Timeline Iran: thru 2004

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Iran news: http://www.payvand.com/news/

Sogdiana was a province of ancient Persia between the Oxus and Jaxartes Rivers, later known as Uzbekistan. The extinct Iranian language of Sogdiana was spoken there.
 (WUD, 1994, p.1264,1353)

See also Persia

40Mil BC    The entire Tibetan Plateau underwent major uplifting as the Indian subcontinent bumped into Eurasia. Vast ranges rose from the Himalayas on the east to Afghanistan’s Hindu Kush and Iran’s Elburz mountains on the west.
    (SFC, 5/19/06, p.B7)(Econ, 1/26/17, p.31)

2200BC    A statue of the Sumerian king Entemena of Lagash was made about this time. The head was later lost and in 2003 the remaining body was looted after the fall of Baghdad. In 2006 it was returned to Iraq’s National Museum.
    (SFC, 7/26/06, p.A3)

1792BC-1750BC    Hammurabi, king of Babylon, established a code of laws during this period that became known as the Code of Hammurabi. They were inscribed on a basalt column, later found at Susa, Iran. One of the laws was that if a married woman was caught lying with another man, both should be bound and thrown into the river.
    (WH, 1994, p.13)(SFEC, 10/20/96, Z1 p.2)(Econ, 4/12/08, p.91)

247BC - 224AD    The Parthian Empire, also known as the Arsacid Empire was a major Iranian political and cultural power in ancient Iran.

116        Hatra, a fortified city of the Parthian Empire and later part of Iraq, withstood a Roman invasion due to its high and thick walls. The Parthian Empire (247 BC – 224 AD), also known as the Arsacid Empire was a major Iranian political and cultural power in ancient Iran.
    (SSFC, 4/5/15, p.A7)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Parthian_Empire)

198        Hatra, a fortified city of the Parthian Empire (later part of Iraq), withstood a second Roman invasion due to its high and thick walls. The trading center was surrounded by more than 160 towers.
    (SSFC, 4/5/15, p.A7)(AP, 4/26/17)

c226CE    In Iran Zoroastrianism was revitalized as a state religion under the Sassanians.
    (WSJ, 2/2/00, p.A24)

224-641CE    The Sassanid Dynasty ruled over Persia.
    (ATC, p.32)

227-261CE     The Sassanids (A.D. 227-651), ruled the Persian Empire despite attempts by the Roman Empire (27 B.C.-A.D. 476) and later the Byzantine (or Eastern Roman) Empire to conquer it. Bam was founded during the Sassanian Period along one of the East-West trade routes collectively known as the Silk Road.
    (HNQ, 12/22/00)(SFC, 12/27/03, p.A12)

451        Apr 13, A Persian Army of 300,000 men under Mushkan Nusalavurd arrived at a place between Her and Zarevand (now Khoy and Salmast in Iran) to face the Armenian forces.
    (MH, 12/96)

614        Christian Palestine was invaded by the Persians. The 5th century monastery of St. Theodosius east of Beit Sahour near Bethlehem was destroyed by the Persians.
    (SFEC, 12/22/96, p.T3)(WSJ, 4/5/02, p.W12)

602-628    The Byzantine–Sasanian War of 602–628 was the final and most devastating of the series of wars fought between the Byzantine Empire and the Sasanian Empire of Iran. The previous war between the two powers had ended in 591 after Emperor Maurice helped the Sasanian king Khosrow II regain his throne. In 602 Maurice was murdered by his political rival Phocas. Khosrow proceeded to declare war, ostensibly to avenge the death of Maurice. This became a decades-long conflict, the longest war in the series, and was fought throughout the Middle East: in Egypt, the Levant, Mesopotamia, the Caucasus, Anatolia, Armenia, the Aegean Sea and before the walls of Constantinople itself.

632-661    The Rashidun Caliphate, also known as the Rightly Guided Caliphate, comprising the first four caliphs in Islam's history, was founded after Muhammad's death. At its height, the Caliphate extended from the Arabian Peninsula, to the Levant, Caucasus and North Africa in the west, to the Iranian highlands and Central Asia in the east. It was the one of the largest empires in history up until that time.

633        Gen Khalid ibn al-Walid sent a letter to the Persian emperor that said: “Submit to our authority and we shall leave you and your land and go against others. If not, you will be conquered against your will by men who love death as you love life."
    (WSJ, 10/19/01, p.W19)

c633        Nikbanou, a 7th century Persian Zoroastrian princess, fled to a mountain refuge at Chak Chak to escape Arab horsemen planting the green pennants of Islam in Iranian soil.
    (AP, 7/15/04)

651        Yazdegird III, the last Sassanian king, was murdered.
    (WSJ, 2/2/00, p.A24)

700-800    According to Iraqis Muslim forces “liberated" Iraq from the Persians in the 8th century qadissiyah battle.
    (SFC, 2/1/02, p.A18)

803        Harun al-Rashid (~763-809), the fifth Abbasid Caliph and the last to make Raqqa his capital, had his most loyal adviser cut into three pieces.
    (https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Harun_al-Rashid)(Econ, 3/25/17, p.40)

781        Yakib ben Laith, a Saffarid prince from an eastern Iranian dynasty, stripped the sanctuaries of Bamiyan, Afghanistan, of their metal idols.
    (WSJ, 12/20/01, p.A13)

814        Abu-Nuwas al-Hasan ben Hani al-Hakami (b.756), one of the greatest of classical Arabic poets, died. He also composed in Persian on occasion. Born in the city of Ahvaz in Persia, of an Arab father and a Persian mother, he became a master of all the contemporary genres of Arabic poetry. Abu Nuwas has entered the folkloric tradition, and he appears several times in The Book of One Thousand and One Nights. His witty and humorous poetry, which dealt not with the traditional desert themes, but with urban life and the joys of wine and drinking (khamriyyat - khamriyaat), and ribald humor (mujuniyyat).
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Abu_Nuwas)(Econ, 12/20/03, p.68)(Econ, 8/18/12, p.55)

816        Nov, Fatima, sister of the eighth Imam, was buried in a sanctuary at Qum (Qom, Iran), one of the sacred cities of the Shia faith.
    (http://tinyurl.com/htuz4ky)(NG, 9/1939, p.320)

818        Imam Reza, a descendant of the Prophet Muhammad, died. Shiites later believed that he was fed poisonous grapes by a Sunni leader of the Muslim world. Reza was buried in Sanabad, which later became known as Mashad, “place of martyrdom." A major shrine grew at the site and by 2007 the Imam Reza Shrine Foundation was the largest (bonyad) in Iran and accounted for 7.1% of the country’s GDP.
    (WSJ, 6/2/07, p.A12)

838        Jan 7, Babak Khorramdin, formally known as "Papak" meaning "Young Father," was executed. He was one of the main revolutionary leaders of the Iranian Khorram-Dinan ("Those of the joyous religion"), which was a local freedom movement fighting the Abbasid Caliphate. During his execution, the Caliph's henchmen first cut off his legs and hands. Legend says that Babak bravely rinsed his face with the drained blood pouring out of his cuts, thus depriving the Caliph and the rest of the Abbasid army from seeing his pale face, a result of the heavy loss of blood. He was then gibbeted alive whilst sewn into a cow's skin with the horns at ear level to gradually crush his head as it dried out.

967        Dec 7, Abu Sa'id ibn Aboa al-Chair, Persian mystic, was born.
    (MC, 12/7/01)

1010        Abolqasem Firdawsi (Ferdowsi), a Persian poet, completed the “Shanameh," or “Book of Kings." It is an epic of more than 50,000 rhyming couplets weaving the history of ancient shahs with myth and legend. One might call it the Iliad of Persia. Over the centuries shahs have had the poem copied and illustrated by the best artists of the day. In 2006 Dick Harris made an abridged translation to English in prose.
    (WSJ, Amy Gamerman, p. A-18, 10-13-94)(WSJ, 3/7/06, p.D8)

1037        Jun 21, Avicenna (b.980), a Persian polymath, died in Iran. Of the 450 works he is known to have written, around 240 have survived, including 150 on philosophy and 40 on medicine. He attributed illness to an imbalance in bodily fluids.
    (https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Avicenna)(Econ, 4/18/20, p.36)

1094        The Islamic terrorist organization Nizari Ismailiyun, a Shiite politico-religious sect, was founded by Hasan-e Sabah. He and his followers captured the hill fortress of Almaut in northern Iran, which became their base of operations.

1162-1227    Genghis Khan was born in the Hentiyn Nuruu mountains north of Ulan Bator. His given name was Temujin, “the ironsmith." He seized control over 5 million square miles that covered China, Iran, Iraq, Burma, Vietnam, and most of Korea and Russia. "In Search of Genghis Khan" is a book by Tim Severin. He was succeeded by his son Ogedai, who was succeeded by Guyuk. Ogedai ignored numerous pleas from his brother Chaghatai to cut down on his drinking and died of alcoholism as did Guyuk.
    (SFC, 4/14/96, T-10)(WUD, 1994, p. 591)(WSJ, 1/11/99, p.R6)

1177        Lal Shahbaz Qalandar (d.1274) was born as Seyyed Shah Hussain Marandi in Marand (near the city of Tabriz) in Azerbaijan (at this time a part of Iran). He is also known as Shaikh Hussain Marandi. He migrated to Sindh and settled in Sehwan and was buried there. He was a Sufi in the regions that lie in the Sindh province of Pakistan.

c1200        Rashid al-Din, statesman and historian, lived in Persia.
    (WSJ, 5/7/01, p.A20)

1207-1273    Jalal ud-din Rumi (Jelaluddin Rumi), Persian poet and mystic. He was born in Balkh, Afghanistan, and later fled the Mongol invasions with his family to Konya (Iconium), Anatolia. His work “Mathwani" (Spiritual Couplets) filled 6 volumes and had a great impact on Islamic civilization. He founded the Mevlevi order of Sufis, later known as the “whirling dervishes." In 1998 a film was made about the Sufi poet’s influence on the 20th century. In 1998 Kabir Helminski edited “The Rumi Collection" with translation by Robert Bly and others. His work also included the “Shams I-Tabriz" in which he dismissed the terminology of Jew, Christian and Muslim as “false distinctions." The poet Rumi was also known as Mowlana.
    (WUD, 1994, p.762)(SFC, 7/9/96, p.B5)(SFEC, 9/20/98, DB p.50)(SFEC, 10/25/98, BR p.6)(WSJ, 9/7/01, p.A14)

1244        Aug 23, Khwarezmian Turks expelled the crusaders under Frederick II from Jerusalem. Jerusalem’s citadel, the Tower of David, surrendered. The Turks ruthlessly decimated the population, leaving only 2,000 people, Christians and Muslims, still living in the city. This attack triggered the Europeans to respond with the Seventh Crusade.
    (HN, 8/23/98)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Khwarezmian_Empire)

1292        Dec 9, Sa'di, great Persian poet (Orchard, Rose Garden), died.
    (MC, 12/9/01)

1371        Ubaid Zakani, Persian writer, died. His work included “Mush va Gorbeh" (Mouse and Cat), a match for Rabelais when it comes to mocking religion.
    (WSJ, 2/8/06, p.A16)(www.britannica.com/eb/article-13737)

1389-1390    Hafez (Khwaja Shams ud-Din Hafiz) (b.1325/26), Persian poet, died about this time.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hafez)(SSFC, 10/23/05, p.E3)(www.thesongsofhafiz.com/)

1571        Jan 27, Shah Abbas, King of the Safavid dynasty in Persia (1587-1629), was born. He established a monopoly on the production and sale of silk and used the wealth to develop the city of Isfahan. Fearful of assassination he turned on his own family, executed one son, and blinded 2 sons, his father and his brothers.
    (WSJ, 1/11/99, p.R8)(http://4dw.net/royalark/Persia/safawi3.htm)

1587        Abbas I (16) became Shah of Persia following the forced abdication of his father, Shah Muhammad Khodabandeh. A revolt by Qizilbash leaders finally removed Khodabandeh from power and installed his son Abbas as shah.
1587        Mohammad Khodabandeh, Shah of Persia, died.
    (PC, 1992 ed, p.203)

1598        Iranian emperor Shah Abbas (1571-1629) moved his capital to Isfahan. English brothers Anthony and Robert Shirley (~1581-1628) soon arrived in Iran with 26 followers and joined the Persian service under Abbas and remaining for a number of years.
    (Econ, 2/21/09, p.86)(http://tinyurl.com/cbrsb9)

1612        The square of Esfahan, Persia, was built.
    (SSFC, 1/14/07, p.G5)

1650        The Khaju bridge in Esfahan, Persia (Iran), was built over the Zayandeh Rood river.
    (SSFC, 1/14/07, p.G5)

1723        Border treaties or notes between Iran and Russia were signed in this year and followed again in 1725, 1732, 1813, 1828, 1881, 1893, 1954, 1957 and 1962.
    (WSJ, 8/3/01, p.A2)

1826        Sep 26, The Persian cavalry was routed by the Russians at the Battle of Ganja in the Russian Caucasus.
    (HN, 9/26/99)

1829        Feb 11, Alexander Griboyedov (b.1795), Russian diplomat, playwright and composer, was beheaded by a mob attack on the Russian embassy in Tehran. Griboyedov was protecting an Armenian eunuch, who had escaped from the harem of the Persian shah along with 2 Armenian girls. The Russians let the incident pass after an Iranian apology. They were already at war with the Turks and in regional competition with the British.
    (WSJ, 2/10/96, p.A18)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Alexandr_Griboyedov)

1839        Jews in Mashad, Iran, were forcibly converted to Shiite Islam following a pogrom.
    (SFC, 10/20/01, p.A10)

1844        May 22, Siyyid Alí-Muhammad of Shiraz gained his first convert and took on the title of the "the Báb" (the Gate), referring to his later claim to the status of Mahdi of Shi'a Islam. His followers were therefore known as Bábís. As the Báb's teachings spread, which the Islamic clergy saw as blasphemous, his followers came under increased persecution and torture.

1850        Jul 9, Báb, founder of Bábism and one of the central figures of the Baha'i Faith., was executed in Tabriz, Iran.

1852        In Iran Mirza Hoseyn 'Ali Nuri (Baha' Ullah, b.1817), founder of the Baha’i Faith, became aware of his mission as a messenger of God while in the notorious Teheran prison known as the Black Pit for involvement in the unsuccessful attempt in 1852 on the life the shah of Persia, Naser od-Din. Released and exiled to Baghdad in 1853, Baha’ Allah revived the Babi faith that had sprung from Shi’ah Islam in the 1840s. He went on to found the Baha’i movement that subsequently spread throughout the world.
    (HNQ, 4/6/99)(HN, 11/12/00)

1863        In Iran the Baha’i faith was founded by Hussain Ali (1817-1892). It reflected the attitudes of the Shiah sect with an emphasis on tolerance. Among its principles are full equality between the sexes, universal education and the establishment of a world of a world federal system. The Baha'i Faith was founded in Iran by a man named Baha'u'llah, which literally means "The Glory of God".
    (https://tinyurl.com/y28sxqwg)(SFC, 10/30/98, p.A20)(AP, 1/4/18)(AFP, 7/30/20)

1879        The Cyrus Cylinder was discovered by the Assyro-British archaeologist Hormuzd Rassam in the foundations of the Esagila, the main temple of Babylon, and was later placed in the British Museum in London. The cylinder was created following the Persian conquest of Babylon in 539 BC, when Cyrus overthrew the Babylonian king Nabonidus and replaced him as ruler, ending the Neo-Babylonian Empire.  It was later considered as the world's first declaration of human rights.
    (http://tinyurl.com/lma678)(AFP, 2/7/10)

1900        May 17, Ayatollah Ruhollah Khomeini (d.1989), Iran's spiritual and revolutionary leader (1979-89), was born.
    (HN, 5/17/98)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ruhollah_Khomeini)

1901        English millionaire William Knox D’Arcy arranged to pay £40,000 in cash and company stock to the Shah of Tehran, Muzaffar al-Din, for the right to drill for oil in western Persia. The deal included a pledge, should commercial production begin, to pay the Persian government 16% of annual profits until 1961.
    (ON, 8/08, p.1)

1904        Jan 19, A team of oil drillers led by George Reynolds and funded by English millionaire William Knox D’Arcy, struck oil at Chiah Surkh, Persia, but by March the volume dwindled to an unprofitable trickle.
    (ON, 8/08, p.2)

1905-1911    Iran’s Constitutional Revolution took place. The revolution led to the establishment of a parliament in Persia (Iran).

1906        A coalition of clerical grandees, progressive intellectuals and bazaar traders forced the shah of Iran to promulgate Iran’s first constitution and establish a parliament.
    (Econ, 6/10/06, p.85)

1907        Iran's parliament recruited Morgan Shuster (1877-1960), an American lawyer, to run the state treasury. The vice-regent of Persia expelled Shuster from office in December 1911 against the will of the Persian parliament. 
    (https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/William_Morgan_Shuster)(Econ., 1/23/21, p.67)
1907        Britain and Russia carved Iran into spheres of influence. Russia and Great Britain signed the convention of St. Petersburg, in which Afghanistan was declared outside Russia's sphere of influence.
    (https://www.afghan-web.com/history/chronology/)(WSJ, 4/2/07, p.A6)

1908         May 26, The first major oil strike in the Middle East took place as engineers working for British entrepreneur William Knox D'Arcy and led by George B. Reynolds hit a gusher more than 1,100 feet below ground in Masjid-i-Suleiman, Persia (Iran). The Concessions Syndicate Limited, later the Anglo-Persian Oil Co., included the Burmah Oil Company of Glasgow, Scotland, and the Persian oil project of William Knox D'Arcy.
    (WSJ, 9/13/99, p.R4)(WSJ, 4/2/07, p.A6)(AP, 5/26/08)

1908        Jun 26, Shah Muhammad Ali’s forces squelched the reform elements of Parliament in Persia.
    (HN, 6/26/98)

1909        Apr 19, In Persia Howard Baskerville (b.1885), an American Presbyterian preacher, was shot dead while trying to break the siege of Tabriz as a defender of the new Iranian constitution.
    (Econ, 7/17/10, p.87)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Howard_Baskerville)

1910        Jan 21, A British-Russian military intervention took place in Persia.
    (MC, 1/21/02)

1911        May, Morgan Shuster (1877-1960), an American lawyer, began serving as treasurer-general of the Persian empire. In December under Russian and British pressure, the vice-regent of Persia expelled Shuster from office against the will of the Persian parliament.
    (Econ, 7/17/10, p.87)

1912        Morgan Shuster, American financial expert, authored “The Strangling of Persia." He describes his failed efforts to introduce virtuous financial practices in Iran in the face of British and Russian barriers.
    (WSJ, 10/6/07, p.W8)

1919        Oct 26, Mohammed Riza Pahlevi, the Shah of Iran (1941-79). He was overthrown in 1979 and died in the United States, was born.
    (HN, 10/26/98)(MC, 10/26/01)

1921        Feb 20, Riza Khan Pahlevi seized control of Iran. Pahlevi marched into Tehran with 2,500 soldiers and took over the government. Britain helped topple the Qajar dynasty and replaced it with Reza Shah Pahlavi, a former military officer. Five years later he was crowned Shah and placed the crown upon his head with his own hands, as did Napoleon.
    (NG, Sept. 1939, p.330)(WSJ, 4/2/07, p.A6)

1921        Feb 26, The Russo-Persian Treaty of Friendship was signed in Moscow between representatives of Iran and the Soviet Russia. Both the Soviet Russia and Iran were given full and equal shipping rights in the Caspian Sea along with the right to fly their respective national flags on their commercial vessels.

1925        Khuzestan, an autonomous Arab emirate once known as Arabistan, was annexed by the British-backed shah of Iran. The area, inhabited by the Ahwazi Arabs, was rich in oil and by 2006 produced about 90% of Iran’s oil.
    (SSFC, 11/5/06, p.A16)

1925        The documentary film "Grass" was made by Merian C. Cooper and Ernest Schoedsack. It was about the migration of a tribe of Persian nomads.
    (SFC,11/21/97, p.C17)

1926        Apr 25, In Iran, Reza Kahn was crowned Shah and chose the name "Pehlevi".
    (HN, 4/25/98)

1926        Aug 20, There was an uprising against Reza Shah Pahlavi in Persia.
    (MC, 8/20/02)

1932        Reza Shah revoked the Anglo-Persian Co. oil monopoly.
    (WSJ, 4/2/07, p.A6)

1933        Antoin Sevruguin (b. late1830s), photographer, died. He was the son of a Russian diplomat posted to Tehran. Sevruguin worked in Tehran and captured on film the last decades under the rule of the Qajar dynasty.
    (SFC, 11/30/99, p.A24)

1934        Ali Akbar Hashemi Rafsanjani was born.
    (WP, 6/29/96, p.A20)

1935        Mar 22, Reza Shah Pahlavi renamed Persia to Iran, which in Farsi means Aryan. It reflected the shah’s identification with Hitler’s Third Reich. 
    (SFC,11/19/97, Z1 p.7)(HN, 3/22/97)(SSFC, 1/8/06, p.D1)

1935        Jul 13, In Iran worshippers at the Shrine of Imam Reza in Mashad protested a dress code that demanded Western-style brimmed hats. A riot broke out as troops opened fire.
    (WSJ, 6/2/07, p.A12)(www.imamreza.net/eng/imamreza.php?id=4388)

1937        Oct, Amin al-Husseini, the Grand Mufti of Jerusalem, was exiled from Palestine. He sought fled to Iraq and in 1941 sought refuge in Iran.

1940        Jul 26, In Iran the Shah's police squad unexpectedly arrived at the residence of opposition politician Mohammad Mossadegh (1888-1967), searching and ransacking his house. Although no incriminating evidence against him was found, he was taken to the central prison in Tehran nonetheless. Mossadegh was released in November, but was kept under house arrest until 1941 when Mohammad Reza, ascended to the throne.

1940        The Soviet Union and Iran signed more agreements concerning the Caspian Sea.
    (SFC, 8/11/98, p.A8)

1941        Aug 25, British and Soviet forces entered Iran, opening up a route to supply the Soviet Union. Iran was invaded by the Allies with the Soviets controlling the north.
    (https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Republic_of_Mahabad)(HN, 8/25/98)

1941        Aug 27, The Shah of Iran abdicated the throne to his son Reza Pahlavi. Britain forced Reza Shah to abdicate and installed his son Mohammed.
    (www.indiana.edu/~league/1941.htm)(WSJ, 4/2/07, p.A6)

1941        Oct, British, USSR and other allied forces invaded Iran to break up the Iran-Nazi alliance. Amin al-Husseini, the Grand Mufti of Jerusalem, left the country under disguise with the Italian delegation and relocated to Germany.
    (SSFC, 1/8/06, p.D8)

1943        Nov 28, President Roosevelt, British Prime Minister Winston Churchill and Soviet leader Josef Stalin met in Tehran, Iran, to map out strategy during World War II.
    (AP, 11/28/97)(DT internet 11/28/97)(HN, 11/28/98)

1943        Dec 1, President Roosevelt, British Prime Minister Winston Churchill and Soviet leader Josef Stalin concluded their Tehran conference and agreed to Operation Overlord (D-Day).
    (AP, 12/1/00)

1945        Sep 13, Iran demanded the withdrawal of Allied forces.
    (HN, 9/13/98)

1945        The Kurdistan Democratic Party (KDP) was founded by Mullah Mustafa Barzani (1903-1979). He played a major role in establishing the short-lived Kurdish Republic of Mehabad (Mahabad), “Red" Kurdistan, in Iran. It lasted for just ten months. In the 30s and 40s he had organized “Pesh merga" guerrillas from clans in the Zagros region.
    (SFC, 9/4/96, p.A7)(WSJ, 12/20/02, p.A14)(Econ., 2/21/15, p.14)

1946        Jan 19, The first complaint heard by the United Nations Security Council was made by Iran and directed against the Soviet Union. Iran alleged Soviet interference in its internal affairs and the refusal to remove Soviet troops from Iranian territory. The very first session of the UN had begun just days earlier, on January 10, 1946, in London.  The issue was resolved without UN intervention.
    (HNQ, 6/2/00)

1946        Jan 22, Kurds again declared their own state, the Republic of Mahabad in northwestern Iran, only to see stronger powers crush it on December 15.
    (https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Republic_of_Mahabad)Econ, 4/30/17, p.45)

1946        Shah Mohammad Reza Pahlavi separated from his Egyptian wife, Queen Fawzieh. He took up with Parvin Ghaffari in a 3-year affair later documented by Ghaffari in the 1997 book “Until Darkness."
    (SFC, 7/12/97, p.C1)

1949        The Univ. of Michigan, despite great protest among the student body, bestowed an honorary degree to Mohammad Reza Pahlavi, the Shah of Iran.
    (LSA, Fall, 2007, p.24)

1951        Feb 12, Shah Pahlavi married Princess Soraya Esfandiari Bakhtiari (d.2001 at 69). They divorced in 1958. In 1991 Soraya authored her autobiography “Le Palais des Solitudes" (The Palace of Solitudes).
    (SFC, 10/26/01, p.D7)

1951        Mar 7, Shah Ali Razmara of Iran was assassinated.
    (MC, 3/7/02)

1951        Mar 15, The Iranian parliament (the Majlis) voted to nationalize the Anglo-Iranian Oil Company (AIOC) and its holdings, and shortly thereafter elected a widely respected statesman and champion of nationalization, Mohammed Mossadegh as Prime Minister.

1951        Jun 24, Persian army took over nationalized oil installations.
    (MC, 6/24/02)

1951        Sep 27, Persian troops occupied oil refinery at Abadan.
    (MC, 9/27/01)

1951        There was a struggle to nationalize Iranian oil.
    (SFEC, 4/13/97, BR p.4)

1952        Nov, Kermit Roosevelt, a CIA operative, was approached by the British Foreign Office about organizing the overthrow of Prime Minister Mossadegh, who had presided over the nationalization of British-owned oil operations.
    (SFEC, 6/11/00, p.D6)

c1952        Hossein Ali Montazeri (30) became a “marja," one of the top religious sources for consultation by Shiite Muslims.
    (WSJ, 1/13/98, p.A19)

1953        Mar, The US CIA’s Tehran station reported that an Iranian general had approached the US embassy for support in an army-led coup. Based on this information Allen Dulles, director of the CIA, approved $1 million to be used to help bring about the fall of Prime Minister Mossadegh. Pres. Eisenhower gave the CIA the ok to overthrow the elected government of PM Mohammad Mossadegh. Mossadegh had nationalized the Anglo-Iranian Oil Co. after Britain refused to compromise and split profits 50-50. In 2003 Stephen Kinzer authored "All the Shah's Men: An American Coup and the Roots of the Middle East Terror."
    (SFEC, 4/16/00, p.A18)(SSFC, 8/24/03, p.M6)

1953        Aug 15, In Iran a CIA plot to unseat PM Mossadeq failed. It was masterminded by Kermit Roosevelt. A 2nd attempt succeeded on August 19. In preparation for the coup the CIA “stockpiled enough arms and demolition material to support a 10,000-man guerrilla organization for six months," and paid out $5.3 million for bribes and other costs. An initial US State Dept. 1989 release, outlining the years surrounding the coup, whitewashed the US role.
    (Econ, 5/15/10, p.92)(AP, 6/12/20)

1953        Aug 16, Shah Pahlavi of Persia and princess Soraya fled to Baghdad and then Rome.
    (MC, 8/16/02)

1953        Aug 19, Gen'l. Zahedi ousted PM Mossadegh and became the Premier of Iran in a bloody coup that left 300 dead. Britain and the US CIA under Allen Dulles planned a secret mission to overthrow the government. PM Mossadeq had sought to nationalize the Anglo-Persian Oil Co. The US government made a formal apology for the coup in 2000. A 1954 CIA description of the coup was made public in 2000. In 1979 Kermit Roosevelt (d.2000) published “Countercoup: The Struggle for the Control of Iran," an account of his role in the coup. In 2010 Darioush Bayandor authored “Iran and the CIA: The Fall of Mossadeq Revisited."
    (SFC, 11/20/53, p.A1)(SFC, 11/15/99, p.E6)(SFC, 5/29/97, p.A4)(WSJ, 3/20/00, p.A1)(SFEC, 4/16/00, p.A18)(SFEC, 6/11/00, p.D6)(WSJ, 4/2/07, p.A6)(Econ, 5/15/10, p.91)

1953        Aug 20, Iran’s PM Mossadeq was arrested. He was soon tried for treason, and sentenced to three years in prison.

1953        Aug 21, US CIA officials funneled $5 million to Iran to help the coup leaders consolidate power.
    (SFEC, 4/16/00, p.A18)

1953        Aug 22, Shah of Persia returned to Teheran.
    (MC, 8/22/02)

1953        Sep 5, US gave Persian premier Zahedi $45 million aid.
    (MC, 9/5/01)

1954        Mar, A history of the CIA sponsored 1953 coup in Iran was written by Donald N. Wilbur (1908-1997), an expert in Persian architecture and one of the "leading planners" of the operation "TP-Ajax."
    (SFEC, 4/16/00, p.A18)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Donald_Wilber)

1954        An agreement with the Shah gave American and British companies control of 80% of Iran’s oil interests.
    (SFC, 2/18/02, p.B4)

1954        The Soviet Union and Iran negotiated the Astara-Hosseingholi line to mark their boundary on the Caspian Sea.
    (WSJ, 8/3/01, p.A2)

1955        Dec 25, In Iran Navvab Safavi (b.1923), a firebrand cleric, was tried and executed. He was responsible for founding of the Fadayan-e Islam group and with them the assassination of several leading Iranians.
    (Econ, 5/4/13, p.52)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Navvab_Safavi)

1955        Iraq joined with Britain, Turkey, Iran and Pakistan in the Baghdad Pact, a loose alliance intended to check soviet influence in the region. The Baghdad Pact was formed at the prompting of the U.S. in an effort to block Soviet pressures on the northern tier of Middle Eastern states. The U.S. provided military and economic aid to the pact members.
    (HNQ, 7/28/98)(SFC, 9/24/02, p.A10)

1959        Imam Moussa al-Sadr, born in the Iranian holy city of Qom, came to Lebanon to work for the rights of Shiites in the southern city of Tyre. In 1974, a year before Lebanon's 15-year civil war broke out, he founded the Movement of the Deprived, attracting thousands of followers.
    (AP, 3/2/11)

1960        Sep 14, Iraq, Iran, Kuwait, Saudi Arabia and Venezuela formed OPEC. Fuad Rouhani (1907-2004) of Iran served as its 1st secretary-general. In 1964 he was succeeded by Abdul Rahman Bazzaz of Iraq.
    (HN, 9/14/98)(WSJ, 7/28/03, p.A8)

1960s        The Mujahedeen-e Khalq (MEK), a militant Iranian political organization, was formed in Tehran.

1962        Jun, A police attack on the Faizieh Theological School in Qom started Ayatollah Ruhollah Khomeini's rebellion against the Shah.
    (WSJ, 8/11/99, p.A1)

1962        Aug 18, In Iran brothers, Ahmad and Mahmoud Khayami founded "Iran National" to manufacture cars. After the 1979 Islamic Revolution it became known as Iran Khodro. Their later Paykan design was based on the 1967 Hillman Hunter, which was originally designed and manufactured by the British Rootes Group. Mahmoud Khayami is also known for starting the Kourosh Department Stores: the first large retail chain stores of Iran, not unlike their American counterparts Sears and Kmart.

1962        Sep 1, Some 10,000 died in an earthquake in western Iran.
    (SC, 9/1/02)

1962        Jalal Al-e-Ahmad, Iranian writer, authored “Occidentosis: A Plague from the West." Here he coined the term “Westoxification" to describe the loss of Iranian cultural identity through the adoption and imitation of Western models and Western criteria in education, the arts, and culture.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Gharbzadegi)(Econ, 11/1/14, SR p.4)

1963        Jun 5, A state of siege was proclaimed in Iran and Ayatollah Khomeini was arrested.
    (MC, 6/5/02)

1963        Left leaning students sympathetic to Iran’s former PM Mohammed Mossadeq, deposed in 1953, founded Mujahedin e-Kalq (People’s Mujahedin of Iran).
    (WSJ, 5/8/08, p.A10)

1965        The People’s Mujahedeen of Iran (PMOI) was founded as a youthful underground opposition to the Shah. The group was also known as the Mujahedeen-d Khalq Organization (MEK of MKO). Its leader Massoud Rajavi fled to France in 1981 and then relocated with his followers to Iraq in 1986, where Saddam Hussein gave them a big base at Camp Ashraf.
    (Econ, 4/11/09, p.47)

1967        Mar 5, Mohammed H. Mosaddeq (b.1882), former prime minister of Iran (1951-53), died in Iran following a period of house arrest. He had been ousted in a military coup organized by the CIA and British intelligence.

1967        Oct 26, The Shah of Iran crowned himself and his Queen after 26 years on the Peacock Throne.
    (AP, 10/26/97)

1968        Aug 31, In northeast Iran some 7-12 thousand people died in the 7.8 Dasht-e Bayaz earthquake, which also destroyed 60,000 buildings.
(WUD, 1994, p.1687)(www.bssaonline.org/cgi/content/abstract/59/5/1751)

1969        The New Wave in Iranian film was begun by Dariush Mehrjui with “The Cow." It was about a poor village that loses its only cow.
    (SFEC, 4/23/00, DB p.52)

1969-1972    Douglas MacArthur II (d.1997 at 88) served as US ambassador to Iran. He escaped a kidnap attempt in 1970.
    (SFC,11/17/97, p.A23)

1970        In Iran velayet el-faqih, the idea of guardianship as rule, was advanced by the Ayatollah Ruhollah Khomeini in a series of lectures and later formed the basis of the constitution of the Islamic Republic of Iran.
    (Econ, 3/21/09, p.46)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Guardianship_of_the_Islamic_Jurists)

1970        Iran dropped its territorial claims on Bahrain.
    (Econ, 9/11/10, p.58)

1971        Feb 2, The Ramsar Convention, officially titled “The Convention on Wetlands of International Importance, especially as Waterfowl Habitat," was developed and adopted by participating nations at a meeting in Ramsar, Iran. Swiss conservationist Luc Hoffman (1923-2016) oversaw the signing. It came into force on December 21, 1975. The US ratified the Ramsar agreement in 1986.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ramsar_Convention)(NH, 5/01, p.35)(Econ, 8/6/16, p.74)

1971        The Shah of Iran seized the tiny island of Abu Musa as Britain abandoned its former possession in the Persian Gulf and the United Arab Emirates was being set up. The UAE later contested Iran’s claims to the island and two barely inhabited chunks of rock nearby.
    (Econ, 5/5/12, p.46)

1972        Apr 10, A 6.9 earthquake in the Iranian province of Fars killed over 5,000 people.

1975        Mar 6, OPEC held a meeting in Algiers attended for the first time by its members’ top leaders. Here the Algiers Accord between Baghdad and Teheran put an end to their border dispute and brought all Iranian help to the Kurdish rebellion to a halt. The United States abruptly withdrew its support for the Kurds and the rebellion collapsed. Many thousands of Kurdish fighters and their families were forced to flee to Iran to escape the pursuing Iraqi army.
    (http://mondediplo.com/2002/10/06timeline)(SFC, 11/19/07, p.A11)

1975        Future film director Mohsen Makhmalbaf was imprisoned at 17 for protesting against the Shah. He was spared execution due to his youth.
    (SFC, 5/14/97, p.E6)

1977        Nov 15, Pres. Jimmy Carter welcomed the Shah of Iran to Washington, DC.

1977        Iran’s Empress Farah Pahlavi (b.1938) inaugurated the Tehran Museum of Contemporary Art.
    (Econ, 1/1/11, p.74)(Econ, 12/24/16, p.116)

1978        Aug 19, The Cinema Rex in Abadan, Iran, was set ablaze, killing over 400 individuals. The ruling government of Iran reported that Islamic militants set the fire, while the anti-Shah protesters blamed the intelligence service of the nation, SAVAK for setting the fire. Later it was disclosed that Islamic militants set the Cinema Rex fire.

1978        Sep 8, The Shah's troops opened fire on protesters in Tehran, killing several hundred demonstrators.

1978        Nov 4, In Iran the worst anti-Shah demonstrations occurred. PM Sharif-Emami (d.1998 at 87 in NYC), handed in his resignation after 2 months in office. Shah Pahlavi then appointed Gholam Riza Azhari and tried a military approach as the nation erupted in revolt.
    (SFC, 6/24/98, p.C2)( http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Timeline_of_the_Iranian_Islamic_revolution)
1978        Nov 4, US National Security Advisor Zbigniew Brzezinski called the Shah of Iran to tell him that the US would "back him to the hilt."

1978        Nov 6, Muhammad Reza Pahlavi, the Shah of Iran, appointed a military government. In a nationwide television address, he admitted to the past mistakes and told the nation he had heard the sound of their revolution.
    (WUD, 1994, p.1691)(http://bss.sfsu.edu/behrooz/Hist-Revolution.htm)

1978        Nov 26, Muslim religious leaders and politicians seeking to topple Shah of Iran called a general strike that virtually paralyzed the country.
    (AP, 11/26/02)

1978        Dec 2, Anti-Shah protesters poured through Tehran chanting "Allah is great."

1978        Dec 11, Massive demonstrations took place in Tehran against the Shah. In Isfahan, Iran, 40 people were killed and 60 wounded during riots against the Shah.
    (WUD, 1994, p.1691)(HN, 12/11/98)

1978        Sep 16, In northeast Iran a magnitude 7.7 earthquake killed 25,000 people.
    (WUD, 1994, p.1691)(AP, 6/22/02)

1978        Nov 5, In Iran the worst anti-Shah demonstrations occurred.
    (WUD, 1994, p.1691)

1978        Nov 6, Muhammad Reza Pahlav, the Shah of Iran, appointed a military government. In a nationwide television address, he admitted to the past mistakes and told the nation he had heard the sound of their revolution.
    (WUD, 1994, p.1691)(http://bss.sfsu.edu/behrooz/Hist-Revolution.htm)

1978        Nov, Sharif-Emami (d.1998 at 87 in NYC), prime minister, handed in his resignation after 2 months in office. Shah Pahlavi then appointed Gholam Riza Azhari and tried a military approach as the nation erupted in revolt.
    (SFC, 6/24/98, p.C2)

1978        Dec 11, In Isfahan, Iran, 40 people were killed and 60 wounded during riots against the Shah.
    (WUD, 1994, p.1691)

1978        Hedayat Eslaminia and his family fled Iran. He was a minister of the Shah and reportedly fled with a fortune. In Jul, 1984, he was kidnapped and slain by his son Reza in California.
    (SFC, 5/1/98, p.D7)

1979        Jan 8, The US advised the Shah to get out of Iran.
    (HN, 1/8/99)

1979        Jan 16, Shah Mohammed Reza Pahlevi fled Iran for Egypt as millions united with Ayatollah Khomeini calling for his death. The Shah of Iran was overthrown in a revolution led from exile by the Ayatollah Ruhollah Khomeini, who established a Muslim Theocracy. Iran was overwhelmingly Shiite, which believes that authority is invested only in descendants of Muhammad’s son-in-law, Ali, who is buried in An Najaf, Iraq. The Shah of Iran fled and the Ayatollah Khomeini took charge.
    (NG, 5/88, p.653)(TMC, 1994, p.1979)(HN, 1/16/99)(AP, 1/16/05)

1979        Jan 30, The civilian government of Iran announced it had decided to allow Ayatollah Ruhollah Khomeini, who'd been living in exile in France, to return.
    (AP, 1/30/98)

1979        Feb 1, Ayatollah Ruhollah Khomeini received a tumultuous welcome in Tehran as he ended nearly 15 years of exile.
    (AP, 2/1/97)

1979        Feb 11, Followers of Ayatollah Ruhollah Khomeini seized power in Iran, nine days after the religious leader returned to his home country following 15 years of exile. Premier Bakhtiar resigned.
    (AP, 2/11/97)

1979        Feb 14, Armed guerrillas attacked the U.S. embassy in Tehran.
    (HN, 2/14/98)

1979        Feb 16, Nematollah Nassiri (b.1911), Iranian general and head of the Savak intelligence agency during the rule of Mohammad Reza Pahlavi, was executed.

1979        Mar 1, Molla Mustafa Barzani (75), Iranian Kurd leader (KDP), died in Washington, DC.

1979        Mar 18, Iranian authorities detained American feminist Kate Millett, a day before deporting her and a companion for what were termed "provocations."
    (AP, 3/18/99)

1979                 Apr 1,  Iran proclaimed to be an Islamic Republic after the fall of the Shah.

1979        May 13, In Tehran, Iran, the Shah and his family, who had fled in January, were sentenced to death.

1979        Aug 8, In Iran the revolutionary prosecutor banned the leading left-wing newspaper, Ayandegan. 5 days later hezbollahis broke up a Tehran rally called by the National Democratic Front, a newly organized left-of-center political movement, to protest the Ayandegan closing.

1979        Aug 18, Iran Ayatollah Khomeini sent the army to attack and occupy Paveh, Sanandaj and Saghez. Having defeated the Kurds in the cities, he appointed Khalkhali, as head of security for Kurdistan, who proceeded with a series of summary trials and executions.

1979        Aug 23, Iranian troops entered Iraqi Kurdish territory.

1979        Aug 27, In Sanandaj, Iran, 11 Kurdish prisoners were executed by a firing squad following a 30 minute trial under Shiite cleric Sadegh Khalkhali. Jahangir Razmi, a photographer for Iran’s independent Ettela’at newspaper, captured the execution on film. Within hours an anonymous photo of the execution ran across 6 columns of the paper. On Sep 8 the newspaper was seized by the Foundation for the Disinherited, a state-owned holding company. On April 14, 1980, the photo won a Pulitzer Prize. In 2006 Razmi made public 27 images from the execution that he had kept hidden.
    (WSJ, 12/2/06, p.A1)

1979        Oct 22, The US government allowed the deposed Shah of Iran to travel to New York for medical treatment. This decision precipitated the Iran hostage crisis.
    (AP, 10/22/97)

1979        Nov 4, The US Embassy was taken over by Iranian students and a hostage crisis began. 90 people, including 63 Americans, were taken hostage at the American embassy in Teheran, Iran, by militant student followers of Ayatollah Khomeini who demanded the return of Shah Mohammad Reza Pahlavi to Iran for trial. He was undergoing medical treatment in New York City. The students held 52 American hostages for 444 days, and were released on the day of the inauguration President Ronald Reagan, January 20, 1981. In 2005 David Harris authored “The Crisis: The President, the Prophet and the Shah – 1979 and the coming of Militant Islam." In 2006 Mark Bowden authored “Guests of the Ayatollah: The First Battle in America’s War With Militant Islam."
    (WSJ, 11/19/96, p.A1)(AP, 11/4/97)(HN, 11/4/98)(SSFC, 4/3/05, p.F4)(WSJ, 4/29/06, p.P10)
1979        Nov 4, In Iran, as Islamist students stormed the US Embassy in Tehran, six American diplomats escaped and found sanctuary at the home of Canadian ambassador Ken Taylor (d.2015 at 81) and his first secretary, John Sheardown. Taylor then worked with the Canadian government and the CIA to obtain Canadian passports and forged visas allowing the diplomats to fly to Switzerland.
    (SFC, 10/17/15, p.C3)

1979        Nov 5, Iran's Ayatollah Khomeini declared US "The Great Satan."

1979        Nov 6, In Iran PM Bazargan resigned as Ayatollah Khomeini (1902-1989) supported the student seizure of the US embassy.

1979          Nov 8, ABC-TV aired "Iran Crisis: American Held Hostage" with Frank Reynolds 4 days after the beginning of the Iran hostage crisis. The late-night news program evolved into “Nightline" on March 24, 1980. Ted Koppel (b.1940) soon became the anchor of nightly news on Iranian Hostages (ABC).

1979        Nov 12, President Carter announced an immediate halt to all imports of Iranian oil and freezes Iranian assets in US. Executive Order 12170 halted oil imports from Iran.

1979        Nov 17, Iran's Ayatollah Khomeini ordered the release of 13 female and black American hostages being held at the U.S. Embassy in Tehran.
    (AP, 11/17/97)

1979        Nov 18, Ayatollah Khomeini said the rest of the US hostages may be tried as spies if the Shah is not released.

1979        Dec 15, The deposed Shah of Iran left the United States for Panama, the same day the International Court of Justice in The Hague ruled that Iran should release all its American hostages.
    (AP, 12/15/99)

1979        Dec, In Iran Amir-Entezam (d.2018) was convicted of spying for the United States and sentenced to life in prison. He was released 17 years later.
    (AP, 7/12/18)

1979        An Islamic Revolution took over Iran. A ban on fax machines, video recorders, and video tapes soon followed.
    (SFEC, 4/13/97, BR p.4)(Econ, 7/19/14, p.43)
1979        The government of Iran began fighting the Kurdish Democratic Party. Iran put down a Kurdish rebellion leaving around 10,000 dead.
    (WSJ, 7/11/96, p.A10)(Econ, 4/30/17, p.46)
1979        Iran’s Ayatollah Ruhollah Khomeini cut diplomatic ties with Egypt.
    (Econ, 2/12/11, p.29)
1979        Germany began to build a 1,000-megawatt light-water nuclear reactor at Bushehr. Germany later abandoned the project and it was given over to Russia.
    (SFC, 3/7/98, p.A7)
1979        In Iran the population was estimated at 34 million and the government urged the populace to breed an Islamic generation.
    (SFC, 5/15/98, p.D2)

1979-2009    In 2019 it was reported that the Iranian government arrested, imprisoned or executed at least 860 journalists during this period, according to documents leaked to media monitoring group Reporters Sans Frontieres (RSF).
    (AP, 2/7/19)

1980        Jan 25, Abolhassan Bani-Sadr was elected as Iran's first president since the 1979 Islamic revolution. Though he won an overwhelming majority of the popular vote, he did not have the support of the predominantly fundamentalist parliament.

1980        Jan 28, Six US diplomats who had avoided being taken hostage at their embassy in Tehran flew out of Iran with the help of Canadian diplomats.
    (AP, 1/28/98)

1980        Feb 4, Abolhassan Bani-Sadr was installed as president of Iran by Ayatollah Ruhollah Khomeini.
    (AP, 2/4/00)

1980        Mar 6, Islamic militants in Tehran said that they would turn over the American hostages to the Revolutionary Council.
    (HN, 3/6/98)

1980        Mar 10, Iran's leader, Ayatollah Khomeini, lent his support to the militants holding the American hostages in Tehran.
    (HN, 3/10/98)

1980        Mar 19, The US appealed to the International Court of Justice on hostages in Iran.

1980        Mar 23, The deposed Shah of Iran arrived in Egypt.

1980                 Apr 1,  The pro-Iranian Dawah Party claims responsibility for an attack on Iraq’s Deputy Prime Minister, Tariq Aziz (b.1936), at Mustansiriyah University, Baghdad.

1980        Apr 7,  The US broke relations with Iran during the hostage crises. Pres. Carter ordered all Iranian diplomats expelled from the US and prohibited any further exports to the nation. Pres. Carter signed Executive Order 12205 for economic sanctions against Iran.
    (HN, 4/7/97)(www.presidency.ucsb.edu/ws/index.php?pid=33235)

1980        Apr 23, Albert Hakim, a wealthy arms merchant, unexpectedly skipped town the day before a US rescue mission. The Iranian exile and CIA informant worked for the CIA near the Turkish boarder handling the logistics of the rescue mission in Tehran. Hakim had purchased trucks and vans and rented a warehouse on the edge of Tehran to hide them in until they were needed for the operation. In July, 1981, Hakim approached the CIA with a plan to gain favor with the Iranian government by selling it arms.

1980        Apr 24, An American assault team held 44 Iranians hostage for about 3 hours when their bus stumbled upon the remote desert site. The failed operation was commanded by Colonel Charles Beckwith, founder of the US Delta Force. The mission resulted in the deaths of 8 US servicemen. The US hostage rescue failed when a plane collided with a helicopter in Iran. The 1996 Iranian film: "Sandstorm" depicting the event was set for release in Feb, 1997.
    (WSJ, 11/19/96, p.A1)(AP, 4/24/97)(HN, 4/24/98)

1980        Apr 30, Terrorists seized the Iranian Embassy in London. Only after the incident was over did it become known that Iraq had trained and armed the gunmen in order to try to embarrass Iran.

1980        May 5, A siege at the Iranian embassy in London ended as British commandos and police stormed the building. 19 hostages were rescued; two others had already been killed by their captors; four of the five hostage-takers also were killed. John McAleese (d.2022), special forces soldier, led the dramatic raid. The only gunman to survive served 27 years in jail.
    (AP, 5/5/00)(AP, 8/28/11)

1980        May 24, Iran rejected a call by the World Court in The Hague to release the American hostages.
    (AP, 5/24/97)

1980        Jul 11, American hostage Richard I. Queen, freed by Iran after eight months of captivity because of poor health, left Tehran for Switzerland.
    (PGA, 12/9/98)(AP, 7/11/01)

1980        Jul 27, On day 267 of the Iranian hostage crisis, Mohammad Reza Pahlavi, the deposed Shah of Iran (1941-1979), died at a military hospital outside Cairo, Egypt, at age 60.
    (AP, 7/27/00)

1980         Sep 22, Iraq under Saddam Hussein invaded Iran following border skirmishes and a dispute over the Shatt al-Arab waterway. This marked the beginning of a war that would last eight years. Iraq invaded Iran striking refineries and an oil-loading terminal on Kharg Island. The Iraqis used the political instability in Iran to try to capture long-disputed territory. They attacked across the Shatt al Arab River, a trunk of the great Tigris-Euphrates river system.
    (http://tinyurl.com/2n5z2f)(AP, 9/22/97)(NG, 5/88, p.653,663)

1980        Dec 21, Iran requested $24 billion in US guarantees to free hostages.

1980        Dec 26, Iranian television footage was broadcast in the United States, showing a dozen of the American hostages sending messages to their families.
    (AP, 12/26/05)

1980        US Sec. of State Alexander Haig reported in a 1981 memo uncovered by the October Surprise Task Force that leaders of several friendly countries in the Middle East told him on a trip in 1981 that Jimmy Carter had given Iraq’s Saddam Hussein the green light to invade Iran in 1980.
    (WSJ, 8/9/96, p.A11)(www.consortiumnews.com/archive/xfile5.html)

1980-1988    Iran and Iraq engaged in war. The number of casualties was estimated at well over a million. The US provided covert battle planning assistance to Iraq.
    (V.D.-H.K.p.312)(SFC, 2/24/98, p.A9)(SSFC, 8/18/02, p.A1)
1980-1988    Labor union independence in Iran was destroyed during its war with Iraq.
    (Econ, 4/20/13, p.53)

1981        Jan 19, The United States and Iran signed an agreement paving the way for the release of 52 Americans held hostage for more than 14 months. Iran signed after accepting a US offer for the return of $7.9 billion in frozen assets.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Iran-United_States_Claims_Tribunal)(AP, 1/19/98)

1981        Jan 20, Iran released 52 Americans held hostage for 444 days, minutes after the presidency had passed from Jimmy Carter to Ronald Reagan. In 2015 The US Congress authorized the payment of $4.4 million to Americans held hostage by Iran from Nov. 4, 1979, to Jan. 20, 1981, – or $10,000 for each day of captivity – to the surviving members of that ordeal and their families. As of 2021 full payment had not been made.
    (AP, 1/20/98)(USA Today, 8/14/21)

1981        Feb 26, Three British Anglican missionaries, detained in Iran since August 1980, were released.

1981        Jun 11, Earthquake in southeast Iran killed at least 1,500 people.
    (SFC, 3/21/98, p.A9)(AP, 6/11/03)

1981        Jun 22, In Iran Abolhassan Bani-Sadr was dismissed from the presidency by Ayatollah Ruhollah Khomeini. Shortly thereafter he fled to Paris, where he had lived in exile during the reign of the Shah.

1981        Jun 28, In Tehran, Iran, a powerful bomb exploded at the headquarters of the IRP while a meeting of party leaders was in progress. 73 persons were killed, including the chief justice and party secretary general Mohammad Beheshti, four cabinet ministers and 27 Majlis deputies. The Mujahedin e-Kalq carried out the bombing. Those killed included Premier Mohammad-Javad Bahonar and Pres. Mohammad-Ali Rajaei.
    (www.country-data.com/cgi-bin/query/r-6395.html)(WSJ, 5/8/08, p.A10)

1981        Jul, In Iran members of the Union of Communists tried to seize control of the Caspian town of Amol. At least seventy guerrillas and Pasdaran members were killed before the uprising was put down.

1981        Aug 30, Mohammad Javad Bahonar, prime minister of Iran, was assassinated by a bomb.

1981        Aug, Oliver North (b.1943) was assigned to White House duty as Chief Middle East arms-sales adviser to Secretary of Defense Casper W. Weinberger. He was fired on November 25, 1986, for selling arms to Iran, and diverting Iran arms sales proceeds to the contras.

1981        Sep 27, In Iran the Mojahedin used machine guns and rocket-propelled grenade launchers against units of the Pasdaran. Smaller left-wing opposition groups, including the Fadayan, attempted similar guerrilla activities.

1981        Sep, In Iran a Supreme Judicial Council circular to the revolutionary courts permitting death sentences for "active members" of guerrilla groups. Fifty executions a day became routine; there were days when more than 100 persons were executed.

1981        Oct 2, In Iran Hojjatoleslam Ali Khamenehi was elected president.

1981        Oct 28, In Iran the Majlis elected Mir-Hosain Musavi, a protégé of the late Mohammad Beheshti, as prime minister.

1981        The central Baha’i cemetery in Tehran was confiscated, and more than 15,000 graves were demolished. Later a parcel of land in this cemetery was assigned to the Baha’is in a portion of the cemetery colloquially known as “place of the damned".
    (Global Newswire, 4/23/21)
1981        The Iranian regime executed some 2,946 people this year.
    (Econ, 3/2/13, p.78)
1981        In Iran Ayatollah Khomeini declared the celebration of “Al-Quds Day," the Arabic name for Jerusalem Day, to be held on the last day of Ramadan as an annual denunciation of Israeli control of the holy city.
    (WSJ,2/13/97, p.A18)(www.msnbc.msn.com/id/15343184/)

1981-1983    Up to 25,000 suspected opponents to clerical rule were executed in Iran during this period according to estimates by Amnesty Int'l.
    (SFC, 2/11/04, p.A10)

1982        Apr 7, Sadegh Ghotbzadeh (b.1936), Iran’s minister of foreign affairs, was arrested. He was convicted of plotting against the government and executed on Sep 15.

1982        May 25, Iranian troops reconquered Khorramshahr.
    (SC, 5/25/02)

1982        Jul 4, Four Iranians, charge d'affaires Mohsen Musavi, diplomat Ahmad Motovasselian, photographer Kazem Akhavan and driver Mohammad Taqi Rastgar Moghaddam, were seized at a Lebanese Forces checkpoint north of Beirut. In 2006 Samir Geagea, former head of the disbanded Lebanese Forces, said that they were killed by Christian militiamen.
    (AP, 5/19/06)

1982        Jul 14, Iran launched a "Ramadan-offensive" in Iraq.

1982        Sep 15, Iran's former foreign minister, Sadegh Ghotbzadeh, was executed after he was convicted of plotting against the government.
    (AP, 9/15/97)

1982        Oct 2, A truck bomb in Tehran killed 60 and injured 700. Authorities blamed ''American mercenaries.''

1982        Nov 17, In Iraq the Supreme Council for the Islamic Revolution in Iraq (SCIRI) was created to increase Iranian control over Iraqi opposition groups belonging to the same Shiite faith as most Iranians. In 1999 it had 4-8000 fighters in southern Iraq.
    (USAT, 3/24/99, p.18A)(http://jamestown.org/terrorism/news/article.php?articleid=2373425)

1982        Iran’s Islamic Azad University was founded. An endowment, or vaqf in Farsi, was set up  by the university board in 2009, shortly after national elections, to keep it independent in the face of the rising power of hardliners.
    (AP, 10/12/10)

1983        Feb 7, Iran opened an invasion in the southeast of Iraq.
    (HN, 2/7/99)

1983        Oct 23, A truck filled with explosives, driven by a Moslem suicide terrorist, crashed into the US Marine barracks near the Beirut International Airport in Lebanon. The bomb killed 241 Marines and sailors and injured 80. Almost simultaneously, a similar incident occurred at French military headquarters, where 58 died and 15 were injured. Hezbollah leader Imad Mughniyah was suspected of involvement. In 2007 under a law allowing foreign governments to be sued in US courts, US federal judge Royce Lamberth ordered Iran to pay $2.65 billion to victims' families.
    (WSJ, 8/1/96/p.B1)(AP, 10/23/97)(WSJ, 9/19/01, p.A14)(AFP, 7/6/12)

1983        Dec 12, A truck bomb exploded at the US Embassy in Kuwait. Shiite Muslims backed by Iran drove bomb-laden trucks into six targets. The most deadly of these struck the US Embassy, killing five persons and wounding 62. Other trucks destroyed the French embassy and several Kuwaiti installations (www.danielpipes.org/article/173).
    (WSJ, 4/28/05, p.A1)

1983        In Iran the Fajr Int'l. Film Festival began. In 2004 the 22nd festival established its own web site (www.fajrfilmfest.com).
    (SFC, 2/10/04, p.D8)

1984        Feb 1, Iraq launched a new series of air attacks on Iran’s shipping.

1984        Feb 22-1984 Mar 16, Iran’s offensive Operation Kheibar captured the Iraqi Majnoon Islands in the Haur al-Hawizeh marshes. Britain and the US sent warships to the Persian Gulf following an Iranian offensive against Iraq.
    (HN, 2/22/98)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Iran-Iraq_War)

1984        Feb 29-1984 Mar 1, In one of the largest battles of the Iran-Iraq war, the two armies clashed and inflicted more than 25,000 fatalities on each other.

1984        Mar 5, The US accused Iraq of using poison gas against Iran. Iraq had used tabun against Iran. This was the first use ever of a nerve agent in war.

1984        Mar 17, Iraq used tabun against Iran. This was the first use ever of a nerve agent in a conventional battle.

1984        Aug 12, In San Francisco a driver on an apparent suicide mission smashed head-on into a packed cable car climbing the Hyde Street hill. The driver, an Iranian alien, was killed and at least 23 people were injured.
    (SSFC, 8/2/09, DB p.42)

1984        Dec 4, A five-day hijack drama began as four armed men seized a Kuwaiti airliner en route to Pakistan and forced it to land in Tehran, where the hijackers killed American passenger Charles Hegna.
    (AP, 12/4/04)

1984        Dec 9, In Iran a five-day hijack drama ended when Iranian commandos captured the Kuwaiti plane. 4 armed men had seized a Kuwaiti airliner en route to Pakistan and forced it to land in Tehran, where the hijackers killed American passenger Charles Hegna.
    (AP, 12/4/04)

1985        Aug 15, Iraq launched its first air raid on Iran’s Kharg oil-island.

1985        Nov 17, Olaf Palme stopped an illegal shipment of 80 HAWK missiles through Sweden from Israel to Teheran, as he mediated an end of the Iran-Iraq war for the UN.

1985        Iran began research in a secret uranium enrichment program. From 1985 to 1997 China was Iran’s most important nuclear partner.
    (SFC, 11/28/03, p.A3)(SFC, 9/18/06, p.A1)

1986        Jan 17, President Reagan approved a finding that authorized the sale of weapons to Iran through third parties.

1986        Aug 19, A car bomb killed 20 in Tehran, Iran.

1986        Oct 21, Pro-Iranian kidnappers in Lebanon claimed to have abducted American Edward Tracy. He was released in August 1991.
    (AP, 10/21/97)

1986        Nov 3, "Ash-Shiraa," a pro-Syrian Lebanese magazine, broke the story of U.S. arms sales to Iran, a revelation that escalated into the Iran-Contra affair.
    (AP, 11/3/97)

1986        Nov 6, The Iran arms-for-hostages deal was revealed and damaged the Reagan administration.
    (HN, 11/6/99)

1986        Nov 10, President Ronald Reagan refused to reveal details of the Iran arms sale.
    (HN, 11/10/98)

1986        Nov 13, President Reagan publicly acknowledged that the US had sent "defensive weapons and spare parts" to Iran in an attempt to improve relations, but denied the shipments were part of a deal aimed at freeing hostages in Lebanon.
    (AP, 11/13/06)

1986        Nov 21, The US Justice Department began the inquiry into the National Security Council in what became known as the Iran-Contra scandal; Lt. Col. Oliver North shredded important documents. Albert Hakim (d.2003) was the financial person behind the arms-for-hostages deal.
    (HN, 11/21/01)(SFC, 4/29/03, A21)

1986        Iraq’s Saddam Hussein allowed the People's Mujahedeen, known as the Mujahedeen-e-Khalq, to establish a base, Camp Ashraf , to launch raids into Iran.
    (AP, 1/23/09)

1987        Jan 7, The US House of Representatives, by House Resolution 12, established the Select Committee to Investigate Covert Arms Transactions with Iran. The US Senate passed a similar resolution a day earlier. The two Chambers instructed their respective Committees to work together and charged them with investigating, among other things, any activity of any officer or entity of the United States Government relating to the Iran initiative.

1987        Jan 17, A Reagan Administration official who initiated the arms shipments to Iran, acknowledged that the US had virtually no independent intelligence to support its policy.

1987        Mar 4, President Reagan addressed the nation on the Iran-Contra affair. He took full responsibility for the affair acknowledging his overtures to Iran had "deteriorated" into an arms-for-hostages deal. Michael Ledeen, Pentagon employee, later authored "Perilous Statecraft: An Insider's Account of the Iran-Contra Affair."
    (AP, 3/4/98)(HN, 3/4/98)(SFC, 5/14/03, p.A19)

1987        Jul 21, The United States began its policy of escorting re-flagged Kuwaiti tankers up and down the Persian Gulf to protect them from possible attack by Iran.
    (AP 7/22/97)(The National Interest, 9/1/19)

1987        Jul 31, Iranian pilgrims and riot police clashed in the Muslim holy city of Mecca in Saudi Arabia. The Saudi government blamed Iranians for the resulting 400 deaths.
    (AP, 7/31/97)

1987        Aug 1, Iranians attacked the Saudi Arabian and Kuwaiti embassies in Tehran as word spread of rioting in Mecca, Saudi Arabia, a day earlier that claimed some 400 lives, most of them Iranian pilgrims.
    (AP, 8/1/97)

1987        Aug 2, More than a million people gathered in Tehran, calling for the overthrow of the sheiks of Saudi Arabia, where hundreds of Iranian pilgrims had died in rioting in the Muslim holy city of Mecca.
    (AP, 8/2/97)

1987        Aug 8, In the Persian Gulf, a US Navy F-14 "Tomcat" fighter fired two missiles at an Iranian jet approaching an unarmed U.S. scout plane. Both missiles missed their target and the Iranian plane flew off.
    (AP, 8/8/97)

1987        Aug 25, Saudi Arabia denounced Iran's government as a "group of terrorists," and said its forces would deal firmly with any Iranian attempts to attack the Saudis' Muslim holy places or vast oil fields.
    (AP, 8/25/97)

1987        Aug, Mehdi Hashemi, Iranian aid of Ayatollah Khomeini, was tried for being “at enmity with God" and “corrupt on earth." Hashemi was sentenced to death and executed in September.

1987        Sep 28, Mehdi Hashemi, Iranian aid of Ayatollah Khomeini, was shot for treason.

1987        Oct 8, US helicopter gunships in the Persian Gulf sank three Iranian patrol boats after an American observation helicopter was fired on. Two of six Iranian crewmen taken from the water later died.
    (AP, 10/8/97)

1987        Oct 16, In the Persian Gulf, an Iranian missile hit a re-flagged Kuwaiti ship in the first direct attack on the tanker fleet guarded by the U.S.
    (AP, 10/16/97)

1987        Oct 18, President Reagan summoned congressional leaders to the White House to announce he had decided on what action to take in response to an Iranian missile attack on a US-flagged tanker off Kuwait two days earlier. The next day, US destroyers bombarded an Iranian offshore oil rig.
    (AP, 10/18/97)

1987        Oct 19, US Navy warships disabled the 1st of 3 Iranian oil platforms in the Persian Gulf in retaliation for an Iranian missile attack on a U.S.-flagged tanker off Kuwait. [see Apr 18, 1988]
    (AP, 10/19/97)(HN, 10/19/02)

1987        Oct 22, The US Navy acknowledged that it had deployed 5 dolphins to the Persian Gulf to search for Iranian mines.

1987        Mohsen Makhmalbaf, Iranian director, made his film "The Peddler," described by Film Comment as the strongest hell-on-earth film since “Taxi driver."
    (SFC, 5/14/97, p.E1)
1987        The film “Where Is the Friend’s Home" was directed by Abbas Kiarostami.
    (SFEC, 4/23/00, DB p.52)
1987        The Baha’i Institute of Higher Education began following the virtual banning of Bahais from Iranian universities after the Islamic revolution of 1979.
    (SFC, 10/30/98, p.A20)
1987        Iran acquired centrifuge designs for a uranium enrichment program that was similar to technology used in Pakistan.
    (SFC, 11/28/03, p.A3)
1987        The US tied Iran to mining when it captured the Ajr, an Iranian ship loaded with mines. When the USS Samuel B. Roberts struck a mine and nearly sank the next year, the Navy matched it to those seized from the Ajr.
    (AP, 6/14/19)

1988        Feb 11, Iran launched a campaign to retake the Fao Peninsula from Iraq with US planning assistance. Chemical weapons were used in the attack.
    (SSFC, 8/18/02, p.A12)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Al-Faw_Peninsula)

1988        Mar 1, Iraq said it had fired 16 missiles into Tehran in the first long-range rocket attack on the Iranian capital since the Iran-Iraq war began.
    (AP, 3/1/98)

1988        Mar 16-1988 Mar 17, Iraqi jets dropped a variety of chemical weapons on the Kurdish town of Halabja and some 5-7,000 residents were killed immediately. The Kurdish city of Halabja, held by Iranian troops and Iraqi Kurdish guerrillas allied with Tehran, was bombed by Iraq. Estimates of casualties varied from several hundred to several thousand.
    (SFC, 7/1/02, p.A6)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Halabja_poison_gas_attack)

1988        Apr 5 A 15-day hijacking ordeal began as gunmen forced a Kuwait Airways jumbo jet to land in Iran.
    (AP, 5/5/97)

1988        Apr 17, The newly-restructured Iraqi Army began a major operation named "Ramadan Mubarak" aimed to clear the Iranians out of the peninsula. The Iranians were expelled from the peninsula within 35 hours, with much of their equipment captured intact.

1988        Apr 18, The United States destroyed two more Iraqi oil platforms, after a mine in the Persian Gulf injured 10 crewmen aboard a U.S. frigate. The US attacked Iran in the Persian Gulf in retaliation for the mining of a US ship. Operation Praying Mantis, the largest US naval action since World War II. By the end of the day, the Navy had destroyed two IRGCN bases, sunk three Iranian vessels, and seriously damaged five more, killing over 50 IRGCN and Iranian Navy personnel in the process. In 2003 a World Court in a 14-2 decision ruled the US was wrong but doesn't need to pay damages.
    (AP, 11/7/03)(Business Insider, 4/23/21)

1988        Jul 3, The US Navy cruiser ship USS Vincennes shot down an Iranian Airbus A-300 in the Persian Gulf shortly after it took off from Bandar Abbas for Dubai in the United Arab Emirates. All 290 people aboard were killed after the crew of the Vincennes misidentified the plane as an Iranian F-14 fighter. The attack followed what the US Navy refers to as Operation Praying Mantis, a daylong naval battle in the Persian Gulf between American forces and Iran. That battle came after the USS Samuel B. Robertson struck a mine that the Americans later accused Iran of laying in the shipping channels it was trying to keep open for Kuwaiti oil tankers. In 1996 the US paid $131.8 million in compensation of which half would go directly to the families of the people killed. Iran filed suit in World Court in 1989 and settled out of court in Feb, 1996.
    (WSJ, 2/23/96, p.A-1)(SFC, 4/26/96, p.A-14)(AP 7/3/97)(AP, 7/03/10)(AP, 7/3/18)

1988        Jul 8, Iran's parliamentary speaker, Hashemi Rafsanjani, said his nation would not seek revenge against the United States for shooting down an Iranian jetliner over the Persian Gulf, killing 290 people.
    (AP, 7/8/98)

1988        Jul 14, Speaking before the U.N. Security Council, Iran's foreign minister, Ali-Akbar Velayati, denounced the U.S. downing of an Iranian jetliner as "a barbaric massacre." Vice President Bush replied that the U.S.S. Vincennes had fired in self-defense.
    (AP, 7/14/98)

1988        Jul 22, Iran and Iraq said they would send their foreign ministers to New York to meet with U.N. Secretary General Javier Perez de Cuellar, after Iran said it would accept a U.N. cease-fire resolution.
    (AP, 7/22/98)

1988        Jul 23, Iran accused Iraq of pushing deep into Iranian territory and using chemical weapons. The March 16 Iraqi chemical attack at Halabja killed thousands and in 1999 was still causing genetic damage and deaths.
    (AP, 7/23/97)(USAT, 3/24/99, p.18A)

1988        Jul 26, U.N. Secretary General Javier Perez de Cuellar met twice with Iran's foreign minister in the first formal talks about a cease-fire for the eight-year war between Iran and Iraq.
    (AP, 7/26/98)

1988        Jul 27, U.N. Secretary General Javier Perez de Cuellar held separate peace talks with the foreign ministers of Iraq and Iran on a cease-fire in the eight-year-old Persian Gulf war.
    (AP, 7/27/98)

1988        Jul 30, Iran began executing prisoners at the Gohardasht following an order by Ayatollah Khomeini for the execution of all prisoners in Iranian prisons who sympathized and remained loyal with the Mujahedin organization. The execution continued to August 16. In 2021 Sweden charged  Hamid Nouri (60), a former Iranian prosecutor, with committing grave war crimes.
    (AP, 7/27/21)

1988        Aug 1, Iran said it would honor an immediate cease-fire in its eight-year-old war with Iraq.
    (AP, 8/1/98)

1988        Aug 7, Iranian Foreign Minister Ali Akbar Velayati signaled his government's acceptance of Iraq's modified peace proposal aimed at bringing about a cease-fire in the Persian Gulf.
    (AP, 8/7/98)

1988        Aug 8, U.N. Secretary-General Javier Perez de Cuellar announced a cease-fire between Iran and Iraq. This became an Iraqi national holiday until it was abolished in 2003.
    (SFC, 2/24/9, p.A9)(AP, 8/8/98)(AP, 7/13/03)

1988        Aug 20, A cease fire between Iran and Iraq took effect after 8 years of war.

1988        Aug 25,  Iran and Iraq began talks to end their 8 year war.

1988        Nov 26, Kazem Sami, leader of a liberal Islamic movement, was murdered.
    (SFC, 12/10/98, p.C2)

1988        The film “The Cyclist" was directed by Mohsen Makhmalbaf. It was about an Afghani refugee who raises money for his dying wife by riding a bicycle for 7 days as people bet on him.
    (SFEC, 4/23/00, DB p.52)

1988        Iran began paying unrelated living donors for their kidneys. After 11 years it had eliminated its kidney transplant waiting list.
    (Econ, 10/11/08, p.81)

1989        Feb 14, Iran's Ayatollah Khomeini called on Muslims to kill Salman Rushdie, author of "The Satanic Verses," a novel condemned as blasphemous. Several translators of the book were later killed or wounded.
    (TMC, 1994, p.1989)(SFEC, 8/31/97, p.A2)(AP, 2/14/99)

1989        Feb 17, Iran's President Ali Khamenei said Salman Rushdie, author of "The Satanic Verses," could save himself from a death sentence pronounced by Ayatollah Khomeini if he were to apologize for his book, which was regarded as blasphemous.
    (AP, 2/17/99)

1989        Feb 19, Iran's Ayatollah Khomeini rejected the apology of "Satanic Verses" author Salman Rushdie, exhorting Muslims to "send him to hell" for committing blasphemy.
    (AP, 2/19/99)

1989        Feb 20, Members of the European Economic Community decided to withdraw their top diplomats from Iran to protest Ayatollah Khomeini's order for Muslims to kill author Salman Rushdie.
    (AP, 2/20/99)

1989        Feb 21, President Bush called Ayatollah Khomeini's death warrant against "Satanic Verses" author Salman Rushdie "deeply offensive to the norms of civilized behavior."
    (AP, 2/21/99)

1989        Feb 22, Iran's Ayatollah Khomeini, who had sentenced author Salman Rushdie to death, said economic sanctions would not change his stance, and that publication of Rushdie's "The Satanic Verses" was a sign from God that Iran should not reach out to the West.
    (AP, 2/22/99)

1989        Feb 24, Writer Salman Rushdie was sentenced to death by the Iranian government for writing Satanic Verses.
    (HN, 2/24/99)

1989        Mar 7, Britain dropped diplomatic relations with Iran over Salmon Rushdie's book.

1989        Jun 3, Ayatollah Ruhollah Khomeini (89), Iran's spiritual and supreme  leader, died.
    (AP, 6/3/97)(SFC, 8/15/97, p.A15)

1989        Jun 20, Soviet President Mikhail S. Gorbachev greeted the speaker of Iran's parliament, Hashemi Rafsanjani, who was visiting Moscow.
    (AP, 6/20/99)

1989        Jul 13, Abdul Rahman Qassemlu, Kurd leader in Iran, was murdered.

1989        Aug 3, Hashemi Rafsanjani was sworn in as president of Iran.
    (AP, 8/3/99)

1989        Aug 4, Iranian President Hashemi Rafsanjani offered to help end the hostage crisis in Lebanon, prompting President Bush to say he was "encouraged."
    (AP, 8/4/99)

1989        Nov 3, A Lebanese magazine reported that the United States had been secretly selling arms to Iran in the hope of securing the release of American hostages held by pro-Iranian groups in Lebanon. This was the start of the Iran Contra Scandal.
    (MC, 11/3/01)

1989        Nov 4, Iran marked the 10th anniversary of the seizure of the U.S. Embassy.
    (AP, 11/4/99)

1989        Grand Ayatollah Hossein Ali Montazeri protested the execution of thousands of political prisoners. This frustrated Ayatollah Khomeini and caused him to dump Montazeri as heir apparent.
    (WSJ, 1/13/98, p.A20)

1990        Mar 15, Iraq executed London-based journalist Farzad Bazoft, claiming he was a spy.
    (AP, 3/15/00)

1990        Jun 21, An estimated 50,000 Iranians were killed in a magnitude 7.3 to 7.7 earthquake. The earthquake killed some 35,000 people in Gilan and neighboring Zanjan province.
    (SFC, 3/1/97, p.C1)(AP, 6/21/00)(AP, 6/22/02)

1990        Jun 27, Salman Rushdie, condemned to death by Iran, contributed $8600 to help their earthquake victims.
    (SC, 6/27/02)

1990        Sep 10, Iran agreed to resume full diplomatic ties with onetime enemy Iraq.
    (AP, 9/10/00)

1990        Mohsen Makhmalbaf, Iranian director, made his film "Time of Love," a depiction of adultery in three segments.
    (SFC, 5/14/97, p.E6)

1990        The Fertility Regulation Council was established.
    (SFC, 5/15/98, p.D2)

1990        Kazem Rajavi, exiled Iranian opposition leader, was shot to death in Geneva.
    (AP, 4/9/06)

1991        Jan 28, The US military reported that more than 60 Iraqi fighter-bombers had taken refuge in Iran, where they were impounded by the Iranian government.
    (AP, 1/28/01)

1991        Apr 1, Iran released British hostage Roger Cooper after 5 years.

1991        Aug 6, Former Iranian PM Shahpour Bakhtiar and his chief of staff were killed in Bakhtiar’s residence outside Paris. Their bodies were found 2 days later. In 1994 Ali Vakili Rad was arrested in Switzerland and sentenced to life in prison for stabbing Shapour Bakhtiar to death. In 2010 France issued a deportation order to send Rad back to Iran shortly after Tehran freed a young French academic accused of spying.
    (AP, 8/8/01)(AP, 5/17/10)

1991        Oct 7, Former assistant secretary of state Elliott Abrams pleaded guilty to withholding information from Congress in the Iran-Contra scandal.

1991        Dec 13, Iran’s Pres. Akbar Hashemi Rafsanjani visited Sudan with some 157 officials. He signed agreements to train Sudan’s Popular Defense Forces, a version of Iran’s Revolutionary Guards, and agreed to pay China $300 million for weapons ordered for Sudan.
    (Econ, 4/4/09, p.50)(http://tinyurl.com/d6ruxp)

1991        In Iran Majid Majidi directed his film “Baduk." It was about children kidnapped by a slave trader.
    (SFC, 7/9/02, p.D2)
1991        The Iranian film "The Legend of Sigh" was directed by Tamineh Milani.
    (SFEC, 11/28/99, DB p.57)

1991        Iran’s government began fighting elements of the Mujahedeen-e Khalq (MEK).
    (WSJ, 7/11/96, p.A10)

1991        142 aircraft were flown to Iran from Iraq to escape destruction at the outset of the Gulf War. Tehran repainted the planes and used them for its own forces. In 1997 Iraq appealed to the UN for help in getting the planes back.
    (WSJ, 9/23/97, p.A1)

1991        Iran’s first nuclear reactor was supplied by China.
    (SFC, 9/18/06, p.A1)

1992        Apr, The Iranian Mujahedeen-e Khalq (MEK), a militant opposition group, attacked Iranian assets in 13 countries simultaneously.
    (WSJ, 7/11/96, p.A10)(http://complete911timeline.org/entity.jsp?entity=mujahedeen-e_khalq)

1992        Sep, In Germany Sadiq Sarafkindi and three other exiled Iranian Kurdish dissidents were slain at the Mykonos restaurant in Berlin. In 1997 a German court concluded that the murders were sponsored by the top political leadership of Iran and orchestrated by a secretive “Committee for special Operations," and carried out by the Iranian Vevak security service.
    (SFC, 4/11/97, p.A1)

1992        Nov 4, Iran's Islamic Republic News Agency announced the arrest of American businessman Milton Meier, who had lived in Iran for 17 years, on charges of illegal business dealings and espionage.
    (AP, 11/4/97)

1992        Nov 23, Iran added a Russian-built submarine to its navy, becoming the first Gulf nation to field a submarine.
    (AP, 11/23/02)

1993        Mar 16, Mohammed Hussein Nagdi, Iran diplomat, resistance fighter, was murdered in Rome, Italy.

1993        New laws withdrew food coupons and subsidized health insurance from families after the birth of a 3rd child.
    (SFC, 5/15/98, p.D2)

1994        Jul 18, In Buenos Aires a terrorist attack killed 85 people at the city’s Jewish Center, the Argentine Israelite Mutual Aid Society (AMIA). Some 300 people were injured. In 1996 three senior policemen and a retired officer were charged in connection to the bombing. Iran denied any role. Police inspector, Juan Jose Ribelli, accepted a $2.5 million several days before the attack for providing the car in which the bomb exploded. It was later revealed that he and his colleagues sold protection to car thieves in return for stolen goods. In 2000 Ahmad Behbahani (32) told a 60 Minutes journalist from a refugee camp in Turkey that Iran was behind the 1994 bombing in Argentina. In 2002 it was reported that Iran paid Pres. Menem $10 million to cover up Iran’s involvement. In 2004 a federal court acquitted 5 men of being accessories to the bombing. [see Nov 9, 2005] In 2009 a court ruled that Carlos Alberto Telledin, accused of loading the van with explosives, should be tried again for his participation in the bombing. In 2015 ex-President Carlos Menem, a former top judge and several other officials went on trial for allegedly derailing the investigation.
    (WSJ, 8/1/96 p.A1)(WSJ, 11/24/97, p.A1)(SFC,12/9/97, p.B10)(HN, 7/18/98)(SFC, 6/6/00, p.A10)(SFC, 7/22/02, p.A1)(SFC, 9/3/04, p.A18)(NYT, 10/8/04, p.A12)(SSFC, 12/20/09, p.A31)(AP, 8/6/15)

1994        Iran banned satellite TV dishes.
    (Econ., 5/30/20, p.40)
1994        A 2-hr pre-nuptial class was made mandatory for all Iranian couples planning marriage.
    (SFC, 5/15/98, p.D2)

1995        Mar 15, President Clinton issued an executive order formally blocking a $1 billion contract between Conoco and Iran to develop a huge offshore oil tract in the Persian Gulf.
    (AP, 3/15/00)

1995        Apr 30, President Clinton announced he would end U.S. trade and investment with Iran, denouncing the Tehran government as "inspiration and paymaster to terrorists."
    (AP, 4/30/00)

1995        May 4, An Iranian nuclear official said spent fuel from Iran's Russian-made reactors, potential raw material for nuclear bombs, would be returned to Russia for safeguarding.
    (AP, 5/4/00)

1995        The Iranian film "Pari" was produced. It was directed by Dariush Mehrjui and adopted from J.D. Salinger’s “Franny and Zooey." UD showing was barred in 1998 due to copyright.
    (SFC, 11/23/98, p.E2)
1995        The film “The Snowman" was directed by Davoud Mirbaqeri. It was about an Iranian man who dresses as a woman in order to obtain an American visa.
    (SFEC, 4/23/00, DB p.52)
1995        Mohsen Makhmalbaf, Iranian director, made his film “Salaam Cinema." He used a documentary technique to make his film on auditioning actors.
    (SFC, 5/14/97, p.E6)
1995        The film "The White Balloon" was directed by Jafar Panahi of Iran.
    (SFC, 1/30/98, p.E17)

1995        Iran awarded a $1 billion contract to the American oil firm Conoco, but US Pres. Clinton scuttled the deal and subsequently banned US companies from most forms of trading with Iran. He accused Tehran of continued support for international terrorism. Iran then awarded the oil contract to the French firm Total.
    (SFC, 4/14/96, p.A-14)

1995        The Taliban regained Herat and Tajik commander Ismail Khan fled for exile in Iran. Khan returned in 1997 and was captured by the Taliban and imprisoned for nearly 3 years.
    (SFC, 11/13/01, p.A2)

1995        Alireza Azmandian, US educated engineer, returned to Iran to teach at Tehran Univ. and opened a private office to promote positive thinking and self-help. By 2008 he had published 2 self-help books and his business, The Center for Technology of Thought, occupied an entire floor of a commercial building.
    (WSJ, 6/30/08, p.A1)

1996        Jan 30, Iran tested a Chinese missile designed to attack ships by flying under their radar and could be fired from boats with a range of miles.
    (WSJ, 1/30/96, p.A-12)

1996        Apr 27, The southern Iranian town of Baft, 350 miles Southeast of Tehran,  was invaded by millions of cockroaches, locusts, and grasshoppers.
    (SFC, 4/27/96, p.A-7)

1996        May 14, Turkmenistan and Iran opened a rail link.
    (WSJ, 5/14/96, p.A-1)

1996        Jul 9, "The Iranians: Persia, Islam and the Soul of a Nation" by Sandra Mackey was reviewed and panned by Abbas Milani, author of "Tales of Two Cities: A Persian Memoir."
    (SFC, 7/9/96, p.B4)

1996        Jul 13, Tehran, Iran, has been invaded by thousands of lizards and snakes over the past three months. Military exercises nearby or rising levels of groundwater have been cited as possible reasons.
    (SFC, 7/13/96, p.A10)

1996        Aug 12, Iran and Turkey agreed to connect their power networks.
    (WSJ, 8/13/96, p.A7)

1996        Sep 24, Iran expected delivery of its 3rd Russian-made submarine within 6 months, as part of its navy buildup in the Persian Gulf.
    (SFC, 9/24/96, p.A14)

1996        Sep, Iran delivered at least $500,000 to Bosnian Pres. Alija Izetbegovic for his campaign.
    (SFC, 12/31/96, p.A10)

1996        Nov 5, Government officials announced that a gas pipeline would begin to be built in March to carry gas from Iran to Turkey.
    (SFC, 11/6/96, p.A25)

1996        Dec 5, The Parliament passed legislation that banned the use of foreign words and names in the country. Only Farsi language names would be allowed.
    (WSJ, 12/6/96, p.A12)

1996        The US passed the Iran-Libya Sanctions Act (ILSA). It barred US and foreign investments of more than $40 million in the development of Iran’s energy sector.
    (SFEC, 7/27/97, p.D8)

1997        Feb 1, In Iran 5 people were killed and 44 injured when worshipers stampeded at the entrance to a mosque in Kermanshah.
    (SFC, 2/3/97, p.C3)

1997        Feb 4, In northeastern Iran 2 earthquakes with aftershocks killed at least 72 people. Some 43 villages were damaged. Another quake followed the next day.
    (SFC, 2/5/97, p.A9)(SFC, 2/6/97, p.A1)

1997        Feb 28, A 6.1 earthquake at Ardebil in northwest Iran struck at 4:27 p.m. local time. The quake damaged 83 villages and killed at least 500 people.
    (SFC, 3/1/97, p.C1)(SFEC, 3/2/97, p.A15)

1997        Mar 1, Rescue teams fought snow, high winds and wild dogs as they tried to bring help to an earthquake-devastated region in northwest Iran, where the death toll was estimated at 3,000.
    (AP, 3/1/98)

1997        Mar 14, A C-130 military cargo plane crashed near Mashad in northeastern Iran and all 86 people aboard were believed killed.
    (SFC, 3/15/97, p.A19)

1997        May 10, A 7.1 earthquake hit in northeastern Iraq centered on the town of Qaen. More than 2,400 people were reported killed. The death toll was reduced to 1,560 with 60,000 left homeless.
    (SFEC, 5/11/97, p.A1)(WSJ, 5/12/97, p.A1)(SFC, 5/14/97, p.A10)

1997        May 23, In Iran presidential elections put conservative speaker Ali Akbar Nateq Nouri against left-leaning cleric Mohammad Khatami (54). Former Culture Minister Mohammad Khatemi won in a landslide over hard-liners in the ruling Muslim clergy.
    (WSJ, 3/20/97, p.A12)(AP, 5/23/98)(SFEC, 5/25/97,  p.1)

1997        Jun 22, Iran and Iraq opened their border after 17 years and asked the UN for an inspection post there, giving Iraq a 4th exit point for its goods.
    (WSJ, 6/27/97, p.A11)

1997        Jun 27, A Tajikistan formal peace accord was signed in Moscow that was brokered by Russia and Iran. A power sharing arrangement was foreseen between Pres. Emomali Rakhmanov and opposition leader Said Abdullo. The opposition led by the Islamic Renaissance Party (IRPT) was guaranteed 30% of government positions.  Up to 150,000 people had been killed in the 5-year civil war.
    (WSJ, 6/30/97, p.A11)(SFC, 11/3/00, p.D2)(Econ, 11/11/06, p.50)(Econ., 3/14/15, p.42)

1997        Aug 13, In Tehran Ali Reza Khoshruy Kuran Kordiyeh (“the vampire") was flogged and hung for the rape, murder and burning of 9 women in a crime spree that began in March.
    (SFC, 8/14/97, p.C3)

1997        Aug 23, Pres. Khatami appointed the first woman vice-president, Masoumeh Ebtekar, and ended an 18-year ban on commercial flights to Saudi Arabia.
    (WSJ, 8/25/97, p.A1)(SFC, 5/28/98, p.A8)

1997        Sep 29, Iranian warplanes bombed anti-Tehran rebel bases inside Iraq.
    (WSJ, 9/30/97, p.A1)
1997        Sep 29, Turkish planes attacked Kurdish rebel positions in northern Iraq and drove the guerrillas toward the Iran border.
    (WSJ, 9/30/97, p.A1)

1997        Oct 3, US Defense Sec. William Cohen ordered the Nimitz Carrier Battle Group to the Persian Gulf as a warning to Iran and Iraq to stop incursions into the US-enforced “no-fly" zone in southern Iraq.
    (SFC, 10/4/97, p.A8)

1997        Nov, Grand Ayatollah Hossein Ali Montazeri criticized the hard-line religious leadership. The authorities shut him off from contact with supporters.
    (WSJ, 1/13/98, p.A20)

1997        Dec 8, In Iran leaders of the 55-member Organization of the Islamic Conference gathered to overcome historic divisions and promote Islamic solidarity.
    (SFC,12/9/97, p.B3)

1997        Dec 11, The 55-member Organization of the Islamic conference ended their meeting in Iran with the declaration that “the killing of innocents is strictly forbidden in Islam." The group also called for full respect for the dignity and rights of Muslim women and criticized Israel for “state terrorism."
    (SFC,12/12/97, p.B2)

1997        Dec 14, Iran's new president, Mohammad Khatami, called for a dialogue with the people of the United States -- a nation reviled by his predecessors as "The Great Satan."
    (AP, 12/14/98)

1997        Dec 29, Turkmenistan and Iran activated a key 125 mile gas pipeline. Plans were to make it part of a network to Europe but for now the gas was only bound to northeastern Iran.
    (SFC,12/30/97, p.B2)

1997        The film "Gabbeh" by Mohsen Makhmalbaf was in Farsi and set in southeastern Iran.
    (SFC, 9/29/97, p.E2)

1997        The Iranian film "A Moment of Innocence" was shown at the SF Film Festival. It was based on a 1974 incident where the director, Mohsen Makmalbaf, tried to disarm one of the Shah’s police.
    (SFC, 4/23/97, p.D1)

1997        The film “Taste of Cherry" was directed by Abbas Kiarostami. It was about a man looking for someone to bury him.
    (SFEC, 4/23/00, DB p.52)

1997        The US State Dept. designated the Iranian National Liberation Army (NLA), the armed wing of the Mujahedeen-e Khalq (MEK), a terrorist organization.
    (SFC, 5/6/00, p.A14)

1997        Iran carried out 199 executions in this year.
    (SFC, 4/23/98, p.A13)

1998        Jan 7, Pres. Mohhamad Khatami endorsed cultural relations with the US but no political ties in a preliminary effort to “crack the wall" of hostility between the two countries.
    (SFC, 1/8/98, p.A12)

1998        Feb 17, An Iranian crowd cheered as U.S. wrestlers carried the Stars and Stripes into an international meet in Tehran.
    (AP, 2/17/99)

1998        Feb, Iran began to close down shipments of illicit Iraqi oil.
    (SFC, 3/16/98, p.A8)

1998        Mar 14, In Iran a 6.4 earthquake hit in the southeast and at least 5 people were killed and thousands left homeless.
    (SFEC, 3/15/98, p.A22)(AP, 3/14/99)

1998        Apr 2, Iran and Iraq began a war prisoner exchange involving nearly 6000 men, mostly Iraqis.
    (WSJ, 4/3/98, p.A1)

1998        Apr 4,Gholamhossein Karbaschi, the mayor of Tehran, was arrested by the judiciary on charges of corruption. He was convicted and began a 2 year sentence in May 1999.
    (SFC, 4/798, p.A12)(WSJ, 5/7/99, p.A1)

1998        Apr 5, Iran and Iraq exchanged 1,589 prisoners of war, bringing the number to over 4,000. Up to 30,000 prisoners were thought to be held by both sides.
    (SFC, 4/6/98, p.A16)

1998        Apr 10, An earthquake in the northeast killed 12 people and left 1,500 homeless in the Khorasan province.
    (SFEC, 4/12/98, p.A16)

1998        Apr 14, The Clinton administration agreed to create a Persian-language radio service to transmit anti-government propaganda into Iran. $1 million was also pledged to Voice of America for non-propaganda Persian-language programming. Radio Azadi (Radio Liberty) initially broadcast for 3 hours daily from Prague, Czechoslovakia. In 2002 the name was changed to Radio Farda and programming increased to a 24-hour cycle.
    (SFC, 4/15/98, p.A12)(WSJ, 6/13/08, p.A10)

1998        Apr 15, Mayor Karbaschi of Tehran was freed from prison on bail.
    (SFC, 4/16/98, p.A12)

1998        Apr 22, The UN Commission on Human Rights called on Iran to halt torture, amputations and stonings.
    (SFC, 4/23/98, p.A13)

1998        May 15, The population was estimated at 63 million.
    (SFC, 5/15/98, p.D2)

1998        Jun 17, In Israel Nahum Manbar, an Israeli businessman, was convicted of endangering security through the sale of $16 million in information and chemical weapons components to Iran. Manbar was sentenced to 16 years in July 1998 for selling materials to make nerve and mustard gas to Iran but insisted he acted with the approval of the Israeli authorities. He had been arrested in March the previous year. He was released from jail in 2011.
    (SFC, 6/18/98, p.A20)(AFP, 10/31/11)

1998        Jun 20, Iran reversed its opposition to a UN plan, passed the previous day, permitting Iraq to spend $300 million of revenues from the oil-for-food program to buy spare parts to rebuild its oil industry.
    (SFEC, 6/21/98, p.A25)

1998        Jun 21, In the soccer World Cup Iran knocked out the US team 2-1.
    (SFC, 6/22/98, p.A8)

1998        Jul 11, Mayor Karbaschi gave a 4-hour defense statement at the close of his trial in Tehran. He was accused of misappropriating public funds.
    (SFEC, 7/12/98, p.A17)

1998        Jul 22, Iran conducted a successful Shahab 3 missile test with a medium-range of 800 miles.
    (SFC, 7/23/98, p.A1)(SFEC, 11/1/98, p.A23)

1998        Jul 23, Tehran’s Mayor Karbaschi was convicted and sentenced to 5 years in prison for corruption.
    (WSJ, 7/24/98, p.A1)

1998        Jul 27, It was reported that Russia and Iran were supporting The Northern Alliance of rebel groups fighting against the Taliban.
    (SFC, 7/27/98, p.A9)

1998        Jul, Iraq and Iran agreed to allow 12,000 Iranians to visit shrines in Iraq each month.
    (SFEC, 8/16/98, p.A24)

1998        Aug 8, The first daily newspaper dedicated to women’s issues, the daily Zan, was launched by Faezeh Hashemi. She was the daughter of former Pres. Akbar Hashemi Rafsanjani.
    (SFEC, 8/9/98, p.A16)

1998        Aug 8, In Afghanistan the Taliban overran Mazar-i-Sharif and killed 9 of 11 diplomats from Iran. 8 of the dead were diplomats, the 9th was a journalist.
    (SFC, 9/11/98, p.D4)(SFC, 9/18/98, p.D8)

1998        Sep 2, Iran began war games with 70,000 soldiers near the Afghanistan border.
    (SFC, 9/3/98, p.C2)

1998        Sep 10, US wrestler Sam Henson took first place in the World Wrestling Championships in Iran. He defeated Namik Abdullavev of Azerbaijan. Iranians stood for the US anthem for the first time in 19 years.
    (SFC, 9/11/98, p.D4)

1998        Sep 22, In NYC Mohammad Khatami, Pres. of Iran, said that the 10-year fatwa (religious edict for the death of Rushdie) dispute over author Salman Rushdie is “completely finished."
    (SFC, 9/23/98, p.A11)(SFC, 9/25/98, p.A13)

1998        Sep 28, Two senior Iranian clerics claimed that the $2.5 million reward for Rushdie’s death was a fatwa that must be enforced.
    (SFC, 9/29/98, p.A10)

1998        Sep 29, In Iran security officials raided homes and offices of members of the Baha’i faith. It was an effort to shut down the Bahai Institute of Higher Education.
    (SFC, 10/30/98, p.A20)

1998        Oct 5, In Iran the Islamic authorities told a group of writers to give up efforts to reactivate an independent association of authors.
    (SFC, 10/6/98, p.A12)

1998        Oct 7, It was reported that Mehdi Mozaffari, an Iranian scholar at the Univ. of Aarhus in Denmark, had published “Fatwa: Violence and Discourtesy." He made the case that there was never a true fatwa (religious edict) issued by Ayatollah Khomeini against Salman Rushdie.
    (SFC, 10/7/98, p.A10)

1998        Oct 7, The 12-member Guardian Council published the list of candidates eligible to run for the Assembly of Experts. The experts select Iran’s spiritual leader. 126 were approved of 396 who applied for the Oct 23 elections.
    (SFC, 10/8/98, p.C16)

1998        Oct 8, Iran border troops claimed a victory and said it inflicted heavy casualties over Taliban militia. The Taliban denied any fighting.
    (USAT, 10/9/98, p.14A)

1998        Oct 12, In Iran the Khordad Foundation raised its reward for the killing of Salman Rushdie to $2.8 million.
    (SFC, 10/13/98, p.A11)

1998        Oct 23, Voters selected the 86-member Assembly of Experts, who in  turn will select the supreme leader of the country. Candidates for the Assembly were tested and graded on Islamic law by the 12-member Council of Guardians, who were in turn appointed by the supreme leader. The turnout was low and Conservatives won at least 54 of the 86 seats.
    (WSJ, 10/22/98, p.A1)(SFC, 10/24/98, p.A14)(SFC, 10/26/98, p.A7)

1998        Nov 13, A village was leveled in Fars province and 5 people were killed after 5 strong earthquakes hit the area.
    (SFC, 11/21/98, p.A6)

1998        Nov 22, Dariush Forouhar and his wife Parvenah were found stabbed to death in their home in Tehran. He was the leader of the nationalist Iran Nation Party and they were outspoken critics of the Islamic government. In 2000 former agents of the Intelligence Ministry confessed to playing roles in the 1998 killings of 4 writers and dissidents.
    (SFC, 11/24/98, p.A14)(SFC, 1/3/01, p.A12)

1998        Dec 7, Pres. Clinton announced the removal of Iran from the list of drug problem countries due to an energetic campaign to eliminate opium poppies.
    (SFC, 12/8/98, p.A12)

1998        Dec 9, In Iran the body of Mohammed Mokhtari, a prominent writer missing for a week, was found. It appeared that he was murdered by strangulation. Shortly later Mohammad Jafar Pouyandeh (45), another dissident writer, was reported missing. Pouyandeh was later found murdered.
    (SFC, 12/10/98, p.C2)(SFC, 12/11/98, p.A22)(SFC, 12/15/98, p.A14)

1998        Dec 14, Authorities arrested several suspects in the recent string of murders of opposition figures. Pirouz Davani, leader of the United Left, and Rostami Hamedani, an activist with Davani, were reported missing.
    (SFC, 12/15/98, p.A14)

1998        Dec 17, US and British forces launched more missiles on the 2nd day of attacks against Iraq. The strikes included some 100 cruise missiles with 2,000 pound warheads. At least 25 people were killed and 75 injured over 2 days. Pres. Boris Yeltsin withdrew the Russian ambassador from Washington and demanded an immediate end to military action. France and Italy expressed strong opposition while Germany rallied to support the US and Britain. A stray US missile hit Khorramshahr, Iran. The US later apologized.
    (SFC, 12/18/98, p.A1,3)(SFC, 12/21/98, p.A20)

1998        Dec 21, The World Association of Newspapers awarded the 1999 Golden Pen of Freedom award to exiled Iranian writer Faraj Sarkuhi, former editor of the cultural journal Adineh.
    (SFC, 12/22/98, p.C4)

1998        The Iranian film "Children of Heaven" starred Mir Farrokh Hashemian and was directed by Majid Majidi and was nominated for an Oscar
    (WSJ, 1/22/99, p.W3)(SFC, 2/5/99, p.C3)(SFEC, 11/28/99, DB p.56)

1998        The Iranian film "The Mirror" starred Mina Mohammad-Khani and was directed by Jafar Panahi. It was about a young girl lost on the streets of Tehran.
    (SFC, 1/15/99, p.D6)

1998        The Iranian film "Two Women" was directed by Tahmineh Milani.
    (SFC, 3/24/00, p.C3)

1998        Christiane Bird, writer for the NY Daily News, spent 3 months in Iran and in 2001 authored her travelogue “"Neither East Nor West."
    (WSJ, 4/27/01, p.W12)

1999        Jan 3, Some 327,000 registered as candidates to the 200,000 local posts for the Feb 26 elections, the first since the 1979 revolution.
    (WSJ, 1/5/98, p.A1)

1999        Jan 5, In Iran the Intelligence Ministry said that rogue intelligence officers were responsible for 5 killings last year of government critics.
    (SFC, 1/6/99, p.A6)

1999        Feb 9, In Iran the head of the intelligence ministry, Qorbanali Dorri-Najafabadi, resigned along with 3 deputies due to last year's killings of dissident writers and politicians.
    (SFC, 2/10/99, p.A10)

1999        Feb 11, Pres. Khatami marked the 20th anniversary of the revolution that toppled the shah and called for reduction of tensions with the outside world.
    (SFC, 2/12/99, p.A17)

1999        Feb 24, In Iran 3 Kurds died while fighting police during a protest over the capture of Ocalan.
    (WSJ, 2/25/99, p.A1)

1999        Feb 25, In Iran Pres. Khatami supported 50 candidates that hard-liners attempted to disqualify from local elections.
    (SFC, 2/26/99, p.E3)

1999        Feb 26, Elections were planned for cities, towns and village councils. These were the first elections since the 1979 revolution.
    (WSJ, 12/29/98, p.A1)

1999        Mar 11, Pope John Paul II met with Mohammad Khatami of Iran.
    (SFC, 3/12/99, p.A14)

1999        Apr 10, In Iran Gen'l. Ali Sayyad Shirazi, deputy chief of the joint staff command of the Iranian armed forces, was gunned down in front of his home in Tehran by men dressed as city cleaners. The murder was attributed to terrorists, a euphemism for the opposition Mujahedeen-e Khalq (MEK). In 2007 French judicial authorities said they have the authority to investigate the case because the political wing of the People's Mujahedeen is based in Auvers-Sur-Oise, north of Paris.
    (SFEC, 4/11/99, p.A11)(AP, 9/18/07)

1999        Apr 22, The Parliament began proceedings to impeach culture minister Ayatollah Mohajerani for excessive media freedom.
    (SFC, 4/23/99, p.D3)

1999        Apr 28, The US announced that it would allow US firms to sell food and medicine to Iran, Sudan and Libya.
    (SFC, 4/29/99, p.A3)

1999        Apr, 13 members of the Jewish community in Fars province were detained on charges of spying for the US and Israel.
    (SFC, 6/9/99, p.C4)

1999        May 7, A series of earthquakes hit southern Iran and at least 26 people were killed in Fars province.
    (SFC, 5/8/99, p.C14)

1999        May 12, Pres. Khatami began a tour of the Arab world with a visit to Syria.
    (SFEC, 5/16/99, p.A24)

1999        May 14, Pres. Khatami arrived in Saudi Arabia. He was the first Iranian leader to visit there since 1979.
    (SFEC, 5/16/99, p.A24)

1999        May 17, In Iran the judiciary set a $20,000 legal limit on the diyeh (blood money), the amount a killer can pay to a victim's family to avoid execution.
    (SFC, 5/18/99, p.C12)

1999        May 18, Britain and Iran agreed to exchange ambassadors for the 1st time in 20 years.
    (SFC, 5/19/99, p.A12)

1999        May 26, It was reported that the Iranian Parliament had earlier this year reauthorized Pres. Khatami's $100 million annual budget to support radical groups opposed to the Middle East peace process.
    (WSJ, 5/26/99, p.A22)

1999        Jun 10, In Iraq a truck bomb killed 6 members of an Iraq-based Iranian opposition group, the Mujahadeen-e Khalq (MEK), which recently claimed to have killed a top general in Tehran.
    (WSJ, 6/10/99, p.A1)

1999        Jun 11, Iraq accused Iran of firing 3 Scud-B missiles on the Ashraf camp of the Mujahedeen-e Khalq (MEK) guerrilla group, located 50 miles from the Iranian border.
    (SFC, 6/12/99, p.C1)
1999        Jun 11, Ayatollah Mohammad Yazi told worshipers that the world should pay him heed as the highest justice official in Iran and that 13 Iranian Jews would be tried under Islamic law for treason.
    (SFC, 6/22/99, p.A11)

1999        Jun 21, It was reported that Saeed Ememi, a central suspect in a series of murders of Iranian intellectuals and dissidents, had committed suicide in jail.
    (SFC, 6/21/99, p.A10)

1999        Jun 23, Iran announced that it had set up a $128 million fund for compensations to dispossessed owners of large plants seized in 1979. Property of the former royal Pahlavi family and 50 others was not included.
    (SFC, 6/24/99, p.A12)

1999        Jul 7, In Iran the parliament approved general outlines for new press restrictions.
    (SFC, 7/8/99, p.A9)

1999        Jul 9, In Iran police and vigilantes attacked a student rally protesting a ban of the daily Salam in Tehran.
    (SFC, 7/10/99, p.A10)

1999        Jul 10, In Iran some 25,000 gather to protest against Ayatollah Ali Khomenei in Tehran.
    (SFEC, 7/11/99, p.A17)

1999        Jul 11, In Iran some 10,000 students demonstrated in Tehran with protests in other major cities. Two security chiefs responsible for the raid on a student dormitory, that prompted the demonstrations, were fired.
    (SFC, 7/12/99, p.A8)

1999        Jul 12, In Iran student protests spread to 18 cities across the country. In Tehran security forces and fundamentalist vigilantes emptied Tehran Univ. in a campaign to crush the demonstrations.
    (SFC, 7/13/99, p.A8)

1999        Jul 13, In Tehran police fired tear gas at thousands of protesters as street battles spread across the city. Tens of thousands of security forces countered the protesters.
    (SFC, 7/14/99, p.A1)

1999        Jul 14, Iranian hard-liners answered a week of pro-democracy rallies with one of their own, sending 100,000 people into the streets of Tehran.
    (SFC, 7/15/99, p.A1)(AP, 7/14/00)

1999        Jul 17, In Iran the Select Council of Sit-In Students called off student protests and faxed a communiqué to news organizations calling for meetings with government leaders.
    (SFEC, 7/18/99, p.A21)
1999        Jul 17, The front page of the Economist featured a photograph of Ahmad Batebi (21), an Iranian student, holding aloft a T-shirt bespattered with the blood of a fellow protester. He was soon arrested and told “you have signed your death warrant." A global outcry reduced his sentence to 15 years. In 2008 he escaped to Iraq and then moved to America.
    (Econ, 7/12/08, p.18)

1999        Jul 18, British ambassador Nick Browne presented his credentials to Pres. Khatami following a decade-long break in relations.
    (SFC, 7/19/99, p.A12)(SFC, 2/9/02, p.A9)

1999        Jul 19, In Iran the secret police alleged that student leader Manouchehr Mohammadi had confessed to serving US-based "spies and Zionists."
    (SFC, 7/20/99, p.A12)

1999        Jul 22, In Iran The Culture and Islamic Guidance Ministry moved against 3 newspapers for printing a secret letter from the Revolutionary Guards warning that their patience with "insults against the system" was running out.
    (SFC, 7/22/99, p.A13)

1999        Jul 27, The US eased sanctions against Iran, Libya and Sudan to allow the sale of food, medicine and medical equipment.
    (SFC, 7/27/99, p.A5)

1999        Aug 4, In Iran the daily Salam newspaper was banned for 5 years and publisher Mousavi-Khoeiniha was barred from journalism.
    (SFC, 8/5/99, p.A14)

1999        Aug 13, Iran agreed under pressure to join Turkey for simultaneous military operations against the PKK.
    (SFC, 8/14/99, p.A10)

1999        Oct 7, In Iran the Asr-e Azadegan began publishing. It replaced the Neshat, which was closed by conservative clerics after 149 editions.
    (SFEC, 10/10/99, p.A26)

1999        Nov 2, In southeastern Iraq a missile hit the Habib camp of the dissident Mujahedeen-e Khalq (MEK) near the border. At least 5 people were killed and Iran was blamed for the attack.
    (SFC, 11/4/99, p.A18)

1999        Nov 4, Some ten-thousand Iranian students rallied outside the former US Embassy in Tehran to mark the 20th anniversary of its seizure by Islamic militants.
    (AP, 11/4/00)

1999        Nov 12, A clerical jury found Abdollah Nouri, a former interior minister and director of the Khordad newspaper, guilty on 15 counts of sacrilegious articles and insulting the government.
    (SFC, 11/12/99, p.D2)

1999        Nov 21, Afghanistan and Iran resumed trade following recently imposed UN restrictions on Afghanistan.
    (SFC, 11/22/99, p.A14)

1999        Nov 27, In Iran Muslim reform cleric Abdollah Nouri was sentenced to 5 years in jail and 5 years banishment from political activity due to his demands for an end to authoritarian rule by the religious hierarchy. His Khordad newspaper was also ordered closed.
    (SFEC, 11/28/99, p.A21)

1999        Dec 13, Morteza Amini Moqadam (17) stabbed to death Hadi Mohebbi (22) in a quarrel about smoking in public. Moqadam was convicted of murder and sentenced to be hanged Jan 2, but Mohebbi's father told authorities to spare his life just before the execution.
    (SFC, 1/3/00, p.A10)

1999        Dec 26, In Iran members of the opposition Mujahedeen-e Khalq (MEK) crossed from Iraq and attacked Republican Guard barracks in Khuzestan.
    (SFC, 12/27/99, p.A13)

1999        Dec 31, In Iran Supreme Ayatollah Ali Khamenei called for the destruction of Israel during demonstrations for "Al-Quds Day." Al-Quds is the Arabic name for Jerusalem.
    (SFC, 1/1/00, p.D4)

1999        The Iranian film "The Apple" was directed by Samira Makhmalbaf (18). It was about twin sisters confined to their home since birth.
    (SFC, 3/26/99, p.C6)(SFEC, 4/23/00, DB p.52)

1999        The documentary film "Divorce Iranian Style" was directed by Kim Longinotto and Ziba Mir-Hosseini. It was filmed in a Tehran family court.
    (SFC, 5/24/99, p.D3)(SFC, 5/28/99, p.C6)

1999        The documentary film "Friendly Persuasion" was about Iranian film.
    (SFEC, 11/28/99, DB p.57)

1999        The Iranian film "Leila" starred Leila Hatami and Ali Mosaffa. It was directed by Dariush Mehrjui. It was about domestic life in contemporary Tehran.
    (SFC, 12/17/99, p.C14)

1999        The Iranian film "Sweet Agony" was a comedy about a camera crew filming a dysfunctional family and premiered at the Fajr Film Festival.
    (SFEC, 11/28/99, DB p.48)

1999        The Iranian film "Two Women" was directed by Tahmineh Milani.
    (SFEC, 11/28/99, DB p.56)

2000        Jan 11, Britain and Iran signed a joint declaration to fight terrorism and drug trafficking, promote trade and strengthen ties.
    (SFC, 1/12/00, p.A11)

2000        Feb 5, In Iran a mortar attack struck the Golbang publishing house in Tehran near government offices. One person was killed and at least 4 injured. The attack was presumed to be the work of the Mujahedeen-e Khalq (MEK).
    (SFEC, 2/6/00, p.A27)

2000        Feb 18, In Iran parliamentary elections were scheduled. Voters elected reform candidates to at least 60% of the 290-member Majlis (parliament).
    (SFC, 2/16/00, p.A8)(SFEC, 2/20/00, p.A24)

2000        Mar 12, In Iran Saeed Hajjarian, a member of the municipal council of Tehran and a supporter of Pres. Khatami, was shot and wounded by gunmen on a motorcycle.
    (SFC, 3/13/00, p.A10)

2000        Mar 24, A US federal judge ordered Iran to pay Terry Anderson $341 million for his seven years of captivity.
    (SFC, 3/25/00, p.A3)

2000        Mar 29, Iran joined the OPEC oil increase to keep its market share.
    (SFC, 3/30/00, p.A16)

2000        Apr 22, Iran arrested reporter Akbar Ganji and charged him with spreading propaganda against the Islamic system. He is author of the best-selling book “Dungeon of Ghosts," a collection of his newspaper articles published in early 2000, in which he implicated the former president, Akbar Hashemi Rafsanjani, and other leading conservative figures in the "serial murders" of five writers and intellectuals in 1998.
    (SSFC, 10/23/05, p.E3)

2000        Apr 23, In Iran 5 liberal publications were shut down and Latif Safari, director of the banned Neshat daily, was jailed.
    (SFC, 4/24/00, p.A12)

2000        Apr 27, In Iran Islamic hard-liners closed 3 more newspapers, including the daily run by the brother of Pres. Khatami.
    (SFC, 4/28/00, p.A19)

2000        May 1, In Iran Hamid Tefileen, one of 13 Jewish men arrested for espionage, was displayed on TV and admitted to being paid $500 a month by Israeli intelligence, Mossad.
    (SFC, 5/2/00, p.A8)

2000        May 3, In Iran 2 more Iranian Jews admitted, while on trial, that they had spied for Israel.
    (SFC, 5/4/00, p.A16)

2000        May 5, Parliamentary runoff elections were held.
    (SFC, 5/6/00, p.C1)

2000        May 8, Two more Iranian Jews confessed to spying for Israel.
    (WSJ, 5/9/00, p.A1)

2000        May 16, In Iran the Hammihan daily, a major reformist newspaper, was shut down on 17 counts of press law violations.
    (SFC, 5/17/00, p.A18)

2000        May 18, The World Bank approved 2 loans for Iran totaling $232 million.
    (SFC, 5/19/00, p.D2)

2000        May 20, The 12-member Council of Guardians declared that 26 reformers were winners in the Feb elections along with 2 nonreformers.
    (SFEC, 5/21/00, p.B11)

2000        May, The Iranian embassy in Vienna granted refuge to Holocaust denier Wolfgang Frohlich.

2000        Jun 5, Houshang Golshiri (63), writer and free speech advocate, died. His novels included “Prince Ehtejab" and “King of the Benighted." His work was not allowed to be published from 1982-1997.
    (SFC, 6/13/00, p.F3)

2000        Jun 11, A former hard-liner who has recently favored democratic reforms was elected as the speaker of Iran's first reformist-dominated parliament in more than 20 years.
    (AP, 6/11/03)

2000        Jun 17, Thousands of dead fish were reported to be spread over 5,400 acres of the dried up Arjang Lagoon, near the city of Shiraz, due to a 2-year drought.
    (SFC, 6/17/00, p.D8)

2000        Jul 1, In Iran a justice officials said 3 of 13 Jews tried on charges for spying were acquitted and that 10 were sentenced to fines, lashes and jail terms from 4 to 13 years. An appeals court later annulled 2 of the 3 convictions against the defendants and reduce their jail terms.
    (SFC, 7/1/00, p.A13)(SFEC, 7/2/00, p.A7)(SFC, 9/22/00, p.A17)

2000        Jul 8, A student march to mark a bloody rally one year ago turned violent as police charged thousands of students in Tehran.
    (SFEC, 7/9/00, p.C11)

2000        Jul 15, Iran test-fired an upgraded version of its 800-mil range, Shabab-3 missile.
    (SFEC, 7/16/00, p.B9)

2000        Jul 23, Ahmad Shamlou, playwright, journalist and poet, died at age 74.
    (SFC, 7/25/00, p.A23)

2000        Aug 5, It was reported that at least 1000 dogs were reported killed in Tehran over the last month. Islam regarded dogs as impure.
    (SFC, 8/5/00, p.A22)

2000        Aug 7, The daily Bahar newspaper was closed by the hard-line judiciary for “disturbing public opinion."
    (SFC, 8/9/00, p.A14)

2000        Aug 12, Ebrahim Nabavi was jailed by judge Saeed Mortazavi of the hard-line press court, as he was being honored as a top satirist.
    (SFC, 8/14/00, p.A12)

2000        Aug 13, Mohammad Ghoochani, political writer, was jailed one day after receiving honors as the best political writer.
    (SFC, 8/14/00, p.A12)

2000        Aug 27, Fighting between students and hard-liners in Khorramabad left a police officer dead.
    (SFC, 8/30/00, p.B10)

2000        Sep 21, An Iranian appeals court reduced the prison terms for 10 Jews convicted of “cooperating" with Israel, in a case that had drawn international criticism.
    (AP, 9/21/01)

2000        Nov 17, Jurgen Graf, prominent Swiss revisionist author, arrived in Iran. He fled his homeland rather than serve a 15-month prison sentence for "Holocaust denial."

2000        Dec 28, Iran and Russia announced an expanded military and security partnership.
    (SFC, 12/29/00, p.A18)

2000        Gelareh Asayesh authored "Saffron Sky: A Life Between Iran and America."
    (SFEC, 1/23/00, BR p.4)

2000        Persis M. Karin and Mohammad Mehdi Khorrami edited "A World Between: Poems, Short Stories, and Essays by Iranian-Americans.
    (SFEC, 1/23/00, BR p.4)

2000        Zia Atabay founded National Iranian Television in Los Angeles (NITV). He targeted 75 million Iranians world-wide, including an estimated 25 million households with satellite dishes in Iran.
    (WSJ, 11/5/01, p.A10)

2000        US legislation called the Iran Nonproliferation Act went into effect. By 2005 it impacted the Int’l. Space Station project due to Russian weapons trade with Iran.
    (Econ, 3/12/05, p.75)

2001        Jan 27, The Iran Republic news Agency reported that 3 intelligence agents were sentenced to death and 12 others to life in prison for their roles in murdering dissident writers and intellectuals.
    (SSFC, 1/28/01, p.A22)

2001        Mar 12, Russia and Iran signed agreements in Moscow to increase their military and economic cooperation.
    (SFC, 3/13/01, p.A16)

2001        Mar 18, The judiciary banned the nation’s only real opposition group and closed down 4 pro-reform newspapers.
    (SFC, 3/19/01, p.A9)

2001        Mar 20, Now-Ruz, the traditional Afghan New Year, passed without fanfare. The holiday is also observed in Iran.
    (SSFC, 3/18/01, p.A17)

2001        Apr 7, In Tehran 40-42 people were arrested including members of the opposition Freedom Movement. The Revolutionary Court said some were linked to the Iraq-based Mujahedeen-e Khalq (MEK).
    (SFC, 4/9/01, p.A8)

2001        Apr 16, Iran and Saudi Arabia signed a pact to fight terrorism and drug trafficking.
    (SFC, 4/18/01, p.A13)

2001        Apr 18, Iran launched 56 Scud missiles against an Iraq-based opposition group. At least 3 People’s Mujahedeen- Khalq (MEK) camps were hit.
    (WSJ, 4/19/01, p.A1)

2001        May 6, In Sari, Iran, the Mottaqi stadium grandstand collapsed and killed several people with hundreds injured.
    (WSJ, 5/7/01, p.A1)

2001        May 17, A plane crashed in Khorasan province and at least 29 people were killed. The dead included Rahman Dadman, the transport minister, and 7 members of parliament.
    (SFC, 5/18/01, p.A15)

2001        May 20, A power failure by Tavanir, the state-owned utility, left almost the whole country without electricity for several hours.
    (SFC, 5/21/01, p.A10)
2001        May 20, In Tehran a woman was stoned to death after her conviction for acting in pornographic films was upheld by the Supreme Court.
    (SFC, 5/22/01, p.A11)

2001        Jun 8, In Iran Pres. Khatami was elected to a 2nd term with nearly 77% of the vote.
    (SFC, 6/9/01, p.A8)(SFC, 6/11/01, p.A10)

2001        Jul 23, In Iran a 19th woman was reported strangled in Mashad.
    (DFP, 7/24/01, p.3A)

2001        Aug 2, Pres. Khatami was confirmed for a 2nd 4-year term.
    (SSFC, 8/5/01, p.A14)

2001        Aug 8, Pres. Khatami was sworn in as president. Political in-fighting with conservatives delayed the ceremony by 3 days.
    (SFC, 8/9/01, p.A9)

2001        Aug 12, Flash floods followed heavy rains and at least 181 people were killed. Kalaleh in Golestan province was the hardest hit.
    (SFC, 8/13/01, p.A12)(WSJ, 8/14/01, p.A1)

2001        Aug 30, Riots left 2 people dead in Sabzevar after the town failed to win provincial-capital status.
    (WSJ, 8/31/01, p.)
2001        Aug 26, Film director Tahmineh Milani was arrested on charges of supporting counterrevolutionary and armed opposition groups. A relative said it was due to her stand on the clerical oppression of women.
    (WSJ, 8/31/01, p.A1)(SFC, 9/1/01, p.A10)

2001        Sep 15, Iran ordered its security forces to seal off its 560-mile border with Afghanistan due to terrorist attacks in the US.
    (SSFC, 9/16/01, p.A7)

2001        Sep 21-Oct 2, In Tehran Iran’s Revolutionary Guards opened the First Universal Exhibition of Sacred Culture and Defense with a theme of Islamic revolution and holy war. It commemorated the 21st anniversary of the war with Iraq.
    (WSJ, 9/27/01, p.A1)

2001        Oct 2, In Russia Defense Minister Sergei Ivanov signed a weapons framework agreement with Iranian Defense Minister Ali Shamkhani for as much as $300 million.
    (SFC, 10/3/01, p.A11)

2001        Oct 12, Iran defeated Iraq 1-0 in a soccer match. Demonstrations erupted after the game against the Shiite theocracy and continued following successive soccer matches. At least 2 thousand young people were arrested over the next 2 weeks.
    (WSJ, 10/30/01, p.A22)

2001        Dec 16, Abdullah Ramezanzadeh, a Cabinet Secretary, was sentenced to 6 months in jail for “spreading lies" against the conservative Guardian council.
    (SFC, 12/18/01, p.A7)(WSJ, 12/17/01, p.A1)

2001        Dec 25, Hossein Loqmanian, was jailed for 10 months for “insulting the judiciary." He was freed Jan 15 following a walkout by the legislature.
    (SFC, 1/16/02, p.A7)

2001        Reza Pahlavi, son of the late Shah, launched a campaign for secular democracy via satellite from NITV in Los Angeles.
    (WSJ, 11/5/01, p.A10)

2002        Jan 8, Iran’s Revolutionary Court began the closed door trial of 15 men charged with plotting to overthrow the Islamic system
    (SFC, 1/9/02, p.A5)

2002        Jan 27, Iran’s Pres. Khatami met with Iraqi Foreign Minister Naji Sabri in Tehran as part of an effort to restore ties.
    (SFC, 2/1/02, p.A18)

2002        Jan 29, Pres. Bush made his 1st State of the Union address and declared that the “war against terror is only beginning." Bush singled out Iran, Iraq and North Korea as an “axis of evil."
    (SFC, 1/30/02, p.A1)(SFC, 1/31/02, p.A1)

2002        Feb 4, Israeli PM Peres said Iran had put elite forces into Lebanon and had supplied Hezbollah with 10,000 rockets with ranges of 13-44 miles.
    (SFC, 2/5/02, p.A10)

2002        Feb 12, An Iran Air Tours Tupelov Tu-154 crashed into the Sefid Kouh mountains near Khorramabad killing all 119 on board.
    (SFC, 2/13/02, p.A12)(AP, 2/11/03)

2002        Apr 5, Iran’s Ayatollah Khamenei urged Islamic oil-producing countries to suspend oil exports for a month to countries supporting Israel.
    (SFC, 4/6/02, p.A10)

2002        Apr, The UN voted to remove Iran from the list of countries assigned to a special investigator to watch on human rights abuses.
    (SFC, 7/27/02, p.A6)

2002        May 21, The US State Dept issued its annual report on terrorism: “Patterns of Global Terrorism 2001." Iran was branded as the most active supporter of terrorism due to increased support for Palestinian militants.
    (SFC, 5/22/02, p.A12)

2002        Jun 22, A powerful earthquake in northern Iran killed at least 500 people and injured 1,500, razing dozens of mountain villages whose mud-brick homes crumbled to dust.
    (Reuters, 6/22/02)(Reuters, 6/23/02)(AP, 6/22/03)

2002        Jun, Iran transferred 16 al Qaeda suspects to Saudi Arabia.
    (SSFC, 8/11/02, p.A13)

2002        Jul 19,  Tens of thousands of Iranians took to the streets of the capital condemning President Bush for criticizing their government with calls of "Death to America" and "Death to Bush."
    (AP, 7/19/02)

2002        Jul 27, In Iran a hard-line court outlawed the leading reform-minded opposition party, the Freedom Movement, and gave its leaders jail terms of up to 10 years and fines of more than $6,000. The court said Freedom Movement leaders acted against national security with the intention of "overthrowing the establishment."
    (AP, 7/27/02)

2002        Aug 1, In Iran the Education Ministry relaxed dress codes for girls in all-female schools for the 1st time in 23 years.
    (SFC, 8/3/02, p.A7)

2002        Aug 12, In northeastern Iran torrential rains began and at least 35 people were drowned in flash floods that washed away roads and swamped farm land.
    (AP, 8/13/02)

2002        Aug 25, Iran's parliament approved a bill giving women the right to sue for divorce, a similar right already guaranteed for men.
    (AP, 8/26/02)

2002        Sep 1, Some 600 Russian specialists began work on a key phase of an $800 million project to build a nuclear reactor at Bushehr, Iran.
    (SFC, 9/2/02, p.A9)

2002        Sep 6, Iran reported the successful test fire of a Fateh 110 A ballistic missile.
    (SFC, 9/7/02, p.A5)

2002        Nov 6, In Iran University professor Hashem Aghajari, was sentenced to death on charges of insulting Islam's prophet and questioning the hard-line clergy's interpretation of Islam. He was also was sentenced to 74 lashes, banned from teaching for 10 years and exiled to three remote Iranian cities for 8 years. The death sentence was overturned in 2003 and reimposed May 3, 2004. The 2nd death sentence was again overturned. Aghajari was released on bail July 31, 2004.
    (AP, 11/7/02)(WSJ, 5/5/04, p.A1)(AP, 7/3/04)(SSFC, 8/1/04, p.A16)

2002        Nov 12, Thousands of Iranian students ignored official warnings and demonstrated for the fourth day running against a dissident's death sentence and to demand freedom of speech and political reform.
    (Reuters, 11/12/02)

2002        Dec 23, In central Iran a Ukrainian An-140 aircraft, carrying Ukrainian and Russian aerospace scientists from Turkey, flew into a mountainside while preparing to land killing all 46 people on board. Airport officials said pilot "carelessness" caused the plane to crash.
    (AP, 12/24/02)

2002        Dec 30, A fire broke out in an Iranian prison, killing 27 prisoners and injuring 50 others.
    (AP, 12/30/02)

2002        Majid Majidi released his film “Baran" in the US. It portrayed Afghan refugees in Iran.
    (SFC, 7/9/02, p.D2)
2002        In Iran Shahla Jahed, who had become what is known as a "temporary wife" of former soccer star Nasser Mohammad Khani, was charged with stabbing his wife, Laleh Saharkhizan, to death and convicted of murder in 2004 and again in 2009, after her appeal was denied. She was hanged on Dec 1, 2010.
    (AP, 12/1/10)

2003        Jan 4, In southern Iran a bus carrying university students overturned on a rain-slick road, killing 15 people and injuring 18 others.
    (AP, 1/5/03)

2003        Jan 14, In northeastern Iran 2 buses collided in bad weather, killing 22 passengers and injuring 40. Transportation Ministry figures show that more than 19,000 people were killed in road accidents in 2001.
    (AP, 1/15/03)

2003        Feb 9, Iran reported the discovery of uranium reserves and planned production facilities for peaceful use of nuclear energy.
    (SFC, 2/10/03, p.A8)

2003          Feb 19, An Iranian military plane carrying 275 members of the elite Revolutionary Guards crashed in southeastern Iran, killing all on board.
    (WSJ, 2/20/03, p.A1)(AP, 2/19/08)

2003          Mar 4, Iran called for UN-supervised elections in neighboring Iraq and urged the divided Iraqi opposition to reconcile with Pres. Saddam Hussein as part of a plan aimed at averting a US-led war on Iraq.
    (AP, 3/4/03)

2003          Mar 8,  An Argentine judge asked Interpol to arrest four Iranian diplomats, accusing them of responsibility in a deadly terrorist attack that destroyed a Jewish community center in Buenos Aires in 1994.
    (AP, 3/9/03)

2003        Mar 31, In Tehran, Iran, a pickup truck with extra fuel crashed into the British Embassy in an apparent suicide attack. Police called it an accident.
    (SFC, 4/1/03, p.A3)

2003        Mar, In 2007 British media reported that Iran had offered to cut off aid and support for the Lebanese Shiite militia Hezbollah and the Palestinian group Hamas, and promised full transparency on its nuclear program in a secret letter to the US soon after the 2003 invasion of Iraq. Iran also offered to use its influence to support stabilization in Iraq, and in return asked for a halt in hostile American behaviour, an abolition of all sanctions, and the pursuit and repatriation of members of the Mujahedeen Khalq (People's Mujahedeen MKO). Lawrence Wilkerson, former chief of staff to Colin Powell, said: “As soon as it got to the Vice-President's (Dick Cheney) office, the old mantra of 'we don't talk to evil' ... reasserted itself."
    (AFP, 1/18/07)

2003        Apr 8, A US errant rocket struck in Iran near the Iraqi border and killed a 13-year-old boy.
    (SFC, 4/9/03, p.A21)

2003        Apr 11, Amnesty International said at least 1,526 people were executed worldwide last year, with 80 percent of all known executions carried out in China (1,060), Iran (113) and the United States (71).
    (Reuters, 4/11/03)

2003        May 24, In Iran some 130 reformist lawmakers called on Iranian leader Ayatollah Ali Khamenei to accept democratic reforms for the ruling establishment to survive.
    (AP, 5/24/03)

2003        Jun 10, In Iran riot police and hard-line vigilantes clashed with teenage demonstrators who denounced supreme leader Ayatollah Ali Khamenei.
    (AP, 6/11/03)

2003        Jun 13, In Iran anti-government demonstrations took place for the third night in Tehran.
    (AP, 6/13/03)

2003        Jun 14, Iran's hard-line judiciary arrested "scores" of pro-clergy militants, including a vigilante leader, over attacks on a Tehran student dormitory sparked by attacks on pro-reform supporters.
    (AP, 6/14/03)

2003        Jun 19, In France more Iranians set themselves on fire to protest a crackdown on an Iraq-based anti-Tehran group. Maryam Rajavi, the leader of the People's Mujahedeen Organization of Iran, was among 150 people detained in a sweep of their European headquarters in suburban Paris by hundreds of masked police this month. Most of those detained were let go. In 2011 French investigators dropped terror charges against 24 members of the group.
    (WSJ, 6/20/03, p.A1)(AP, 5/12/11)

2003        Jun 20, In Iran student protests against Ayatollah Ali Khamenei spread to at least 8 other cities.
    (SFC, 6/21/03, p.A8)

2003        Jun 23, In Iran Zahra Kazemi (54), a Montreal-based journalist, was detained after taking pictures of Tehran's notorious Evin prison. She died Jul 11 of brain hemorrhage from inflicted blows. Iran later admitted that she was murdered while under police custody. Her family sought $14 million in damages, but a 1985 Canadian law held that foreign states are immune from the jurisdiction of Canadian courts.
    (AP, 7/13/03)(SFC, 7/17/03, p.A7)(WSJ, 7/31/03, p.A1)(SSFC, 12/6/09, p.A26)

2003        Jul 8, Ladan and Laleh Bijani (29), Iranian twin sisters, joined at the head, died within 90 minutes of each other as neurosurgeons in Singapore worked into a 3rd day to separate them.
    (AP, 7/7/03)(AP, 7/8/03)

2003        Jul 11, In Iran Zahra Kazemi (54), a Montreal-based journalist, died of brain hemorrhage from inflicted blows. [see Jun 23] Iran later admitted that she was murdered while under police custody. In 2004 a closed trial was held for a secret agent charged with the murder. Mohammad Reza Aghdam Ahmadi pleaded innocent on July 17 and the trial was abruptly ended the next day. The Tehran court acquitted Ahmadi.
    (AP, 7/13/03)(SFC, 7/17/03, p.A7)(WSJ, 7/31/03, p.A1)(SFC, 7/19/04, p.A8)(AP, 7/25/04)

2003        Jul 23, Iran acknowledged that it was holding senior al Qaeda figures, but would not identify them.
    (WSJ, 7/24/03, p.A1)

2003        cAug 17, Iranians in Semirom clashed with police over consolidation of the central city with less-affluent Shahreza. 8 people were left dead.
    (WSJ, 8/18/03, p.A1)

2003        Sep 17, Iran's leading dissident cleric,  Grand Ayatollah Hossein Ali Montazeri, criticized the country's hard-line Islamic leaders, saying they should submit to elections and allow the country's young people to choose their future.
    (AP, 9/17/03)

2003        Sep 27, In western Iran a bus plunged from a mountain road into a river, killing 21 passengers and injuring 11.
    (AP, 9/28/03)

2003        Oct 10,  Human rights activist Shirin Ebadi (56) won the 2003 Nobel Peace Prize. It was the first peace prize for an Iranian, and first for a Muslim woman.
    (AP, 10/10/03)

2003        Oct 18, In Iran 6 Islamic vigilantes were sentenced to death for killing five people for allegedly having illicit sexual relationships. Judge Abdolreza Parvizi said he ordered the men to be hanged in public for the 2002 deaths of three men and two women in the city of Kerman.
    (AP, 10/18/03)

2003        Oct 21, Iran agreed to snap UN inspections of its nuclear sites and to freeze uranium enrichment.
    (AP, 10/21/03)(SFC, 10/22/03, p.A3)

2003        Nov 9, In central Iran a crowded bus collided with a truck and a second truck then smashed into the wreckage of the two vehicles, killing 36 people and wounding 7 others.
    (AP, 11/9/03)

2003        Nov 10, A top Iranian official said that his country had suspended its enrichment of uranium and sent a letter to the IAEA accepting additional inspections of its nuclear facilities.
    (AP, 11/10/03)

2003        Nov 26, The UN nuclear watchdog agency, IAEA, condemned Iran over an 18-year cover-up of its nuclear energy program and said future violations of non-proliferation obligations would not be tolerated.
    (AP, 11/26/03)
2003        Nov 26, Ayatollah Sadeq Khalkhali (77), a judge known for sentencing hundreds of people to death following Iran's revolution, died.
    (AP, 11/27/03)(Econ, 12/13/03, p.86)

2003        Dec 5, Hard-line vigilantes attacked a close aide to Iran's president as he was about to give a speech, repeatedly punching and kicking him, his wife.
    (AP, 12/5/03)

2003        Dec 8, Three tourists were kidnapped in southeastern Iran while cycling from the historical city of Bam to Zahedan. Drug smugglers demanded $6 million in ransom.
    (AP, 12/9/03)

2003        Dec 10, The presidents of Egypt and Iran met for the 1st time since 1979. Iran's rulers authorized the signing of a UN nuclear deal.
    (WSJ, 12/11/03, p.A1)
2003        Dec 10, The Nobel Prize awards ceremony were held in Sweden and Norway. Iranian democracy activist Shirin Ebadi, the first Muslim woman to win the Nobel Peace Prize, accepted the award in Oslo, Norway.
    (AP, 12/10/03)(AP, 12/10/08)

2003        Dec 18, Iran signed a key accord opening its nuclear facilities to unfettered and unannounced inspections.
    (AP, 12/18/03)

2003        Dec 26, A 6.6 earthquake devastated the southeastern Iranian city of Bam, 630 miles southeast of the capital Tehran. It leveled more than half the city's houses and its historic mud-brick fortress. Some 31,000 people were killed and over 10,000 injured. Iran appealed for international help and promised to waive visas for foreign relief workers.
    (AP, 12/27/03)(SFC, 12/30/03, p.A3)(AP, 1/2/04)(AP, 12/26/04)(AFP, 8/12/12)

2003        Dec 27, Governments around the world rushed medical experts, rescue teams, water-purification systems and tea to the earthquake-ravaged Iranian city of Bam.
    (AP, 12/27/03)

2003        Geneive Abdo and Jonathan Lyons authored “Answering Only to God: Faith and Freedom in Twenty-First Century Iran."
    (SSFC, 3/16/03, p.M4)

2004        Jan 1, Iranian officials welcomed America's temporary lifting of sanctions against the Persian state following the country's earthquake, and the foreign minister said the embargo should end permanently.
    (AP, 1/1/04)

2004        Jan 3, In Iran rescuers pulled Sharbanou Mazandarani (97) from the rubble at Ban, 9 days following the earthquake, as the death toll rose to about 35,000.
    (SSFC, 1/4/04, p.A2)

2004        Jan 6, Egypt and Iran agreed to restore diplomatic ties sundered in 1979.
    (WSJ, 1/7/04, p.A1)

2004        Jan 7, In Iran a 57-year-old man was pulled from the rubble of Ban's earthquake, barely conscious but still alive because he had a source of water during the 13 days he was buried. He died 4 days later.
    (AP, 1/8/04)(AP, 1/11/04)

2004        Jan 11, In Iran the 12-member Guardian Council, which comprises conservatives picked by Iran's supreme leader Ayatollah Ali Khamenei, disqualified about 900 of the 1,700 people who wanted to contest seats in Tehran have been disqualified. About 90 lawmakers began gathering in the lobby of the legislature for five hours daily in a sit-in demonstration after the Guardian Council barred the candidates from the Feb. 20 elections.
    (AP, 1/12/04)(AP, 1/14/04)

2004        Jan 20, In Iran Hard-line authorities said they were reinstating 200 candidates barred from running in next month's legislative elections and will reconsider the cases of thousands more after fierce opposition from reformists who threatened to boycott the vote.
    (AP, 1/20/04)

2004        Jan 21, Most of Iran's ministers and vice presidents submitted resignations to protest the barring of thousands of would-be candidates from upcoming elections. The Guardian Council had just reinstated 200 of the disqualified candidates and said it would reconsider the rest.
    (AP, 1/22/04)

2004        Jan 27, In Malaysia an Iranian asylum seeker set himself on fire in an apparent suicide attempt outside the Kuala Lumpus headquarters of the UN refugee agency.
    (AP, 1/27/04)

2004        Jan 30, Iran's hard-line Guardian Council reinstated a third of the candidates it had disqualified from next month's legislative elections.
    (AP, 1/30/04)

2004        Feb 1, More than a third of the Iranian parliament resigned and the speaker delivered a stinging rebuke to the hard-line Guardian Council for its disqualification of hundreds of liberal candidates in upcoming elections.
    (AP, 2/1/04)

2004        Feb 18, In Neyshabur, northeastern Iran, a 51-car train, carrying fuel, fertilizer and industrial chemicals, derailed and exploded. It rolled out of a switchyard and eventually reach a speed of more than 90 mph before it derailed, caught fire and exploded. The explosions destroyed five villages killing at least 200 people and injuring hundreds more.
    (AP, 2/19/04)(AP, 4/23/04)

2004        Feb 19, A Japanese consortium announced it will develop an Iranian oil field with reserves of up to 26 billion barrels. The deal was opposed by the United States because of fears the money could go to nuclear proliferation.
    (AP, 2/19/04)

2004        Feb 20, In Iran Islamic hard-liners and reformers dueled during parliamentary elections.
    (AP, 2/20/04)

2004        Feb 21, Iran's hard-line Islamic rulers claimed that voters dealt reformers a decisive blow with a strong turnout in disputed parliament elections, but partial returns suggested the pro-reform boycott had an impact.
    (AP, 2/21/04)

2004        Feb 22, In Iran hard-line Islamic candidates appeared likely to take control in the liberal stronghold of Tehran and held a wide lead nationwide after parliamentary elections from which hundreds of liberal candidates were barred.
    (AP, 2/22/04)

2004        Feb 23, In Iran conservatives formally reclaimed control of parliament after disputed elections that were boycotted by reformists who called the vote a "historical fiasco" without free choice.
    (AP, 2/23/04)

2004        Mar 13 Iran froze inspections of its nuclear facilities after the U.N. atomic agency censured Tehran for hiding suspect activities. Tehran relented two days later.
    (AP, 3/12/05)

2004        Mar 15, Iran relented and decided to allow a visit at the end of this month, after temporarily freezing out international nuclear inspectors.
    (AP, 3/15/04)

2004        Apr 5, In northeastern Iran an oil tanker truck and a passenger bus collided, killing 30 people and injuring 27.
    (AP, 4/5/04)

2004        Apr 15, Gunmen killed a high-ranking Iranian diplomat in Baghdad.
    (AP, 4/15/04)

2004        Apr 21, The Iranian film “Marmulak" (Lizard) premiered. It was a comedy about a fugitive criminal disguised as a mullah.
    (Econ, 5/8/04, p.45)

2004        Apr 28, Iran's Ayatollah Mahmoud Hashemi Shahroudi ordered a ban on the use of torture for obtaining confessions.
    (SFC, 4/29/04, p.A3)

2004        May 28, An earthquake damaged homes in northern Iran. The toll from a 6.2 earthquake reached 36 dead with 250 people injured.
    (AP, 5/28/04)(AP, 5/30/04)

2004        May 29, In Iran the  Gov. Masoud Emami of Qazvin province was killed along with 7 others when their helicopter crashed while surveying earthquake damage.
    (SSFC, 5/30/04, p.A14)

2004        May, The Iranian Revolutionary Guard Corps (IRGC) closed down the new Tehran airport to protest a government decision to ask a consortium of foreigners (Turks) to run it.
    (Econ, 6/19/04, p.46)

2004        Jun 5, Iranian officials said police had killed at least 58 drug smugglers and confiscated more than 50 tons of narcotics in the past two months.
    (AP, 6/5/04)

2004        Jun 12, Iran said it would reject international restrictions on its nuclear program and challenged the world to accept Tehran as a member of the "nuclear club."
    (AP, 6/13/04)

2004        Jun 18, The U.N. atomic watchdog agency censured Iran for past cover-ups in its nuclear program in a resolution, warning Tehran to be more forthcoming.
    (AP, 6/18/04)

2004        Jun 21, Iran’s Revolutionary Guards, known as Pasdaran, confiscated three British military vessels and arrested eight armed crew members in the Shatt al-Arab waterway. The men were released 2 days later.
    (AP, 6/21/04)(SFC, 6/24/04, p.A12)(Econ, 4/7/07, p.24)

2004        Jun 24, In southern Iran a tanker truck carrying gasoline crashed into packed buses and erupted in flames, killing 71 people. 108 people were injured, many suffering severe burns.
    (AP, 6/25/04)

2004        Jun 28, Iran’s Deputy Interior Minister Ali Asghar Ahmadi said two Iranian soldiers and eight rebels were killed in clashes with Kurds. A pro-Kurdish news agency said 16 soldiers and four rebels died.
    (AP, 7/10/04)

2004        Jul 8, Iranian troops killed two Turkish Kurdish rebels in clashes close to the Iraqi border, amid reports of a major offensive by Tehran on Ankara's behalf.
    (AP, 7/10/04)

2004        Jul 13, A confidant of Osama bin Laden (Khaled bin Ouda bin Mohammed al-Harby) surrendered to Saudi diplomats in Iran and was flown to Saudi Arabia.
    (AP, 7/13/05)

2004        Jul 14, Canada pulled its ambassador from Iran, which refused to admit observers to the trial of a policeman over a Canadian journalist’s fatal beating.
    (WSJ, 7/15/04, p.A1)

2004        Jul 20, In Iran a prominent history professor twice condemned to death on blasphemy charges was informed of a three year jail sentence for insulting Islamic sacred beliefs.
    (AP, 7/20/04)

2004        Jul 24, A Tehran court acquitted the sole defendant in the July 10, 2003, murder of an Iranian-Canadian photojournalist. Mohammad Reza Aghdam Ahmadi had pleaded innocent on July 17 and the trial was abruptly ended the next day.
    (AP, 7/25/04)

2004        Jul 28, Iran's judiciary claimed that an Iranian-Canadian photojournalist died (Jul 10, 2003) in custody from a fall after her blood pressure dropped during a hunger strike.
    (AP, 7/28/04)

2004        Aug 17, Iran said it would destroy Israel's Dimona nuclear reactor if the Jewish state were to attack Iran's nuclear facilities.
    (AP, 8/17/04)

2004        Aug, In Khoramabad, Iran, 2 men were hanged for adultery. In 2005 the National Council of Resistance of Iran showed video footage of the event in England. It was shot by an opponent of the government.
    (AP, 6/2/05)

2004        Sep 1, The U.N. atomic watchdog agency said Iran has announced plans to turn tons of uranium into a substance that can be used to make nuclear weapons.
    (AP, 9/1/04)

2004        Sep 18, The UN atomic watchdog agency demanded Iran suspend all uranium enrichment activities and set a November timetable for compliance.
    (AP, 9/18/04)

2004        Sep 21, Iran revealed that it started converting tons of raw uranium as part of a process that could be used to make nuclear arms.
    (AP, 9/21/04)

2004        Oct 4, Iranian President Mohammad Khatami arrived in Khartoum to start a three-day visit to Sudan.
    (AP, 10/4/04)

2004        Oct 5, Iran said its missiles now have a range of more than 1,200 miles, a substantial extension of their previously declared range.
    (AP, 10/5/04)

2004        Oct 12, Iranian vice president Mohammad Ali Abtahi, who was a close ally of reformist President Mohammad Khatami, resigned, saying he could not work with the conservative-dominated parliament.
    (AP, 10/12/04)

2004        Oct 28, China and Iran signed a memorandum of understanding for an oil and gas agreement worth tens of billions of dollars.
    (WSJ, 11/1/04, p.A1)

2004        Oct 31, Iran's parliament unanimously approved the outline of a bill that would require the government to resume uranium enrichment.
    (AP, 10/31/04)

2004        Oct, In Iran Muhammad Bijeh was sentenced to death for the rape and murder of some 20 boys, mostly rural migrants and Afghan refugees.
    (Econ, 10/23/04, p.48)

2004        Nov 1, UN nuclear agency chief Mohamed ElBaradei urged Iran to suspend uranium enrichment and called on North Korea to dismantle its weapons program.
    (AP, 11/1/05)

2004        Nov 2, State-run Indian Oil Corp (IOC), the country's largest refiner, said it had signed an agreement with Iran's Petropars to bid for a $3 billion project to develop a gas field and set up a liquefaction plant in Iran.
    (AP, 11/2/04)

2004        Nov 7, Iran and European nations reached a preliminary agreement about Iran's nuclear program at talks hoped to avoid a U.N. showdown. The UK, France and Germany persuaded Iran to suspend its uranium enrichment program.
    (AP, 11/7/04)(WSJ, 2/8/05, p.A1)

2004        Nov 15, The UN atomic watchdog agency gave its support to Iran's agreement to suspend all uranium enrichment activities.
    (AP, 11/15/04)

2004        Dec 19, The Iranian Red Crescent Society said heavy rains have caused flash floods that killed at least 34 people and injured 43 others in southern Iran.
    (AP, 12/19/04)

2004        In Iraq 850 US troops were killed during this year.
    (SFC, 12/31/07, p.A6)
2004        The Iranian government seized some $200 million in assets from the Khoi Foundation, named after the late Grand Ayatollah Abol-Qassem Mussavi Khoi. This accelerated a growing trend for Shiite religious funds to move their assets out to Iraq.
    (WSJ, 9/14/05, p.A20)

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