Timeline Italy (A) thru 1929

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Newspaper: http://www.Italy-news.net
Italy is about the same size as Arizona.
(SSFC, 10/9/05, Par p.27)

208Mil BC-140Mil BC The Jurassic Period. In 1996 a Jurassic dinosaur fossil was found in a limestone block in Saltrio, Italy, near the Swiss border. The saltriosaur, a 3-fingered, meat-eater, was 26.4 feet long and weighed over a ton.
    (SFC, 11/10/00, p.A14)

110Mil BC     A well preserved baby fossil of the therapod Scipionyx from this time was later found in Italy.  It was reported in 1999 to have had a hepatic piston breathing system good for sustained activity and swift movement.
    (SFC, 1/22/99, p.A4)

113Mil BC    A juvenile dinosaur fossil from Benevento Province in southern Italy was discovered in the 1980s. It was named Scipionyx samniticus and showed some preservation of soft parts.
    (SFC, 3/26/98, p.A11)

4Mil BC    In 2007 Italian researchers found the skeleton of a 33-foot prehistoric whale about 100 yards below ground in the Tuscan countryside. The skeleton dated to 4 million years ago, to the Pliocene epoch.
    (AP, 4/3/07)

c350,000BC    Humans left tracks in the volcanic ash of the Roccamonfina volcano in Italy.
    (SFC, 3/13/03, p.2)

43000BC-41000BC    Home sapiens populations were living in Italy by this time.
    (SFC, 6/15/12, p.A11)

28000BC    In 2010 it was reported that starch grains found on 30,000-year-old grinding stones suggest that prehistoric man may have dined on an early form of flat bread, contrary to his popular image as primarily a meat-eater. The grinding stones were discovered at sites in Italy, Russia and the Czech Republic.
    (Reuters, 10/19/10)

11000BC    A Paleolithic burial in San Teodoro Cave, Sicily, revealed an arrowhead embedded in the pelvis bone of an adult female. Another arrowhead is known from the vertebra of a child buried in the Grotte des Enfants on the Italian coast.
    (AM, May/Jun 97 p.24)

3300BC     German hikers Erica and Helmut Simon found a well-preserved prehistoric corpse, dated to about this time. He was later named Oetzi (Frozen Fritz). He was found on Sep 19, 1991, in a glacier on the Hauslabjoch Pass, about 100 yards from Austria in northern Italy. It was kept at the Univ. of Innsbruck for study. In 1998 analysis indicated that the Ice Man had internal parasites and carried the woody fruit of a tree fungus as a remedy. Tattoos on the body were also found to be placed over areas of active arthritis. A flint arrow was also found in his back. In 2007 forensic researchers said he died either from hitting his head on a rock when he passed out or because his attacker hit him in the head.
    (SFC, 12/25/98, p.A4)(SFEC, 5/7/00, p.T4)(WSJ, 2/3/04, p.A1)(AP, 8/29/07)

2k-1kBCE    In Italy Indo-Europeans slowly began to inhabit the north by way of the Alps. They brought the horse, the wheeled cart, and artistic knowledge of bronze work to the Italian peninsula.
    (http://eawc.evansville.edu, p.2)

1780BC    Vesuvius erupted about this time and entombed settlements 15km northwest of the volcano. The Avellino event left evidence at the Nola site that people were able to flee the eruption.
    (Econ, 3/11/06, p.73)

c1500BCE    In 2002 in southern Italy a settlement was found dating to this time on the River Sarno 6 miles northeast of Pompeii. It was abandoned after being destroyed by a flood in the 6th century BC. It was uncovered by archeologists in 2000.
    (SFC, 3/22/02, p.A10)(Arch, 7/02, p.15)

c800-700BCE    The Greeks and the Etruscans occupied different regions of the peninsula during the 8th century.
    (http://eawc.evansville.edu, p.2)

753BCE    Apr 21, Rome was founded. The traditional date for founding by Romulus as a refuge for runaway slaves and murderers who captured the neighboring Sabine women for wives. Archeological evidence indicates that the founders of Rome were Italic people who occupied the area south of the Tiber River.
    (HFA, '96, p.28)(V.D.-H.K.p.61)(eawc, p.7)(HN, 4/21/98)

690BC        The underground burial chamber of a warrior prince in the Etruscan town of Veio dated to about this time. It was decorated with roaring lions and migratory birds.
    (AP, 6/16/06)

650-550BCE    Graves from the Umbrian city of Terni, north of Rome, were dated to this period. The people were known as the Umbri-Nartes and had lived in the region from the Bronze Age up to the Roman conquest.
    (AM, Jul/Aug ‘97 p.18)

620BC        Ostia was founded by the fourth king of Rome, Ancus Marcius, who was thought to have ruled in the late seventh century BC. It was founded about this time at the mouth of the Tiber River. Nearby salt flats provided a valuable source of salt for preserving meat. Around 400BC it was conquered by Rome and turned into a naval base.
    (www.ostia-antica.org/intro.htm)(SSFC, 5/11/08, p.E8)

c600BCE    The Etruscans, believed to be natives of Asia Minor, established cities that stretched from northern to central Italy. They developed the arch and the vault, gladiatorial combat for entertainment, and the study of animals to predict future events.
    (http://eawc.evansville.edu, p.8)

600-500BCE    The Gauls founded a city on the site of Milan, initially settled by people of the Etruscan, Ligurian and Insubre tribes, and named it "Mittaland."
    (SFEC, 7/13/97, p.T12)

600-290BCE    The Samnites, an Oscan-speaking people, controlled the area of south central Italy during this period.
    (AM, 3/04, p.36)

c525BCE    Acroliths, or partial statues, of Olympian deities were later found in Morgantina in central Sicily that were made by Greeks and dated to this time.
    (SFC, 4/4/98, p.A13)

515BCE    Parmenides of Elea was born. He founded the Eleatic school in the Phocaean colony in southern Italy. He was the first to focus attention on the central problem of Greek metaphysics: the nature of being. For Parmenides the laws governing the universe are stable and change is merely an illusion.
    (http://eawc.evansville.edu, p.10)

509BCE    The Romans overthrew King Lucius Tarquinius and established a republic with rule by the senate and the people of Rome (SPQR - Senatus Populusque Romanus).
    (V.D.-H.K.p.61)(http://eawc.evansville.edu, p.10)(Econ, 11/6/04, p.85)
509BCE    The Fall of the Tarquin dynasty in Rome marked the beginning of Etruscan Decline.
    (NG, 6/1988, p.711)

c500BCE    Lars Porsena ruled as the Etruscan king in central Italy. His capital, Clusium, was later believed to lie under the rubble of the Tuscan city of Chiusi.
    (Econ, 11/6/04, p.85)

c500-400BC    Before the rise of Rome, the Etruscans had the most powerful nation in ancient Italy. The Etruscans (who called themselves the Rasenna) inhabited central Italy and greatly influenced the Romans in terms of language, architecture and even fashion (evidence points to the toga as an Etruscan invention). Unfortunately, no Etruscan literary works survive, so most documentation comes from Greek and Roman literary sources as well as archaeological evidence. Their military and political power was eroded over the course of the 5th century BC with Rome rising as the dominant power on the peninsula in the 4th century BC.
    (HNQ, 2/8/01)
500-400BCE    The Capitoline Wolf, a bronze she-wolf sculpture, was made. It was unknown whether the sculpture was Etruscan, Roman or from Magna Graecia.
    (AM, Jul/Aug ‘97 p.19)

494BCE    In Rome the first victory of the plebeian class over the patricians resulted in an agreement between the two classes to allow the plebeians to elect officers, and tribunes with the power to veto any unlawful acts of the magistrates.
    (http://eawc.evansville.edu, p.10)

458BC        Lucius Quinctius Cincinnatus (520BC-430BC) was appointed dictator for six months. He was called from retirement to confront the Aequi, who had trapped a Roman army.
    (Econ, 3/10/12, p.66)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cincinnatus)

450BCE     Roman law was codified in the twelve tablets. The law allowed the plebeians to have knowledge of their relationship to the law. The plebeians were primarily farmers, craftsmen and tradesmen with foreign backgrounds. The patricians made up the aristocracy. (V.D.-H.K.p.67)(http://eawc.evansville.edu, p.11)
400BC-300BC        The Greeks founded Neopolis (Naples), their "New City" in the 4th century B.C. They carved blocks of tufa stone to build the city structures and left behind cavernous quarries. Centuries later the Romans turned the quarries into cisterns and connected them with tunnels. Water was brought in from the Serino River in the hills of Avellino, 96 miles to the north. This provided the water supply until 1883.
    (SFEC, 1/26/97 , p.T9)
400BC-300BC        An Etruscan gate was built in Volterra, northern Tuscany. The arch remained standing into the 21st century.
    (SSFC, 11/20/11, p.N6)

396BC        Roman legions sacked the Etruscan city of Veio, after a ten-year siege, ended the city's long conflict with Rome.
    (NG, 6/1988, p.711)(SFC, 6/17/06, p.A12)

367BCE    In Rome the first plebian consul was elected to the assembly. The Plebeians also became eligible to serve as lesser magistrates, formerly a position reserved for the aristocratic class. Because an ancient custom allowed promotion from the magistracy to the Senate, the patrician-dominated Senate was broken. (http://eawc.evansville.edu, p.12)

312BCE    Appius Claudius, the Blind, as consul began the building of the Via Appia. The historian Procopius states that the road was completed at this time. It ran due south from Rome to Capua. (V.D.-H.K.p.69)(SFC, 6/3/96, p.E5)

295BCE    The Battle of Sentinum. Etruria was defeated by Rome and the Etruscan decline continued for more than 200 years. (NG, 6/1988, p.739)

287BCE    In Rome the plebeians passed a law that allowed the decisions of the assembly to override the Senate.
    (http://eawc.evansville.edu, p.14)

269BCE    The Roman system of coinage was established.
    (http://eawc.evansville.edu, p.14)

265BCE    Rome completed its domination of the entire Italian peninsula and began its pursuit of a larger empire that resulted in a series of wars with other nations.
    (http://eawc.evansville.edu, p.14)

264BCE    Rome initiated the Punic Wars with Carthage, an oligarchic empire that stretched from the northern coast of Africa to the Strait of Gibraltar. The primary cause was the Carthaginian expansion into the Greek cities of Sicily. Carthage was forced to surrender its control over the western region of Sicily and this marked the end of the first Punic War.
    (http://eawc.evansville.edu, p.14)

262BCE    War broke out between Carthage and Rome. Three long wars lasted till 146BC when Carthage was destroyed by Rome.
    (Enc. of Africa, 1976, p.167-8)

261BCE    Rome captured a Punic quinquereme. In two months they copied it plank by plank and built 100 like it and eventually the Roman fleet was able to defeat the Carthaginians.
    (NG, Aug., 1974, p.178)

222BCe    The Romans showed up at the site of Milan and subdued the Gauls after 26 years of butchery. Mittaland was Latinized to Medioland, i.e. middle of the plain, and later transformed to Milano.
    (SFEC, 7/13/97, p.T12)

217BC        Jun 21, Carthaginian forces led by Hannibal destroyed a Roman army under consul Gaius Flaminicy in a battle at Lake Trasimenus in central Italy. Hannibal of Carthage attacked Roman Consul Flaminio at Tuoro on Lake Trasimeno in Umbria. Hannibal’s army of Numidians, Berbers, Libyans, Gascons, and Iberians was down to one elephant after crossing the Alps with 39. His army of 40,000 drove the Romans into the lake where 15,000 died as opposed to 1,500 of Hannibal’s men. Two nearby towns were named Ossaia (boneyard) and Sanguineto (bloodied).
    (SFEM, 10/12/97, p.37)(HN, 6/21/98)

211BCE    Roman legions overran the Greek settlement of Morgantina on Sicily.
    (SFC, 4/4/98, p.A13)

96-81BCE    The Circus of Domitian was built in Rome. It later became the Piazza Navona.
    (SFEC, 7/2/00, p.T5)

89BC        Roman general Cornelius Sulla sacked Clusium, the Etruscan capital.
    (Econ, 11/6/04, p.85)

80BC-70BC    The Romans built the Flavian Amphiteatre and named it after the family name of Emperor Vespasian. The Colosseum could seat 50,000 spectators and had underground chambers, dens and passageways, an area known as the hypogeum.
    (SFC, 10/15/10, p.A5)

70BC        Oct 15, Virgil (Publius Vergilius Maro), Roman poet, was born in Mantua.
    (HN, 10/15/98)(AMNHDT, 5/98)

63BC        Sep 23, Caesar Augustus (63BC-14CE) was born in Rome. Augustus, first emperor of Rome, ended the era of the Roman Republic. Augustus held power but shared administrative tasks with the Senate, consuls, and tribunes who continued to be elected.
    (V.D.-H.K.p.63)(AP, 9/23/97)

55BC        Lucretius (b.~99BC), a Roman poet and philosopher, died about this time. He had authored “On the Nature of Things" (De Rerum Natura), which laid out in 7,400 lines of Latin verse the radical philosophy of Epicurus. The work disappeared in the Middle Ages and lay largely forgotten until 1417, when bibliophile Poggio Bracciolini stumbled on the work in a monastery in southern Germany.
    (SSFC, 12/18/11, p.F7)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Lucretius)

49BC        Mar 10, Julius Caesar crossed the Rubicon and invaded Italy. The event was noted by Suetonius in the phrase: "The die is cast."
    (SFEC,12/14/97, BR p.5)(HN, 3/10/98)

48BC        The library at Alexandria was ravaged by fire during the fighting between Caesar and Ptolemy XIII.
    (WSJ, 6/1/00, p.A1)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Library_of_Alexandria)

45BC        Jan 1, The Julian calendar took effect. The year -45 has been called the "year of confusion," because in that year Julius Caesar inserted 90 days to bring the months of the Roman calendar back to their traditional place with respect to the seasons. This was Caesar's first step in replacing a calendar that had gone badly awry.

37BC        Virgil (b.70BC), Roman poet, authored the 4th of his Eclogues. This included text regarding the newborn son of Consul Polio in which Virgil said the child would initiate a golden age in which lion and lamb would lie together amid peace and plenty. Early Christians took this as a prediction of Christ.
    (WSJ, 12/29/07, p.W12)

28BC        In Rome the mausoleum of Emperor Augustus(d.14AD) was built.
    (WSJ, 6/23/07, p.P16)

19BC         Agrippa had the Aqua Virgo built in Rome.
    (SFEC, 7/2/00, p.T4)

10BC        Aug 1, Claudius (d.54CE)., Roman Emperor, was born. Tiberius Claudius Nero Caesar Drusus, the nephew of Tiberius and grandson of the wife of Augustus, was made emperor after Caligula.
    (HN, 8/1/98)

9BC        The Ara Pacis (Altar of Peace), ordered by Augustus Caesar, was constructed in Rome. In 2005 the Museum of the Ara Pacis opened in Rome.
    (WSJ, 6/23/07, p.P16)

4CE        Gaius Caesar (24), the nephew and adopted heir of Caesar Augustus, died.
    (WSJ, 6/23/07, p.P16)
4CE        Tiberius (42BC-37CE) was chosen by Augustus as emperor of Rome.

27-37CE    Tiberius moved to the isle of Capri and never returned to Rome.
    (V.D.-H.K.p.77)(SFEM, 10/11/98, p.54)

37CE        Caligula succeeded Tiberius and went mad within a year. His cruelty was so bad that he was murdered by the tribune of the palace guard after 4 years. He imprisoned his nieces on the island of Ponza for converting to Christianity. Caligula provided his horse, named Incitatus, an ivory manger and a marble stall, but no official state title as was rumored.
    (V.D.-H.K.p.78)(SFEC, 11/8/98, p.T12)(WSJ, 4/22/99, A10)

37-41        Caligula ruled Rome. He had 2 large ships built and anchored for his pleasure on Lake Nemi.
    (AM, 5/01, p.26)

41AD        Jan 24, Shortly after declaring himself a god, Caligula was assassinated by two Praetorian tribunes.
    (HN, 1/24/99)

c62-113CE    Pliny the Younger, Gaius Plinius Caecilius Secundus, Roman writer, statesman and orator. He described the death of his uncle, Plinius the Elder, at the 79CE eruption of Vesuvius in a letter to Tacitus.
    (WUD, 1994, p.1106)(SFC, 9/1/97, p.A2)

76CE        Jan 24, Publius A. Hadrianus, 14th Roman Emperor (117-138), was born.

79AD        Aug 24, Pliny the Elder, Roman naturalist, witnessed the eruption of long-dormant Mount Vesuvius and was overcome by the fumes as he tried to rescue refugees. The eruption buried the Roman cities of Pompeii, Stabiae, Herculaneum and other, smaller settlements in 13 feet of volcanic ash and pumice. An estimated 20,000 people died. The event was described by Pliny the Younger, the elder’s nephew, in a letter to Tacitus.
    (HFA, '96, p.36)(DD-EVTT, p.70)(AP, 8/24/97)(WUD, 1994, p.1106)(SFC, 9/1/97, p.A2)(HNQ, 6/16/98)

79CE        Aug 25, Gaius Plinius Secundus, [Plinius Maior], Roman admiral, writer, died in the eruption of Mount Vesuvius. [see Aug 24]
    (MC, 8/25/02)

80        The Roman Colosseum was inaugurated under Emp. Titus (Vespacian) with 100 days of gladiator combat. The poet Martial described one combat between Verus and Priscus. The amphitheater occupied the site of a large artificial lake, created by Nero for his Domus Aurea.
    (SFC, 7/20/00, p.C3)(AM, 3/04, p.54)(WSJ, 1/25/05, p.D12)
80         In Rome a ban on the public visiting below the Colosseum stage level began when the amphitheater was inaugurated. The ban continued until the last show in 523.
    (AP, 6/25/21)

81-96        The reign of Domitian. Soldiers under his reign earned an annual salary of about 1,200 sesterces.
    (HNQ, 10/5/00)(AM, 5/01, p.36)

c81-138    Secret police agents in Ancient Rome were known as frumentarii. Growing out of an Augustine messenger service—the cursus publicus—frumentarii were originally just supply sergeants responsible for such mundane functions as the purchase and distribution of grain. However, under the reign of Domitian (a.d. 81-96), or possibly Hadrian (117-138), they were turned into intelligence officers and gradually became more involved in state security.  
    (HNQ, 10/5/00)

97CE        Sextus Julius Frontinus, Roman water commissioner, wrote of Rome: "The city looks cleaner, different, the air is purer and the causes of pollution that gave the air so bad a name with the ancients are now removed."
    (SFEC, 7/2/00, p.T1)

c100-200    Simon Ben Azzai, second century (A.D.) Jewish scholar: "In seeking wisdom thou art wise; in imagining that thou has attained it thou art a fool."
    (AP, 11/15/97)

117-138    The reign of Hadrian.
    (HNQ, 10/5/00)

118CE        Jul 9, Hadrian, Rome's new emperor, made his entry into the city.
    (HN, 7/9/98)

129        Sep 22, Claudius Galenus (d.~199-217), Greek physician and scholar, was born. Some sources put his birth in 131. Galen went to Rome in 162 AD and made his mark as a practicing physician. Galen developed the first typology of temperament in his dissertation “De temperamentis," and searched for physiological reasons for different behaviors in humans.

182        Roman Emp. Commodus executed the brothers Sextus Quintilius Maximus and Sextus Quintilius Condianus for alleged conspiracy. Their Villa dei Quintili, several miles from the center of Rome and comparable to Hadrian’s villa in Tivoli, was identified in 1828.
    (AM, 7/05, p.28)

192        Dec 31, Lucius A.A. Commodus (b.161), Emperor of Rome (180-192), was murdered. His mistress Marcia, Chamberlain Eclectus, and praetorian prefect Laetus hired the wrestler Narcissus to strangle Commodus after they found their names on an imperial execution list.
    (PCh, 1992, p.42)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Commodus)

200-300CE    A Roman bathhouse was constructed in Milan and its columns still stood in the 20th century.
    (SFEC, 7/13/97, p.T3)

203        Lucius Septimus Severus (d.211), emperor of Rome, returned to visit home at Leptis Magna (Libya).
    (SSFC, 6/27/04, p.D12)

211        Feb 4, Lucius Septimius Severus (64), emperor of Rome (193-211), died.

217        Apr 8, Caracalla (b.188), [Marcus Antonius], Roman emperor (198-217), was murdered in his baths.

235        Mar 18, Marcus Aurelius Severus Alexander (b.208), Syrian emperor of Rome (222-235), was murdered.

249-262    The Plague of Cyprian, later thought to be a hemorrhagic fever, emptied many Roman cities and coincided with a sharp and permanent decline in economic activity.
    (https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Plague_of_Cyprian)(Econ, 3/14/20, p.62)

258CE        Aug 6, Pope Sixtus II, bishop of Rome (257-58), was beheaded upon orders of Emperor Valerian.
    (ITV, 1/96, p.60)(MC, 8/6/02)

258        A red agate cup with gold handles, the Santo Caliz, was sent to Spain by Pope Sixtus II and St. Laurence as Rome went under siege by the Persians. In 1437 the church moved it to the Cathedral of Valencia.
    (SSFC, 5/27/06, p.G3)

258-260    Persia and Rome engaged in a 2-year war.
    (WUD, 1994 ed., p.1667)

260        Persia’s King Shapur I captured Roman Emp. Valerian.
    (Arch, 9/00, p.41)

260-268    Emp. Gallienus ruled Rome.
    (AM, 5/01, p.40)

267        Dec 26, Dionysius, bishop of Rome and saint, died.
    (MC, 12/26/01)

300-400    The Circus Maximus in ancient Rome, expanded under Constantine in the 4th century A.D., had an estimated seating capacity of 250,000. The largest of hippodrome in Rome, a U-shaped stadium with a low wall running in the middle around which chariots raced, it seated an estimated 150,000 spectators at the time of Julius Caesar in the 1st century B.C.
    (HNQ, 8/29/99)

303CE        Feb 23, Emperor Diocletian ordered the general persecution of Christians in Rome.
    (HN, 2/23/98)

312        cOct 27, Prior to a battle between Constantine and Maxentius, Constantine experienced a vision of Christ that ordered him to ornament the shields of his soldiers with the Greek letters chi and rho, the monogram for Christ. Constantine won the battle and attributed his success to Christ. He became emperor of the West and an advocate of Christianity. [see Oct 28]
    (MH, 12/96)(CU, 6/87)

312          Oct 28, Constantine the Great defeated Marcus Aurelius Valerius Maxentius at the Mulvian Bridge. Constantine’s smaller army (about 50,000 strong) won a decisive victory there; while fleeing, Maxentius drowned in the river. Constantine was instantly converted when he saw a cross in the sky, with the inscription "In hoc signo vincit" ("In this sign you shall conquer"). [see Oct 27]
    (HN, 10/28/98)(DoW, 1999, P.398)

312        Appius Claudius began construction of the Appian Way as a military highway.
    (SFC, 8/2/07, p.E2)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Via_Appia)

313CE        Emperor Constantine met with the eastern emperor at Milan, capital of the late Roman Empire. They agreed on a policy of religious tolerance. The Edict of Milan legalized Christianity.
    (CU, 6/87)(ITV, 1/96, p.58)(SFEC, 7/13/97, p.T13)

336        Dec 25, The first recorded celebration of Christmas on this day took place in Rome. By this year Dec 25 was established in the Liturgy of the Roman Church as the birthday of Jesus. [see 354] The Basilica of St. Anastasia was built as soon as a year after the Nicaean Council. It probably was where Christmas was first marked on Dec. 25, part of broader efforts to link pagan practices to Christian celebrations in the early days of the new religion. In 2007 Italian archaeologists unveiled an underground grotto, near St. Anastasia, that they believe ancient Romans revered as the place where a wolf nursed Rome's legendary founder Romulus and his twin brother Remus. 
    (WSJ, 12/18/98, p.W15)(AP, 12/25/99)(AP, 12/22/07)

354        Pope Liberius decided to add the Nativity to the Church calendar and selected December 25 to celebrate it. [see 336]
    (WSJ, 12/21/07, p.A19)

357CE        Apr 28, Constantius II visited Rome for the first time.
    (HN, 4/28/98)

374-397CE    Ambrose served as the Bishop of Milan. Later proclaimed St. Ambrose and the patron of Milan.
    (WUD, 1994, p.46)(SFEC, 7/13/97, p.T12,13)

376        Dec 25, In Milan, Ambrose, the Bishop of Milan, forced the emperor Theodosius to perform public penance for his massacre.
    (HN, 12/25/98)

379        The brick Basilica of St. Ambrose was begun.
    (SFEC, 7/13/97, p.T3)

383        Aug 25, Flavius Gratianus (25), Emperor of Rome (375-383), was murdered.
    (MC, 8/25/02)

387        Apr 24, Bishop Ambrose baptized St. Augustine in Milan at the Baptistry of San Giovanni alle Fonti, later the site of the Duomo Cathedral.
    (SFEC, 7/13/97, p.T12)

394        Sep 6, Theodosius became sole ruler of Italy after defeating Eugenius at the Battle of the River Frigidus.
    (HN, 9/6/98)

402-476     Ravenna in northern Italy served as the capital city of the Western Roman Empire. In 2020 Judith Herrin authored "Ravenna: Capital of Empire, Crucible of Europe".
    (https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ravenna)(Econ., 9/26/20, p.77)   

410        Aug 24, Rome was overrun by the Visigoths, an event that symbolized the fall of the Western Roman Empire. German barbarians sacked Rome. In 2020 Douglas Boin authored "Alaric the Goth".
    (AP, 8/24/97)(HN, 8/24/98)(Econ., 6/20/20, p.72)

410        Rome abandoned its British provinces.
    (AM, 11/04, p.41)
410        Flavius Aetius, the son of a Roman general, was sent to live as a hostage of the Huns.
    (ON, 4/12, p.1)

420CE        Padua was founded on the edge of the Adriatic.
    (SFC,12/19/97, p.F3)

421        Mar 25, Venice was founded on a Friday at 12 PM.
    (MC, 3/25/02)

432        Flavius Aetius was appointed commander-in-chief of all the armies of the Western Roman Empire.
    (ON, 4/12, p.1)

452CE        Jun 8, Italy was invaded by Attila the Hun.
    (HN, 6/8/98)

452        Pope Leo I met Attila the Hun on the banks of the Mincio and Attila agreed to make peace and spare Rome.
    (PTA, 1980, p.90)

454        Sep 21, In Italy, Aetius, the supreme army commander, was murdered in Ravenna by Valentinian III, the emperor of the West.
    (HN, 9/21/98)

455CE        Jun 16, Rome was sacked by the Vandal army.
    (V.D.-H.K.p.88)(HN, 6/16/98)

455        Genseric, at the invitation of Eudoxia, Valentinian's widow, sailed to Italy, and took Rome without a blow. At the intercession of Leo the Great, he abstained from torturing or massacring the inhabitants and burning the city, but gave it up to systematic plunder. For 14 days and nights the work of pillage continued. Genseric then returned unmolested to Africa, carrying much booty and many thousand captives, including the empress Eudoxia and her two daughters. The elder became the wife of his son Hunneric; the younger, with her mother, was eventually surrendered to the emperor Leo.

476-540    Ravenna in northern Italy served as the capital of the Ostrogothic Kingdom until it was re-conquered by the Byzantine Empire.

493        Mar 3, Odovacar, the Herulian leader, surrendered Ravenna to Theodorik, king of the Ostrogoths. Theodorik invited Odovacar to dinner and had him murdered. Theodorik united Italy as an Ostrogoth kingdom until 554. [see Mar 15]
    (PCh, 1992, p.52)(V.D.-H.K.p.88)(SC, 3/3/02)

493        Mar 15, Theodoric the Great beat Odoacer of Italy. Odoacer, German army leader, King of Italy (476-93), died. [see Mar 3]
    (MC, 3/15/02)

524        Anicius Manlius Severinus Boëthius, commonly called Boethius (b.~477), Roman senator, consul, magister officiorum, and philosopher of the early 6th century, died in Pavia.

529        The Monte Cassino monastery in Italy was founded by St. Benedict.
    (V.D.-H.K.p.107)(NW, 10/28/02, p.16)

536        Dec 9, Having captured Naples earlier in the year, Belisarius took Rome.
    (HN, 12/9/98)

537CE        Mar 11, The Goths laid siege to Rome.
    (HN, 3/11/98)

540        The Byzantines conquered Ravenna, the capital of the Ostrogothic Kingdom, in northern Italy.

543        Mar 21, Benedict of Nursia died. Some sources put his death on March 21, 547. He had founded twelve communities for monks at Subiaco, Lazio, Italy (about 40 miles (64 km) to the east of Rome), before moving to Monte Cassino in the mountains of southern Italy.

546        Totila the Goth besieged Rome.
    (PTA, 1980, p.120)

547        Mar 21, St. Benedict (b.450), Italian monk, died (see March 21, 543). He lived for years as a hermit near the ruins of Nero's palace above Subiaco, 40 miles east of Rome. He established the monastery of Monte Cassino, the founding house of the Benedictine order. His rules and standards of communal life are known as the rules of St. Benedict.   

552CE        Aug 5, Snow fell in the town of Panicale in Umbria. The Church of the Virgin of Snows commemorating the rare event.
    (SFEM, 10/12/97, p.49)

554        Aug 14, Ravenna became the seat of the Byzantine military governor in Italy.
    (MC, 8/14/02)

556        Feb 21, Maximianus van Ravenna, bishop (Basilica S Stefano), died.
    (MC, 2/21/02)

561        Mar 3, Pelagius I, Italian Catholic Pope (547-51, 556-61), died.
    (SC, 3/3/02)

590        Pope Gregory said he spotted an angel atop Hadrian’s Mausoleum. The site was then reconfigured as a fortress called Castel Sant’Angelo. In 1925 it became a national museum.
    (SSFC, 5/1/05, p.F8)

777        A wealthy trader and landowner named Totone donated Campione, an Italian enclave on the shores of Switzerland's Lake Lugano, to the monastery of Sant'Ambrogio in Milan, which became part of Italy in 1797. It was later renamed Campione d'Italia, under the rule of dictator Benito Mussolini. A gaming establishment was first opened in Campione in 1917, but its main purpose was to spy on foreign diplomats during World War I, and it closed two years later. It reopened in 1933 thanks to a decree, which remains in effect, requiring the casino proceeds to cover all municipal costs. In 2020 the enclave is due to become part of the European Union customs area, raising practical questions about interactions with non-EU member Switzerland.
    (AFP, 5/26/19)

810        Jul 8, Pepin, son of Charlemagne and King of Italy, died.
    (MC, 7/8/02)

875        Aug 12, Louis II (~50), king of Italy, emperor of France, died.
    (MC, 8/12/02).

902        Aug 1, The Aghlabid rulers of Ifriqiyah (modern day Tunisia) captured Taormina, Sicily.
    (HN, 8/1/98)

917        The Castle Torre d’Orlando was built between Paciano and Panicale in Umbria.
    (SFEM, 10/12/97, p.49)

924        Apr 7, Berengarius I, Emperor of Italy, was murdered.
    (MC, 4/7/02)

950        Nov 22, Lotharius, King of Italy (947-50), died.
    (MC, 11/22/01)

951        Sep 23, Otto I, the Great, became king of Italy.
    (MC, 9/23/01)

954        The Count of Ventimiglia ceded Seborga (in northwest Italy, twenty minutes from the Mediterranean north of Bordighera) to the monks who elected their abbot as sovereign prince.
    (SFEC, 3/30/97, p.T5)

962        Feb 2, Otto I (912-973), founder of the Holy Roman Empire, was crowned Holy Roman Emperor by Pope John XII.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Otto_I,_Holy_Roman_Emperor)(AHD, 1971, p.931)

983        Dec 7, Otto II the Red (~28), German king and emperor (973-83), died  in Italy. Otto III [aged 3] took the throne after his father's death.
    (HN, 12/7/98)(MC, 12/7/01)

995-1049?    Guido d’Arezzo, Italian monk and musical theorist. He is generally credited with developing current musical notation.
    (WUD, 1994, p.629)(WSJ, 5/27/97, pB1)

1000        In Agnone, Italy, the Fonderia Pontificia Marinelli, a bell foundry, was founded about this time.
    (SFC, 4/14/06, p.D1)

1003        The church of Maria di Criptu was built in the village of Fossa in the Grand Sassi mountains.
    (SFC, 7/26/00, Z1 p.1)

1004        The San Nilo abbey was founded atop a Roman villa in the Alban Hills.
    (SSFC, 11/10/02, p.C6)

1008        The Univ. of Bologna (Italy) was founded. It was later recognized as the oldest university in Europe.
    (Econ, 4/25/09, p.57)

1008        The earliest known water-powered wool-processing plant was operated at Ludi near Milan.
    (WSJ, 1/11/99, p.R25)

1026        Mar 23, Koenraad II (Conrad II) crowned himself king of Italy.
    (SS, 3/23/02)

1045        Richard of Aversa, a nephew of Rainulf of Aversa, came from Normandy to southern Italy in 1045 with 40 knights.
    (HNQ, 7/17/00)

1053        In Italy Richard of Aversa helped win the Battle of Civitate, inflicting a decisive defeat over the papal army.

1057        Richard of Aversa seized Capua.
    (HNQ, 7/17/00)

1059        Richard of Aversa and his brother-in-law, Robert Guiscard, met with Pope Nicholas II. The Norman chiefs swore allegiance to the Pope in return for papal recognition for their conquests, whereupon Richard was invested as prince of Capua.
    (HNQ, 7/17/00)

1065        Apr 16, The Norman Robert Guiscard took Bari, ending five centuries of Byzantine rule in southern Italy.
    (HN, 4/16/98)

1072        Jan 10, Robert Guiscard and his brother Roger took Palermo in Sicily.
    (HN, 1/10/99)

1077        Jan 28, Pope Gregory VII pardoned German emperor Henry IV at Canossa in northern Italy. Henry had insisted that he reserved the right to "invest" bishops and other clergymen, despite the papal decree, but became penitent when faced with permanent excommunication.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Walk_to_Canossa)(Econ, 5/9/09, p.88)

1083        Jun 3, Henry IV of Germany stormed Rome capturing St. Peter's Basilica.
    (MC, 6/3/02)

1091        A trading deal was made between Mahdiyah, near Tunis, and Genoa.
    (WSJ, 1/11/99, p.R50)

1094        Oct 8, St. Mark’s Basilica in Venice was dedicated. Remains believed to have belonged to St Mark, the Evangelist, were buried there.

1094        Gondoliering began in Venice as a strictly male profession.

c1100        St. Cono was born in Teggiano in southern Italy. He became a Benedictine monk and went on to perform numerous miracles. His remains were later embedded in a statue in the church of Santa Maria Maggiore.
    (WSJ, 11/10/98, p.A1)

1107-1205    Enrico Dandolo, ruler of Venice. He was blind and spearheaded the 4th Crusade. He funded an army to capture Constantinople and after the "rape of Constantinople" pocketed some of the city's riches. He stole 4 bronze horses and placed them over the entry to the Cathedral of San Marco.
    (WSJ, 1/11/99, p.R6)

1118        Seborga became the provenance of nine Knight Templars returning from the crusades.
    (SFEC, 3/30/97, p.T7)

1133        Jun 4, In Rome Pope Innocentius II crowned German King Lothair II as emperor at the Church of the Lateran.
    (MC, 6/4/02)(PCh, 1992, p.92)

1139        Apr 20, The Second Lateran Council opened in Rome.
    (HN, 4/20/98)

1141        The Barone Ricasoli family founded a wine and oil firm and produced Chianti wine.
    (WSJ, 1/11/99, p.R42)(SFC, 4/14/06, p.D1)

1144        Mar 8, Celestine II [Guido], Italian Pope (1143-44), died in battle.
    (MC, 3/8/02)

1150        The municipality of Genoa raised 400 lira by granting to investors the tax revenue raised from stallholders in the marketplace over a term of 29 years. This became the first recorded public bond.
    (Econ, 1/10/09, p.74)

1153        Mar 23, The first Treaty of Constance was signed between Frederick I "Barbarossa" and Pope Eugene III. By the terms of the treaty, the Emperor was to prevent any action by Manuel I Komnenos to reestablish the Byzantine Empire on Italian soil and to assist the pope against his enemies in revolt in Rome.

1156        The first foreign exchange contracts were issued and allowed the repayment of Genoese pounds debt with Byzantine bezants.
    (WSJ, 1/11/99, p.R42)

1158        Nov 11, Emperor Frederik I Barbarossa declared himself ruler of North Italy.
    (MC, 11/11/01)

1160        Feb 3, Emperor Frederick Barbarossa hurtled prisoners, including children, at the Italian city of Crema, forcing its surrender.
    (HN, 2/3/99)

1160        Jul 21, Peterus Lombardus, Italian theologian, bishop of Paris, died.
    (MC, 7/21/02)

1160-1216    Giovanni Lotario de' Conti, served as Pope Innocent III from 1198-1216.
    (WUD, 1994, p.733)(WSJ, 1/11/99, p.R6)

1164        Apr 20, Victor IV, [Ottaviano Montecello], Italian antipope (1159-64), died.
    (MC, 4/20/02)

1165        Nov 23, Pope Alexander III returned from exile to Rome
    (MC, 11/23/01)

1167        Dec 1, Northern Italian towns formed the Lombardi League.
    (MC, 12/1/01)

1168        Sep 20, Paschal III, [Guido di Crema], Italian anti-Pope, died.
    (MC, 9/20/01)

1173        The first stone of the Tower of Pisa was laid. It began tilting in 1174 and became known as the Leaning Tower of Pisa. Work halted for nearly a century as Pisa warred with Florence.
    (WSJ, 2/16/99, p.A1)(SSFC, 10/19/03, p.C3)

1176        May 29, Lombard League defeated Frederick Barbarossa at Battle of Legnano.
    (SC, 5/29/02)

1182        Francis of Assisi was born as Guiovanni di Bernardone (d.1226), the son of a rich Umbrian cloth merchant. He later created an Order to minister to the poor and destitute clustered in the slums outside the walled towns.
    (V.D.-H.K.p.108)(CU, 6/87)(SFC, 10/4/99, p.A21)

1190        Jun 10, Frederick I van Hohenstaufen, Barbarossa (1123-1190), king of Germany and Italy and the Holy Roman Empire, drowned crossing the Saleph River while leading an army of the Third Crusade. Frederick struggled to extend German influence throughout Europe, maneuvering both politically and militarily. He clashed with the pope, the powerful Lombards and fellow Germans among others throughout the years. He joined the Third Crusade in the Spring of 1189 in their efforts to free Jerusalem from Saladin's army
    (WUD, 1994, p.565)(HN, 6/10/98)(HNQ, 2/3/01)

1190        Emo of Friesland entered Oxford and was later remembered as Oxford’s first recorded foreign student.
    (Econ, 8/7/10, p.13)

1190        Joachim of Fiore (~1135-1202), Italian theologian and the founder of the monastic order of San Giovanni in Fiore, claimed that the papacy was the anti-Christ.
    (https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Joachim_of_Fiore)(Econ., 11/21/20, p.79)
1190        Matthaeus Platerius, a teaching physician at the School of Salerno, wrote his manuscript "Circa Instans," a Latin work on the medicinal properties of plants.
    (WSJ, 7/7/98, p.A14)

1192        Enrico Dandolo was elected doge of Venice.
    (WSJ, 1/11/99, p.R6)

1194        Dec 26, Frederick II, German Emperor (1212-1220) and King of Sicily (1198-1250), was born in Lesi, Italy. He became the Holy Roman emperor and King of Italy in 1220 and continued to 1250.

c1200-1300    A mural at Massa Marittima, Italy, dating to the 13th century, depicts a spidery tree with 25 penises and testicles hanging in the branches. "It's a message from the Guelphs, telling people that if the Ghibellines are allowed power they will bring with them heresy, sexual perversion, civic strife and witchcraft."
    (Reuters, 12/7/04)
1200-1300    Rival Italian political factions and families collided in the 13th century at Montaperti, the "hill of death."
    (HN, 5/14/98)

1202        The Hindu-Arabic numbering system was introduced to the West by the Italian mathematician Fibonacci (Leonardo of Pisa). The Fibonacci series is a sequence of numbers where each new number is the sum of the previous two.
    (WSJ, 10/21/96, p.A18)(WSJ, 12/9/96, p.B8)(Econ, 5/15/04, p.80)

1202        Assisi fought against Perugia in the Battle of Collestrada. St. Francis faced his first test in life as a soldier in this battle.
    (SSFC, 3/25/01, BR p.6)

1208        Feb 24, Francis of Assisi (26) decided to become a priest in Portiuncula, Italy.
    (MC, 2/24/02)

1211        St. Francis reportedly landed on the Isola Maggiore, an island on Lake Trasimeno.
    (SFEM, 10/12/97, p.48)

1212        Aug 25, Children's crusaders under Nicolas (10) reached Genoa.
    (MC, 8/25/02)

1220        Nov 22, After promising to go to the aid of the Fifth Crusade within nine months, Hohenstaufen King Frederick II was crowned Holy Roman Emperor and King of Italy by Pope Honorius III.

1221        Aug 6, St. Dominic, Italian founder of the Dominicans religious order, died.
    (MC, 8/6/02)

1221        Sep, Rambertino di Guido Buvalelli (b.~1170/1180), a Bolognese judge, statesman, diplomat, and poet, died. He was the earliest of the podestà-troubadours of thirteenth-century Lombardy. He served at one time or other as podestà of Brescia, Milan, Parma, Mantua, Genoa, and Verona. Ten of his Occitan poems survive, but none with an accompanying melody. He is usually regarded as the first native Italian troubadour, though Cossezen and Peire de la Caravana may precede him. His reputation has secured a street named in his honor in his birthplace: the Via Buvalelli Rambertino in Bologna.

1222        A group of professors broke free from the Univ. of Bologna, under the control of the Catholic Church, and created the Univ. of Padua, independent of Catholic constraints.
    (SSFC, 3/25/07, p.G3)

1223        Dec 25, St. Francis of Assisi assembled one of the first Nativity scenes, in Greccio, Italy.
    (AP, 12/25/97)

c1224/25-1274    Thomas Aquinas born in Aquino between Rome and Naples. He was a pupil of the Benedictines in the monastery of Monte Cassino. After nine years Emperor Frederic II temporarily disbanded the monks at Cassino and Thomas went to Naples to study and joined the Dominicans. He tried to reconcile theology with the emerging economic conditions of his time.
    (V.D.-H.K.p.119)(NH, 10/98, p.4)(WSJ, 1/11/99, p.R20)

1226        Oct 3, St. Francis of Assisi (b.1182), founder of the Franciscan order, died; he was canonized in 1228 and entombed in the St. Francis Basilica in 1230. In 2001 Adrian House authored "Francis of Assisi: A Revolutionary Life;" Valerie Martin authored "Salvation: Scenes From the Life of St. Francis."
    (AP, 10/3/97)(SFEC, 7/25/99, DB p.32)(SSFC, 3/25/01, BR p.1,6)

1228        The Basilica di San Francesco was constructed in Assisi, Italy.
    (WSJ, 3/25/99, p.A24)

1242        The city wall of Montagnana were built.
    (AMNHDT, 5/98)

1252        Apr 6, Peter of Verona (45), [Peter Martyr], Italian inquisitor died.
    (MC, 4/6/02)

c1255        Duccio di Buoninsegna (d.1319), Sienese painter, was born.
    (Econ, 1/17/04, p.75)

1259        Sep 27, Ezzeline III da Romano, gentleman of Verona, "cruel monster", died.
    (MC, 9/27/01)

1260        Sep 4, At the Battle of Montaperto in Italy, the Tuscan Ghibellines, who supported the emperor, defeated the Florentine Guelfs, who supported papal power.
    (HN, 9/4/98)

1260-1348    Siena flourished as a center for banking, trading, art and a university center.
    (SFEC, 6/29/97, p.T11)

1260-1390    Carbon-14 dating techniques in 1988 determined that the cloth of the Shroud of Turin dated to this period. E.T. Hall (d.2001 at 77) of Oxford Univ. led the testing, which was later held in question. In 1978 Walter C. McCrone (d.2002), chemical analyst, determined that the image was painted on the cloth some 1300 years after the crucifixion of Christ.
    (SFEC, 2/1/98, p.A24)(SFC, 8/22/01, p.D2)(SFC, 7/29/02, p.B5)(www.tqnyc.org/NYC063363/)

1265        May 9, Dante Alighieri, Italian poet (Divine Comedy), was born.
    (WUD, 1994 p.367)(MC, 5/9/02)

1260-1555    In 2004 Diana Norman covered this period in her book: "Painting in the Late Medieval and Renaissance Siena."
    (Econ, 1/17/04, p.75)

1267        Nov 26, Gozzolini Silvester, Italian hermit and Saint, died.
    (MC, 11/26/01)

1267        Giotto (d.1337), Italian painter, was born about this time.
    (V.D.-H.K.p.128)(WSJ, 11/113/00, p.A24)(www.mediacult.com/art/giotto/chrono.html)

1268        Oct 19, Konradin von Hohenstaufen, duke of Zwaben, was beheaded. [see Oct 20]
    (MC, 10/19/01)

1268        Oct 20, Konradijn Hohenstaufen, son of Koenraad IV, was beheaded in Naples. [see Oct 19]
    (MC, 10/20/01)

1272        Apr 17, Zita (Cita), Italian maid, saint, died at about age 59.
    (MC, 4/17/02)

1272         Forces of the King of Naples occupied Durrës and established the Kingdom of Arbëria, the first Albanian kingdom since the fall of Illyria.
    (www, Albania, 1998)

1274        Mar 7, Thomas Aquinas (48), Italian theologian, saint, died.
    (MC, 3/7/02)

1275        The Carta Pisana, the earliest known portolan chart, appeared about this time. Portolan charts are navigational maps based on realistic descriptions of harbors and coasts.
    (SSFC, 5/23/10, p.A15)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Portolan_chart)

1278        Work resumed on the Leaning Tower of Pisa, whose tilt had shifted from north to south. By 1995 it was 5.5 degrees off plumb.
    (SSFC, 10/19/03, p.C3)

1278-1477    In 2004 Tim Hyman covered this period in his book: "Sienese Painting: "The Art of a City-Republic."
    (Econ, 1/17/04, p.75)

1280        About this time someone near Pisa, Italy, riveted 2 small magnifying lenses to form the 1st optical device that could be worn on the bridge of the nose.
    (WSJ, 4/6/06, p.A12)(www.antiquespectacles.com)

1282        Apr 28, Villagers in Palermo led a revolt against French rule in Sicily.
    (HN, 4/28/98)

1291        A law made by the Doge ordered that all glass furnaces be moved from Venice to Murano.

1294        In Bologna two-thirds of the citizens were listed as guild members or their relatives.
    (WSJ, 1/11/99, p.R25)

1295        Trieste became a Free Imperial City.

1295        Jacobellus Barovier, founder of a glass-making family, was born. His sons, Antonio and Bartolomeo in 1348 registered as "fioliare" (glassmakers) in Murano, across the lagoon from Venice, Italy. The Barovier firm merged with the Murano-based Toso firm in the 1930s.
    (www.henokiens.com/index_barovier_gb.php)(www.artglas.org/html/body_barovier.html)(Econ, 11/24/07, p.73)

1296        Marco Polo was probably captured by the Genoans in a skirmish off the Anatolian coast between Adana and the Gulf of Alexandretta. While in prison he narrated his travels to master Rustigielo (Rustichello), a citizen of Pisa.
    (https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Marco_Polo)(Econ., 5/23/20, p.74)

1300-1400    Boldrino, mercenary and chief troublemaker, made his home in Panicale. Several towns paid him a salary just to stay away.
    (SFEM, 10/12/97, p.49)
1300-1400    A family in Deruta, Italy, began producing majolica pottery. In 2008 the Grazia majolica factory was the 13th oldest family business in the world.
    (SFC, 3/5/08, p.G5)

1300-c1700    The period of the Renaissance. The 1998 book "The Scholar in His Study: Ownership and Experience in Renaissance Italy" by Dora Thornton covered this period. In 1970 Prof. Charles Trinkaus authored the 2-volume work "In Our Image and Likeness: Humanity and Divinity in Italian Humanist Thought." In 1985 Claude Palisca (d.2001) authored "Humanism in Italian Renaissance Musical Thought."
    (SFEC, 2/15/98, BR p.8)(SFC, 9/27/99, p.A26)(SFC, 1/23/01, p.C2)

1302        Jan 27, Dante became a Florentine political exile.
    (MC, 1/27/02)

1303        Enrico Scrovegni’s Padova (Padua) Chapel, begun in 1300, was completed. Giotto began painting a fresco cycle there with scenes from the Old and New Testaments. The decorations were completed in 1305.
    (SFC,11/18/97, p.E7)(http://tinyurl.com/ylnhxa)

1304        Jul 20, Francisco Petrarch (d.1374), Italian poet and scholar, founder of Renaissance Humanism, was born in Arezzo. He was educated at Avignon and saw himself as a Florentine, Italian, and man of the world. He was a poet and autodidact who never stopped studying until his death.
    (V.D.-H.K.p.131)(HN, 7/20/98)

1305        Giotto (1267-1337) finished a cycle of frescoes, telling the story of Jesus and Mary, inside Enrico Scrovegni’s new chapel in Padua.
    (SFC, 11/17/01, p.D4)(WSJ, 11/18/06, p.P16)

1308-1708    The Gonzagas ruled over Mantua, Italy.
    (WSJ, 10/10/02, p.D10)

1317        Apr 20, Agnes van Montepulciano, Italian mystic, saint, died.
    (MC, 4/20/02)

1321        Sep 14, Dante Alighieri, author of the "Divine Comedy," died of malaria just hours after finishing writing "Paradiso." The poem was completed in Italian rather than Latin. It helped make Italian the dominant linguistic force in European literature for the next few centuries. In 2006 Barbara Reynolds authored “Dante: The Poet, the Political Thinker, the Man."
    (www.newadvent.org/cathen/04628a.htm)(WSJ, 3/26/99, p.W2)(Econ, 12/2/06, p.84)

1324        Jan 8, Marco Polo, Venetian explorer, governor of Nanking, died.
    (MC, 1/8/02)

1324        Feb 26, Dino Compagni, Italian silk seller, poet, chronicler, died.
    (SC, 2/26/02)

1328        A monastery and church of St. Francis was built on the Isola Maggiore. In the 19th century it was converted into a castle by a Marquis for his wife Isabella.
    (SFEM, 10/12/97, p.48)

1333        Nov 4, In Florence, Italy, the Arno River flooded causing some 3,000 deaths.
    (Econ, 11/1/08, p.97)

1337        Jan 8, Giotto (b.c.1267), Italian artist, died. His frescoes showed a new realism and vitality. Art historians later held that the Renaissance dawned in Florence with Giotto's paintings. He cracked the formal stylization of Byzantine painting and reinvented the ancient art of creating depth on a flat surface. In 2000 art historians found evidence that Pietro Cavallini re-introduced depth in his paintings in Rome around 1190.
    (V.D.-H.K.p.128)(WSJ, 11/113/00, p.A24)(www.mediacult.com/art/giotto/chrono.html)

1339        King Edward III of England repudiated his debt to Florentine bankers.
    (Econ, 1/24/09, p.79)

1340        Double-entry bookkeeping was invented in Italy about this time. [see 1458]
    (WSJ, 11/10/99, p.A20)

1341        Apr 8, Francesco Petrarch was crowned poet laureate on the Capitol in Rome. He had arranged two invitations to be crowned, one in Paris and the other in Rome (1340-1341). He chose Rome.
    (V.D.-H.K.p.131)(MC, 4/8/02)

1347        May 20, Cola di Rienzo took the title of tribune in Rome.
    (HN, 5/20/98)

1347        Oct, Sailors from Genoa arrived in Messina, Sicily. Plague had broken out earlier among the troops of the Kipchak Khan, who was besieging the Black Sea port of Kaffa. He catapulted dead bodies over the city walls. When Italian trading vessels in the harbor returned to Genoa, the carried the plague to Europe. The plague, an infectious fever caused by the bacillus Yersinia pestis, appears in several varieties: bubonic (which involves swelling of the lymph glands), pneumonic (which involves the lungs) and septicemia (which involves severe infection in the bloodstream).
    (SFEM, 10/12/97, p.31)(HNQ, 1/20/01)(SSFC, 3/6/05, p.B4)

1347        Nov 20, Roman tribune Cola di Rienzi defeated nobles. Stefano Colonna, Roman senator, died in battle (SPQR).
    (MC, 11/20/01)

1347-1350    The Black Death: A Genoese trading post in the Crimea was besieged by an army of Kipchaks from Hungary and Mongols from the East. The latter brought with them a new form of plague, Yersinia pestis. Infected dead bodies were catapulted into the Genoese town. One Genoese ship managed to escape and brought the disease to Messina, Sicily. The disease quickly became an epidemic. It moved over the next few years to northern Italy, North Africa, France, Spain, Austria, Hungary, Switzerland, Germany, the Low countries, England, Scandinavia and the Baltic. There were lesser outbreaks in many cities for the next twenty years. An estimated 25 million died in Europe and economic depression followed. In 2005 John Kelly authored “The Great Mortality: An Intimate History of the Black Death, the Most Devastating Plague of All Time."
    (NG, 5/88, p.678)(WSJ, 1/11/99, p.R42)(SSFC, 3/6/05, p.B1)(SFC, 10/13/11, p.A6)

1348        Jun 9, Ambrogio Lorenzetti (b.1290), Italian painter of the Sienese school, died. His work included the 3 murals titled “War," “Peace" and “Good Government," in the Chamber of Peace of Siena’s town hall.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ambrogio_Lorenzetti)(WSJ, 12/1/07, p.W14)(Econ, 7/10/10, p.80)

1348        The population of Siena, Italy, dropped from 97,000 to 45,000 in a few months due to the Black Plague. Bernardo Tolomei, nearly blind founder of the Benedictine Congregation of Santa Maria di Monte Oliveto in the 1340s, died along with 82 of his monks after leaving the safety of his monastery to tend to plague victims in Siena. In 2009 the Vatican declared him a saint.
    (SSFC, 3/6/05, p.B1)(AP, 4/26/09)
1348        In Istanbul Genoese merchants rebuilt an old wooden lighthouse that dated from the 6th century. The Galata Tower was rebuilt in stone.
    (Econ, 4/7/12, p.81)

1349        L'Aquila in central Italy was devastated by an earthquake.
    (Econ, 10/27/12, p.80)

1350        The leaning tower of Pisa was constructed. [see 1173]
    (SFC, 8/13/98, p.C5)

1363         In Italy a portrait of St. Ambrose was believed to have been created by Giusto de' Menabuoi. In 2018 it was stolen from the National Pinacoteca of Bologna. The thief was soon identified and three stolen paintings were recovered.
    (AP, 5/4/18)

1366        Oct 12, King Frederick III of Sicily forbade decorations on synagogues.
    (MC, 10/12/01)

1369        The goldsmith firm of Torrini Firenze was founded in Florence, Italy.
    (SFC, 4/14/06, p.D1)

1369-1424    Muzio Sforza, father of Francesco, Italian condotierre (leader of a private band of mercenary soldiers).
    (WUD, 1994, p.1308)

1374        Jul 18, Francesco Petrarch (69), Italian poet (Italia Mia), died.
    (SSFC, 7/25/04, p.E3)

1375        Dec 21, Giovanni Boccaccio, Italian poet (Vita di Dante), died at his home in Certaldo.
    (V.D.-H.K.p.133)(MC, 12/21/01)

c1375-1400    The Castello Sforzesco in Milan was partly designed by Leonardo da Vinci. It later became home to Milan’s Municipal Art Museums.
    (SFEC, 7/13/97, p.T11)

1377        Feb 3, There was a mass execution of population of Cesena, Italy.
    (MC, 2/3/02)

c1377-1446    Filippo Brunelleschi, Italian architect. He designed the dome of the Florence Cathedral.
    (WUD, 1994, p.190)(WSJ, 6/6/96, p.A12)

1380        Feb 11, Gianfrancesco Poggio Bracciolini, Italian humanist, was born.
    (MC, 2/11/02)

1380        Jul 24, Giovanni da Capistrano, Italian monk, was born. He liberated Belgrade from the Turks and was later canonized a saint as San Juan de Capistrano. His name was applied to the southern California mission, best known for its annual convocation of swallows.
    (MC, 7/24/02)

1380        Sep 8, Bernardinus of Siena, Italian saint, was born.
    (MC, 9/8/01)

1382        Mar 15, Conservative "Popolo Grasso" regained power in Florence, Italy.
    (MC, 3/15/02)

c1383-c1436    Masolino, Italian artist. He worked with Masaccio on "Saints Jerome and John the Baptist," part of an altarpiece for Santa Maria Maggiore, Rome.
    (WSJ, 9/27/01, p.A16)

1385        In Italy Giovanni di Pietro Antinori branched from his family’s lucrative silk and wool business to join the Florentine wine makers guild. By 2008 the family business had vineyards in Hungary, Chile and California’s Napa Valley.
    (SFC, 4/14/06, p.D1)(WSJ, 4/5/08, p.A6)

1386        The Duomo Cathedral was begun in Milan. The Milanese boast that it took 500 years to build.
    (SFEC, 7/13/97, p.T11)

1387        The Italian painter Fra Angelico (d.1455), Giovanni da Fiesole, was born about this time. His work included the "Annunciation." The 1997 book "Fra Angelico" by John T. Spike was hailed as the art book of the year.
    (WUD, 1994, p.57)(SFEC,12/797, Par p.6)

1390        Jul 1, A French and Genovese armada sailed out against Barbary pirates.
    (MC, 7/1/02)

1394        Mar 17, Sir John Hawkwood (b.~1323), English soldier who served as a mercenary leader or condottiero in Italy, died at his home in Florence.

1397-1475    Paolo Uccello, Italian painter. He painted battle scenes whose tilting spears put linear perspective to dazzling use.
    (WUD, 1994, p.1534)(WSJ, 6/6/96, p.A12)

1400-1500    Antonello da Messina brought the technique of oil painting from Flanders to Italy.
    (SFEC, 12/26/99, p.C17)

1401-1428    Tomasso di Giovanni, artist, also known as Masaccio. His only know documented work is the Pisa altarpiece of 1426.
    (WSJ, 9/27/01, p.A16)

1401-1466    Francesco Sforza, Italian condotierre and duke of Milan (1450-1466).
    (WUD, 1994, p.1308)

1401        In Florence Filippo Brunelleschi and Lorenzo Ghiberti entered a competition to create a set of new bronze doors for the baptistery of the cathedral.
    (Econ, 3/30/13, p.83)

1402        Sep 3, Gian Galeazzo Visconti, duke and tyrant of Milan (1395-1402), died at 51.
    (MC, 9/3/01)

1404        Feb 18, Leon Battista Alberti (d.1472), Italian humanist, architect (Della Pittura), was born in Genoa, the illegitimate son of a Florentine merchant.
    (WSJ, 11/30/00, p.A20)(MC, 2/18/02)

1406        The Signoria of Florence decreed that the city’s 12 guilds had 10 years to fulfill their obligations to decorate an exterior niche of the Orsanmichele guild center.
    (WSJ, 12/22/05, p.D8)

1407        Genoa established a private bank to consolidate its debts and called it the Bank of Saint George. It also operated as a giro bank with direct transfer between accounts without checks, and stayed in business for 400 years.
    (Econ, 1/10/09, p.74)(www.investopedia.com/terms/b/bankgirotransfer.asp)

1416        Nanni di Banco, guild member of the Masters of Stone and Wood, installed his “Four Crowned Martyr Saints" at the Orsanmichele guild center in Florence.
    (WSJ, 12/22/05, p.D8)

1417        Donatello used central point perspective in his scene of St. George fighting the dragon.
    (Econ, 3/30/13, p.83)

1418        In Florence Brunelleschi and Ghiberti submitted plans for the dome of the Cathedral of St. Mary of the Flower. The cathedral had been under construction for 125 years and was designed to be capped by the largest dome since the golden age of ancient Rome.
    (ON, 9/00, p.6)

1419        The marble Fonte Gaia in Siena was sculpted by Jacopo della Quercia.
    (WSJ, 4/29/03, D5)

1420        In Florence construction for the dome of the Cathedral of St. Mary of the Flower began with Brunelleschi and Ghiberti as co-architects.
    (ON, 9/00, p.8)

1420        Siennese artist Giovanni di Paolo painted a tiny gold-ground triptych.
    (SFEC, 1/11/98, p.D7)

1421        The Republic of Florence passed a law giving Brunelleschi what is thought to be the first true patent of an invention. The first recorded patent was granted for a barge with hoisting gear used to transport marble.
    (http://tinyurl.com/c3teab)(WSJ, 1/11/99, p.R14)

1423        Ghiberti’s sculpture of St. Matthew was installed at the Orsanmichele guild center in Florence.
    (WSJ, 12/22/05, p.D8)

1424        Masolino sculpted his Pieta.
    (WSJ, 1/20/02, p.D8)

1425        Donatello created his hollow bronze statue of St. Louis of Toulouse.
    (Econ, 3/30/13, p.83)

1427        Gentile De Fabriano (b.~1378), Italian painter, died about this time. His work included “The Adoration of the Kings" (1423).
    (WSJ, 12/19/08, p.W9A)( http://www.newadvent.org/cathen/06421a.htm)

1428        Fra Angelico (c.1387-1455), Italian painter and Dominican friar, created his “Madonna of Humility."
    (Econ, 12/17/11, p.148)

1431-1503    Rodrigo Borgia Lanzol, member of the Borgia family. He was elected Pope Alexander VI in 1492 and amassed a fortune by pocketing church funds. His reign helped inspire the Protestant reformation. He fathered numerous children including Lucrezia Borgia. Machiavelli based "The Prince" on him.
    (WSJ, 1/11/99, p.R8)(PTA, 1980, 424)

1431        Andrea Mantegna (d.1506), Italian painter and engraver, was born.
    (WUD, 1994, p.1534)(WSJ, 6/6/96, p.A12)(SFEC, 7/13/97, p.T11)

1436        The 350-foot high dome of Santa Maria del Fiore, the cathedral of Florence, by Filippo Brunelleschi was completed. The cathedral was consecrated by the Pope following 140 years of construction. In 2000 Ross King authored "Brunelleschi’s Dome: How a Renaissance Genius Reinvented Architecture."
    (Hem., 10/97, p.130)(SSFC, 12/24/00, BR p.12)

1438        Oct 20, Jacopo di Piero della Quercia (64), Italian sculptor, died.
    (MC, 10/20/01)

1438        Filippo Lippi created the painting "Woman with a Man at a Window."
    (WSJ, 12/14/01, p.W20)

1438        The shipbuilding firm of Camuffo was founded in Portogruaro, Italy.
    (SFC, 4/14/06, p.D1)

1439        Oct 21, Traversari Ambrosius (53), Italian humanist and leader, died.
    (MC, 10/21/01)

1439-1440    Donatello (1386-1466), Florentine artist, completed his bronze statue of David about this time. It was commissioned by Cosimo de Medici.
    (WSJ, 1/11/99, p.R53)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/David_%28Donatello%29)

1440        Jun 29, Florentine troops fought the Milanese in the Battle of Anghiari. After the battle of Anghiari, Andrea del Castagno (1421-1457), a Medici protege, painted effigies of the hanged rebels.

1442        Jun 12, Alfonso V of Aragon was crowned King of Naples.
    (HN, 6/12/98)

1442        The Pazzi Chapel in Florence was begun. Its design was suspected to be by Michelozzo di Bortalommeo, a follower of Brunelleschi.
    (SFC, 1/2/97, p.C3)

1443        May 9, Niccolo d'Albergati, Italian cardinal, died.
    (MC, 5/9/02)

1443        Dec 5, Giuliano della Rovere, later Pope Julius II (1443-1513), was born in Liguria.

1444        May 20, Bernardinus van Siena (63), Italian saint, died.
    (MC, 5/20/02)

1445-1510    Sandro Botticelli, Italian painter, was born in Florence as Alessandro di Mariano Filipepi. His work included "The Birth of Venus" "Madonna of the Eucharist" (c1472-1475) and "Portrait of a Man with a Medal." His work "Venus and Mars" is at the London National Gallery. He belongs to the era of the Quattro cento, when artists were still struggling to break free of the rigid outlines of the Middle Ages. His solution was the use of curved lines. Vasari later claimed that Botticelli was a follower of Savonarola, the religious zealot.
    (AAP, 1964)(WUD, 1994, p.173)(WSJ, 2/5/97, p.A16)(SFEC, 2/1/98, p.T8)

1446        Apr 16, Filippo Brunelleschi (69), architect, sculptor and goldsmith, died and was buried in the Cathedral of St. Mary of the Flower in Florence. In the 1490s Antonio di Tuccio Manetti authored "The Life of Brunelleschi." In 1974 Isabelle Hyman authored "Brunelleschi in Perspective."
    (ON, 9/00, p.8)(MC, 4/16/02)

1446-1523    The Italian painter Perugino, born as Pietro di Cristoforo di Vannucci, was a student of Pierro della Francesca (d.1492) and Andrea Verrocchio. He won a papal commission for frescoes on the sidewalls of the Sistine Chapel along with Botticelli and Ghirlandaio. His work included the late weird allegory "The Combat Between Love and Chastity."
    (WSJ, 1/6/98, p.16)

1446-1524    Il Perugino (Pietro Vannucci), painter, worked in Umbria and died of the plague. His work includes: "The Baptism," "Mary in Glory," "Adoration of the Magi," Martyrdom of St. Sebastian," " Madonna and Child," and "The Virgin in Glory."
    (WUD, 1994, p.1076)(SFEM, 10/12/97, p.49)

1449        Jan 1, Lorenzo de Medici (d.1492), later know as Lorenzo the Magnificent, was born in Florence.

1449        Rodrigo Borgia Lanzol (b.1431), father of Cesare and Lucretia, arrived in Rome from Spain and Italianized his name from Borja to Borgia. His rise in the church was helped a great deal when his uncle became Pope Calixtus III.
    (HN, 8/10/98)(PTA, p.424)(WSJ, 1/11/99, p.R4)(MC, 8/11/02)

1450        Oct 23, Juan de Capistrano (70), Italian saint, died.
    (MC, 10/23/01)

1451        Mar 9, Amerigo Vespucci (d.1512), Italian navigator, was born in Florence.

1452        Apr 15, Leonardo da Vinci (d.1519), Italian painter, sculptor, scientist and visionary, was born in Vinci near Florence. He apprenticed to the painters Verrocchio and Antonio Pollaiuolo and was accepted to the Florentine painters' guild at twenty. Only seventeen surviving paintings can be attributed to him. These include: "The Last Supper" in Milan, the "Mona Lisa" and "The Virgin and Child with St. Anne" in the Louvre. He tried to express his immense knowledge of the world by simply looking at things. The secret he said was "saper vedere," to know how to see. His final "Visions of the End of the World" was a sketchbook in which he tried to depict his sense of the forces of nature, which in his imagination he conceived of as possessing a unity that no one had ever seen before. His use of a smoky atmosphere (sfumato) helped create an impression of lifelikeness.
    (V.D.-H.K.p.137)(WSJ, 2/5/97, p.A16)(HN, 4/15/98)

1452        Jul 27, Ludovico Sforza (Ludovico il Moro, "The Moor," d.1508), Italian duke of Milan (1494-1500), was born. He was the second son of Francesco Sforza, and was famed as patron of Leonardo da Vinci and other artists.

1452        Sep 21, Girolamo Savonarola (d.1498), was born in Ferrara. He became a Dominican monk, reformer, dictator of Florence (1494-98) and martyr. He was best known for his bonfires of the vanities in which corrupt books and images were set alight.
    (Hem.,4/97,p.53)(WUD, 1994, p.1272,1672)(WSJ, 7/10/98, p.W11)(MC, 9/21/01)

1452        The first pawn lender was founded in Perugia (Italy) by Franciscan monks to combat usury.
    (Econ, 5/27/06, p.73)

1453        Piero della Francesca (1415/1420-1492) began work on the "Legenda della Vera Croce" (The Legend of the True Cross) at the church of San Francesco in Arezzo. He was commissioned by the Bacci family of Arezzo to complete the work begun by Bicci de Lorenzo.
    (WSJ, 6/02/97, p.A20)(WSJ, 2/2/08, p.W14)

1453        Agrippa’s Aqua Virgo was resuscitated as the Aqua Vergine Antica.
    (SFEC, 7/2/00, p.T4)

1454        Apr 9, The city states of Venice, Milan and Florence signed a peace agreement at Lodi, Italy.
    (HN, 4/9/99)

1455        Mar 18, Fra Angelico, Italian monk and Renaissance painter born around 1387 as Guido di Pietro, died. Fra Angelico gained a reputation as a painter under that name before joining the Dominicans in the 1420s. However, much of the influence found in his work is thought to come from Dominican teachings. He stayed at Dominican monasteries in Florence for most of his life doing a variety of religious painting until being called to Rome in 1445 by Pope Eugene IV, where he completed several chapel frescoes. Returning to Florence in the early 1450s, he died on a return visit to Rome in 1455 and is entombed at the church of Santa Maria della Minerva. In 1984 Fra Angelico was beatified by Pope John Paul II.
    (HNQ, 3/6/01)(http://gallery.euroweb.hu/bio/a/angelico/biograph.html)(WSJ, 11/9/05, p.D16)

1455        Dec 1, Lorenzo Ghiberti (77), Italian sculptor, died.
    (MC, 12/1/01)

1456-1496    Ercole de' Roberti, Italian artist. He was the predecessor to Dosso Dossi at the Ferrara court.
    (SFC, 4/27/99, p.C1)

1456        Dec 5, Earthquake struck Naples and 35,000 died.
    (MC, 12/5/01)

1458        Jun 27, Alfonso V of Aragon died. Ferdinand I succeeded to the throne of Naples, but Pope Calixtus III declared the line of Aragon extinct and the kingdom a fief of the church.

1458        Filippino Lippi, painter, was born. His father was the Carmelite friar Fra Filippo and his mother was a nun. His work includes the drawing "Kneeling Male Saint," and the color painting "Male Saint Holding the Body of the Dead Christ." One of his students was Raffaellino del Garbo.
    (WSJ, 12/3/97, p.A20)

1458        Benedetto Cotrugli published the first known work on double-entry bookkeeping. It was invented in Italy around 1340.
    (WSJ, 1/11/99, p.R55)(WSJ, 11/10/99, p.A20)

1459        May 2, Pierozzi Antoninus, Italian archbishop of Florence, saint, died.
    (MC, 5/2/02)

1460s        Benozzo Gozzoli, a pupil of Fra Angelico, painted a portrait of Christ titled "The Holy Face."
    (SFEC, 8/8/99, p.D7)

1461        L'Aquila in central Italy was again devastated by an earthquake.
    (Econ, 10/27/12, p.80)

1462-1464    Piero della Francesca, Italian artist, painted “The Resurrection" about this time.
    (WSJ, 12/17/05, p.P14)

1463        Oct 29, Alessandro Achillini, Italian physician and philosopher, was born.
    (MC, 10/29/01)

1464        Desiderio da Settignano (b.~1439), Renaissance sculptor, died in Florence.
    (WSJ, 9/11/07, p.D6)

1466        Mar 8, Francesco Sforza (b.1401), Italian condottiere, duke of Milan, died. He was the founder of the Sforza dynasty in Milan, Italy, and the brother of Alessandro, with whom he often fought.

1466        Nov 30, Andrea Doria, Genoese statesman and admiral, was born.
    (MC, 11/30/01)

1468        Dec 3, Lorenzo the Magnificent and his brother Giuliano succeeded their father, Piero de Medici, as rulers of Florence, Italy.
    (HN, 12/3/98)

1469                May 3, Nicolo Machiavelli (d.1527), political advisor and author, was born. He was a historian and author of "The Prince." He saw in Cesare Borgia, the bastard son of Pope Alexander VI, the prospect of an Italy free of foreign control. "Men are more apt to be mistaken in their generalizations than in their particular observations."
    (V.D.-H.K.p.109)(AP, 11/15/98)(HN, 5/3/99)

1469        May 19, Giovanni della Robbia, Italian sculptor, was born.
    (MC, 5/19/02)

1469        Fra Filippo Lippi, a Carmelite friar and painter and father of Filippino Lippi, died. Sandro Botticelli was one of his students.
    (WSJ, 12/3/97, p.A20)

1470        The earliest documented work by Botticelli was made. "Fortitude" was an allegory portraying a woman who embodies the virtue of inner strength.
    (SFC, 6/20/97, p.A9)

1471        Nicolo Perotti (1430-1480), Italian humanist scholar, complained: “Now that anyone is free to print whatever they wish, they often disregard that which is best and instead write, merely for the sake of entertainment, what would best be forgotten, or better still, be erased from all books."
    (http://tinyurl.com/lehgso2)(Econ, 10/11/14, p.55)

1472        Mar 28, Fra Bartolommeo (d.1517), Florentine Renaissance painter, was born.

1472        Apr 15, Leon Battista Alberti (b.1404), Italian humanist, architect (Philodoxis), died. He wrote the 1st Italian grammar, the 1st theory of painting as an art, and the treatise "On the Art of Building." In 1970 Joan Gadol authored a biography. In 2000 Anthony Grafton authored the biography "Leon Battista Alberti."
    (WSJ, 11/30/00, p.A20)(MC, 4/15/02)

1472        In Siena the Monte dei Paschi began taking deposits and making loans to the poor at better rates than the moneylenders. As of 2009 this was the oldest existing bank. Clerical groups had already established "monti di pieta" (mounds of money for charity). In Siena the original capital came from taxes.
    (WSJ, 1/11/99, p.R48)(Econ, 11/3/07, p.101)(Econ, 1/10/09, p.74)

1473        Aug 5, Leonardo da Vinci (21) made his detailed drawing “Landscape drawing for Santa Maria Della Nave." This was later recognized as his earliest known drawing.
    (SFC, 8/5/16, p.A2)

1473        Lorenzo de Medici, Italian banker and poet, wrote: "It is hard to live in Florence if you do not control the state."
    (WSJ, 1/19/04, p.A12)

1474        Mar 21, Angela Merici, Italian monastery founder, saint, was born.
    (MC, 3/21/02)

1474        Sep 8, Ludovico Ariosto, Italy, poet (Orlando Furioso), was born.
    (MC, 9/8/01)

1474        Neroccio di Bartolomeo created his wooden statue of a youthful St. Catherine that was set in the Oratorio de Santa Caterina of Siena.
    (Econ, 11/3/07, p.101)

c1474        Ercole de' Roberti, Italian artist, painted "St. Jerome in the Wilderness."
    (SFC, 4/27/99, p.C1)

1474        By this year Venice passed a patent statute that included many of the elements of modern patent laws.

c1474-1478    Leonardo da Vinci created his portrait "Ginevra de Benci."
    (WSJ, 12/14/01, p.W20)

1475        Mar 6, Michelangelo di Ludovico di Buonarroti Simoni (d.1564), painter, sculptor and architect, was born. His early mentor was Bertoldo di Giovanni, a pupil of Donatello. His work included "The Creation of Adam" and the "Pieta Rondanini." He at one time proposed to sculpt the 5,000 foot Monte Sagro in Carrara into the statue of a giant.
    (WUB, 1994, p. 904)(WSJ, 2/29/96, p.A-14)(AAP, 1964) (SFEC, 7/13/97, p.T11)(SFEC,10/19/97, p.T4)(HN, 3/6/98)

1476        Apr 26, Simonetta Vespucci (b.~1453), nicknamed la bella Simonetta, died. She was an Italian Renaissance noblewoman from Genoa, the wife of Marco Vespucci of Florence. She also is alleged to have been the mistress of Giuliano de' Medici, Lorenzo the Magnificent's younger brother. She was renowned for being the greatest beauty of her age - certainly of the city of Florence.

1476        Dec 26, Galeazzo Maria Sforza (Il Sforza del Destino), duke of Milan, was murdered.
    (MC, 12/26/01)

1476-1507    Cesare Borgia, Italian cardinal, military leader and politician.
    (WUD, 1994, p.171)

1477-1576    Titian (Titziano Vecellio), Italian painter. He painted "Venus and Adonis and Allegory" with subjects Alfonso d’Este and Laura Diante.
    (AAP, 1964)(WUD, 1994, p.1488)

1478        Apr 26, Pazzi conspirators attacked Lorenzo and killed Giuliano de'Medici.
    (HN, 4/26/98)

1478        Sandro Botticelli (1445-1510) painted "La Primavera" about this time.
    (WSJ, 4/14/07, p.P11)

c1478        Giorgione (d.1510), Italian painter, was born.
    (T&L, 10/80, p. 58)(WSJ, 12/4/97, p.A20)

1478-1529    Baldassare Castiglione, Italian diplomat and author. He wrote the "Book of the Courtier," in which the term sprezzatura was coined. It described the art of making the difficult seem effortless.
    (WUD, 1994, p.230)(WSJ, 8/22/97, p.A12)

1480        Feb 13, Hieronymus Alexander, [Gir¢lamo Aleandro], Italian diplomat, cardinal, was born.
    (MC, 2/13/02)

1480        Apr 18, Lucretia Borgia (d.1519), murderess, was born. Lucrezia Borgia, Dutchess of Ferrara, was the daughter of Pope Alexander VI, and the sister and political pawn of Cesare Borgia. She was also considered a patroness of the arts.
    (HN, 4/18/98)(WUD, 1994, p.171)

1480        Sandro Botticelli painted "The Birth of Venus."
    (WSJ, 2/5/97, p.A16)

1480        In Italy 813 people were slain in Otranto for defying demands by Turkish invaders to renounce Christianity. In 2013 the "Martyrs of Otranto" were canonized as saints by Pope Francis.
    (AP, 5/12/13)

1480-1557    Lorenzo Lotto, Italian painter, celebrated as a realist and a man of religious fervor.
    (WSJ, 1/15/98, p.A17)

1481        Sandro Botticelli painted "The Annunciation."
    (SFC, 10/7/03, p.D8)

1482        May 15, Paolo Toscanelli, Italian physician and mapmaker, died.
    (MC, 5/15/02)

1482        A Milanese Duke commissioned Leonardo da Vinci to make an equine statue that would have been the largest in the world. A clay cast was made over 16 years but the appropriated bronze was used for cannons and the clay cast was destroyed when the Duke’s castle fell to French invaders.
    (Hem., 12/96, p.19)
1482        Luca della Robbia (b.1400), Italian artist, died. Luca developed the art of enameled relief sculpture. Andrea della Robbia (1435-1525), his nephew and student, continued the work.
    (SFC, 11/23/05, p.G2)

1483        Mar 28, Raphael, painter (School of Athens), was born in Urbino, Italy. [see Apr 6]
    (MC, 3/28/02)

1483        Apr 6, Raphael (Raffaello Sanzio, d.1520), Dutch painter (Sistine Madonna), was born to an unremarkable painter in the Duchy of Urbino. He went on to paint works in the Vatican. After an apprenticeship in Perugia, he went to Florence, having heard of the work da Vinci and Michelangelo were doing. His last 12 years were spent on numerous commissions in Rome. He died on his 37th birthday, his funeral mass being celebrated in the Vatican. [see Mar 28]
    (HN, 4/6/98)(HNQ, 11/17/00)

1483        Felice della Rovere (d.1536), illegitimate daughter of Pope Julius II (r.1503-1513), was born about this time. Her mother was a member of the Normanni, an illustrious Roman family long in decline. In 2005 Caroline P. Murphy authored “The Pope’s Daughter: The Extraordinary Life of Felice della Rovere."

1484        Aug 12, Pope Sixtus IV died. His rule was marked by nepotism and he was involved in a conspiracy to overthrow the Medici in Florence.
    (PTA, 1980, p.420)

1484        Aug 29, Cardinal Cibo was crowned as Pope Innocent VIII.

1484        Bartolomeo di Giovanni Corradini, Italian painter who joined the Dominican order as Fra Carnevale, died.
    (Econ, 12/11/04, p.82)

1485        Sandro Botticelli (1445-1510) painted "Venus and Mars" about this time.
    (WSJ, 6/16/07, p.P16)

1486        Jul 14, Andrea del Sarto (d.1531), aka Vanucchi or di Francesco, Italian Renaissance artist (Recollets), was born. He represented what Vasari called the terza maniera, the third or modern manner of painting.
    (WUD, 1994, p.55)(WSJ, 10/29/96, p.A21)(MC, 7/14/02)

1487        Sep 10, Julius III, Italian counter-Reformation Pope (1550-1555), was born. He was also a poet and promoted the Jesuits.
    (WUD, 1994, p.773)(HN, 9/10/98)

1487        Lorenzo the Magnificent ordered a giraffe from Africa and a cardinal’s hat for his 13-year-old son from Pope Innocent VIII. In return for the hat Lorenzo promised the hand of his eldest daughter for the Pope’s illegitimate son along with a nice loan. The giraffe was procured from Sultan Qaitbay, the Ottoman ruler of Egypt. Pope Innocent promised to get Queen Anne of France to hand over Djem, the exiled brother of Qaitbay, for use as a pawn. Lorenzo promised to give the giraffe to Anne. In 2006 the story was covered by Marina Belozerskaya in her book “The Medici Giraffe."
    (WSJ, 8/19/06, p.P9)

1489        Giuliano da Sangallo made his wooden model of the Strozzi palace in Florence.
    (Econ, 3/30/13, p.83)

1490        Leonardo da Vinci painted “Lady with an Ermine" about this time. It featured Cecilia Gallerani (1473-1536), the favorite mistress of Lodovico Sforza, the Duke of Milan.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Lady_with_an_Ermine)(Econ, 10/29/11, IL p.27)

1491        Pietro Roccabonella, doctor of medicine and lecturer at the Univ. of Padua, died.
    (SFEC, 2/15/98, BR p.8)

1492        Aug 11, Cardinal Rodrigo Borgia Lanzol (61), father of Cesare and Lucretia, became Pope Alexander VI (d.1503). He siphoned off untold riches from Church funds. Borgia arrived in Rome from Spain in 1449 and Italianized his name from Borja to Borgia. His rise in the church was helped a great deal when his uncle became Pope Calixtus III.
    (HN, 8/10/98)(PTA, p.424)(WSJ, 1/11/99, p.R4)(MC, 8/11/02)

c1492        Andrea Montegna, Italian painter, created his "Descent Into Limbo," a depiction of Christ descending into limbo to liberate the souls of the righteous. In 2003 the work sold for $28 million.
    (SFC, 1/24/03, p.D2)

1492        Leonardo da Vinci drew a flying machine.
    (WSJ, 1/11/99, p.R14)

1492        Lorenzo the Magnificent, ruler of Florence, died.

1492        Piero della Francesca (b.1415/1420), Italian artist, died. His work included “The Virgin and child with Saints, angels and Federigo da Montefeltro" (1472-1474).
    (WSJ, 2/2/08, p.W14)

1493        Pavia’s pawn bank was founded. It was later absorbed by Italy’s Banca Regionale Europea.
    (Econ, 5/27/06, p.73)

1494        Jan 25, Ferdinand I (b.1423), cruel king of Naples, died. He was also called Don Ferrante and was the natural son of Alfonso V of Aragon.
    (MC, 1/25/02)(Wikipedia)

1494        May 25, Jacopo Pontormo (d.1557), Italian painter (Sepulture of Christ), was born. He represented what Vasari called the terza maniera, the third or modern manner of painting.
    (WUD, 1994, p.1118)(WSJ, 10/29/96, p.A21)(SC, 5/25/02)

1494        Nov 8, Uprising against Piero de' Medici in Florence, Italy.
    (MC, 11/8/01)

1494        Nov 17, Charles VIII (1470-1498) of France entered Florence, Italy, to press his claim to the Kingdom of Naples. The First Italian War pitted Charles VIII of France, who had initial Milanese aid, against the Holy Roman Empire, Spain, and an alliance of Italian powers led by Pope Alexander VI.
    (http://tinyurl.com/6px6fbp)(Econ, 3/28/20, p.73)

1494        Lodovico il Moro, the duke of Milan, commissioned Leonardo da Vinci to paint "The Last Supper" (Cenacolo).
    (WSJ, 6/2/99, p.A24)
1494        Luca Pacioli’s textbook “Summa de arithmetica, geometria, proportioni et proportionalità," was published in Venice and used as a textbook for schools of Northern Italy. It was notable for including the first published description of the method of bookkeeping that Venetian merchants used during the Italian Renaissance, known as the double-entry accounting system.
1494        The head of the Medici family fled Florence in the face of a French invasion. Savonarola took the opportunity to lead Florence in restoring a representative government.
    (WSJ, 7/10/98, p.W11)
1494        In Italy humanist philosopher Giovanni Pico della Mirandola and writer Angelo Ambrogini, better known as Poliziano, both died. In 2007 their bodies were exhumed from Florence's St. Mark's Basilica. The men were thought to be lovers. Both Pico and Poliziano tutored Lorenzo de Medici's son Giovanni, who as Pope Leo X helped make Rome a cultural center of Renaissance Europe.
    (AP, 7/27/07)

1494-1500    Lodovico, "the Moor," Sforza (1451-1508), son of Francesco Sforza and duke of Milan during this period.
    (WUD, 1994, p.1308)

1495        Jan 28, Pope Alexander VI gave his son Cesare Borgia as hostage to Charles VIII of France.
    (MC, 1/28/02)

1495      Italian artist Andrea Mantegna painted an “Adoration of the Magi" about this time in which one of the three kings is seen offering the Christ child a cup filled with gold coins. The blue and white, Ming-style cup in the painting was the first time that a Ming work of art appeared in a European painting.
    (Econ, 9/13/14, p.92)
1495        Leonardo da Vinci sketched a design of a parachute. Da Vinci also painted “La Belle Ferroniere in Milan about this time.
    (SFEC, 9/8/96, zone 1 p.6)(Econ, 10/16/10, p.104)

1495-1498    Leonardo da Vinci worked on "The Last Supper" in Milan under commission for Duke Ludovico Sforza. The 15 by 28 foot work was undergoing a 20 year restoration in 1998 by Dr. Pinin Brambilla Barcilon.
    (SFEC, 4/12/98, Par p.4)

1496        Banca del Monte was founded in Milan. It was later absorbed by Italy’s Banca Regionale Europea.
    (Econ, 5/27/06, p.73)

1496-1501    Michelangelo lived in Rome.

1497        Feb 7, Followers of the priest Girolamo Savonarola collected and publicly burned thousands of objects in Florence, Italy, on the Shrove Tuesday festival. Tom Wolfe's 1997 novel, “The Bonfire of the Vanities," makes reference to the original event, but is not a retelling of the story.

1497        May 10, Italian navigator Amerigo Vespucci left for his 1st voyage to New World.
    (MC, 5/10/02)

1497        May 13, Pope Alexander VI excommunicated Girolamo Savonarola for heresy. In Florence the Dominican monk Girolamo Savonarola (1452-1498) had led the Feb 7 burning of musical instruments, books and priceless works of art. He preached against corruption in the Church and civil government.
    (Hem., 4/97, p.53)(WUD, 1994, p.1672)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Girolamo_Savonarola)

1497        Jun 24, Italian explorer John Cabot (1450-1498?), (aka Giovanni Caboto), on a voyage for England, landed in North America on what is now Newfoundland or the northern Cape Breton Island in Canada. He claimed the new land for King Henry VII. He documented the abundance of fish off the Grand Banks from Cape Cod to Labrador.
    (NH, 5/96, p.59)(WUD, 1994, p.206)(AP, 6/24/97)(HN, 6/24/98)

1497        Jul 22, Francesco Botticini (c52), Italian painter, died.
    (MC, 7/22/02)

1497        Sandro Botticelli painted "The Calumny." It showed King Midas with donkey ears.
    (SFC, 10/7/03, p.D8)

1498        Apr 7, A crowd stormed Savonarola's convent of San Marco in Florence, Italy.
    (MC, 4/7/02)

1498        May 23, The body of Girolamo Savonarola (45), moral scourge of Florence (1494-98), was burned along with 2 Dominican companions. An enraged crowd burned the previously hanged body of Savonarola at the same spot where he had ordered cultural works burned the year before. In 2006 Lauro Martines authored “Fire in the City," an account of Savonarola’s life.
    (WUD, 1994, p.1672)(www.historyguide.org/intellect/savonarola.html)(WSJ, 5/19/06, p.W6)

1499        Mar 31, Pius IV, [Gianangelo de' Medici], Italian lawyer, pope (1559-65), was born.
    (MC, 3/31/02)

1499        Sep 10, The French marched on Milan.
    (Hem., 12/96, p.19)

1499        Michelangelo completed his "Pieta" for the Vatican. The marble was from Carrara.
    (www.abcgallery.com/)(WSJ, 8/1/05, p.D10)

1500        Apr 8, Battle at Novara: King Louis XII beat duke Ludovico Sforza (Il Sforza del Destino).
    (MC, 4/8/02)

1500        Apr 10, France captured duke Ludovico Sforza ("Il Sforza del Destino") of Milan.
    (MC, 4/10/02)

1500        Nov 1, Benvenuto Cellini (d.1571), Italian goldsmith and sculptor, was born. His 1545 autobiography greatly influenced the Renaissance.
    (HN, 11/1/00)(WSJ, 2/14/00, p.A20)

1500        Sandro Botticelli, Italian painter, painted his "Mystic Nativity," but he was out of key with public taste. His reputation was only restored in the 19th century. He also did the circular painting "Adoration of the Christ Child."
    (TL-MB, 1988, p.8)(WSJ, 12/30/97, p.A8)

c1500-1600    Giulio Cesare Aranzi, Italian anatomist, name the hippocampus formation of the brain because of its resemblance to Hippocampus, the seahorse. (NH, 9/97, p.56)

1501        Michelangelo was commissioned by Florence, his native home, to carve the colossal statue "David." The work had been by Agostino di Duccio around 1465. Michelangelo finished it in 1504. It was placed at the front of the Palazzo Signoria. In 1873 it was cleaned and moved indoors.
    (TL-MB, 1988, p.8)(WSJ, 4/29/03, D5)

1501        Cesare Borgia captured Romagna (north-central Italy) and appointed Remirro de Orco, his cruelest lieutenant, to pacify the region. After the job was done Borgia had Orco cut in two to gain the gratitude of the people.
    (WSJ, 6/22/98, p.A20)

1501        A worn Roman torso was unearthed in Rome. It later acquired the nickname "Pasquino" and served as a station for posting complaints and opinions that came to be known as Pasquinades.
    (WSJ, 12/31/01, p.A6)

1502        Dec 31, Cesare Borgia (son of Pope Alexander VI) occupied Urbino.
    (MC, 12/31/01)

1503        Aug 18, Pope Alexander VI (1492-1503), born in Spain as Rodrigo di Borgia (1431),  died. He had recently authorized the building of a prison in the cellars of Castel Sant’Angelo in Rome.
    (PTA, p.424)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pope_Alexander_VI)(SSFC, 7/22/07, p.G2)

1503        Nov 17, Il Bronzino, Florentine painter (Eleanor de Toledo & her Son), was born.
    (MC, 11/17/01)

1503        Nov 28, Giuliano della Rovere (1443-1513) was crowned as Pope Julius II.

1503        Parmigianino (d.1540), painter and master draftsman, was born. His paintings included "Madonna of the Long Neck."
    (WSJ, 2/12/00, p.A25)

1503        Leonardo Da Vinci began painting the "Mona Lisa." The husband of Lisa del Giocondo commissioned Leonardo da Vinci to paint the "Mona Lisa," The model was Lisa Gheradini whose relatives had emigrated to Ireland in the 12th century and translated their surname to Fitzgerald, an ancestral name of later US president John F. Kennedy. Lisa Gherardini (b.1479) was originally identified as the subject of the world's most famous painting by Leonardo's first biographer, the 16th-century Italian writer Giorgio Vasari. In 2001 Donald Sassoon authored "Becoming Mona Lisa: The Making of a Global Icon."
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Lisa_del_Giocondo)(SFC, 4/26/97, p.E4)(SFC, 3/21/98, p.E3)(WSJ, 12/7/01, p.W16)(AP, 9/13/04)
1503        Leonardo da Vinci was commissioned to decorate a hall in the Palazzo Vecchio in Florence. For some 18 months he worked on a mural for the 1440 Battle of Anghiari but abandoned the work in 1506. The mural was later lost when Georgio Vasari was hired to remodel the hall.
    (WSJ, 11/9/07, p.W4)

1504        In Florence Leonardo da Vinco and Machiavelli became involved in a scheme to divert the Arno River and thereby cut the water supply to Pisa and force its surrender. Colombino, the project foreman, failed to follow da Vinci’s design, and the project was a spectacular failure. This is covered in the 1998 book "Fortune Is a River" by Roger D. Masters.
    (WSJ, 6/22/98, p.A20)

1505        Pope Julius II summoned Michelangelo to Rome to design the pope’s tomb. The contract was revised 5 times and only 3 of 40 large figures were executed.
    (TL-MB, 1988, p.9)(OG)

1505        Leonardo da Vinci painted “The Battle of Anghiari" on a wall in Florence’s Palazzo Vecchio. It commemorated a victory of Florentine forces over the ruling Medici. In 1563 the Medici, having regained power, hired Giorgio Vasari to cover up Leonardo’s work with a painting celebrating one of their own martial successes. It was later thought that Vasari hid the original behind his new work.
    (WSJ, 4/10/08, p.D7)
1505        Leonardo da Vinci’s “Codex on the Flight of Birds" dated to about this time.

1505        Raphael painted his “Madonna of the Goldfinch" about this time for the wedding of a friend, Lorenzo Nasi. The painting was shredded in 1548 when Nasi’s palace collapsed. The work was pieced together and modern restoration, which began in 1999, was completed in 2008.
    (SFC, 10/31/08, p.E7)

1506        Jan 22, The Swiss Guard mercenaries, summoned by Pope Julius II to protect the pope and the Vatican, arrived in Rome. In 2006 Robert Royal authored “The Pope’s Army."
    (USAT, 5/6/98, p.6A)(AP, 1/22/06)(WSJ, 4/14/06, p.W5)

1506        Albrecht Durer painted his "Portrait of a Young Woman."
    (SFEC, 12/26/99, p.C17)

1506        Giorgione painted “The Three Philosophers" about this time.
    (WSJ, 8/3/06, p.D5)

1506        The Laocoon sculpture was unearthed in Rome. It served as a peg for Goethe’s aesthetic theories. It later inspired Gotthold Ephraim Lessing, 18th century German dramatist and critic, to write one of the greatest essays ever written on a work of ancient art.
    (TL-MB, 1988, p.9)(WSJ, 9/7/99, p.A23)

1506        Pope Julius II placed the 1st stone for the new St. Peter’s Basilica. Bramante began to rebuild St. Peter’s Cathedral in Rome, which had been neglected since the 14th century when the popes resided at Avignon. Pope Urban VIII consecrated it in 1626.
    (TL-MB, 1988, p.9)(SSFC, 2/18/07, p.A2)

1506        Machiavelli, Italian diplomat, established the Florentine militia, the first Italian national troops.
    (TL-MB, 1988, p.9)

1506        Andrea Mantegna (b.1431), Italian painter and engraver, died. His paintings included a dead Christ, “Christo Morto," whose bare feet seem to stick out of the picture. He also painted "Virgin and Child in Glory."
    (WSJ, 6/6/96, p.A12)(SFEC, 7/13/97, p.T11)(WSJ, 11/10/07, p.W14)

1507        Feb 23, Gentile Bellini, Venetian artist, died.

1507        Apr 25, Martin Waldseemuller, a German geographer working at a small college in Eastern France, labeled the New World "America," for the first time in his book "Cosmographiae Introductio," and gave Amerigo Vespucci (d.1512) credit for discovering it. His map was the first to show North and South America as separate continents. Letters of 1504-1505 had circulated in Florence claimed that Vespucci had discovered the new World. Vespucci was in fact only a passenger or low officer on one of the ships captained by others. Vespucci was later believed to have been the brother of Simonetta Vespucci, the model for Venus in the Botticelli painting. In 2000 the US Library of Congress planned to acquire the original map for $14 million from the Prince Johannes Waldburg-wolfegg. A $10 million purchase was completed in 2003. In 2009 Toby Lester authored “The Fourth Part of the World: The Race to the Ends of the World, and the Epic Story of the Map That Gave America Its Name."
    (SFEC, 8/23/98, p.T10)(SFC, 10/27/00, p.C14)(WSJ, 7/25/03, p.W19)(AP, 4/25/07)(SSFC, 12/27/09, Books p.E5)(SFC, 11/8/17, p.A4)

1507        Oct 1, Italian architect Giacomo Barozzi da Vignola was born.
    (AP, 10/1/07)

1508        Nov 30, Andrea Palladio (d.1580), [Andrea di Piero della Gondola], Italian Renaissance architect, was born in Padua.
    (AM, Mar/Apr 97 p.14)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Andrea_Palladio)

1508        Giorgione painted "The Tempesta," a landscape of a stormy setting with a town in the background, a soldier lower left and a woman nursing to the right. It is at the Accademia Gallery in Venice.
    (T&L, 10/80, p. 58)(WSJ, 12/4/97, p.A20)

1508        Pope Julius II transferred Michelangelo to paint the Sistine Chapel ceiling in Rome.
    (TL-MB, 1988, p.9)(OG)

1508        The League of Cambrai was formed against Venice by Ferdinand of Aragon, Emp. Maximilian, Louis XII of France, and Pope Julius II as part of an ongoing dispute over sovereignty in Italy.
    (TL-MB, p.9)

1509        Jan 25, Giovanni Morone, Italian theologist, diplomat, cardinal, "heretic," was born.
    (MC, 1/25/02)

1509        Apr 27, Pope Julius II excommunicated the Italian state of Venice.
    (HN, 4/27/98)

1509        May 14, In the Battle of Agnadello, the French defeat the Venetians in Northern Italy.
    (HN, 5/14/98)

1509        May 20, Catharina Sforza (45), "La Sforza del Destino", Italian duchess of Forli, died.
    (MC, 5/20/02)

1509        Jun 11, In Italy troops of Florence took Pisa.
    (AP, 6/11/03)

1509        Fra Bartolommeo, Italian artist, painted "The Holy Family with the Infant St. John." It was purchased by the Los Angeles County Museum of Art (LACMA) for close to $4 million. His work "The Holy Family with the Infant St. John," was purchased by the John Paul Getty Museum in Malibu for $22.5 mil.
    (WUD, 1994, p.123)(SFC, 5/13/96, p.D-5)(WSJ, 10/29/96, p.A21)(SFEC, 1/11/98, p.A23)

1510        May 17, Sandro Botticelli (b.1445), Florentine artist born as Alessandro di Mariano di Vanni Filipepi, died.

1510        Oct 28, Francisco Borgia was born. He was the grandson of debauched Pope Alexander VI, and became a theologian and saint.
    (MC, 10/28/01)

1510        Giovanni Bellini painted “Virgin With the Blessing Child."
    (WSJ, 8/3/06, p.D5)

1510        Giorgione (b.~1478), Italian painter, died of the plague. He was a top student of Bellini and excelled in the paragone: a competition between painting an poetry, where painters sought to rival poets in conveying beauty. Titian finished Giorgione’s “Sleeping Venus."
    (T&L, 10/80, p. 58)(WSJ, 12/4/97, p.A20)(Econ, 7/29/06, p.77)

1511        Jul 30, Giorgio Vasari (d.1574), Italy, painter, architect and art historian (Vasari's Lives), was born. He wrote "Lives of the Artists."
    (WUD, 1994, p.1582)(MC, 7/30/02)

1511        Sep 1, Council of Pisa opened. Louis XII of France called the council to oppose the Holy League of Pope Julius II.
    (PTA, 1980, p.432)(MC, 9/1/02)

1512        Feb 22, Amerigo Vespucci (b.1451), Italian explorer, died in Seville, Spain.

1512        Apr 11, The forces of the Holy League were heavily defeated by the French at the Battle of Ravenna.
    (HN, 4/11/99)

1512        Aug 31, Giuliano de Medici became the new governor of Florence.
    (ON, 11/04, p.3)
1512        Nov 1, Michelangelo's paintings on the ceiling of the Sistine Chapel were completed and first exhibited to the public.
    (TL-MB, 1988, p.10)(AP, 11/1/97)(HN, 11/1/98)

1512        Nov 7, Medicis fired Niccolo Machiavelli from Florence.
    (MC, 11/7/01)

1513        Niccolo Machiavelli wrote "The Prince" in which he gave reasons for the rise and fall of states. It was not published until 1532. He justified the ruthless subjection of religion and morality to politics
    (TL-MB, 1988, p.10)(WSJ, 2/18/98, p.A20)

1513-1514    Dosso Dossi painted his portrait of "Saint George."
    (WSJ, 1/20/98, p.A20)

1514        Giovanni Bellini painted “Feast of the Gods." The painting depicts Ovid’s tale of how Vesta, goddess of virginity is approached while sleeping by Priapus, god of fertility, who begins to twitch up her tunic. At that moment a donkey sneezes and awakens Vesta, who quickly awakes and runs away. It is now on exhibit at the National Gallery of Art in Wa., DC.
    (T&L, 10/1980, p.66)(WSJ, 8/3/06, p.D5)

1515        Jul 21, St. Philippus Nerius, [Philippo Neri], Italian merchant, priest, was born.
    (MC, 7/21/02)

1515        Sep 13, King Francis of France defeated the Swiss army under Cardinal Matthias Schiner at Marignano, northern Italy. Switzerland was last involved in a war. French armies defeated the Swiss and Venetians at the Battle of Marignano and Milan fell to the French. Francis  I conquered Lombardy in northern Italy.
    (TL-MB, 1988, p.11)(SFC, 6/7/96, p.A12)(HN, 9/13/98)

1515        Dec 2, Gonzalo de Cordoba, Spanish general, strategist, viceroy of Naples, died.
    (MC, 12/2/01)

1515        Giovanni Bellini (b.~1430-1516), Italian artist, painted his masterpiece “Lady With a Mirror.
    (Econ, 7/29/06, p.77)

1515-1516    Dosso Dossi, court painter in Ferrara, painted "Melissa" (aka Circe).
    (WSJ, 1/20/98, p.A20)

1516        Mar 17, Giuliano de' Medici (37), monarch of Florence, died.
    (MC, 3/17/02)

1516        Mar 29, The Jewish Ghetto of Venice, the first ghetto in Europe, was established on 29th of March 1516 by the government of Venetian Serenissima Republic.

1516        Mateo Realdo Colombo (d.1559), Italian anatomist and discoverer of the pulmonary circulation, was born at Cremona. He studied medicine at Padua with Vesalius, became his assistant, and in 1544 succeeded him as lecturer in surgery and anatomy. The best authority for Colombo's work in anatomy is his "De Re Anatomicâ" (Venice, 1559; Paris, 1562). The most complete life is that by TOLLIN in Pflügers Archive XXI-XXII. In English there is a good sketch by FISHER, Annals of Anatomy and Surgery (Brooklyn, 1880). In 1997 Federico Andahazi authored "The Anatomist," a novel that was based on Colombo’s research on the clitoris.
    (CE, online)(SFEC, 10/29/00, BR p.5)

1516        The first published account of the discovery of North America appeared in "De Rebus Oceanicus et Novo Orbe" by the Italian historian Peter Martyr.
    (TL-MB, p.11)

1516        Music printed from engraved plates was used for the first time in Italy.
    (TL-MB, p.11)

1516        Giovanni Bellini (b.~1430), Italian artist, died in Venice. Giorgione and Titian had graduated from his workshop.
    (Econ, 7/29/06, p.77)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Giovanni_Bellini)

1517        Oct 6, Fra Bartolommeo (b.1472), Florentine Renaissance painter, died. He was a Dominican monk nicknamed Baccio della Porta. His work included a portrait of Savonarola.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Fra_Bartolommeo)(SFC, 5/13/96, p.D-5)

1517        Cardinal Alessandro Farnese (1468-1549) began work on his Palazzo Farnese. He was Pope Paul III of the Roman Catholic Church from 1534 to his death.
1517        Luca Pacioli (b.1445), Italian Franciscan friar and mathematician, died. His work included the first principles of double-entry book-keeping.
    (Econ, 1/18/14, SR p.5)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Luca_Pacioli)

1517-1518    Giovanni Battista Cima (b.~1459), aka Cima da Conegliano, Italian artist, died about this time.
    (Econ, 4/21/12, p.99)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cima_da_Conegliano)

1518        Apr 18, Bona Sforza (1494-1558) was crowned Queen of Poland and Grand Duchess of Lithuania in Wawel Cathedral, Krakow. The Italian niece of Bianca Maria Sforza, who in 1493 married Holy Roman Emperor Maximilian I, became the 3rd consort of Lithuania’s Grand Duke Sigismund the Old (1467-1548).

1518        Jacopo Tintoretto (d.1588), Italian artist, was born.
    (Econ, 2/10/07, p.90)

1518        Raphael painted a portrait of Leo X which showed spectacles with concave lenses for short-sightedness.
    (TL-MB, 1988, p.11)
1518        Raphael began painting the nude model “La Fornarina." It was completed about 1519.    

1519        Apr 13, Catherine de Medicis (d.1589), the daughter of Lorenzo de Medici, was born in Florence. She married at age 14 and became queen in 1547 as Henry II of France acceded to the throne. She was the mother of Francis II, Charles IX, and Henry III.

1519        May 2, Artist Leonardo da Vinci (67) died at Cloux, France. In 1994 A. Richard Turner wrote "Inventing Leonardo," a history of Leonardo legends. In 2004 Bulent Atalay authored “Math and the Mona Lisa: The Art and Science of Leonardo da Vinci." In 2004 Charles Nicholl authored “Leonard da Vinci: The Flights of the Mind."
    (AP, 5/2/97)(NH, 5/97, p.58)(Econ, 5/15/04, p.80)(Econ, 12/11/04, p.81)

1519        Jun 24, Lucretia Borgia (39), daughter of Pope Alexander VI, died. In 2004 Sarah Bradford authored “Lucrezia Borgia: Life, Love and Death in Renaissance Italy."
    (HN, 4/18/98)(WUD, 1994, p.171)(SSFC, 12/19/04, p.E2)

1520        Apr 6, Raphael (b.1483), [Sanzio], Italian painter (Sistine Madonna), died on his 37th birthday. His work included "The Veiled Lady" and a set of cartoons that were woven into 10 tapestries titled "The Acts of the Apostles" (1544-1557).
    (WSJ, 4/11/02, p.D7)(www.abcgallery.com/R/raphael/raphaelbio.html)

1520        The funereal monuments of the Medici Chapel were commissioned by Pope Clement VII. They were done primarily by Michelangelo (1475-1564) from 1520 to 1534, being completed by his students after his departure. The four figures—dawn, day, dusk and night—are considered among the sculptor‘s most accomplished work. He left Florence in 1534, hoping to return, but spent his last years in Rome.
    (HNQ, 11/15/00)

1520/24-1579/80    Giovanni Battista Moroni was a Renaissance portraitist. He worked in Trent and Bergamo and then returned to his hometown of Albino.
    (WSJ, 2/22/00, p.A38)

1521        Nov 19, Battle at Milan: Emperor Charles V's Spanish, German, and papal troops beat France and occupied Milan. An eight year war between France and the Holy Roman Emp., Charles V, began after the French supported rebels in Spain.
    (TL-MB, 1988, p.12)(MC, 11/19/01)

1521        Lorenzo Lotto, Italian artist, painted the "Christ Bidding Farewell to His Mother."
    (WSJ, 1/15/98, p.A17)

1522        Apr 12, Florentine artist Piero di Cosimo (b.1462), aka Piero di Lorenzo, died of plague. His work included “Cart of Death."
    (Econ, 1/31/15, p.76)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Piero_di_Cosimo)

1522        Aug 27, Giovanni A. Amadei (75), Amadeo, Italian sculptor, architect, died.
    (MC, 8/27/02)

1522        Dosso Dossi painted "Allegory of Music."
    (WSJ, 1/20/98, p.A20)

1522-1524    Titian painted "Bacchanal of the Andrians" during this period.
    (WSJ, 8/3/06, p.D5)

1523        Titian painted "Bacchus and Ariadne," a heroic mythological composition for Alfonso d’Este, Duke of Ferrara. It is now at the London National Gallery.
    (TL-MB, p.12)(SFEC, 2/1/98, p.T8)

1523-1524    Dosso Dossi painted "Jupiter, Mercury and Virtue."
    (WSJ, 1/20/98, p.A20)

1524        Apr 17, Giovanni da Verrazano, Florentine navigator, reached present-day New York Harbor. He explored from Cape Fear to Newfoundland and discovered New York Bay and the Hudson River. He was later eaten by natives.
    (TL-MB, p.12)(HN, 4/17/98)(SFEM, 11/15/98, p.26)(AP, 4/17/08)

1524        Chevalier Bayard, commander of French forces in Lombardy, was killed and the French were driven out.
    (TL-MB, p.12)

1524-1608     Giambologna, a sculptor in Florence.
    (WSJ, 2/1/96, p.A-16)

1525        Feb 24, In the first of the Franco-Habsburg Wars, the Holy Roman Emperor Charles V captured the French king Francis I at the battle of Pavia, in Italy. This was the decisive engagement of the Italian War of 1521-26.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Battle_of_Pavia)(Econ, 12/12/09, p.93)

1525        Jacob Ben-Hayim published an overhaul of the Hebrew Bible, the Mikraot Gedolot, or Great Scriptures, in Venice. His version unified the religion's varying texts and commentaries under a single umbrella and remained the standard for generations. In 2012 Menachem Cohen completed an updated 21-volume set, with the final chapter set to be published in 2013.
    (AP, 8/8/12)
1525        In Rome public street cleaners were employed and paid through a tax on artisans and tradesmen.
    (WSJ, 1/11/99, p.R25)
1525        Andrea della Robbia (b.1435), Italian artist, died. He was the nephew and pupil of Luca della Robbia (1400-1482).
    (SFC, 11/23/05, p.G2)

1526        Jan 14, Francis of France, held captive by Charles V for a year, signed the Treaty of Madrid, giving up most of his claims in France and Italy.
    (HN, 1/14/99)

1526        Nov 30, Giovanni de’ Medici (b.1498), brother to Cosimo the Elder, died soon after his leg was amputated due to a bullet wound.
    (www.britannica.com/EBchecked/topic/372320/Giovanni-de-Medici)(AM, 7/05, p.41)

1526        In Italy the Beretta family made crossbows. With advancing technology the family launched into firearms (1550).
    (WSJ, 1/11/99, p.R42)(Econ, 11/18/06, p.64)

1527        May 6, German troops began sacking Rome, bringing about the end of the Renaissance.
    (HN, 5/6/98)

1527        May 16, Florence expelled the Medici nephews of the Pope and reverted to a republic.
    (TL-MB, 1988, p.13)(MC, 5/16/02)

1527        Jun 21, Nicolo Machiavelli (57), Florentine statesman, author (The Prince), died. “When the effect is good... it will always excuse the deed."
    (WSJ, 5/21/96, p.A-16)(WSJ, 6/22/98, p.A20)(MC, 6/21/02)

1527        Nov 18, Luca Cambiaso, Italian painter and sculptor, was born.
    (MC, 11/18/01)

1527        Dec 6, Giulio di Giuliano de' Medici (1478-1534) as Pope Clemens VII (1523-1534) fled to Orvieto in Umbria. In order to ensure a water supply Pope Clemens VII had a well dug by architect-engineer Antonio da Sangallo the Younger of Florence. St. Patrick’s Well was 45 feet wide with 496 steps leading down 175 feet.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pope_Clement_VII)(SSFC, 12/29/13, p.P5) (MC, 12/6/01)

1527         Spanish mercenaries paid by Charles V sacked Rome and left 4,000 dead. Some see this event as marking the close of the Renaissance.
    (TL-MB, p.13)

1527        Giuseppe Arcimboldi (d.1593), Italian painter [Arcimboldo], was born.
    (WUD, 1994, p.78)(WSJ, 7/10/97, p.A13)

1528        Jan 22, England & France declared war on Emperor Charles V of Spain. The French army was later expelled from Naples and Genoa.
    (TL-MB, 1988, p.13)(MC, 1/22/02)

1528        Baldassare Castiglione (1478-1529), Italian diplomat and courtier, published "Il Libro del Cortegiano" (The Courtier), an exhaustive study of etiquette and court life that was read and copied throughout Europe. In 1561 Sir Thomas Hoby provided an English translation.
    (WSJ, 5/28/04, p.W3)(WSJ, 1/14/07, p.P12)

1529        Baldassare Castiglione (b.1478), Italian diplomat, courtier and author of "Il Libro del Cortegiano" (The Courtier), died while on a papal mission to Toledo.
    (WSJ, 1/14/07, p.P12)

1530        Sep, Andrea del Sarto (b.1486),Italian painter, died in Florence about this time during an outbreak of Bubonic Plague.

1530        Antonio Allegri de Correggio (1489-1534), Italian painter, painted his supreme altarpiece the "Adoration of the Shepherds." Only 40 of drawings have survived.
    (TL-MB, p.14)(WSJ, 2/12/00, p.A25)

1530        Titian, Italian artist and chief master of the Venetian school, painted Cardinal Ippolito de’Medici. He became court painter in Bologna.
    (TL-MB, p.14)

1530        Florence returned to Medici hands.

1530        Florence, Italy, held the first lottery, La Lotto de Firenze. It was followed by similar drawings in Genoa and Venice to raise funds for various public projects.
    (WSJ, 1/11/99, p.R34)(http://www.logiuocodellotto.com/)
1530        The game of bingo can be traced back to a lottery game called "Il Giuoco del Lotto d'Italia" played in Italy about this time. By the eighteenth century, the game had matured, and in France, playing cards, tokens, the reading out of numbers had been added to the game. In the nineteenth century, Bingo was widely used in Germany for educational purposes to teach children spelling, animal names, and multiplication tables.

1531        Jan 22, Andrea del Sarto (44), Italian painter, died.
    (MC, 1/22/02)

c1531-1537    Ceramicist Francesco Urbini was later believed to have created a plate that shows a male head made up entirely of phalluses. In 2003 a British museum paid $317,000 for it. The head is framed by a garland carrying the inscription: "Ogni homo me guarda come fosse una testa de cazi" (Every man looks at me as if I were a dickhead).
    (Reuters, 9/18/03)

1532        The Shroud of Turin was scorched in a fire and doused with water. [see 1988]
    (SFEC, 2/1/98, p.A24)

1533        Jul 6, Ludovico Ariosto (57), Italian poet (Orlando Furioso), died.
    (MC, 7/6/02)

1533        Titian painted Charles V.
    (TL-MB, 1988, p.14)

1533        The first madrigals, developed mostly in Italy and England, were published in Rome.
    (TL-MB, 1988, p.14)

1533        Catherine de'Medici brought along her Neopolitan chefs for her wedding to the duc d'Orleans, who later became King Henry II.
    (Hem., Nov.'95, p.129)

1534        Sep, Michelangelo settled in Rome and began to work on the immense "Last Judgement" on the altar wall of the Sistine Chapel.
    (TL-MB, 1988, p.14)

1534        Michelangelo left Florence following years of work on the Medici tombs.
1534        Mannerism, influenced by Michelangelo, developed in painting and architecture. Francesco Parmigianino (1503-1540), painter of the "Madonna with the Long Neck," was a leading exponent.
    (TL-MB, 1988, p.14)(Econ, 1/26/08, p.82)
1534        Lorenzo Lotto, Italian artist, painted the "Adoration of the Shepherds."
    (WSJ, 1/15/98, p.A17)

1534-1536    Titian’s “Portrait of Isabella d’Este, Marchioness of Mantua," dated to about this time.
    (SFC, 10/29/11, p.E2)

1535        Nov 1, Francesco Sforza, Italian ruler ("Il Sforza del Destino") Milan, died.
    (MC, 11/1/01)

1536        Titian painted the "Portrait of Francesco Maria della Rovere, Duke of Urbino."
    (WSJ, 3/9/98, p.A16)

1537        Jan 6, Alessandro de' Medici (b.1510), Italian monarch of Florence, was assassinated by his cousin Lorenzino (d.1548). This event was commemorated in the bust Brutus by Michelangelo. Cosimo I (18) came to power following the murder of Alessandro.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Alessandro_de%27_Medici,_Duke_of_Florence)(AM, 7/05, p.36)

1537        May 20, Hieronymus Fabricius Ab, physician (De Formato Foetu), was born in Aquapend, Italy.
    (MC, 5/20/02)

1538        Apr 26, Giovanni P. Lomazzo, Italian writer, poet (Trattato), was born.
    (MC, 4/26/02)

1538        Benvenuto Cellini, Florentine artist, was imprisoned for about a year in the dungeon beneath the papal fortress of Castel Sant’Angelo for killing his brother’s murderer.
    (SSFC, 7/22/07, p.G2)

1539        Jul 5, Antonio M. Zaccaria, Italian physician, saint, died.
    (MC, 7/5/02)

1539        Cosimo I de’ Medici (1519-1574), Duke of Florence, married Eleonora (1522-1562), daughter of the Spanish viceroy of Naples. Their wedding included a musical intermedi, one of the first such interludes for which music survives.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cosimo_I_de%27_Medici)(TL-MB, 1988, p.15)

1540        Oct 11, Charles V of Milan put his son Philip in control.
    (HN, 10/11/98)

1540        Francesco Mazzola Parmigianino (b.1503), Italian painter and master draftsman, died. His paintings included "Antea."
    (Econ, 1/26/08, p.82)

1540-1580    In Vincenza Palladio created a wide variety of palaces and public buildings.
    (AMNHDT, 5/98)(WSJ, 11/8/02, p.W12)

1540-1596    Jacopo Zucchi, a mannerist painter. His work included "The Bath of Bathsheba" (1570).
    (WSJ, 4/28/98, p.A16)

1541        Lorenzo Lotto, Italian artist, painted the "Portrait of a Man With a Felt Hat."
    (WSJ, 1/15/98, p.A17)

1542        Jul 15, In 2007 an expert on the "Mona Lisa" says he had ascertained with certainty that Lisa Gherardini (b.1479), the symbol of feminine mystique, died on this day, and was buried at the Sant'Orsola convent in central Florence where she spent her final days.
    (AFP, 1/19/07)

1542        Oct 4, Roberto Bellarmino, Italian Jesuit theologian, diplomat, saint, was born.
    (MC, 10/4/01)

1542        The Medici tapestry factory in Florence was founded about this time.
    (TL-MB, p.16)

1543        Aug 22, French and Ottoman forces captured Nice following a siege of the city. Admiral Barbarossa led the Ottoman fleet in the campaign.
    (Econ, 12/12/09, p.93)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Siege_of_Nice)

1544        Mar 11, Torquato Tasso, Italian Renaissance poet (Aminta, Apologia), was born.
    (MC, 3/12/02)

1544        The first herbarium was published by Italian botanist Luca Ghini.
    (TL-MB, 1988, p.16)

1545        Benvenuto Cellini, Italian goldsmith, wrote his autobiography, which greatly influenced the Renaissance.
    (HN, 11/3/99)

1546        Titian painted his great family portrait of Paul III and his Grandsons Ottavio and Cardinal Alessandro Farnese.
    (TL-MB, 1988, p.17)
1546        Pope Paul III put Michelangelo (71) in charge of the restoration of St. Peter’s Basilica in Rome. He  designed the dome of St. Peter’s.
    (TL-MB, 1988, p.17)(SSFC, 2/18/07, p.A2)
1546        Girolamo Fracastoro, (Hyeronymous Fracastorius), Italian Florentine physician, gave the first description of typhus and the nature of contagion in his work "De Contagione et Contagiosis Morbis." He had earlier described and named syphilis.
    (WP, 1952, p.28)(TL-MB, 1988, p.17)
1546        In Northern Italy the Church Council of Trent (1545-1547) declared that the Vulgate, a late-4th-century Latin translation of the Bible, was the only acceptable translation of the Bible. This exploded the life work of Dutch philosopher Desiderius Erasmus (1466-1536).
    (https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Vulgate)(Econ., 12/19/20, p.64)

1547        Jan 18, Pietro Bembo (1470-1547), Italian scholar, died. He was an influential figure in the development of the Italian language, specifically Tuscan, as a literary medium. His work included "Writings on the Vulgar Tongue," in which he used an old Tuscan dialect as a model for grammar. He also wrote "History of Venice from 1487 to 1513" (1551).

1547        Sep 10, Pierlugi Faranese, Italian son of Pope Paul III, was murdered.
    (MC, 9/10/01)

1547        Oct 19, Pierino del Vaga, Italian painter, died at 46.
    (MC, 10/19/01)

1548        Jacopo Tintoretto (1518-1594), Venetian school Italian artist, established his fame with the painting “Miracle of the Slave."
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Tintoretto)(Econ, 2/10/07, p.90)

1549        Nov 10, Pope Paul III, born as Alessandro Farnese (b.1468), died. He was Pope of the Roman Catholic Church from 1534 to his death.

1550        Apr 2, Jews were expelled from Genoa, Italy. [see Jun15, 1567]
    (MC, 4/2/02)

1550        May 25, Camillus de Lellis, Italian soldier, monastery founder, saint, was born.
    (SC, 5/25/02)

1550        Michelangelo completed the frescoes of the Cappella Paolina, "the Conversion of Paul" and "The Crucifixion of St. Peter."

1550        In Italy the Beretta family branched into guns.
    (WSJ, 1/11/99, p.R42)

1550-1555    Julius III, Giommaria Ciocci del Monte or Giovanni Maria del Monte, served as Pope 1550-1555.
    (WUD, 1994, p.773)

1552        Aug 14, Fra Paolo Sarpi, [Paulus Venetus], expert, philosopher, was born in Venice.
    (MC, 8/14/02)

1552-1553    Giovanni Battista Moroni, portrait artist, painted his "Portrait of Isotta Brembati."
    (WSJ, 4/13/00, p.A19)

1553        Aug 2, An invading French army was destroyed at the Battle of Marciano in Italy by an imperial army.
    (HN, 8/2/98)

1553        Oct 19, Bonifazio Veronese, Veneziano, [de' Pitati], Italian painter, died.
    (MC, 10/19/01)

1554        Jan 26, Florentine troops approached Siena. After an initial failed assault, the Marquess of Marignano laid siege to the city. During the siege repairs and improvements to the city walls were entrusted to the city's women.
    (https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Battle_of_Marciano)(Econ, 3/28/20, p.73)

1554        Aug 2, The Battle of Marciano (aka the Battle of Scannagallo) occurred in the countryside of Marciano della Chiana, near Arezzo, Tuscany. The battle marked the defeat of the Republic of Siena in its war against the Duchy of Florence, and resulted in Siena losing its independence and being absorbed into the Duchy of Florence. When the Florentine army defeated the Siennese a moratorium was put on further development in the walled city.
    (https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Battle_of_Marciano)(SFEC, 6/29/97, p.T11)

1555        Oct 25, Emperor Charles V put his son Philip II in charge of Netherlands, Naples, and Milan.
    (MC, 10/25/01)

1555        Pope Paul IV decreed that all Jews in the Papal States be segregated into enclosed quarters.
    (SFC, 12/2/08, p.E1)

1556        Jul 31, St. Ignatius of Loyola (65), founder of the Society of Jesus, the Jesuit order of Catholic priests and brothers, died in Rome.
    (https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ignatius_of_Loyola)(AP, 7/31/97)

1556        Nov 14, Giovanni Della Costa (b.1503), Florentine poet, writer on etiquette and society, diplomat, and inquisitor, died. He is celebrated for his famous treatise on polite behavior, Il Galateo overo de’ costumi (1558).
    (https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Giovanni_della_Casa)(Econ., 8/1/20, p.70)

1557        Aug 10, Spanish and English troops in alliance defeated the French at the Battle of St. Quentin (San Quintino). French troops were defeated by Emanuele Filiberto's Spanish army at St. Quentin, France. In 1559 Filiberto made Turin capital of his Savoy state.
    (HN, 8/10/98)(www.niaf.org/news/news_italy/news_italy_mar2003.asp)

1557        The world’s first sovereign bankruptcy took place following the indulgence of Genoese lenders for Spain’s Philip II expensive taste for warfare.
    (Econ, 9/23/06, p.11)

1559        Apr 3, Philip II of Spain and Henry II of France signed the peace of Cateau-Cambresis, ending a long series of wars between the Hapsburg and Valois dynasties. Turin was chosen as the new capital of Savoy state under Duke Emanuele Filiberto.
    (HN, 4/3/99)(www.world66.com/europe/italy/piemonte/turin/history)

1559        In Padua the Villa Foscari was designed by Palladio.
    (AMNHDT, 5/98)

1561        Mar 29, Santorio Sanctorius was born in Trieste. He became a physician, and was burned at stake as a heretic.
    (MC, 3/29/02)

1562        Mar 9, Kissing in public was banned in Naples and made punishable by death.
    (MC, 3/9/02)

1562        Oct 9, Gabriel Fallopius, anatomist (discovered fallopian tubes), died in Modena, Italy.
    (MC, 10/9/01)

1563        Oct 13, Francesco Caracciolo, Italian religious founder and saint (Caracciolini), was born.
    (MC, 10/13/01)

1563        Italian painter Paolo Veronese (1528-1588) completed his giant work “The Wedding at Cana."
    (Econ, 11/10/12, p.88)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/The_Wedding_at_Cana)
1563        In Turin the Instituto Bancario San Paolo di Torino was established with a system of ownership under a charitable foundation under the control of local authorities. The system held into 1997.
    (WSJ, 3/24/97, p.A14)
1563        Francesco Salviati (b.1510), Italian Mannerist painter from Florence, died. His work included frescoes on the walls of the Palazzo Farnese.

1564        Feb 15, Italian astronomer Galileo Galilei (d.1642) was born in Pisa. He was the first modern man to understand that mathematics can truly describe the physical world. He said: "The Book of Nature is written in mathematics." [V.D.-H.K. dated his death to 1646] He ran afoul of the Catholic Church for defending the Copernican system, which maintained that the earth revolves around the sun. He died in Acetri, near Florence.
    (V.D.-H.K.p.1200) (TNG,Klein,p.22) (AHD,p.539) (CFA, '96,Vol 179, p.40) (AP, 2/15/98) (HN, 2/15/99)

1564        Feb 18, Michelangelo (b.1475), painter and sculptor, died in Rome. In 1996 George Bull wrote a biography and in 1999 James H. Beck published "Three Worlds of Michelangelo." In 2003 Ross King authored "Michelangelo & the Pope’s Ceiling." In 2005 James Hall authored “Michelangelo and the Reinvention of the Human Body."
    (AP, 2/18/98)(SFEC, 3/14/99, BR p.6)(SSFC, 1/26/03, p.M3)(SSFC, 6/26/05, p.C5)

1564        Andrea Amati (d.1577), Italian violin maker, made one of the first of his famous violins in Cremona. Stradivari was one of his students.
    (TL-MB, 1988, p.20)(AMNHDT, 5/98)(Econ, 7/30/05, p.78)

1565        Sep 28, Alessandro Tassoni, political writer (Rape of Bucket), was born in Modena, Italy.
    (MC, 9/28/01)

1565        Dec 18, Benedetto Varchi (62), Italian humanist and historian (L'Ercolano), died.
    (MC, 12/18/01)

1565        Tintoretto (c.1518-1594) created his “Crucifixion," later considered the single best example of Italian Renaissance religious art.
    (WSJ, 9/22/07, p.W10)

1565        The Vasari corridor was built in Florence to connect the Pitti Palace with the Uffizi Gallery. In 1664 Leopoldo de Medici began a collection of artists’ self-portraits and housed them in the corridor.
    (Econ, 5/26/07, p.100)

1566        Mar 9, David Riccio, Italian singer, secretary, lover of Mary Stuart, was murdered.
    (MC, 3/9/02)

1566        Gerolamo Bassano (d.1621), Italian artist, was born. His work included “The Sepulchre." It was based on a larger altarpiece painted in 1574 by his father Jacopo Bassano and Francesco Bassano. In 2006 the Washington County Museum of Fine Arts in Maryland commissioned an x-ray of the work and found that it hid a portrait of a man in Renaissance clothing.
    (SFC, 5/12/06, p.E9)(www.ibiblio.org/wm/paint/auth/bassano/)

1567        May 15, Claudio Giovanni Antonio Monteverdi (d.1643), musician and composer (L'Orfeo), was born in Cremona, Italy. He marked the beginning of the Baroque Era in music.
    (LGC-HCS, p.25)(WUD, 1994, p.928)(MC, 5/15/02)

1567        Jun 15, Genoa expelled the Jews. [see Apr 2, 1550]
    (MC, 6/15/02)

1568        Mar 9, Aloysius "Luigi" van Gonzaga, Italian prince, Jesuit, saint, was born.
    (MC, 3/9/02)

1568        Sep 5, Tommasso Campanella, Italian philosopher and poet, who wrote "City of the Sun," was born.
    (HN, 9/5/98)

1569        Aug 27, Pope Pius named Cosimo I de' Medici, grand duke of Toscane.
    (MC, 8/27/01)

1570        Jul 3, Antonio Paleario (67), Italian humanist, was executed by the inquisition.
    (MC, 7/3/02)

1570        Jacopo Zucchi, a mannerist artist, painted "The Bath of Bathsheba."
    (WSJ, 4/28/98, p.A16)

1570        El Greco (1541-1614) arrived in Rome where he resisted and absorbed the lessons of Michelangelo. He stayed for a half dozen years and settled in Toledo, Spain, in 1577.
    (WSJ, 6/18/01, p.A16)

1570        In Carrara, Italy, Alberigo, son of the mad Marquis Alberigo Cybo Malaspina, Lord of Carrara, inaugurated the use of gunpowder for quarrying marble.
    (SFEC,10/19/97, p.T4)

1570-1628    Salamone Rossi, Jewish court composer in Mantua.
    (SFC, 2/28/98, p.B3)

1571        Feb 14, Benvenuto Cellini (b.1500), Florentine goldsmith and sculptor, writer (Perseus), died. His 1545 autobiography greatly influenced the Renaissance.
    (HN, 11/1/00)(WSJ, 2/14/00, p.A20)(www.boglewood.com/cornaro/xcellini.html)

1571        Oct 7, Spanish, Genoese and Venetian ships of the Christian League defeated an Ottoman fleet in the naval Battle of Lepanto, Greece. In the last great clash of galleys, the Ottoman navy lost 117 ships to a Christian naval coalition under the overall command of Spain's Don Juan de Austria.
    (AP, 10/7/07)(www.freerepublic.com/focus/f-religion/1760264/posts)

1571-1610     Michelangelo Merisi de Caravaggio, Italian painter. He painted the "Beheading of St. John" that was kept in Malta and recently sent to Florence for restoration. Paintings from the school of Caravaggio include "The Chastisement of Love." In 1996 the oil painting "A Boy Peeling an Apple" was rediscovered. [see 1571, 1573]
    (SFC, 6/11/96, p.E2)(AAP, 1964)(SFC, 11/19/96, p.B1)(Econ, 2/26/05, p.82)

1572        Nov 23, Agnolo di Cosimo (b.1503), Italian Renaissance painter and poet (aka Bronzino), died. He had worked as the court artist to Cosimo de’ Medici, Duke of Florence. His work included a portrait of "Eleonora of Toledo and her son."
    (MT, Spring 02, p.23)(Econ, 10/2/10, p.92)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bronzino)

1572        Dec 30, Galeazzo Alessi (60), Italian architect (Palazza Marino, Milan), died.
    (MC, 12/30/01)

1573        Jan 31, Giulio Cesare Monteverdi, composer, was born.
    (MC, 1/31/02)

1573        Sep 28, Caravaggio (d.1610), painter, was born in Italy. His emphasis on the play of light and shadow invoked greater realism and set a new trend in painting. His paintings included "Boy Bitten by Lizard." In 1999 Helen Langdon published "Caravaggio, A Life." [see 1565-1609 & 1571-1610]
    (SFEM, 8/31/97, p.8,13)(SFEC, 7/11/99, BR p.6)(MC, 9/28/01)

1574        Apr 21, Cosimo d' Medici (~54), Italian duke of Toscane, died.
    (MC, 4/21/02)

1576        Aug 27, The Venetian painter Titian (Tiziano Vecelli), born about 1488, died of the plague. His handling of color and mastery of new oil techniques made him one of the greatest painters of the Renaissance. In 2012 Sheila Hale authored “Titian: His Life."
    (Reuters, 8/28/01)(www.metmuseum.org/toah/hd/tita/hd_tita.htm)(Econ, 7/28/12, p.72)

1576        The basilica of San Petronio was erected by Egnatio Danti, a mathematician and Dominican friar who worked for Cosimo I dei Medici, the Grand Duke of Tuscany. The structure included a solar observatory. Danti also advised Pope Gregory on calendar reform.
    (SFC, 10/25/99, p.A4)

1576        An epidemic of plague Venice. In 2006 a well-preserved skeleton was found on the Lazzaretto Nuovo island, north of the lagoon city, amid other corpses buried in a mass grave.  Experts said the remains of a woman with a brick stuck between her jaws indicated that she was believed to be a vampire.
    (AP, 3/14/09)

1577        Oct 17, Cristofano Allori, Italian painter (Judith), was born.
    (MC, 10/17/01)

1578        Feb 9, Giambattista Andreini, Italian playwright, actor (L'adamo), was born.
    (MC, 2/9/02)

1578        The catacombs of Rome were discovered by accident.
    (TL-MB, 1988, p.22)

1579        Giambologna began the "Rape of the Sabine," a remarkable example of Mannerist sculpture.
    (TL-MB, 1988, p.22)

1580        Jan 18, Antonio Scandello (63), Italian composer (Passion of John), died.
    (MC, 1/18/02)

1580        Aug 19, Andrea Palladio (b.1508), Renaissance architect, writer (Il Redentore, Venice), died. He designed the Teatro Olimpico in Vincenza just before his death. It was completed by Vincenzo Scamozzi. Palladio authored "The Four Books on Architecture." In 2002 Witold Rybczynski authored "The Perfect House," on the villas of Palladio.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Andrea_Palladio)(WSJ, 12/10/98, p.A20)(WSJ, 11/8/02, p.W12)

c1580        Lavinia Fontana of Bologna painted her "Portrait of a Noblewoman." Her father was Prospero Fontana who collaborated with Giorgio Vasari on decorations for the Palazzo Vecchio in Florence.
    (SFC, 3/30/98, p.D1)
1580        Paolo Veronese (1528-1588), Italian painter, completed about this time his oil on canvas “Judith With the Head of Holofernes."
    (SFC, 10/29/11, p.E1)

1580        Carlo Borromeo, Archbishop of Milan, established the first Sunday schools.
    (TL-MB, p.23)

1581        Galileo Galilei, Italian scientist, discovered the isochronous (equal time) swing of the pendulum by observing a swinging lamp in Pisa Cathedral.
    (TL-MB, p.23)

1582        Oct 15, The Gregorian (or New World) calendar was adopted in Italy, France, Luxembourg, Spain, and Portugal; and the preceding ten days were lost to history. This day followed Oct 4 to bring the calendar into sync. by order of the Council of Trent. Oct 5-14 were dropped.
    (K.I.-365D, p.97)(NG, March 1990, J. Boslough)(HN, 10/15/98)(SFEC, 10/3/99, Par p.27)

c1582        Ludovico Carracci painted "The Lamentation."
    (WSJ, 9/8/00, p.W8)

1583        Feb 20, Joseph Sanalbo, Jewish convert in Rome, was burned at stake on 27 Shebat.

1583        Sep 9, Girolamo Frescobaldi (d.1643, Italian composer, was born.
    (MC, 9/9/01)(WUD, 1994 p.568)

1583        Oct 30, Pirro Ligorio (83), Italian architect, painter and archaeologist, died.
    (MC, 10/30/01)

1583        Veronica Franco, a courtesan, was later described in a 1992 dissertation titled "The Honest Courtesan: Veronica Franco, Citizen & Writer in 16th Century Venice" by Margaret F. Rosenthal. In 1997 it was made into the film  "Dangerous Beauty" with Catherine McCormick. The film was set in Venice of this year during the annual courtesan festival.
    (SFEC, 1/4/98, DB. p.38)(SFC, 2/20/98, p.C8)(WSJ, 11/18/97, p.B1)

1583        The painting “Newborn Baby in a Crib" by Lavinia Fontana (1552-1614), Italian artist, was completed about this time.
    (WSJ, 12/23/08, p.D7)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Lavinia_Fontana)

1584        Lavinia Fontana of Bologna painted her "Portrait of the Gozzadini Family."
    (SFC, 3/30/98, p.D1)

1584        A European public banking system was begun with the establishment of the Banco di Rialto in Venice.
    (TL-MB, p.23)

1587        May 18, Felix van Cantalice, Italian saint, died.
    (SC, 5/18/02)

1587        Aug 14, Gugliemo Gonzaga (b.1538), Italian composer, died.
    (MC, 8/14/02)

1587        Oct 17, Francesco de' Medici (46) died 11 days after he fell ill and a few hours before his wife. In 2007 forensic experts reported evidence that they had died of arsenic poisoning. Francesco had ruled from 1574. By all accounts his wife had been his mistress while he was married to his first wife, who is also believed to have died of poisoning.
    (AP, 1/3/07)

1587        The Rialto Bridge in Venice was begun by the Italian architect, Antonio da Ponte.
    (TL-MB, p.24)

1588        Apr 9, Paolo Veronese (b.1528), Italian painter, died in Venice. His paintings included “The Choice Between Virtue and Vice." He was the son of sculptor Gabriele Caliari.
    (WSJ, 6/15/06, p.D7)(http://cgfa.sunsite.dk/veronese/veronese_bio.htm)

1589        Aug 10, Pietro Antonio Tamburini, Italian composer, was born.
    (MC, 8/10/02)

1590        Oct 16, Carlo Gesualdo (~1566-1613), prince of Venosa, murdered his bride and her lover after catching them in flagrante delicto. In 1995 Werner Herzog covered this in his purported documentary “Death for Five Voices." In 2010 Glenn Watkins authored “The Gesualdo Hex: Music, Myth, and Memory."
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Carlo_Gesualdo)(Econ, 1/23/10, p.79)

1591        Jun 21, Aloysius [Luigi]  Gonzaga, Prince, Italian Jesuit saint, died.
    (MC, 6/21/02)

1593        Jul 11, Giuseppe Arcimboldo (b.1527), Italian painter, died. Arcimboldo painted representations of objects, such as fruits and vegetables, on the canvas arranged in such a way that the whole collection of objects formed a recognizable likeness of the portrait subject. He painted a portrait of Holy Roman Emperor Rudolf II composed entirely of vegetables.
    (WUD, 1994, p.78)(WSJ, 7/10/97, p.A13)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Giuseppe_Arcimboldo)

1593        Aug 23, Fulvio Testi, Italian poet (Pianto d'Italia), was born.
    (MC, 8/23/02)

1593        The Minhogimbukh, a Jewish version of the old Farmers’ Almanac, was written in Yiddish and published in Venice.
    (SFC, 12/6/04, p.B1)

1593-1652/3     Artemisia Gentileschi, whose first known work is "Susanna and the Elders" (1610), was a follower of Caravaggio and his style of dramatic realism. Artemisia, the daughter of Orazio Gentileschi (also influenced by Caravaggio), was taught to paint by her father and landscape artist Agostino Tassi. In 1616, she joined the Academy of Design in Florence. She traveled to various cities, from Rome to London--the latter to visit her father. While there she also gained acclaim as a portrait artist. She eventually settled in Naples.
    (HNQ, 3/8/01)

1594        Feb 2, Giovanni Perluigi da Palestrina (68), Italian composer, died.
    (MC, 2/2/02)

1594        May 31, Jacopo Tintoretto (b.1518), Italian artist, died.

c1594        Caravaggio painted "The Ecstasy of St. Francis."
    (WSJ, 4/28/98, p.A16)

1594        Medici King Ferdinando I built a royal villa in Tuscany.
    (Carmignano, 1997)

c1594-1595    Caravaggio painted "The Cardsharps."
    (WSJ, 4/28/98, p.A16)

1595        May 26, Philippus Nerius (79), [Filippo Neri], Italian merchant, Jesuit, saint, died.
    (MC, 5/26/02)

1596        Sep 3, Nicolo Amati (d.1684), Italian violin maker, was born. He was the grandson of violin maker Andrea Amati and taught Antonio Stradivari and Andrea Guarneri.
    (WSJ, 1/11/99, p.R53)(MC, 9/3/01)

1596          Italian artist Jacopo Ligozzi (1547-1627) painted “The Abduction of the Sabine Women."
    (http://tinyurl.com/gt9sxvs)(Econ, 1/30/15, p.53)

1596-1597    Caravaggio painted "A Boy Bitten by a Lizard." (SFC, 9/12/97, p.C8)

1597        Cardinal Odoardo Farnese, the nephew of Pope Paul III, commissioned Annibale Carracci and his workshop to decorate the barrel-vaulted gallery on the piano nobile of the family palace. Work was started in 1597 and was not entirely finished until 1608, one year before Annibale's death.

1597        Giovanni Gabrieli composed "Sonata pian’ e forte," a piece for two antiphonal brass quartets.
    (SFC, 1/9/98, p.D7)

1598        Jan 8, Genoa, Italy, expelled its Jews.
    (MC, 1/8/02)

1598        Dec 7, Giovanni "Gian" Lorenzo Bernini (d.Nov 28, 1680), Italian sculptor, painter, architect, was born. He was the greatest sculptor of the 17th century and worked under the patronage of Pope Urban VII. His work included the "Ecstasy of St. Teresa," "David" and "Daphne and Apollo."
    (WSJ, 12/4/97, p.A20)(WSJ, 9/15/98, p.A20)(WSJ, 1/11/99, p.R53)

1598        Guido Reni painted a fresco titled “The Separation of Night and Day" in Bologna. It was later purchased by William John Bankes and installed at Kingston Lacy in Dorset, England.
    (FT, 3/29/06, p.10)

1598-1599    Caravaggio painted "Narcissus."
    (WSJ, 4/28/98, p.A16)

1599        Jul 23, Caravaggio received his 1st public commission for paintings.
    (MC, 7/23/02)

1599        Francesco Borromini (d.1667), Italian Baroque architect and sculptor, was born.
    (SFEC, 7/12/98, p.B9)(WSJ, 6/27/00, p.A28)

1600        Feb 17, Giordano Bruno (b.1548), Italian philosopher, occasional alchemist and advocate of Copernican theory, was burned at stake by the Catholic Church. In 2008 Ingrid D. Rowland authored “Giordano Bruno: Philosopher / Heretic."
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Giordano_Bruno)(WSJ, 8/21/01, p.A17)(WSJ, 12/19/08, p.A15)

1600        Caravaggio signed a contract with Tibor Cerasi, Pope Clement VIII’s treasurer-general, to decorate the Cerasi Chapel of Rome’s Church of Santa Maria Del Popolo with 2 paintings. One would depict the “Martyrdom of St. Peter" and the other the conversion of Paul.
    (WSJ, 10/15/05, p.P11)

c1600-1700    In Naples Giovan Battista Basile wrote his classic collection of folktales known as the "Pentamerone." It included "La Gatta Cennerentola," or "Cinderella the Cat."
    (SFC,11/4/97, p.B3)

1602        Feb 14, Pier Francesco Cavalli, Italian opera composer, was born.
    (MC, 2/14/02)

1602        Caravaggio painted "The Taking of Christ." In 2005 Jonathan Harr authored “The Lost Painting: The Quest for a Caravaggio Masterpiece."
    (WSJ, 5/13/99, p.A28)(SSFC, 12/11/05, p.M6)

1602        Matteo Ricci, a Jesuit missionary from Italy, created the first Chinese map to show the Americas, at the request of Emperor Wanli. The map identified Florida as "the Land of Flowers" and put China at the center of the world. Ricci was among the first Westerners to live in what is now Beijing in the early 1600s. He became known for introducing Western science to China. In October, 2009, one such Ricci maps, one of only two in good condition, was purchased by the James Ford Bell Trust for $1 million, making it the 2nd most expensive rare map ever sold.
    (AP, 1/12/10)

1604        May 4, Claudio Merulo (71), Italian organist, composer, died.
    (MC, 5/4/02)

1604-1605    Caravaggio painted "St. John the Baptist in the Wilderness."
    (WSJ, 4/28/98, p.A16)

1605        Pope Paul V was elected. After 2 months he elevated his young law-student nephew, Scipione Borghese, to the office of cardinal.
    (WSJ, 9/15/98, p.A20)

c1606        Caravaggio painted "St. John the Baptist."
    (WSJ, 4/28/98, p.A16)
1606        Caravaggio fled Rome after he accidentally killed a man.
    (Econ, 2/26/05, p.82)

1606        Venice expelled the Jesuits as part of a larger jurisdictional dispute with the Vatican.
    (WSJ, 5/5/07, p.P10)

1607        Feb 24, Claudio Monteverdi's opera "Orfeo," premiered at the Court Theater in Mantua.
    (WSJ, 6/19/97, p.A16)(AP, 2/24/07)

1608        Jan 28, Giovanni Alfonso Borelli, mathematician, astronomer, was born in Naples.
    (MC, 1/28/02)

1608        May 28, Claudio Monteverdi's "Arianna," premiered at the Court Theater in Mantua.
    (MC, 5/28/02)

1608        Jun 4, Francesco Caracciolo (44), Italian religious founder, saint, died.
    (MC, 6/4/02)

1608        Italian artist Caravaggio was expelled from the Knights of Malta after he murdered one young man and got into a brawl that left a knight seriously injured.
    (AP, 2/5/13)

1609        Feb 7, Ferdinand I, cardinal, ruler of Toscany, died.
    (MC, 2/7/02)

1609        Jul 15, Annibale Carracci (b.1560), Italian Baroque painter, died.

1609        Aug 25, Galileo demonstrated his 1st telescope to Venetian lawmakers. Galileo Galilei had improved the newly invented telescope and soon pointed it at the moon.
    (MC, 8/25/02)(V.D.-H.K.p.200)

1609        Nov 30, Galileo began observing the moon with his perspicullum from Padua, Italy.
    (CW, Spring ‘99, p.34)

1609        Caravaggio (1571-1610) completed his "Adoration of the Shepherds," during a brief stay in Messina, Sicily.
    (AP, 10/7/09)

1610        Mar 13, Galileo published his observations of the night sky under the title “Siderius Nuncius" (Starry Messenger).
    (CW, Spring ‘99, p.36)

1610        Apr 22, Alexander VIII, [Pietro Ottoboni], Italian lawyer, Pope (1689-91), was born.
    (MC, 4/22/02)

1610        May 11, Matteo Ricci, Italian Jesuit missionary (China), died.
    (MC, 5/11/02)

1610        Jul 18, Michelangelo Merisi da Caravaggio (b.1571), Italian artist, died in Porto Ercole at age 38. His paintings included “David With the Head of Goliath," in which he used his own image for Goliath. In 1999 Helen Langdon authored the biography: "Caravaggio: A Life." In 2000 Peter Robb authored the biography: "M: The Man Who Became Caravaggio." In 2010 Andrew Graham-Dixon authored “Caravaggio: A Life Sacred and Profane."
    (Econ, 2/26/05, p.82)(WSJ, 5/4/05, p.D8)(http://tinyurl.com/8jjs6)(SFC, 7/22/10, p.79)

1610        Claudio Monteverdi (1567-1643), Italian musician, singer and priest, composed his Vespers.
    (SFC, 11/15/14, p.E1)

c1610-1615    Orazio Gentileschi, the father of Artemisia (one of the most gifted women painters of all time), painted "Judith and her Maidservant With the head of Holofernes." The 1998 film "Artemisia" was based on the life of Artemisia.
    (WSJ, 4/28/98, p.A16)(SFEC, 5/10/98, DB p.48)

1611        The Aqua Paola aqueduct was built in Rome.
    (SFEC, 7/2/00, p.T5)

1612        Aug 12, Giovanni Gabrieli (60), Italian composer (Madrigals), died.
    (MC, 8/12/02)

1613        Sep 8, Carlo Gesualdo (b.~1566), prince of Venosa, died. He was an Italian music composer, lutenist and nobleman of the late Renaissance and became famous for his intensely expressive madrigals. In 1590 he murdered his bride and her lover after catching them in flagrante delicto. In 2010 Glenn Watkins authored “the Gesualdo Hex: Music, Myth, and Memory."
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Carlo_Gesualdo)(Econ, 1/23/10, p.79)

1614        Jul 14, Camillus de Lellis (64), Italian soldier, monastery founder, saint, died.
    (MC, 7/14/02)

1614        Inigo Jones (1573-1652), British architect, traveled to Italy and bought a trunk full of Palladio’s architectural drawings. In 1894 they ended up at the Royal Institute of British Architects.
    (Econ, 9/27/08, p.100)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Inigo_Jones)

1616        Feb 26, Spanish Inquisition delivered an injunction to Galileo.
    (SC, 2/26/02)

1618        Apr 2, Francesco M. Grimaldi, mathematician, physicist (light diffraction), was born.
    (MC, 4/2/02)

1621-1623    Orazio Gentileschi painted "Danaë."
    (WSJ, 3/12/02, p.A24)

1624        Giovanni Lanfranco painted the "Council of the Gods" on the ceiling of the Galleria Borghese.
    (WSJ, 9/15/98, p.A20)

1625        Jun 8, Giovanni Domenico Cassini, discoverer of four satellites of Saturn, was born in Perinaldo, Italy. Gian Domenico Cassini was an astrologer and then became an astronomer and was known in France as Jean-Dominique Cassini. At the Paris observatory he discovered the wide gap in the rings of Saturn now called the Cassini division, as well as four of the planet’s moons.
    (SFEC, 10/5/97, Z1 p.4)(HN, 6/8/98)(SFCM, 3/17/02, p.29)

1625        Nov 14, Giulio C. Procaccini, Italian sculptor and painter, died.
    (MC, 11/14/01)

1625        Rutilio Manetti painted "Lot and His Daughters."
    (WSJ, 4/28/98, p.A16)

1626        Jul 30, An earthquake hit Naples and some 10,000 died.
    (MC, 7/30/02)

1626        Nov 18, Pope Urban VIII consecrated St. Peter’s Cathedral in Rome. Construction had begun in 1506.
    (HN, 11/18/98)(SSFC, 2/18/07, p.A2)

1626        Andrea Guarneri (d.1698), violin maker, was born.
    (WSJ, 1/11/99, p.R53)

1627        The Barcaccia Fountain in Rome was engineered by Gian Lorenzo Bernini with help from his father.
    (SFEC, 7/2/00, p.T5)

1628        Oct 14, Iacopo Nigreti (b.~1548-50), prolific and facile Venetian Mannerist painter, died. He is best known as Jacopo Palma il Giovane or simply Palma Giovane ("Young Palma"). His paintings included “Yael Killing Sisera," a depiction of the Book of Judges Biblical story of the heroine, Yael of Jael, who killed Sisera to deliver Israel from the troops of king Jabin. She was the wife of Heber the Kenite.

1628        Margherita de Medici was wed to Duke Odoardo Farnese in the Teatro Farnese in Parma. Music was composed by Claudio Monteverdi.
    (SFC, 9/15/96, p.T6)

1630        Mar 23, French troops occupied Pinerolo, Piedmont.
    (SS, 3/23/02)

1630        May 17, Italian Jesuit Niccolo Zucchi saw the belts on Jupiter's surface.
    (HN, 5/17/98)

1630        Nov 1-1630 Nov 30, In Italy 12,000 inhabitants of Venice died of plague. 80,000 people died over a period of 17 months.
    (WSJ, 9/7/05, p.D14)(www.turismovenezia.it/eng/dynalay.asp?PAGINA=913)

1631        Jun 26, Justinus van Nassau, Italian admiral (Armada), died.
    (MC, 6/26/02)

1631        Jul 19, Cesare Cremonini (b.1550), Italian philosopher and lecturer at Padua Univ., died. His skepticism influenced the culture of the late Renaissance. In 2007 Edward Muir authored “The Culture Wars of the Late Renaissance."
    (WSJ, 5/5/07, p.P10)

1631        Dec 16, In Italy Mount Vesuvius erupted and destroyed 6 villages. Some 3.5-4,000 people were killed.
    (SFEC, 5/2/99, p.T8)(MC, 12/16/01)

1631        Marco d'Aviano, an itinerant preacher for the Capuchins, a branch of the Franciscan friars, was born in Aviano, northern Italy. He led Catholics and Protestants in prayer on the eve of the 1683 battle for Vienna, Austria, which was critical in stopping the advance of Turkish soldiers in Europe.
    (AP, 4/27/03)

1632        Nov 28, Jean-Baptiste Lully, composer, was born in Florence, Italy. [see Feb 28]
    (MC, 11/28/01)

1632        Nov 28, Jean-Baptiste Lully, composer, was born in Florence, Italy. [see Feb 28]
    (MC, 11/28/01)

1632        Pope Urban VIII's nephew stole two altar paintings from a provincial church and smuggled them to Rome. The clandestine move from the central Italian city of Urbino on the back of a mule, hid the link between the two paintings and their creator, Dominican friar Fra Carnevale.
    (AP, 10/30/04)

1633        Feb 13, Italian astronomer Galileo Galilei arrived in Rome for trial before the Inquisition.
    (AP, 2/13/98)

1633        Jun 21, Galileo Galilei was tortured and threatened by Inquisition to "abjure, curse, & detest" his Copernican heliocentric views.
    (JST-TMC,1983, p.7)(MC, 6/21/02)

1633        Jun 22, Galileo Galilei was again forced by the Pope to recant that the Earth orbits the Sun. On Oct 31, 1992, the Vatican admitted it was wrong.
    (MC, 6/22/02)

1634        Luca Giordano (d.1705), Neapolitan baroque painter, was born.
    (WSJ, 1/15/02, p.A14)

1639        May 21, Tommaso Campanella (b.1568), Italian philosopher, theologian, astrologer, and poet, died. He spent 27 years imprisoned in Naples (1599-1626) for leading a conspiracy against the Spanish rule. During his detention, he wrote his most important works: The Monarchy of Spain (1600), Political Aphorisms (1601), Atheismus triumphatus (Atheism Conquered, 1605–1607), Quod reminiscetur (1606?), Metaphysica (1609–1623), Theologia (1613–1624), and his most famous work, The City of the Sun (originally written in Italian in 1602; published in Latin in Frankfurt (1623) and later in Paris (1638)).

1640        Apr 10, Agostino Agazzari (61), Italian composer, died.
    (MC, 4/10/02)

1642        Jan 8, Astronomer Galileo Galilei (77) died in Arcetri, Italy. Galileo had 2 daughters consigned to a nunnery and one son, whom he got married into a rich Florentine family. In 1614, Father Tommaso Caccini denounced the opinions of Galileo on the motion of the Earth from the pulpit of Santa Maria Novella, judging them to be erroneous. Galileo went to Rome and defended himself against charges that had been made against him. In 1616, he was admonished by Cardinal Bellarmino and told that he could not defend Copernican astronomy because it went against the doctrine of the Church. Later, in 1632 he was summoned by the Holy Office to Rome. The tribunal passed a sentence condemning him and compelled Galileo to solemnly abjure his theory. He was sent to exile in Siena. Galileo spent his last years almost totally blind and poor. In 1999 Dava Sobel published "Galileo's Daughter."
    (BHT, Hawking, p.180)(AP, 1/8/98)(WSJ, 10/19/99, p.A24)(MC, 1/8/02)

1643        Mar 1, Girolamo Frescobaldi (59), Italian composer, organist, died.
    (SC, 3/1/02)

1643        Nov 29, Claudio Giovanni Monteverdi (76), Italian composer (L'Arianna), died.
    (MC, 11/29/01)

1644        Oct 1, Alessandro Stradella, Italian violinist and composer, was born.
    (MC, 10/1/01)

1644        Jul 11, A Florentine scientist described the invention of barometer.
    (MC, 7/11/02)

1644        Antonio Stradivari (d.1737), violin maker, was born.
    (WSJ, 1/11/99, p.R53)

1646        Aug 28, Fulvio Testi (53), Italian poet (Poesie liriche), died.
    (MC, 8/28/01)

1647        Jul 7, In Naples an outbreak began with a riot at the city gates between the fruit-vendors of the environs and the customs officers. Misgovernment and fiscal oppression during the Thirty Years' War had aroused much discontent throughout the Kingdom of Naples.

1647        Jul 16, Masaniello (b.1622), an Italian fisherman, was murdered in Naples after leading a doomed revolt against Habsburg rule.
    (Econ, 7/16/11, p.88)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Masaniello)

1648        Apr 5, Spanish troops and feudal barons struck down people's uprising in Naples.
    (MC, 4/5/02)

1649        Alessandro Turchi (b.1578), Italian painter, died in Rome. His work included “The Lamentation Over the Dead Christ" (1617).

1650        The Fontana dei Quattro Fiumi, fountain of Four Rivers, in Rome’s Piazza Navona was designed by Bernini.
    (SFEC, 7/2/00, p.T5)

1652        Feb 17, Gregorio Allegri (67), Italian singer, composer (Miserere), died.
    (MC, 2/17/02)

1653        King Emanuele Filiberto moved Savoy’s capital across the Alps from Chambery to Turin to escape French clutches.
    (SSFC, 1/22/06, p.E6)

1655        In Bologna Domenico Cassini persuaded the builders of the Basilica of San Petronio that they should include a major upgrade of Dante's old meridian with a new entry hole for daylight to track the projected sun on the cathedral floor. Sassini was able to use the observatory to confirm Kepler's version of the Copernican theory.
    (SFC, 10/25/99, p.A4)

1657        Venice re-admitted the Jesuits ushering in a period of cultural conservatism that marked the end of the “Renaissance project."
    (WSJ, 5/5/07, p.P10)

1658        Apr 22, Giuseppe Torelli, composer (Concert Grossi op 8), was born in Italy.
    (MC, 4/22/02)

1658        Construction began on the Royal Palace in Turin, Italy.
    (SSFC, 1/22/06, p.E6)

1661        Aug 7, Benedetta Carlini (b.1590), a Catholic mystic and lesbian nun who lived in counter-reformation Italy, died after having spent thirty-five years in prison. In 2021 a biographical film about Benedetta Carlini called Benedetta, directed by Paul Verhoeven, was released.

1666        Feb 15, Antonio M. Valsalva, Italian anatomist (eardrums, glottis), was born.
    (MC, 2/15/02)

1666        Aug 4, Johan Evertsen, Italian admiral of Zeeland, was lynched in Brielle.
    (MC, 8/4/02)

1666        Pier Francesco Mola (b.1612), Italian Baroque artist, died in Rome.

1667        Aug 3, Francesco Borromini (b.1599), Italian Baroque architect and sculptor, died. He designed the San Ivo della Sapienza church in Rome. In 2005 Jake Morrissey authored “The Genius in the Design: Bernini, Borromini and the Rivalry that Transformed Rome."
    (www.bookrags.com/biography-francesco-borromini/)(Econ, 7/25/05, p.71)

1669        Aug 24, Alessandro Marcello (d.1747), composer, was born in Venice.
    (MC, 8/24/02)

1670        Jul 18, Giovanni Battista Bononcini, Italian (opera) composer, was born.
    (MC, 7/18/02)

1671        Jun 8, Tomaso Albinoni, Italian composer (Adagio in G-minor), was born.
    (MC, 6/8/02)

1671        Dec 1, Francesco Stradivari, Italian violin maker and son of Antonius, was born.
    (MC, 12/1/01)

c1675-1741    Antonio Vivaldi, Italian violinist and composer. [see 1678]
    (WUD, 1994, p.1598)

1676        Geminiamo Montanari, Italian astronomer, documented a meteor with a sound "like the rattling of a great Cart running over Stones." It was later understood that meteors can detectable generate radio waves.
    (NH, 7/02, p.38)

1678        Mar 4, Antonio Vivaldi (d.1741), Italian Baroque composer (4 Seasons) and violinist, was born in Venice. [see 1675]
    (HN, 3/4/01)(SC, 3/4/02)

1680        Nov 28 Giovanni "Gian" Lorenzo Bernini (b.Dec 7,1598), Sculptor, Painter, Architect, Italian, the greatest sculptor of the 17th century, died.
    (DTnet, 11/28/97)

1682        Feb 13, Giovanni Piazzetta, painter, was born.
    (HN, 2/13/98)

1683        Guarino Guarini (b.1624), Italian architect, writer, mathematician and philosopher, died in Milan.

1684        Lorenzo de Tonti (b.~1602),  governor of Gaeta, Italy, and a Neapolitan banker, died about this time. He is sometimes credited with the invention of the tontine, a form of life insurance, although it has also been suggested that he simply modified existing procedures.
    (https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Lorenzo_de_Tonti)(Econ 6/17/17, p.68)

1685        Oct 26, Domenico Scarlatti (d.1757, composer and harpsichordist was born in Naples, Italy. Scarlatti, son of Alessandro, composed over 550 short, keyboard sonatas or exercises.
    (WUD, 1994 p.1275)(LGC-HCS, p.38)(MC, 10/26/01)

1686        Jul 24, Benedetto Marcello, composer, was born. [see Aug 1]
    (MC, 7/24/02)

1686        Aug 1, Benedetto Marcello, Italian author, composer (Lettera Famigliare), was born in Venice, Italy. [see Jul 24]
    (MC, 8/1/02)

1690        Jul 10, Domenico Gabrielli (39), composer, died.
    (MC, 7/10/02)

1691        Feb 8, Carlo di Girolamo Rainaldi (79), Italian architect, composer, died.
    (MC, 2/8/02)

1691-1765    Giovanni Paolo Panini, Italian artist. He was later known for his portrayals of Rome.
    (WSJ, 9/8/00, p.W2)

1692        Apr 8, Giuseppe Tartini, Italy, violinist, composer (Trillo del Diavolo), was born.
    (MC, 4/8/02)

1692        Nov 21, Carlo Fragoni, Italian poet, was born.
    (MC, 11/21/01)

1693        Jan 11, An earthquake struck parts of southern Italy near Sicily, Calabria and Malta. It destroyed at least 70 towns and cities, seriously affecting an area of 5,600 square km (2,200 sq. miles) and causing the death of about 60,000 people.

1695        Sep 3, Pietro Antonio Locatelli, Italian violinist and composer, was born.
    (MC, 9/3/01)

c1695        Orazio Gentileschi, painted "St. Francis and the Angel."
    (WSJ, 4/28/98, p.A16)

1696        Mar 5, Giambattista Giovanni Battista Tiepolo (d.1770), Venetian Rococo painter (Isaac's Sacrifice), was born. He painted for the Dolfin family in the 1720s. His work included: "The Annunciation" (c1765-1770), "Apelles Painting a Portrait of Campaspe," "Martyrdom of St. Agatha," "Sacrifice of Isaac," "The Finding of Moses," "Nobility and Virtue" (1743), "Satyress with a Putto," "Satyress With Two Putti and a Tambourine," and "Halberdier in a Landscape." His contemporaries included Francesco Fontebasso, Allesandro Longhi, and Louis-Joseph Le Lorrain.
    (AAP, 1964)(WUD, 1994, p.1483)(WSJ, 10/14/96, p.A14)(SFC, 3/25/97, p.E3)(MC, 3/5/02)
        During the time of Tiepolo, the Republic of Venice was in a steep decline from eminence as a maritime hub of European trade.
    (SFC, 2/5/97, p.E3)

1696        Sep 27, Alfonsus M. de' Liguori, Italian theologian, bishop, and religious order founder, was born.
    (MC, 9/27/01)

1697        May 12, The fall of the Venetian Republic.
    (SFC, 5/10/97, p.A10)

1697-1798    Antonio Canal, Italian topographical view painter. He was the uncle to Bernardo Belotto.
    (WSJ, 9/13/01, p.A18)

1700        The inventory of Medici instruments for 1700 establishes that at least one piano, created by Bartolomeo Cristofori (1655-1731), had been completed by this date. Cristofori began work on the “harpsichord with soft and loud" in 1698.

1700        The population in Rome was about 135,000.
    (WSJ, 4/28/00, p.W8)

1703        L'Aquila in central Italy was again devastated by an earthquake.
    (Econ, 10/27/12, p.80)

1705        Luca Giordano (b.1634), Neapolitan baroque painter, died. He had studied under Spanish-born teacher Jusepe de Ribera and late in life spent 10 years in Spain.
    (WSJ, 1/15/02, p.A14)

1707        Feb 25, Italian playwright Carlo Goldoni (d.1793) was born in Venice. "He who talks much cannot always talk well."
    (AP, 6/1/98)(AP, 2/25/07)

1707        Moses Chaim Luzzato (d.1746), Hebrew playwright, was born in Padua. His work included the Mesillat Yesharim (1740), essentially an ethical treatise but with certain mystical underpinnings.

1709        Feb 8, Giuseppi Torelli (50), Italian composer, died.
    (MC, 2/8/02)

1710        Jan 4, Giovanni Battista Pergolesi (d.1736), Italian composer (Il Prigioniero Superbo), was born.
    (MC, 1/4/02)(SFC, 6/24/02, p.B6)

1711        May 18, Ruggiero G. Boscovich [Rudzer J Boskovic], Italian astronomer, was born.
    (SC, 5/18/02)

1713        Jan 8, Arcangelo Corelli (b.1653), Italian violinist and composer, died. His music was key in the development of the modern genres of sonata and concerto.
    (https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Arcangelo_Corelli)(Econ., 5/23/20, p.74)

1714        Mar 6, the Treaty of Rastatt ended the war between Austria and Spain. It complemented the Treaty of Utrecht, which had, the previous year, ended hostilities with Britain and the Dutch Republic. The Spanish Netherlands became the Austrian Netherlands, and Spain gave up her possession in Italy, Luxembourg and Flanders. A third treaty, the Treaty of Baden (Sep 7, 1714), was required to end the hostilities between France and the Holy Roman Empire.
    (PCh, ed. 1992, p.279)(http://tinyurl.com/b8uxbje)

1715        Daniel Parker (~1700-1775), English violin maker, visited Stradivari’s workshop about this time in Cremona, Italy, and acquired an abundance of the master’s secrets in making violins.
    (Econ, 1/2/10, p.11)(www.amacviolins.com/amac/gallery/doc/makers.htm)

1716        Sep 24, Medici Grand Duke Cosimo III passed a law limiting and regulating the area of wine production in Tuscany, thus creating the 1st "Appelation Controlee" wine.
    (Carmignano, 1997)

1719        Tiepolo painted "Scipio Africanus Freeing Massiva," a 9 x 16 foot painting that now resides at Walters Art Gallery in Baltimore. The painting required much restoration after having fallen into New York Harbor and being dripped on from a leak in the Walters roof.
    (WSJ, 5/21/96, p.A-16)

1720        Giovanni Battista Piranesi (d.1778), Italian master printmaker, was born in Veneto. His fame rests on fantastic and often nightmarish etchings of ruins and prisons. He restored the church of Santa Maria in Aventino.
    (WSJ, 3/31/98, p.A20)(Econ, 3/1/14, p.87)

1722-1780    Bernardo Belotto (Il Canaletto), Italian topographical view painter. He was the nephew of Antonio Canal. He later worked as court painter in Dresden and Warsaw.
    (WSJ, 9/13/01, p.A18)

1723        Oct 31, Cosimo III de' Medici (81), ruler of Florence (1670-1723), died.
    (MC, 10/31/01)

1725        Apr 2, Giovanni Casanova, Italian adventurer, was born. [see Apr 5]
    (HN, 4/2/01)

1725        Apr 5, Giacomo Casanova, Italian writer, philanderer, adventurer, was born. [see Apr 2]
    (MC, 4/5/02)

1725        Oct 22, Alessandro Scarlatti (65), composer, died.
    (MC, 10/22/01)

1725        John Law, financier, moved to Venice and made a modest living gambling.
    (WSJ, 7/19/00, p.B4)

1727        Aug 30, Giandomenico Tiepolo (d.1804), Venetian painter, was born. His subjects included troupes of traveling players from northern Italy.
    (Econ, 4/10/04, p.72)(www.britannica.com)

1728        May 7, Rosa Venerini (b.1656), Italian nun and founder of the Congregation of the Holy Venerini Teachers, died. In 2006 Pope Benedict XVI named her a saint.
    (SFC, 10/16/06, p.A2)(www.korazym.org/news1.asp?Id=19552)

1729        Filippo Juvarra designed the Palazzina di Caccia, a little hunting palace at Stupingi for  King Vittorio Amedeo II.
    (WSJ, 8/18/99, p.A17)

1729        Scotsman John Law (58), gambler and financier, died in Venice. An inventory of his wealth included 488 paintings with works by Titian, Raphael, Michelangelo and Leonardo da Vinci.
    (WSJ, 7/19/00, p.B4)

1730        Canaletto created his Venetian painting “Entrance to the Grand Canal."
    (WSJ, 9/7/05, p.D14)

1730        "Argippo," the only opera Vivaldi (1678-1741) actually wrote for Prague, was staged just one time in Prague. The score was found in 2006 and another staging was set for 2008.
    (AFP, 5/1/08)

1731        Jan 20, Antonio Farnese (b.1679), the eighth and ultimate Farnese Duke of Parma and Piacenza, died. The Farnese art collection passed to Charles III, king of Naples.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Antonio_Farnese,_Duke_of_Parma)(Econ, 3/12/11, p.100)

1731        Giovanni Paolo Panini made his painting "Interior of St. Peter’s, Rome."
    (WSJ, 9/8/00, p.W2)

1732        Sep 2, Pope Clement XII renewed the anti-Jewish laws of Rome.
    (MC, 9/2/01)

1732-1762    Nicola Salvi, sculptor, spent 30 years on the Fontana de Trevi in Rome. It was the terminus of Agrippas Aqua Virgo.
    (SFEC, 7/2/00, p.T4)

1733        Vivaldi’s opera, "Motezuma" was first performed. The score came to light in 2002 when Hamburg-based musicologist Steffen Voss found a copy of the score in the archives of a Berlin-based choral society.
    (AFP, 5/1/08)

1734        Mar 10, Spanish army under Don Carlos (III) drew into Naples.
    (MC, 3/10/02)

1734        Charles III was crowned King of the Two Sicilies. He ordered the island of Ponza rebuilt as part of his defenses. Major Winspeare of the British Royal Army Corp was the engineer of the project and the design was by Carpi, a Neopolitan architect.
    (SFEC, 11/8/98, p.T12)

1736        Mar 16, Giovanni Battista Pergolesi (b.1710), Italian composer (Il Prigioniero Superbo, Stabat Mater), died. Marvin Paymer (d.2002), an expert on Pergolesi, later edited the 26-volume "The New Pergolesi Edition."
    (MC, 1/4/02)(SFC, 6/24/02, p.B6)(MC, 3/16/02)

1736        Gian Domenico Ferretti (1692-1767) created his painting “The Brazen Serpent."

1736        Filippo Juvarra (b.1678), Italian baroque architect, died in Madrid.

1737        Mar 12, Galileo's body was moved to Church of Santa Croce in Florence, Italy.
    (MC, 3/12/02)

1737        Jul 9, Gian Gastone b.1671), the last Medici to rule Tuscany, died. With his death Florence ended its era as an independent state. Tuscany fell to Francis of Lorraine (later Holy Roman Emperor Francis I), husband of Maria Theresa of Austria, in exchange for Lorraine, which went to Stanislaus I of Poland.
    (http://tinyurl.com/mylnlb)(SFEC,11/30/97, p.T3)(AM, 7/05, p.39)

1737        Dec 18, Antonio Stradivari, the most renowned violin maker in history, died in Cremona, Italy. He made about 1200 violins of great quality of which half still survive. In 2006 Joseph Nagyvary, a Texas biochemist and violin maker, put forward evidence that the quality of sound in a Stradivari violin was due to chemicals used to protect the wood from wood-eating worms.
    (WSJ, 10/17/94, p.1)(AP, 12/18/98)(SFC, 12/28/06, p.A20)

1737        Florence ended its era as an independent state.
    (SFEC,11/30/97, p.T3)

1739        Jul 24, Benedetto Marcello, composer, died on 53rd birthday.
    (MC, 7/24/02)

1739        In Ferrara, Italy, the scheduled Carnival production of Vivaldi's "Il Farnace did not take place. Ferrara Cardinal Tomaso Ruffo had banned Vivaldi from the city because the ordained Catholic priest had stopped celebrating Mass and was said to be in a relationship with singer Anna Giro. The decision sent Vivaldi (1648-1741) into debt for his final years in exile.
    (https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Antonio_Vivaldi)(SFC, 12/31/21, p.A4)

1740        Feb 3, Charles de Bourbon, King of Naples, invited the Jews to return to Sicily.
    (MC, 2/3/02)

1740        Feb 16, Giambattista Bodoni, printer, typeface designer (Bodoni), was born in Saluzzo, Italy.
    (MC, 2/16/02)

1740        May 9, Giovanni Paisiello, Italian composer (Barber of Seville), was born.
    (MC, 5/9/02)

1741        The Vieuxtemps Guarneri is a violin built about this time in Cremona by the renowned Italian instrument maker Giuseppe Guarneri. In 2012 it was auctioned for an estimated $16 million. The buyer later made the violin available for life to American violinist Anne Akiko Meyers.
    (Econ 5/13/17, p.72)

1742        May 11, Francesco Stradivari (70), Italian violin maker, son of Antonius, died.
    (MC, 5/11/02)

1742        Giuseppe Guarneri, aka Guarneri del Gesu, created the violin later dubbed "The Cannon" by Paganini.
    (SFEC, 10/24/99, DB p.36)

1743        Feb 19, [Rodolfo] Luigi Boccherini, Italian composer, cellist (Minuet), was born.
    (MC, 2/19/02)

1743        Jun 8, Alessandro Cagliostro, adventurer, was born in Palermo, Italy.
    (MC, 6/8/02)

1743        Sep 13, England, Austria & Savoye-Sardinia signed the Treaty of Worms.
    (MC, 9/13/01)

1743        Giovanni Battista Tiepolo painted "The Triumph of Flora."
    (SFEC, 6/7/98, Z1 p.2)

1745        Feb 18, Count Alessandro Giuseppe Antonio Anastasio Volta (d.1827), Italian physicist, inventor (battery), was born.
    (AHD, 1971 p.1436)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Alessandro_Volta)

1746        Tiepolo painted his "Saint Catherine of Siena."
    (WSJ, 1/23/97, p.A12)

1747        Jul 9, Giovanni Battista Bononcini (76), Italian opera-composer, died.
    (MC, 7/9/02)

1747        Jul 30, Antonio Benedetto Maria Puccini, composer, was born.
    (MC, 7/30/02)

1747        Carlo Bergonzi, the last of the great Cremonese violin makers, died.
    (Econ, 7/30/05, p.78)

1748        Apr 1,  The ruins of Pompeii were found. The city of Pompeii, buried in 79CE, was discovered.
    (SFEC, 4/12/98, p.T3)(OTD)

1749        Jan 16, Vittorio Alfieri (d.1803), Italian dramatist and tragic poet famous for Cleopatra and Parigi Shastigliata, was born. "Often the test of courage is not to die but to live."
    (HN, 1/16/99)

1749        Giovanni Battista Piranesi began his painting "The Gothic Arch.’
    (WSJ, 4/28/00, p.W8)

1750        May 23, Carlo Goldoni's "Il Bugiardo," premiered in Mantua.
    (MC, 5/23/02)

1750        Aug 18, Antonio Salieri (d.1825), Italian composer (Tatare), was born.
    (WSJ, 1/14/04, p.D10)(MC, 8/18/02)

1752        Jan 23, Muzio Clementi, Italian composer, was born.
    (MC, 1/23/02)

1757        Jul 23, Giuseppe Domenico Scarlatti (71), Italian composer (La Silvia), died.
    (MC, 7/23/02)

1757        Nov 1, Antonio Canova (d.1822), Italian sculptor, was born.

1759        Nov 24, There was a destructive eruption of Vesuvius.
    (MC, 11/24/01)

1760        Sep 14, Luigi  Cherubini (d.1842), Italian-born prodigy and French composer, was born.

1762        Apr 14, Giuseppe Valadier, Italian architect, archaeologist, was born.
    (MC, 4/14/02)

1765        Oct 21, Giovanni Paolo Pannini (Panini), Italian painter and architect, died at 73.
    (MC, 10/21/01)

1765        Carlo Cozzi (Gozzi), Italian fantasist, composed "The Green Bird."
    (WSJ, 12/15/95, p.A-16)(WSJ, 3/8/96, p. A-8)(SFC, 9/15/00, p.C1)

1767        May 15, By the Treaty of Versailles, France purchased Corsica from Genoa.
    (HN, 5/15/98)

1767        Dec 9, Benedetto Alfieri, Italian architect (San Giovanni Battista), died.
    (MC, 12/9/01)

1768        Apr 19, Canaletto (b.1697), Venetian printmaker and landscape painter, died.
    (Economist, 10/13/12, p.101)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Canaletto)

1769        Aug 18, Gunpowder in Brescia, Italy, church exploded and some 3,000 were killed.
    (MC, 8/18/02)

1770        Mar 27, Giovanni B. Tiepolo (73), Italian painter (Banquet of Cleopatra), died.

1771        Luigi Galvani (1737-1798), Italian physician and physicist, discovered that the muscles of dead frogs legs twitched when struck by a spark.
    (Econ, 6/16/12, p.102)

1775        Mar 19, In Italy 4 people were buried by avalanche for 37 days and 3 survived. [not clear if this was the date of the avalanche or the recovery date.]
    (MC, 3/19/02)

1776-1883    Thomas Jones (1742-1803), Welsh landscapist traveled to Italy and spent 7 years there filling sketchbooks. He later authored his "Memoirs."
    (Econ, 7/12/03, p.77)

1778        Aug 3, In Milan the  Teatro alla Scala, originally known as the Nuovo Regio Ducale Teatro alla Scala (New Royal-Ducal Theatre alla Scala), was inaugurated. It was built by Giuseppe Piermarini in neo-Classical style.

1778        Nov 9, Giovanni Battista Piranesi (58), Italian etcher, died.
    (MC, 11/9/01)

1779        The Italian grappa distillery, Ditta Bortolo Nardini, was founded.
    (Econ, 12/18/04, p.104)

1781        Jul 27, Mauro Giuseppe Sergio Pantaleo Giuliani, composer, was born.
    (MC, 7/27/02)

1782        Jul 15, Farinelli (77), Italian castrato, died.
    (MC, 7/15/02)

1782        Oct 27, Niccolo Paganini (d.1840), composer and violin virtuoso, was born in Genoa, Italy. He was both syphilitic and consumptive since early manhood and died of TB in Nice.
    (WP, 1951, p.21)(MC, 10/27/01)

1783        Antonio Salieri (1750-1825), Italian composer, wrote his opera "Les Danaïdes."
    (WSJ, 1/14/04, p.D10)

1785        Mar 7, Alessandro Manzoni, poet, novelist (Betrothed), was born in Italy.
    (MC, 3/7/02)

1788        Dec 30, Francesco Zuccarelli (86), Italian rococo painter and etcher, died.
    (MC, 12/30/01)

1790        La Fenice opera house in Venice was designed. It burned down for the 1st time in 1836.
    (WSJ, 9/24/05, p.P12)

1790-1848    Nicola Vaccai, Italian composer. He composed a version of "I Capuletti ed I Montecchi," that was also done by Bellini.
    (WSJ, 11/10/98, p.A20)

1792        Feb 29, The composer Gioacchino Antonio Rossini (d.1868) was born in Pesaro, Italy. (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Gioachino_Rossini)
1792        The La Felice opera house in Venice opened.
    (SFC, 6/27/96, p.D3)

1792-1867    Giovanni Pacini, Italian composer. His work included "Maria, Regina d’Inghilterra," based on Victor Hugo’s drama "Marie Tudor."
    (WSJ, 11/10/98, p.A20)

1793         Jan 6, Carlo Goldoni (b.1707), Italian dramatist, died. His plays included the comedy “Arlecchino, Servant of Two Masters," based on the French Arlecchino sketch by Jean Pierre Ours de Mandajors. In 1787 he wrote his autobiographical "Mémoires" in French.
    (SFC, 10/28/05, p.E2)(www.newadvent.org/cathen/06631a.htm)

1793        Jan 1, Francesco Guardi (b.1712), Venetian painter, died.
    (Economist, 10/13/12, p.101)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Francesco_Guardi)

1794        In Italy the Bourbon monarchy created the Banca Nazionale di Napoli bringing together eight public banks including the Banco dei Poveri, established in 1563. The Piedmontese monarchy settled on the name Banco di Napoli in 1861.
    (Econ, 12/18/10, p.165)

1795        Apr 21, Vincenzo Pallotti, Italian saint, was born.
    (MC, 4/21/02)

1795        May 15, Napoleon entered the Lombardian capital of Milan in triumph. After taking Milan he released his troops on the townspeople who became victims of an orgy of destroying, raping and killing. The events are described in the 1998 biography "Napoleon Bonaparte" by Alan Schom.
    (SFEC, 1/18/98, BR p.9)(HN, 5/15/98)

1796        Apr 13, Battle at Millesimo, Italy: Napoleon beat the Austrians.
    (MC, 4/13/02)

1796        Apr 22, Napoleon defeated the Piedmontese at Battle of Mondovi.
    (MC, 4/22/02)

1796        May 10, Napoleon Bonaparte won a brilliant victory against the Austrians at Lodi bridge in Italy.
    (HN, 5/10/99)

1796        Nov 17, Napoleon Bonaparte defeated an Italian army near the Alpone River, Italy, in the Battle of Arcole.
    (HN, 11/17/98)(MC, 11/17/01)

1796-1797    Napoleon conquered northern Italy.
    (SFEC, 1/18/98, BR p.9)

1797        Jan 14, Napoleon Bonaparte defeated Austrians at Rivoli in northern Italy.
    (HN, 1/14/99)

1797        Gammarelli was founded under Pope Pius VI as tailors to the clergy.
    (SSFC, 12/28/03, p.I4)
1797        Venice, the city-state that liked to call itself La Serenissima, lost its independence and its empire. Ludovico Manin, the 120th doge of Venice, surrendered to Napoleon. A few months later Napoleon traded Venice to Austria which ruled it until 1866.
    (WSJ, 1/9/97, p.A8)(SFEC, 8/24/97, p.T1)(WSJ, 9/19/97, p.A13)
1797        The Jewish ghetto in Venice was destroyed following the Napoleon’s invasion of Italy. This began the gradual liberation of the country’s ghettos.
    (SFC, 12/2/08, p.E1)

1798        Feb 20, Pope Pius VI fled Rome to Siena following an invasion of French forces. He was later arrested and deported 1st to Florence and then to France.
    (www.zum.de/whkmla/region/italy/papalstate17891799.html)(WSJ, 4/14/06, p.W5)

1798        Jun 4, Giovanni Jacopo Casanova (b.1725), fabled Italian seducer, adventurer, spy, librarian, died of prostate cancer in Dux, Bohemia. While at Dux he authored his memoirs: “History of My Life." The standard English edition runs over 3,600 pages. In 2008 Ian Kelly authored “Casanova: Actor, Lover, Priest, Spy."
    (www.1911encyclopedia.org/Giovanni_Jacopo_Casanova_de_Seingalt)(WSJ, 10/24/08, p.W5)

1798        Dec 4, Luigi Galvani (61), Italian anatomist and physicist, died.

1798        Ferdinand IV, King of Naples, fled in front of advancing French troops. He took with him some 20 art works from the Farnese collection, which included “Antea" by Parmigianino.
    (Econ, 1/26/08, p.82)

1799        Jun 17, Napoleon Bonaparte incorporated Italy into his empire.
    (HN, 6/17/98)

1799        Jul 30, The French garrison at Mantua, Italy surrendered to the Austrians.
    (HN, 7/30/98)

1799        Aug 16, Vincenzo Manfredini (b.1737), Italian composer, died.
    (MC, 8/16/02)

1799        Antonio Salieri (1750-1825), Italian composer, wrote his opera "Falstaff."
    (WSJ, 1/14/04, p.D10)

1799        In Naples, Italy, a massacre of innocents occurred that was blamed on British Admiral Horatio Nelson.
    (WSJ, 11/5/99, p.W12)

1799        Pope Pius VI died.
    (WSJ, 4/28/00, p.W8)

1800        Jan 20, Carolina, the sister of Napoleon I, married King Joachim Murat of Naples.
    (MC, 1/20/02)

1800        May 7, Niccolo  Piccinni (72), Italian composer (Roland), died.
    (MC, 5/7/02)

1800        Jun 14, French General Napoleon Bonaparte pushed the forces of Austria out of Italy in the Battle of Marengo. In 2007 the sword he wore was auctioned off for over $6.4 million.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Battle_of_Marengo)(SFC, 6/11/07, p.A2)

1800        Alessandro Volta (1745-1827), Italian physicist, first demonstrated the electric pile or battery.
    (V.D.-H.K.p.269)(Econ, 3/8/08, TQ p.22)

1800        The population in Rome was about 175,000.
    (WSJ, 4/28/00, p.W8)

1801        Jan 1, Giuseppi Piazzi (d.1826), Italian astronomer, discovered an asteroid orbiting between Mars and Jupiter. He believed it to be a planet and named it Ceres, after the Roman goddess of the harvest. Ceres was later measured to be about 974km in diameter, roughly the length of Great Britain and 1% the mass of Earth’s moon.
    (NH, 7/02, p.36)(Econ., 2/28/15, p.70)

1801        Jan 11, Domenico Cimarosa (51), Italian composer (Matrimonio segreto), died.
    (MC, 1/11/02)

1801        Mar 21, The Kingdom of Etruria was created by the Treaty of Aranjuez. It was made up a large part of modern Tuscany and its name from Etruria, the old Roman name for the land of the Etruscans. The first king (Louis I) died young in 1803. His underage son Charles Louis succeeded him  and continued to 1807 when Napoleon dissolved the kingdom and integrated it into France.

1801        Nov 3, Vincenzo Bellini, Italian opera composer (La Sonnambula, Norma), was born.
    (MC, 11/3/01)

1802        Jan 25, Napoleon was elected president of Italian (Cisalpine) Republic.
    (MC, 1/25/02)

1802        Sep 11, Piedmont, Italy, was annexed by France.
    (HN, 9/11/98)

1802        The Rome stock exchange was founded. The Borsa di Roma occupied the site of a temple completed in 145 CE as a tribute to Emperor Hadrian.
    (WSJ, 12/13/96, p.B11A)

1804        Apr 22, Gioacchino Rossini (12) performed in Imola.
    (MC, 4/22/02)

1805        May 26, Napoleon Bonaparte was crowned king of Italy.
    (AP, 5/26/97)

1805        May 28, Napoleon was crowned in Milan, Italy. [see May 26]
    (HN, 5/28/98)
1805        May 28, Ridolfo Luigi Boccherini (62), Italian composer, cellist (Minuet), died.
    (MC, 5/28/02)

1805        Jul 26, Naples and Calabria were struck by an earthquake and some 26,000 died.
    (MC, 7/26/02)

1805        Aug 9, Austria joined Britain, Russia, Sweden and the Kingdom of Piedmont-Sardinia in the third coalition against France.
    (HN, 8/9/98)

1807        Jul 4, Giuseppe Garibaldi (1807-1882) Italian military leader, was born in Nice, France. He led the movement to make Italy one nation.
    (HN, 7/4/98)(IB, Internet, 12/7/98)

1807        In Naples Major Leopold Hugo, the father of Victor Hugo, was promoted after a successful campaign against the Calabrian banditti.
    (WSJ, 2/10/98, p.A16)

1807-1881    Giovanni Ruffini, Italian writer: "Curses are like processions. They return to the place from which they came."
    (AP, 1/8/00)

1808        Apr 30, Italian Pellegrini Turri built the 1st practical typewriter for the blind Countess Carolina Fantoni da Fivizono, the world's first typist.
    (SFEC, 1/10/99, Z1 p.8)(SFC, 7/26/00, p.D3)(MC, 4/30/02)

1808        May 30, Napoleon annexed Tuscany and gave it seats in French Senate.
    (MC, 5/30/02)

1808        Aug 1, Joachim Murat (1767-1815), French marshal and Napoleon's brother in law, became king of Naples (1808-1815) and Sicily.

1810        Aug 10, Camillo di Cavour, helped bring about the unification of Italy under the House of Saxony.
    (HN, 8/10/99)

1811        Aug 12, John FE Acton (77), cruel premier of Naples, died.
    (MC, 8/12/02)

1813        Oct 9, Giuseppe Verdi, Italian composer (Traviata, Rigoletto, Aida), was born. [see Oct 10]
    (MC, 10/9/01)

1813        Oct 10, Composer Giuseppe Verdi was born in Le Roncole, Italy. [see Oct 9]
    (HFA, ‘96, p.40)(AP, 10/10/97)(HN, 10/10/98)

1813        The Rossini opera "L’Italiana in Algeri" had its premier in Venice.
    (SFC, 7/12/97, p.E1)

1814        Rossini composed his opera "Il Turco in Italia."
    (WSJ, 11/10/98, p.A20)

1815        Sep 28, Joachim Murat's fleet sailed from Corsica to Naples.
    (MC, 9/28/01)

1815        Oct 8, General Joachim Murat's forces landed at Pizzo, Italy.
    (MC, 10/8/01)

1815        Oct 13, Joachim Murat, marshal of France and King of Naples (1808-15), was executed.
    (MC, 10/13/01)

1815        Sant’ Antioco, Sardinia, was the site of the last big Moorish raid on Italy. More than a hundred Sardinians were seized as slaves.
    (Econ., 2/21/15, p.51)

1816        Feb 5, Gioachino Rossini's Opera "Barber of Seville," premiered in Rome.
    (MC, 2/5/02)

1816        Feb 13-14, Teatro San Carlo in Naples was destroyed by fire.
    (MC, 2/13/02)

1816        G. Rossini composed his opera "Otello."
    (SI-WPC, 1997)(SFC, 1/29/00, p.E3)(WSJ, 8/1/01, p.A12)

1817        Jan 25, Giocchino Rossini's opera "La Cenerentola" premiered in Rome. It was based on the Cinderella story.
    (WSJ, 11/2/95, p.A-12)(MC, 1/25/02)

1817        Nov 8, Andrea Appiana (63), Italian royal painter of Napoleon, died.
    (MC, 11/8/01)

1819        The opera "La Donna del Lago," by Gioacchino Antonio Rossini premiered in Naples. It was based on the Walter Scott romance "The lady of the Lake."
    (WSJ, 7/29/97, p.A12)

1820        Mar 14, Victor Emmanuel II, King of Sardinia (1849-61) and Italy (1861-78), was born.
    (MC, 3/14/02)

1820        May 12, Florence Nightingale (d.1910), Crimean War British nurse known as “Lady with the Lamp," was born in Florence, Italy. She is also known as the founder of modern nursing.
    (AP, 5/12/97)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Florence_Nightingale)

1821        Dec 28, Gioacchino Rossini moved to Bologna.
    (MC, 12/28/01)

1822        Mar 22, Gioacchino Rossini married Isabella Colbran in Bologna.
    (MC, 3/22/02)

1822        Jul 8, Percy Bysshe Shelley (b.1792), English poet, drowned while sailing in Italy at age 29.
    (HN, 7/8/01)

1822        Oct 13, Antonio Canova (b.1757), Italian sculptor, died at age 64. His work included a sculpture of Napoleon’s sister Pauline, as a semi-naked Venus Victrix.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Antonio_Canova)(Econ, 11/10/07, p.105)

1823        A fire in Rome destroyed a basilica, said to have been built over the burial site of St. Paul. This basilica had been built by Theodosius over an older church built over the burial site.  A new St. Paul Outside the Walls basilica was built over the site. In 2006 a sarcophagus was uncovered that dated to at least 390BC.
    (AP, 12/6/06)

1825        May 7, Italian composer Antonio Salieri died in Vienna, Austria.
    (AP, 5/5/97)

1825        Jun 19, Gioacchino Rossini's "Il Viaggio a Reims," premiered. Rossini wrote the "IL Viaggio a Reims" opera to celebrate the coronation of Charles X. The libretto by Luigi Balocchi was intended to show all major European nationalities coming together to celebrate the event.
    (WSJ, 9/29/99, p.A20)(MC, 6/19/02)

1826        Jul 22, Giuseppe Piazzi (80), monk, mathematician (found 1st asteroid, 1801), died.
    (MC, 7/22/02)

1826-1828    Corot was in Italy and painted "View of St. Peter’s and the Castel Sant’Angelo."
    (FAMSF, 2/98)

1827        Mar 5, Alessandro Volta (b.1745), Italian physicist who made 1st battery (1800), died.

1827        V. Bellini wrote his opera "Il Pirata." It was his 1st major success.
    (WSJ, 10/31/02, p.A1)

1828        Pietro Tenerani, sculptor, made his two statues, allegories of Hunting and Fishing, at Carrara. They were placed in Carrara’s Academy of Fine Arts, the former Cybo-Malaspina palace.
    (SFEC,10/19/97, p.T5)

1830        Dec 26, Gaetano Donizetti's opera "Anna Bolena," premiered in Milan.
    (MC, 12/26/01)

1830        Mar 4, V. Bellini's opera "I Capuleti e i Montecchi" premiered in Venice.
    (WSJ, 11/10/98, p.A20)(SC, 3/4/02)

1830        Some sources say that the 1st pizzeria opened in Naples about this time. [see 1889]
    (SFCM, 4/18/04, p.16)

1831        Dec 26, Vincenzo Bellini's opera "Norma," premiered at La Scala in Milan.

1831        The Austro-Italian insurance company Assicurazioni Generali Austro-Italiche was established.

1832        Mar 10, Muzio Clementi (79), Italian composer, died.
    (MC, 3/10/02)

1832        May 12, Gaetano Donizetti's opera "L'elisir d'amore," premiered in Milan.
    (MC, 5/12/02)

1832        Jul 22, Napoleon FKJ Bonaparte (21), [l'Aiglon], king of Rome, died.
    (MC, 7/22/02)

1832        A lexicon of famous hand gestures was written by a canon of the Cathedral of Naples. In 2000 it was translated by to English by Andrea de Jorio.
    (SFCM, 3/11/01, p.32)

1833        Jan 26, Gaetano Donizetti’s tragic opera "Lucrezia Borgia," premiered in Milan.
    (WSJ, 7/27/98, p.A12)(MC, 1/26/02)

1833        Jul 27, Bartolommea Capitanio (26), Italian monastery founder, saint, died.
    (MC, 7/27/02)

1833        Giuseppe Garibaldi, Italian revolutionary, was forced to flee Italy following a failed uprising against Austrian rule in northern Italy. In 1939 he arrived in Brazil to aid the rebel cause.
    (ON, 10/06, p.5)

1834        Aug 18, Mt. Vesuvius erupted.
    (MC, 8/18/02)

1834        Aug 31, Amilcare Ponchielli, composer (La Gioconda), was born in Paderno, Italy.
    (MC, 8/31/01)

1834        Gaetano Donizetti had the premier of his opera "Rosmonda d’Inghilterra," a story of Rosamond Clifford, who was put in a tower by her lover King Henry II.
    (WSJ, 11/10/98, p.A20)

1835        Sep 26, Gaetano Donizetti's opera "Lucia di Lammermoor," premiered in Naples.
    (MC, 9/26/01)

1837        May 5, Niccolo Antonio Zingarelli (85), Italian composer, bandmaster, died.
    (MC, 5/5/02)

1839        Apr 20, Giuseppe Rossini, father of Italian composer Gioacchino Rossini, died.
    (MC, 4/20/02)

1839        May 18, Carolina [Maria A] Bonaparte (57), countess of Lipona (anagram of Napoli), died and was buried in Bologna.
    (SC, 5/18/02)(http://gutenberg.net)

1839        Giuseppe Verdi’s 1st opera, "Oberto, Conte de San Bonifaccio," was produced.
    (SFEM, 9/10/00, p.20)

1840        Apr 27, Edward Whymper, first to climb the Matterhorn on the border of Switzerland and Italy, was born.
    (WUD, 1994, p.885)(HN, 4/27/98)

1840        Aug 13, Giovanni Verga, Italian writer (Eros), was born.
    (MC, 8/13/02)

1840        Nicolo Paganini (b.1782), Italian legendary violinist, died in Nice. The local bishop refused to bury him in consecrated ground due to his scandal-ridden past. His 1742 violin, "the Canon," was put to rest in a museum in Genoa and later played annually by the winner of the Int'l. Paganini Competition. His biography was later written by John Sugden.
    (SFC, 8/15/96, p.D5)(SFC, 11/12/98, p.E1)(SFC, 4/26/99, p.E2)

1842        Mar 9, Giuseppe Verdi's 3rd opera "Nabucco," premiered in Milan. It became his 1st big hit.
    (WSJ, 3/21/00, p.A20)(MC, 3/9/02)

1842        Mar 15, Maria Luigi Cherubini (81), Italian composer (Dies Irae), died.
    (MC, 3/15/02)

1843        Feb 11, Giuseppe Verdi's Opera "I Lombardi," premiered in Milan.
    (MC, 2/11/02)

1844        Mar 9, Giuseppe Verdi's opera "Ernani," premiered in Venice.
    (MC, 3/9/02)

1845        Sep 7, Isabella Colbran, wife of Italian composer Gioacchino Rossini, died.
    (MC, 9/7/01)

1845        In Italy the Cantoni cotton mill opened in Castellanza. It closed in 1985.
    (Econ, 4/16/11, p.70)

1846        Charles Dickens authored "Pictures from Italy."
    (SSFC, 1/25/04, p.C8)

1846-1878    Pope Pius IX allowed archeological excavations of the catacombs by G.B. de Rossi. Under Pius IX the child Edgardo Mortara was taken from the Jewish merchant, Momolo Mortara, in Bologna and raised as a foster son of the pope. The 6-year-old boy had been baptized by a Catholic servant and canonical law did not allow that he be raised by his Jewish parents. The story is told by David I. Kertzer in his 1997 book: "The Kidnapping of Edgardo Mortara."
    (ITV, 1/96, p.58)(SFEC, 8/31/97, BR p.9)

1857        Mar 8, Ruggiero Leoncavallo, Italian composer (I Pagliacci/Zaza), was born.
    (MC, 3/8/02)

1847        Oct 21, Giuseppe Giacosa (d.1906), Italian songwriter (libretti opera Puccini), was born.
    (MC, 10/21/01)

1847        Nov 28, In Bologna the church San Francisco dei Minori Conventuali opened with the premier of Rossini's "Tantum Ergo."
    (MC, 11/28/01)

1847        The Dutchy of Parma was governed until this year by Marie-Louise of Hapsburg.
    (SFC, 9/15/96, p.T6)

1847        Nemesia Valle (d.1916) was born in Italy. She became a nun of the Congregation of the Sisters of Charity of Saint Giovanna Antida Thouret and was beatified in 2004.
    (AP, 4/25/04)

1848        Mar 4, Sardinia-Piemonte got a new Constitution.
    (SC, 3/4/02)

1848        Mar, Italian nationalists celebrated as Austrian forces fled Milan.
    (WSJ, 3/13/09, p.A9)

1848        Apr 8, Domenico Gaetano Maria Donizetti (50), Italian composer, died.
    (MC, 4/8/02)

1848        May 29, Battle at Curtazone: Austrians beat Sardinia-Piemonte.
    (SC, 5/29/02)

1848        Caffe Pedrocchi in Padua was the site of student uprisings at this time and was made famous by French writer Stendhal, author of "The Red and the Black."
    (SFEC, 6/6/99, p.T3)
1848        The Austro-Italian insurance company Assicurazioni Generali Austro-Italiche began placing a picture of the winged lion of St. Mark on policies.
1848        Count Pellegrino, the prime minister for Pope Pius IX, was stabbed and killed during the unrest leading to the unification of Italy.
    (USAT, 5/6/98, p.6A)

1849        Mar 23, Battle of Novara (King Charles Albert of Sardinia vs. Italian republic). Austria’s Gen. Radetzky (83) crushed the Piedmontese forces. Charles Albert abdicated and was succeeded by his son, Victor Emmanuel II, who reigned until 1861.
    (PCh, 1992, p.449)(SS, 3/23/02)

1849        Apr 27, Italian revolutionary Garibaldi took control of the defenses of Rome. He and his family had returned to Italy from Uruguay in 1848 to fight on behalf of the newly declared Republic of Rome, which had taken control of Rome and expelled Pope Pius IX, who opposed the goals of Italian nationalism.
    (ON, 10/06, p.5)

1849        Apr 30, Giuseppe Garibaldi, Italian republican patriot and guerrilla leader, repulsed a French attack on Rome.
    (HN, 4/30/98)(ON, 10/06, p.5)

1849        May 15, Neopolitan troops entered Palermo, and were in possession of all of Sicily.
    (HN, 5/15/98)

1849        Jul 2, The leaders of the Republic of Rome surrendered. Garibaldi, his wife and some 4,700 men left Rome with the intent to fight a guerrilla war against Austria.
    (ON, 10/06, p.5)

1849        Jul 31, Garibaldi asked San Marino for asylum from Austrian forces. San Marino brokered for Garibaldi’s surrender to Austrian forces. Garibaldi and his wife escaped, and made their way to Ravenna. Anita Garibaldi died enroute. Garibaldi managed to reach safety in the Kingdom of Sardinia.
    (ON, 10/06, p.7)

1849        Dec 8, Giuseppe Verdi's opera "Luisa Miller," premiered in Naples.
    (MC, 12/8/01)

1850        Jan 29, Luigi Sabatelli (b.1772), Italian artist, died in Milan.

1850-1870    A major wave of Italians immigrated to California. The majority came from Liguria and Tuscany. A 2nd wave began in 1880.
    (SSFC, 7/10/05, p.D5)

1853        Jan 19, Giuseppi Verdi's opera "Il Trovatore" premiered in Rome.
    (AP, 1/19/98)(MC, 1/19/02)

1853        Mar 6, Giuseppe Verdi's Opera, "La Traviata," premiered in Venice.
    (MC, 3/6/02)

1853        Oct 30, Pietro Raimondi (66), Italian composer (Potifar, Giacobbe), died.
    (MC, 10/30/01)

1854        Italian anatomist Fillipo Pacini discovered the cholera bacillus, but did not prove that it caused cholera. His work remained obscure and was not translated to English.
    (ON, 5/05, p.10)

1855        Apr 26, Composer Gioacchino Rossini left Italy.
    (MC, 4/26/02)

1855        Sep 9, Sevastopol, under siege for nearly a year, capitulated to the Allies. France, England, the Ottoman Empire and Sardinia (as Italy was then known) defeated the Russians at Sevastopol in the decisive battle of the Crimean War.
    (https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Crimean_War)(SFC, 7/27/13, p.C2)

1857        Mar 12, The opera "Simon Boccanegra," by Giuseppe Verdi, premiered in Venice, Italy.
    (AP, 3/12/07)

1857        The Lido Palace was built overlooking Lake Maggiore for the Marquis Durazzo of Genoa.
    (SSFC, 12/2/01, p.C6)

1857        Luigi Monti, an Italian Roman Catholic friar, founded the Congregation of the Children of the Immaculate Conception in order to provide charitable health services to orphans and the poor. In 1967 the Congregation opened a factory outside of Rome to make dermatological drugs and cosmetics, which were sold commercially. In 2003 Pope John Paul II beatified Monti. In 2004 the Congregation acquired a biotechnology research firm specializing in cancer research and renamed it Nerviano Medical Science.
    (WSJ, 12/7/06, p.B8)

1858        Jan 14, Emperor Napoleon III and Empress Eugenie escaped unhurt after an Italian assassin threw a bomb at their carriage as they traveled to the Paris Opera. The hoop skirt was first worn by Empress Eugenie to conceal her pregnancy.
    (HN, 1/14/99)(SFEC, 7/23/00, Z1 p.2)(AP, 1/14/08)

1858        Apr 29, Austrian troops invaded Piedmont.
    (HN, 4/29/98)

1858        Jun 22, Giacomo Puccini (d.1924), composer of "Madam Butterfly," was born. His work included the opera "Calaf." [see Dec 22]
    (WUD, 1994, p.1162)(WSJ, 10/22/97, p.A20)(HN, 6/22/98)

1858        Dec 22, Giacomo Puccini, Italian operatic composer best known for Madam Butterfly, La Boheme and Tosca, was born in Lucca, Italy. [see Jun 22]
    (HN, 12/22/98)(MC, 12/22/01)

1858-1919    Ruggiero Leoncavallo, Italian composer and librettist.
    (WUD, 1994, p.821)

1859        Feb 17, Giuseppe Verdi's opera "Un Ballo in maschera" premiered in Napoli.
    (MC, 2/17/02)

1859        Apr 29, In the Italian Campaign some 150,000 Piedmontese troops invaded Piedmontese territory as the French army raced to support them and the Austrian army mobilized to oppose them.
    (HN, 4/29/00)

1859        May 9, Threatened by the advancing French army, the Austrian army retreated across the River Sesia in Italy.
    (HN, 5/9/00)

1859        May 10, French emperor Napoleon III left Paris to join his troops preparing to battle the Austrian army in Northern Italy.
    (HN, 5/10/02)

1859        May 20, A scratch force of Austrians collide with Piedmontese cavalry at the village of Montebello, in northern Italy.
    (HN, 5/20/00)

1859        May 30, The Piedmontese army crossed the Sesia River and defeated the Austrians at Palestro, Italy.
    (HN, 5/30/00)

1859        Jun 24, At the Battle of Solferino, also known as the Battle of the Three Sovereigns, the French army led by Napoleon III defeated the Austrian army under Franz Joseph I in northern Italy. Some 6,000 men died in the battle and thousands of wounded were effectively abandoned as witnessed by Henri Dunant (31), a Swiss businessman seeking Napoleon for a land development proposal. In 1862 Dunant published “A Memory of Solferino" and began a campaign for a volunteer society to aid wounded soldiers.
    (HN, 6/24/99)(ON, 4/08, p.11)

1860        May 11, Giuseppe Garibaldi landed at Marsala, Sicily. He began a series of campaigns that politically unified most of the Italian peninsula in 1861.
    (HN, 5/11/99)(ON, 10/06, p.7)

1860        Apr 2, The first Italian Parliament met at Turin. Italy was unified. The Rothschild banking empire bankrolled Italy’s independence.
    (AP, 4/2/97)(SFC, 6/11/96, p.A16)(SFC, 7/12/96, p.A11)

1860        May 26, Garibaldi occupied Palermo, Italy.
    (MC, 5/26/02)

1860        During the excavation of Pompeii, Italy, Giuseppe Fiorelli got the idea of pouring liquid plaster into the spaces left by decomposed bodies in the beds of ashes.
    (SFEM, 10/11/98, p.14)

1860        Gaspare Campari of Italy invented a bright-red aperitif that became known as Campari.
    (WSJ, 4/9/09, p.B10)

1861        Mar 17, Victor Emmanuel, the King of Piedmont, Savoy, and Sardinia, proclaimed the foundation of the kingdom of Italy. The Risorgimento movement resulted in Italian unification. The Carbonari was a secret society in early 19th century Italy who advocated liberal and patriotic ideas and opposed the conservative regimes imposed on Italy by the Allies who had defeated Napoleon in 1815. As with other secret societies of the age, the Carbonari had an initiation ceremony, complex symbols and a hierarchical organization though its exact origins are left to conjecture. They recruited primarily among nobility, small landowners and officeholders and may have been an offshoot of the Freemasons. Their influence is credited with preparing the way for the Risorgimento movement.
    (Econ, 3/19/11, p.61)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Victor_Emmanuel_II_of_Italy)(HNQ, 8/21/00)

1861        Germain Sommeiller (d.1871), French engineer, began work on the Mount Cenis Tunnel (Frejus Tunnel) between France and Italy, using his newly developed pneumatic drills. Work proceeded from opposite ends and connected on Dec 26, 1870.
    (ON, 2/03, p.8)

1861        Seborga, a village in the Italian Alps, was omitted from the Italy’s 1861 Act of Unification as well as the Italian Republic of 1946.
    (Econ, 12/24/05, p.85)(http://seborga.net/history/index.html)

1861        Italy and Switzerland drew a border line through the Monte Rosa Masif of the Alps with the line at several places set at the watershed of glaciers. In 2009 shrinking glaciers due to global warming forced the line to be reset.
    (Econ, 4/18/09, p.56)

1861-1865    Turin was the capital of Italy.
    (WSJ, 8/18/99, p.A17)

1862        Nov, Jean Henri Dunant (1828-1910) published "A Memory of Solferino." His ideas about creation of a volunteer committee to care for war-wounded led to the creation in 1863 of the Permanent International Committee for Relief to Wounded Combatants, later called the International Red Cross. Dunant, a Swiss businessman, had witnessed the plight of thousands of wounded left helpless on the battlefield at Solferino, Italy, on June 24, 1859.  Organizing local volunteers to help, Dunant brought aid to as many of the victims as he could.
    (WUD, 1994, p.442)(HNQ, 9/16/99)(ON, 4/08, p.11)

1863        The Grand Hotel des Iles Borromees opened in Stresa on Lake Maggiore.
    (AMNHDT, 5/98)

1865        Jul 14, Whymper, Hudson, Croz, Douglas & Hadow became the 1st to climb Matterhorn, on the border of Switzerland and Italy.
    (MC, 7/14/02)

1865        Dec 23, France, Belgium, Italy and Switzerland formed the Latin Monetary Union (LMU). It was a 19th century attempt to unify several European currencies into a single currency that could be used in all the member states, at a time when most national currencies were still made out of gold and silver. Spain and Greece joined in 1868. It quickly weakened as members pursued their own economic policies. It was disbanded in 1927.
    (WSJ, 1/13/98, p.A1)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Latin_Monetary_Union)

1865        In Milan the Galleria, one of the world’s first shopping malls, was constructed.
    (SFEC, 7/13/97, p.T12)

1866        Apr 1, Ferruccio D.M.B. Busoni, pianist, composer, conductor (Arlecchino), was born in Italy.
    (MC, 4/1/02)

1866        Jan 15, Massimo d'Azeglio (b.1798), a Piedmontese-Italian statesman, novelist and painter, died in Turin. D'Azeglio was a moderate liberal who hoped for a federal union between Italian states: "We have made Italy; now we must make Italians."
    (https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Massimo_d%27Azeglio)(Econ., 5/9/20, p.44)

1866        Venice joined the new Kingdom of Italy.
    (WSJ, 9/19/97, p.A13)

1867        Mar 25, Arturo Toscanini (d.1957), Italian-US temperamental conductor (NBC), was born in Parma, Italy.
    (MC, 3/25/02)

1867         Jun 28, Luigi Pirandello, Italian playwright (Six Characters in Search of an Author), was born, was born. He won the Nobel Prize in 1934.
    (HN, 6/28/01)(MC, 6/28/02)

1867        Oct 27, Garibaldi marched on Rome.
    (MC, 10/27/01)

1867        Nov 12, Mount Vesuvius erupted.
    (HN, 11/12/98)

1867        The downtown Milan shopping center opened.
    (SFEC, 1/23/00, p.T14)

1868        Mar 5, Arrigo Boito's opera "Mefistofele," premiered in Milan.
    (MC, 3/5/02)

1868        Mar 25, Arturo Toscanini (d.1957), Italian conductor, was born.
    (HN, 3/25/01)

1868        Nov 13, Italian composer Gioacchino Antonio Rossini (b.1792) died in France. His work included 39 operas as well as sacred music, chamber music, songs, and some instrumental and piano pieces. His opera "La Donna del Lago" (1819) was based on the Walter Scott romance "The Lady of the Lake."
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Gioachino_Rossini)(WSJ, 7/29/97, p.A12)(AP, 2/29/00)

1868        Nov 28, Mt. Etna in Sicily erupted violently.
    (HN, 11/28/98)

1869        Feb 6, Carlo Cattaneo (b.1801), Italian politician, died in Switzerland. His writings significantly shaped the Italian Risorgimento. His journal, Il Politecnico (“The Polytechnic"), not only served as a vehicle for his political views but also was influential in introducing new scientific and technical improvements into Italy.

1869        Nov 11, Victor Emmanuel III, king of Italy (1900-46) and Ethiopia, was born.
    (MC, 11/11/01)

1870        Mar 19, The opera "Guarany," premiered in Milan.
    (MC, 3/19/02)

1870        Aug 31, Maria Montessori (d.1952), educator and physician, was born in Chiaravalle, Italy. She opened her 1st Montessori school in San Lorenzo, Italy in 1907.
    (HN, 8/31/00)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Maria_Montessori)

1870        Sep 20, Italian troops under Victor Emmanuel II took control of the Papal States from France, leading to the unification of Italy. Pope Pius IX surrendered.
    (WSJ, 9/13/96, p.A6)(SFEM, 1/19/96, p.10)(AP, 9/20/97)(MC, 9/20/01)

1870        Oct 2, The papal states voted in favor of union with Italy. The capital was moved from Florence to Rome.
    (HN, 10/2/98)

1870        Dec 25, The Tiber broke its banks in a terrible flood in Rome.
    (Econ, 7/25/05, p.72)

1870        After the unification of Italy, castration for musical purposes was officially made illegal (the new Italian state had adopted a French legal code which expressly forbade the practice).

1871        Dec 24, Giuseppe Verdi's opera "Aida" had its world premiere in Cairo, Egypt, to celebrate the opening of the Suez Canal. [see Nov 17, 1869, the opening of the canal]
    (SFC, 7/12/96, p.A11)(AP, 12/24/97)

1871        Sep 11, The 1st passenger train passed through the Mount Cenis Tunnel between France and Italy. Work on the 8-mile tunnel had begun in 1861 under the direction of French engineer Germain Sommeiller (d.7/11/1871).
    (ON, 2/03, p.9)

1872        Mar 10, Giuseppe Mazzini (66), Italian revolutionary (Giovane, Italy), died.
    (MC, 3/10/02)

1872        Mar 25, Vito Pardo, Italian sculptor (Columbus monument in Argentina), was born.
    (MC, 3/25/02)

1872        Apr 24, Mt. Vesuvius erupted.
    (MC, 4/24/02)

1873        Feb 27, Enrico Caruso (d.1921), was born. He was the Italian operatic lyric tenor who excelled in operas such as Pagliacci.

1873        Apr 28, A. Manzoni (88), writer, died. Giuseppi Verdi dedicated his "Requiem" to his memory.
    (MC, 4/28/02)

1873        The Viareggio Carnival was established.
    (WSJ, 3/2/00, p.A24)

1874        Mar 7, The opera “I Lituani," by Amilcare Ponchielli (1834-1886) premiered at Milan’s La Scala with great success. The libretto was based on Adam Mickiewicz's long epic poem Konrad Wallenrod. The opera was about the incursions of the Teutonic Knights against the pagan Lithuanians.

1874        Apr 25, Guglielmo Marconi (d.1937), inventor of the radio, was born. He was an Italian electrical engineer and the developer of wireless telegraphy. He won a Nobel Prize in 1909.
    (HFA, '96, p.28)(AHD, p.798)(HN, 4/25/98)(SS, 4/25/02)

1875        The Galleria Subalpina opened in Turin, Italy.
    (SSFC, 1/22/06, p.E6)

1876        Jan 12, Ermanno Wolf-Ferrari, composer, was born in Venice, Italy.
    (MC, 1/12/02)

1876        Mar 8, Franco Alfano, Italian opera composer (Il dottore Antonio), was born.
    (MC, 3/8/02)

1876        Apr 8, Amilcare Ponchielli's opera "La Gioconda," premiered in Milan.
    (MC, 4/8/02)

1876        Eugenio Pacelli (d.1958), later Pope Pius XII, was born to an aristocratic Roman family accustomed to serving the Catholic Church.
    (SFEC, 9/26/99, BR p.3)

1877        Europe's 2nd oldest shopping center, the Galleria Vittorio Emanuele II, opened in Milan. It was designed by Giuseppe Mengoni, who died the night before the grand opening. Mengoni used roof ventilators and underground air-cooling chambers to regulate indoor temperature.
    (SFEC, 1/23/00, p.T14.15)(Econ, 12/4/04, TQ p.17)
1877        Pietro Barilla opened a shop in Parma, Italy, selling bread and pasta. The company left the bread business in 1952. By 2007 it was the world’s leading pasta maker. In 1999 the Parma pasta factory was closed and converted to the Academia Barilla, which also housed a library dedicated to gastronomy.
    (Econ, 6/23/07, p.75)(Econ, 12/20/08, p.145)
1877        The Italian astronomer, Giovanni Schiaparelli, saw long thin lines on the surface of Mars and called them canali. The term was translated into English as canals.
    (Smith., 8/95, p.71)

1878        Jan 9, Victor Emmanuel II (57), king of Sardinia (1849-61) and Italy (1861-78), died.
    (MC, 1/9/02)

1878        Pope Leo XIII prohibited the hiring of new castrati by the church: only in the Sistine Chapel and in other papal basilicas in Rome did a few castrati linger.
1878        In Italy the world’s first spectacles factory was built at Belluno.
    (Econ, 4/16/11, p.70)

1879        Jun 21, Umberto Brunelleschi, Italian cartoonist, illustrator (Candide), was born.
    (MC, 6/21/02)

1879        Jul 9, Ottorino Respighi, composer (Pines of Rome), was born in Bologna, Italy.
    (MC, 7/9/02)

1879        Giuseppe Albertotti founded the Italian Opthalmological Society.
    (WSJ, 4/6/06, p.A12)

1880-1930    A 2nd major wave of Italians immigrated to California. The 1st wave was in 1850-1870.
    (SSFC, 7/10/05, p.D5)

1881        Sep 15, Ettore Arco Isidoro Bugatti (d.1947), race car builder (Amaz Bugattis), was born in Milan, Italy.

1881        Nov 25, Pope John the 23rd (1958-1963) was born Angelo Roncalli near Bergamo, Italy.
    (AP, 11/25/97)(MC, 11/25/01)

1882        Apr 28, Alberto Pirelli, Italian industrialist, was born.
    (MC, 4/28/02)

1882        May 20, The St. Gotthard-railroad tunnel opened between Switzerland and Italy.
    (MC, 5/20/02)

1882        Jun 2, Giuseppi Garibaldi (b.1807), Italian rebel leader, died. His autobiography was published in 1889. In 2007 Lucy Riall authored “Garibaldi: Invention of a Hero."
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Giuseppe_Garibaldi)(Econ, 5/26/07, p.98)

1882        Nov 18, Amelita Galli-Curci (d.1963), Italian operatic soprano, was born in Milan.

1883        Feb 13, Richard Wagner (69), revolutionary German composer (Die Walkure), died in Venice. Composer Leon Stein (d.2002 at 92) later authored "The Racial Thinking of Richard Wagner."
    (WSJ, 2/4/99, p.A20)(MC, 2/13/02)

1883        Jul 25, Alfredo Casella, composer (La Giara), was born in Turin, Italy.
    (SC, 7/25/02)

1883        Jul 28, Shocks, triggered by the volcano Epomeo (Isle of Ischia, Italy), destroyed 1,200 houses at Casamicciola killing 2,000.
    (SC, 7/28/02)

1883        Jul 29, Benito Mussolini, dictator of Fascist Italy (1922-1943), was born.
    (HN, 7/29/98)

1883        Claude Monet made a trip to Italy with Cezanne and Renoir and painted "The Monte Carlo Road."
    (WSJ, 8/26/97, p.A14)

1883        The Palazzo Massimo alle Terme was built by the Massimo family in Rome and later converted to an archeological museum.
    (WSJ, 9/24/98, p.A16)

1884        Jul 12, Amadeo Modigliani, painter and sculptor (Reclining Nude), was born in Italy.
    (HN, 7/12/01)(MC, 7/12/02)

1884        In Italy Sotirio Boulgaris, a Greek immigrant, founded Bulgari, a silver-jewelry shop, on Rome’s Via Sistina. He had descended from a family of Greek silversmiths. By 1996 there were 54 stores worldwide.
    (SFEM,7/28/96, p.32)(Econ, 4/14/07, p.81)

1884        Rinaldo Piaggio founded Piaggio, an Italian company that went on to make ships, airplanes and helicopters. After World War II developed the Vespa scooter and transformed itself into a pure scooter-maker.
    (Econ, 7/15/06, p.64)

1885        Sep 14, Vittorio Gui (d.1975), Italian conductor and composer (Batture d'aspetto), was born in Rome.

1885        Oct 22, Giovanni Martinelli, opera tenor (NY Met), was born in Montagnana, Italy.
    (MC, 10/22/01)

1887        Feb 5, Verdi’s opera "Otello," based on the play by Shakespeare, premiered at La Scala.
    (AP, 2/5/97)(WSJ, 8/1/01, p.A12)

1887        May 2, The remains of composer Gioachino Rossini (1792-1868), were transferred from Paris to Santa Croce, Florence.
    (MC, 5/2/02)

1887        A severe earthquake hit the Ligurian village of Perinaldo.
    (SFCM, 3/17/02, p.29)

1888        Dec 27, Tito Schipa (d.1965), tenor (La Rondine), was born in Italy. His birthday was recorded as January 2, 1889 for military conscription purposes.

1888-1978    Giorgio de Chirico, Italian painter. In 1998 Paolo Baldacci published a collection his work: "De Chirico: The Metaphysical Period 1888-1919."
    (WUD, 1994, p.258)(WSJ, 12/3/98, p.W4)

1889        The modern pizza was reportedly invented by a Neopolitan named Raffaele Esposito. [see 1830]
    (SFEC,11/16/97, Z1 p.5)

1890        May 20, Beniamino Gigli, tenor (Enzo-La Gioconda), was born in Italy.
    (MC, 5/20/02)

1890        Oct 26, Collodi, [Carlo Lorenzini], Italian writer (Pinocchio), died.
    (MC, 10/26/01)

c1891-1941    Eritrea was occupied by the Italians for almost 50 years.
    (WSJ, 5/26/00, p.A22)

1892        Apr 10, Victor de Sabata, conductor, composer (Il Macigno), was born in Trieste, Italy.
    (MC, 4/10/02)

1892        May 21, The opera "I Pagliacci," by Ruggiero Leoncavallo, was first performed, in Milan, Italy. The verismo opera was about Sicily in the 1870s.
    (AP, 5/21/97)(Econ, 11/26/05, Survey p.16)

1892        Oct 30, Angelo Siciliano (d.1972) was born in Italy. In 1903 he and his mother moved to Brooklyn to live with an uncle. He later became known as body builder Charles Atlas.
    (ON, 12/09, p.5)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Charles_Atlas)

1892        Italy made it illegal for girls to marry before age 12.       
    (SFC, 7/7/96, zone 1 p.5)

1893        Feb 1, The opera "Manon Lescaut," by Giacomo Puccini, premiered in Turin, Italy.
    (AP, 2/1/01)

1893        Feb 9, Giuseppe Verdi’s last opera, "Falstaff," was first performed, in Milan, Italy.
    (AP, 2/9/01)

1893        Jun 1, "Falstaff," the last opera by Giuseppe Verdi, was produced in Berlin.
    (DTnet, 6/1/97)(SFEM, 9/10/00, p.20)

1893        Aug 7, Alfredo Catalani (39), Italian composer, died.
    (MC, 8/7/02)(Internet)

1894        Sep, Guglielmo Marconi, Italian engineer, built his first radio equipment. By the end of this month he could flit a switch and make a bell ring at the other end of his attic workspace. Originally, radio or radiotelegraphy was called 'wireless telegraphy', which was shortened to 'wireless'. The prefix radio- in the sense of wireless transmission was first recorded in the word radioconductor, coined by the French physicist Edouard Branly in 1897.
    (WSJ, 1/11/99, p.R14)(ON, 11/99, p.9)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Radio)

1894        Dec, An uprising in Eritrea was swiftly put down by the Italians. Italian troops under Gen. Oreste Baratieri then marched south from Eritrea and seized the northwestern Agame region of Ethiopia.
    (ON, 2/11, p.7)

1894        A German-Swiss-Austrian consortium founded Banca Commerciale Italiana.
    (Econ, 5/21/05, Survey p.13)

1895        Apr 3, Mario Castelnuovo-Tedesco, composer, was born in Firenze (Florence), Italy.
    (MC, 4/3/02)

1895        Jun 4, Dino Conte Grandi, Italy's delegate to League of Nations, was born.
    (HN, 6/4/98)

1895        The Venice Biennale was launched as a display for decorative arts and to champion living Italian artists.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Venice_Biennale)(Econ 5/20/17, p.75)

1896        Feb 1, The first production of Puccini’s opera "La Boheme" was performed in Turin.
    (SFC, 5/26/96, SFEM p.4)(AP, 2/1/97)

1896        Mar 1, The Battle of Adowa (Adwa, Adua) began in Ethiopia between the 80,000 forces of Negus Menelik, Emperor Menelik II, and 18-20,000 Italian troops. The Italians suffered a crushing defeat with some 6,000 killed. Menalik II and his wife Taitu led Ethiopia to independence from Italy. In 2000 Haile Gerima made a 90 minute documentary of the event, "Adwa: An African Victory."
    (WSJ, 5/16/96, p.A-12)(AP, 3/1/98)(SFC, 5/15/00, p.D3)(Econ, 2/26/11, p.89)(ON, 2/11, p.9)

1896        Mar 23, Umberto Giordano's opera "Andrea Chénier" premiered in Milan.
    (SS, 3/23/02)

1896        Mar 28, The opera "Andrea Chenier," by Umberto Giordano, premiered in Milan, Italy.
    (AP, 3/28/97)

1896        Jun, Marconi filed patent papers in England for his wireless invention.
    (ON, 11/99, p.10)

1896        Vilfredo Pareto (1848-1923), Italian economist, observed that 20% of the people in Italy held 80% of the wealth.
    (Econ., 11/7/20, p.79)
1896        A French cinematic society held a screening in Turin, Italy.
    (SFC, 2/11/06, p.E10)
1896        Maria Montessori (22) graduated from the Univ. of Rome’s school of medicine, the 1st woman to earn a medical degree in Italy.
    (ON, 3/07, p.3)

1898        Feb 18, Enzo Ferrari (d.1988), Italian sports car manufacturer, was born.

1898        Jul 13, Guglielmo Marconi patented his radio.
    (MC, 7/13/02)

1898        Nov 22, Pietro Mascagni's opera "Iris" premiered (Rome).
    (MC, 11/22/01)

1898        Film actor Toto (d.1967) was born in Naples as Antonio de Curtis.
    (SFC, 1/31/01, p.D1)

1898        In Italy government troops killed hundreds after riots broke out in Milan during a declining economy.
    (WSJ, 1/28/07, p.P10)

1899        The Fiat automobile company was founded.
    (Sky, 9/97, p.97)(SFEC,12/14/97, p.D7)

1898        Angelo Giurlani founded Star Fine Foods. His family ran Star Olive Oil in the Lucca district of Tuscany.
    (SFC, 12/17/02, p.A23)

1900        Jan 14, The Puccini opera "Tosca" received a mixed reception at its Rome world premiere.
    (AP, 1/14/98)

1900        Mar 9, Aimone, duke of Spoleta-Aosta, Italian king of Croatia (1941-43), was born.
    (MC, 3/9/02)

1900        Apr 14, Salvatore Baccaloni, basso buffo (Barber of Seville, l'Eosir d'Amore) actor (Merry Andrew, Rock-a-Bye Baby), was born in Rome.
    (MC, 4/14/02)

1900        May 19, Simplon Tunnel opened as the world's longest railroad tunnel at 12 miles; it linked Italy & Switzerland through the Alps.
    (DTnet, 5/19/97)

1900        Jul 29, Italian King Humbert I (b.1844) was assassinated by Gaetano Bresci, an Italian-born anarchist who had resided in America before returning to Italy to murder the king. The murder was believed to be due to the king’s decision to fire cannon rounds into a crowd of starving peasants and workers that had assembled asking the king for assistance; 100s were killed; Bresci was arrested, found guilty, and sentenced to a life of hard labor at Santo Stefano Prison on Ventotene Island. Humbert was succeeded by his son, Victor Emmanuel III.
    (AP, 7/29/00)(WSJ, 1/28/07, p.P10)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Umberto_I_of_Italy)

1900        Silvio Scandalli started to produce accordions with the help of his family. In a few years between 1915 and 1921, out of a small workshop in Camerano a small company was created which was to become an industrial force, that in 1941 employed over 700 workers. After the end of the second world war, the accordion became hugely popular in the USA and the factory of the Scandalli brothers was amongst the most well known and prestigious. Thanks to the genius of Silvio and his many inventions and patents which were applied to his accordions, the Scandalli brand became synonymous with quality and a bench mark for other instruments. In 1946 to meet the challenges and opportunities of new markets, F.lli Scandalli of Camerano and Settimio Soprani of Castelfidardo combined to form Farfisa (from Fabbriche Riunite di Fisarmoniche). This company in turn was to become one of the worlds' biggest musical instrument factories and at this time was producing 180 accordions a day. The impetus of this new company led to the formation of the CDMI (Centro Didattico Musicale Italiano ) and many famous composers wrote pieces for the accordion and teaching methods for the Edizioni Musicali Farfisa.

1901        Jan 27, Giuseppe Verdi (b.1813), opera composer, died at the Grand Hotel in Milan, Italy, at age 87. In 1993 Mary Jane Phillips-Matz authored "Verdi."
    (SFEM, 9/10/00, p.20)(AP, 1/27/01)(WSJ, 4/11/03, p.W7)

1901        Apr 11, Adriano Olivetti, Italian engineer, manufacturer (typewriter), was born.
    (MC, 4/11/02)

1901        Sep 29, Enrico Fermi, Italian-born U.S. physicist who led the group which created the first man-made nuclear chain reaction, was born.
    (HN, 9/29/98)

1901        Dec 11, Marconi sent his 1st transatlantic radio signal from Cornwall, England to Newfoundland, Canada. The first transmission failed, but another the next day succeeded.

1901-1974    Vittorio De Sica (1901-1974), Italian movie director: "Moral indignation is in most cases two percent moral, forty-eight percent indignation, and fifty percent envy."
    (AP, 10/24/00)

1902        Jun 23, Germany, Austria-Hungary, and Italy renewed the Triple Alliance for a 12 year duration.
    (HN, 6/23/98)   

1903        Jun 19, The young school teacher, Benito Mussolini, was placed under investigation by police in Bern, Switzerland.
    (HN, 6/19/98)

1904        Feb 17, The original two-act version of Giacomo Puccini's opera "Madame Butterfly" was poorly received during its world premiere at La Scala, Milan.
    (AP, 2/17/08)

1904        Mar 2, Gabriele d'Annunzio's "La figlia di Iorio" premiered in Milan.
    (SC, 3/2/02)

1904        In Italy Prince Piero Ginori Conti invented the first geothermal power plant in 1904, at the Larderello dry steam field.
    (Econ, 12/20/08, p.70)(http://geothermal.marin.org/geopresentation/sld050.htm)

1905        Mar 29, Annunzio Mantovani, orchestra leader (Mantovani), was born in Venice, Italy.
    (MC, 3/29/02)

1906        May 8, Roberto Rossellini, Italian film director, was born.
    (HN, 5/7/02)

1906        Sep 2, Giuseppe Giacosa (b.1847), Italian songwriter (libretti opera Puccini), died.
    (MC, 9/2/01)

1906        Nov 2, Luchino Visconti, film director, was born in Milan, Italy. His work included “Obsession" and “Death in Venice."
    (HN, 11/2/00)(AP, 11/2/06)

1906        Santiago Ramon y Cajal (1852-1934), Spanish neuroscientist, and  Italian Camillo Golgi won the Nobel Prize in Physiology of Medicine in recognition of their work on the structure of the nervous system.

1907        Jan 6, Maria Montessori (1870-1952), Italian physician, educationist, opened her 1st school, Children’s House (Casa dei Bambini), in San Lorenzo, Italy.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Maria_Montessori)(SFC, 1/6/07, p.B1)

1907        Jun 10, In China 11 men in five cars set out from the French embassy in Beijing on a race to Paris. Prince Scipione Borghese of Italy was the first to arrive in the French capital two months later. The 62-day race was won by an Italian built Itala.
    (AP, 6/10/07)(AH, 6/03, p.21)

1907        Nov 28, Alberto Moravia, Italian novelist, novelist, was born. His work included "The Conformist" and "Conjugal Love."
    (HN, 11/28/00)

1907        In Italy the first orchestra pit at the La Scala opera house in Milan was constructed. Conductor Arturo Toscanini celebrated by performing Wagner’s Gotterdammerung.
    (https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/La_Scala)(Econ 6/24/17, p.75)
1907        The US Dept. of Justice sent an investigator to Arkansas following complaints from Italy’s ambassador regarding immigrants trapped by debts on plantations. Charges of peonage were never pursued.
    (Econ 5/27/17, p.28)

1908        Jan 9, Italians reported that Somaliland was under siege by the Abyssinians.
    (HN, 1/9/98)

1908        Mar 7, Anna Magnani, Italian actress (Awakening, Roma), was born in Rome.
    (AP, 3/7/08)

1908        Dec 1, The Italian Parliament debated the future of the Triple Alliance and asked for compensation for Austria’s action in Bosnia-Herzegovina.
    (HN, 12/1/98)

1908        Dec 28, Some 70,000-100,000 people died in the Messina earthquake in Sicily. The government hired a number of steamships, including the Florida, to ship survivors to America.
    (http://neic.usgs.gov/neis/eqlists/eqsmosde.html)(WUD, 1994, p.899)(WSJ, 2/8/99, p.A21)

1908        The US banned the L’Asino (The Donkey), an Italian anticlerical satirical publication founded in Rome, on the grounds that it was pornographic.
    (SFC, 11/22/14, p.C4)

1908-1950    Cesare Pavese, Italian novelist: "The only joy in the world is to begin."
    (AP, 3/16/99)

1909        Feb 20, F.T. Marinetti (1876-1944), Italian poet, published the 1st Futurist Manifesto in the Paris newspaper Le Figaro. It included statements such as “We want to glorify war - the only cure for the world… and contempt for women" and We intend to sing the love of danger, the habit of energy and fearlessness."
    (www.unknown.nu/futurism/)(SFEC, 1/3/99, DB p.27)(WSJ, 10/23/08, p.A15)(Econ, 2/22/14, p.71)(Econ, 1/28/17, p.72)

1909        Mar 2, Great Britain, France, Germany and Italy asked Serbia to set no territorial demands.
    (SC, 3/2/02)

1909        Jun 1, Guido Deiro, European vaudeville star, introduced the "fizarmonica systema piano" at the Alaskan Exposition in Seattle, Washington. He was contracted by the Ranco Antonio Accordion Company of Italy and is credited with naming the instrument " piano accordion." His brother Pietro Deiro was the first to play the accordion in San Francisco.

1909        Jul 27, Gianandrea Gavazzeni, conductor, was born.
    (MC, 7/27/02)

1909        Sep, An air show was held in Brescia, Italy. In 2002 Peter Demetz authored "The Air Show at Brescia, 1909."
    (WSJ, 11/15/02, p.W10)

1909        Nov 8, Alberto Erede, Italian conductor, was born.
    (MC, 11/8/01)

1909        Maria Montessori (1870-1952) authored her first book, “The Montessori Method," to explain the origins and applications of her educational theories.
    (ON, 3/07, p.5)

1909        Guglielmo Marconi (1874-1937), Italian engineer, won the Nobel Prize for physics for his invention of wireless telegraphy.
    (ON, 11/99, p.10)(MC, 7/20/02)

1910        Dec 10, The NY Metropolitan Opera premiered “La Fanciulla del West" (The Girl of the West) by Giacomo Puccini (1858-1924). It was based on the play “The Girl of the Golden West" by the American author David Belasco, set in the California gold rush.
    (https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/La_fanciulla_del_West)(SFC, 6/16/16, p.E7)

1910        In Italy Ermenegildo Zegna (d.1966 at 74) began his fashion house in Trivero, in the Alpine foothills.
    (Econ, 11/13/10, p.76)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ermenegildo_Zegna)

1911        Feb 23, Giuditta Vannini (b.1859), also known as Giuseppina, died. She was an Italian Roman Catholic professed religious who became a Camillian and established – alongside Luigi Tezza – the religious congregation known as the Daughters of Saint Camillus. She was canonized as a Catholic saint in 2019.

1911        Jul 7, Gian-Carlo Menotti, composer (Amahl & Night Visitors), was born in Italy.
    (MC, 7/7/02)

1911        Aug 3, Airplanes were used for the first time in a military capacity when Italian planes reconnoitered Turkish lines near Tripoli. Italy declared war on the Ottoman Turks and became the first country to drop bombs on an enemy from an airplane.
    (SFC, 7/11/98, p.B3)(HN, 8/3/98)

1911        Sep 25, Italy declared war on Turkey. [see Sep 30]
    (MC, 9/25/01)

1911        Sep 30, Italy declared war on Turkey over control of Tripoli. [see Sep 25]
    (HN, 9/30/98)

1911        Oct 5, Italian troops occupied Tripoli.
    (MC, 10/5/01)

1911        Oct, Italian troops began deporting Libyans to Italian islands in the Adriatic. More then 5,000 Libyans were deported between 1911 and WW II in an effort to break the resistance.
    (AFP, 10/26/07)

1911        Nov 1, Italian planes performed the first aerial bombing on Tanguira oasis in Libya. Lt. Giulio Cavotti dropped a hand grenade on an oasis outside of Tripoli. In 2001 Sven Lindqvist authored "A History of Bombing."
    (HN, 11/1/98)(SFC, 4/22/01, BR p.3)

1911        Nov 5, Italy attacked Turkish North-Africa (Libya), and took Tripoli and Cyrenaica.  First use of a plane dropping bombs. [see Nov 1]
    (MC, 11/5/01)

1911        Nov 19, New York received the first Marconi wireless transmission from Italy.
    (HN, 11/19/98)

1911        Dec 3, Nino Rota, composer (Torquemada), was born in Milan, Italy. He composed operas and orchestral music and taught at Italy's Bari Conservatory. He also wrote scores for Federico Fellini and other film directors.
    (WSJ, 3/5/99, p.W10)(MC, 12/3/01)

1911        Aldo Palazzeschi authored his avant-garde Italian novel “Man of Smoke." In 1992 Professors Ruggiero Stefanini (d.2005) and Nicolas Perella translated it to English.
    (SFC, 5/19/05, p.B7)

1911        In Italy Fillipo Marinetti, founder of the Futurist movement, predicted that 21st century Italy would be controlled by a technocracy of engineers living in "high tension chambers…between wall of iron and crystal..."
    (SFC, 1/13/99, Z1 p.3)

1911-1931    Omar Mukhtar harassed the Italian forces attempting to subdue Libya. The 1981 film “Lion in the Desert" starred Anthony Quinn as Omar Mukhtar.
    (Econ, 11/26/05, p.29)

1912        Feb 24, Italy bombed Beirut in the first act of war against the Ottoman Empire.
    (HN, 2/24/98)

1912        Mar 5, The Italians became the first to use dirigibles for military purposes, using them for reconnaissance flights behind Turkish lines west of Tripoli.
    (HN, 3/5/98)

1912        Mar 14, An anarchist named Antonio Dalba unsuccessfully attempted to kill Italy's King Victor Emmanuel III in Rome.
    (HN, 3/14/98)

1912        Nov 24, Austria denounced Serbian gains in the Balkans; Russia and France backed Serbia while Italy and Germany backed Austria.
    (HN, 11/24/98)

1912        Dec 5, Italy, Austria, and Germany renewed the Triple Alliance for six years.
    (HN, 12/5/98)

1912        Dec 25, Italy landed troops in Albania to protect its interests during a revolt there.
    (HN, 12/25/98)

1912        Mabel Hubbard Bell, the wife of Alexander Graham Bell, and Margaret Wilson, the daughter of Pres. Woodrow Wilson, formed the American Montessori Association to expand the educational methods of Italian Dr. Maria Montessori.
    (ON, 3/07, p.5)

1912-1976    Afro Libio Basaldella, Italian artist. He personified the progressive impulses of post WW II Italian painting.
    (SFC, 4/17/99, p.B10)

1913        Mar 31, John Pierpont Morgan (b.1837), US banker, CEO (US Steel Corp), died in Rome, Italy. His art collection was valued at $60m. In 1999 Jean Strouse authored “Morgan."
    (www.netstate.com/states/peop/people/ct_jpm.htm)(Econ, 11/20/04, p.86)(WSJ, 8/4/07, p.P9)

1913        Jul 22, Licia Albanese, operatic soprano (NY Met Opera), was born in Bari, Italy.
    (MC, 7/22/02)

1913        Dec 12, Authorities in Florence, Italy, announced that the Mona Lisa, stolen from the Louvre Museum in Paris in 1911, had been recovered.
    (AP, 12/12/97)

1913        The Scala Theater Museum opened in Milan.
    (SSFC, 1/27/02, p.C9)
1913        Italy built the world’s first geothermal power station at Larderello, Tuscany. By 2015 geothermal energy met 27% of the region’s needs.
    (Econ, 9/19/15, p.49)

1914        Feb 19, Riccardo Zandonai's opera "Francesco da Rimini," premiered in Turin.
    (MC, 2/19/02)

1914        Jun 27, Giorgio Almirante, Italian fascist (member of parliament (1948-87), was born.
    (SC, 6/27/02)

1914        Nov 15, Italian socialist Benito Mussolini founded the newspaper Il Populo d’Italia.
    (MC, 11/15/01)

1914        Nov 20, Emilio Pucci, fashion designer (Neiman-Marcus Award-1954), was born in Naples.
    (MC, 11/20/01)

1914        Nov 24, Benito Mussolini left Italy's socialist party.
    (MC, 11/24/01)

1915        Jan 13, An earthquake in Avezzano, Italy, killed 29,800.
    (MC, 1/13/02)

1915        May 23, Italy declared war on Austria-Hungary in World War I. Italy entered World War I and came up against the Austro-Hungarian forces including many Slovenians in the Julian Alps near Trieste. Over 29 months 12 major battles were fought along the Soca River.
    (AP, 5/23/97)(HN, 5/23/98)(SFEC, 7/9/00, p.T14)

1915        May 27, Mario del Monaco, loud Italian opera tenor (Verdi/Puccini), was born.
    (MC, 5/27/02)

1915        Aug 21, Italy declared war on Turkey.
    (HN, 8/21/98)

1915        Oct 19, Russia and Italy declared war on Bulgaria.
    (MC, 10/19/01)

1915        Oct 24, Tito Gobbi, great Italian baritone (Figaro, Rigoletto, Scarpia), was born.
    (MC, 10/24/01)

1915        Nov 7, An Austrian submarine torpedoed the Italian passenger ship Ancona, and 272 were killed.

1915        The Italian film "Assunta Spina" starred Francesca Bertini.
    (SFEC, 10/15/00, DB p.62)

1915        The Italian film "Fior di male" (Flower of Evil) starred Lyda Borelli.
    (SFEC, 10/15/00, DB p.63)

1916        Mar 29, The Italians called off the fifth attack on Isonzo.
    (HN, 3/29/98)

1916          May 9, The Sykes-Picot Agreement, a secret understanding between the governments of Britain and France, defined their respective spheres of post-World War I influence and control in the Middle East. It was signed on 16 May 1916. Italian claims were added in 1917. Britain and France carved up the Levant into an assortment of monarchies, mandates and emirates. The agreement enshrined Anglo-French imperialist ambitions at the end of WW II. Syria and Lebanon were put into the French orbit, while Britain claimed Jordan, Iraq, the Gulf states and the Palestinian Mandate. Sir Mark Sykes (d.1919 at age 39) and Francois Picot made the deal. As of 2016 the boundaries of the agreement remained in much of the common border between Syria and Iraq.
    (https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sykes%E2%80%93Picot_Agreement)(WSJ, 2/27/00, p.A17)(Econ, 5/14/16, SR p.5)

1916        Jul 14, Natalia Ginzberg, Italian novelist (The Dry Heat, Family Sayings), was born.
    (HN, 7/14/01)

1916        Aug 17, Umberto Boccioni (b.1882), Italian painter and sculptor, died. He was thrown from his horse and trampled during a cavalry training exercise. He helped shape the revolutionary aesthetic of the Futurism movement as one of its principal figures.
    (Econ, 2/22/14, p.71)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Umberto_Boccioni)

1916        Aug 27, Italy declared war on Germany.
    (HN, 8/27/98)

1916        Aug 28, Italy's declaration of war against Germany took effect during World War I.
    (AP, 8/28/97)

1916        Oct 10, Antonio Sant’Elia (b.1888), Italian architect,  was killed during the Eighth Battle of the Isonzo. He was a key member of the Futurist movement in architecture.
    (Econ, 2/22/14, p.71)

1916        Dec 2, Paolo Tosti, Italian-born composer and music teacher, died at the Hotel Excelsior in Rome. In 1894 Tosti joined the British Royal Academy of Music as a professor. In 1906, he became a British citizen and was knighted two years later by his friend, King Edward VII. In 1913 he returned to Italy to spend his last years there. Tosti wrote a total of 360 songs in his lifetime including: “Goodbye," “Forever," and “Mother."

1916        Vilfredo Pareto (1848-1923), Italian engineer, sociologist, economist, political scientist, and philosopher, authored “Treatise on General Sociology." Here he developed the notion of the circulation of elites, the first social cycle theory in sociology.
1916        The Italian film "Tigre Reale" (The royal Tigress) starred Pina Menichelli.
    (SFEC, 10/15/00, DB p.62)

1917        Apr 12, Domenico Scarlatti's and Jean Cocteau's ballet premiered in Rome.
    (MC, 4/12/02)

1917        Oct 24, The Austro-German army routed the Italian army at Caporetto, Italy. In what came to be known as the 1st blitzkrieg German and Austro-Hungarian forces took at least 250,000 Italian soldiers as prisoners on the Isonzo Front.
    (HN, 10/24/98)(SFEC, 7/9/00, p.T14)

1917        The Italian film "Malombra" starred Lyda Borelli.
    (SFEC, 10/15/00, DB p.63)

1917        The Italian film "Rapsodica Satanica" (Satanic Rhapsody) starred Lyda Borelli.
    (SFEC, 10/15/00, DB p.63)

1917        Benito Mussolini, editor of the Il Popolo d'Italia newspaper, was paid 100 pounds a week by Britain, equal to about 6,000 pounds ($9,600) in 2009. The paper campaigned to keep Italy on the allied side in the war. This was made public in 2009 by Cambridge historian Peter Martland, based on papers from Sir Samuel Hoare (1880-1959), in charge of British agents in Rome at this time. 
    (AP, 10/14/09)

1918        Jul 8, Ernest Hemingway (1899-1961), Nobel Prize winning writer, was wounded in Italy while working as an ambulance driver for the American Red Cross. He was later awarded the Italian Silver Medal of Military Valor. Hemingway enlisted in a Red Cross ambulance unit in 1917 during World War I.  He was commissioned a second lieutenant and served on the Italian front. After WWI he reported from the battlefields of the Spanish Civil War for American newspapers. His book "Farewell to Arms" was based on his experiences in WWI.
    (HNQ, 7/28/99)(HN, 7/8/01)

1918        Oct 30, The Italians captured Vittorio Veneto and routed the Austro-Hungarian army.
    (HN, 10/30/98)

1918        Nov 1, Yugoslav battleship Viribus Unitis was sunk by Italians.
    (MC, 11/1/01)

1918        Dec 23, Jose Greco, flamenco dancer (Holiday for Lovers), was born in Italy.
    (MC, 12/23/01)

1918         Dec, Albanian leaders met at Durrës to discuss Albania's interests at the Paris Peace Conference. When World War I ended the Italian armies occupied most of Albania, and Serbian, Greek and French armies occupied the remainder. Italian and Yugoslav powers began a struggle for dominance over Albanians.
    (www, Albania, 1998)

1918        Italy gained Trieste from the Hapsburg Empire.

1919        Feb 23, Fascist Party was formed in Italy by Benito Mussolini. [see Mar 23]
    (MC, 2/23/02)

1919        Mar 23, Benito Mussolini founded his Fascist political movement in Milan, Italy. [see Feb 23]
    (AP, 3/23/97)

1919        Jul 31, Primo Levi, Italian writer and scientist (Survival in Auschwitz), was born.
    (HN, 7/31/01)

1919        Aug 8, Dino De Laurentiis, producer (King Kong), was born in Torre Annunziata, Italy.
    (MC, 8/8/02)

1919        Aug 9, Ruggiero Leoncavallo (62), Italian composer (Pagliacci), died.
    (MC, 8/9/02)

1919        Sep 27, Adelina [Adela JM] Patti, Italian soprano (Lucio), died at 76.
    (MC, 9/27/01)

1919        Nov 19, Gillo Pontecorvo (d.2006) was born in Pisa, Italy. He one of 10 children of a wealthy Jewish industrialist and grew up to become a prominent film maker.
    (SFC, 10/14/06, p.B5)

1919        The Italian film "Maman Poupee" starred Carmine Gallone.
    (SFEC, 10/15/00, DB p.63)

1919-1920        Gabriele d’Annunzio (1863-1938) set up the short-lived Italian Regency of Carnaro in Fiume (later Rijeka in Croatia) with himself as Duce as part of an Italian nationalist reaction against the Paris Peace Conference.

1920        Jan 20, Movie director Federico Fellini was born in Rimini, Italy.
    (AP, 1/20/00)

1920        Jan 24, Amedeo Modigliani (b.1884), Italian sculptor, painter, died in Paris. His mistress Jeanne Hebuterne, pregnant with his child, committed suicide 2 days later rather than live without him. In 2006 Jeffrey Meyers authored “Modigliani: A Life." In 2011 Meryle Secrest authored “Modigliani: A Life."
    (http://tinyurl.com/4l4ocml)(WSJ, 10/16/98, p.W14)(WSJ, 3/21/06, p.D8)(SSFC, 3/13/11, p.G5)

1920        Jan 26, Jeanne Hebuterne (b.1898), the mistress of Amadeo Modigliani, killed herself 2 days following Modigliani’s death while carrying his child.

1920        Apr 20, Balfour Declaration was recognized following a conference in San Remo, Italy. It was agreed that a mandate to Britain should be formally given by the League of Nations over an area, which in 2010 comprised Israel, Jordan and the Golan Heights, to be called the "Mandate of Palestine". The Balfour Declaration was to apply to the whole of the mandated territory. The doctrine was named after British Foreign Secretary Arthur James Balfour, who had first articulated it as a policy on 2 November 1917.

1920        Apr 21, Bruno Maderna, conductor, composer, Hyperion), was born in Venice, Italy.
    (MC, 4/21/02)

1920        Sep, Albania forced Italy to withdraw its troops and abandon claims on Albanian territory.
    (www, Albania, 1998)

1920        Nov 21, Mussolini's squad began terror and 11 died in Bologna, Italy.
    (MC, 11/21/01)

1920        The Italian film "La storia di una donna" (The Story of a Woman) starred Pina Menichelli.
    (SFEC, 10/15/00, DB p.63)

1921        Jan 3, Italy halted the issue of passports to those emigrating to the U.S.
    (HN, 1/3/99)

1921        May 9, The play "Sei Personaggi in Cerca d'Autore" (Six Characters in Search of an Author) by Luigi Pirandello (1867-1936) premiered in Rome.

1921        May 15, The Italian Communist Party won 15 parliament seats out of 535.

1921        Aug 2, Opera singer Enrico Caruso (b.1873) died in Naples, Italy. The body of the great tenor Enrico Caruso was entombed for 6 years in a transparent coffin.
    (SFC, 5/25/96, p.B4)(AP, 8/2/00)(MC, 8/2/02)

1921        Oct 12, The Medal of Honor, emblem of highest ideals and virtues, is bestowed in the name of Congress of the United States of America upon the unknown, unidentified Italian soldier to be buried in the National Monument to Victor Emanuel II, in Rome.

1921        Nov 7, Benito Mussolini declared himself to be leader of the National Fascist Party.
    (HN, 11/7/98)

1921        Nov 9, In Italy Mussolini formed the Partito Nazionalista Fascista.
    (MC, 11/9/01)

1921        Guccio Gucci (1881-1953) and his wife, Aida, opened their 1st store in Florence following a number of years in London. Their son, Aldo, later built the Gucci brand into a global snob-appeal powerhouse. In 2000 Sara Gay Forden authored "The House of Gucci."
    (WSJ, 9/1/00, p.W1)(WSJ, 11/5/03, p.A1)
1921        In Italy the Corsini Biscotti company was founded in the Tuscan village of Castel del Piano. By 2015 the family business had annual revenues of $17 million (€14m)
    (Econ, 1/3/15, p.52)

1922        Feb 1, Renata Tebaldi (d.2004), lyric soprano, was born, Pesaro Italy.

1922        Feb 6, The Washington Disarmament Conference came to an end with signature of final treaty forbidding fortification of the Aleutian Islands for 14 years. The US, UK, France, Italy & Japan signed the Washington naval arms limitation.
    (HN, 2/6/99)(MC, 2/6/02)

1922        Mar 3, Italian fascists occupied Fiume and Rijeka.
    (SC, 3/3/02)

1922        Mar 5, Pier Paolo Pasolini, director (Teorema, Pigsty), was born in Bologna, Italy.
    (MC, 3/5/02)

1922        Apr 10, The Genoa Conference opened. Representatives of 34 countries gathered to discuss global economic problems following World War I and aimed to restore Europe’s economy. America declined to participate. The conference close on May 19. Among the propositions formulated at the conference was the proposal that central banks make a partial return to the Gold Standard.
    (https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Genoa_Conference_%281922%29)(Econ, 10/3/15, SR p.6)

1922        Aug 8, An Italian general strike was broken by fascist terror.
    (MC, 8/8/02)

1922        Sep 28, Mussolini marched on Rome.
    (MC, 9/28/01)

1922        Oct 26, Italian government resigned under pressure from fascists and Benito Mussolini.
    (MC, 10/26/01)

1922        Oct 27, Liberal Luigi Facta's cabinet resigned after threats from Mussolini that "either the government will be given to us or we will seize it by marching on Rome." Mussolini called for a general mobilization of all Fascists.
    (HN, 10/27/98)

1922        Oct 28, Fascism came to Italy as Benito Mussolini took control of the government.
    (AP, 10/28/97)

1922        Oct 30, Mussolini sent his black shirts into Rome and formed a government. The Fascist takeover was almost without bloodshed. [see Oct 28]
    (HN, 10/30/98)(MC, 10/30/01)

1922        Oct 31, Mussolini was made prime minister. He centralized all power in himself as leader of the Fascist party and attempted to create an Italian empire, ultimately in alliance with Hitler's Germany. Mussolini formed a cabinet of Fascists and Nationalists and declared himself temporary dictator.
    (HN, 10/30/98)(SFC, 10/15/99, p.C12)

1922        Nov 24, Italian parliament gave Mussolini dictatorial powers "for 1 year."
    (MC, 11/24/01)

1922        Dec 6, Mussolini threatened the Italian newspapers with censorship if they kept reporting "false" information.
    (HN, 12/6/98)

1922-1943    Mussolini’s Ministry of Popular Culture (Minculpop) censored books by Machiavelli, Jewish historians and just about anybody who didn’t fall in line with Fascist culture.
    (SFC, 12/5/00, p.A15)

1923        Feb 1, Fascists Voluntary Militia formed in Italy under Mussolini.
    (MC, 2/1/02)

1923        Feb 10, Cesare Siepi, basso (NY Metropolitan Opera), was born in Milan, Italy.
    (MC, 2/10/02)

1923        Feb 26, Italian nationalist blue-shirts merged with the fascist black-shirts.
    (SC, 2/26/02)

1923        Mar 2, In Italy, Mussolini admitted that women have a right to vote, but declares that the time was not right.
    (HN, 3/2/99)

1923        Apr 8, Franco Corelli, tenor, was born in Anconia, Italy.
    (MC, 4/8/02)

1923        Jun 3, In Italy, dictator Benito Mussolini granted women the right to vote.
    (HN, 6/3/98)

1923        Jun 4, Filippo Smaldone, Italian priest, died. He provided education and assistance for the death and founded the Congregation of the Salesian Sisters of the Sacred Heart. In 2006 Pope Benedict XVI named him a saint.
    (SFC, 10/16/06, p.A2)

1923        Aug 19, Vilfredo Federico Damaso Pareto (b.1848), French-Italian sociologist, economist and philosopher, died. In 1906 he made the famous observation that 20% of the population owned 80% of the property in Italy. This was later generalized by Joseph M. Juran and others into the so-called Pareto principle (also termed the 80-20 rule) and generalized further to the concept of a Pareto distribution.
    (WSJ, 3/8/08, p.A7)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Vilfredo_Pareto)

1923        Aug 31, Mussolini's troops occupied Korfu.
    (MC, 8/31/01)

1923        Sep 10, In response to a dispute with Yugoslavia, Mussolini mobilized Italian troops on Serb front.
    (HN, 9/10/98)

1923        Oct 15, Italo Calvino (d.1985), Italian novelist (Winter's Night a Traveler), was born in Cuba.
    (HN, 10/15/00)(SSFC, 4/6/03, p.M4)

1924        Feb 7, Mussolini government exchanged diplomats with USSR.
    (MC, 2/7/02)

1924        Apr 6, Italy fascists received 65% of vote of parliament.
    (MC, 4/6/02)

1924        Apr 21, Eleanora Duse (64), Italian actress (La Gioconda, La Locandiera), died. In 2003 Helen Sheehy authored "Eleonora Duse: A Biography."
    (MC, 4/21/02)(WSJ, 8/22/03, p.W10)

1924        Jun 10, The Italian socialist leader Giacomo Matteotti was kidnapped and assassinated by Fascists in Rome.
    (HN, 6/10/98)

1924        Jun 17, The Fascist militia marched into Rome.
    (HN, 6/17/98)

1924        Jul 27, Ferruccio Dante Michelangelo Benvenuto Busoni (b.1866), Italian composer, died. He left unfinished his opera "Doktor Faust," which was finished in 1982 by Antony Beaumont. The opera was based on work by Christopher Marlowe and puppet plays that preceded the Goethe treatment.
    (SFC, 6/25/96, p.E2)(WSJ, 9/2/99, p.A12)(MC, 7/27/02)

1924        Sep 28, Marcello Mastroianni (d.1996), Italian actor, was born. His films included "La Dolce Vita" and "8 ½."
    (HN, 9/28/00)

1924        Nov 29, Italian composer Giacomo Puccini (b.1858) died in Brussels before he could complete his opera "Turandot." Franco Alfano finished it. His death marked the end of a 300-year tradition of Italian opera. In 2003 Mary Jane Phillips-Matz authored "Puccini."
    (AP, 11/29/97)(SFC, 12/28/99, p.C1)(WSJ, 4/11/03, p.W7)

1924        The Italian film "Vedi Napuli e Po’Mori" (See Naples and Die) starred Lyda Gys.
    (SFEC, 10/15/00, DB p.62)

1924        The Chianti Classico Consorzio was formed.
    (SFC, 6/30/99, Z1 p.6)

1925        Jan 3, Benito Mussolini dissolved the Italian parliament and became dictator.
    (MC, 1/3/02)

1925        Sep 26, The Italian submarine "Sebastiano Veniero" was lost off Sicily with 54 dead.
    (MC, 9/26/01)

1925        Nov 5, Mussolini disbanded Italian socialist parties.
    (MC, 11/5/01)

1925        Benito Mussolini assumed dictatorial powers.
    (WSJ, 4/25/96, p.A-16)

1926        Feb 6, Mussolini warned Germany to stop agitation in Tyrol.
    (HN, 2/6/99)

1926        Feb 22, Pope Pius rejected Mussolini's offer of aid to the Vatican.
    (HN, 2/22/98)

1926        Mar 24, Dario Fo, Italian actor and playwright, was born in Leggiuno Sangiano on the banks of Lake Maggiore. He won the Nobel Prize in Literature in 1997.
    (SFC, 10/10/97, p.A15)(HN, 3/24/01)

1926        Apr 25, Puccini's opera Turandot premiered at La Scala in Milan with Arturo Toscanini conducting.
    (HN, 4/25/01)

1926        Apr 3, Italy established corps of force in order to break powerful unions.
    (MC, 4/3/02)

1926        Apr 7, Mussolini's Irish wife broke his Italian nose.
    (MC, 4/7/02)

1926        Jun 29, Fascists in Rome added an hour to the work day in an economic efficiency measure.
    (HN, 6/29/98)

1926        Dec 29, Germany and Italy signed an arbitration treaty.
    (HN, 12/29/98)

1926         Albania and Italy signed the First Treaty of Tirana, which guaranteed Zogu's political position and Albania's boundaries.
    (www, Albania, 1998)
1926        Venice and Mestre became a single administration in 1926 when Mestre's petrochemical plant was being built. At the time, the population of Venice and its 11 islands was roughly six times that of nearby Mestre. By 2019 Venice and the islands reported 91,000 residents against Mestre's 177,000.
    (Reuters, 12/1/19)
1926        The primitive sleigh technique was used to haul Mussolini’s celebrated Monolith, from Carrara to the seaport for transport to Rome.
    (SFEC,10/19/97, p.T5)

1927        Apr 15, Francesco Gaeta (47), Italian poet (Di Giacomo), died.
    (MC, 4/15/02)

1927        Pietro Lombardi, sculptor, designed one of Rome’s 10 neighborhood theme fountains.
    (SFEC, 7/2/00, p.T4)

1927        The Italian furniture firm Cassina was founded.
    (SFC, 5/4/05, p.G12)

1927-1957     The Mille Miglia automobile race was run in Italy.
    (SFC, 4/28/98, p.A13)

1928        Mar 15, Mussolini modified the Italy electoral system. [see May 12]
    (MC, 3/15/02)

1928        May 12, Mussolini abolished women suffrage under a new law that restricted the franchise to men 21 and over who pay syndicate rates or taxes or 100 lire.
    (PCh, 1992, p.787)

1928        May 23, Italian Gen. Nobile reached the North Pole for a 2nd time with a 16-man crew aboard the dirigible Italia.
    (ON, 10/00, p.5)

1928        May 24, The dirigible Italia crashed while attempting to reach Spitzbergen. Nine men survived the initial crash. In 2000 Wilbur Cross authored "Disaster at the Pole," a revised edition of the 1960 version of the disaster led by Italian aviator Umberto Nobile. The Russian film "Krasnaya palatka" (1969), starring Sean Connery, detailed the Nobile expedition and attempted rescue. This movie was released in North America under the title "The Red Tent."
    (ON, 10/00, p.6)(SSFC, 1/7/01, Par p.14)(www.imdb.com/title/tt0067315/)

1928        Aug 14, Lina Wertmuller, [Arcanguela von Elgg], actress (7 Beauties), was born in Rome.
    (MC, 8/14/02)

1928        Oct, Mussolini organized the draining of Lake Nemi to get to the remains of Caligula’s sunken pleasure ships.
    (AM, 5/01, p.29)

1928        The Italian film "Scampolo" (Rag) starred Carmen Boni.
    (SFEC, 10/15/00, DB p.63)

1928        A group of Italian men in San Francisco formed Il Cenacolo to support Italian art, music, language and culture.
    (SSFC, 2/29/04, p.E1)

1928        Medardo Rosso (b.1858), Italian sculptor, died. His work included "Aetas aurea" (Golden age, 1886/87). Rosso is described as an "Impressionist sculptor" because he was interested in capturing the fleeting appearance of things.
    (WSJ, 10/16/03, p.D8)

1929        Feb 11, The Lateran Treaty was signed, with Italy recognizing the independence and sovereignty of Vatican City. The Italian government, under dictator Benito Mussolini, paid the Vatican $91.7 million for the papal lands it seized in 1870. The Italian state agreed to supply water but the disposal of waste was not specified. This became a big issue in 1999.
    (SFEM, 1/19/96, p.10)(AP, 2/11/97)(WSJ, 12/3/99, p.A1)(Econ, 7/12/14, p.68)

1929        Jun 7, The sovereign state of Vatican City came into existence as copies of the Lateran Treaty were exchanged in Rome.
    (AP, 6/7/97)

1929        Renzo De Felice, scholar and historian of Italy’s Fascist period, was born. He authored more than a dozen books on Fascism and Mussolini. His other books explored the political and economic history of Italy. He died May 25, 1996, in Rome.
    (SFC, 5/28/96, p.A15)
1929        In Italy sports driver Enzo Ferrari (1898-1988) founded his Ferrari motor car company. In 2015 Ferrari went public on the NYSE.
    (SFC, 10/22/15, p.C5)

1929-1954    Cardinal Ildefenso Schuster was the archbishop of Milan. He was beatified by Pope Paul II on 5/12/96. The cardinal had supported fascism but later turned against it. He had supported Benito Mussolini and praised the regime when it invade Ethiopia.
    (SFC, 5/13/96, p.C-12)

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Subject = Italy
Italy 1930

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