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Mesopotamia includes the territory under control of the modern states of: Iraq, Iran, Syria and Turkey.

8000BC    About this time the inhabitants of Mesopotamia (centered about modern Iraq) began us-ing distinctively shaped clay tokens- spheres, disks, cones, cylinders, triangles, among others- to keep track of foodstuffs, livestock, and land.
    (I&I, Penzias, p.42)(V.D.-H.K.p.10)

6,200BCE    The development of irrigation in Mesopotamia at this time seems to coincide with a cool dry period.
    (Econ, 12/20/03, p.114)

4000BC    The oldest artifacts of the Mesopotamian city of Ur dated to about this time.
    (ON, 8/20/11, p.9)

3450BC    The first cities appeared along the banks of the Tigris and Euphrates just north of what is now the Persian Gulf. The cities made up the Uruk culture named after the principal city of Uruk, which corresponds to the Biblical Erech. The culture invented writing, the lunar calendar, used metal and built monumental architecture. The cities remained independent for almost a thousand years.
    (eawc, p.1)

3000BC    Banking developed in Mesopotamia about this time.
    (Econ, 2/25/12, SRp.4)

c2750BC    Queen Paubi lived in the city of Ur in Mesopotamia.
    (WSJ, 3/15/00, p.A24)

2700BC    The Sumerian King, Gilgamesh, ruled the city of Uruk which had grown to a population of over 50,000. Gilgamesh was the subject of many epics, including the Sumerian Gilgamesh and Enkidu in the Nether World and the Babylonian Epic of Gilgamesh.
    (eawc, p.1)

2500BC    A queen named Shubad died about this time in the city of Ur in Mesopotamia. She was buried with a staggering amount of personal property later uncovered by English archeologist Charles Leonard Woolley.
    (ON, 8/20/11, p.8)
2500BC    The making of glass began about this time in Mesopotamia.
    (Econ, 8/22/15, p.64)

2130BC    By this time Sumer regained its independence from Akkadian rule but did not revert to independent city-states. Sumer was ruled from Ur.
    (eawc, p.2)

2068        Shulgi, king of Ur, accepted gold from the king of Magan (Oman).
    (Arch, 9/00, p.47)

2058BC    Dungi was the king of the Mesopotamian city of Ur.
    (ON, 8/20/11, p.8)

2005BC    Bur-Sin ruled as the king of Ur.
    (ON, 8/20/11, p.8)

1700BC    A Larsa king ruled Ur about this time.
    (ON, 8/20/11, p.8)

1400BC    This was the Kassite period of the Mesopotamian city of Ur.
    (ON, 8/20/11, p.8)

400-500     The 63-volume, 2,711-page compendium of Jewish law was compiled in Mesopotamia during this time. In 1923 the custom, known as Daf Yomi, Hebrew for daily page," began, when Polish Rabbi Meir Shapiro conceived of the idea of reading the Talmud with the aim of uniting Jews globally in a daily regimen of Talmud study. It takes seven years and five months to finish at a rate of a single page per day.
    (AP, 1/7/20)

1174        Nureddin, the ruler of Syria died. Saladin, the vizier of Egypt, married Nureddins widow and assumed control of both state. The Ayyubids under Saladin spent the next decade launching conquests throughout the region and by 1183, the territories under their control included Egypt, Syria, northern Mesopotamia, Hejaz, Yemen, and the North African coast up to the borders of modern-day Tunisia.
    (ON, 6/07, p.5)(

650BC        Nabonidas, the last ruler of Ur, made extensive renovations to the ziggurat there. His daughter, princess Bel-Shalti-Nannar, maintained a museum of local antiquities.
    (ON, 8/20/11, p.7,8)

1922        Nov 2, English archeologist Charles Leonard Woolley began excavating the ancient Mesopotamian city of Ur, located between Baghdad and the Persian Gulf.
    (ON, 8/20/11, p.7)

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