PM Sorin Grindeanu and his government were ousted in a no-confidence vote submitted by members of his own party. The governing Social Democratic Party (PSD) filed the motion to Grindeanu, saying that he had failed to implement the party's political agenda.
    (AP, 6/21/17)(Econ 6/24/17, p.47)

2017        Jun 26, Romania's leftist Social Democratic Party nominated Mihai Tudose (50), a former economy minister, to be the next prime minister.
    (AP, 6/26/17)

2017        Jun 28, In Romania Liviu Dragnea, chairman of the ruling Social Democratic Party, named a new leftist government. His ally, PM-designate Mihai Tudose, will keep many of the ministers in outgoing Premier Sorin Grindeanu's Cabinet, despite being criticized for alleged underperformance.
    (AP, 6/28/17)

2017        Jun 29, Romania's Parliament approved a new leftist government (275-102) after dismissing the last one in a no-confidence vote amid political infighting in the ruling party.
    (AP, 6/29/17)

2017        Jul 12, Romanian supreme court prosecutors closed a case against former PM Victor Ponta, saying the charges of suspected money-laundering and being an accessory to tax evasion did not stand up.
    (Reuters, 7/12/17)

2017        Jul 18, A Romanian court in Bucharest ruled that Dan Voiculescu (70), ex-owner of Antena TV, could be released after serving over one-third of his 2014 sentence. The media mogul was serving a 10-year sentence for money laundering and fraudulently privatizing an agricultural institute.
    (AP, 7/18/17)

2017        Jul 25, In Hungary two Romanian women and a man were killed when a minibus crashed into the back of a truck that had stopped on the shoulder on a highway while traveling to Romania.
    (AP, 7/25/17)

2017        Jul 26, Romania's defense minister confirmed that the country intends to buy Patriot missiles worth $3.9 billion dollars from the United States.
    (AP, 7/26/17)

2017        Jul 28, Romania's Orthodox Church said it has voted to defrock Cristian Pomohaci, a priest who is suspected of trying to sexually corrupt a 17-year-old boy.
    (AP, 7/28/17)

2017        Aug 1, Romania's top defense body approved a 9.8 billion-euro ($11.3 billion) spending plan for the next decade and pledged to spend 2 percent of its GDP on defense as NATO requests of its members.
    (AP, 8/1/17)

2017        Aug 3, Romanian police listed Gabriel Popoviciu (58) as a wanted person after they were unable to locate him following sentencing a day earlier. He was not barred from leaving Romania during his trial. Prosecutors said he had obtained land in north Bucharest from a state university from 2000 to 2004 at a vastly undervalued price where he built the capital's best-known mall.
    (AP, 8/3/17)

2017        Aug 4, Romania's Social Democrat-led government said it would cap special pensions for the military and secret services to keep spending in check.
    (Reuters, 8/4/17)

2017        Aug 10, Temperatures in Serbia, Romania, Hungary and Croatia were expected to reach 39 degrees Celsius (102 Fahrenheit) again today following a few days of less oppressive heat. Evidence continued to up that this year's hot summer in central and southeastern Europe has decimated crops, drained rivers and hurt the animal world.
    (AP, 8/10/17)

2017        Aug 12, In Romania Tudor Postelnicu (86), head of the Securitate secret police from 1978 to 1987, died. He suppressed dissent and was a top aide of former Communist leader Nicolae Ceausescu.
    (AP, 8/13/17)

2017        Aug 17, The Holy Synod of Romania's Orthodox Church met to discuss what action to take against a bishop who was seen on video engaging in sexual acts with a male student. The Bishop of Husi, Corneliu Barladeanu (51) was currently suspended and claimed the 18-minute film is doctored.
    (AP, 8/17/17)

2017        Aug 18, In Romania Corneliu Barladeanu (51), the Bishop of Husi, stepped down at the end of a two-day Holy Synod where a sex scandal was discussed for the first time in its 92-year history. Barladeanu was seen on video engaging in sexual acts with a male student, but maintained his innocence.
    (AP, 8/18/17)

2017        Aug 22, In Romania about 200 disabled people, some in wheelchairs, others with crutches, protested outside the labor ministry against a measure they say could leave them jobless. A government emergency decree, effective September 1, means companies with more than 50 employees no longer have to hire a certain number of disabled people or use a department that hires special-needs personnel.
    (AP, 8/22/17)

2017        Aug 29, The foreign ministers of Romania and Egypt met in Bucharest to discuss ways to manage the flow of migrants, fighting terrorism and resolving conflicts in Syria and Libya. Romania and Egypt signed three agreements to enhance cooperation.
    (AP, 8/29/17)

2017        Sep 5, Romania's finance ministry issued a statement saying there were funds to pay employees at all the country's ministries. The defense minister resigned after suggesting there are insufficient funds to pay the salaries of service members and defense ministry employees.
    (AP, 9/5/17)

2017        Sep 14, In Romania a car carrying a group of British volunteers slammed into a tree early today, killing one person and injuring three others.
    (AP, 9/14/17)

2017        Sep 15, In southern Afghanistan a car carrying explosives rammed into a convoy of international troops killing Romanian Cpl. Madalin Stoica (41) and wounding two others in Kandahar province.
    (AP, 9/15/17)

2017        Sep 17, In Romania more than 200 towns and villages were affected by a storm that overturned vehicles, downed power lines and left eight people dead.
    (AP, 9/18/17)

2017        Sep 30, In Romania Iulian Vlad (86), the general who led the feared communist-era Securitate secret police, died. In 1990, he was sentenced to 25 years in prison for his role in repressing a 1989 revolt, but was released after four years.
    (AP, 9/30/17)

2017        Sep, Romania moved to kill or relocate 140 bears and 97 wolves after attacks on humans. The World Wildlife Fund denounced the measure and blamed the attacks on deforestation.
    (SSFC, 9/10/17 p.C14)

2017        Oct 4, Thousands of Romanians protested against planned hikes in social security contributions that critics say will wipe out generous salary hikes for public sector workers.
    (AFP, 10/4/17)

2017        Oct 13, Romania’s foreign minister said Ukraine has pledged not to close Romanian language schools under a new education law that has caused alarm in Romania, Russia and Hungary.
    (AP, 10/13/17)

2017        Oct 21, In Romania several hundred people rallied in Bucharest to urge that civil partnerships be legally recognized so that unmarried cohabitants can enjoy expanded rights.
    (AP, 10/21/17)

2017        Nov 2, Romania's President Klaus Iohannis accused the leftist government of PM Mihai Tudose of mishandling the economy, slamming it for overspending and failing to attract investment.
    (AP, 11/2/17)

2017        Nov 7, In Romania some 5,000 employees at a Dacia automobile factory in Mioveni protested an unpopular government plan to make employees pay social welfare taxes currently paid by employers, saying it will lead to salary cuts.
    (AP, 11/7/17)

2017        Nov 8, Romania's leftist government approved an unpopular measure that means workers will pay social welfare taxes currently paid by employers.
    (AP, 11/8/17)

2017        Nov 9, Three generations of Romania's royal family were embroiled in a very public row as disinherited prince Nicholas Medforth-Mills’ attempts to see his ailing grandfather, former King Michael, led his own mother to renounce him.
    (AP, 11/9/17)

2017        Nov 13, Romanian anti-corruption prosecutors opened an investigation into the leader of the ruling Social Democrat Party, Liviu Dragnea, on suspicion of forming a "criminal group" to siphon off cash from state projects, some of them EU-funded.
    (Reuters, 11/13/17)

2017        Nov 20, Romania's defense minister says the country will purchase Patriot missiles worth $3.9 billion from the United States in the first half of 2019.
    (AP, 11/20/17)

2017        Dec 1, In Romania thousands of troops staged a military parade to celebrate national day. Coalition leaders Liviu Dragnea and Calin Popescu Tariceanu, subjects of corruption-related prosecutions, didn't show up to the military parade and an air show, which drew a crowd of thousands.
    (AP, 12/1/17)

2017        Dec 2, Romanian protesters briefly clashed with riot police when they stopped construction workers from building a Christmas fair at the site of anti-corruption demonstrations in Bucharest.
    (Reuters, 12/2/17)

2017        Dec 5, Former Romanian King Michael I (96), who was forced to abdicate by the communists in the aftermath of World War II, died in his residence in Aubonne, Switzerland.
    (AP, 12/5/17)

2017        Dec 18, Hundreds of Romanian judges and prosecutors protested around the country over planned modifications to the legal system they say will hamper prosecutions.
    (AP, 12/18/17)

2017        Dec 19, In Romania dozens of judges and prosecutors staged another protest against lawmakers who are currently passing laws that they say will stymie the legal system. Romanian lawmakers voted to enact judicial changes that critics say will undermine graft investigations by weakening the president's oversight.
    (AP, 12/19/17)(Reuters, 12/19/17)

2017        Dec 21, Romania's upper house approved judicial reforms that have sparked street protests and concerns abroad about the EU country's commitment to tackling corruption. Center-right Pres. Klaus Iohannis now has to sign the legislation into law.
    (AFP, 12/21/17)

2017        Romania's anti-corruption agency investigated a record number of 3,800 cases this year, despite "unprecedented attacks" by political authorities.
    (AP, 2/28/18)

2018        Jan 15, Romania’s Premier Mihai Tudose, who took office in June 2017, quit late today after the left-wing Social Democratic Party withdrew its support for him amid a power struggle with powerful party chairman Liviu Dragnea.
    (AP, 1/16/18)

2018        Jan 16, Romania's Pres. Klaus Iohannis appointed Defense Minister Mihai Fifor as interim prime minister after Premier Mihai Tudose unexpectedly resigned. Romania's ruling Social Democrat party (PSD) chose to nominate European MP Viorica Dancila (54) as the new PM in a unanimous vote. Japan's PM Shinzo Abe arrived in Romania at the end a six-country European tour and met for talks with Pres. Klaus Iohannis.
    (AP, 1/16/18)(Reuters, 1/16/18)

2018        Jan 18, The Council of Europe's anti-corruption body called on Romania to do more to prevent and combat high-level corruption.
    (AP, 1/18/18)

2018        Jan 25, Neagu Djuvara (101), Romania's best-known historian, died in Bucharest. He had spent decades in exile before returning home when communism ended. His books included "From Vlad the Impaler to Dracula the Vampire".
    (AP, 1/26/18)

2018        Jan 26, Romanian PM-designate Viorica Dancila presented her government lineup of 27 ministers and announced the creation of a new ministry to handle European Union funds and nominated as its head lawmaker Rovana Plumb, whom anti-corruption prosecutors have tried to investigate.
    (AP, 1/26/18)(Reuters, 1/26/18)

2018        Jan 29, Romania's parliament confirmed Viorica Dancila as its first female prime minister and the country's third head of government in a year.
    (AP, 1/29/18)

2018        Feb 4, In Romania protesters calling themselves Christian Orthodox burst into a movie theater during the French AIDS drama "120 Beats Per Minute" by French director Robin Campillo. Days later, protesters disrupted another movie featuring a relationship with a Romanian man and an ex-convict from the nation's oppressed Roma, or Gypsy, minority titled "Soldiers: A Story from Ferentari."
    (AP, 2/19/18)

2018        Feb 8, A Romanian court sentenced Darius Valcov, a former finance minister and one of the architects of the ruling Social Democrats' governing program, to eight-years in prison  for corruption and money-laundering. He denied wrongdoing and can appeal.
    (AP, 2/12/18)

2018        Feb 9, Hungary's PM Viktor Orban said a forthcoming deal to import natural gas from neighboring Romania means that the "age of the Russian gas monopoly in Hungary is ending."
    (AP, 2/9/18)

2018        Feb 12, Romania's PM Viorica Dancila said she won't fire key adviser Darius Valcov, who was handed an eight-year prison sentence for corruption and money-laundering.
    (AP, 2/12/18)

2018        Feb 27, In Romania two people were found dead over the last 24 hours as snow and sub-zero temperatures across much of Europe saw flights canceled, road and rail transport disrupted, and schools closed.
    (Reuters, 2/27/18)

2018        Mar 7, German and Romanian officials raided homes and hotels in both countries to smash an illegal migrant trafficking ring they said was one of the biggest of its kind in Europe.
    (AP, 3/7/18)

2018        Mar 9, A Brazilian prosecutor said the leader of Romania's ruling Social Democrats and speaker of its lower house of parliament, Liviu Dragnea, is under investigation in Brazil on suspicion of money laundering. Brazilian authorities were investigating whether Dragnea and others had used ill-gotten funds to buy beach properties in the country through third parties.
    (Reuters, 3/9/18)

2018        Mar 10, In Romania protesters rallied in Bucharest as the ruling Social Democracy party opened a member congress amid criticism of the government and the party chairman's leadership.
    (AP, 3/10/18)

2018        Mar 16, A Romanian court has rejected a man's claim that he's alive, after he was officially registered as deceased. Constantin Reliu (63) lost his case in the northeast city of Vasului because he appealed too late. The ruling is final. Reliu went to Turkey in 1992 for work and lost contact with his Romanian family. Hearing no news from her husband, his wife managed to get a death certificate for him in 2016.
    (AP, 3/16/18)

2018        Mar 19, In Romania well-known journalist Andrei Gheorghe (56) was found dead in his home near Bucharest. Police said he likely died of a heart attack, but more tests were needed. Gheorghe was known for his acerbic and critical comments about current events, politicians and society in general.
    (AP, 3/20/18)

2018        Mar 23, Heavy snow and flooding wreaked havoc across large parts of the Balkans, forcing road closures, flooding homes and stopping ferries on Albania, Bosnia, Croatia, Serbia and Romania.
    (AP, 3/23/18)   

2018        Mar 25, In Moldova the former president of Romania Traian Basescu joined more than 10,000 people in Chisinau to rally in support of reunification between Romania and Moldova. The issue highlighted a divide in Moldova between pro-Western and Moscow-backed political factions ahead of elections in November.
    (Reuters, 3/25/18)

2018        Mar 28, In Romania Bucharest Mayor Gabriela Firea adopted a project that will provide 13,800 lei ($3,700) for women who seek in-vitro fertilization in a bid to increase falling birthrates. Up to 1,000 women will be able to benefit from the aid, to be paid in three installments.
    (AP, 3/28/18)

2018        Mar 30, Russia ordered new cuts to the number of British envoys in the country, escalating a dispute with the West over the poisoning of an ex-spy in Britain. Scores of foreign ambassadors streamed into the Russian Foreign Ministry in Moscow to receive the notices given to 23 nations: Albania, Australia, Canada, Croatia, the Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, France, Germany, Ireland, Italy, Latvia, Lithuania, Macedonia, Moldova, the Netherlands, Norway, Poland, Romania, Spain, Sweden and Ukraine.
    (AP, 3/30/18)

2018        Apr 6, Romanian authorities said a 9-month-old baby has died of measles, the 46th fatality from an epidemic that has struck the country over the past year.
    (SFC, 4/7/18, p.A2)

2018        Apr 10, Romanian prosecutors said authorities have detained nine Romanian men and a Pakistani man suspected of illegally trafficking more than 100 migrants.
    (AP, 4/10/18)
2018        Apr 10, Romanian public health officials said they have destroyed 1,100 kg (2,425 pounds) of Egyptian potatoes after tests showed they had brown rot disease.
    (AP, 4/10/18)

2018        Apr 14, Romanian caricaturist Mihai Stanescu (78), censored for mocking the Communist regime of Nicolae Ceausescu, died in Bucharest.
    (AP, 4/14/18)

2018        Apr 16, In Romania health workers protested pay cuts following government promises to hike salaries in the health care sector amid a general tax and wage overhaul.
    (AP, 4/16/18)

2018        Apr 17, Romanian prosecutors formally indicted former President Ion Iliescu (88) for crimes against humanity over his role in deaths that occurred during the anti-communist revolution.
    (AP, 4/17/18)

2018        Apr 26, In Romania thousands of health care workers protested wage cuts outside the government offices in Bucharest.
    (AP, 4/26/18)
2018        Apr 26, Romania's environment ministry said that the country had between 6,050 to 6,640 brown bears in 2016 and that 4,000 bears was an optimum figure from an "ecological, social and economic point of view."
    (AP, 4/26/18)

2018        Apr 27, A two-day operation led by Belgian prosecutors seized servers and data from Islamic State propaganda outlets in a multi-country effort aimed at tracking down radicals and crimping the group's ability to spread its violent message. The operation involved authorities in the US, Canada, Britain, France, the Netherlands, Bulgaria and Romania.
    (AP, 4/27/18)

2018        May 3, Doina Cornea (88), a Romanian anti-communist dissident, died at her home in the northwestern city of Cluj. She had been beaten and arrested after criticizing the destruction of Romanian villages and churches during the regime of Nicolae Ceausescu.
    (AP, 5/4/18)

2018        May 7, Romanian health workers staged a two-hour strike to protest a government measure that has led to wage cuts for some employees while some medics saw their salaries doubled.
    (AP, 5/7/18)

2018        May 22, In Hungary nine Romanians were killed when the bus they were traveling in slammed into an oncoming truck 60km southeast of Budapest.
    (AP, 5/23/18)

2018        May 24, A Romanian court ordered that Austrian businessman Dieter Kaas (67), suspected of child pornography, be placed under house arrest.
    (AP, 5/24/18)

2018        May 30, Romania's Constitutional Court ruled that President Klaus Iohannis must dismiss the country's chief anti-corruption prosecutor to resolve an institutional conflict with the government. The ruling limits the president's powers and gives the justice minister, a political appointee, more control over prosecutors in one of the European Union's most corrupt states.
    (Reuters, 5/30/18)

2018        May 31, The European Court of Human Rights ruled that Romania (2003-2005) and Lithuania (2005-2006) allowed the detention and abuse of a Saudi and a Palestinian at secret US prisons.
    (AP, 5/31/18)

2018        Jun 5, The EU's top court, in a landmark ruling for gay rights in Europe, said that Romania must grant residence to the American husband of a local man even though Romania does not itself permit same-sex marriage.
    (Reuters, 6/5/18)

2018        Jun 6, Italian police said five Romanians have been arrested in Sicily for allegedly exploiting other Romanians as unpaid farmworkers and prostitutes.
    (AP, 6/6/18)

2018        Jun 20, In Romania protesters gained access to the Parliament building and staged a noisy protest against recent legislation they say will facilitate high-level corruption.
    (AP, 6/20/18)

2018        Jun 21, Romania's High Court of Cassation and Justice found Liveu Dragnea, leader of the Social Democratic Party, guilty of intervening to keep two party members on the payroll of a public family welfare agency.
    (AP, 6/22/18)

2018        Jun 22, Leaders of Romania's ruling Social Democratic Party rallied around their powerful leader Liviu Dragnea, a day after he was handed a 3½-year jail sentence for abuse of office.
    (AP, 6/22/18)

2018        Jun 25, Romania's the defense minister said his country faces Russian aggression on a daily basis, and is fending off a wave of cyber-attacks and political interference.
    (AP, 6/25/18)

2018        Jul 2, In Romania a parliamentary committee approved a bill that would redefine official misconduct, a move criticized by the country's anti-corruption prosecutors. The draft law proposed lowering the maximum prison sentence for official misconduct from seven years to five years.
    (AP, 7/2/18)

2018        Jul 3, Romania's upper house of parliament voted through a change to the criminal code that could overturn a prison sentence given to the leader of the ruling party. The vote came in the face of complaints and protests from opposition politicians and anti-corruption activists who have accused the government of allowing widespread graft.
    (Reuters, 7/3/18)

2018        Jul 7, A eastern Romanian air force MiG-21 Lancer fighter jet crashed during an airshow killing its pilot.
    (AP, 7/7/18)

2018        Jul 9, Romania's chief anti-corruption prosecutor Laura Codruta Kovesi was fired over misconduct and incompetence accusations by her own government ministry, raising concerns at home and abroad about the country's commitment to fight corruption. Kovesi hit out at politicians who are currently passing laws that critics say will make it harder to punish graft.
    (AP, 7/9/18)

2018        Jul 11, Romania's Superior Magistrates Council said that Laura Codruta Kovesi, chief-anti-corruption prosecutor, has been appointed a prosecutor at the anti-organized crime agency in the central city of Sibiu.
    (AP, 7/11/18)
2018        Jul 10, In Romania two grandparents and their two grandchildren were swept away by torrents of water after their cart capsized in a flooded river in the village of Magurele.
    (AP, 7/11/18)

2018        Jul 18, Romania's top court ruled that a gay Romanian-American couple is entitled to the same residency rights as other married couples in the European Union.
    (AP, 7/18/18)

2018        Jul 25, Romanian authorities said two people have drowned after heavy rain in the country's northeast. Thousands of emergency workers have been mobilized to help flood-rescue efforts.
    (AP, 7/25/18)

2018        Aug 6, Romanian authorities reported more than 500 separate outbreaks of African swine fever in pigs, mainly in the Danube Delta and near the Hungarian border. 48,000 pigs had been culled since June after they came down with the disease.
    (AP, 8/6/18)

2018        Aug 7, It was reported that Romanian and German archaeologists have discovered a prehistoric fortress dating back as far as 3,400 years in western Romania. Last week they completed a dig uncovering 55 hectares (135 acres) of the 80-hectare (198-acre) site, built between 1,400 BC and 1,200 BC, located near the town of Santana.
    (AP, 8/7/18)

2018        Aug 10, Romanians who live abroad flocked to an anti-government protest in Bucharest. More than 450 people were hurt and around 30 arrested during the huge anti-corruption protest that urged the left-wing government to resign and called for an early election. On August 20 a man (62), who sustained injuries during the protest, died in a hospital where he was being treated for internal bleeding.
    (AP, 8/10/18)(AFP, 8/11/18)(AP, 8/20/18)

2018        Aug 21, Romanian hunting officials shot dead a brown bear after it rampaged through an empty high school and scared residents in Miercurea Ciuc. There are believed to be more than 6,000 brown bears in Romania.
    (AP, 8/21/18)   

2018        Sep 1, Several thousand Moldovans gathered in the capital Chisinau to call for reunification with Romania. Moldova united with Romania in 1918 and was annexed to the Soviet Union in 1940. It gained independence in 1991.
    (AP, 9/1/18)

2018        Sep 6, Romania's justice minister nominated a little-known regional official, Adina Florea, for the post of national anti-corruption prosecutor, following the controversial removal of Laura Codruta Kovesi from the post in July. To become official, Florea's appointment will have to be approved by President Klaus Iohannis.
    (Reuters, 9/6/18)

2018        Sep 10, A Romanian court ruled that a hacker known as Guccifer should be extradited to the US to serve a 4½-year prison sentence. Marcel Lazar Lehel (46) will be extradited after completing a seven-year sentence in Romania.
    (AP, 9/11/18)

2018        Sep 15, In eastern Romania US basketball players Darrell Bowie (24) and Joseph McClain (25) were stabbed late today in a club and Bowie was in a serious condition.
    (AP, 9/16/18)

2018        Sep 17, Romania began hosting a two-day Three Seas Initiative Business Forum, aiming to boost connectivity in Eastern Europe and improve ties between the region and the US and EU. Romanian PM Viorica Dancila met a top Chinese official, saying Romania wanted to export more to China and attract more investment from there.
    (AP, 9/17/18)

2018        Sep 26, In Romania Ion Ficior (90), an ex-prison chief serving a 20-year sentence there for crimes against humanity, died He was incarcerated in 2017 for the deaths of 103 political inmates while in charge of a communist-era labor camp.
    (AP, 9/26/18)

2018        Sep 27, Romania's education minister resigned over a political dispute involving the teaching of the Romanian language in schools serving the country's ethnic Hungarian minority. Valentin Popa said he disagreed with a demand by the party representing the interests of Romania's 1.3 million Hungarians to allow Hungarian-speaking teachers to keep teaching Romanian.
    (AP, 9/27/18)

2018        Sep 28, Romania's top court ruled that gay couples should have the same family rights as heterosexuals, a judgment that comes before a national referendum seeking to ban same-sex marriage.
    (AP, 9/28/18)

2018        Oct 3, Romania's PM Viorica Dancila accused prosecutors in her country of falsifying evidence, pressurizing witnesses and modifying testimony.
    (AP, 10/3/18)
2018        Oct 3, Costa Rican police arrested former Romanian Tourism Minister Elena Udrea and former chief prosecutor Alina Bica who had fled there before they could be sentenced for crimes committed while in office.
    (AP, 10/4/18)

2018        Oct 6, Romania began two days of voting on a constitutional amendment that would make it harder to legalize same-sex marriage. Romanian law already prohibits same-sex marriages.
    (AP, 10/6/18)

2018        Oct 7, Romanians voted for a second day on a constitutional amendment backed by the influential Romanian Orthodox Church that would make it harder to legalize same-sex marriage. The vote required a 30 percent turnout to be valid. More than 90 percent of those who took part in a national referendum supported defining marriage as a union between a man and a woman, but the vote was invalidated as too few people cast ballots.
    (AP, 10/7/18)(AP, 10/8/18)

2018        Oct 15, Romania's government passed an emergency ordinance requiring prosecutors in key agencies to have more years of experience — a move that prosecutors say would hamper current investigations and force some anti-corruption prosecutors from their jobs.
    (AP, 10/15/18)

2018        Oct 16, London police arrested eight people suspected of being part of an international human trafficking gang with ties to Romania.
    (AP, 10/17/18)

2018        Nov 6, Romania's President Klaus Iohannis blasted the ruling party's leader as a "criminal at the top of the state apparatus," saying politicians with criminal convictions are trying to take over the country's justice system and undermine efforts to fight corruption.
    (AP, 11/6/18)

2018        Nov 9, Romania's government passed an emergency ordinance that will create two different levels for the minimum national wage. The minimum monthly salary will be 2,080 lei ($507) starting Jan.1, while those with higher education qualifications or 15 years of employment are guaranteed 2,350 lei ($573).
    (AP, 11/9/18)

2018        Nov 12, Romania's Pres. Klaus Iohannis said his country isn't ready to take over the European Union's rotating presidency on Jan. 1 and called for the government to step down.
    (AP, 11/12/18)
2018        Nov 12, In western Romania an explosion occurred in a tunnel where weapons are tested at the plant in the city of Cugir, followed by a fire. One woman employed at the factory died in the blast.
    (AP, 11/12/18)

2018        Nov 13, Romania's PM Viorica Dancila dismissed suggestions that the country is not prepared to take over the rotating presidency of the European Union next year, despite criticism from the EU that the country is backsliding on democratic reforms.
    (AP, 11/13/18)
2018        Nov 13, The European Commission complained that Romania has gone back on court reforms, urging Bucharest to revive efforts immediately to fight corruption and ensure judicial independence.
    (AFP, 11/13/18)

2018        Nov 14, Lawmakers in Romania approved a bill that would cancel wiretap evidence used to prosecute past corruption cases and could wipe out hundreds of convictions, including that of the head of the ruling Social Democrats.
    (Reuters, 11/14/18)

2018        Nov 17, In Romania a painting believed to be "Tête d’Arlequin" by Pablo Picasso, stolen in 2012 from Rotterdam’s Kunsthal museum, was found in Tulcea county. It was valued at roughly 800,000 euros ($913,440). A Romanian ringleader and his accomplices were convicted of the theft in 2013, but none of the artworks had been recovered. Romanian prosecutors the next day said they were trying to verify the work's authenticity. Dutch media soon reported that the work is more likely a forgery created as a publicity stunt.
    (Reuters, 11/18/18)(AP, 11/19/18)

2018        Nov 18, Romanian diplomat Mihnea Constanescu (57), praised internationally for his efforts to combat anti-Semitism, died in Nice, France, after a long illness.
    (AP, 11/20/18)

2018        Nov 19, Romania's ruling Social Democratic Party fired six ministers as the beleaguered chairman Liviu Dragnea sought to tighten his grip on the government.
    (AP, 11/19/18)

2018        Nov 25, Tens of thousands of Romanians braved hours of cold weather Sunday for the blessing of a grandiose Orthodox cathedral consecrated to mark 100 years since modern-day Romania was created in the aftermath of World War I. Romanian King Carol I passed a law for the cathedral to be built in 1884, but two world wars and decades of communism meant it never happened. Building work began on the neo-Byzantine structure in 2010.
    (AP, 11/25/18)

2018        Nov 30, Romanian health authorities temporarily closed a maternity hospital in the capital after 13 babies born there recently were diagnosed with antibiotic-resistant Staphylococcus aureus.
    (AP, 11/30/18)

2018        Dec 1, Tens of thousands of Romanians turned out to celebrate 100 years since their nation became a modern-day state, and some noted current concerns about the rule of law and the state of democracy in the Balkan nation.
    (AP, 12/1/18)

2018        Dec 6, Turkish journalist Kamil Demirkaya, accused by Turkey of terrorism, said he has applied for political asylum in Romania after Turkey sought his extradition.
    (AP, 12/6/18)

2018        Dec 7, Romania's President Klaus Iohannis refused to appoint two ministers, saying the government is run by a "criminal" through intermediaries.
    (AP, 12/7/18)

2018        Dec 10, Romanian authorities said the number of babies diagnosed with antibiotic-resistant Staphylococcus aureus at a maternity hospital in Bucharest has risen to 39.
    (AP, 12/10/18)
2018        Dec 10, In Romania men from three cars clambered onto a moving truck and looted laptops and other electrical equipment worth 50,000 euros ($70,000). Police soon detained seven men suspected of previously committing similar thefts.
    (AP, 12/11/18)

2018        Dec 12, In Romania dozens of people protested against poor air quality in Bucharest, which recently was ranked one of Europe's most traffic-congested cities.
    (AP, 12/12/18)

2018        Dec 14, A Romanian court rejected a request by Turkey to extradite Kamil Demirkaya, a Turkish journalist it accuses of terrorism, after prosecutors said the case was political.
    (AP, 12/14/18)

2018        Dec 19, Romanian stocks dived after the government unveiled a surprise package to slash the budget deficit by raising 10 billion lei ($2.45 billion) of extra revenue, including through a tax on banks.
    (AP, 12/19/18)

2018        Dec 21, In Romania visiting Austrian Chancellor Sebastian Kurz suggested that foreign companies could pull out of Romania after the government unveiled a surprise plan to levy extra taxes on banks and energy companies.
    (AP, 12/21/18)

2019        Jan 1, Romania took over the EU's rotating presidency at a tumultuous time for the bloc and just days after European Commission President Jean-Claude Juncker voiced doubts about the country's ability to do the job.
    (AFP, 1/1/19)

2019        Jan 4, In Romania Eugeniu Iordachescu (89), a civil engineer who devised an ingenious way to save 12 churches and many other historic buildings from being destroyed by the country's former Communist strongman, died.
    (AP, 1/6/19)

2019        Jan 15, French carmaker Renault said it was recalling some 13,300 Dacia automobiles in Romania over safety issues with the driver's air bag inflator.
    (AP, 1/15/19)

2019        Jan 16, Romania's Constitutional Court ruled that secret protocols between prosecutors and the country's domestic intelligence agency were unconstitutional. The decision could cause murder and corruption trials in which prosecutors have relied on evidence that was obtained under the agreement to collapse.
    (AP, 1/16/19)

2019        Jan 17, Romanian coal miners ended a weeklong strike after the energy minister offered them wage hikes and other perks.
    (AP, 1/17/19)

2019        Jan 22, Romania's Pres. Klaus Iohannis said that a government decree that could invalidate hundreds of corruption cases involving senior officials is "crassly unconstitutional," a development that also prompted concern from the EU.
    (AP, 1/22/19)

2019        Jan 23, Romania's national railway company said a group of Turkish companies have won a 600 million-euro ($681 million) contract to modernize a key line in the northwest Transylvania region. The European Union will fund about 80 percent of the project, and the Romanian government the rest.
    (AP, 1/23/19)

2019        Feb 8, President Klaus Iohannis said that Romania had decided to join other EU countries and allies in recognizing Venezuela's opposition leader Juan Guaido as president partly because Bucharest currently holds the EU's rotating presidency.
    (AP, 2/8/19)

2019        Feb 19, Romania's Social Democratic government adopted emergency legislation including a provision to limit how long top prosecutor agencies can be managed by interim appointees. The measure also removes the prosecutor general's oversight of a unit tasked with investigating magistrates.
    (AP, 2/20/19)

2019        Feb 22, In Romania magistrates protested outside courthouses across the country in an unprecedented protest against changes in judicial legislation that have raised alarm bells over the rule of law.
    (Reuters, 2/22/19)

2019        Feb 27, A European Parliament committee picked Romanian prosecutor Laura Codruta Kovesi to head a new prosecutor's office fighting fraud, despite fierce opposition from her own government.
    (AP, 2/27/19)

2019        Mar 29, The European Commission criticized Romania for backsliding on the rule of law and called on Bucharest to treat fairly Laura Kovesi, a candidate to become the bloc's first-ever chief prosecutor.
    (Reuters, 3/29/19)

2019        Apr 3, Twelve Western nations urged Romania to scrap two planned emergency decrees altering judicial legislation, in a rare joint intervention that underlined US and EU alarm over the threat to the rule of law in the former communist nation.
    (Reuters, 4/3/19)

2019        Apr 4, Romania's PM Viorica Dancila rejected calls by ambassadors from 12 countries, including the United States and Germany, to refrain from amending laws on fighting crime and corruption by decree.
    (AP, 4/4/19)

2019        Apr 8, Former Romanian President Ion Iliescu (89) was officially charged with crimes against humanity by the country's top prosecutor as he finalized an inquiry into the chaotic and bloody anti-Communist revolution of 1989.
    (Reuters, 4/8/19)

2019        Apr 17, Romania's Senate approved changes to the criminal code that could shut down a number of ongoing high-level graft cases in one of the European Union's most corrupt states.
    (Reuters, 4/17/19)

2019        May 9, EU leaders, minus Britain, meeting in Sibiu, Romania, committed to stick together "through thick and thin" to remain a key player in the world despite myriad problems facing the bloc.
    (AP, 5/09/19)

2019        May 26, Romanians voted overwhelmingly in support of anti-corruption initiatives in a referendum called by President Klaus Iohannis.
    (AP, 5/27/19)

2019        May 27, A Romanian court upheld a 3½ year jail sentence for the powerful head of the ruling Social Democrats, Liviu Dragnea, meaning he now has 24 hours to report to police to begin his sentence.
    (AFP, 5/27/19)

2019        May 31, Pope Francis began a three-day pilgrimage to Romania that in many ways is completing the 1999 trip by St. John Paul II that marked the first-ever papal visit to a majority Orthodox country.
    (AP, 5/31/19)

2019        Jun 1, Pope Francis braved a rain-soaked, twisting drive through the mountains of Transylvania to visit Sumuleu Ciuc shrine, Romania's most famous shrine. He urged Romanian and ethnic Hungarian faithful to work together for their future.
    (AP, 6/1/19)(SSFC, 6/2/19, p.A6)

2019        Jun 2, Pope Francis apologized to the Roma ethnic minority for their history of discrimination in Europe and paid homage to Romanian Catholics persecuted during communist rule as he wrapped up his third and final day in the country.
    (SFC, 6/3/19, p.A2)

2019        Jun 19, Dacian Ciolos (49), a former Romanian prime minister (2015-2016), was elected the first leader of Renew Europe, the new centrist force that includes French President Emmanuel Macron's La Republique en Marche party, inside the European Parliament.
    (Reuters, 6/19/19)

2019        Jul 24, In Romania Alexandra Macesanu (15) went missing. It took authorities 19 hours to locate and enter a mechanic's residence as they struggled to trace her calls and secure unnecessary search warrants. The 65-year-old mechanic from the southern town of Caracal later confessed to her killing and that of another girl (18) last seen in April.
    (Reuters, 8/3/19)

2019        Jul 28, In Romania Gheorghe Dinca (65), a mechanic, reportedly confessed to killing Alexandra Macesanu (15) who was last seen earlier this week, and Luiza Melencu (18), who was reported missing in April.
    (Reuters, 7/28/19)

2019        Jul 29, Romania's Constitutional Court struck down changes to the criminal code made by the ruling Social Democrats that would have halted many anti-graft cases in one of the European Union's most corrupt countries.
    (Reuters, 7/29/19)

2019        Aug 10, In Romania tens of thousands of protesters rallied peacefully against the ruling Social Democrat government in Bucharest on the one-year anniversary of a violent protest where riot police disproportionately used force.
    (Reuters, 8/10/19)

2019        Aug 18, In Romania a patient (38) at a psychiatric hospital beat to death five patients with a drip stand in Sapoca and wounded several more.
    (SFC, 8/20/19, p.A2)

2019        Sep 5, The United States barred Romania's jailed Social Democrat Party leader, Liviu Dragnea, and his two children from entering the US after his corruption conviction was upheld.
    (Reuters, 9/5/19)

2019        Oct 8, Romania's President Klaus Iohannis gave the green light for the creation of the country's first national Holocaust museum in Bucharest, more than seven decades after the end of World War Two.
    (AP, 10/8/19)

2019        Oct 10, Romanian PM Viorica Dancila's center-left government collapsed after losing a no-confidence vote in parliament, raising the prospect of prolonged political uncertainty due to a fragmented opposition.
    (Reuters, 10/10/19)

2019        Nov 4, Romania's centrist government of PM Ludovic Orban won parliament's vote of confidence, unlocking the country's European commissioner nominating process and ending a gridlock that risked to extend the bloc's policymaking vacuum.
    (Reuters, 11/4/19)

2019        Nov 10, Romania held a presidential election after a lackluster campaign that has been overshadowed by the country's political crisis, which saw a minority government installed just a few days ago. Pres. Klaus Iohannis got 36.9% of the vote and former prime minister Viorica Dancila got 23.4% forcing a Nov. 24 runoff.
    (AP, 11/10/19)(SFC, 11/12/19, p.A2)

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