739 Nov 7, Willibrord (81),
[Clemens], 1st bishop of Utrecht (695-739) and saint, died in
1296 Aug 10, John the Blind,
King of Bohemia, Count of Luxembourg, was born.
1316 May 14, Charles IV
(d.1378), later King of Bohemia and Holy Roman Emperor, was born in
the House of Luxembourg.
1346 Nov 26, Charles of
Luxembourg was crowned German king. He succeeded his father John of
Luxemburg as King of Bohemia and Count of Luxembourg.
(PC, 1992 ed, p.128)
1378 Nov 29, Charles IV
(b.1316), King of Bohemia and Holy Roman Emperor, died.
1429 Jan 23, At the Congress of
Luck Emp. Sigismund of Luxembourg offered to crown Vytautas as King
1582 Oct 15, The Gregorian (or
New World) calendar was adopted in Italy, France, Luxembourg, Spain,
and Portugal; and the preceding ten days were lost to history. This
day followed Oct 4 to bring the calendar into sync. by order of the
Council of Trent. Oct 5-14 were dropped.
(K.I.-365D, p.97)(NG, March 1990, J.
Boslough)(HN, 10/15/98)(SFEC, 10/3/99, Par p.27)
1714 Mar 6, the Treaty of
Rastatt ended the war between Austria and Spain. It complemented the
Treaty of Utrecht, which had, the previous year, ended hostilities
with Britain and the Dutch Republic. The Spanish Netherlands became
the Austrian Netherlands, and Spain gave up her possession in Italy,
Luxembourg and Flanders. A third treaty, the Treaty of Baden (Sep 7,
1714), was required to end the hostilities between France and the
Holy Roman Empire.
(PCh, ed. 1992,
1884 Aug 16, Hugo Gernsback
(d.1967), sci-fi writer, publisher (1960 Hugo), was born in
1890 Nov 23, Grand Duchy of
Luxembourg separated from the Netherlands.
1904 Hugo Gernsback
(1884-1967), budding inventor and writer, moved to the US, where he
patented a new kind of electrical battery.
(ON, 11/05, p.10)
1914 July 27, Germany informed
Belgium and Luxembourg of its intention to pass its troops through
their countries. German Chancellor Theobald von Bethmann-Hollweg
reportedly called the 1839 London Treaty, in which all the European
powers had guaranteed Belgian neutrality, "a scrap of paper" not
worth fighting over. Bethmann-Hollweg was trying to persuade Britain
not to declare war based on the treaty. Unsuccessful in his efforts,
Britain and Belgium declared war when German troops entered Belgium
on August 4.
1914 Aug 2, Germany invaded
1920 May 1, Belgian-Luxembourg
toll tunnel opened.
1940 May 10, German forces
began a blitzkrieg of the Netherlands, Belgium and Luxembourg,
skirting France's "impenetrable" Maginot Line. Belgium was invaded
by Germany and maintained resistance for 18 days.
(WSJ, 8/1/95, p.A-8)(WSJ, 4/29/96, p.C-1)(HN,
1940-1945 About 2,000 Luxembourg Jews were
killed during the Holocaust.
1944 Sep 11, American troops
1944 Dec 26, In the World War
II Battle of the Bulge, the embattled U.S. 101st Airborne Division
was relieved by units of the 4th Armored Division. The Battle of the
Bulge was the final major German counter-offensive of the war and
thrust deep into allied territory in N & E Belgium and
Luxembourg. US Gen Patton's tanks repulsed the Germans.
(WUD, 1994, p.195)(SFC, 9/1/96, T3)(AP,
1944-1945 The Battle of the Bulge raged across the
(SFC, 9/1/96, T3)
1948 Mar 18, France, Great
Britain and Benelux signed the Treaty of Brussels.
1949 Apr 4, The (NATO) North
Atlantic Treaty Organization pact was signed by the US, Great
Britain, France, Belgium, the Netherlands, Luxembourg, Italy,
Portugal, Denmark, Iceland, Norway and Canada. It provided for
mutual defense against aggression and for close military
1949 Perle Mesta, a Washington
socialite, was appointed US ambassador. Her flamboyant ways and gala
parties inspired the Broadway musical “Call Me Madam."
(SFC, 10/22/96, p.A18)
1951 Apr 18, Jean Monnet,
French civil servant, and Robert Schuman, French foreign minister,
helped found the European Union with agreements between 6 countries
on the pooling of coal and steel resources. Ministers from Belgium,
Luxembourg, the Netherlands, West Germany, Italy and France put
their names on the Treaty of Paris, the founding document of what in
four decades would become the European Union.
(Econ, 9/25/04, Survey p.3)(Econ, 6/18/16, p.45)
1952 Sep 10, Germany and Israel
signed the Luxembourg Agreement, an accord about recovery payments.
West Germany agreed to pay Israel a sum of 3 billion marks over the
next fourteen years. It was signed by West German Chancellor Konrad
Adenauer, Israeli Foreign Minister Moshe Sharett and World Jewish
Congress President Nahum Goldmann.
1959-1974 Pierre Werner (d.2002) served as Prime
Minister. He served again from 1979-1984.
(SFC, 6/25/02, p.A20)
1964 Grand Duke Jean began his
(SFC, 12/25/99, p.A14)
1973 Ruth Lewis Farkas
(1907-1996), was appointed ambassador to Luxembourg by Pres. Nixon
after she and her husband, founder of Alexander’s department stores,
contributed $300,000 to Nixon’s re-election campaign.
(SFC, 10/22/96, p.A18)
1979-1984 Pierre Werner (d.2002) served a 2nd
period as Prime Minister.
(SFC, 6/25/02, p.A20)
1980s Late, Friendly regulation
and low taxes spurred a banking boom in the Grand duchy.
(WSJ, 6/14/96, p.A10)
1986 Feb 17, The Single
European Act modifying the Treaty of Rome was signed a 1st time in
Luxembourg. [see Feb 28] The single European Act was passed to end
trade restricting regulations and create a true single European
market by 1992.
(Econ, 9/25/04, Survey
1991 French frigates were sold
to Taiwan. In 2004 a fake list of French public figures (including
later president Nicolas Sarkozy), who allegedly held accounts at a
Luxembourg-based clearing house (Clearstream Banking S.A.), was
leaked to a French judge. This came to be known as the 2nd
1992 Jul 2, Luxembourg ratifies
the Treaty on the European Union.
1992 Radio Luxembourg went off
the air as it lost listeners due to deregulation and commercial
rivals. In 2008 it hoped to make a comeback using digital
(Econ, 3/8/08, TQ p.8)
1993 Germany passed a 30%
withholding tax on investment income. It caused billions of marks to
flow out of Germany and into Luxembourg.
(WSJ, 6/14/96, p.A10)
1995 Jan 20, Jean-Claude
Juncker (b.1954), the leader of the Christian Social People's Party,
succeeded Jacques Santer as PM of Luxembourg. “Juncker’s Curse" was
named after Jean-Claude Juncker, who famously quipped: “We all know
what to do. But we don’t know how to get reelected once we've done
1996 Jun 9, The latest
unemployment rate was 3%.
(SFC, 6/9/96, Parade, p.9)
1996 Jun, The nation’s managers
ran some $325 billion in assets.
(WSJ, 6/14/96, p.A10)
1998 Jun 4, The first meeting
of the Eurogroup was held at Senningen Castle in Luxembourg.
Formerly known as the Euro-X and Euro-XI in relation to the number
of states adopting the euro, the group was established at the
request of France as a policy co-ordination and consultation forum
on eurozone matters.
1999 Jan 1, The Maastricht
Treaty specified that a monetary union will be established by this
date, and laid down several criteria that EU nations must fulfill in
order to join. Some of the criteria included: maximum budget
deficits of 3% of GDP, a cap on government debt of 60% of GDP. The
European economic and monetary union (EMU) was scheduled to start
with a new "Euro" currency. Austria, Belgium, Finland, France,
Germany, Ireland, Italy, Luxembourg, the Netherlands, Portugal and
Spain made the transition. Public use was set for Jan 1, 2002.
(WSJ, 9/25/95, p.A-12)(WSJ, 12/5/95, p.A-14)(SFC,
11/16/96, p.A1)(SFC, 1/1/99, p.A8)
1999 Jan 14, The EU voted
against censure after EU Pres. Jacques Santer of Luxembourg pledged
to impose a reform program to prevent fraud.
2000 May 31, In Luxembourg Neji
Bejaoui, an unemployed Tunisian immigrant, took 37 children and 3
teachers hostage in Wasserbillig. Police posing as journalists shot
and wounded the hostage-taker after a 30-hour standoff. No one else
(SFC, 6/1/00, p.A17)(SFC, 6/2/00, p.A14)(SFC,
2000 Sep, Grand Duke Jean
planned to abdicate in favor of his eldest son Prince Henri.
(SFC, 12/25/99, p.A14)
2002 Jun 24, Pierre Werner
(88), Luxembourg Prime Minister from 1959-1974 and 1979-1984, died.
He was hailed as the “father of the euro" for his 1970 plan for a
common European currency.
(SFC, 6/25/02, p.A20)
2002 Nov 6, In Luxembourg a
twin-engine Fokker-50 plane crashed in fog as it approached Findel
Airport, killing 17 people and seriously injuring five others.
(AP, 11/6/02)(WSJ, 11/7/02, p.A1)
2003 Apr 29, The leaders of
France, Germany, Belgium and Luxembourg, all critics of the U.S.-led
war on Iraq, agreed to beef up their military cooperation in an
effort to make Europe's defense less reliant on the US.
2004 Sep 10, European finance
ministers chose Luxembourg PM Jean-Claude Juncker to represent the
group of 12 European Union countries that share the euro currency.
2005 Jul 7, Luxembourg PM
Jean-Claude Juncker asked his citizens to pass a referendum in favor
of the EU Constitution.
(WSJ, 7/8/05, p.A5)
2005 Luxembourg’s gross
domestic product (GDP) for this year was $69,800, making it the
richest country in the world by this measure.
(SSFC, 12/17/06, p.G5)
2006 Jun 25, Arcelor, based in
Luxembourg, accepted Mittal Steel's 27-billion-euro ($34 billion)
partnership offer. The new group, would be owned 50.6% by Arcelor
shareholders and 49.4% by those of Mittal, of which 43% would be
controlled by the Mittal family of India.
(AP, 6/26/06)(Econ, 7/1/06, p.56)
2008 Sep 28, The governments of
Belgium, the Netherlands and Luxembourg took partial control of
struggling bank Fortis NV.
2008 Dec 4, The
Luxembourg-based European Court of First Instance said EU
governments "violated the rights of defense" of the People's
Mujahedeen Organization of Iran (PMOI), and that the EU nations have
not provided sufficient proof to blacklist the group.
2009 Jan 15, A Luxembourg court
ordered Swiss bank UBS AG to pay French financial company Oddo &
Cie euro30 million ($40 million) it had invested in a fund linked to
the alleged fraud perpetrated by US financier Bernard Madoff.
2009 Oct 19, The EU agreed to
give the dairy sector an extra $420 million in special aid in an
effort to quell a season of unrest in agriculture. Meanwhile angry
farmer pelted riot police with eggs and buckets of milk in
(SFC, 10/20/09, p.A2)
2010 Jan 21, A Dutch airlift
brought 106 children from quake-ravaged Haiti to new lives in the
Netherlands and Luxembourg, as anxious families waited to hug
children they had been in the process of adopting for months.
2011 Jan 18, A Luxembourg
official said the country will invest a large sum in Burkina Faso to
help alleviate poverty in the landlocked West African nation.
2011 Oct 9, The governments of
Belgium, France and Luxembourg said they had approved a plan for the
future of embattled bank Dexia, but they offered no details. France
and Belgium became part owners of the bank during a euro6 billion
($7.8 billion) 2008 bailout. They have promised to ensure that no
Dexia depositors lose money. Luxembourg held a smaller stake. The
cost of the bailout to French taxpayers was about €6.6 billion.
(AP, 10/9/11)(Econ, 11/16/13, p.77)
2012 PWC auditor Antoine
Deltour passed 28,000 pages of documents to Edouard Perrin, a French
journalist, exposing tax deals between Luxembourg and 340 corporate
clients in what came to be known as the “LuxLeaks" affair.
2013 Feb 20, The Czech
Agriculture and Food Inspection Authority said DNA tests showed two
batches of frozen Nowaco Lasagne Bolognese in a branch of the Tesco
supermarket chain in the western city of Pilsen contained horsemeat.
Luxembourg was listed as the country of origin.
2013 Jul 11, Luxembourg’s PM
Jean-Claude Juncker resigned amid a spying and corruption scandal
following revelations that the nation’s former spy chief had taped
official meetings with a recorder disguised as a wrist watch.
(Reuters, 7/11/13)(SFC, 7/13/13, p.A2)
2013 Oct 20, Luxembourgers
voted for a new government with a possibility of keeping PM
Jean-Claude Juncker in power after a spying scandal forced early
elections. The conservative Christian Social People's Party (CSV) of
PM Jean-Claude Juncker led the field with 33.7% of the vote --
against 38% four years ago.
(AP, 10/20/13)(AFP, 10/20/13)
2013 Oct 25, Luxembourg’s royal
palace said Xavier Bettel, the mayor of Luxembourg City, has been
asked to form the next government, sidelining long-serving PM Jean
2014 Jun 27, European Union
leaders nominated former Luxembourg PM Jean-Claude Juncker (59) to
become the 28-nation bloc's new chief executive. He was chosen by an
indirect system known as Spitzenkandidaten (lead candidate). Juncker
still needed to be confirmed by the European Parliament before
taking office on Nov 1.
(AP, 6/27/14)(SFC, 6/28/14, p.A2)(Econ, 6/28/14,
2014 Dec 10, The International
Consortium of Investigative Journalists named Disney and Koch
Industries, an energy and chemical conglomerate, as among 35 big
companies it said had been seeking secret tax deals in Luxembourg.
2015 May 15, Luxembourg PM
Xavier Bettel married Gauthier Destenay, a Belgian architect, in the
first same-sex marriage of an EU leader.
(SFC, 5/16/15, p.A2)
2016 Jun 29, In Luxembourg two
whistleblowers in the "LuxLeaks" tax scandal were given suspended
jail sentences for leaking thousands of documents that exposed
Luxembourg's huge tax breaks for major international companies.
Former PricewaterhouseCoopers employees Antoine Deltour and Raphael
Halet received 12-month and nine-month sentences respectively while
journalist Edouard Perrin was acquitted of all charges. In March
2017 the sentence for Antoine Deltour (31) was reduced to six months
suspended with a 1,500-euro fine. Raphael Halet (40) received a
1,000-euro fine instead of a nine-month prison sentence.
(AFP, 6/29/16)(AFP, 3/15/17)
2017 Feb 14, In Luxembourg a
passenger train and a freight train collided, killing one person and
injuring several more.
2017 Mar 29, Luxembourg claimed
the legal right to host the London-based European Banking Authority
after Brexit. PM Xavier Bettel made his case in a letter to EU
Council President Donald Tusk and European Commission head
2017 Sep 14, In Luxembourg
Ryanair lost an EU court battle in which the airline had sought to
continue forcing cabin crew based outside Ireland to take their
disputes to Irish courts, in a case with implications across the
low-cost airline sector.
2017 Oct 4, The European Union
ordered Amazon to pay $295 million in back taxes to Luxembourg, in
its latest attempt to tighten the screws on multinationals it says
are avoiding taxes through sweetheart deals with individual EU
2018 Jan 11, A Luxembourg court
overturned a verdict against a former accounting firm employee who
leaked thousands of secret documents to a journalist investigating
sweetheart tax deals the government granted to big foreign
companies. The Court of Cassation ruled that Antoine Deltour should
have been recognized as a whistleblower.
2018 Feb 24, The European
Central Bank said it has determined that Latvia's crisis-struck ABLV
Bank is failing or likely to fail along with a Luxembourg-based
subsidiary, ABLV Bank Luxembourg, and the bank will be wound up
under its home country's law. Latvian PM Maris Kucinskis said his
government won't put any taxpayer money into rescuing ABLV.
2018 Mar 7, The EU’s executive
branch pointed the finger at Belgium, Cyprus, Hungary, Ireland,
Luxembourg, Malta and the Netherlands for "aggressive" tax policies
designed to undercut others to attract multinational companies.
2018 May 29, Luxembourg based
JAB Holding Co. said it is acquiring the British-based restaurant
chain Pret A Manger. JAB bought Panera last year for more than $7
billion. JAB also has controlling stakes in Krispy Kreme Doughnuts,
Keurig Green Mountain, Peet's Coffee & Tea, Caribou Coffee Co.
2018 Oct 14, Luxembourg held
parliamentary elections. The center-right was expected to return to
power after a rare five years in opposition.
2018 Dec 5, In Luxembourg
Xavier Bettel started his second term as prime minister, leading a
coalition of his liberals along with Socialists and Greens.
2018 Dec 5, Police arrested
dozens of suspected mobsters in Europe and South America in dubbed
"Operation Pollina," a huge international swoop targeting Italy's
notorious 'Ndrangheta mafia clan. Police seized four tons of
cocaine, 120 kilos of ecstasy and two million euros (dollars) in
cash across Germany, Italy, the Netherlands, Belgium, Luxembourg and
2019 Apr 13, Malta announced a
deal to distribute 64 migrants rescued at sea off Libya 10 days ago
among four European Union nations: Germany, France, Portugal and
Luxembourg. The German-flagged aid ship carrying them, the Alan
Kurdi, will still not be allowed to enter its ports and none of the
migrants will remain in Malta.
2020 Feb 29, Luxembourg
abolished fares for trains, trams and buses in what the government
said was a bid to tackle road congestion and pollution, as well as
supporting low earners. Travelers can still pay for first class, at
a cost of 660 euros a year.
2020 Mar 1, Ecuador, Ireland,
Luxembourg and Qatar reported their first cases of the coronavirus.
2020 Mar 13, Finland, France,
Germany, Luxembourg and Portugal agreed to take in at least 1,600
migrant children in Greece traveling without their parents.
(SSFC, 3/15/20, p.A3)
2020 Mar 21, Luxembourg
coronavirus cases rose to 670 from 484 and deaths to eight.
2020 Apr 9, It was reported
that Luxembourg will become the first EU country to start systematic
mass tests on its population, regardless of whether they show
coronavirus symptoms or not.
2020 Apr 12, Iran's President
Hassan Rouhani said the country had won a legal "victory" over $1.6
billion of its assets that had long been frozen on a US request in
Luxembourg. The Luxembourg Court of Cassation had devoted an April 2
hearing to the case of Iranian assets frozen there on a US request,
according the investigative news site Paperjam.
2020 Apr 20, Luxembourg began
easing coronavirus restrictions along with an order that the public
cover their mouths when entering confined spaces such as public
transport or shops.
2020 Jul 31, The European
Center for Disease Prevention and Control said Luxembourg had 240.6
COVID-19 cases per 100,000 population over the last 14 days, much
higher than any other country in the European Economic Area.
Luxembourg said its large number of COVID-19 cases reflects its
unrivalled level of testing.
2021 Jan 27, The Luxembourg
government signed a deal with the World Jewish Restitution
Organization to pay reparations and to restitute dormant bank
accounts, insurance policies as well as looted art to Holocaust