Timeline Moldova

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  An independent Republic east of Romania, once part of the Soviet Union. Its capital is Chisinau.
 (SFC, 1/28/97, p.A5)(WSJ, 7/25/97, p.A1)
  Two-thirds of the 4.3 million people are ethnic Romanians
 (SFC, 11/19/96, p.A14)

6,000BC    Bronze age settlements were found here.
    (SFC, 1/28/97, p.A5)

100-1BC    A Roman fortified citadel was built about this time. It may have protected a town occupied by a late-era Sarmatian king.
    (SFC, 1/28/97, p.A5)

1504        Jul 12, Steven the Great (b.1433), Stefan Chel Mare, Prince of the Principality of Moldavia (1457-1504), died. He had waged battles against the Turks in the 14th century and became a national hero. Stephen III was buried in the village of Kobynya. In 2000 a 600-year-old oak tree that marked his grave was killed by a cold snap and high winds.
    (https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Stephen_III_of_Moldavia)(SFC, 12/9/00, p.D8)

1812        Russia acquired Bessarabia, the north eastern part of the original principality of Moldavia, in the aftermath of the Russo-Turkish War (1806-1812).
    (Econ, 1/6/07, p.43)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bessarabia)

1903        Apr, Russia instigated a Jewish pogrom in Kishinev. 49 people died and some 600 were seriously injured.
    (WSJ, 1/2/02, p.A18)

1905        More anti-Jewish pogroms swept the province of Bessarabia.
    (WSJ, 1/2/02, p.A18)

1907        Mar 31, Romanian Army put down a Moldavian farmers' revolt.
    (MC, 3/31/02)

1918        An attempt to establish a Moldovan Soviet failed and Romanian troops occupied the province.
    (WSJ, 1/2/02, p.A18)

1922        A law was passed that halved the number of Jewish schools.
    (WSJ, 1/2/02, p.A18)

1924        The Bolsheviks formed the Moldovan Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic (ASSR), aka Transdniestria, as a basis for later taking over a chunk of Romania.
    (WSJ, 7/8/97, p.A1,8)(http://tinyurl.com/b7m4b)

1938        A law was passed that deprived Jewish heads of household of their civil rights.
    (WSJ, 1/2/02, p.A18)

1939        Aug 23, German Foreign Minister Joachim von Ribbentrop and Soviet Commissar for Foreign Affairs Vyacheslav M. Molotov signed a Treaty of Non-Aggression, the Molotov-Ribbentrop Pact freeing Hitler to invade Poland and Stalin to invade Finland. Secret protocols, made public years later, were added that assigned Finland, Estonia, Latvia and Bessarabia to be within the Soviet sphere of influence. Poland was partitioned along the rivers Narev, Vistula and San. Germany retained Lithuania enlarged by the inclusion of Vilnius. Just days after the signing, Germany invaded Poland, and by the end of September, both powers had claimed sections of Poland. World War II and Hitler's invasion of the Soviet Union were just around the corner.
    (WP, 6/29/96, p.A16)(DrEE, 9/28/96, p.3)(DrEE, 10/26/96, p.4)(AP, 8/23/97) (HNPD, 8/22/98)(HN, 8/23/98)

1940        Jun 26, The Soviet Union delivered an ultimatum to Romania and 2 days later occupied Bessarabia and North Bukovina.

1940        Moldova was formed from the former Republic of Moldavia and the ceded Romanian territory of Bessarabia.
    (WUD, 1994 p.922)(Econ, 9/30/06, p.60)

1941        Jun 13, Thousands of Jewish community leaders in Bessarabia (Moldova) were deported to Siberia as part of the general purge. The Soviet Union, which had occupied the former Romanian province a year earlier, loaded 22,600 Moldovans on cargo trains bound for Siberia, where the deportees were used for forced labor.
    (WSJ, 1/2/02, p.A18)(AP, 6/13/06)

1941        Jul 23, German and Romanian troops reoccupied Moldova as part of Operation Barbarossa.
    (WSJ, 1/2/02, p.A18)

1941        Jul, The 16,000 sq. mile area of the Ukraine named Transnistria was granted by Hitler to the Romanian dictator Ion Antonescu for Romania’s participation in the war against the soviet Union. Jews from Bessarabia, Bukovina and Moldova were transferred here and many thousands were murdered from 1941-1944 by the Romanian Gendarmeric, the Einsatrzgruppe D, Ukrainian police and Sonderkommando R.
    (WSJ, 7/30/97, p.A15)

1941        Oct 8, The Romanian government gave the order to deport 11,000 Jews remaining in Kishinev across the Dniester to Rybnitsa and into Nazi hands.
    (WSJ, 1/2/02, p.A18)

1941-1945    Some 148,000 Bessarabian Jews were killed in Rybnitsa and other ghettos and concentration camps on the East bank of the Dniester during the Nazi occupation.
    (WSJ, 1/2/02, p.A18)
1941-1945    In 2000 Radu Ioanid authored "The Holocaust In Romania," which described how 250,000 people died under Ion Antonescu. 25,000 Gypsies were deported to Transnistria (later in the Ukraine), of whom 1,500 died.
    (WSJ, 1/19/00, p.A20)

1944        Jul 20, The death march of 1,200 Jews from Lipcani, Moldavia, began.
    (MC, 7/20/02)

1944        The Soviet army re-conquered Bessarabia. Only then were the two parts of present-day Moldova joined together to form the Moldavian SSR. At the same time, about one-third of Bessarabia, including its entire Black Sea coastline, was incorporated into the Ukrainian SSR. The Transdniester region, having long been part of the Russian Empire and then the Soviet Union, remained more Russified and Sovietized than Right-Bank Moldavia.

1944        Aug 6, All 1,200 Jewish death marchers from Lipcani, Moldavia, died by this date.
    (MC, 8/6/02)

1949-1951    In Moldova SSR 2 waves of deportations were carried out, with some 40,000 Moldovans sent to Siberia and what is now Kazakhstan.
    (AP, 6/13/06)

1990        Sep, Transdniestria declared its independence over fears that Moldova planned to reunite with Romania. It was not recognized internationally.
    (www.aliciapatterson.org/APF1803/Meier_Foster/Meier_Foster.html)(AP, 1/5/12)

1991        Aug 27, Moldova (Moldavia) declared independence from USSR.

1991        The population of Moldova was about 4.3 million. By 2015 it was believed to be under 3 million.
    (Econ, 11/21/15, p.51)

1992        Feb 14, The former Soviet republics of Ukraine, Moldova and Azerbaijan rejected a proposal for a unified army, sharply rebuffing Russian President Boris N. Yeltsin.
    (AP, 2/14/02)

1992        Russian reactionaries fought against the Soviet breakup and repulsed Moldova’s bid to hold on to Transdniestria. A civil war with Moldova left up to 700 people dead.
    (WSJ, 7/8/97, p.A1,8)(Econ, 1/29/05, p.52)(SSFC, 2/12/06, p.E2)

1992        Andrei Ivantoc, a member of the Popular Moldovan Front, was arrested by separatist authorities  of Trans-Dniester. A year later he and the three others were sentenced on charges of committing terrorist acts against citizens of Trans-Dniester. The Popular Moldovan Front called for the reunification of Moldova with neighboring Romania. The group's members were seen as martyrs by some in Moldova and Romania for their opposition to the separatists. Ivantoc was released in 2007.
    (AP, 6/2/07)

1992-1994    Russia's Alexander Lebed commanded troops in Moldova’s break-away region of Trans-Dniester, where ethnic conflict rose between the Moldovan government and Slav separatists. He ended the bloodshed there.
    (SFC, 10/18/96, A18)

1996        Pres. Mircea Snegur and Parliament Speaker Petru Lucinschi went into 2nd round elections. Voters seemed to seek a diminished relationship with Russia and closer ties with Romania.
    (SFC, 11/19/96, p.A14)

1996        Dec 2, Petru Lucinschi, a top Communist official in Soviet days, beat incumbent Mircea Snegur 53% to 47%.
    (WSJ, 12/3/96, p.A1)

1997        Jul 25, It was reported that American led teams rewritten the tax laws, launched a stock market, and helped break up farm collectives formed under the Stalin era.
    (WSJ, 7/25/97, p.A1)

1997        Oct, The US purchased 21 MiG-29 aircraft from Moldova for $40-50 million, in order to keep the planes out of the hands of Iran. In 2005 Moldova arrested Valeriu Pasat, former defense minister (1997-1999), on suspicion of pocketing $10 million during the sale of 21 MiG-29 fighter jets.
    (SFC,11/5/97, p.A5)(WSJ, 3/14/05, p.A1)

1997        Former Soviet republics (Georgia, Ukraine, Uzbekistan, Azerbaijan and Moldova) formed Guuam to seek cooperation outside Russian influence.
    (WSJ, 3/4/05, p.A13)

1998        Mar 22, Elections were held and the Communist party received about 30% of the vote. Political parties scrambled to form a coalition to keep the Communists out of power.
    (SFC, 3/24/98, p.A14)

1998        Mar, Ion Ciubuc was appointed prime minister.
    (SFC, 2/2/99, p.A10)

1999        Feb 1, Ion Ciubuc announced his resignation as prime minister. He blamed parliament and the ruling coalition for not supporting his efforts to implement market reforms.
    (SFC, 2/2/99, p.A10)

1999        Nov, The government of Ion Sturza was dismissed amid accusations of corruption and mismanagement of the economy.
    (SFC, 12/16/99, p.C2)

1999        Dec 15, Russia cut off natural gas deliveries due to a debt of $600 million.
    (SFC, 12/16/99, p.C2)

2001        Feb 25, In Moldova Communists made strong gains in parliamentary elections. They won 70% of the seats and would name the next president.
    (WSJ, 2/26/01, p.A1)(WSJ, 2/27/01, p.A1)

2001        In Moldova Vladimir Voronin, a former baker and member of the Communist Party, was elected president. He stepped down after serving the maximum two terms.
    (AP, 5/12/09)

2001        Moldova passed its 1st laws against sex trafficking.
    (SFC, 6/24/04, p.W1)

2003        May 25, In Moldova the Communist Party consolidated its hold on power in this former Soviet republic, winning over 47 percent of contested posts for mayor and other municipal offices. The Communists, who came to power in 2001, were led by Pres. Vladimir Voronin.
    (AP, 5/26/03)

2003        Dec 8, Russian military documents confirmed that dozens of rockets outfitted with dirty bombs appeared to be missing from the military airport at Tiraspol, the capital of Transdniestria.
    (SFC, 12/9/03, p.A13)

2003        Dec 27, Russia removed all Soviet-built anti-aircraft missiles from its vast arms depots in a Moldova province to prevent them from falling into the hands of terrorists. The missiles were flown from Transdniestria Province to Moscow.
    (AP, 12/29/03)

2003        Moldova Pres. Voronin rejected a deal on Transdniestra that would have left Russian troops on Moldovan soil for at least 15 years while giving the breakaway region wide autonomy.
    (WSJ, 3/4/05, p.A13)

2003        Moldova passed laws against sex trafficking with minimum prison sentences. An estimated 200-400 thousand Moldovan women and girls had been lured to foreign countries by sex traffickers since the mid 1990s.
    (SFC, 6/24/04, p.W1)

2004        Dec, Moldovan Foreign Minister Andrei Stratan called 1,500 Russian troops in Transdniestra a “military occupation."
    (WSJ, 3/4/05, p.A13)

2005        Mar 6, Moldova held national elections. Nine special stations were opened near the border with Trans-Dniester so the separatist region's 700,000 residents can vote. Trans-Dniester authorities have refused to allow any polling stations on their territory. The governing pro-Western Communists won a parliamentary majority, but fell short of taking enough seats to re-elect President Vladimir Voronin.
    (AP, 3/6/05)(AP, 3/7/05)

2005        Mar 11, Moldova arrested Valeriu Pasat, former defense minister, on suspicion of pocketing $10 million during the 1997 sale of 21 MiG-29 fighter jets to the US.
    (WSJ, 3/14/05, p.A1)

2005        May 12, Austrian authorities reported the break up a major human trafficking ring led by Romanian, Moldovan and Ukrainian criminals who smuggled more than 5,000 East Europeans to the West, many enduring horrific conditions in tiny hiding spaces in cars, trucks and trailers.
    (AP, 5/12/05)

2006        Apr 6, It was reported that Russian health and sanitary officials had imposed a ban on Georgian and Moldovan wines effective May 1. Authorities said the wines contained pesticides and heavy metals. The ban was soon extended to brandy and sparkling wines.
    (AP, 4/6/06)

2006        Jul 6, In Moldova an explosion ripped apart a small bus in Tiraspol, capital of the separatist region of Trans-Dniester, killing eight people and injuring 46. The blast was caused by a bomb carried onboard by a passenger. Transdniestrian politicians blamed Moldovan provocateurs.
    (AP, 7/8/06)(Econ, 8/5/06, p.48)

2006        Sep 17, Voters in Moldova's breakaway Trans-Dniester region overwhelmingly approved a referendum for the separatist government's bid to eventually join Russia.
    (AP, 9/18/06)

2006        Oct 16, In Moldova an appeals court overturned a guilty verdict against the former defense minister, clearing him of charges he sold 21 fighter planes too cheaply to the US. Valeriu Pasat, who was defense minister from 1997 to 1999 and head of the country's spy services from 1999 to 2002, claimed the case against him was politically motivated because of his support for a movement opposed to Communist President Vladimir Voronin.
    (AP, 10/16/06)

2006        Nov 28, Russia’s Pres. Putin said the ban on Moldovan wine and meat products would be lifted, a move that appeared to be aimed at easing Moscow's entry into the WTO. Putin also said Russia and Moldova would resume a dialogue aimed at resolving Moldova's conflict with Trans-Dniester.
    (AP, 11/28/06)

2007        Jul 9, An appeals court freed Moldova's former defense minister, overturning his conviction for abusing his position in the 1997 sale of 21 fighter planes to the United States.
    (AP, 7/9/07)

2007        Dec 16, Russian authorities expelled a Moldovan journalist critical of the Kremlin in a move condemned by media watchdogs.
    (AP, 12/16/07)

2008        Apr 11, In Moldova a Sudanese-owned transport plane laden with fuel crashed shortly after takeoff from an airport near the capital and burst into flames, killing all 8 people on board.
    (AP, 4/12/08)

2008        Aug 5, The UN said heavy rains and storms have led to some of the worst floods in 40 years in parts of Ukraine, Moldova and Romania since July 22, causing great damage to homes, infrastructure and farmland. In Ukraine, 34 people have been killed in the west of the country along the Dnestr and Prut rivers; in Moldova, three people are reported to have drowned in the capital Chisinau; in Romania five people have been killed.
    (AFP, 8/5/08)

2008        Aug 25, Russia's parliament voted unanimously to urge the president to recognize the independence of Georgia's two breakaway regions, a move likely to stoke further tensions between Moscow and the small Caucasus nation's Western allies. Russian President Dmitry Medvedev warned ex-Soviet Moldova against repeating Georgia's mistake of trying to use force to seize back control of Transdniestria, a pro-Moscow breakaway region.
    (AP, 8/25/08)(Reuters, 8/25/08)

2009        Jan 18, Moldovan poet Grigore Vieru (b.1935) died in a car crash. He was admired for his courage in promoting Romanian, the country's native language, when Moldova was a Soviet republic. In the 1970s, he wrote "The Little Bee," Moldova's first Romanian-language school manual for young children.
    (AP, 1/19/09)

2009        Apr 5, In Moldova the Communist Party won re-election under alleged ballot rigging. The Communists, in power since 2001, won about 50% of the vote in what international observers said was a fair election. With a population of 4.1 million, Moldova was one of Europe's poorest nations with an average monthly salary of $350. Last year Moldovans abroad sent home $1.6 billion, roughly the same amount as the state budget.
    (AP, 4/7/09)(Econ, 4/18/09, p.58)

2009        Apr 7, In Moldova anti-communist protesters stormed the Parliament, hurling computers through shattered windows and setting fire to furniture in a violent demonstration against what they said were fraudulent elections. 3 people were left dead and hundreds were detained.
    (AP, 4/7/09)(Econ, 8/8/09, p.46)

2009        May 7, The European Union extended its hand to former Soviet republics, holding a summit to draw them closer into the EU orbit despite Russia's deep misgivings. Presidents, premiers and their deputies from 33 nations signed an agreement meant to extend the EU's political and economic ties. The six ex-Soviet republics to whom the “eastern partnership" would apply are Armenia, Azerbaijan, Belarus, Georgia, Moldova and Ukraine.
    (AP, 5/7/09)(Econ, 1/10/15, p.49)

2009        May 12, Vladimir Voronin (68), Moldova's former president, was voted head of parliament by his Communist Party colleagues. Three opposition parties boycotted the ballot, claiming the country's April 5 election was rigged.
    (AP, 5/12/09)

2009        Jun 3, Moldovan lawmakers failed for a second time to elect a president, meaning the Parliament elected in April will be dissolved and a new election will be held this summer.
    (AP, 6/3/09)

2009        Jun 16, The US added six African countries to a blacklist of countries trafficking in people, and put US trading partner Malaysia back on the list. Chad, Eritrea, Niger, Mauritania, Swaziland, and Zimbabwe were added to the list in the annual report. Removed from the list were Qatar, Oman, Algeria, and Moldova.
    (AFP, 6/16/09)

2009        Jul 29, Moldova held elections. At least three people were killed and hundreds of others arrested after protesters, some of whom used the social network Twitter to organize after cell phone networks went down, stormed parliament and the president's office. With 98% of the vote counted, the four opposition parties had 50.9 percent to the Communists' 45.1%. A pro-European alliance of four parties won the most seats in the 101-seat parliament but fell short of the 61 votes necessary to elect a president.
    (AP, 7/29/09)(AP, 7/30/09)(AP, 11/28/10)

2009        Aug 8, In Moldova the four pro-Western parties that upset the Communists in recent elections agreed on a coalition deal to form a new government.
    (AP, 8/8/09)

2010        Feb 3, Ukraine's security service said 5 Russian FSB agents were detained last month after being caught trying to obtain confidential military information from a Ukrainian citizen. The FSB said the Ukrainian citizen its agents were working with had himself been apprehended in November while allegedly spying on neighboring Moldova's Moscow-backed breakaway Trans-Dniester republic.
    (AP, 2/3/10)

2010        Jun 20, Moldova authorities detained 2 former policemen and another person on suspicion of trying to sell four pounds (nearly two kg) of uranium on the black market, but it was unclear if this was enough for a "dirty bomb." The uranium-238 had a value of euro9 million ($11.35 million). This was not made public until Aug 25.
    (AP, 8/25/10)

2010        Sep 12, An Egyptian security official said 16 Russians and Moldovans, who killed an Egyptian smuggler, have handed themselves over to police. Some of the would-be migrants to Israel attacked and fatally stabbed smuggler Massud Salim (31) after he attempted to rape one of the female members of the group.
    (AFP, 9/12/10)

2010        Nov 28, Voters in Moldova, Europe's poorest nation, tried to break a political deadlock that has kept it without a functioning government for more than a year. The governing pro-Europe alliance led the opposition Communists in early election results, but it was not clear if the coalition would win enough legislative seats to end the country's year-long political deadlock.
    (AP, 11/28/10)(AP, 11/29/10)

2010        Dec 10, A Moldova court ordered a recount in the inconclusive national election after the Communist Party complained of "massive irregularities" in the Nov 28 vote.
    (AP, 12/10/10)

2011        Mar 11, In Moldova US Vice President Joe Biden urged the government to fight corruption and implement pro-Western democratic reforms, saying that Washington would offer support to Europe's poorest country as it seeks to move closer to the EU.
    (AP, 3/11/11)

2011        Jun 28, Moldova officials said 6 people have been arrested for trying to sell an unspecified amount of uranium-235 to a North African country for $28.85 million.
    (SFC, 6/30/11, p.A2)

2011        Dec 1, The first talks in nearly six years between Moldova and the pro-Moscow separatist region of Trans-Dniester concluded in Lithuania with an agreement for more meetings at the beginning of next year.
    (AP, 12/1/11)

2012        Feb 14, Snow as deep as 15 feet (4.5m) isolated areas of Albania, Moldova and Romania, and helicopters and army trucks were used to deliver food and medicine, and to transport sick people to hospitals. Officials said 5 Romanians died in the past 24 hours due to frigid temperatures, bringing the total to 79 weather-related deaths since the nation's cold spell began.
    (AP, 2/14/12)

2012        Mar 6, Moldova introduced new legislation approving chemical castration for foreigners and nationals convicted of sexually abusing children.   
    (SFC, 3/7/12, p.A2)

2012        Mar 16, Moldova's Parliament elected Nicolae Timofti (65), a judge with a European outlook, as president. This ended nearly three years of political deadlock.
    (AP, 3/16/12)

2012        Mar 20, Russian banker German Gorbuntsov (45) was shot outside his home in east London and was put into a medically induced coma. Hew was days away from giving evidence to an investigation into the attempted murder of a former business associate. His lawyer believed the attack was connected to an assassination attempt on Gorbuntsov's partner and co-owner of Konvers Group, Alexander Antonov, in 2009. A bank he owned in Moldova, Universalbank, was closed down in February and he was wanted there for financial crimes. The Kommersant business daily wrote that Gorbuntsov said he himself was a victim of a raider attack that caused him to lose his stake of more than 70 percent in Universalbank.
    (AFP, 3/24/12)(Reuters, 3/25/12)

2012        Apr 24, Moldova's Pres. Nicolae Timofti refused to sign a law that would have meant that foreigners convicted of sexually abusing children in Moldova were chemically castrated. Parliament had approved the law on March 6 after lawmakers said the impoverished nation was attracting pedophiles from the West.
    (AP, 4/24/12)

2013        May 30, Moldova’s parliament approved Iurie Leanca, a former foreign minister, as the new prime minister. He vowed to move the country closer to Europe and fight endemic corruption and poverty.
    (SFC, 5/31/13, p.A2)

2013        Jun 21, Moldova’s lawmakers adopted a statement urging the US, the EU, Russia, Ukraine and the Organization for Security and Cooperation in Europe to "resolve the situation in Trans-Dniester through political and peaceful means, respecting democratic...principles."
    (AP, 6/22/13)

2013        Sep 10, Russia announced a ban on imports of Moldovan wines and spirits, saying they contained impurities, a move certain to be seen in the small ex-Soviet republic as retaliation for its drive to expand ties with the European Union.
    (Reuters, 9/10/13)

2013        Nov 29, Georgia and Moldova signed important agreements on political cooperation, reform and free trade with the EU at the summit of EU leaders in Vilnius.
    (http://tinyurl.com/nq8ouy4)(Econ, 11/23/13, p.56)

2013        Dec 5, Moldova’s Constitutional Court ruled that Romanian is now the official language. The language, basically the same as Romanian, had been renamed Moldovan under Soviet rule.
    (SFC, 12/6/13, p.A2)

2013        Moldova’s population was about 3.6 million.
    (Econ, 11/23/13, p.56)

2014        Feb, In Moldova Mihail Formuzal, governor of Gagauzia, organized a referendum in the province in which an overwhelming majority called for Moldova to join a Russian-led customs union rather than a political and trade pact with the EU. After the referendum Russia offered an exemption for the winemakers of Gagauzia to its general ban on wine from Moldova.
    (Reuters, 3/30/14)

2014        Apr 28, Moldovans with biometric passports — containing a chip with a photo and fingerprint data — began traveling without visas across 26 European nations, the so-called Schengen area. The European Parliament had approved visa-free travel across most of Europe for Moldovan citizens in February.
    (AP, 4/28/14)

2014        Apr 29, Moldova's PM Iurie Leanca said neighboring Romania will export gas to his country this year, reducing the former Soviet republic's dependence on Russia for gas.
    (AP, 4/29/14)

2014        Apr, The EU granted Moldovans visa-free travel.
    (Econ, 12/6/14, p.64)

2014        May 11, Moldovan authorities said they have stopped Russia's deputy prime minister from leaving the country with a petition calling on Moscow to recognize the separatist Trans-Dniester region, but Dmitry Rogozi claimed he had delivered most of the signatures supporting it.
    (AP, 5/11/14)

2014        Jun 12, The European Union said it will finance projects worth 50 million euros ($68 million) in Moldova as the former Soviet republic prepares to sign an association agreement with the 28-nation bloc amid protests from Moscow.
    (AP, 6/12/14)

2014        Jun 27, European Union leaders signed broad trade and economic deals with non-member countries Ukraine, Moldova and Georgia.
    (AP, 6/27/14)

2014        Jul 2, Moldova's Parliament voted 59-4 to ratify the former Soviet republic's free trade agreement with the European Union. Pro-Moscow Communists with 38 seats walked out of Parliament.
    (AP, 7/2/14)

2014        Aug 27, Moldova and Romania inaugurated a new pipeline that will pump gas from Romania to Moldova in an attempt to reduce the former Soviet republic's dependence on Russian energy. However, 43-km (28-mile) pipeline will provide only five percent of its gas needs.
    (AP, 8/27/14)

2014        Nov 27, Moldova's Appeals Court ruled that a pro-Russian party cannot compete in Nov 30 parliamentary elections on the grounds it is illegally funded from abroad. The court ruled against Patria, led by Renato Usatii, who does business with Russia's state railways.
    (AP, 11/27/14)

2014        Nov 28, Renato Usatii, a Rolls Royce-driving Moldova businessman who has done business with Russian Railways, fled the country. He said that he feared arrest by Moldova's pro-European authorities.
    (AP, 11/28/14)

2014        Nov 30, Moldova held elections. Three pro-Europe parties won a narrow majority in parliament. They failed to agree on a governing coalition and required the support of the Communist party to form a government.
    (AP, 11/30/14)(AP, 12/1/14)(Econ, 12/6/14, p.64)(AP, 3/9/15)

2014        Nov, In Moldova up to $1.5 billion vanished from the state-owned Savings Bank and the private banks Unibank and the Social Bank. Moldova's Gross National Product was $8 billion in 2014. An inquiry was completed in April 2015. According to an unpublished parliament report, some of the money was transferred to Russian banks. On July 10, 2015, a man found a sack of money bearing the logo of the state-owned Savings Bank under a bridge in Chisinau.
    (AP, 4/8/15)(AP, 7/10/15)

2014        Dec 9, Moldova police said seven people have been detained on suspicion they smuggled uranium and mercury in a metal container from Russia to be used in a dirty bomb.
    (AP, 12/9/14)

2015        Feb 19, Moldova sought to stabilize the country's currency, which plummeted 25 percent this week amid concerns over the financial and political system.
    (AP, 2/19/15)

2015        Mar 4, Romania began transporting natural gas to Moldova, as the former Soviet republic moves toward the European Union and becomes less dependent on Russia.
    (AP, 3/4/15)

2015        Mar 18, In Moldova airport authorities banned a Russian television crew from entering Moldova and sent them back to Moscow. They were traveling to cover elections this weekend in the semi-autonomous region of Gagauzia, a region where most voters disapprove of Moldova's European aspirations and want closer links to Russia.
    (AP, 3/19/15)

2015        Mar 19, Moldova authorities said two Russian journalists planning to travel to Moldova to present a documentary on Crimea have been banned from the country for five years.
    (AP, 3/19/15)

2015        Apr 8, In Moldova former health minister Andrei Usatii and 11 others, including hospital chiefs, were detained on suspicion of fraudulent acquisitions of drugs and medical equipment.
    (AP, 4/8/15)

2015        May 16, Moldovans marched from a central square in Chisinau past parliament shouting "Good bye, Russia! Don't forget Bessarabia is not yours!" using the historical name for Moldova, urging the reunification of the former Soviet republic with neighboring Romania.
    (AP, 5/16/15)

2015        Jun 12, Moldova's PM Chiril Gaburici (38) resigned after state prosecutors, whom he has accused of moving slowly over the disappearance of $1 billion from the country's banks, questioned him over his school certificates.
    (Reuters, 6/12/15)

2015        Jun 14, Moldovans voted in local elections seen as a test of whether the country is committed to European integration or will move closer to Russia's orbit.
    (AP, 6/14/15)

2015        Jun 22, Moldova's Pres. Nicolae Timofte appointed Natalia Gherman (46), the country's pro-European foreign minister, as interim prime minister after her predecessor resigned amid a probe of his high school diploma.
    (AP, 6/22/15)

2015        Jul 5, The EU announced that it was freezing its €40 million ($44m) aid program to Moldova.
    (Econ, 8/1/15, p.64)

2015        Jul 21, In Moldova the Democratic Party, the Liberal-Democratic Party and the Liberal Party, which together hold 55 out of 101 seats in Parliament, reached an agreement at midnight to form a ruling coalition that will demonstrate the country's commitment to moving closer to the European Union.
    (AP, 7/22/15)

2015        Jul 30, Moldova's Parliament approved the pro-European government of Valeriu Strelet (45), nominated after the last prime minister resigned.
    (AP, 7/30/15)

2015        Aug 4, Russia's PM Dmitry Medvedev ordered preparation of retaliatory measures against several non-EU European nations that have joined the European Union's sanctions against Russia. Iceland, Liechtenstein, Norway, Montenegro, Albania, Moldova and Ukraine joined the EU sanctions last week.
    (AP, 8/4/15)

2015        Aug 10, Moldovan authorities seized more than 130 kg (290 pounds) of heroin in a truck transporting tiles overnight from Ukraine to Bulgaria.
    (AP, 8/12/15)

2015        Aug 27, Romania's PM Victor Ponta gave Moldova 100 million euros ($117 million) in financial aid in a gesture of support for the former Soviet republic's EU membership bid, as Moldova marked its 24th anniversary of independence. Ponta called for a Romanian gas pipeline to be extended to Chisinau, the Moldovan capital.
    (AP, 8/27/15)

2015        Sep 6, In Moldova tens of thousands rallied in the heart of the capital Chisinau in the biggest street protests in memory, demanding the resignation of President Nicolae Timofti and early elections over a $1 billion bank fraud that has hit living standards.
    (Reuters, 9/6/15)

2015        Sep 11, Moldova's PM Valeriu Strelet said his government's priorities are reforming the justice system and fighting corruption as protesters continued a demonstration over up to $1.5 billion that disappeared from Moldovan banks.
    (AP, 9/11/15)

2015        Sep 13, In Moldova some 20,000 people demonstrated against the government for the 8th straight day demanding a probe into the estimated $1.5 billion that disappeared from three local banks last year.
    (SFC, 9/14/15, p.A2)

2015        Sep 27, In Moldova some 20,000 people protested against the government, days after the International Monetary Fund said it would not negotiate a new loan agreement with the pro-European leadership which says it needs the money to pay salaries and pensions.
    (AP, 9/27/15)

2015        Oct 15, Former Moldovan PM Vlad Filat was detained in parliament over the theft of $1 billion from the banking system, a crime that has led thousands to camp out in the capital in protest.
    (Reuters, 10/15/15)

2015        Oct 29, Moldova's parliament backed a motion of no-confidence in the ruling pro-European coalition, increasing political turmoil following the fraudulent disappearance of $1 billion from the banking system. The vote signaled an end to the short-lived government of PM Valeriu Strelet.
    (Reuters, 10/29/15)

2015        Nov 26, Moldovan police said they have detained a total of 13 suspected members of a paramilitary group allegedly planning to attack the capital and a northern city with a majority Russian population, with the aim of creating a new separatist republic similar to the one in eastern Ukraine.
    (AP, 11/26/15)

2015        Nov 29, In Moldova thousands of anti-government protesters gathered in Chisinau and other towns demanding better governance and an end to widespread corruption.
    (AP, 11/29/15)

2016        Jan 15, Moldova’s President Nicolae Timofti nominated Technology Minister Pavel Filip as the next prime minister.
    (AP, 1/16/16)

2016        Jan 16, In Moldova thousands protested in Chisinau against the nominee for prime minister, calling for Parliament to be dissolved and early elections.
    (AP, 1/16/16)

2016        Jan 20, Moldova's Parliament approved a new government, ending months of deadlock between the president and the legislature. Parliament approved the pro-European government of Pavel Filip, the Technology Minister and former candy factory manager with 57 votes. The pro-Russian opposition boycotted the vote.
    (AP, 1/20/16)

2016        Jan 21, In Moldova thousands of people held an anti-government protest in Chisinau, a day after the legislature approved a new pro-European government.
    (AP, 1/21/16)

2016        Jan 22, In Moldova some 3,000 people protested in the capital for a third day running calling for early elections, better governance and demanding an end to widespread corruption.
    (AP, 1/22/16)

2016        Jan 24, In Moldova some 40,000 people gathered in the capital to protest against the government and demand early elections in the impoverished East European nation.
    (AFP, 1/24/16)

2016        Jan 26, Romania offered Moldova emergency economic aid and a loan of 60 million euros ($65 million) in hopes of preventing economic collapse and keeping the impoverished ex-Soviet republic on a pro-European course.
    (AP, 1/26/16)

2016        Feb 17, Romania's Pres. Klaus Iohannis  urged Moldova to reform its justice and banking systems so the government can get a $65 million loan that Moldova needs to prevent an economic collapse.
    (AP, 2/17/16)

2016        Mar 4, A leading court in Moldova ruled in favor of having direct national elections to choose a president rather than a vote in parliament - a concession to protesters who have been demonstrating for months against the political elite.
    (Reuters, 3/4/16)

2016        Mar 24, A Moldovan court sentenced three men to seven years in prison on charges of human trafficking after they transported three Moldovans to Turkey in 2001-2002 to have their kidneys removed.
    (AP, 3/24/16)

2016        Mar 27, Thousands of Moldovans marched through their capital calling for reunification with Romania, restoring a union which lasted from 1918 to 1940.
    (AP, 3/27/16)

2016        Apr 24, In Moldova some 7,000 people have staged a protest in the capital, demanding the resignation of the government and early elections.
    (AP, 4/24/16)

2016        May 6, Romania's Pres. Klaus Iohannis approved a 150 million euro ($171 million) loan to neighboring Moldova needed to pay state sector salaries and pensions.
    (AP, 5/6/16)

2016        Jun 2, A Romanian medical helicopter crashed in southern Moldova, killing all four people on board.
    (AP, 6/2/16)

2016        Jun 22, Moldova's foreign ministry called on Russia to stop recruiting its citizens to the Russian Army. It said the alleged recruitments violate bilateral agreements.
    (AP, 6/22/16)

2016        Jun 24, Moldovan businessman and mayor Ilan Shor was arrested on suspicion of money laundering connected to the disappearance of $1 billion from three Moldovan banks in 2014.
    (AP, 6/27/16)

2016        Jun 27, A Moldovan court sentenced former PM Vlad Filat (2009-2013) to nine years in prison on charges of taking bribes and influence trafficking. The sentence was connected to alleged bribes he gave businessman and mayor Ilan Shor. Filat was arrested last October in a separate case which has not gone to trial.
    (AP, 6/27/16)

2016        Aug 5, Moldova's Foreign Ministry and its Defense Ministry criticized recent Russian military exercises (July 27-August 3) held in the Trans-Dniester separatist region, saying they undermined the sovereignty and territorial integrity of Moldova.
    (AP, 8/5/16)

2016        Aug 27, Moldovan police fired tear gas to disperse anti-government protesters during a parade to mark the former Soviet republic's independence day. Figures published this week found that more than a quarter of Moldova's citizens have emigrated for work, and more than half of them work in Russia.
    (AP, 8/27/16)

2016        Nov 13, Moldova held presidential elections. Igor Dodon, a pro-Russian politician, won 52.2% of the vote, while Maia Sandu won 47.8%.
    (SFC, 11/15/16, p.A2)

2016        Dec 19, Moldovan MPs approved raising the retirement age to 63 years from the current level of 57 for women and 62 for men, a reform that is part of a three-year-old assistance program agreed with the International Monetary Fund.
    (Reuters, 12/19/16)

2017        Jan 3, Moldova's new Pres. Igor Dodon stripped the ex-president of Romania of his recently-acquired Moldovan citizenship, saying he obtained it illegally. Traian Basescu and his wife Maria were awarded citizenship of the troubled ex-Soviet republic, formerly part of Romania. Dodon favors closer relations with Russia, while Basescu has called for the reunification of Romania and Moldova.
    (AP, 1/3/17)

2017        Jan 17, Moldova's new Pres. Igor Dodon, who is visiting Russia on his first trip abroad, voiced hope for rebuilding "strategic" ties with Moscow and hinted that the ex-Soviet nation could eventually shelve a trade pact with the European Union.
    (AP, 1/17/17)

2017        Feb 15, Moldova's intelligence agency said it has broken up a suspected extremist Islamic group that was spreading propaganda online and whose members had illegal weapons.
    (AP, 2/15/17)

2017        Mar 9, Moldova's parliament accused Russia's intelligence service of intimidating politicians, following an investigation into alleged money laundering by Russian officials.
    (AP, 3/9/17)

2017        Apr 8, Prosecutors said 17 people have been detained in Moldova and Ukraine on suspicion of planning to kill Vladimir Plahotniuc, head of Moldova’s Democratic Party.
    (SSFC, 4/9/17, p.A4)

2017        Apr 27, Moldovan anti-corruption prosecutors detained the transport minister and a senior road management official on suspicion of embezzling European Union funds.
    (AP, 4/27/17)

2017        May 26, In Moldova the Liberals quit the 3-party government coalition in protest at the arrest of Chisinau mayor and Liberal deputy chairman, Dorin Chirtoaca, for alleged abuse of office linked to the distribution of parking contracts in the capital.
    (Reuters, 5/29/17)

2017        May 29, In Moldova a minister in the pro-European government and two of his deputies resigned, after their party withdrew from the ruling coalition over the arrest of its deputy chairman on corruption charges.
    (Reuters, 5/29/17)
2017        May 29, Moldova's pro-European Union government expelled five Russian diplomats, a move the ex-Soviet country's Moscow-backed president Igor Dodon says has led to the worst crisis in bilateral relations in 25 years.
    (Reuters, 5/31/17)

2017        May 31, The Russian Foreign Ministry said it has ordered five Moldovan diplomats to leave the country within three days, in retaliation for the expulsion of five members of its embassy in Moldova earlier this week.
    (Reuters, 5/31/17)

2017        Jun 2, Moldovan President Igor Dodon said that Moldova was unable to join the European Union in its current form, questioning the benefits of integration with the bloc after Britain voted to quit.
    (Reuters, 6/2/17)

2017        Jul 20, Moldova lawmakers voted to overhaul the electoral system, as thousands of opposition activists massed outside saying the changes favored the two largest parties.
    (Reuters, 7/20/17)

2017        Aug 2, Moldova declared Russian deputy prime minister Dmitry Rogozin persona non grata in the wake of a diplomatic spat that saw his plane barred from flying over Romania. Rogozin is under an EU travel ban over Russia's annexation of Ukraine's Crimea region in 2014.
    (AFP, 8/2/17)

2017        Sep 6, Moldova's pro-Russian President Igor Dodon blocked government plans to send troops to Ukraine to participate in military exercises starting this week and which coincide with Russian drills across the border in Belarus.
    (Reuters, 9/6/17)

2017        Sep 7, The Moldovan government said it has sent 57 servicemen to Ukraine to participate in military exercises starting this week, despite a veto by pro-Russian President Igor Dodon.
    (AP, 9/7/17)

2017        Oct 11, The European Union said it will not transfer a final tranche of loans worth 28 million euros ($33 million) to support Moldovan justice reforms as authorities have showed insufficient commitment to reforming the justice sector.
    (Reuters, 10/11/17)

2017        Oct 14, Four Moldovan nationals were killed when a transport plane chartered by the French army crashed off Ivory Coast. Six other people were injured including four French nationals.
    (AFP, 10/14/17)

2017        Nov 24, The EU pledged to deepen ties with six former Soviet states (Ukraine, Georgia, Moldova, Armenia, Azerbaijan and Belarus), as part of efforts to counter Russian influence, but warned them they had no chance of joining the bloc any time soon.
    (AP, 11/24/17)

2017        Dec 18, Moldova recalled its ambassador to Russia for consultations in response to the harassment and intimidation by Russian authorities of Moldovan politicians and officials. The Chisinau government says its officials are being mistreated partly to derail a Moldovan investigation into an alleged Russian-led money laundering operation.
    (Reuters, 12/18/17)

2018        Jan 2, Moldovan Pres. Igor Dodon rejected a decision by the country's constitutional court to suspend his powers temporarily due to a wrangle between him and the pro-Western government over ministerial appointments.
    (Reuters, 1/2/18)

2018        Jan 5, In Moldova a court temporarily suspended the powers of President Igor Dodon, paving the way for parliament to bypass his veto and enact a law that would restrict Russian TV broadcasts as foreign propaganda.
    (Reuters, 1/5/18)

2018        Feb 8, Moldova’s parliament adopted a declaration condemning alleged Russian attacks on cybersecurity and accusing the Russian secret services of financing Moldovan political parties.
    (AP, 2/9/18)

2018        Feb 15, Moldovan Purcari Wineries listed its shares on Romania's stock exchange, an example of the country's investors concentrating on European markets following a Russian embargo. The company raised 186.2 million lei ($50 million) after selling 49 percent of its shares ahead of the launch on the stock exchange.
    (AP, 2/15/18)

2018        Mar 2, In Moldova a one-day security conference was held in the capital, Chisinau. Pro-EU leaders from Moldova, Ukraine and Georgia said that the continued presence of Russian military in their countries was destabilizing.
    (AP, 3/2/18)

2018        Mar 20, In Moldova two people were killed in a shop in Chisinau when a grenade brandished by a man seeking to avoid paying for cigarettes exploded.
    (Reuters, 3/20/18)

2018        Mar 25, In Moldova the former president of Romania Traian Basescu joined more than 10,000 people in Chisinau to rally in support of reunification between Romania and Moldova. The issue highlighted a divide in Moldova between pro-Western and Moscow-backed political factions ahead of elections in November.
    (Reuters, 3/25/18)

2018        Mar 27, Moldova's foreign ministry ordered three Russian diplomats to leave the former Soviet republic within seven days.
    (AP, 3/27/18)

2018        Mar 30, Russia ordered new cuts to the number of British envoys in the country, escalating a dispute with the West over the poisoning of an ex-spy in Britain. Scores of foreign ambassadors streamed into the Russian Foreign Ministry in Moscow to receive the notices given to 23 nations: Albania, Australia, Canada, Croatia, the Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, France, Germany, Ireland, Italy, Latvia, Lithuania, Macedonia, Moldova, the Netherlands, Norway, Poland, Romania, Spain, Sweden and Ukraine.
    (AP, 3/30/18)

2018        May 3, Moldova handed prison sentences to eight citizens for fighting on the side of pro-Russian rebels in the separatist conflict in eastern Ukraine.
    (Reuters, 5/3/18)

2018        Jun 19, A Moldova court ruled that Andrei Nastase's electoral win in the June 3 vote was illegitimate, citing unspecified violations. Hundreds of citizens soon took to the streets to protest. Nastase, a pro-European candidate in the Chisinau mayoral race, said the court decision was made at the behest of the head of Moldova's ruling party, businessman Vlad Plahotniuc.
    (Reuters, 6/21/18)

2018        Jul, The EU announced it had frozen a 100 million euro aid package to Moldova after a disputed mayoral election race in the capital Chisinau which critics say undermined the country's democratic credentials.
    (Reuters, 8/28/18)

2018        Sep 1, Several thousand Moldovans gathered in the capital Chisinau to call for reunification with Romania. Moldova united with Romania in 1918 and was annexed to the Soviet Union in 1940. It gained independence in 1991.
    (AP, 9/1/18)

2018        Sep 24, Moldova's Constitutional Court temporarily stripped the country's pro-Moscow President Igor Dodon of his duties for refusing to endorse new ministers in a political standoff.
    (AP, 9/24/18)

2018        Oct 17, Moldova's President Igor Dodon met with visiting Turkish President Recep Tayyip Erdogan. The two-day visit aimed at boosting political and trade ties with the former Soviet republic.
    (AP, 10/17/18)

2018        Nov 20, The European Union said it will suspend 100 million euros ($114 million) of aid to Moldova over concerns about its democracy and the slow pace of reforms in the former Soviet republic.
    (AP, 11/20/18)

2018        Dec 13, Europe's top human rights body urged Moldova to stop "intimidation and violence" against prisoners allegedly carried out by other detainees with the tacit agreement of prison management.
    (AP, 12/13/18)

2019        Feb 14, Facebook Inc said it has removed a number of pages and accounts engaged in "inauthentic behavior" targeting people in Moldova, where elections will be held later this month.
    (Reuters, 2/14/19)

2019        Feb 24, Moldovans voted in a parliamentary election. Both pro-Russian and pro-EU forces accused the ruling party of massive election fraud. The election produced a hung parliament, with results showing the vote split between pro-Western and pro-Russian forces. The outcome set the stage for coalition talks or potentially new elections.
    (AP, 2/24/19)(AFP, 2/24/19)(Reuters, 2/25/19)

2019        Jun 8, Moldova's parliament approved a new government based on an unprecedented alliance between pro-Russian and pro-European forces.
    (AFP, 6/9/19)

2019        Jun 9, Moldova plunged deeper into crisis as a new, acting president dissolved parliament and called elections after months of wrangling between pro-Russia and pro-European lawmakers failed to form a workable government. The Constitutional Court suspended president Dodon and appointed Pavel Filip, who backs closer integration with the European Union, as interim leader.
    (AP, 6/9/19)

2019        Jun 10, Two rival Moldovan governments held simultaneous cabinet meetings and accused each other of trying to usurp power, deepening a crisis brought on by an inconclusive parliamentary election in February.
    (Reuters, 6/10/19)

2019        Jun 14, Moldova's Democratic Party announced it would leave government after days of refusing to cede power to a new coalition backed by the US, EU and Russia, halting a crisis in the eastern European nation.
    (AFP, 6/14/19)

2019        Nov 12, Moldova's government coalition between a pro-European group and a Russian-backed party collapsed after losing a no-confidence vote in parliament. PM Maia Sandu's five-month-old government lost the vote as 63 of 101 lawmakers supported the no-confidence motion initiated by the Socialists, her own coalition partners.
    (AP, 11/12/19)   

2019        Nov 14, Moldova’s parliament voted to back a new, technocratic government led by former finance minister Ion Chicu.
    (AP, 11/14/19)

2020        Mar 8, Moldova reported its first case of coronavirus.
    (Reuters, 3/8/20)

2020        Mar 18, Moldova reported its first death due to the coronavirus.
    (Reuters, 3/18/20)

2020        Nov 15, Moldovans returned to the polls for a presidential runoff, facing a stark choice between President Igor Dodon, the staunchly pro-Russian incumbent, and his popular challenger, former PM Maia Sandu, a pro-Western former World Bank economist. Sandu won the presidential runoff vote over 57% of the vote. 97% of the country's diaspora had plumped for Sandu.
    (AP, 11/15/20)(AP, 11/16/20)(Econ., 11/21/20, p.47)

2020        Dec 6, Thousands of Moldovans protested outside the parliament building in Chisinau demanding the resignation of the country’s Russia-backed government and a new election.
    (AP, 12/6/20)

2020        Dec 23, Moldova’s pro-Russian PM Ion Chicu resigned to, as he put it, pave the way for an early parliamentary election and “bring normalcy" to the tiny former Soviet state.
    (AP, 12/23/20)

2020        Dec 29, President Klaus Iohannis said Romania would donate 200,000 doses of the Pfizer-BioNTech COVID-19 vaccine to Moldova, offered as a gesture of solidarity following the election of the pro-Western President Maia Sandu.
    (Reuters, 12/29/20)

2021        Feb 11, The EU and the World Health Organization said they would spend 40 million euros ($48.48 million) over three years to ensure better access to COVID-19 vaccines in Armenia, Azerbaijan, Belarus, Georgia, Moldova and Ukraine.
    (Reuters, 2/11/21)

2021        Feb 26, Moldova's medical agency said it had approved Russia's Sputnik V vaccine against COVID-19, despite President Maia Sandu saying it could not be registered until the World Health Organization had done so.
    (Reuters, 2/26/21)

2021        Feb 27, Romania shipped its first donation of AstraZeneca's COVID-19 vaccine to neighboring Moldova to allow Moldova to start vaccinating frontline medical workers next week.
    (Reuters, 2/27/21)

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