Timeline Holy Roman Empire

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313        Constantine met with the eastern emperor at Milan, capital of the late Roman Empire. They agreed on a policy of religious tolerance. The Edict of Milan legalized Christianity, but also allowed Romans religious choice.
    (CU, 6/87)(ITV, 1/96, p.58)(SFEC, 7/13/97, p.T13)(SSFC, 3/21/04, p.M6)

379-395    Theodosius I (c.346-395) served as emperor East Roman Republic.
    (WUD, 1994 p.1471)

380        Theodosius I ordered that all people under his rule embrace Christianity.
    (SSFC, 3/21/04, p.M6)

402-476     Ravenna in northern Italy served as the capital city of the Western Roman Empire. In 2020 Judith Herrin authored "Ravenna: Capital of Empire, Crucible of Europe".
    (https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ravenna)(Econ., 9/26/20, p.77)

410        Aug 24, Rome was overrun by the Visigoths, an event that symbolized the fall of the Western Roman Empire. German barbarians sacked Rome [see Aug 18].
    (V.D.-H.K.p.87)(AP, 8/24/97)(HN, 8/24/98)

421        Feb 8, Flavius Constantine became emperor Constantine III of Roman Empire West.
    (MC, 2/8/02)

742        Apr 2, Charlemagne (d.814), Charles I the Great, King of the Franks and first Holy Roman emperor (800-14), was born. His capital was at Aachen (Acquisgrana in Latin).
    (V.D.-H.K.p.105)(SFEM, 10/12/97, p.46)(HN, 4/2/98)

472        Aug 18, Flavius Ricimer, general of the Western Roman Empire, kingmaker, was born.
    (MC, 8/18/02)

794        Charlemagne created a single currency for his empire.
    (Econ, 6/18/11, p.30)

800        Dec 25, Pope Leo III crowned Frankish warrior-king Charlemagne as heir of the Roman emperors at the basilica of St. Peter's at Rome.
    (V.D.-H.K.p.105)(Econ, 9/4/10, p.56)

814        Jan 28, Charlemagne (71), German emperor, Holy Roman Emperor (800-814), died. In 1968 Jacques Boussard authored “The Civilisation of Charlemagne." In 2004 Alessandro Barbero authored “Charlemagne: Father of a Continent."
    (www.tiscali.co.uk)(Econ, 1/3/04, p.39)(Econ, 9/18/04, p.87)

870        Aug 8, The Treaty of Mersen (Meerssen) partitioned the realm of Lothair II by his uncles Louis the German of East Francia and Charles the Bald of West Francia, the two surviving sons of Emperor Louis I the Pious.

875        Aug 12, Louis II (~50), king of Italy, emperor of France, died.
    (MC, 8/12/02)

875-877    Charles II the Kale, King of France, served as Holy Roman emperor.
    (MC, 10/6/01)

876        Oct 8, Charles the Bald was defeated at the Battle of Andernach.
    (HN, 10/8/98)

877        Oct 6, Charles II the Kale, King of France and Roman emperor (875-77), died at 54.
    (MC, 10/6/01)

912        Nov 23, Otto I, the Great (d.973), German king and Holy Roman emperor (962-73), was born. Otto the Great became King of Germany in 936.
    (AHD, 1971, p.931)(MC, 11/23/01)

929        Eadgyth (910-946), the sister of King Athelstan and the granddaughter of Alfred the Great, was given in marriage to Otto I, the king of Saxony and the Holy Roman Emperor. She had at least two children before her death in 946 at age 36. In 2010 her remains were found in Magdeburg Cathedral in northern Germany.
    (AFP, 1/20/10)(AFP, 6/17/10)

936-973    Otto the Great became King of Germany and later the first Holy Roman Emp.
    (AHD, 1971, p.931)

946        Eadgyth, the sister of King Athelstan and the granddaughter of Alfred the Great, died. She had been given in marriage to Otto I, the Holy Roman Emperor, in 929. She was initially buried at the Monastery of Mauritius in Magdeburg. In 1510 her remains were transferred to Magdeburg Cathedral in northern Germany, where her bones were found in 2008.
    (AFP, 1/20/10)

953        Apr 21, Otto I, the Great, granted Utrecht fishing rights.
    (MC, 4/21/02)

962        Feb 2, Otto I (912-973), founder of the Holy Roman Empire, was crowned Holy Roman Emperor by Pope John XII.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Otto_I,_Holy_Roman_Emperor)(AHD, 1971, p.931)

964        Jun, Holy Roman Emperor Otto I forced Pope Benedict V (d.965), who had recently succeeded John XII as Catholic Pope, to resign in favor of Leo VIII.
    (PTA, 1980, p.236)(Econ, 2/16/13, p.61)

973        May 6, Henry II, German King (1002) and Holy Roman Emperor (1014-1024), was born.
    (HN, 5/6/98)(MC, 5/6/02)

983        Dec 7, Otto III [aged 3] took the throne after his father's death in Italy.
    (HN, 12/7/98)

983        The Lutici, a federation of tribes in  northeastern Germany, were first recorded by written sources in the context of the uprising of this year, by which they annihilated the rule of the Holy Roman Empire in the Billung and Northern Marches. Hostilities continued until 997.

996        May 21, Otto III (16) was crowned the Roman Emperor by his cousin Pope Gregory V.
    (HN, 5/21/98)(MC, 5/21/02)

1014        Feb 14, Pope Benedict VIII crowned Henry II, German King (1002), as Roman German emperor (1014-1024).
    (HN, 5/6/98)(MC, 5/6/02)(MC, 2/14/02)

1025        Dec 15, Basil II was succeeded as emperor [by] Constantine VIII, his brother and co-ruler.
    (HN, 12/15/98)

1027        Mar 26, John XIX crowned Conrad II the Salier Roman German emperor.
    (SS, 3/26/02)

1036-1056    Henry III ruled the Holy Roman Empire, which extended from Hamburg and Bremen in the north to the instep of Italy to the south, Burgundy in the west, and Hungary and Poland to the east.

1037        May 28, Holy Roman Emperor Conrad II issued The Constitutio de feudis ("Constitution on Fiefs"), a law regulating feudal contracts. It included a phrase similar to “law of the land." The law was based, in its own words, on the "legal code of our predecessors" (constitucio antecessorum nostrorum).
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Constitutio_de_feudis)(Econ, 12/20/14, p.34)

1050        Nov 11, Henry IV, Holy Roman Emperor, was born.
    (HN, 11/11/98)

1076        Feb 14, Pope Gregory VII excommunicated Henry IV.
    (MC, 2/14/02)

1077        Jan 28, Pope Gregory VII pardoned German emperor Henry IV at Canossa in northern Italy. Henry had insisted that he reserved the right to "invest" bishops and other clergymen, despite the papal decree, but became penitent when faced with permanent excommunication.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Walk_to_Canossa)(Econ, 5/9/09, p.88)

1081        Jan 8, Henry V, Roman German king, emperor (1098/1111-25), was born.
    (MC, 1/8/02)

1084        Mar 31, Anti-pope Clemens crowned German emperor Hendrik IV.
    (MC, 3/31/02)

1106        Aug 7, Henry IV (54),  Holy Roman Emperor (1056/84-1105), died.
    (MC, 8/7/02)

1118        Apr 7, Pope Gelasius II excommunicated Henry V, Holy Roman Emperor.
    (MC, 4/7/02)

1153        Mar 23, The first Treaty of Constance was signed between Frederick I "Barbarossa" and Pope Eugene III. By the terms of the treaty, the Emperor was to prevent any action by Manuel I Komnenos to reestablish the Byzantine Empire on Italian soil and to assist the pope against his enemies in revolt in Rome.

1155        Jun 18, German-born Frederick I, Barbarossa, was crowned emperor of Rome by Pope Adrian IV.
    (HN, 6/18/98)(MC, 6/18/02)

1160        Feb 3, Emperor Frederick Barbarossa hurtled prisoners, including children, at the Italian city of Crema, forcing its surrender.
    (HN, 2/3/99)

1178        Jul 30, Frederick I (Barbarossa), Holy Roman Emperor, was crowned King of Burgundy.
    (MC, 7/30/02)

1189        Jan 21, Philip Augustus, Henry II of England and Frederick Barbarossa assembled the troops for the Third Crusade.
    (V.D.-H.K.p.109)(HN, 1/21/99)

1189        May 11, Emperor Frederik I Barbarossa and 100,000 crusaders departed Regensburg.
    (MC, 5/11/02)

1190        Jun 10, Frederick I van Hohenstaufen, Barbarossa (1123-1190), king of Germany and Italy and the Holy Roman Empire, drowned crossing the Saleph River while leading an army of the Third Crusade. Frederick struggled to extend German influence throughout Europe, maneuvering both politically and militarily. He clashed with the pope, the powerful Lombards and fellow Germans among others throughout the years. He joined the Third Crusade in the Spring of 1189 in their efforts to free Jerusalem from Saladin's army
    (WUD, 1994, p.565)(HN, 6/10/98)(HNQ, 2/3/01)

1194        Dec 26, Frederick II, German Emperor (1212-1220) and King of Sicily (1198-1250), was born in Lesi, Italy. He became the Holy Roman emperor and King of Italy in 1220 and continued to 1250.

1197        Sep 29, Emperor Henry VI died in Messina, Sicily.
    (HN, 9/29/98)

1218        May 19, Otto IV (36), Holy Roman Emperor, died.
    (PC, 1992, p.106)

1220        Nov 22, After promising to go to the aid of the Fifth Crusade within nine months, Hohenstaufen King Frederick II was crowned Holy Roman Emperor and King of Italy by Pope Honorius III.

1221        Emperor Frederick II issued a law that declared that violence could be committed against jesters without punishment.
    (SFC,12/897, p.A17)

1227        Roman Emperor Frederick II was first excommunicated by the Catholic Pope because his growing empire threatened the independence of the papal states. [see 1239]
    (AP, 5/5/06)

1229        Mar 18, German emperor Frederick II crowned himself king of Jerusalem.
    (MC, 3/18/02)

1239        Roman Emperor Frederick II was excommunicated a 2nd time because his growing empire threatened the independence of the papal states.
    (AP, 5/5/06)

1273-1291    Rudolf I, King of Germany and emperor of the Holy Roman Empire. He founded the Hapsburg dynasty.
    (WUD, 1994, p.1251)

c1300-1400    In the early 14th century the Gottscheers settled in the Carniola region of what later became Slovenia. The Germanic people were sent there to till the land and pay taxes to the Carinthian counts of Ortenburg and to serve as a forward guard for the Holy Roman Empire.
    (SFC, 6/16/99, p.A12)

1346        Jun 11, Charles IV of Luxembourg was elected Holy Roman Emperor in Germany.
    (HN, 6/11/98)

1348        Apr 7, Prague Univ., the 1st in central Europe, was started by Charles IV.
    (MC, 4/7/02)

1361        Feb 26, Wenceslas IV of Bohemia, Holy Roman Catholic German emperor (1378-1400), was born.
    (WUD, 1994 p.1622)(SC, 2/26/02)

1378        Dec 18, Charles V denounced the treachery of John IV of Brittany and confiscated his duchy.
    (HN, 12/18/98)

1411-1437    Sigismund became the Holy Roman Emperor. [see 1433]
    (WUD, 1994, p.1325)

1419        Aug 16, Wenceslas (b.1361), son of Charles IV and King of Germany, died. He served as King Wenceslas IV of Bohemia (1363) and King of the Romans (1376).
    (MC, 8/16/02)(Internet)

1420        Jul 14, Jan Zizka (1360?-1424) led the Taborites in Battle at Vitkov Zizka's hill (Prague). The Taborites beat forces under Sigismund, the pro-Catholic King of Hungary and Bohemia. This was part of the Hussite Wars (1419-1436).

1433        May 31, Sigismund was crowned emperor of Rome.
    (HN, 5/31/98)

1459-1525    Jakob Fugger II, German banker. He minted his own money and maintained banks in every European capital. He held a contract for managing the Pope's money and collecting cash for the remission of sins. He bankrolled the election of Charles V.
    (WSJ, 1/11/99, p.R8)

1477        Future Holy Roman Emperor Maximilian I, a member of the Habsburg family of Austria, married Mary of Burgundy, heiress of all the Netherlands. Maximilian had given Mary a diamond engagement ring, a practice that soon spread. In 1996 Andrew Wheatcroft wrote a history of the Habsburgs: "The Habsburgs."
    (WSJ, 1/19/96, p.A-12)(SFEM, 6/28/98, p.6)(SFC, 5/28/08, p.G2)

1489        Feb 14, Henry VII and Holy Roman Emperor Maximilian I ally to assist the Bretons in the Treaty of Dordrecht.

1493        Aug 19, Maximilian succeeded his father Frederick III as Holy Roman Emperor. Frederick III of Innsbruck (77), German Emperor (1440-1493), died.
    (HN, 8/19/98)(MC, 8/19/02)

1493-1519    Maximilian I (1459-1519), Holy Roman Emperor over this period.
    (WUD, 1994, p.886)

1494        Nov 17, Charles VIII (1470-1498) of France entered Florence, Italy, to press his claim to the Kingdom of Naples. The First Italian War pitted Charles VIII of France, who had initial Milanese aid, against the Holy Roman Empire, Spain, and an alliance of Italian powers led by Pope Alexander VI.
    (http://tinyurl.com/6px6fbp)(Econ, 3/28/20, p.73)

1496        Oct 20, Spain’s Juana of Castile (1479-1555) married Philip the Handsome, the Duke of Burgundy, in Lier (later a part of Belgium). Philip's parents were Maximilian I, Holy Roman Emperor and his first wife, Duchess Mary of Burgundy. Juana had sailed from Spain with 15,000 men to the Habsburg Netherlands. Between 1498 and 1507, she gave birth to six children: two emperors and four queens.
    (Econ, 4/13/13, p.55)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Joanna_of_Castile)

1498        Jun 21, Jews were expelled from Nuremberg, Bavaria, by Emperor Maximillian.
    (MC, 6/21/02)

1498        The Vienna Boys School and Choir was founded by Emp. Maximilian I.
    (SFC, 12/3/97, p.C5)

1507        The Diet of Constance recognized the unity of the Holy Roman Empire and founded the Imperial Chamber, the empire’s supreme judicial court.
    (TL-MB, p.9)   

1508        Feb 6, King Maximilian I (1459-1519) assumed the title of Emperor (1493-1519) without being crowned.
    (TL-MB, p.9)(WUD, 1994, p.886)(MC, 2/6/02)

1503        Mar 10, Ferdinand I, Holy Roman Emperor (1558-1564), was born. He was King of Bohemia and Hungary from 1526-1564.
    (HN, 3/10/01)(WUD, 1994 p.523)

1504        Apr 23, King Maximilian I routed troops to Bavaria.
    (MC, 4/23/02)

1513        Aug 16, Henry VIII of England and Emperor Maximilian defeated the French at Guinegatte, France, in the Battle of the Spurs.
    (HN, 8/16/98)

1515        Jul 22, Emperor Maximillian and Vladislav of Bohemia forged an alliance between the Habsburg [Austria] and Jagiello [Polish-Lithuanian] dynasties in Vienna.
    (HN, 7/22/98)

1516        Archduke Charles, later Emp. Charles V, succeeded his grandfather, King Ferdinand II of Spain, and founded the Hapsburg dynasty.   
    (TL-MB, p.11)

1518        Cardinal Wolsey arranged the Peace of London between England, France, the Pope, Maximilian I and Spain.
    (TL-MB, p.11)

1519        Jan 12, Maximilian I of Hapsburg (59), Holy Roman Emperor and German Kaiser, died.
    (TL-MB, 1988, p.11)(AP, 1/12/98)(PC, 1992, p.170)

1519        Jul 6, Charles of Spain was elected Holy Roman emperor in Barcelona. The Catholic heir to the Hapsburg dynasty, Charles V, was elected Holy Roman Emperor, combining the crowns of Spain, Burgundy (with the Netherlands), Austria and Germany. He was the grandson of Ferdnand and Isabella of Spain.
    (V.D.-H.K.p.162)(NH, 9/96, p.18)(HN, 7/6/98)

1520        Oct 23, 1520: King Carlos I (1500-1558) was crowned as German emperor Charles V (1520-1558), a Holy Roman Emperor.

1520        A 9-piece tapestry set was created for the Holy Roman Empire coronation of Belgium-born Charles V, King of Spain, titled “Los Honores." The set was restored by Belgium in 2000 for the 500th anniversary of Charles’ birth.
    (WSJ, 4/11/02, p.AD7)

1521        Apr 17, Under the protection of Frederick the Wise, elector of Saxony, Martin Luther first appeared before Holy Roman Emperor Charles V and the Imperial Diet to face charges stemming from his religious writings. The Roman Catholic Church had already excommunicated him on Jan 3, 1521. He was later declared an outlaw by Charles V.
    (NH, 9/96, p.18)(HN, 4/17/98)(AP, 4/17/07)

1521        May 8, Emperor Charles V and the Diet issued the Edict of Worms. It banned Luther’s work and enjoined his detention, but was not able to be enforced.
    (NH, 9/96, p.20)

1521        Oct 25, Emperor Charles V banned wooden buildings in Amsterdam.
    (MC, 10/25/01)

1521        An eight year war between France and the Holy Roman Emp., Charles V, began after the French supported rebels in Spain.
    (TL-MB, p.12)

1522        Apr 29, Emperor Charles V named Frans van Holly inquisitor-gen of Netherlands.
    (MC, 4/29/02)

1522        England declared war on France and Scotland. Holy Roman Emp. Charles V visited Henry VIII and signed the Treaty of Windsor. Both monarchs agreed to invade France.
    (TL-MB, p.12)   
1522        Suleiman I captured Rhodes from the Knights of St. John, who were resettled on Malta by Charles V.
    (TL-MB, p.12)

1523        Sep 19, Emperor Charles V and England signed an anti-French covenant.
    (MC, 9/19/01)

1523        The Ottoman Emperor Suleiman the Magnificent successfully overcame the Knights Hospitaller, Order of St. John, from their position on the island of Rhodes in the Aegean Sea. The Holy Roman Emperor, Charles V, offered the Knights the Isle of Malta. In exchange for a perpetual lease the Knights undertook to send the emperor a falcon (made famous in the mystery novel, The Maltese Falcon, and the movie of the same name) once every year as a token of their fealty. They remained there until the time of Napoleon, and became known as the Knights of Malta.
    (WSJ, 12/30/94, A-6, Review of The Knights of Malta by H.J.A. Sire)

1524        Aug 19, Emperor Charles V's troops besieged Marseille.
    (MC, 8/19/02)

1525        Feb 24, In the first of the Franco-Habsburg Wars, the Holy Roman Emperor Charles V captured the French king Francis I at the battle of Pavia, in Italy. This was the decisive engagement of the Italian War of 1521-26.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Battle_of_Pavia)(Econ, 12/12/09, p.93)

1526        Jan 14, Francis of France, held captive by Charles V for a year, signed the Treaty of Madrid, giving up most of his claims in France and Italy.
    (HN, 1/14/99)

1528        Jan 22, England & France declared war on Emperor Charles V of Spain. The French army was later expelled from Naples and Genoa.
    (TL-MB, 1988, p.13)(MC, 1/22/02)

1530        Feb 23, Spain's Carlos I was crowned Holy Roman Emperor Charles V by Pope Clement VII in the last coronation of a German king by a Pope. Charles restored the Medici to power after capturing Florence and ceded Malta to the landless religious order of the Knights of St. John of Jerusalem.
    (TL-MB, p.14)(MC, 2/24/02)(PC, 1992, p.176)

1535        Holy Roman Emperor Charles V led a naval expedition to Tunis against Barbarossa. The foray proved successful, but Barbarossa escaped and continued to fight.
    (WSJ, 7/21/08, p.A11)

1536        Oct 6, William Tyndale (b.1494), the English translator of the New and Old Testament, was burned at the stake at Vilvoorde Castle (Belgium) as a heretic by the Holy Roman Empire.

1538        Jun 18, Treaty of Nice ended the war between Emperor Charles V and King Francois I. It only lasted 10 months.
    (TL-MB, 1988, p.15)(PCh, 1992, p.180)(MC, 6/18/02)

1539        Apr 19, Emperor Charles V reached a truce with German Protestants.
    (HN, 4/19/97)

1540        Feb 14, Emperor Charles V entered Ghent without resistance and executed the rebels. He brutally beat down an uprising against taxes for an expansionist war. Nine leaders were beheaded and another hanged. City burgers were forced to walk the streets barefoot with rope hanging round their necks. The "Gentse Feesten" annual festival re-enacts this event every mid-July.
    (SFEC, 11/21/99, p.T10)(MC, 2/14/02)

1542        War  was renewed between the Holy Roman Empire and France.
    (TL-MB, p.16)

1546        Charles V got into the Schmalkaldic War against the Protestant princes upon support by the Catholic Counter-Reformation.
    (TL-MB, 1988, p.17)

1547        Apr 24, Charles V's troops defeated the Protestant League of Schmalkalden at the battle of Muhlburg.
    (HN, 4/24/98)

1548        Jun 30, Formerly Holy Roman (Catholic) Emperor Charles V ordered Catholics to become Lutherans.
    (MC, 6/30/02)

1550        Apr 29, Emperor Charles V gave inquisitors additional authority.
    (MC, 4/29/02)

1551        Mar 9, Emperor Charles V appointed his son Philip as heir to the throne. Don Philip was recognized as the sole heir of Charles V.
    (TL-MB, 1988, p.18)(MC, 3/9/02)

1555        Sep 25, The Religious Peace of Augsburg compromised differences between Catholics and Protestants in the German states. Each prince could chose which religion would be followed in his realm. Lutheranism was acknowledged by the Holy Roman Empire. The Peace of Augsburg was the first permanent legal basis for the existence of Lutheranism as well as Catholicism in Germany. It was promulgated as part of the Diet of the Holy Roman Empire. Charles V's Augsburg Interim of 1548 was a temporary doctrinal agreement between German Catholics and Protestants that was overthrown in 1552.
    (TL-MB, 1988, p.19)(PCh, 1992, p.189)(HNQ, 2/8/99)

1555        Oct 25, Emperor Charles V put his son Philip II in charge of Netherlands, Naples, and Milan.
    (MC, 10/25/01)

1558        Sep 21, Charles V (b.1500), King of Spain (Carlos I), former Holy Roman Emperor (1519-1556), died. In 2006 lab tests showed that Charles suffered from gout.
    (TL-MB, 1988, p.19)(http://tinyurl.com/kq9sq)

1564        Jul 25, Maximillian II became emperor of the Holy Roman Empire.
    (HN, 7/25/98)

1568        Feb 17, Holy Roman Emperor Maximillian II agreed to pay tribute to the Sultan for peace.
    (MC, 2/17/02)

1576        Oct 12, Rudolf II, the king of Hungary and Bohemia, succeeded his father, Maximillian II, as Holy Roman Emperor.
    (TL-MB, 1988, p.22)(HN, 10/12/98)

1576        Rudolf II was crowned King of the Holy Roman Empire and moved the Imperial Court from Vienna to Prague.
    (WSJ, 7/10/97, p.A13)

1583-1634    Albrecht Wenzel von Wallenstein, soldier of fortune. He prospered by providing armed regiments to Ferdnand, the Habsburg emperor. He acquired a fortune through marriage to an elderly widow with huge estates in Moravia. He was appointed governor of Bohemia and later was ordered killed by the emperor.
    (WSJ, 1/11/99, p.R8)

1584        Jan 7, This was the last day of the Julian calendar in Bohemia & Holy Roman empire. The 1582 Gregorian (or New World) calendar was adopted by this time in Belgium, most of the German Roman Catholic states and the Netherlands.
    (SFEC, 10/3/99, Par p.27)(MC, 1/7/02)

1600        Cardinal Filippo Spinelli, Pope Clement VIII’s ambassador in Prague, wrote to the Pope that Emperor Rudolf II was bewitched by the devil.
    (WSJ, 9/9/06, p.P9)

1609        Jul, Emperor Rudolf II granted Bohemia freedom of religion with his Letter of Majesty (Majestatsbrief).

1612        Jan 20, Rudolf II von Habsburg (59), emperor of Germany (1576-1612), died in Prague and Matthias became Holy Roman Emperor. In 1912 an enigmatic manuscript, once owned by Rudolf II, was acquired by Wilfrid Voynich and came to be known as the Voynich manuscript. In 2006 Peter Marshall authored “The Magic Circle of Rudolf II."
    (WSJ, 1/8/99, p.C13)(www.historylearningsite.co)(Econ, 1/10/04, p.71)(WSJ, 9/9/06, p.P9)

1619        Catholic Hapsburg Ferdinand became Holy Roman Emperor as Ferdinand II.
    (HNQ, 2/28/00)

1620        Ferdinand II became emperor of the Holy Roman Empire after the death of Rudolf II and moved the Imperial Court back to Vienna. He sold dozens of paintings collected by Rudolf II that he found “lewd."
    (WSJ, 7/10/97, p.A13)(WUD, 1994, p.524)

1620-1637    Ferdinand II (1578-1637) ruled as the Holy Roman emperor.
    (WUD, 1994, p.524)

1621        Dec 13, Emperor Ferdinand II delegated the 1st anti-Reformation decree.
    (MC, 12/13/01)

1628        Aug 1, Emperor Ferdinand II demanded that Austria Protestants convert to Catholicism.
    (MC, 8/1/02)

1630        Aug 13, Emperor Frederick II of Bohemia fired Albrecht von Wallenmanders, his best military commander.
    (HN, 8/13/98)

1632        Apr 16, Albrecht von Wallenstein was appointed supreme commander of Holy Roman Empire forces.
    (MC, 4/16/02)

1632        Nov 16, Battle at Lutzen: Sweden beat the imperial armies under Wallenstein.
    (MC, 11/16/01)

1634        Feb 18, Emperor Ferdinand II ordered General Albrecht von Wallenstein's execution.
    (MC, 2/18/02)

1637        Feb 15, Ferdinand III succeeded Ferdinand II as Holy Roman Emperor.
    (440 Int’l., 2/15/99)

1637        Feb 15, Ferdinand II (58), King of Bohemia, Hun, German Emperor (1619-37), died. Ferdinand III succeeded him as Holy Roman Emperor.
    (440 Int’l., 2/15/99)(MC, 2/15/02)

1640        Jun 9, Leopold I, Emperor of the Holy Roman Empire (1658-1705), was born.
    (HN 6/9/98)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Leopold_I,_Holy_Roman_Emperor)

1647        Mar 14, The 1647 Treaty of Ulm was reached between the French and the Bavarians during the Thirty Years' War. In negotiations with the French, Maximilian I of Bavaria abandoned his alliance with the Holy Roman emperor Ferdinand III through the Treaty of Ulm. In 1648 Bavaria returned to the side of the emperor.
    (HNQ, 11/7/98)

1648        Oct 24, The Peace of Westphalia ended the German Thirty Years War and effectively destroyed the Holy Roman Empire. The Treaties of Osnabruck and Munster, that ended the Thirty Years" War, divided Pomerania, a historic region that once stretched from Stralsund to the Vistula along the Baltic Sea in north-central Europe, into two parts known as Hither Pomerania and Farther Pomerania. Hither Pomerania, the area west of the Oder River, was granted to Sweden. Farther Pomerania was east of the Oder and went to the state of Brandenburg. Hither Pomerania is now part of the German state of Mecklenburg-West Pomerania; Farther Pomerania is now part of Poland. The 30 years war had spread from one end of Germany to the other, and left the country a scene of desolation and disorder, wasted by fire, sword and plague. The war was followed by great scarcity, due to the lack of laborers. San Marino did not attend the conference or sign the treaty because it had not been involved in the fighting, however it was linked to states that were fighting and was therefore still at war with Sweden until 1996 when an official end was declared. The treaty abolished private armies and the nation-state acquired a monopoly on maintaining armies and fighting wars.
    (AP, 10/24/97)(WSJ, 6/1/99, p.A22)(HNQ, 10/6/99)(Econ, 5/24/08, p.80)

1652        Ferdinand III, the Habsburg monarch of the Holy Roman Empire, arrived in Regensburg for a year-long gathering of the Reichstag, the imperial diet.
    (Econ, 12/22/12, p.78)

1663        The Reichstag, the imperial parliament of the Holy Roman Empire, began sitting permanently.
    (Econ, 4/16/15, p.72)

1670        Feb 14, Roman Catholic emperor Leopold I chased the Jews out of Vienna.
    (MC, 2/14/02)

1675        Aug 27, The Strasbourg Agreement, signed between France and the Holy Roman Empire, banned the use of poison bullets in conflict.
    (AP, 12/4/12)

1678        Jul 26, Joseph I Habsburg, German king, Roman catholic emperor (1705-11), was born.
    (MC, 7/26/02)

1688        Sep 6, Imperial troops defeated the Turks and took Belgrade, Serbia.
    (HN, 9/6/98)

1695        Sep 11, Imperial troops under Eugene of Savoy defeated the Turks at the Battle of Zenta.
    (HN, 9/11/98)

1705        May 5, Leopold I von Hapsburg (b.1640), Emperor of Holy Roman Empire, died.

1707        Aug 31, The Treaty or Convention of Altranstädt was signed between Charles XII of Sweden and Joseph I, Holy Roman Emperor. It settled the rights of Protestants in Silesia and forced Augustus the Strong to yield the Polish throne to Stanisław Leszczyński (1677-1766).

1713        Most European powers vowed to respect the 1713 royal pronouncement of the Holy Roman Emperor Charles VI, called the Pragmatic Sanction, in which he declared that if he had no direct male heir upon his death, his Austrian domains would go to his eldest daughter, Maria Theresa.
    (HNQ, 7/29/99)

1714        Sep 7, In Baden, Switzerland, Charles VI signed the Treaty of Baden, also called the Peace of Baden, on behalf of the Holy Roman Empire. It was one of the agreements that concluded the War of the Spanish Succession.

1719        Jan 23, Principality of Liechtenstein was created within the Holy Roman Empire.
    (MC, 1/23/02)

1719        Sep 23, Liechtenstein declared independence from the German empire.
    (MC, 9/23/01)

1740        The ignoring of the Pragmatic Sanction of 1713 led to the War of the Austrian Succession in 1740. When Charles VI died in 1740, Maria Theresa’s claim was ignored by Elector Charles Albert of Bavaria, Augustus III of Saxony and Poland, and Philip V of Spain, igniting a general European war.
    (HNQ, 7/29/99)

1741        Mar 13, Jozef II, arch duke of Austria, Roman Catholic German emperor (1765-90), was born.
    (MC, 3/13/02)

1742        Jan 24, Charles VII was crowned Holy Roman Emperor during the War of the Austrian Succession.
    (AP, 1/24/07)

1748        The Treaty of Aix-la-Chapelle brought the war of Austrian Succession, which began in 1840, to an end and upheld the Pragmatic Sanction.
    (HNQ, 7/29/99)

1768        Feb 12, Francis II, the Last Holy Roman Emperor (1792-1806), was born.
    (HN, 2/12/98)(MC, 2/12/02)

1790        Feb 20, Holy Roman Emperor Joseph II (48) died.
    (AP, 2/20/98)(MC, 2/20/02)

1806        Aug 6, The Holy Roman Empire went out of existence as Emperor Francis I abdicated.
    (AP, 8/6/97)

2016        Peter Wilson authored “The Holy Roman Empire: A Thousand Years of Europe’s History."
    (Econ, 4/16/16, p.72)

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