Timeline Peru

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Peru, slightly smaller than Alaska, is the third-largest nation in South America. It has 3 geographical regions: Pacific coastal desert, Andes mountain range and Amazon jungle.
    (AP, 6/4/06)

36Mil BC    In 2005 scientists in Peru reported the discovery of a giant penguin that lived about this time on the Peruvian coastline. The bird was named Icadyptes salasi. It stood over 5-feet and lived during one of the warmest periods of the world’s history.
    (SFC, 6/25/07, p.A10)
36Mil BC    A roughly well-preserved skull dating to about this time was dug up intact from the bone-dry rocks of the southern Ocucaje desert, with rows of long, pointy teeth. The ferocious marine predator, an ancient ancestor of modern-day whales, once lived in a prehistoric ocean that covered part of what is now Peru. It was believed to belong to a new species of basilosaurus.
    (Reuters, 3/17/22)

12Mil BC    A raptorial sperm whale living about this time grew up to 60 feet with some teeth 14 inches long. Fossils were discovered in a Peruvian desert and in 2010 scientists named it Leviathan melvillei.
    (SFC, 7/1/10, p.A3)

10Mil BC    In 2009 researchers in Peru said an unusually intact fossilized skull of a pelagornithid, a giant, bony-toothed seabird that lived up to 10 million years ago, had been found in the in the Pisco Formation, a coastal rock bed south of the capital, Lima, known for yielding fossils of whales, dolphins, turtles and other marine life dating as far back as 14 million years.
    (AP, 2/28/09)

9600BC    A site of human habitation in Peru was dated to about this time. Later excavations indicated complex stone tools that appeared to date back to at least 28,000 BCE.
    (SFC, 2/17/98, p.A2)

8000BC    The potato was first cultivated some 10,000 years ago by South American Indians. In the 16th century Spanish explorers brought potatoes back to Europe, where it was first used primarily as livestock feed. The potato was introduced to North America in the 17th century. In the 18th century, the poor of Europe began to use potatoes as a replacement for cereals in their diets. The failure of the potato crop in Ireland in 1845-46 led to great famine and pushed tens of thousands of Irish to emigrate to the United States. In 2008 it was reported that genetic studies by potato experts indicated that all potatoes originated over 10,000 years ago from a single ancestor, Solanum brevicaule, found on the Peruvian side of Lake Titicaca.
    (HNQ, 5/10/98)(SSFC, 10/5/08, p.A15)

3800BC    The Supe people, a maritime farming community, was established about this time along the coast of Peru.
    (SFC, 1/20/09, p.A13)

3600BC    The Supe people, a maritime farming community along the coast of Peru, disappeared about this time. In 2009 researchers found their disappearance coincided with earthquakes and landslides followed by massive flooding.
    (SFC, 1/20/09, p.A13)

3500BC-3000BC    In 2008 a team of German and Peruvian archaeologists reported the discovery of a ceremonial plaza near Peru's north-central coast dating to this period.
    (AP, 2/27/08)

3022BC    In Peru the pyramids of Aspero on the Pacific coast dated to about this time.
    (AM, 7/05, p.20)

3000BC    Scientists say that the weather changed about this time and that the first El Nino Pacific Ocean temperature flip occurred. Analysis of Peruvian coastal middens of this period indicated a diet change from tropical mollusks to cold water mollusks. The idea was first proposed in 1983 and evidence was added from Japan and Greenland. Skeptics claim that the change was due to mollusks harvested from now vanished warm water lagoons.
    (SFC, 9/13/96, p.E2)

2627BC    Parts of Caral, a city in the Supe Valley of Peru, was built about this time. The 170-acre site, 14 miles from the coast, was discovered in 1905 but not dated till 2001. The city had pyramids up to 70 feet tall and its population was believed to have reached about 3,000.
    (SFC, 4/27/01, p.A3)(SFC, 6/15/01, p.D6)(AM, 7/05, p.19,25)

2200BC    In the Peruvian Andes a native culture built a 33-foot pyramid about this time with an observatory marking the summer and winter solstices. In 2006 archeologists working at the Buena Vista site believed that fisherman from the coast had moved to the site to grow cotton for making fishing nets.
    (SFC, 5/15/06, p.A2)

2000BC    In 2007 a temple dating to about this time was unearthed on the northern coast of Peru, making it one of the oldest finds in the Americas. The mural filled temple, called Ventarron, sits in the Lambayeque valley, near the ancient Sipan complex unearthed in the 1980s.
    (AP, 11/11/07)
2000BC    In Peru the pyramid at El Paraiso was built about this time. In 2013 two real estate development companies destroyed the 20-foot tall pyramid, a few miles north of Lima.
    (SFC, 7/4/13, p.A2)
2000BC    In 2008 researchers reported that the earliest known gold jewelry made in the Americas had been discovered in southern Peru. The gold necklace, made nearly 4,000 years ago, was found in a burial site near Lake Titicaca.
    (AP, 3/31/08)

c1300BC    The Paracas culture originated about this time along the southern coast of Peru. They mummified their dead and created fine textiles.
    (SFCM, 3/28/04, p.30)

c1200-300BC    A pre-Columbian culture flourished over this time in the Andes site of Chavin de Huantar.
    (SFC, 12/21/00, p.A20)

c1000BC    In 1999 the tomb of a Huayakuntur Indian of this time was found in Ayabaca province.
    (SFC, 11/13/99, p.A12)

950BC    Peanuts have been traced back to this time in Brazil and Peru.
    (SFEC, 1/10/99, Z1 p.8)

c700BC-900AD    Natives of the Nasca culture drew lines and geometrical figures into the coastal desert during this period that were over a mile long.
    (SFC, 2/5/00, p.A16)

c500BC    Monumental ceremonial centers on the Peruvian coast were abandoned about this time. The period was later found to correspond with an increase in el Nino frequency,
    (AM, 9/01, p.18)

500BC - 500CE The Nazca Lines of Peru were scratched into the earth during this period. They were created by removing the darker area of topsoil to reveal white sand beneath and covered an area of about 173 square miles.
    (SFC, 11/22/19, p.A6)

400BC-540CE The Inca Early Intermediate Period.
    (NG, Feb, 04, p.28)

350BC        The Chavin civilization had a settlement at this time on the north-western coast of Peru. The elite of this civilization tracked the movement of the sun throughout the year.
    (Econ, 3/3/07, p.84)

100-700    During this period group of agricultural Indians (today called the Moche) inhabited the desert margin between the Andes and the Pacific in what is today called Peru. They raised huge monuments of sun baked mud where they laid their dead with fine gold and pottery. They irrigated crops such as corn, beans, squash, and peanuts. They ate llamas and guinea pigs and caught fish in the Pacific. [2nd source dated the Moche from 0-800] The Nasca [Nazca] Indians also inhabited this area about this time.
    (NG, Oct. 1988, p. 510)(SFEM, 4/13/97, p.16)

c100-700    The Nazca Lines are a complex series of huge birds, animals and other figures etched over a 35-mile stretch of high desert by the Nazca culture some 225 miles southeast of Lima.
    (SFC, 9/1/97, p.A14)(SFC, 6/9/98, p.A24)
c100-700    Moche people built elaborate settlements along 300 miles of Peru’s coast that included Huaco Cao Viejo.
    (NG, 7/04, p.108)

450        In Peru a tattooed Moche woman was entombed about this time, at a site later called El Brujo, with a sacrificed teenage slave and a collection of weapons and jewelry. In 2006 her mummy was discovered in a pyramid called Huaca Cao Viejo.
    (SFC, 5/17/06, p.A2)

c500        A Moche pyramid from this time at Dos Cabezas contained tombs that archeologists found in 1997. The tombs revealed people of unusual height along with miniatures of the deceased and the tomb’s contents.
    (SFC, 2/15/01, p.A7)

563-594    In northern Peru a 30-year mega el Niño weather period began that caused major flooding in areas populated by the Moche people.
    (PBS, 10/1/06)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Moche)

594        In Peru a 30-year drought began about this time that followed years of flooding in areas populated by the Moche people.
    (PBS, 10/1/06)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Moche)

600-1100    The Wari ruled during this period and were the first people to unite diverse tribes into a sophisticated network across most of the Peruvian Andes. A Wari tomb was discovered in 2013.

650-700    In northern Peru archeological evidence later indicated that civil strife during this period, which followed some 30 years of drought, led to the demise of the Moche civilization.
    (PBS, 10/1/06)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Moche)

750-1375    The Sican culture flourished on Peru's northern desert coast. In 2006 archaeologists unearthed 22 graves containing a trove of Sican artifacts, including the first "tumi" ceremonial knives ever discovered by archaeologists rather than looted by thieves. In 2022 archeologists unearthed eight children and 12 adults apparently sacrificed around 800-1,200 years ago, in a major dig at the pre-Incan Cajamarquilla complex east of Lima.
    (AP, 11/22/06)(Reuters, 2/23/22)

c900        In Peru the Lambayeque people established themselves over areas previously developed by the Moche.
    (NG, 7/04, p.116)

900-1200    The Killke people occupied the region around Cuzco, Peru, from 900 to 1200 A.D., prior to the arrival of the Incas. In 2008 Archaeologists discovered the ruins of an ancient temple, roadway and irrigation systems at Sacsayhuaman, a famed fortress overlooking Cuzco, that shed light on the pre-Inca cultures of Peru.
    (AP, 3/15/08)

c1000        An early Andean culture known as the Huari cultivated crops with complex irrigation systems back to this time.
    (NH, 10/02, p.62)

1438        The Incas established an imperial state in the Andes (Peru) and Cusco was rebuilt. They went on to build over 25,000 miles of roads.
    (SFC, 3/19/02, p.A2)(NG, Feb, 04, p.72)

1450-1532    The period of the Inca Empire. Inca mummies were later found on Mt. Ampato in 1995 and 1997. In 1998 archeologist found 6 frozen mummies sacrificed to Inca gods near the crater of the 19,100 foot El Misti volcano, 465 miles southeast of Lima, Peru.
    (SFEM, 4/13/97, p.16)(SFC,12/13/97, p.A14)(SFC, 10/3/98, p.C1)

1460-1470     Machu Pichu was built under the Inca King Pachacuti in the Peruvian Andes. It was occupied for about 50 years before 180 Spanish conquistadors wiped out a 40,000-man Inca army. In 2003 a nearby complex of structures called Llactapata (high city) was discovered.
    (SFC, 11/8/03, p.A2)

1480-1533    A huge Inca cemetery was active in Lima at this time. It was uncovered in 2002 with some 2,200 mummies.
    (SFC, 4/18/02, p.A4)

1502-1533    Atahualpa, emperor of the Incas. He had a fortune in gold and silver and tried to purchase his freedom from Pizarro for a chamber filled with gold. Pizarro took 124 tons of gold in ransom and then re-arrested Atahualpa for treason to the Spanish crown and had him decapitated.
    (WSJ, 1/11/99, p.R8)

1522        Pascual de Andagoya, Spanish explorer, became the first European to set foot in Peru.
    (TL-MB, p.12)

1525        The Spanish made initial contact with the Incas.
    (SFC, 3/19/02, p.A2)

c1525        First found in Peru by invading Spaniards, the tomato was also known as a "love apple" or "wolf peach" and regarded with suspicion and shunned as food. It was believed to be unhealthy or downright poisonous and given the Latin name Lycopersicon, or "wolf peach." In Europe it was thought to be a potent-and thus forbidden-aphrodisiac, hence the name "love apple." Thomas Jefferson grew tomatoes in the late 1700s, but they weren't widely consumed in Europe and America until the early 1800s.
    (HNQ, 1/3/99)

1529        Jul 26, Francisco Pizarro was made governor for life and captain-general in New Spain. He returned to Peru in a fleet of three ships. Pizarro received a royal warrant in Toledo, Spain, to "discover and conquer" Peru.
    (TL-MB, 1988, p.13)(HN, 7/26/98)

1530’s        The Spanish invasion forced the Incas to retreat.
    (SFC, 5/5/96, p.T-5)

1532        Nov 16, Pizarro first encountered Incan emperor Atahualpa at Cajamarca, who declined conversion to Christianity. Pizzaro and 167 fellow Spaniards, armored and on horseback, killed or wounded some 6,000 to 7,000 natives and captured emperor Atahualpa. In 2007 Kim MacQuarrie authored “The Last Days of the Incas.  
    (SSFC, 7/8/07, p.M2)

1532        Spanish conquistadores reached the high valley of the Andes. Pizzaro entered Cuzco, Inca capital of Peru.

1532        Francisco Pizzaro (54) with 183 soldiers entered the lowlands of northern Peru near Cajamarca, the capital of the Incan empire.
    (SFEC, 7/5/98, p.A10)

1533        Aug 28, Atahualpa, last of the Inca rulers was strangled at the orders of Spanish conquistador Francisco Pizarro. The Inca empire died with him.
    (MC, 8/28/01)

1533        Aug 29, Francisco Pizarro captured Cuzco and completed his conquest of Peru. He ordered the imprisonment and murder of Atahualpa, the last ruler of the Incan Empire. Atahualpa was executed by orders of Francisco Pizarro, although the chief had already paid his ransom. Ruminahui (Rumanahui), a general of Atahualpa, led 15,000 soldiers into the mountains north of Quito, after Pizarro killed the Inca emperor Atahualpa. His forces carried an estimated 70,000 man-loads of gold.
    (TL-MB, 1988, p.14)(AP, 8/29/97) (SFEC, 7/5/98, p.A10)(SFEC, 8/9/98, p.A15)(HN, 8/29/98)   

1533        Nov 15, Francisco Pizarro entered Cuzco, Peru. [see Aug 29]
    (HN, 11/15/98)

1535        Jan 6, Lima, Peru, was founded by Francisco Pizarro. [see Jan 18]
    (TL-MB, 1988, p.15)(WSJ, 7/2/97, p.B8)(MC, 1/6/02)

1535        Jan 18, Francisco Pizarro founded Lima Peru. [see Jan 6]
    (MC, 1/18/02)

1535        Francisco de Orellana accompanied Francisco Pizarro on the latter's conquest of Peru.
    (HNQ, 2/11/01)

1536        Spanish soldiers crushed an Indian revolt and Incas fled to Peru’s Vilcabamba region. In 2002 archeologists uncovered a settlement on Cerro Victorio.
    (SFC, 3/19/02, p.A2)

1540        Arequipa was founded by Spanish conquerors.
    (SSFC, 6/24/01, p.A16)

1541        Jun 26, Francisco Pizarro, the Spanish Conqueror of Peru, was murdered by his former followers in Lima.
    (HN, 6/26/98)(MC, 6/26/02)

1551        May 12, San Marcos University opened in Lima, Peru. The Universidad Nacional Mayor de San Marcos was founded under Spanish royal charter.
    (TL-MB, 1988, p.18)(AM, 7/01, p.18)(Econ, 10/8/11, p.47)

1553        Pedro Cieza de Leon wrote the first European description of the potato in his “Chronicles of Peru."
    (SSFC, 10/5/08, p.A15)

1569        Dec 9, Martinus de Porres, saint (patron of social justice), was born in Peru.
    (MC, 12/9/01)

1573-1812    The Spanish-imposed "mita" system in Bolivia and Peru forced a seventh of adult men from indigenous communities to work in silver and mercury mines.
    (Econ., 5/2/20, p.60)

1578        Dec 5, Sir Francis Drake sailed into the port of Valparaiso. He had renamed his flagship, the Pelican, to the Golden Hind, and ravaged the coasts of Chile and Peru on his way around the world.
    (TL-MB, 1988, p.22)(ON, 7/03, p.7)

c1580        Tupac Amuru, an Inca leader, held out against the Spanish conquest after most of the empire had been subdued.
    (SFC, 12/20/96, p.B4)

1600        Feb 19, Arequipa, Peru, was destroyed as the Huaynaputina volcano exploded catastrophically, in the largest volcanic explosion in South America in historic times. The eruption continued with associated earthquakes into March and devastated the socioeconomic fabric of southern Peru and neighboring Chile and Bolivia. The explosion had effects on climate around the Northern Hemisphere, where 1601 was the coldest year in six centuries, leading to a famine in Russia.
    (SSFC, 6/24/01, p.A16)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Huaynaputina)

1604        Agustino Salumbrino, a Jesuit monk, left Rome for Peru, where he studied native plants for their healing powers, especially the bark of the cinchona tree used by the Incas to treat shivering. By 1630 quinine entered the literature as a treatment. In 2003 Fiammetta Rocco authored "The Miraculous Fever Tree: Malaria and the Quest for a Cure That Changed the World."
    (WUD, 1994, p.1245)(SFEC,10/26/97, BR p.8)(WSJ, 8/26/03, p.D5)

1617        Aug 30, Rosa de Lima of Peru became the first American saint to be canonized.
    (HN, 8/30/98)

1623        Apr 29, 11 Dutch ships departed for the conquest of Peru.
    (MC, 4/29/02)

1630        In Peru Jesuit missionaries about this time found that natives would ingest the powdered bark of the cinchona tree when they shivered with cold. They found that this also could treat the shivers of malaria. In 1820 quinine was isolated from the cinchona bark.
    (https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Quinine)(Econ., 12/19/20, p.35)

1639        Jan 23, Francisco Maldonado da Silva Solis, Peruvian poet, was burned at stake.
    (MC, 1/23/02)

1639        Nov 3, Martinus de Porres (69), Peru saint (patron of social justice), died.
    (MC, 11/3/01)

1667        Arequipa was hit by an earthquake.
    (SSFC, 6/24/01, p.A16)

1668        Arequipa was hit by another earthquake.
    (SSFC, 6/24/01, p.A16)

1687        Oct 20, In Peru a massive earthquake leveled most of Lima. It triggered a tsunami and overall about 5,000 people died.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/1687_Peru_earthquake)(SSFC, 11/3/13, p.A6)

1700s        In 1927 Thornton Wilder wrote “The Bridge of San Luis Rey." It was set in Peru in the early 1700s when a rope bridge broke that sent 5 people to their death.
    (SFEC, 6/21/98, BR p.8)

1746        Oct 28, A tsunami caused by the Lima–Callao earthquake destroyed the entire port of Callao. Lima was almost completely destroyed by the earthquake that killed 1,141. The tsunami killed 5-6 thousand people.

1749        Mar, Jean Godin, French geographer, left Quito, part of the Viceroyalty of Peru (later Ecuador), in an attempt to reach France to settle his family estate. He traveled by an eastern route across South America and became stranded in French Guiana for over 20 years. In 2004 Robert Whitaker authored “The Mapmaker’s Wife: A True Tale of Love, Murder, and Survival in the Amazon." It was an account of Jean Godin (d.1792), French mapmaker, and his wife, Isabel Godin. They managed to reunite in 1770.
    (Econ, 5/15/04, p.81)(ON, 5/05, p.4)

1758        In Peru Spanish naval Captain Antonio de Ulloa (1716-1795) began serving as governor of Huancavelica and the general manager of the quicksilver mines. He tried but failed to eradicate fraud there and held this position until 1764. In 1766 he began serving as governor of Louisiana.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Antonio_de_Ulloa)(Econ., 3/14/15, p.37)

1778        Feb 25, Jose Francisco de San Martin (d.1850) was born in Argentina. He liberated Argentina, Chile and Peru. Protector of Peru (1821-1822).
    (WUD, 1994 p.1267)(MC, 2/25/02)

1780        Jose Gabriel Condorcanqui led a failed Indian revolt against the Spanish. He appropriated the name of an earlier Inca leader and became Tupac Amuru II.
    (SFC, 12/20/96, p.B4)

1781        Tupac Amuru II was executed.
    (SFC, 12/25/96, p.A12)

1800-1900    The 19th century Andean explorer, Antonuio Raimondi, had drawn a map with the words Machu Picchu in the correct location.
    (SFC, 5/5/96, p.T-5)
c1800-1900    A native named Fitzcarraldo attempted to build a Peruvian rain forest opera house to attract the singer Caruso. The 1982 film "Fitzcarraldo" by Werner Herzog was Herzog's version of the story.
    (USAT, 11/12/99, p.2E)

1804        Oct 5, The Nuestra Senora de las Mercedes, a Spanish galleon, was sunk by the British navy southwest of Portugal with more than 200 people on board. In May 2007, Odyssey Marine Exploration announced that it had discovered a wreck in the Atlantic and its cargo of 500,000 silver coins and other artifacts worth an estimated $500 million. Spain claimed this was the Nuestra Senora de las Mercedes. In 2009 Peru pushed claims to the silver coins arguing that they were minted in Lima. In 2012 a US judge ordered that the treasure be returned to Spain.
    (AP, 5/8/08)(www.guardian.co.uk/world/2008/mar/24/usa.spain)(AP, 1/29/09)(SFC, 2/18/12, p.A7)

1814        Jose Francisco de San Martin (1778-1850) became general in chief of Argentina’s Army of the North. His primary mission was to protect Argentina against Spanish royalists in Peru.
    (ON, 10/09, p.8)

1816        Jun 18, French-born Argentine Capt. Hipolito Bouchard (1780-1837), having blocked the fortress of Callao, Peru, captured several ships including a 464-ton frigate called Consecuencia. Argentine patriot and investor Vicente Echevarria later purchased the ship, now renamed La Argentina, armed it with 34-artillery pieces and made Bouchard captain.
    (https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hippolyte_Bouchard)(SFC, 11/11/17, p.C3)

1820        Oct, Argentina’s Jose de San Martin blockaded Lima, Peru, and urged the people of Peru to join in the uprising against Spain.
    (www.gdws.co.uk/chacabuco.htm)(Econ, 4/25/09, p.87)(ON, 10/09, p.10)

1820        Dec 7, Peru’s army, after sweeping out the Spanish, swore in the first mayor of the Peruvian Republic, in Chaupimarca plaza, the central district of Cerro de Pasco. By 2010 the town faced destruction due to industrial mining.
    (AP, 4/19/10)

1821        Jul 28, Peru declared its independence from Spain. Lima had been the seat of the Spanish viceroys until this time. Jose Francisco de San Martin of Argentina had blockaded Lima and forced the Spanish viceroy to abandon the city. Martin returned to Argentina in 1822
    (SFC, 12/20/96, p.B4)(AP, 7/28/97)(ON, 10/09, p.10)

1821-1822    Jose Francisco de San Martin (d.1850) served as Protector of Peru.
    (WUD, 1994 p.1267)(MC, 2/25/02)

1823        Sep 10, Simon Bolivar was named president of Peru and assumed the presidency with dictatorial powers. He had led the wars for independence from Spain in Venezuela, Colombia, Peru and Bolivia.
    (MC, 9/10/01)

1824        Feb 10, Simon Bolivar was named President by the Congress of Peru.
    (MC, 2/10/02)

1824        Aug 24, Simon Bolivar's army beat the Spanish in Peru in the Battle at Junin.
    (PC, 1992, p.394)

1824        Dec 9, In the Battle of Ayacucho (Candorcangui) Peru defeated Spain.
    (MC, 12/9/01)

1825        Aug 6, Simon Bolivar drew up a constitution for Bolivia in which a life president appointed his successor. Sucre served as the sole capital until losing a brief civil war to La Paz in 1899. Upper Peru became the autonomous republic of Bolivia.
    (Econ, 7/1/06, p.77)(AP, 7/21/07)(AP, 8/6/08)

1829        May 24, Andres de Santa Cruz (1792-1865), the president of Peru, began also serving as president of Bolivia and continued to 1839.
    (https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Andr%C3%A9s_de_Santa_Cruz)(Econ, 2/20/15, p.29)

1829        Sep 25, There was a failed assassination attempt on Simon Bolivar.
    (MC, 9/25/01)

1830        The government of Peru exempted guano from taxes. The commercial mining and export of the rich fertilizer soon followed.

1837        Jan 4, In Peru Hippolyte Bouchard (aka Hipólito Bouchard, b.1780), French Argentine sailor and corsair, was killed by one of his servants. Bouchard had retired as a gentleman farmer in Peru after serving in the Peruvian Navy.
    (https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hippolyte_Bouchard)(SFC, 11/25/17, p.C2)

1839        Jan 20, Chile defeated a confederation of Peru and Bolivia in the Battle of Yungay.
    (AP, 1/20/98)

1849-1875    Some 100,000 Chinese coolies arrived as laborers in Peru during this period.
    (Econ, 8/15/09, p.21)

1862        Peruvian slavers arrived on Easter Island. Slaves that eventually returned brought smallpox.
    (SSFC, 9/18/05, p.E14)

1867        Harry Meiggs departed Chile, where he had built a railroad between Santiago and Valparaiso and moved to Peru, where he was awarded a contract to build the Arequipa Railway. The over hyped railroads he built helped drive the country into financial ruin.
    (SFC, 1/18/14, p.C2)
1867        German businessman named Augusto R. Berns purchased land across from Machu Picchu, Peru, and an 1887 document showed he set up a company to plunder the site.
    (AP, 6/5/08)

1868        Aug 13, A magnitude 9.0 quake in Arica, Peru (later Chile), generated catastrophic tsunamis; more than 25,000 people were killed in South America.
    (AP, 2/27/10)

1877        Sep 30, Harry Meiggs (b.1811), American businessman and railroad magnate in Chile and Peru, died virtually penniless in Peru. Before his death Meiggs made restitution to his creditors in San Francisco. In 1874 the California legislature passed Senate Bill 183 dismissing any previous indictment against him.
    (SFC, 1/18/14, p.C2)

1879        Oct 8, Chile captured the Huascar, a British-built ironclad, from Peru. The ship was named after the 16th-century Inca emperor, Huáscar.

1879-1883    In the War of the Pacific, Chile’s army won the nitrate-rich desert lands from Peru and Bolivia. The war was fought over the treatment of Chilean investors in the desert territories. The area remained in contention until a 1929 agreement proposed by Pres. Herbert Hoover.
    (SFC, Z-1, 4/28/96, p.5)(SFEC, 11/14/99, p.A22)

1881        Chilean soldiers pillaged Peru’s national library during the War of the Pacific. In 2007 Chile returned 3,778 books taken by its soldiers.
    (SFC, 11/7/07, p.A3)

1901-1966    Rafael Larco Hoyle, founder of the Museo Arqueologico Rafael Larco Herrera in Lima.
    (SFC, 5/16/97, p.C5)

1902        In Peru US-owned Cerro de Pasco Corp. started to buy up mines in Cerro de Pasco and brought industrial mining, creating a boomtown. A half century later in 1956, the company turned to strip mining and started gouging the pit, which has since swallowed more than half the original urban center. State-run Centromin continued the pit expansion after a 1973 expropriation of the US company; Volcan since 1999.
    (AP, 4/19/10)

1906        David Casement, a British consul, was sent to Brazil, first as consul in Pará, then transferred to Santos, and lastly promoted to consul-general in Rio de Janeiro. When he was attached as a consular representative to a commission investigating murderous rubber slavery by the British-registered Peruvian Amazon Company, effectively controlled by the archetypal rubber baron Julio Cesar Arana and his brother, Casement had the occasion to do work among the Putumayo Indians of Peru similar to that which he had done in the Congo.

1911        Jul 24, Hiram Bingham, American explorer, was led by local guides to a Lost City of the Incas. He explored several Inca ruins and the mountaintop citadel of Machu Pichu. He was in search of the lost city of Vilcabamba, the Inca’s legendary last refuge from the invading Spaniards. Bingham was an archeologist from Yale and later served as a Connecticut governor and US senator. In 1948 Bingham authored “Lost City of the Incas."
    (NG, Oct. 1988, p. 543)(SFC, 5/13/98, p.C4)(www.tambotours.com/binghamtrek.html)(WSJ, 11/1/08, p.W18)

1916        Nov 28, Hiram Bingham, American explorer, wrote a letter to Gilbert H. Graham, the president of National Geographic, in which he stated that artifacts from his 3rd expedition to Peru belonged to the Peruvian government, which expected their return in 18 months. A dispute over the return of artifacts from Yale back to Peru continued in 2006. In 2010 Yale made arrangements to return the collection in stages over the next 2 years.
    (SFC, 3/10/06, p.A12)(Econ, 11/27/10, p.47)

1918        Nov 25, Chile and Peru severed relations.
    (HN, 11/25/98)

1927        Sep 10, Yma Sumac, [Chavarri], 5 octave soprano (Omar Khayyam), was born in Ichocan, Peru.
    (MC, 9/10/01)

1926        The Museo Arqueologico Rafael Larco Herrera was founded in Lima by archeologist Rafael Larco Hoyle and named after his father.
    (SFEM, 4/13/97, p.16)

1929        Jun 3, Chile, Peru & Bolivia signed an accord about the Tacna-Arica area. Chile and Peru accepted a proposal by Pres. Herbert Hoover over the outcome of the 1879-1893 War of the Pacific. Chile would retain Arica and return Tacna to Peru and grant access to the Arica port as a compromise. The accord was not implemented until 1999.
    (SFEC, 11/14/99, p.A22)(MC, 6/3/02)

1932        Chile and Peru signed an extradition treaty.
    (Econ, 11/12/05, p.40)

1936        Mar 28, Mario Vargas Llosa, Peruvian novelist (Aunt Julia and the Scriptwriter, Death in the Andes), was born.
    (HN, 3/28/01)

1938        Cesar Vallejo (b.1892), Peruvian poet, died. His 1918 book "The Black Heralds" was translated into English in 2003 by Rebecca Seiferle.
    (SSFC, 12/28/03, p.M4)

1941        Peru and Ecuador went to war over a border conflict.
    (WSJ, 1/20/98, p.A1)

1942        Nov 20, Meredith Monk, choreographer, composer and performing artist, was born in Lima, Peru.
    (MC, 11/20/01)

1942        In Peru nearly 2,000 people of Japanese heritage were rounded up by police, turned over to American troops and shipped to prison camps in Texas and other states in response to Japan's Dec. 7, 1941, attack on Pearl Harbor.
    (SFC, 8/24/18, p.D2)
1942        A treaty set the 1,050-mile border between Peru and Ecuador, but a 49-mile stretch in the Cordillera del Condor region was not demarcated.
    (SFC, 10/17/98, p.A14)

1945        Feb 14, Peru, Paraguay, Chile and Ecuador joined the United Nations.
    (AP, 2/14/98)

1945        Mar 13, Peru declared war on Germany.
    (HN, 3/13/98)

1948        Peruvian politician Victor Raul de la Torre, following the rise of a dictator, found refuge in a Colombian embassy in Lima for 6 years as army tanks surrounded the building.
    (Econ, 8/25/12, p.26)   

1952        Feb 22, The U.S. signed a military aid pact with Peru.
    (HN, 2/22/98)

1952        Aug 18, Chile, Ecuador and Peru signed the Declaration on the Maritime Zone. On Jan 27 the Int’l. Court of Justice ruled on the sea border between Chile and Peru. It confirmed Chile’s hold over inshore waters rich in fish.
    (http://tinyurl.com/nx4o9uz)(Econ, 2/1/14, p.30)

1958        May 8, Vice President Nixon was shoved, stoned, booed and spat upon by anti-American protesters in Lima, Peru. Vice President Richard Nixon’s eight-nation South America goodwill tour in May 1958 encountered violent demonstrations, particularly in Peru and Venezuela, spurring President Dwight Eisenhower to order the movement of U.S. forces into Caribbean bases.
    (AP, 5/8/97)(HNQ, 6/14/99)

1958        Arequipa was hit by an earthquake.
    (SSFC, 6/24/01, p.A16)

1959        Pres. Manuel Prado confined Fernando Belaunde (d.2002) to an island prison.
    (SFC, 6/5/02, p.A23)

1960        Arequipa, Peru, was hit by another earthquake. [see Chile, May 22, 1960]
    (SSFC, 6/24/01, p.A16)

1962        Jan 10, Eruptions on Mount Huascaran in Peru destroyed 7 villages and killed 3,500.
    (MC, 1/10/02)

1963        Fernando Belaunde (d.2002) was elected president.
    (SFC, 6/5/02, p.A23)

1965        Peru cut a trail through the jungle to Inapari, its border town across from Assis, Brazil.
    (Econ, 3/26/05, p.40)

1966        May 25, Peru and Argentina soccer fans fought in Lima and 248 died.
    (SC, 5/25/02)

1967        Peru and 3 other countries in South America banned trade in vicuna, a relative of the llama, after numbers had severely dwindled. A CITES ban followed in 1975.
    (Econ, 3/8/08, p.86)(www.rumbosonline.com/articles/4-46-vicuna.htm)

1968        Oct 3, In Peru the military seized power in a coup. Pres. Belaunde was overthrown by Gen. Juan Velasco.
    (SFC, 12/20/96, p.B4)(WUD, 1994, p.1687)(SFC, 6/5/02, p.A23)

1968        Oct 9, The new military government of Peru seized the country's oil fields.
    (AP, 10/9/08)

1968-1975    The pro-Soviet Velasco Alvarado regime ruled Peru. The military government expropriated the sugar estates on the country’s north coast turning them into government-owned cooperatives.
    (WSJ, 12/27/96, p.A7)(Econ, 2/10/07, p.38)

1969        Feb 17, Russia and Peru signed their first trade accord.

1969        Jul 24, Petroleos del Peru (PETROPERU S.A.) was created (law No.17753) as a state-owned entity.

1969        Peru’s government banned the trade of vicuna fleece as hunters drove the animals close to extinction.
    (WSJ, 2/21/07, p.A14)
1969        Explorer Loren McIntyre, on assignment for National Geographic made contact with the Mayoruna people, a tribe in the Amazon border region between Brazil and Peru. In 1991 Petru Demetru Popescu authored “Amazon Beaming," an account of McIntyre’s encounter with the tribe.
    (Econ, 10/15/16, p.81)

1970        May 31, A 7.7 slab earthquake and debris flow in Peru killed 67,000, injured 50,000 and destroyed 186,000 buildings.
    (AP, 5/31/97)(http://landslides.usgs.gov/html_files/landslides/slides/slide5.htm)

1970s        Vladimiro Montesinos, an army captain, was arrested and convicted of selling Peruvian military secrets to the US. He served a year in prison and then became a drug lawyer.
    (SFC, 9/22/00, p.D3)

1971        Dec 24, LANSA Flight 508, a LANSA Lockheed Electra OB-R-941 commercial airliner, crashed in the Peruvian rainforest. Juliane Diller Kopcke (17) of Lima, Peru, was the sole survivor of 92 passengers. She and her mother, famed ornithologist Maria Kopcke, were traveling to meet with her father, biologist Hans-Wilhelm Kopcke. Juliane traveled for 9 days in the jungle before she found help. Her experience became the subject of two films: the 1974 Giuseppe Maria Scotese film Miracoli accadono ancora, I (Miracles Still Happen), and the 2000 film “Wings of Hope" by Werner Herzog film.

1971        In Peru Luis Fernando Figari founded the SCV, or Sodalitium of Christian Life, as a lay community to recruit "soldiers for God." It was one of several Catholic societies born as a conservative reaction to the left-leaning liberation theology movement that swept through Latin America starting in the 1960s.  It was later reported that Figari sodomized his recruits and forced them to fondle him and one another.
    (AP, 2/25/17)(AP, 1/10/18)

1972-1981    Javier Perez de Cuellar of Peru served as the Secretary-General of the UN.
    (SFC, 12/14/96, p.A1)

1972-1973    El Nino currents led to the collapse of the Peruvian anchovy industry. The annual catch had peaked at 12 million tons.
    (SFC, 3/23/98, p.A7)(Econ, 5/7/11, p.41)

1973        Peru outlawed the export of rain forest birds.
    (NG, Jan. 94, p.124)

1974        Pres. Juan Velasco Alvarado took over the Peruvian press.
    (Civilization, July-Aug, 1995, p. 14)

1975        Aug 29, In Peru Gen. Francisco Belaunde (b.1921) began serving as president. He continued to July 28, 1980.
    (WSJ, 12/27/96, p.A7)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Francisco_Morales_Berm%C3%BAdez)

1975        Peru’s sugar output peaked at 1 million tons.
    (Econ, 2/10/07, p.38)

1977        Eva Ayllon made her recording debut with the Creole group Trio Los Kipus: “Los Kipus y Eva."
    (SFEC, 7/23/00, DB p.39) 

1977        The Manu National Park, 4.6 million acres between Cuzco and Madre de Dios provinces, was declared a biosphere reserve by UNESCO.
    (SFC, 9/11/99, p.A5)

1978        Jul 3, The Amazon Pact was established. Bolivia, Brazil, Colombia, Ecuador, Guyana, Peru, Suriname, and Venezuela signed the Amazon Pact, a Brazilian initiative designed to coordinate the joint development of the Amazon Basin.

1978        Dec, Nestor Cerpa, union leader, led 50 workers in the occupation of the Cromotex textile factory in Lima over low wages and layoffs. They held the plant for more than 6 weeks before the police stormed it. Six workers and a police officer were killed.
    (SFC, 12/25/96, p.A10,12)(SFC, 5/3/97, p.A8)

1979        Feb 4, Police stormed the union held Cromotex factory in Lima. Nestor Cerpa was jailed for a year.
    (SFC, 12/25/96, p.A10,12)

1980        May 18, Former president Fernando Belaunde Terry was elected president of Peru. Democracy was restored and the media was free again.
    (SFC, 12/20/96, p.B4)(SFC, 8/23/01, p.A11)(SFC, 6/5/02, p.A23)(SC, 5/18/02)

1980        May 17, The Shining Path (Sendero Luminoso) rebellion began at a university in a provincial capital. Five masked intruders set fire to a ballot box in Chuschi, a village in the Ayacucho region of the Peruvian Andes. Sendero was the creation of Abimael Guzman, a philosophy professor in Huamanga.
    (https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Chuschi)(Econ., 5/16/20, p.27)

1980        Jul 28, Fernando Belaunde Terry (1912-2002) became president of Peru for a 2nd term and held office to 1985. His first term ran from 1963-1968.

1980-1990s    In 2003 Peruvian investigators dramatically increased their estimate of the death toll from a two-decade fight against Shining Path rebels, saying they now believe between 40,000 and 60,000 people perished or disappeared.
    (AP, 6/18/03)

1980-1993    The Peru war unleashed by Sendero, a Maoist group, left some 30,000 dead.
    (Econ, 7/19/03, p.28)

1981        Dec 11, The UN Security Council chose Javier Perez de Cuellar of Peru to be the fifth secretary-general of the world body. He served to 1992.
    (SFC, 12/14/96, p.A1)(AP, 12/11/97)

1981         Mario Vargas Llosa of Peru wrote a fictional account of the 1893-1897 events at Canudos, Brazil, in the epic work: “The War of the End of the World."
    (SFC, 10/7/97, p.A14)

1982        Mar 2, In Peru over 50 Shining Path terrorists attack the prison of Ayacucho, releasing drug traffickers and 54 terrorists held there. The leader of the attack, Edith Lagos, was killed in the battle.

1982        The film "Fitzcarraldo" starred Klaus Kinski and was an Amazonian epic by Werner Herzog. It was inspired by a would-be rubber baron who hauled a boat over a Peruvian mountain to harvest a forest of rubber trees because he wanted to build an opera house in the jungle. In 2009 Herzog authored “conquest of the Useless: Reflections from the Making of Fitzcarraldo.
    (USAT, 11/12/99, p.2E)(SFC, 3/24/00, p.C3)(Econ, 6/27/09, p.92)

1982-1983    El Nino weather caused about $1 billion in damage.
    (SFC, 2/7/98, p.A10)

1983        May 28, In Peru 15 peasants were murdered by soldiers near the village of Totos. A witness pointed out their graves in 2004.
    (AP, 5/29/04)

1983        The Cuban-inspired Tupac Amuru Revolutionary Movement (MRTA) was formed.
    (SFC, 12/19/96, p.A1)(SFC, 8/23/01, p.A11)

1983        Tupac Amuru rebels stole the sword from the statue of the a Peruvian national hero.
    (SFC, 1/7/97, p.A10)

1983        Seven journalists and their guide were slain in an Andean village.
    (SFC, 8/23/01, p.A8)

1984        Dec 13, In Peru 123 people, including men, women and children from area farming communities, were slaughtered at Putis, in Ayacucho province. Army soldiers suspected the farmers supported guerrillas with the Shining Path. According to a later government-appointed truth commission, the military offered Putis as a safe haven for people fleeing Shining Path rebels in the region. Soldiers then tricked villagers into digging their own grave and killed them on suspicion of ties to the guerrillas. In 2008 a Peruvian forensics team began excavating a mass grave containing the remains of 123 men, women and children killed by the military at Putis. In 2009 DNA tests identified 28 of 92 bodies, including 15 women and five children.
    (AP, 5/25/08)(AFP, 5/30/08)(AP, 2/26/09)(AP, 8/30/09)

1984        In Peru anthropologist Jose Matos Mar (1921-2015) authored “Desborde Popular y Crisis del Estado" (Popular Overspill and Crisis of the State). Here he argued that migration from the Andes to the coastal regions amounted to an unstoppable tide of social change.
    (Econ, 8/22/15, p.32)
1984        Hernando de Soto presented the results of his study on Peru’s informal economy. He had mapped the migration of mountain people to urban Lima, where they squatted on undeveloped public land and created vibrant informal economies. In 1986 he published his results in the book: “The Other Path."
    (WSJ, 10/9/00, p.A38)(Econ, 8/26/06, p.11)
1984        The Cuban-inspired Tupac Amuru Revolutionary Movement (MRTA) took up arms.
    (SFC, 12/19/96, p.A1)

1985        Jul 28, In Peru Alan Garcia, leader of the American People’s Revolutionary Alliance (APRA), assumed the presidency and led until 1990. Under his rule much of the nation's external debt was not serviced and the period was marked by 4-digit inflation, food shortages, int’l. isolation and terrorist attacks.
    (WSJ, 10/31/95, p.C-17)(WSJ, 12/27/96, p.A7)(SFC, 1/18/01, p.A14)

1985        Nov, In Peru rebels took over a Lima newspaper. Nestor Cerpa revealed himself as the leader. As Comrade Evaristo he had begun a series of attacks, takeovers and kidnappings.
    (SFC, 12/25/96, p.A12)(www.emergency.com/peruhos3.htm)

1985        In Peru the military was involved in the massacre of 72 peasants in Accomarca, a village in the Ayacucho region, where the Shining Path was founded. In 2005 a judge issued arrest warrants for 29 current and former military officials for the massacre. In 2008 a US federal judge in Miami ordered former Peruvian Major Telmo Hurtado to pay $37 million for his role in the massacre in which 69 civilians were slain.
    (AP, 7/6/05)(SFC, 3/6/08, p.A2)
1985        The Ministry of Fisheries estimated that 9,700 dolphins were killed and sold as “chancho marino" i.e. sea pig.
    (PacDis, Winter/’96, p.36)

1985-1990     The government of Peru was led by Alan Garcia. Much of the nation's external debt was not serviced. The period was marked by 4-digit inflation, food shortages, int’l. isolation and terrorist attacks.
    (WSJ, 10/31/95, p.C-17)(SFC, 1/18/01, p.A14)

1986        Hernando de Soto, Peruvian economist, authored “The Other Path," in which he called the rise of a popular capitalism as opposed to the corporate state.
    (Econ, 8/26/06, p.11)

1986        In Lima, Peru, 150 imprisoned Shining Path rebels were killed following riots in 3 jails.
    (SFC, 8/23/01, p.A8)

1987        Nov 2, During the All Souls holiday a 20 person raiding party of the Maoist Shining path attacked the mountain community of Lucanas. They burned down the municipal hall and several stores and then dragged a local political leader and 7 merchants from their homes and stoned them to death.
    (WSJ, 6/12/97, p.A12)

1988        May 14, Peru’s military was involved in the massacre of at least 26 peasants in the Andean village of Cayara. A week later the military executed 3 more peasants, before systematically killing 8 witnesses. In 2005 a Peruvian judge ordered the arrest of 118 current and retired military officials for the slayings.
    (AP, 7/6/05)

1988        Nov 24, In Peru journalist Hugo Bustios Saavedra was murdered near an army base commanded by Daniel Uresti.
    (http://hrlibrary.umn.edu/cases/1997/peru38-97.html)(Econ., 2/6/21, p.26)

1988        In Peru Tupac Amaru kidnapped industrialist Hector Jeri, a 70-year-old former air force general. He spent 5 months in a cell until released by a payment of more than $1 million.
    (SFC, 1/7/97, p.A10)

1988        In southern Peru Eduardo and Mirtha Ananos began making a cola drink. By 2003 their Kola Real was being marketed in Mexico and Ecuador.
    (WSJ, 10/27/03, p.A1)(Econ, 10/11/03, p.69)

1988        In northern Peru a tomb was looted and its contents put on the black market. A golden head-dress, the image of a sea god, believed to have been taken from the La Mina archaeological site in the Jequetepeque valley, was recovered in 2006 by London police from a lawyer’s office.
    (AP, 8/17/06)

1989        In Peru squatters occupied a Lima site known as Puruchuco-Huaquerones. As they built homes they kept bumping into Inca mummy bundles.
    (Arch, 7/02, p.16)
1989        Eduardo Nycander and Kurt Holle co-founded Rainforests Expeditions in Peru to use tourism to foster conservation.
    (Econ, 4/12/08, p.42)
1989        Gene Savoy, explorer, discovered pottery and monolithic tablets in the cloud forest of northern Peru that he said showed native contact with ancient cultures in other parts of the world. The area was the homeland of the Chachapoya Indian kingdom.
    (SFC,12/13/97, p.A13)

1990        May 29, Northern Peru was struck by an earthquake that claimed as many as 200 lives.

1990        Jun 10, Alberto Fujimori was elected president of Peru by a narrow margin over novelist Mario Vargos Llosa. Peru began to deal with its debt load for the first time since 1983. The principal was 4.4 bil and the back interest was estimated to be 4-4.3 bil.
    (WSJ, 10/31/95, p.C-17)(AP, 6/10/00)

1990        Jul 28, Political newcomer and upset winner Alberto Fujimori was sworn in as president of Peru.
    (AP, 7/28/00)

1990        Vladimiro Montesinos became the head of Peru’s intelligence services.
    (SFE, 9/17/96, p.A11)
1990        In Peru 49 members of the MRTA, including their leader Victor Polay, escaped from the Canto Grande prison near Lima.
    (SFC, 12/20/96, p.B4)
1990        In Peru the MRTA assassinated a former defense minister.
    (SFC, 12/20/96, p.B4)
1990        Peru created the Kugapakori-Nahua-Nanti reserve to protect native Amerindians who shunned contact with the outside world.
    (Econ, 4/26/14, p.35)
1990        The killing and selling of dolphins became illegal in Peru, and the market went underground.
    (PacDis, Winter/’96, p.36)
1990        A Miami-bound Boeing 727 owned by the Peruvian Faucett Airlines crashed into the North Atlantic after running out of fuel. There were 18 airline employees and relatives on board. The wreckage was never recovered.
    (AP, 3/14/14)
1990        In Peru the inflation rate hit 7,500%.
    (Econ, 8/28/10, p.66)

1991        Aug 9, In Peru Polish priests Michael Tomaszek and Zbigniew Strazalkowski were shot in the head in the rural district of Pariacoto. A few weeks later Italian priest Alessandro Dordi was also killed. All three were beatified in 2015.
    (SSFC, 12/6/15, p.A6)

1991        Nov 3, Hooded men with automatic weapons with silencers burst into the inner patio of a downtown Lima tenement and killed 15 people at a barbecue, including an 8-year-old boy. The Colina death squad run by Vladimiro Montesinos was suspected. In 2001 the attorney general asked Congress to pursue homicide charges against former Pres. Fujimori for the murders. In 2008 two survivors of the attack testified at the murder trial of former President Alberto Fujimori.
    (SFC, 5/25/01, p.A16)(AP, 1/4/08)

1991        Peruvians desperate for work rushed into the taxi and bus businesses with little training after Peru lowered used-vehicle import tariffs to ease a transport shortage.
    (AP, 7/16/06)

1991        In Peru there was a cholera epidemic.
    (WSJ, 12/27/96, p.A4)

1992        Feb 15, In Peru Maria Elena Moyano (b.1958), a community organizer and activist of Afro-Peruvian descent, was assassinated by the Shining Path in Lima.
    (https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mar%C3%ADa_Elena_Moyano)(Econ, 3/4/17, p.26)

1992        Apr 4, In Peru Peter Cardenas Schulte, of Tupac Amaru Revolutionary Movement (MRTA), was jailed. Cardenas, who used the alias "Comrade Alfonso," was released from prison in 2015 after serving 25 years.
    (AFP, 9/22/15)

1992        Apr 5, Pres. Fujimori seized dictatorial power by sending tanks to shut down Peru's Congress and judiciary. Former president Alan Garcia fled Peru to avoid arrest by the Fujimori regime. In 2008 Peru's Cabinet chief testified at the trial of former President Alberto Fujimori that security forces attempted to assassinate Garcia following the shut down of Congress.
    (SFC, 1/19/01, p.D4)(AP, 1/18/08)

1992        Apr 6, In Peru journalist Gustavo Gorriti was kidnapped hours after Fujimori seized dictatorial powers, announcing over television that he was closing Congress because it was sabotaging his war against the rebels. Gorriti was released the next day after an intense campaign by international journalist associations and human rights groups for his freedom. Pres. Fujimori closed Congress and the judiciary and ruled by decree for the rest of the year.
    (SFE, 9/17/96, p.A11)(AP, 1/5/08)

1992        Jul 18, In Peru 9 students and a univ. teacher were killed at La Cantuta Univ. Later retired Gen’l. Rodolfo Robles charged that an army death squad, the Colina Group, was responsible. Death squad members were convicted and then released in a 1995 general amnesty. In 2008 a former general and three members of a military death squad were found guilty of participating in the kidnapping and murder.
    (SFC, 11/27/96, p.A13)(SFC, 12/2/96, p.A14)(SFC, 8/23/01, p.A8)(AP, 4/9/08)

1992        Sep 12, In Peru the Shining Path guerilla leader Abimael Guzman was captured by police chief Ketin Vidal with help from a CIA operative nick-named “Superman." Oscar Ramirez, aka Feliciano, took over the leadership. Guzman, a former philosophy professor, was tried by a military court and sentenced to life in jail. The verdict was overturned in Jan 2003.
    (SFE, 9/17/96, p.A11)(SFC, 7/14/99, p.C10)(SFC, 12/8/00, p.A20)(Econ, 10/30/04, p.44)

1992        Victor Polay, chief of the Tupac Amaru guerrillas was captured with his chief lieutenant Peter Cardenas.
    (SFC, 12/18/96, p.A17)(SFC, 12/25/96, p.A12)
1992        In Peru Lt. Col. Ollanta Humala commanded a jungle counterinsurgency base. In 2006 criminal complaints accused Humala, a contender in presidential elections, of forced disappearance, torture and attempted murder during his 1992 command.
    (AP, 2/17/06)
1992        Peru’s government sold rights to the country’s annual vicuna production to Loro Piana, an Italian textile manufacturer. Piana formed a consortium which agreed to pay around $400 a kilogram (about 2 pounds) for the vicuna fleece.
    (WSJ, 2/21/07, p.A14)
1992        China’s Shougang company bought an iron ore mine in Peru. This was China’s first investment in the region.
    (Econ, 8/15/09, p.20)

1993        Apr, In Peru a younger sister of Luz Dina Villoslada was raped by the son of a local coffee grower. Authorities were bribed to drop the investigation. Luz Dina joined the Tupac Amaru guerrillas in rebellion. She was 20 years old and one of the 14 rebels slain in the 1997 Lima hostage siege.
    (SFC, 5/1/97, p.A14)

1993        Jul, Top commanders of the Tupac Amaru guerrilla conceded defeat and surrendered.
    (SFC, 12/18/96, p.A17)

1993        Nov 13, In Peru military officers attempted another coup against Pres. Fujimori.
    (SFC, 9/17/96, p.A11)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Alberto_Fujimori)

1993        Mario Vargas Llosa published his book “Death in the Andes" in Peru. The English version was published in 1996. It is a fictionalized account of some of the worst atrocities committed by and in reaction to Peru’s Sendero Luminoso (Shining path) guerrillas.
    (WSJ, 2/16/96, p.A-8)

1993        In Peru Magno Sosa wrote “The Sin of Being a Journalist" after spending 6 months wrongly imprisoned on terrorism charges after reporting on human rights violations.
    (SFEC, 3/3/97, p.A14)

1993        In Peru a new constitution was narrowly approved that allowed Fujimori to seek a 2nd 5-year term. It prohibited a 3rd term but 3 years later legislation was passed that excluded Fujimori from the restriction because his term began before the document was written.
    (SFC, 12/20/96, p.B4)(SFC, 12/28/99, p.B2)
1993        Peru ratified the Int’l. Labor Organization’s convention on indigenous peoples.
    (Econ, 9/3/11, p.36)
1993        In Peru General Rodolfo Robles accused intelligence chief Vladimiro Montesinos of heading a government backed depth squad. The investigation was stone-walled by the government-loyal Congress.
    (SFC, 9/17/96, p.A11)

1994        Aug 28, A Drug Enforcement Administration plane crashed in a remote area of Peru's cocaine-producing jungle, killing five U.S. agents.
    (AP, 8/28/99)

1994        Mario Vargas Llosa published “A Fish in the Water," a memoir of his political campaign for the 1999 presidency.
    (SFEC, 5/24/98, BR p.4)

1994        Lori Helene Berenson, an American, arrived in Peru from El Salvador where she had worked as the personal secretary to Leonel Gonzalez, top commander of the FMLN guerrillas.
    (WSJ, 12/27/96, p.A7)

1994        Alpacas from Peru began arriving in the US after barriers with Peru were removed.
    (WSJ, 4/5/07, p.A10)

1995        Jan, In Peru Manuel Lopez Paredes was arrested. Police discovered 3.5 tons of cocaine, valued at more than $600 million, ready for shipment by the family cartel.
    (SFC, 8/17/96, p.A12)

1995        Apr 9, Alberto Fujimori was re-elected president of Peru in a landslide victory.
    (Civilization, July-Aug, 1995, p. 14)(AP, 4/9/00)

1995        Sep, The 500-year-old body of a young Inca girl was found frozen near the summit of Mt. Ampato, Peru, by American archeologist Johan Reinhard. In 2005 Reinhard authored “The Ice Maiden: Inca Mummies, Mountain Gods, and the Sacred Sites in the Andes."
    (SFC, 5/22/96, p.A8)(Arch, 5/05, p.51)

1995        Nov, Lori Helene Berenson, an American, was arrested on charges of aiding MRTA. She was convicted and sentenced to life in prison. Also arrested was Nancy Gilvonio, wife of Nestor Cerpa, a Tupac Amaru rebel.
    (SFC, 12/20/96, p.B4)(SFC, 5/3/97, p.A8)

1995        In Peru a new government austerity program slowed the growth rate to 3.7%.
    (WSJ, 11/22/95, p.A-3)
1995        Peru’s government under President Alberto Fujimori began a family planning program. It promoted birth control as a way to reduce family size and poverty. It was later cited as taking advantage of poor rural women to meet quotas in sloppy operations under unsanitary conditions. At least 2 women were reported to have died and hundreds injured from the operations. From 1995-2000 more than 300,000 women were sterilized, mostly poor, illiterate Indians.
    (SFEC, 2/15/98, p.A26)(AP, 2/15/12)

1995        Ecuador engaged in a border war with Peru. Argentine arms were transported to Ecuador by the US Fine Air airline owned by Barry and Lary Fine. The Fine brothers were tried in absentia in Lima in 1997.
    (SFC, 10/22/97, p.A10)

1995-1998    The central government opened schools in 95 Ayacucho villages and potable water systems in 66 villages. The Shining Path rebellion had killed some 30,000 people, mostly from Ayacucho province.
    (SFEC, 8/29/99, p.A24)

1996        Jan 11, Lori Berenson was sentenced to life in prison. In 2000 a military tribunal overturned the life sentence and opened the way for a civilian trial.
    (SFC, 10/2/97, p.A10) (WSJ, 8/28/00, p.A1)

1996        Jan, Alberto Andrade, a wealthy leather-goods maker, was elected mayor of Lima (pop. 7.5 mil.). He moved his family downtown and began efforts to revitalize the city.
    (WSJ, 7/2/97, p.B8)

1996        Feb 29, Mar 2, A Boeing 737 of the Peruvian domestic Fawcett Airlines crashed in the southern Andes and killed 123 people.
    (SFC, 11/1/96, p.A18)(SFC, 5/12/96, p.A-14)

1996        May 18, A 40 year agreement was signed between Royal Dutch/Shell and Perupetro, Peru’s state oil company. Royal Dutch will spend $2.7 bil to develop a natural gas field.
    (SFC, 5/18/96, p.D-6)

1996        May, Telefonica del Peru is the fastest publicly traded telephone company in the world.
    (WSJ, 5/23/96, p.A-6)

1996        Aug, Demetrio Chavez Penaherrera, an imprisoned drug lord, told a court that the chief of intelligence, Vladimiro Montesinos, accepted bribes of $50,000 per month in 1991-1992.
    (SFE, 9/17/96, p.A11)

1996        Oct 2, The Aeroperu flight 603, a Boeing 757, crashed shortly after takeoff into the Pacific and all 61 passengers and nine crew members were killed. The pilot claimed loss of navigational equipment just before the crash. It was later reported that a maintenance worker failed to remove tape from sensors after polishing the aircraft. A judge ordered Aeroperu and the worker to pay $29 million to families of the 70 dead.
    (SFC, 10/3/96, p.A8)(AP, 10/2/97)(WSJ, 1/22/98, p.A1)

1996        Nov 12, A 6.4 earthquake hit the country centered in the Pacific Ocean about 83 miles west of Nazca, 235 miles southeast of Lima. About 17 people were killed and some 1500 injured in the 7.7 earthquake.
    (SFC, 11/13/96, p.A10)(SSFC, 6/24/01, p.A16)

1996        Nov 26, Gen’l Rodolfo Robles was arrested at the request of the Supreme Military Justice Council for insubordination. [see 1992]
    (SFC, 11/27/96, p.A13)

1996        Dec 17, In Peru guerrillas took over a party at the house of the Japanese ambassador in Lima. They identified themselves as members of the Tupac Amaru guerrilla movement and demanded the release of imprisoned guerrillas. Nestor Cerpa Cartolini was later identified as the leader of the 20 or so guerrillas. Cerpa’s common-law wife, Nancy Gilvonio, was one of the imprisoned guerrillas whom he demanded be released. Pres. Fujimori’s brother was one of the hostages. All but 72 hostages were later released; the siege ended April 22, 1997, with a commando raid that resulted in the deaths of all the rebels, two commandos and one hostage.
    (SFC, 12/25/96, p.A12)(SFC, 1/7/97, p.A10)(SFC, 1/17/96, p.A12)(AP, 12/17/97)

1996        Dec 20, A handful of rebels released 38 hostages and some 340 remained captive. The rebels demanded concessions before any more would be released.
    (SFC, 12/21/96, p.A12)

1996        Dec 22, Peruvian guerrillas holding more than 360 hostages at the Japanese ambassador's residence in Lima released 225 hostages but still held 140 of their captives.
    (SFC, 12/24/96, p.A7)(AP, 12/22/97)

1996        Dec 24, In Peru the Uruguay ambassador was released after his country freed 2 rebels jailed there. Six ambassadors were left among the remaining 105 hostages.
    (SFC, 12/25/96, p.A12)

1996        Dec 25, Peruvians held candles high and prayed outside the Japanese ambassador's residence, where leftist rebels freed one hostage for health reasons, but continued to hold more than 100 others.
    (AP, 12/25/97)

1996        Dec 27, Pres. Fujimori declared a 60-day state of emergency.
    (SFC, 12/28/96, p.A12)

1996        Dec 28, Leftist rebels in Peru released 20 more hostages, including two ambassadors, from Japan's embassy residence, following the first face-to-face talks between guerrillas and the government's negotiator.
    (SFC, 12/29/96, p.A1)(AP, 12/28/97)

1996        Dec 31, Leftist rebels in Peru released two diplomats, leaving 81 hostages in the besieged Japanese embassy residence in Lima.
    (AP, 12/31/97)

1996        The office of People's Defender, Defensorio del Pueblo, was created to protect Peruvians from abuse by public officials. The office was directed by Jorge Santistevan.
    (WSJ, 3/9/00, p.A1)

1997        Jan 2, Pres. Fujimori replaced the president of the Supreme Court and six police generals, who were among the hostages held by Tupac Amaru rebels. The hostage count was down to 74.
    (SFC, 1/3/97, p.A16)

1997        Jan 15, In Peru intelligence officers took Leonor LaRosa, a fellow intelligence agent, into custody and began torturing her on accusations that she informed newspapers of military plans to intimidate and assassinate opposition activists and journalists. La Rosa named 4 intelligence agents as directly responsible. Ricardo Anderson was named as one of the 4 agents.
    (SFC, 6/28/97, p.A10)(SFC, 3/11/00, p.A9)(WSJ, 5/30/00, p.A1)

1997        Feb 17, Leonor La Rosa was taken to a military hospital following her torture and beatings.
    (SFC, 6/28/97, p.A10)

1997        Feb 18, At least 33 people were killed and a hundred were missing after an Andean mountain collapsed and buried the villages of Choch and Pumaranra near Abancay.
    (SFC, 2/19/96, p.A11)

1997        Mar, Foreign officials and local journalists confirmed that the police were digging tunnels to the residence of the Japanese ambassador where hostages were being held by the Tupac Amaru rebels.
    (SFC, 3/8/96, p.A1)

1997        Mar, In Peru the body of Mariela Barreto, an intelligence officer, was found with her head and hands hacked off and her spine snapped in half.
    (SFC, 6/28/97, p.A10)(WSJ, 5/30/00, p.A1)

1997        Apr 6, Leonor LaRosa revealed her torture and beatings to a television station.
    (SFC, 6/28/97, p.A10)

1997        Apr 22, In Peru on day 126 of the hostage crises government commandos stormed the home of the Japanese envoy in Lima and freed 71 hostages. Two soldiers, all 14 Tupac Amaru rebels and one hostage, Justice Carlos Giusti, died in the assault. Later reports indicated that some rebels were killed while trying to surrender and that their bodies may have been mutilated. The government planned to bury them in scattered unmarked graves. In 2002 forensic evidence indicated that 8 of 14 rebels were shot from behind after they surrendered at the end of the siege. A prosecutor then filed charges against 18 army officers for executing 3 rebels after they surrendered. On Oct 15, 2003, a secret military court dismissed charges against 140 commandos accused of summarily executing three leftist rebels during a 1997 hostage rescue at the Japanese ambassador's residence.
    (WSJ, 4/2397, p.A1)(SFC, 4/23/97, p.A1,8)(SFC, 4/25/97, p.A12)(AP, 4/22/98)(WSJ, 5/20/02, p.A1)(SFC, 6/7/02, p.A12)(AP, 11/14/03)

1997        May 5, The 24 miners who dug tunnels for the Peruvian commandoes had still not returned home and their families feared for their lives. Two men were killed or injured in the digging operation.
    (SFC, 5/6/97, p.A12)

1997        May 22, Security forces captured the leaders of 2 Maoist Shining Path units after a weeklong operation.
    (WSJ, 5/23/97, pA1)

1997        May 29, The congressional majority of Pres. Fujimori fired 3 constitutional court judges who had ruled against his bid for a 3rd consecutive term.
    (SFC, 6/17/97, p.D1)

1997        May, A military court sentenced 4 army officers to 8 years in prison for the torture of Leonor LaRosa.
    (SFC, 6/28/97, p.A10)

1997        Jul 6, The English translation of “Making Waves" by Mario Vargas Llosa was reviewed. The work is a collection of essays that go back to 1962.
    (SFEC, 7/6/97, BR p.5)

1997        Jul 17, Thousands of demonstrators protested against Pres. Fujimore chanting “Down with the dictatorship." Three cabinet ministers had also resigned in the last 24 hours.
    (SFC, 7/18/97, p.A10)

1997        Jul 17, Pres. Fujimori named 5 new ministers including 2 generals and sparked concern that he was moving even closer to the armed forces.
    (SFC, 7/19/97, p.A11)

1997        Aug 8, In Peru at least 20 bus passengers were killed in a crash in the province of Cuzco. Some 80 people have died in 4 bus crashes in the last week.
    (SFC, 8/9/97, p.C1)

1997        Aug 10, A snowstorm trapped some 40 vehicles on the Andes highway between Abancay and Puquio and left 6 people dead in their vehicles.
    (SFC, 8/11/97, p.A8)

1997        Aug, Two small planes collided at the Nazca archeological site and 12 people were killed.
    (SFC, 9/1/97, p.A14)

1997        Sep 29, The government announced that the practice of trying guerrillas by hooded anonymous judges would end Oct 15.
    (SFC, 10/2/97, p.A10)

1997        Nov 25, President Clinton and Pacific Rim leaders meeting in Vancouver, British Columbia, approved a rescue strategy for Asian economies shaken by plunging currencies, bank failures and bankruptcies. The 2-day APEC summit in Vancouver closed and leaders agreed to an IMF bailout plan. Forum leaders also agreed to admit Russia, Vietnam and Peru into the organization as of 1998.
    (SFC, 11/26/97, p.C2)(HN, 11/25/98)

1997        Dec 2, Pres. Fujimori ended the yearlong ban on visits by the Red Cross to jailed leftist suspects.
    (SFC, 12/3/97, p.C5)

1997        Dec 12, Archeologists announced the finding of a 2nd mummy of a young Inca sacrificed over 500 years ago near the summit of Mt. Ampato, not far from Peru’s 2nd city Arequipa.
    (SFC, 12/13/97, p.A14)

1997        Dec 26, Police reported that a Peruvian family hacked 2 Japanese students to death. The students had rowed on the Amazon for hundreds of miles with plans to reach Manaus.
    (SFC, 12/27/97, p.A13)

1997        Jolanda and Titus from the Netherlands began adopting street children in Cuzco, Peru. They soon opened a hotel to provide financial support and soon expanded operations into a collective known as the Ninos Projects. By 2003 some 250 children were involved. www.ninoshotel.com.
    (SSFC, 12/21/03, p.C8)

1997        A study by the Peruvian government found that the country’s glaciers had shrunk by 22% over the last 30 years. In the Carabaya range they had receded by 32%.
    (WSJ, 6/17/05, p.A1)(Econ, 7/14/07, p.42)

1998        Jan 19, Peru and Ecuador signed an accord pledging to settle their longtime 49-mile border conflict by May.
    (WSJ, 1/20/98, p.A1)

1998        Jan 29, A mudslide in Choco killed at least 31 people. Floods and mudslides have killed over 100 and left 25,000 homeless in the last few months.
    (SFC, 1/31/98, p.A8)

1998        Feb 6, Peru’s Pres. Fujimori took personal control in Piura to shore up the waters of the Ica River which burst its banks. Recent weather related deaths had reached 150. Mudslide damaged parts of the famous Nazca Lines.
    (SFC, 2/7/98, p.A10)(SFC, 2/9/98, p.A12)

1998        Feb 10, The Supreme Court ruled that Pres. Fujimori would be allowed to run for re-election to a 3rd tem in 2000 if he wants to.
    (SFC, 2/11/98, p.B3)

1998        Feb 25, It was reported that the country was abandoning its campaign of sterilizing women.
    (SFC, 2/26/98, p.A8)

1998        Mar 29, In Peru an air force plane evacuating people stranded by flooding crashed in Piura. Twenty-two people were killed when a Russian-made Antonov military plane crashed into a Peruvian shantytown outside the northern city of Piura.
    (SFC, 3/30/98, p.A10)(AP, 3/29/99)

1998        Apr 24, Pres. Fujimori announced that police captured 3 top guerrilla leaders of the Shining Path.
    (SFC, 4/25/98, p.A9)

1998        May 6, A Boeing 737, chartered by Occidental Petroleum from the Peruvian air force, crashed in the Amazon jungle. At least 13 of 87 people survived the crash.
    (WSJ, 5/7/98, p.A1)

1998        May, The novel “The Notebooks of Don Rigoberto" by Mario Vargas Llosa was translated into English by Edith Grossman. His earlier novels included “Aunt Julia and the Scriptwriter," “The War of the End of the World," and “the Storyteller."
    (SFEC, 5/24/98, BR p.4)

1998        Jun 8, Maria Reiche, a German mathematician, died in Lima at age 95. She had spent over 50 years protecting the ancient Nazca Lines using money from the sale of a book about the drawings.
    (SFC, 6/9/98, p.A24)

1998        Aug 21, It was reported that a comprehensive treaty between Ecuador and Peru had been drafted and only required political will to end the 57-year-old conflict. The military in Ecuador held 23 large companies in areas such as auto assembly, shrimping, mining, oil and hotels.
    (WSJ, 8/21/98, p.A15)

1998        cSep 15, Archeologist found 6 frozen mummies sacrificed to Inca gods over 500 years ago near the crater of the 19,100 foot El Misti volcano, 465 miles southeast of Lima.
    (SFC, 10/3/98, p.C1)

1998        Sep 30, Some 5,000 workers marched in Lima to protest a congressional vote that quashed calls for a referendum over whether Pres. Fujimori could run for re-election. 300 workers stormed the parade ground of the presidential palace.
    (SFC, 10/1/98, p.A14)

1998        Oct 16, Lawmakers in Ecuador and Peru agreed to let their border dispute be resolved by the US, Brazil, Chile and Argentina.
    (SFC, 10/17/98, p.A14)

1998        Oct 23, Peru and Ecuador settled their border dispute with a line along the Cordellera de Condor mountain range. Contiguous national parks were to be created in the disputed area. Tiwintza Hill, allocated to Peru, was to be granted as private property to Ecuador.
    (SFC, 10/24/98, p.A12)

1998        Oct 26, Ecuador and Peru signed a peace treaty in Brazil and settled their land dispute. The agreement defined a 49-mile border left undrawn in a 1942 treaty.
    (SFC, 10/27/98, p.B5)(SFEC, 11/14/99, p.A22)

1998        Dec 25, In Lima, Peru, a tear gas bomb caused a stampede in a disco and 9 young people, 13-21, were crushed to death. The bomb was said to have been thrown by members of a youth gang.
    (SFC, 12/26/98, p.A14)

1998        Jordan received ok from the American CIA to sell 50,000 surplus AK-47 assault rifles to Peru. Many of the rifles went to leftist guerrillas in Colombia and Vladimiro Montesinos, Peru’s spy chief, was implicated.
    (SFC, 11/6/00, p.A12)

1999        Jan 3, Pres. Fujimori named Joy Way, head of Congress, as prime minister.
    (WSJ, 1/4/98, p.A1)

1999        Apr 28, In Peru labor unions staged a nation-wide strike to protest stagnant living standards.
    (WSJ, 4/29/99, p.A1)

1999        May 13, Ecuador and Peru signed a treaty settling their 50-year border dispute over a 50 mile stretch in the Amazon jungle.
    (WSJ, 5/14/99, p.A1)

1999        Jun 3, In Peru rebels of the Maoist Shining Path killed 9 people in 2 incidents in the highlands.
    (SFC, 6/5/99, p.A12)

1999        Jun 15, In Peru Maoist Shining Path rebels killed 8 people in a remote village in the center of the country.
    (SFC, 6/16/99, p.B2)

1999        Jul 13, Oscar Ramirez (46), aka Feliciano and head of the Shinning Path, was surrounded by the military.
    (SFC, 7/14/99, p.C10)

1999        Jul 14, In Peru army soldiers captured Oscar Ramirez Durand (46), aka Comrad Feliciano, head of the Shining Path rebels. He was later sentenced by a military tribunal to life in prison.
    (SFC, 7/15/99, p.A12)(SFC, 8/18/99, p.C2)(SFC, 8/31/99, p.A13)

1999        Aug 17, Officials reported that Carlos Audel Nunez, a Shining Path rebel leader aka "Comrade Manuel," was killed along with his wife in a clash with military forces.
    (SFC, 8/18/99, p.C2)

1999        Oct 2, Two rebels died from gunfire with soldiers near Satipo.
    (SFC, 10/6/99, p.C16)

1999        Oct 3, In Peru 9 soldiers were killed in a weekend clash with some 60 Maoist guerrillas in the central jungle.
    (SFC, 10/6/99, p.C16)

1999        Oct 22, In Peru 28 school children died near Cuzco after a breakfast of cereal that doctors suspect was prepared in a vat once used to mix pesticides.
    (WSJ, 10/25/99, p.A1)

1999        Nov 4, It was reported that a coca plant fungus was sweeping the area of the Huallaga Valley, and some observers blamed US anti-drug programs.
    (SFC, 11/4/99, p.A14)

1999        cNov 12, At least 46 people were buried alive in a mudslide in Tacabamba.
    (SFC, 11/13/99, p.D8)

1999        Nov 13, Peru and Chile signed an agreement to end a 120-year territorial dispute. Peru was granted the exclusive use of a pier in the Chilean port of Arica.
    (SFEC, 11/14/99, p.A22)

1999        Dec 27, Pres. Fujimori announced his candidacy for a 3rd term as president.
    (SFC, 12/28/99, p.B2)

1999        The TV talk show "Laura en America" ran an episode, Anything for Money, that featured humiliating acts by low paid poor people before a live audience. The popular show was hosted by lawyer Laura Bozzo, aka Dr. Laura.
    (SFC, 3/15/00, p.D5)

1999        American explorer Gene Savoy discovered a pre-Incan metropolis in Peru, naming it Gran Saposoa, and concluded it was one of the cities of the Chachapoyas kingdom.
    (AP, 9/5/05)

2000        Jan 10, In Peru a passenger bus plunged into the Mantaro River 90 miles northeast of Lima and at least 27 people were killed.
    (SFC, 1/11/00, p.A11)

2000        Feb 1, In Peru Shining Path rebels killed 3 park rangers in a reserve for vicuna.
    (SFC, 2/3/00, p.A13)

2000        Feb 6, In Peru riots began in the Yanamayo prison by Shining Path rebels loyal to Oscar Ramirez Durand. One guard and one rebel were killed and rebels held a number of guards as hostages.
    (SFC, 2/8/00, p.A14)

2000        Apr 5, In Peru Alejandro Toledo (54), the “Cholo," rose dramatically in the polls as opposition candidate to Pres. Alberto Fujimori, the “Chino." Toledo represented the Peru Possible Party.
    (SFC, 4/6/00, p.A12)

2000        Apr 9, Pres. Fujimori led Alejandro Toledo with 48% of the vote and a runoff was planned.
    (SFC, 4/10/00, p.A1)

2000        Apr 11, In Peru the vote count reached 49.79% for Pres. Fujimori and tensions mounted under suspected irregularities.
    (WSJ, 4/12/00, p.A1)

2000        Apr 12, In Peru officials announced that a runoff election would be held between Pres. Fujimori and Alejandro Toledo.
    (SFC, 4/13/00, p.A14)

2000        May 22, In Peru election observers suspended monitoring preparations for elections. Alejandro Toledo formally pulled out of the race after his demand for an election postponement was rebuffed.
    (WSJ, 5/23/00, p.A1)(SFC, 5/23/00, p.A12)

2000        May 28, In Peru Pres. Fujimori claimed victory with 50.8% of the vote in elections tainted by alleged fraud and irregularities.
    (SFC, 5/29/00, p.A1)

2000        May 29, The US State Dept. called the vote in Peru invalid.
    (SFC, 5/30/00, p.A12)

2000        Jun 2, In Peru a truck leaving the Yanacocha gold mine leaked 330 pounds of liquid mercury. Local residents soon suffered mercury poisoning. A legal suit against Denver-based Newmont Mining moved forward in 2005.
    (SFC, 3/14/05, p.A1)

2000        Jun 29, The OAS said it would set up a permanent office in Lima to oversee democratic reforms.
    (SFC, 6/30/00, p.A18)

2000        Jul 28, Violent protests took place as Pres. Fujimori was sworn in for his 3rd term and 5 people were killed in fires set by vandals.
    (SFC, 7/29/00, p.A10)

2000        Sep 14, In Peru a video was broadcast that showed Vladimiro Montesinos, the country’s chief spy, bribing congressman Alberto Kouri to support Pres. Fujimori. The heads of Peru’s 14 military divisions were all from the military-school class of Montesinos. The annual military budget was $1.5 billion. There were allegations that Montesinos was involved in the sale of AK47 assault rifles to rebels in Colombia. In 2009 Fujimori acknowledged that soon after the video emerged he paid Montesinos $15 million in state money to quit.
    (SFC, 9/16/00, p.A10)(WSJ, 9/20/00, p.A23)(SFC, 9/22/00, p.D3)(AP, 7/13/09)

2000        Sep 16, Pres. Fujimori, engulfed in a bribery scandal, announced that he would call an immediate general election and not seek office. He also decided to deactivate the National Intelligence Service.
    (SFEC, 9/17/00, p.A11)

2000        Sep 24, Vladimiro Montesinos, Peru’s ousted spy chief, fled to Panama.
    (SFC, 9/25/00, p.A12)

2000        Sep 28, Pres. Fujimori flew to Washington to meet with OAS officials as rumors of a coup swirled.
    (WSJ, 9/29/00, p.A1)

2000        Oct 6, In Peru a 5,000 barrel oil spill by an Argentine company threatened the water resources of some 10,000 inhabitants in the northern jungle.
    (SFEC, 10/8/00, p.A24)

2000        Oct 11, A law was published that called for the disbanding of the 5,000 person National Intelligence Service within 15 days.
    (SFC, 10/12/00, p.A13)

2000        Oct 23, In Peru Vladimiro Montesinos, the former intelligence chief, landed in Pisco as police and protesters clashed in Lima.
    (SFC, 10/24/00, p.A14)

2000        Oct 25, Pres. Fujimori ordered the arrest of Vladimiro Montesinos.
    (WSJ, 10/26/00, p.A1)

2000        Oct 29, Lt. Col. Ollanta Humala led some 51 soldiers in a revolt against pres. Fujimori in Toquepala. They kidnapped Gen. Oscar Bardales. In 2006 former spy chief Vladimiro Montesinos called Humala's uprising a "farce, an operation of deception and manipulation" designed to "facilitate my exit from the country on the sailboat Karisma."
    (SFC, 10/30/00, p.A10)(AP, 5/20/06)

2000        Oct 30, A revolt of renegade troops drew to a close as most of those involved were rounded up. Lt. Col Humala and 7 soldiers remained at large.
    (SFC, 10/31/00, p.A13)

2000        Nov 3, Swiss authorities froze about $50 million in bank accounts tied to Vladimiro Montesinos, the ex-spy chief of Peru.
    (SFC, 11/4/00, p.A13)

2000        Nov 13, Lawmakers ousted Martha Hildebrandt, a supporter of Pres. Fujimori, from her post as president of Congress.
    (SFC, 11/14/00, p.A17)

2000        Nov 16, Valentin Paniagua was elected Congress president over Ricardo Marcenaro, a Fujimori loyalist, 64-51.
    (SFC, 11/17/00, p.D2)

2000        Nov 17, A government report acknowledged that over 4,000 people disappeared between 1980 and 1996 on suspicion of being leftist guerrillas.
    (SFC, 11/18/00, p.A16)

2000        Nov 19, In Tokyo Pres. Fujimori said he would resign within 48 hours.
    (SFC, 11/20/00, p.A1)

2000        Nov 20, Pres. Fujimori announced his resignation from Tokyo. Acting president Ricardo Marquez also stepped down.
    (SFC, 11/21/00, p.A12)

2000        Nov 21, The legislature refused to accept the resignation of Pres. Fujimori and ousted him for moral incapacity.
    (SFC, 11/22/00, p.A18)

2000        Nov 22, Valentin Paniagua was sworn in as the interim president. He selected Javier Perez de Cuellar, the former UN Sec. General, as prime minister.
    (SFC, 11/23/00, p.A22)

2000        Nov 25, Walter Ledesma, the new defense minister, announced the immediate dismissal of 12 generals.
    (SSFC, 11/26/00, p.D9)

2000        Dec 16, It was reported that the source of the Amazon had been located at the Carhuasanta Creek on the 18,363-foot peak of Nevado Mismi in southern Peru.
    (SFC, 12/16/00, p.A22)

2000        Dec 28, Congress voted to overhaul the election system.
    (SFC, 12/29/00, p.B5)

2000        Mario Vargos Llosa of Peru authored his historical novel “The Feast of the Goat." It explored the cruel regime of General Trujillo in the Dominican Rep.
    (Econ, 10/16/10, p.44)
2000        Hernando de Soto, Peruvian economist, authored “The Mystery of Capital: Why Capitalism Triumphs in the West and Fails Everywhere Else," in which he argued that because the poor lacked title to their assets, they could not take advantage of them and were stuck with “dead capital."
    (http://tinyurl.com/3xxehl)(www.cato.org/special/friedman/desoto/index.html)(Econ, 8/26/06, p.62)
2000        Arequipa, “the white city," was inscribed as a World Heritage site by UNESCO.
    (SSFC, 6/24/01, p.A16)

2001        Jan 18, The Supreme Court lifted arrest warrants against former president Alan Garcia. Garcia planned to return Jan 27 in a fresh bid for the presidency with the APRA party.
    (SFC, 1/19/01, p.D4)

2001        Mar 13, A Peruvian MiG-29 crashed on a test flight made as part of an inquiry into the 1990s purchase of Russian jets. Montesinos was suspected to have skimmed $48 million in the deal.
    (WSJ, 3/14/00, p.A1)

2001        Apr 8, Alejandro Toledo (55) led the presidential elections with 36% of the vote. A May 20 runoff was planned with Alan Garcia who received 25.7%.
    (SFC, 4/9/01, p.A7)(WSJ, 4/12/01, p.A1)

2001        Apr 20, A Peruvian air force jet shot down a Cessna 185 carrying US missionaries. Veronica Bowers (35) and her infant daughter were killed when the plane crash landed in the Amazon River. The plane was identified by a US surveillance plane and was believed to be trafficking in narcotics.
    (SFC, 4/21/01, p.A12)(SFC, 4/22/01, p.D1)

2001        Jun 3, In Peru Alejandro Toledo won the presidency over ex-president Alan Garcia.
    (SFC, 6/4/01, p.A1)(AP, 6/3/02)

2001        Jun 20, American Lori Berenson (31) was convicted by a civilian court of collaborating with rebels and sentenced to 20 years in prison. She already had served 5 years. The conviction was upheld Feb 18, 2002.
    (WSJ, 6/21/01, p.A1)(SFC, 6/21/01, p.A10)(SFC, 2/19/02, p.A7)

2001        Jun 23, In southern Peru a 7.9 earthquake killed at 55 people. 12,500 people lost their homes.
    (SSFC, 6/24/01, p.A16)(SFC, 6/25/01, p.A8)

2001        Jun 23, Vladimiro Montesinos, Peru’s former spy chief, was arrested in Caracas, Venezuela. Pres. Chavez pledged to return him to Peru.
    (SFC, 6/25/01, p.A1)(WSJ, 6/25/01, p.A16)

2001        Jun 25, The June 23 Peru earthquake was revised to 8.1 magnitude with the death toll at 102.
    (WSJ, 6/26/01, p.A1)(SFC, 6/27/01, p.D3)
2001        Jun 25, Vladimiro Montesinos, the former Peruvian spy chief, was flown from Venezuela to Lima.
    (SFC, 6/26/01, p.A8)

2001        Jul 5, A 5.1 earthquake struck near Caraveli.
    (SFC, 7/6/01, p.D6)

2001        Jul 28, Pres. Toledo was inaugurated as the nation’s 1st president of Indian descent. He promised a government at the service of its people.
    (SSFC, 7/29/01, p.A14)

2001         Aug 7, A gunfight between police and leftist rebels in the province of Satipo left 12 rebels and 4 police officers dead.
    (SFC, 8/10/01, p.A18)

2001        Aug 14, Pres. Toledo dismissed military commanders and put in his own men.
    (WSJ, 8/15/01, p.A1)

2001        Aug 27, Peru's Congress voted to lift the constitutional immunity of former President Alberto Fujimori, so that prosecutors could charge him with crimes against humanity.
    (AP, 8/27/02)

2001        Sep 5, The attorney general filed homicide charges against former Pres. Fujimori linking him to 2 massacres by the Colina group in the early 1990s.
    (SFC, 9/6/01, p.A8)

2001        Sep 11, The Organization of American States (OAS) meeting in Lima, Peru, adopted a Democratic Charter committing its 34 active member states to representative government.
    (https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Inter-American_Democratic_Charter)(Econ, 6/18/16, p.35)

2001        Sep 13, Peru issued an int’l. arrest warrant for former Pres. Alberto Fujimori on charges that he shared responsibility for 25 death-squad slayings in the early years of his rule.
    (SFC, 9/14/01, p.A32)

2001        Oct 31, Congress unanimously approved embezzlement charges against former Pres. Fujimori.
    (SFC, 11/1/01, p.C7)

2001        Dec 29, A fireworks shop exploded and caused a fire in downtown Lima that spread over 4 downtown blocks. At least 290 people were killed.
    (SSFC, 12/30/01, p.A12)(SFC, 12/31/01, p.A3)(WSJ, 1/2/02, p.A1)

2001        Peru moved to create autonomous regional governments and to give them more revenues. Mayor Wenceslao Alderete of Huayre, hoping to attract tourists, spent $158,000 to create an erotic sculpture park in the central plaza. In 2006 the town still lacked paved streets and a sewage system.
    (SFC, 11/23/06, p.A33)
2001        UN figures said 54.7% of Peruvians were poor. By 2014 the number dropped to 22.7%.
    (Econ, 4/9/15, p.35)

2002        Jan 17, In Peru some 200 Aguaruna Indians attacked settlers near the Ecuador border and killed 14 people. Landless peasants had begun settling the area in 1989.
    (SFC, 1/19/02, p.A4)

2002        Feb 12, John Hamilton, US ambassador to Peru, said the US would triple anti-drug funding to over $150 million.
    (SFC, 2/13/02, p.A16)

2002        Feb 19, Peru's justice minister ruled out a presidential pardon for Lori Berenson after the Supreme Court confirmed the American woman's 20-year sentence for aiding leftist rebels.
    (AP, 2/19/07)

2002        Mar 20, In Lima a car bomb explosion outside the US Embassy killed 9 people. Pres. Bush was scheduled to arrive 3 days later.
    (SFC, 3/21/02, p.A8)(SFC, 3/22/02, p.A13)

2002        Mar 23, Pres. Bush met with Pres. Toledo in Lima and called for a “war without quarter" against terrorism and drug trafficking in the region. 18 demonstrators were arrested.
    (SSFC, 3/24/02, p.A17)

2002        Apr 17, A huge Inca cemetery, active from 1480-1533, with some 2,200 mummies was reported to have been found under Puruchuco-Huaquerones, a Lima shantytown.
    (SFC, 4/18/02, p.A4)

2002        Apr 19, In Peru a prep school collapsed in Puno and at least 13 people were killed.
    (SSFC, 4/21/02, p.A17)

2002        Jun 4, Fernando Belaunde (89), former 2 time president (1963-1968, 1980-1985), died.
    (SFC, 6/5/02, p.A23)

2002        Jun 17, In Peru police deployed armored vehicles and squads armed with automatic rifles in the capital to prevent the spread of unrest tied to the Friday sale of state-run companies.
    (AP, 6/17/02)

2002        Jun 19, In Peru government officials said they would suspend the sale of two state-owned electricity companies following 6 days of violent protests.
    (AP, 6/19/02)

2002        Jun 25, Three American mountain climbers were swept away by an avalanche on Peru's highest peak and are feared dead.
    (AP, 6/25/02)

2002        Jul 3, Peru temporarily suspended programs to eradicate coca fields and encourage farmers to grow alternative crops, moves that jeopardize U.S.-backed efforts to fight the cocaine trade.
    (AP, 7/3/02)(SFC, 7/4/02, p.A12)

2002        Jul 11, Peru's prime minister and finance minister said they resigned Thursday as part of a Cabinet shake-up designed to stem the plummeting popularity of President Alejandro Toledo's year-old government.
    (AP, 7/11/02)

2002        Jul 13, President Alejandro Toledo declared a state of emergency Saturday in southeast Peru, where snow and freezing weather has killed at least 18 people in less than two weeks.
    (AP, 7/13/02)

2002        Jul 20, In Lima, Peru, 29 people, a lion and a tiger that were part of the show, died in a blaze started by bartenders who were doing tricks with fire at Utopia, an unlicensed night club.
    (AP, 7/20/03)

2002        Jul 26, In Peru 2 buses collided on a slick highway on the coast and another bus slammed into them, killing at least 12 people and injuring 37.
    (AP, 7/26/02)

2002        Aug 12, In Peru Pres. Alejandro Toledo defended his wife, Eliane Karp, in a nationally televised address, trying to head off a political storm sparked by the revelation that Peru's first lady earns $10,000 a month as a banking consultant.
    (AP, 8/13/02)

2002        Aug 15, Peru's first lady, Eliane Karp, resigned from a $10,000-a-month consulting job with a Peruvian bank after the revelation of the contract raised suspicions of influence peddling.
    (AP, 8/16/02)

2002        Aug 20, The Swiss government returned to Peru about $77.5 million linked to former Peruvian spy chief Vladimiro Montesinos, saying the money came from corrupt arms deals. The money includes assets of Gen. Nicolas de Bari Hermoza Rios, Peru's former armed forces chief, who also faces corruption charges. $33 million linked to Montesinos remained blocked in Swiss banks.
    (AP, 8/21/02)

2002        Aug 22, In Peru officials reported that police had destroyed 57 crude drug laboratories in the Peruvian jungle and burned 38 tons of coca leaf.
    (AP, 8/22/02)

2002        Sep 13, Peru’s Pres. Alejandro Toledo signed a $50 million loan agreement with World Bank to provide fresh water and sanitation facilities to more than a million people in rural areas of Peru.
    (AP, 9/13/02)

2002        Oct 31, The US enacted the Andean Trade Promotion and Drug Eradication Act (ATPDEA) as a replacement for the similar Andean Trade Preference Act (ATPA). It granted duty-free access to a wide range of exports from Bolivia, Colombia, Ecuador, and Peru.

2002        Nov 17, Voters in Peru backed opposition candidates in first-ever regional elections intended to shift power from the capital to the provinces.
    (AP, 11/18/02)

2002        In Peru Huberth and Gerson Jara founded their nonfiction magazine Etiqueta Negra.
    (SFC, 3/21/06, p.E1)(www.etiquetanegra.com.pe)

2002-2008    Peru’s murder rate tripled over this period as the country became the world’s biggest cocaine exporter.
    (Econ, 4/2/11, p.31)

2003        Jan 3, A Peruvian court struck down anti-terror laws that had been used to quash rebel movements in the 1990s.
    (AP, 1/3/03)

2003        Jan 9, A Peruvian airliner carrying 46 people, including eight children, disappeared amid cloud-covered mountains in the Amazon jungle. On Jan 11 rescue workers found the wreckage of TANS Airlines Flight 222, a Fokker 28 near the jungle town of Chachapoyas. There were no survivors.
    (AP, 1/9/03)(AP, 1/11/03)

2003        Jan 14, In northern Peru a clash between sugar plantation workers and squatters trying to move onto unplanted land left at least 9 people dead and 14 injured.
    (AP, 1/15/03)

2003        Jan 23, In northern Peru an explosion leveled an ammunition depot at a military base, killing seven people and injured 95.
    (AP, 1/23/03)

2003        Feb 3, The Peace Corps resumed work in Peru, nearly three decades after a leftist military government ended the American volunteer program there.
    (AP, 2/3/03)

2003          Feb 20, Peru replaced harsh anti-terrorism laws put in place by former Pres. Alberto Fujimori, and will review the sentences of at least 1,800 people.
    (AP, 2/21/03)

2003          Feb 21, In Peru police arrested a prominent coca farming leader as protests in rural Peru against the eradication of coca, the base ingredient in cocaine, moved into their 4th day.
    (AP, 2/21/03)

2003          Mar 8, The presidents of Peru and Ecuador inaugurated a bridge connecting the two nations. The $1.8-million bridge spans the Canchis River near the Peruvian town of Namballe, 500 miles northeast of Lima.
    (AP, 3/9/03)
2003          Mar 8, Interpol reissued an international arrest warrant charging former Peru President Alberto Fujimori with murder after receiving additional information from the government.
    (AP, 3/8/03)

2003        Apr 3, Peru’s Congress voted to create a Senate and return to a bicameral legislature, a decade after former Pres. Fujimori shut down the two houses in his so-called self coup.
    (AP, 4/3/03)

2003        May 24, In Peru 19 Latin American leaders ended the 17th summit of the Group of Rio nations by promising to curb corruption and poverty, which they said undermine democratic rule in the region as does terrorism.
    (AP, 5/25/03)

2003        May 27, In Peru Pres. Alejandro Toledo declared a 30-day state of emergency and authorized the military to clear strikers from Peru's major highways.
    (AP, 5/28/03)

2003        Jun 3, In Peru thousands of trade unionists and striking teachers marched through downtown Lima in defiance of a state of emergency that put the armed forces in charge of maintaining order.
    (AP, 6/3/03)

2003        Jun 4, The Peruvian government failed to meet wage demands by striking teachers, who vowed to extend a 24-day walkout that triggered nationwide protests and prompted President Alejandro Toledo to declare a state of emergency.
    (AP, 6/5/03)

2003        Jun 12, In Peru teachers went back to work after a monthlong strike that grew to include protests by farmers and government workers and led President Alejandro Toledo to impose emergency measures.
    (AP, 6/12/03)

2003        Jun 17, Peruvian investigators dramatically increased their estimate of the death toll from a two-decade fight against Shining Path rebels, saying they now believe between 40,000 and 60,000 people perished or disappeared from 1980-1990s.
    (AP, 6/18/03)

2003        Jun 30, Beatriz Merino (55), Peru's first female PM debuted, pledging to bring discipline and austerity to the beleaguered government amid hopes her appointment will help salvage Alejandro Toledo's presidency.
    (AP, 7/1/03)

2003        Jul 21, In Peru 8 mountain climbers were missing after an avalanche on Alpamayo mountain. Four Germans, two Israelis, one Venezuelan and one Peruvian were believed to have been buried,
    (AP, 7/23/03)

2003        Jul 23, In Peru 5 masked gunmen attacked a Canadian mining camp in the Andes, killing a Peruvian geologist, wounding another and stealing equipment.
    (AP, 7/24/03)

2003        Aug 25, Brazil's Pres. Lula da Silva and Peru's Pres. Toledo signed a free-trade agreement between Peru and Mercosur. Peru planned to join as an associate member.
    (Econ, 8/30/03, p.25)

2003        Aug 28, Peru’s Truth and Reconciliation Commission published a report on the violence unleashed by the Shining Path guerrillas, which included 69,280 deaths from 1980-2000. It identified 150 people it said should be prosecuted.
    (Econ, 8/28/04, p.33)

2003        Sep 17, The imprisoned leader of a Peruvian rebel group said his group has given up armed conflict and now wants to become a political movement. Victor Polay, in a published interview, acknowledged that the Tupac Amaru Revolutionary Movement has been defeated.
    (AP, 9/17/03)

2003        Oct 10, In Peru a passenger bus plunged off a 1,000-foot cliff in the Andes mountains, killing at least 30 people and wounding 17.
    (AP, 10/11/03)

2003        Nov 21, Peru's Pres. Toledo apologized for the 70,000 deaths from the country's 20-year battle with the Shining Path insurgency, and promised to punish officers that a scathing report blamed for many of the worst abuses.
    (AP, 11/22/03)

2003        Nov 27, In Peru police clashed with highland peasants blocking an Andean highway to protest against mining pollution, leaving 2 demonstrators dead and over 20 people injured.
    (AP, 11/28/03)

2003        Nov, In Peru Lee Heifetz, daughter of Israeli Ambassador Zvi Heifetz, was arrested after she tried to board a flight to Holland with 10 pounds of cocaine. She was sentenced to six years and eight months.
    (AP, 6/21/05)

2003        Dec 13, Pres. Alejandro Toledo demanded the resignation of Peru's first-ever female PM and her 15-minister Cabinet in the wake of rumors about her personal life. A political rival was spreading rumors that she is a lesbian.
    (AP, 12/13/03)

2003        Dec 15, In Peru Pres. Alejandro Toledo, with his popularity dropping, swore in a new Cabinet chief and several ministers. Toledo named congressman Carlos Ferrero to replace Prime Minister Beatriz Merino.
    (AP, 12/15/03)

2003        Sally Bowen, a 15-year Lima resident, and Jane Holligan co-authored "The Imperfect Spy: The Many Lives of Vladimiro Montesinos," about Peru's now-imprisoned former intelligence chief. The book cited an imprisoned drug runner, a former informant for the U.S. Drug Enforcement Administration, as saying that Fernando Zevallos, founder of Aero Continente airlines, was a leading Peruvian drug trafficker. In 2004 Zevallos filed a civil suit against Bowen, Holligan and the publisher.
    (AP, 5/22/04)

2004        Jan 12, The United States announced plans to return to Peru $20 million stolen by a corrupt government official and stashed in U.S. bank accounts. In December, Peru accused Victor Venero Garrido of hiding the money in U.S. accounts under the guidance of Vladimiro Montesinos.
    (AP, 1/12/04)

2004        Jan 30, In Peru VP Raul Diez Canseco resigned amid allegations that he gave a tax break to his girlfriend's father, a scandal that had forced him to step down as trade minister two months earlier.
    (AP, 1/31/04)

2004        Feb 15, In Peru the government of embattled President Alejandro Toledo appointed a new lineup of Cabinet ministers as he tries to survive a deepening political crisis. It was Toledo's fifth shake-up in 30 months.
    (AP, 2/16/04)

2004        Feb 25, In Peru meat and produce markets in Lima received smaller shipments during the second day of a strike by cargo truck and passenger bus companies.
    (AP, 2/25/04)

2004        Feb 25, The head of Doe Run Peru, a US-owned smelter in Oroyo, Peru, admitted that lead poisoning of children by the facility's emissions was a serious problem, but said his company would not be able to significantly reduce the contamination until 2011.
    (AP, 2/25/04)(www.doerun.com/)

2004        Feb 28, It was reported that 75% of the traffic cops in Lima, Peru, are female. They were seen as less corrupt than their male colleagues.
    (Econ, 2/28/04, p.37)

2004        Feb, Amadeus Corp. of Peru launched a new soft drink called Vortex, made with coca extract. The cocaine alkaloid was removed but export was still banned.
    (Econ, 4/24/04, p.36)

2004        Mar, In Peru Miguel Toledo, a nephew of Pres. Toledo, and three other men luring a 22-year-old woman to a restaurant to discuss a job offer. Instead, they allegedly drugged her and took her to a hotel where she was raped. Miguel Toledo fled his Nov, 2005, rape trial, but was arrested in 2006 and given a 4-year suspended sentence and a fine of $2,500.
    (AP, 2/20/06)(AP, 2/22/06)

2004        Apr 10, In southern Peru heavy rains triggered mudslides near the famed Inca citadel of Machu Picchu, killing at least six people. Five others were missing and feared dead.
    (AP, 4/11/04)

2004        Apr 14, Peru's Congress approved murder charges against ex-President Alberto Fujimori for allegedly authorizing the death squad killing of a union leader over a decade ago.
    (AP, 4/15/04)

2004        Apr 22, U.S. authorities prohibited Peru's largest airline, Aero Continente, from flying to the United States because of safety concerns.
    (AP, 4/23/04)

2004        Apr 26, In Peru angry highland Indians beat their town's mayor to death after he refused to resign in the face of protests, then the mob attacked the Llave police station, trapping dozens of officers.
    (AP, 4/27/04)

2004        Apr 27, Peruvian police retook control of an Andean town, a day after highland Indians beat to death the mayor, accusing him of corruption.
    (AP, 4/27/04)

2004        Apr 29, In Peru 800 people in a village near Lake Titicaca took five aldermen hostage Thursday after their mayor fled in fear of his life.
    (AP, 4/29/04)

2004        May 14, It was reported that drought in Peru had forced water restrictions in Lima.
    (ST, 5/14/04, p.A3)

2004        May 18, Colombia, Ecuador and Peru opened negotiations in Cartagena for a free trade accord with the United States as anti-riot police clashed with protesters who say the pact would lead to job losses in the South American nations.
    (AP, 5/18/04)

2004        Jun 17, In Peru the 400-year-old Lima Roman Catholic cathedral celebrated its restoration, a project that began in 1997. A new museum in a converted sacristy displays a nine-painting series depicting Santa Rosa de Lima's road to canonization in the 1600s as the first saint of the New World.
    (AP, 6/18/04)

2004        Jul 1, In Ayacucho, Peru, hundreds of striking teachers burned buildings and looted bank teller machines during clashes with riot police that injured 34 people and led to 15 arrests.
    (AP, 7/2/04)

2004        Jul 9, In Peru 2 passenger buses collided head-on on a coastal highway, killing at least 36 people and injuring two dozen.
    (AP, 7/9/04)

2004        Jul 12, Winter storms have violently struck several South American countries in recent days, leading to eight weather-related deaths in Argentina and Chile. Some 75,000 farm animals died in Peru and record below freezing temperatures in southern Brazil.
    (AP, 7/12/04)(SFC, 7/17/04, p.C8)

2004        Jul 16, Peru’s National Agrarian Research Institute launched a new super-cuy (guinea pig), weighing up to 10 pounds, to help improve the Peruvian diet.
    (Econ, 7/17/04, p.37)

2004        Jul 28, Peru’s President Alejandro Toledo, facing allegations of corruption, invited government auditors to review all of his bank accounts.
    (AP, 7/30/04)

2004        Aug 1, In Peru a bus plunged off a cliff in the Andes Mountains, killing at least 34 passengers and injuring 21.
    (AP, 8/2/04)

2004        Aug 6, U.S. officials returned $20 million in embezzled Peruvian government funds that had been deposited in American banks under the direction of fallen spy chief Vladimiro Montesinos.
    (AP, 8/6/04)

2004        Aug 12, In Peru a double-decker tourist bus missed a bridge and plunged into a dry riverbed along a highway, killing at least six people and injuring 37.
    (AP, 8/12/04)

2004        Aug, Brazil and Peru inaugurated the construction of a $7 million bridge between Assis, Brazil, and Inapari, Peru. It was part of a 2,500 mile Transoceanic Highway program.
    (SFC, 11/5/04, p.W1)(Econ, 3/26/05, p.40)

2004        Oct 6, In Peru villagers in the country's remote Lake Titicaca region doused Alejandro Noalca Mamani (54), an accused thief, with gasoline and setting him ablaze. State-run television station broadcast images the next day.
    (AP, 10/8/04)

2004        Oct 19, In Peru police fired on coca growers protesting government eradication of their cocaine producing crop, killing two of the farmers after they attacked a police station near the southern border.
    (AP, 10/19/04)

2004        Oct 29, In Peru a passenger bus plunged more than 650 feet off an isolated mountain highway in the Andes, killing at least 28 people and injuring 28 others.
    (AP, 10/31/04)

2004        Nov 15, In Peru the first public trial of Shining Path rebel leader Abimael Guzman fell apart as the 2nd of the 3 presiding judges stepped down citing a conflict of interest.
    (AP, 11/16/04)

2004        Dec 4, Miss Peru, Maria Julia Mantilla Garcia, an aspiring high school teacher, was crowned Miss World 2004 In Southern China.
    (AP, 12/4/04)

2004        Dec 8, Presidents and high-ranking officials from 12 South American countries gathered at the ancient Inca capital of Cuzco, Peru, to create a political and economic bloc. They hoped to establish a 12-nation South American Community of Nations.
    (AP, 12/8/04)(Econ, 12/11/04, p.36)

2004        Dec 19, A driver lost control of a bus in a heavy rainstorm in Peru's mountains and the vehicle plunged 165 feet into a river, killing 49 people on board and injuring 15.
    (AP, 12/21/04)

2004        In 2005 the UN office on drugs and Crime said Peru’s coca production in 2004 surged 23% to 190 metric tons.
    (SSFC, 11/6/05, p.A16)

2004        Peru’s northern Yanacocha gold mine extracted 3 million ounces. The mine was run by Newmont in partnership with Peru’s Buenaventura. The mining sparked political unrest due to ecological and social issues.
    (Econ, 2/5/05, p.33)
2004        Peru began producing large amounts of natural gas from its Camisea field in the southern jungle.
    (Econ, 6/5/10, p.44)

2005        Jan 1, In southern Peru Antauro Humala, retired army major, led a nationalist group that seized a police station ambushed a police vehicle responding to the scene, killing four officers and two reservists. Antauro Humala was later sentenced to 25 years in prison. In 2011 his sentence was reduced to 19 years. Antauro’s brother, Ollanta, was elected president in 2006.
    (AP, 1/2/05)(Econ, 1/8/05, p.38)(AP, 9/7/11)

2005        Jan 4, In Peru the leader of an armed nationalist group that seized a remote police station, took 10 officers hostage and allegedly killed four others was detained while most of his 125 followers were rounded up.
    (AP, 1/4/05)

2005        Feb 8, A confrontation between rival gangs in an overcrowded Peruvian prison left five inmates dead and at least 18 others wounded.
    (AP, 2/8/05)

2005        Feb 10, In Peru President Alejandro Toledo said the government is considering subsidizing some of this Andean nation's poorest people with direct monthly cash payments.
    (AP, 2/10/05)

2005        Feb 20, In Peru Maoist Shining Path insurgents ambushed and killed three policemen in Huallaga Valley, a remote jungle area known for guerrilla activity.
    (AP, 2/22/05)

2005        Apr 15, Police in Peru seized more than a ton of cocaine destined for the US as it was being packed into a shipment of canned fish at the Colra Fish Factory in Tacna.
    (AP, 4/17/05)
2005        Apr 15, Peruvian authorities said 3 poachers have been charged with killing 7 people during a five-year crime spree in which they allegedly slaughtered 2,500 vicuna, a protected Andean animal prized for its wool.
    (AP, 4/15/05)

2005        Apr 28, A twin-engine army plane slammed nose-first into Peru's southern desert coast, killing all 13 people aboard.
    (AP, 4/29/05)

2005        May 12, Roads in Peru's Colca Canyon were blocked by townspeople demanding a larger share of revenue from tourists who come to see condors soar over the desert-dry moonscape and white-water raft in one of the world's deepest valleys.
    (AP, 5/12/05)

2005        May 21, In central Peru a passenger bus plunged off a bridge into a river on, killing at least 35 people and injuring 30 others.
    (AP, 5/21/05)

2005        Jun 1, Peruvian doctors separated the fused legs of Milagros Cerron, a 13-month-old baby girl known as Peru's "mermaid."
    (AP, 6/1/06)

2005        Jun 3, A Peruvian judge ordered the arrest of 29 military officials for their alleged involvement in the decades-old massacre of dozens of campesinos in an Andean village.
    (AP, 6/3/05)

2005        Jun 14, A 7.9 earthquake rattled cities in Bolivia and Peru and heavily damaged mountain villages in northern Chile, killing at least 11 people including a family of 6.
    (WSJ, 6/14/05, p.A1)(AP, 6/15/05)
2005        Jun 14, A UN report showed South America's cocaine output rose by 2 percent last year, bucking a five year downward trend as increases in Peru and Bolivia outpaced Colombia's clampdown on coca cultivation.
    (AP, 6/14/05)

2005        Jul 5, A Peruvian judge ordered the arrest of 118 current and retired military officials for their alleged involvement in the May 14, 1988, massacre of peasants in an Andean village and subsequent violations in the area.
    (AP, 7/6/05)

2005        Jul 13, Thousands of Peruvians protested against a proposed US-trade pact that a UN investigator warned would put medicines out of reach of millions of poor people.
    (Reuters, 7/13/05)

2005        Aug 11, Peru's PM Carlos Ferrero quit unexpectedly in an apparent protest against President Alejandro Toledo's appointment of an unpopular political ally as foreign minister.
    (AP, 8/12/05)

2005        Aug 13, Fernando Olivera, Peru's new foreign minister, said he was resigning his post, just two days after the uproar from his appointment sparked a major shake-up of President Alejandro Toledo's Cabinet.
    (AP, 8/14/05)

2005        Aug 16, Peru’s President Alejandro Toledo swore in a new Cabinet with Pedro Pablo Kuczynski, the former finance minister, as prime minister and cabinet chief.
    (AP, 8/16/05)(WSJ, 8/17/05, p.A9)

2005        Aug 18, In Peru US Defense Secretary Donald H. Rumsfeld, seeking to promote stability in Latin America, met with Pres. Alejandro Toledo.
    (AP, 8/18/05)

2005        Aug 23, TANS Peru Flight 204, a Boeing 737-200 with 100 people on board, split in two after an emergency landing during a fierce storm, killing at least 41 people. The pilot tried to land in a marsh to soften the impact but the landing split the aircraft in two. The plane was enroute from Lima to Pucallpa and landed 20 miles from Pucallpa.
    (AP, 8/24/05)

2005        Sep 1, In Peru Wilbert Elqui Meza was convicted and sentenced to 30 years in prison for a 2002 car bombing that killed 10 people outside the U.S. Embassy. Meza was the only one of eight defendants convicted of carrying out the attack. 2 women received 20-year sentences and a third women was handed a 25-year sentence for belonging to the Shining Path, Maoist-oriented rebel group. Four others were acquitted of all charges.
    (AP, 9/3/05)

2005        Sep 9, The presidents of Bolivia, Brazil and Peru inaugurated an $810 million highway project to connect Brazil's Atlantic coast to Peru's Pacific ports before the end of the decade.
    (AP, 9/9/05)

2005        Sep 21, Pilots of a chartered jet carrying 289 Gambian soccer fans faked the need for an emergency landing in Peru so passengers could watch their nation's team play a key match.
    (AP, 9/22/05)

2005        Sep 22, Peru's Congress passed legislation that would require public institutions to consider open-source software as an alternative to proprietary systems such as Windows.
    (AP, 9/28/05)

2005        Sep 25, A 7.0 earthquake hit northern Peru, near Moyobamba, causing power outages and cutting phone service throughout much of the region. 4 people were reported killed in Lamas.
    (AP, 9/26/05)(SFC, 9/26/05, A3)

2005        Sep 26, In Peru Shining Path founder Abimael Guzman, whose messianic communist vision inspired a rebellion that left almost 70,000 people dead, went on trial again with his attorney predicting he'll receive the same life sentence that was thrown out two years ago.
    (AP, 9/26/05)

2005        Sep 27, At least 18 people were killed and 40 others injured when two passenger buses crashed head on along Peru's coastal Panamerican highway.
    (AP, 9/27/05)

2005        Sep 30, South American presidents committed themselves to establishing a continental free trade zone. The South American summit was attended by the presidents of Chile, Bolivia, Peru, Paraguay, Ecuador, Venezuela, Brazil and Argentina.
    (AP, 10/1/05)

2005        Oct 4, In Peru Maritza Garrido Lecca, a former ballet teacher who used her dance studio to hide Shining Path founder Abimael Guzman, was sentenced to 20 years in prison after a three-month civilian retrial. Nicholas Shakespeare used the story as inspiration for his novel "The Dancer Upstairs" (1995), which John Malkovich turned into a 2002 movie of the same name, starring Javier Bardem.
    (AP, 10/5/05)

2005        Nov 6 Former Peruvian President Alberto Fujimori was arrested, hours after he defied an international arrest warrant and flew from Japan to Chile. Shortly after Fujimori's presence in Chile was confirmed, the Peruvian government asked Santiago to arrest him while a request for his extradition was filed.
    (AP, 11/7/05)

2005        Nov 18, Peru’s government renewed a state of emergency in several isolated jungle and highland provinces amid reports of leftist rebel activity.
    (AP, 11/18/05)

2005        Nov 19, In Peru Fernando Zevallos, the founder of an airline that was Peru's largest until he landed on Washington's list of "drug kingpins," was arrested on cocaine trafficking and homicide charges.
    (AP, 11/19/05)

2005        Nov 23, In Peru officials said police will begin patrolling Peru's famed Inca Trail following the recent armed robbery of 13 tourists.
    (AP, 11/24/05)

2005        Nov 24, Peruvian lawmakers voted to trim a hefty year-end bonus, bowing to public outrage in one of Latin America's poorest countries.
    (AP, 11/24/05)
2005        Nov 24, In Peru 16 people were killed when a passenger bus plunged into a river.
    (AP, 11/24/05)

2005        Dec 7, Peru and the US completed negotiations on a free-trade agreement.
    (WSJ, 12/8/05, p.A14)

2005        Dec 19, Fernando Zevallos, an airline founder who was labeled Peru's drug kingpin by the Bush administration, was convicted of money laundering and cocaine trafficking and sentenced to 20 years in prison. The court also ordered him to pay a fine of $29 million for conspiring with Peru's Nortenos drug gang to ship 3.3 tons of cocaine to Mexico.
    (AP, 12/19/05)

2005        Dec 20, In Peru some 20 suspected Shining Path rebels killed 8 police officers in an ambush near the town of Aucayacu in Leoncio Prado province.
    (AP, 12/22/05)

2005        Dec 21, Peru's president declared a state of emergency in six jungle provinces and promised to stamp out the nation's remaining Shining Path guerrillas after suspected rebels killed eight police officers in an ambush.
    (AP, 12/22/05)

2005        Dec 29, Peru's Congress ratified a law to create a Supreme Court judicial panel dominated by retired armed forces generals to oversee the military's justice system, a move human rights advocates say will hurt efforts to prosecute military human rights abuses.
    (AP, 12/30/05)
2005        Dec 29, Peruvian human rights groups detailed at least 46 cases this year of threats and intimidation targeting investigators and witnesses pursuing human rights abuses allegedly committed by the military during the height of the Shining Path insurgency.
    (AP, 12/29/05)

2005        Johan Reinhard authored “The Ice Maiden," an account of his discoveries of ritual Inca sites in the mountains of Peru.
    (WSJ, 6/15/05, p.D10)

2006        Jan 3, Peru formally asked Chile to extradite former Peruvian President Alberto Fujimori so he can be tried on human rights and corruption charges.
    (AP, 1/3/06)

2006        Jan 5, Peru recalled its ambassador from Venezuela, accusing President Hugo Chavez of meddling in Peru's upcoming presidential race.
    (AP, 1/5/06)

2006        Jan 10, Peru's National Election Board formally rejected a bid by jailed former President Alberto Fujimori to run in April's presidential race, citing a congressional ban on his holding public office.
    (AP, 1/10/06)

2006        Jan 27, A Panamanian ship collided with two other vessels near the Peruvian port of Callao, splitting in two and leaving one sailor missing.
    (AP, 1/27/06)

2006        Feb 15, In Peru Arndt Hubert Kupper (36) and Eva Noruzka la Torre (22), a German man and his Peruvian wife, were arrested for trafficking Peruvian babies to adoptive parents in Europe through an Internet site.
    (AP, 2/18/06)

2006        Feb 19, In Peru Hector Aponte, a Shining Path guerrilla commander believed responsible for an ambush that killed eight policemen in December, was killed in a shootout with authorities in the Huallaga Valley. Aponte was a top commander under Comrade Artemio, one of the last original Shining Path leaders still at large.
    (AP, 2/20/06)

2006        Feb 21, Miguel Toledo (36), a nephew of President Alejandro Toledo, was given a four-year suspended sentence on charges he drugged and raped a 22-year-old woman in 2004.
    (AP, 2/22/06)

2006        Feb 28, In Peru 2 buses crashed head-on in the southern Andes, killing 12 people, including one American tourist. Nearly 50 people were injured.
    (AP, 3/2/06)

2006        Mar 21, In Peru Victor Polay (54), the leader of the Tupac Amaru guerrilla group, was sentenced to 32 years in prison in a civilian retrial. The group grabbed the world's attention nearly 10 years ago with a takeover of the Japanese ambassador's residence.
    (AP, 3/21/06)

2006        Apr 9, Peruvians faced a close, three-way presidential contest that put their Andean nation on a leftist track akin to Venezuela and Bolivia. Ollanta Humala (43), a former army officer, won with only 31% of the vote.
    (AP, 4/9/06)(Econ, 4/15/06, p.42)

2006        Apr 11, In Peru with 80% of the votes counted Ollanta Humala led with 30.3%. Former president Alan Garcia (56) held a narrow lead over pro-business former Congresswoman Lourdes Flores (46) in the race to face Ollanta Humala (43) in a presidential runoff vote.
    (AP, 4/11/06)(AP, 4/12/06)

2006        Apr 17, In central Peru a passenger bus tumbled off a mountain road and came to rest in a gorge, killing at least 25 people on board in Jaucan district.
    (AP, 4/18/06)

2006        Apr 29, Peru recalled its ambassador from Venezuela over what it called President Hugo Chavez's "persistent and flagrant interference" in its upcoming presidential elections.
    (AP, 4/29/06)

2006        Apr, Peru’s Legislature approved a trade pact with the US. The US Congress and Senate approved the free trade agreement in late 2007.
    (WSJ, 12/5/07, p.A6)

2006        May 3, Peru confirmed that ex-President Garcia placed 2nd in the April 9 voting and will face nationalist Ollanta Humala in a June 4 runoff.
    (WSJ, 5/4/06, p.A1)

2006        May 4, Venezuelan President Hugo Chavez said he was withdrawing his ambassador from Peru as a matter of principle after Peru called home its ambassador.
    (AP, 5/4/06)

2006        May 12, Vladimiro Montesinos, Peru's jailed ex-intelligence chief, was sentenced to 10 more years in prison and fined $15.2 million after pleading guilty to charges of illicit enrichment.
    (AP, 5/13/06)

2006        Jun 4, Peruvians faced a choice in runoff presidential elections between former president Alan Garcia (57), and Ollanta Humala (43), a fiery political newcomer pledging to punish a corrupt political establishment. Garcia beat Humala, a nationalist backed by Venezuela's Hugo Chavez, to regain control of the country 16 years after his first presidential term ended in economic ruin and rebel violence. Garcia’s American Popular Revolutionary Alliance (APRA) party held only 36 of 120 seats in Congress.
    (AP, 6/4/06)(AP, 6/5/06)(Econ, 6/10/06, p.36)

2006        Jun 14, Four Andean nations (Bolivia, Ecuador, Colombia and Peru) agreed to chart new trade plans with the United States without Venezuela.
    (AP, 6/14/06)

2006        Jun 16, Peru's President-elect Alan Garcia said that one of his first acts when he takes office will be cutting public salaries, including his own, and canceling plans to open an embassy in Turkey.
    (AP, 6/17/06)

2006        Jun 28, Peru’s Congress overwhelmingly voted to ratify a free trade pact with the US, rejecting claims the treaty will hurt Peru's farmers by flooding the Andean nation with subsidized cotton, rice, corn and potatoes.
    (AP, 6/28/06)

2006        Jul 2, A Peruvian rescue team found the bodies of 3 American mountaineers killed during an icy climb high in the Andes. They located Kristen Yoder (21), her brother Dustin Yoder (23) and Brennan Larson (24) in a 100-foot-deep crevasse on the Artesonraju peak.
    (AP, 7/3/06)

2006        Jul 27, President-elect Alan Garcia made good on a pledge to draw talent from across the political spectrum in his 16-member Cabinet by appointing six women, including Peru's first female justice and interior ministers.
    (AP, 7/27/06)

2006        Jul 28, Alan Garcia returned to the presidency of Peru, pledging to battle poverty 16 years after ending his first term.
    (AP, 7/28/06)

2006        Jul 31, Peru’s President Alan Garcia cut government salaries, including his own, three days after announcing a long list of austerity measures in his inaugural address.
    (AP, 7/31/06)

2006        Aug 25, Peru's jailed ex-intelligence chief Vladimiro Montesinos was sentenced to six years in prison for using government money to fund former President Alberto Fujimori's 2000 re-election campaign. The sentence will be served concurrently with Montesinos' 15-year prison sentence for various corruption convictions.
    (AP, 8/27/06)

2006        Sep 21, Vladimiro Montesinos (61), Peru's former spymaster, was sentenced to 20 years in prison for engineering a deal that sent 10,000 assault rifles to Colombian guerrillas.
    (AP, 9/22/06)

2006        Oct 13, In Peru Shining Path founder Abimael Guzman, whose messianic communist vision inspired a 12-year rebellion that cost nearly 70,000 lives, was found guilty of aggravated terrorism and sentenced to life in prison.
    (AP, 10/14/06)

2006        Oct 16, In Peru former President Valentin Paniagua (69) died. The unassuming former law professor shepherded Peru back to democracy as interim president following the 2000 collapse of Alberto Fujimori's autocratic regime. Paniagua governed Peru from November 2000 to July 2001.
    (AP, 10/16/06)

2006        Oct 26, In Peru's southern Andes at least 20 people were killed and 12 others were injured when a passenger bus crashed down an embankment.
    (AP, 10/26/06)

2006        Nov 19, Lima's mayor Luis Castaneda was returned to office in nationwide regional elections expected to give major gains to independents as Peruvians shunned traditional political parties.
    (AP, 11/20/06)

2006        Dec 4, In Peru a bus speeding through the fog on a twisting mountain road in the Andes fell 1,320 feet into a ravine, killing 45 people.
    (AP, 12/5/06)

2006        Dec 13, In Peru a passenger bus slammed into an oncoming truck on mountain curve and plunged into a river in Amazonas state, killing at least 21 people and injuring 30.
    (AP, 12/13/06)

2006        Dec 16, In Peru 5 police officers and two employees of the state-run coca company were shot to death in a southern jungle state.
    (AP, 12/16/06)

2006        Dec 23, A bus plunged into a river in Peru's central mountains, killing at least nine people and leaving four missing.
    (AP, 12/24/06)

2006        Peru’s population numbered about 27 million. It was about 80 percent Indian or mestizo.
    (AP, 6/4/06)

2007        Feb 16, Peru’s President Alan Garcia said that he is selling the presidential airplane in an effort to curb "frivolous" expenses in his administration.
    (AP, 2/16/07)

2007        Feb 27, Peru's Congress passed a new law stiffening penalties for attacks on tourists, making the maximum sentence for murdering or severely injuring a tourist life in prison.
    (AP, 3/3/07)

2007        Feb 28, An air force helicopter crashed in Peru's highlands, killing 3 military personnel and injuring an army general who commanded a military base in the area.
    (AP, 3/1/07)

2007        Mar 1, In Peru church bells rang and a sea of confetti fluttered through Lima's historical central plaza at the stroke of noon, alerting Peruvians to synchronize their watches at the start of a nationwide campaign to promote punctuality.
    (AP, 3/1/07)

2007        Mar 20, In Peru 3 suspected leftist rebels were shot to death in a clash with troops in the highland jungle.
    (AP, 3/20/07)

2007        Apr 13, Former President Alejandro Toledo returned to Peru to visit his ailing sister and face accusations that he forged signatures nearly a decade ago to get his party on the 2000 presidential ballot.
    (AP, 4/13/07)

2007        Apr 22, The annual Goldman Environmental Prizes were announced on Earth Day. The winners included Julio Cusurichi of Peru for his work to fight illegal logging; Willie Corduff of Ireland for his work to halt an energy project that disregarded local and environmental concerns; Sophia Rabliauskas of Canada for her work to help protect the boreal forest in Manitoba; Orri Vigfussen of Iceland for his work on the North Atlantic Salmon Fund; Ts. Munkhbayar for his work against unregulated mining in Mongolia; and Hammerskjoeld Simwinga for his work in organizing microloan programs in Zambia.
    (SSFC, 4/22/07, p.E1)

2007        Apr 26, Peru’s Congress granted President Garcia the power to rule by decree for 60 days on matters related to drug trafficking, terrorism and organized crime, strengthening his hand in the battle against cocaine production and smuggling. A US report claimed that the Shining Path may now have hundreds of armed combatants and that it is entwined with drug trafficking.
    (AP, 4/27/07)(Econ, 5/5/07, p.50)

2007        May 18, In southern Peru a backpack containing dynamite and nails exploded during a celebration in a market in Juliaca, killing six people and wounding 48.
    (AP, 5/19/07)

2007        May 24, A Peruvian government flight serving as a link between isolated jungle communities disappeared in the country's northeastern rain forest with 20 people on board. 7 survivors were rescued the next day.
    (AP, 5/25/07)(AP, 5/27/07)

2007        Jun 8, In Chile former Peruvian President Alberto Fujimori was put back under house arrest, a day after a Chilean prosecutor recommended his extradition to face charges of human rights abuses and corruption in his home country.
    (AP, 6/8/07)

2007        Jun 21, Peru's Congress voted overwhelmingly to lower the age to 14 for participating in consensual sex, a move some activists said could expose children to sexual abuse.
    (AP, 6/23/07)

2007        Jul 1, In Peru a passenger bus crashed into an oncoming truck killing 24 people.
    (SFC, 7/2/07, p.A4)

2007        Jul 5, Peruvian public school teachers walked off the job to protest an education reform proposal that would require them to pass periodic competency exams. Education Minister Jose Antonio Chang called the effort a failure, saying only 15% of Peru's approximately 350,000 teachers failed to show up for work in the country.
    (AP, 7/6/07)

2007        Jul 6, A Peruvian consumer protection agency closed a popular restaurant and imposed a stiff fine for repeatedly turning away dark-skinned people. The upscale suburb of Miraflores complied with the agency's request to close Cafe del Mar for 60 days. The restaurant also was fined $76,000 for its "discriminatory" entrance policy.
    (AP, 7/7/07)

2007        Jul 7, A global poll picked the Great Wall of China, Rome's Colosseum, India's Taj Mahal, Peru’s Macchu Picchu, Jordan’s Petra, Brazil's Statue of Christ Redeemer and Mexico's Chichen Itza pyramid as the new seven wonders of the world. The campaign to name the new wonders was launched in 1999 by the Swiss adventurer Bernard Weber.
    (AP, 7/8/07)

2007        Jul 19, Peru's public school teachers ended a 15-day strike against a new law requiring them to take competency tests after government officials agreed to talks on their demand for better training.
    (AP, 7/20/07)

2007        Aug 15, A magnitude-8.0 trembler rocked Peru's coast, toppling buildings leaving some 610 people dead and 36,000 homes damaged. State doctors called off a national strike to handle the emergency. Two prisons collapsed and 600 prisoners escaped. About a third gave themselves up over the next week. Tremors destroyed 80% of Pisco, where 148 people died when the city cathedral collapsed.
    (AP, 8/16/07)(Econ, 8/25/07, p.35)(SSFC, 4/6/08, p.A14)(Econ, 8/16/08, p.37)

2007        Aug 16, The death toll from Peru’s earthquake rose to at least 337.
    (AP, 8/16/07)

2007        Aug 17, In Peru six strong aftershocks struck as the death toll from the Aug 15 8.0 earthquake passed 500.
    (AP, 8/17/07)

2007        Aug 18, In Peru President Alan Garcia called for the orderly distribution of emergency supplies as desperate victims of a magnitude-8 earthquake on the southern coast looted markets and blocked arriving aid trucks. The death toll climbed to 540.
    (AP, 8/18/07)(AP, 8/20/07)

2007        Aug, In Peru the body of Claudia Gomez was found in a large suitcase that washed up on a Pacific Ocean beach. William Trickett Smith II of Pennsylvania was extradited to Peru in 2010 to face charges that he killed his Peruvian wife, Claudia Gomez in early July at a hotel in Lima. Trickett entered a guilty plea on May 19, 2011. On May 23 he was sentenced to 35-years in prison and ordered to pay $21,000 in restitution to the family of Claudia Gomez.
    (AP, 5/20/11)(http://tinyurl.com/4xcl9xo)(AP, 5/23/11)

2007        Sep 11, Douglas Eugene "Gene" Savoy, explorer, died at age 80 in Reno, Nev. He discovered more than 40 lost cities in Peru and led long-distance sailing adventures to learn more about ancient cultures. Savoy wrote dozens of books, including "Antisuyo: The Search for the Lost Cities of the Amazon" (1970) about his early discoveries in Peru, and "On the Trail of the Feathered Serpent" (1974) about some of his sea journeys.
    (AP, 9/16/07)

2007        Sep 15, A meteorite made a fiery crash to Earth in southern Peru and villagers were soon struck by a mysterious illness.
    (AFP, 9/17/07)

2007        Sep 16, In Peru an unofficial referendum was held in three districts affected by plans for developing a copper mine at Rio Blanco. Some 95% of the votes were against the 1.4 billion project planned by China’s Zijin Consortium, which had recently acquired the concession.
    (Econ, 9/22/07, p.51)

2007        Sep 21, Chile's Supreme Court ruled that former Peruvian President Alberto Fujimori must be extradited to face human rights and corruption charges in Peru.
    (AP, 9/21/07)

2007        Sep 22, Former Peruvian President Alberto Fujimori was flown to his home country in police custody, one day after the Chilean Supreme Court authorized his extradition on human rights and corruption charges.
    (AP, 9/22/07)

2007        Sep, In Peru government ecologists spotted 21 members of a hitherto uncontacted tribe on the banks of the Rio de las Piedras. It was estimated that there are still 15 such groups.
    (Econ, 10/6/07, p.40)

2007        Oct 4, Dutch authorities said their customs officers had found 100 dead beetles stuffed with cocaine whilst examining a parcel from Peru.
    (Reuters, 10/4/07)

2007        Dec 10, Peru’s former President Alberto Fujimori faced trial on charges of using a death squad to kill leftist guerrillas and collaborators, a case stirring mixed emotions in a country where many admire him for defeating a bloody insurgency.
    (AP, 12/10/07)

2007        Dec 11, In Peru former President Alberto Fujimori was convicted of abuse of authority and sentenced to six years in prison at the end of the first in a series of trials on charges that include murder, kidnapping and corruption.
    (AP, 12/12/07)

2008        Feb 29, Peruvian officials arrested seven members from the Coordinadora Continental Bolivariana, a Venezuela-based leftist movement, including the group's alleged leader, Roque Gonzalez, who spent eight years in prison for kidnapping a Bolivian politician. Two more alleged members were arrested on March 17 trying to carry in $65,000 from Ecuador, money Peruvian authorities suspect is Venezuelan. Coordinadora founder Fernando Rivero told The Associated Press in Venezuela that the group is entirely autonomous.
    (AP, 3/22/08)

2008        Mar 11, In Peru a helicopter ferrying passengers from the La Granja copper mine owned by the Rio Tinto Group crashed in the Andes with 10 people aboard. The wreckage was found the next day.
    (AP, 3/13/08)

2008        Apr 8, A Peruvian court convicted a former general and three members of a military death squad of kidnapping and murder in a ruling that prosecutors say could set a precedent in the trial of former President Alberto Fujimori. Judges found them guilty of participating in the 1992 kidnapping and murder of nine students and a professor from La Cantuta University who were suspected of being rebel collaborators.
    (AP, 4/9/08)

2008        Apr 9, In Peru 5 French tourists visiting the Nazca lines were killed when their small plane crashed after becoming tangled in power lines.
    (AP, 4/9/08)

2008        May 15, European and Latin American leaders gathered in Peru for their fifth summit in a decade with plans to tackle climate change, high food prices and poverty.
    (AP, 5/15/08)

2008        May 16, In Peru European and Latin American leaders concluded their 5th summit in a decade and pledged to fight poverty, global warming and high food prices, presenting a show of unity amid a festering conflict between two South American nations.
    (AP, 5/17/08)

2008        May 23, In Brazil 12 South American leaders gathered in Brasilia to set up the Union of South American Nations. UNASUR was expected to replace the South American Community, declared in 2004, and unite the Mercosur and Andean Community free trade areas. Members included Argentina, Bolivia, Brazil, Chile, Colombia, Ecuador, Guyana, Paraguay, Peru, Suriname, Uruguay and Venezuela.
    (https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/UNASUR_Constitutive_Treaty)(Econ, 5/31/08, p.41)

2008        Jul 9, In Peru tens of thousands of union workers took to the streets across the country to protest rising food and fuel prices they blame on the free market policies of President Alan Garcia.
    (AP, 7/9/08)

2008        Jul 14, In Peru a new law went into effect allowing couples who agree upon alimony, child custody and division of assets to seek divorce from a qualified notary or municipality.
    (AP, 7/15/08)

2008        Aug 15, Peruvians flooded the streets to protest the slow pace of reconstruction a year after a magnitude-8.0 earthquake left tens of thousands homeless.
    (AP, 8/16/08)

2008        Aug 18, Peru's government declared a state of emergency in remote jungle regions where Indian groups are blocking highways and oil and gas installations to protest a law that makes it easier to sell their lands.
    (AP, 8/19/08)

2008        Aug 22, Peru’s congress voted to repeal two laws facilitating the sale of Indian lands that had generated protests by dozens of tribes in the Amazon rain forest. The laws had been passed by presidential decree in May to promote private investment.
    (SFC, 8/23/08, p.A3)(Econ, 8/30/08, p.37)

2008        Sep 18, Peru’s Pres. Alan Garcia led a deputation of half his cabinet and over 200 business leaders to see Brazil’s Pres. da Silva.
    (Econ, 9/13/08, p.44)

2008        Oct 9, In Peru a bomb killed 13 soldiers and 2 civilians in Huancavelica, east of Lima, in an apparent response to an army operation to shut down Shining Path camps.
    (AP, 10/10/08)(Econ, 10/18/08, p.50)

2008        Oct 10, Peru’s President Alan Garcia accepted the resignation of his entire Cabinet without naming replacements in response to an oil kickbacks scandal.
    (AP, 10/11/08)

2008        Oct 11, Peru’s President Alan Garcia announced that he has appointed Yehude Simon (61), a leftist governor, to become the chief Cabinet minister, a day after the minister's predecessor resigned along with 16 colleagues amid a brewing oil-kickbacks scandal.
    (AP, 10/11/08)

2008        Oct 20, US Ambassador Michael McKinley and Peru's foreign minister signed an accord forgiving US$25 million of Peru's foreign debt and directing the money to a tropical forest conservation program.
    (AP, 10/21/08)

2008        Oct 28, In Peru police and protesters clashed violently at a blockaded bridge in the province of Moquegua leaving 71 injured.
    (AP, 10/30/08)

2008        Oct 29, In Peru a 1,000-strong mob set fire to the station and took 25 officers captive in San Martin province. They reportedly were angered when police threw tear gas near a school and several children were affected.
    (AP, 10/30/08)

2008        Nov 1, Yma Sumac (b.1922), Peruvian-born singer known as the “Nightingale of the Andes," died in LA. Her voice was said to range over 4½ octaves. Her first album, “Voice of the Xtabay" (1950) soared to the top of the LP charts.
    (SFC, 11/4/08, p.B4)

2008        Nov 16, In Peru Edwin Valladolid was arrested in Lima carrying a box of 36 grenades ahead of the arrival next week of 18 world leaders for a Pacific Rim economic summit.
    (AP, 11/18/08)

2008        Nov 19, China and Peru signed a free trade agreement.
    (Econ, 11/29/08, p.42)

2008        Nov 22, In Peru the 21 leaders at the APEC conference endorsed a sweeping action plan that had been approved a week ago at the G20 emergency meeting in Washington.
    (AP, 11/23/08)

2008        Nov 23, President George W. Bush, wrapping up his final summit with world leaders, offered a message of hope that despite the worst economic crisis in decades, the global economy will emerge in better shape. He was expected to tout the benefits of free trade during a meeting with his host, Peru's President Alan Garcia, before attending the final sessions of the 21-nation Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation forum (APEC) as he wrapped up three days of discussions. Summit leaders predicted a worldwide recovery in 18 months.
    (AP, 11/23/08)(SFC, 11/24/08, p.A11)

2008        Nov 26, In Peru suspected rebels armed with machine guns and grenades ambushed a police patrol in the central jungle, killing four officers and wounding five others.
    (AP, 11/26/08)

2008        Dec 4, Drug agents in Peru seized 3 tons of cocaine mixed into a shipment of guano bound for Spain. Four Peruvians and a Colombian were arrested.
    (AP, 12/15/08)

2008        Dec 25, In Peru five nightclubbers are dead after a tear gas grenade was detonated in the middle of a crowded disco in Juliaca.
    (AP, 12/25/08)

2008        In Peru city officials of Cerro de Pasco gave mine owner, Peru-based Volcan Compania Minera S.A., permission to take another 28 acres (11.33 hectares) of the town, including the center square and its colonial church, rebuilt in 1748 after an earthquake. If not, the company threatened to close the pit-mine, putting 4,000 jobs at risk. About the same time, Peru's congress passed a bill to condemn and relocate Cerro de Pasco, based on US Centers for Disease Control studies that found soil, homes and water saturated with toxic levels of lead.
    (AP, 4/19/10)

2009        Jan 10, In northern Peru a bus ran off a slick mountain road into a ravine, killing at least 33 people.
    (AP, 1/10/09)

2009        Jan 27, A Peruvian court freed two men accused of belonging to a military death squad linked to several massacres in the early 1990s, after the suspects completed six years in prison without a conviction. Douglas Arteaga Pascual and Angel Pino Diaz were charged in 2001 and accused of belonging to a death squad known as the "Colina group." A verdict was expected this year.
    (AP, 1/28/09)

2009        Feb 14, The Peruvian film “La Teta Asustada" (The Milk of Sorrow), directed by Claudia Llosa, won the top prize at the Berlin Film Festival.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/The_Milk_of_Sorrow)(Econ, 3/14/09, p.42)

2009        Feb 17, In Portugal Conchita Cintron (b.1922), Peruvian-born matador, died. She faced her first bull at age 13 and made her premier at the main arena in Lima in 1937. She reportedly killed over 750 bulls during her career in Europe.
    (SFC, 2/20/09, p.B8)(Econ, 3/7/09, p.93)

2009        Feb 27, Researchers in Peru said an unusually intact fossilized skull of a pelagornithid, a giant, bony-toothed seabird that lived up to 10 million years ago, had been found in the in the Pisco Formation, a coastal rock bed south of the capital, Lima, known for yielding fossils of whales, dolphins, turtles and other marine life dating as far back as 14 million years.
    (AP, 2/28/09)

2009        Mar 2, In Peru's southern province of Puno 10 people were killed dead and 16 left missing at a remote mining camp buried by a mudslide.
    (AP, 3/3/09)

2009        Mar 31, Peru’s President Alan Garcia reversed course and accepted a donation from Germany for a museum honoring those killed in Peru's 20-year armed conflict with Maoist Shining Path guerrillas.
    (AP, 3/31/09)

2009        Apr 7, Former Peruvian President Alberto Fujimori (70) was found guilty of murder and kidnapping for death squad activities during his 10-year rule during the 1990s. He was sentenced to 25 years in prison. His daughter, Congresswoman Keiko Fujimori (33), said people's outrage over the "vengeful" verdict will propel her to Peru's presidency in 2011. Then she'll pardon him.
    (AP, 4/7/09)

2009        Apr 9, In Peru suspected guerrillas killed 13 Peruvian soldiers in ambushes on two patrols in the Apurimac-Ene river valley, a jungle region known for coca production and lingering rebel activity. The body of a 14th soldier was recovered on April 12.
    (AP, 4/11/09)(SFC, 4/14/09, p.A2)

2009        Apr 13, In Peru a foot bridge in the highlands collapsed, sending dozens of children and teachers from a nearby school plunging more than 230 feet (70 meters) into a ravine and killing 2 teachers and six schoolchildren.
    (AP, 4/13/09)

2009        Apr 27, Peru's government said that it has granted political asylum to Manuel Rosales, a Venezuelan opposition leader, who faced corruption allegations in his homeland but claimed to be persecuted by leftist President Hugo Chavez.
    (AP, 4/27/09)

2009        Apr 28, Peru’s Pres. Alan Garcia and Brazil’s Pres. Luiz Inacio Lula da Silva signed an agreement for six hydroelectricity schemes in Peru. The Inambari dam would be the first to be built, and most of its power would be exported to Brazil.
    (www.bicusa.org/en/Article.11256.aspx)(Econ, 11/21/09, p.42)
2009        Apr 28, Venezuela recalled its ambassador to protest Peru's decision to grant political asylum to a prominent opponent of President Hugo Chavez, calling it a mockery of international law and escalating a diplomatic dispute.
    (AP, 4/28/09)

2009        Apr 30, In Peru Ashaninka and Yines Indians blocked an airport in the central jungle town of Atalaya as well as two stations on a northern oil pipeline to protest laws that they say threaten their ancestral land and resources. Some 15,000 Indians have been protesting since April 9 and planned to start taking over oil and gas rigs. They said laws passed in December opened the door to privatization of water resources and jungle land which they used.
    (AP, 4/30/09)

2009        May 9, It was reported that Peru’s police over the last two months have seized some $40 million in near perfect replicas of American dollar bills in $20, $50 and $100 denominations. Most of the fake bills were sent to Ecuador and Panama, which used the greenback as their national currency.
    (Econ, 5/9/09, p.40)

2009        May 11, Bolivia demanded that Peru hand over three former government ministers charged with genocide in the 2003 killing of dozens of protesters. President Evo Morales called asylum an "open provocation of the Bolivian people."
    (AP, 5/11/09)

2009        May 12, Peruvian Foreign Minister Jose Antonio Garcia Belaunde said former Bolivian ministers Mirtha Quevedo and Javier Torres Goitia requested and have received refugee status, a legal measure that, unlike asylum, does not denote political persecution. They are among the former ministers of former Bolivian President Gonzalo Sanchez Lozada, charged with genocide for sending soldiers who killed 63 people in 2003 while quelling anti-government protests in the city of El Alto.
    (AP, 5/12/09)
2009        May 12, In Peru a new law went into effect that says officers will be fired for taking bribes and abusing detainees. It also said police officers who "damage the image" of law enforcement by engaging in homosexual behavior can lose their jobs.
    (AP, 5/14/09)

2009        May 15, In Peru a national Indian representative said Amazon Indians who have been blocking roads, waterways and a state oil pipeline since April are declaring an "insurgency" against Peru's government for refusing to repeal laws that the protesters say make it easier for foreign companies to take their lands. The next day they said they would withdraw the call for an insurgency against the government, but vowed to press ahead with their protests.
    (AP, 5/16/09)

2009        Jun 5, Indians in Peru's Amazon, protesting government moves to develop oil, gas and other resources on their lands, battled police near Bagua in an area called Curva del Diablo, or "Devil's Curve." Authorities reported the death of 11 police and 25 protesters. The official death toll after 2 days of violence was later reported at 33, including 23 police officers. Santiago Manuin (53), Awajun Indian leader, was among 48 wounded protesters.
    (AP, 6/5/09)(Econ, 7/18/09, p.36)(AP, 8/4/09)

2009        Jun 6, Peru’s President Alan Garcia labored to contain the country’s worst political violence in years, as nine more police officers were killed in a bloody standoff with Amazon Indians fighting his efforts to exploit oil, gas and other resources on their native lands. The new deaths brought to 22 the number of police killed, seven with spears, since security forces on June 5 moved to break up a roadblock manned by 5,000 protesters. A judge ordered the arrest of the Indian leader, Alberto Pizango, on sedition and rebellion charges.
    (AP, 6/7/09)(AP, 6/10/09)

2009        Jun 8, In Peru indigenous leader Alberto Pizango sought refuge at Nicaragua's embassy in Lima. Nicaragua granted Pizango political asylum but he remained at the embassy, awaiting Peru's agreement to allow him safe passage out of the country.
    (AP, 6/10/09)

2009        Jun 10, Peru's Congress indefinitely suspended two key legislative decrees that spurred the Amazon Indian protests that erupted in bloodshed during a government crackdown last week. Indigenous groups said the decrees make it easier for foreign companies to exploit their lands for oil, gas and logging.
    (AP, 6/10/09)

2009        Jun 11, In Peru riot police used tear gas to turn student protesters away from the Congress as thousands marched to back Amazon Indians resisting oil and natural gas exploration on their land.
    (AP, 6/11/09)

2009        Jun 15, Peru's government promised Amazon Indians to ask Congress to revoke decrees that native groups say would make it easier to exploit their lands for oil, gas and other development.
    (AP, 6/15/09)

2009        Jun 18, In Peru a top Indian leader called for an end to protests that left dozens dead in the Amazon region after Congress revoked two decrees that indigenous groups said would spur oil and gas exploitation and other development on their ancestral lands.
    (AP, 6/18/09)

2009        Jun 19, The UN said Colombia's coca crop shrank by nearly a fifth last year while cultivation of the bush that is the basis of cocaine rose for a third straight year in Peru and Bolivia, the world's two other coca-producing nations.
    (AP, 6/19/09)

2009        Jul 2, In Peru two buses crashed head-on on a mountain road near Lake Titicaca, killing at least 23 people and injuring 50 more.
    (AP, 7/2/09)

2009        Jul 11, Peru’s President Alan Garcia shuffled his Cabinet following months of protests, replacing seven of 16 ministers and naming a new chief, the third person to hold the post in nine months.
    (AP, 7/12/09)

2009        Jul 20, Peru’s former President Alberto Fujimori was convicted of embezzlement and sentenced to 7 1/2 years in prison after he admitted illegally paying his spy chief $15 million in government funds.
    (AP, 7/21/09)

2009        Aug 2, In Peru attackers believed to be Shining Path rebels killed three police officers and two women in an assault on a remote police post in San Jose de Secce in Ayacucho province, a coca-growing region.
    (AP, 8/3/09)

2009        Aug 7, A Peruvian government prosecutor presented homicide charges against two police generals and 15 other officers for a June government crackdown at an Amazon highway blockade manned by Indians protesting development on their ancestral lands. The criminal charges, which must be ratified by a judge, were the first to implicate police in violence that left at least 33 dead, including 23 police.
    (AP, 8/12/09)

2009        Aug 15, In Peru farmers freed 13 police officers and four civilians seized at a hydroelectric dam in the Andean region after local officials agreed to provide them with fertilizer.
    (AP, 8/15/09)

2009        Aug 16, It was reported that Peru has become the world’s largest “factory" of counterfeit US dollars. Police were said to seize some $10 million in false dollars each month in Lima alone. The Peruvian dollars were mostly found in such countries as Italy, France, Germany and Ecuador. Gunmen robbed 12 foreigners on an ecological tourism trip to the Manu nature reserve in the Tres Cruces area of the Cusco region.
    (SSFC, 8/16/09, p.A4)(AP, 8/16/09)

2009        Aug 24, It was reported that Peruvian police expecting to find a shipment of cocaine hidden in a crate holding two live turkeys were surprised to discover the drug surgically implanted inside the birds.
    (AP, 8/24/09)

2009        Sep 2, In Peru drug-funded Shining Path rebels shot down an air force helicopter in the coca-growing highlands of Junin province, killing three troops and wounding five. The military said three rebels were arrested and another four killed.
    (AP, 9/3/09)

2009        Sep 11, In Peru lawyer Alfredo Crespo announced the publication of a book of manuscripts written in prison by Shining Path rebel leader Abimael Guzman. On Sep 13 the justice minister asked a public prosecutor to file "apology for terrorism" charges against Crespo.
    (AP, 9/14/09)

2009        Sep 28, In Peru former President Alberto Fujimori, who already faces the prospect of spending the rest of his life in prison, pleaded guilty to authorizing illegal wiretaps and bribes of politicians, journalists and businessmen.
    (AP, 9/28/09)

2009        Sep 30, In Peru a court imposed a six-year prison sentence on disgraced ex-President Alberto Fujimori, who already faced the prospect of spending the rest of his life in a cell after three previous convictions. He also was fined $9 million for authorizing wiretaps and bribes.
    (AP, 9/30/09)

2009        Nov 5, Peru’s defense minister said Shining Path rebels attacked a military outpost in the country's coca-producing highlands, killing one soldier and wounding three.
    (AP, 11/5/09)

2009        Nov 12, Peruvian media reported that air force officer Victor Ariza (45) was arrested last month for allegedly spying for Chile. Peruvian President Alan Garcia soon accused Chile of assaulting Peru's sovereignty, throwing his weight behind allegations that Chile paid a Peruvian military officer to spy. Chilean Foreign Minister Mariano Fernandez denied the accusation.
    (AP, 11/16/09)

2009        Nov 19, Peruvian police said a gang in the Peruvian jungle has been killing people and draining fat from the corpses to sell on the black market for use in cosmetics, although medical experts say they doubt a major market for fat exists.
    (AP, 11/20/09)

2009        Nov 28, The government of Peru apologized to its Afro-Peruvian population for the first time for centuries of abuse, exclusion and discrimination. Peru was the first country in Latin America to make such an apology.
    (AP, 11/28/09)(SSFC, 7/21/13, p.A5)

2009        Dec 1, Peru's police chief dismissed the head of his criminal investigations unit amid suggestions that officers may have invented a story about a murderous gang of human fat thieves, perhaps to distract from allegations of police killings.
    (AP, 12/1/09)

2009        Dec 16, In Peru a storm-loosened wave of mud and rocks rolled through the streets of Ayacucho in the Peruvian Andes, killing at least 9 people while destroying homes and cars.
    (AP, 12/17/09)

2009        Dec 23, In northern Peru a 60-year-old woman was trampled to death by a surging crowd at a Christmas giveaway in Chimbote.
    (AP, 12/23/09)

2009        Dec 24, In Peru a bus carrying mostly Quechua farmers and merchants home for Christmas plunged 250 feet (80 meters) into a ravine in the southern Andes, killing 42 people and injuring at least eight.
    (AP, 12/24/09)

2010        Jan 1, In Peru a riot by about 500 inmates erupted New Year’s Eve at a northern prison and left two inmates dead. 6 guards were held hostage until negotiations got the prisoners to end their protest.
    (AP, 1/1/10)

2010        Jan 24, In Peru some 3,900 tourists were cut off in villages near Machu Picchu in the Andes mountains, when mudslides blocked the railway to the city of Cuzco, which is the only way in or out of the area. Torrential rain, due to El Nino, in the Cusco area left at least 26 people dead and destroyed the homes and livelihood of some 20,000.
    (AP, 1/27/10)(Econ, 2/13/10, p.42)

2010        Jan 26, In Peru an Argentine identified as Lucia Ramallo (23) and a Peruvian guide, Washington Huaraya, were in their tents when a slope near Machu Picchu gave way and crushed them. The deaths raised to five the number of people killed by rain-triggered floods and landslides in the area. Government and private helicopters flew out 475 tourists as US authorities sent four helicopters to bolster rescue efforts.
    (AP, 1/27/10)

2010        Feb 22, In Peru 2 buses crashed head-on along a remote stretch of highway in the northeast, killing at least 38 people and injuring 58.
    (AP, 2/22/10)

2010        Mar 16, In Peru President Alan Garcia fired Justice Minister Aurelio Pastor amid questions over the pardoning of Jose Enrique Crousillat (77), a former media executive convicted of taking payoffs to provide favorable coverage for a previous government.
    (AP, 3/16/10)

2010        Mar 27, Peruvian police said five people have been killed by a mudslide set off by heavy rains in a remote community of wildcat miners in the southeastern Andes.
    (AP, 3/27/10)

2010        Apr 1, In northeastern Peru a mudslide killed five people in the town of Cancejos.
    (AP, 4/2/10)

2010        Apr 2, In northeastern Peru landslides caused by heavy rains hit Porvenir, killing at least 23 people and leaving 25 others missing. At least 54 people were injured.
    (AP, 4/2/10)

2010        Apr 5, In Peru a 2nd day of clashes between police and protesting miners left 6 miners dead as the government tried to put restrictions on unregulated gold mining in the southern jingle region of Madre de Dios.
    (SFC, 4/6/10, p.A2)

2010        Apr 24, In Peru police Gen. Luis Muguruza, who commanded a police operation against an Indian road blockade last June that resulted in 33 deaths, was named a member of the Interior Ministry's human rights commission, according to a decree published in the government's official gazette.
    (AP, 4/26/10)

2010        May 12, Peru’s Health Ministry reported that an estimated 1.5 million or 5% of its citizens were alcoholics, and that it was now the 2nd leading cause of illness and death.
    (SSFC, 5/16/10, p.A4)

2010        May 25, In Peru a judge granted parole to Lori Berenson (40), the New York activist who has spent 15 years in Peruvian prisons on a conviction of aiding leftist rebels. However, the judge said that Berenson cannot leave Peru until her sentence for terrorist collaboration ends in November 2015.
    (AP, 5/25/10)

2010        May 26, In Peru Indian leader Alberto Pizango was detained upon arrival in Peru's capital from Nicaragua, where he fled 11 months ago to avoid charges over violent protests against proposed oil and gas exploration in the Amazon.
    (AP, 5/26/10)

2010        May 27, In Peru Lori Berenson (40), a New Yorker convicted of terrorist collaboration, walked out of prison with a smile on her face, then pushed through mobs of reporters before settling into a neighborhood that met her with hostility.
    (AP, 5/27/10)

2010        May 30, In Peru Stephany Flores (21) was killed in a room at a Lima hotel where Joran van der Sloot (22), long suspected in the 2005 disappearance in Aruba of US teen Natalee Holloway, had been staying. Her body was found on June 2. Chilean police captured van der Sloot on June 3 as he was heading to the country's Pacific coast. On June 4 Van der Sloot was handcuffed and placed aboard a police Cessna 310 in the Chilean capital of Santiago for extradition to Peru. After 3 days in custody van der Sloot admitted to killing Flores.
    (AP, 6/3/10)(AP, 6/4/10)(AP, 6/8/10)

2010        Jun 14, In Peru thousands of workers blocked a key highway, risking clashes with police at La Oroya where Doe Run, a US-owned smelter, is at the center of a bitter year-long environmental dispute. The protest marked the start of an indefinite strike to compel the government to push back a July 15 deadline imposed on the US firm Doe Run to comply with new environmental regulations.
    (AFP, 6/14/10)

2010        Jun 17, In Peru American activist Lori Berenson (40) apologized in a letter to Peru for her “crime of collaboration with terrorism." Berenson asked a government panel to commute her 20-year sentence for aiding the leftist Tupac Amuru Revolutionary Movement.
    (SFC, 6/18/10, p.A2)

2010        Jun 22, Peru's coca crop grew for a fourth straight year, according to the UN, edging the country closer to Colombia in overall cultivation of the raw material of cocaine.
    (AP, 6/23/10)

2010        Jul 7, A Peruvian judge halted the expulsion of Paul McAuley (62), a British religious activist. He was accused by the government of inciting unrest among indigenous groups protesting environmental damage to the Amazon rain forest.
    (AP, 7/7/10)

2010        Aug 3, In Peru at least one farmer died when police cleared a roadblock set by coca growers demanding the government halt efforts to eradicate coca plantations in the world's top producer of the leaf, used to make cocaine.
    (Reuters, 8/3/10)

2010        Aug 16, In Peru American Lori Berenson apologized for aiding leftist rebels and asked a Peruvian court to let her remain free on parole after serving 15 years of her 20-year sentence behind bars.
    (AP, 8/16/10)

2010        Aug 18, In Peru American activist Lori Berenson, convicted of aiding leftist rebels, surrendered to police after a court struck down a decision granting her parole and ordered her to return to prison, where she is to remain with her 15-month-old son for the time being.
    (AP, 8/18/10)

2010        Aug 27, In Peru Police two Roman Catholic priests were stabbed to death inside the historic at the San Francisco monastery two blocks from Lima's main square. The victims are identified as Ananias Aguila of Peru and Linan Ruiz of Puerto Rico.
    (AP, 8/27/10)

2010        Sep 14, Peruvian President Alan Garcia chose Education Minister Jose Chang as the new prime minister and Ismael Benavides as economic chief in a widely expected cabinet shuffle to pave the way for his party to launch a candidate in next year's presidential election.
    (Reuters, 9/14/10)

2010        Sep 19, In Peru hundreds of coca growers briefly seized control of a power plant in Aguaytia, cutting off electricity to the estimated 430,000 people who live in Ucayali province. Police moved in arresting 120 people and freeing 30 employees. Authorities said that coca growers were still blocking a main highway with dozens of disabled buses and trucks.
    (AP, 9/19/10)

2010        Sep 24, In Peru hundreds of student protesters toppled a perimeter wall at Cuzco's airport, prompting flight suspensions and cancellations that stranded about 500 tourists. The students backed peasants who have been blocking roads in the region for nearly two weeks, protesting government plans to build a reservoir in the municipality of Espinar.
    (AP, 9/25/10)

2010        Sep, Peruvian police officers raided a printing press in Lima's San Juan de Lurigancho district. The operation tallied six different currencies producing just above $27 million. Fake US $100 bills accounted for nearly one-third of the total, while euros accounted for another $4 million. The rest of the bills were Bolivian, Chilean, Peruvian and Venezuelan currency.

2010        Oct 1, In Peru former President Alberto Fujimori's right hand man, Vladimiro Montesinos, two top ex-generals and a major were sentenced to 25 years in jail for ordering murders during Peru's so-called dirty war. They were found guilty of ordering the Colina Group, a secret army hit squad, to kill 24 people in two massacres in 1991 and 1992. Twenty other members of the Colina Group were sentenced to 15-25 years behind bars.
    (AP, 10/2/10)

2010        Oct 2, In Peru a small plane carrying British tourists crashed near the famed Nazca Lines, killing all six people on board.
    (AP, 10/2/10)

2010        Oct 7, The 2010 Nobel Prize in literature was awarded to Peruvian writer Mario Vargas Llosa (b.1936) "for his cartography of structures of power and his trenchant images of the individual's resistance, revolt and defeat."
    (AP, 10/7/10)

2010        Oct 19, Bolivia and Peru signed an agreement giving Bolivia a dock, a free-trade zone and the right to run some naval vessels.
    (SFC, 10/20/10, p.A2)

2010        Nov 5, A Peruvian judge ordered convicted rebel collaborator Lori Berenson freed from prison, ruling her initial parole decision sound. Berenson was freed on Nov 8, but the New Yorker's legal troubles remained unresolved.
    (AP, 11/5/10)(AP, 11/9/10)

2010        Nov 14, Japan and Peru said they have reached an agreement on a free-trade deal. The 21-member Asia Pacific Economic Cooperation (APEC) group ended their summit in Japan with pledges to press ahead with moves toward freer trade, with an eventual goal of a region-wide free trade zone.
    (AFP, 11/14/10)(AP, 11/14/10)

2010        Dec 1, In Peru a tourist bus collided head-on with a truck loaded with cement, killing 4 travelers from Belgium and one from the Netherlands as well as both drivers in the southern Chacachaca area. 28 people were injured.
    (AP, 12/1/10)

2010        Dec 3, In Peru a bank robber held 34 people hostage for more than seven hours in a nationally televised drama that ended when a police sniper crawled through a ventilation duct and shot and killed him.
    (AP, 12/4/10)

2011        Jan 24, Peru joined a growing number of South American countries in recognizing an independent and sovereign Palestinian state. The decision does not recognize Palestine's borders pre-dating the Six-Day War of 1967. Peru also recognized Israel's indisputable right to exist without any threats to its people.
    (AP, 1/24/11)

2011        Feb 18, Peruvian journalist Vicky Pelaez (55), deported by the United States last year to Russia in a spy swap, returned home and said she was in Peru to attend her father's burial.
    (AP, 2/19/11)

2011        Mar 6, Off the central Peruvian coast a gang of criminals known as "the pirates of the sea" raided a Japanese tuna trawler. The gang of some 20 criminals tied the crew's hands and feet, then took off with their money, cell phones and the ship's communication equipment.
    (AFP, 3/6/11)

2011        Mar 30, Peru received a first shipment of the Incan artifacts taken from the mountain citadel of Machu Picchu a century ago. Yale University returned 366 pieces, after a lawsuit and personal lobbying of the US president. The pieces were among some 4,000 adventurer Hiram Bingham took beginning in 1911 from what has become Peru's leading tourist attraction.
    (AP, 3/31/11)

2011        Apr 2, Peruvian officials said a British couple has been arrested at Lima's international airport as they boarded a plane to London with over 11 kg of cocaine and 100 heroin capsules. Roxana Laercia (37) stashed the cocaine (24 pounds) between her clothes and Michael Eguonoghen (28) had swallowed the heroin capsules, the equivalent of 1.5 kg (3.3 pounds).
    (AFP, 4/3/11)

2011        Apr 7, In Peru 2 protesters were fatally shot and a dozen others injured in a clash between police and peasants opposing a planned copper mine on the southern coast.
    (SFC, 4/8/11, p.A2)

2011        Apr 10, Peru held presidential elections. Leftist Ollanta Humala won the first round of the presidential election but he did not win a majority according to exit polls and will now likely face rightist lawmaker Keiko Fujimori in a run-off.
    (Reuters, 4/10/11)

2011        Apr 28, In Peru the leaders of Chile, Colombia, Mexico and Peru agreed to launch the Pacific Alliance in the declaration of Lima.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pacific_Alliance)(Econ., 3/14/15, p.39)

2011        May 3, In Peru a group of gunmen accosted reporter Julio Castillo Narvaez (41) as he was leaving a Viru restaurant after lunch and shot him six times, then fled the scene. Narvaez, who headed the newscast at Radio Ollantay in the northern city of Viru, was a fierce critic of regional authorities.
    (AFP, 5/4/11)

2011        May 26, In Peru Polish couple Jaroslaw Frackiewicz (70) and his wife, Celina Mroz (58), were last seen while kayaking on the Ucayali River. On July 8 police arrested Fidel Garcia (27). an ethnic Ashaninka. Garcia implicated his brother-in-law Freddy Ruiz and uncle Roger Ruiz in the couple’s killing.
    (AP, 7/11/11)

2011        May 29, In Peru activists opposed to a silver mine in the southeastern Puno region rejected a deal with the government and said protests will continue, even if it means there will be no regional voting in the upcoming presidential run-off.
    (AFP, 5/29/11)

2011        May, In Peru victims first complained to the Lima archdiocese that Catholic leader Luis Fernando Figari sodomized his recruits and forced them to fondle him and one another.
    (AP, 2/25/17)

2011        Jun 1, In Peru El Comercio's publisher, Francisco Miro Quesada, responded in the newspaper, calling the accusations by Novelist Mario Vargas Llosa "ill-intentioned untruths" and saying the author's letter was "full of lies." Llosa had angrily pulled his biweekly column from Peru's dominant newspaper on the eve of the presidential runoff election, calling El Comercio "a propaganda machine" for conservative candidate Keiko Fujimori.
    (AP, 6/1/11)

2011        Jun 5, Peruvians headed to the polls in a presidential election run-off between a leftist ex-army colonel and the daughter of jailed former strongman Alberto Fujimori. Oluntala Humala captured 51.5% of the vote over Keiko Fujimori’s 48.5%.
    (AFP, 6/5/11)(SSFC, 6/19/11, p.A4)(Econ, 6/11/11, p.39)

2011        Jun 6, In Peru the remains of 5 soldiers arrived in Lima. They were killed in an ambush attributed to Shining Path guerrillas in the Apurimac River Valley.
    (SSFC, 6/19/11, p.A4)

2011        Jun 13, Peru’s Pres. Alan Garcia announced his plan to build the world’s tallest statue of Jesus Christ, standing 120 ft. high. Among those to object is the mayor of Lima, Susan Villaran, who noted that such a tall statue would negatively impact the skyline and overshadow other tourist attractions.  
            (AFP, 6/13/11)

2011        Jun 24, In Peru three people wee killed and 15 wounded after police fired on mostly indigenous protesters when they tried to storm a provincial airport in the country's southern highlands. Aymara Indian activists have been protesting since May 9 against a planned silver mine owned by a Canadian company and a proposed hydroelectric project that would mostly benefit neighboring Brazil.
    (AP, 6/25/11)

2011        Jun 29, Peruvian President Alan Garcia inaugurated a giant statue of Jesus similar to Rio de Janeiro's iconic Christ the Redeemer. "Christ of the Pacific" is 72 feet (22 m) high and stands atop a 49-foot (15-m) concrete base. It overlooks the Pacific Ocean from Lima. The statue was donated by the Brazilian company Odebrecht, which later admitted paying $29 million in bribes to secure contracts in Peru.  In January 2017, vandals covered the statue in messages like "Out of the country Odebrecht." In January 2018, the statue was damaged by fire.
    (AP, 6/29/11)(Econ, 2/4/17, p.31)(AP, 1/13/18)

2011        Jul 28, In Peru Ollanta Humala, the leftist military man who won the presidency after abandoning a radical platform, promised in his inaugural address to make his priority the one in three Peruvians still mired in poverty.
    (AP, 7/28/11)

2011        Jul, In Peru Susana Baca (67), the country’s best-known musician, accepted an offer to join President Ollanta Humala's government becoming the country's first black Cabinet minister.
    (AP, 9/15/11)

2011        Aug 17, Peru's new government confirmed that it is temporarily suspending eradication of coca in the central Tingo Maria region while it re-evaluates its counter-drug program. Peru is the No. 2 producer of cocaine after Colombia. Its coca crop has been growing steadily the past four years.
    (AP, 8/18/11)

2011        Sep 14, Jose Oquendo Reyes became the second Peruvian journalist to be slain this month and the third this year. Oquendo was shot to death in Chincha, a coastal town 120 miles (200 km) south of Lima. A suspect was arrested.
    (AP, 9/16/11)

2011        Oct 28, A 6.9-magnitude quake just off the central coast of Peru. Peruvian authorities said 134 homes were destroyed and 103 people treated at hospitals for injuries.
    (AP, 10/29/11)

2011        Nov 28, In Peru US-based Newmont Mining Corp. suspended construction at the Conga gold mine for a fourth day due to continuing protests by peasants who fear it will damage their water supply. Deputy minister Jose de Echave quit saying the government "lacks an adequate strategy for dealing with social conflict."
    (AP, 11/28/11)

2011        Nov 30, In Peru US-based Newmont Mining Corp. suspended its $4.8 billion gold project at Minas Conga under government pressure to reestablish tranquility and social peace.
    (SFC, 12/1/11, p.A7)

2011        Dec 1, Peru’s El Comercio reported that Congress has amended the penal code to included prison sentences of 15-35 years for murders committed by husbands, lovers, boyfriends and live-in partners. An average of 10 Peruvian women were murdered monthly by their lovers.
    (SSFC, 12/4/11, p.A4)

2011        Dec 2, In Peru Jose Flores Hala, one of two remaining leaders of the Shining Path guerrilla group, said his troops will cease attacks and is calling for a truce to start peace negotiations with the government.
    (AP, 12/7/11)

2011        Dec 4, Peru’s President Ollanta Humala declared a state of emergency in the northern department of Cajamarca following weeks of protests against the Minas Conga mining project.
    (Econ, 12/10/11, p.42)

2011        Dec 11, Peruvian President Ollanta Humala replaced more than half his Cabinet, a day after accepting its chief minister's resignation in a move widely interpreted as signaling less tolerance for social protests.
    (AP, 12/11/11)

2011        Dec 19, Peruvian migration officials gave paroled American Lori Berenson (42) a document, three days after barring her exit, clearing her to leave the country with her toddler son to spend the holidays with her family in New York City. Berenson said she fully intended to return to Peru by the court-ordered deadline of Jan 11.
    (AP, 12/19/11)

2011        In Peru the a 69-foot (21-meter) Christ statue was donated by Brazilian company Odebrecht. For many Peruvians it later become a sour reminder of the company's illegal maneuverings to court and bribe high-ranking officials in exchange for lucrative public works contracts. In January 2017, vandals covered the statue in messages like "Out of the country Odebrecht." In January 2018, the statue was damaged by fire.
    (AP, 1/13/18)

2012        Jan 6, In Peru Dutch citizen Joran Van der Sloot said he would "sincerely confess" to killing a Peruvian woman in 2010 in a plea strategy that aimed to reduce his eventual prison sentence, prompting judges to suspend the trial until Jan 11.
    (Reuters, 1/6/12)

2012        Jan 9, In Peru passengers in Lima traveled the full length of a 22km elevated railway for the first time. The project had begun in 1986.
    (Econ, 1/14/12, p.37)

2012        Jan 10, Peru's government replaced its drug czar. Ricardo Soberon's refusal to endorse an all-out coca crop eradication effort put him at odds with the Cabinet chief and prompted concern by the US Embassy.
    (AP, 1/10/12)

2012        Jan 11, In Peru Joran van der Sloot (24) pleaded guilty to the 2010 murder of a Peruvian woman he met at a Lima casino who was killed five years to the day after the unsolved disappearance in Aruba of an American teen in which he remains the main suspect. On Jan 13 he was sentenced to 28 years in prison. Due to time already served, his sentence would end in June 2038.
    (AP, 1/11/12)(AP, 1/13/12)

2012        Jan 28, In Peru a fire swept through a two-story private rehabilitation center for addicts in a poor part of Lima, killing 27 people and critically injuring five. The "Christ is Love" center for drug and alcohol addicts was unlicensed and overcrowded and its residents were apparently kept locked inside.
    (AP, 1/29/12)

2012        Jan 30, In Peru some 112 people were treated for injuries after a magnitude-6.3 earthquake struck the country's central coast at 11 minutes after midnight.
    (AP, 1/30/12)

2012        Jan, In Peru dolphins began dying after they were stranded on an 84-mile stretch of coastline. By April as many as 2,800 dolphins were reported dead. Scientists remained puzzled.
    (SFC, 4/7/12, p.A3)

2012        Feb 9, In Peru the rebel known as Comrade Artemio (50), Florindo "Jose" Flores, was reported wounded. On Feb 12 government troops captured the badly wounded leader of a remnant of the once-powerful Shining Path rebel group that lives off the cocaine trade. Artemio had practically lost his right arm. Another Shining Path group of some 400 guerrillas, led by Victor Quispe, continued operating in the VRAE area.
    (AP, 2/12/12)(Econ, 3/3/12, p.49)

2012        Mar 14, In Peru thousands of illegal gold miners battled police for control of Puerto Maldonado, a regional capital in the Amazon basin. At least 3 people were killed by gunfire. A gold rush has swelled Madre de Dios state with about 40,000 small-scale miners who are scarring virgin rain forest as they extract gold particles from river beds and alluvial plains. Mercury is used to bind the gold together in nuggets.
    (AP, 3/15/12)

2012        Apr 5, In Peru 9 miners were trapped after a horizontal mining shaft collapsed not very deep under the surface. The miners were behind debris about six meters (20 feet) wide that collapsed when they set off an explosion to dislodge copper ore. On April 11 the miners walked free through a newly built tunnel.
    (AP, 4/7/12)(AFP, 4/11/12)

2012        Apr 9, In Peru suspected Shining Path gunmen seized 30 Skanska workers overnight but soon freed 23 at the Kepashiato in the Camisea gas fields. The Swedish construction company was building a natural gas plant in the Amazon jungle. A rescue attempt soon left after left 8 soldiers and police dead by rebels under the Quispe Palomino brothers, who led some 500 combatants.
    (AP, 4/9/12)(SFC, 5/30/12, p.A4)

2012        Apr 14, In Peru 36 gas field construction workers, kidnapped 5 days earlier, were released by Shining Path rebels as police closed in during a search.
    (SSFC, 4/15/12, p.A5)

2012        May 5, In Peru a predawn fire swept through a drug rehabilitation center in a town on Lima's outskirts, killing 14 people in the second blaze in Peru this year to claim the lives of addicts trapped behind locked doors in a private treatment residence.
    (AP, 5/5/12)

2012        May 10, Peruvian President Ollanta Humala wrapped up a three-day visit to Japan, having secured up to $250 million worth of loans for infrastructure projects.
    (AFP, 5/10/12)

2012        May 23, Peru's Supreme Court approved Joran van der Sloot's extradition to stand trial in the United States, but only after the confessed murderer has served out his 28-year prison sentence in the South American nation. Peru’s justice minister and Cabinet were still required to endorse the decision.
    (AP, 6/4/12)

2012        May 28, The Peruvian government declared a state of emergency in Espinar province after 8 days of protests over a proposed expansion of a copper mine that left 2 residents dead.
    (SFC, 5/30/12, p.A2)(AP, 5/31/12)

2012        May 31, Peruvian police arrested the mayor of a highlands town accused of promoting anti-mining protests in which two people died this week. Mayor Oscar Mollohuanca was among seven people taken into custody since the emergency was announced May 21.
    (AP, 5/31/12)

2012        Jun 6, In Peru a helicopter crashed in the highlands killing all 14 people aboard, including 8 South Koreans and 3 Europeans. They were exploring a potential hydroelectric project near Mazuco.
    (AP, 6/7/12)(SFC, 6/11/12, p.A2)
2012        Jun 6, Chile, Colombia, Mexico and Peru formally established their Pacific Alliance (Alianza de Pacifico). The goal was free trade and economic integration with a clear orientation toward Asia.
    (Econ, 5/4/13, p.73)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pacific_Alliance)

2012        Jul 3, In Peru protesters opposing the $4.8 billion Conga gold mine battled police and soldiers. The violence claimed at least 3 lives in Celendin, Cajamarca state. A 5th protester died on July 5 following 2 days of clashes. Cesar Medina (16) was returning home from an Internet cafe, his mother says, and got caught up in a crowd of demonstrators when police and soldiers opened fire. A bullet tore into his head, killing him instantly.
    (SFC, 7/4/12, p.A2)(SSFC, 7/8/12, p.A3)(AP, 7/14/12)

2012        Jul 25, In Peru a pipeline carrying a toxic cocktail of copper concentrate laced with a periodic-table's mix of volatile compounds sprung a leak at a pumping station in Santa Rosa de Cajakay. The leak spilled 45 tons of slurry into the town, spreading toxic dust that left 42 people hospitalized for up to 11 days. Mine owner Antamina said little about the accident and was silent about the slurry's chemistry.
    (AP, 8/16/12)

2012        Jul 28, In Peru searchers found the bodies of two US mountaineers who apparently plunged to their deaths off a ridge after ascending a glacier-capped peak. Gil Weiss (29) and Ben Horne (32) fell an estimated 300 meters (nearly 1,000 feet) off a ridge after reaching the west summit of Palcaraju in the Cordillera Blanca range in mid-July.
    (AP, 7/28/12)

2012        Aug 16, Peru’s military said 5 soldiers have been killed in a clash with resurgent Shining Path rebels in the Junin region, 175 miles east of Lima.
    (SFC, 8/17/12, p.A2)

2012        Oct 6, In central Peru Marxist Shining Path rebels burned 3 helicopters being used by a gas pipeline consortium at a jungle airstrip in Kiteni.
    (SSFC, 10/7/12, p.A3)

2012        Oct 26, In Peru 2 people were killed a some 110 people injured, including 50 police officers, in riots in Lima that broke out after a wholesale market was closed for not meeting security and hygiene requirements.
    (SFC, 10/27/12, p.A2)

2012        Oct, Peru's government ordered deep cuts in what the country's 1,200-boat commercial fleet could catch after anchoveta stocks plummeted to about 5 million metric tons — at the low end of what fishermen would bring in during previous years.
    (AP, 2/4/13)

2012        Dec 3, Peru asked the UN’s highest court to set a maritime border between it and Chile, which insisted that the border was clearly set by treaties signed in 1952 and 1954.
    (SFC, 12/4/12, p.A2)

2012        Peru ranked last among 65 countries that took part in the program for Int’l. Student Assessment (PISA). In 2016 Peru, under the guidance of education minister Jaime Saavedra, was rated the fastest PISA improver in Latin America.
    (Econ, 12/17/16, p.32)

2013        Mar 25, Peru's government declared an environmental state of emergency in a remote Amazon jungle region it says has been affected by years of contamination at the country's most productive oil fields, which are currently operated by Argentina-based Pluspetrol.
    (AP, 3/25/13)

2013        Mar 24, Peru’s military chief Adm. Jose Cueto announced over the weekend that a draft would be held in May. It applies to all 18- to 25-year-old males chosen by lottery. Parents and university students are exempt. So is anyone who can afford the $700 fine.
    (AP, 3/26/13)

2013        Apr 13, In Peru a bus plunged off an Andean highway into a river, killing at least 27 people.
    (SSFC, 4/14/13, p.A4)

2013        May 31, In Peru a lawyer said Convicted Dutch murderer Joran van der Sloot (24) is in love and plans to marry a Peruvian woman in the prison where he's serving a 28-year sentence.
    (AP, 5/31/13)

2013        Jun 27, Archeologist in Peru said they discovered a hidden tomb of the Wari, an early civilization the predated the Inca. The coastal pyramid site called El Castillo de Huarmey, 185 miles north of Lima, contained gold pieces, ceramics and 63 skeletons and was about 1,300 years old.
    (http://tinyurl.com/q2uwgmg)(SFC, 6/29/13, p.A2)

2013        Jul 4, Peruvian police fired tear gas at hundreds of students and civil servants in Lima as they marched towards Congress to protest reforms that would impose tougher standards on universities and bureaucrats.
    (Reuters, 7/4/13)

2013        Jul 22, In Peru several thousand people gathered outside Congress to protest a Congressional decision to share among party hacks important jobs at supposedly independent bodies. Legislators swiftly backed down.
    (Econ, 8/3/13, p.31)

2013        Jul, In Peru Ashaninka Indians killed 8 men who encroached on their ancestral lands in the Amazon jungle.
    (SFC, 7/18/13, p.A2)

2013        Aug 11, In Peru security forces killed 3 rebels in combat in the Apurimac and Ene river valley region, a coca-growing area in the country's southeast. "Comrade Alipio" and "Comrade Gabriel" were said to be two of four leaders of what remains of the Shining Path rebel group.
    (AP, 8/12/13)(AP, 8/13/13)

2013        Aug 6, In Peru an Irish woman, Michaella McCollum Connolly (20), and a British woman, Melissa Reid (19), were arrested in Lima for allegedly trying to smuggle cocaine on a flight to Spain. Both girls claimed they were threatened at gunpoint with their lives unless they carried out the orders of a South American cartel.
    (http://tinyurl.com/lfyxztk)(SFC, 8/14/13, p.A2)

2013        Aug 21, In Peru coffee growers from the central jungle clashed with police as they demanded more government help in grappling with the roya fungus that has eaten up their crops and earnings this year.
    (Reuters, 8/21/13)

2013        Sep 5, The US Secret Service, protector of the world's most widely traded currency, said that Peru has in the past two years overtaken Colombia as the No. 1 source of counterfeit US dollars.
    (AP, 9/5/13)

2013        Sep 20, In Peru Luis Bambaren, the former president of Peru's bishops' conference and bishop emeritus of Chimbote, told local media that Gabino Miranda has been dismissed as auxiliary bishop in the dioceses of Ayacucho, a poor Andean region in southern Peru, after he was accused of having sexual relations with minors.
    (Reuters, 9/20/13)

2013        Sep 24, In Peru Michaella McCollum Connolly (20) of Ireland and Melissa Reid (19) of Britain, pleaded guilty to attempting to smuggle 11 kilograms of cocaine out of Peru. Both were arrested on August 6 at the international airport in Lima and initially claimed to have been kidnapped by a drug cartel.
    (AP, 9/25/13)

2013        Oct 11, In southeastern Peru a makeshift bus carrying 51 Quechua Indians back from a party plunged off a cliff into a river, killing everyone on board, including 14 children.
    (AP, 10/12/13)

2013        Oct 29, Peru's PM Juan Jimenez said he is leaving President Ollanta Humala's government and that other cabinet changes will soon be announced by his successor, Cesar Villanueva, the regional president of the northern department of San Martin.
    (Reuters, 10/29/13)

2013        Oct 31, Peru's President Ollanta Humala swore in Cesar Villanueva, a widely praised regional politician, as his 4th prime minister in a Cabinet reshuffle, but retained his finance minister despite rumors he might quit.
    (Reuters, 10/31/13)

2013        Dec 3, In Peru prosecutors said the remains of 54 people, mostly women and children, have been found in 19 graves in the town of Chungui. Experts believed the victims were killed perhaps in 1986 during the first term of president Alan García (1985-1990).
    (AFP, 12/3/13)

2013        Dec 17, A Peru court sentenced Michaella McCollum of Northern Ireland and Melissa Reid of Scotland to 6 years and 8 months in prison each for trying to smuggle 24 pounds cocaine to Spain in their luggage.
    (SFC, 12/18/13, p.A2)

2014        Jan 27, In Peru a long-contested expansion of the Camisea natural gas filed won regulatory approval, despite UN concerns that it could endanger Amazon tribes living in voluntary isolation in the area.
    (SFC, 2/1/14, p.A2)(http://tinyurl.com/pqw2xl2)
2014        Jan 27, The UN’s highest court set a new maritime boundary between Chile and Peru, granting Peru a bigger piece of the pacific Ocean but keeping rich coastal fishing grounds in Chilean hands.
    (SSFC, 2/2/14, p.A8)

2014        Feb 3, Peruvian officials said more than 400 dead dolphins were found last month on its northern Pacific coast.
    (SFC, 2/4/14, p.A2)

2014        Mar 29, German magazine Der Spiegel reported that the US National Security Agency kept more than 300 reports on Chancellor Angela Merkel in a special databank about scores of foreign heads of state. Other leaders listed in the databank include the heads of Peru, Somalia, Guatemala, Colombia and Belarus.
    (AP, 3/29/14)

2014        Apr 13, Glencore, based in Switzerland, said it has signed an agreement to sell its entire interest in the Peruvian Las Bambas copper mine to a consortium led by MMG Ltd., a mining company controlled by state-owned China Minmetals Nonferrous Metals Co. Ltd.
    (AP, 4/14/14)

2014        Apr 19, In Peru a nationwide ban on illegal mining took effect. Some 40,000 illegal gold miners had until today to legalize their status in the southeast in the face of a ban on illegal mining that has ravaged rain forests and contaminated rivers.
    (SSFC, 4/20/14, p.A6)

2014        Apr 28, In Peru about 1,500 police and troops in a surprise raid dynamited $20 million worth of heavy machinery as the government dialed up a crackdown on illegal gold mining that has badly scarred the ecologically rich southeastern jungle region of Madre de Dios.
    (AP, 4/29/14)
2014        Apr 28, Six environmental advocates won this year's Goldman Prize. India's Ramesh Agrawal received the prize for helping villagers fight a large coal mine in Chhattisgarh state. American lawyer Helen Slottje received the award for helping communities fight fracking in New York State. Peru's Ruth Buendia was recognized for helping to prevent construction of two large dams that would have displaced nearly 10,000 indigenous people in the Peruvian Amazon. Russian zoologist Suren Gazaryan won for defending protected areas around Sochi from illegal land seizures for Olympic construction projects. South Africa's Desmond D'Sa won for helping to close down one of the country's largest toxic waste dumps. Indonesian biologist Rudi Putra won for helping to shutter 26 illegal palm oil plantations that were causing deforestation in northern Sumatra.
    (AP, 4/28/14)

2014        May 18, Peruvian politician Carlos Bruce (57) announced he is gay, in an interview this weekend with the newspaper El Comercio. This was a first in one of Latin America's most conservative countries.
    (AFP, 5/21/14)

2014        Jun 5, Peruvian prosecutors said two provincial governors, Klever Melendez of Cerro de Pasco and Gerardo Vinas of Tumbes, have been arrested as part of a crackdown on corruption. A third was sought in the crackdown.
    (SFC, 6/6/14, p.A2)
2014        Jun 5, Peru's counter-narcotics police said they have broken up a ring that shipped cocaine from Lima's international airport to Mexico on commercial flights by swapping out unsuspecting passengers' luggage with identical suitcases.
    (AP, 6/6/14)

2014        Jun 24, Nine Peruvian commercial fisherman died after two trawlers collided and one boat capsized 13 nautical miles off Pisco. Three of the Marisol II’s crew survived.
    (SFC, 6/25/14, p.A2)

2014        Jun, In Peru clothing businessmen in the Gamarra district of Lima held a conference to publicize extortion that cost them an average of $3000 per month.
    (Econ, 7/12/14, p.31)

2014        Jul 4, In Peru Joran van der Sloot (26), the prime suspect in the 2005 disappearance of US teen Natalee Holloway, married his pregnant Peruvian girlfriend Leidy Figueroa (24) in a ceremony at the maximum-security prison where he is serving 28 years for murdering a woman he met in a Lima casino.
    (AP, 7/5/14)

2014        Jul 11, Peru enacted legislation after limited debate in Congress that stripped the 6-year-old environment ministry of jurisdiction over air, soil and water quality standards and eliminates the ministry’s power to establish nature reserves exempt from mining and oil drilling. It also re-established tax breaks for big mining multinationals.
    (SFC, 7/21/14, p.A4)

2014        Sep 1, Peruvian police displayed 8.5 tons of cocaine in a Lima airport hangar seized in a raid last week in a rural home near Trujillo. Officials said it was the largest cocaine haul ever in the country.
    (SFC, 9/2/14, p.A2)
2014        Sep 1, In Peru Edwin Chota, an outspoken opponent of illegal logging, and three other native Ashaninka community leaders were shot and killed in the remote region bordering Brazil where they live.
    (AP, 9/9/14)

2014        Sep 27, In Peru a shallow 4.9-magnitude earthquake killed at least 8 people whose crudely constructed homes collapsed in a remote Andean village near Cuzco.
    (AP, 9/28/14)

2014        Oct 3, In Peru attackers opened fire with assault rifles just before dawn on four vehicles carrying 28 police officers near the town of Machente in the southeastern region of Ayacucho. 2 officers were killed.
    (AP, 10/3/14)

2014        Nov 13, Colombia police arrested Peru's No. 1 fugitive. Businessman Rodolfo Orellana was accused of amassing a fortune through money laundering of over $200 million.
    (AP, 11/13/14)

2014        Dec 1, Peru opened the 20th Conference of the parties to the UN Framework Convention on Climate Change.
    (Econ, 12/6/14, p.72)

2014        Dec 8, Amazon Indians on the Peru-Brazil border say they continue to receive death threats from loggers after the September murder of four local chiefs in a remote forest region overrun by illegal felling.
    (Reuters, 12/8/14)

2014        Dec 13, In Peru UN talks on a new global warming pact went into overtime as negotiators considered a draft agreement that environmentalists complain fails to clearly define the responsibilities countries are due to accept at a key summit in Paris next year.
    (AP, 12/13/14)

2014        Dec 14, In Peru about 190 nations agreed on the building blocks of a new-style global deal due in 2015 to combat climate change amid warnings that far tougher action will be needed to limit increases in global temperatures.
    (Reuters, 12/14/14)

2014        Dec 30, Peruvian Attorney General Carlos Ramos Heredia was suspended from his post for six months while authorities investigate his alleged ties to a case of corruption. He faced in at least six legal processes for allegedly impeding prosecutors investigating alleged corruption in Ancash province.
    (AP, 12/30/14)

2014        In Peru the town of Nueva Fuerabamba, was built to house around 1,600 people who gave up their village and farmland to make room for a massive, open-pit copper mine in the southern Andes. The Melbourne-based unit of state-owned China Minmetals Corp threw in jobs and enough cash so that some villagers no longer had to work.
    (Reuters, 12/7/17)

2015        Jan 23, In Peru 2 police officers were killed at the Ciemsa-owned Aguilas mine in the southern Andean highlands as they tried to dislodge protesters at the mine’s entrance.
    (SSFC, 1/25/15, p.A8)

2015        Feb 18, News leaked that two NCOs in Peru’s naval intelligence agency were being tried in a military court for selling information to Chile.
    (Econ., 2/28/15, p.31)

2015        Feb, In Peru one person was killed and 32 injured when police opened fire on a mob opposed to natural gas exploration by Pluspetrol, an Argentine group.
    (Econ, 2/6/15, p.31)

2015        Mar 30, Peru's Congress sacked PM Ana Jara over alleged spying against lawmakers, reporters, business leaders and other citizens.
    (AFP, 3/31/15)

2015        Apr, In Peru police faced off with hooded protesters over a plan for a $1.4 billion copper and gold mine in the valley of the river Tambo. 2 protesters and a policeman were killed during the month-long strike.
    (Econ, 2/6/15, p.31)

2015        May 22, Peru's government said it was suspending civil liberties, effective May 23, in a southern coastal valley after a fourth death in violent anti-mining protests against a Mexican-owned copper mining project.
    (AP, 5/22/15)
2015        May 22, China and Peru agreed to study the feasibility of a controversial 5,300 km (3,300 miles) transcontinental railroad that will connect Peru's Pacific coast with Brazil's Atlantic coast as Chinese Premier Li Keqiang arrived in Peru, on the third leg of a Latin America visit. Brazil and China already agreed this week on such a study.
    (Reuters, 5/23/15)

2015        May, Peru stood as the world’s biggest source of cocaine and supplier of counterfeit money. The country was also rising as a center for money laundering.
    (Econ, 5/16/15, p.33)

2015        Jun 27, Peru announced that Neymer Keni Maldonado, the logistics chief of the Shining Path rebel group, has been captured and that the government is lifting a three-decade-long state of emergency in a coca-growing region of the Alto Huallaga jungle.
    (AFP, 6/28/15)

2015        Jul 27, Peruvian soldiers rescued 26 children, 10 women and 3 men whom they said had been held as slaves for up to 30 years by Sendero Luminoso (Shining Path).
    (Econ, 8/1/15, p.33)

2015        Aug 1, Peruvian officials said security forces have rescued 54 adults and children, mostly members of the Ashaninka indigenous group, who had been held by Shining Path rebels in a remote jungle region. Some of the adults were kidnapped between 20 and 30 years ago from Puerto Ocopa and nearby towns back when the rebel movement was still strong.
    (AP, 8/1/15)

2015        Aug 20, Peru's Congress unanimously approved a bill reauthorizing its air force to shoot down planes linked to drug trafficking.
    (AFP, 8/20/15)

2015        Sep 22, In Peru Peter Cardenas Schulte, of Tupac Amaru Revolutionary Movement (MRTA), was released from prison after serving 25 years. Cardenas, who used the alias "Comrade Alfonso," had been jailed since April 14, 1992.
    (AFP, 9/22/15)

2015        Sep, In Peru 3 people were killed in a protest over last minute changes to the design of Las Bambas, a giant copper mine bought in 2014 for $7 billion by MMG, a Chinese group, from Glencore, a Swiss commodities company.
    (Econ, 2/6/15, p.31)

2015        Oct 5, Twelve Pacific rim countries sealed the deal on creating the world's largest free trade area (TPP), delivering President Barack Obama a major policy triumph. The Trans-Pacific Partnership included Australia, Brunei, Canada, Chile, Japan, Malaysia, Mexico, New Zealand, Peru, Singapore, the US and Vietnam.
    (AFP, 10/5/15)

2015        Oct 14, Peru’s defense minister announced an investigation into possible drug-related military corruption following a report that the armed forces were turning a blind eye to daily drug flights to Bolivia.
    (SFC, 10/16/15, p.A4)

2015        Oct 23, A Peruvian prosecutor said Lt. Wilmer Eduardo Delgado Ruiz (35), arrested for allegedly letting small planes ferry cocaine unhindered from the world's No. 1 coca-producing valley, was getting bribes of $10,000 a planeload that he apparently shared with his superiors.
    (AP, 10/23/15)

2015        Nov 30, American activist Lori Berenson (46) was finally heading home to New York, two decades after being found guilty of aiding leftist rebels in Peru. Her 20-year sentence lapsed on Nov 29.
    (AP, 11/30/15)

2015        Dec 4, In Peru the former head of the Peruvian football federation, Manuel Burga, was arrested in the growing FIFA bribery probe.
    (AP, 12/5/15)

2015        Pedro Salinas authored "Half Monks, Half Soldiers." Here he blew the whistle on the twisted practices of the Peru-based Sodalitium Christianae Vitae, himself once a victim of leader Luis Fernando Figari's psychological abuse.
    (AP, 2/25/17)
2015        Peru’s spy agency purchased commercial spyware from Verint Systems, an Israeli-American company, and engaged in a $22 million program capable of snooping on thousands of citizens at a time. This took place despite the March 30 congressional sacking of PM Ana Jara over alleged spying against lawmakers, reporters, business leaders and other citizens.
    (SFC, 8/3/16, p.A4)
2015        The chief of Peru’s forest inspection service was dismissed and forced by death threats to flee to the US. He was behind the impoundment of a freighter in Houston that contained 1,770 metric tons of illegally harvested Amazon rain-forest wood.
    (SFC, 4/20/17, p.A4)

2016        Jan 13, FIFA fined Argentina, Chile, Mexico, Peru and Uruguay for anti-gay chants by their national team's fans.
    (AP, 1/13/16)

2016        Jan 20, It was reported that Peruvian authorities are outfitting vultures with GPS tracking devices and GoPro cameras to monitor the city from above.
    (Reuters, 1/20/16)

2016        Feb 22, Peru’s oil operator Petroperu said said ruptures in the main oil pipeline in late January and early February have spilled 3,000 barrels of crude in an Amazonian region, and the oil has polluted two rivers native villages rely on for water.
    (Reuters, 2/23/16)

2016        Feb 26, Peru’s government said police and soldiers destroyed scores of illegal gold mining camps in Peru's Madre de Dios region this week.
    (AP, 2/26/16)

2016        Mar 11, Thousands of Peruvians marched in downtown Lima to demand the electoral board bar presidential frontrunner Keiko Fujimori from next month's vote after it disqualified two of her rivals in an unprecedented move that has shaken the race.
    (Reuters, 3/11/16)

2016        Mar 24, In Peru Keiko Fujimori, the center-right candidate and frontrunner to win next month’s presidential election, was given the go-ahead to stay in the race, after a legal attempt to block her for breaking rules was rejected by an electoral court.
    (AP, 3/24/16)

2016        Apr 8, In southeastern Peru a bus trying to avoid an oncoming truck drove off a highway in a remote zone and tumbled into the Mapacho River, killing at least 23 people.
    (AP, 4/9/16)

2016        Apr 9, In central Peru 3 soldiers and a civilian were killed, and seven others wounded, in two attacks by guerrillas, on the eve of presidential elections. Authorities blamed remnants of the Shining Path communist guerrilla group.
    (AFP, 4/10/16)

2016        Apr 10, Peru held elections. Keiko Fujimori held a double-digit lead over her nearest rival among 10 presidential candidates, but not getting the 50 percent she would need to win outright and avoid a June 5 runoff between the two top vote-getters. With 64 percent of votes counted, Fujimori had 39.46 percent support while Kuczynski, a former World Bank economist, had 23.73 percent and leftist lawmaker Veronika Mendoza trailed with 17.12 percent.
    (AP, 4/10/16)(Reuters, 4/11/16)

2016        Apr 18, Maxima Acuna (47) of Peru was one of six winners of this year's Goldman Environmental Prize. She was honored for stopping a potentially hazardous mine from being built in the country’s remote northern highlands.
    (SFC, 4/18/16, p.C2)

2016        Apr 30, Colombian officials in Medellin arrested top Peruvian crime lord Gerson Galvez, also known as Caracol (Snail), dangerous enough to be compared to Mexico's Joaquin "Chapo" Guzman. Galvez was extradited to Peru within 24 hours.
    (AFP, 5/1/16)(SFC, 5/3/16, p.A2)

2016        May 1, In South Africa 33 lions arrived at the Emoya Big Cat Sanctuary after being flown from Colombia and Peru, where they were freed after the use of wild animals was outlawed. 24 of the lions were rescued during surprise raids on Peruvian circuses, while nine were "voluntarily surrendered" by a Colombian circus.
    (http://tinyurl.com/hma9hg2)(SFC, 5/2/16, p.A2)
2016        May 1, Pacific Alliance members (Argentina, Bolivia, Brazil, Chile, Paraguay, Peru, Uruguay and Venezuela) eliminated tariffs on 92% of their trade with each other and planned to phase out the rest over 17 years.
    (Econ, 5/14/16, p.26)

2016        May 14, In Peru at least 12 people died when a passenger bus veered off the road and crashed along the country's northern coast.
    (AP, 5/14/16)

2016        May 20, Peru's tight presidential race took a surprise turn when prosecutors confirmed they've opened a preliminary investigation against front-runner Keiko Fujimori and her American husband for money laundering.
    (AP, 5/20/16)

2016        Jun 5, Peruvians voted in a tight run-off for the presidency, choosing between right-wing populist Keiko Fujimori (41), the daughter of a jailed former president, and former World Bank economist Pedro Pablo Kuczynski (77). On June 10 Keiko conceded defeat as Kuczynski won 50.1% of the vote.
    (Reuters, 6/5/16)(SFC, 6/11/16, p.A2)

2016        Jun 16, A judge in Peru banned First Lady Nadine Heredia from leaving the country while she's being investigated for allegedly hiding undeclared campaign contributions.
    (AP, 6/17/16)

2016        Jul 22, It was reported that days of heavy snowfall in Peru have killed some 50,000 alpacas. Sheep were also reported dying in large numbers in the high Andean plateaus.
    (SFC, 7/22/16, p.A2)

2016        Aug 13, In Peru more than 50,000 people marched in Lima and eight other cities to protest violence against woman and what they say is the indifference of the judicial system.
    (AP, 8/14/16)

2016        Aug 14, In Peru a shallow, magnitude 5.4 earthquake shook the southern picturesque Colca Valley, killing at least 4 people.
    (AP, 8/15/16)

2016        Aug 16, Peru's supreme court overturned an embezzlement sentence against former president Alberto Fujimori, although the decision will not alter the 25-year prison term he is serving for crimes against humanity.
    (AFP, 8/17/16)

2016        Aug 22, Peru’s interior ministry said a so-called "death squad" established within the Peruvian National Police has executed at least 20 criminals extrajudicially, amid a growing wave of insecurity in the South American country. The government identified nine officers, including a general, who purportedly masterminded the disappearance of at least 20 civilians since 2012.
    (AFP, 8/23/16)(AP, 8/23/16)

2016        Nov 17, PeruRail, the company that takes hundreds of thousands of foreign visitors to the ancient Incan ruins of Machu Picchu each year, suspended service indefinitely due to the threat of violent protests.
    (Reuters, 11/17/16)

2016        Nov 18, In Lima, Peru, Asia-Pacific leaders were urged to defend free trade from rising protectionism after the election victory of Donald Trump stoked fears that years of tearing down barriers to global commerce could be reversed.
    (AFP, 11/18/16)

2016        Nov 19, Members of the Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation (APEC) gathered in Lima, Peru.
    (Econ, 11/19/16, p.11)

2016        Nov 20, In Peru President Barack Obama and Russian President Vladimir Putin spoke to each other start of the opening session of APEC, the Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation summit in Lima. Obama held separate meetings with the leaders of Australia and Canada as he wrapped up the final foreign trip of his presidency.
    (AP, 11/20/16)

2016        Nov 21, Chinese President Xi Jinping began a state visit to Peru by laying a floral wreath at a monument to the South American nation's independence heroes. Peru is home to China's biggest mining investment in Latin America.
    (AP, 11/21/16)

2016        Nov 24, Peru's president signed off on the extradition of Manuel Burga, the country's former soccer boss, to the US for his alleged involvement in a multibillion-dollar FIFA bribery scandal involving marketing and broadcasting rights.
    (AP, 11/24/16)

2016        Dec 1, In Peru one woman was killed and some forty people were arrested in the Huaycan shantytown outside Lima after an angry mob tried to lynch two poll workers who residents believed were butchering local children to take their organs.
    (Reuters, 12/2/16)

2016        Dec 9, In Peru an indigenous federation opposed to a recently approved plan for oil drilling in the Peruvian Amazon said that native communities will physically block any attempt by oil companies to operate on their lands.
    (Reuters, 12/9/16)

2016        Dec 21, Brazilian construction firm Odebrecht SA and affiliated petrochemical company Braskem SA pleaded guilty in a US court to violating American foreign bribery laws as part of a deal resolving a sweeping corruption probe of Brazil's state oil company. Odebrecht admitted that it had paid bribes to win contracts across Latin America including Peru. It said that it had paid $29 million in Peru between 2005 and 2014 to secure concessions.
    (Reuters, 12/21/16)(Econ, 3/25/17, p.29)

2017        Jan 13, Peru’s Pres. Pedro Pablo Kuczynski said ten treatment plants will be constructed on rivers emptying into Lake Titicaca to cleanup uncontrolled pollution.
    (SSFC, 1/15/17, p.A3)

2017        Jan 20, Police in Peru arrested former transport official Edwn Luyo as part of a massive graft scandal implicating Brazilian construction giant Odebrecht and several regional governments. Luyo headed the committee that awarded Odebrecht a contract in 2009 to build Lima's elevated metro.
    (AP, 1/21/17)

2017        Jan 27, Brazilian construction company Odebrecht said it was willing to sell off its remaining projects and businesses in Peru as it faces a massive graft inquiry and calls from the government to leave the Andean country.
    (Reuters, 1/27/17)

2017        Feb 6, Peruvian prosecutors opened a formal investigation into suspicions that former president Alejandro Toledo took $20 million in bribes from Brazilian construction firm Odebrecht, which is at the heart of a regional scandal.
    (AP, 2/7/17)

2017        Feb 7, Peru's attorney general announced he would seek the arrest of former President Alejandro Toledo (2001-2006) on charges of laundering of assets and influence trafficking.
    (AP, 2/7/17)

2017        Feb 10, Peruvian police launched a manhunt for ex-president Alejandro Toledo, once hailed as an anti-corruption champion, after a judge ordered his arrest over accusations he took $20 million in bribes.
    (AFP, 2/10/17)

2017        Feb 12, Peru’s Pres. Pedro Pablo Kuczynski asked US Pres. Donald Trump to extradite former Peruvian Pres. Alejandro Toledo on suspicion of taking bribes from the Brazilian construction company Odebrecht.
    (SFC, 2/13/17, p.A4)

2017        Feb 17, In Peru a gunman killed five people and injured nine at a shopping center in Lima.
    (Econ, 2/25/17, p.30)

2017        Mar 2, It was reported that the shores of Peru’s Lake Titicaca, South America's largest lake, are littered with dead frogs, discarded paint buckets and bags of soggy trash and that the water itself contains toxic levels of lead and mercury. Untreated sewage water drains from two dozen nearby cities and illegal gold mines high in the Andes dump up to 15 tons of mercury a year into a river leading to the lake.
    (AP, 3/2/17)

2017        Mar 15, Juan Pablo Granda (35), a US citizen born in Ecuador and former director of operations for NTR Metals Miami, was detained by FBI agents at his mother's home in Miami after he was fired by NTR's Texas-based parent company. Prosecutors later said he and two other former workers had imported more than $1 billion in illegally mined gold from Peruvian mines controlled by drug traffickers in a vast money-laundering scheme from 2013 to 2016.
    (AP, 7/9/17)

2017        Mar 17, In Peru El Nino-fueled flash floods and landslides hit parts of Lima, leaving some communities cut off from roads. This year's El Nino shut down northern Peru's sugar-cane business.
    (AFP, 3/18/17)(Econ., 10/10/20, p.72)

2017        Apr 12, UNICEF said thousands of children in Peru are at risk of severe malnutrition as a result of recent floods and mudslides that have killed 106 people and left many homeless.
    (SFC, 4/13/17, p.A2)

2017        Jul 10, In Peru a double-decker bus went out of control on a sight-seeing tour in the hills of Lima killing nine people and injuring 40.
    (SFC, 7/11/17, p.A2)

2017        Jul 11, Prosecutors in Peru sought the arrest of former Pres. Ollanta Humala (2011-2016) and his wife on money laundering and conspiracy charges related a corruption scandal involving Brazilian construction giant Odebrecht.
    (SFC, 7/12/17, p.A2)

2017        Jul 13, A Peruvian judge ordered ex-president Ollanta Humala and his wife Nadine Heredia held in pre-trial detention for allegedly accepting illegal campaign donations from Brazilian construction giant Odebrecht. Humala and Heredia surrendered to the judge one hour after the ruling.
    (AFP, 7/14/17)

2017        Jul 21, Peru’s Labor Ministry said striking mining workers in have agreed to return to work by July 24 after the government of President Pedro Pablo Kuczynski promised to name a task force to discuss labor laws with them.
    (Reuters, 7/22/17)

2017        Aug 10, Peru’s government launched its “policy for native languages." This would require government agencies to offer services in native languages in area where they are dominant.
    (Econ, 8/26/17, p.28)

2017        Sep 11, Peru released ballerina Maritza Garrido Lecca (52) after serving a 25 year sentence for terrorism offenses. She had provided refuge for Abimael Guzman and several other leaders of the Shining Path guerrillas.
    (AP, 9/12/17)

2017        Sep 15, Peruvian President Pedro Pablo Kuczynski's entire 19-member Cabinet was forced to resign following a no-confidence vote by the opposition-led congress, throwing the country into political turmoil. Mr. Kuczynski reappointed most of them two days later, except for PM Fernando Zavala and four others.
    (AP, 9/15/17)(Econ, 9/23/17, p.32)

2017        Oct 19, Peru's conservative Congress passed a bill to legalize medical marijuana late today with a 68-5 vote in favor of allowing cannabis oil to be produced, imported and commercialized.
    (Reuters, 10/20/17)

2017        Nov 24, Peru's attorney general's office said it was investigating former President Alejandro Toledo for allegedly taking millions of dollars in bribes from the Brazilian company Camargo Correa in exchange for a highway construction contract.
    (AP, 11/24/17)

2017        Dec 15, Peru’s opposition-controlled Congress voted 93-17 to seek the removal from office of Pres. Pedro Pablo Kuczynski over graft allegations, which he denies. 87 votes will be needed to oust him in a session scheduled for Dec. 21, when he will be asked to defend himself. Brazil’s Odebrecht construction company disclosed this week payments totaling $4.8 million to companies owned by Kuczynski or a close friend.
    (Reuters, 12/16/17)

2017        Dec 21, In Peru opposition legislators, who control Congress, fell eight votes short of the two-thirds threshold in the 130-seat chamber needed to oust President Pedro Pablo Kuczynski following a half-day of impassioned debate. He still faced a distracting criminal investigation into his involvement with Brazilian construction giant Odebrecht.
    (AP, 12/23/17)

2017        Dec 24, Peru's President Pedro Pablo Kuczynski granted a medical pardon to jailed former strongman Alberto Fujimori (79), who was serving a 25-year sentence for human rights abuses, corruption and the sanctioning of death squads.
    (AP, 12/25/17)

2017        Dec 25, Thousands of Peruvians took to the streets to protest the pardon granted to former President Alberto Fujimori, with many calling it part of a backroom deal struck to protect the current president from impeachment on corruption charges.
    (AP, 12/25/17)

2017        Dec 30, In Peru 239 writers released a signed open letter denouncing Pres. Pedro Pablo Kuczynski's pardon granted to former Pres. Alberto Fujimori.
    (AP, 12/30/17)

2017        Peru introduced a new curriculum for its primary schools this year as part of an effort to improve education. One of the principles included the right for equal education for all boys and girls.
    (Econ, 9/30/17, p.32)

2018        Jan 2, In Peru at least 48 people were killed when a bus collided with a truck and careened off a cliff along a sharply curving highway north of the capital Lima.
    (Reuters, 1/3/18)

2018        Jan 10, The Vatican took over Sodalitium Christianae Vitae, a Peru-based Catholic movement, whose founder was accused of sexual and psychological abuse, just days before Pope Francis starts a trip to Chile and Peru where the sexual abuse scandal is expected to play out on the sidelines.
    (AP, 1/10/18)

2018        Jan 14, In southwestern Peru a magnitude 7.3 earthquake caused at least two deaths and 65 injuries.
    (AFP, 1/14/18)

2018        Jan 19, In Peru Pope Francis visited the jungle region of Madre de Dios (Mother of God), a region where wildcat gold mining has flourished into a black market trade estimated to be worth billions of dollars a year along with environmental devastation.
    (Reuters, 1/19/18)

2018        Feb 7, London-based Aon Securities said the World Bank has launched a $1.4 billion catastrophe bond covering Latin American earthquakes, the largest earthquake catastrophe bond on record. The multi-tranche bond would provide earthquake relief for Chile, Colombia, Mexico and Peru.
    (Reuters, 2/7/18)

2018        Feb 21, In Peru at least 36 people died when a bus hurtled some 100 meters into a ravine in the mountainous south in the country's second major bus crash this year.
    (AP, 2/21/18)

2018        Mar 8, In Chile 11 nations signed the Comprehensive and Progressive Agreement for Trans-Pacific Partnership, dropping tariffs and establishing sweeping new rules in markets representing about a seventh of the world's economy. members included Australia, Brunei, Canada, Chile, Japan, Malaysia, Mexico, New Zealand, Peru, Singapore and Vietnam.
    (SFC, 3/9/18, p.C5)

2018        Mar 15, Peru's congress voted by a wide margin to allow impeachment proceedings to begin against Pres. Pedro Pablo Kuczynski over his ties to Odebrecht, the Brazilian construction giant.
    (SFC, 3/16/18, p.A2)

2018        Mar 20, Pressure built up on Peru's President Pedro Pablo Kuczynski to resign after several allies were caught in secretly-shot videos allegedly trying to gain the support of a lawmaker, so he would block the leader's impeachment.
    (AP, 3/21/18)

2018        Mar 21, Peru's Pres. Pedro Pablo Kuczynski, flanked by his cabinet, announced his decision to resign in a nationally televised address, accusing opponents led by the daughter of former strongman Alberto Fujimori of plotting his overthrow for months and making it impossible to govern.
    (AP, 3/22/18)

2018        Mar 23, Martin Vizcarra (55) was sworn in as Peru's new president. Vizcarra promised to fight corruption "at any cost," after his predecessor was toppled by a sprawling graft scandal and constant clashes with the opposition-run Congress.
    (AFP, 3/24/18)

2018        Apr 13, In Peru the Summit of the Americas began a two-day meeting in Lima. US Vice President Mike Pence stood in for Pres. Donald Trump at the summit, whose theme this year is corruption.
    (Reuters, 4/13/18)

2018        Apr 20, In Peru at least two German tourists were killed and another 10 injured when their minibus went off the road and fell into a ravine in the Andes Mountains.
    (AP, 4/21/18)
2018        Apr 20, Bolivian Foreign Minister Fernando Huanacuni said that Argentina, Brazil, Chile, Colombia, Paraguay and Peru had decided to temporarily leave the Union of South American Nations (UNASUR), given differences over choosing the secretary general of the group. UNASUR was promoted by late Venezuelan President Hugo Chavez. Bolivia, Ecuador, Guyana, Surinam, Uruguay and Venezuela remained in the bloc.
    (AP, 4/20/18)

2018        Apr 25, Peru's production minister announced his resignation after a local TV channel revealed he had offered to fire his deputy minister to avert a strike by fishermen, marking the first scandal to roil President Martin Vizcarra's Cabinet.
    (Reuters, 4/25/18)

2018        Apr 26, Peru's Constitutional Court said ex-president Ollanta Humala and his wife can remain free while they await their corruption trial. Bureaucratic delays held up the release.
    (AFP, 4/27/18)

2018        May 28, Dubai-based port operator DP World said it has completed a roughly $316 million deal to acquire a Peruvian container and logistics firm and a stake in one of the largest container terminals in the South American country.
    (AP, 5/28/18)

2018        May, In Peru the remains of the children, aged between six and 14, were found wrapped in cotton shrouds facing the sea. They had been ritually sacrificed by the pre-Columbian Chimu culture. In April National Geographic reported that the remains of over 140 children and 200 llamas, slain some 550 years ago, had been discovered in Huanchaquito. The excavations dated back to 2011, when the remains of 42 children and 76 llamas were discovered in a 3,500-year-old temple.
    (AFP, 6/8/18)   

2018        Jul 5, Peru, in a joint statement to the UN Human Rights Council in Geneva, led more than 50 countries in urging Venezuela to restore the rule of law and open its doors to humanitarian assistance, as an economic crisis causes shortages of medicine and growing malnutrition.
    (Reuters, 7/5/18)

2018        Jul 20, In Peru hundreds of villagers in the remote Sihuas province broke into offices of the local prosecutor and court, destroying thousands of criminal case files to protest corruption in the judicial system.
    (AP, 7/21/18)

2018        Aug 7, Authorities in Peru said at least nine people have died from food poisoning following a funeral ceremony. Another 20 people were hospitalized with stomach pains and vomiting after a wake the previous day in the Ayacucho region.
    (AP, 8/7/18)

2018        Aug 24, A 7.0-magnitude earthquake struck eastern Peru, close to its borders with Brazil and Bolivia.
    (AP, 8/24/18)

2018        Aug 25, Peru closed its borders to Venezuelan migrants without a passport, as thousands holding only identification cards reached the border in a last minute crush, some beating the deadline with special assistance from Ecuador.
    (AFP, 8/25/18)

2018        Sep 20, The US National Book Foundation announced that Isabel Allende will be given a medal for "distinguished contribution to American letters." The Peruvian native is the first Spanish-language author and first since Saul Bellow (in 1990) born outside the US to receive the prize.
    (AP, 9/20/18)

2018        Oct 17, A Peruvian judge freed conservative opposition leader Keiko Fujimori from jail where she spent the past week pending charges in a money laundering probe.
    (Reuters, 10/18/18)

2018        Nov 6, Peru's former police chief Raul Becerra and a dozen others were arrested for allegedly trafficking babies. One five-month-old baby was rescued as police raided 18 properties in the southern city of Arequipa.
    (Reuters, 11/7/18)

2018        Nov 17, In Peru former Pres. Alan Garcia sought diplomatic asylum in Uruguay's mission in Lima hours after a judge retained his passport as part of a corruption probe.
    (SFC, 11/19/18, p.A2)

2018        Dec 3, It was reported that Uruguay has rejected an asylum request by former Peruvian President Alan Garcia, who sought protection in the country's consulate after a judge retained his passport as part of a corruption probe.
    (AP, 12/3/18)

2018        Dec 9, Peruvians began voting in a referendum on a raft of political and judicial reforms introduced by the new government of Pres. Martin Vizcarra aimed at stamping out corruption and cronyism in one of Latin America's most promising economies. Peruvians overwhelmingly approved a government overhaul that among other things sends all members of Congress packing by 2021. Three of the four constitutional reforms proposed by Pres. Vizcarra were approved by nearly 80 percent of voters.
    (Reuters, 12/9/18)(AFP, 12/10/18)

2018        Dec 31, Peru's attorney general dismissed a team investigating the far-reaching Odebrecht corruption scandal, setting off street protests in cities across the country.
    (AP, 12/31/18)

2018        Dec, Venezuelan migrant singer Reymar Perdomo (30) was invited to Colombia by a popular satirist and Youtuber who had her sing on a bus in Peru, surprising her by bringing along Latin Grammy winner Carlos Vives and Andres Cepeda. She had written the heartfelt reggae song "Me Fui" about leaving her homeland that went viral on the internet and has brought tears to hundreds in the Venezuelan diaspora that has spread around the globe.
    (https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=PMtbPQWPlsk)(AP, 1/16/19)

2019        Jan 4, In Peru foreign ministers from 12 Latin American countries and Canada said their governments would not accept Nicolas Maduro as Venezuela's president when he is sworn in for a second six-year term next week. The 14-member Lima Group -- with the exception of Mexico -- said it would not grant recognition to Maduro's hardline socialist government.
    (AFP, 1/5/19)

2019        Jan 27, In Peru 15 people were killed at a wedding after a wall at the Hotel Alhambra collapsed under heavy rains in the town of Abancay.
    (Reuters, 1/27/19)

2019        Feb 22, A deep magnitude-7.5 earthquake struck the Ecuador-Peru border region early today, causing tremors that the Ecuadorian president said were felt around the country.
    (Reuters, 2/22/19)

2019        Feb, Peruvian authorities launched "Operation Mercury" to evict thousands of illegal gold miners from Tambopata province in the Amazon rain forest. Hundreds of police and soldiers were deployed there for the long term.
    (SFC, 5/17/19, p.A4)
2019        Feb, Peru's government charged former Pres. Toledo Alejandro Toledo, living in San Francisco, with taking $20 million in bribes from Odebrecht, a Brazilian construction company that won a major highway contract during his administration.
    (SFC, 10/11/19, p.C8)

2019        Mar 8, Peru's PM Cesar Villanueva stepped down amid calls for President Martin Vizcarra to shake up his government and revive falling approval ratings.
    (AP, 3/8/19)

2019        Mar 11, Peruvian President Martin Vizcarra named actor and former culture minister Salvador del Solar as his new prime minister.
    (Reuters, 3/11/19)

2019        Mar 22, In Chile a group of South American presidents formed Prosur, a new regional bloc to replace Unasur, founded in 2008. The new bloc included Argentina, Brazil, Chile, Colombia, Ecuador, Paraguay and Peru.
    (SSFC, 3/24/19, p.A4)

2019        Mar 29, Peruvian police freed Gregorio Rojas, the leader of an indigenous community that has blocked roads to a major Chinese-run copper mine. Hours later they arrested his second-in-command, accusing him of running over police officers while driving drunk.
    (Reuters, 3/30/19)

2019        Apr 10, A Peruvian judge ordered the 10-day detention of former President Pedro Pablo Kucyznksi as part of a money laundering probe into his consulting work for the company at the heart of Latin America's biggest graft scandal.
    (AP, 4/10/19)

2019        Apr 17, Peru's former president Alan Garcia (69) died in a hospital in Lima after shooting himself as police arrived at his house to arrest him in connection with a bribery probe.
    (AP, 4/17/19)

2019        Apr 19, A Peruvian judge ordered former Pres. Pablo Kuczynski be jailed for up to three years as authorities investigate his alleged involvement in the Odebrecht corruption case.
    (SFC, 4/20/19, p.A2)

2019        Apr 27, Peru's government said former President Pedro Pablo Kuczynski is to spend three years under house arrest while corruption charges are prepared against him for allegedly taking bribes from Brazilian construction company Odebrecht.
    (Reuters, 4/28/19)

2019        Apr 30, In Peru prosecutor Jose Domingo Perez told a court that Miguel Atala Herrera, former vice president of state-run PetroPeru, "confessed to having received money from Odebrecht to deliver to former president Garcia", who committed suicide two weeks ago.
    (AFP, 5/1/19)

2019        May 26, In northern Peru an earthquake with a magnitude as high as 8.0 stuck in the early hours. At least one person was killed.
    (Reuters, 5/26/19)(SFC, 5/27/19, p.A2)

2019        Jun 15, In Peru riot police began guarding the northern border to ensure that only Venezuelan migrants who hold a passport and humanitarian visa can enter the country.
    (AP, 6/15/19)

2019        Jul 16, Peru announced the arrest of former Pres. Alejandro Toledo (2001-2006) in San Francisco, Ca., following their request for his extradition. Peru's government had issued a warrant for his arrest in 2017 alleging that he took $20 million in bribes from a Brazilian construction company in exchange for infrastructure projects.
    (SFC, 7/17/19, p.C3)

2019        Jul 28, Peru’s Pres. Martin Vizcarra called on lawmakers to end their terms, and his, a year early by voting for  general election next April.
    (Econ, 8/3/19, p.26)

2019        Aug 6, Delegates from some 60 countries met in Lima to discuss the political crisis in Venezuela, as Washington stepped up pressure for President Nicolas Maduro to step down.
    (The Telegraph, 8/6/19)

2019        Aug 16, In northern Peru a building in El Alto was set on fire in a protest against China National Petroleum Corp that devolved into clashes between police and demonstrators who want the company to make pledges to help the local community.
    (Reuters, 8/16/19)

2019        Sep 23, Spain's High Court ordered that Cesar Hinostroza, a fugitive Peruvian Supreme Court judge, should be extradited home to face charges of influence peddling among other crimes, rejecting his allegation that he was a victim of political persecution.
    (Reuters, 9/23/19)

2019        Sep 30, The centrist government of Peruvian President Martin Vizcarra made a last-minute appeal to Congress to halt the opposition's plans to name new members of Peru's top court, a vote that Vizcarra warned would lead him to close Congress. Rebel lawmakers swore in Vice President Mercedes Araoz as interim leader, looking to install her in place of Vizcarra after he moved to dissolve Congress to end a long-running political stand-off. The next day Araoz abruptly renounced her claim after a public outcry in which military leaders rallied around Vizcarra, who has pushed anti-corruption reforms in defiance of the opposition-controlled Congress.
    (Reuters, 9/30/19)(Reuters, 10/2/19)

2019        Oct 16, The Peruvian government authorized the intervention of the armed forces and police to unblock access to one of the country's largest copper mines, after owner Chinese miner MMG Ltd said it may have to cease production at the site.
    (Reuters, 10/16/19)

2019        Nov 29, In Peru Keiko Fujimore, a two-time presidential candidate, left prison after a 13-month stay for alleged corruption in the Odebrecht scandal.
    (SSFC, 12/1/19, p.A2)

2019        Dec 15, In Peru employees Alexandra Porras (18) and Carlos Campo (19) were electrocuted at a McDonald's-branded restaurant in Pueblo Libre, a district of Lima, while cleaning the kitchen.
    (Reuters, 12/18/19)

2020        Mar 5, In Peru Javier Perez de Cuellar (100), former UN secretary general (1981-1991) known for his peace-making efforts including brokering a ceasefire in the Iran-Iraq war, died.
    (AP, 3/5/20)

2020        Mar 6, Peru announced its first coronavirus infection.
    (AP, 3/6/20)

2020        Mar 7, Peru announced five new cases of COVID-19 infection, raising the country's total to six.
    (AP, 3/7/20)

2020        Mar 15, Peru's Pres. Martin Vizcarra imposed a lockdown and quarantine as his country reported 71 cases of the coronavirus.
    (Economist, 4/4/20, p.26)

2020        Mar 17, In Peru miners halted operations and girded for extended supply chain disruptions in neighboring Chile as governments tightened curbs due to coronavirus.
    (Reuters, 3/18/20)

2020        Mar 21, Peru reported its first coronavirus fatalities.
    (AP, 3/21/20)

2020        Mar, Peru's Pres. Martin Vizcarra announced he’d signed off on a purchase of 1.6 million COVID-19 tests from China and South Korea, almost all of them for antibodies. It was later found that they did not meet standards for accurately detecting COVID-19.
    (AP, 10/7/20)

2020        Apr 3, Peruvian lawmakers approved a law late today that allows citizens to withdraw up to 25% of their holdings in private pension funds to provide an extra source of liquidity during a nationwide shutdown to halt the spread of the coronavirus.
    (Reuters, 4/4/20)

2020        Apr 19, Peru reported over 15,000 cases of the coronavirus.
    (Reuters, 4/20/20)

2020        Apr 23, Indigenous tribes in Peru's Amazon said, in a letter to the UN and the Inter-American Commission on Human Rights, that the government has left them to fend for themselves against the coronavirus, risking "ethnocide by inaction." Eight native leaders representing 1,800 communities in the Peruvian Amazon signed the letter which was published by indigenous group AIDESEP.
    (Reuters, 4/24/20)

2020        Apr 27, In Peru nine inmates died following a prison riot over the demand for better sanitary measures and coronavirus medical care at the Miguel Castro Castro prison.
    (Reuters, 4/28/20)(SFC, 4/29/20, p.A4)

2020        May 6, Confirmed coronavirus cases in Peru have now exceeded 50,000.
    (Reuters, 5/6/20)

2020        May 10, Peru has about 65,000 confirmed coronavirus cases and more than 1,800 deaths.
    (AP, 5/10/20)

2020        May 22, Peru has reported more than 104,000 cases of COVID-19 and 3,000 deaths. More than 5,000 police officers have been diagnosed with the disease along with 92 deaths.
    (SFC, 5/22/20, p.A6)

2020        May 27, Peru has registered 135,905 COVID-19 cases and 3,983 deaths.
    (AP, 5/28/20)

2020        Jun 5, It was reported that medicinal oxygen to treat the coronavirus has become a scarce commodity in Peru. President Martín Vizcarra has issued an emergency decree ordering industrial plants to ramp up production or purchase oxygen from other countries.
    (AP, 6/5/20)

2020        Jun 18, Industry officials said Peru's miners are revving up stalled operations with mass testing, isolation periods and revamped shift patterns, setting up the world's No. 2 copper producer to hit 80% of production capacity by the end of June.
    (Reuters, 6/18/20)

2020        Jun 25, The Peruvian government said it had struck an agreement with the country's private health clinics on the cost of COVID-19 care. A day earlier President Martin Vizcarra warned they would be expropriated within 48 hours if negotiations did not progress. Peru has reported 264,689 confirmed cases and 8,586 deaths.
    (Reuters, 6/25/20)

2020        Jul 15, Peru's Pres. Martin Vizcarra reshuffled his cabinet, sacked the health minister and brought in Pedro Cateriano as prime minister as coronavirus cases passed 350,000 with at least 13,000 deaths.
    (Econ., 7/25/20, p.24)

2020        Jul 28, Authorities in Peru said more than 900 women and girls have gone missing and are feared to be dead in Peru since the country’s coronavirus lockdown started.
    (AP, 7/28/20)

2020        Aug 1, It was reported that Peruvian authorities are investigating whether the country failed to count 27,253 deaths caused by the coronavirus. Peru had only listed 19,021 victims because international standards required both a death certificate listing coronavirus and a positive test for the disease to be included in official statistics.
    (SFC, 8/1/20, p.A6)

2020        Aug 22, In Peru 13 people died in a stampede at a disco in Lima after a police raid to enforce the country's lockdown during the coronavirus pandemic. 23 people were detained.
    (AP, 8/23/20)

2020        Oct 19, It was reported that archaeologists discovered a giant, 2,000-year-old image of a cat etched onto a hillside at a UNESCO heritage site known as the Nazca Lines in Peru. Experts said the catlike geoglyph dates to 200 BC to 100 BC.
    (NY Times, 10/20/20)

2020        Oct 27, Peru reported its first case of diphtheria after 20 years following warnings by international health organizations that the coronavirus pandemic would hamper routine vaccination programs, particularly for children.
    (Reuters, 10/28/20)

2020        Nov 9, Peruvian lawmakers voted to remove Pres. Martin Vizcarra from office, expressing anger at his handling of the coronavirus pandemic and citing alleged but unproven corruption allegations during his term as governor of Moquegua (2011-2014). Opposition lawmaker Manuel Merino will take his place. The shock vote drew condemnation from international rights groups who warned that the powerful legislature may have violated the constitution and jeopardized Peru’s democracy.
    (SFC, 11/10/20, p.A2)(AP, 11/14/20)(Econ., 11/14/20, p.31)

2020        Nov 12, Police in Peru repressed mobilizations  with tear gas and rubber bullets against a congressional move to remove Pres. Martin Vizcarra from office. 19 people, including officers and civilians, were injured at a large protest. Two protesters were killed and 18 detained.
    (AP, 11/14/20)(Econ., 11/21/20, p.31)

2020        Nov 15, Peru's interim leader Manuel Merino quit and Congress couldn’t decide on his replacement. That left Peru rudderless and in crisis less than a week after legislators ignited a storm of protest by removing President Martín Vizcarra, an anti-corruption crusader highly popular among Peruvians.
    (AP, 11/15/20)

2020        Nov 16, Peru's Congress chose Francisco Sagasti (76), an engineer from the centrist Purple Party, as the legislature's new president. By law the head of Congress should become the country's new interim president.
    (SFC, 11/17/20, p.A3)

2021        Jan 6, It was reported that Peru passed one million confirmed cases of the coronavirus a few days ago.
    (SFC, 1/6/21, p.A5)

2021        Feb 11, A scandal in Peru erupted after ousted former President Martin Vizcarra said he too had received an early vaccination of China's Sinopharm vaccine. Two top government officials soon resigned upon acknowledging they had also taken the Chinese shot months ago, well before they were widely available in the country.
    (Reuters, 2/15/21)

2021        Feb 19, The death toll in Peru continued to mount as a relentless second wave of the coronavirus left many hospitals short of oxygen for critical patients even as daily infections continued to climb.
    (Reuters, 2/19/21)

2021        May 24, Peru's police said that at least 18 people have been killed by suspected Shining Path rebels in Vizcata de Ene. The military said there were 14 victims.
    (SFC, 5/25/21, p.A3)

2021        Jun 6, Peruvian voters chose between Pedro Castillo and Keiko Fujimori, two polarizing populist candidates, in a presidential runoff held as the coronavirus pandemic continues to batter the Andean country and festering anger has led to fears of more political stability. Peru's key mining regions overwhelming supported socialist Pedro Castillo. At the end of the official count, Castillo was 44,058 votes ahead of Fujimori.
    (AP, 6/6/21)(Reuters, 6/11/21)(Reuters, 6/16/21)

2021        Jun 15, Winners were announced for the annual Goldman Environmental Prize. The six winners included: Sharon Lavigne (68) of Louisiana, who successfully fought the opening of a Chinese chemical plant in St. James Parish; Liz Chicaje Churay (38) of Peru, for helping establish a new national park; Maida Bilal (39) of Bosnia-Herzegovina, for creating an environmental group to protest proposed hydropower dams on the Kruscica River; Kimiko Hirata of Japan, for fighting off construction of new coal power plants following the country's 2011 earthquake and nuclear plant meltdown; Gloria Majiga-Kamoto (30) of Malawi, for bringing pressure on the government to uphold a ban on thin plastics; and Thai Van Nguyen (39) of Vietnam, for work to protect pangolins, trafficked for use in traditional Chinese and Vietnamese medicine.
    (SFC, 6/15/21, p.B5)

2021        Jun 19, In Peru supporters of socialist Pedro Castillo and conservative Keiko Fujimori took to the streets by the thousands, as tensions rose over the result of the June 6 presidential election.
    (Reuters, 6/19/21)

2021        Jul 19, Officials in Peru declared Pedro Castillo (51) the country's next president. The official tally put Mr. Castillo 44,163 votes ahead, with a total of 8,836,280 votes to Ms. Fujimori’s 8,792,117.
    (NY Times, 7/19/21)

2021        Jul 20, Peru said it has signed a deal to purchase 20 million doses of Russia's Sputnik V vaccine, a move to shore up the hard-hit Andean nation's defenses over fears of a potential third wave of coronavirus.
    (Reuters, 7/20/21)

2021        Jul 28, In Peru Pedro Castillo, a leftist political novice who has promised to be a champion of his country’s poor, was sworn in as president.
    (AP, 7/28/21)

2021        Aug 27, In Peru a bus transporting contract workers at MMG Ltd's Las Bambas copper mine plunged off a cliff in the Apurimac region of the Andes, killing 16 people and injuring two.
    (Reuters, 8/27/21)

2021        Sep 11, Abimael Guzman (86), the founder of Peruvian rebel group Shining Path that killed tens of thousands in the 1980s and 1990s, died. Guzman had been imprisoned since 1992.
    (Reuters, 9/11/21)

2021        Sep 24, US drugmaker Moderna Inc said it will supply 20 million doses of its COVID-19 vaccine to Peru, with deliveries starting in the first quarter of 2022.
    (Reuters, 9/24/21)

2021        Sep 28, A US judge cleared the way for former Peruvian President Alejandro Toledo to be extradited back to Peru on corruption charges, saying evidence of criminality presented in his case were "sufficient".
    (Reuters, 9/29/21)

2021        Oct 2, An earthquake of magnitude 5.9 struck the Brazil-Peru border region.
    (Reuters, 10/2/21)

2021        Oct 5, Peru's government said it had reached an agreement with MMG Ltd's Las Bambas mine and the local Chumbivilcas community to avoid road blockades that have threatened production at the huge copper mine.
    (Reuters, 10/5/21)

2021        Oct 6, Peru's President Pedro Castillo swore in Mirtha Vasquez, a left-wing former head of Congress, as prime minister, replacing her predecessor who resigned after two months in the job, as the administration grapples with political instability.
    (Reuters, 10/6/21)
2021        Oct 6, An indigenous community in Peru's Espinar province that blocked a key mining road said it plans to continue the blockade indefinitely, a local leader said, in protest against the government and Glencore PLC's Antapaccay copper mine.
    (Reuters, 10/6/21)

2021        Oct 14, Peru's ruling Marxist party said that the government of President Pedro Castillo has swerved towards the right and that it would withhold support for what it called a "caviar cabinet" in the opposition-dominated Congress.
    (Reuters, 10/14/21)

2021        Nov 2, The Peruvian Ministry of Energy and Mines said a rural community will lift its blockade of the country's largest copper mine Antamina after protests forced miners to suspend operations.
    (Reuters, 11/3/21)

2021        Nov 9, Protesters in Peru's Cotabambas province blocked once again a key mining corridor used by the huge MMG Ltd's Las Bambas copper mine, despite a preliminary agreement to keep the road free. The government and the mine had failed to send senior representatives or scheduled talks.
    (Reuters, 11/9/21)

2021        Nov 28, A magnitude of 7.5 earthquake struck northern Peru early today, damaging some buildings and blocking several roads with rubble.
    (AP, 11/28/21)

2021        Nov 29, The Colombian, Chilean and Peruvian stock exchanges approved a merger into a regional holding company, creating Latin America's second biggest bourse.
    (Reuters, 11/30/21)

2021        Dec 7, Peruvian President Pedro Castillo gained breathing room after Congress voted against a motion to impeach him amid protests in capital city Lima both for and against the under-fire leftist leader.
    (Reuters, 12/7/21)

2021        Dec 22, Peruvian community protesters, who have blocked a key transport road used by MMG Ltd's Las Bambas copper mine, said they will clear the route until at least Dec. 30 following talks with the government.
    (Reuters, 12/22/21)

2021        In Peru a roughly 36-million-year-old well-preserved skull was dug up intact from the bone-dry rocks of the southern Ocucaje desert, with rows of long, pointy teeth. The ferocious marine predator, an ancient ancestor of modern-day whales, once lived in a prehistoric ocean that covered part of what is now Peru. It was believed to belong to a new species of basilosaurus.
    (Reuters, 3/17/22)

2022        Jan 1, Peru's government said the country ended 2021 with inflation of 6.43%, the highest rate in 13 years and well above the upper end of the central bank's target.
    (Reuters, 1/1/22)

2022        Jan 15, In northern Peru two people drowned off a beach after unusually high waves were recorded in several coastal areas following the eruption of an underwater volcano in Tonga.
    (Reuters, 1/16/22)
2022        Jan 15, In Peru an Italian-flagged ship was loading oil into La Pampilla when strong waves, generated by an eruption off Tonga, moved the boat and caused an oil spill. Later estimates said 18,000 square meters of beach were affected by the spill. The oil spill led to contamination of up to 140 km (90 miles) of coastline.
    (AP, 1/19/22)(Reuters, 1/28/22)

2022        Jan 20, Peru's President Pedro Castillo declared an environmental emergency as clean-up teams struggled to contain a huge oil spill at the country's biggest refinery, after rogue waves rocked a ship unloading crude there.
    (Reuters, 1/21/22)

2022        Jan 26, It was reported that Singapore has signed a free trade agreement with the Pacific Alliance (Colombia, Mexico, Peru and Chile), in a deal that would facilitate trade and closer ties.
    (Reuters, 1/27/22)

2022        Jan 28, A Peruvian judge barred four executives from Spanish energy firm Repsol SA rom leaving the country for 18 months as prosecutors investigate the cause of an oil spill involving a tanker hired by the company.
    (Reuters, 1/28/22)

2022        Feb 1, Peru's Pres. Pedro Castillo appointed Héctor Valer as the new prime minister and replaced half of the 18-member Cabinet, including the ministers of finance and foreign relations. It soon emerged that Valer has faced domestic violence claims.
    (Reuters, 2/3/22)

2022        Feb 4, Peruvian President Pedro Castillo said that he will reshuffle his Cabinet, named just three days ago, after his pick for prime minister was widely condemned over allegations that he beat his daughter and late wife.
    (Reuters, 2/4/22)
2022        Feb 4, In Peru at least seven people died after a light aircraft crashed during a flight above the Nazca Lines archaeological site.
    (Reuters, 2/4/22)

2022        Feb 5, Peruvian PM Hector Valer confirmed that he is departing just four days after being named to the post, following allegations that he beat his daughter and late wife, creating a new leadership vacuum in the Andean nation.
    (Reuters, 2/5/22)
2022        Feb 5, Peru's environmental inspector, responding to fuel supply shortages, authorized temporary resumption of hydrocarbon loading and unloading operations at sea at a refinery owned by Spain's Repsol which had been halted during a probe of a major oil spill.
    (Reuters, 2/5/22)

2022        Feb 8, Peruvian President Pedro Castillo swore in his fourth cabinet in just six months in office, picking a loyalist as prime minister, in a bid to end his administration's recurring crises. Castillo, a former schoolteacher and member of a Marxist-Leninist party, handed the premiership to Anibal Torres, the justice minister in the previous cabinet.
    (Reuters, 2/8/22)

2022        Feb 13, A Peruvian community said on social media that it will restart a road blockade against MMG's Las Bambas mine, even as a second community agreed to a 45-day truce in its blockade. Las Bambas produces 2% of the world's copper supply.
    (Reuters, 2/13/22)

2022        Feb 22, Peruvian archeologists said they have unearthed eight children and 12 adults apparently sacrificed around 800-1,200 years ago, in a major dig at the pre-Incan Cajamarquilla complex east of Lima.
    (Reuters, 2/23/22)

2022        Mar 1, A community in the Peruvian Andes blocked a key transport road used by Chinese-owned MMG's Las Bambas copper mine.
    (Reuters, 3/2/22)

2022        Mar 14, Peru's Congress approved the start of impeachment proceedings against President Pedro Castillo over allegations of corruption after failing to gather enough votes in a previous attempt in December.
    (Reuters, 3/15/22)

2022        Mar 15, Peruvian President Pedro Castillo rejected allegations of corruption and told Congress, which passed a motion to impeach him earlier this week, that all branches of government are in crisis right now.
    (Reuters, 3/15/22)
2022        Mar 15, In northern Peru 8 people were rescued and at least 15 left missing after a major landslide the La Libertad region. At least 60 homes were buried.
    (Reuters, 3/16/22)

2022        Mar 17, Peru's top court reinstated a controversial pardon for polarizing former President Alberto Fujimori (83), who governed the Andean nation during the tumultuous 1990s before being sentenced for human rights violations.
    (Reuters, 3/17/22)

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