Timeline Germany (E) 1945-1990

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1945        Jan 1, On Operation Bodenplatte, German planes attacked American forward air bases in Europe. This was the last major offensive of the Luftwaffe.
    (HN, 1/1/99)

1945        Jan 2, Allies made an air raid on Nuremberg. About 90% of the city center was destroyed in only one hour.

1945        Jan 4, The last German offensive in Bastogne, Belgium, failed.
    (HN, 1/4/99)

1945        Jan 10, Gunther von Hagens, German anatomist, was born in Poznan. In 1977 invented the process of plastination in which natural body fluids are replaced by plastic.
    (WSJ, 8/5/04, p.D8)

1945        Jan 12, German forces in Belgium retreated in Battle of Bulge.
    (MC, 1/12/02)
1945        Jan 12, Soviet forces began a huge offensive against the Germans in Eastern Europe.
    (AP, 1/12/98)

1945        Jan 13, The Red Army opened an offensive in South Poland, crashing 25 miles through the German lines.
    (HN, 1/13/99)

1945        Jan 16, The U.S. First and Third armies linked up at Houffalize, effectively ending the Battle of the Bulge. In 1997 Charles B. MacDonald authored “A Time for Trumpets: The Untold Story of the Battle of the Bulge."
    (HN, 1/16/99)(WSJ, 12/7/04, p.D11)

1945        Jan 17, Soviet troops liberated the Budapest ghetto, where over 70,000 Jews were confined near the end of World War II. Jews were forced to move into the ghetto, set up over more than 20 city blocks in Budapest's traditional Jewish quarter, from the end of November 1944. Some 50,000 Soviet soldiers lost their lives in the liberation of Budapest.
    (https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Budapest_Ghetto)(AFP, 1/18/15)(AP, 1/19/20)

1945        Jan 18, The German Army launched its second attempt to relieve the besieged city of Budapest from the advancing Red Army.
    (HN, 1/18/99)
1945        Jan 18, The Red Army freed Krakow from Nazi occupation. [see Jan 19]
    (SSFC, 4/3/05, p.A12)

1945        Jan 19, In Poland a B-25 Mitchell flown by the Soviet Red Army, was shot down by the German air force. A 23-year-old commander parachuted out and was taken into German captivity. In 2020 archaeologists discovered the wreck of a US-made bomber along with the remains of four crewmen.
    (Reuters, 1/24/20)
1945        Jan 19, The Red Army captured Lodz, Krakow, and Tarnow.
    (HN, 1/19/99)

1945        Jan 21, The Nazi Edelweiss unit participated in a bloody operation against two villages in central Slovakia as punishment for local support of Soviet-backed rebels.
    (AP, 12/19/05)

1945        Jan 23, Helmuth J. Moltke (37), German general, politician (July 20th Plot), was executed.
    (MC, 1/23/02)

1945        Jan 24, A German attempt to relieve the besieged city of Budapest was finally halted by the Soviets.
    (HN, 1/24/99)

1945        Jan 27, US Master Sgt. Roddie Edmonds (d.1985), one of around 1,000 soldiers taken to the Stalag IXA camp Ziegenhain, Germany, after the Battle of the Bulge, ordered his men to refuse Nazi instruction to separate out Jewish soldiers: “We are all Jews here."
    (http://tinyurl.com/z5vyyrz)(SFC, 12/3/15, p.A7)
1945        Jan 27, The Soviet army arrived at Auschwitz and Birkenau in Poland, and found the Nazi concentration camp and crematorium. It is now believed that 1 million Jews were murdered here, up to 75,000 Polish Christians, 21,000 Gypsies, and 15,000 Soviet POWs.

1945        Jan 28, The Red Army captured Klaipeda, the last German-held Lithuanian city.
    (LHC, 1/28/03)

1945        Jan 30, The Allies launched a drive on the Siegfried line in Germany.
    (HN, 1/30/99)
1945        Jan 30, Nazi SS guards shot down an estimated 4,000 Jewish prisoners on the Baltic coast at Palmnicken, Kaliningrad. The town was later renamed by the Russians to Yantarny. Some 7,000 prisoners had been marched 25 miles from Koenigsberg to a vacant lock factory at Palmnicken where they were mowed down with machine guns. The prisoners had been vacated from a network of 30 camps that made up Poland's Stutthoff concentration camp. 90% of the Jews were women from Lithuania and Hungary.
    (SFC, 1/31/00, p.C1)
1945          Jan 30, The German liner "Wilhelm Gustloff" sank in the Baltic Sea between the Bay of Danzig and the Danish island of Bornholm. An estimated 7000-8000 people, civilian refugees from East Prussia and wounded German soldiers, drowned in the icy waters. Three torpedoes fired from a Russian submarine had scored direct hits on the ship. The result was the largest and most horrible naval disaster of all time.
     (NW, 3/18/02, p.11) http://www.cybercreek.com/cybercity/WWIIps/gu

1945        Jan, US Staff Sgt. Beyrle (1923-2004) escaped from the German the Stalag III-C POW camp in Alt Drewitz and joined Soviet troops. He was wounded as his unit approached Berlin, was treated in a field hospital and then sent back to the US Embassy in Moscow. In 2010 a Russian Museum exhibit, titled "Joseph R. Beyrle — A Hero of Two Nations," presented 260 artifacts from Beyrle's life and military career, including a collection of his medals, uniform and photographs.
    (AP, 2/18/10)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Joseph_Beyrle)

1945        Feb 2, Karl F. Goerdeler (60), mayor of Leipzig, "July 20th plot", was hanged.
    (MC, 2/2/02)

1945        Feb 3, The Allies dropped 3,000 tons of bombs on Berlin. Robert Rosenthal (1917-2007) led 1,000 B-17s in the raid on Berlin. Rosenthal later served as an assistant to the US prosecutor at the Nuremberg trials.
    (HN, 2/3/99)(SFC, 4/30/07, p.B8)

1945        Feb 5, American and French troops destroyed German forces in the Colmar Pocket in France.
    (HN, 2/5/99)

1945        Feb 7, German troops and allied Slovak irregulars massacred 18 Jewish civilians discovered hiding in underground bunkers at Ksina, Slovakia.
    (AP, 12/19/05)

1945        Feb 8, Allied air attack on Goch, Kleef, Kalkar, Reichswald.
    (MC, 2/8/02)

1945        Feb 9, The German submarine U-864 with a crew of 73 sank about 2 1/2 miles off Fedje, Norway. It was on a desperate mission to supply Japan with advanced weapons technology and carried a poisonous cargo of 70 tons of mercury. Leakage of the mercury posed a severe threat in 2006 and plans were made to encase the wreck. In 2007 Norway’s government said it would be buried in special sand to protect the coastline.
    (AP, 12/20/06)(AP, 2/13/07)

1945        Feb 13, Allied planes began bombing the German city of Dresden. British bombers in Operation Thunderclap firebombed the city of Dresden, Germany, and 135,000 people were killed. The Royal Air Force Bomber Command attacked the city of Dresden at night with raids by 873 heavy bombers. 796 Lancaster heavy bombers were led by 9 target marking Mosquito light bombers. A look at aerial maps of the city before and after the terror attacks clearly shows the large white oil tanks owned by British-controlled Shell Oil. These tanks remained entirely untouched by the bombardment. In 2003 Frederick Taylor authored “Dresden: Tuesday, February 13, 1945."
    (http://www.hartford-hwp.com/archives/61/001.html)(WSJ, 10/22/96, p.A20)(SFC, 1/6/97, p.A10)(SFEC, 7/27/97, p.T6)(SFEC, 1/30/00, p.T13)
1945        Feb 13, During World War II the Soviets captured Budapest, Hungary, from the Germans ending a 50-day siege.
    (HN, 2/13/98)(AP, 2/13/98)

1945        Feb 14, 521 American heavy bombers flew daylight raids over Dresden, Germany following the British assault. The firestorm killed an estimated 135,000 people. At least 35,000 died and some people place the toll closer to 70,000. The novel "Slaughterhouse Five" by Kurt Vonnegut was set in Dresden during the firebombing where he was being held as a prisoner of war. US B-17 bombers dropped 771 more tons on Dresden while P-51 Mustang fighters strafed roads packed with soldiers and civilians fleeing the burning city. In 2006 Marshall De Bruhl authored “Firestorm: Allied Airpower and the Destruction of Dresden."
    (WSJ, 10/22/96, p.A20)(SFC, 1/6/97, p.A10)(SFEC, 7/27/97, p.T6)(HN, 2/13/99)(SFEC, 1/30/00, p.T13)(SSFC, 12/17/06, p.M3)

1945        Feb 23, Eisenhower opened a large offensive in the Rhineland.
    (HN, 2/23/98)
1945        Feb 23, Turkey declared war on Germany and Japan.
    (HN, 2/23/98)

1945        Feb 26, Very heavy bombing on Berlin by 8th US Air Force.
    (SC, 2/26/02)
1945        Feb 26, Syria declared war on Germany and Japan. [see Mar 26]
    (HN, 2/26/98)

1945        Feb 28, U.S. tanks broke the natural defense line west of the Rhine and crossed the Erft River.
    (HN, 2/28/98)

1945        Mar 1, US infantry regiment captured Mönchengladbach.
    (SC, 3/1/02)
1945        Mar 1, Field marshal Kesselring succeeded von Rundstedt as commander.
    (SC, 3/1/02)

1945        Mar 2, 8th Air Force bombed Dresden.
    (SC, 3/2/02)

1945        Mar 3, US 7th Army occupied last part of Westwall (Germany).
    (SC, 3/3/02)

1945        Mar 5, US 7th Army Corps captured Cologne.
    (MC, 3/5/02)

1945        Mar 6, Cologne, Germany, fell to General Hodges’ First Army.
    (HN, 3/6/98)
1945        Mar 6, Erich Honnecker and Erich Hanke fled Nazis.
    (MC, 3/6/02)
1945        Mar 6, In Holland SS General Hans Albin Rauter, was ambushed, and his driver and orderly were killed. Rauter was seriously wounded. SS Brigadefuhrer Dr. Eberhardt Schongarth immediately ordered reprisals and a total of 263 people were shot. A Special Court of Justice in the Hague sentenced Rauter to death and he was executed March 25, 1949. Schongarth was tried by a British Military Court, found guilty on another war crime charge and sentenced to death. He was hanged in 1946.

1945        Mar 7, The US 9th Armored Division crossed the Rhine River at Remagen, Germany, using the damaged but still usable Ludendorff Bridge. This marked the 1st incursion of Allied forces into Germany.  The bridge was the last of 22 road and railroad bridges over the Rhine still standing after German defenders failed to demolish it. US forces were able to capture the bridge.
    (https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Remagen)(AP, 3/7/98)(SFC, 4/9/03, p.A16)
1945        Mar 7, Cologne was taken by allied armies.
    (MC, 3/7/02)

1945        Mar 8, The U.S. First Army crossed the Rhine between Cologne and Coblenz.
    (HN, 3/8/98)
1945        Mar 8, 53 Amsterdammers were executed by Nazi occupiers.
    (MC, 3/8/02)

1945        Mar 10, Patton's 3rd Army made contact with Hodge's 1st Army.
    (MC, 3/10/02)
1945        Mar 10, Germany blew up the Wessel Bridge on the Rhine.
    (MC, 3/10/02)
1945        Mar 11, 1,000 allied bombers harassed Essen with 4,662 tons of bombs.
    (MC, 3/12/02)
1945        Mar 11, Flemish Nazi collaborator Maria Huygens was sentenced to death.
    (MC, 3/12/02)

1945        Mar 12, Anne Frank, author of "The Diary of Anne Frank," died at Bergen-Belsen concentration camp a month before it was liberated. When the British arrived in April, they found more than 10,000 unburied corpses. Some 14,000 of the prisoners found at the camp died within a few days.
    (SFEC, 1/5/97, p.B8)(HNQ, 4/13/00)(HN, 3/12/01)
1945        Mar 12, In Amsterdam 30 people were executed by Nazi occupiers.
    (MC, 3/12/02)

1945        Mar 13, Peru declared war on Germany.
    (HN, 3/13/98)

1945        Mar 14, Chile declared war on Germany.
    (HN, 3/14/98)
1945          Mar 14, A supreme Lithuanian independence committee was re-formed in Germany. The committee was 1st formed Nov 25, 1943, in Lithuania.
    (LHC, 3/14/03)

1945        Mar 17, In Germany the bridge at Remagen, weakened by shelling and the passage of some 50,000 Allied troops, fell taking 28 US soldiers to their deaths.
    (https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Remagen)(AP, 5/7/18)

1945        Mar 18, 1,250 US bombers attacked Berlin.
    (MC, 3/18/02)

1945        Mar 19, Adolf Hitler issued his so-called "Nero Decree," ordering the destruction of German facilities that could fall into Allied hands. Hitler ordered a scorched-earth policy. Hitler had decreed that Paris should be left a smoking ruin, but Dietrich von Choltitz thought better of his Fuhrer's order.
    (AP, 3/19/97)(HN, 3/19/98)

1945        Mar 22, The US 3rd Army crossed the Rhine at Nierstein.
    (MC, 3/22/02)

1945        Mar 23, Premier Winston Churchill visited Montgomery's headquarter in Straelen.
    (SS, 3/23/02)
1945        Mar 23, British 7th Black Watch crossed the Rhine.
    (SS, 3/23/02)

1945        Mar 24, Largest one-day airborne drop: 600 transports and 1300 gliders.
    (MC, 3/24/02)
1945        Mar 24, Operation Varsity: British, US and Canadian airborne landings east of Rhine.
    (MC, 3/24/02)
1945        Mar 24, Egypt declared war on Germany.
    (HN, 3/24/98)

1945        Mar 25, US 1st army broke out bridgehead near Remagen.
    (MC, 3/25/02)   

1945        Mar 26, Generals Eisenhower, Bradley, and Patton attack at Remagen on the Rhine.
    (SS, 3/26/02)
1945        Mar 26, US 7th Army crossed Rhine at Worms.
    (SS, 3/26/02)
1945        Mar 26, Syria declared war on Germany. [see Feb 26]
    (HN, 3/25/98)

1945        Mar 27, During World War II, General Dwight D. Eisenhower told reporters in Paris that German defenses on the Western Front had been broken.
    (AP, 3/27/97)(HN, 3/27/98)
1945        Mar 27, US 20th Army corps captured Wiesbaden.
    (MC, 3/27/02)

1945        Mar 28, Germany launched the last of the V-2 rockets (buzz bomb) against England.
    (HN, 3/28/99)

1945        Mar 29, German SS as well as Hitler Youth members shot at least 57 laborers in woods near the small town of Deutsch Schuetzen, later part of Austria. In 2009 German prosecutors charged a 90-year-old alleged former member of Hitler's SS with 58 counts of murder.
    (AFP, 11/17/09)

1945        Mar 30, 289 anti-fascists were murdered by Nazis in Rombergpark, Dortmund.
    (MC, 3/30/02)

1945        Mar 31, Sicherheitsdienst murdered 10 political prisoners in Zutphen.
    (MC, 3/31/02)

1945        Mar, The German submarine U-96, commissioned in September 1940, was sunk during a US bombing raid on the port city of Wilhelmshaven. It had gone on 11 patrols in the Atlantic Ocean before it was sunk. In 1981 Lothar-Guenther Buchheim (1918-2007), authored his autobiographical novel, "Das Boot," based on his service aboard the sub. In 1981, the book was turned into an acclaimed German film starring Juergen Prochnow that detailed the hopelessness of war and its effect on sailors living in the cramped confines of their submarine.
    (AP, 2/23/07)

1945        Apr 1, Canadian troop freed Doetinchem, Enschede, Borculo & Eibergen.
    (MC, 4/1/02)

1945        Apr 3, Nazis began evacuation of camp Buchenwald. [see Apr 20]
    (MC, 4/3/02)

1945        Apr 4,    U.S. forces liberated the Nazi death camp Ohrdruf in Germany.
    (AP, 4/4/97)
1945        Apr 4, US tanks and infantry conquered Bielefeld.
    (MC, 4/4/02)
1945        Apr 4, Hungary was liberated from Nazi occupation (National Day).
    (MC, 4/4/02)

1945        Apr 9, The Red Army was repulsed at the Seelow Heights on the outskirts of Berlin.
    (HN, 4/9/00)
1945        Apr 9, German Battleship Admiral Scheer sank a British aircraft carrier.
    (MC, 4/9/02)
1945        Apr 9, Dietrich Bonhoeffer (b.1906), a German Lutheran theologian and antifascist, was hanged by the Nazis at Flossenburg prison. He had participated in the failed July 20, 1944, plot to assassinate Hitler. A TV documentary on Bonhoeffer was aired in 2006.
    (SFC, 2/15/03, p.A14)(WSJ, 2/3/06, p.W10)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Dietrich_Bonhoeffer)
1945        Apr 9, Hans Oster, German major-general, spy and participant in the "July 20th plot", was hanged by Nazis.
    (MC, 4/9/02)
1945        Apr 9, Hans von Dohnanyi, "July 20th plotter", hanged by Nazis.
    (MC, 4/9/02)
1945        Apr 9, Wilhelm Canaris, Admiral, headed Germany Abwehr, was hanged by Nazis.
    (MC, 4/9/02)

1945        Apr 10, German Me 262 jet fighters shot down ten U.S. bombers near Berlin.
    (HN, 4/10/99)
1945        Apr 10, In their second attempt to take the Seelow Heights, near Berlin, the Red Army launched numerous attacks against the defending Germans. The Soviets gain one mile at the cost of 3,000 men killed and 368 tanks destroyed.
    (HN, 4/10/00)

1945        Apr 11, The Americans liberated the Buchenwald concentration camp in Germany. Some 250,000 prisoners passed through the camp and 50,000 are known to have died there. From 1945 to 1950, occupying Soviet forces used the camp to hold political prisoners.
    (AP, 4/11/97)(WSJ, 3/26/99, p.B1)(SFC, 8/3/99, p.A10)(AP, 6/5/09)
1945        Apr 11, After two frustrating days of being repulsed and absorbing tremendous casualties, the Red Army finally takes the Seelow Heights north of Berlin.
    (HN, 4/11/00)
1945        Apr 11, The Nazi SS burned and shot 1,100 at Gardelegen.
    (MC, 4/11/02)

1945        Apr 12, Robert Daniell (1901-1996), British tank commander, entered with his tank crew into Bergen-Belsen concentration camp. He found some 10,000 corpses killed by the guards as the allies approached. Of the remaining 38,500 prisoners, barely a third survived.
    (SFEC, 1/5/97, p.B8)
1945        Apr 12, Canadian troops liberated the Nazi concentration camp at Westerbork, Neth.
    (MC, 4/12/02)

1945        Apr 13, The German steamer Karlsruhe was bombed by Soviet planes and sunk in the Baltic Sea with the loss of hundreds of civilian and military lives. In 2020 Polish divers found the wreckage north of the coastal resort of Ustka.
    (AP, 10/1/20)
1945        Apr 13, Ernst Cassirer, German philosopher, died in NYC. His work included the 3-volume "Philosophy of Symbolic Forms" (1923-1929).

1945        Apr 14, US 7th Army and allies forces captured Nuremberg and Stuttgart, Germany.
    (MC, 4/14/02)
1945        Apr 15, Commenting on the death of American President Franklin Roosevelt in his Order of the Day, Adolf Hitler proclaimed: "Now that fate has removed from the earth the greatest war criminal of all time, the turning point of this war will be decided."
    (HNQ, 10/8/99)
1945        Apr 15, The deadly battle for Berlin began. The Seelow Heights posed the last natural barrier to Berlin in April 1945 from an advancing Red Army. The rolling plains and plateaus of the Seelow Heights were only 35 miles from the German capital and were well defended. The battle, which raged for a week, was extremely costly to both sides, leaving some 30,000 Red Army soldiers and at least 80,000 Germans killed.
    (HNQ, 4/16/99)
1945        Apr 15, British and Canadian troops liberated the Nazi concentration camp at Bergen-Belsen. It is a village in west Germany about 30 miles north of Hanover. About 40,000 people were liberated from the camp, although about 13,000 later died of illness. Overall, about 70,000 people died in Belsen.
    (AHD, p.122)(AP, 4/17/05)

1945            Apr 16, After a 2-day fight US troops liberated the German POW camp at Colditz Castle.
1945        Apr 16, U.S. troops reached Nuremberg, Germany, during World War II.
    (AP, 4/16/98)(HN, 4/16/98)

1945        Apr 17, The US Army raided factory in Stassfurt, Germany, and found some 1,100 tons of ore, some in the form of uranium oxide, a basic material of atomic bombs. It was part of mission Alsos, intended to track down Germany's atomic bomb project and nuclear scientists. In 1986 Richard Rhodes authored "The Making of the Atomic Bomb."
    (SFC, 9/1/03, p.B4)
1945        Apr 17, 8th Air Force bombed Dresden.
    (MC, 4/17/02)
1945        Apr 17, Hannie Schaft, "Girl with red hair," was executed.
    (MC, 4/17/02)
1945        Apr 17, Walter Model (54), German field marshal, committed suicide. [see Apr 21]
    (MC, 4/17/02)

1945        Apr 20, American forces liberated Buchenwald. 350 Americans were imprisoned at Berga, a sub-camp of Buchenwald, following their Dec, 1944, capture at the Battle of the Bulge. Charles Guggenheim's (d.2002) last documentary film was title "Berga." [see Apr 10-11]
    (WSJ, 5/28/03, p.D8)

1945        Apr 21, Allied troops occupied a German nuclear laboratory.
    (MC, 4/21/02)
1945        Apr 21, Field Marshal Walther Model, known as the "Fuhrer‘s Fireman," shot himself near Dusseldorf. Hitler, who called Model "the Savior of the Eastern Front," sent him to shore up the perceived failings of others and to faithfully carry out his most ignorant and impossible orders. A sycophant to the end, Model sent Hitler a note commending his survival of the July bomb plot. Model‘s army was eventually enveloped in the Ruhr in 1945 and, although offered terms for surrender, Model chose to commit suicide.
    (HNQ, 2/25/00)
1945        Apr 21, Russian army arrived at outskirts of Berlin.
    (MC, 4/21/02)

1945        Apr 22, Hitler acknowledged that the war was lost. A stenographic record of Hitler’s conferences with his generals from Apr, 1942, until Apr, 1945, was published in 2003 as: "Hitler and His Generals." It was edited by Helmut Heiber and David M. Glantz."
    (WSJ, 2/5/03, p.A1)
1945        Apr 22, Soviet troops liberated the concentration Camp at Sachsenhausen. Soviet secret police then used the camp just north of Berlin to imprison many Nazis as well as critics of the Soviet occupation of eastern Germany after the defeat of Adolf Hitler's regime. In all, an estimated 60,000 people were sent to "Special Camp No. 1" in 1945-50. In 2008 researchers finished compiling a list of 11,890 Germans who died there.
    (AP, 4/17/05)(AP, 3/6/08)

1945        Apr 23, The concentration camp at Flossenburg was liberated.
    (MC, 4/23/02)
1945        Apr 23, The Soviet Army fought its way into Berlin.
    (HN, 4/23/99)

1945        Apr 25, Clandestine Radio 1212, used to hoax Nazi Germany, made its final transmission.
    (SS, 4/25/02)
1945        Apr 25, During World War II, U.S. and Soviet forces linked up at Torgau, on the Elbe River, in central Europe, a meeting that dramatized the collapse of Nazi Germany.
    (AP, 4/25/97)(HN, 4/25/98)
1945        Apr 25, Some 318 British Lancaster bombers dropped 1,232 tons of bombs on Hitler’s alpine redoubt at Obersalzberg near Berchtesgaden.
    (SSFC, 8/6/06, p.G5)

1945        Apr 25, Last B-17 attack against Nazi Germany.
    (HN, 4/25/98)

1945        Apr 28, British commands attacked Elbe and occupied Lauenburg.
    (MC, 4/28/02)

1945        Apr, Adolf Hitler fired Heinrich Himmler (44), the head of the Nazi Gestapo, a following a secret attempt by Himmler to negotiate Germany's surrender. Hitler ordered the arrest of Himmler, who fled and assumed an alias.
    (SSFC, 7/8/18, p.C8)
1945        Apr 29, American soldiers liberated 31,601 in the Dachau, Germany, concentration camp; that same day, Adolf Hitler married Eva Braun (b.1912) and designated Adm. Karl Doenitz his successor. Hitler and Braun committed suicide the next day. In 2011 Heike B. Gortemaker authored “Eva Braun: Life With Hitler."
    (AP, 4/29/98)(HN, 4/29/98)(SSFC, 10/30/11, p.F5)
1945        Apr 29, The German Army in Italy surrendered unconditionally to the Allies. Venice and Mestre were captured by the Allies. In 1956 Norman Kogan, historian at the Univ of Connecticut, wrote "Italy and the Allies."
    (HN, 4/29/99)(SFC, 9/21/99, p.E4)(MC, 4/29/02)

1945        Apr 30, Adolf Hitler (56) committed suicide along with his wife of one day, Eva Braun (33), in his Fuhrerbunker as Russian troops approached Berlin. Karl Donitz became his successor. Their bodies were cremated and their remains hastily buried in a shell hole in the Reich Chancellery garden just hours before Berlin's fall. A few days later a Soviet officer showed British troops Hitler's probable gravesite. In 1970 Russia’s KGB ordered Hitler’s remained to be dug up, turned to powder and thrown into the nearest river. In 1947 Hugh Trevor-Roper authored “The Last Days of Hitler." In 1973 Robert Payne authored a definitive biography. In 1998 Ron Rosenbaum authored "Explaining Hitler: The Search for the Origin of His Evil." In 1977 Robert G.L. Waite (d.1999) authored The Psychopathic God: Adolf Hitler." In 2002 Ingo Helm made a film for TV titled "Hitler’s Money." In 2004 the German film “The Downfall" portrayed the last days of Hitler.
    (AP, 4/30/97)(HN, 4/30/98)(HNPD, 4/30/99)(WSJ, 8/31/99, p.A22)(SFC, 10/11/99, p.A24)(WSJ, 7/24/02, p.A1)(SFC, 8/8/02, p.A14)(Econ, 9/11/04, p.48)(WSJ, 12/29/05, p.D8)
1945        Apr 30, During the final days of World War II, German female test pilot Hanna Reitsch was ordered to fly General Ritter von Greim 60 miles to Berlin to personally accept Adolf Hitler's appointment as Supreme Commander of the German Luftwaffe. Flying her light plane through heavy Soviet anti-aircraft fire, Reitsch and her passenger reached Hitler's underground bunker safely, where they were among the last to see the German dictator alive. Although both expected to die in the bunker, Hitler ordered Reitsch and Greim to escape from Berlin to continue the fight. On April 30, 1945, after a harrowing takeoff using a bombed-out street as a runway, Reitsch evaded Soviet searchlights and fighters to reach temporary freedom in German-held territory.
    (HNPD, 4/27/99)
1945        Apr 30, Red Army opened an attack on German Reichstag building in Berlin.
    (MC, 4/30/02)
1945        Apr 30, The Russian Army freed the Ravensbrueck concentration camp. They found 3,000 sickly prisoners who had been unable to make the march north under the SS.
    (AP, 4/17/05)

1945        Apr, Dietrich Bonhoeffer, a German Evangelical Protestant theologian, was executed a few weeks before the end of the war. In 1998 Denise Giardina published her novel "Saints and Villains" that reconstructed his story.
    (SFEC, 8/28/98, Par p.20)

1945        May 1,    A day after Adolf Hitler committed suicide, Admiral Karl Doenitz effectively became sole leader of the Third Reich with the suicide of Hitler's propaganda minister, Josef Goebbels. Goebbels committed suicide with his wife and 8 children.
    (AP, 5/1/07)(MC, 5/1/02)
1945        May 1, Martin Bormann, private secretary to Adolf Hitler, escaped the Fuhrerbunker as the Red Army advanced on Berlin. Specialists later determined that he probably died in May 1945. The mystery behind his fate was settled in 1972 when construction workers in Berlin dug up a skeleton. Experts concluded the remains were Bormann's after a five-month examination that included making X-rays of the bones, studying the teeth, and using the skull as a model to reconstruct what its face would've looked like. West German authorities officially declared him dead in 1973.  Some skeptics believed the remains had been brought from elsewhere to be reburied in Berlin. In 2011 Paul van Aerschodt, a former Belgian collaborator, said Bormann had escaped to Latin America and lived there disguised as a priest.
    (WSJ, 8/30/99, p.A1)(AP, 9/1/09)(AFP, 2/5/11)

1945        May 2, German Army in Italy surrendered.
    (MC, 5/2/02)
1945        May 2, The Soviet Union announced the fall of Berlin and the Allies announced the surrender of Nazi troops in Italy and parts of Austria. The Russians took Berlin after 12 days of fierce house-to-house fighting and General Weidling surrendered. Yevgeny Khaldei (d.1997 at 80), soldier-photographer, made pictures of Soviet soldiers hoisting the red flag over the Reichstag in Berlin.
    (HFA, '96, p.30)(AP, 5/2/97) (SFC, 10/11/97, p.A19)(HN, 5/2/98)(MC, 5/2/02)

1945        May 3, Allies arrested German nuclear physicist Werner Heisenberg.
    (MC, 5/3/02)
1945        May 3, A British air force squadron bombed two ships, the Cap Arcona and the Thielbeck and sank them. The pilots knew nothing about the ships' human cargo. SS guards had marched prisoners from Neuengamme to Lubeck on the Baltic coast, as British troops approached, and put some 8,000 inmates onto two ships, the Cap Arcona and the Thielbeck.
    (AP, 10/2/10)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/SS_Cap_Arcona_%281927%29)

1945        May 4, German forces in the Netherlands, Denmark and northwest Germany agreed to surrender.
    (AP, 5/4/00)

1945        May 5, The Mauthausen Concentration camp was liberated.
    (MC, 5/5/02)
1945        May 5, Netherlands and Denmark were liberated from Nazi control. The Liberation of the Netherlands was completed by the First Canadian Army.
    (HN, 5/5/98)(www.bouwman.com/netherlands/Liberation.html)

1945        May 7, Germany signed an unconditional surrender at Allied headquarters in Rheims, France, to take effect the following day, ending the European conflict of World War II. After five years, World War II in Europe ended when Colonel General Alfred Jodl, the last chief of staff of the German Army, signed the unconditional surrender at General Dwight D. Eisenhower's headquarters at Rheims, France. Journalist Edward Kennedy (1905-1963) made the news public and was suspended for defying political and military censors.
    (AP, 5/7/97)(HN, 5/7/98)(SFC, 8/21/12, p.A6)
1945        May 7, SS opened fire on a crowd in Amsterdam and killed 22.
    (MC, 5/7/02)

1945        May 8, Germany surrendered and Victory in Europe was achieved by the allies. Marshal Wilhelm Keitel surrenders to Marshal Zhukov. The day is commemorated as V-E Day. President Truman announced in a radio address that World War II had ended in Europe. In 2004 Max Hastings authored “Armageddon," an account of the last days of WW II.
    (WSJ, 5/5/95, p.A-12)(AP, 5/8/97)(WSJ, 11/16/04, p.D10)
1945        May 8, Oskar Schindler gave a speech and urged the Jews who worked for him not to pursue revenge attacks. An original list of 1,200 of his workers at the Plaszow concentration camp was found in 1999.
    (SFC, 10/16/99, p.A13)

1945        May 9, Czechoslovakia was liberated from Nazi occupation (Nat’l Day). Soviet commander Ivan Stepanovic Konev (1897-1973) led the Red Army forces that liberated large parts of Czechoslovakia.
    (https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Prague_uprising)(SFC, 8/22/18, p.A3)

1945        May 16, The Nazi submarine U-234 surrendered to US forces at Portsmouth, NH. It had been bound for Tokyo with 10 containers of uranium oxide. The atomic material ended up in the bombs dropped on Hiroshima and Nagasaki.
    (SFC, 9/1/03, p.B4)(www.uboat.net/)

1945        May 20, Heinrich Himmler (44), the head of the Nazi Gestapo, was captured in Bremervorde, Germany.
    (SSFC, 7/8/18, p.C8)

1945        May 23, Heinrich Himmler (44), the head of the Nazi Gestapo, committed suicide while imprisoned in Luneburg, Germany.
    (AP, 5/23/97)(HN, 5/23/01)

1945        May, In Austria US Army officers and troops plundered a “gold train" on its way to Germany from Hungary that carried gold, jewels, paintings and other valuables seized by the Nazis from Jewish families. A 2001 suit filed in Miami said the army falsely classified it as unidentifiable and enemy property, which avoided having to return the goods to their rightful owners. The suit alleged that the US made no effort to return the goods and lied to Hungarian Jews who sought information about their property after the war. In 2004 the property was estimated to be worth ten times its original $200 million valuation. In 2005 the US government reached a $25.5 million settlement with families of the Hungarian Holocaust victims for distribution to needy Holocaust survivors.
    (AP, 12/20/04)(SFC, 3/12/05, p.A5)

1945        Jun 4, US, Russia, England & France agreed to split occupied Germany.
    (MC, 6/4/02)

1945        Jul 17-Aug 2, President Truman, Soviet leader Josef Stalin and British Prime Minister Winston S. Churchill (and his successor Clement Atlee) began meeting at the Schloss Cecilienhof in Potsdam in the final Allied summit of World War II. It re-established the European borders that were in effect as of Dec 31, 1937.
    (WSJ, 5/5/95, p.A-12)(Voruta #27-28, Jul 1996, p.2)(AP, 7/17/97)(SFEC, 7/27/97, p.T6)

1945        Aug 2, The Potsdam Conference, attended by Stalin, Truman and Churchill, ended.
    (MC, 8/2/02)

1945        Oct 14, British Chief Justice Geoffrey Lawrence was elected president of the Int’l. Military Tribunal for the trial of war criminals at Nuremberg. Drexel A. Sprecher (d.2006), a prosecutor during the trial, later edited the official 15-volume work on the 4-year trial.
    (http://tinyurl.com/pnk7h)(SFC, 4/11/06, p.B5)

1945        Oct 20, In Germany Richard Sonnenfeldt (1923-2009), British chief interpreter at the Nuremberg war trials, served out the indictments to the Nazi war criminals facing trial.
    (Econ, 10/31/09, p.100)

1945        Nov 16, Eighty-eight German scientists, holding Nazi secrets, arrived in the U.S.
    (HN, 11/16/98)

1945        Nov 20, In Nuremberg, Germany 22 out of 24 indicted Nazi officials went on trial (one in absentia) before an international war crimes tribunal.
    (AP, 11/20/08)

1945        Nov 30, Russian forces took Danzig, and invaded Austria.
    (HN, 11/30/98)

1945        Dec 14, Josef Kramer, known as "the beast of Belsen," and 10 others were hanged in Hameln for crimes committed at the Belsen and Auschwitz Nazi concentration camps.
    (AP, 12/14/05)

1945        Dec 21, Gen. George S. Patton died at the age of 60 in Heidelberg, Germany, of injuries from a car accident. He was buried at Hamm, Luxembourg. A biography of Patton was written in 1995 by Carlo D’Este titled: "Patton: A Genius for War." In 1998 Brian Sobel published "The Fighting Pattons." It was a history of the Patton family.
    (AP, 12/21/97)(WSJ, 8/14/98, p.W7)(HN, 12/21/98)

1945        Dec 31, Czechoslovakia began forcing the German population of the Sudetenland back to Germany.
    (WSJ, 11/26/96, p.A15)

1945        Hans Pfitzner composed his last work: "the Sextet for Piano, Clarinet and Strings."
    (WSJ, 7/29/97, p.A12)
1945        Austria retrieved some 18,000 looted artworks from a US Army depot in Munich. The bulk of them were restituted to former owners over the next 3 years.
    (WSJ, 12/9/98, p.A20)
1945        The allies settled on the Oder-Neisse line as the new Western border of Poland. It cut through the German city of Guben, called Gubin on the Polish side.
    (Econ, 4/24/04, p.50)
1945        An American air raid destroyed most of the buildings of Hitler’s "Eagle’s Nest" above the town of Berchtesgaden in the Alps. The area was used by the Americans for recreational purposes until it was returned to Bavaria in 1996
    (LVRJ, 11/1/97, p.16A)
1945        Albert A. Hutler (d.1998 at 89) served as chief of the Displaced Persons Section of the US 7th Army Military Government. He authored "Agony of Survival" in 1988, a recounting of his efforts to aid the concentration camp survivors.
    (SFC, 10/24/98, p.A22)
1945        British currency forged in Germany, measured by face value, accounted for 12% of all pound sterling bills. Early this year SS leaders switched their attention to forging US dollars. Forging operations, using Jewish and other war prisoners, had begun at the Sachsenhausen concentration camp under SS officer Bernhard Kruger a few years earlier. Nearly 133 million pounds was forged during Operation Bernhard.
    (WSJ, 1/22/07, p.A1,13)
c1945        Josef Ritter von Gadolla saved the people, the old town and the square of Gotha by surrendering to the advancing Americans. He was shot for surrendering without a fight. His conviction was overturned in 1998.
    (SFC, 1/21/98, p.C12)
1945        Volkswagen, under British army engineer Ivan Hirst (d.2000), turned out 1,785 cars as part of a 20,000 car, war reparations contract with the British army.
    (SFC, 3/24/00, p.D6)
1945        Dr. Klaus Maertens, a 25-year-old soldier, was convalescing from a broken foot. Looking for an alternative to the traditional hard leather sole, he came up with an air-cushioned alternative that he showed to an old university friend and mechanical engineer, Dr. Herbert Funk. The pair began producing their novel shoes two years later and within a decade they had a booming business. In 1960, British firm Griggs bought an exclusive license to the shoes and made adjustments. Shares in Dr. Martens footwear went public in 2021.
    (AP, 1/29/21)
1945        A US transport train collided with a trainload of German war prisoners and 102 people were killed.
    (SFC, 6/4/98, p.A15)

1945-1950    In 2002 Ruth Gay authored "Safe Among the Germans," an account of Eastern European Jews in the post-war refugee camps.
    (SFC, 9/19/02, p.D12)

1946        Feb 13, Rainer Werner Fassbinder, German director, actor, was born.
    (MC, 2/13/02)

1946        Mar 30, The Allies seized 1,000 Nazis who were attempting to revive the Nazi party in Frankfurt.
    (HN, 3/30/98)

1946        Apr 13, Jewish "Avengers" carried out a mass poisoning of former SS men at Stalag 13, an American prisoner-of-war camp at Langwasser. The effort sickened more than 2,200 Germans but ultimately caused no known deaths. Authorities in Nuremberg later investigated Joseph Harmatz and Leipke Distal, who worked undercover in a nearby bakery for months, after they appeared in a 1999 television documentary and revealed details of the operation.
    (AP, 8/31/16)

1946        Jul 16, US court martial in Dachau condemned 46 SS to hang for the Malmedy massacre of disarmed GIs.
    (MC, 7/16/02)

1946        Aug 29, J.E. Feenstra, Nazi military police commandant, was executed.
    (MC, 8/29/01)

1946        Sep 30, An international military tribunal in Nuremberg, Germany, found 22 top Nazi leaders guilty of war crimes. Ribbentrop and Goering were sentenced to death. American psychiatrist Leon Goldensohn interviewed many of the participants and in 2004 the interviews were published as “The Nuremberg Interviews: An American Psychiatrist’s Conversations with the Defendants and Witnesses."
    (AP, 9/30/99)(SSFC, 1/30/05, p.A13)

1946        Oct 1, Twelve Nazi war criminals were sentenced to be hanged at Nuremberg trials-- Karl Donitz, Hermann Goring, Alfred Jodl, Hans Frank, Wilhelm Frick, Ernst Kaltenbrunner, Wilhelm Keitel, Joachin von Ribbentrop, Fritz Saukel, Arthur Seyss-Inquart, Julius Streicher, and Alfred Rosenberg. Karl Donitz was sentenced to 10 years in prison.
    (HN, 10/1/98)(http://uboat.net/men/doenitz.htm)
1946        Oct 1, The diary of Hitler confidant Alfred Rosenberg, once held by Nuremberg prosecutors as evidence, vanished after the trial. Nuremberg prosecutor Robert Kempner (d.1993) was long suspected by US officials of smuggling the diary back to the United States. In 2013 The US government recovered 400 pages from the long-lost diary. In 2016 Robert K. Wittman and David Kinney authored “The Devil’s diary: Alfred Rosenberg and the Stolen secrets of the Third Reich."
    (Reuters, 6/10/13)(SFC, 4/2/16, p.E2)

1946        Oct 15, Nazi war criminal Hermann Goering poisoned himself hours before he was to have been executed.
    (AP, 10/15/97)

1946        Oct 16, Ten Nazi war criminals condemned during the Nuremberg trials were hanged. The defendants included: Luftwaffe commander Hermann Göring, who was sentenced to death but committed suicide the morning of the execution; former deputy Führer Rudolph Hess, sentenced to life imprisonment; Foreign Minister Joachim von Ribbentrop, hanged; head of the armed forces high command Wilhelm Keitel, hanged; writer and "philosopher" of National Socialism Alfred Rosenberg; U-boat Admiral Karl Dönitz, 10-year imprisonment; Grand Admiral Erich Raeder, life imprisonment; Hitler Youth leader Baldur von Shirach, 20-year imprisonment; procurer of slave labor Fritz Sauckel, hanged; and Alfred Jodl, chief of staff of the German high command, hanged. The hanging was badly botched as most Nazis slowly strangle to death. Also hanged were: Hans Frank, Governor-General of occupied Poland; Wilhelm Frick, Hitler's Minister of the Interior; Julius Streicher, rabid anti-Semite editor of Der Sturmer; Arthur Seyss-Inquart (54), Nazi leader of occupied Holland; Ernst Kaltenbrunner, Austrian Nazi and SS leader.
    (AP, 10/16/97)(HN, 10/16/98)(HNPD, 10/20/99)

1946        Oct 28, German rocket engineers began work in the USSR.
    (MC, 10/28/01)

1946        Nov 6, Sister Maria Innocentia Hummel (b.1909 as Berta Hummel), German nun and artist, died. She became famous for her artwork which was used to create the Hummel figurines beginning in 1935.

1946        Dec 2, The U.S. and Britain merged the German occupation zones.
    (HN, 12/2/98)

1946        Dec 24, US General MacNarney gave 800,000 "minor Nazis" amnesty.
    (MC, 12/24/01)

1946        Geoffrey Barraclough authored “The Origins of Modern Germany."
    (WSJ, 6/23/07, p.P10)

1946        Hermann Hesse (1877-1962), Swiss-born German philosopher poet and author, was awarded the Nobel Prize in literature "for his inspired writings which, growing in boldness and penetration, exemplify the classical humanitarian ideals and high qualities of style."
1946        Heinrich Springer and his son Axel founded a newspaper in Hamburg that grew to become Axel Springer Verlag AG, Germany’s biggest and most influential newspaper group.
    (WSJ, 10/20/04, p.A1)
1946        In Germany the conservative Christian Social Union was founded as a more inclusive heir to the Bavarian People’s Party.
    (Econ, 8/18/07, p.43)
1946        Aldi, a German grocery firm, was founded. By 2015 it was one of the world’s biggest “deep discount" grocers with 435 Trader Joe’s shops in America, operated by the Aldi Nord branch.
    (Econ., 3/14/15, p.66)

1946-1949    Some 12 million ethnic Germans were expelled from their homes in eastern Europe after WW II.
    (Econ, 11/3/07, p.60)

1947        Feb 23, Several hundred Nazi organizers were arrested in Frankfurt by U.S. and British forces.
    (HN, 2/23/98)

1947        Feb 24, Franz von Papen was sentenced to eight years in a labor camp for war crimes. Pompous scion of an old aristocratic family, he had become chancellor of Germany in 1932.
    (HN, 2/24/98)

1947        Feb 28, Britain and France signed a 50-year pact to curb Germany.
    (HN, 2/28/98)

1947        Feb, In Germany Rudolf Augstein (23) took over a weekly news magazine from British occupiers and began publishing Der Spiegel (The Mirror). Augstein died in 2002. In 1974 Augstein gave Spiegel’s staff half of the company’s shares.
    (SFC, 11/11/02, p.A20)(Econ, 1/12/08, p.45)

1947        Jul, A prisoner camp in Bad Nenndorf, a spa town in northwest Germany occupied by the British after the war, was closed. In 2005 a Guardian report cited documents recently released under the Freedom of Information Act that described the suffering of some of 372 men and 44 women detained at the camp.
    (AP, 12/17/05)

1947        Oct 4, Max Karl Ernst Planck (b.1858), German physicist (Nobel 1918), died.

1947        Nov 16, 15,000 demonstrated in Brussels against mild sentences of Nazis.
    (MC, 11/16/01)

1947        Max Beckmann made his oil painting "Self-Portrait with Cigarette."
    (SFEC, 2/1/98, BR p.6)
1947        Hans Fallada (1893-1947), German writer, authored “Every Man Dies Alone." This was one of the first anti-Nazi novels to be published by a German after World War II.
1947        Thomas Mann (1875-1955), German writer, wrote Doctor Faustus. A new English translation was made in 1998 by John E. Woods.
    (V.D.-H.K.p.367-368)(WSJ, 12/26/95, p. A-5)(SFEC, 4/5/98, BR p.6)
1947        Hermann Lenz (1913-1998) published his first novel "The Silent House."
    (SFC, 5/14/98, p.A27)
1947        The Organization Gehlen was founded by Gen. Reinhard Gehlen. Many of his recruits were ex-Nazis. It later became known as the Bundesnachrichtendienst (BND), Germany’s foreign intelligence service.
    (Econ, 9/2/06, p.50)
1947        In Germany Helmut Kohl joined the Christian Democratic Union.
    (WSJ, 1/19/00, p.A18)
1947        Albert Speer (d.1981), German architect, was tried at Nuremberg as a major war criminal. He had served as Hitler’s rearmament minister. Speer served 20 years in Spandau prison and was released in 1969. 6 others were also sentenced to long prison terms, including Rudolph Hess, Hitler’s former deputy, who committed suicide in Spandau in 1987. In 2007 Norman J.W. Goda authored “Seven Prisoners, Four Powers: Tales From Spandau."
    (SSFC, 10/6/02, p.M3)(WSJ, 2/17/07, p.P13)
1947        A German neurologist coined the term prosopagnosia (face blindness), to describe the condition of a young man who, due to a bullet wound to the head, had lost his ability to recognize people.
    (WSJ, 1/5/07, p.A1)
1947        Klaas Carel Faber (1922-2012) was convicted of murder and aiding the enemy in time of war for helping the Netherlands' Nazi occupiers during World War II. He had worked for the death squad code named "Silbertanne," or "Silver Fir," which carried out killings of resistance members, Nazi opponents, and people who hid Jews. He was given a death sentence that was later commuted to life in prison, but he escaped and fled to Germany in 1952, where he was granted citizenship. In 2010 the Dutch government issued a European arrest warrant for Faber (88). In 2011 a German court ruled that the Dutch request cannot be granted as Faber’s consent was mandatory due to his German citizenship. Klaas Faber died in Germany in 2012.
    (AP, 11/25/10)(AP, 5/11/11)(AP, 5/26/12)

1948        Mar 6, During talks in Berlin, the Western powers agreed to internationalize the Ruhr region.
    (HN, 3/6/98)

1948        Mar 31, Soviets, in Germany, began controlling the Western trains headed toward Berlin.
    (HN, 3/31/98)

1948        May 4, The Hague Court of Justice convicted Hans Rauter (SS) of war crimes.
    (MC, 5/4/02)

1948        May 25, Klaus Meine, rocker (Scorpions-No One Like You), was born in Hanover, Germany.
    (SC, 5/25/02)

1948        Jun 18, British and Americans launched a new currency in Germany’s Western zones.

1948        Jun 19, The USSR blocked the access road to West Berlin.
    (SFEC, 5/25/97, p.A10)(DT internet 6/19/97)

1948        Jun 22, On the 7th anniversary of the Nazi invasion of Russia, all ground traffic to Berlin was stopped, halting 13,500 tons of daily supplies to Berlin. Only the air corridors, protected by treaty, remained open.

1948        Jun 24, Communist forces with 30 military divisions cut off all land and water routes between West Germany and West Berlin, prompting the United States to organize the massive Berlin airlift. Gen’l. Lucius Clay, the local American commander, ordered the air supply effort.
    (AP, 6/24/97)(SFC, 5/12/98, p.A12)

1948         Jun 26, The Berlin Airlift began in earnest as the United States, Britain and France started ferrying supplies to the isolated western sector of Berlin, after the Soviet Union cut off land and water routes. The Soviets had been harassing the French, British and American authorities in Berlin for weeks, trying to force them from the city. Finally, when all surface routes to the city were blockaded, it became clear that an airlift through the Allied sectors was the only way to re-supply the 2 million West Berliners. In spite of the enormous human and financial cost, “Operation Vittles" supplied food, fuel and hope to beleaguered citizens until the Soviet barricades were finally lifted on May 12, 1949. In 2010 Richard Reeves authored “Daring Young Men: The Heroism and Triumph of the Berlin Airlift, June 1948-May 1949."
    (AP, 6/26/98)(HN, 6/26/99)(http://tinyurl.com/gqhi)(Econ, 1/2/10, p.63)

1948        Jul 27, Otto Skorzeny escaped an anti-Nazi camp at Darmstadt.
    (MC, 7/27/02)

1948        Jul 28, In Ludwigshafen, Germany, the I.G. Farben chemical plant exploded due to a vapor explosion from dimethyl ether and 182/209 died.
    (HSAB, 1994, p.46)(SC, 7/28/02)

1948        Aug 13, During the Berlin Airlift, the weather over Berlin became so stormy that American planes had their most difficult day landing supplies. They deemed it ‘Black Friday.’
    (HN, 8/13/98)

1948        Oct 18, [Heinrich A.H.] Walther von Brauchitsch, German field marshal, died.
    (MC, 10/18/01)

1948        Nov 16, Truman rejected four-power talks on Berlin until the blockade was removed. President Harry S. Truman relied heavily on Dean Acheson for his most significant foreign policy achievements.
    (HN, 11/16/98)

1948        Nov 30, Communists completed the division of Berlin, installing the government in the Soviet sector.
    (HN, 11/30/98)

1948        Wernher von Braun, German rocket physicist, authored “Das Marsproject" (The Mars Project), a technical specification for a manned mission to Mars.
    (Econ, 6/1/13, p.77)
1948        A documentary film on the Nuremberg war trials was written and directed by Stuart Schulberg. It was never released theatrically in the US. In 2011 Schulberg’s daughter Sandra Schulberg and Josh Waltezky restored it under the title "Nuremberg: Its Lesson Today."
    (SFC, 1/20/11, p.E8)
1948        The Italian film “Germany Year Zero" was directed by Roberto Rossellini (1906-1977). It was the 3rd of his war trilogy and was about the privations of German survivors in postwar Berlin.
    (SFC, 1/22/10, p.E2)
1948        Composer Hans Eisler was deported from the US by the House Un-American Activities Committee for non-cooperation. He went to East Germany and composed the East German national anthem.
    (SFEC, 5/18/97, DB p.64)
1948        In Germany at the Nuremberg War Trials deputy chief prosecutor Robert Kempner wrote in a letter that 15 tons of Nazi gold were rushed out of Berlin before the fall of the capital in 1945. He said 6 1/2 tons were sent to von Ribbentrop’s castle in Fuschl, Austria, where it was allegedly turned over to American troops. Two tons were sent to Schleswig-Holstein and allegedly handed over to British troops. No record of either shipment was found by researchers of the World Jewish Congress (WJC). Three tons were sent to the German side of Lake Constantine and then to Switzerland. The rest was sent to other countries.
    (SFC, 8/22/96, p.E4)
1948        In Germany Henri Nannen (1914-1996) founded the weekly illustrated Zickzack Magazine that later was renamed Stern.
    (SFC, 10/15/96, p.A19)
1948        In Germany a fight between the shoemaking Dassler brothers led to the creation Adidas and Puma. The brothers had been partners in a shoe company Adi started after WW I.
    (https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Rudolf_Dassler)(Econ., 1/30/21, p.50)
1948        Ferdinand Porsche (1875-1951), German car inventor, rolled out the first Porsche sports car.
    (Econ, 6/14/08, p.82)
1948        General Motors began regaining control over Opel operations in Germany. GM collected some $33 million in war reparations for Allied bombing of its German facilities.
    (SSFC, 1/7/07, p.E6)
1948        The Federal Republic of Germany defaulted on its sovereign debt. The Colm-Dodge-Goldsmith-Plan was implemented in the summer to put the currency reform into force.
    (http://tinyurl.com/49qqg7o)(Econ, 1/15/11, p.78)

1949        Mar 19, The Soviet People's Council signed the constitution of the German Democratic Republic, and declared that the North Atlantic Treaty was merely a war weapon.
    (HN, 3/19/98)

1949        Mar 25, Hanns A. Rauter (54), German SS-commandant in Netherlands, was executed.
    (MC, 3/25/02)

1949        Apr 14, The International Military Tribunal at Nuremberg’s made its last judgment.
    (MC, 4/14/02)

1949        May 8, The Basic Law for the Federal Republic of Germany (German: Grundgesetz für die Bundesrepublik Deutschland), was formally approved. It was subsequently ratified by all states except Bavaria. With the signature of the Allies it came into effect on May 23, 1949, as the constitution of West Germany.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Basic_Law_for_the_Federal_Republic_of_Germany)(EWH, 1968, p.1180)

1949        May 12, The Soviet Union announced an end to the Berlin blockade. [see Sep 30, 1949]
    (WUD, 1994, p.1684)(SFEC, 5/25/97, p.A10)(HN, 5/12/98)

1949        May 23, The Federal Republic of (West) Germany with Bonn as the capital officially came into existence under a new constitution.
    (WUD, 1994, p.1684)(Econ, 3/28/09, p.59)

1949        May 27, Russians stopped train traffic to and from West Berlin.
    (MC, 5/27/02)

1949        Jul 15, The Dusseldorf guidelines shaped the principles of West Germany's "social market" economy.
    (https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Social_market_economy)(Econ., 1/16/21, p.40)

1949        Jul 29, Airlift in West-Germany to West-Berlin ended. [see Sep 30]
    (MC, 7/29/02)

1949        Aug 14, In Germany elections for the Bundestag (lower house) gave the Christian Democrats a small lead over the Socialists. The Free Democrats held the balance. The US court at Nurnberg concluded the last of its war crimes trials with the sentencing of 19 officials and diplomats.
    (EWH, 1968, p.1180)

1949        Sep 12, In Germany Theodor Heuss (b.1884) was elected as the first President of the Federal Republic of Germany and continued to 1959.

1949        Sep 15, Konrad Adenauer (73) began serving as Chancellor of the Federal Republic of Germany with the support of his own CDU, the Christian Social Union, the liberal Free Democratic Party, and the right-wing German Party. Adenauer, head of the Christian Democratic Union served until 1963.

1949        Sep 21, In Germany the Allied Occupation Statute came into force. The functions of the military government were transferred to the Allied high commission. The Federal Republic of [West] Germany was created under the 3-power occupation.
    (EWH, 1968, p.1180)(MC, 9/21/01)

1949        Sep 30, The Berlin airlift ended its operation after 277,264 flights. Through accidents 31 Americans lost their lives in support of the airlift. The Berlin Airlift, which began on June 26, 1948, and lasted 321 days, consisted of 272,264 flights by British and American airmen. They transported some 2.3 million tons of food to supply the 2.1 million residents of the blockaded portion of the city. The operation ended after 278,288 flights and delivery of 2,326,406 tons of supplies. In 2010 Richard Reeves authored “Daring Young Men: The Heroism and Triumph of the Berlin Airlift, June 1948-May 1949."
    (EWH, 1968, p.1180)(AP, 9/30/97)(SFC, 5/12/98, p.A14)(HNQ, 7/9/98)(SSFC, 3/28/10, p.f3)
1949        Sep 30, The Baltic Univ. in Hamburg, Germany, closed. It was opened three years earlier by 170 Lithuanian, Estonian and Latvian academics in a displaced persons camp. In 2015 Helga Merits premiered her documentary film “A Phoenix Born of Ashes and Desire: The Story of the Baltic University."

1949        Oct 7, The German Democratic Republic of East Germany was established. Wilhelm Pieck (1876-1960) was president and Otto Grotewohl (b. 1894) was minister president.
    (WUD, 1994, p.1684)

1949        Nov 24, In Germany the Petersberg agreement provided concessions to Western Germany from the Allied high commission in return for German membership in the Int’l. Ruhr Authority. The influx of 8 million Germans from the east caused widespread unemployment. (EWH, 1968, p.1180)

1949        Nov 29, Petra Kelly, German peace activist and MP for the Green Party, was born.
    (MC, 11/29/01)
1949        Nov 29, Uranium mine explosions in East Germany killed 3,700.
    (MC, 11/29/01)

1949        Dec 15, West Germany received its first allotment of funds from the Economic Co-operation Administration and thus became a full participant in the Marshall Plan.
    (EWH, 1968, p.1180)

1949        German philosopher Karl Jaspers introduced the concept of the Axial Age in his book Vom Ursprung und Ziel der Geschichte (The Origin and Goal of History).
1949        In Germany Bertolt Brecht (1898-1956) formed the Berliner Ensemble. It was the most influential theater in post-war Germany.
    (TOH, 1982, p.1949)(WUD, 1994 p.183)(SFC, 12/29/99, p.E1)
1949        The adopted constitution guaranteed that "no one may be compelled against his conscience to render war service involving the use of arms."
    (SFC, 6/11/96, p.A15)
1949        Heinrich Boere (b.1922), part of a Waffen SS death squad of mostly Dutch volunteers, was sentenced to death in the Netherlands. The squad had been tasked with killing fellow countrymen in reprisal for attacks by the anti-Nazi resistance. His sentence was later commuted to life imprisonment and Boere managed to escape to Germany. A German court has refused to extradite him because he might have German nationality as well as Dutch. In 2008 Dortmund prosecutor Ulrich Maass charged Heinrich Boere (86) with the 1944 murders of three men as a member of the Waffen SS death squad code-named Silbertanne, or Silver Pine.
    (AP, 3/8/08)(AP, 4/16/08)
1949        The German Volkswagen Beetle was introduced in the US.
    (SSFC, 7/20/03, p.A14)
1949        Hans Pfitzner, composer, died.
    (TOH, 1982, p.1949)
1949        Richard Strauss (b. 1864), German conductor and composer, died.
    (TOH, 1982, p.1949)(WUD, 1994, p.1405)

1950        Apr 3, Kurt Julian Weill (50), German composer (Dreigroschenoper), died. His best known work is the music for "The Threepenny Opera." His work also included "Der Jasager." He was married to the singer Lotte Lenya. Letters between the two over a period of 26 years have been edited and translated in a book by Lys Symonette and Kim H Kowalke: "Speak Low (When You Speak Love)." His work also included the theater piece "Der Weg der Verheissung" (The Eternal Road). In 2002 Foster Hirsch authored "Kurt Weill on Stage: From Berlin to Broadway."
    (SFC, 5/26/96, BR p.6)(WSJ, 5/4/99, p.A20)(SSFC, 3/17/02, p.M3)(MC, 4/3/02)

1950        Jul 24, Robert W. Lehnhoff, [Executioner of Groningen], SS Führer, was executed.

1950        Jul, Walter Ulbricht, the new General Secretary of the Central Committee of the Socialist Unity Party of Germany, announced the impending demolition of the Berlin City Palace. It was originally built in the 15th century and changed throughout the next few centuries. Despite objections, dynamiting was undertaken between September and December 1950. Only one section was preserved, a portal from the balcony of which Karl Liebknecht had declared the German Socialist Republic.

1950        Sep 1, West Berlin was granted a constitution.
    (SC, 9/1/02)

1950        Sep 19, Allied foreign ministers announced in NY that they regarded Adenauer's government to be "the only German Government freely and legitimately constituted and therefore entitled to speak for Germany as the representative of the German people in international affairs."

1950        Dec 27, Max Beckmann (b.1884), German painter, died in New York. The Nazis had branded him a degenerate artist in 1937 and he moved to the US in 1946. His work included the triptychs Departure (1932-1935) and Beginning (1946-1949), and the Self-Portrait in Tails (1937). He was a figurative painter in an age of abstraction.
    (SSFC, 1/27/02, p.C7)(WSJ, 7/16/03, p.D8)(WSJ, 9/17/05, p.P20)

1950        The first German Book Trade Peace Prize was awarded to Max Tau (Adolf Grimme).
1950        German writer Ernst Juenger (1895-1998) went into a self-imposed exile in Wilflingen where he wrote over 50 books.
    (SFC, 2/18/98, p.A18)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ernst_J%C3%BCnger)
1950        Volkswagen debuted its iconic microbus. It became a favorite of hippies for its unique styling and copious space for travelers. The Bulli was the brainchild of a Dutch Volkswagen importer, Ben Pon, who in 1947 sketched out a simple public bus built on the wheels of the Volkswagen Beetle. The original Bulli was made from 1950 to 1967. A new version was unveiled in 2011.
    (AP, 3/1/11)
1950        German scientists (118), described as “prisoners of peace" began arriving in Huntsville, Alabama, to work on the US space program.
    (WSJ, 11/10/04, p.A1)
1950        Ernst Grafenberg, a German gynecologist, identified a small area behind the pubic bone of women, the G-spot, that he said became an erogenous zone when stimulated. In 2005 Dr. David Matlock of Los Angeles invented and trademarked the G-shot, a collagen injection to the G-spot, promoted to amplify sexual arousal.
    (SSFC, 6/3/07, p.F1)
1950        Some 20,000 Jews remained in Germany. 8,000 of these were native German Jews and some 12,000 came from eastern Europe, mostly from Poland.
    (Econ, 1/5/08, p.41)

1950s        Emma Berger, a German Christian, founded a sect of fervent believers in Stuttgart and led a portion of them to Israel in 1963, where they founded a commune called Bethel-El.
    (WSJ, 2/6/98, p.A1)

1951        Jan 30, Ferdinand Porsche (b.1875), German car inventor (Porsche), died.

1951        Feb 1, Alfred Krupp & 28 other German war criminals were freed.
    (MC, 2/1/02)

1951        Mar 13, Alfred Hugenberg, German RC pres-dir of Krupp, media magnate, died.
    (MC, 3/13/02)

1951        Mar 13, Israel demanded DM 6.2 billion ($1.5 billion) in German reparations for the cost of caring for war refugees.
    (HN, 3/13/98)(MC, 3/13/02)

1951        Apr 18, Jean Monnet, French civil servant, and Robert Schuman, French foreign minister, helped found the European Union with agreements between 6 countries on the pooling of coal and steel resources. Ministers from Belgium, Luxembourg, the Netherlands, West Germany, Italy and France put their names on the Treaty of Paris, the founding document of what in four decades would become the European Union.
    (Econ, 9/25/04, Survey p.3)(Econ, 6/18/16, p.45)

1951        Apr 26, Arnold Sommerfeld (b.1868), German theoretical physicist, died. He pioneered developments in atomic and quantum physics. His atomic model permitted the explanation of fine-structure spectral lines.

1951        May 1, Some 600,000 marched for peace and freedom in Germany.
    (MC, 5/1/02)

1951        Jun 8, Paul Bobel, Werner Braune, Erich Naumann, Otto Ohlendorf, Oswald Pohl, W. Schallenmair & Otto Schmidt, last Nazi war criminals, were hanged by Americans at Landsberg Fortress.
    (MC, 6/8/02)

1951        Jul 9, President Truman asked Congress to formally end the state of war between the United States and Germany.
    (AP, 7/9/97)

1951        Aug 12, Hertie and the Lindren’s signed an agreement to merge the Wertheim Company with Hertie Vereinigte Kaufstaetten with a plan to purchase 49% of the remaining Wertheim stock. Arthur Lindgrens would be chairman.
    (WSJ, 3/29/02, p.A8)

1951        Aug 22, Harlem Globetrotters played in Olympic Stadium at Berlin before 75,052.
    (MC, 8/22/02)

1951        Aug 31, The 1st 33 1/3 (LP) album was introduced in Dusseldorf.
    (MC, 8/31/01)

1951        Sep 8, Jurgen Stroop, Nazi exterminator of Warsaw Ghetto, was hanged on site of the ghetto.
    (MC, 9/8/01)

1951        Oct 19, President Truman signed an act formally ending the state of war with Germany.
    (AP, 10/19/97)

1951        The German film "The Story of a Sinner" starred Hildegard Knef (d.2002 at 76). A brief nude scene scandalized roman Catholic authorities.
    (SFC, 2/4/02, p.B5)
1951        The Conference on Jewish Material Claims against Germany was founded.
    (Econ, 8/23/03, p.44)
1951        Germany's Federal Constitutional Court was established by the constitution or Basic Law (Grundgesetz).
    (https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Federal_Constitutional_Court)    (Econ., 5/9/20, p.39)
1951        German corporations began operating under a principle of co-determination between workers and management. It applied to companies with more than 2000 workers.
    (Econ, 1/29/05, p.63)(Econ, 7/16/05, p.16)

1952        Mar 1, Helgoland, in North Sea, was returned to West Germany by Britain.
    (SC, 3/1/02)

1952        Mar 21, A.J. Pieters, SS-Untersturmfuhrer, was executed.
    (MC, 3/21/02)
1952        Mar 21, Wilhelm Albrecht, German SD-chief, was executed.
    (MC, 3/21/02)

1952        Mar 26, F. Dürrenmatt's "Die Ehe des Herrn Mississippi" premiered in Munich.
    (SS, 3/26/02)

1952        Mar 27, There was a failed assassination attempt of German Chancellor Adenauer.
    (MC, 3/27/02)

1952        May 31, Walter Schellenberg, German lawyer, headed spy plot (Venlo), died of cancer.
    (MC, 5/31/02)

1952        Sep 10, Germany and Israel signed the Luxembourg Agreement, an accord about recovery payments. West Germany agreed to pay Israel a sum of 3 billion marks over the next fourteen years. It was signed by West German Chancellor Konrad Adenauer, Israeli Foreign Minister Moshe Sharett and World Jewish Congress President Nahum Goldmann.

1952        Nov 3, Egypt protested German retribution payments to Israel.
    (MC, 11/3/01)

1952        Mrs. Aicher-Scholl (e.1998 at 81) published "White Rose," a description of the White Rose nonviolent student resistance to the Third Reich.
    (SFC, 9/7/98, p.A21)
1952        West Germany signed a compensation treaty for victims of Nazi crimes.
    (SFC, 11/16/12, p.A2)
1952        West Germany instituted the National Day of Mourning. The states of the former East Germany adopted the tradition in 1992, following reunification. Because of the relation to Advent, the date is the Sunday nearest 16 November, i.e. in the period from 13 November to 19 November.
    (AP, 11/14/10)
1952        Germany banned the neo-Nazi Socialist Reich Party, a successor to the Nazi Party.
    (SFC, 3/31/01, p.A14)(SFC, 4/8/02, p.A3)

1953        Feb 24, Karl R.G. von Rundstedt (77), German general and field marshal at Ardennes, died.
    (MC, 2/24/02)

1953        Jun 17, The East Germans threw stones at Russian tanks and were quickly subjugated. Eric Honecker threatened demonstrators with a "Peking Solution." Soviet tanks fought thousands of Berlin workers rioting against the East German government.
    (TMC, 1994, p.1953)(WSJ, 10/18/96, p.A13)(HN, 6/17/98)

1953        Sep 6, Adenauer's CDU won elections in German FR.
    (MC, 9/6/01)

1953        Oct 9, Conrad Adenauer was elected West German chancellor.
    (MC, 10/9/01)

1953        Werner Hoefer (d.1997 at 84) began his TV roundtable discussion "Der Internationale Freuschoppen." He led the show until 1987. Revelations of his work as a Nazi forced the end of his career as the show’s host.
    (SFC,11/28/97, p.B8)
1953        In West Germany a restitution law included compensation for seized life, illness and retirement policies of Jewish Holocaust victims.
    (SFEC, 4/6/97, p.A13)
1953        The US military opened the Landstuhl Regional Medical Center, its largest medical facility outside the US, in Landstuhl, Germany.
    (SFC, 1/9/04, p.A14)
1953        Volkswagen began manufacturing cars in Brazil.
    (Econ, 11/15/08, SR p.6)
1953        Greece was among 22 countries that agreed to halve Germany's foreign debt at a conference in London.
    (AP, 3/22/15)
1953        The Polish government, under pressure from the Soviet Union, renounced any claim to reparations from East Germany.
    (Econ, 8/19/17, p.44)

1953-1986    Markus Wolf was the head of East Germany’s int’l. spy network. He planted some 4,000 agents in the West during the Cold War and managed to steal NATO secrets for the Soviet bloc. In 1997 he published "Man Without a Face," an account of his experiences.
    (SFC, 5/28/97, p.A10)(WSJ, 6/02/97, p.A20)

1954        Jan 20, The American CIA built a tunnel from west Berlin to East Berlin to tap Soviet and East German communications.
    (SFC, 9/17/97, p.A3)

1954        Feb 18, East and West Berlin dropped thousands of propaganda leaflets on each other after the end of a month long truce.
    (HN, 2/18/98)

1954        Apr 7, The West German government refused to recognize DDR (East Germany).
    (MC, 4/7/02)

1954        Jul 4, West Germany beat Hungary 3-2 to win the 5th World Cup soccer match in Bern, Switz.

1954        Jul 20, West German secret service head Otto John defected to German DR.
    (MC, 7/20/02)

1954        Sep 10, Peter Anders, German opera singer, died.
    (MC, 9/10/01)

1954        Sep 23, East German police arrested 400 citizens as U.S. spies.
    (HN, 9/23/98)

1954        Sep 30, NATO nations agreed to arm and admit West Germany.
    (HN, 9/30/98)

1954        Oct 22, West Germany joined the North Atlantic Treaty Organization. The country had no standing army. [see Oct 23]
    (AP, 10/22/97)(SFC, 4/22/98, p.A8)

1954        Oct 23, In Paris, an agreement was signed providing for West German sovereignty and permitting West Germany to rearm and enter NATO and the Western European Union. Britain, England, France and USSR agreed to end occupation of Germany. [see Oct 22]
    (HN, 10/23/98)(MC, 10/23/01)

1954        Nov 30, Wilhelm Furtwangler (68), German conductor and composer, died. He was Hitler’s favorite conductor but was never a card carrying Nazi.
    (SFC, 1/3/97, p.C6)(MC, 11/30/01)

1954        Werner Haftmann (d.1999 at 87), German art historian, published "Painting of the 20th Century."
    (SFC, 7/30/99, p.D8)

1954        Otto John, the first head of West Germany’s Federal Bureau for the Protection of the Constitution - an intelligence agency, crossed over to East Berlin. He said he was kidnapped.
    (SFEC, 3/30/97, p.D5)

1955        Mar 25, E. Germany was granted full sovereignty by occupying power, USSR.
    (MC, 3/25/02)

1955        Apr 30, West German unions protested for 40-hour work week and more wages.
    (MC, 4/30/02)

1955        May 5, West Germany became a sovereign state.
    (AP, 5/5/97)

1955        May 6, West Germany joined NATO.
    (WSJ, 10/8/01, p.A14)(MC, 5/6/02)

1955        May 14, Representatives from eight Communist bloc countries: Soviet Union, Albania, Bulgaria, Czechoslovakia, East Germany, Hungary, Poland & Romania, signed the Warsaw Pact in Poland. Andras Hegedues signed for Hungary.
    (AP, 5/14/97)(SFC, 10/26/99, p.B4)(MC, 5/14/02)

1955        May 18, Edwin Scharff (68), German painter, sculptor (Rossebändiger), died.
    (SC, 5/18/02)

1955        Jun 30, The U.S. began funding West Germany’s rearmament.
    (HN, 6/30/98)

1955        Aug 12, Thomas Mann (80), German writer (Dr. Faustus, Nobel 1929), died. Two biographies of Mann were published in 1995: Thomas Mann: A Biography by Ronald Hayman and Thomas Mann: A Life by Donald Prater.
    (V.D.-H.K.p.367-368)(WSJ, 12/26/95, p. A-5)(MC, 8/12/02)

1955        Nov 16, Big Four talks, taking place in Geneva on German reunification, ended in failure.
    (HN, 11/16/98)

1955        Dec, Otto John returned to West Germany. He was charged with treason and in 1956 was convicted and sentenced to 4 years in prison.
    (SFEC, 3/30/97, p.D5)

1955        In Germany art professor Arnold Bode launched Documenta by to draw attention to works banned by the Nazis as degenerate. The "documenta x" art show, an exhibition of contemporary art began in Kassel under Werner Haftmann. It began a tradition with new shows every 4-5 years.
    (WSJ, 7/7/97, p.A12)(SFC, 7/30/99, p.D8)(AFP, 4/8/17)
1955        Germany established its Gastarbeiter (guest worker) program.
    (Econ, 1/5/08, SR p.14)
1955        The Bundeswehr, [West] Germany’s postwar conscript army, was established. It served first as West Germany's military and, since 1990, as that of the reunited Germany.
    (SFC, 4/30/98, p.A8)(AP, 11/27/08)
1955        In West Germany Wilhelm Karmann designed and built the Karmann-Ghia in cooperation with Volkswagen and Porsche.
    (SFC, 10/30/98, p.D4)
1955        In Dresden, East Germany, Manfred von Ardenne (d.1997 at 90) established a scientific institute. He had worked for the Soviets and innovated a process for splitting isotopes to enrich uranium, a vital part of Soviet nuclear bomb development.
    (SFC, 5/28/97, p.A17)
1955        In East Germany some Russian soldiers came down with a neurological disorder that was thought to be the result of CIA poisoning. It was found that the cause of illness was the eating of a rabid fox. East vs. West tensions of this time were later documented by 2 former spies and a director of Radio Liberty. David Murphy, Sergei Kondrashev and George Bailey in: "Battleground Berlin."
    (WSJ, 8/27/97, p.A10)
1955        The Bonn and Copenhagen declarations spelled out minority rights on the Danish-German borderlands.
    (https://tinyurl.com/y2vfo8j5)(Econ., 8/22/20, p.68)

1955-1962    East German spymaster Markus Wolf led spy operations over this time. He was charged in 1997 with kidnapping, coercion and causing bodily harm.
    (SFC, 1/8/97, p.A7)
1955-1969    Germany followed the Hallstein Doctrine named after Walter Hallstein. According to the doctrine, the Federal Republic of Germany had the exclusive right to represent the entire German nation, and with the exception of the Soviet Union, West Germany would not establish or maintain diplomatic relations with any state that recognized East Germany. The doctrine was first applied to Yugoslavia in 1957.
    (Econ, 3/22/08, p.59)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hallstein_Doctrine)

1956        Apr 3, German war criminals Hinrichsen, Ruhl, Siebens and Viebahn were freed.
    (MC, 4/3/02)

1956        Apr 13, Emil Nolde (b.1867 as Emil Hansen), German Expressionist painter, died. He was a member of the artist group Die Brucke.
    (Econ, 10/11/08, p.116)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Emil_Nolde)

1956        Apr 22, Soviet authorities exposed a secret Allied spy tunnel built a year earlier from Rudow in West Berlin to Alt-Glienicke in East Berlin. It had tapped into underground cables and operated for 11 months and 11 days intercepting Red Army communications.
    (SFC, 8/21/12, p.A3)

1956        May 29, Hermann Abendroth (73) German conductor (Gewandhausorkest), died.
    (SC, 5/29/02)

1956        Aug 14, Bertold Brecht (b.1898), German dramatist (Mother Courage), died. His first play was "Baal." He also wrote "The Resistable Rise of Arturo Ui," a satire on Hitler’s rise to power. In 1959 Prof. Martin Esslin (d.2002 at 83) authored "Brecht: A Choice of Evils."
    (WSJ, 10/3/96, p.A12)(SFEC, 8/10/97, DB p.15)(SFC, 2/28/02, p.A20)(MC, 8/14/02)
1956        Aug 14, Freiherr Constantine von Neurath, German foreign minister under Hitler (1932-38), died.
    (MC, 8/14/02)

1956        Oct 26, Walter Gieseking (60), German pianist and composer, died.
    (MC, 10/26/01)

1956        Oct 27, A Franco-German agreement was signed to transfer the Saar Basin to West Germany. France, Germany and Luxembourg agreed to canalize the Moselle River, connecting the steel industry with the Ruhr Valley. The Saar Treaty established that Saarland should be allowed to rejoin Germany. This took place on Jan 1, 1957.
    (EWH, 1968, p.1182)(http://www.wordiq.com/definition/Saarland)

1956        Nov 6, Pressure from the US and USSR effected a cease-fire in the Middle-East. The UN created an emergency force (UNEF) to supervise a cease fire. Britain’s PM Anthony Eden called French PM Guy Mollet to tell him that Britain was aborting operations in Egypt. German chancellor Konrad Adenauer, meeting with Mollet, remarked that Europe must unite to counter the influence of the United States.
    (TOH, 1982, p.1956)(EWH, 1968, p. 1242)(Econ, 7/29/06, p.24)

1956        Germany banned the Communist Party.
    (SFC, 3/31/01, p.A14)
1956        The German army, Bundeswehr, was created.
    (SFC, 6/11/96, p.A15)

1957        Jan 1, The state of Saarland, established in 1920 in accordance with the Treaty of Versailles, joined the Federal Republic of West Germany. The Nazis had called the area "Westmark." After World War II the Saarland had come under French administration.
    (Econ, 8/29/09, p.45)(http://www.wordiq.com/definition/Saarland)

1957        Feb 1, Friedrich von Paulus (66), German field marshal (Stalingrad), died.
    (MC, 2/1/02)

1957        Feb 16, LeVar Burton, (Roots, Star Trek Next Generation), was born in Landstuhl, Germany.
    (MC, 2/16/02)

1957        Mar 12, German DR accepted 22 Russian armed divisions.
    (MC, 3/12/02)

1957        Aug 11, Paul Hindemith's opera "Harmonie der Welt," premiered in Munich.
    (MC, 8/11/02)

1957        Oct 3, Willy Brandt was elected mayor of West Berlin.
    (MC, 10/3/01)

1957        Oct 22, Conrad Adenauer was re-elected chancellor of West-Germany.
    (MC, 10/22/01)

1957        German artist Heinz Mack founded the Zero magazine. Mack and Otto Piene invited artists like Günther Uecker to exhibit in their studio, and the three friends became the founding fathers of the Zero movement, seeking to overcome the pessimism of the postwar period and embrace technical progress, experimenting with light, high-tech materials and motion. In 2015 an exhibition at Berlin's Martin-Gropius-Bau museum featured work from co-founders Mack and Piene as well as Jean Tinguely, Lucio Fontana and Jef Verheyen.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Zero_%28art%29)(AP, 3/20/15)
1957        In East Germany Ruth Werner, Communist spy in Britain during WW II, authored a novel of her early years: "An Unusual Girl."
    (SFC, 7/11/00, p.A23)
1957        Germany’s independent central bank, Bundesbank, was founded. It became a trailblazer for modern central banks.
    (Economist, 10/6/12, p.87)
1957        In Zwickau, East Germany, the first Trabant car was manufactured.
    (SSFC, 6/17/07, p.A2)

1957-1989    Erich Mielke became the head of the East German Ministry of State Security, aka Stasi.
    (SFC, 5/26/00, p.D3)

1958        Aug 24, Leo Blech (87), German conductor and composer, died.
    (MC, 8/24/02)

1958        Nov 21, A Soviet-East German commission met in East Berlin to discuss the transfer to East German control of Soviet functions and end its occupation status in Berlin.
    (AP, 11/21/02)

1958        Dec 14, The United States, Britain and France rejected Soviet demands that they withdraw their troops from West Berlin and agreed to liquidate the Allied occupation in West Berlin.
    (AP, 12/14/02)

1958        William Manchester (d.2004), US historian and biographer, authored “The Arms of Krupp," a history of the German steel and munitions makers.
    (SFC, 6/2/04, B7)

1958        Marcel Reich-Ranicki, Polish-born Holocaust survivor, defected to West Germany. He was soon drawn into "Gruppe 47," the literary circle of Walter Jens and Heinrich Boll. In 1960 he joined Die Zeit as a literary critic.
    (SFC, 9/2/02, p.D5)

1959        May 1, West Germany introduced a 5 day work week.
    (MC, 5/1/02)

1959        May 19, Nicole Brown Simpson, Mrs. OJ Simpson (murdered), was born in Frankfurt, Germany.
    (MC, 5/19/02)

1959        Jul 1, Israeli Knesset agreed to weapon sales to West Germany.
    (MC, 7/1/02)

1959        Jul 6, Saar became part of the German Federal Republic.
    (MC, 7/6/02)

1959        Sep 28, Edward Albee’s play “The Zoo Story," written in 1958, opened in Berlin. In 1960 it opened in the US.
    (SFC, 12/31/08, p.E2)

1959        Nov 15, In Germany the Bad Godesberg Program, designed to broaden support for the Social Democratic Party, was ratified at an SPD party convention. For the first time the SPD forswore all Marxist ideas.

1959        Gunter Grass published his novel "The Tin Drum." It criticized German authorities for supplying arms to the Turkish government. An English translation was published in 1963.
    (SFC,10/21/97, p.A12)
1959        The process of “investor-state dispute settlement" (ISDS) first appeared in a bilateral trade agreement between Germany and Pakistan.
    (Econ, 10/11/14, p.78)

1960        Jan-Aug, 160,000 refugees crossed from East Germany to West Germany following food shortages. Soviet Premier Nikita Khrushchev ordered a wall 103 miles long and 12 feet high to be built with guards and barbed wire to stop the flow of refugees.
    (SFEC, 10/31/99, Z1 p.4)

1960        Mar 31, Joseph Haas (81), German opera composer (Totenmesse), died.
    (MC, 3/31/02)

1960        May, Israeli agents captured former SS Lt. Col. Adolf Eichmann living in Argentina.
    (WSJ, 4/28/97, p.A17)

1960        Jul 16, Albrecht von Kesselring (74), German field marshal (Italy), died.
    (MC, 7/16/02)

1960        Jul 21, Germany passed the Volkswagen law legislation privatizing Volkswagen. It capped a shareholder's voting rights at 20%, regardless of the number of shares held, and required a majority of 80% for "important decisions." It also gave Lower Saxony, the state in which Volkswagen is based, a controlling minority stake in the automaker. In 2007 the European Court ruled that the VW law had to go.
    (http://uk.reuters.com/article/businessNews/idUKL2232313720071023)(Econ, 6/14/08, p.82)

1960        Aug 18, Beatles gave their 1st public performance at Kaiser Keller in Hamburg.
    (MC, 8/18/02)

1960        Aug 30, East Germany imposed a partial blockade on West Berlin.
    (MC, 8/30/01)

1960        Sep 8, German DR limited access to East-Berlin for West Berliners.
    (MC, 9/8/01)

1960        Dec 20, Auschwitz-commandant Richard Baar was arrested in German FR.
    (MC, 12/20/01)

1960        Hans-Georg Gadamer (d.2002), German philosopher and influential in hermeneutics (the study of the understanding and meaning of texts), authored "Truth and Method."
    (SFC, 3/26/02, p.A24)
1960        Homag, a German firm for making wood-working machines, was founded in Schopfloch. Its shares were floated on the stock market in 2007.
    (Econ, 6/16/12, p.75)(http://www.homag.com/en-en/Pages/home.aspx)
1960        Germany paid 115 million Deutschmarks — equivalent to about $330 million in 2015 — as part of a treaty with Greece meant to compensate victims of Nazi atrocities, including Greek Jews.
    (AP, 3/22/15)

1961        Jun 25, US Pres. John F. Kennedy spoke from Berlin urging citizens “to recognize the possibilities of nuclear war in the missile age."
    (SSFC, 10/29/17, p.C2)

1961        Aug 12, East German troops began stringing barbed wire around East Berlin. In 2004 William F. Buckley authored "The Fall of the Berlin Wall." [see Aug 15]
    (WSJ, 3/18/04, p.D10)

1961        Aug 13, East Germany closed the Brandenberg Gate sealing off the border between the city's eastern and western sectors in order to halt the flight of refugees. Two days later, work began on the Berlin Wall.
    (HFA, '96, p.36)(TMC, 1994, p.1961)(AP, 8/13/97)(SSFC, 6/9/02, p.F4)

1961        Aug 14, An East German soldier, Hans Conrad Schuhmann (Schuman), jumped a 3-foot barbed wire barrier to West Berlin to join his family. His photograph made int’l. headlines. He committed suicide in 1998.
    (SFEC, 6/21/98, p.A25)(SFEC, 10/31/99, Z1 p.4)

1961        Aug 15, East German workers began building the Berlin Wall. The Berlin Wall stood at the front line of the Cold War. It cut off East Germans from the supposed ideological contamination of the West and stemmed the tide of people fleeing the country. In the 28 years that the Wall divided the city , more than 70 tunnels were built underneath the 156.4-km (97.2-mile) barrier and around 300 people managed to escape through them.
    (AP, 8/15/01)(AP, 11/7/19)

1961        Aug 16, Some 250,000 West Berliners demonstrated against East Berlin.
    (MC, 8/16/02)

1961        Aug 23, East Germany imposed new curbs on travel between West and East Berlin.
    (MC, 8/23/02)

1961        Aug 31, A concrete wall replaced the barbed wire fence that separated East and West Germany, it would be called the Berlin wall.
    (HN, 8/31/98)

1961        Oct 30, West Germany signed a guest-worker treaty with Turkey.
    (http://tinyurl.com/yakh2moo)(Econ, 9/2/17, p.43)

1961        Nov, In Germany Heinz Felfe (b.1918), the head of counter-intelligence at the Bundesnachrichtendienst (BND) and a veteran of the Nazi special forces, was arrested as an agent of the KGB.
    (Econ, 9/2/06, p.50)(http://tinyurl.com/jmnpe)

1961        Dec 15, Adolf Eichmann, the former German Gestapo official accused of a major role in the Nazi murder of 6 million Jews, was sentenced by a Jerusalem court to be hanged. Adolf Eichmann was the administrator of the so-called Final Solution and supervised the transportation of prisoners to concentration camps.
    (AP, 12/15/97)(HN, 12/15/98)

1961        Marshall Dill Jr. (d.2000 at 84) authored "Germany: A Modern History."
    (SFC, 9/6/00, p.D2)
1961        Fritz Fischer, German historian, authored “Griff nach der Weltmacht" (Bid for World Power).
    (Econ, 7/26/14, p.48)
1961        The German film "Flight to Berlin" was directed by Will Tremper.
    (SFC, 12/17/98, p.C11)
1961        Gerhard Richter (b.1932), German artist, defected to the West. By 2011 he was considered the world’s foremost living painter.
    (Econ, 10/8/11, p.104)
1961        Germany sold its state-owned Volkwagen car company. 60% of the cash from the sale was put into a national charitable foundation to support science.
    (Econ, 9/21/13, p.64)
1961        The stimulant fenethylline, a combination of amphetamine and theophylline, was developed by the German Degussa AG under the trade name Captagon to treat hyperactivity in children and was used for around 25 years as a milder alternative to amphetamine and related compounds. In 1981 it was listed as a schedule I controlled substance in the US, and became illegal in most countries in 1986 after being listed by the World Health Organization for international scheduling under the Convention on Psychotropic Substances.
    (https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Fenethylline)(Econ, 8/19/17, p.68)

1962        Feb 16, A North Sea flood disaster hit the coastal regions of Germany and in particular the city of Hamburg where 315 were killed. Helmut Schmidt, police senator of Hamburg, coordinated the rescue operations, commandeered the army to help and requested for emergency help throughout Europe.
    (https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/North_Sea_flood_of_1962)(Econ, 11/14/15, p.94)

1962        Aug 17, East German border guards shot and mortally wounded 18-year-old Peter Fechter, who had attempted to cross over the Berlin Wall into the western sector.
    (AP, 8/17/97)

1962        Dec 26, Eight East Berliners escaped to West Berlin, crashing through gates in an armor plated bus.
    (HN, 12/26/98)

1962        Jurgen Habermas (b.1929), German philosopher, authored “The Structural Transformation of the Public Sphere: An Inquiry into a Category of Bourgeois Society" (Strukturwandel der Öffentlichkeit. Untersuchungen zu einer Kategorie der bürgerlichen Gesellschaft). It was translated into English in 1989 by Thomas Burger and Frederick Lawrence.
    (http://tinyurl.com/z9y47fd)(Econ, 3/26/15, SR p.14)
1962        West German defense minister Franz Joseph Strauss tried to intimidate the Der Spiegel magazine for its unflaterring coverage of the army. Strauss was soon forced to sterpdown under public protest as the highest court backed a free media.
    (Econ, 6/21/14, p.53)
1962        Wolfgang Vogel, East Berlin lawyer and confidant to Erich Honnecker, secured the release of US pilot Gary Powers (captured 5/1/60) in exchange for Soviet spy Rudolf Abel. During his 30-year career he secured the release of more than 100 agents and helped shepherd nearly 34,000 political prisoners and 215,000 East Germans to freedom in the West. Powers, was returned to the West across the Glienicker Bridge in Potsdam, Germany, after being held for 21 months.
    (SFC, 11/30/96, p.A14)(SFEC, 7/27/97, p.T6)
1962        Aribert Heim (48) was charged by German authorities with killing hundreds of concentration inmates in Germany and Austria with lethal injections. He is thought to have evaded capture in Germany, Argentina, Denmark, Brazil and Spain. During WW II Heim earned the nickname of "Dr. Death" for experimenting on inmates at the Buchenwald and Mauthausen camps. In 1979 Heim was indicted in Germany in absentia on hundreds of counts of murder. In 2005 he was tracked to Spain. In 2009 new information indicated that he had died in Egypt in 1992.
    (AP, 10/15/05)(AP, 2/5/09)

1963        Jan 22, Gen. Charles de Gaulle and German Chancellor Konrad Adenauer signed the Franco-German "reconciliation treaty," aka the Elysee friendship treaty.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/France%E2%80%93Germany_relations)(AP, 1/22/18)

1963        Jan 16, Soviet Premier Nikita Khrushchev made a visit to the Berlin Wall from the East Berlin side, then delivered an address to the Communist leadership of East Germany at the SED Party Congress.

1963        Feb 20, Rolf Hochhuth's "Der Stellvertreter" (The Representative) premiered in Berlin. The work indicted Pope Pius XII for Nazi complicity during WW II. The Catholic Church was outraged at the portrayal of Pius XII as a war criminal. An English translation by Richard and Clara Winston was published as “The Deputy: A Play," by Grove Press in 1964. In 2002 The Deputy was made into the film “Amen." by Costa Gavras.
    (WSJ, 4/25/97, p.A18)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/The_Deputy)(Econ, 10/25/08, p.73)

1963        Jun 26, President Kennedy visited West Berlin, where he made his famous declaration: "Ich bin ein Berliner" (I am a Berliner) at the Berlin Wall. Rumors later spread that the misplaced article "ein" made an exact translation to say "I am a jelly donut."
    (AP, 6/26/97)(HN, 6/26/98)(SFC, 2/3/00, p.A25)

1963        Jun 28, Khrushchev visited East-Berlin.
    (MC, 6/28/02)

1963        Jun 29, Anne-Sophie Mutter, violinist (Berlin Phil), was born in Rheinfeldin, Germany.
    (MC, 6/29/02)

1963        Oct 2, W. German Chancellor Adenauer condemned western grain shipments to USSR.
    (MC, 10/2/01)

1963        Dec 20, The Berlin Wall was opened for the first time to West Berliners, who were allowed one-day visits to relatives in the Eastern sector for the holidays. Four thousand crossed the great wall of Berlin to visit relatives under a 17 day Christmas accord.
    (AP, 12/20/98)(HN, 12/20/98)
1963        Dec 20, The Frankfurt Auschwitz trials, known in German as der Auschwitz-Prozess, or der zweite Auschwitz-Prozess, (the "second Auschwitz trial") was a series of trials running from 20 December 1963 to 19 August 1965, charging 22 defendants under German criminal law for their roles in the Holocaust as mid- to lower-level officials in the Auschwitz-Birkenau death and concentration camp complex.

1963        Dec 28, Paul Hindemith (b.1895), German composer (Composer's World) and violist, died. His work included "Cardillac."
    (WUD, 1994, p.672)(WSJ, 8/20/96, p.A8)(MC, 12/28/01)

1963        Playwright Rolf Hochhuth produced "The Deputy." The work indicted Pope Pius XII for Nazi complicity during WW II.
    (WSJ, 4/25/97, p.A18)
1963        The German film "Delay in Marienborn" was directed by Will Tremper.
    (SFC, 12/17/98, p.C11)
1963        Ludwig Erhard, head of the Christian Democratic Union, replaced Konrad Adenauer as Chancellor and served to 1966.
    (AP, 11/21/05)

1964        Jan 28, The Soviets downed a U.S. jet over East Germany killing three.
    (HN, 1/28/99)

1964        Apr 20, August Sander (b.1876), German photographer, died. He attempted to make a complete portrait survey of 20th century German society. His “Face of Our Time," a volume of 60 photographs, was published in 1929.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/August_Sander)(WSJ, 6/3/04, p.D8)(Econ, 8/29/09, p.74)

1964        Oct 3-4, East Berliners dug a 470-foot tunnel, Tunnel 57, to the West and 57 people escaped.
    (SFEC, 6/20/99, p.T5)(SSFC, 6/24/01, p.A27)

1964        Oct 5, Egon Shultz, an East German border soldier, was shot to death at the site of the escape tunnel. A 1994 report said he was inadvertently killed by another border soldier.
    (SSFC, 6/24/01, p.A27)

1964        Oct 6, Richard Scheibe, German sculptor (Adler mit Hakenkreuz), died at 85.
    (MC, 10/6/01)

1964        The one millionth guest worker arrived in Germany.
    (SFC, 8/29/97, p.A18)

1965        Feb 26, West Germany ceased military aid to Tanzania.
    (SC, 2/26/02)

1965        Mar 14, Israel's cabinet formally approved establishing diplomatic relations with West Germany.
    (AP,  3/14/99)

1965        Mar 25, West German Bondsdag extended war crimes retribution.
    (MC, 3/25/02)

1965        May 12, West Germany and Israel exchanged letters establishing diplomatic relations.
    (AP, 5/12/97)

1965        May 13, Several Arab nations broke ties with West Germany after it established diplomatic relations with Israel.
    (MC, 5/13/02)

1965        Aug 19, Auschwitz trials ended with only 6 life sentences. In 2016 documents and recordings of the trials were submitted to the UN cultural agency.

1965        Sep 2, The Treblinka trial in Dusseldorf ended.
    (MC, 9/2/01)

1965        Dec 3, Katarina Witt, figure skater (Olympic-Gold-1984, 88), was born in Staaken, GDR.
    (MC, 12/3/01)

c1965        Sigmar Polke created his work "Potato Heads: Nixon and Khrushchev."
    (WSJ, 4/7/99, p.A20)

1965        Werner Tubke, German artist, created his painting “Reminiscences of Schulze, JD III."
    (WSJ, 2/10/09, p.D7)

1966        May 18, Paul Altheas (78), German theologist (That Christian Wahrheit), died.
    (SC, 5/18/02)

1966        Jun 12, Hermann Scherchen (74), German conductor, music publisher, died.
    (MC, 6/12/02)

1966        Sep 17, Fritz Wunderlich, charismatic German tenor (Stuttgart 1955-58), died at 35 from falling down stairs, two months short of his Met Opera debut.
    (MC, 9/17/01)

1966        Sep 30, Nazi war criminals Albert Speer, the German minister of armaments, and Baldur von Schirach, the founder of the Hitler Youth, were freed at midnight from Spandau prison after serving twenty-year prison sentences. In 2002 Joachim Fest authored the biography: "Speer: The final Verdict."
    (www.weymouthhistoricalsociety.org/September.htm)(SSFC, 10/6/02, p.M3)

1966        Oct 17, Wieland Wagner, German opera director and grandson of Richard Wagner, died.
    (MC, 10/17/01)

1966        Dec 1, West German Chancellor Ludwig Erhard (1897-1977) resigned following the breakup of a coalition of the CDU, CSU and FDP. He was succeeded by Kurt Georg Kiesinger (CDU), who formed a grand coalition with the SPD.
    (Econ, 7/14/12, p.45)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ludwig_Erhard)

1966        Ludwig Boelkow (d.2003) founded the German "Airbus Studio" that he took with him to the Paris Airshow at Le Bourget, for the first time suggesting a Franco-German, or even a European consortium could build an airliner to rival U.S.-made jets.
    (AP, 7/28/03)
1966        In Germany the Graf Bismarck coal mine in Gelsenkirchen closed down.
    (Econ, 3/31/12, p.63)

1966-1969    Kurt Georg Kiesinger (d.1988), head of the Christian Democratic Union, served as West German chancellor.
    (AP, 11/21/05)

1966-1973    Helmut Kohl served as the chairman of the Christian Democratic Union in his home state of Rhineland-Palatinate.
    (WSJ, 1/19/00, p.A18)

1967        Mar 26, Herbert von Karajan founded the Salzburg Easter Festival with the idea of staging his ideal Ring of the Nibelung with his own Berlin Philharmonic Orchestra.
    (WSJ, 4/12/96, p.A-12)

1967        Apr 19, Conrad Adenauer (b.1876), West Germany chancellor (1949-63), died.

1967        Jun 2, In Germany Benno Ohnesorg, a newly wed student of literature, was shot in the back of the head during a protest in West Berlin against the visiting shah of Iran. Police officer Karl-Heinz Kurras, who claimed he was threatened by knife-wielding protesters, was acquitted of manslaughter charges on Nov 23. The led to the formation of the Red Army Faction, also known as the Baader-Meinhof gang. In 2009 Kurras was found to have been a long-time agent of East Germany’s secret police, the Stasi.
    (Econ, 5/30/09, p.52)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Gudrun_Ensslin)

1967        Jul 30, Alfred Krupp (59), German industrialist, died.
    (MC, 7/30/02)

1967        Sep, The British, French and German governments signed a Memorandum of Understanding (MoU) to start development of the 300 seat Airbus A300 in order to compete with American companies. Airbus Industrie was formally set up in 1970.

1967        In East Germany Soviet Troops founded the Museum of the Unconditional Surrender of Fascist Germany in the Great Patriotic War of 1941-1945.
    (SFEC, 1/16/00, BR p.3)

1967        The Bruecke-Museum was founded in Berlin.
    (SSFC, 4/21/02, p.A17)

1967        In Marburg, Germany, a disease believed to be caused from African monkeys infected 31 people in a laboratory. The virus came to be called the Marburg virus. Seven people died in Germany and Yugoslavia from the virus. It was traced to infected vervet monkeys from Uganda cut up for polio research.
    (SFC, 5/7/99, p.D2)(Econ, 8/18/07, p.40)

1968        Feb 18, Some 10,000 people in West Berlin demonstrated against US in Vietnam War.

1968        Apr 2, In West Germany the Baader-Meinhof gang was formed and named after its founders, Andreas Baader (d.1977) and Ulrike Meinhof (d.1976). Both later committed suicide in prison. The gang became known as the Red Army Faction and led assassinations, bombings and bank robberies in West Germany through the 1970s and 1980s. The RAF published a letter to Reuters in 1998 and declared to have disbanded.
    (SFC, 4/21/98, p.A18)(www.baader-meinhof.com/timeline/1968.html)

1968        Apr 6, East German voters approved a new socialist constitution by a 94.5% margin.

1968        Apr 11, Riots erupted in West Berlin after the shooting of student leader Rudi Dutschke (1940-1979). He survived the assassination attempt by a right-wing extremist, living for another twelve years until related health problems caused his death.
    (WUD, 1994, p.1687)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Rudi_Dutschke)

1968        May 25, George KFW von Kuchler (1881-1968), German marshal, died. Kuchler’s forces moved into Belgium and occupied Antwerp on 18 May 1940.

1968        May 30, Authorities blew up the University Church in Leipzig, Germany, to make room for the re¬construction of Karl-Marx-Platz, the city’s main square.

1968        Jul 20, Joseph Keilberth (b.1908), German conductor (Bayreuth Festival), died.

1968        Aug 3, The Bratislava statement conceded Czechoslovakia’s right to pursue its own path. The conference was held in Bratislava, Slovakia, for representatives of the communist and workers' parties of the People's Republic of Bulgaria, the Hungarian People's Republic, the German Democratic Republic, the Polish People's Republic, the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics, and the Czechoslovak Socialist Republic.
    (WUD, 1994, p.1687)(http://library.thinkquest.org/C001155/documents/doc41.htm)

1968        Nov 26, Arnold Zweig (81), German antifascist and author (Junge frau 1914), died.
    (MC, 11/26/01)

1969        Feb 26, Karl Jaspers (b.1883), German psychiatrist, philosopher, died.

1969        Feb 27, Thousands of students protested President Nixon's arrival in Rome. Nixon visited West Berlin.
    (HN, 2/27/98)(MC, 2/27/02)

1969        Mar 5, Gustav Heinemann was elected West German President.
    (HN, 3/5/98)

1969        May 2, Franz JHMM von Papen (b.1879), German chancellor (1932), died.

1969        Jul 5, Wilhelm Backhaus (b.1884), German pianist (Rubinstein-1905), died.
1969        Jul 5, Walter Gropius (b.1883), architect, founder (Bauhaus school of design), died.

1969        Jul 7, Der Spiegel revealed Munich's Bishop Defregger as a war criminal. Charges against Defregger were dropped in 1970.

1969        Aug 6, Theodor Adorno, German philosopher, died of a heart attack. In 2008 Detlev Claussen authored “Theodor W. Adorno: One Last Genius."
    (WSJ, 4/18/08, p.W5)(www.kirjasto.sci.fi/adorno.htm)

1969        Sep 30, Nazi war criminals Albert Speer, the German minister of armaments, and Baldur von Schirach, the founder of the Hitler Youth, were freed at midnight from Spandau prison after serving twenty-year prison sentences. In 2002 Joachim Fest authored the biography: "Speer: The final Verdict."
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Albert_Speer)(SSFC, 10/6/02, p.M3)

1969        Dec, The world premier of "Requiem for a Young Poet" by Bernd Alois Zimmermann (1918-1970) was conducted by Michael Gielen in Dusseldorf. Zimmermann committed suicide 9 moths later.
    (WSJ, 4/20/99, A20)(http://tinyurl.com/9eknvf)

1969        German artist Anselm Kiefer created his work "Untitled (Heroic Symbols)."
    (WSJ, 1/4/98, p.A8)
1969        Germany passed a set of labeling laws similar to the French 1935 Appellation d’Origine Controlee (controlled place of origin). The AOC laws were meant to protect growers and properly identify a wine’s origin. They were not intended as an indicator of quality.
    (SFC, 1/8/97, zz-1 p.4)
1969        Germany decriminalized homosexuality.
    (Reuters, 3/22/17)

1969-1974    Willy Brandt (1913-1992), head of the Social Democratic Party, served as the West German chancellor.
    (AP, 11/21/05)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Willy_Brandt)

1970        Mar 19, Willy Brandt and Willi Stoph met for the first East-West Germany summit in Berlin.
    (HN, 3/19/98)

1970        May 14, In West Germany Andreas Baader, a rabid opponent of the Vietnam War, broke out of prison with the help of gang members including Ulrike Meinhof.
    (WSJ, 4/3/09, p.A15)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ulrike_Meinhof)

1970        Jun 3, Hjalmar Horace Greeley Schacht (b.1877), President of Germany’s Reichsbank (1933-1939), minister of Economics (1934-1936), died. Schacht was tried for crimes against peace in Nuremberg in 1946. His defense was that he was only a banker and economist.

1970        Sep 25, Erich M. Remarque (b.1898), German writer, died. His books included “Im West Nichts Neues" (All Quiet on the Western Front), 1929.

1970        Dec 7, Poland and West Germany signed a pact renouncing use of force to settle disputes, recognizing the Oder-Neisse River as Poland's western frontier, and acknowledging transfer to Poland of 40,000 square miles of former German territory.
    (HN, 12/7/98)

1970        Dec 22, Treblinka SS commander Franz Stangl (b.1908) was sentenced to life in prison. He was responsible for the murder of approximately 900,000 people in the period 1941-1943.

1970        Anselm Kiefer created his work "Everyone Stands Under His Own Dome of Heaven."
    (WSJ, 1/4/98, p.A8)

1970        The German film "How Did a Nice Girl Like You Get Into This Business" was directed by Will Tremper (e.1998 at 70).
    (SFC, 12/17/98, p.C11)
1970        German film director Rainer Werner Fassbinder made "Rio das Mortes."
    (SFC, 7/1/97, p.E5)

1970        Legislators in Germany’s state of Hesse drafted the world’s first data-protection law.
1970        Airbus Industrie was formally set up following an agreement between Aerospatiale (France) and Deutsche Aerospace (Germany). In 1971 it was joined by CASA (Spain). The name "Airbus" was taken from a nonproprietary term used by the airline industry in the 1960s to refer to a commercial aircraft of a certain size and range, as term was acceptable to the French linguistically.

1971        May 29, Max Trapp (b.1887), German composer, died in Berlin (other sources say he died May 31).

1971        Aug 14, Georg von Opel (b.1912), German auto manufacturer, died.

1971        Aug 18, In Germany a twin-engine Boeing CH‐47A Chinook exploded in mid-air before plunging about (180 meters) 600 feet to the ground. The helicopter's crew of four and 33 members of the 56th Artillery Brigade died in the crash in Pegnitz, Bavaria. This was the worst training accident involving American troops in West Germany since the end of World War II.
    (AP, 8/18/21)

1971        Sep 3, The Quadripartite Agreement on Berlin, between the United States, the Soviet Union, the United Kingdom and France. ended a long time source of tension.
    (WUD, 1994, p. 1688)(http://usa.usembassy.de/etexts/ga5-710903.htm)

1971        Oct 20, Willy Brandt, West German Chancellor, was awarded the Nobel Peace Prize for beginning the German reunification.
    (WUD, 1994, p. 1688)(http://nobelprize.org/peace/laureates/1971/brandt-cv.html)

1971        Milli Gorus, an Islamic Turkish community organization, was founded in Germany as Turkische Union Deutschland.

1972        Jan 29, In Bonn, West Germany's Chancellor Willy Brandt, and the leaders of the ten Bundesländer (states) agreed upon the "Radikalenerlass", a decree to bar any known radical from government employment.

1972        Apr 25, Hans-Werner Grosse (b.1922), German glider pilot, glided 907.7 miles (1,461 km) in an AS-W-12.

1972        April 27, The German opposition took advantage of the crumbling Bundestag majority of the social-liberal coalition to bring a vote of no-confidence against Willy Brandt. In a secret vote, Rainer Barzel failed to achieve the required majority in the Bundestag and Willy Brandt remained Federal Chancellor.

1972        Jun 7, German Chancellor Willy Brandt began a 5-day visit to Israel.

1972        Jun 15, Ulrike Meinhof (1934-1976), co-leader of the Baader-Meinhof gang, was arrested in West Germany.
    (SFC, 1/10/01, p.A8)(WSJ, 4/3/09, p.A15)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ulrike_Meinhof)

1972        Aug 26, The XX Olympiad opened in Munich, Germany. The IOC had withdrawn Rhodesia’s invitation to the summer Olympics after several African nations threatened a boycott.

1972        Sep 4, U.S. swimmer Mark Spitz won a record seventh Olympic gold medal in the 400-meter relay at the Munich Summer Olympics.
    (AP, 9/4/97)

1972        Sep 5, Terror struck the Munich Olympic games in West Germany as Arab guerrillas attacked the Israeli delegation. Palestinian terrorists killed 2 athletes and took 9 others and their coaches hostage. Eleven Israelis, five guerrillas and a police officer were killed in a 20-hour siege. The Palestinian commandos were linked to Carlos the Jackal, aka Ilich Ramirez Sanchez. In 1984 George Jonas authored “Vengeance," an account of an Israeli hit squad ordered to track down those responsible for the Munich attack. In 2000 the TV documentary "One Day in September" depicted the events. In 2005 Aaron J. Klein authored “Striking Back," and account of Israel’s response to the Munich attack. The 2005 the Stephen Spielberg film “Munich" was based on the book by George Jonas.
    (SFC,12/11/97, p.C2)(WSJ, 9/8/00, p.W4)(WSJ, 12/21/05, p.D10)(WSJ, 1/14/06, p.A9)

1972        Sep 6, The Summer Olympics resumed in Munich, West Germany, a day after the deadly hostage crisis that claimed the lives of 11 Israelis and five Arab abductors.
    (AP, 9/6/97)

1972        Sep 10, At the Munich Summer Olympics, the US Olympic basketball team lost to the Soviets, 51-50, in a gold-medal match marked by controversy because officials ordered the final three seconds of the game replayed, enabling the Soviets to win. The US protested, to no avail. Frank Shorter of the United States won the men's marathon at the Munich Olympics.
    (AP, 9/10/02)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/1972_Summer_Olympics)

1972        Sep 11, The 20th Olympic games closed at Munich, German FR.
    (AP, 9/11/00)

1972        Oct 29, Hijackers of a German Lufthansa passenger jet demanded the release of the three surviving terrorists, who had been arrested after the Fürstenfeldbruck gunfight and were being held for trial. They forced West Germany to release 3 terrorists who were involved in the Munich Massacre.

1972        Nov 19, Willy Brandt's SPD won West German elections. Willy Brandt was the 1st German chancellor to seek early elections via a vote of confidence.
    (http://tinyurl.com/bs7oe)(Econ, 6/11/05, p.49)

1972          Dec 2, Friedrich Christian Christiansen (92), German Luftwaffe general, died. He was born at Wyk on Foehr, Germany, on December 12, 1879. Christiansen was appointed officer commanding occupied Holland, a post he held until the end of the war when he was imprisoned by the Allies. On his release from prison he retired to West Germany and died at Innien.

1972        Dec 3, A Spantax Convair 990A charter carrying West German tourists crashed in Tenerife, Canary Island, and 155 died.

1972        Dec 7-1972 Dec 8, Two skeletons were found on the Ulap fairgrounds in Berlin. They were later identified as Hitler's deputy Martin Bormann (1900-1945) and Ludwig Stumpfegger, one of Hitler’s doctors.

1972        German film director Rainer Werner Fassbinder made "The Bitter Tears of Petra von Kant."
    (WSJ, 1/14/97, p.A16)
1972        The biopic film "The Death of Maria Malibran" was by the German director Werner Schroeter.
    (SFC, 7/28/97, p.E3)
1972        Heinrich Boll (1917-1985) of West Germany won the Nobel Prize in Literature.
    (AP, 10/8/09)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Heinrich_B%C3%B6ll)

1973        Apr 16, Istvan Kertesz (b.1929), Hungarian-born German conductor, drowned. Kertész was the principal conductor of the London Symphony Orchestra from 1965 to 1968,

1973        May 18, Russian party leader Brezhnev visited West Germany.

1973        May 28, Hans Schmidt-Isserstedt (b.1900), German composer and conductor, died.

1973        Jun 9, Erich von Manstein (b.1887), one of Hitler’s WW II field marshals, died in Bavaria. In 1958 he authored his autobiography “Lost Victories."
    (WSJ, 10/7/06, p.P12)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Erich_von_Manstein)

1973        Jul 6, Otto Klemperer (b.1885), German-born conductor and composer, died in Zurich. He had taken United States citizenship in 1937 and Israeli citizenship in 1970.
    (WSJ, 8/20/96, p.A8)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Otto_Klemperer)

1973        Aug 7, Hermine Braunsteiner Ryan (1919-1999) became the first Nazi war criminal extradited from the United States to Germany. A US judge had certified her extradition to the Secretary of State on May 1, 1973. She became the first Nazi war criminal to be extradited from the US. The NY Times had exposed the local housewife in 1964 as a former guard at the Nazi Majdanek death camp in Poland.
    (SSFC, 4/4/10, Par. p.4)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hermine_Braunsteiner)

1973        Oct 1, An East German border order to border guards from the Ministry for State Security, or Stasi, said: “Do not hesitate with the use of a firearm, including when the border breakouts involve women and children, which the traitors have already frequently taken advantage of." The order was made public in 2007.
    (AP, 8/11/07)

1973        German film director Rainer Werner Fassbinder made "Martha," based on a story by American writer Cornell Woolrich.
    (SFC, 7/24/97, p.E3)
1973        Musica Antiqua Köln was founded by violinist Reinhard Goebel.
    (WSJ, 3/28/97, p.A14)
1973        Germany shut the door to new guest workers, who were mostly Turks, which encouraged migrants to import their families.
    (Econ, 4/5/08, p.32)
1973        Lidl began operating in Germany as a grocery chain. The company was founded in the 1940s by a member of the Schwarz family, and was called Schwarz Lebensmittel-Sortimentsgroßhandlung (Schwarz Assorted Wholesale Foods). By 2015 it was one of the world’s biggest “deep discount" grocers. 
    (Econ., 3/14/15, p.66)

1973-1998    Helmut Kohl served as the chairman of the National Christian Democratic Union.
    (WSJ, 1/19/00, p.A18)

1974        Feb 3, Charlotte Buehler (b.1893), German developmental psychologist, died in Stuttgart. Her work in Vienna helped develop response testing techniques to calibrate child development.
    (https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Charlotte_B%C3%BChler)(Econ, 12/24/16, p.29)

1974        May 7, West German chancellor W. Brandt (1913-1992) resigned. A bizarre spy scandal brought Brandt down after 4 years in office.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Willy_Brandt)(WSJ, 9/11/03, p.D10)

1974        May 16, Helmut Schmidt (b.1918), head of the Social Democratic Party became the West German chancellor and served until October 1, 1982.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Helmut_Schmidt)(AP, 11/21/05)(SFC, 5/31/00, p.A10)

1974        Jun 26, German regulators forced the troubled Bank Herstatt into liquidation. A number of banks had released payment of Deutsche Marks (DEM) to Herstatt in Frankfurt in exchange for US Dollars (USD) that was to be delivered in New York. Because of time-zone differences, Herstatt ceased operations between the times of the respective payments. The counterparty banks did not receive their USD payments.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Herstatt_Bank)(Econ, 9/21/13, p.81)

1974        Jul 1, Walter Scheel (b.1919) began serving as the 4th President of the Federal Republic of Germany and continued to 1979.
    (Econ, 1/12/13, p.45)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Walter_Scheel)

1974        Aug 8, Baldur von Schirach (b.1907), Nazi youth leader, died.

1974        Sep 4, The US & German DR established diplomatic relations.

1974        Oct 9, Czech-born German businessman Oskar Schindler, credited with saving about 1,200 Jews during the Holocaust, died in Frankfurt, West Germany; at his request, he was buried in Jerusalem. His wife Emilie died in 2001.
    (AP, 10/9/99)(SSFC, 10/7/01, p.A29)

1974        Nov 16, Walther Meissner (b.1882), German physicist (Meissner Effect), died.

1974        Joseph Beuys (1921-1986), German artist, created his performance piece: "I like America, and America likes Me," in which he lived with a coyote in a New York gallery for 5 days.
    (SFEC, 8/31/97, BR p.8)

1974        German film director Rainer Werner Fassbinder made "Ali: Fear Eats the Soul."
    (WSJ, 1/14/97, p.A16)(SFC, 7/1/97, p.E5)

1974        Holger Meins, an imprisoned member of the Red Army Faction, died while on a hunger strike.
    (WSJ, 1/11/00, p.A1)

1975        Feb 24, Hans Bellmer (b.1902), German surrealist artist, died in Paris. He made paper-mache female dolls and photographed them in skewed configurations.
    (NW, 2/18/02, p.70)(www.artnet.com/Magazine/reviews/oisteanu/oisteanu3-14-05.asp)

1975        Apr 24, Hanna Krabbe (b.1945), a German Red Army faction guerrilla, took part in a Baader-Meinhof gang attack on the German embassy in Stockholm in which two German diplomats died. German chancellor Helmut Schmidt approved the storming of the building by Swedish police. Krabbe was arrested and sentenced to 21 years confinement and was released in 1996.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/West_German_embassy_siege)(SFC, 5/11/96, p.A-9)

1975        May 21, The trial against the Baader-Meinhof gang began in Stuttgart.

1975        Jul 6, Otto Skorzeny (b.1908), German-Austrian SS officer, died. He was the commando leader who rescued Italian dictator Benito Mussolini from imprisonment after his overthrow.

1975        Jul 8, Israeli premier Yitzhak Rabin began a 4-day visit to West-Germany.

1975        Aug 17, Sig Arno (b.1895), German film actor (My Friend Irma), died in Hamburg, Germany.

1975        Nov 15, The first Summit of 6 leading industrialist nations, G-6, met in Rambouillet, France, for discussions on currency and oil prices. The Group of Six included leaders from Britain, France, Germany, Italy, Japan and the United States. They were joined a year later by Canada making the "G7". The group was originally established as a vehicle for leading industrialized democracies to discuss the global economy. It later expanded its scope to issues such as peace, the environment and terrorism. Russia, which attended the summit as a guest in 1992, was in 1998 allowed for the first time to attend all summit meetings. The grouping was officially renamed the "G8". In 2014 Vladimir Putin's Russia was suspended from the G8 after it annexed Ukraine's Crimea peninsula and sanctions were imposed on Moscow.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/1st_G6_summit)(SFC, 6/20/97, p.A16)(AFP, 6/9/18)

1975        The German film Ali: "Fear Eats the Soul" was directed by Reiner Werner Fassbinder.
    (SFEC, 10/11/97, DB p.35)

1975        German film director Rainer Werner Fassbinder made "Fox and His Friends."
    (WSJ, 1/14/97, p.A16)(SFC, 7/1/97, p.E5)

1975        Richard Weize of Hamburg founded Bear Family Records, dedicated to the preservation of American country music.
    (WSJ, 9/11/98, p.W3)

1975        With the fall of Saigon about 10,000 Vietnamese arrived in west Germany.
    (SFC, 9/15/96, p.A14)

1975-1985    Lothar Kipke served as the head doctor of the East German Swimming Federation and oversaw a program of doping swimmers with anabolic steroids. In 2000 he was convicted on charges of doping and causing bodily harm to 58 swimmers. Other former officials were also scheduled for trial.
    (SFEC, 2/6/00, p.A1,14)

1976        Feb 1, Werner C. Heisenberg (b.1901), physicist and Nobel Prize winner (1932), died in Germany. In 1993 Thomas Powers authored "Heisenberg’s War," in which he argued that Heisenberg destroyed the German atomic project from within. Niels Bohr later countered the argument with personal documentation.
    (SFC, 2/7/02, p.A2)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Werner_Heisenberg)

1976        Apr 1, Max Ernst (b.1891), German-French surrealist painter, sculptor, died in Paris.

1976        May 9, Ulrike Meinhof (b.1934), co-leader of the Baader-Meinhof gang, committed suicide in German prison.
    (SFC, 1/10/01, p.A8)(WSJ, 4/3/09, p.A15)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ulrike_Meinhof)

1976        May 26, Martin Heidegger (b.1889), German philosopher (Holzweg), died in West Germany. His work included "Being and Time" (1927).

1976        Aug 15, Former SS Colonel Herbert Kappler dramatically escaped from prison hospital in Rome with the aid of his wife and taken to Germany.

1976        Aug 22, Oskar Brusewitz (b.1929), East German Lutheran vicar, died after having set himself on fire on August 18 to protest the repression of religion.

1976        Paul Bowles, German composer and writer who lived in Tangiers, wrote his short story Allal. In 1996 three of Bowles’ stories were made into a film titled "Halfmoon" by Frieder Schlaich and Irene von Alberti. Bertolucci had earlier transferred his novel "The Sheltering Sky" into film. A biography of Bowles by Millicint Dillon, "You Are Not I: A Portrait of Paul Bowles" was published in 1998.
    (SFC, 6/14/96, p. C3)(SFEC, 4/5/98, BR p.3)
1976        Ruth Werner, Communist spy in Britain during WW II, authored her autobiography in East Germany: "Sonya’s Report."
    (SFC, 7/11/00, p.A23)
1976        Georg Frey (b.1902), Bavarian clothing manufacturer, died. He assembled a collection of 90,000 beetles from around the globe before his death in this year. As a wealthy businessman, Frey was able to create (in 1950) his own Coleoptera museum, the Museum G. Frey, which has long been recognized as the world's largest and most extensive private collection of beetles.
    (WSJ, 8/17/95, p.B-1)(http://www-museum.unl.edu/research/entomology/workers/GFrey.htm)
1976        Denmark joined forces with Germany and Sweden to form the Maximator alliance to intercept and decipher messages sent by satellite. Netherlands joined in 1978 and France joined in 1985.
    (Econ., 5/30/20, p.43)

1977        Jan 11, France set off an international uproar by releasing Abu Daoud, a Palestinian suspected of involvement in the massacre of Israeli athletes at the 1972 Munich Olympics. In 1999 Mohammed Oudeh, aka Abu Daoud, published an autobiography in France in which he admitted to playing a mastermind role in the 1972 Munich hostage episode.
    (AP, 1/11/98)(SFC, 6/14/99, p.A14)

1977        Apr 7, The RAF gunned down Siegfried Bubeck, a West German federal prosecutor, his driver, Wolfgang Goebel, and the guard Georg Wurster. In 2009 police, using new DNA evidence, arrested Verena Becker (57), a former German leftist terrorist on suspicion of involvement in the slayings. Becker had been arrested a month after the ambush, following a shootout with police. Prosecutors at the time did not have enough evidence to try her on charges of involvement in the Buback slaying, but convicted her of armed robbery and attempted murder stemming from the shootout. She was sentenced to life in prison. In 1989 she was pardoned of those charges by German Pres. Richard von Weizsaecker and released from prison. In 2010 Becker was charged with 3 counts of murder for her alleged role in the fatal 1977 ambush.
    (WSJ, 1/11/00, p.A8)(AP, 8/28/09)(AP, 4/21/10)

1977        Apr 28, Andreas Baader and members of Baader-Meinhof gang, also known as the "Red Army Faction," were jailed for life after a trial lasting nearly 2 years in Stuttgart, Germany.

1977        May 5, Ludwig Erhard (b.1897)), German minister of Economic Affairs (CDU), died.

1977        Aug 23, Marxist philosopher Rudolf Bahro was imprisoned in German DR.

1977        Sep 5, West German industrialist Hanns-Martin Schleyer was kidnapped in Cologne by members of the Baader-Meinhof gang. His security escorts were killed. Schleyer was later killed by his captors. Schleyer was the president of the German Employers Federation.
    (AP, 9/5/97)(WSJ, 1/11/00, p.A1,8)

1977        Oct 13, A Lufthansa Boeing 737, bound for Frankfurt, was hijacked by Palestinians shortly after take-off. The plane is diverted to Rome's Fiumicino Airport. Almost all of the passengers are German vacationers. "This is Captain Martyr Mohammed speaking," announces one of the hijackers to the Rome air-traffic controllers. "The group I represent demands the release of our comrades in German prisons [see Oct 18].

1977        Oct 18, In West Germany 3 Baader-Meinhof gang members killed themselves in prison. Gudrun Ensslin (b.1940), a founding leader of the Red Army Faction (RAF), died in prison. Ensslin's life story was later fictionalized in the film “Marianne and Juliane" (1981). This date was later used as a title by artist Gerhard Richter in a 1988 suite of 15 pictures. He created the series of paintings titled "October 18, 1977" regarded by many as a "eulogy or requiem" for the Baader-Meinhof group. In 1985 Stefan Aust authored “The Baader-Meinhof Complex." In 2009 Aust published an updated version titled Baader-Meinhof: the Inside Story of the R.A.F."
    (WSJ, 10/11/01, p.A19)(WSJ, 3/1/02, p.A11)(WSJ, 4/3/09, p.A15)(Econ, 5/30/09, p.52)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Gudrun_Ensslin)
1977        Oct 18, West German commandos stormed a hijacked Lufthansa jetliner that was on the ground in Mogadishu, Somalia, freeing all 86 hostages and killing three of the four hijackers, Palestinians of the Popular Front for the Liberation of Palestine. In 1996 Suhaila al-Sayeh was sentenced to 12 years in prison by a German court.
    (SFC, 11/20/96, p.A17)(AP, 10/17/07)

1977        Oct 19, The body of West German industrialist Hanns Martin Schleyer, who had been kidnapped by left-wing extremists, was found in the trunk of a car in Mulhouse, France.
    (AP, 10/19/97)

1977        German writer Gunter Grass (1927-2015) authored his novel “The Flounder."
    (Econ., 4/18/15, p.86)
1977        A documentary was made on film director Rainer Werner Fassbinder.
    (WSJ, 1/14/97, p.A16)
1977        Rudolf Bahro (d.1997 at 62), Marxist reformer, smuggled his book out of East Germany and was arrested and sentenced to 8 years in prison. He wrote: "The Alternative: A Criticism of the Real Socialism." He was released in 1979 and allowed to resettle in West Germany in 1980.
    (SFC,12/12/97, p.B12)
1977        German scientist Gunther von Hagens (b.1945) developed the technique of “plastination" to preserve bodies or body parts.

1978        Apr 7, A Gutenberg bible sold for a record $2.2 million in NYC. It was bought by Martin Breslauer for the state museum of Baden Wurttemberg.

1978        May 31, Hanna Hoch (b.1889), German photomontage artist of the Berlin Dada movement, died. Her work included "Cut With the Kitchen Knife Dada Through the Last Weimar Beer-Belly Epoch of Germany," (1919-1920).
    (SFC, 3/25/97, p.E3)(SSFC, 1/27/02, p.C7)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hannah_H%C3%B6ch)

1978        Aug 26, Sigmund Jahn became the first German in space when he blasted off aboard Russia’s Soyuz 31.
    (RTH, 8/26/99)

1978        Sep 15, Willy Messerschmitt (b.1898), German aircraft builder, died in Munich.

1978        Sep 19, Rolf Gunther, East German priest, died from self immolation.
    (MC, 9/19/01)

1978        Dec 11, Six masked men bound 10 employees at Lufthansa cargo area at NY Kennedy Airport & made off with $5.8 M in cash & jewelry. Nicholas Pileggi wrote "Wise Guys," which described his participation in the heist. The robbery inspired the movie "Goodfellas." On Jan 23, 2014, Vincent Asaro (78) was arrested at his home in NYC and charged with helping direct the heist as well as a 1969 murder.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Lufthansa_heist)(SFC, 5/10/97, p.A3)(SFC, 1/24/14, p.A22)

1978        Film director Rainer Werner Fassbinder made "The Marriage of Maria Braun."
    (WSJ, 1/14/97, p.A16)

1978        German film director Rainer Werner Fassbinder made "In a Year of 13 Moons."
    (SFC, 7/1/97, p.E5)

1978        Gerhard Wessel (1913-2002), head of the West German BND intelligence agency since 1968, retired. He was succeeded by Klaus Kinkel.
    (SFC, 8/3/02, p.A18)

1979        Feb 7, Josef Mengele (b.1911), Nazi concentration camp doctor and medical experimenter, accidentally drowned in Bertioga, Brazil. He was secretly buried in another man's grave in Brazil. [See Jun 6, 1985] In 1985 his identity was confirmed by DNA.  (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Josef_Mengele)

1979        Jun 1, Werner Forssman, German urologist, (Nobel 1956), died. He was the first to catheterize a human heart (his own). (MC, 6/1/02)

1979        In Germany “The Greens" political party formed to give the environmental movement political and parliamentary representation.
    (Econ, 4/2/11, p.13)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/German_Green_Party)
1979        German entrepreneur Erich Kellerhals (1939-2017) founded Media Markt with two business partners. By 2017 Media-Saturn had more than 1,000 stores in 15 European countries.
    (Reuters, 12/28/17)
1979        Namibia began sending some 400 children to East Germany to be groomed as model communists and their country's future elite. They returned to a newly independent Namibia in August 1990. In 2016 their story was told in a new play, "Oshi-Deutsh: The GDR Children of Namibia".
    (AP, 4/22/16)

1979-1980    German film director Rainer Werner Fassbinder made "Berlin Alexanderplatz," a 15-hour TV opus on Germany between the wars. It was based on Alfred Doblin's great modernist novel.
    (WSJ, 1/14/97, p.A16)(www.criterion.com/asp/release.asp?id=411)

1980        Mar 5, Winifred Wagner (82), English-born head of the German Wagner family, died in Uberlingen. In 2006 Brigitte Hamann authored “Winifred Wagner, A Life at the Heart of Hitler’s Bayreuth."
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Winifred_Wagner)(SFC, 12/13/06, p.F2)

1980        Sep 26, A bomb attack at the Oktoberfest in Munich killed 13 people. The attacker was student Gundolf Koehler, a supporter of a banned far-right group.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Oktoberfest)(AP, 9/26/20)

1980        Anselm Kiefer created his work "Brünnhilde Sleeps" and "Kyffhäuser."
    (WSJ, 1/4/98, p.A8)

1980        Film director Rainer Werner Fassbinder made "Lili Marleen."
    (WSJ, 1/14/97, p.A16)(SFC, 7/1/97, p.E5)

1980        Audi introduced its all-wheel-drive Quattro Coupe.
    (WSJ, 9/16/05, p.W12)

1980        Swedish-German philanthropist Jakob von Uexkull founded the Right Livelihood Awards to recognize work he felt was being ignored by the Nobel Prizes.
    (AP, 10/13/09)

1981        Feb 21, A bombing in Munich of Radio Free Europe injured 9 people. Romania’s Pres. Ceausescu ordered Gen. Ion Pacepa to find temporary shelter for Ilich Ramirez Sanchez, aka Carlos the Jackal, in Romania after the bombing. Ceausescu sold arms and explosives to Ramirez and enabled him to produce counterfeit passports and driver's licenses.
    (AP, 9/30/09)(www.hoover.org/publications/digest/3475896.html)

1981        Mar 6, In Lubeck, Germany, Klaus Grabowski, a child molester, was shot and killed by the mother of a girl he had molested and strangled. Grabowski had earlier avoided a life sentence by agreeing to castration.

1981        Apr 23, An estimated 1 million West German metal workers staged a warning strike as 3-month-old negotiations stalled.

1981        Jul 1, The Symphony in F by Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart (K.19a), discovered in 1980, debuted in Munich.

1981        The German film "Lola" was directed by Rainer Werner Fassbinder (1945-1982).
1981        The Fraunhofer Institute for Solar Energy Systems was founded in Freiburg, Germany, and a number of similar facilities followed. By 2007 Fraunhofer employed some 500 people and was Europe's largest solar energy research institute.
    (AP, 7/20/07)
1981        Friedrich Karl Flick (1927-2006), Austrian billionaire industrialist, became embroiled in a major postwar political party financing scandal (the Flick Affair) when it surfaced that some of his managers had given millions of German marks to German political parties. Flick sold his company to Deutsche Bank in 1985.
    (AP, 10/6/06)

1982        Mar 29, Carl Orff (b.1895), German composer (Carmina Burana), died.

1982        Apr 9, Robert H.G. Havemann (b.1910), East German chemist and dissident, died.

1982        May 10, Peter Weiss (b.1916), German playwright (Marat-Sade), died.

1982        Jun 10, Rainer Werner Fassbinder (b.1945), German film director, died.
    (WSJ, 1/14/97, p.A16)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Rainer_Werner_Fassbinder)

1982        Jul 10, In Germany Kalinka Bamberski (14) was found dead in her bed in the home of Dr. Dieter Krombach. The girl and her mother had moved in with Krombach after her parents' separation. The girl's father, Andre Bamberski, believed that Krombach gave his daughter a dangerous injection to make her lose consciousness so he could rape her, leading to her death. France convicted Krombach in absentia in 1995 of "intentional violence that led to unintentional death" and sentenced him to 15 years in prison. In 1997 Krombach was convicted in a German court to a two-year suspended sentence and suspended from medical practice after pleading guilty to drugging and raping a 16-year-old girl in his office. In 2009 Krombach (74) was kidnapped from his German town, tied up, and appeared near the courthouse in the eastern French city of Mulhouse. Andre Bamberski later acknowledged involvement, and was hit with preliminary charges of kidnapping. In 2011 Krombach was sentenced to 15 years in prison for "intentional violence that led to unintentional death." On Dec 20, 2012, a French court upheld the conviction against Krombach. Kidnapping charges were still pending against Bamberski.
    (http://tinyurl.com/4agzq8a)(AP, 3/29/11)(AP, 12/20/12)

1982        Oct 1, West Germany's Parliament ousted Helmut Schmidt (SPD). Helmut Kohl, head of the Christian Democratic Union, became Chancellor following the collapse of the Social Democratic led coalition. Kohl served until 1998.
    (WSJ, 9/3/98, p.A6)(WSJ, 1/19/00, p.A18)(Econ, 7/14/12, p.45)

1982        Nov 11, West German authorities captured Brigitte Mohnhaupt, a member of the Red Army Faction, as she went to an arms cache in woods near Frankfurt. She was convicted in 1985 of involvement in nine murders, including those of West German chief federal prosecutor Siegfried Buback and of Hanns-Martin Schleyer, the head of the country's industry federation. Mohnhaupt (57) was released in 2007 after serving 24 years of a life sentence.
    (AP, 2/12/07)

1982        Nov 16, Christian Klar (b.1952), a leading member of the German Red Army Faction, was arrested close to Hamburg. In the following trials he was convicted for his involvement in the 1977 murders of Siegfried Buback, Jurgen Ponto and Hanns-Martin Schleyer together with fellow RAF member Brigitte Mohnhaupt. Klar was set for release in Jan, 2009, after serving 26 years in prison.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Christian_Klar)(AP, 11/24/08)

1982        Anselm Kiefer created his work "The Unknown Masterpiece."
    (WSJ, 1/4/98, p.A8)
1982        John Cage wrote a 75-minute play for German radio called "James Joyce, Marcel Duchamp, Erik Satie: An Alphabet."
    (WSJ, 2/28/02, p.A16)
1982        The German film "Das Boot" with Jurgen Prochnow was produced. An extended version was released in 1997. It was directed by Wolfgang Peterson.
    (SFC, 4/4/97, p.C8)
1982        The film "The White Rose" was by German director Michael Verhoeven.
    (SFEC, 7/13/97, DB p.37)

1982        Germany’s Chancellor Helmut Kohl discussed a secret plan with Margaret Thatcher to reduce the number of Turks living in West Germany by 50 percent. This information was not made public until 2013 when released British documents were cited by Spiegel Online.
    (Reuters, 8/1/13)
1982        The German Otto family purchased the Chicago-based Spiegel catalog retailer.
    (WSJ, 3/2/04, p.A6)
1982        Klaus Jacobs (1936-2008), head of the German coffee dealer Jacobs AG, orchestrated the takeover of Switzerland’s Interfood SA, maker of the Toblerone candy bar. In 1990 Philip Morris bought Jacobs Suchard for $3.8 billion. Klaus went on to buy a Swiss staffing firm and in 1996 merged it with France’s Ecco SA to form Adecco SA, which became one of the world’s largest staffing firms.
    (WSJ, 9/20/08, p.A12)

1983        Feb 5, Former Nazi Gestapo official Klaus Barbie (1913-1991), expelled from Bolivia, was brought to trial in Lyon, France. He was convicted and sentenced to life in prison.
    (AP, 2/5/03)(www.izieu.com/new_page_7.htm)

1983        Mar 6, Helmut Kohl's CDU/CSU won West German parliament elections.

1983        Apr 22, In Germany the bogus “Hitler Diaries" was published by Stern Magazine. Stern magazine announced the discovery of a 60 volume personal diary written by Adolph Hitler. It turned out to be a hoax.
    (SFC, 10/15/96, p.A19)(AP, 4/22/07)

1983        Jun 27, Maxie Anderson and Don Ida died in West Germany during a balloon race.

1983        Jul 28, In Germany Yugoslav dissident Stjepan Durekovic was killed near Munich. In 2014 Zdravko Mustac (72), a former top spy in Yugoslavia's secret service, was charged with complicity in the murder. Prosecutors wrote that Mustac probably ordered his subordinate Josip Perkovic to plan the murder. Perkovic was also extradited to Germany in 2014. On August 3, 2016, former Yugoslav spy chief Zdravko Mustac (74) and ex-agent Josip Perkovic (71) were found guilty and sentenced to life in prison.
    (AP, 8/12/14)(AP, 8/3/16)

1983        Nov, The US stationed nuclear-tipped Pershing missiles on German soil.
    (Econ, 5/14/11, p.63)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/MGM-31_Pershing)

1983        Christa Wolf, East German writer, authored her novel “Cassandra."
    (WSJ, 3/10/07, p.P6)
1983        The German film "Straight Through the Heart" was directed by Doris Dorrie, her debut.
    (SSFC, 1/14/01, DB p.37)
1983        Germany’s constitutional court elaborated a right to “informational self-determination." The term informational self-determination was first used in the context of a German constitutional ruling relating to personal information collected during the 1983 census.
    (Econ, 4/10/10, p.56)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Informational_self-determination)
1983        The French cultural center in West Berlin was bombed. One person was killed and 23 injured. The attack was attributed to Carlos the Jackal, aka Ilich Ramirez Sanchez.
    (SFC,12/11/97, p.C2)
1983        Bayer, a German drug maker, patented the active ingredient of the antibiotic Cipro.
    (SSFC, 1/20/08, p.A10)

1984        Jan 28, A record 295,000 dominoes toppled at Fuerth, W. Germany.
    (MC, 1/28/02)

1984        Mar 6, Martin Niemoller (92), German U-boat captain, anti-Nazi minister, died.

1984        Jul 1, In Germany Richard von Weizsaecker (1920-2015) became president and continued to 1994.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Richard_von_Weizs%C3%A4cker)(AP, 1/31/15)

1984        Aug 22, The last Volkswagen Rabbit was produced.
    (MC, 8/22/02)

1984        Aug 4, In Germany Robert Brown (24), a former American soldier, struck Nicola Stiel (19) and raped her, then strangled her to prevent her from reporting the rape. In 2009 Brown was extradited to Germany to face charges that he raped and murdered the woman near where he worked on a US military base in Hesse state.
    (AP, 8/17/09)

1984        Nov 28, Hans Speidel (b.1897), German general and NATO-supreme commander (1957-63), died.

1984        Martin Kippenberger made his oil, silicon on canvas "For the Life of Me, I Can’t See Any Swastikas."
    (SFEC, 2/1/98, BR p.6)
1984        German choreographer Pina Bausch first brought her absurdist dance-dramas to New York.
    (WSJ, 10/29/97, p.A20)

1985        May 5, President Reagan kept a promise to West German Chancellor Helmut Kohl by leading a wreath-laying ceremony at the military cemetery in Bitburg.
    (AP, 5/5/05)

1985        Jun 6, Authorities in Brazil exhumed a body later identified as the remains of Dr. Josef Mengele, the notorious "Angel of Death" of the Nazi Holocaust near Sao Paolo, Brazil.
    (AP, 6/6/97)(HN, 6/6/98)

1985        Jun 14, The 17-day hijack ordeal of TWA Flight 847 began as a pair of Lebanese Shiite Muslim extremists seized the plane with 104 Americans shortly after takeoff from Athens, Greece. The hijackers killed Petty Officer Robert Dean Stethem and dumped his body on the tarmac in Beirut. In 2002 Stethem’s family was awarded $21.4 million in compensatory damages from the US Treasury. In 1987 Mohammed Ali Hamadi was arrested at the Frankfurt airport, when customs officials discovered liquid explosives in his luggage. The Lebanese man was convicted and served a life sentence in Germany for the 1985 hijacking of a TWA jetliner and killing of a US Navy diver. In 2005 he returned to Lebanon after being paroled in Germany.
    (AP, 6/14/97)(HN, 6/14/98)(SSFC, 4/21/02, p.A9)(AP, 12/20/05)

1985        Jun 21, American, Brazilian and West German scientists announced that skeletal remains exhumed in Brazil were those of Nazi war criminal Josef Mengele.
    (AP, 6/21/97)(www.paperlessarchives.com/mengele.html)

1985        Jul 7, Boris Becker of Germany shook up the tennis world at Wimbledon when, as an unseeded player, he became the then youngest-ever male Grand Slam champion at the age of 17, defending the trophy the following year.
    (http://tinyurl.com/ycc7tyvn)(AFP, 6/19/18)

1985        Jul 30, Germaine Krull (b.1897), Polish born German photographer, died.
    (SFEM, 4/9/00, p.4)(www.kingkong.demon.co.uk/ngcoba/kr.htm)

1985        Aug 7, Spc. Edward Pimental (20), a US Army soldier, left a discotheque in the western German city of Wiesbaden with a woman and was soon killed. Terrorists used Pimental's ID card to enter the US Rhein-Main air base in Frankfurt. The following day, explosives packed in a Volkswagen rocked the parking lot behind the base headquarters. Two Americans were killed and 23 people were injured. In 1994 a Frankfurt court found Eva Haule guilty of killing Pimental. In 1996 a judge said Birgit Hogefeld, who was also convicted in the Pimental killing and the Rhein-Main bombing, had lured Pimental out of the disco. In 2007 Haule (53) was released from jail after serving 21 years of a life sentence.
    (AP, 8/17/07)

1985        Sep 22, Axel Springer (b.1912), German newspaper magnate (Bild Zeitung), died.

1985        Sep 30, Simone Signoret, German-French actress (Room at Top, Gina), died at 64.

1985        Hans-Joachim Tiedge (d.2011), a top West German counterintelligence officer, defected to East Germany. Tiedge left East Germany for the Soviet Union in 1990.
    (AP, 4/13/11)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hans_Tiedge)
1985        Vladimir Putin, Soviet KGB officer, was assigned to recruit spies in Dresden, East Germany.
    (WSJ, 2/23/05, p.A14)
1985        A US airbase in Frankfurt was bombed and Airman 1st Class Frank Scarton and Becky Jo Bristol were killed. Edward Pimentel was killed before the bombing in order to get his ID card. In 1996 Birgit Hogefeld, a member of the far-left RAF, was convicted of involvement and jailed for life.
    (SFC, 11/6/96, p.A25)

1985-1989    Heinz Kessler (d.2017) served as East German defense minister. He was responsible for a shoot-to-kill policy aimed at stopping people escaping to the West. He was sentenced to prison in 1991 for his role in the killing of people trying to flee the Communist state.
    (Reuters, 5/4/17)

1986        Apr 5, A Berlin nightclub was bombed. US Sgt. Kenneth Ford (21) and Nermin Hannay (29) died at the scene. Sgt. James Goins (25) died later in hospital. 230 people were injured. Palestinian Yasser Shraydi (Chraidi) was suspected of playing a lead role in the bombing of the La Belle discotheque. In 1996 he was extradited from Lebanon to face charges in Germany. In 1996 Andrea Hasler was arrested in Greece and extradited to Germany. Also a woman named Verena Chanaa, suspected of planting the bomb, and her former husband named Ali Chanaa were arrested in Berlin. In 1997 Musbah Abulghasen Eter was arrested by Italian police in Rome in connection with the bombing. In 2001 V. Chanaa was sentenced to 14 years, A. Chanaa and Eter were sentenced to 12 years, and Chraidi was sentenced to 14 years. Libya was implicated and in 2004 agreed to pay $35 million in compensation.
    (SFC, 5/234/96, p.A14)(SFC, 10/12/96, p.A12)(WSJ, 8/28/97, p.A1)(SFC, 8/28/97, p.C3)(SFC, 11/14/01, p.A18)(AP, 9/3/04)

1986        Jun 19, Argentina beat West Germany 3-2 in soccer's 13th World Cup in Mexico.

1986        Nov 13, Rudolf Schock (b.1915), German opera and operetta singer, died.

1986        Dec 12, Russian Tupolev-134 crashed in East Berlin and 70 people were killed.

1986        German writer Gunter Grass (1927-2015) authored his novel “The Rat."
    (Econ., 4/18/15, p.86)
1986        Udo Zimmermann, German composer, created his opera “Die Weise Rose" (The White Rose). The named was taken from a 1940s anti-Nazi movement.
    (SFC, 1/12/05, p.E1)
1986        The German film "Paradise" was directed by Doris Dorrie.
    (SSFC, 1/14/01, DB p.37)
1986        In Germany Dieter Stein (19) founded the right wing Junge Freiheit (Young Freedom) as a student newspaper. In 1994 he turned it into a general weekly.
    (https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Junge_Freiheit)(Econ, 10/8/16, p.48)
1986        German hackers in Hanover, working for the KGB, sneaked into American military networks. The “Cuckoo’s Nest" cyber attack was caught when an official noted a 75-cent billing error revealing unauthorized use of a computer network.
    (Econ, 6/29/13, p.75)

1987        Jan 13, West German police arrested Mohammed Ali Hamadi at the Frankfurt airport, when customs officials discovered liquid explosives in his luggage. The Lebanese man was convicted and served a life sentence in Germany for the 1985 hijacking of a TWA jetliner and killing of a U.S. Navy diver. Although convicted and sentenced to life, Hamadi was paroled by Germany in December 2005.
    (AP, 12/20/05)(AP, 1/13/07)

1987        Mar 23, West Germany SPD chairman Willy Brandt resigned.
    (SS, 3/23/02)

1987         May 1, During a visit to West Germany, Pope John Paul II beatified Edith Stein, a Jewish-born Carmelite nun who was gassed in the Nazi concentration camp at Auschwitz.
    (AP, 5/1/97)

1987        Jun 12, President Reagan, during a visit to the divided German city of Berlin, publicly challenged Soviet leader Mikhail S. Gorbachev at the Brandenburg Gate: "Mr. Gorbachev, open this gate! Mr. Gorbachev, tear down this wall."
    (AP, 6/12/97)(WSJ, 10/18/02, p.AW17)

1987        Jul 2, Karl Linnas, accused Nazi, died of heart failure in Leningrad Russia. In 1962 he was convicted in Estonia of being a Nazi war criminal and sentenced to death in absentia.

1987        Aug 11, A German hiker went missing on the Hohlaub Glacier, 10 km (6 miles) east of the famed Matterhorn. In 2017 the remains of the unidentified man were found after two hikers happened upon a hand and a pair of shoes sticking out of the Glacier.
    (AP, 8/2/17)

1987        Aug 17, Rudolf Hess, the last member of Adolf Hitler's inner circle, died at a Berlin hospital near Spandau Prison at age 93, having apparently committed suicide by strangling himself with an electrical cord. His family claims that he was murdered [see May 10, 1941].
    (AP, 8/17/97)(SFEC, 8/17/97, p.A4)

1987        Aug 26, In an attempt to eliminate a superpower stumbling block, West German Chancellor Helmut Kohl said his country would destroy its 72 Pershing 1A rockets if Washington and Moscow scrapped all their intermediate-range nuclear weapons.
    (AP, 8/26/97)

1987        Sep 2, West German pilot Mathias Rust, who flew a private plane from Helsinki, Finland, to Moscow's Red Square, went on trial in the Soviet capital. Rust, who was convicted and given a four-year sentence, was released Aug. 3, 1988.
    (AP, 9/2/97)

1987        Sep 6, Benjamin and Patrick Binder, twin 7-month-old brothers from Ulm, West Germany, who were joined at the head, were separated after 22 hours of surgery by doctors at Johns Hopkins Hospital in Baltimore.
    (AP, 9/6/97)

1987        Sep 7, Erich Honecker became the first East German head of state to visit West Germany as he arrived for a five-day visit.
    (AP, 9/7/97)

1987        Leni Riefenstahl (1902-2003), German director, published her autobiography: "Leni Riefenstahl: A Memoir."
    (SFC, 1/19/99, p.B5)
1987        Plans were made for a new Kulturforum museum complex in Berlin. Construction began in March 1992.
    (WSJ, 7/29/98, p.A13)
1987        William Koch of Germany paid some $500,000 for 4 bottles of French wine said to have been discovered in Paris in 1985 and allegedly once owned by Thomas Jefferson. By 2006 Koch’s investigations led him to believe they were fakes, which he attributed to Hardy Rodenstock (born as Meinhard Goerke), a German collector and dealer.
    (WSJ, 9/1/06, p.A1)
1987        An Ikea subsidiary in Berlin and an East German company contracted for Cuban prison labor to build 45,000 tables and 40,000 sofa groupings. The deal blossomed into a scandal in 2012 following reports of the deal by a German newspaper.
    (SFC, 5/11/12, p.A7)

1988        Feb 27, Katarina Witt of East Germany won the gold medal in women's figure skating at the Winter Olympics in Calgary, Canada, with Elizabeth Manley of Canada placing second and Debi Thomas of the United States, third. Debi Thomas became the first African American to win a medal at the Winter Olympics.
    (AP, 2/27/98)(HN, 2/27/99)

1988        Mar 9, Kurt Georg Kiesinger (b.1904), West German chancellor (1966-69), died.

1988        Jun 19, Michael Jackson led a rock concert in West Berlin.
    (AP, 7/30/09)

1988        Aug 28, At least 40 people were killed when three Italian stunt planes collided during an air show at the US Air Base in Ramstein, West Germany, sending flaming debris into the crowd of spectators. Over the next 2 months the death toll rose to 69.
    (AP, 8/28/98)(www.sos.se/sos/publ/REFERENG/9003031E.htm)

1988        Sep 10, Steffi Graf of West Germany achieved tennis' first Grand Slam since Margaret Court in 1970 by winning the U.S. Open women's final.
    (AP, 9/10/98)

1988        Oct 3, Franz Josef Strauss (b.1915), German defense minister (1956-62), died at 73.

1988        Oct 9, Felix Wankel (b.1902), developer of Wankel rotary engine, died in Germany.

1988        Oct 19, Three West Germans were named winners of the Nobel Prize in chemistry; three Americans received the Nobel Prize in physics: Melvin Schwartz (1933-2006), Leon Lederman and Jack Steinberger won for their research into the innermost structure and dynamics of matter. They won for discovering the subatomic particle called the muon neutrino. In 2015 Lederman sold his Nobel Prize at auction for $765,002.
    (AP, 10/19/98)(SFC, 8/29/06, p.B5)(SFC, 5/30/15, p.A5)

1988        The film "Herbstmilch" was directed by Joseph Vilsmaiar. It was about a woman’s Bavarian country childhood.
    (WSJ, 2/5/98, p.A20)

1988        Matthias Warnig, East German Stasi officer, was assigned to recruit spies in Duesseldorf, West Germany.
    (WSJ, 2/23/05, p.A14)

1988        There was an attempted murder of Hans Titmeyer, later chief of the Bundesbank. Birgit Hogefeld, RAF member, was later convicted of taking part.
    (WSJ, 11/6/96, p.A1)

1988        BMW began selling the 325iX all-wheel-drive sports sedan in the US. It stopped 3 years later.
    (WSJ, 9/16/05, p.W12)

1988        Albert Fert of France and Peter Grunberg of Germany independently discovered the phenomenon of giant magnetoresistance. It was later adopted for use in computer hard-drives. In 2007 they won the Nobel Prize in Physics for their discovery.
    (Econ, 10/13/07, p.94)

1989        Jan 29, West German Chancellor Helmut Kohl's Christian Democratic Union suffered a major setback in West Berlin municipal elections.
    (AP, 1/29/99)

1989        May 17, A court in Frankfurt, West Germany, sentenced Mohammed Ali Hamadi to life in prison for his role in the 1985 TWA hijacking.
    (AP, 5/17/99)

1989        May 31, Pres. G.W. Bush met with Chancellor Kohl and addressed the citizens of Mainz, Germany. He offered Germany a “partnership in leadership."
    (Econ, 7/8/06, p.43)(http://usa.usembassy.de/etexts/ga6-890531.htm)

1989        Jul 2, In West Berlin, Germany, the Love Parade festival was begun to celebrate techno music. About 150 people cavorted down Ku’damm to the blare of techno music from a single Volkswagen bus. It was started by the Berlin underground at the initiative of Matthias Roeingh (also known as "Dr Motte") and his then girlfriend Danielle de Picciotto.
    (SFC, 8/18/97, p.E4)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Love_Parade)
1989        Jul 9, West German tennis players Steffi Graf and Boris Becker won the women's and men's singles titles at Wimbledon.
    (AP, 7/9/99)

1989        Aug 19, The "Pan-European Picnic" helped precipitate the fall nearly three months later of the Berlin Wall. Members of Hungary's budding opposition organized a picnic at the border with Austria to press for greater political freedom and promote friendship with their Western neighbors. Some 600 East Germans got word of the event and turned up among the estimated 10,000 participants. They took advantage of the excursion to escape to Austria.
    (AP, 8/19/09)

1989        Aug 23, Hungary removed its physical border defenses with Austria, and in September more than 13,000 East German tourists in Hungary escaped to Austria.

1989        Sep 10, Hungary gave permission for thousands of East German refugees and visitors to emigrate to West Germany.
    (AP, 9/10/99)

1989        Sep 30, Thousands of East Germans who had sought refuge in West German embassies in Czechoslovakia and Poland began emigrating under an accord between Soviet bloc and NATO nations.
    (AP, 9/30/99)

1989        Oct 1, Thousands of East Germans received a triumphal welcome in West Germany after the communist government agreed to let them leave for the West.
    (AP, 10/1/99)

1989        Oct 2, Nearly 10,000 people marched through Leipzig, East Germany, demanding legalization of opposition groups and adoption of democratic reforms in the country's largest protest since 1953.
    (AP, 10/2/99)

1989        Oct 3, In a move to stem the flow of refugees to the West, East Germany suspended unrestricted travel to Czechoslovakia.
    (AP, 10/3/99)

1989        Oct 18, In East Germany after 18 years in power, Erich Honecker resigned from his offices as head of state and party leader. He was succeeded by Egon Krenz.
    (AP, 10/18/97)(http://tinyurl.com/akpba)(http://tinyurl.com/84fnq)

1989            Oct 24, In East Germany Egon Krenz assumed the chairmanship of the Council of State. [see Dec 3,6]

1989        Nov 1, East Germany reopened its border with Czechoslovakia, prompting tens of thousands of refugees to flee to the West.
    (AP, 11/1/99)

1989        Nov 3, East German leader Egon Krenz delivered a nationally broadcast speech in which he promised sweeping economic and political reforms and called on East Germans to stay.
    (AP, 11/3/99)

1989        Nov 4, Up to a million East Germans filled the streets of East Berlin for a pro-democracy rally.
    (AP, 11/4/99)

1989        Nov 8, In an attempt to strengthen his 3-week-old leadership, East German Communist Party chief Egon Krenz ousted the old guard of the ruling Politburo, replacing them with reformers.
    (AP, 11/8/99)

1989        Nov 9, The Berlin Wall broke open after East German bureaucrat Guenter Schabowski (1929-2015) pulled a sheet of paper from his pocket and read out a decree stating that visas would be freely granted to those wanting to travel outside or leave the Stalinist state. Joyous Germans danced atop the Berlin Wall. Over its 28-year history at least 136 people were confirmed killed trying to cross the Wall into West Berlin, according to official figures. However, a prominent victims' group claimed that more than 200 people were killed trying to flee from East to West Berlin. Peter Wyden in this year authored "Wall: The Inside Story of Divided Berlin." In 2004 William F. Buckley authored "The Fall of the Berlin Wall." In 2014 Mary Elise Sarotte authored “The Collapse: The Accidental Opening of the Berlin Wall."
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Berlin_Wall)(SFC, 5/30/96, p.A12)(AP, 11/9/97)(SSFC, 6/24/01, p.A27)(WSJ, 3/18/04, p.D10)(Econ, 9/27/08, p.25)(Econ, 11/8/14, p.83)(AFP, 11/1/15)

1989        Nov 10, Workers began punching a hole in the Berlin Wall, a day after East Germany abolished its border restrictions.
    (AP, 11/10/99)

1989        Nov 11, In a telephone conversation with West German Chancellor Helmut Kohl, East German leader Egon Krenz ruled out any possibility reunification.
    (AP, 11/11/99)

1989        Nov 30, Alfred Herrhausen, chairman of West Germany's largest bank, was killed in a bombing claimed by the Red Army Faction. No Red Army member was charged and in 2007 officials began to focus on Stasi, the East German police.
    (AP, 11/30/99)(Econ, 4/29/06, p.88)(WSJ, 9/15/07, p.A1)

1989        Dec 1, East Germany's Parliament abolished the Communist Party's constitutional guarantee of supremacy.
    (AP, 12/1/99)

1989            Dec 3, The East German SED Politburo resigned. 3 days later Communist leader Egon Krenz stepped down as Chairman of the Council of State.

1989        Dec 5, East Germany's former leaders, including ousted Communist Party chief Erich Honecker, were placed under house arrest.
    (AP, 12/5/97)

1989            Dec 6, Egon Krenz resigned as leader of East Germany. In 1997 Krenz was convicted with 2 colleagues of manslaughter for the shooting deaths of those who tried to flee across the Berlin Wall prior to its demise.
    (WSJ, 11/9/99, p.A14)(http://tinyurl.com/akpba)

1989        Dec 7, East Germany's Communist Party agreed to cooperate with the opposition in paving the way for free elections and a revised constitution.
    (AP, 12/7/99)

1989        Dec 22, Germany’s Brandenburg Gate opened for border crossings.

1989        Mercedes-Benz began building all-wheel E-Class cars.
    (WSJ, 9/16/05, p.W12)

1989-1991    In 1999 Angela E. Stent authored "Russia and Germany Reborn," which focused on this period.
    (WSJ, 8/5/99, p.A16)

1990        Feb 1, East Germany's Communist premier, Hans Modrow, appealed for negotiations with West Germany to forge a "united fatherland."
    (AP, 2/1/00)

1990        Feb 13, At a conference in Ottawa, the United States and its European allies forged agreement with the Soviet Union and East Germany on a two-stage formula to reunite Germany.
    (AP, 2/13/00)

1990        Feb, In Germany a group of artists occupied Tacheles, a building in East Berlin, two months before it was scheduled for demolition. The squatters saved it by getting the city to declare it a historic landmark. Their lease ended Dec. 31, 2008, and residents were advised to move out though no court order was issued.
    (AP, 2/13/09)

1990        Mar 18, An alliance of conservative parties won a surprising victory over the Communists in East Germany's first free elections.
    (AP, 3/18/00)

1990        Apr 12, In its first meeting, East Germany's first democratically elected parliament acknowledged responsibility for the Nazi Holocaust, and asked the forgiveness of Jews and others who had suffered.
    (AP, 4/12/00)

1990        Apr 18, A Franco-German proposal was made at the Dublin summit for the political union of the 12 European Community member countries.

1990        Apr 24, West and East Germany agreed to merge currency and economies on July 1.

1990        May 18, East and West Germany signed a monetary union treaty.
    (SC, 5/18/02)

1990        Jun 13, East German border guards and demolition experts from the Bundeswehr started the official demolition of the Berlin Wall.

1990        Jul 1, East Germans lined up to obtain West German deutsche marks as a state treaty unifying the monetary and economic systems of the two Germanys went into effect.
    (AP, 7/1/00)

1990        Jul 8, West Germany won the World Cup soccer championship by defeating Argentina, 1-to-0.
    (AP, 7/8/00)
1990        Jul 8, Sweden’s Stefan Edberg beat Boris Becker of West Germany to capture his second men’s tennis championship at Wimbledon.
    (AP, 7/8/00)

1990        Jul 14, West German Chancellor Helmut Kohl arrived in Moscow for talks with Soviet President Mikhail Gorbachev that were aimed at soothing Kremlin concerns about German unification.
    (AP, 7/14/00)

1990        Jul 15, Soviet President Mikhail S. Gorbachev and visiting West German Chancellor Helmut Kohl held talks on the issue of a united Germany’s membership in NATO.
    (AP, 7/15/00)
1990        Jul 15, East Germany opened its borders fully to Jews from the former Soviet republics.
    (Econ, 5/7/05, p.48)

1990        Jul 16, Soviet President Mikhail Gorbachev and West German Chancellor Helmut Kohl announced that Moscow had agreed to drop its objection to a united Germany’s membership in NATO.
    (AP, 7/16/00)

1990        Jul 17, The seven nations negotiating German unification reached agreement in Paris on Poland’s permanent border, clearing the way for the merger of East and West Germany.
    (AP, 7/17/00)

1990        Aug 23, East and West Germany announced that they would unite Oct 3. The details of reunification were designed by interior minister Wolfgang Schauble.
    (www.mofa.go.jp/policy/other/bluebook/1990/1990-2-1.htm)(Economist, 9/29/12, p.59)

1990        Aug 28, German spy Juergen Mohamed Gietler was arrested for passing military information to Iraq. He provided Iraq with intelligence reports on US military plans that included what the West knew of Iraqi Scud-B missile sites. He was convicted in a secret trial in 1991, sentenced to 5 years in prison and released in 1994 after which he moved to Egypt.
    (SFC,11/18/97, p.B1)(SFC,12/24/97, p.A6)

1990        Aug 31, East & West Germany signed a treaty to join legal & political systems.

1990        Sep 12, Representatives of the World War Two allies and West and East Germany signed the Two Plus Four Treaty in Moscow giving international sanction to German unity.
    (AP, 9/12/00)(www.foothill.fhda.edu/divisions/unification/finalset.html)

1990        Sep 24, East Germany signed a treaty with the Soviet Union ending its membership in the Warsaw Pact.

1990        Sep 26, Alberto Moravia, Italian writer (Woman in Red), died at 82.
    (MC, 9/26/01)

1990         Oct 3, West Germany and East Germany ended 45 years of postwar division, declaring the creation of a new unified country. Formal reunification took place after a unification treaty was ratified by the Federal Republic‘s Bundestag and the German Democratic Republic‘s People‘s Chamber in September. Kurt Masur (1927-2015) directed Beethoven's Ninth Symphony at the official celebrations. Irish PM Charles Haughey was instrumental in securing backing for German unity by assuaging French and British concerns.
    (AP, 10/3/97)(HN, 10/3/98)(HNQ, 11/10/99)(AP, 12/19/15)(Econ., 10/17/20, p.16)

1990        Oct 4, For the first time in nearly six decades, German lawmakers met in the Reichstag for the first meeting of reunified Germany’s parliament.
    (AP, 10/4/00)

1990        Oct 12, Wolfgang Schauble (b.1942), German politician, was the target of an assassination attempt by Dieter Kaufmann, who fired 3 shots at Schäuble after an election campaign event in Oppenau. Schauble was left paralyzed from the waist down. In 2009 he was appointed finance minister under Chancellor Angel Merkel.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Wolfgang_Sch%C3%A4uble)(Econ, 5/14/11, p.70)

1990        Oct 21, Walther Sommerlath (b.1901), the father of Sweden’s Queen Silvia, died in Heidelberg. During WWII he swapped a coffee farm in Brazil for a German-based business owned by Efim Wechsler, a Jewish businessman. This allowed Wechsler to emigrate from Nazi Germany.
    (SFC, 12/21/12, p.A8)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Walther_Sommerlath)

1990        Oct, French Pres. Francois Mitterand called for an economic government of Europe during a Franco-German summit in Paris.
    (Econ, 7/14/07, p.58)

1990        Nov 9, Soviet President Mikhail S. Gorbachev signed a historic non-aggression treaty with Germany, winning praise from German leaders in Bonn for his role in the peaceful fall of the Berlin Wall.
    (AP, 11/9/00)

1990        Dec 2, Chancellor Helmut Kohl’s center-right coalition easily won the first free all-German elections since 1932.
    (AP, 12/2/00)

1990        Astrophysicist Clifford Stoll authored “The Cuckoo's Egg," a true account of the tracking of a hacker who probed the US's most sensitive secrets, using keywords, such as "thermonuclear war." Stoll's pursuit of a hacker trying to access American computer networks led to the discovery of a West German spy ring.
1990        The film "The Nasty Girl" was by German director Michael Verhoeven.
    (SFEC, 7/13/97, DB p.37)
1990        Chancellor Kohl defeated Oskar Lafontaine, governor of the Saar state.
    (WSJ, 11/17/95, p.A-10)
1990        The federal government decided that old families (Junkers) must buy back their expropriated property if they wanted to return to East Germany.
    (WSJ, 5/15/02, p.A8)
1990        The files of Stasi, the East German state security police, were opened to the public. The East German state security police had attempted to destroy all records but shredding machines overheated and much evidence was torn up by hand. A publicly funded project was begun to reconstruct the shredded evidence.
    (WSJ, 12/27/96, p.A6)(WSJ, 2/4/97, p.A14)
1990        East Germany halted food shipments to Cuba and the Soviet Union cut back on deliveries of butter.
    (Econ., 12/12/20, p.38)

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