Timeline Nicaragua

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The Nicoya are an indigenous people of Nicaragua.
    (SFC, 6/26/97, p.E1)

1524        Hernandez de Cordoba founded Granada and Leon in Nicaragua. Granada, also known as La Gran Sultana (The Grand Sultan), is the oldest city in Central America.
    (SSFC, 4/10/05, p.F4)

1526        Conquistador Francisco Hernandez de Cordoba (b.~1475) was beheaded by Pedrarias Dávila, a superior officer, over his claims to Nicaragua.
    (SSFC, 6/26/11, p.G3)

1543-1773    The Palacio de los Capitanes in Antigua, Guatemala, was the center for Spanish rule over Chiapas, Guatemala, Honduras and Nicaragua during this period.
    (SFEM, 6/13/99, p.32)

1610        Leon, Nicaragua, was buried by the Mombotombo volcano.
    (SSFC, 4/10/05, p.F5)

1663        Abraham Blauvelt, Dutch pirate, died about this time. In the early 1630's He explored the coasts of Honduras and Nicaragua. Afterwards, he went to England and with a proposal for a settlement at site in Nicaragua, which is near the town and river of Bluefields, Nicaragua.

1806        A ruling by the Spanish king set a boundary between Honduras and Nicaragua projecting eastward along the 15th parallel from the mouth of the Coco River. In 1999 Nicaragua filed a border case against Honduras with the UN. It was resolved in 2007.
    (AP, 10/8/07)

1821        Sep 15, A junta convened by the captain-general in Guatemala declared independence for its provinces Costa Rica, Guatemala, Honduras, Nicaragua San Salvador and Chiapas.
    (SFC, 10/15/96, p.A1)(AP, 9/15/97)(EWH, 1968, p.843)

1823        Jul 1, The United Provinces of Central America (Costa Rica, Guatemala, Honduras, Nicaragua and San Salvador) gained independence from Mexico. The union dissolved by 1840.
    (PC, 1992, p.393)(ON, 12/99, p.5)

1823        The Momotomba volcano, 18 miles from Managua and on the northwest shore of Lake Nicaragua, went dormant. In the 17th cent. it had destroyed the capital of Leon.
    (SFC, 4/13/96, p.A-15)

1824        May 8, William Walker, president of Nicaragua, was born.
    (HN, 5/8/98)

1824        Jul 25, Costa Rica gained Guanacaste province from Nicaragua as the town people of Nicoya and Santa Cruz decided to join Costa Rica. In 2013 Nicaragua’s President Daniel Ortega warned Costa Rica that he may ask the International Court of Justice to restore to Managua the province he said it lost to "occupation."
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Guanacaste_Province)(AFP, 9/2/13)

1835        Jan, Consiguina volcano in Nicaragua erupted and threw ash as far away as Mexico and Jamaica.
    (SSFC, 4/10/05, p.F5)

1839-1840    The Liberals of the United Provinces of Central America under leader Francisco Morazan were defeated in a civil war led by Rafael Carrera. The confederation dissolved into its 4 component states: El Salvador, Honduras, Nicaragua and Costa Rica.
    (EWH, 1968, p.857)

1850-1854    About this time English adopted the form filibuster, from Spanish filibustero. It was applied to certain adventurers who committed unsanctioned activities in the West Indies and Central America. [See William Walker Sep 12, 1860]

1853        Cornelius Vanderbilt, who had established a steamship route in Nicaragua to get from the Caribbean to the Pacific coast, left Cornelius Garrison and Charles Morgan in charge of his operations as he traveled to Europe. The 2 men soon took over the company later helped William Walker take over the country.
    (WSJ, 8/30/08, p.W7)

1854        Jul 13, US forces shelled and burned San Juan del Norte, Nicaragua.

1854        In Nicaragua a civil war erupted between the Legitimist Party (also called the Conservative Party), based in the city of Granada, and the Democratic Party (also called the Liberal Party), based in León. The Democratic Party sought military support from William Walker who, to circumvent US neutrality laws, obtained a contract from Democratic president Francisco Castellón to bring as many as three hundred colonists to Nicaragua. These mercenaries received the right to bear arms in the service of the Democratic government.

1855        May 3, William Walker sailed from San Francisco with approximately 60 men to intervene in a civil war in Nicaragua.

1855        Jun 1, William Walker (1824-1860), US adventurer, stormed into Granada, Nicaragua. On July 12, 1857, he declared himself president. Walker reestablished slavery and planned an 18-mile canal from Lake Nicaragua to the Pacific. (SSFC, 4/10/05, p.F4)(www.sfmuseum.org/hist1/walker.html)

1856        Apr 11, Battle of Rivas; Costa Rica beat William Walker's invading Nicaraguans.
    (MC, 4/11/02)

1856        Jul 12, William Walker, an American, declared himself president of Nicaragua. His execution a few years later in Honduras was rumored to have been staged.
    (SFC, 7/7/96, BR p.4)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/William_Walker_(soldier))

1856        Sep 14, At the Battle of San Jacinto, Nicaragua defeated invaders. General José Dolores Estrada led his men against the powerful forces of William Walker and his filibusters, who sought to take over Nicaragua and all of Central America.

1857        May 1, William Walker, conqueror of Nicaragua, surrendered to the US Navy. Cornelius Vanderbilt helped finance a Costa Rican army, which defeated Walker’s forces, and paid men under Walker’s command to defect. Walker later sought protection on a British naval vessel, whose captain turned him over to Hondurans, who executed him in 1860.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/William_Walker_(soldier))(WSJ, 8/30/08, p.W7)

1860        Sep 12, William Walker (b.1824), conqueror of Nicaragua, was convicted and executed by the government of Honduras. The British had arrested him and turned him over to the government. In 2008 Stephen Dando-Collins authored “Tycoon’s War: How Cornelius Vanderbilt Invaded a Country to Overthrow America's Most Famous Military Adventurer."
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/William_Walker_(soldier))(SSFC, 4/10/05, p.F4)

1876        Managua, Nicaragua, experienced heavy flooding.
    (SSFC, 4/10/05, p.F4)

1885        Managua, Nicaragua, was leveled by an earthquake.
    (SSFC, 4/10/05, p.F4)

1896        Mar 20, U.S. Marines landed in Nicaragua to protect U.S. citizens in the wake of a revolution.
    (AP, 3/20/97)

1900        Feb 5, The United States and Great Britain signed the Hay-Pauncefote Treaty, giving the United States the right to build a canal in Nicaragua but not to fortify it.
    (HN, 2/5/99)

1902        Jan 4, The French offered to sell their Nicaraguan Canal rights to the U.S.
    (HN, 1/4/99)

1902        May, The Momotomba volcano erupted.
    (ON, 1/00, p.2)

1902        Managua, Nicaragua, was damaged by the explosion of a military arsenal.
    (SSFC, 4/10/05, p.F4)

1905        Sep 13, U.S. warships headed to Nicaragua on behalf of American William Albers, who was accused of evading tobacco taxes.
    (HN, 9/13/98)

1909        Nov 18, US invaded Nicaragua and later overthrew Pres Zelaya.
    (MC, 11/18/01)

1909        Nov 27, U.S. troops land in Bluefields, Nicaragua, to protect American interests there.
    (HN, 11/27/99)

1909        Dec 1, President Taft severed official relations with Nicaragua’s Zelaya government, and declared support for the revolutionaries.
    (HN, 12/1/98)

1912        May 30, U.S. Marines were sent to Nicaragua to protect American interests.
    (HN, 5/30/99)

1912        Aug 4, The 1st detachment of American forces requested by President Diaz, arrived at Managua, Nicaragua, from Corinto. It was a handful of seamen from the USS ANNAPOLIS.

1912        Aug 14, The JUSTIN, carrying a US battalion of 354 men and its equipment, arrived at Corinto, Nicaragua, and anchored near the Annapolis. US forces remained until 1925.

1912        Sep 14, The United States government notified Nicaragua that it would protect American lives and property there and uphold the government against rebels.
    (MC, 9/14/01)(http://www.scuttlebuttsmallchow.com/usmcnic3.html)

1912        Oct 4, Gen. Zeledon, Nicaraguan opponent of US occupation, was executed.
    (MC, 10/4/01)

1912        Managua, Nicaragua, was destroyed by civil war.
    (SSFC, 4/10/05, p.F4)

1916        Feb 6, Ruben Dario (b.1867), Nicaraguan poet, died. Dario, one of Nicaragua's best-known poets, is considered the father of the Modernismo movement.

1925        Dec 25, U.S. Admiral Latimer disarmed Nicaraguan insurgents in support of the Diaz regime.
    (HN, 12/25/98)

1926        May 2, US military "intervened" in Nicaragua. [see May 3]
    (MC, 5/2/02)

1926         May 3, U.S. marines landed in Nicaragua and remained until 1933. [see May 2]
    (HN, 5/3/98)

1926        Gen. Emiliano Chamorro overthrew the government of Pres. Carlos Solorzano, who fled to San Francisco, Ca.
    (SFC, 9/28/01, WB p.6)

1927        Jan 12, U.S. Secretary of State Kellogg claimed that Mexican rebel Plutarco Calles was aiding the communist plot in Nicaragua.
    (HN, 1/12/99)

1927        Jun 14, President Porfirio Diaz of Nicaragua signed a treaty with the U.S. allowing American intervention in his country.
    (HN, 6/14/98)

1927        Jul 16, Augusto Sandino began a 5-year war against the US occupation of Nicaragua.
    (MC, 7/16/02)

1928        Mar 16 The U.S. planned to send 1,000 more Marines to Nicaragua.
    (HN, 3/16/98)

1931                 Apr 1,  An Earthquake devastated Managua, Nicaragua, killing 2,000.

1931        Managua, Nicaragua, was torched by fire.
    (SSFC, 4/10/05, p.F4)

1934        Feb 21, Nicaraguan patriot Augusto Cesar Sandino was assassinated by National Guard.
    (MC, 2/21/02)

1934        Pablo Cuadro (d.2002), poet, authored “Nicaragua Poems."
    (SFC, 1/14/02, p.B5)

1934        US troops entered Nicaragua to fight nationalist rebel leader Augusto Cesar Sandino.
    (SFC, 1/14/02, p.B5)

1936        Jun 2, Gen Anastasio Somoza took over as dictator of Nicaragua.
    (SC, 6/2/02)

1936        Dec 8, Anastasio Somoza was elected president of Nicaragua. The Somoza family led Nicaragua until 1979.
    (SFC, 10/15/96, p.A1)(MC, 12/8/01)

1945        Jul 6, Nicaragua became the first nation to formally accept the United Nations Charter.
    (AP, 7/6/05)

1949        Feb 21, Nicaragua and Costa Rica signed a friendship treaty ending hostilities over their borders.
    (HN, 2/21/98)

1955        Nov 3, Argentine ex-president Peron arrived in Nicaragua.
    (MC, 11/3/01)

1956        Sep 21, Anastasio Somoza Garcia (b.1896), Nicaraguan dictator, was shot by poet Rigoberto Lopez Perez. He died on Sep 29 after being sent to a Panama Canal Zone hospital.

1956        Sep 29, Anastasio Somoza (b.1896), Nicaraguan dictator, died at a Panama Canal Zone hospital after being shot on Sep 21 by poet Rigoberto Lopez Perez. He was succeeded by his son Luis Anastasio Somoza Debayle (1922-1967).
    (EWH, 1968, p.1216)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Anastasio_Somoza_Garc%C3%ADa)

1957        Nicaragua’s Concepcion volcano erupted.
    (SSFC, 4/10/05, p.F4)

1960        Nov 14, President Dwight Eisenhower ordered U.S. naval units into the Caribbean after Guatemala and Nicaragua charged Castro with starting uprisings.
    (HN, 11/14/98)

1960        The Central American Common Market was set up by a treaty between El Salvador, Guatemala, Honduras, Nicaragua, and later Costa Rica. It fell apart by the end of the decade.
    (Econ, 5/14/05, p.41)(www.bartleby.com/65/ce/CentrACM.html)

1960s-1970s    The pesticide DBCP (dibromochloropropane) was regularly sprayed to combat insects that preyed on bananas.
    (SFC, 3/15/01, p.A12)

1961        Apr 14, Cuban-American invasion army departed Nicaragua.
    (MC, 4/14/02)

1961        Tomas Borge Martinez (1930-2012) helped found Nicaragua’s Sandinista front with the ambition of overthrowing the American-backed dictatorship of the Somoza family. Students chose the name in tribute to Augusto Cesar Sandino, the nationalist guerrilla leader who fought American Marines in the 1920s and 1930s.

1967        May 1, Anastasio Somoza Debayle became president of Nicaragua.
    (AP, 5/1/97)

1967        The US CIA put Manuel Antonio Noriega on its payroll and continued paying him to 1988. During Ronald Reagan’s presidency (1981-1989) Noriega was an invaluable conduit of cash and weapons to the Nicaragua contras.
    (Econ 6/3/17, p.82)

1968        Oct 23, In Nicaragua the Cerro Negro volcano began erupting again and continued to Dec 10. It had first appeared in 1850.
    (DD-EVTT, Illustr.#9)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cerro_Negro)

1969        The US based Pennwalt Corp. established a chlorine plant near Lake Managua. The plant shut down in 1991 and left 60 tons of mercury in the lake.
    (SFC, 2/3/98, p.A6)

1971        Apr 25, US canal rights in Nicaragua and rights to Nicaragua’s Corn Islands expired.

1971        Managua, Nicaragua, was struck by a polio epidemic.
    (SSFC, 4/10/05, p.F4)

1972        Dec 23, A 6.25 earthquake struck Managua, Nicaragua, and over 12,000 were killed.  Pres. Somoza was later believed to have pocketed millions of dollars in foreign aid. The diversion of funds undermined his government and helped pave the way for the 1979 revolution.
    (SFC, 10/15/96, p.A12)(SFEC, 11/8/98, p.A26)(http://tinyurl.com/58jfg)

1972        Roberto Clemente (b.1934), US baseball player, died in a plane crash while enroute to help earthquake victims in Nicaragua.
    (WSJ, 4/2/01, p.A20)

1978        Jan 10, In Nicaragua Pedro Joaquin Chamorro Cardenal (b.1924), journalist and editor of La Prensa, was shot dead. His murder sparked the Sandinista-led uprising that later toppled Somoza. His wife, Violeta Barrios de Chamorro, later became head of the country and in 1996 published her autobiography: "Dreams of the Heart." The murder also inspired Susan Meiselas, photographer, to go to Nicaragua from NY. She spent ten years photographing events in the area, later published as "Nicaragua." The Sandinista Party was founded by Carlos Fonseca.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pedro_Joaqu%C3%ADn_Chamorro_Cardenal)(WSJ, 9/11/96, p.A20)(SFC, 10/23/96, p.A8)

1978        Mar 9, National Guard Chief General Raynoldo Perez Vega was assassinated in Nicaragua.
    (HN, 3/9/98)

1978        Aug 22, In Managua, Nicaragua, a group of the Third Way faction, led by Eden Pastora Gomez (also known as Commander Zero--Comandante Cero), took over the National Palace and held almost 2,000 government officials and members of Congress hostage for two days. Sandinista guerrillas seized hostages at the Nicaraguan Congress building and after a 2-day siege obtained a hefty ransom, exile to Panama and the liberation of some 70 jailed comrades.
    (www.aeroflight.co.uk/waf/americas/nicaragua/Nicaragua-national-history.htm)(WSJ, 1/8/97, p.A12)

1978        Sandinistas captured Leon, Nicaragua, and Pres. Somoza began a massive aerial bombardments. Suspected Sandinista sympathizers were tortured and killed.
    (SSFC, 4/10/05, p.F5)

1979        Jun 20, ABC News correspondent Bill Stewart was shot to death in Managua, Nicaragua, by a member of President Anastasio Somoza's national guard.
    (AP, 6/20/99)

1979        Jul 17, Nicaraguan President Anastasio Somoza Debayle resigned and fled to Miami in exile.
    (AP, 7/17/97)(HNQ, 6/29/99)

1979        Jul 19, The Nicaraguan capital of Managua fell to Sandinista guerrillas, two days after President Anastasio Somoza fled the country.
    (SFC, 10/15/96, p.A1)(AP, 7/19/99)

1980        Sep 17, Former Nicaraguan president Anastasio Somoza was assassinated in Paraguay. Enrique Gorriaran Merlo, Argentine super-guerilla, claimed responsibility. Merlo was captured in Mexico in 10/95 and extradited to Argentina where he had multiple charges against him.
    (AP, 9/17/97)(WSJ, 4/25/96, p.A-1)

1980s        The US purchased Chinese and Polish AK-47s to supply the Contra guerillas in Nicaragua. Eden Pastora, aka Commander Zero, and his comrade Adolfo Calero, denied knowing in 1996 that their financial backer, Oscar Danilo Blandon, had earned money by selling crack cocaine in California.
    (SFC, 5/27/96, p.A9)(SFC, 11/27/96, p.A2)

1980s        Sergio Palacios Cruz, Charro, was an explosives expert for the US supported Contra rebels fighting the leftist Sandinista regime.
    (SFC, 5/27/96, p.A7)

1981        Sep, The CIA was informed that a major Contra rebel group planned to sell drugs in the US to pay its bills. At the same time the Reagan administration was approving a covert CIA program to finance anti-Sandinista exile organization attempts to overthrow the Nicaraguan government.
    (SFC, 11/4/98, p.A14)

1981        Dec, In Nicaragua Contra commander Enrique Bermudez (d.1991), a CIA agent, ordered Meneses and Blandon to begin trafficking in support of the Contras. Oscar Danilo Blandon had been recruited by Norwin Meneses to sell cocaine in California in order to raise money for the Nicaraguan Contras.
    (SFC, 11/27/96, p.A2) (SFEC, 6/28/98, BR p.3)

1981-1982    In Nicaragua disagreements escalated between the English-speaking Indian peoples of the Caribbean coast who sought greater autonomy and Sandinista government forces. Armed clashes led to the forced relocation of thousands of Miskitos. Sandinista responses grew heavier as some Indians joined the US-backed "Contra" rebellion against the leftist government. At least 64 Miskito Indians were killed by Nicaraguan troops during this period.
    (AP, 7/27/10)

1982        In El Salvador 10 police officers were involved in the killing of a Nicaraguan mechanic and a Honduran farmer suspected of transporting arms to rebels in El Salvador. They were charged with the murders in July 1995.
    (SFC, 1/31/97, p.A14)

1983        Apr 6, Melida Anaya Montes ("Comandante Ana Maria"), Salvadoran FMLN guerrilla leader, was killed in Nicaragua, where many Salvadoran guerrillas took refuge under its leftist government. In 2007 her body was exhumed and buried in her homeland.
    (AP, 6/14/07)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ana_Mar%C3%ADa)

1983        Jun, James Carney (53) of St. Louis, Jesuit priest-turned-guerrilla, traveled to Nicaragua, where he joined leftist guerrillas. He was captured by soldiers in September as he led a column of 100 rebels across the border into Honduras. He was never heard from again. Suspected remains found in early 2003 proved false.
    (AP, 1/29/03)(http://tinyurl.com/3ad6ek)

1983        Jul 19, In Honduras Reyes Mata, a Cuban-trained doctor and guerrilla leader, led a unit of 96 Nicaraguan-trained rebels and Rev. James F. Carney into the Olancho. They were routed by the Honduran army. American CIA records, disclosed in 1998, reported that Mata was tortured and executed by the Honduran army.
    (SFC, 11/5/98, p.C4)(www.fas.org/sgp/congress/hr051198/valladares.html)

1983        Pope John Paul II came to Managua, Nicaragua, berated the leftist priests serving in the government of Sandinista leader Daniel Ortega, and ordered Catholics to obey their bishops and avoid "unacceptable ideological commitments".
    (AP, 6/3/18)

1984        Apr 10, The US Senate condemned the January CIA mining of Nicaraguan harbors.

1984        May 10, The International Court of Justice said the U.S. should halt any actions to blockade Nicaragua's ports. The U.S. had already said it would not recognize World Court jurisdiction on this issue.
    (AP, 5/10/04)

1984        May 30, There was an assassination attempt on Eden Pastora Gomez, a Nicaraguan anticommunist revolutionary, by Sandinistas. The Costa Rica government of Luis Alberto Monge Alvarez failed to make a serious investigation. Two Costa Ricans, four Nicaraguan rebels and US journalist Linda Frazier were killed and more than 20 other people were wounded in the attack at the village of La Penca, near the Nicaraguan border. In 2011 a former Nicaraguan official confirmed that Vital Gaguine (d.1989), a leftist Argentine guerrilla, had been hired by the Sandinistas to kill Pastora.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/La_Penca_bombing)(WSJ, 12/12/97, p.A19)(AP, 8/26/11)

1984        May, Marta Healy, a Nicaraguan exile, contacted George Morales, a champion power boat racer and big-league drug trafficker under indictment in the US, to arrange a meeting with contra rebels at her Miami home. Her aim was to broker a deal to help the rebels financially. The rebels got an ok from the CIA to accept airplanes and cash from the drug dealer while still receiving CIA money under the table.
    (SFC, 10/31/96, p.A7)(www.usdoj.gov/oig/special/9712/ch11p1.htm)

1984        Nov 4, Nicaragua held its 1st free elections in 56 years; Sandinistas won by a margin of 63%. Daniel Ortega won the presidency under the Sandinista Liberation Front. Sergio Ramirez served as his vice-president until 1990.
    (SFC, 5/6/96, p.A-10)(WSJ, 10/9/96, p.A15)

1984        Nov, The CIA told Congress in 1987 that it had concluded in Nov, 1984 that it could not resume aid to the Costa Rican-based Contras because “everybody around Pastora was involved in cocaine."
    (SFC, 10/31/96, p.A7)

1984        Dec, In Nicaragua Fernando Cardenal (1934-2016), a Catholic priest and the new  education minister for the Sandinista government, was expelled from the Jesuit order. He left the Sandinista National Liberation Front in 1995 and was reinstated as a Jesuit in 1997.
    (Boston Globe, 2/26/16, p.B7)

1984        The Sandinistas confiscated four farms that belonged to Juan Manuel Caldera. In 1996 Daniel Ortega promised Caldera control of 7 key economic ministries in an electoral pact for the presidency.
    (WSJ, 10/9/96, p.A15)
1984        The CIA ran the Contra war in Nicaragua as a covert operation until this year when Congress cut off funds. The Reagan administration transferred the operation to Lt. Col. Oliver North, a member of the White House National Security staff.
    (SFC, 9/28/96, p.A5)
1984        The CIA equipped a plane belonging to Barry Seal, a drug smuggler and informant, with cameras. Seal flew the plane to Nicaragua and photographed an official of the Sandinista government and a leader of a Columbian drug cartel loading cocaine on the aircraft.
    (SFC, 11/9/96, p.A2)
1984        In Costa Rica there was an assassination attempt on Eden Pastora Gomez, a Nicaraguan anticommunist revolutionary, by Sandinistas. The government of Luis Alberto Monge Alvarez failed to make a serious investigation.
    (WSJ, 12/12/97, p.A19)

1985        May 1, US president Reagan ordered an embargo against Nicaragua.

1985        Jun 12, The US House of Representatives approved $27 million in aid to the Nicaraguan contras.
    (HN, 6/12/98)

1985        Jan 18, President Reagan declared that the U.S. would not take part in the World Court ruling on Nicaraguan charges.
    (HN, 1/18/99)

1985        Jun 27, The U.S. House of Representatives voted to limit the use of combat troops in Nicaragua.
    (HN, 6/27/98)

1985        Sen. John Kerry of Mass. went to Nicaragua to meet with the Sandinista leadership. Kerry worked hard against Pres. Reagan’s efforts to fund CIA aid for the contras.
    (WSJ, 7/30/04, p.A11)
1985        A photographer captured the execution of a peasant ordered by Contra Comandante Mack, who in 1996 accompanied Daniel Ortega on a campaign for the presidency.
    (WSJ, 10/9/96, p.A15)
1985        The 3,000 acre cotton ranch of Enrique Bolanos was expropriated by the Sandinistas.
    (SFC, 10/15/96, p.A12)
1985        The Vatican suspended Rev. Miguel D’Escoto Brockmann and three other dissident priests in Nicaragua for defying a church ban on clergy holding government jobs. Brockmann served as the Sandinista government’s foreign minister from 1979-1990. In 2014 he was reinstated by Pope Francis.
    (SFC, 8/5/14, p.A2)

1985-1986    Celerino Castillo III, a US agent for the DEA, reported Contra drug flights from Nicaragua to the US to US Embassy officials. His testimony in 1996 followed reports that the CIA was involved in smuggling drugs to southern California with the proceeds going to support Contra forces at war with the Sandinista government.   
    (SFC, 9/24/96, p.A7)

1986        Mar 25, President Ronald Reagan ordered emergency aid for the Honduran army. U.S. helicopters took Honduran troops to the Nicaraguan border.
    (HN, 3/24/98)

1986        Mar 28, The U.S. Senate passed a $100 million aid package for the Nicaraguan contras.
    (HN, 3/28/98)

1986        Jun 25, The US Congress approved $100 million in aid to the Contras fighting in Nicaragua.
    (HN, 6/25/98)

1986        Jun 27, World Court ruled that US aid to Nicaraguan contras was illegal.
    (SC, 6/27/02)

1986        Jul 11, President Ronald Reagan placed the Contras, who were fighting the government of Nicaragua, under CIA jurisdiction.
    (HN, 7/11/98)

1986        Oct 5, American Eugene Hasenfus was captured by Sandinista soldiers after the weapons plane he was flying in was shot down over southern Nicaragua. An airplane named Fat Lady was shot down over Nicaragua with a load of arms destined for the Contras. Documents found on board the aircraft and seized by the Sandinistas included logs linking the plane with Area 51, the nation's top-secret nuclear-weapons facility at the Nevada Test Site. The doomed aircraft was co-piloted by Wallace Blaine "Buzz" Sawyer, a native of western Arkansas, who died in the crash. The admissions of the surviving crew member, Eugene Hasenfus, began a public unraveling of the Iran-Contra episode.
    (AP, 10/5/97)(www.ratical.org/ratville/JFK/crimesOfMena.html)

1986        Oct, A drug raid was made in Los Angeles, Ca. The LA County Sheriff's Dept. had documented that Nicaraguan drug trafficker Daniel Blandon was shipping hundreds of kilos of cocaine in the Southern California area. In 1998 Gary Webb published "Dark Alliance: The CIA, the Contras, and the Crack Cocaine Explosion."
    (SFEC, 6/28/98, BR p.3)

1986        Nov 15, A government tribunal in Nicaragua convicted American Eugene Hasenfus of charges related to his role in delivering arms to Contra rebels, and sentenced him to 30 years in prison. He was pardoned a month later.
    (AP, 11/15/97)

1986        Dec 17, Eugene Hasenfus, the American convicted by Nicaragua for his part in running guns to the Contras, was pardoned, then released.
    (AP, 12/17/97)

1987        Jan 1, Nicaragua’s Sandinista Constitution was promulgated. It provided the final step in the institutionalization of the Sandinista regime and the framework under which the Chamorro government would take office.

1987        Mar 4, President Reagan addressed the nation on the Iran-Contra affair. He took full responsibility for the affair acknowledging his overtures to Iran had "deteriorated" into an arms-for-hostages deal. Michael Ledeen, Pentagon employee, later authored "Perilous Statecraft: An Insider's Account of the Iran-Contra Affair."
    (AP, 3/4/98)(HN, 3/4/98)(SFC, 5/14/03, p.A19)

1987        Apr 28, Contra rebels in Nicaragua killed Benjamin Ernest Linder (b.1959), an American engineer working on a hydroelectric project for the Sandinista government. In 2001 Joan Kruckewitt authored “The Death of Ben Linder: The Story of a North American in Sandinista Nicaragua."
    (AP, 4/28/97)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ben_Linder)

1987        Aug 6, President Reagan's new Central America peace initiative ran into problems as the United States and Nicaragua openly disagreed on procedures for a negotiated settlement.
    (AP, 8/6/97)

1987        Nov 13, Nicaraguan President Daniel Ortega unveiled an 11-point proposal in Washington for a cease-fire that called for the Contra rebels to lay down their weapons and accept an amnesty.
    (AP, 11/13/97)

1987        Nov 22, The government of Nicaragua released 985 political prisoners in a show of compliance with a Central American peace plan.
    (AP, 11/22/97)

1987        The Sultan of Brunei, leader of the independent sultanate on the northern coast of Borneo, sent $10 million to support the Nicaraguan contras.
    (HNQ, 12/14/98)

1988        Jan 28, Nicaragua's leftist government and Contra rebels began their first face-to-face peace talks, meeting in San Jose, Costa Rica.
    (AP, 1/28/98)

1988        Jan 29, Nicaraguan President Daniel Ortega received a coolly polite reception from Pope John Paul II at the Vatican.
    (AP, 1/29/98)

1988        Feb 2, In a speech that three major television networks declined to broadcast live, President Reagan pressed his case for aid to the Nicaraguan Contras.
    (AP, 2/2/97)

1988        Feb 3, The U.S. House of Representatives handed President Reagan a major defeat, rejecting his request for at least $36.25 million in aid to the Nicaraguan Contras.
    (AP, 2/3/97)

1988        Mar 3, The U.S. House of Representatives rejected a package of $30 million in non-lethal aid for the Nicaraguan Contras.
    (AP, 3/3/98)

1988        Mar 30, US House Democratic and Republican leaders said that they had agreed in principle on a package of about $50 million to aid the Nicaraguan rebels.

1988        Oct 22, Hurricane Joan hit Nicaragua and killed 148 people. Hurricane Joan caused 216 deaths in the Caribbean or Central America. The storm hit Colombia, Costa Rica, Nicaragua, Panama, and Venezuela.
    (WP, 11/8/88, p.A21)

1989        Jan 23, Vital Gaguine, leftist Argentine guerrilla, during a rebel attack on a military barracks in Buenos Aires. He was later identified as the bomber hired by the Sandinistas to kill Eden Pastora Gomez (May 30, 1984), a Nicaraguan anticommunist revolutionary.
    (AP, 8/26/11)

1989        Sep 2, In Nicaragua, a 14-party opposition coalition chose Violeta Barrios de Chamorro as its presidential candidate. Chamorro went on to win the election the following February.
    (AP, 9/2/99)

1989        Nov 26, El Salvador broke relations with Nicaragua after a weapons-loaded plane from that country was downed in El Salvador.
    (AP, 11/26/02)

1989        The central bank of Nicaragua suffered losses worth 13.8% of GDP.
    (Econ, 4/30/05, p.74)

1990        Feb 25, Nicaraguans voted in an election that led to an upset victory for opponents of the ruling Sandinistas. Violeta Chamorro was elected president.
    (WSJ, 3/12/96, p. A-16)(AP, 2/25/98)

1990        Feb 26, Daniel Ortega, communist president of Nicaragua, suffered a shocking election defeat at the hands of Violeta Chamorro.
    (HN, 2/26/99)

1990        Mar 12, Vice President Quayle met in Santiago, Chile, with Nicaraguan President Daniel Ortega, who promised to peacefully relinquish power to Violeta Chamorro, the U.S.-backed candidate who had won Nicaragua's presidential election.
    (AP, 3/12/00)

1990        Mar 13, President Bush lifted trade sanctions against Nicaragua in a show of support for President-elect Violeta Chamorro.
    (AP, 3/13/00)

1990        Apr 19, Nicaragua's nine-year-old civil war appeared near an end as Contra guerrillas, leftist Sandinistas and the incoming government agreed to a truce and a deadline for the rebels to disarm.
    (AP, 4/19/00)

1990        Apr 25, Violeta Barrios de Chamorro was inaugurated as president of Nicaragua for a six year term, ending 11 years of leftist Sandinista rule.
    (AP, 4/25/97) (HN, 4/25/98)

1990        Nicaragua switched diplomatic recognition from Beijing to Taipei.
    (Econ, 11/9/13, p.43)
1990        Arnoldo Aleman became mayor of Managua.
    (SFC, 10/15/96, p.A1,12)

1990-1996    Sergio Palacios Cruz, aka Charro, took up arms again citing threats from the Sandinistas as well as unfilled government promises. He led a group of about 300 men in the area around Wanawas and is viewed by some as a protector and by others as a bandit and robber.
    (SFC, 5/27/96, p.A6,7)

1991        Nov, Norwin Meneses was arrested in Managua with 1,500 pounds of cocaine, some of it packed in cars headed for the US.
    (SFEC, 8/16/98, p.A1,10)

1991        Susan Meisalas, photographer, made the film "Pictures From a Revolution," a documentation of her return to Nicaragua to follow up on people she had photographed during the Sandinista Revolution.
    (SFC, 2/6/99, p.E4)

1991        The 4,000-square-mile Miskito Coast Protected Area was approved by the Nicaraguan government with the assistance of Bernard Nietschmann (d.2000 at 58).
    (SFC, 2/1/00, p.B3)

1991        The US based Pennwalt Corp. shut down its chlorine plant near Lake Managua and left 60 tons of mercury in the lake. Natural decomposition of the metal was to take at least 50 years.
    (SFC, 2/3/98, p.A6)

1991        In the US Elliott Abrams pleaded guilty to 2 misdemeanor charges for keeping information from Congress in the Iran-Contra affair (arms to Nicaragua).
    (WSJ, 6/29/01, p. A1)

1992        Aug, In Nicaragua Norman Meneses was sentenced to 25 years in prison for possession and smuggling cocaine. He was released in Nov. 1997.
    (SFEC, 8/16/98, p.A10)

1992        Violeta Chamorro cancelled a 30-year forest concession with a Taiwanese company after a public outcry.
    (SFC, 6/25/96, p.A10)

1992        In Nicaragua a slow earthquake was followed by a 7.2 earthquake.
    (SFC, 9/6.96, p.A11)

1992        The Cerro Negro volcano erupted. It is part of a chain of 20 volcanoes known as the Marrabios or Maribios.
    (SFC, 8/7/99, p.A12)

1993        May, A massive nighttime explosion rocked Managua, Nicaragua, and revealed not only a massive weapons cache but also the bunker of an int’l. kidnapping ring that relied on false papers and passports provided by the Sandinistas. Tomas Borge, one of the 9 commandants of the Sandinistas, was seen standing in his pajamas amidst the weapons cache.
    (WSJ, 7/30/04, p.A11)
1993        May, Venezuela Pres. Carlos Andres Perez was impeached. He was later charged with misusing $17 million security fund for election debts and a lavish inauguration. He said the money was used to help Violeta Chamorro win the presidency of Nicaragua.
    (SFC, 5/31/96, A16)(Econ, 1/8/11, p.86)

1993        Sep 9-1993 14, Hurricane Gert caused 76 deaths. It affected Mexico, Honduras, Costa Rica, and Nicaragua.
    (AP, 9/11/04)(www.wunderground.com)

1994        Nov 8-1994 21, Hurricane Gordon caused 1,137 deaths in the Caribbean and eight in the United States. The storm hit Nicaragua, Cuba and Haiti before striking Florida.
    (AP, 9/11/04)(www.wunderground.com)

1995        The Pellas family found a way to make money in sugar and rum under the rule of two diametrically opposed regimes: the right-wing Somoza family and the Marxist Sandinistas.
    (WSJ, 12/1/95, p.A-10)

1995        Arnoldo Aleman resigned the mayorship of Managua to run for the presidency with running mate Enrique Bolanos for the right-wing Liberal Party.
    (SFC, 10/15/96, p.A12)

1995        Ex-Sandinistas formed a rebel group called the Andres Castro United Front (FUAC) in the northern region of Siuna. They prevented local crime from marauding ex-Contra rebels and demanded government compliance with promises of food, land and jobs.
    (SFC, 7/27/98, p.A8)

1995        The Cerro Negro volcano erupted.
    (SFC, 8/7/99, p.A12)

1996        Feb 7, During a Central America tour, Pope John Paul the Second received a warm welcome in Nicaragua, his first visit there since 1983.
    (AP, 2/7/01)

1996        Mar, The government granted a 30-year, 153,000 acre concession to the Korean company, Kum-Kyung, for a $20 mil. logging investment. The area overlaps the land of 364 families of Awas Tingni Indians. The Sumos Indians assembled a team of lawyers and fought the concession to the Supreme Court. They then brought a complaint before the Organization of American States for violations to fundamental Indian rights.
    (SFC, 6/25/96, p.A10)

1996        Apr, Four swarms of Africanized killer bees occurred across Nicaragua and two people died from stings.
    (SFC, 4/6/96, p.A-13)

1996        Apr, Gen. Joaquin Cuadro, head of the army, told journalists that the rearmados [re-armed contra rebels] would be neutralized.
    (SFC, 5/27/96, p.A7)

1996        May 31, A US citizen, Cindy Garsoni, was kidnapped in the town of Wiwili, 350 miles northeast of Managua. Its believed that a gang is using her to pressure the government to install a voting center in the town of Banco Grande before upcoming elections.
    (SFC, 6/1/96, p.A12)

1996        May, A Fishing Defense Plan was created after pirates attacked 23 fishing boats in coastal waters.
    (SFEC, 2/8/98, p.A26)

1996        Jun 2, Sergio Palacios Cruz and another contra rebel were killed near the village of Zapote Dudu by the Nicaraguan army.
    (SFC, 6/5/96, p.C16)

1996        Jun 20, Mediators began negotiations for the release of a group of about 30 election workers recently kidnapped by 15 re-armed contras and taken to Honduras.
    (SFC, 6/21/96, p.A14)(SFC, 6/22/96, p.A13)

1996        Jun 21, 33 workers were released in Nicaragua after being held for 2 days in Honduras.
    (SFC, 6/22/96, p.A13)

1996        Jul 7-28, Hurricane Cesar caused 51 deaths in Caribbean and Central America. The storm hit Costa Rica, Curacao, Aruba, San Andres and Nicaragua.
    (AP, 9/11/04)(www.wunderground.com)

1996        Jul 15, In Nicaragua 6 soldiers were killed and one injured in an ambush in central Matagalpa province.
    (SFC, 7/16/96, p.A7)

1996        Jul, The Sandinista Front’s Miami office was firebombed.
    (SFC, 10/15/96, p.A12)

1996        Sep 11, There was a review of the autobiography of Violeta Barrios de Chamorro: Dreams of the Heart.
    (WSJ, 9/11/96, p.A20)

1996        Oct 20, Elections were scheduled and former Sandinista leader Daniel Ortega trailed by 5 points against Arnoldo Aleman, former mayor of Managua.
    (WSJ, 10/9/96, p.A15)

1996        Oct 22, In Nicaragua the final vote showed Aleman led Ortega 51 to 37.7%.
    (SFC, 10/23/96, p.A8)(SFC, 11/9/96, p.A12)

1997        Jan 10, Arnoldo Aleman began a 5-year term as president.
    (SFC, 1/11/96, p.C1)

1997        The US Nicaraguan Adjustment and Central American Relief Act was passed. It required civil war emigrants of the 1980s to face interviews in 1998 on their eligibility to stay in the US.
    (SFEC, 10/4/98, p.A14)

1998        cMar 1, Zoilamerica Narvaez (30), the stepdaughter of Daniel Ortega, publicly accused Her step father of sexual molestation since she was 11, during the decade that he was president.
    (SFEC, 3/15/98, p.A15)

1998        Mar 13, There was a riverboat accident on Lake Nicaragua that left at least 9 people dead.
    (SFC, 3/14/98, p.A6)

1998        Mar 20, It was reported that Pres. Aleman planned to implement a program to register and control int’l. nongovernmental aid agencies. This was viewed as an attempt to prevent birth control programs opposed by the Catholic Church.
    (SFC, 3/20/98, p.A12)

1998        Mar, Zoilamerica Ortega Murillo (30), the stepdaughter of former Pres. Daniel Ortega, went public with charges that Ortega had sexually abused her since she was 11 years old.
    (SFC, 5/30/98, p.A10)

1998        May, Officials in Nicaragua entered a stolen 1975 Lear jet airplane and found high levels of cocaine residue. The $3 million plane had been stolen Dec 16 from Fort Lauderdale and taken to Nicaragua. It was used by Jose Francisco Guasch to transport government officials to various destinations in Central America at no charge. Guasch slipped out of the country.
    (SFC, 8/17/98, p.A10)

1998        Jun, A group of ex-Sandinistas called the Revolutionary Armed Forces ambushed a government army patrol in Matagalpa and killed 4 soldiers.
    (SFC, 7/27/98, p.A8)

1998        Jul, McDonalds returned to Managua. It had left the country after the 1979 revolution.
    (SFC, 8/17/98, p.A8)

1998        Aug 17, The foreign debt was reported to be $6 billion.
    (SFC, 8/17/98, p.A8)

1998        Oct 22-1998 Nov 9, Hurricane Mitch was one of the Caribbean's deadliest storms ever causing at least at least 9,000 deaths in Central America. The storm hit Honduras, Nicaragua, El Salvador, Guatemala, Mexico, Panama, Jamaica, and Costa Rica. Later reports put the death toll in Honduras to 6,076. In Nicaragua the deaths reached 4,000, in Guatemala it was157, and in El Salvador it was 222. The storm parked over Honduras and rain poured for 6 days straight.  Aid of $66 mil was ordered from the US, $8 mil from the EU, $11.6 mil from Spain along with pledges from other countries and private organizations.
    (SFC, 11/4/98, p.A9)(SFC, 11/6/98, p.A14)(AP, 9/11/04)(www.wunderground.com)

1998        Oct 30-1998 Nov 1, Hurricane Mitch caused a major mud slide in Nicaragua when the Casita Volcano crater lake in Posoltega overflowed. The death toll was estimated in the thousands. In Honduras Mayor Cesar Castellanos of Tegucigalpa and 3 others were killed in a helicopter crash while surveying the flood damage where hundreds were estimated killed.
    (SFC, 11/2/98, p.A1,17)(AP, 10/30/99)

1998        Dec 10, Nicaragua filed a large damage suit against all major US tobacco companies. Guatemala and Panama already had suits on file.
    (SFC, 12/11/98, p.D3)

1998        Paul Rice founded TransFairUSA in Oakland, Ca., in an effort to assist coffee growers in Nicaragua. The organization, later renamed Fair Trade USA, certified products as fair trade. Importers and retailers paid a premium to farmers committed to producing goods in accordance with standards that guarantee worker rights and environmental sustainability.
    (SFC, 11/20/08, p.A14)(SSFC, 4/15/12, p.D1)

1999        Mar 8, Pres. Clinton began a 4-day tour of Central America and the region's efforts to recover from Hurricane Mitch. Clinton toured Posoltega, Nicaragua, by the Casita Volcano where a wall of mud took 2,000 lives.
    (SFC, 3/8/99, p.A1)(WSJ, 3/9/99, p.A1)

1999        Jul 19, Off the Nicaragua coast a lobster boat with 72 people sank. 64 were rescued and 18 were missing. All 18 were later recovered. A plane with 16 people was presumed crashed in the Nicaragua jungle.
    (SFC, 7/21/99, p.C2)(SFC, 7/23/99, p.A12)

1999        Aug 6, The Cerro Negro volcano spewed ash from 3 new openings and a maximum state of alert was declared.
    (SFC, 8/7/99, p.A12)

1999        Oct 3, Flooding in Central America left 21 dead in Honduras, 10 dead in Nicaragua, and 11 dead in El Salvador and thousands were forced to flee their homes.
    (SFC, 10/4/99, p.A13)

1999        A World Bank report said close to 100% of Miskito lobster divers in Nicaragua showed symptoms of neurological damage due to inadequate decompression.
    (SSFC, 9/29/02, p.A3)

1999        Nicaragua filed the border case against Honduras, saying international law gave it the right to "explore and exploit" natural resources, including possible oil reserves and fish stocks within a zone 200 miles from its coast. Honduras claimed that a ruling by the Spanish king in 1906 set a boundary projecting eastward along the 15th parallel from the mouth of the Coco River. The UN resolved the dispute in 2007.
    (AP, 10/8/07)

2000        Mar 16, In Nicaragua Edmundo Olivas, former leader of the Andres Castro United Front - a leftists, ex-Sandinista, paramilitary group, was ambushed and killed near Boaco.
    (SFC, 3/17/00, p.D2)

2000        Jul 6, A 5.9 earthquake was centered in Laguna de Apoyo. At least 4 children died.
    (SFC, 7/7/00, p.D6)(SFC, 7/8/00, p.A12)

2000        Jul 7, Another earthquake struck and at least 2 people were killed.
    (SFC, 7/8/00, p.A12)

2000        Nov 5, Municipal elections were held.
    (SFC, 11/7/00, p.B2)

2000        Nov 6, Herte Lewites, a Sandinista candidate, was declared the winner of the mayoral race in Managua. The Liberal Constitutionalist Party expected to win at least 90 of the 154 mayoral races.
    (SFC, 11/7/00, p.B2)

2001        Aug 18, It was reported that a month-long drought ravaged Central America. Honduras lost 80% of its basic grains, El Salvador lost 80% of grains in its eastern provinces, Nicaragua lost 50% and Guatemala lost 80% of its beans in the eastern provinces. Hundreds of thousands of peasants were affected.
    (SFC, 8/18/01, p.A1)

2001        Oct 30, A 5th day of rain on Caribbean coast force 25,000 people from their homes in Honduras. 4 people were reported killed. Heavy damage was also reported from Nicaragua with 12 people missing.
    (SFC, 10/31/01, p.C2)(SFC, 11/1/01, p.C7)

2001         Nov 4, In presidential elections former leader Daniel Ortega (54) faced Enrique Bolanos (73) of the governing Constitutionalist Liberal Party. Enrique Bolanos won the elections.
    (SFC, 11/2/01, p.D1)(SFC, 11/5/01, p.A13)

2001        Nov 5, Enrique Bolanos defeated former Sandinista leader Daniel Ortega in Nicaragua's presidential election.
    (AP, 11/5/02)

2002        Jan 2, Pablo Cuadra (89), editor and poet, died. He helped found the literary movement “The Vanguard." His work included “Nicaragua Poems" (1934).
    (SFC, 1/14/02, p.B5)

2002        Sep 12, In Nicaragua prosecutors have filed new corruption charges against Amelia Aleman, sister of former President Arnoldo Aleman, accusing her of embezzling funds from a state-owned construction company and ordering its work force to handle her private home-improvement projects.
    (AP, 9/13/02)

2002        Dec 11, A Nicaraguan judge ordered three U.S. companies to pay $490 million to 583 banana workers allegedly affected by the use of the pesticide Nemagon.
    (AP, 12/14/02)

2003        Jan 20, An Organization of American States report accused Nicaragua of negligence for authorizing a deal that allowed 3,000 Kalashnikov rifles meant for Panama to go to a Colombian paramilitary militia.
    (AP, 1/21/03)

2003        Mar 23, In Nicaragua the party of President Enrique Bolanos abandoned him after months of quarreling over the government's prosecution of his predecessor, a fellow party member.
    (AP, 3/24/03)

2003        Oct 15, In Nicaragua radical students and teachers drove a truck through a gate and threw rocks and gasoline bombs at police guarding the legislature as part of a protest demanding more government spending for education.
    (AP, 10/16/03)

2003        Nov 28, The US suspended $49 million in aid payments to Nicaragua's judiciary, a day after the court told America to stay out of its business. This followed escalating tensions between Washington and Nicaragua after a Sandinista judge released former president Arnoldo Aleman from prison 2 days earlier to house arrest, citing health concerns.
    (AP, 11/28/03)

2003        Dec 7, A Nicaraguan judge sentenced former Pres. Aleman to 20 years for diverting some $100 million in government funds to his campaigns.
    (WSJ, 12/8/03, p.A1)

2003        Dec 17, The Bush administration reached a free-trade deal with El Salvador, Guatemala, Honduras and Nicaragua for immediate duty-free access to half of all US farm exports and 80% of consumer goods.
    (WSJ, 12/18/03, p.A1)

2004        Feb 10, In Nicaragua Carlos Guadamuz, the former director of the state-run radio program, was shot and killed, days after he said he received death threats. In 1969, he had dressed up as a woman and tried to hijack a plane to Cuba. He was then jailed for many years under former President Anastasio Somoza Dabayle.
    (AP, 2/10/04)

2004        Mar 19, In Nicaragua police officers kicked down the door and led convicted former Pres. Arnoldo Aleman (58) from house arrest at his ranch to a special cell at a federal prison. Aleman was sentenced to 20 years in prison and fined $10 million for illegally diverting some $100 million in government funds to his party's election campaigns during his tenure in office, which ended in January 2002.
    (AP, 3/20/04)

2004        May 5, Nicaragua said its army had destroyed 333 surface-to-air missiles at the urging of the US and that the military planned to destroy another 333 SAM-7s in late July. More than 2,000 Russian-made SAM-7s, shoulder-fired missiles capable of taking down a plane, were left over from the 1980s Contra war.
    (AP, 5/6/04)

2004        May 28, US officials and 5 Central American countries (Costa Rica, El Salvador, Guatemala, Honduras and Nicaragua) signed a free trade pact (CAFTA), to be later approved by Congress. The Dominican Republic would be included later.
    (SFC, 5/29/04, p.A4)

2004        Jul 3, In Nicaragua a week of heavy rains caused floods and mudslides that claimed 25 lives.
    (AP, 7/3/04)

2004        Nov 7, Nicaragua held municipal elections. The leftist Sandinista Front sought to capitalize on the recent fracturing of a rival party amid ongoing attempts to remove the country's president from office. Dionisio Marenco (58) led the mayoral elections in Managua.
    (AP, 11/8/04)(AP, 11/9/04)

2004        Nov 12, Pres. Enrique Bolanos told US Defense Secretary Donald H. Rumsfeld that Nicaragua would completely eliminate a stockpile of hundreds of surface-to-air missiles with no expectation of compensation from the US.
    (AP, 11/12/04)

2004        Nov 25, Nicaragua's congress voted to give itself the power to ratify and dismiss Cabinet ministers and other officials in a deepening political crisis touched off by anti-corruption efforts.
    (AP, 11/26/04)

2005        Jan 14, Nicaragua’s feuding leaders vowed to try to solve a political crisis, a day after Congress passed a law restricting the powers of President Enrique Bolanos.
    (AP, 1/15/05)

2005        Jan 28, In Nicaragua Eugenio Hernandez, who served as mayor of El Ayote from 1990 to 2000, was sentenced to 25 years in prison in the Nov 9 slaying of Maria Jose Bravo (26), a reporter who was investigating an electoral dispute.
    (AP, 1/29/05)

2005        Mar 3, The seven Central American nations (Belize, Costa Rica, El Salvador, Guatemala, Honduras, Nicaragua and Panama) agreed to create a rapid-response force to combat drug trafficking, terrorism and other regional threats.
    (AP, 3/3/05)

2005        Mar 21, The US State Department said the US is suspending about $2 million in military assistance to Nicaragua because President Enrique Bolanos has not followed through on a promise to destroy surface-to-air-missiles.
    (AP, 3/21/05)

2005        Apr 26, In Nicaragua President Enrique Bolanos' attempt to address protesters demanding his resignation was met with a barrage of rocks, which missed him but injured his son.
    (AP, 4/27/05)

2005        May 30, Nicaragua President Enrique Bolanos issued an emergency decree, allowing him to raise electric prices as demanded by producers.
    (AP, 5/30/05)

2005        Jun 30, In Honduras Central American leaders agreed to create a regional special forces unit to fight drug trafficking, gang violence and terrorism within their borders. The 2-day regional meeting included the presidents of Costa Rica, Dominican Republic, El Salvador, Guatemala, Mexico, Nicaragua, and Panama.
    (AP, 6/30/05)

2005        Jul 28, The Concepcion Volcano on the island of Ometepe in southwestern Lake Nicaragua erupted at least four times. Concepcion has registered 17 eruptions since 1883. The last was in 1999.
    (AP, 7/28/05)

2005        Aug 18, In Nicaragua Miskito Indian leaders asked government and human rights investigators to probe allegations that at least 150 of their people were killed under the Sandinistas during the 1980s.
    (AP, 8/18/05)

2005        Aug 30, Nicaragua's highest court granted former President Arnoldo Aleman conditional release from house arrest, overturning the ruling of a previous court.
    (AP, 8/30/05)

2005        Sep 6, Dominican Republic legislators overwhelmingly approved a free-trade agreement with the US and five Central American countries, rejecting arguments that the pact would devastate the domestic sugar industry. The other five countries are Costa Rica, El Salvador, Guatemala, Honduras and Nicaragua. Costa Rica and Nicaragua had not yet ratified the pact.
    (AP, 9/6/05)

2005        Sep 8, A UN agency said a plague of rats caused by snake hunting is threatening thousands of Miskito Indians with famine in a remote corner of Nicaragua's jungle, while vampire bats are raising concerns about rabies. The rat population has boomed in Miskito territories as people hunt more snakes, the rats' natural predator, for food and for their skins.
    (AP, 9/8/05)

2005        Sep 9, Latin American and US officials stepped up pressure against legislative efforts to oust Nicaraguan President Enrique Bolanos, whose anti-corruption campaign has driven lawmakers of his own party into alliance with rivals.
    (AP, 9/9/05)

2005        Oct 5, Hurricane Stan knocked down trees, ripped roofs off homes and washed out bridges in southeastern Mexico, but it was the storms it helped spawn that were far more destructive, killing more than 65 people in Central America. Officials in El Salvador said 49 people had been killed, mostly due to two days of mudslides sparked by rains. 9 people died in Nicaragua, including six migrants believed to be Ecuadorians killed in a boat accident. Four deaths were reported in Honduras, three in Guatemala and one in Costa Rica.
    (AP, 10/5/05)

2005        Oct 6-2005 Oct 8, In Guatemala rescue workers searched for victims of a mudslide near Lake Atitlan, a volcano-ringed lake popular with tourists. Panabaj and Tzanchaz were entombed by a mudflow half a mile wide. The death toll in the region from flooding sparked by Hurricane Stan soon climbed to 617 with 42 dead in Mexico, 72 dead in El Salvador and 11 dead in Nicaragua.
    (SFC, 10/7/05, p.A3)(AP, 10/9/05)(Econ, 10/15/05, p.43)

2005        Oct 14, In Nicaragua Sandinista leader Daniel Ortega announced that he has broken a political pact with opponents of President Enrique Bolanos, a move that could end a political crisis that threatened the country's presidency.
    (AP, 10/15/05)

2005        Oct 30, Hurricane Beta pounded Nicaragua's east coast with heavy rains and powerful winds as thousands sought protection in boarded-up homes or government shelters.
    (AP, 10/30/05)

2006        Feb 13, A transit strike in Managua, Nicaragua, entered a 2nd week, as workers demanded that the government subsidize their fuel and gas prices.
    (SFC, 2/14/06, p.A5)

2006        May 4, Nicaraguan Foreign Minister Norman Caldera asked Venezuelan President Hugo Chavez to butt out of his country's political affairs after Chavez signed a favorable oil pact with dozens of leftist Nicaraguan mayors.
    (AP, 5/5/06)

2006        May 5, In Nicaragua riot police stormed a government building and evicted about 200 striking doctors who invaded it hours earlier in an effort to force President Enrique Bolanos to restart wage negotiations.
    (AP, 5/5/06)

2006        Jul 2, In Nicaragua Herty Lewites (b.1939), former mayor of Managua (2000-2004) and recent presidential candidate, died of a heart attack. He broke with the leftist Sandinista party to run against its leader Daniel Ortega.
    (http://tinyurl.com/omz5w)(AP, 7/3/06)(Econ, 11/4/06, p.45)

2006        Sep 11, Nicaragua officials said at least 35 people have died from drinking methanol-laced sugarcane liquor in the past week and nearly 600 have fallen ill, overwhelming hospitals in Nicaragua's worst health crisis in recent history.
    (AP, 9/11/06)
2006        Jul 11, Central American presidents agreed on a plan to ease border controls and install a common customs system on the way to negotiating an eventual free-trade agreement with the EU. The agreement signed by Panama, Costa Rica, Guatemala, Nicaragua, El Salvador, Honduras and Belize would allow residents to cross borders without passports or visas.
    (AP, 7/11/06)

2006        Oct 2, Nicaragua lobbied for support for an $18 billion canal linking the Pacific and Atlantic, saying a second international waterway is needed to handle the world's booming shipping business.
    (AP, 10/3/06)

2006        Oct 4, In Nicaragua defense ministers from across the Americas agreed to create an international land-mine removal center and many called for joint military missions for disaster relief and peacekeeping worldwide.
    (AP, 10/4/06)

2006        Oct 26, Nicaragua's Congress voted to ban all abortions, including those that could save a mother's life.
    (AP, 10/26/06)

2006        Nov 5, In Nicaragua Sandinista leader Daniel Ortega makes his fourth attempt to return to the presidency.
    (AP, 11/5/06)

2006        Nov 6, In Nicaragua Daniel Ortega appeared headed back to the presidency 16 years after a U.S.-backed rebellion helped oust the former Marxist revolutionary. Partial results and the country's top electoral watchdog indicated he had easily defeated four opponents.
    (AP, 11/6/06)

2006        Nov 8, Former Marxist Daniel Ortega, who battled a US-backed insurgency in the 1980s, returned to Nicaragua's presidency calling for reconciliation, stability and a renewed fight against poverty. Ortega won 38% of the vote, a 9 point lead over Eduardo Montealegre.
    (AP, 11/8/06)(Econ, 11/11/06, p.43)

2006        Nov 17, Nicaragua’s President Enrique Bolanos signed a bill banning abortion in all cases, including when a woman's life is endangered, despite opposition from doctors, women's rights groups and diplomats.
    (AP, 11/18/06)

2006        Nov 19, In northeastern Nicaragua a giant tree fell on an evangelical church while Rev. Larry Wayne Poll (64), an American pastor, was delivering his sermon, killing 11 people including the clergyman.
    (AP, 11/20/06)

2006        Nov 21, In Nicaragua Doris Jimenez (25) was murdered in San Juan. Her boyfriend Eric Volz (27), an American real estate broker working in Managua, was convicted of her murder despite evidence that placed him in Managua at the time her death. In early 2007 Volz began a 30 year sentence as he waited for an appeal.
    (WSJ, 3/17/07, p.A14)

2007        Jan 10, In Nicaragua former revolutionary Daniel Ortega took office in a ceremony attended by more than a dozen world leaders.
    (AP, 1/10/07)

2007        Jan 14, In Nicaragua Iran's Pres. Ahmadinejad, touring Latin America in search of an alliance of "revolutionary countries," said the US is trying to hide its failures in Iraq by accusing his nation of funding insurgents there.
    (AP, 1/15/07)

2007        Jan 22, Leftist Nicaraguan President Daniel Ortega, who took power earlier this month, said that he was slashing his salary and those of Cabinet members.
    (AP, 1/22/07)

2007        Jan 24, Nicaraguan lawmakers approved a bill backed by President Daniel Ortega to create "people's councils" that some fear will resemble the defense committees that operated under the Sandinista government of the 1980s.
    (AP, 1/24/07)

2007        Feb 5, The US insisted that Nicaragua destroy hundreds of Soviet-made surface-to-air missiles after President Daniel Ortega said the weapons were needed for the country's defense.
    (AP, 2/5/07)

2007        Feb 17, Former Nicaraguan President Arnoldo Aleman acknowledged for the first time that he spent $1.8 million in government money on jewelry and meals, mostly while he was abroad seeking aid following the devastation of Hurricane Mitch in 1998.
    (AP, 2/18/07)

2007        Mar 16, The Inter-American Development Bank announced it would forgive $4.4 billion in debt owed by five of the poorest countries in Latin America and the Caribbean. The bank excused the foreign debts of Bolivia, Honduras, Nicaragua, Haiti and Guyana in an announcement ahead of its annual meeting.
    (AP, 3/16/07)

2007        Mar 16, In Nicaragua former president Arnoldo Aleman, convicted of money laundering and embezzlement, was freed from the conditions of his parole and allowed to travel around the country. Critics said was a ploy by President Daniel Ortega to weaken the opposition.
    (AP, 3/17/07)

2007        Apr 16, Nicaraguan police announced the arrest of more than two dozen local members of Mexico's powerful Sinaloa drug cartel but said they were still seeking the group's leader.
    (AP, 4/16/07)

2007        Apr 28, President Hugo Chavez said that Venezuela is ready to become the sole energy supplier to Cuba, Bolivia, Nicaragua and Haiti, presenting the countries with his most generous offer yet of oil-funded diplomacy in the region.
    (AP, 4/29/07)

2007        May 12, A pregnant Nicaraguan teenager (17) shot Kenneth A. Kinzel (53), her American lover, and enlisted her siblings to help dismember the body. She shot her live-in boyfriend because he threatened to kill her.
    (AP, 5/29/07)

2007        May 17, Nicaraguan said it has re-established formal diplomatic relations with North Korea and rejected criticism of the Asian country's nuclear weapons program.
    (AP, 5/17/07)

2007        May 29, In Nicaragua US embassy confirmed that an American woman, Lemon E. Groves (49), had died of injuries suffered when she was attacked in her home in the Nicaraguan city of Grenada last week.
    (AP, 5/29/07)

2007        Jun 6, President Hugo Chavez called for the creation of a common defense pact between Venezuela, Cuba, Nicaragua and Bolivia. The leftist Latin American bloc announced the creation of a development bank to finance joint projects.
    (AP, 6/7/07)

2007        Sep 4, Hurricane Felix roared ashore as a fearsome Category 5 storm, the first time in recorded history that two top-scale storms have made landfall in the same season. The storm hit near the swampy Nicaragua-Honduras border, home to thousands of stranded Miskito Indians dependent on canoes to make their way to safety. Some 332 people left dead or missing.
    (AP, 9/4/07)(Econ, 11/10/07, p.45)

2007        Sep 6, In Nicaragua the death toll from Hurricane Felix rose to more than 40 as rescuers searched the seas and civil defense workers reached isolated communities devastated by the Category 5 storm. Scores of others remained missing.
    (AP, 9/6/07)

2007        Sep 7, In Nicaragua rescuers scooped bodies from the open sea as the death toll from Hurricane Felix neared 100.
    (AP, 9/7/07)

2007        Sep 25, Nicaraguan President Daniel Ortega accused the US of imposing a worldwide dictatorship and defended the right of Iran and North Korea to pursue nuclear technology in a speech before the UN General Assembly meeting.
    (AP, 9/25/07)

2007        Oct 8, The UN's highest court in the Hague granted Honduras sovereignty over four Caribbean islands in its decades-old dispute with Nicaragua, and carved up rich fishing grounds and offshore exploration concessions for oil and gas. Nicaragua filed the case in 1999, saying international law gave it the right to "explore and exploit" natural resources, including possible oil reserves and fish stocks within a zone 200 miles from its coast. Honduras claimed that a ruling by the Spanish king in 1906 set a boundary projecting eastward along the 15th parallel from the mouth of the Coco River.
    (AP, 10/8/07)

2007        Dec 5, Six judges on Nicaragua's Supreme Court threw out a law meant to block neighborhood councils that will report directly to President Daniel Ortega. But other judges call the ruling itself illegal.
    (AP, 12/6/07)

2007        Dec 17, A Nicaraguan appeals court overturned the conviction of Eric Volz, a US man sentenced to 30 years in prison in the killing of his Nicaraguan girlfriend. Volz (28) was freed on Dec 21 and quickly left Nicaragua.
    (AP, 12/18/07)(AP, 12/22/07)

2008        Jan 26, Venezuelan President Hugo Chavez and allies Nicaragua, Bolivia and Cuba, members of the Bolivarian Alternative for the Americas (ALBA), launched a regional development bank intended to strengthen their alliance and promote independence from US-backed lenders like the World Bank as Chavez hosted a summit with ALBA leaders.
    (AP, 1/26/08)

2008        Mar 6, Nicaraguan President Daniel Ortega announced that he is breaking off relations with Colombia because of his country's opposition to the Colombian raid on a guerrilla base in Ecuador.
    (AP, 3/6/08)

2008        May 8, A US diplomatic cable, unveiled by WikiLeaks in 2010, described Nicaragua’s Pres. Ortega as a "willing follower" of Venezuelan President Hugo Chavez. The report said Ortega uses Venezuelan oil money to fund Sandinista campaigns and that "several unconfirmed reports indicate that Ortega will have as much as 500 million dollars at his disposal over the course of 2008.
    (AP, 12/8/10)

2008        May 30, Tropical Storm Alma weakened to a tropical depression after slamming into Nicaragua's coast the day before, forcing tens of thousand of people to evacuate and flooding low-lying areas before pushing into neighboring Honduras.
    (AP, 5/30/08)

2008        Jul 17, Six prominent members of Colombia’s largest rebel group FARC met this day with Nicaraguan President Daniel Ortega according to Nicaragua’s La Prensa newspaper. The members of the guerrilla organization arrived in Nicaragua in a Cessna airplane from Venezuela. Both Ortega and Venezuela denied the newspaper report.

2008        Sep 24, In Nicaragua Russia's ambassador to Managua said that his country will replace the Nicaraguan army's aging weaponry.
    (AP, 9/25/08)

2008        Nov 8, In Guatemala 15 bodies were found after a bus burned on an unpaved road in a mountain valley about 90 miles (140 kilometers) east of the capital, Guatemala City. The bus had originated in Nicaragua and all the bodies had been shot before being set on fire. On March 31, 2009, Investigators in Guatemala announced that a drug gang was responsible for the grisly killings of 15 Nicaraguans and a Dutch man aboard the bus.
    (AP, 11/10/08)(AP, 4/1/09)

2008        Nov 9, Nicaragua held municipal elections. In the months before the elections Mr. Ortega’s government maneuvered to disqualify two opposition parties from the ballot.
    (Econ, 11/15/08, p.45)

2008        Nov 10, In Nicaragua the ruling Sandinista party (FSLN) claimed victory in nationwide municipal elections, but rival parties said the early returns were misleading and the US government expressed concern about the vote.
    (AP, 11/11/08)(Econ, 5/1/10, p.38)

2008        Nov 18, Thousands of supporters of Nicaragua's leftist ruling party armed with rocks tried to block an opposition march on the capital to protest alleged vote fraud, setting off clashes that injured at least five people.
    (AP, 11/18/08)

2008        Nov 22, Nicaragua's opposition pressed on with a bid to cancel disputed elections despite a presidential decree declaring that effort unconstitutional.
    (AP, 11/23/08)

2008        Nov 25, The US said it will freeze about $64 million in anti-poverty aid to Nicaragua amid accusations that local elections were fraudulent.
    (AP, 11/26/08)

2008        Nov 29, Georgia said it is cutting diplomatic relations with Nicaragua after the Central American nation recognized the breakaway regions of South Ossetia and Abkhazia.
    (AP, 11/29/08)

2008        Nicaragua’s population was about 5.8 million with a third living in Managua.
    (Econ, 11/15/08, p.45)(www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/geos/nu.html)

2009        Jan 16, Nicaragua’s Supreme Court overturned former President Arnoldo Aleman's conviction and 20-year prison sentence for money laundering, ending a long-running legal saga that has been colored by Nicaragua's political landscape. Hours later Mr. Aleman’s Liberal Constitutional Party ended a filibuster in the National Assembly and voted to let the Sandinistas run the legislature’s affairs.
    (AP, 1/16/09)(Econ, 2/21/09, p.40)

2009        Mar 14, Nicaragua’s President Daniel Ortega accused the US of "taking bread" from the poor by holding back aid. The US said this week it will continue delaying some $64 million in development aid because of an election dispute.
    (AP, 3/14/09)

2009        Apr 16, Thailand’s former PM Thaksin was reported to have received a Nicaraguan passport.
    (WSJ, 4/16/09, p.A1)

2009        May 15, Nicaraguans awoke to find that the Central Bank, moving in the night as stealthily as the Tooth Fairy, had snuck a new legal tender into their economy while the markets were sound asleep.

2009        Jun 8, In Peru indigenous leader Alberto Pizango sought refuge at Nicaragua's embassy in Lima. Nicaragua granted Pizango political asylum but he remained at the embassy, awaiting Peru's agreement to allow him safe passage out of the country.
    (AP, 6/10/09)

2009        Jun 29, Presidents from around Latin America gathered in Nicaragua for meetings on how to resolve the coup in Honduras, the fist in Central America in at least 16 years, while the European Union offered to help start talks between the two sides. Security forces used tear gas and rubber bullets to scatter protesters, who hurled rocks and bottles as they retreated. At least 38 protesters were detained. Zelaya said that Organization of American States Secretary-General Jose Miguel Insulza had agreed to accompany him back to Honduras.
    (AP, 6/29/09)

2009        Jul 1, In Nicaragua Managua Mayor Alexis Arguello (b.1952), a three-time world boxing champion, was found dead at his home. The La Prensa newspaper reported he was found with a gunshot wound to the chest in an apparent suicide.
    (AP, 7/1/09)

2009        Jul 13, The UN’s highest court set travel rules for the Nicaraguan river that borders Costa Rica, affirming freedom for Costa Rican boats while upholding Nicaragua's right to regulate traffic.
    (AP, 7/13/09)

2009        Jul 24, Ousted Honduras President Manuel Zelaya stood on the edge of his country and called on his fellow Hondurans to resist the coup-installed government. He then quickly retreated back to Nicaraguan territory, saying he wanted to avoid bloodshed and give negotiations another try.
    (AP, 7/25/09)

2009        Jul 27, Amnesty Int’l. launched a campaign to repeal Nicaragua’s 2006 total ban on abortion.
    (SFC, 7/28/09, p.A4)

2009        Aug 2, It was reported that illegal blast fishing had become rampant in Nicaragua and was spreading across Central America’s Pacific coast.
    (SSFC, 8/2/09, p.A8)

2009        Aug 25, Nicaragua said it will reroute the San Juan River on the border with Costa Rica. The river has been at the center of a lengthy dispute between the two Central American countries. The UN’s highest court last month set travel rules for the San Juan River, affirming freedom for Costa Rican boats to navigate the waterway while upholding Nicaragua's right to regulate traffic. The judgment ended a four-year legal battle. Under an 1858 treaty, the entire river belongs to Nicaragua up to the Costa Rican bank, but Costa Rican ships have freedom of navigation for commerce.
    (AP, 8/26/09)

2009        Nov 5, Tropical Storm Ida grew to hurricane force just off Nicaragua's coast, forcing more than 2,000 people to flee their homes and knocking out power to some parts of the impoverished region.
    (AP, 11/5/09)

2010        Apr 13, Nicaragua removed and destroyed its last anti-personnel mine. On June 22 the Geneva International Center for Humanitarian Demining, or GICHD, said Nicaragua has become the last country in Central America to clear its territory of the banned weapon.
    (AP, 6/22/10)

2010        Apr 14, In Nicaragua the opposition Liberal Constitutionalist party accused President Daniel Ortega of usurping power by issuing a decree extending the terms of two Supreme Court justices whose terms have ended.
    (AP, 4/14/10)

2010        May 5, The US federal government said it will allow people from Nicaragua, El Salvador and Honduras to stay another 18 months in the US with temporary legal status. A new expiration date was set for Jan 5, 2012. The temporary legal status has been extended repeatedly since Hurricane Mitch devastated the region in 1998.
    (AP, 5/5/10)

2010        May 17, Nicaragua’s navy chief, Capt. Roger Gonzalez Diaz, said Mexico's La Familia cartel is moving heavily into Central America and dominates much of the drug trade through the region. He said officials would take tough measures to prevent the trade.
    (AP, 5/18/10)

2010        Jun 16, Ruben Dario Granda, the brother of a top Colombian guerrilla leader, arrived in Managua, where president Daniel Ortega had granted him political asylum earlier this month. Granda is the brother of Rodrigo Granda, known as the "foreign minister" of the Revolutionary Armed Forces of Colombia, or FARC.
    (AP, 6/17/10)

2010        Jul 2, A Panamanian court dropped money laundering charges against former Nicaraguan President Arnoldo Aleman. The court argued the charges against Aleman were similar to charges he has faced in Nicaragua.
    (AP, 7/9/10)

2010        Jul 26, In Nicaragua William Adolfo Cortez of Texas and his wife Jane, an American couple wanted in Panama in the March 21 death of a US woman, were arrested by the Nicaraguan army at the border with Costa Rica.
    (AP, 7/28/10)

2010        Aug 11, Nicaraguan Supreme Court justices, who support President Daniel Ortega, picked seven lawyers from Ortega's Sandinista party to replace opposition judges who have been boycotting court sessions.
    (AP, 8/11/10)

2010        Sep 13, Nicaragua celebrated a special national holiday called by the Sandinista Party. As the country was on vacation the party ordered the printing of a rewritten (but bogus) constitution.
    (Econ, 11/13/10, p.45)(http://tinyurl.com/29lqnzq)

2010        Sep 22, In NYC Cesar Mercado (34), who had worked at the Nicaraguan consulate as acting consul general, was found dead in his apartment in the Bronx by the driver who went to pick him up to attend the meeting. On Oct 29 a medical examiner’s report said he had  committed suicide.
    (AP, 9/24/10)(AP, 10/29/10)

2010        Sep 25, Tropical Storm Matthew roared over Central America, dumping heavy rains on disaster-prone parts of Honduras and Nicaragua and leading to the evacuation of thousands amid fears of flooding and mudslides.
    (AP, 9/25/10)

2010        Oct 19, Nicaragua health officials reported 17 deaths and 600 suspected cases of leptospirosis in the past month. Most of the cases were in Leon and Chinandega.

2010        Oct 22, Costa Rica sent some 70 police reinforcements to the border area after receiving reports of Nicaraguan soliders on its soil. This was one day after Costa Rica formally complained to Nicaragua's ambassador about the dredging in the San Juan River. Nicaragua's army chief of staff, Gen. Julio Aviles, later said the soldiers were on the Nicaraguan side of the border as part of an anti-drug operation.
    (AP, 11/2/10)

2010        Nov 11, In Nicaragua Jason Puracal, a former American Peace Corp worker, was working in his San Juan del Sur real estate office when National Police agents burst in without a warrant. On Aug 29, 2011, Judge Kriguer Alberto Artola Narvaez ruled that Puracal was guilty of money laundering, and said in a sentencing document that the American's bank accounts had registered deposits and withdrawals of large sums of money. His case was on appeal.
    (AP, 9/6/12)

2010        Nov 13, Costa Rica boasted of a "diplomatic victory" in its border spat with Nicaragua after the Organization of American States approved a resolution calling for removal of soldiers and security forces from a disputed area along the San Juan River.
    (AP, 11/13/10)

2010        In Nicaragua the income per head was about $2,600, the lowest in Central America.
    (Econ, 5/1/10, p.38)

2011        Jan 11, Costa Rica accused Nicaragua of flagrantly breaching international law by putting troops on disputed land along the river that forms the two nations' border and asked the highest U.N. court to order their immediate withdrawal.
    (AP, 1/11/11)

2011        Jan 13, Nicaragua suspended three federal judges and put them under investigation for ordering the release of 10 alleged drug traffickers.
    (AP, 1/13/11)

2011        Feb 12, In Nicaragua Jose Gabriel Garmendia, a former Contra rebel, was killed by the Nicaraguan army, which described him as a common criminal. He had fought Nicaragua's government in the 1980s and launched another uprising against President Daniel Ortega because of Ortega's plans to seek re-election.
    (AP, 9/24/11)

2011        Mar 8, The International Court of Justice ordered both Costa Rica and Nicaragua to keep all military, police and civilian personnel out of a disputed border region along the San Juan river that separates them.
    (AP, 3/8/11)

2011        Apr 2, In Nicaragua at least four police officers were injured in clashes as some 1000 demonstrators protested President Daniel Ortega's bid to win re-election.
    (AP, 4/3/11)

2011        Jun 22, In Guatemala the World Bank unveiled a billion-dollar plan to fund security measures in Central America, amid other hundred-million-dollar pledges from donors bidding to cut a wave of drug gang-related violence sweeping the region. The announcement came as leaders of Belize, Costa Rica, El Salvador, Guatemala, Honduras, Nicaragua, and Panama attended the Central American Security Conference aiming to curb crime fueled by a spillover from Mexico's war on drug cartels.
    (AFP, 6/22/11)

2011        Aug 24, In Nicaragua Catholic priest Marlon de Jesus Garcia was laid to rest. His body was found earlier this week in La Concepcion, a city south of Managua. Police said he died of asphyxiation and were treating the investigation as a homicide case. The priest was a critic of the government.
    (AP, 8/24/11)

2011        Aug, In Nicaragua Jason Puracal, a US citizen, was convicted on drug and money-laundering and sentenced to 22 years in prison. He was released from prison on Sep 13, 2102, after charges against him were vacated.
    (AP, 9/14/12)

2011        Oct 14, Heavy rains generated by a low-pressure system hammered Central America for a third day. Mudslides and swollen rivers have already killed 36 people. At least 21 people have been killed in Guatemala, 6 in Honduras, and 4 in Nicaragua.
    (AP, 10/14/11)

2011        Oct 20, Heavy rains generated by a low-pressure system hammered Central America for 10 days. Mudslides and swollen rivers killed at least 105 people including 38 in Guatemala, 34 in El Salvador, 15 in Honduras, 13 in Nicaragua and 5 in Costa Rica.
    (AP, 10/20/11)

2011        Nov 6, Nicaragua held presidential elections. On Nov 8 Daniel Ortega was declared the winner as he led with 63% of the votes, compared with 31% for his nearest challenger, Fabio Gadea. International election observers reported problems with access to voting stations.
    (AP, 11/7/11)(AP, 11/8/11)

2011        Nov 8, In Nicaragua two clashes among rival political groups killed four people and injured 12 following the Nov 6 presidential election.
    (AP, 11/10/11)

2012        Jan 12, In Honduras a decomposed, bullet-riddled body was found near the border with Nicaragua. The body of Santos Guadalupe Borge was soon identified as the purported leader of a shadowy Nicaraguan resistance group.
    (AP, 1/13/12)

2012        Feb 11, It was reported that a mysterious epidemic is devastating the Pacific coast of Central America, killing more than 24,000 people in El Salvador and Nicaragua since 2000 and striking thousands of others with chronic kidney disease at rates unseen virtually anywhere else. Scientists say they have received reports of the phenomenon as far north as southern Mexico and as far south as Panama. Researchers suspected chronic dehydration. Elsy Brizuela, a doctor who works with an El Salvadoran project to treat workers and research the epidemic, discounts the dehydration theory and insists "the common factor is exposure to herbicides and poisons." In Nicaragua, the number of annual deaths from chronic kidney disease more than doubled in a decade, from 466 in 2000 to 1,047 in 2010. In El Salvador there was a similar jump, from 1,282 in 2000 to 2,181 in 2010.
    (AP, 2/11/12)

2012        Mar 31, In Nicaragua businessman Henry Farinas and six others were accused of trafficking, money laundering and ties to organized crime. Farinas was the apparent target of an attack that claimed the life of Argentine folk singer Facundo Cabral last year.
    (AP, 3/31/12)

2012        Apr 30, Tomas Borge Martinez (81), the last surviving founder of Nicaragua’s Sandinista front, died in Managua.
    (SFC, 5/2/12, p.A4)

2012        Jun 2, In Nicaragua Adolfo Calero (b.1931), one of the principal leaders of the US-backed Contra rebels, died. Calero was responsible for managing the bank accounts into which money was deposited and then used to buy supplies and arms as the Contras battled Nicaragua's Sandinista government in the 1980s.
    (AP, 6/3/12)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Adolfo_Calero)

2012        Jun 5, Bolivia, Ecuador, Nicaragua and Venezuela said they were pulling out of the Inter-American Treaty of Reciprocal Assistance during an annual meeting of the Organization of American States (OAS) in Bolivia.
    (SFC, 6/6/12, p.A2) 

2012        Aug 20, Nicaraguan police stopped 6 vans driven by people posing as members of a Mexican television news crew. Police found $9.2 million in smuggled cash and 18 people were detained.
    (AP, 8/24/12)(AP, 8/31/12)

2012        Sep 8, In Nicaragua the San Cristobal volcano spewed out a column of ash and gas 2½ miles high, leading authorities to evacuate about 3,000 people from nine communities around the country's tallest mountain.
    (AP, 9/8/12)

2012        Nov 5, Nicaragua released election results indicating that the ruling Sandinista Front has won at least 134 of 153 mayoral races.
    (SFC, 11/6/12, p.A2)

2012        Nov 19, The International Court of Justice ruled that a group of tiny islands in the western Caribbean belongs to Colombia, but also granted Nicaragua control of a large swath of the surrounding sea and seabed that could hold oil reserves. The ICJ awarded Nicaragua fishing and oil rights in waters that Colombians have considered theirs since 1928.
    (AP, 11/20/12)(Econ, 11/9/13, p.43)

2012        Nov 27, Colombia withdrew from a 1948 treaty th bound it to the UN in response to the Nov 19 by the ICJ granting Nicaragua control of a large swath of sea. During the 1948 Conference of American States, nations in the region signed the "Bogota Pact," which required signatories to find peaceful solutions to conflicts.
    (SFC, 11/29/12, p.A2)

2013        Jan 18, A Nicaraguan judge sentenced 18 Mexicans who posed last August as members of a televison crew to 30 years in prison for drug trafficking and money laundering.
    (SFC, 1/19/13, p.A2)

2013        Apr 20, Police in Nicaragua detained Eric Justin Toth, a former US school teacher, who was on the FBI's 10 most-wanted fugitives as a suspect in a child pornography investigation.
    (AP, 4/23/13)

2013        Jun 5, Nicaragua’s National Assembly president said a concession to build a canal linking the Pacific Ocean and Caribbean Sea will be awarded to a Chinese company. The government planned to grant the Chinese company a concession for 100 years.
    (AP, 6/5/13)

2013        Jun 13, Nicaragua’s Congress voted to give Wang Jing the concession to build a canal across the country. His HK Nicaragua Canal Development Investment Co. (HKND) still had to study whether the idea is truly economically viable. The vote gave his Hong Kong-based company 50 years of exclusive rights to study the plan and build and operate a canal in exchange for Nicaragua receiving a minority share of any profits.
    (AP, 6/13/13)(Econ, 10/5/13, p.40)

2013        Jun 21, The Nicaraguan army said air force Chief of Staff Col. Manuel Lopez was among 10 air force officials killed in a helicopter crash near Lake Managua.
    (SFC, 6/21/13, p.A2)

2013        Jul 5, Nicolas Maduro of Venezuela and Daniel Ortega of Nicaragua made offers of asylum for NSA leaker Edward Snowden during separate speeches in their home countries.
    (AP, 7/6/13)

2013        Sep 16, Nicaragua’s government petitioned the Int’l. Court of Justice to define the maritime border between Nicaragua and Colombia and to include an eastward extension of its continental shelf deep into the Caribbean. Colombia has refused to recognize a November ruling by the court and called Nicaragua’s claims excessive.
    (SFC, 9/21/13, p.A4)

2013        Dec 4, Nicaragua police said 6 suspected robbers and 4 police officers were killed in a shootout in a remote rural part of the northwest.
    (Reuters, 12/4/13)

2014        Jan 28, Nicaraguan lawmakers approved constitutional changes that would allow Pres. Daniel Ortega to be re-elected indefinitely, a move that his critics say is designed to keep the Sandinista leader in power for life.
    (AP, 1/28/14)

2014        May 2, Colombia's constitutional court ruled that applying a decision by the International Court of Justice (ICJ) that granted Nicaragua a disputed area of Caribbean waters could not take effect without a treaty between the countries.
    (Reuters, 5/2/14)

2014        Jul 9, Nicaragua’s government and HKND Group of Hong Kong unveiled the route for a proposed $40 billion canal to compete with the Panama Canal.Construction was expected to start this December.
    (SFC, 7/10/14, p.A6)

2014        Jul 12, Russia’s President Vladimir Putin made a surprise stop in Nicaragua after visiting Cuba. His six-day trip will also take him to Argentina and Brazil, where he will take part in a summit of the BRICS group of emerging countries.
    (AFP, 7/12/14)

2014        Jul 20, In Nicaragua attacks on buses carrying supporters of the ruling Sandinista Liberation Front left 5 people dead and 28 wounded. Three men were soon charged with murder and organized crime.
    (http://tinyurl.com/p6uqf6u)(SFC, 7/25/14, p.A2)

2014        Aug 28, In Nicaragua two miners escaped a cave-in at an unlicensed gold mine in Bonanza. 20 miners were brought out the next day and rescuers dug away to free five more still trapped.
    (SSFC, 8/31/14, p.A2)

2014        Dec 9, The MN Wayward Wind, a lobster boat with 50 people onboard, capsized in the Caribbean off the coast of Nicaragua. At least 18 remained missing.
    (AP, 12/13/14)

2014        Dec 10, In Nicaragua several thousand people marched in Managua to protest a planned $50 billion interoceanic canal. Groundbreaking was scheduled for Dec 22.
    (SFC, 12/11/14, p.A2)

2014        Dec 22, Nicaraguan officials and a Chinese company broke ground on a $50 billion transoceanic waterway predicted to rival the Panama Canal.
    (AP, 12/23/14)

2014        Dec 24, Nicaragua’s national police special forces and soldiers fired tear gas and rubber bullets to clear a roadblock erected by residents in southern Nicaragua to protest a proposed transoceanic canal. Police denied that two demonstrators were killed in a crackdown.
    (AP, 12/24/14)(AFP, 12/25/14)

2015        Aug 16, In Nicaragua 5 police officers were killed in the south of the country after being attacked by a criminal group trying to free a detained member in Punta Gorda.
    (Reuters, 8/17/15)

2015        Nov 15, Nicaragua said thousands of Cubans forced their way into its territory from Costa Rica, accusing its southern neighbor of "deliberately and irresponsibly" flooding it with US-bound migrants.
    (AFP, 11/16/15)

2015        Nov 27, Nicaragua's military said all clandestine airfields used by cartels to run drugs to the United States have been destroyed and steps taken to make sure they would not reopen.
    (AFP, 11/27/15)

2015        Dec 4, Costa Rica said it has asked Belize to accept nearly 3,000 Cuban migrants who have been stuck at the Costa Rican border with Nicaragua for weeks.
    (AP, 12/4/15)

2015        Dec 16, The UN’s highest court ruled that Nicaragua violated Costa Rica’s territorial sovereignty by establishing a military base and digging channels on a small chunk of land near the mouth of the San Juan River and ordered Managua to pay compensation.
    (SFC, 12/17/15, p.A2)

2016        Jan 23, The Reina del Caribe tourist boat capsized off the coast of Nicaragua killing 13 passengers, all Costa Rican nationals.
    (SFC, 1/25/16, p.A2)

2016        Feb 22, Nicaragua said it has released more than 8,000 convicts on parole and sent 94 foreigners to finish sentences in their home countries since 2014, easing overcrowding in prisons.
    (AFP, 2/22/16)

2016        Apr 22, Thousands of Nicaraguans marched to oppose a planned interoceanic canal that critics say threatens to displace rural communities and damage the environment. The government has calculated that it will cost $50 billion and create 50,000 direct jobs.
    (AP, 4/23/16)

2016        Jul 29, Nicaragua's top electoral authority decimated the country's political opposition by unseating practically all of its remaining lawmakers in congress as President Daniel Ortega prepares to seek a third term.
    (AP, 7/30/16)

2016        Aug 17, In Nicaragua a fire began when one of four huge fuel tanks exploded at the Puma Energy plant in the port of Puerto Sandino, some 70 km (40 miles) northwest of Managua. A second tank ignited he next day. The oil spilled contaminated sensitive nearby coastal habitat.
    (AFP, 8/20/16)

2016        Aug 26, Nicaraguan officials said the first baby with the birth defect of microcephaly has been born to a mother infected with the Zika virus.
    (AP, 8/27/16)

2016        Nov 6, Nicaragua held elections to select their president and lawmakers in their National Assembly. Pres. Ortega ran with his wife, Rosario Murillo, as his vice presidential candidate in a race against five lesser-known candidates. Ortega overwhelmingly won re-election to a third consecutive term. The opposition called the voting a farce.
    (AFP, 11/6/16)(AP, 11/7/16)

2016        Nov 24, Hurricane Otto hit Nicaragua and then Costa Rica where it left nine people dead and caused millions of dollars of damage before exiting into the Pacific.
    (Reuters, 11/25/16)

2016        Former El Salvador Pres. Mauricio Funes fled to Nicaragua where he received political asylum.
    (SFC, 7/25/20, p.A2)

2017        Apr 22, Police in Nicaragua blocked thousands of farmers and rural residents from holding a march against a government plan to build a canal across the country, potentially carving up their land.
    (AFP, 4/22/17)

2017        Aug 6, In southern Nigeria at least eight people were killed and 18 others critically wounded after gunmen attacked St. Philip Catholic Church in Anambra state.
    (AP, 8/6/17)

2017        Oct 5, Tropical Storm Nate was blamed for at least 22 deaths in Central America as it dumped rain across the region. The death toll soon climbed to at least 16 in Nicaragua, 10 in Costa Rica, two in Honduras and two in El Salvador.
    (SFC, 10/6/17, p.A4)(AFP, 10/7/17)(Reuters, 10/8/17)

2017        Nov 16, Spain’s Education and Culture Minister Inigo Mendez de Vigo announced that Nicaraguan author and former politician Sergio Ramirez Mercado has won the 2017 Cervantes Prize, the Spanish-speaking world's highest literary honor.
    (AP, 11/16/17)

2018        Feb 2, The UN's top court on sided largely with Costa Rica in a decade-old border dispute, ordering Nicaragua to remove a military camp from disputed territory. The International Court of Justice at The Hague laid down definitive maritime boundaries between Costa Rica and Nicaragua in the Caribbean Sea and Pacific Ocean and a small land boundary in a remote, disputed wetland.
    (Reuters, 2/2/18)(AP, 2/2/18)

2018        Apr 19, In Nicaragua a police officer, protester, and pro-government activist were killed in clashes over a planned social security reform. The protests started after the government increased payroll taxes and changed pensions to try to shore up Nicaragua's troubled social security system. The government ordered five independent TV channels that have been covering the unrest off the air.
    (AP, 4/20/18)

2018        Apr 20, Nicaragua's government said violent protests against a proposed change to the pension system have left at least 10 people dead over two days.
    (AFP, 4/21/18)

2018        Apr 21, In Nicaragua two university student protesters were killed in clashes over a social security reform pushed by President Daniel Ortega's government. Journalist Angel Gahona was shot dead while filming a confrontation between demonstrators and the police, amid a wave of protests against the government which have left at least 25 people dead over the last four days.
    (AP, 4/21/18)(AFP, 4/22/18)(AP, 4/22/18)

2018        Apr 22, Nicaragua's Pres. Daniel Ortega sought to placate popular fury, announcing he was revoking the pension reform plan that would have increased both employer and employee contributions and reduced benefits, in an IMF-backed bid to cap a rising $76 million deficit at the Nicaraguan Social Security Institute (INSS).
    (AFP, 4/23/18)

2018        Apr 23, The United States ordered relatives of government employees out of Nicaragua and curtailed services at its embassy, citing civil unrest including violent protests, rioting and looting.
    (Reuters, 4/23/18)

2018        Apr 24, The United Nations called on Nicaragua to investigate a crackdown on protests that have left at least 27 dead.
    (AFP, 4/24/18)

2018        Apr 28, Thousands of Nicaraguans marched peacefully through the capital Managua in a mass demonstration to demand justice following the violent suppression of a wave of protests that left 43 people dead.
    (AFP, 4/28/18)

2018        May 12, In Nicaragua protesters opposed to President Daniel Ortega's government clashed with riot police and Sandinista Youth groups in cities across the country, with demonstrators burning tires and setting up barricades in violence that left two people dead and dozens injured. Nicaragua's army called for an end to violence in the country and distanced itself from President Daniel Ortega, saying it was not repressing anyone for taking part in anti-government protests.
    (AP, 5/13/18)(AFP, 5/13/18)

2018        May 26, In Nicaragua hundreds of protesters in the north, center and south dug in, blocking roads as at least eight more people were killed in a 24-hour period. Demonstrators have voiced frustration over corruption, the autocratic style of Ortega and Murillo, limited options to change the country's politics in elections, and the president's control over Congress, the courts, the military and the electoral board.
    (AFP, 5/26/18)

2018        May 30, In Nicaragua at least 16 people were killed as they marched in Managua. Evidence was later reported that sharpshooters positioned in the national baseball stadium and other buildings fired on the crowd during the march led by mothers of those killed in the violence.
    (AFP, 6/4/18)   

2018        Jun 2, Nicaraguan protesters fired homemade mortars to fend off a police crackdown in new unrest that left at least six people dead, including a US citizen, as the opposition renewed calls for President Daniel Ortega's resignation.
    (AFP, 6/2/18)

2018        Jun 3, In Nicaragua terror reigned in Masaya this weekend as residents armed with home-made mortars struggled to fight back against riot police and pro-government gangs they accuse of pillaging and burning the city. residents said snipers have been picking off people one by one from positions around the city center.
    (AFP, 6/4/18)
2018        Jun 3, In Nicaragua Cardinal emeritus Miguel Obando y Bravo (92), who clashed with Sandinista leaders and later reconciled with them, died.
    (AP, 6/3/18)

2018        Jun 9, In Nicaragua firearm bursts rang out in Masaya, home to 100,000 people, where riots that started midday grew increasingly violent as masked demonstrators wielding homemade mortars and slingshots fought to fend off armed security forces. One man was reported killed by sniper fire and at least two people died in violent protests overnight. Demonstrations demanding President Daniel Ortega's ouster have raged since April 18. The latest deaths came after the Nicaraguan Center for Human Rights (CENIDH) had raised to 137 the death toll.
    (AP, 6/9/18)

2018        Jun 15, The Nicaraguan government and civic groups agreed to halt all violence, in a major step to end two months of political unrest that has left 170 dead and rocked the government of President Daniel Ortega.
    (Reuters, 6/15/18)

2018        Jun 16, In Nicaragua eight people died in a shoot-out and fire that shattered a truce struck hours earlier between President Daniel Ortega and protesters. Civic leaders condemned the violence while vowing to continue talks with the government.
    (Reuters, 6/16/18)

2018        Jun 19, In Nicaragua three people were shot dead in the city of Masaya as security forces and allied groups tried to regain control of the area.
    (SFC, 6/20/18, p.A2)

2018        Jun 23, In Nicaragua at least eight people including a baby were reported killed when pro-government forces clashed with opponents in Managua and Masaya.
    (AFP, 6/24/18)

2018        Jun 30, In Nicaragua at least two demonstrators were killed and 11 others wounded, as thousands of demonstrators marched against President Daniel Ortega across the Central American country.
    (AFP, 7/1/18)

2018        Jul 12, In Nicaragua four police officers and a protester died in Morrito as clashes erupted between opposition activists and government forces and their paramilitary allies.
    (AFP, 7/13/18)

2018        Jul 13, In Nicaragua a 24-hour opposition-called strike began against the government of President Daniel Ortega.
    (AFP, 7/13/18)

2018        Jul 14, In Nicaragua government forces shot dead two young men at a protest site in a church on the third day of nationwide demonstrations against Pres. Daniel Ortega. Three months of unrest have left around 274 people dead.
    (AFP, 7/14/18)

2018        Jul 15, In Nicaragua at least ten people were shot dead as police and paramilitary groups attacked roadblocks set up by anti-government demonstrators demanding the resignation of Pres. Daniel Ortega.
    (SFC, 7/16/18, p.A2)

2018        Jul 17, The UN human rights office said police and authorities in Nicaragua have killed and imprisoned people without due process and committed torture. It called for an end to violence in which an estimated 280 people have died since April.
    (Reuters, 7/17/18)

2018        Jul 19, Nicaragua's President Daniel Ortega prepared to celebrate the anniversary of the leftwing revolution that first brought him to power in 1979, while cracking down on popular unrest demanding his ouster.
    (AFP, 7/19/18)

2018        Jul 28, Thousands of Nicaraguans marched through Managua in a show of support for the country's bishops whom President Daniel Ortega has accused of aiding an attempted "coup" against him. Simultaneous marches of supporters and opponents of Ortega's government passed through the streets of Managua without incident.
    (AFP, 7/28/18)(AP, 7/28/18)

2018        Aug 11, In Nicaragua a supporter of Pres. Daniel Ortega was shot to death in the northern city of Matagalpa as anti-government protesters marched past the city hall. The victim was identified as Lenin Mendiola, the son of a longtime leader of the ruling Sandinista Front. Managua was the scene of rival marches for and against Ortega and his wife Rosario Murillo.
    (AP, 8/12/18)

2018        Aug 29, The UN reported that Nicaragua's government turned a blind eye while armed mobs rounded up protesters, some of whom were later raped with rifles and tortured in detention. Managua rejected the report as biased.
    (Reuters, 8/29/18)

2018        Aug 30, The government of Nicaraguan President Daniel Ortega ended a United Nations human rights team visit a day after the body published a report blaming it for the violent repression of opposition protests.
    (AP, 8/31/18)

2018        Sep 1, The United Nations human rights mission left Nicaragua after being ordered out by a government it criticized over its heavy-handed response to anti-regime protests.
    (AFP, 9/1/18)

2018        Sep 7, In Nicaragua many shops, banks and gas stations were closed in a 24-hour strike called by the opposition in protest at "political prisoners" and the rule of President Daniel Ortega's government.
    (AFP, 9/7/18)

2018        Dec 14, Nicaraguan authorities said they had seized the assets of 10 blacklisted organizations, dealing another blow to civil society after months of protests against President Daniel Ortega that were met with a heavy-handed crackdown.
    (Reuters, 12/14/18)
2018        Dec 14, In Nicaragua nine police officers armed with rifles entered the offices of an opposition daily late today and started pushing people, beating others and making fun of reporters after journalist Carlos Fernando Chamorro challenged them to take on his media outlet without a search warrant in his online daily Confidencial and news broadcasts Esta Semana and Esta Noche.
    (AFP, 12/15/18)

2018        Dec 15, Nicaraguan police beat at least seven journalists with batons, including one of the country's best known editors, in an escalating crackdown on independent media in the aftermath of protests against President Daniel Ortega.
    (Reuters, 12/15/18)

2018        Dec 21, Nicaraguan authorities late today raided the offices of a critical television station and shut it down, a week after raiding the offices of non-governmental groups and a newspaper. 100% Noticias station director Miguel Mora was detained.
    (AP, 12/21/18)

2018        Nicaragua's ruling regime killed as many as 450 people this years in putting down anti-government protests that began in April.
    (Econ., 12/12/20, p.36)

2019        Feb 27, The government of Nicaragua released dozens of people who had been arrested in last year's crackdown on street protests. Rights groups have estimated that at least 770 people have been arrested in relation to the protests that broke out last April.
    (SFC, 2/28/19, p.A2)

2019        Mar 5, It was announced that Nicaraguan Pres. Daniel Ortega's leftist government and the opposition have agreed a "roadmap" for extended peace talks to resolve 10 months of crisis sparked by a deadly crackdown on dissent in which hundreds of people were killed.
    (AFP, 3/6/19)

2019        Mar 15, Nicaragua released 50 prisoners held for taking part in anti-government protests, authorities said, giving a fresh impetus to peace talks on ending the country's long running political crisis.
    (AFP, 3/15/19)

2019        Mar 16, In Nicaragua riot police used tear gas against opposition demonstrators and reporters, temporarily detaining over a hundred people after they attempted to protest for the release of opponents to President Daniel Ortega's government.
    (AFP, 3/17/19)

2019        Mar 29, The government of Nicaragua pledged to restore protest and press freedom rights while disarming paramilitaries under a deal reached today, after a year-long political upheaval.
    (AFP, 3/30/19)

2019        Mar 30, In Nicaragua at least four people were hurt and 10 detained during a demonstration calling for the release of prisoners, a day after President Daniel Ortega's government and the opposition reached an agreement to restore protest and press freedom rights while disarming paramilitaries.
    (AFP, 3/31/19)

2019        Apr 4, In Geneva Vilma Nunez, a leading Nicaraguan human rights defender, said that it was impossible to negotiate with President Daniel Ortega, after a deadline passed in talks to resolve the country's deadly political crisis.
    (AP, 4/4/19)

2019        Apr 19, In Nicaragua Good Friday religious processions in Managua took on a political tone as people seized a rare opportunity to renew protests against the government of President Daniel Ortega.
    (AP, 4/20/19)

2019        May 16, In Nicaragua Eddy Montes Praslin, a naturalized US citizen who had served in the Navy, was shot dead in prison. Montes had returned to Nicaragua where he fought for a change in government. Officials said Montes died after he and others tried to snatch a gun from a guard while the International Red Cross was visiting the prison. 17 others were wounded in the disturbance.
    (Reuters, 5/17/19)(AP, 5/18/19)

2019        Jun 8, Nicaragua's Congress approved a sweeping amnesty law that will offer protection to police and others who took part in a violent clampdown on anti-government protesters over the past year.
    (Reuters, 6/8/19)

2019        Jun 10, Nicaragua's government released 50 prisoners and said it was "preparing for the release" of others amid a broader move to set free people the opposition considers political prisoners under an agreement meant to ease the country's political standoff.
    (AP, 6/11/19)

2019        Jun 11, Nicaraguan authorities released journalists Miguel Mora y Lucía Pineda Ubau who were jailed during a crackdown on protests against President Daniel Ortega.
    (AP, 6/11/19)

2019        Jun 19, Human Rights Watch called on governments in the Americas and Europe to impose sanctions on Nicaraguan President Daniel Ortega and at least five high-level security officials for a crackdown on protests that began in April 2018.
    (AP, 6/19/19)

2019        Jun 21, The Trump administration and Canada's government imposed sanctions on some Nicaraguan officials, tying them to a tough crackdown on street demonstrations that began in the Central American country in April 2018.
    (AP, 6/21/19)

2019        Aug 9, The World Food Program (WFP) announced a plan to nearly quadruple the number of people to receive food assistance in El Salvador, Guatemala, Honduras, and Nicaragua due to five years of drought. The agency planned assistance to some 700,000, up from 160,000 helped already this year.
    (SFC, 8/10/19, p.A2)

2019        Sep 23, Nicaraguan Pres. Daniel Ortega has accused the US Embassy and international organizations of fueling 1½ years of protests against his government.
    (AP, 9/24/19)

2019        Nov 1, The US Department of Homeland Security announced it is extending temporary protected status coverage for migrants from El Salvador, Haiti, Honduras, Nepal, Nicaragua and Sudan through Jan. 4, 2021.
    (AP, 11/1/19)

2019        Nov 2, It was reported that Orlando Tercero (23), accused of killing Haley Anderson (22), a nursing student at SUNY Binghamton in March, 2018, has been found guilty by a court in Nicaragua, to which he fled after the woman's murder.
    (ABC News, 11/2/19)

2019        Nov 15, A Nicaraguan judge sentenced a man to 30 years behind bars in the killing of a young nursing student in upstate New York. Authorities said Orlando Tercero strangled Haley Anderson (22) at his off-campus residence in Binghamton, New York, in March 2018 and then fled to Nicaragua.
    (AP, 11/16/19)   

2019        Nov 18, Nicaraguan authorities said 16 anti-government protesters have been accused of arms trafficking. They included student protesters such as Nicaraguan and Belgian national Amaya Coppens, who has been arrested previously. The Roman Catholic Church in Nicaragua accused groups linked to the government of beating a priest and violently taking control of the cathedral.
    (Reuters, 11/19/19)

2020        Mar 1, In Nicaragua Ernesto Cardenal (95), the renowned poet and Roman Catholic cleric who became a symbol of revolutionary verse in Nicaragua and around Latin America, died. His 1984 suspension from the priesthood by St. John Paul II lasted over three decades.
    (AP, 3/1/20)(Econ., 3/7/20, p.82)

2020        Apr 9, It was reported that international health officials are warning that the Nicaraguan government’s perplexing weekslong refusal to take measures to control the spread of the new coronavirus is heightening the risk of an epidemic in Central America even as neighboring countries take tough action.
    (AP, 4/9/20)

2020        May 11, In Nicaragua doctors and family members of apparent coronavirus victims say, the government has gone from denying the disease’s presence in the country to actively trying to conceal its spread. The government says the country has seen 16 coronavirus cases and five deaths since its first case was diagnosed.
    (AP, 5/11/20)

2020        May 22, The US Treasury imposed sanctions on Julio Cesar Aviles Castillo and Ivan Adolfo Acosta Montalvan, two high-ranking Nicaraguan officials, for their support of government crackdowns on protesters.
    (https://home.treasury.gov/news/press-releases/sm1019)(SSFC, 5/24/20, p.A4)

2020        Jun 16, Edén Pastora (83), Nicaraguan revolutionary, died.
    (AP, 6/16/20)

2020        Jun 19, The UN Human Rights Council condemned what it called serious human rights violations in Nicaragua and urged President Daniel Ortega to cease such tactics.
    (AP, 6/19/20)

2020        Oct 1, In Sweden prominent Belarus opposition figure Ales Bialiatski (58) and imprisoned Iranian human rights lawyer Nasrin Sotoudeh (57) were awarded the Right Livelihood Award, sometimes referred to as the “Alternative Nobel," together with US activist Bryan Stevenson (60) and Nicaraguan activist Lottie Cunningham Wren (61).
    (AP, 10/1/20)

2020        Oct 16, Nicaragua's National Assembly approved a law that would give the government of Pres. Daniel Ortega more power to monitor people, businesses and organizations that receive funding from abroad.
    (SFC, 10/17/20, p.A2)

2020        Nov 3, In Nicaragua Hurricane Eta came ashore south of Bilwi after stalling just off the coast for hours.
    (AP, 11/4/20)

2020        Nov 4, In Nicaragua floodwaters from Tropical Storm Eta, isolated already remote communities and set off deadly landslides that killed at least three people.
    (AP, 11/4/20)

2020        Nov 16, Hurricane Iota, the 13th of the Atlantic season, made landfall in northeastern Nicaragua at 10:40 p.m. Eastern time as a Category 4 storm, with wind speeds of up to about 155 miles per hour.
    (SFC, 11/16/20, p.A2)(NY Times, 11/17/20)

2020        Nov 18, In Nicaragua the death toll from Hurricane Iota rose to 16 people.
    (SFC, 11/19/20, p.A4)

2020        Dec 4, In southern Nicaragua an unregulated gold mine collapsed killing two miners and trapping as many as 13 others.
    (SSFC, 12/6/20, p.A5)

2021        Feb 17, In Nicaragua 76 legislators approved a new National Minsitry for Extraterrestrial Space Affairs, The Moon and Other Celestial Bodies. 15 opposition legislators abstained.
    (SSFC, 2/21/21, p.A4)

2021        Jun 5, Police in Nicaragua detained Arturo Cruz Sequeira, another leading opposition politician and potential presidential candidate, the latest in a series of moves by President Daniel Ortega that prevent candidates from running against him in his third consecutive re-election bid.
    (AP, 6/5/21)

2021        Jun 9, It was reported that Nicaraguan police have detained five prominent opposition figures in two days, accelerating a slide toward one-party rule.
    (NY Times, 6/9/21)
2021        Jun 9, The US Treasury Dept. slapped sanctions on the daughter of Nicaragua's Pres. Daniel Ortega and a top army official, a day after the arrests of two more potential opposition candidates for the Nov. 7 presidential elections.
    (SFC, 6/10/21, p.A4)

2021        Jun 15, Nicaragua's police arrested Luis Rivas Anduray, the general manager of Banco de Produccion SA. He was the 16th person arrested since late May for allegedly committing crimes against the state. Most of the others were presidential candidates or opposition party leaders.
    (SFC, 6/17/21, p.A4)

2021        Jun 20, Nicaraguan police arrested journalist Miguel Mora late today for alleged crimes against the state, similar to the announced charges against others arrested during the past month. Mora was previously arrested in December 2018 and held for nearly six months before being released.
    (AP, 6/21/21)

2021        Jun 21, Argentina and Mexico recalled their ambassadors to Nicaragua for consultations, a day after President Daniel Ortega's government arrested yet another presidential contender ahead of the Nov. 7 elections.
    (AP, 6/21/21)

2021        Jun 22, International criticism of Nicaragua's government grew after another night of arrests in Managua. 59 countries at the UN Human Rights Council signed onto a statement expressing concern over arbitrary arrests and the restriction of fundamental rights.
    (AP, 6/22/21)

2021        Jul 5, Nicaraguan police arrested six more opposition figures in a crackdown that started last month.
    (SFC, 7/7/21, p.A2)

2021        Jul, The US Customs and Border Protection logged more than 13,000 Nicaraguans either illegally crossing or seeking asylum at the nation's borders, almost double the month before.
    (Reuters, 9/2/21)

2021        Aug 12, Nicaragua's La Presna newspaper said it will suspend its print edition after the government once again withheld newsprint paper at customs. The paper has long been critical of Pres. Ortega, who is seeking a 4th term in the Nov. 7 national elections.
    (SFC, 8/13/21, p.A4)

2021        Sep 11, In Costa Rica Joao Maldonado (32), a well-known leader of demonstrations in 2018 in southwestern Nicaragua's Jinotepe municipality, was in critical condition after being shot twice in the chest and once in the arm late today in Escazu, 10 km (6 miles) west of San Jose.
    (Reuters, 9/12/21)

2021        Sep 20, Nicaragua accused Colombia before the International Court of Justice (ICJ) of not respecting a 2012 ruling on their maritime boundaries in the western Caribbean by that same court.
    (Reuters, 9/20/21)

2021        Sep 22, A magnitude 6.5 earthquake struck in the Pacific off the coast of Nicaragua early today. There were no immediate reports of damage.
    (Reuters, 9/22/21)
2021        Sep 22, Lawyers for Colombia dismissed Nicaragua's claims before the International Court of Justice (ICJ), insisting that Bogota did respect a 2012 ruling on their maritime boundaries in the western Caribbean by the same court.
    (Reuters, 9/22/21)

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