Timeline Japan (B) 1941-1979

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1941        Feb 8, Japanese armored barges crossed the Strait of Johore to attack Singapore.
    (MC, 2/8/02)

1941        Apr 13, A Russian-Japan no-attack treaty went into effect.
    (MC, 4/13/02)

1941        Jul 21, France accepted Japan's demand for military control of Indochina.
    (HN, 7/21/98)

1941        Jul 24, The U.S. government denounced Japanese actions in Indochina.
    (HN, 7/24/98)

1941        Jul 25, The U.S. government froze Japanese and Chinese assets.
    (HN, 7/25/98)

1941        Jul 27, Japanese forces landed in Indo-China.
    (MC, 7/27/02)

1941        Jul 28, A Japanese army landed in Cochin, China (modern day Vietnam).
    (HN, 7/28/98)

1941        Aug 27, The Prime Minister of Japan, Fumimaro Konoye, issued an invitation for a meeting with President Roosevelt.
    (HN, 8/27/98)

1941        Aug, The US placed an embargo on oil shipments to Japan in response to Japan’s occupation of French Indochina (later Cambodia, Laos, Vietnam).
    (Econ, 12/6/14, p.24)

1941        Sep 6, Emperor Hirohito gave his sanction "with misgivings" to simultaneous efforts to negotiate peace with the US and to prepare for an attack if the efforts failed.
    (SFC, 10/3/00, p.A10)

1941        Oct 15, The Japanese Tojo regime was formed. [see Oct 17]
    (MC, 10/15/01)

1941        Oct 17, Gen'l. Hideki Toho (1885-1948) became Premier and Minister of War in Japan. When the bellicose war minister and most powerful man in Japan, Army General Hideki Tojo, became prime minister, there no longer was a chance of avoiding war with Britain and the United States.
    (WUD, 1944, p.1683)(HN, 2/21/98)

1941        Oct 18, Spy Richard Sorge was arrested in Tokyo.
    (MC, 10/18/01)

1941        Nov 1, Japanese marine staff officers Suzuki and Maejima arrived in Pearl Harbor.
    (MC, 11/1/01)

1941        Nov 3, Hirohito's accord on Yamamoto's attack plan on Pearl Harbor failed.
    (MC, 11/3/01)

1941        Nov 5, Japanese marine staff officers Suzuki and Maejima left Pearl Harbor.
    (MC, 11/5/01)

1941        Nov 20, Ambassadors Nomura and Kurusu handed over Japan's last diplomatic note.
    (MC, 11/20/01)

1941        Nov 26, The Japanese fleet departed from the Kurile Islands en route for its attack on Pearl Harbor.
    (HN, 11/26/98)
1941        Nov 26, The US issued an edict that "the government of Japan will withdraw all military, naval, air and police forces from China and Indochina."
    (SFC, 1/19/02, p.A19)

1941        Nov 30, Japanese Emperor Hirohito consulted with admirals Shimada and Nagano.
    (MC, 11/30/01)

1941        Dec 1, Japanese emperor Hirohito signed a declaration of war. Japan's Tojo rejected U.S. proposals for a Pacific settlement as fantastic and unrealistic.
    (HN, 12/1/98)(MC, 12/1/01)
1941        Dec 1, British declared a state of emergency in Malaya following reports of Japanese attacks.
    (HN, 12/1/98)

1941        Dec 2, Naval Intelligence ended the bugging of the Japanese consul.
    (MC, 12/2/01)
1941        Dec 2, Yamamoto ordered his fleet to Pearl Harbor.
    (MC, 12/2/01)

1941        Dec 5, President Roosevelt sent a message to Japanese Emperor Hirohito expressing hope that gathering war clouds would be dispelled. Hirohito smiled enigmatically, knowing that Japan would attack Pearl Harbor the next day.
    (MC, 12/5/01)

1941        Dec 6, President Franklin D. Roosevelt issued a personal appeal to Emperor Hirohito to use his influence to avoid war.
    (HN, 12/6/98)
1941        Dec 6, Dutch and British pilots saw Japanese invasion fleet at Singapore.
    (MC, 12/6/01)

1941        Dec 7, At 7:50 a.m. [7:55 a.m.] Japan launched an aerial attack on the U.S. naval base at Pearl Harbor, the home base of the U.S. Pacific fleet, and forced US entry into the war. They also attacked the Philippines, the Int’l. Settlement at Shanghai, Thailand and Hong Kong. Relations between Japan and the United States had been strained for a decade as both nations sought to dominate the Pacific. Long aware that a Japanese surprise attack on the naval base at Pearl Harbor could precede war, U.S. authorities were still woefully unprepared when 363 Japanese fighters, dive-bombers and torpedo planes sunk or damaged eight battleships and three light cruisers, destroyed 188 planes and killed 2,400 men in just over two hours. The Battleship Arizona lost 1,177 men. An estimated 900 were entombed in the sunken ship. 429 people aboard the battleship Oklahoma were killed as the ship capsized. The US lost [18] 19 ships, 140 aircraft and 2,300 [2,338] lives. In all 2,403 people were killed and 1,178 were wounded; 187 planes were destroyed and 159 damaged. The Japanese lost 29 planes and 5 midget submarines. The next day, President Franklin D. Roosevelt denounced December 7, 1941, as a "date which will live in infamy" as he asked Congress to declare war on Japan.
    (TL,1988,p.112)(SFC,12/7/96,p.A3)(SFC12/6/96, p.A5)(SFC,12/5/97, p.A29)(AP, 12/7/97)(HNPD, 12/7/98)(SFC, 3/23/19, p.A5)
1941        Dec 7, The 1st Japanese submarine was sunk by a US ship, the USS Ward.
    (MC, 12/7/01)
1941        Dec 7, Evidence arose in 1999 that one of five Japanese mini submarines penetrated Pearl Harbor and hit at least one ship with torpedoes. In 1999 Robert B. Stinnett published "Day of Deceit: The Truth About FDR and Pearl Harbor."
    (SFC, 12/7/99, p.A1)(WSJ, 12/7/99, p.A24)
1941        Dec 7, At 2:20 p.m. the "Final Memorandum" document was delivered to Sec. of State Cordell Hull in Washington DC. In it Japan notified the US that it was "impossible to reach an agreement through further negotiations."
    (SFC, 12/9/99, p.C2)

1941        Dec 8, The Japanese armoured cruiser Izumo shelled Chinese positions from the middle of the Huangpu River in Shanghai, assisted in sinking the HMS Peterel, the last British gunboat, and captured the USS Wake, the last American gunboat. The Izumo and sister ship Iwate sank during the American aerial attack on Kure in July 1945.
    (https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Izumo-class_cruiser)(Econ, 1/7/17, p.13)
1941        Dec 8, Japan attacked the Philippines. The United States entered World War II as Congress declared war against Japan, a day after the attack on Pearl Harbor.
    (WUD, 1944, p.1683)(SFEC, 12/15/96, p.T7)(AP, 12/8/97)
1941        Dec 8, Japanese troops occupied Hong Kong.
    (SFEC, 6/22/97, p.A14)
1941        Dec 8, Japanese General Yamashita began his attack against the British army at Singapore. General Tomoyuki Yamashita earned the name "Tiger of Malaya" for his masterful capture of Singapore and the whole Malay Peninsula from the British, who had a superior number of troops.  Yamashita's forces landed on the northern Malay Peninsula and southern Thailand on December 8, 1941, and moved rapidly southward toward Singapore, which surrendered on February 15, 1942. The peninsula and Singapore remained under Japanese control throughout the war. Later in the war, while defending the Philippines from Gen. MacArthur's return, Yamashita's troops wantonly slaughtered more than 100,000 Filipinos in Manila. He was later tried and executed for war crimes.
    (HN, 12/8/98)(HNQ, 4/5/00)

1941        Dec 9, China declared war on Japan, Germany and Italy.
    (AP, 12/9/97)

1941        Dec 10, Japanese troops invaded the Filipino island of Luzon and overran Guam.
    (WUD, 1944, p.1683)(HN, 12/10/98)(MC, 12/10/01)

1941        Dec 11, A Japanese invasion fleet attacked Wake Island, which was defended by 439 US marines, 75 sailors and 6 soldiers. The defenders sank 4 Japanese ships, damaged 8 and destroyed a submarine.
    (SFC, 12/12/01, p.A2)

1941        Dec 18, Defended by 610 fighting men, the American-held island of Guam fell to more than 5,000 Japanese invaders in a three-hour battle.
    (HN, 12/18/98)
1941        Dec 18, Japanese troops landed on Hong Kong. [see Dec 19]
    (MC, 12/18/01)

1941        Dec 18 - 1941 Dec 24, Japanese submarines attacked eight US merchant ships off the West Coast sinking two and damaging two others. Seven of the attacks were inside California coastal waters.
    (Ind, 2/2/02, 5A)(SFC, 12/7/13, p.C4)

1941        Dec 19, Japanese landed on Hong Kong and clashed with British troops.
    (HN, 12/19/98)

1941        Dec 20, Japanese troops landed on Mindanao.
    (MC, 12/20/01)
1941        Dec 20, The Flying Tigers, American pilots in China, entered combat against the Japanese over Kunming.
    (HN, 12/20/98)

1941        Dec 22, Japanese troops made an amphibious landing on the coast of Lingayen Gulf on Luzon, the Philippines.
    (HN, 12/22/98)

1941        Dec 23, US Marines and Navy defenders on Wake Island capitulated to a second Japanese invasion. In 1995 Brig. Gen. John F. Kinney co-wrote “Wake Island Pilot: A World War II Memoir."
    (AP, 12/23/97)(HN, 12/23/00)(SFC, 7/11/06, p.B5)
1941        Dec 23, The Japanese occupied Hong Kong.
    (WUD, 1944, p.1683)
1941        Dec 23, The 440-foot tanker Montebello was sunk off the California coast near Cambria by Japanese submarine I-21. The crew of 38 survived. In 1996 it was found that the 4.1 million gallon cargo of crude oil appeared intact.
    (SFC, 11/30/96, p.A19)(SFC, 8/27/10, p.A12)

1941        Dec 24, The 1st ships of Admiral Nagumo's (Pearl Harbor) fleet returned to Japan.
    (MC, 12/24/01)

1941        Dec 25, Japan announced the surrender of the British-Canadian garrison at Hong Kong. Major John Crawford (d.1997) and some 1,975 Canadian soldiers were captured and incarcerated at the Sham Shui Po prison camp at Kowloon for 44 months.
    (G&M, 7/30/97, p.A24)(HN, 12/25/02)(AP, 12/25/07)

1941        Dec 27, Japanese bombers attacked Manila, despite its claim as an open city.
    (HN, 12/27/98)

1941        Japan invaded Indonesia and ended the Dutch era of colonial power. East Timor, under Portuguese for some 400 years, was also invaded.
    (SFC, 10/12/96, p.A13)
1941        Japanese forces land in Thailand. After negotiations Thailand allows Japanese to advance towards British-controlled Malay Peninsula, Singapore and Burma.
1941        Japan’s Tokai Bank was founded. In 2001 it joined with Sanwa Bank and Tokyo Trust Bank to form UFJ Holdings. In 2005 it became part of the Mitsubishi UFJ Financial Group.
    (WSJ, 9/23/08, p.C1)

1941-1945    In 2006 Evan Thomas authored “Sea of Thunder: Four Commanders and the Last Great Naval Campaign 1941-1945," a study of the Pacific Campaign of World War II.
    (WSJ, 12/16/06, p.P11)

1942        Jan 4, Japanese forces began the evacuation of Guadalcanal
    (HN, 1/4/00)

1942        Jan 11, Japan declared war against the Netherlands, the same day that Japanese forces invaded the Dutch East Indies (later Indonesia).
    (AP, 1/11/98)(HN, 1/11/99)

1942        Jan 16, Japan's advance into Burma began.
    (HN, 1/16/99)

1942        Jan 18, General MacArthur repelled the Japanese in Bataan.
    (HN, 1/18/99)

1942        Jan 19, Japanese forces invaded Burma. [see Jan 16]
    (MC, 1/19/02)

1942        Jan 20, There was a Japanese air raid on Rabaul, New Britain.
    (MC, 1/20/02)

1942        Feb 8, The Japanese landed on Singapore. By 1941, Gen. Yamashita was the commanding general of Japan's Twenty-Fifth Army. His plans for taking Singapore were already underway.
    (HN, 2/8/98)

1942        Feb 9, Chiang Kai-shek met with Sir Stafford Cripps, the British viceroy in India. Detachment 101 harried the Japanese in Burma and provided close support for regular Allied forces.
    (HN, 2/9/97)
1942        Feb 9, Japanese troops landed near Makassar, South Celebes.
    (MC, 2/9/02)

1942        Feb 14, The Japanese attacked Sumatra. Aidan MacCarthy's RAF unit flew to Palembang, in eastern Sumatra, where 30 Royal Australian Air Force Lockheed A-28 Hudson bombers were waiting. The elation was short-lived as Japanese soldiers were parachuting into the jungle that surrounded the airfield.
    (HN, 2/14/98)

1942        Feb 15, British forces in Singapore surrendered to Japanese General Tomoyuki Yamashita. Yamashita prevailed, when British Lt. Gen. Sir Arthur Percival and 130,000 Empire troops surrendered. Churchill described this as the "worst disaster" in the history of British warfare.
    (AP, 2/15/98)(Econ., 1/9/21, p.17)

1942        Feb 16, Tojo outlined Japan's war aims to the Diet, referring to "new order of coexistence" in East Asia. During the Japanese war crimes trials, Tojo himself took responsibility, as premier, for anything either he or his country had done. He asserted, however, with the other defendants, that they--and Japan--had made war only in "self-defense."
    (HN, 2/16/98)

1942        Feb 18, Japanese troop landed on Bali.
    (MC, 2/18/02)

1942        Feb 19, Japanese troops landed on Timor. Australian commandos battled the Japanese with support from local people. Japanese reprisals killed 60,000 civilians, 13% of the population.
    (SFC, 5/17/02, p.A15)(MC, 2/19/02)
1942        Feb 19, Port Darwin, on the northern coast of Australia, was bombed by about 150 Japanese warplanes; at least 243 people were killed. General George C. Kenney, who pioneered aerial warfare strategy and tactics in the Pacific theater, ordered 3,000 parafrag bombs to be sent to Australia, where he thought they might come in handy against the Japanese. Darwin was virtually leveled by 64 bombing raids over 21 months.
    (HN, 2/19/98)(SFEC, 9/10/00, p.T10)(AP, 2/19/08)

1942        Feb 23, A Japanese submarine shelled an oil refinery at Ellwood, near Santa Barbara, Calif., the first Axis bombs to hit American soil.
    (HN, 2/23/98)(MC, 2/23/02)

1942        Feb 27, Battle of Java Sea began. 13 US warships sank-2 Japanese.
    (MC, 2/27/02)

1942        Feb 28, Japanese landed in Java, the last Allied bastion in Dutch East Indies.
    (MC, 2/28/02)
1942        Feb 28, The Japanese sank the USS Houston during the Battle of Sunda Strait. The ship carried 1,068 crewmen, but only 291 sailors and Marines survived both the attack and being prisoners of war.  In 2014 Navy divers from the US and Indonesia confirmed that a sunken vessel in the Java Sea is the wreck of the Houston.
    (AP, 8/18/14)

1942         Mar 1, The 3 day Battle of Java Sea ended as US suffered a major naval defeat. Japanese troops occupy Kalidjati airport in Java. More than 900 Dutch and 250 Indo-Dutch sailors died during the battle in which the Allied navies suffered a disastrous defeat by the Imperial Japanese Navy.
    (HN, 3/1/98)(SC, 3/1/02)(AFP, 11/17/16)

1942        Mar 5, Japanese troop marched into Batavia.
    (MC, 3/5/02)

1942        Mar 7, Japanese troops landed on New Guinea.
    (HN, 3/7/98)

1942        Mar 8, Japanese captured Rangoon, Burma, during World War II.
    (AP, 3/8/98)(HN, 3/8/98)

1942        Mar 11, As Japanese forces continued to advance in the Pacific during World War II Gen. Douglas MacArthur left Corregidor in the Philippines for Australia. MacArthur, who subsequently vowed, "I shall return," kept that promise more than 2 1/2 years later. MacArthur relinquished command in the Philippines to Gen’l. Jonathon Wainwright.
    (SFEC, 12/15/96, p.T7)(AP, 3/11/98)(http://tinyurl.com/736ws)

1942        Mar 20, Gen MacArthur slipped out of Corregidor and vowed: "I shall return." [see Mar 11]
    (MC, 3/20/02)

1942        Mar 23, The Japanese occupied the Andaman Islands in the Indian Ocean.
    (HN, 3/23/98)(SS, 3/23/02)

1942        Mar, Japan established relations with the Vatican, the 1st non-Christian state to do so. The first ambassador's name was Ken Harada.
    (Econ, 7/21/07, p.59)(www.reformation.org/vatican-and-japan.html)

1942        Apr 3, The Japanese began their all-out assault on the U.S. and Filipino troops at Bataan.
    (HN, 4/3/99)

1942        Apr 9, In the Battle of Bataan, some 70,000 soldiers gathered at the bottom of the Bataan peninsula during World War II. American and Philippine defenders on Bataan capitulated to Japanese forces; the surrender was followed by the notorious 55-mile “Bataan Death March" which claimed nearly 10,000 lives. 12,000 American soldiers surrendered to the Japanese and some 1000 died on the march. 85% of the surrendering troops suffered from malaria.
    (SFEC, 12/15/96, p.T7)(AP, 4/9/97)(HN, 4/9/98)(SSFC, 6/17/01, Par p.4)(Econ., 12/19/20, p.35)

1942        Apr 10, The 65-mile Bataan Death March began to a prison camp near Cabanatuan. The prisoners were forced to march 85 miles in six days with only one meal of rice during the entire journey. Some 10k-15k soldiers perished on the march. Bataan is a peninsula of western Luzon in the Philippines. It was surrendered to the Japanese in this year and retaken by American forces in 1945. [see Apr 9]
    (https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bataan_Death_March)(SFEC, 12/15/96, p.T7)(SFC, 4/25/97, p.A26)

1942        Apr 12, Japan killed about 400 Filipino officers in Bataan.
    (MC, 4/12/02)

1942        Apr 16, The Japanese occupying army on Java installed film censorship.
    (MC, 4/16/02)

1942        Apr 18, The first US air strike against Japan, an air squadron from the USS Hornet led by Lt. Col. James H. Doolittle (d.1993), raided Tokyo and other Japanese cities. 16 U.S. Army B-25 bombers broke through Japanese defenses to strike Tokyo and other cities in broad daylight. The North-American B-25B Mitchells were launched from the deck of the aircraft carrier Hornet, and after striking their targets, flew on to China. 2 of the 80 men drowned. 3 of 8 captured by the Japanese were executed and 1 died in a prison camp. Doolittle later became the commander general of the Eighth Air Force. In 1943 Ted Lawson authored “Thirty Seconds Over Tokyo," an account of the bombing of Tokyo.
    (AP, 4/18/97)(SFC, 5/15/02, p.A23)(SSFC, 3/30/03, p.A1)(SFC, 8/12/06, p.P8)
1942        Apr 18, The 16th plane of the Doolittle air strike against Japan landed outside Vladivostok in the Soviet Union following its mission. Nolan Herndon (1918-2007), the bombardier, later reported that their plane was used to test the Soviet resolve as an ally. The 5-man crew was held for over 13 months before escaping to a British Embassy in what later became Iran.
    (SFC, 10/16/07, p.D8)

1942        Apr 29, Japanese troops marched into Lashio and cut off the Burma Road.
    (MC, 4/29/02)

1942        May 2, Japanese troops occupied Mandalay Burma.
    (MC, 5/2/02)

1942        May 7, In the Battle of the Coral Sea, Japanese and American navies attacked each other with carrier planes. It was the first time in the history of naval warfare where two enemy fleets fought without seeing each other. This battle stopped Japanese expansion.
    (HN, 5/7/99)(MC, 5/7/02)

1942        May 8, Battle of the Coral Sea between the Japanese Navy and the US Navy ended as a tactical victory for the Japanese. They sank more tons of ships than the US did. It was a strategic victory for the US in that the Japanese were halted in their drive south.
    (HN, 5/8/99)(MC, 5/8/02)

1942        May 20, Japan completed the conquest of Burma.
    (HN, 5/20/98)

1942        May, Japanese documents in 1998 revealed that their military used poison gas in a northern China battlefield. China claimed that poison gas was used 2,900 times.
    (SFC, 6/15/98, p.A14)

1942        Jun 3, Japanese carrier-based planes strafed Dutch Harbor in the Aleutian Islands as a diversion of the attack on Midway island.
    (HN, 6/3/99)

1942        Jun 4, The Battle of Midway began. It was Japan’s first major defeat in World War II. Four Japanese carriers were lost. The carrier USS Yorktown was hit by 3 Japanese bombs and put on tow to Pearl Harbor. It was torpedoed three days later and sank in waters 16,650 deep. The Yorktown was found in 1998 by a team led by oceanographer Robert Ballard, who had also found the Titanic and the Bismarck. The story of the Battle of Midway was told by Walter Lord in "Incredible Victory." In 2005 Alvin Kernan authored “The Unknown Battle of Midway."
    (AP, 6/4/97)(HN, 6/4/98)(SFC, 6/5/98, p.A3)(SFEC, 6/4/00, p.C1)(WSJ, 11/29/05, p.D8)

1942        Jun 6, Japanese troops landed on Kiska, Aleutians.
    (MC, 6/6/02)
1942        Jun 6, Japanese forces retreated in the World War II Battle of Midway.
    (AP, 6/6/97)

1942        Jun 7, The Japanese invaded Attu and Kiska in the Aleutian Islands.
    (HN, 6/7/98)

1942        Jun 22, A Japanese submarine shelled Fort Stevens, Oregon, at the mouth of the Columbia River.
    (HN, 6/22/98)(MC, 6/22/02)

1942        Aug 7, The U.S. 1st Marine Division under General A. A. Vandegrift landed on the islands of Guadalcanal and Tulagi in the Solomon islands. This was the first American amphibious landing of the war and the start of the first major allied offensive in the Pacific during World War II. The initial landing party included Navajo Codetalkers. This was the 1st land Japanese defeat of WWII; Japan was building an air base with designs on isolating the  Australian continent.
    (AP, 8/7/97)(HN, 8/7/98)(WSJ, 10/12/99, p.A24)(MC, 8/7/02)

1942        Aug 8, U.S. Marines captured the Japanese airstrip on Guadalcanal.
    (HN, 8/8/98)

1942        Aug 15, The Japanese submarine I-25 departed Japan with a floatplane in its hold. It was assembled upon arriving off the West Coast of the US, and used to bomb U.S. forests.
    (HN, 8/15/99)

1942         Aug 18, Japan sent a crack army to Guadalcanal to repulse the U.S. Marines fighting there.
    (HN, 8/18/98)

1942        Aug 26, Japanese troops landed on New Guinea, Milne Bay.
    (MC, 8/26/02)

1942        Aug 27, Cuba declared war on Germany, Japan and Italy.
    (MC, 8/27/01)

1942        Aug 29, The American Red Cross announced that Japan had refused to allow safe conduct for the passage of ships with supplies for American prisoners of war.
    (HN, 8/29/98)

1942        Sep 9, A Japanese float plane, launched from a submarine, made its first bombing run on a US forest near Brookings, Oregon. Japanese planes drop incendiary bombs on Oregon in an attempt to set fire to the forests of the Northwest. The forests failed to ignite, but Pacific Coast citizens stepped-up their blackout drills in preparation for future Japanese raids.
    (HN, 9/9/99)

1942        Sep 15, The USS Wasp was torpedoed by a Japanese submarine at Guadalcanal; the US Navy ended up sinking the badly damaged aircraft carrier.
    (www.b-26marauderarchive.org/PM/PM2105/PM4223.htm)(AP, 9/15/07)

1942        Sep 16, The Japanese base at Kiska in the Aleutian Islands was raided by American bombers.
    (HN, 9/16/98)

1942        Sep 21, British forces attacked the Japanese in Burma.
    (HN, 9/21/98)

1942        Sep, More than 400 villagers died of bubonic plague in China's eastern Zhejiang province after Japanese warplanes of medical Unit 731 dropped germ bombs. Unit 731 was stationed on the outskirts of Harbin, China, until the Soviet Union entered the war. The unit deposited typhus into the water supply flowing into Manchuria. In 2000 Yoshio Shinozuka testified to seeing men infected with the plague and then being dissected while still alive. Harbin had 26 affiliates across China and its germ bombs (anthrax, cholera, typhus and bubonic plague) killed an estimated 270,000 people. Biological warfare activities of Unit 731 were unknown to most Japanese citizens until 1981, when author Seiichi Morimura exposed its dark history in a book, "The Devil's Gluttony".
    (SFEC, 12/8/96, p.C8)(SFC, 8/30/97, p.A12)(SFC, 8/15/98, p.A12)(SFC, 12/22/00, p.D6)(SFC, 6/12/01, p.A8)(AP, 8/27/02)

1942        Oct 11, In the World War II Battle of Cape Esperance in the Solomon Islands, U.S. cruisers and destroyers decisively defeated a Japanese task force in a night surface encounter
    (AP, 10/11/97)(HN, 10/11/98)

1942        Oct 12, US Navy defeated Japanese in WW II Battle of Cape Esperance.
    (MC, 10/12/01)

1942        Oct 19, The Japanese submarine I-36 launched a floatplane for a reconnaissance flight over Pearl Harbor. The pilot and crew reported on the ships in the harbor, after which the aircraft was lost at sea.
    (HN, 10/19/98)

1942        Oct 26, Japanese planes badly damaged the US ship Hornet in the Battle of Santa Cruz Islands, in the South Pacific Solomon Islands. 300 survivors were rescued by the destroyer Barton. The Hornet sank early the next morning.
    (HN, 10/26/98)(AP, 10/26/07)(SFC, 10/14/05, p.B6)
1942        Oct 26, In the Battle of Santa Cruz the USS South Dakota shot down a record 32 enemy planes
    (MC, 10/26/01)
1942        Oct 26, On the 2nd day in the Battle of Henderson Field. Mitchell Paige (1918-2003), US Marine platoon sergeant, held his position against Japanese forces at Guadalcanal as all his men were killed or wounded, until reinforcements arrived. He received a battlefield commission and later a Medal of Honor. In 1975 he authored the autobiography "A Marine Named Mitch."
    (HN, 10/26/98)(SFC, 11/19/03, p.A29)

1942        Oct 26, The U.S. ship Hornet was sunk in the Battle of Santa Cruz Islands, in the South Pacific during World War II.
    (AP, 10/26/97)(HN, 10/26/98)

1942        Nov 11, US code breakers reported that the Japanese were about to launch a large convoy to resupply US troops and annihilate US forces on Guadalcanal.
    (SFC, 5/26/18, p.C2)

1942        Nov 12, The World War II naval Battle of Guadalcanal began. 21 Japanese Mitsubishi torpedo bombers attacked the cruisers San Francisco and Helena. One plane struck the San Francisco killing 11 men firing at the plane. 11 others were killed elsewhere on the ship. The Allies eventually won a major victory over the Japanese. The battle was described by Ira Wolfert in news reports and his 1943 book "Battle for the Solomons." In 2011 James Hornfischer authored "Neptune's Inferno: The US Navy at Guadalcanal.
    (SFC,11/28/97, p.B8)(AP, 11/12/07)(SFC, 5/26/18, p.C2)

1942        Nov 13, On the 2nd day of the 4-day battle between Japanese and US naval forces off Guadalcanal Island in the Solomon Island chain Rear Adm. Daniel Callaghan, aboard the heavy cruiser San Francisco and Capt. Cassin Young, the ship’s commanding officer, were among 107 men killed. Adm. Norman Scott of the cruiser Atlanta was also killed  by mistaken fire from the San Francisco. The battle was a tactical defeat for the US Navy, but a strategic victory in saving Guadalcanal's Henderson Field. 
    (http://tinyurl.com/y9oj23ew)(SFC, 12/11/12, p.C3)(SSFC, 12/10/17, DB p.54)
1942        Nov 13, An American fleet defeated a Japanese naval force in a clash off Guadalcanal. The five Sullivan brothers, onboard USS Juneau, were all killed in the action. 687 men aboard the Juneau were killed after the ship was torpedoed and sank.
    (https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/USS_Juneau_%28CL-52%29)(SFC, 6/9/18, p.C2)

1942        Nov 14, American planes sank Japan's battleship Hiei (Heiei) following the Battle of Guadalcanal. 188 of her crew were lost.
    (https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Japanese_battleship_Hiei)(SFC, 6/9/18, p.C2)

1942        Nov, Some 1200 American POWs, survivors of the Bataan Death March, arrived at Japan’s Mukden POW camp in Manchuria. Additional troops from Australia, Britain, the Netherlands and New Zealand brought the population to 2,000. In August, 1945, 1,300 survivors of the camp were rescued by Red Army troops.
    (SFC, 11/24/17, p.E3)

1942        Dec 19, British advanced 40 miles into Burma in a drive to oust the Japanese from the colony.
    (HN, 12/19/98)

1942        Dec 20, 1st Japanese began the bombing of Calcutta.
    (MC, 12/20/01)

1942        Dec 27, The 1st Japanese women camp at Ambarawa went into use.
    (MC, 12/27/01)

1942        Dec 31, After five months of battle, Emperor Hirohito allowed the Japanese commanders at Guadalcanal to retreat.
    (HN, 12/31/98)

1942-1945    J.G. Ballard, English novelist born in Shanghai in 1930, was interned by the Japanese. His 1984 autobiographical novel "Empire of the Sun" described his experiences.
    (SFEC, 6/28/98, BR p.10)

1942-1945    In Taiwan the Kinkaseki copper mine was worked by prisoners of war under Japanese dictate. Of the 523 men who went into the mine in Dec 1942, only about 100 were alive at the end of the war.
    (SFEC, 1/11/98, p.A25)

1943        Jan 5, The Japanese began a planned withdrawal from Guadalcanal.
    (HN, 1/5/99)

1943        Jan 31, Chile broke contact with Germany and Japan.
    (MC, 1/31/02)

1943        Feb 8, British General Wingate led a guerrilla force of "Chindits" behind the Japanese lines in Burma. Detachment 101’s support of Maj. Gen. Orde Wingate’s Chindits and Maj. Gen. Frank Merrill’s Marauders was crucial to the Allied success in Burma and to the eventual victory in Southeast Asia.
    (HN, 2/8/98)(www.chindits.info/)

1943        Feb 9, The World War II battle of Guadalcanal in the southwest Pacific ended with an Allied victory over Japanese forces.
    (AP, 2/9/08)

1943        Mar 2, The battle of the Bismarck Sea began. US and Australian warplanes were able to inflict heavy damage on a Japanese convoy.
    (AP, 3/2/07)

1943        Mar 3, US defeated Japan in the Battle of Bismarck Sea.
    (SC, 3/3/02)

1943        Mar 13, Japanese forces ended their attack on the American troops on Hill 700 in Bougainville.
    (HN, 3/13/99)

1943        Mar 26, Battle of Komandorski Islands, Pacific Ocean.
    (SS, 3/26/02)

1943        Apr 7, US Marine Lt. James Swett (1920-2009), division leader of Squadron 221, shot down 7 Japanese bombers over the Solomon Islands. He was later awarded the Medal of Honor for his actions on this day.
    (SSFC, 1/25/09, p.B3)

1943        Apr 18, Sixteen US P-38s flew 400 miles west from Guadalcanal and spotted two enemy bombers over Bougainville, in the Solomon archipelago. Japan's Admiral Isoroku Yamamoto (59), mastermind of the Pearl Harbor attack, was among 11 men who died in the plane that crashed on land. The Pentagon didn't officially release details of the mission until Sept. 11, 1945, nine days after Japan surrendered.
    (AP, 4/16/18)

1943        Apr 21, President Roosevelt announced that several Doolittle pilots were executed by Japanese.
    (HN, 4/21/98)

1943        May 11, During World War II, American forces landed on Japanese-held Attu island in the Aleutians. The territory was retaken in three weeks.
    (AP, 5/11/97)

1943        May 19, In an address to the U.S. Congress, British Prime Minister Winston Churchill pledged his country's full support in the war against Japan.
    (AP, 5/19/97)

1943        Jun 30, In Japan all stock exchanges were merged under the wartime conditions as the Japan Securities Exchange. This was dissolved after the war.
    (WSJ, 3/15/07, p.C1)

1943        Jul 8, American B-24 bombers struck Japanese-held Wake Island for the first time. An obscure U.S. Navy fighter did yeoman duty when times were toughest early in World War II.
    (HN, 7/8/98)

1943        Oct 7, Approximately 100 U.S. prisoners of war remaining on Wake Island were executed by the Japanese.
    (HN, 10/7/98)

1943        Oct 11, The US submarine Wahoo, Under the command of Dudley "Mush" Morton, was sunk by the Japanese navy as it returned from its seventh patrol. All 79 crewmen died. In 2006 Russian divers found the wreckage in the La Perouse Strait.
    (AP, 8/18/06)

1943          Oct 25, Japanese forces held an official ceremony for the 415-km Thailand-Burma railroad. The rail was completed Oct 17 at Konkuita, Thailand.  During its construction, approximately 13,000 prisoners of war died and were buried along the “Death Railway." An estimated 80,000 to 100,000 civilians also died in the course of the project, chiefly forced labor brought from Malaya and the Dutch East Indies, or conscripted in Siam (Thailand) and Burma (Myanmar). The movie “The Bridge on the River Kwai" (1957) was a part of this effort and is today a big tourist attraction in Thailand.

1943        Nov 20, US Marines began landing on Tarawa and Makin atolls in the Gilbert Islands, encountering fierce resistance from Japanese forces but emerging victorious three days later. The US 2nd marine division invaded the tiny isle of Betio on Tarawa Atoll in the Gilberts. It was the first seriously opposed landing experienced by the Americans in WWII. After 3 days 1,027 US Marine and Navy personnel were killed. Of some 4,800 Japanese and Korean laborers on Betio, 146 survived, including 17 Japanese troops. In 2006 John Wukovits authored “One Square Mile Of Hell."
    (AP, 11/20/05)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Battle_of_Tarawa)(AH, 6/07, p.72)

1943        Nov 23, During World War II US forces seized control of the Tarawa and Makin atolls from the Japanese. Makin Atoll, part of the Gilbert and Ellice Islands, was the first central Pacific island to be reconquered by the Allies. More than 900 US marines and 30 sailors were killed in the battle for Tarawa.
    (AP, 11/23/97)(SFC, 1/26/98, p.A17)(SFC, 12/16/19, p.A6)

1943        The Japanese film "Sugata Sanshiro" was directed by Akira Kurosawa. It was his first film.
    (SFC, 9/7/98, p.A21)

1943        Slave laborers at the Japanese NKK Corp. went on strike. Kim Kyung Suk (16) of Korea was hanged from a ceiling by company employees and beaten with wooden and bamboo swords for leading the strike against the steel giant. Suk filed suit in 1991 and was awarded $33,900 in compensation in 1999.
    (SFC, 4/8/99, p.C3)

1943        A volcano erupted near Sobetsucho, Japan, and formed a mountain, that was named Showa Shinzan.
    (WSJ, 2/26/04, p.A1)

1943        Japanese authorities in Shanghai, China, under pressure from Nazi allies, packed the city’s Jewish population of some 20,000 people, into a 3-square-mile area in Hongkou District.
    (SSFC, 3/5/06, p.A7)

1944        Feb 3, The United States shelled the Japanese homeland for the first time at Kurile Islands.
    (HN, 2/3/99)

1944        Feb 4, The Japanese attacked the Indian Seventh Army in Burma.
    (HN, 2/4/99)

1944        Feb 6, Kwajalein Island in the Central Pacific fell to U.S. Army troops.
    (HN, 2/6/99)

1944        Feb 14, An anti-Japanese revolt took place on Java.
    (MC, 2/14/02)

1944        Feb 21, Hideki Tojo became chief of staff of the Japanese army.
    (HN, 2/21/98)

1944        Feb 24, Merrill's Marauders, a specially trained group of American soldiers, began their ground campaign against Japan into Burma. They were led by Brigadier General Frank Merrill (b.1903-1955), the first US infantry combat force to fight the Japanese on the mainland of Asia.

1944        Feb 25, U.S. forces destroyed 135 Japanese planes in Marianas and Guam.
    (HN, 2/25/02)

1944        Feb 29, US forces caught Japanese troops off-guard and easily took control of the Admiralty Islands in Papua New Guinea.
    (HN, 2/29/00)

1944        Mar 7, Japan began an offensive in Burma.
    (MC, 3/7/02)

1944        Apr 1, Japanese troops conquered Jessami, East-India.
    (MC, 4/1/02)

1944        Apr 26, First B-29 attacked by Japanese fighters [in China?], one fighter shot down.
    (HN, 4/26/98)

1944        May 27, Japanese advanced in Hangkhou, China.
    (MC, 5/27/02)

1944        Jun 5, The first B-29 bombing raid struck the Japanese rail line in Bangkok, Thailand.
    (HN, 6/5/98)

1944        Jun 11, U.C. carrier-based planes attacked Japanese airfields on Guam, Rota, Saipan and Tinian islands, preparing for the invasion of Saipan.
    (HN, 6/11/99)

1944        Jun 14, B-29 bombers conducted their first raid against mainland Japan.
    (HN, 6/14/98)

1944        Jun 15, American forces began their successful invasion of Saipan during World War II. Meanwhile, B-29 Superfortresses made their first raids on Japan.
    (AP, 6/15/97)

1944        Jun 19, The Battle of the Philippine Sea (Battle of the Marianas), called the "Marianas Turkey Shoot," began when Japanese naval forces attacked the stronger U.S. naval forces. 280 Japanese planes were shot down by U.S. carrier- based planes and anti-aircraft fire from U.S. ships. Americans shoot down 220 Japanese planes while only losing 20.
    (BEP, 1994)(DT, 6/19/97)(HN, 6/19/98)

1944        Jun 20, The Japanese aircraft carrier Hijo was sunk by a gasoline-vapor explosion caused by an American torpedo hit during the Battle of the Philippine Sea on 20 June 1944 with the loss of 247 officers and ratings, about a fifth of her complement.

1944        Jul 4, The Japanese made their first kamikaze (god wind) attack on a US fleet near Iwo Jima. There is little evidence that these hits were more than accidental collisions or last-minute decisions by pilots in doomed aircraft, of the kind likely to happen in intense sea-air battles [see Oct 21].
    (Maggio)(WSJ, 9/10/02, p.D8)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Kamikaze)

1944        Jul 5, The Japanese garrison on Numfoor, New Guinea, tried to counterattack but was soon beaten back by U.S. forces.
    (HN, 7/5/98)

1944        Jul 7, There was a heavy Japanese counter offensive on Saipan.
    (MC, 7/7/02)

1944        Jul 8, Japanese kamikaze attacked US lines at Saipan.
    (MC, 7/8/02)

1944        Jul 9, American forces secured Saipan as the last Japanese defenses fell during WW II.
    (AP, 7/9/00)

1944        Jul 18, Hideki Tojo was removed as Japanese premier and war minister because of setbacks suffered by his country in World War II.
    (AP, 7/18/97)

1944        Jul 23, US forces invaded Japanese-held Tinian.
    (MC, 7/23/02)

1944        Jul 26, There was a Japanese suicide attack on US lines in Guam.
    (MC, 7/26/02)

1944        Jul, Guy Gabaldon (1926-2006), US Marine private, talked some 800 Japanese soldiers into surrendering and following him back to his US camp. In 1990 Gabaldon authored the memoir “Saipan: Suicide Island." The story became part of the 1960 film “Hell to Eternity."
    (SFC, 9/8/06, p.B9)

1944        Aug 17, Japanese and Swiss officials agreed to divert 40% of millions of dollars, paid by the US and Britain for the care of prisoners of war held by the Japanese, to pay off Japan's debts to Swiss businesses. The other 60% was for the free disposal by the Japanese government.
    (SFC, 12/1/97, p.A10)

1944        Aug 19, The last Japanese troops were driven out of India.
    (MC, 8/19/02)

1944        Sep 12, A US submarine patrol that included the USS Pampanito, the Growler and the Sealion II, came upon a Japanese convoy carrying war material. The Japanese transport Kachidoki Maru, carrying over 900 British soldier, was sunk by the Pampanito. Much of the convoy was sunk including most of some 2,000 Allied prisoners of war. The subs after chasing stragglers of the convoy returned to find 159 British and Australian survivors clinging to wreckage [see Sep 15]. Some 1000 POWs from Australia were on the Japanese freighter Enoura Maru sunk by the USS Sealion. Alistair Urquhart of Scotland, a prisoner on the Kachidoki Maru, was picked up 5 days later by a Japanese whaling ship and taken to Japan, where he was forced to work in a coal mine. Kachidoki Maru had been captured earlier in the war as the President Harrison home ported in SF. The Pampanito was later berthed as a visitor attraction in SF. In 2008 Urquhart (89) visited the Pampanito.
    (SFC, 5/27/97, p.A17)(SFC,12/5/97, p.C3)(SFC, 9/17/08, p.B1)

1944        Sep 15, The submarine USS Pampanito picked up 73 allied prisoners left adrift following the Sep 12 submarine attack on a Japanese convoy that included the transport ships Rakuyo Maru and Kachidoki Maru.
    (SFC, 3/18/09, p.B2)(SSFC, 9/15/19, p.A2)

1944        Sep 18, British submarine Tradewind torpedoed Junyo Maru: 5,600 killed. Tradewind, a twin-screw Triton-class boat of the Royal Navy, attacked the Japanese merchant ship Junyo Maru, killing an estimated 4,320 people--around 1,700 Western POWs, 500 Indonesian prisoners and thousands of Japanese slave laborers. Tradewind's captain, Lt. Cmdr. S.L.C. Maydon, wasn't aware until many years later that the ship he had sunk had been carrying human cargo, including thousands of his own, and Allied, troops.
    (MC, 9/18/01)(HNQ, 3/7/02)

1944        Sep 12, A US submarine patrol that included the USS Pampanito, the Growler and the Sealion II, came upon a Japanese convoy carrying war material. The Japanese transport Kachidoki Maru, carrying over 900 British soldier, was sunk by the Pampanito. Much of the convoy was sunk including most of some 2,000 Allied prisoners of war. The subs after chasing stragglers of the convoy returned to find 159 British and Australian survivors clinging to wreckage. Some 1000 POWs from Australia were on the Japanese freighter Enoura Maru sunk by the USS Sealion. Alistair Urquhart of Scotland, a prisoner on the Kachidoki Maru, was picked up 5 days later by a Japanese whaling ship and taken to Japan, where he was forced to work in a coal mine. Kachidoki Maru had been captured earlier in the war as the President Harrison home ported in SF. The Pampanito was later berthed as a visitor attraction in SF. In 2008 Urquhart (89) visited the Pampanito.
    (SFC, 5/27/97, p.A17)(SFC,12/5/97, p.C3)(SFC, 9/17/08, p.B1)

1944        Oct 10, The US took Okinawa. [see Jun 21, 1945]
    (MC, 10/10/01)

1944        Oct 21, The 1st Japanese kamikaze attack took place near Leyte Island; gunners from both the flagship of the Royal Australian Navy, HMAS Australia, and HMAS Shropshire fired at, and reportedly hit, an unidentified Japanese aircraft. The plane then flew away from the ships, before turning and flying into Australia, striking the ship's superstructure above the bridge, and spewing burning fuel and debris over a large area. A 200 kg (440 pound) bomb carried by the plane failed to explode. In 2002 Albert Axell and Hideaki Kase authored "Kamikaze: Japan's Suicide Gods." In 2006 Emiko Ohnuki-Tierney authored “Kamikaze Diaries: Reflections of Japanese Student Soldiers."
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Kamikaze)(Econ, 7/8/06, p.79)

1944        Oct 23, In the Philippines the Battle of Leyte Gulf began. In 1947 C. Van Woodward authored "The Battle of Leyte Gulf."
    (AP, 10/23/97)(SFEC, 12/19/99, p.C14)

1944        Oct 24, The aircraft carrier USS Princeton was sunk by a single Japanese plane during the Battle of Leyte Gulf.
    (HN, 10/24/98)(SFC, 6/22/01, p.D5)
1944        Oct 24, A US air raid on Japanese battleships and cruisers in Sibuya Sea sank the 65,000 ton Musashi battleship. The ship lost about half of its 2,400 crew members. In 2015 wreckage of the ship was discovered off the Philippines by a team led by Microsoft co-founder Paul Allen.
    (SFC, 4/2/04, p.B7)(AP, 3/5/15)
1944        Oct 24, US submarines sank the Japanese merchant ship Arisan Maru. The ship carried 1,800 American POWs and 1,792 of them perished.
    (SSFC, 8/7/05, p.B2)

1944        Oct 25-1944 Oct 26, The Japanese were defeated in the Straits of Surigao in the Battle of Leyte Gulf, the world's largest sea engagement. Japan lost 26 capital ships. From this point on, the depleted Japanese Navy increasingly resorted to the suicidal attacks of Kamikaze fighters.
    (HN, 10/25/98)(AH, 10/04, p.15)

1944        Oct 28, The first B-29 Superfortress bomber mission flew from the airfields in the Mariana Islands in a strike against the Japanese base at Truk.
    (HN, 10/28/98)

1944          Nov 7, Richard Sorge and Ozaki Hozumi were hanged in Tokyo after being convicted as spies for the Soviet Union.
1944        Nov 7, The submarine USS Albacore (SS-218) was lost off of northern Hokkaido with all hands. This was just after it struck the Japanese aircraft carrier Taiho, which went down with 1,650 officers and men.

1944        Nov 12, U.S. fighters wiped out a Japanese convoy near Leyte, consisting of six destroyers, four transports, and 8,000 troops.
    (HN, 11/12/98)

1944        Nov 20, The 1st Japanese suicide submarine attack was at Ulithi Atoll, Carolines.
    (MC, 11/20/01)

1944        Nov 24, American B-29 bombers based on Saipan attacked Tokyo in the first raid against the Japanese capital by land-based planes.
    (HN, 11/24/98)(AP, 11/24/05)

1944        Nov 25, Two Japanese planes struck the USS Intrepid aircraft carrier in kamikaze attacks that left 69 dead and 35 injured.
    (WSJ, 11/8/08, p.W9)

1944        Dec 13, During World War II, the U.S. cruiser Nashville was badly damaged in a Japanese kamikaze suicide attack that claimed 138 lives.
    (AP, 12/13/97)
1944        Dec 13, US carrier planes bombed the Japanese transport ship Oryoku Maru off of Olongapo in the Philippines. 300 POWs were killed.
    (SSFC, 8/7/05, p.B2)

1944        Dec 18, The Japanese were repelled from northern Burma by British troops.
    (HN, 12/18/98)
1944        Dec 18, In a pair of rulings, the US Supreme Court upheld the wartime relocation of Japanese-Americans (Korematsu v. United States), but also said undeniably loyal Americans of Japanese ancestry could not continue to be detained (Ex parte Endo).
    (AP, 12/18/07)

1944        The Japanese film "The Most Beautiful" was directed by Akira Kurosawa.
    (SFC, 9/7/98, p.A21)

1944        The Japanese shipped some 43,000 Korean workers to Sakalin Island as slave laborers for their Imperial Army.
    (SFC, 2/19/96, p.A10)

1944        Hundreds of natives died during the US invasion of the Northern Marianas. 5,000 American troops and 40,000 Japanese also died.
    (SFEC, 3/7/99,Z1 p.4)

1944-1945    The US war with Japan during this period was covered by Max Hastings in his 2008 book “Retribution: The Battle for Japan."
    (WSJ, 3/15/08, p.W10)

1945        Jan 3, US aircraft carriers attacked Okinawa.
    (MC, 1/3/02)

1945        Jan 6, B-29's in the Pacific struck new blows on Tokyo and Nanking.
    (HN, 1/6/99)

1945        Jan 9, US carrier planes bombed the Japanese ship Enoura Maru and 316 US POWs were killed.
    (SSFC, 8/7/05, p.B2)

1945        Jan 12, US Task Force 38 destroyed 41 Japanese ships in Battle of South China Sea.
    (MC, 1/12/02)

1945        Jan 22, There was a heavy US air raid on Okinawa.
    (MC, 1/22/02)

1945        Feb 3, In the Philippines the month-long Battle of Manila began.
    (AP, 2/28/15)

1945        Feb 10, B-29s hit the Tokyo area. It was a B-29 that dropped the bomb that ended World War II.
    (HN, 2/10/97)

1945        Feb 17, Gen. MacArthur's troops landed on Corregidor in the Philippines. General Tomoyuki Yamashita was the Japanese general opposing MacArthur.
    (HN, 2/17/98)

1945        Feb 19, On Ramree Island off the coast of old Burma, some 900 Japanese soldiers retreated from British soldiers into an alligator filled swamp. Only about 20 men survived.
    (SFEC, 2/23/96, Z1 p.2)(MC, 2/19/02)
1945        Feb 19, During World War II, some 30,000 US Marines landed on Iwo Jima, an 8-sq. mile island of rock, volcanic ash and black sand, where they began a month-long battle to seize control of the island from Japanese forces. The 36-day battle took the lives of 7,000 Americans and about 20,000 of 22,000 Japanese defenders.
    (SFC, 6/19/96, p.A20)(SFC, 9/21/00, p.C6)(AP, 2/19/08)

1945        Feb 23, Turkey declared war on Germany and Japan.
    (HN, 2/23/98)

1945        Feb 24, American soldiers liberated the Philippine capital of Manila from Japanese control during World War II.
    (AP, 2/24/98)

1945        Feb 26, Syria declared war on Germany and Japan.
    (HN, 2/26/98)

1945        Mar 3, The Allies fully secured the Philippine capital of Manila from Japanese forces during World War II. Manila was destroyed and more than 100,000 civilians killed. About 16,000 Japanese soldiers and 1,000 US troops also died in the fighting from Feb 3 to March 3.
    (AP, 3/3/07)(AP, 2/28/15)

1945        Mar 9, During World War II, 334 U.S. B29 bombers launched incendiary bomb attacks against Tokyo, Japan, causing widespread devastation.
    (HFA, '96, p.26)(AP, 3/9/98)(Econ, 10/7/06, p.52)

1945        Mar 10, Some 300 American B-29s bombed Tokyo overnight with almost 2,000 tons of incendiaries killing some 100,000 people.
    (HN, 3/10/98)(Econ., 3/7/15, p.42)

1945        Mar 16, During World War II, the island of Iwo Jima in the Pacific Ocean was declared secured by the Allies. The U.S. defeated Japan at Iwo Jima. Small pockets of Japanese resistance still exist.
    (AP, 3/16/97)(HN, 3/16/99)

1945        Mar 18, US Task Force 58 attacked targets on Kyushu.
    (MC, 3/18/02)

1945        Mar 19, US Task Force 58 attacked ships near Kobe and Kure.
    (MC, 3/19/02)
1945        Mar 19, Kamikaze planes attacked the US carrier Franklin off Japan killing 724 people; the ship, however, was saved.
    (AP, 3/19/97)

1945        Mar 23, Largest operation in Pacific war: 1,500 US Navy ships bombed Okinawa.
    (SS, 3/23/02)

1945        Mar 26, Japanese resistance ended on Iwo Jima.
    (SS, 3/26/02)
1945        Mar 26, Kamikazes attacked US battle fleet near Kerama Retto.
    (SS, 3/26/02)

1945        Mar 31, US artillery landed on Keise Shima and began firing on Okinawa.
    (MC, 3/31/02)

1945        Mar, American B-29 attacks on Tokyo caused some 83,703 deaths.
    (SSFC, 8/7/05, p.B1)

1945        Apr 1, Easter Sunday, the American assault on Okinawa began with 150,000 army and marine soldiers. It was the last campaign of World War II. The island was defended by 100,000 Japanese troops and auxiliaries. It took three months of heavy fighting to secure the island. US casualties numbered 68,000 with 8,000 dead. Japanese civilian casualties are estimated at 100-200 thousand killed. A book was published in 1995 by Col. Hiromishi Yahara, chief Japanese strategist of Okinawa titled "The Battle for Okinawa." A counterpoint to the colonel's account is a collection of first hand accounts from US soldiers in Gerold Astor's "Operation Iceberg."
    (WSJ, 8/29/95, p.A-12) (AP, 4/1/98)(HN, 4/1/98)

1945        Apr 2, 1st US units reached the east coast of Okinawa.
    (MC, 4/2/02)

1945        Apr 4, US troops on Okinawa encountered the first significant resistance from Japanese forces at the Machinato Line.
    (AP, 4/4/07)

1945        Apr 6, During World War II, the Japanese warship Yamato and nine other vessels sailed on a suicide mission to attack the U.S. fleet off Okinawa; the fleet was intercepted the next day.
    (AP, 4/6/99)

1945        Apr 7, During World War II, American planes intercepted a Japanese fleet that was headed for Okinawa on a suicide mission. The Japanese battleship Yamato, the world's largest battleship, was sunk during the battle for Okinawa along with 4 Japanese destroyers.
    (AP, 4/7/97)(HN, 4/7/99)(MC, 4/7/02)

1945        Apr 10, US troops landed on Tsugen Shima, Okinawa.
    (MC, 4/10/02)

1945        Apr 11, The US battleship Missouri was struck by a kamikaze pilot while it was operating off the coast of Okinawa.

1945        Apr 13, US marines conquered Minna Shima off Okinawa.
    (MC, 4/13/02)

1945        Apr 14, US forces conquered Motobu peninsula on Okinawa.
    (MC, 4/14/02)
1945        Apr 14, B-29's damaged the Imperial Palace during firebombing raid over Tokyo.
    (HN, 4/14/98)

1945        Apr 16, US troops landed on He Shima, Okinawa.
    (MC, 4/16/02)
1945        Apr 15, The USS Laffey, built at Maine's Bath Iron Works in 1943, got its nickname as "The Ship That Would Not Die" when it was on picket duty off Okinawa. About 50 Japanese planes attacked and about half got through to the Laffey. The ship suffered 103 casualties when it was hit by four bombs and five kamikaze planes. In 2012 it returned to its home at a maritime museum on Charleston Harbor on the South Carolina coast.
    (AP, 1/25/12)(http://www.navsource.org/archives/05/724.htm)

1945        Apr 19, US aircraft carrier Franklin was heavily damaged in Japanese air raid.
    (MC, 4/19/02)

1945        Apr 20, US forces conquered Motobu peninsula on Okinawa.
    (MC, 4/20/02)

1945        Apr 21, He Shima, Okinawa, was conquered in 5 days with 5,000 dead.
    (MC, 4/21/02)

1945        Apr 29, Japanese army evacuated Rangoon.
    (MC, 4/29/02)

1945        Apr, In the Battle for Okinawa 35 American ships were sunk and over 300 damaged. 5,000 American sailors were killed. Much of the damage was due to Japanese kamikaze operations. [see Apr 1]
    (WSJ, 9/10/02, p.D8)

1945        May 3, Japanese forces on Okinawa launched their only major counter-offensive, but failed to break the American lines.
    (AP, 5/3/05)
1945        May 3, The US Submarine Lagarto (SS-371) sank in the Gulf of Thailand following depth charges from the Japanese mine-layer Hatsutaka. 85 sailors died. In 2005 the wreck of the Lagarto was found. The USS Hawksbill sank the Hatsutaka on May 15.
    (SSFC, 6/18/06, p.A5)(www.thaiwreckdiver.com/lagarto.htm)
1945        May 3, Indian forces captured Rangoon, Burma, from the Japanese.
    (AP, 5/3/97)

1945        May 5, A Japanese balloon bomb exploded on Gearhart Mountain in Oregon, killing Mrs. Elsie Mitchell, the pregnant wife of a minister, and five children after they attempted to drag it out the woods in Lakeview, Oregon. The balloon was armed, and exploded soon after they began tampering with it. They became the 1st and only known American civilians to be killed in the continental US during World War II.
    (AP, 5/5/97)(MC, 5/5/02)

1945        May 10, Allies captured Rangoon from the Japanese.
    (MC, 5/10/02)

1945        May 11, Kiyoshi Ogawa, Japanese pilot, crashed his plane into the US carrier Bunker Hill near Okinawa. 496 Americans died with him and the ship was knocked out of the war.
    (SFC, 3/29/01, p.A15)

1945        May 13, US troops conquered Dakeshi, Okinawa.
    (MC, 5/13/02)
1945        May 13, The Baya, US submarine SS-318 under the command of Capt. Benjamin C. Jarvis (d.2008 at age 91), sank a Japanese tanker and left 2 other ships severely disable off of French Indochina. Capt. Jarvis received a Navy Cross for his action.
    (SFC, 3/22/08, p.B5)(www.ussbaya.com/history.html)

1945        May 14, A Kamikaze Zero struck the US aircraft carrier Enterprise.
    (MC, 5/14/02)
1945        May 14, US offensive on Okinawa. Sugar Loaf was conquered.
    (MC, 5/14/02)

1945        May 25, A B-29 mission against Tokyo cost 26 Superfortresses, 5.6 percent of the 464 dispatched from the Marianas.

1945        May 26, US dropped fire bombs on Tokyo.
    (MC, 5/26/02)

1945        May 29, US 1st Marine division conquered Shuri-castle in Okinawa.
    (SC, 5/29/02)

1945        Jun 3-1945 Jun 14, Koki Hirota, Japanese envoy, met with Russian ambassador in Tokyo to propose a new relationship between the two countries and divide up Asia.
    (WSJ, 5/5/95, p.A-12)

1945        Jun 5, US air raids on Kobe, Japan, destroyed over 50% of the city. Some 3,614 Japanese were killed and 51,399 buildings were demolished in 3 air raids.
    (SSFC, 8/7/05, p.B2)

1945        Jun 9, Japanese Premier Kantaro Suzuki declared that Japan will fight to the last rather than accept unconditional surrender.
    (HN 6/9/98)

1945        Jun 18, Organized Japanese resistance ended on the island of Mindanao, Philippines.
    (HN, 6/18/98)

1945        Jun 21, Japanese forces on Okinawa surrendered to the Americans. American soldiers on Okinawa found the body of the Japanese commander, Lt. Gen. Mitsuru Ushijima, who had committed suicide. The embattled destroyer USS Laffey survived horrific damage from attacks by 22 Japanese aircraft off Okinawa.  [see Jun 22]
    (HN, 6/21/98)(AP, 6/21/99)

1945        Jun 22, The World War II battle for Okinawa officially ended; 12,520 Americans and 90,000 Japanese soldiers, plus 130,000 civilians were killed in the 81-day campaign. The battle for Okinawa proved to be the bloodiest in the Pacific Theater. A huge assemblage of American forces from both Admiral Chester W. Nimitz's Central Pacific drive and General Douglas MacArthur’s Southwest Pacific thrust converged on Okinawa--over 180,000 troops. For three months they faced more than 100,000 Japanese troops of Lt. Gen. Mitsuru Ushijima's Thirty-Second Army. Tokyo needed time to prepare for the expected American invasion of the home islands, so Ushijima wanted to make his adversary wrench each hill and ridge from his well-armed men.
    (HN, 6/27/01)(AP, 6/22/07)

1945        Jun 23, Lt Gen Ushijima, Japanese commander, committed suicide at Okinawa.
    (MC, 6/23/02)

1945        Jun 25, Imperial General Headquarters in Tokyo announced the fall of Okinawa.
    (MC, 6/25/02)

1945        Jun 28, General Douglas MacArthur announced the end of Japanese resistance in the Philippines.
    (HN, 6/28/98)

1945        Jun 30, Chinese slave workers rebelled against harsh conditions at the Hanaoka copper mine and 4 Japanese guards were killed along with 1 worker. In 2000 Kajima Corp. established a $4.6 million fund to compensate wartime mine laborers and their survivors.
    (SFC, 11/30/00, p.C6)

1945        Jun, The Japanese army, faced with an impending US invasion, handed out grenades to residents in Okinawa and ordered them to kill themselves rather than surrender to the Americans. About 500 people committed suicide.
    (AP, 9/29/07)

1945        Jul 6, B-29 Superfortress bombers attacked Honshu, Japan, using new fire-bombing techniques.
    (HN, 7/6/98)

1945        Jul 11, Napalm was first used.
    (HFA, '96, p.34)

1945        Jul 14, American battleships and cruisers bombarded the Japanese home islands for the first time. The battleship USS South Dakota was 1st US ship to bombard Japan
    (HN, 7/14/98)(MC, 7/14/02)

1945        Jul 24, U.S. Navy bombers sank the Japanese battleship-carrier Hyuga in shallow waters off Kure, Japan.
    (HN, 7/24/00)

1945        Jul 26, The US, Britain and China issued the Potsdam Declaration to Japan that she surrender unconditionally. Two days later Japanese Premier Kantaro Suzuki announced to the Japanese press that the Potsdam declaration is to be ignored. In 1961 Herbert Feis authored “Japan Subdued."
    (WSJ, 5/5/95, p.A-12)(WSJ, 1/14/07, p.P8)
1945        Jul 26, US cruiser Indianapolis reached Tinian with atom bomb.
    (MC, 7/26/02)

1945        Jul 30, The USS Indianapolis, which had just delivered key components of the Hiroshima atomic bomb to the Pacific island of Tinian, was torpedoed by the I-58 Japanese submarine. Some 879 survivors jumped into the sea and were adrift for 4 days. Nearly 600 died before help arrived.  Only 316 out of 1,196 men survived the sinking and shark-infested waters. In 1958 Richard F. Newcomb authored "Abandon Ship," the story of the Indianapolis and the subsequent court-martial of Capt. Charles Butler McVey III. In 2001 Doug Stanton authored "In Harm’s Way," an account of the sinking and trial of Capt. McVey. In 2001 the Navy exonerated the Indianapolis’ captain, Charles Butler McVay III, who had been court-martialed and convicted for failing to evade the submarine.
    (AP, 7/30/97)(SFEC, 8/20/00, Par p.4)(WSJ, 4/6/01, p.W9)(SFC, 7/14/01, p.A9)(AP, 7/29/01)(AFP, 8/20/17)(SFC, 8/1/20, p.A5)

1945        Jul, During this time, General Curtis LeMay had been firebombing Japanese cities daily, dropping napalm-filled bombs. In one three-day period, Tokyo, Nagoya, Kobe and Osaka had been destroyed.
    (WSJ, 7/19/95, p.A-12)

1945        Aug 3, Chinese troops under American General Joseph Stilwell took the town of Myitkyina from the Japanese.
    (HN, 8/3/98)

1945        Aug 6, Hiroshima, Japan, was struck with the uranium bomb, Little Boy, from the B-29 airplane, Enola Gay, piloted by Col. Paul Tibbets (1915-2007) of the US Air Force along with 11 other men. The 9,600 pound bomb had a 2-part core of enriched uranium-235. It killed an estimated 140,000 people in the first use of a nuclear weapon in warfare. Major Thomas Wilson Ferebee (d.2000 at 81) was the bombardier. Richard Nelson (d.2003) was the radio operator. In 1946 John Hersey authored “Hiroshima," an account of the bombing based on interviews with 6 survivors.
    (AP, 8/6/97)(SSFC, 7/31/05, p.B2)(WSJ, 8/12/06, p.P8)(SFC, 11/2/07, p.A23)

1945        Aug 8, The Soviet Union declared war against Japan. 1.5 million Soviet troops launched a massive surprise attack (August Storm) against Japanese occupation forces in northern China and Korea. Within days, Tokyo's million-man army in the region had collapsed in one of the greatest military defeats in history.
    (SFC, 9/9/96, p.A19)(AP, 8/8/97)(AP, 8/6/05)

1945        Aug 9, The 10,000 lb. plutonium bomb, Fat Man, was dropped over Nagasaki after the primary objective of Kokura was passed due to visibility problems. It killed an estimated 74,000 people. The B-29 bomber plane Bock's Car so named for its assigned pilot, Fred Bock, was piloted by Captain Charles W. Sweeney (d.2004). Kermit Beahan (d.1989) was the bombardier.
    (WSJ, 7/19/95, p.A-12)(AP, 8/9/97)(HN, 8/9/98)(SFC, 3/17/00, p.D6)(HNQ, 3/31/00)

1945        Aug 10, Japan announced its willingness to surrender to Allies provided that the status of Emperor Hirohito remains unchanged. Yosuke Yamahata photographed the aftermath of the bombing of Nagasaki. He was dispatched by the Japanese military, but did not turn over the pictures to the military authorities.
    (HFA, ‘96, p.36)(WSJ, 8/1/95, p.A-8)(MC, 8/10/02)

1945        Aug 14, President Truman announced that Japan had surrendered unconditionally, ending World War II. Shaken by the atomic destruction wreaked on Hiroshima and Nagasaki and faced with the daunting prospect of Allied invasion, the Japanese Emperor Hirohito met with his ministers on the morning of August 14 and announced, "We cannot continue the war any longer." Japan accepted the Allies "Potsdam Declaration," a cease-fire. In 1999 Prof. John W. Dower published "Embracing Defeat: Japan in the Wake of World War II." Dower earlier published "War Without Mercy," a study of the war in the Pacific.
    (WSJ, 8/14/95, p. A-11)(AP, 8/14/97)(HN, 8/14/98)(WSJ, 3/31/99, p.A20)(AP, 8/14/08)
1945        Aug 14, Japanese occupation of Hong Kong ended.
    (SFEC, 6/22/97, p.A14)

1945        Aug 15, Emperor Hirohito announced to his subjects in a pre-recorded radio address that Japan had accepted terms of surrender for ending World War II. This day was proclaimed "V-J Day" by the Allies, a day after Japan agreed to surrender unconditionally. At 7 p.m. reporters gathered in the Oval Office to hear President Harry S. Truman announce the unconditional surrender of Japan.
    (HNPD, 8/13/98)(AP, 8/15/07)

1945        Aug 16, Takijiro Ohnishi, leader of Japanese kamikaze pilots, died.
    (MC, 8/16/02)

1945        Aug 24, A blast aboard a Japanese Navy transport carrying 4,000 Koreans home killed at least 524 Koreans and 25 Japanese crew members in Maizuru port in Kyoto. In 2001 a Japanese court awarded $375,000 to 15 Korean survivors of the explosion.
    (SFC, 8/24/01, p.A16)

1945        Aug 26, Japanese diplomats boarded the Missouri to receive instructions on Japan's surrender at the end of WW II.
    (MC, 8/26/02)

1945        Aug 27, American troops began landing in Japan following the surrender of the Japanese government in World War II.
    (AP, 8/27/97)

1945        Aug 28, US forces under General George Marshall landed in Japan. 
    (HTNet, 8/28/99)

1945        Aug 29, Gen MacArthur was named the Supreme Commander of Allied Powers in Japan.
    (MC, 8/29/01)
1945        Aug 29, U.S. airborne troops landed in transport planes at Atsugi airfield, southwest of Tokyo, beginning the occupation of Japan.
    (HN, 8/29/98)
1945        Aug 29, British liberated Hong Kong from Japan.
    (MC, 8/29/01)

1945        Aug 30, Gen. Douglas MacArthur arrived in Japan and set up Allied occupation headquarters.
    (AP, 8/30/97)

1945        Aug, In Manchuria some 1 million Japanese civilians were stranded as the war ended. An estimated 179,000 are thought to have died trying to get back to Japan.
    (Econ, 8/15/15, p.37)
1945        Aug, Some 1,300 Allied survivors of Japan’s Mukden POW camp in Manchuria were rescued by Red Army troops.
    (SFC, 11/24/17, p.E3)

1945        Sep 1, Some 600 Soviet troops arrived on the Japanese island of Shikotan, one of four islands at the bottom of the Kurile chain.
    (Econ, 12/10/16, p.39)

1945        Sep 2, The Japanese surrender delegation boarded the USS Missouri anchored in Tokyo Bay to formally sign documents of surrender, ending World War II.
    (WSJ, 8/31/95, p.A-10)(AP, 9/2/97)(HN, 9/2/98)

1945        Sep 3, General Tomoyuki Yamashita, the Japanese commander of the Philippines, surrendered to Lieutenant General Jonathan Wainwright at Baguio.
    (HN, 9/3/98)

1945        Sep 5, Iva Toguri D'Aquino (1916-2006), a Japanese-American suspected of being wartime radio propagandist "Tokyo Rose," was arrested in Yokohama. In 1949 she was tried in San Francisco and convicted for having spoken “into a microphone concerning the loss of ships." Toguri was sentenced to 10 years in prison but was released after six years for good behavior; she was pardoned in 1977 by President Ford.
    (AP, 9/5/99)(SFC, 9/28/06, p.A18)(SFC, 9/28/06, p.A18)

1945        Sep 6, George Weller (d.2002), a Chicago Daily News journalist, wrote his 1st story on the bombing of Nagasaki. Posing as a US Army colonel Weller had slipped into Nagasaki in early September. His stories infuriated MacArthur so much he personally ordered that they be quashed, and the originals were never returned. Carbon copies of his stories, running to about 25,000 words on 75 typed pages, along with more than two dozen photos, were discovered by his son, Anthony, in 2004 at Weller's apartment in Rome, Italy. In 2005 the national Mainichi newspaper began serializing the stories and photographs for the first time since they were rejected by US military censors. In 2007 Weller’s son Anthony edited “First Into Nagasaki: The Censored Eyewitness Dispatches on Post-Atomic Japan and Its Prisoners of War."
    (AP, 6/19/05)(WSJ, 3/1/07, p.D5)

1945        Sep 8, Hideki Tojo, Japanese PM during most of WW II, failed in his attempted suicide rather than face war crimes tribunal attempt. He was later hanged.
    (MC, 9/8/01)

1945        Sep 9, The Japanese in S. Korea, Taiwan, China and Indochina surrendered to Allies.
    (MC, 9/9/01)

1945        Sep 16, Japan surrendered Hong Kong to Britain.
    (HN, 9/16/98)

1945        Oct 25, Japanese surrendered Taiwan to Generalissimo Chiang Kai-shek.
    (MC, 10/25/01)

1945        Nov 15, A report issued by General Headquarters, Supreme Commander for the Allied Powers, offered a detailed account of Japanese military brothels run as "comfort stations."
    (SSFC, 12/7/03, p.A19)

1945        Emperor Hirohito composed a poem months after Japan's defeat that included the line: "Undaunted stands the pine tree in mounting snowdrifts."
    (SFC, 2/5/02, p.A7)

1945        The Japanese film "The Men Who Tread on the Tiger's Tail" was directed by Akira Kurosawa.
    (SFC, 9/7/98, p.A21)
1945        The Japanese film "Sugata Sanshiro II" was directed by Akira Kurosawa.
    (SFC, 9/7/98, p.A21)

1945        In Japan Nobosuke Kishi (1896-1987) was arrested and served three years as a war criminal. He had orchestrated forced labor in Manchuria in the 1930s and served in Japan's wartime cabinet. With US support, he went on to consolidate the Japanese conservative camp against perceived threats from the Japan Socialist Party in the 1950s, and is credited with being a key player in the initiation of the "1955 System", the extended period during which the Liberal Democratic Party was the overwhelmingly dominant political party in Japan.
    (https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Nobusuke_Kishi)(Econ., 9/5/20, p.73)

1945        In the Philippines the US recaptured the island of Corregidor and nearly 6,000 Japanese soldiers leapt to their death off a ridge rather than face capture and dishonor.
    (SFEC, 12/15/96, p.T6)

1945        American occupiers broke up Japan’s national power company into 9 privately-owned utilities. After the Americans left the government set up a 10th, publicly owned utility, J-Power.
    (Econ, 9/4/04, p.60)

1945        In 1999 Prof. John W. Dower published "Embracing Defeat: Japan in the Wake of World War II." Dower earlier published "War Without Mercy," a study of the war in the Pacific.
    (WSJ, 3/31/99, p.A20)

1945        The Soviet Union seized the Kurile islands from Japan.
    (SFC, 8/14/01, p.A7)

1945        After WW II the Caroline Islands became trust territories of the United States, eventually gaining independence as Micronesia in 1986 and Palau in 1994.
c1945        After the war Japan began planting large numbers of evergreen trees called sugi, Cryptomeria japonica (aka Japanese cedar), to produce timber. The mature trees later produced large amounts of pollen and caused severe hay fever amongst the populace.
    (WSJ, 4/18/05, p.A1)

1945        Some 760,000 Japanese were imprisoned in Soviet labor camps after WWII. Records of their internment were discovered in 2009 at a national archive in Moscow.
    (SSFC, 7/26/09, p.A4)

1945-1952     Allied forces occupy Japan and institute a variety of reforms.
    (Jap. Enc., BLDM, p. 216)

1946        Jan 1, Emperor Hirohito rejected the notion that the emperor is a living god and the notion that the Japanese are superior to other races and destined to govern the world.
    (AM, Mar/Apr 97 p.36)

1946        Feb 23, Japanese General Tomoyuki Yamashita was hanged in Manila, the Philippines, after being found guilty by a US military commission of war crimes.
    (AH, 2/06, p.15)

1946        Apr 3, Lt. General Masaharu Homma, the Japanese commander responsible for the Bataan Death March, was executed outside Manila in the Philippines.
    (AP, 4/3/97)

1946        Apr 10, Japan held Parliamentary elections and women were allowed to vote for the first time. 39 female legislators were elected.
    (https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/1946_Japanese_general_election)(SFC, 7/30/99, p.D8)

1946        Apr 28, Kazue Katz became the 1st Japanese woman to marry an American following WW II. Her marriage to Sgt. Frederick Katz in Tokyo required 29 endorsements.
    (SFC, 12/9/05, p.F6)

1946        Apr 29, The International Military Tribunal for the Far East convened in Tokyo for Japanese War Crimes. 28 former leaders were indicted in Tokyo as war criminals; seven ended up being sentenced to death. Allies indicted Hideki Tojo, former premier and war minister of Japan, with 55 counts of war crimes. The International Military Tribunal for the Far East meted out justice to Japanese war criminals at locations throughout Asia.
    (https://tinyurl.com/4x7sfpd2)(AP, 11/12/97)(WSJ, 4/30/98, p.A15)(AP, 4/29/07)

1946        May 3, The prosecution of the International Military Tribunal for the Far East, having convened in Tokyo for Japanese War Crimes, opened its case. 28 defendants were tried. Radhabinod Pal, the judge from India, was the only judge with an international law background and the only judge to find all the defendants innocent on all counts. The tribunal was adjourned on November 12, 1948.
    (https://tinyurl.com/4x7sfpd2)(WSJ, 4/30/98, p.A15)

1946        Nov 3, Emperor Hirohito proclaimed a new Japanese constitution. It became effective on May 3, 1947.

1946        Dec 21, An earthquake and tidal wave killed 1,086 in Japan.
    (HN, 12/21/98)(MC, 12/21/01)

1946        John Hersey authored “Hiroshima," an account of the 1945 atomic bomb strike on the city.
    (Econ, 5/24/14, p.79)
1946        The Japanese film "No Regrets for Our Youth" was directed by Akira Kurosawa.
    (SFC, 9/7/98, p.A21)
1946        Under Japan's land reform, landlords who owned more than the permitted amount had to sell the excess land to the government at a fixed price. The government then sold it at the same price, giving first preference to any tenant who had been farming the land.
    (Econ, 4/13/13, p.43)(http://tinyurl.com/cz3ul47)
1946        In Japan the Keidanren (Business Federation) was formed to be the mouthpiece of business interests. The Keizai Doyukai (Association of Corporate Executives) also formed.
    (Econ, 5/31/08, p.68)
1946        Tokyo Telecommunications, the precursor to Sony Corp., was established in Japan.
    (WSJ, 3/7/05, p.A8)

1946-1947    The Noritake Co., manufacturers of China, produced a lower quality china due to supply shortages caused by the war.
    (SFC, 3/3/99, Z1 p.4)

1947        May 3, Japan's postwar constitution, drafted by the Americans, took effect. It included the creation of the House of Councilors and renounced war as a way of settling disputes. Beate Sirota (1923-2012) produced Article 24 which established women’s rights and the essential equality of the sexes. 
    (http://history.hanover.edu/texts/1947con.html)(AP, 5/3/07)(Econ, 4/14/12, p.54)(Econ, 1/12/12, p.86)

1947        May 7, General MacArthur approved the Japanese constitution.
    (MC, 5/7/02)

1947        May 24, Tetsu Katayama (1887-1978), Japanese politician, began serving as PM of Japan  and continued to 1948. He bears the distinction of having been the first socialist to serve as Prime Minister of Japan, and the first Prime Minister of post-war Japan.

1947        Jun, Mount Asama erupted and left 11 people dead.
    (SFEC, 4/2/00, p.A17)

1947        The Japanese film "Our Wonderful Sunday" was directed by Akira Kurosawa.
    (SFC, 9/7/98, p.A21)

1947        The Japanese film "To the End of the Silver-Capped Mountains" (Ginrei no hate) starred Toshiro Mifune.
    (SFC,12/26/97, p.C3)

1948        May 5, Japan's Children's Day became a National Holiday.

1948        Oct 15, Shigeru Yoshida (1878-1967), Japanese diplomat and politician, began serving his first term as Prime Minister of Japan. He served a 2nd term from 1948-1954. The Yoshida Doctrine was a strategy adopted by Japan after World War II under PM Shigeru Yoshida, the country's first post-war prime minister, in which economics was to be concentrated upon reconstructing Japan's domestic economy while the security alliance with the United States would be the guarantor of Japanese security.

1948        Nov 4, The International Military Tribunal for the Far East was concluded.
    (WSJ, 4/30/98, p.A15)

1948        Nov 12, Hideki Tojo, former Japanese premier and military dictator through World War II, and several other World War II Japanese leaders were sentenced to death by an international war crimes tribunal. In 1998 a film about Gen'. Tojo was produced titled: "Pride, the Fateful Moment."
    (HFA, '96, p.20)(AHD, p.1351) (AP, 11/12/97) (WSJ, 4/30/98, p.A15) (HN, 11/12/98)

1948        Dec 20, U.S. Supreme Court announced that it had no jurisdiction to hear the appeals of Japanese war criminals sentenced by the International Military Tribunal.
    (HN, 12/20/98)

1948        Dec 21, Seishiro Itagaki, Japanese General and minister of War, was hanged.
    (MC, 12/21/01)

1948        Dec 23, Hideki Tojo, Japanese Prime Minister and military dictator through World War II, and six other Japanese war leaders were executed by hanging in Tokyo. Gen'l. Matsui Iwane (b.1878), one of the military leaders of the 1937 "Rape of Nanking," was among those executed. In 1998 a film about Gen'l. Tojo was produced titled: "Pride, the Fateful Moment." In 2021 it was revealed that his remains were scattered from a US Army aircraft over the Pacific Ocean about 30 miles (50 km) east of Yokohama.
    (AHD, p.1351)(WSJ, 4/30/98, p.A15)(AP, 12/23/98)(AP, 6/13/21)

1948        The Japanese film "Drunken Angel" (Yoidore tenchi) starred Toshiro Mifune as a rakish tubercular gangster." It was directed by Akira Kurosawa.
    (SFC,12/25/97, p.A25)(SFC, 9/7/98, p.A21)
1948        The Japanese film "The Silent Duel" starred Toshiro Mifune as a young man accidentally infected with venereal disease."
    (SFC,12/25/97, p.A25)
1948        Japan enacted a Eugenics Protection Law to "avoid the birth of defective offspring." The law was rescinded in 1996 after some 844,939 people were sterilized.  At least 16,500 people were sterilized without consent under the law. In 2018 three plaintiffs filed lawsuits demanding an apology and compensation of about 80 million yen ($730,000) in total.
    (SFC,12/27/97, p.A12)(AP, 5/17/18)
1948        Occupation authorities gave Japan's financial markets a Glass-Steagall act, in the form of Article 65 of the Securities and Exchange Act of 1948. Article 65 prohibited banks from participating in the domestic securities industry, from holding more than five percent of a securities company, and from selling equity or underwriting securities.
1948        Momofuku Ando (d.2007) founded Nissan Food Products. In 1958 the company introduced Chicken Ramen, the first instant noodle.
    (SSFC, 1/7/07, p.B6)
1948        South Korean Shin Kyuk-Ho founded Lotte Co. Ltd. in Tokyo. He expanded Lotte to his home country with the establishment of Lotte Confectionery in Seoul on April 3, 1967 and built the company into a sprawling giant that by 2017 had dozens of units focused on food, retail and hotels in South Korea and Japan.
    (AFP, 12/22/17)

1949        Apr 1, The modern Tokyo Stock Exchange opened.
    (WSJ, 4/6/06, p.C1)

1949        The Japanese film "The Quiet Duel" was directed by Akira Kurosawa.
    (SFC, 9/7/98, p.A21)

1949        The Japanese film "Stray Dog" (Norainu) by Akira Kurosawa was produced.
    (SFEC, 8/24/97, DB p.64)

1949        Hediki Yukawa (b.1907), Japanese physicist, won the Nobel Prize.
    (MC, 1/23/02)

1950        Sep 4, A heavy typhoon struck Japan and killed about 250 people.

1950        The film "Rashomon" starred Toshiro Mifune and was directed by Akira Kurosawa.
    (SFC,12/25/97, p.A25)(SFC, 9/7/98, p.A21)
1950        The Japanese film "Scandal" was directed by Akira Kurosawa.
    (SFC, 9/7/98, p.A21)
1950        Japan enacted the tax proposals of Carl S. Shoup (d.2000 at 97). Shoup, an economist from Colombia Univ., had been invited to Japan by Gen. Douglas MacArthur in 1949 to overhaul the tax system. The value-added tax system (VAT) eliminated the need for some 80% of the population to file tax individual tax returns.
    (SFC, 4/1/00, p.A26)(Econ, 8/3/13, p.63)
1950        Hiroshi Yamauchi took over control and refocused Nintendo along modern business lines. He first consolidated automated manufacturing and then began to mass produce plastic playing cards.
    (Hem, 4/96, p.29)
1950        Kazuo Shimada (1907-1996), Japanese mystery writer, won the Mystery Writer Of Japan award for his book "Shakai-bu Kisha" (City Reporter).
    (SFC, 6/18/96, p.A17)
1950        In Japan the Buddhist Temple of the Golden Pavilion in Kyoto was burned down by a schizophrenic monk. It was rebuilt in 1955. The temple was the retirement villa of the shogun Ashikaga Yoshimitsu, and according to his will it became a Zen temple of the Rinzai sect after his death in 1408.
    (http://www.japan-guide.com/e/e3908.html)(Econ, 10/31/15, p.40)

1950-1970    Japan staged an economic miracle with a growth rate of 9.2% in the 50s and 10.7% in the 60s.
    (WSJ, 1/11/99, p.R42)

1951        Sep 8, A formal Treaty of Peace was signed by 48 nations of the United Nations and Japan at the War Memorial Opera House in San Francisco. On the same day the US and Japan signed a Joint Security Pact at the Presidio. The Soviet delegation refused to sign and said the deal provided for the exclusive existence of American military bases in Japan.
    (Park, Spring/95, p.2)(AP, 9/8/97)(Ind, 9/8/01, 5A)

1951        Sep 8, Sri Lanka’s finance minister Junius Jayewardene (1906-1996) made an impassioned plea on behalf of Japan at the Peace Treaty signing in San Francisco. He declined compensation from Japan, which had carried out several aerial bombing raids in Colombo and the eastern port city of Trincomalee.
    (AFP, 9/8/14)

1951        The film "The Idiot" (Hakuchi) starred Toshiro Mifune. It was directed by Akira Kurosawa.
    (SFC,12/26/97, p.C3)(SFC,12/25/97, p.A25)(SFC, 9/7/98, p.A21)

1951        A CIA assessment of Japanese agents said: "Frequently they resorted to padding or outright fabrication of information for the purposes of prestige or profit." Among the agents was Col. Masanobu Tsuji, a fanatical Japanese militarist and brutal warrior, hunted after World War II for massacres of Chinese civilians and complicity in the Bataan Death March. Other agents in US-funded operations included mob boss and war profiteer Yoshio Kodama, and Takushiro Hattori, former private secretary to Hideki Tojo. Documents with this information were declassified in 2005 and 2006.
    (AP, 2/24/07)

1952        Apr 15, President Harry Truman signed the official Japanese peace treaty.
    (HN, 4/15/98)

1952        Apr 28, War with Japan officially ended as a treaty that had been signed by the United States and 47 other countries took effect. Japan regained independence. Okinawa remained under American military control for another two decades. The government immediately revoked Japanese nationality from ethnic Koreans, called zainichi. Those loyal to north Korea were called Soren and those loyal to South Korea were called Mindan.
    (AP, 4/28/00)(Jap. Enc., BLDM, p. 216)(Econ, 6/3/06, p.40)(Econ., 4/25/15, p.38)

1952        Oct 31, A CIA report, declassified in 2005, said ex-Colonel Hattori Takushiro (1901-1960) had led plans since the beginning of July for a coup d'etat against Japan’s PM Yoshida Shigeru. Hattori’s colleague Masanobu Tsuji talked the group out of the coup.
    (SFC, 3/1/07, p.A11)

1952        The film "Ikiru" was directed by Akira Kurosawa.
    (SFC, 9/7/98, p.A21)
1952        Osamu Tezuka, Japanese cartoonist, dreamed up Astro Boy and put his b-day at April 7, 2003. His features soon defined the Japanese style called anime. In 1963 Astro Boy was imported to the US and 10-min. episodes ran until 1967.
    (SSFC, 4/13/03, p.C4)(WSJ, 1/15/04, p.B1)
1952        In Japan cross-shareholdings originated after someone tried to take over Mitsubishi Estate, a huge property concern tied to the Mitsubishi trading house. 11 companies linked to Mitsubishi bought shares to block the outsider. Zin the 1960s cross-shareholdings were adopted as a general defensive measure as foreigners began buying shares as Japan liberalized its financial markets.
    (Econ, 11/8/08, p.80)
1952        Matsutaro Shoriki founded Nippon Television, Japan’s first private network.
    (Econ, 12/22/12, p.62)

1953        Sep 27, A typhoon destroyed 1/3 of Nagoya, Japan.
    (MC, 9/27/01)

1953        Miyozo Yamagashi, a chicken farmer, founded the Yamagishi cult to create a rural utopia.
    (SFC, 3/21/00, p.A14)

1953        A Leprosy Prevention Law banished lepers to small islands and remote areas. It was repealed in 1996.
    (SFC, 5/24/01, p.C3)(WSJ, 5/24/01, p.A1)

1954        Mar 1, The No. 5 Fukuryu-maru was trolling for tuna off the Bikini atoll in the Pacific during the Bravo hydrogen bomb test. 11 crew members died in the half-century since the exposure, at least six of them from liver cancer. Between 1946 and 1958, the United States conducted 66 nuclear tests at Bikini as part of "Operation Crossroads."
    (AP, 2/28/04)

1954        Sep 26, A typhoon hit Japan. 5 ferryboats sank killing about 1,600. The Japanese ferry boat Toya Maru sank in the Strait of Tsugaru and 1172 died.
    (MC, 9/26/01)

1954        Nov 3, The film "Godzilla, King of the Monsters" was released. It was produced by Japan's Toho Co., headed by Tomoyuki Tanaka (d.1997). Godzilla went on to star in 22 films.
    (SFC, 4/3/97, p.C2)(MC, 11/3/01)

1954        Nov 7, A US spy plane was shot down North of Japan.
    (MC, 11/7/01)

1954        Dec 10, In Japan PM Shigeru Yoshida (1868-1967), post-reconstruction statesman and 2-time prime minister, was unseated by Ichiro Hatoyama.
    (Econ, 7/18/09, p.42)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Shigeru_Yoshida)

1954        Japanese painter Jiro Yoshihara (1905-1972) founded the Gatai movement. He encouraged followers to challenge conformity.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Jiro_Yoshihara)(Econ, 5/2/15, p.75)
1954        The Japanese film "Sansho the Bailiff" was produced.
    (SFC, 10/12/97, DB p.53)
1954        The Japanese film "Seven Samurai" (Shichinin no samurai) starred Toshiro Mifune. It was directed by Akira Kurosawa. It was the basis for the American film "The magnificent Seven."
    (SFC,12/26/97, p.C3)(SFC,12/25/97, p.A25)(SFC, 9/7/98, p.A21)
1954        Japan’s “Self-Defense Forces" (SDF) were formed.
    (Econ, 6/1/13, p.43)
1954        In Japan the Brothers of Christian Instruction founded the Catholic St. Mary’s Int’l. School for boys in Tokyo. In 2016 three former students alleged they were molested or raped by religious brothers at the school during the 1960s.
    (SFC, 4/20/16, p.A5)

1955        May, John Jay Hopkins, president of General Dynamics, visited Japan. The previous December Hopkins had suggested an “Atomic Marshall Plan" for Japan. Matsutaro Shoriki, head of the Yomiuri Shimbun newspaper, then urged Hopkins to deliver his message in person.
    (Econ, 12/22/12, p.62)

1955        Nov 15, In Japan the Liberal Democratic Party (LDP) was founded following the merger of the Liberal Party (led by Shigeru Yoshida) with the Japan Democratic Party (led by Ichiro Hatoyama), both right-wing conservative parties, as a united front against the then popular Japan Socialist Party. The aim of the party was to amend the constitution.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/History_of_the_Liberal_Democratic_Party_(Japan))(Econ, 7/18/09, p.42)(Econ 5/6/17, p.38) 

1955        The Japanese film "Record of a Living Being" (Ikimono no kiroku) starred Toshiro Mifune. It was directed by Akira Kurosawa.
    (SFC,12/26/97, p.C3)(SFC,12/25/97, p.A25)(SFC, 9/7/98, p.A21)
1955        Shusaku Endo (1923-1996) wrote "Shiroi Hito" (White Man) and won the Akutagawa Prize for literature.
    (SFEC, 9/30/96, p.A23)
1955        The Japanese film "I Live in Fear" starred Toshiro Mifune as an elderly nuclear protestor.
    (SFC,12/25/97, p.A25)

1955        Toshiba introduced the world’s first automatic electric rice cooker. In 2006 Mitsubishi introduced an upscale rice cooker selling for $1000.
    (WSJ, 6/4/07, p.A12)

1955        Dr. Tomin Harada (d.1999 at 87) led a group of some 200 female survivors of the Hiroshima bombing, the Hiroshima Maidens, to the US for plastic surgery under a program led by Norman Cousins, editor of the Saturday Review. Harada spent his life treating victims of "atomic illness" who often displayed raised scars called keloids.
    (SFC, 6/29/99, p.A19)

1956        Jan, In Japan media mogul Matsutaro Shoriki, as a cabinet member of the first LDP government, was appointed president of Japan’s new Atomic Energy Commission. Shoriki had helped form the Liberal Democratic Party.
    (Econ, 12/22/12, p.62)

1955        Kaiko, a Japanese deep-sea research submarine, dove 36,008 feet to the bottom of the Challenger Deep, the ocean's deepest point. In 2003 it was lost in a typhoon.
    (SFC, 7/1/03, p.A5)

1956        Japan began building a national highway system with money borrowed from the World Bank. Fees were originally impose to pay for the 4,350-mile project. When the loans were retired the tolls were continued to pay off some $358 billion from public works projects.
    (WSJ, 9/15/03, p.A1)

1956        In Japan the term Minamata Disease was coined to identify villagers suffering dizzy spells with troubles walking and speaking. Growing numbers fell into convulsions, wasted away and died. Chisso Corp. had polluted Minamata Bay and the Shiranui Sea with deadly methylmercury. By 2007 at least 2,000 people had died from eating tainted fish.
    (AP, 9/30/07)

1956        Kenzi Mizoguchi, Japanese film director, died. His films included "Ugetsu," "The Life of Oharu," "Crucified Lovers," "Sansho the Bailiff," "A Geisha," "Street of Shame" and just before he died "Red Light District."
    (SFEC, 9/29/96, DB p.60,64)

1956-1959    Some 1,300 Japanese made a 30-day, 8,000 mile voyage across the oceans to settle on free land offered by Dominican Republic dictator Gen. Rafael Trujillo. In 2000 more than 170 immigrants sued the Japanese government, claiming they were deceived into leaving Japan and taking bad land. In 2006 Japan settled the lawsuit, promising to pay up to $17,000 to each plaintiff as well as $10,000 to emigrants who did not take part in the suit.
    (AP, 7/25/06)

1956-1961    Douglas MacArthur II (d.1997 at 88) served as US ambassador to Japan.
    (SFC,11/17/97, p.A23)

1956-1966    In 1999 declassified documents revealed that the US stored coreless nuclear weapons in Okinawa, and on the islands of Chichi-Jima and Iwo Jima and other places.
    (SFEC, 12/12/99, p.A24)

1957        Jan 31, In Japan Nobosuke Kishi was voted in as acting prime minister following the resignation of the ailing Tanzan Ishibashi.

1957        Feb 25, Nobosuke Kishi (1896-1987) began serving as prime minister of Japan. He continued for 2 terms to Jul 19, 1960. It was later reported that Kakuei Tanaka won his first cabinet job by handing Kishi a small backpack filled with ¥3 million.
    (Econ, 1/12/13, p.37)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Nobusuke_Kishi)(Econ, 6/11/16, p.41)

1957        Jun 30, The American occupation headquarters in Japan was dissolved.
    (HN, 6/30/98)

1957        Aug 6, The Japanese Nikkei Index pulled ahead of the Dow Jones Index. The Nikkei peaked at 38,915 on Dec 31, 1989. The Nikkei did not fall back behind the Dow until 2002.
    (WSJ, 9/5/01, p.C1)(WSJ, 2/4/02, p.C1)

1957        Dec 9, Japan [announced?] its 1st ambassador to Israel.
    (MC, 12/9/01)

1957        Shusaku Endo (1923-1996) wrote "Umi to Dokuyaku." It was published in English as "The Sea and Poison" in 1972.
    (SFEC, 9/30/96, p.A23)
1957        Saburo Sakai (d.2000 at 84) authored "Samurai." Sakai, a fighter pilot, reportedly shot down as many as 64 allied planes during WW II.
    (SFC, 10/10/00, p.A21)

1957        The Japanese film “Black River" starred Tatsuya Nakadai and was directed by Masaki Kobayashi.
    (WSJ, 7/2/08, p.B13)
1957        The film "Kisses" by Yasuzo Masumura (d.1986 at 62) marked the director's  debut.
    (SFC, 9/2/97, p.E1)
1957        The film "The Lower Depths" starred Toshiro Mifune in a version of the Gorky story. It was directed by Akira Kurosawa.
    (SFC,12/25/97, p.A25)(SFC, 9/7/98, p.A21)
1957        The Japanese film "Throne of Blood" (Kumonosujo) starred Toshiro Mifune in the Kurosawa directed reworking of Macbeth in the stylized manner of Noh drama. It was directed by Akira Kurosawa.
    (SFEC, 4/13/97, DB p.44)(SFC,12/25/97, p.A25)(SFC, 9/7/98, p.A21)
1957        The Japanese film “Untamed" starred Tatsuya Nakadai and was directed by Mikio Naruse.
    (WSJ, 7/2/08, p.B13)
1957        Japan’s PM Nobusuke Kishi visited Australia and signed a commerce treaty. He was the country’s first post-war prime minister to visit Australia.
    (Econ, 7/12/14, p.37)
1957        Dr. Tomin Harada successfully pressed Japan’s government to enact a law to provide medical treatment to atomic bomb survivors.
    (SFC, 6/29/99, p.A19)

1958        Jun, Mount Aso erupted and left 12 people dead.
    (SFEC, 4/2/00, p.A17)

1958        Aug 25, Momofuku Ando (48), head of Japan’s Nissin Food Products, announced that he had finally perfected his flash-frying method and therefore invented the instant noodle.

1958        Sue Sumii published the first volume of her novel "The River With No Bridge." It was about the plight of the burakumin (the untouchables) of Japan. She died working on the 8th volume in 1997 (95).
    (SFC, 6/24/97, p.A19)
1958        The Japanese film "The Hidden Fortress" starred Toshiro Mifune and was directed by Akira Kurosawa. It served as an inspiration for "Star Wars."
    (SFC,12/25/97, p.A25)
1958        The Tokyo Tower was erected in the capital city as a relay for radio and TV signals. In 1998 it faced replacement.
    (SFC, 12/11/98, p.D4)
1958        In Japan a restaurant in Tokyo introduced a conveyor belt to serve sushi.
    (Econ, 4/22/17, p.60)
1958        Masudaya, a Japanese toy maker, introduced Radicon, a battery powered mechanical robot. Radicon was followed by Nonstop, Sonic, Target and Machine Man.
    (WSJ, 8/6/99, p.W12)

1958        Japan’s Tokyo Telecommunications changed its name to Sony Corp. and listed as a publicly traded company.
    (WSJ, 3/7/05, p.A8)(Econ, 9/20/14, p.62)

1958-1970     Japan achieves economic superpower status. Restrictions on foreign travel are removed and huge numbers of Japanese begin to travel abroad.
    (Jap. Enc., BLDM, p. 216)

1959        Apr 10, Japan's Crown Prince Akihito married a commoner, Michiko Shoda.
    (AP, 4/9/97)

1959        Sep 17, Typhoon Sara killed 2,000 in Japan & Korea. 840 people were left dead or missing in South Korea. [see Japan Sep 27]
    (MC, 9/17/01)(SFC, 9/3/02, p.A3)

1959        Sep 26, Vera, Japan, was hit by a typhoon; about 5,000 died. [see Sep 17,27]
    (MC, 9/26/01)

1959        Sep 27, Typhoon Vera battered the main Japanese island of Honshu, killing nearly 5,000 people. [see Sep 17,26]
    (AP, 9/27/97)(MC, 9/27/01)

1959        Nov 27, Demonstrators marched in Tokyo to protest a defense treaty with the US.
    (HN, 11/27/98)

1959        The Japanese film “Odd Obsession" starred Tatsuya Nakadai and was directed by Kon Ichikawa.
    (WSJ, 7/2/08, p.B13)

1959        Tatsumi Hijikata (d.1984) founded the Butoh dance style with the introduction of the "Dance of Darkness."
    (SFEC, 8/9/98, DB p.11)
1959        Japan’s Tokyo Trust Bank was founded. In 2001 it joined with Sanwa Bank and Tokai Bank to form UFJ Holdings. In 2005 it became part of the Mitsubishi UFJ Financial Group.
    (WSJ, 9/23/08, p.C1)

1959-1961    The Japanese tripartite film “The Human Condition" starred Tatsuya Nakadai and was directed by Masaki Kobayashi.
    (WSJ, 7/2/08, p.B13)

1960        Jan 19, The US-Japan Treaty of Mutual Cooperation and Security formalized a US-Japanese alliance. Left-wing protests roiled the government of Nobosuke Kishi as he pushed through the revised security treaty with America.
    (www.mofa.go.jp/region/n-america/us/q&a/ref/1.html)(Econ, 1/16/10, p.43)(Econ, 8/15/15, p.31)

1960        Feb 23, Naruhito, crown prince of Japan, was born.
    (MC, 2/23/02)

1960        May 22, Chile experienced a 9.5 earthquake. A slow earthquake was detected just before the big one. It caused tsunamis in every coastal town between the 36th and 44th parallels with a death toll of some 1000 people.
    (PCh, 1992, p.977)(SFC, 9/6.96, p.A11)

1960        May 23, A tidal wave, due to a 9.5 earthquake off Chile, hit Hilo, Hawaii. It killed 61 people, wiped out the beaches and destroyed 537 buildings. It went on to hit Japan.
    (SFEC, 4/2/00, p.T4)(SSFC, 8/25/02, p.C14)

1960        Yukio Mishima (1925-1970), Japanese writer, authored “Utage No Ato “After the Banquet), a somewhat disguised account of certain aspects of an actual political campaign.
    (Econ, 8/22/09, p.35)
1960        The Japanese film "The Bad Sleep Well" (Warui yatsu hodo yoku nemuru) starred Toshiro Mifune as a shrewd, vengeance seeking businessman. It was directed by Akira Kurosawa.
    (SFC,12/25/97, p.A25)(SFC, 9/7/98, p.A21)
1960        The Japanese film “When a Woman Ascends the Stairs" starred Tatsuya Nakadai and was directed by Mikio Naruse.
    (WSJ, 7/2/08, p.B13)
1960        Okada Kotama founded the Sukyo Mahikari (True Light) cult. The group's core belief was that the "primary soul" lies 10 centimeters behind the forehead and that people inherit bad karma that can be purged in special sessions.
    (SFC, 3/21/00, p.A14)
1960        Japan’s PM Nobusuke Kishi strengthened Japan’s alliance with America. His grandson, Shinzo Abe, became PM of Japan in 2006. During the 1930s Kishi had run industrial policy in Manchuria and in the 1940s oversaw forced-labor programs.
    (Econ, 10/7/06, p.31)

1960-1970    The Toyota Motor Company, formed as a division of Toyoda Automatic Loom Works in the 30s, acquired several competing companies including Hino, Nippondenso and Daihitsu during the 60s and 70s in a huge expansion that included marketing more cars overseas. The “Toyota Way," its corporate culture, embodied 5 elements: Kaizen (continuous improvement), Genchi genbutsu (go to the source for facts), Challenge, Teamwork, and Respect for other people.
    (HNQ, 9/28/00)(Econ, 1/21/06, Survey p.11)

1961        Jan, Kawasaki disease, a syndrome of unknown cause that results in a fever and mainly affects children under 5 years of age, was first identified in Japan.

1961        Mar 9, A mine cave-in in Japan killed 72.
    (MC, 3/9/02)

1961        The film "Yojimbo" starred Toshiro Mifune and was directed by Akira Kurosawa. The US Western film "For a Few Dollars More" by Sergio Leone in 1964 was a remake of "Yojimbo."
    (SFC,12/25/97, p.A25)
1961        Japan established a universal health care system called kaihoken.
    (Econ, 9/10/11, p.47)
1961        Merrill Lynch Securities under Michael McCarthy (d.1998 at 94) was the first American firm to establish a securities office in Tokyo.
    (SFC, 4/4/98, p.A24)

1962        The Japanese film “Harakiri" starred Tatsuya Nakadai and was directed by Masaki Kobayashi.
    (WSJ, 7/2/08, p.B13)
1962        The film "Sanjuro" (Tsubaki sanjuro) starred Toshiro Mifune. It was directed by Akira Kurosawa.
    (SFC,12/26/97, p.C3)(SFC, 9/7/98, p.A21)

1962        Ryoichi Sasakawa (d.1995), billionaire boat racing tycoon, founded a foundation to support Japanese nationalistic projects. It came to be called the Nippon Foundation.
    (WSJ, 2/16/05, p.A11)

c1962        Macaque monkeys began bathing in the hot springs near Nagano.
    (SSFC, 8/11/02, p.C10)

1962        Oceanographers sailed to view the predicted eruption of Myojin, an undersea volcano south of Japan. It blew beneath them and nobody survived.
    (SFEC, 9/10/00, Z1 p.2)

1963        Nov 9, Twin disasters struck Japan as some 450 miners were killed in a coal-dust explosion, and 160 people died in a train crash.
    (AP, 11/9/97)

1963        Japanese artist Yayoi Kusama (b.1929) led in the creation of installation art with her show: “Aggregation: One thousands Boats Show," at the Gertrude Stein gallery in NYC. It featured a rowing boat filled with phallic sculptures installed in a room papered with 999 black-and-white photographic reproductions of the work.
    (Econ, 2/4/12, p.84)
1963        The film "High and Low" (Tengoku to jigoku) starred Toshiro Mifune as a factory owner standing up to his son's kidnapper. It was directed by Akira Kurosawa.
    (SFC,12/25/97, p.A25)(SFC,12/26/97, p.C3)(SFC, 9/7/98, p.A21)
1963        Akio Morita, co-founder of Sony Corp., moved his family to NYC to learn American ways.
    (SFEC, 10/3/99, p.C7)

1964        Apr 5, Army Gen. Douglas MacArthur (b.1880) died in Washington, D.C. In 1978 William Manchester authored: "American Caesar: Douglas MacArthur." In 2006 Robert Harvey authored “American Shogun: A Tale of Two Cultures," which includes a biography of Japan’s Emp. Hirohito in parallel with MacArthur.  
    (AP, 4/5/97)(BS, 5/3/98, p.13E)(WSJ, 8/3/06, p.D5)

1964        Oct 1, Japan’s Shinkansen Bullet Train began operation between Tokyo and Osaka.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/T%C5%8Dkaid%C5%8D_Shinkansen)(SFEC, 10/1/00, p.T5)

1964        Oct 10, The XVIII Olympiad opened in Tokyo, Japan. The summer Olympics closing ceremonies were held on Oct 24.

1964        Kenzabuto Oe, Japanese novelist, published his novel "A Personal Matter." He won the Nobel Prize in literature in 1994.
    (SFEC, 2/23/96, BR p.9)
1964        Japan completed the construction of the Yoyogi National Stadium, designed by architect Kenzo Tange, for the Tokyo Olympics.
    (AP, 7/21/18)
1964        Bob Hayes (d.2002 at 59),  sprinter, won gold medals at the Tokyo Olympics in the 100 meters and 4x100 relay.
    (WSJ, 9/20/02, p.A1)(NW, 9/30/02, p.15)
1964        Eisaku Sato of the LDP became prime minister of Japan. He served to 1972.
    (Econ, 10/8/05, Survey p.10)
1964        Koji Kobayashi (1907-1996) began serving as the president of NEC. In 1976 he became the chairman until 1988. He pushed for separation from the Sumitomo Bank and supported the United Nations Univ., based in Tokyo. He was also a member of the Club of Rome, and int'l. group of businessmen and academics who discussed limits to the Earth's Resources.
    (SFC, 12/3/96, p.D2)

1965        The film "Red Beard" (Akahige) starred Toshiro Mifune as a pioneering physician. It was directed by Akira Kurosawa.
    (SFC,12/25/97, p.A25)(SFC, 9/7/98, p.A21)
1965        The government of Japan signed a peace treaty with South Korea that covered reparation claims of South Korean women used as sex slaves. Japan paid $500 million to South Korea in compensation for wartime excesses and colonial era claims.
    (Jap. Enc., BLDM, p. 216)(SFC, 4/22/98, p.A11)(Econ, 11/9/13, p.48)
1965        Japan’s recognition of South Korea enabled Koreans in Japan to become South Korean. Koreans who did not became North Korean by default and went to Japan’s North Korean schools.
    (Econ, 6/15/13, p.38)
1965        Japan’s PM Eisaku Sato told US Defense Secretary Robert McNamara that American military forces could launch a nuclear attack on China by sea if needed. This information was not made public until 2008.
    (AP, 12/21/08)
1965        Saburo Ienaga began a crusade for truth in the nation's textbooks. He was vindicated in a 1997 ruling by the Supreme Court.
    (SFC, 8/30/97, p.A12)

1966        Mar 4, Canadian Pacific airliner exploded on landing in Tokyo and 64 died.
    (SC, 3/4/02)

1966        Mar 5, 75 MPH air currents caused a BOAC 707 to crash into Mount Fuji and 124 died.
    (MC, 3/5/02)

1966        Jul 12, D.T. Suzuki (96), Zen Buddhism scholar, died in Tokyo, Japan.
    (MC, 7/12/02)

1966        The Japanese film “The Face of Another" starred Tatsuya Nakadai and was directed by Hiroshi Teshigahara.
    (WSJ, 7/2/08, p.B13)
1966        The Japanese film “The Sword of Doom" starred Tatsuya Nakadai and was directed by Kihachi Okamoto.
    (WSJ, 7/2/08, p.B13)
1966        The Asian Development Bank, headquartered in the Philippines, was founded with Japan and America as the biggest shareholders. It was created to recycle the rich world’s surpluses to capital starved Asia.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Asian_Development_Bank)(Econ, 5/12/07, p.45)(Econ, 5/30/15, p.38)

1967        Japan decided to restrict exports of military equipment in keeping with the country’s pacifist post-war constitution.
    (Econ, 7/19/14,p.56)
1967        Japan’s Datsun 510 sedan was first marketed in the US.
    (SFC, 2/26/15, p.D2)

1968        Feb 26, Lionel Rose (1949-2011) outpointed Fighting Harada in Tokyo and became a national sports hero and an icon for Australia's indigenous community. Hundreds of thousands lined Melbourne's streets to welcome him home after his title triumph. He lost the world bantamweight title to Mexican Ruben Olivares in a fifth-round knockout in August 1969.
    (AFP, 5/9/11)(http://aso.gov.au/titles/radio/lionel-rose-wins-world-title/notes/)

1968        Jun 26, The national flag of Japan, the hinomaru, was raised atop Mt. Suribachi on Iwo Jima symbolizing the return of the central Pacific island to Japan.
    (SSFC, 6/24/18, DB p.54)

1968        Oct 19, Yasonari Kawabata (1899-1972), Japanese novelist (Thousand Cranes) won the Nobel Prize in Literature.

1968        In Japan Iwao Hakamada, accused of killing a family and setting fire to its house after a robbery in 1966, was sentenced to death. After 19 days of 12-hour interrogations he confessed. At his trial he said the confession was coerced. In 2008 Japan’s Supreme Court turned down a retrial plea.
    (Econ, 3/29/08, p.56)(AP, 3/27/14)

1968        CBS established a 50-50 joint venture with Sony Corp.
    (WSJ, 3/7/05, p.A8)

1969        Apr 26, Morihei Ueshiba (b.1883), Japanese martial arts master, died. He evolved aikido through a synthesis and repatterning of various Japanese martial arts forms. Ueshiba is remembered by his pupils as a master of the martial arts, whose studies transcended technical matters to include a moral and philosophical view of the world based around harmony in the face of aggression.
    (SFC, 5/25/09, p.E1)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Morihei_Ueshiba)

1969        Jul 1, The Tokyo Stock Price Index (TOPIX) was inaugurated.
    (WSJ, 3/15/07, p.C1)

1969        Oct 9, Matsutaro Shoriki (b.1885), Japanese media mogul, died.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Matsutar%C5%8D_Sh%C5%8Driki)(Econ, 12/22/12, p.62)

1969        In Japan the New Star Orchestra was formed as a part-time avocation by young musicians. In 2000 it merged with the Tokyo Philharmonic.
    (WSJ, 7/19/00, p.A1)
1969        In Japan the Ichihara Prison opened to serve dangerously irresponsible drivers.  Japan had agreed to adhere to UN standards for more lenient correctional institutions for lesser offenders.
    (SFC, 4/10/98, p.A20)
1969        Japan’s 1970 Datsun 240Z went on sale in the US in the fall of this year priced at $3,500.
    (SFC, 2/26/15, p.D2)
1969        In Japan Nissan introduced its Skyline GT-R muscle car. The car was initially introduced by the Prince Motor Co. in June, 1957. It was discontinued in 2002. A new version was introduced in 2007.
    (WSJ, 10/24/07, p.B1)(www.driftclub.com/SkylineHistory.htm)
1969        The first case of karoshi, a Japanese term for death from overwork, was reported with the death from a stroke of a male worker (29) in the shipping department of Japan's largest newspaper company. In 1987, as public concern increased, the Japanese Ministry of Labour began to publish statistics on karoshi.
    (Econ, 1/5/08, p.69)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Kar%C5%8Dshi)

1970        Feb 11, Japan launched its first satellite, Ohsumi-1. That launch made Japan the fourth nation with a space rocket powerful enough to launch satellites to Earth orbit, after the USSR, the U.S. and France. Later that year, China launched its first satellite, Mao-1, to Earth orbit April 24, 1970, on a Long March rocket.

1970        Mar 15, Expo '70, promoting "Progress and Harmony for Mankind," opened in Osaka, Japan. The ‘70 Expo featured the Multiscreen Corporation production of the film Tiger Child.
    (Jap. Enc., BLDM, p. 216)(Hem., 3/97, p.81)(AP, 3/15/08)

1970        Apr 5, Six Nepalese Sherpas died in an avalanche during a Japanese skiing expedition on Everest.
    (www.everestsummiteersassociation.org/listofdeadoneverst.htm)(SFC, 5/15/96, A-10)

1970        Apr 30, Yoshimi Tanaka and a group of students of the Red Army Faction, including Shiro Akagi, seized a Japan Airlines jet and flew to Pyongyang, N. Korea, in Japan's first ever case of air piracy. In 1996 Tanaka was sentenced to 12 years in prison.
    (http://tinyurl.com/3c4bk7)(www.tkb.org/KeyLeader.jsp?memID=102)(AP, 6/5/07)

1970        May 6, Yuichiro Miura (b.1932) of Japan skied down Mt. Everest.

1970        Nov 25, Yukio Mishima (45), Japanese author and nationalist (Hara-kiri), invaded military headquarters in Tokyo and committed ritual suicide samurai-style. His death was an act of protest after he failed to persuade the country's Self Defense Force to stage a coup and renounce the US-imposed postwar constitution that banned Japanese aggressive military action. His books included "The Sound of Waves" and "The Temple and the Golden Pavilion." In 1998 Jiro Fukushima published a memoir that contained 15 letters from Mishima and descriptions of a sexual liaison with Mishima. A lawsuit soon halted book sales.
    (SFEC, 1/25/98, Z1 p.2)(SFC, 10/21/99, p.B7)

1970        The Japanese film "Dodes ka-den" was directed by Akira Kurosawa.
    (SFC, 9/7/98, p.A21)
1970        In Japan the Kigenkai sect was founded based on the indigenous Shinto religion. Members sold expensive purified water to cure diseases. In 2007 police arrested 20 women of the 400-member sect, for beating a member to death for failing to carry out religious rites.
    (SFC, 10/16/07, p.A3)
1970        In Japan the first homegrown hamburger chain opened in Tokyo, a year before McDonald’s entered the market.
    (Econ, 4/22/17, p.60)

1971        Feb, Fusako Shigenobu broke from the Japanese Communist league and founded a faction of The Japanese Red Army with the goal of worldwide communist revolution. She entered Lebanon and linked with the Popular Front for the Liberation of Palestine. Shigenobu was arrested in 2000 and in 2006 was sentenced to 20 years in prison.
    (SFC, 11/9/00, p.C2)(AP, 2/22/06)(www.fas.org/irp/world/para/jra.htm)

1971        Apr, The world table tennis championship was held in Japan. Zhuang Zedong (d.2013 at 72) of China met Glenn Cowan of Santa Monica and their friendship inspired Chairman Mao to invite the American team to China thus starting ping-pong diplomacy.
    (Econ, 2/23/13, p.90)

1971        May 3, John Toland (1912-2004), American author and historian, won a Pulitzer prize  for “Rising Sun" (1970) which chronicles Imperial Japan from its Manchurian involvement following World War I to the end of World War II.

1971        Jun 17, The United States and Japan signed the Okinawa Reversion Treaty under which the United States would return control of the island of Okinawa in 1972.
    (WUD, 1994, p. 1688)(Jap. Enc., BLDM, p. 216)(AP, 6/17/97)

1971        Jul 30, A Japanese 727 collided with a jet fighter. 162 people were killed.
    (WUD, 1994, p. 1688)(www.airdisaster.com/features/top100/top100.shtml)

1971        Oct 25, Midori Goto, Japanese violinist, was born in Osaka.
    (HN, 10/25/00)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Midori_Goto)

1971        Donald Richie authored his novel ""The Inland Sea," about a lonely American island-hopping across Japan's Inland Sea.
    (SSFC, 11/10/02, p.C8)
1971        The Kodo drummers from Sado Island formed into a performance company. Kodo means "heartbeat" and "children of the drum."
    (SFEC, 1/19/96, DB p.9)
1971        The film "Red Sun" starred Toshiro Mifune, Alain Delon and Charles Bronson.
    (SFC,12/25/97, p.A25)(SFC,12/26/97, p.C3)
1971        Japan’s gentan policy began whereby the government began paying rice farmers to reduce rice crops. It was designed to shield farmers from short term price fluctuations. In 2013 the agricultural ministry said the policy would be phased out by 2018.
    (Econ, 11/30/13, p.71)
1971        Akio Morita became the president of Sony Corp.
    (SFEC, 10/3/99, p.C7)
1971        Dai-Ichi Bank merged with Nippon Kangyo Bank.
    (WSJ, 7/19/00, p.A1)

1972        Jan 24,  In Guam Shoichi Yokoi (d.1997 at 82), a WWII Japanese soldier, was found by hunters near the Talofofo River. He had survived since 1944 in adherence to his army code of never surrendering. Yokoi returned to Japan as a national hero: "It is with much embarrassment that I return."
    (SFC, 9/23/97, p.A19)(http://ns.gov.gu/scrollapplet/sergeant.html)

1972        Feb 2, Winter Olympics began in Sapporo, Japan.
    (HN, 2/2/01)

1972        Apr 16, In Japan Yasunari Kawabata (b.1899), a Nobel laureate in literature (1968), committed suicide without explanation.
    (SFEC, 1/25/98, Z1 p.2)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Yasunari_Kawabata)

1972        May 13,  In Osaka, Japan, 118 died in a nightclub atop the 7-story Sennichi dept store.

1972        May 15, The US returned Okinawa and the Senkaku Islands to Japan. The US had taken them over after WW II. Japan had begun administering Senkaku Islands between Okinawa and Taiwan in 1895.
    (SFEC, 10/8/96, A8)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Senkaku_Islands_dispute)

1972        May 30, Three militants of the Japanese Red Army staged a machine-gun and hand-grenade attack at the Lod Airport in Israel. 24 people were killed and a 100 injured. The terrorists found refuge in Lebanon until 1997 when they were arrested. Kozo Okamoto served 13 years of a life sentence in Israel. In 2000 Lebanon granted asylum to Kozo Okamoto. 4 other Japanese Red Army members were deported to Japan.
    (SFC, 2/19/96, p.A8)(SFC, 3/18/00, p.A3)

1972        Jul 7, In Japan Kekuei Tanaka (1918-1993) began serving as prime minister.

1972        Sep 26, Richard M. Nixon met with Emperor Hirohito in Anchorage, Alaska, the first-ever meeting of a U.S. President and a Japanese Monarch.
    (HN, 9/26/99)

1972        Sep 28, Japan and Communist China agreed to re-establish diplomatic relations.
    (AP, 9/28/97)

1972        Japanese brothels on Okinawa, deliberately set up for US soldiers, became illegal, 14 years after they were banned in the rest of Japan.
    (Econ, 8/13/16, p.21)
1972        In Japan Fujitsu spun off Fanuc Ltd., a maker of computerized control systems. By 2010 Fanuc was valued at some $35 billion.
    (SFC, 11/26/10, p.C4)

1973        Mar 3, Japan disclosed its first defense plan since World War II.
    (HN, 3/3/99)

1973        Jul 20, The Japanese Red Army and Lebanese guerrillas hijacked a Japan Airlines plane over the Netherlands. The passengers and crew were released in Libya where the hijackers blew up the plane.
    (SFC, 11/9/00, p.C2)(www.cdi.org/friendlyversion/printversion.cfm?documentID=1771)

1973        Aug 8, Secret agents of the Korean Central Intelligence Agency kidnapped Kim Dae-jung from a Tokyo hotel, just days before he was to launch a coalition of Japan-based South Korean organizations to work for their country's democratization. In 2007 a fact-finding panel of the National Intelligence Service said it cannot rule out the possibility that former President Park Chung-hee may have directly ordered the kidnapping of Kim, then his main political rival.
    (AP, 10/24/07)

1973        Nov 23, Sessue Hayakawa (b.1889), Japanese film and TV actor, died in Tokyo of cerebral thrombosis. His films included  “Tokyo Joe" and “Bridge Over the River Kwai."

1973        Leo Esaki (b.1925), [Esaki Reona], Japanese-born physicist, won the Nobel Prize.
1973        Japan experiences its first oil crises with the Middle East war.
    (Jap. Enc., BLDM, p. 216)
1973        Dr. Akira Endo of Japan discovered the 1st anticholesterol statin from a mold that grows on oranges. By 2006 the statin market reached $25 billion a year.
    (WSJ, 1/9/06, p.A1)
1973        Kikkoman became the first Japanese food company to open a factory in America.
    (Econ, 4/11/09, p.68)
1973        Yamada Denki, a Japanese retailer of home appliances, was founded.
    (Econ, 9/11/10, p.78)

1974        Mar 9, Officer Hiroo Onoda (d.2014), the last Japanese soldier operating in the Philippines, surrendered, 29 years after World War II ended. The Japanese intelligence officer and WWII holdout, came out of hiding in fatigues patched many times over, on Lubang island in the Philippines on his 52nd birthday.
    (www.einsteinsfrig.com/onoda/index.html)(AP, 1/17/14)

1974        Sep 13, In the Netherlands the French embassy at the Hague was taken over by Haruo Wako and 2 other Japanese Red Army militants. A 4-day standoff ended with the release of comrade Yutaka Suyaka from a French jail. The attack was linked to Carlos the Jackal, aka Ilich Ramirez Sanchez. In 2005 a Tokyo District Court sentenced Wako to life imprisonment.
    (SFC,12/11/97, p.C2)(SFC, 11/9/00, p.C2)(http://my-my-miyuki.blogspot.com/)

1974        Nov 1, Yuko Shimizu, Sanrio designer and creator of Hello Kitty, set Nov 1 as Hello Kitty’s birthday and her parents as George and Mary White of London.
    (SSFC, 12/26/04, p.M2)

1974        Dec 9, Japan’s PM Kekuei Tanaka resigned following accusations of dodgy property deals.
    (https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Kakuei_Tanaka)(Econ, 6/11/16, p.41)

1974        Dec 24, An oil spill polluted 1,600 square miles of scenic Inland Sea in Japan.
    (HN, 12/24/98)

1974        Empress Nagako published a collection of her 31-syllable waka poetry. She also did traditional Japanese paintings and signed her artwork Toen (Peach Garden).
    (SFC, 6/17/00, p.A20)
1974        The film "Wife to Be Sacrificed" starred Naomi Tani and was directed by Masaru Onuma.
    (SFC, 5/1/98, p.C9)
1974        Eisaku Sato (b.1901), premier of Japan, and Ireland’s Sean MacBride, president of the Int’l. Peace Bureau, won the Nobel Peace Prize.
1974        Jerome Lemelson (d. 1997 at 74) licensed patents for his audio cassette drive mechanism to Sony Corp. Sony was founded after the war by Masaru Ibuka (d.1997 at 89), Akio Morita and others as a radio shop that was later renamed Sony.
    (SFC, 10/4/97, p.A20)
1974        Japan-based Nintendo secured the Japanese distribution rights to the Magnavox Odyssey, the world’s first games console.
    (Econ, 12/1/12, p.73)

1975        May 16, Junko Tabei (1939-2016), Japanese mountain climber, became the first woman to reach the summit of Mt. Everest. In 1992, she also became the first woman to complete the "Seven Summits," reaching the highest peaks of the seven continents.
    (https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Junko_Tabei)(AP, 5/16/97)

1975        Aug 4, In Malaysia the Japanese Red Army raided a building in Kuala Lumpur that housed US, Swedish, Japanese and Canadian embassies. 52 hostages were exchanged for Red Army members.

1975        Sep 13, Shiko Munakata (b.1903), renowned Japanese artist and printmaker, died in Tokyo from liver cancer.
    (SFC, 8/8/02, p.D9)(www.britannica.com/EBchecked/topic/397376/Munakata-Shiko)

1975        Oct 2, President Ford welcomed Japan's Emperor Hirohito to the United States.
    (AP, 10/2/00)

1975        Nov 15, The first Summit of 6 leading industrialist nations, G-6, met in Rambouillet, France, for discussions on currency and oil prices. The Group of Six included leaders from Britain, France, Germany, Italy, Japan and the United States. They were joined a year later by Canada making the "G7". The group was originally established as a vehicle for leading industrialized democracies to discuss the global economy. It later expanded its scope to issues such as peace, the environment and terrorism. Russia, which attended the summit as a guest in 1992, was in 1998 allowed for the first time to attend all summit meetings. The grouping was officially renamed the "G8". In 2014 Vladimir Putin's Russia was suspended from the G8 after it annexed Ukraine's Crimea peninsula and sanctions were imposed on Moscow.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/1st_G6_summit)(SFC, 6/20/97, p.A16)(AFP, 6/9/18)

1975        The film "A Woman Called Sada Abe" starred Junko Miyashita and was directed by Noburu Tanaka.
    (SFC, 5/1/98, p.C9)

1975        Japan’s Shimano Corp. conceived the systems engineering approach to component development in bicycle part manufacturing.
    (Hem, 8/96, p.33)
1975        Japan’s Sony Corp. launched a home use ½ inch Betamax VCR.
    (WSJ, 3/7/05, p.A8)
1975        Japan’s Subaru, a division of Fuji Heavy Industries, rolled out its 1st 4-wheel-drive car in the US market.
    (WSJ, 9/16/05, p.W12)

1976        Apr 26, Pan Am began non-stop flights between NYC and Tokyo.

1976        Jun 26, In Japan US boxer Muhammad Ali fought Japanese wrestler Antonio Inoki (b.1943). The 15-round fight was scored as a draw. Some spectators asked for their money back.
    (https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Antonio_Inoki)(SSFC, 6/12/16, p.A3)

1976        Jul 27, Kakuei Tanaka, former PM (1972-1974) of Japan, was arrested for accepting a bribe from the US Lockheed Corp. Tanaka was convicted in 1983 but continued to fight the charges. A. Carl Kotchian (d.2008 at 94), a Lockheed salesman, had testified that Lockheed had paid $12.6 million in bribes to Japanese businessmen and government officials.
    (www.international.ucla.edu/eas/restricted/lockheed.htm)(SFC, 12/24/08, p.B7)(Jap. Enc., BLDM, p. 216)

1976        Sep 6, A Soviet pilot landed his MIG-25 in Tokyo and asked for political asylum in the United States.
    (HN, 9/6/98)

1976        Dec 23, In Japan Takeo Fukuda was chosen as the 8th LDP President and formed his cabinet in the midst of high public expectations for the Party's revitalization and the country's economic recovery.

1976        Ryu Murakami won the Akutagawa literary award for his novel "Almost Transparent Blue." It was about partying druggies.
    (WSJ, 8/23/01, p.A6)
1976        The Japanese film "Dersu Uzala" was directed by Akira Kurosawa and featured in the SF film festival.
    (SFEC, 4/13/97, DB p.42)
1976        The film "In the Realm of the Senses" was directed by Nagisa Oshima. It was about a geisha who engages in a 2-week fest of lovemaking, that she "cuts short" in the end.
    (SFC, 5/1/98, p.C9)
1976        Japan hardened its 1967 policy of restricting exports military equipment into a ban on almost all foreign sales of weaponry.
    (Econ, 7/19/14,p.56)
1976        Japan completed a nuclear power plant in Fukui prefecture.
    (Econ, 8/14/04, p.54)
1976        Akio Morita became the chairman and CEO of Sony Corp.
    (SFEC, 10/3/99, p.C7)

1976-2005    Household saving in Japan began to fall from a peak this year of 23% of disposable income to around 6% in 2005.
    (Econ, 9/24/05, Sur. p.12)

1977        Apr, Pres. Carter named Montana Senator Mike Mansfield (1903-2001) ambassador to Japan. Mansfield had planned to retire but held the post for 10 years.
    (SFC, 10/6/01, p.E1)

1977        Aug, Japan’s PM Fukuda visited 5 ASEAN nations and in Manila promised SE Asia that Japan forever renounced aggression against its neighbors. This became known as the Fukuda doctrine.
    (Econ, 12/15/07, p.52)(www.jimin.jp/jimin/english/history/chap8.html)

1977        Sep 3, Japan's Sadaharu Oh hit his 756th HR to surpass Hank Aaron's total.

1977        Sep 27, Japan Airlines Flight 715, a DC-8, crashed into a hill in bad weather while attempting to land at the Kuala Lumpur Subang Airport. 34 people, including 8 of the 10 crew members and 26 of the 69 passengers, were killed when the aircraft broke on impact.

1977        Sep 28, The Japanese Red Army hijacked a Japan Airlines plane over India. The Douglas DC-8, en route from Paris to Haneda Airport in Tokyo with 156 people on board, stopped in Mumbai, India. After taking off from Mumbai, five armed JRA members hijacked the aircraft and ordered it flown to Dhaka, Bangladesh. The Japanese government freed 6 imprisoned members of the group and paid $6 million in ransom. On October 2 the hijackers released 118 passengers and crewmembers. The remaining hostages were freed later.
    (SFC, 11/9/00, p.C2)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Japan_Airlines)

1977        Nov 15, Megumi Yokota (13) disappeared after school in Niigata, Japan. It was later suspected that she, and possibly 9 others, had been kidnapped by North Korea. Shigeru Yokota (d.2020) found out 20 years later that his daughter had been abducted to North Korea.  In 2002 N. Korea admitted the kidnapping. In 2014 Yokota's parents spent several days with their 26-year old granddaughter, Kim Eun Gyong, in the Mongolian capital of Ulan Bator.
    (https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Megumi_Yokota)(SFEC, 10/15/00, p.A25)(SFC, 9/18/02, p.A10)(Reuters, 3/16/14)(AP, 6/6/20)

1977        In Japan the 4.7 km Sasago Tunnel opened 80 km (50 miles) outside Tokyo.
    (AP, 12/2/12)
1977        In Japan Bandai began making capsule toys, the majority of them were cheap, sold mostly at 20 yen, and were of poor quality. A craze for such toys really took off in 2012 when Tokyo-based manufacturer Kitan Club launched its "Koppu no Fuchico" ("Fuchico at the edge of a glass") product.
    (AP, 12/13/17)

1978        Jan 14, In Japan the 7.0 Izu-Oshima earthquake damaged nine railway and four road tunnels in a limited area. 25 people were killed.
    (SFC, 9/6.96, p.A11)(http://tinyurl.com/2uz9wg)

1978        Feb 16, China and Japan signed a $20 billion trade pact, which was the most important move since the 1972 resumption of diplomatic ties.
    (HN, 2/16/98)

1978        May 20, The Tokyo International Airport at Narita opened on a 2,632 acre site on Chiba Peninsula. The opening was 8 years after it was built due to opposition by local farmers and univ. students.
    (Hem, 8/95, p.53)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Narita_International_Airport)

1978        Jul, Yasushi Chimura (23) and Fukie Hamamoto (23) disappeared from Japan. In 2002 they were listed among those kidnapped by N. Korea.
    (SFC, 9/18/02, p.A10)
1978        Jul, Kaoru Hasuike (20) and Yukiko Okudo (22) disappeared from Japan. In 2002 they were listed among those kidnapped by N. Korea.
    (SFC, 9/18/02, p.A10)

1978        Aug 12, China’s Deng Xiaoping and Japan normalized relations. Japan signed a Peace and Friendship Treaty with China in Beijing.
    (www.taiwandocuments.org/beijing.htm)(Econ, 8/23/03, p.34)(Econ, 8/25/12, p.11)

1978        Oct 23, China and Japan exchanged treaty ratification documents in Tokyo, formally ending four decades of hostility.
    (AP, 10/23/97)

1978        Oct 24, Mount Usu, 475 miles north of Tokyo, erupted. Mud flows killed 2 people and 196 homes were destroyed.
    (SFC, 3/30/00, p.C3)(http://ci.nii.ac.jp/naid/110004665764/en/)

1978        In Japan priests of the Yasukuni shrine surreptitiously enshrined 14 political and military leaders who had been found guilty by the Tokyo War Crimes Trial of planning or prosecuting the military aggression of the 1930s and 1940s.
    (Econ, 8/15/15, p.33)
1978        Cryotherapy was introduced in Japan as a remedy for rheumatoid arthritis.
    (Econ, 3/25/17, p.24)

1979        Oct 19, Cyclone Tip, considered the strongest and most intense storm on record, hit Japan causing 68 deaths including 13 US Marines.

1979        Nov, Ford bought a 25% stake in Toyo Kogyo (later Mazda).

1979        Toshio Hara, heir to a lumber and paper fortune, opened the Hara Museum in Tokyo.
    (SFC, 10/29/03, p.D8)
1979        Prof. Ezra Vogel of Harvard authored "Japan as Number One."
    (WSJ, 12/27/99, p.A1)
1979        The Japanese anime film "Lupin III, Castle of Cogliostro" was the debut feature by Hayao Miyazaki.
    (SFEC, 10/31/99, DB p.9)
1979        A summit of leading industrial nations, Group of Seven or G-7, was held in Tokyo.
    (SFC, 6/20/97, p.A16)
1979        Controls on capital movement  across borders were abandoned by the U.K. and Japan. France and Italy abandoned controls in the late 1980s.
    (WSJ, 5/28/96, p. R-44)
1979        Raymond Bushnell (d.1998 at 87), lawyer, organized a netsuke display at a private gallery. Netsuke are miniature sculptures formerly used as toggles for the strings of purses worn suspended from kimono sashes. He later wrote 7 books on netsuke including: "Collector's Netsuke" and "Netsuke Familiar and Unfamiliar."
    (SFC, 2/23/98, p.A21)
1979        Japan’s Sony Corp. introduced the Walkman, the 1st personal headphone stereo.
    (WSJ, 1/11/99, p.R34)(WSJ, 3/7/05, p.A8)
1979        The Japanese oil ship Takeo Maru sank in a storm off the coast of Sakhalin Island with its tanks full. The rusty tanks later began leaking and in 2000 a huge slick hit the port city of Shakhtyorsk.
    (SFC, 7/8/00, p.D8)

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