Timeline Prussia

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History: http://department.monm.edu/history/urban/articles/State_of_the_grandmasters.htm

  Prussia was the home of the pagan spiritual leader Krivis and the pagan center of Romuva that was dear to the Baltic people.
  Sudovia and Galindia were two of the twelve original Prussian lands. Not actually a separate language, Sudovian, Jatvingian has however been documented in writing.
1141        Jan 31, Pope Innocent II authorized Bishop Henry of Moravia to preach Catholicism in Prussia.
    (LHC, 1/31/03)

~1200        Following Prussian attacks on Polish lands, the Catholic Poles invited German religious-military orders to attack Prussia.
    (H of L, 1931, p.25)

1249        Feb 7, The Christburg Peace Treaty forced the Prussians to recognize the rule of the Teutonic Knights. Within about 50 years the Teutonic Knights and Knights of the Cross had overcome most of Prussia and established German as the dominant culture and language. The German orders then turned to Lithuania.
    (H of L, 1931, p.25)(LHC, 2/7/03)

1255        Konigsberg (Kaliningrad) was founded on the Baltic Sea by the Bohemian King Otakar II, who came to help Teutonic Knights during their conquest of Prussia disguised as the Christianization effort called the Northern Crusades. It was annexed by Russia in 1945.
    (Econ, 5/14/05, p.55)(www.nationmaster.com/encyclopedia/Konigsberg)

1270        Feb 16, In the Karusa Ice war in Estonia, Lithuanian forces defeated the Livonian Knights of the Cross.
    (LHC, 2/16/03)

1279          Mar 5, Lithuanians overcame Livonian forces at Aizkraukle.
    (LHC, 3/5/03)

1298        Mar 30, Duke Vytenis joined with Riga and its archbishop against the Livonian order.
    (LHC, 3/30/03)

1324        Feb 10, The pope officially chastised the Knights of the Cross for ill treatment of Catholics and for pushing pagans away from Christianity.
    (LHC, 2/10/03)

1330        Mar 23, Riga surrendered to the Livonian Order.
    (LHC, 3/23/03)

1336          Feb 25, The Knights of the Cross sieged the Pilenai Castle in Samogitia. The defenders burned all their goods and committed suicide.
    (LHC, 2/25/03)

1361        Mar 21, Grand duke Kestutis was captured by the Knights of the Cross.
    (LHC, 3/21/03)

1370        Apr 11,  Frederick I the Warlike, elector of Saxony, was born.
    (HN, 4/11/98)

1372        Sep 21, Frederik I van Hohenzollern, monarch of Brandenburg (1417-40), was born.
    (MC, 9/21/01)

1401          Mar 13, The 1st Samogitian uprising supported by Vytautas took place against the German knights. (LHC, 3/13/03)

1402          Mar 2, In Marienburg Svitrigaila crossed over to the Knights of the Cross and promised to uphold the Salyn treaty that was broken by Vytautas.
    (LHC, 3/1/03)

1410        Jul 15, Lithuanian-Polish forces defeated the Teutonic Knights at the Battle of Tannenberg, Prussia, thereby halting the Knights’ eastward expansion along the Baltic and hastening their decline. Vytautas and Jogaila with hired mercenaries from Belarus along with Tartars and Czechs defeated the Teutonic Knights between Grunvald (Zalgiriai) and Tannenberg southeast of Malburg. Grand Master Ulrich von Jungingen and many of his nobles were killed. The war officially ended with the Treaty of Thorn in which the Knights gave up Zemaitija to Vytautas.
    (COE)(H of L, 1931, p.52)(DrEE, 11/9/96, p.6)

1415        Sep 21, Frederick III, German Emperor (1440-1493), was born in Innsbruck Austria.
    (MC, 9/21/01)

1454        Mar 6,  Casimir proclaimed the attachment of Prussia to Polish rule. This began a 13-year war over Prussia (1454-1466).

1466        Oct 19, The peace of Torun ended the 13-year War of the Cities (1454-1466), between the Teutonic knights and their own disaffected subjects in Prussia. The Peace of Thorn (Torún) ended the war between the Teutonic knights (a German military and religious order) and their subjects in Prussia, led by King Casimir IV (1427-1492) of Poland.  Poland was given Pomerelia and West Prussia, and the knights retained East Prussia, with a new capital at Königsberg (Kaliningrad). The knights, formerly strictly a German order, were forced to accept Poles as members and their grand master became a vassal of the Polish king.
    (HN, 10/19/98)(http://reference.allrefer.com/encyclopedia/T/TeutonKn.html)

1506        Copernicus (1473-1543), Polish-born astronomer, was appointed canon of church properties in the Prussian diocese of Ermland.
    (ON, 2/11, p.5)

1512        Copernicus, Polish-born astronomer, wrote his manuscript “The Little Commentary," in which he suggested that the earth’s apparent immobility was due to a “false appearance" and a sun-centered cosmos would resolve many astronomical inconsistencies.
    (ON, 2/11, p.5)

1519        Prussia experienced a monetary crises.
    (ON, 2/11, p.6)

1525        Apr 8, Albert von Brandenburg, the leader of the Teutonic Order, assumed the title “Duke of Prussia" and passed the first laws of the Protestant church, making Prussia a Protestant state.
    (HN, 4/8/99)

1545        Sep 24, Albrecht von Brandenburg, archbishop, monarch, founder of The Brandenburg Concerts of Mainz, died at 55.
    (MC, 9/24/01)

1608        May 19, The Protestant states formed the Evangelical Union of Lutherans and Calvinists under the direction of the elector of Brandenburg.
    (HN, 5/19/99)

1640-1688    Elector Friedrich Wilhelm acquired a collection of paintings by Titian, Rubens, Rembrandt and others at his home in Oranien. His nephew was Frederick the Great.
    (WSJ, 7/29/98, p.A13)
1640-1945    In 1955 Stanford Prof. Gordon A. Craig (1913-2005) authored “The Politics of the Prussian Army, 1640-1945."
    (SFC, 11/9/05, p.B11)

1656        Jan 17, Prussian Duke Frederick Wilhelm withdrew ties with Lithuania and Poland and acknowledged vassal status with Sweden.
    (LHC, 1/17/03)

1678        Frederick William, Brandenburg’s Great Elector, gave Bielefeld the privilege of certifying the quality of local linen. This cemented its position as a center for the textile trade.
    (Econ, 4/14/12, p.30)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Brandenburg)

1685        Nov 8, Fredrick William of Brandenburg issued the Edict of Potsdam, offering Huguenots refuge.
    (HN, 11/6/98)

1688        Aug 15, Frederick-William I, king of Prussia (1713-1740), was born.
    (MC, 8/15/02)

1701        Jan 18, Frederick, the elector of Brandenburg, became the king of Prussia.
    (HN, 1/18/99)

1701        German artisans created an amber room for King Frederick I of Prussia. He presented it as a gift to Peter the Great in 1716.
    (SFC, 3/22/97, p.A16)(SFC, 4/30/98, p.E6)(WSJ, 1/20/00, p.A20)

1712        Jan 24, Frederick II (d.1786), Frederick the Great, the Hohenzollern King of Prussia (1740-1786), was born. He was noted for his social reforms and leading Prussia in military victories.
    (WUD, 1994, p.565)(HN, 1/24/99)(WSJ, 4/27/00, p.A24)(MC, 1/24/02)

1713        Feb 25, Frederik I (b.1657), King of Prussia (1701-13), died.

1716        Frederick William I of Prussia presented his amber room, made as a gift by German artisans in 1701, to Peter the Great. In exchange he received his wish: 55 very tall Russian soldiers. Catherine the Great later added four marble panels from Florence, that were inlaid with precious stones. German troops dismantled it in 1941 and moved it to Konigsberg in 1945, where it was lost during WW II. One of the marble panels turned up in Bremen in 1997. In 1979 the Soviet government initiated a reconstruction, which was unveiled in 2003.
    (SFC, 3/22/97, p.A16)(SFC, 4/30/98, p.E6)(WSJ, 1/20/00, p.A20)(AP, 5/13/03)

1719        Mar 22, Frederick William abolished serfdom on crown property in Prussia.
    (AP, 3/22/99)

1730        Sep 17, Friedrich von Steuben, Prussian and US inspector-general of Washington's army, was born.
    (MC, 9/17/01)

1730        Nov 6, Hans Hermann von Katte, Prussian lieutenant, was beheaded.
    (MC, 11/6/01)

1740        May 31, Frederick II (1712-1786) ascended to the throne as King of Prussia.

1740        Jun 22, King Frederick II of Prussia ended torture and guaranteed religion and freedom of the press.
    (MC, 6/22/02)

1740        Dec 16, Prussia’s Frederick the Great seized Silesia from the newly crowned Archduchess of Austria. She sent troops to reconquer Silesia. A showdown battle occurred on April 10, 1741, in Silesia at Mollwitz. Most of Silesia was seized by King Frederick the Great of Prussia in the War of the Austrian Succession.
    (https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Silesia)(Econ 6/3/17, p.48)

1740        Frederick the Great awarded what is believed to be the first medal for combat bravery, the Pour le Merite, nicknamed the Blue Max.
    (WSJ, 4/23/99, A1)

1740s        Frederick the Great built a summer palace in Potsdam named Sans-souci (without worries).
    (SFEC, 7/27/97, p.T11)

1741        Jun 11, Austria ceded most of Silesia to Prussia by Treaty of Breslau.
    (AP, 6/11/03)

1742        May 17, Frederick great (Emperor of Prussia) beat Austrians.
    (MC, 5/17/02)

1745        Jun 4, Frederick the Great of Prussia defeated the Austrians & Saxons.
    (MC, 6/4/02)

1745        Dec 25, Prussia and Austria signed the Treaty of Dresden. This gave much of Silesia to the Prussians.
    (MC, 12/25/01)

1750        Sep 5, A decree issued in Paderborn, Prussia, allowed for annual search of all Jewish homes for stolen or "doubtful" goods.
    (MC, 9/5/01)

1753        Mar 25, Voltaire left the court of Frederik II of Prussia.
    (MC, 3/25/02)

1755        Nov 12, Gerhard JD von Scharnhorst, Prussian military minister of War (1807-10), was born.
    (MC, 11/12/01)

1756-1763    The Seven Years War. France and Great Britain clashed both in Europe and in North America. In 2000 "Crucible of War" by Fred Anderson was published. France, Russia, Austria, Saxony, Sweden and Spain stood against Britain, Prussia and Hanover. Britain financed Prussia to block France in Europe while her manpower was occupied in America. This was later considered to be the first global war because of the number of countries involved.
    (V.D.-H.K.p.223)(SFC, 7/7/96, BR p.7)(WSJ, 2/10/00, p.A16)(Econ, 3/28/20, p.19)

1757        May 6, Battle at Prague: Frederik II of Prussia beat emperor's army.
    (MC, 5/6/02)

1757        Jun 18, Battle at Kolin, Bohemia: Austrian army beat Prussia.
    (MC, 6/18/02)

1757        Sep 3, Charles X, Duke of Prussia, was born in Versailles, France.
    (MC, 9/3/01)

1757        Nov 5, Frederick II of Prussia defeated the French at Rosbach in the Seven Years War.
    (HN, 11/5/98)

1757        Nov 22, Austrians defeated Prussians at Breslau in the Seven Years War.
    (HN, 11/22/98)

1758        Aug 25, The Prussian army defeated the invading Russians at the Battle of Zorndorf. Thousands were killed.
    (HN, 8/25/98)(chblue.com, 8/25/01)

1760        Jun 23, Austrians defeated the Prussians at Landshut, Germany.
    (HN, 6/23/98)

1760        Aug 15, Frederick II (1712-1786), king of Prussia,  defeated the Austrians at the Battle of Liegnitz.
    (HN, 8/15/98)(WUD, 1994, p.565)

1760        Nov 3, Following the Russian capture of Berlin, Frederick II of Prussia defeated the Austrians at the Battle of Torgau (Germany).

1762        Aug 5, Russia, Prussia and Austria signed a treaty agreeing on the partition of Poland.
    (HN, 8/5/98)

1763        Frederick the Great took over Die Konigliche Porzelan-Manufaktur. The royal porcelain factory was privatized by the state of Berlin in 2006.
    (Econ, 5/23/09, p.65)

1770        Prussia issued the first covered bonds. They were paid back from the issuer’s cash flow and were secured against a pool of assets.
    (Econ, 9/13/08, p.80)

1779        Aug 7, Carl Ritter, cofounder of modern science of geography, was born in Quedlinberg, Prussia.
    (MC, 8/7/02)

1779        Sep 13, Frederick II of Prussia issued a manifesto in which he bemoaned the increased use of coffee and called for more consumption of beer.
    (SFC, 1/30/99, p.D3)

1786        Aug 17, Frederick the Great (b.1712) died. In 2000 Giles MacDonogh authored “Frederick the Great." In 2001 David Fraser authored “Frederick the Great: King of Prussia." In 2015 Tim Blanning authored “Frederick the Great: King of Prussia."
    (https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Frederick_the_Great)(WSJ, 4/27/00, p.A24)(Econ, 9/12/15, p.77)(http://tinyurl.com/qeeh657)

1792        Apr 20, France declared war on Austria, Prussia, and Sardinia, marking the start of the French Revolutionary wars.
    (AP, 4/20/97)(HN, 4/20/98)

1792        Sep 2, Verdun, France, surrendered to the Prussian Army.
    (HN, 9/2/98)

1793        Jan 23, Prussia and Russia signed an accord on the 2nd partition of Lithuania and Poland. The 2nd partition of Poland. Polish patriots had attempted to devise a new constitution which was recognized by Austria and Prussia, but Russia did not recognize it and invaded. Prussia in turn invaded and the two agreed to a partition that left only the central portion of Poland independent.
    (WUD, 1994, p.1677)(LHC, 1/23/03)

1793        Jul 23, The French garrison at Mainz, Germany, fell to the Prussians.
    (HN, 7/23/98)

1794        Nov 28, Friedrich WLGA von Steuben (64), Prussian-US inspector-general of Washington’s army, died in Oneida, NY. Baron von Steuben, a former Prussian captain, had arrived in Portsmouth, New Hampshire in 1777, and despite false credentials, was hired to drill and train Washington’s Continental Army. His manual of arms, known as the “Blue Book," shaped basic training for American recruits for generations to come. In 2008 Paul Lockhart authored “The Drillmaster of Valley Forge: The Baron de Steuben and the Making of the American Army."
    (WSJ, 11/8/08, p.W9)(WSJ, 11/8/08, p.W9)

1795        Oct 24, Russia, Austria and Prussia held a convention in Petersburg to finalize the 3rd division of the Polish-Lithuanian Republic. Most of Lithuania with Vilnius went to Russia, Warsaw and the left bank of the Nemunas River went to Prussia and Cracow went to Austria. King Stanislovas Augustas of Poland was forced from his capital and moved to Grodno (Gardinas).
    (Voruta #27-28, 7/1996, p.5)(MC, 10/24/01)

1797        Jan 15, In St. Petersburg Russia, Prussia and Austria signed and act that terminated the Lithuanian-Polish state.
    (LHC, 1/15/03)

1800        Oct 26, Helmuth Karl von Moltke, Prussian Field Marshal and Count, was born. His reorganization of the Prussian Army led to military victories that allowed the unification of Germany. His father was a German officer serving in the Danish army. His greatest innovation was the creation of a fighting force that could mobilize quickly and strike when and where it chose. He was one of the first generals to grasp the importance of railroads in moving troops. In 1995 Otto Friedrich authored a biography of the Moltke family line from Bismarck to Hitler: “Blood and Iron: From Bismarck to Hitler the von Moltke Family’s Impact on German History."
    (WSJ, 11/7/95, p.A-20)(HN, 10/26/98)

1803        Feb 25, The 1,800 sovereign German states united into 60 states.
    (MC, 2/25/02)

1805        Prussia sent Baron Wilhelm von Humboldt as envoy to the Vatican, the first Protestant state to do so.
    (Econ, 7/21/07, p.59)
1805        Napoleon defeated Austria and Prussia. In 1997 Alistair Horne wrote: "How Far from Austerlitz? Napoleon 1805-1815."
    (WSJ, 7/10/96, p.A16)(WSJ, 5/19/97, p.A16)

1806        Oct 14, The forces of French Emperor Napoleon I defeated the Prussians in the twin battles of Jena and Auerstadt.
    (AP, 10/14/07)

1807        Jun 25, Napoleon I of France and Russian Czar Alexander I met near Tilsit, in northern Prussia, to discuss terms for ending war between their empires.
    (AP, 6/25/07)

1807        Jul 7, Napoleon I of France and Czar Alexander I of Russia signed a treaty at Tilsit ending war between their empires. It divided Europe among themselves and isolated Britain.
    (HN, 7/7/98)(AP, 7/7/07)

1812        Mar 9, Swedish Pomerania was seized by Napoleon.
    (HN, 3/9/98)

1812        Mar 11, Citizenship was granted to Prussian Jews.
    (MC, 3/12/02)

1813          Feb 28, Russia and Prussia formed the Kalisz union against Napoleon.

1813        Mar 4, The Russians fighting against Napoleon reached Berlin. The French garrison evacuated the city without a fight.
    (HN, 3/4/99)

1813        Aug 23, At the Battle of Grossbeeren Prussians under Von Bulow repulsed the French.
    (MC, 8/23/02)

1813        Aug 27, The 2-day Battle of Dresden was Napoleon’s last major victory against the allied forces of Austria, Russia and Prussia. French forces under Napoleon scored a victory against the Allied army led by Field Marshal Schwarzenberg. Three days after the battle, the Allies surrounded and captured a French corps at the Battle of Kulm.

1813        Oct 16-19, In the Battle at Leipzig (aka Battle of the Nations) Napoleon faced Prussia, Austria and Russia and suffered one of his worst defeats.
    (DoW, 1999, p.325)

1813        Oct 18, The Allies defeated Napoleon Bonaparte at Leipzig.
    (HN, 10/18/98)

1813        Prussia took over Danzig.
    (WSJ, 8/31/98, p.A4)

1813        The Prussians introduced the Iron Cross during the Napoleonic wars.
    (WSJ, 4/23/99, A1)

1814        Sep, The Congress of Vienna convened in late September and continued to June 8, 1815. Friedrich von Gentz of Austria served as secretary to the Congress. It was held after the banishment of Napoleon to Elba. The congress aimed at territorial resettlement and restoration to power of the crowned heads of Europe with Prince Metternich of Austria as the dominant figure. Viscount Castlereagh and the Duke of Wellington represented Britain. Alexander I stood for Russia. Talleyrand stood for France. Prince von Hardenberg stood for Prussia. In 2007 Adam Zamoyski authored “Rites of Peace: The Fall of Napoleon and the Congress of Vienna." In 2008 David King authored “Vienna 1814: How the Conquerors of Napoleon Made Love, War and Peace at the Congress of Vienna.
    (Econ, 4/14/07, p.94)(www.bartleby.com/65/vi/Vienna-C.html)(SSFC, 4/6/08, Books p.4)

1815        Apr, British General Arthur Wellesley, duke of Wellington, began assembling troops at Brussels, Belgium. 73,000 British troops were joined by 33,000 German, Dutch and Belgian troops preparing to face Napoleon. Prussian Gen. Gebhard Leberecht von Blucher gathered an army of 120,000 southeast of Brussels.
    (ON, 4/06, p.1)

1815        Jun 16, Napoleon defeated the Prussians at the Battle of Ligny, Belgium.

1815        Jun 18, British and Prussian troops under the Duke of Wellington defeated Napoleon Bonaparte and his forces at the Battle of Waterloo in Belgium. The French elite troops of the Imperial Guard wore bearskins to appear more intimidating. Afterwards Britain established towering bear skin hats for soldiers in ceremonial duties and to guard royal residencies and the Tower of London. Field Marshal Gebhard Leberecht von Blucher made a short speech to his troops saying that he was pregnant and about to give birth to an elephant. He was taken from the front in protective custody and missed the battle. Napoleon lost over 40,000 men at Waterloo; the British and Belgians lost 15,000; the Prussians lost 7,000. The total losses in 3 days of fighting was later estimated at 91,800. In 2002 Andrew Roberts authored "Napoleon and Wellington." In 2005 Andrew Roberts authored “Waterloo: Napoleon’s Last Gamble."
    (SFEC, 2/28/99, Z1p.10)(WSJ, 9/13/02, p.W10)(Econ, 2/12/05, p.81)(ON, 4/06, p.5)

1815        Sep 26, Russia, Prussia and Austria signed a Holy Alliance. "Justice, charity and peace" were to be the precepts that guided the Holy Alliance as envisioned by Czar Alexander I of Russia. The alliance of Russia, Austria and Prussia was formed after the downfall of Napoleon and later all European rulers signed the agreement except the prince regent of Great Britain, the pope and the sultan of Turkey. With no specific aims beyond mutual assistance, the provisions of the Holy Alliance were so vague that it had little effect on European diplomacy. Metternich quietly replaced the entire alliance by the purely political alliance of 20 November, 1815, between Austria, Prussia, Russia and England.
    (www.newadvent.org/cathen/07398a.htm)(HNQ, 7/7/98)

1815        Nov 20, The treaties known collectively as the 2nd Peace of Paris were concluded. Austria’s Klemens von Metternich helped create a “Concert of Europe," a system by which 4-5 big powers kept miscreants in check and managed the affairs of smaller states for over a decade.
    (www.newadvent.org/cathen/07398a.htm)(http://tinyurl.com/2sqgp9)(Econ, 6/9/07, p.68)

1818        May 5, Karl Marx, German philosopher, was born in Prussia. He argued that history was marked by various stages of class struggle and capitalism which had overcome feudalism would in turn be overcome by socialism and the elimination of private property. He and Friedrich Engels founded Communism. Together they wrote "The Communist Manifesto" and "Das Capital."
    (WSJ, 1/11/99, p.R20)(AP, 5/5/97)(HN, 5/5/99)

1820        Sep 28, Friedrich Engels (d.1895), socialist who collaborated with Karl Marx on The Communist Manifesto and Das Kapital, was born in Prussia.

1824        Mar 12, Gustav Robert Kirchoff, physicist, was born in Prussia.
    (HN, 3/12/98)(MC, 3/12/02)

1824        Jul 20, Alexander Schimmelfennig, Brig. General Union volunteers, was born in Prussia.
    (MC, 7/20/02)

1831        Nov 16, Karl von Clausewitz (51), Prussian strategist (Campaign 1813), died.
    (MC, 11/16/01)

1839        Mar 9, Prussian government limited the work week for children to 51 hours.
    (MC, 3/9/02)

1848        Mar 19, The Prussian king promised many reforms in the face of an armed uprising, including an unfulfilled voting right for women.
    {Prussia, Women}

1848        Apr 6, Jews of Prussia were granted equality.
    (MC, 4/6/02)

1849        Jul 23, German rebels in Baden capitulated to the Prussians.
    (HN, 7/23/98)

1850        Jul 2, Prussia agreed to pull out of Schleswig and Holstein, Germany.
    (HN, 7/2/98)

1852        May 8, A war between Denmark and Prussia lasted three years (1848–50) and ended only when the Great Powers pressured Prussia into accepting the London Protocol of 1852. This was the revision of an earlier protocol, which had been ratified on August 2, 1850, by the major Germanic powers of Austria and Prussia. The 1852 London Protocol confirmed that the duchies of Schleswig-Holstein should remain undivided.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/London_Protocol)(Econ, 6/23/12, p.20)

1856        Jul 2, Prussian private bankers founded Berliner Handels-Gesselschaft. In 1970 the bank merged with Frankfurter Bank and became BHF-Bank.
    (Econ, 1/15/11, p.84)(http://de.wikipedia.org/wiki/Berliner_Handels-Gesellschaft)

1858        Jan 25, Britain's Princess Victoria (the eldest daughter of Queen Victoria and Prince Albert), married Crown Prince Frederick William (the future German Emperor and King of Prussia) at St. James's Palace. The ceremony's tradition-setting music, personally selected by the Princess Royal, included the "Bridal Chorus" from Richard Wagner's "Lohengrin" and the "Wedding March" by Felix Mendelssohn.
    (AP, 1/25/08)

1861        Jan 2, Frederik Willem IV (b.1795), king of Prussia (1840-61) and Germany (1849-61), died.

1862        Sep 23, Otto von Bismarck became the 9th Minister President of the Kingdom of Prussia.

1862        Oct 8, Otto von Bismarck became German republic chancellor.
    (MC, 10/8/01)

1864        Prussia and Austria snatched Schleswig-Holstein from Denmark. The border was redrawn by plebiscite in 1920. After 1945 Germany and Denmark agreed to recognize the rights of minorities on both sides.
    (Econ, 6/2/12, p.66)

1865        Apr 15, Otto von Bismarck was elevated to earl.
    (MC, 4/15/02)

1865        Jul 2, Lili Braun, feminist, socialist writer (Im Schatten Titanen), was born in Prussia.
    (SC, 7/2/02)

1866        Jun 8, Prussia annexed the region of Holstein.
    (HN, 6/8/98)

1866        Jun 15, Prussia attacked Austria.
    (HN, 6/15/98)

1866        Jun 27, The Battle of Langensalza was fought near Bad Langensalza in what is now modern Germany, between the Kingdom of Hanover (Hanoverians) and the Prussians. The Hanoverians won the battle but were then surrounded by a larger and reinforced Prussian army, and, unable to link up with their Bavarian allies to the south, they surrendered. Hanover was annexed after losing a war with Prussia.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Battle_of_Langensalza_%281866%29)(Econ, 6/7/14, p.61)

1866        Aug 23, Treaty of Prague ended the Austro-Prussian war.
    (MC, 8/23/02)

1870        Jul 19, The Franco-Prussian War began. Napoleon declared war on Bismarck. Emperor Napoleon III of France declared war on Germany under Otto von Bismarck. Napoleon was defeated in three months and abdicated.
    (WSJ, 3/14/95, p.A-16)(V.D.-H.K.p.260)(AP, 7/19/07)

1870        Aug 6, At the Battle at Spicheren: Prussia beat France. Crown Prince Frederick, commanding one of the three Prussian armies invading France, defeated French Marshal MacMahon at Worth and Weissenburg, pushed him out of Alsace, surrounded Strasbourg, and drove on towards Nancy. Two other Prussian armies isolated Marshal Bazaine's forces in Metz.

1870        Aug 18, Prussian forces defeated the French at the Battle of Gravelotte during the Franco-Prussian War. French Commander Bazaine's efforts to break his soldiers through the German lines were bloodily defeated at Mars-la-Tour and Gravelotte. The Prussians advanced on Chalons.
    (HN, 8/18/98)(www.marxists.org/history/france/paris-commune/timeline.htm)

1870        Sep 1, The Prussian army crushed the French under Marshal MacMahon at Sedan, the last battle of the Franco-Prussian War.
    (HN, 9/1/99)(PCh, 1992, p.516)

1870        Sep 2, Napoleon III with 80,000 men capitulated to the Prussians at Sedan, France.
    (PCh, 1992, p.516)(WSJ, 3/14/95, p.A-16)(HN, 9/2/98)

1870        Sep 4, At news of Sedan, Paris workers invaded the Palais Bourbon and forced the Legislative Assembly to proclaim the fall of the Empire. Emperor Louis Napoleon III was overthrown in a bloodless coup. The 3rd French Republic was proclaimed in Paris and a government of national defense was formed.
    (HN, 9/4/98)(ON, 9/06, p.12)(www.marxists.org/history/france/paris-commune/timeline.htm)

1870        Sep 19, Two Prussian armies began a 135-day siege of Paris as the 2nd Empire collapsed. This forced the people of the city to eat Castor and Pollux, the 2 elephants in the zoo.
    (PCh, 1992, p.516)(SFC, 4/17/99, p.B3)

1870        Oct 27, The French fortress of Metz surrendered to the Prussian Army.
    (HN, 10/27/98)

1871        Jan 8, Prussian troops began to bombard Paris during the Franco-Prussian War.
    (HN, 1/8/99)

1871        Jan 22, The Paris proletariat and the National Guards held a revolutionary demonstration, initiated by the Blanquists. They demanded the overthrow of the government and the establishment of a Commune. By order of the Government of National Defense, the Breton Mobile Guard, which was defending the Hotel de Ville, opened fire on the demonstrators. After massacring the unarmed workers, the government began preparations to surrender Paris.

1871        Jan 18, William I of Prussia was proclaimed "German Emperor" (which was not the same thing as "Emperor of Germany") in Versailles, France.
    (AP, 1/18/07)

1871        Jan 28, France, under a provisional republican government, continued the war against Germany, but was forced to surrender in the Franco-Prussian War. Surrounded by Prussian troops and suffering from famine, the French army in Paris surrendered. During the siege, balloons were used to keep contact with the outside world.
    (V.D.-H.K.p.260)(AP, 1/28/98)(HN, 1/28/99)

1871        Feb 26, France and Prussia signed a preliminary peace treaty at Versailles.
    (HN, 2/26/99)

1871        Mar 1, Germans paraded down the Champs-Elysses, Paris, France during the Franco-Prussian War.
    (HN, 3/1/99)(WSJ, 3/14/95, p.A-16)

1871        Mar 21, Otto von Bismarck became the 1st Chancellor of the German Empire.

1871        The German states became a nation. Germany went on to adopt the mark as its common currency.
    (WSJ, 1/15/96, p. A-10)(WSJ, 1/11/99, p.R42)

1872        Hawaii’s King Kamehameha V asked the Kaiser of Prussia to send a music teacher for the Royal Hawaiian Band. Henry Berger, a Prussian military band leader, arrived and led the group for 43 years. He was later considered the father of Hawaiian music.
    (WSJ, 3/10/05, p.A1)

1880        Bavaria and Prussia introduced Spelling reform. Chancellor Bismarck threatened civil servants with increased fines if the new system was used.
    (Econ, 8/21/04, p.45)

1882        Apr 13, An anti-Semitic League formed in Prussia.
    (MC, 4/13/02)

1883        May 29, Albrecht of Prussia (73), mistress of John van Rossum, died.
    (SC, 5/29/02)

1883        Germany under Chancellor Otto von Bismarck adopted the first compulsory health insurance program on a national scale.
    (WSJ, 1/11/99, p.R25)

1889        Prussia under Chancellor Otto von Bismarck adopted old-age and invalidity pensions. Prussian average life expectancy was about 45.
    (WSJ, 1/11/99, p.R25)(Econ, 6/27/09, p.18)

1890        Mar 20, Germany’s Kaiser Wilhelm II fired republic chancellor Otto Von Bismarck.

1891        Apr 24, Helmuth Karl Bernhard Graf von Moltke (b.1800), German Field Marshal, died. He was the chief of staff of the Prussian Army for thirty years and became later regarded as one of the great strategists of the latter 19th century.

1898        Jul 30, Otto von Bismarck (b.1815), German-Prussian statesman and former "Iron" chancellor (1871-1890), died. He held the German social security system as his greatest accomplishment. In 1986 Lothar Gall authored “Bismarck." In 2011 Jonathan Steinberg authored “Bismarck: A Life."
    (WUD, 1994, p.151)(WSJ, 6/23/07, p.P10)(Econ, 4/2/11, p.80)

1914        Aug 2, Russian troops invade Eastern Prussia.
    (MC, 8/2/02)

1914        Aug 22, Von Ludendorff and von Hindenburg moved into East Prussia enroute to Russia.
    (MC, 8/22/02)

1915        Hans Leip, in training for the Prussian Guard, authored the poem “Song of a Young Sentry." It reflected his recent meetings with two women named Lili and Marlene. In 1938 Norbert Schultze of Berlin put it to music. The composition was then recorded by cabaret chanteuse Lale Anderson and became hugely as the song “Lili Marlene." In 2008 Liel Leibovitz and Matthew Miller authored “Lili Marlene: The Soldier’s Song of World War II."
    (WSJ, 11/8/08, p.W8)

1918        Nov 28, Kaiser Wilhelm of Prussia and Germany, abdicated.
    (MC, 11/28/01)

1920          Feb 27, The Lithuanian government offered the representatives of the National Council of Prussian Lithuania assent to cooptation in the Lithuanian government. They co-opted March 20.
    (LHC, 2/27/03)

1927        Mar 10, Prussia lifted its Nazi ban, Hitler was allowed to speak in public.
    (HN, 3/10/98)

1928        Sep 28, Prussia forbade a speech by Adolf Hitler.
    (MC, 9/28/01)

1929        May 3, Prussia banned anti-fascists.
    (MC, 5/3/02)

1932        Apr 24, In German national elections the NSDAP/NAZI won 36.3% in Prussia.
    (MC, 4/24/02)

1933        Apr 11, Hermann Goering became premier of Prussia.
    (MC, 4/11/02)

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