Timeline Ivory Coast

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AfricaNet: http://www.africanet.com/countries/coted.htm#HISTORY
US Library of Congress:

East of Liberia, formerly part of French West Africa.
    (WUD, 1994, p.759)
Ivory Coast covers 124,503 square miles of tropical forest and farmland in the south and savannah in the north. It is slightly larger than New Mexico.
Ivory Coast has some 60 different ethnic groups, the largest of which are the Baoule, Bete, Senoufou, Malinke and Agni. French is the official language. Various African languages are also spoken.
    Estimated Muslim 35-40%, Christian 20-30%, indigenous 25-40% (some of whom are also numbered among Christians or Muslims).
    The world's largest cocoa producer. Over 85 percent of the labor force works in agriculture.
    (AP, 9/24/02)(SSFC, 11/7/04, p.A3)   

1710-1895    Muslim rulers led the Kong Empire, also known as the Wattara or Outtara Empire, which spread across West Africa. It embraced a diversity of religious groups straddling what later became Burkina Faso and Ivory Coast.
    (Econ, 4/23/11, p.51)

1960        Aug 7, Ivory Coast became independent from France. Felix Houphouet-Boigny (b.1905) began to rule Ivory Coast as prime minister. Houphouet-Boigny lead the country until his death in 1993. Encouragement of investment and stability made it one of region's most prosperous.
    (SFC, 12/25/99, p.A12)(AP, 9/24/02)

1960        Nov 3, Felix Houphouet-Boigny (b.1905) began to rule Ivory Coast as president.

1965        Ivory Coast, formerly French West Africa, established independence.
    (WUD, 1994, p.759)

1971        Abidjan is the capital (pop. 258,000), a seaport town on the Gulf of Guinea.
    (AHD, 1971, p.3)

1975        May 25, ECOWAS Treaty1 was signed. The Economic Community of West African States (ECOWAS) was formed in Nigeria with 15 members that included: Benin, Burkina Faso, Cape Verde, Côte d'Ivoire, Gambia, Ghana, Guinea, Guinea-Bissau, Liberia, Mali, Niger, Nigeria, Senegal, Sierra Leone, and Togo.

1980s        Felix Houphouet-Boigny built a $150 million duplication of St. Paul's Cathedral.
    (WSJ, 1/11/99, p.R4)

1983        Yamoussoukro became the official capital of Ivory Coast.
    (SSFC, 11/7/04, p.A3)

1990        Nov 7, In Ivory Coast Alassane Ouattara (b.1942) served as prime minister under Pres. Felix Houphouet-Boigny. He continued in office to 1993.
    (Econ, 4/23/11, p.52)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Alassane_Ouattara)

1990        Sep 10, In Ivory Coast Pope Paul II consecrated the Basilique Notre Dame de la Paix on the condition that a hospital for the poor be built next door. It was constructed between 1985 and 1989 at a cost of $300 million. Work on the hospital began in 2012.
    (Econ, 6/16/12, p.60)(http://tinyurl.com/ne47e)

1990        Charles Taylor began the war in Liberia from the Ivory Coast.
    (SFC, 5/11/96, p.A-9)

1993        Dec 7, In the Ivory Coast Felix Houphouet-Boigny (b.1905), Ivory Coast founder and ruler since 1960, died. Pres. Henri Konan Bedie took power.
    (SFC, 12/25/99, p.A12)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/F%C3%A9lix_Houphou%C3%ABt-Boigny)

1994        Pres. Henri Konan Bedie, an ethnic Baoule, won re-election with 96%, opposition claims sham.
    (WSJ, 10/24/95, p.A-1)

1995        Nov, Violence caused the postponement of elections.
    (SFC, 12/30/96, p.A8)

1995        Pres. Bedie disqualified northerner Ouattara from the presidential race and alienated many Muslim northerners.
    (SFC, 12/25/99, p.A12)

1996        The country has been flooded with 350,000 Liberian refugees, who have fled across the border since Charles Taylor began the war from the Ivory Coast six years ago.
    (SFC, 5/11/96, p.A-9)

1996        Dec 29, The 2nd multi-party elections, parliamentary by-elections, were held. Eight of the National Assembly’s 175 seats were contested.
    (SFC, 12/30/96, p.A8)

1996        The national debt increased to $19.7 billion.
    (SFC, 1/6/00, p.A10)

1997        Aug 22, Togo-born singer King Mensah Papavi lived in Paris and was hailed as the best African singer of 1997. He was backed by his girlfriend Tetia Oyourou of the Ivory Coast.
    (SFC, 8/22/97, p.A1,12)

1997        Dec 25, It was reported that early marriages in sub-Saharan Africa were still very common. Islamic law allows the marriage of girls as soon as they can conceive.
    (SFC,12/25/97, p.A18)

1998        Feb 5, Kevin Leveille (26), a Peace Corp worker from Ventura, Ca., was attacked and killed in Tanda. He had 2 months left in his assigned task of working on water and sanitation problems.
    (SFC, 2/7/98, p.11)

1998        Jun 26, Alioune Blondin Beye, a diplomat from Mali, crashed in a small plane near Abidjan. He had just met with Togo Pres. Gnassigbe Eyadema to support peace talks in Angola. Three other passengers were Koffi Adjovi of Togo, journalist Moktar Gueye of Senegal, and Baendegar Dessandre of Chad.
    (SFEC, 6/28/98, p.A18)

1998        Nov 30, Britain along with Lesotho, Burkino Faso, the Ivory Coast and Tajikistan signed a global treaty for an Int’l. Criminal Court to try war crimes. The accord was approved in July at conference in Rome and 61 countries had signed on. The court required 60 countries to pass legislation for ratification.
    (SFC, 12/1/98, p.A11)

1998        The French documentary film “Woubi, Cheri" was about gays and transvestites living in the Ivory Coast.
    (SFC, 5/20/98, p.E3)

1998        The film “Nadro" was about the Ivory Coast poet and writer Frederic Bruly Bouabre.
    (SFEC, 9/20/98, DB p.50)

1999        May 27, Police stormed a hall at the Universite d'Abidjan and brutally dispersed an FESCI student gathering planning for nationwide strikes.
    (SFC, 5/29/99, p.A14)

1999        Sep 15, Police arrested several hundred political activists and placed Alassane Dramane Ouattara under house arrest. Pres. Henri Konan Bedie and the ruling Democratic Party charged that Ouattara, head of the Rally of the Republicans, could not run for president because his father was born in Burkina Faso.
    (SFC, 9/16/99, p.A13)

1999        Dec 23, In Ivory Coast soldiers went on a rampage in Abidjan with gunshots and looting in protest over money and perks.
    (SFC, 12/24/99, p.A12)

1999        Dec 24, In Ivory Coast Gen. Robert Guei declared a military coup and an end to the rule by Pres. Henri Konan Bedie. Guei's regime was seen as fomenting ethnic, political and ethnic unrest in a bid to keep power.
    (SFC, 12/25/99, p.A12)(AP, 9/24/02)

1999        Dec 26, In the Ivory Coast Pres. Henri Konan Bedie fled with his family to Lome, Togo, following the military coup.
    (SFC, 12/27/99, p.A13)

2000        Jan 5, Gen. Robert Guei announced that he was suspending the country's staggering foreign debt payments.
    (SFC, 1/6/00, p.A10)

2000        Jan 30, A Kenyan Airbus 310 crashed into the sea after takeoff from Abidjan, Ivory Coast. Kenya Airways Flight 431 carried 179 people. 10 survivors were pulled from the water.
    (SFC, 1/31/00, p.A1)(WSJ, 1/31/00, p.A1)

2000        May 18, Gen. Robert Guei dissolved the interim government.
    (SFC, 5/19/00, p.D4)

2000        Jul 23, Voters cast ballots for a new constitution intended to restore civilian rule. The new constitution was approved overwhelmingly.
    (SFC, 7/24/00, p.A14)(SFC, 7/26/00, p.A14)

2000        Jul, In the Ivory Coast the military reached an agreement with mutinous soldiers. Lump sum payments of $1,600 were promised to soldiers, who had demanded $9000.
    (SFC, 7/6/00, p.A13)

2000        Aug 30, The elections scheduled for Sep 17 were postponed to Oct 22.
    (SFC, 8/31/00, p.D12)

2000        Aug, Gen. Robert Guei announced his candidacy for the presidency. He had initially promised not to seek office.
    (SFC, 8/31/00, p.D12)

2000        Sep 12, It was reported that Waldron’s red colobus, a loud-mouthed, red-cheeked monkey from Ghana and the Ivory Coast, was last seen in the 1970s and was believed extinct.
    (SFC, 9/11/00, p.A10)

2000        Sep 18, Loyalist soldiers drove back attackers in an assassination attempt on Gen. Guei. 2 bodyguards were killed.
    (SFC, 9/19/00, p.A10)

2000        Oct 4, In the Ivory Coast a bus-station bombing killed 4 people and a state of emergency was declared.
    (WSJ, 10/6/00, p.A1)

2000        Oct 6, The Supreme Court disqualified former Prime Minister Alassane Ouattara and most other candidates from the presidential elections.
    (SFC, 10/7/00, p.A10)

2000        Oct 22, In the Ivory Coast elections were held with candidates from the 2 biggest parties excluded. All candidates from the Muslim north, 40% of the population, were excluded. The tally was halted when early returns put Socialist Laurent Gbagho ahead.
    (SFC, 10/23/00, p.A10)(WSJ, 10/24/00, p.A1)

2000        Oct 24, In the Ivory Coast Gen. Robert Guei declared himself the winner in presidential elections and dissolved the electoral commission that showed his main opponent in the lead. Protests broke out, at least 2 people were killed and a state of emergency was declared.
    (SFC, 10/25/00, p.A15)(WSJ, 10/25/00, p.A1)

2000        Oct 25, A people’s revolt forced Gen. Robert Guei out of power. Laurent Gbagbo (55) of the Ivorian Popular Front was introduced over state TV as the new head of state.
    (SFC, 10/26/00, p.A16)

2000        Oct 26, Dozens of people were reported killed as supporters of Alassane Ouattara called for new elections.
    (SFC, 10/27/00, p.A21)

2000        Oct 27, The bodies of 57 young men were found outside Abidjan. Ouattara claimed the men were members of his Rally of the Republicans party and were killed by paramilitary police. 8 gendarmes were acquitted in 2001 due to lack of evidence.
    (SFEC, 10/29/00, p.A22)(SFC, 8/4/01, p.A10)

2000        Dec 4, Protestors clashed with riot police in Abidjan. The city was paralyzed and least 2 people were killed.
    (SFC, 12/5/00, p.A15)

2000        Dec 5, Police battled opposition supporters for a 2nd day and at least 10 people were killed.
    (SFC, 12/6/00, p.A18)

2000        Dec 10, Ivory coast proceeded with parliamentary elections against the wishes of both France and the US.
    (SFC, 12/11/00, p.A13)

2001        Jan 7, In the Ivory Coast mutinous soldiers attacked the broadcasting facilities and offices of state television and radio in Abidjan. The coup attempt was reported to have failed. 32 people were arrested and at least 8 people were killed.
    (SFC, 1/8/01, p.A9)(SFC, 1/9/01, p.A15)

2001        Jan 14, Special elections for 26 parliamentary seats were completed in northern Ivory Coast.
    (SFC, 1/15/01, p.A15)

2001        Jan 19, Thousands of people fled the Ivory Coast for Burkino Faso to escape attacks on foreigners. As many as 10,000 were arriving each week and others were fleeing to Mali, Ghana and Niger.
    (SFC, 1/20/01, p.A14)

2002        Jun 28, In Abidjan, Ivory Coast, a court certified the nationality of Alassane Dramane Ouattara, the main opposition leader.
    (SSFC, 6/30/02, p.A20)

2002        Jul 6, Residents of the Ivory Coast voted in local elections seen as a test of whether President Laurent Gbagbo's government has turned the page on two years of ethnic and political turbulence.
    (AP, 7/6/02)

2002        Jul 8, In the Ivory Coast local elections meant to close the door on years of turbulence ended with complaints by angry crowds that they were not allowed to vote.
    (AP, 7/8/02)

2002        Sep 14, In Ivory Coast’s Azagny National Park there were only 39,000 western chimpanzees left of an original 600,000. The western chimpanzee, one of four subspecies of the common chimpanzee, was already extinct in the wild in Benin, Gambia and Togo. It was almost extinct in Senegal, Burkina Faso, Guinea, Guinea Bissau and Ghana.
    (AP, 9/14/02)

2002        Sep 19, Ivory Coast's former junta leader, Gen. Robert Guei, was killed after heavily armed forces attacked government and security installations in Abidjan and other cities in the West African country.
    (AP, 9/19/02)

2002        Sep 20, Rebel soldiers dug in at two Ivory Coast cities, reinforcing positions with heavy weapons and handing out uniforms and guns to recruits, a day after the government said it had crushed a bloody coup attempt.
    (AP, 9/20/02)

2002        Sep 22, In the Ivory Coast thousands of angry civilians marched through a rebel-held city of Bouake, screaming anti-government slogans and cheering the insurgents behind this West African nation's bloodiest military uprising.
    (AP, 9/22/02)

2002        Sep 25, US military C-130s and US troops landed in Ivory Coast to rescue Americans. American schoolchildren escaped a rebel-held Ivory Coast city that was under siege as US special forces and French troops moved in to rescue Westerners caught in the West African nation's bloody uprising.
    (AP, 9/25/02)(AP, 9/25/07)

2002        Sep, In Ivory Coast a nine-month civil war began. It pitted northern rebels, led by Guillaume Soro, against President Laurent Gbagbo and fueled anti-foreigner hatred in the south. Fighting killed more than 3,000 people, uprooted more than 1 million others and split the country into the rebel-held north and loyalist south.
    (AP, 4/14/04)(Econ, 3/10/07, p.43)

2002        Oct 1, The French bolstered their forces in Ivory Coast, flying in reinforcements and establishing a tactical command post for military action in its embattled former colony.
    (AP, 10/1/02)

2002        Oct 16, Rebels controlling the northern half of Ivory Coast agreed to a truce with the government they attempted to overthrow.
    (AP, 10/16/02)

2002        Oct 18, Ivory Coast began a new cease-fire ending four weeks of fighting between government and rebel forces.   
    (AP, 10/29/02)

2002        Nov 27-2002 Nov 28, Fighting resumed in Ivory Coast, shattering a month long truce, after rebel forces attacked government positions in the west of the country. Government soldiers slaughtered more than 120 civilians suspected of collaborating with rebels in Monoko-Zohi.
    (AP, 11/27/02)(AP, 12/7/02)

2002        Nov 30, In the Ivory Coast French troops evacuated the city of Man. The western rebels called themselves the Ivorian Popular Movement for the Greater West and held Danane. The northern rebels called themselves the Patriotic Movement of Ivory Coast and denied connection to the western rebels.
    (SSFC, 11/30/02, p.A18)

2002        Nov, 52 governments ratified and adopted the Kimberley Process Certification Scheme setting up an internationally recognized certification system for rough diamonds and establishing national import/export standards. This followed meetings that had begun in Kimberley, South Africa, in 2000. The scheme was fully implemented in August 2003.

2002        Dec 19, In the Ivory Coast rebels captured the city of Man in the coffee-rich west and vowed to continue their push until they reached the commercial capital, as French troops prepared to face them.
    (AP, 12/19/02)

2002        Dec 21, French forces opened fire on rebels in western Ivory Coast, trying to stop the insurgents from pushing past them toward the commercial capital Abidjan.
    (AP, 12/21/02)

2002        Dec 30, In the Ivory Coast a rebel helicopter bombing killed 12 civilians and injured several more.
    (AP, 1/2/03)

2002        French president Jacques Chirac received three million euros ($4 million) from Ivory Coast's Laurent Gbagbo to finance his electoral campaign. This was made public in 2011 by Robert Bourgi, a lawyer with a network of African contacts who advised Chirac before changing camps in 2005 to aid French President Nicolas Sarkozy. Bourgi also named Senegal's Abdoulaye Wade, Burkina Faso's Blaise Compaore, and Congo-Brazzaville's Denis Sassou Nguesso and Gabon's Omar Bongo as contributors.
    (AFP, 9/12/11)

2003        Jan 3, Ivory Coast Pres. Laurent Gbagbo pledged to cease hostilities and send home foreign mercenaries fighting with loyalist troops.
    (AP, 1/3/03)

2003        Jan 4, Ivory Coast's main rebel movement agreed to respect an oft-violated cease-fire and to resume peace talks with the government later this month in Paris.
    (AP, 1/4/03)

2003        Jan 6, Rebels in western Ivory Coast attacked French troops and French officials said 30 rebels were killed and nine soldiers wounded.
    (AP, 1/6/03)

2003        Jan 11, It was reported that former combatants from Liberia and Sierra Leone were pouring into Ivory Coast to fight with the rebels.
    (SFC, 1/11/03, p.A8)

2003        Jan 15, Peace talks to stop Ivory Coast's descent into war opened in Paris with a stern warning from France that Africa's future was at stake.
    (AP, 1/15/03)

2003        Jan 24, Ivory Coast negotiators, trying to end a four-month-old civil war, reached a draft peace settlement.
    (AP, 1/24/03)

2003        Jan 25, Ivory Coast Pres. Laurent Gbagbo accepted a peace plan to end the 4-month civil war. Former PM Seydou Diarra would lead until new elections.
    (SSFC, 1/26/03, p.A14)(WSJ, 1/27/03, p.A1)

2003        Jan 26, In Ivory Coast loyalists, enraged by a peace deal with rebels, attacked the French Embassy and army base.
    (SFC, 1/27/03, p.A5)

2003        Jan 28, Ivory Coast's army said it opposed a new peace deal with rebel forces. Ethnic fighting flared amid violent protests over the proposed peace accord. A 4th day of ethnic clashes reportedly killed 10 people.
    (AP, 1/28/03)(AP, 1/29/03)

2003        Feb 1, In Ivory Coast nearly 100,000 loyalists marched through Abidjan, burning French flags and calling for the death of the French president in the biggest protest yet against a French-brokered peace deal.
    (AP, 2/2/03)

2003          Feb 28, Ivory Coast-based mercenary fighters attacked and captured Toe Town on Liberia’s eastern border. Liberia’s government considered the assault “highly provocative" and “tantamount to a declaration of war" by Ivory Coast.
    (AP, 3/1/03)

2003          Mar 1, In the Ivory Coast government helicopter gunships attacked a rebel-held Bin-Houye, killing 20 civilians and injuring many others.
    (AP, 3/2/03)

2003        Apr 3, Ivory Coast's insurgents ended their boycott of a new unity government and urged the international community to help make it work.
    (AP, 4/3/03)

2003        Apr 17, The Ivory Coast new unity government held its first Cabinet meeting with newly sworn-in rebel ministers, even as the rebels accused the government of new attacks.
    (AP, 4/17/03)

2003        Apr 25, Fighters from Sierra Leone and Liberia killed rebel leader Sgt. Felix Doh near the town of Gbinta, in western Ivory Coast.
    (AP, 4/29/03)

2003        Apr 28, The United States pledged $4 million to help keep peacekeepers in the Ivory Coast in addition to the $5 million it has already given to ECOWAS.
    (AP, 4/30/03)

2003        May 4, In Ivory Coast a new cease-fire agreement took effect, just hours after rebels accused government forces of fresh attacks.
    (AP, 5/4/03)

2003        May 12, The UN Security Council tentatively agreed to send peacekeepers to the Ivory Coast to help enforce an agreement aimed at ending nine months of civil war.
    (AP, 5/12/03)

2003        Jun 17, Ivory Coast army and rebel forces agreed to pull their forces back from battle positions, strengthening a cease-fire in the former French colony.
    (AP, 6/17/03)

2003        Jun 30, Ivory Coast Rebels announced that they were suspending participation in the power-sharing government, accusing the government of violating an agreement ending nine months of civil war.
    (AP, 6/30/03)

2003        Jul 4, Ivory Coast's government and rebel officials declared an official end to the civil war, 9 months after fighting erupted following a failed attempt to oust Pres. Laurent Gbagbo.
    (AP, 7/4/03)

2003        Jul 29, In Ivory Coast thousands of college students rioted in Abidjan, demanding compensation for a lost school year canceled by Ivory Coast's civil war.
    (AP, 7/29/03)

2003        Aug 25, In Ivory Coast 2 French soldiers, part of a peacekeeping force, were killed.
    (AP, 8/26/03)

2003        Sep 10, Ivory Coast created a commission made up of members of the army and rebel movements to chart the course of disarmament and reunification after a 9-month civil war.
    (AP, 9/10/03)

2003        Sep 23, Ivory Coast rebel leaders said they were abandoning their posts in Ivory Coast's power-sharing government and halting disarmament.
    (AP, 9/23/03)

2003        Sep 26, In Ivory Coast gunmen broke into a bank and sparked a night-long street battle that left over 20 people dead. French troops rushed in the next day to try to impose order.
    (AP, 9/27/03)

2003        Oct 21, In Ivory Coast Jean Helene, a French radio reporter, was shot and killed by a police officer at police headquarters in Abidjan. On Jan 22, 2004, police sergeant Dago Sery was sentenced to 17 years in prison for the murder.
    (AP, 10/21/03)(WPR, 3/04, p.29)

2003        Dec 3, Ivory Coast security forces fired tear gas at protesters who rallied for a 3rd day outside the main French military base, demanding that peacekeepers withdraw to allow resumed government attacks on rebels.
    (AP, 12/3/03)

2003        Dec 11, Ahmadou Kourouma, Ivorian writer, died. His 5th novel, incomplete, was published in French in 2004.
    (Econ, 8/28/04, p.76)

2003        Dec 12, Ivory Coast state security forces repulsed an assault near the state television station after a two-hour battle that left 18 people dead.
    (AP, 12/12/03)

2003        Dec 22, Ivory Coast rebel officials said they will rejoin a power-sharing government meant to secure peace after a nine-month civil war in the divided West African nation.
    (AP, 12/22/03)

2003        The African Development (AfDB) fled its home in the Ivory Coast and set up operations in Tunisia.
    (Econ, 5/19/07, p.50)

2004        Mar 12, Ivory Coast's ruling party accused opposition groups of plotting with rebels to overthrow the government, and it called on militant youth supporters to "mobilize" in defense.
    (AP, 3/12/04)

2004        Mar 24, In the Ivory Coast about a dozen people were killed during a massive protest march.
    (AP, 3/25/04)

2004        Mar 25, Rebels and the main opposition party, Rally of Republicans, withdrew from Ivory Coast's power-sharing government after security forces in Abidjan fired on protesters demanding implementation of a peace deal. At least 25 people were killed.
    (AP, 3/25/04)(SFC, 3/26/04, p.A2)(SFC, 3/27/04, p.A1)

2004        Apr 16, In Ivory Coast journalist Guy-Andre Kieffer (b.1949), a dual citizen of France and Canada, was kidnapped. He was working in the commercial capital, Abidjan, as an independent journalist, writing articles about corruption.
    (AP, 1/7/12)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Guy-Andr%C3%A9_Kieffer)

2004        May 19, Ivory Coast's president fired 3 rebel and opposition ministers from a national unity government, including the leader of insurgents holding the northern half of the country.
    (AP, 5/20/04)

2004        Jun 22, In the Ivory Coast dozens of boys and men suffocated in an airless, sweltering shipping container. Rebels locked up more than 100 people for days. 75 bodies were pulled out.
    (AP, 8/6/04)

2004        Jul 30, Parties to Ivory Coast's moribund peace process committed themselves again to knitting their civil-war divided country back together, setting new target dates for implementation of their peace deal at a summit in Ghana.
    (AP, 7/31/04)

2004        Sep 15, Eight French speaking African countries began retiring over 1 billion in decaying currency with new CFA francs. Benin, Burkina Faso, Guinea-Bissau, Ivory Coast, Mali, Niger, Senegal and Togo had until Dec 31 to turn in old bills for new ones.
    (SFC, 9/15/04, p.C8)

2004        Nov 4, Ivory Coast government warplanes bombed Boauke, the largest city in rebel-held north, in what a military commander said was the launch of a new offensive to reunite the war-divided nation. Guillaume Soro, rebel leader of the New Forces, said 85 civilians were killed.
    (AP, 11/4/04)(Econ, 11/13/04, p.52)

2004        Nov 6, Ivory Coast warplanes bombed French peacekeepers, killing 8 French soldiers and wounding 23. French forces responded by destroying the entire Ivory Coast air force, 2 Russian-made jets and 5 helicopter gunships.
    (AP, 11/6/04)(SSFC, 11/7/04, p.A3)
2004        Nov 6, The African Union mandated South African President Thabo Mbeki to launch an urgent mission to resolve the crisis in Ivory Coast.
    (AFP, 11/7/04)

2004        Nov 7, Machete-waving mobs looted and burned in Ivory Coast's largest cities, laying siege to a French military base and searching house to house for French families after a day of sudden clashes between forces of France and its former colony. France seized strategic control of Abidjan and deployed new forces to stop the rampage.
    (AP, 11/7/04)(SFC, 11/8/04, p.A3)

2004        Nov 8, In Ivory Coast clashes with French troops left another 5 people dead and some 250 wounded.
    (SFC, 11/9/04, p.A3)

2004        Nov 9, In Ivory Coast French soldiers killed at least 7 Gbagbo loyalists in a presidential palace standoff.
    (WSJ, 11/10/04, p.A1)

2004        Nov 10, France and the UN began evacuating thousands of French and other expatriates in Ivory Coast.
    (AP, 11/10/04)

2004        Nov 15, The UN Security Council imposed an immediate arms embargo on Ivory Coast's hard-line government.
    (AP, 11/16/04)
2004        Nov 15, France concluded its evacuation efforts in Ivory Coast, where 5,000 Westerners fled a renewed civil war.
    (WSJ, 11/16/04, p.A1)

2004        The Ivory Coast population was about 17 million people.
    (AP, 9/24/02)(SSFC, 11/7/04, p.A3)

2005        Apr 4, A one year mandate for UN forces in the Ivory Coast ended. 6,000 UN and 4,000 French troops separated the northern New Forces rebels from the southern half under Pres. Laurent Gbagbo.
    (Econ, 3/19/05, p.52)

2005        Apr 6, Ivory Coast's warring factions agreed to end hostilities, start immediate disarmament and make plans for new elections.
    (AP, 4/6/05)(Econ, 4/16/05, p.39)

2005        Jun 2, The US and France reached a tentative deal to boost the size of the UN peacekeeping mission in Ivory Coast by nearly 2,000 troops and police to help enforce a shaky peace deal. Meanwhile thousands fled a region where a village was burned and 55 people killed by unidentified gunmen.
    (AP, 6/3/05)(WSJ, 6/3/05, p.A1)

2005        Jul 23, In Abidjan, Ivory Coast, unidentified assailants attacked two security force posts, sparking gunfights that reportedly killed at least four people.
    (AP, 7/24/05)

2005        Aug 20, General Mathias Doue, former head of the Ivory Coast armed forces, said that the departure of Pres. Laurent Gbagbo is the condition for a return to peace.
    (Econ, 8/27/05, p.40)

2005        Aug 30, South Africa's foreign ministry called a halt to its role as peace mediator in strife-torn Ivory Coast, saying it was in "no mood" to consider new demands from rebels threatening to boycott October elections.
    (AP, 8/30/05)

2005        Aug 31, In the Ivory Coast a UN peacekeeper was killed in a knife attack in a northern rebel stronghold of the war-divided country.
    (AP, 8/31/05)

2005        Sep 10, In Ivory Coast Guillaume Soro, head of the former rebel New Forces (FN), insisted that his side no longer recognized South Africa's President Thabo Mbeki as a mediator. UN Secretary General Kofi Annan admitted that next month's planned presidential election would have to be abandoned.
    (AP, 9/10/05)

2005        Oct 6, Africa Union leaders said Ivorian President Laurent Gbagbo's could stay in power after his term expires on October 30, giving him up to a year more in office in a bid to resolve the crisis in his divided country.
    (AFP, 10/6/05)

2005        Oct 13, The UN adopted AU proposals giving Ivorian President Laurent Gbagbo a year more in office with the caveat that he cede some powers to the prime minister.
    (Econ, 10/22/05, p.50)

2005        Oct 30, Ivory Coast President Laurent Gbagbo, whose mandate was due to go into extra time following the west African state's failure to hold elections, pledged to do everything he could to organize a vote before a one-year deadline set by the United Nations.
    (AP, 10/30/05)

2006        Jan 18, In western Ivory Coast 4 pro-government protesters were killed when UN peacekeepers opened fire to repel an attack on their base in a third day of anti-UN riots.
    (AP, 1/18/06)

2006        Jan 19, Violent street protests erupted in Ivory Coast for a fourth day as hundreds of government supporters ignored the president's call to stay home, angry about a deadly firefight involving UN peacekeepers.
    (AP, 1/19/06)

2006        Jan 25, The UN said that thousands of refugees were without help after riots forced it to curtail operations in Ivory Coast.
    (AP, 1/26/06)

2006        Jan 29, Republic of Congo President Denis Sassou-Nguesso launched his role as a top African peace mediator, meeting with the prime minister of civil war-divided Ivory Coast days after taking over as African Union head.
    (AP, 1/29/06)

2006        Feb 6, In Ivory Coast 12 villagers were shot and hacked to death in an apparent grudge attack over a pay dispute not far from the western town of Guiglo.
    (Reuters, 2/7/06)

2006        Feb 7, In Ivory Coast the UN was due to enforce sanctions on three political leaders judged to have blocked a peace process.
    (Reuters, 2/7/06)

2006        Feb 10, The UN said Secretary-General Kofi Annan has sent Ivory Coast President Laurent Gbagbo a $3.6 million bill for UN property and equipment damaged or lost during January riots.
    (Reuters, 2/10/06)

2006        Mar 4, Youssef Fofana, the suspected leader of a gang accused of torturing to death a young Jewish man near Paris, was extradited from the Ivory Coast to France.
    (AP, 3/4/06)

2006        Jun 2, The UN Security Council added 1,500 peacekeepers to its mission in Ivory Coast in renewed efforts to restore order in the troubled West African country.
    (AP, 6/2/06)

2006        Jun 21, The Ivory Coast soccer team, the Elephants, won their 1st ever World Cup match in a Group C consolation game against Serbia-Montenegro 3-2. They lost their first 2 games against Argentina and the Netherlands.

2006        Jul 26, Pro-government militia fighters in western Ivory Coast began laying down arms, the first step of a delayed nationwide disarmament program.
    (AP, 7/27/06)

2006        Aug 19, In Ivory Coast waste, which contained hydrogen sulphide, was unloaded from a Panamanian-registered ship, the Probo Koala, at Abidjan port and then dumped in at least eight open air sites, including the city's main rubbish dump. By mid-September 6 people had died and 16,000 had sought treatment. Dutch-based Trafigura Beheer BV, one of the world's leading commodities traders, said it had chartered the ship and said the material was a "mixture of gasoline, water and caustic washings" following the unloading of a cargo of gasoline in Nigeria. The sludge was later blamed for killing 15 people and sickening 100,000 more. In 2009 Greenpeace said it had obtained internal e-mails and other documents that show Trafigura Beheer BV executives were aware the sludge was hazardous.
    (Reuters, 9/7/06)(Econ, 9/16/06, p.58)(AP, 9/17/09)

2006        Aug 25, A military truck carrying UN peacekeepers crashed in Ivory Coast, killing six Bangladeshi troops and injuring 11 others.
    (AP, 8/26/06)

2006        Sep 7, Ivory Coast PM Charles Konan Banny announced the resignation of his cabinet over the Aug 19 toxic waste scandal.
    (Reuters, 9/7/06)

2006        Sep 15, Ivory Coast protesters beat up the transport minister in response to the Aug 19 toxic sludge shipment that sickened 30,000 people.
    (WSJ, 9/16/06, p.A1)

2006        Sep 16, Ivory Coast named a new Cabinet, replacing the ministers of transport and environment but reappointing most others, after a toxic waste dumping scandal prompted the resignation of the entire 32-member body last week.
    (AP, 9/16/06)

2006        Sep 19, Ivory Coast authorities arrested 2 French executives of Trafigura Beheer BV, the Dutch commodities company implicated in the recent dumping of toxic waste. Claude Dauphin and Jean-Pierre Valentini, charged with poisoning  and infractions of toxic waste laws, were sent to prison.
    (WSJ, 9/20/06, p.A10)

2006        Sep 29, The World Diamond Council suggested that all Ghanaian rough-diamond exports be suspended to ensure that Ivorian diamonds were not being illegally exported. Rebel-controlled mines in Ivory Coast produced diamonds worth up to $23 million that were being smuggled to Mali and Ghana, violating UN sanctions and funding the rebel war effort.
    (Econ, 11/11/06, p.53)

2006        Oct 8, Liberia’s presidency said ECOWAS leaders, who met in Nigeria on Oct 6, had agreed for an extension of the term of office of Ivory Coast President Laurent Gbagbo by 12 months, paving the way for presidential and general elections there.
    (AP, 10/9/06)

2006        Oct 10, A draft UN report said smugglers in the Ivory Coast were violating a UN ban on diamond sales, illegally exporting the gems to neighboring countries for overseas sales.
    (AP, 10/10/06)

2006        Oct 13, An Ivory Coast Health Ministry spokesman said the number of people who have died following the dumping of toxic waste around Abidjan has risen to 10.
    (AP, 10/13/06)

2006        Oct 14, The UN election chief in Ivory Coast said the war-divided nation's long-delayed vote would be postponed for another year and should be held before October 2007.
    (AP, 10/14/06)

2006        Oct 16, Cocoa farmers across Ivory Coast went on strike, holding back their crops to protest low retail prices and high export taxes in a move that could affect the world market.
    (AP, 10/16/06)

2006        Nov 1, The UN Security Council voted unanimously to extend Ivory Coast's transitional government for a final year and give new powers to the country's unelected prime minister to implement a peace plan and prepare for long-delayed elections.
    (AP, 11/1/06)

2006        Nov 7, A shipload of toxic waste arrived in France for disposal. It was collected from the Ivory Coast following illegal dumping last August.
    (WSJ, 11/8/06, p.A1)

2006        Dec 5, Ivory Coast police fired into a crowd protesting President Laurent Gbagbo's regime and killed one person, as political opponents mounted rallies in several towns in the southern part of the divided West African country.
    (AP, 12/5/06)

2007        Feb 7, Michel Niaucel, a French diplomat with the European Union in Ivory Coast, was shot to death in his home overnight. Niaucel was in charge of West Africa security operations for the EU.
    (AP, 2/7/07)

2007        Feb 13, Officials in the Ivory Coast said that Trafigura, a Dutch-based oil trading company, agreed to pay $197 million to secure the release of three executives from an Ivory Coast prison and settle claims that it dumped toxic waste that killed at least 10 people in the West African nation.
    (AP, 2/14/07)

2007        Mar 4, Ivory Coast's Pres. Laurent Gbagbo signed a peace accord with Guillaume Soro, the country's main rebel leader, calling for a new government to hold elections by the year's end, and for the dismantling of a vast buffer zone separating the two sides. The latest deal is the result of meetings between the two camps that started in early February under the oversight of Burkina Faso President Blaise Compaore.
    (AP, 3/4/07)

2007        Mar 20, The African Union urged the UN Security Council to back a peace deal signed between Ivorian President Laurent Gbagbo and the opposition by gradually pulling its troops out of the country.
    (AP, 3/20/07)

2007        Mar 27, Ivory Coast rebels and mediators said Guillaume Soro, the main rebel leader, will become prime minister in a new government called for in the country's latest peace plan.
    (AP, 3/27/07)

2007        Apr 4, New Ivory Coast PM Guillaume Soro, a rebel leader who has controlled the north for four years, took office, a key step in an accord aimed at bringing a lasting peace.
    (AP, 4/4/07)

2007        Apr 11, The Ivory Coast government and rebels signed an agreement with foreign peacekeepers to dismantle a buffer zone dividing the west African nation since 2002. The deal required the head of the UN mission to sign off on election results.
    (AFP, 4/11/07)(Econ, 12/4/10, p.60)

2007        May 10, Guillaume Soro, Ivory Coast's former rebel chief-turned Prime Minister, called for the fostering of new era ties between Africa and Europe, in line with modern developments.
    (AFP, 5/10/07)

2007        Jun 27, In Abidjan, Ivory Coast, Libyan leader Muammar Gaddafi said his plan for a United States of Africa should include creating a two million strong army to staunch recurrent conflicts which have ravaged many of the continent's nations. He was on his way to an African Union summit beginning on July 1 in neighboring Ghana's capital Accra.
    (Reuters, 6/28/07)

2007        Jun 29, A plane carrying Ivory Coast's PM Guillaume Soro came under heavy gunfire as it landed at an airport in a northern region dominated by rebels allied with the leader. 3 rockets killed four of his team and wounded 14 others.
    (AP, 6/29/07)(Econ, 7/21/07, p.48)

2007        Jul 20, The UN said that it had confined a group of peacekeepers to their base in Ivory Coast after receiving allegations of widespread sexual abuse, the latest in a string of accusations of sexual violations by UN forces around the world.
    (AP, 7/20/07)

2007        Dec 22, Hundreds of government soldiers withdrew from a vast buffer zone dividing Ivory Coast, the first stage of a long-delayed nationwide disarmament program.
    (AP, 12/23/07)

2007        Dec 30, Ivory Coast's New Forces rebel group, now part of the unity government, accused Ibrahim Coulibaly, one of its former leaders, of trying to stage a coup.
    (AP, 12/31/07)

2008        May 27, UN Secretary-General Ban Ki-Moon said the UN will investigate allegations by a leading children's charity that UN peacekeepers are involved in widespread sexual abuse of children. The report by Save the Children UK was based on field research in southern Sudan, Ivory Coast and Haiti.
    (AP, 5/27/08)

2008        Sep 24, A US federal appeals court ruled Ivory Coast plantation workers, who claimed they were sterilized by a US-made pesticide, cannot sue the manufacturers and distributors of the chemical in the US, because they can’t show that the companies intended them harm. Some 700 workers accused US companies of genocide for marketing DBCP abroad after the pesticide was banned in the US.
    (SFC, 9/25/08, p.B3)

2008        Oct 22, An Ivory Coast court jailed Salomon Ugborugbo (39), a Nigerian man, for 20 years for the 2006 dumping of hundreds of tons of toxic waste from an international oil trader that killed at least 16 people and left more than 100,000 needing treatment. Essouoin Koua Desire, who played a key role in Ugborugbo's local company Tommy securing the US$20,000 waste disposal contract, was also convicted and jailed for five years.
    (AP, 10/23/08)

2009        Jan 28, French PM Francois Fillon said 1,000 French 1,650 soldiers would be pulled out from the EUFOR mission to protect refugees in Chad. He also says France's 1,800-strong contingent in Ivory Coast will be reduced by half.
    (AP, 1/28/09)

2009        Feb 27, The UN Children's Fund said 53 million children are being targeted by a mass immunization drive against polio in Benin, Burkina Faso, Ivory Coast, Mali, Niger, Nigeria, and Togo. Some 844 polio cases were reported in the 8 countries in 2008, 95% of them in Nigeria.
    (AFP, 2/27/09)

2009        Mar 29, In Abidjan, Ivory Coast, a stampede at the Felix Houphouet-Boigny stadium left 19 dead and at least 132 injured at a World Cup qualifying match.
    (AP, 3/30/09)

2009        Sep 20, Trafigura, a Netherlands-based oil trading company, said it has agreed to a settlement with people who claim they fell ill after a tanker dumped hundreds of tons of waste around the Ivory Coast's main city of Abidjan in 2006. Trafigura paid Ivory Coast's government euro152 million (US$197 million) in 2007 to assist in cleaning up the waste without admitting responsibility.
    (AP, 9/20/09)

2009        Sep 22, The UN Office for the Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs announced that flash floods and lighting have claimed 187 lives and affected 635,273 people in west Africa since the rainy season started in June. This included 103 dead in Sierra Leone, followed by Ghana (24), Mali (20), Ivory Coast (19), Burkina Faso (8), Niger (7) and Senegal (6).
    (AFP, 9/22/09)

2009        In the Ivory Coast a random poll of 10 underage girls in Toulepleu by aid group Save The Children U.K. found that eight performed sexual acts for UN-Benin peacekeepers on a regular basis in order to secure their most basic needs. A 2010 diplomatic cable revealed that "Eight of the 10 said they had ongoing sexual relationships with Beninese soldiers in exchange for food or lodging," citing information shared with the embassy by a protection officer.
    (AP, 9/1/11)

2010        Feb 12, Ivory Coast Pres. Laurent Gbagbo declared that he is dissolving the government and election commission. The move threw into doubt a political reconciliation process that had former rebels serving in top ministerial posts.
    (SFC, 2/13/10, p.A2)

2010        Feb 13, Ivory Coast's opposition declared it would no longer recognize Laurent Gbagbo as president, a move likely to complicate his efforts to form a new government.
    (AP, 2/13/10)

2010        Feb 19, In Ivory Coast anti-government demonstrations spread to at least eight cities. Police fired on demonstrators at a rally in Gagnoa, killing 5 people and wounding a dozen others in the latest protest since the president dissolved the government a week ago.
    (AP, 2/19/10)(SFC, 2/20/10, p.A2)

2010        Feb 22, In Ivory Coast at least two protesters died during an opposition demonstration that turned violent, deepening the crisis sparked by the president's dissolution of the government earlier this month.
    (AP, 2/22/10)

2010        Feb 23, Ivory Coast PM Guillaume announced a new unity government. The opposition coalition said it will participate in a new government, raising hope for an end to nearly two weeks of deadly protests after the president dissolved the previous one.
    (AP, 2/23/10)(SFC, 2/24/10, p.A2)

2010        Mar 4, The new Ivory Coast government announced it is now made up of 16 ministers drawn from President Laurent Gbagbo's FPI party and the former New Forces rebels as well as 11 ministers representing opposition parties.
    (AP, 3/4/10)

2010        Jun 12, In Ivory Coast two people were killed and 30 wounded in a stampede at a reggae concert in the rebel-controlled city of Bouake. Local reggae star Alpha Blondy had organized the concert to promote peace and reconciliation in the West African nation.
    (AP, 6/13/10)

2010        Jun 20, Ivory Coast President Laurent Gbagbo asked a state prosecutor to investigate whether Interior Minister Desire Tagro has been skimming state funds. Gbagbo specifically mentioned payments made by Dutch oil-trading company Trafigura to victims of a 2006 toxic waste spill in Abidjan.
    (AP, 6/21/10)

2010        Jul 23, A Dutch court slapped a one million euro fine on Trafigura, a Swiss-based company whose chartered ship dumped hazardous waste the Ivory Coast says killed 17 people on its soil. It was also found guilty of concealing what the charge sheet referred to as the "harmful nature" of the waste on board the Probo Koala ship that arrived at the port of Amsterdam on July 2, 2006, but was redirected to the Ivory Coast.
    (AFP, 7/23/10)

2010        Aug 27, Some Nigerian women and girls are being forced into prostitution in neighboring Ivory Coast after being deceived with promises of a better life outside of their country, according to a new report by Human Rights Watch.
    (AP, 8/27/10)

2010        Sep 13, The US government and the chocolate industry pledged $17 million to help end child labor — some of it forced and dangerous — in Ghana and the Ivory Coast, where much of the world's cocoa is grown.

2010        Sep 22, Ivory Coast began paying former rebel soldiers who disarmed ahead of elections set for next month, bringing the West African nation a step closer to ending years of crisis.
    (Reuters, 9/22/10)

2010        Oct 22, Human Rights Watch said banditry, violence, and rape are widespread in Ivory Coast's western provinces even as the country gears for historic national elections.
    (AP, 10/22/10)

2010        Oct 31, Ivory Coast held a long-awaited presidential election, the first since civil war erupted in 2002 and split the world's leading cocoa producer in half. Pres. Laurent Gbagbo won 38% followed by 32% for Alassane Ouattara, the main opposition leader. Former Pres. Henri Konan Bedie came in third with 25% and later endorsed Ouattara in a run-off, set for Nov 28.
    (AP, 10/31/10)(AP, 11/3/10)(SFC, 11/3/10, p.A2)(AP, 11/27/10)

2010        Nov 27, Ivory Coast President Laurent Gbagbo issued a decree calling for a nationwide curfew from 10 p.m. to 6 a.m. Nov 27-Dec 1 to prevent any tampering with vote counting. Opposition candidate Alassane Ouattara said the move was illegal and unconstitutional, adding a curfew should only come after the election if there is trouble.
    (AP, 11/27/10)

2010        Nov 28, Ivory Coast held its runoff presidential election set to reunite the country eight years after a civil war divided it in two. 5 months of violence followed leaving at least 3,000 dead.
    (AP, 11/28/10)(Econ, 4/13/13, p.51)

2010        Nov 30, Ivory Coast opposition leaders accused Pres. Laurent Gbagbo of trying to steal the presidential election.
    (SFC, 12/1/10, p.A2)

2010        Dec 2, In Ivory Coast military policemen killed four people at an office of the opposition presidential candidate, as the country tensely waited for the release of election results that were being blocked by the president's followers. Election commission chief Youssouf Bakayoko announced that opposition candidate Alassane Ouattara had won with 54.1% of the vote, compared to 45.9% for Pres. Gbagbo. Shortly thereafter, two decrees read on state TV announced that the country's air, land and maritime borders had been closed and that all foreign radio and TV broadcasts were banned indefinitely.
    (AP, 12/2/10)(AP, 12/3/10)

2010        Dec 3, In Ivory Coast new figures put up by a Gbagbo loyalist said that the incumbent president had in fact been re-elected. They put Gbagbo on top with more than 51% of the vote by chucking out some 500,000 ballots from Ouattara strongholds.
    (AP, 12/4/10)

2010        Dec 4, Ivory Coast President Laurent Gbagbo was sworn in for a new term even though the UN and world leaders maintain his opponent won the disputed election, which was the West African nation's first since a civil war.
    (AP, 12/4/10)

2010        Dec 5, Former South African leader Thabo Mbeki sought to mediate an end to a dispute over Ivory Coast's presidential election that has threatened to trigger unrest in the divided West African nation.
    (Reuters, 12/5/10)

2010        Dec 7, In the Ivory Coast Laurent Gbagbo, the man who the UN says lost the country’s presidential election, went ahead with naming his new cabinet anyway. He tapped Charles Ble Goude as minister of youth, professional education and employment. Goude was sanctioned in 2006 by both the US and UN. He has been accused of making repeated public statements advocating violence against foreigners and UN installations and personnel.
    (AP, 12/7/10)

2010        Dec 8, The top UN envoy in Ivory Coast said that opposition candidate Alassane Ouattara had won the disputed presidential election by an "irrefutable margin" as the international community stepped up pressure on the incumbent to concede defeat.
    (AP, 12/8/10)

2010        Dec 9, In Ivory Coast pressure increased on Laurent Gbagbo as continental heavyweights South Africa and Kenya joined UN calls for him to abandon his bid to cling to power after disputed polls. The African Union suspended Ivory Coast until Gbagbo hands over power to Alassane Ouattara, whom the AU and UN consider the winner of last month's election.
    (AFP, 12/9/10)(Reuters, 12/9/10)

2010        Dec 13, The EU said it will impose sanctions on Ivory Coast unless the incumbent president recognizes his rival as the winner of last month's election, as panic spread in Abidjan after shots were briefly fired.
    (AP, 12/13/10)

2010        Dec 16, In Ivory Coast gunfire and explosions shook Abidjan as supporters and security forces loyal to the two men claiming to be president clashed. An attempt by Alassane Ouattara’s people to march on the state television building left about 20 people dead.
    (AP, 12/16/10)(AFP, 12/17/10)(Econ, 1/8/11, p.46)

2010        Dec 17, Ivory Coast police were out in force in Abidjan as supporters of the internationally recognized winner of Ivory Coast's presidential election vowed to try once again to seize state institutions after a similar attempt the day before resulted in up to 30 deaths.
    (AP, 12/17/10)

2010        Dec 18, In the Ivory Coast Laurent Gbagbo, who refused to step down from the presidency, ordered all UN peacekeepers to leave the country immediately, calling the global body that has endorsed his political rival an "agent of destabilization." The UN certified results showed that opposition leader Alassane Ouattara had won by "an irrefutable margin."
    (AP, 12/18/10)

2010        Dec 19, Ivory Coast state television left no doubt who's in control of the media: Laurent Gbagbo was shown taking the oath of office with no mention that the United Nations says he lost the presidential election and should step down. The UN warned against attacks on its personnel in Ivory Coast and said it would stay.
    (AP, 12/19/10)

2010        Dec 21, The United States said it has approved travel sanctions against Laurent Gbagbo and about 30 others following Ivory Coast's disputed presidential election.
    (AP, 12/21/10)

2010        Dec 23, The UN said at least 173 people have been killed in the Ivory Coast and 90 others tortured or treated inhumanely because of post-election violence. The UN General Assembly formally recognized Alassane Ouattara as the winner of the Nov. 28 runoff vote and rescinded the credentials of the Ivory Coast UN ambassador, a supporter of Laurent Gbagbo.
    (AP, 12/23/10)(AP, 12/24/10)

2010        Dec 24, In Ivory Coast Laurent Gbagbo, who refused to concede defeat after presidential elections, faced two major setbacks as officials cut off his access to the state funds used to pay soldiers and state television remained off the air in much of the country. The UN said masked gunmen with rocket launchers were blocking access to what officials believe may be a mass grave site. West Africa leaders from the 15-country regional bloc ECOWAS, the Economic Community of West African States, threatened to send military intervention into Ivory Coast if incumbent Gbagbo refuses to step down peacefully.
    (AP, 12/24/10)(AP, 12/25/10)

2010        Dec 25, Benin said three West African presidents will fly to Ivory Coast to tell incumbent leader Laurent Gbagbo to quit or face force, a sign of mounting regional determination to force him out.
    (Reuters, 12/26/10)

2010        Dec 26, In Ivory Coast allies of Alassane Ouattara called for a general strike to last until incumbent Pres. Laurent Gbagbo concedes defeat.
    (SFC, 12/27/10, p.A4)

2010        Dec 28, West African leaders Boni Yayi of Benin, Sierra Leone's Ernest Bai Koroma and Pedro Pires of Cape Verde met with incumbent Ivory Coast leader Laurent Gbagbo to deliver an ultimatum from the ECOWAS regional bloc to step down or face removal by force. But Gbagbo's government signaled he was unlikely to agree to cede power to Alassane Ouattara.
    (Reuters, 12/28/10)(SFC, 12/29/10, p.A4)

2010        Dec 29, Canada said it no longer recognized the Ivory Coast ambassador to Ottawa appointed by president Laurent Gbagbo, and that it would welcome new diplomatic representation from the West African nation.
    (AFP, 12/30/10)
2010        Dec 30, The United Nations accused Ivory Coast incumbent leader Laurent Gbagbo's security forces of blocking access to mass graves, saying investigators believe as many as 80 bodies may be in one building that UN personnel are being kept from entering.
    (AP, 12/30/10)

2010        Dec 31, Britain said it no longer recognized the ambassador appointed by Ivory Coast strongman Laurent Gbagbo who is refusing to step down after elections widely viewed as having been won by his rival Alassane Ouattara. Britain said it would give support at the UN for the use of force to oust Ivory Coast's incumbent president Laurent Gbagbo if West African nations sought backing for a military intervention.
    (AFP, 12/31/10)(Reuters, 12/31/10)

2011        Jan 3, African leaders returned to Ivory Coast in their second visit in a week as they stepped up pressure on the country's renegade president to cede power more than a month after the election or face a military ouster.
    (AP, 1/3/11)

2011        Jan 4, Mediators said Ivory Coast strongman Laurent Gbagbo has agreed to negotiate a resolution to the crisis gripping the west African nation and lift a blockade around his rival's headquarters.
    (AFP, 1/4/11)

2011        Jan 6, In Ivory Coast Alassane Ouattara, the man recognized as the winner of the recent presidential election, called for West African special forces to remove incumbent president Gbagbo in a commando operation. The UN mission in Ivory Coast said at least 210 people have been killed there since a presidential stand-off escalated in mid-December.
    (AP, 1/6/11)

2011        Jan 10, Former Nigerian leader and mediator Olusegun Obasanjo left Ivory Coast as incumbent Pres. Gbagbo continued to defy the world and insist he had won the recent election.
    (AP, 1/10/11)

2011        Jan 12, Ivory Coast security forces loyal to the sitting president, who is refusing to cede power, descended on an opposition stronghold and opened fire for the second time in as many days, only hours after opposition supporters had taken to the streets in protest.
    (AP, 1/12/11)

2011        Jan 13, In Ivory Coast mobs and security forces allied to leader Laurent Gbagbo attacked at least six UN vehicles, setting some ablaze and injuring two people in the latest round of violence.
    (AP, 1/13/11)

2011        Jan 15, The EU raised pressure on Ivory Coast leader Laurent Gbagbo to step down, freezing assets of the country's cocoa-exporting ports, its state oil firm and three banks.
    (Reuters, 1/15/11)

2011        Jan 18, Ivory Coast security forces loyal to the incumbent leader who refuses to give up power opened fire killing at least one person, as military chiefs from neighboring nations met to plan a possible armed intervention to depose Laurent Gbagbo.
    (AP, 1/18/11)

2011        Jan 19, Switzerland's federal council said it has agreed to freeze any assets of Tunisia's ousted president and the incumbent leader of Ivory Coast.
    (AP, 1/19/11)
2011        Jan 19, The UN Security Council voted unanimously to deploy 2,000 additional peacekeepers to Ivory Coast, where the incumbent president has refused to relinquish his post to the man internationally recognized as the legitimate leader.
    (AP, 1/19/11)

2011        Jan 20, Ivory Coast's incumbent leader Laurent Gbagbo ordered the military to stop and search UN vehicles, the latest escalation of hostilities between the man who refuses to leave office and the global body that declared his rival the election winner.
    (AP, 1/21/11)

2011        Jan 24, In Ivory Coast Alassane Outtara, the internationally recognized leader, ordered a one-month ban on cocoa exports in a test of his authority. There was no guarantee that growers would comply.
    (SFC, 1/25/11, p.A2)
2011        Jan 24, Nigeria's foreign minister called on the UN Security Council to authorize force in Ivory Coast as West African nations seek to further pressure Laurent Gbagbo to quit power.
    (AFP, 1/24/11)

2011        Jan 26, In the Ivory Coast forces loyal to Laurent Gbagbo seized the Abidjan headquarters of the Central Bank of West African States (BCEAO), several days after a Gbagbo ally was forced to resign amid accusations he was continuing to allow Gbagbo to take out money even after he was officially cut off.
    (AP, 1/27/11)

2011        Jan 29, An African Union panel on the Ivory Coast crisis said it will aim to help Alassane Ouattara "exercise power" through a negotiated political deal.
    (AFP, 1/29/11)

2011        Jan 31, Leaders of 53 African countries met In Addis Ababa, Ethiopia, to tackle festering conflicts in Sudan and Somalia at a summit overshadowed by Egypt's popular uprising and the leadership crisis in Ivory Coast. The African Union named a panel of six African presidents to mediate Ivory Coast's political crisis.
    (AFP, 1/31/11)(AP, 1/31/11)

2011        Feb 8, In the Ivory Coast a fire broke out at the economic ministry building in the capital destroying untold numbers of financial records as international sanctions on incumbent leader Laurent Gbagbo, who refuses to give up power, are beginning to take hold.
    (AP, 2/8/11)

2011        Feb 9, An Ivory Coast regulatory board loyal to incumbent leader Laurent Gbagbo ordered United Nations radio off the air. UN radio director Sylvain Semilinko said the next day that work continued as normal at UN radio headquarters as preparations were being made in case their signal was jammed.
    (AP, 2/10/11)

2011        Feb 14, Ivory Coast's incumbent leader Laurent Gbagbo filed a lawsuit against the West African regional bloc for recognizing his rival as the winner of the country's recent presidential election.
    (AP, 2/14/11)

2011        Feb 16, In the Ivory Coast bodies of people, who voted for the opponent of Laurent Gbagbo, have continued to turn up at city morgues. It was reported that at least 296 people have been killed since the Nov 28 elections. The number was based on calls to a UN hot line from family members. Another 100 people were said to be missing.
    (SFC, 2/16/11, p.A4)

2011        Feb 18, It was reported that 9 banks have closed this week in Ivory Coast further squeezing Pres. Laurent Gbagbo, who still refused to leave office after nearly 3 months of being declared the loser in presidential elections.
    (SFC, 2/18/11, p.A2)

2011        Feb 19, In the Ivory Coast an opposition meeting was disrupted by security forces loyal to incumbent leader Laurent Gbagbo.
    (SSFC, 2/20/11, p.A6)

2011        Feb 21, In the Ivory Coast at least 6 people were killed when soldiers entered opposition areas in Abidjan firing machine guns.
    (SFC, 2/22/11, p.A2)

2011        Feb 22, In the Ivory Coast a battle between forces for the country's two political rivals involving rocket-propelled grenades left at least 10 policemen and 2 civilians dead. This was the fourth consecutive day of violence in Abidjan, the commercial capital of Ivory Coast. The "invisible commandos" allied with Ouattara launched their own attack. They claimed in a statement overnight that they killed 27 police officers in an ambush in Abobo.
    (AP, 2/23/11)(AP, 2/24/11)

2011        Feb 24, In the Ivory Coast residents reported automatic arms fire in the Abobo district of Abidjan. Hundreds of people fled the area on foot on the main road leading from the neighborhood. The UN warned that heavy fighting over the country's disputed election may augur a return to civil war.
    (AP, 2/24/11)

2011        Mar 3, Ivory Coast security forces, loyal to Laurent Gbagbo, the former president still clinging to power, fatally shot 7 women protesting his refusal to leave office. The UN said more than 200,000 people have fled the intensified fighting.
    (AP, 3/3/11)(Econ, 3/12/11, p.17)

2011        Mar 6, In the Ivory Coast rebels, known by their French acronym FN, seized Toulepleu extending gains made earlier with the seizure of Zouan-Hounien. Both towns have historically been controlled by Laurent Gbagbo. A top Ouattara adviser said gangs of youth, actively aided and supported by uniformed police, have ransacked at least 10 houses belonging to senior ministers, mayors and other allies of the internationally recognized president. Nearly 400 people have already been killed, most of them civilians who voted for Ouattara.
    (AP, 3/7/11)(AP, 3/6/11)

2011        Mar 7, In the Ivory Coast the government of the democratically elected president confirmed that rebels allied with their leader had seized control of a nearly 30-mile corridor along the country's border with Liberia following an intense weekend battle.
    (AP, 3/7/11)

2011        Mar 8, In Ivory Coast soldiers backing rogue leader Laurent Gbagbo opened fire on civilians again, killing at least four people hours after hundreds took to the streets to protest the deaths of seven women gunned down at a march last week.
    (AP, 3/8/11)

2011        Mar 10, Ivory Coast's entrenched incumbent president imposed a no-fly order on UN aircraft, possibly complicating the return of the internationally recognized election winner who was attending an African Union summit in Ethiopia. Envoys of Laurent Gbagbo rejected an African Union proposal aimed at ending a violent power struggle.
    (AP, 3/10/11)(Reuters, 3/10/11)

2011        Mar 11, The African Union reaffirmed Alassane Ouattara as the legal president of Ivory Coast, but his future remained uncertain as an aide warned of death threats and the country's strongman refused to budge from the presidential mansion.
    (AP, 3/11/11)

2011        Mar 14, Ivory Coast fighters allied with the internationally recognized Pres. Alassane Ouattara said they are trying to seize control of a district loyal to the incumbent leader Laurent Gbagbo, who refuses to cede power.
    (AP, 3/14/11)

2011        Mar 15, In Ivory Coast elected leader Alassane Ouattara extended an offer to former Pres. Laurent Gbagbo a national unity government, a fusion of their armed forces and a truth and reconciliation committee to avoid civil war.
    (SFC, 3/16/11, p.A2)

2011        Mar 16, In the Ivory Coast violence reached a new level after Gbagbo rejected last week's African Union decision to endorse Ouattara's victory. In the Attecoube district of Abidjan UN doctors treated 55 people, four of whom died, bringing the total number of deaths since November's election to 410.
    (AP, 3/17/11)

2011        Mar 17, In Ivory Coast mortars from a military police base controlled by Pres. Gbagbo killed up to 30 people in Abidjan.
    (SFC, 3/18/11, p.A2)

2011        Mar 21, Military officials loyal to Ivory Coast's internationally recognized president claimed to have seized a fifth town in the country's far west, amid a deepening political crisis.
    (AP, 3/21/11)

2011        Mar 24, The Economic Community of West African States (ECOWAS) called on the UN Security Council to take immediate steps to force Laurent Gbagbo to cede power in Ivory Coast.
    (SFC, 3/25/11, p.A2)

2011        Mar 25, In Ivory Coast about 1,000 people frantically crowded around buses rented by Mali to evacuate its citizens, as the UN said up to 1 million have fled their homes amid fears of civil war.
    (AP, 3/25/11)

2011        Mar 27, Ivory Coast's embattled strongman Laurent Gbagbo accepted the African Union's choice to mediate a bloody post-election crisis. But former Cape Verde's foreign minister Jose Brito was rejected by presidential rival Alassane Ouattara.
    (AFP, 3/27/11)

2011        Mar 28, In Ivory Coast forces loyal to Alassane Ouattara, the internationally recognized president, seized the city of Duekoue.
    (SFC, 3/29/11, p.A2)

2011        Mar 29, In Ivory Coast more than 800 civilians were reportedly killed over the last 3 days in Douekoue, a western town where hundreds of UN peacekeepers were based. Other observers later questioned the number, but at least 200 people were killed. Some of those slaughtered apparently were killed by "mercenaries" from nearby Liberia. Liberian mercenaries have been reported to be fighting for both Gbagbo and Ouattara.
    (AP, 4/2/11)(Econ, 4/9/11, p.53)

2011        Mar 30, In Ivory Coast a spokesman for incumbent Laurent Gbagbo called for a cease-fire as rebel forces backing Alassane Ouattara, the internationally recognized winner of the disputed election, advanced toward the capital from two different directions. Choi Young-jin, the top United Nations envoy in Ivory Coast, told French radio that as many as 50,000 soldiers, police and members of the security force have abandoned Gbagbo in recent days.
    (AP, 3/30/11)(AP, 4/1/11)

2011        Apr 1, In Ivory Coast heavy fighting raged near the presidential palace and mansion and the state TV broadcaster in Abidjan as armed forces loyal to the elected leader tried to install him to power and oust the country's strongman.
    (AP, 4/1/11)

2011        Apr 2, In Ivory Coast an offensive aiming to unseat strongman Laurent Gbagbo appeared to encounter resistance, as soldiers loyal to the entrenched ruler seized back the state television station and broadcast a call to arms.
    (AP, 4/2/11)

2011        Apr 4, In Ivory Coast UN and French forces opened fire with attack helicopters on the home of incumbent Pres. Laurent Gbagbo and 3 strategic military garrisons as foot soldiers backing Alassane Ouattara pierced the limits of Abidjan. Two Frenchmen, a Malaysian and a citizen of Benin were seized from the downtown Hotel Novotel by pro-Gbagbo troops.
    (SFC, 4/5/11, p.A4)(AP, 4/16/11)

2011        Apr 5, In Ivory Coast strongman Laurent Gbagbo, surrounded by troops backing Alassane Ouattara, huddled in a bunker at his home with his family and tried to negotiate terms of surrender. Ouattara, the democratically elected leader, has urged forces loyal to him to take Gbagbo alive.
    (AP, 4/5/11)

2011        Apr 6, Ivory Coast forces loyal to presidential claimant Alassane Ouattara launched a heavy attack on the bunker where Laurent Gbagbo was defying efforts to force him to cede power.
    (AP, 4/6/11)

2011        Apr 7, Forces allied with Ivory Coast's internationally recognized president Alassane Ouattara have stormed the gates of Laurent Gbagbo's home. French forces wearing night vision goggles rappelled from a helicopter to rescue the Japanese ambassador and 7 others, as strongman leader Laurent Gbagbo remained in an underground bunker amid the fighting.
    (AP, 4/7/11)

2011        Apr 8, Ivory Coast's democratically elected leader imposed a blockade around the presidential residence where the country's entrenched strongman remains holed up underground and said he'll focus on normalizing life in the corpse-strewn city of Abidjan.
    (AP, 4/8/11)

2011        Apr 10, In the Ivory Coast UN and French helicopters fired rockets on strongman Laurent Gbagbo's residence in an assault the UN said was to retaliate for attacks by his forces on UN headquarters and civilians.
    (Reuters, 4/10/11)

2011        Apr 11, In Ivory Coast forces backing rival presidential claimant Alassane Ouattara arrested  incumbent leader Laurent Gbagbo.
    (AP, 4/11/11)

2011        Apr 12, Ivory Coast's internationally recognized president, Alassane Ouattara, called for peace after his rival was arrested with the help of French forces. He faced a huge task reuniting a country shattered by civil war. Gbagbo's interior minister, Desire Tagro, died after being badly beaten by fighters who captured him a day earlier along with Gbagbo.
    (Reuters, 4/12/11)(AP, 4/16/11)

2011        Apr 13, In Ivory Coast forces loyal to recognized president Alassane Ouattara went house to house searching for former soldiers, whom they shot and killed. The UN human rights office in Geneva said 536 people had been killed in the country's west in recent weeks.
    (AP, 4/16/11)

2011        Apr 14, In Ivory Coast teams of Red Cross workers shoveled charred corpses into bags in Abidjan, while UN peacekeepers gathered weapons hidden in basements, throwing them into dump trucks for disposal. Residents of Yopougon, a suburb of Abidjan, said the pro-Ouattara forces were shooting into the air to frighten people into fleeing, and then pillaging their homes and shops.
    (AP, 4/14/11)(AP, 4/16/11)

2011        Apr 15, In Ivory Coast Gen. Brunot Dogbo Ble, head of the Republican Guard, was captured. The Guard had stood beside Gbagbo and fought fiercely in Abidjan.
    (AP, 4/16/11)

2011        Apr 16, Ivory Coast officials began drawing up a list of ministers, generals and journalists to be charged with blood crimes, corruption and hate speech, as shooting erupted between residual forces of a pro-Gbagbo militia and forces of democratically elected President Ouattara.
    (AP, 4/16/11)

2011        Apr 19, Forty one Ivorians were arrested by United Nations forces as they attempted to cross the border into Liberia with cars, guns and ammunition shortly after the capture of former Ivorian president Laurent Gbagbo.
    (AFP, 6/21/12)

2011        Apr 20, In Ivory Coast die-hard forces loyal former President Laurent Gbagbo still battled troops of the democratically President Alassane Ouattara in an Abidjan neighborhood. Troops loyal to Ouattara lobbed shells into the Yopougon suburb as pro-Gbagbo civilian supporters tried to get out.
    (AP, 4/20/11)

2011        Apr 21, The African Union lifted sanctions on Ivory Coast, ending four months of diplomatic isolation, but fighting between armed groups underscored the challenges facing the new president.
    (Reuters, 4/21/11)

2011        Apr 22, Ivory Coast President Alassane Ouattara ordered Gen. Ibrahim "IB" Coulibaly, who led two coups in Ivory Coast and commands the Invisible Commando force, to lay down arms or be forcibly disarmed. Coulibaly agreed but said it would take time to organize.
    (AP, 4/23/11)

2011        Apr 27, Ivory Coast renegade warlord Ibrahim "IB" Coulibaly (47), a two-time coup plotter who began the pro-democracy battle for Abidjan, was killed in fighting with one-time allies turned enemy. A commander for Defense Minister Guillaume Soro said Coulibaly appeared to have killed himself rather than surrender.
    (AP, 4/28/11)

2011        May 6, In Ivory Coast UN investigators headed to a soccer field in Yopougon believed to be the site of a new mass grave. 29 bodies were counted in the grave. A resident said that militants loyal to arrested strongman Laurent Gbagbo swept through the neighborhood amid celebrations over Gbagbo's April 11 arrest.
    (AP, 5/8/11)

2011        May 16, Ivory Coast's President Alassane Ouattara told citizens of Burkina Faso that they are welcome to return to his country, and vowed to put an end to the xenophobia and racial targeting that characterized his predecessor's regime.
    (AP, 5/16/11)

2011        May 21, In Ivory Coast Alassane Ouattara was inaugurated as the president, in a ceremony meant to mark the return of constitutional order and the end of a political standoff that sparked a conflict that killed hundreds earlier this year.
    (AP, 5/21/11)

2011        Jun 2, Human Rights Watch said that forces loyal to Ivory Coast President Alassane Ouattara carried out revenge attacks on supporters of Laurent Gbagbo, concentrated in a pro-Gbagbo neighborhood in Abidjan.
    (AP, 6/2/11)

2011        Jun 27, Ivory Coast state media said 15 ex-ministers, who served under the arrested former strongman Laurent Gbagbo, were indicted over the weekend for crimes against the state, embezzlement and other offenses.
    (AP, 6/27/11)

2011        Jul 1, Ivory Coast said it has issued international arrest warrants for youth leader Charles Ble Goude and other close aides of former president Laurent Gbagbo. 15 members of Gbagbo's inner circle were charged last week.
    (AP, 7/2/11)

2011        Jul 7, Ivory Coast's government named Gen. Soumaila Bakayoko, a former rebel leader, as the new army chief, replacing Gen. Philippe Mangou, who served under the former strongman Laurent Gbagbo.
    (AP, 7/7/11)

2011        Jul 21, Ivory Coast President Alassane Ouattara called on the new army to "clean up" its ranks as alleged violations continue three months after the end of the post-electoral crisis.
    (AFP, 7/21/11)

2011        Jul 30, Ivory Coast President Alassane Ouattara fired the head of public television after no news team was sent to cover his return from a trip to the United States.
    (AFP, 8/1/11)

2011        Aug 9, Ivory Coast public television was back on air, pushing a message of reconciliation after months of deadly post-vote fighting in which it relayed propaganda and its equipment was destroyed.
    (AFP, 8/9/11)

2011        Aug 10, An Ivory Coast official said 12 people, including the son of Laurent Gbagbo, the country's former strongman, have been detained and charged over their actions during six months of postelection violence that left thousands dead.
    (AP, 8/10/11)

2011        Aug 11, The UN’s Ivory Coast mission said there were 26 extrajudicial killings in the Ivory Coast in the past four weeks, mostly blamed on fighters who helped President Alassane Ouattara take power. The killings were reported between July 11 and August 10.
    (AFP, 8/11/11)

2011        Aug 16, Ivory Coast Minister of Defense Paul Koffi Koffi said the government plans to disarm and demobilize some 10,000 fighters in the wake of postelection violence earlier this year. He said the process should be completed by the end of the year.
    (AP, 8/17/11)

2011        Aug 18, Ivory Coast's former strongman Laurent Gbagbo was charged with economic crimes including aggravated theft and embezzlement of public funds.
    (AP, 8/18/11)

2011        Aug, In the Ivory Coast fighters loyal to ex-President Laurent Gbagbo crossed over the border at night and killed villagers, including women and children, and then disappeared back into the Liberia's dense jungle just a couple of miles away.
    (AP, 9/17/11)

2011        Sep 5, The Ivory Coast government announced the formation of a truth and reconciliation panel including footballer Didier Drogba, to probe post-election violence which left over 3,000 dead.
    (AFP, 9/5/11)

2011        Sep 10, Leaders of Ivory Coast and Liberia were joined by counterparts from West Africa for talks on security along the border between their two countries after a bloody post-poll crisis. Presidents Alassane Ouattara and Ellen Johnson Sirleaf were joined by Blaise Compaore of Burkina Faso, Abdoulaye Wade of Senegal, John Atta Mills of Ghana and Nigerian summit host Goodluck Jonathan, under the aegis of regional bloc ECOWAS.
    (AFP, 9/10/11)

2011        Sep 15, In the Ivory Coast armed men from Liberia began attacking villagers. They killed at least 23 people in days of attacks before retreating across the border.
    (AP, 9/17/11)(AP, 9/19/11)
2011        Sep 15, The IMF said it has agreed in principle to give Ivory Coast a $600-million loan to help revive its economy devastated by recent post-election violence.
    (AFP, 9/15/11)

2011        Sep 28, Ivory Coast politicians and the country’s most famous soccer player, Chelsea striker Didier Drogba, launched a Truth and Reconciliation Commission that aims to find peace after months of postelection violence rocked the country.
    (AP, 9/28/11)

2011        Oct 6, Human Rights Watch said that 13 military leaders from both sides of Ivory Coast's political divide committed war crimes during months of postelection violence in the West African nation, and called on the government to prosecute all suspects equally.
    (AP, 10/6/11)

2011        Nov 2, Ivory Coast Ivory, the world's biggest cocoa producer, said it will reintroduce minimum price guarantees for farmers after a decade of liberalization in the sector.
    (AFP, 11/3/11)

2011        Nov 4, The International Monetary Fund awarded a $616 million loan to Ivory Coast to help revive its economy devastated by post-election violence.
    (AFP, 11/4/11)

2011        Nov 7, France marked the resumption of security cooperation with Ivory Coast after a seven-year hiatus with the delivery of police vehicles in Abidjan.
    (AFP, 11/7/11)

2011        Nov 10, An Ivory Coast appeal court conditionally released 12 aides to former president Laurent Gbagbo, held after a post-electoral crisis. The release brings to 20 the number of Gbagbo's associates who have been set free since the crisis, which began after Gbagbo refused to acknowledge defeat in elections in December last year.
    (AFP, 11/10/11)

2011        Nov 15, The Paris Club of mostly industrialized countries said it had reached an agreement with Ivory Coast to defer over 10 years most of its debt coming due and to forgive $1.8 billion in its foreign debts.
    (AFP, 11/15/11)

2011        Nov 30, Former Ivory Coast President Laurent Gbagbo (66) was taken into custody by the International Criminal Court at The Hague to face charges of murder, rape and other crimes allegedly committed by his supporters as he clung to power after last year's elections.
    (AP, 11/30/11)

2011        Dec 1, Ivory Coast President Alassane Ouattara arrived in Conakry for a one day visit in which he and his Guinean counterpart Alpha Conde will discuss reconciliation efforts in their troubled countries.
    (AFP, 12/1/11)

2011        Dec 5, In South Africa Global Witness said it has left the Kimberley Process, accusing the international diamond regulatory group of refusing to address links between diamonds, violence and tyranny. The rights watchdog cited what it called failures in Ivory Coast, Venezuela and Zimbabwe.
    (AP, 12/5/11)

2011        Dec 6, In Ivory Coast 3 journalists from a newspaper loyal to ousted president Laurent Gbagbo were released from jail after being acquitted on charges of insulting his successor. Cesar Etou, publication director at the daily Notre Voie, political service head Boga Sivori and chief editor Didier Depry, arrested  on November 24, were found not guilty.
    (AFP, 12/6/11)

2011        Dec 8, Ivory Coast officials said 5 people have died since the start of the campaign for legislative elections, warning against a repeat of the poll that tore the country apart last year.
    (AFP, 12/8/11)

2011        Dec 11, Ivory Coast held parliamentary elections. The 2nd national poll in 11 years drew little voter interest. The opposition party of former strongman Laurent Gbagbo, which had called for a boycott of the poll, estimated that as few as 10 percent of voters participated. Officials results published by the Independent Electoral Commission on March 8, 2012, said Ouattara's Rally of Republicans (RDR) party won 138 of the parliament's 253 seats on 54.54% of the vote.
    (AP, 12/11/11)(AFP, 3/8/12)

2011        Dec 16, In Ivory Coast final election results from Dec 11 said Ouattara's Rally of Republicans (RDR) won 127 of the 254 seats contested, with its main ally, the Ivory Coast Democratic Party (PDCI), getting 77. Turnout in the vote was 36.56 percent.
    (AFP, 12/16/11)

2011        Dec 18, In the Ivory Coast unrest in Vavoua left 5 people dead. Violence started after a dispute between Republican Forces (FRCI) and youths the previous night left dead a young man who succumbed to his injuries in hospital.
    (AFP, 12/18/11)

2011        Dec 26, In Ivory Coast 4 people were killed and 15 were injured in inter-ethnic clashes near the economic capital Abidjan. The violence erupted when an Abidji youth clashed with a soldier of the Republican Forces of Ivory Coast (FRCI) and was killed in Sikensi.
    (AFP, 12/26/11)

2012        Jan 11, Ivory Coast's former economy minister Paul-Antoine Bohoun Bouabre (54) died in Israel. He was linked to the 2004 disappearance of Guy-Andre Kieffer, a well known French-Canadian journalist.
    (AP, 1/11/12)

2012        Jan 21, In Ivory Coast at least one person was killed during an attack in Abidjan on a meeting of supporters of ex-president Laurent Gbagbo.
    (AFP, 1/21/12)

2012        Jan 28, Liberia arrested some 70 people near its southeastern border with Ivory Coast for their alleged involvement in plans to destabilize the neighboring country.
    (AFP, 1/31/12)

2012        Jan 31, Ivory Coast's top court annulled the election of 11 lawmakers from Pres. Ouattara's party in a December vote after complaints that they breached campaign laws.
    (AFP, 1/31/12)

2012        Feb 12, In Ivory Coast clashes broke out between the ethnic Agni and the Republican Forces of Ivory Coast (FRCI) backed by ethnic Malinke and continued on to the next day leaving 3 people killed and a dozen wounded.
    (AFP, 2/13/12)

2012        Feb 17, Ivory Coast's President Alassane Ouattara was named the new head of West Africa's regional bloc, outgoing chief Goodluck Jonathan of Nigeria announced before the close of the Economic Community of West African States in Abuja.
    (AFP, 2/17/12)

2012        Mar 2, In Ivory Coast a military court put on trial 28 paramilitary police accused of crimes in the period last year when former president Laurent Gbagbo tried to cling to power.
    (AFP, 3/2/12)

2012        Mar 13, Ivory Coast President Alassane Ouattara named Jeannot Ahoussou-Kouadio as prime minister, a prominent member of a rival party which had backed his 2010 election bid.
    (AP, 3/13/12)

2012        Mar 17, Ivory Coast in a ceremony started a month of mourning and "purification" after post-election violence a year ago left about 3,000 people dead.
    (AFP, 3/18/12)

2012        Mar 29, In the Ivory Coast Rodrigue Dadje, the lawyer for the firebrand ex-first lady Simone Gbagbo, was arrested at Abidjan airport after several months abroad. She faced a raft of charges including threatening national security.
    (AFP, 4/18/12)

2012        Apr 24, In Ivory Coast 8 people were killed and ten of homes burned in an attack on the village of Sakre in the restive south-west bordering Liberia. Four attackers were soon arrested, all of them sympathizers of ousted strongman Laurent Gbagbo.
    (AFP, 4/25/12)

2012        Apr 26, In Ivory Coast the 15-member Economic Community of West African States (ECOWAS) decided to send troops to coup-hit Mali and Guinea-Bissau to support their return to civilian rule and demanded coup leaders "return to barracks" in both countries. They also said Guinea-Bissau and Mali must prepare for legislative and presidential elections within a year.
    (AFP, 4/27/12)

2012        Apr 28, The Ivory Coast government and opposition agreed to launch a formal dialogue and meet four times a year to reconcile the country after last year's deadly crisis.
    (AFP, 4/28/12)

2012        May 4, In Ivory Coast about 50 inmates staged a jailbreak from the main prison on the fringes of Abidjan. About 20 were apprehended.
    (AFP, 5/4/12)

2012        May 12, Ivory Coast and Burkina Faso envoys of ECOWAS quit Mali after failing to reach agreement with coup leaders on naming the head of a transitional government. The ex-junta now hoped that coup leader Amadou Haya Sanago take over as interim leader.
    (AFP, 5/12/12)

2012        Jun 6, In Togo Moise Lida Kouassi, the former defense minister of Ivory Coast's disgraced ex-president Laurent Gbagbo, was arrested. He was accused of trying to destabilize the new Ivorian regime.
    (AFP, 6/6/12)
2012        Jun 6, Human Rights Watch said armed groups in Liberia, who supported Ivory Coast's former president, have killed at least 40 civilians in cross-border raids into Ivory Coast since July and are recruiting children as young as 14 into their ranks.
    (AP, 6/6/12)

2012        Jun 8, In the Ivory Coast 7 UN peacekeepers from Niger were killed in an ambush. They had been patrolling in an area between two villages after hearing rumors of an imminent attack on communities in the region. At least 8 civilians were also killed. Deputy defense minister Paul Koffi Koffi said the attackers had crossed over from neighboring Liberia, adding that two Ivorian soldiers and at least one civilian may also have been killed.
    (AFP, 6/9/12)

2012        Jun 21, A UN official said more than 13,000 people have fled their homes in southwestern Ivory Coast following attacks in which unidentified armed men killed at least 22 people this month.
    (AP, 6/21/12)
2012        Jun 21, A court in eastern Liberia ruled to extradite 41 Ivorians, arrested April 19, 2011, to their home country to stand trial for their role in Ivory Coast's 2011 post-election conflict.
    (AFP, 6/21/12)

2012        Jun 23, Liberia extradited 41 Ivory Coast nationals for their role in last year's bloody post-electoral violence in the neighboring West African nation.
    (AFP, 6/23/12)

2012        Jul 9, An Ivory Coast official said 12 inmates have escaped from Abidjan's main prison, in the second prison break in two months. He said an alarm failed to function because of an electricity outage and that four inmates remained on the run after the weekend escape.
    (AP, 7/10/12)

2012        Jul 19, In the Ivory Coast 4 people were killed in a late night attack town of Duekoue, inhabited mostly by ethnic Malinke, triggered reprisals by youths from Kokoma who blamed a group of displaced Guere people and went to burn their nearby camp.
    (AFP, 7/20/12)

2012        Jul 20, In the Ivory Coast nine women were sentenced to two years in prison each for involvement in female genital mutilation, marking the first time such a case results in jail time in the West African nation.
    (AP, 7/20/12)
2012        Jul 20, In the Ivory Coast seven people were killed and 13 wounded in an attack on a UN-protected displaced persons camp. Angry youths from Kokoma torched the displaced persons' camp at Niambly on the outskirts of town, populated mainly by Guere people.
    (AFP, 7/21/12)

2012        Jul 26, The UN Security Council renewed the mandate of its peacekeeping force in the Ivory Coast but reduced its size despite persistent ethnic violence in the west of the country.
    (AFP, 7/26/12)

2012        Aug 5, In Ivory Coast gunmen killed five soldiers in twin attacks on a police station and an army post in Abidjan's Yopougon district.
    (AFP, 8/6/12)

2012        Aug 6, In Ivory Coast a raid on the Akouedo army base in Abidjan left 7 soldiers and one attacker dead.
    (AP, 8/6/12)

2012        Aug 8, A probe ordered by Ivorian President Alassane Ouattara on the 2010-2011 post-election crisis found that his forces killed over 700 people and those of ex-leader Laurent Gbagbo about twice as many.
    (AFP, 8/8/12)

2012        Aug 15, In Ivory Coast  gunmen attacked a military checkpoint and freed 150 inmates from a prison in Dabou, near Abidjan, but 50 were soon recaptured. Officials blamed the attacks on rogue soldiers and loyalists of former President Laurent Gbagbo.
    (AP, 8/16/12)

2012        Aug 16, In Ivory Coast fighting broke out overnight with villagers near the economic capital Abidjan reporting heavy gunfire, trapping them in their homes. Armed men had attacked an army base, a prison and police stations overnight leaving 3 civilians dead. The local police commissioner said two gunmen were killed, about a dozen were arrested and that there were no army fatalities.
    (AFP, 8/16/12)

2012        Aug 18, In Ivory Coast armed men attacked former president Laurent Gbagbo's party headquarters, abducting two people and wounding three. The party blamed the raid on supporters of President Alassane Ouattara. PM Jeannot Kouadio Ahoussou called on the perpetrators of attacks against the army to disarm and not block the country's "revival."
    (AFP, 8/18/12)

2012        Sep 20, In Ivory Coast two attacks on military positions killed seven people, including one soldier, in the commercial capital of Abidjan.
    (AP, 9/21/12)

2012        Aug 25, In southern Ivory Coast a soldier and five assailants were killed when a military checkpoint came under attack.
    (AFP, 8/25/12)

2012        Oct 8, A new report from UN experts accused exiled allies of Ivory Coast's former president of trying to recruit Islamist rebels who took control of the northern half of neighboring Mali in a campaign to destabilize the volatile West African region.
    (AP, 10/8/12)

2012        Oct 15, In the Ivory Coast unidentified gunmen carried out overnight attacks against a power plant in Abidjan and military positions in the southeastern town of Bonoua. The gunmen were repelled by security forces.
    (AP, 10/15/12)

2012        Oct 26, Amnesty International alleged that Ivory Coast security officials are torturing dozens of detainees by administering electric shocks and other forms of abuse. The victims included people charged with endangering state security in the wake of a recent spate of attacks targeting military installations.
    (AP, 10/26/12)

2012        Nov 6, Ivory Coast officials said up to 10 new mass graves have been discovered near the site of a July 20 attack on a camp for displaced people. Rights groups have claimed summary executions were carried out by the Republican Forces of Ivory Coast, known by its French acronym of FRCI.
    (AP, 11/6/12)

2012        Nov 14, Ivory Coast President Alassane Ouattara dissolved his Cabinet on over an apparent feud between member parties of his governing coalition.
    (AP, 11/14/12)

2012        Nov 19, A report issued by New York-based Human Rights Watch accused Ivory Coast's military of undertaking a swift, brutal and illegal campaign of arbitrary arrest and detention in response to some of the most significant violence since last year's election crisis.
    (AP, 11/19/12)

2012        Nov 21, Ivory Coast President Alassane Ouattara tapped Foreign Minister Daniel Kablan Duncan to serve as prime minister in a new government one week after the surprise dissolution of cabinet.
    (AP, 11/21/12)

2012        Nov 22, The International Criminal Court unsealed an indictment against former Ivory Coast President Laurent Gbagbo's wife on charges including murder, rape and persecution. It was the first time in the court's 10-year history it has charged a woman. An arrest warrant was issued on Feb. 29 for former first lady Simone Gbagbo for crimes against humanity.
    (AP, 11/22/12)

2012        Nov 28, A report from the Internal Displacement Monitoring Center said thousands of people in Ivory Coast continue to flee their homes because of ongoing land conflicts and residual tension from last year's postelection violence.
    (AP, 11/29/12)

2012        Dec 21, In Ivory Coast say at least one person was dead after two simultaneous attacks overnight on Ivorian security forces.
    (AP, 12/21/12)

2013        Jan 1, Ivory Coast at least 64 people, mostly children and teenagers, were killed early today in a stampede following a New Year's fireworks display in Abidjan. Survivors blamedmakeshift barricades.
    (AP, 1/1/13)(AP, 1/2/13)(AP, 1/4/13)

2013        Jan 17, Authorities in Ghana arrested Charles Ble Goude, the former leader of an ultranationalist youth movement in Ivory Coast. He was wanted in connection with violence linked Ivory Coast’s disputed 2010 presidential elections. Ble Goude was soon charged with war crimes over his alleged role in violence linked to the and extradicted to Ivory Coast.
    (AP, 1/17/13)(AP, 1/21/13)(Econ, 4/13/13, p.51)

2013        Jan 16, Armed men hijacked the ITRI, a Panamanian-flagged tanker carrying 5,000 tons of oil, from the Ivory Coast port at Abidjan. Officials later located the vessel off neighboring Ghana.
    (AP, 1/21/13)

2013        Feb 3, A French-owned oil tanker, the M/T Gascogne, was reported missing off Ivory Coast with 17 sailors on board. On Feb 6 Sea Tankers said the ship has been released and that 2 workers suffered injuries in the hijacking.
    (AP, 2/4/13)(AP, 2/6/13)

2013        Feb 19, An Ivory Coast military spokesman says that Guinean soldiers have occupied Kpeaba, a border village in western Ivorian territory, since early this month.
    (AP, 2/19/13)

2013        Mar 23, In Ivory Coast  Oulai Tako, known as "Tarzan of the West," was among three assailants killed by soldiers responding to an attack. Two civilians and a traditional hunter were also killed in the attack on Petit Guiglo village 15 miles (25km) outside Blolequin.
    (AP, 3/24/13)(SSFC, 2/24/13, p.A5)

2013        Mar 26, UN officials in Liberia said they've temporarily halted the repatriation of tens of thousands of refugees from Ivory Coast because of continued unrest near the border between the two countries.
    (AP, 3/26/13)

2013        Apr 10, Ivory Coast lawmakers gave President Alassane Ouattara the authority to rule by decree on social and economic issues for 2013.
    (AP, 4/10/13)

2013        Apr 21, Ivory Coast residents voted for local officials in the first polling since deadly postelection violence two years ago. The opposition party of former Pres. Gbagbo boycotted the polls.
    (SFC, 4/22/13, p.A2)

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