Timeline Great Britain (J) 2007-2019

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2007        Jan 3, Mike Perham (14), a British teenager, became the youngest person to sail solo across the Atlantic Ocean, reaching the Caribbean island of Antigua after a six-week voyage. Perham was trailed by his father in another boat.
    (AP, 1/3/07)

2007        Jan 9 Britainís Royal Mail released a set of six stamps depicting the iconic Beatles' album covers.
    (Reuters, 12/28/06)

2007        Jan 10, In England 2 RAF training helicopters collided in mid-air in Shropshire, with some reports claiming that one person was killed and three injured.
    (AFP, 1/10/07)

2007        Jan 11, The Bank of England (BoE) raised British interest rates by a quarter of a point to 5.25 percent to fight inflation.
    (AP, 1/11/07)

2007        Jan 12, Severe gales and heavy rains powered by an Atlantic storm left at least one person dead and eight missing, sunk two fishing trawlers and disrupted travel across Britain and Ireland.
    (AP, 1/12/07)

2007        Jan 15, A British prosecutor told a jury that 6 men plotted to kill London subway and bus passengers with bombs made from hydrogen peroxide and flour on July 21, 2005, two weeks after suicide bombers killed 52 commuters in the city. The devices failed to explode.
    (AP, 1/15/07)
2007        Jan 15, It was reported that a team at the British institute that cloned Dolly the sheep have made a genetically engineered chicken that produces cancer drugs in its eggs. The proteins they chose were miR24, a monoclonal antibody with potential for treating melanoma, and human interferon b-1a, an immune system protein from a family of proteins that attacks tumors and viruses.
    (Reuters, 1/15/07)

2007        Jan 17, Britainís Guardian reported that senior executives at defense manufacturer BAE Systems have been named as suspects in a corruption inquiry being conducted by the Serious Fraud Office (SFO) into contracts with South Africa.
    (AFP, 1/17/07)

2007        Jan 19, British foreign secretary Margaret Beckett admitted that her government was aware of a secret CIA prison network before Pres. Bush acknowledged its existence in September.
    (AP, 1/20/07)

2007        Jan 20, The London Times said police had tracked down the man, who was introduced to former Russian spy Alexander Litvinenko and his associates as "Vladislav", using details that the ex-agent recounted on his deathbed.
    (AP, 1/20/07)

2007        Jan 21, Oil leaked from the Napoli, stricken freighter beached on the Englandís southwest coast, Two containers of hazardous chemicals fell into the sea as salvage crews struggled to operate.
    (AFP, 1/21/07)

2007        Jan 22, Hundreds of scavengers swooped onto a beach in southwest England and carted away motorcycles, wine barrels, car parts and tennis shoes spilling from a container ship damaged in recent storms and listing about a mile off shore.
    (AP, 1/22/07)

2007        Jan 23, British police arrested five men under anti-terror laws, in dawn raids reportedly linked to the escape of a terror suspect and the distribution of Islamist propaganda.
    (AP, 1/23/07)
2007        Jan 23, British police arrested five men under anti-terror laws, in dawn raids reportedly linked to the escape of a terror suspect and the distribution of Islamist propaganda.
    (AP, 1/23/07)

2007        Jan 26, British and American television stations reported that British police have concluded that a former Russian spy was poisoned by a lethal dose of radioactive Polonium-210 added to his tea at a London hotel.
    (AP, 1/26/07)
2007        Jan 26, Andy Coulson resigned as editor of the News of the World over a phone hacking affair. Clive Goodman, the royal correspondent for the News of the World tabloid, was arrested along with private investigator Glenn Mulcaire for intercepting the voicemail messages of Britainís royal family.

2007        Jan 27, Andrei Lugovoi, the man reported by British media to be a suspect in the murder of a former Russian agent in London hit out at "lies, provocation and government propaganda," denying any role in the radiation poisoning death of Alexander Litvinenko.
    (AP, 1/27/07)

2007        Jan 30, Britain shut down Northern Ireland's legislature and planned a new election to determine the fate of power-sharing, the central goal of the peace accord.
    (AP, 1/30/07)
2007        Jan 30, Manchester was chosen as the site for Britain's first Las Vegas-style supercasino.
    (AP, 1/30/07)

2007        Jan 31, British counterterrorism police arrested 9 men in an alleged kidnapping plot. The plan reportedly involved torturing and beheading a British Muslim soldier and broadcasting the killing on the Internet. Parviz Kahn (b.1970), British born Muslim fanatic, was among those arrested. In 2008 he was sentenced to life in prison and ordered to serve at least 14 years in jail.
    (AP, 1/31/07)(www.globaljihad.net/view_page.asp?id=697)(Econ, 5/25/13, p.57)
2007        Jan 31, Tata Steel said its $11.3 billion offer to acquire European steel maker Corus (formerly British Steel) is strategic to its global ambitions, even as the winning bid raised concerns that the deal's high cost could undermine the combined company's financial health.
    (AP, 1/31/07)(SSFC, 2/11/07, p.C3)

2007        Jan, In eastern England a 16-year-old girl lost nearly all her fingers after she put her hands in a bucket of plaster of Paris during an art lesson. She was attempting to make a sculpture of her own hands. In 2009 Giles School, in Boston, was ordered to pay 19,000 pounds ($30,140) for breaching health and safety regulations and also failing to report the incident to the Health and Safety Executive (HSE).
    (Reuters, 10/12/09)

2007        Feb 1, Defense Secretary Des Browne said Britain will increase its military presence in southern Afghanistan by about 800 troops to 5,800 this summer.
    (AP, 2/1/07)

2007        Feb 3, Britain scrambled to contain its first outbreak of the highly pathogenic H5N1 strain of bird flu in domestic poultry after the virus was found at a farm run by Europe's biggest turkey producer. Some 2,500 turkeys had died since Feb 1 at the Bernard Matthews farm near Lowestoft in eastern England. Over 160,000 were culled over the next few days.
    (AP, 2/3/07)(Econ, 2/10/07, p.59)

2007        Feb 5, Britain pressed ahead with a cull of 160,000 turkeys after the nation's first outbreak of a deadly strain of bird flu in farmed poultry as Russia and Japan banned British poultry imports.
    (Reuters, 2/5/07)

2007        Feb 7, Six people were hurt by a third letter bomb in three days aimed at British motoring-related organizations and police are investigating if the attacks are part of a coordinated campaign.
    (Reuters, 2/7/07)

2007        Feb 9, In London airline tycoon Richard Branson announced a $25 million prize for the first person to come up with a way of scrubbing greenhouse gases out of the atmosphere in the battle to beat global warming.
    (AP, 2/9/07)
2007        Feb 9, British government scientists said the avian flu strain that hit the farm in Suffolk owned by poultry giant Bernard Matthews appeared to be identical to that found in Hungary, where Matthews owns local company Saga Foods.
    (AP, 2/9/07)
2007        Feb 9, British bus and train operator FirstGroup PLC said it agreed to buy US-based bus company Laidlaw International Inc. in a 1.9 billion pound ($2.7 billion) deal.
    (AP, 2/9/07)
2007        Feb 9, Ian Richardson (b.1934), Scottish-born film and TV actor, died in London. He played the evil Francis Urquhart in 3 TV miniseries ďHouse of Cards" (1990), ďTo Play the King" (1993) and ďThe final Cut" (1995).
    (SSFC, 2/11/07, p.B7)

2007        Feb 15, President Paul Kagame said in an interview published in The Times that Rwanda wants to join the Commonwealth, the 53-nation grouping of former British colonies, in what will be seen as a rebuke to France.
    (AFP, 2/15/07)

2007        Feb 18, British PM Tony Blair announced plans to overhaul gun laws after three teenage boys were shot dead in south London this month, prompting a national debate about guns and gangs among youths.
    (AP, 2/18/07)

2007        Feb 19, British police arrested a man near Cambridge in connection with a series of letter bombs sent to offices linked to traffic enforcement. On Feb 22 Miles Cooper (22), a primary school caretaker, was charged with 12 offences under the Explosive Substances Act and the Offences Against the Person Act.
    (AP, 2/19/07)(AFP, 2/23/07)

2007        Feb 20, In Britain Ken Livingstone, London's socialist mayor, signed an agreement with Venezuela's state-owned oil company to provide discounted oil for the city's iconic red buses.
    (AP, 2/21/07)

2007        Feb 21, Food retailer Asda, owned by US group Wal-Mart, said it would create 8,000 jobs and build 18 new supermarkets across Britain this year.
    (AP, 2/21/07)
2007        Feb 21, PM Tony Blair said Britain will withdraw around 1,600 troops from Iraq in the coming months and aims to further cut its 7,100-strong contingent by late summer if Iraqi forces can secure the country's south.
    (AP, 2/21/07)

2007        Feb 22, Female tennis stars hailed an announcement that women would receive the same prize money as men at this year's Wimbledon tennis championships after years of dogged campaigning.
    (AFP, 2/22/07)

2007        Feb 23, In northern England one commuter died and five were seriously injured when the high-speed London to Glasgow Virgin train, packed with 120 passengers and staff, derailed in the county of Cumbria.
    (AP, 2/24/07)

2007        Feb 24, Thousands of anti-war protesters converged on London, calling on PM Tony Blair to withdraw all of Britain's troops from Iraq and voicing fears over a potential conflict with Iran.
    (AP, 2/24/07)

2007        Feb 26, In London Abu Qatada, a radical Muslim cleric and suspected key Al-Qaeda figure, lost an appeal against deportation from Britain to Jordan.
    (AP, 2/26/07)

2007        Feb 28, The Church of England's assembly affirmed existing teaching that homosexuality is no bar to full participation in the church but avoided the fractious debate within the Anglican Communion about accepting gay sexual relationships.
    (AP, 2/28/07)
2007        Feb 28, Lord Charles Forte (b.1908), Italian-born British businessman, died. He had parlayed a London soda shop in 1934 into one of the worldís largest hospitality businesses. He was knighted in 1970 and in 1982 PM Margaret Thatcher made him Baron of Ripley. He authored an autobiography in 1986.
    (WSJ, 3/3/07, p.A4)

2007        Feb, Britainís HSBC shocked markets by raising its bad-debt provisions to $10.5 billion.
    (Econ 5/6/17, SR p.5)

2007        Mar 1, Britain confirmed it will withdraw its more than 600 remaining troops from Bosnia as concerns about security in the Balkan state ease.
    (AP, 3/1/07)

2007        Mar 2, The British Broadcasting Corp. said that it has signed a deal with Google Inc.'s YouTube that will allow the popular Web site to show excerpts of the broadcaster's news and entertainment programs.
    (AP, 3/2/07)

2007        Mar 3, Britain sent a crisis team to Ethiopia in an effort to obtain the release of five British embassy workers or their relatives who were kidnapped along with a group of French while on a trip to remote northeastern Ethiopia. An Ethiopian administrator accused Eritrean forces of kidnapping a group of five Europeans and 13 Ethiopians in a remote part of Ethiopia, and taking them to a military camp near the Eritrean border. Several Ethiopians who were kidnapped along with five Britons touring the African country's remote northeast were found.
    (AP, 3/3/07)(Reuters, 3/3/07)(AP, 3/4/07)

2007        Mar 7, Britainís House of Commons voted to introduce elections to the House of Lords.
    (SFC, 3/8/07, p.A3)

2007        Mar 8, The British government bowed to pressure to improve conditions for Nepalese Gurkha soldiers who have served in the British armed forces for two centuries, granting them full pensions and other rights. Gurkhas began serving as part of the Indian army in British-run India in 1815. Since Indian independence in 1947, Gurkha pensions have been linked to those who served in the Indian army, not those in the British army.
    (AFP, 3/8/07)
2007        Mar 8, British actor John Inman (71), best known for his role as camp shop assistant Mr Humphries in the long-running BBC comedy "Are You Being Served?" died.
    (Reuters, 3/8/07)

2007        Mar 12, In Gaza four masked gunmen abducted Alan Johnston, a BBC journalist. He was later reported to be held by the Dughmush clan.
    (AP, 3/13/07)(WSJ, 1/3/07, p.A14)

2007        Mar 13, The British government published its climate-change bill.
    (Econ, 3/17/07, p.60)

2007        Mar 14, Britainís Parliament approved PM Tony Blair's program to replace the nationís fleet of four nuclear-armed submarines.
    (AP, 3/14/07)

2007        Mar 16, People all over Britain donned red noses and took part in fundraising events for the 11th annual Red Nose Day, with the money going to help disadvantaged people in Africa and Britain. The event, launched in 1985, is organized every two years by Comic Relief.
    (AFP, 3/16/07)

2007        Mar 18, Eurostar trains ran on a normal schedule following a trackside fire the fire, near the London terminus at Waterloo station, that brought chaos to the service over the previous two days.
    (AFP, 3/18/07)

2007        Mar 20, The British government said schools have the right to ban students from wearing Muslim veils if teachers believe the garments affect safety or pupils' learning. Britain ordered its military to stop using cluster bombs that lack self-destruct mechanisms in a decision intended to prevent the weapons, used as recently as the beginning of the Iraq war, from harming civilians.
    (AP, 3/20/07)
2007        Mar 20, An explosion aboard the HMS Tireless, a nuclear-powered Royal Navy submarine under an Arctic ice cap, killed two British sailors and injured a crewmember.
    (AP, 3/21/07)

2007        Mar 21, Britain's leader-in-waiting Gordon Brown unexpectedly cut income tax along with business taxes in his 11th and probably final budget before he takes over from British PM Tony Blair as expected.
    (AP, 3/21/07)
2007        Mar 21, PM Tony Blair said Britain would urge the EU to impose tougher sanctions on Zimbabwe, describing the situation there as "appalling, disgraceful and utterly tragic."
    (AFP, 3/21/07)

2007        Mar 22, Gordon Brown, Britainís Chancellor of the Exchequer, said the government will grant 35 billion pounds to Northern Ireland over the next four years.
    (AP, 3/22/07)
2007        Mar 22, Counter-terrorist police in England arrested three men in connection with the 2005 suicide attacks on the London transit system. London police said a man held hostage for nine days following a dispute between drugs gangs has been freed in Liverpool in what was the longest-running kidnap they have ever dealt with.
    (AFP, 3/22/07)(AP, 3/22/08)

2007        Mar 23, Iranian naval vessels seized 15 British sailors and marines who had boarded a merchant ship in Iraqi waters of the Persian Gulf as part of efforts to protect the Iraqi coastline and its oil terminals; they were held for 13 days.
    (AP, 3/23/07)(AP, 3/23/08)

2007        Mar 25, British PM Tony Blair said that the 15 British sailors and marines captured by Iran as they searched for smugglers off the Iraqi coast were not in Iranian waters and warned that Britain viewed their fate as a "fundamental" issue.
    (AP, 3/25/07)

2007        Mar 26, In Britain Taylor Woodrow and George Wimpey agreed upon a $9.8 billion merger to create the countryís largest house builder.
    (AP, 3/26/07)(Econ, 3/31/07, p.65)
2007        Mar 26, Lindsay Ann Hawker (22), a British language teacher, was found naked in a sand-filled bathtub at an apartment outside Tokyo. She had been beaten and then suffocated. Police hunted for the prime suspect, a 28-year-old Japanese male. On Nov 10, 2009, Tatsuya Ichihashi was arrested as the only suspect in the murder, after he had spent over two years on the run and altered his appearance with plastic surgery. In 2011 Ichihashi admitted the killing but said it was accidental. On July 21 Ichihashi was sentenced to life in prison.
    (AP, 3/29/07)(AFP, 12/2/09)(AFP, 7/4/11)(AFP, 7/21/11)

2007        Mar 27, British lawmakers unanimously passed an emergency bill to preserve the Northern Ireland Assembly and permit its Protestant and Catholic leaders to forge a historic administration by a new May 8 deadline.
    (AP, 3/27/07)

2007        Mar 28, Briton Richard Rogers (73), the famed architect of a series of iconic buildings all over the world, was announced winner of the 2007 Pritzker Architecture Prize.
    (AFP, 3/29/07)
2007        Mar 28, Retired Gurkha soldiers staged a mass protest in London over Britain's refusal to give them full pensions and other rights.
    (AP, 3/28/07)

2007        Mar 29, Britainís PM Tony Blair announced the creation of a new national security department to fight terrorism, as part of a radical overhaul of the 225-year-old Home Office.
    (AP, 3/29/07)(Econ, 3/31/07, p.66)
2007        Mar 29, Britain took its escalating crisis with Iran over 15 captured sailors to the UN Security Council, as Tehran said it would not release the only woman among the detainees.
    (AP, 3/29/07)

2007        Mar 30, Man Group PLC, the world's largest publicly traded hedge fund company, said it plans to split off its brokerage business, making it an independent company through an initial public offering on the New York Stock Exchange.
    (AP, 3/30/07)
2007        Mar 30, One of the 15 British service members held captive in Iran appeared on the government's Arabic-language TV and said he apologized "deeply" for entering Iranian waters without permission.
    (AP, 3/30/07)

2007        Mar, Britain's anti-fraud agency told a private OECD meeting in Paris that they had evidence that BAE paid more than 70 million pounds ($113 million) to a Saudi prince with influence over arms deal contracts. A US diplomatic cable regarding this was only made public in 2011.
    (AP, 3/13/11)

2007        Apr 1, In Iran about 200 students threw rocks and firecrackers at the British Embassy, calling for the expulsion of the country's ambassador because of the standoff over Iran's capture of 15 British sailors and marines. Britain examined options for new dialogue with Tehran over the seized crew of 15 sailors and marines, as a poll suggested most Britons back the government's goal of resolving the standoff through diplomacy.
    (AP, 4/1/07)

2007        Apr 2, Russia's foreign spy service released previously classified files on a double agent who, under the codename "Britt", passed secrets to Moscow from inside British intelligence in the 1940s.
    (AP, 4/2/07)

2007        Apr 4, Iranís President Mahmoud Ahmadinejad freed the 15 detained British sailors and marines as an Easter holiday "gift" to the British people. Syria said it played a key role in resolving the standoff over the 15 British sailors and marines held by Iran. Turkey brokered the release of the British sailors.
    (AP, 4/4/07)(Econ, 8/21/10, p.42)

2007        Apr 5, Fifteen British sailors and marines held captive by Iran returned home to a nation relieved at their freedom but also outraged that they were used by Tehran's propaganda machine.
    (AP, 4/5/07)
2007        Apr 5, A British diplomat met with Palestinian PM Ismail Haniyeh to push for the release of a kidnapped BBC journalist, the first direct meeting between a European Union diplomat and a Hamas official of the Palestinians' new coalition government.
    (AP, 4/5/07)

2007        Apr 6, A Royal Navy lieutenant who was among the captives held by Iran said British sailors and marines held for nearly two weeks were blindfolded, bound and threatened with prison if they did not say they strayed into Iranian waters.
    (AP, 4/6/07)

2007        Apr 8, Britain's Defense Ministry came under fire for allowing 15 British sailors and marines held by Iran for 13 days to sell their stories to the media.
    (Reuters, 4/8/07)

2007        Apr 9, Britain's government beat a hasty retreat under withering criticism for allowing sailors and marines to be paid large sums for their stories about captivity in Iran.
    (AP, 4/10/07)

2007        Apr 10, The European Court of Human Rights ruled that a British woman left infertile after being treated for ovarian cancer has no right to frozen embryos against the wishes of her former fiance, who provided the sperm.
    (AP, 4/10/07)

2007        Apr 11, PM Tony Blair urged Britain's black communities to speak out against gang culture and called again for tougher laws against gangs amid a spate of gun and knife murders.
    (AP, 4/11/07)

2007        Apr 12, In London the Beatles' Apple Corps company settled a royalties dispute with record label EMI, raising hopes that Beatles recordings may soon be legally available online.
    (AP, 4/12/07)

2007        Apr 13, Boris Berezovsky, the exiled Russian tycoon who has emerged as one of the Kremlin's most vocal opponents, called for the use of force to oust President Vladimir Putin and claimed he has support from some in the country's political elite. In response, Russia's chief prosecutor opened a criminal case against Berezovsky on charges of plotting a coup. Britain, granted Berezovsky refugee status in 2003.
    (AP, 4/13/07)

2007        Apr 15, Blind British aviator Miles Hilton-Barber, With the aid of co-copilot Richard Meredith-Hardy, landed his microlight aircraft in Jakarta to complete another leg of his London-Sydney charity flight.
    (AFP, 4/15/07)

2007        Apr 16, Thousands of BBC staff across Britain held a silent vigil to remember its kidnapped Gaza correspondent Alan Johnston after a Palestinian group said it had killed him. Johnston was snatched at gunpoint on March 12 as he returned to his Gaza City home. Johnston was not killed and was freed on July 4.
    (AFP, 4/16/07)(AP, 7/5/07)
2007        Apr 16, Scientists reported that Britain once had around 25 native species of bumblebee, but three of those have been wiped out in the past 50 years and 10 more are now severely threatened.
    (Reuters, 4/16/07)

2007        Apr 17, The British pound broke through the $2 mark for the first time in nearly 15 years after new data showed an unexpected surge in inflation, prompting speculation of interest rate increases.
    (AP, 4/17/07)

2007        Apr 18, The British Foreign Office expressed disappointment and disagreement with a National Union of Journalists vote to call for a boycott on Israeli goods.
    (AP, 4/18/07)
2007        Apr 18, A report said Britain has the worst level of drug abuse in Europe, and the second highest level of drug-related deaths.
    (AFP, 4/18/07)

2007        Apr 19, British aerospace engine maker Rolls-Royce said that it will withdraw from Sudan, citing "increasing international humanitarian concerns" in the violence-scarred region of Darfur.
    (AP, 4/19/07)

2007        Apr 22, Zhou Chunxiu made history as the first Chinese runner to win the London marathon as she came home in 2hrs 20min 38sec, finishing ahead of Ethiopia's Gete Wami and Romanian Constantina Tomescu-Dita.
    (AP, 4/22/07)

2007        Apr 23, British bank Barclays Plc has agreed to buy Dutch rival ABN AMRO for about 67 billion euros ($91 billion) in shares as it attempts to fight off rivals to clinch the world's biggest bank takeover.
    (Reuters, 4/23/07)

2007        Apr 24, British anti-terrorist police arrested six people who were suspected of inciting others to commit acts of terrorism overseas and raising funds for terrorism.
    (AP, 4/24/07)
2007        Apr 24, A consortium led by US private equity group KKR was left unchallenged in its quest to take over Alliance Boots, after a rival British bidder withdrew its bid for Europe's biggest pharmacy chain.
    (AP, 4/24/07)

2007        Apr 25, Three European banks led by Royal Bank of Scotland launched a blockbuster 72-billion-euro takeover battle for Dutch group ABN Amro, outgunning by far an agreed offer by Barclays.
    (AFP, 4/25/07)

2007        Apr 26, Britain widened an investigation into the collection of human body parts for scientific tests at nuclear plants. Unions representing nuclear industry workers said as many as 70 people who worked at the Sellafield nuclear fuel reprocessing plant in northern England and other nuclear facilities may have had bones, organs or other tissue removed for tests.
    (AP, 4/26/07)

2007        Apr 30, A British judge sentenced five men to life in prison for plotting to bomb several targets in London including a popular nightclub, power plants and shopping mall in a trial that exposed links between the men and at least two of the suicide bombers who attacked the capital two years ago. Mohammed Junaid Babar's testimony in the yearlong trial revealed how disaffected Britons were trained for terrorism in Pakistan, where many have family ties. The former terrorist turned informant was arrested in New York in 2004, and has since given evidence to prosecutors in Britain, the US and Pakistan.
    (AP, 4/30/07)(AP, 5/1/07)
2007        Apr 30, Britain's first convicted war criminal was sentenced to a year in prison and dismissed from the army in connection with the death of an Iraqi hotel worker. Corp. Donald Payne had pleaded guilty to inhumanely treating Iraqi civilians in southern Basra in 2003.
    (AP, 4/30/07)
2007        Apr 30, Miles Hilton-Barber (58), A blind British adventurer, touched down in Sydney Monday to end an epic 13,500-mile flight by microlight aircraft from London. His 54-day journey was performed under the supervision of sighted co-pilot Richard Meredith-Hardy.
    (AP, 4/30/07)

2007        May 1, John Browne, head of BP PLC, resigned after Britainís highest legal body triggered the release of documents detailing his relationship with a former lover.
    (WSJ, 5/2/07, p.A1)
2007        May 1, Britain's largest ever trade union, representing about two million public and private sector workers, was launched following the merger of two workers' bodies. The Unite union officially formed following a recent vote for merger by members of Amicus and the Transport and General Workers Union, founded in 1922.
    (AP, 5/1/07)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Transport_and_General_Workers%27_Union)
2007        May 1, Thirty people were arrested in raids across Belgium, England, and the Netherlands targeting suspected animal rights extremists.
    (AP, 5/1/07)

2007        May 3, Voters handed PM Tony Blair's Labour Party a string of embarrassing defeats in local elections.
    (AP, 5/4/07)
2007        May 3, Madeleine McCann (3), a British girl, was kidnapped from her bed in a Portuguese beach resort while her parents dined nearby.
    (Reuters, 5/5/07)
2007        May 3, Scotland held parliamentary elections. Labor was knocked out of the top spot for the 1st time in 50 years by the Scottish National Party. The SNP supported a future referendum on independence. The SNP won 47 of the 129 seats.
    (AFP, 5/3/07)(Econ, 5/12/07, p.61)(Reuters, 2/16/12)

2007        May 4, A British court found Frederick Chiluba, Zambia's first democratically elected president (1991-2001), guilty of stealing $46 million in government funds and ordered him to repay the entire sum. He had gone on trial in Zambia in 2003, accused of 169 counts of corruption, abuse of power and theft, but was declared unfit to stand trial on the grounds of ill health.
    (AP, 5/4/07)(Econ, 11/21/09, p.51)
2007        May 4, Reuters Group PLC said that it had received a preliminary takeover approach. The bidder was identified as Thomson Corp., a financial data and information provider based in Stamford, Conn.
    (AP, 5/4/07)

2007        May 5, In southern Nigeria armed men kidnapped a Briton overnight from the Trident 8 oil rig.
    (AFP, 5/5/07)

2007        May 6, Britainís Home Secretary John Reid announced that he would resign from the government within weeks, just as Chancellor of the Exchequer Gordon Brown is likely to take over from Tony Blair as prime minister.
    (AP, 5/6/07)
2007        May 6, Lord Weatherill (86), the last speaker to wear the traditional shoulder-length wig, died. He had ushered Britain's House of Commons into the television age.
    (AP, 5/8/07)

2007        May 7, Stylist and fashion guru Isabella Blow (b.1958)), a vibrant and often outrageous presence on the British fashion scene, died of cancer.
    (AP, 5/8/07)

2007        May 8, News and information company Reuters Group PLC and financial data provider Thomson Corp. confirmed that they are discussing a combination of their businesses that values Reuters at more than $17 billion.
    (AP, 5/8/07)
2007        May 8, A survey showed that London beat the glamour of Monaco, New York, Hong Kong and Tokyo to become the world's most expensive place to buy residential property.
    (AFP, 5/8/07)

2007        May 9, Britainís Home Office, once called "not fit for purpose" by the minister in charge of it, was split into two in a bid to combat illegal immigration, crime and terrorism more effectively. British police arrested four people in connection with the suicide bombings that killed 52 bus and subway passengers in London in 2005.
    (AFP, 5/9/07)(AP, 5/9/07)

2007        May 10, Britainís PM Tony Blair said he would step down on June 27. The Bank of England raised its key interest rate by a quarter of a point to 5.5%, the highest level since 2001, to tackle surging inflation.
    (AP, 5/10/07)

2007        May 11, Gordon Brown launched his campaign to become Britain's next prime minister, pledging to learn from the mistakes of the Iraq war. Tony Blair has formally endorsed Gordon Brown to be prime minister.
    (AP, 5/11/07)
2007        May 11, British private equity group Terra Firma swooped into the aviation sector to become the world's third-biggest aircraft leasing operator, snapping up US firm Pegasus for 5.2 billion dollars.
    (AP, 5/11/07)

2007        May 15, Reuters agreed to a $17.2 billion takeover by Thomson that would vault the combined entity ahead of Bloomberg to become the world's largest financial data and news provider.
    (AP, 5/15/07)
2007        May 15, PM Bertie Ahern became the first Irish leader to address the joint houses of the British Parliament.
    (AP, 5/15/08)

2007        May 16, Gen. Sir Richard Dannatt, British army chief of staff, announced that Prince Harry would not go to Iraq because of "specific threats" to his life that would expose the prince and his fellow soldiers to unacceptable risk.
    (AP, 5/17/07)

2007        May 20, Fiona Dawson, managing director of the Mars snack food business in Britain, apologized for a widely mocked decision to use animal products in chocolate bars and said in future its candy would be suitable for vegetarians.
    (AP, 5/20/07)

2007        May 21, In Greenwich, England, a spectacular fire heavily damaged the clipper ship Cutty Sark, one of London's proudest relics of the 19th century tea trade with China designed to be the fastest ship of its day. Cutty Sark left London on its first voyage on Feb. 16, 1870, proceeding around Cape Hope to Shanghai 3 1/2 months later. The ship made only eight voyages to China in the tea trade, as steam ships replaced sail on the high seas.
    (AP, 5/21/07)

2007        May 22, Prosecutors in London accused Andrei Lugovoi,  a former KGB agent, of murder in the radioactive poisoning of fellow ex-operative Alexander Litvinenko and sought his extradition from Russia. The Russian prosecutor-general's office said it will not turn over Lugovoi to British authorities.
    (AP, 5/22/07)

2007        May 23, The High Court in London upheld a ruling letting families return to their Indian Ocean island homes, from where they were forced out 30 years ago to make way for a US military base.  The Court of Appeal backed a High Court ruling in May last year that allowed the families to return to the Chagos Islands, except for Diego Garcia, a launchpad for US military operations in Iraq and Afghanistan.
    (AFP, 5/23/07)

2007        May 24, Britain's Court of Appeal upheld a $95 million award to the ex-wife of insurance tycoon John Charman (54), the largest judgment ever in a contested divorce in England and Wales. Jenny Bailey (45), a female councilor who was born a man and fathered two children, was sworn in as Britain's first transsexual mayor. Bailey, a Liberal Democrat, became the civic leader of the Cambridge City Council.
    (AFP, 5/24/07)

2007        May 25, British authorities said 4 people in north Wales have tested positive for a mild strain of bird flu, linked to the H7N2 low pathogenic avian influenza found in chickens.
    (AP, 5/25/07)
2007        May 25, Abdullah el-Faisal, a Muslim cleric named by the British government as a key influence on one of four men who carried out the deadly London transport bombings in 2005, was deported to Jamaica after being released from prison.
    (AP, 5/26/07)

2007        May 27, Edward Behr (81), a noted British foreign correspondent and writer who penned books on history, good eating and his career as a journalist, died in Paris.
    (AP, 5/28/07)

2007        May 28, Britainís public health minister said beer, wine and hard liquor packaging in Britain will carry warning labels next year detailing how many units of alcohol each drink contains as well as recommended safe drinking levels.
    (AP, 5/28/07)

2007        May 29, Libya said it will sign a 900 million dollar exploration deal with energy giant BP, which plans to return after a 33 year absence. British PM Tony Blair arrived in Libya and welcomed improved relations as oil companies from both countries signed a major deal.
    (AP, 5/29/07)
2007        May 29, In Iraq 5 British men were pulled out of a Finance Ministry office by about 40 heavily armed men in police uniforms in broad daylight and driven in a convoy of 19 four-wheel-drive vehicles toward Sadr City. Management consultant Peter Moore and four of his security guards were seized. In 2008 a Shiite militia that claimed responsibility for the kidnapping said a hostage named Jason had committed suicide on May 25. The bodies of Alec MacLachlan (30), Jason Swindlehurst (38), and Jason Creswell (39) were handed over to British officials in 2009. Moore was released on Dec 30, 2009. The body of Alan McMenemy was returned in early 2012. Two car bombers hit neighborhoods on opposite sides of the Tigris River, killing 40 people and wounding more than 100 others. 3 German computer consultants were kidnapped from an Iraqi Finance Ministry office in Baghdad. Gunmen in Samarra set up fake checkpoints on the outskirts of the city and abducted more than 40 people, most of them soldiers, police officers and members of two tribes that had banded together against local insurgents. Col. Hamid Ibrahim al-Jazaa, a Sunni police chief praised by US forces for clearing his city of insurgents, was arrested following an investigation into alleged murder, corruption and crimes against the Iraqi people. Al-Jazaa, his brother and 14 bodyguards were taken into custody in the city of Hit. One US soldier died of wounds from a roadside bomb attack northwest of Baghdad.
    (AP, 5/29/07)(AP, 5/30/07)(AP, 5/31/07)(AP, 7/20/08)(AP, 7/29/09)(AP, 12/30/09)(AFP, 1/20/12)

2007        May 30, Outgoing British PM Tony Blair arrived in the small west African nation of Sierra Leone on the second leg of a three-nation African tour.
    (AP, 5/30/07)
2007        May 30, Global banking giant HSBC donated 50 million pounds (73.5 million euros, 98.8 million dollars) to set up a "green task force" to tackle climate change worldwide. HSBC teamed up with The Climate Group, Earthwatch Institute, Smithsonian Tropical Research Institute (STRI) and WWF to provide conservation managers and policy makers with the latest research.
    (AFP, 5/30/07)

2007        Jun 1, Alan Johnston, a British reporter kidnapped in the Gaza Strip nearly three months, ago appeared in a videotape posted on an Islamic militant Web site, saying his captors had treated him well, denouncing Israel, and criticizing British and US Mideast policy.
    (AP, 6/1/07)

2007        Jun 2, In England Authorized won the Epsom Derby giving riding legend Frankie Dettori his first win in the race on his 15th ride.
    (AFP, 6/2/07)

2007        Jun 4, PM Tony Blair said the British government is to boost funding to help train Muslim imams at universities and to step up the promotion of moderate Islam.
    (AP, 6/4/07)

2007        Jun 6, Nigeria's Chimamanda Ngozi Adichie won Britain's Orange Prize for fiction by women for her book ďHalf of a Yellow Sun," becoming the first African to take the award in its 12-year history.
    (AP, 6/6/07)(Econ, 11/24/07, p.54)

2007        Jun 7, British media reported that Saudi Arabiaís Prince Bandar bin Sultan pocketed about $2 billion in secret payments as part of an $80 billion arms deal between Britain and Saudi Arabia first signed in 1985.
    (SFC, 6/8/07, p.A16)
2007        Jun 7, The Bollywood Oscars was formally launched in England.
    (AP, 6/7/07)
2007        Jun 7, Europe's first train operated on environmentally friendly bio-fuel went into service with PM-designate Gordon Brown traveling on its maiden journey. The train, modified to run on a blended fuel which is 20% bio-diesel, will travel across England, south Wales and Scotland during a six-month experiment that has been organized by Virgin Trains.
    (AFP, 6/7/07)

2007        Jun 8, The Royal Navy's largest and most powerful attack submarine, the giant nuclear-powered HMS Astute, was given a beery royal launch.
    (AFP, 6/8/07)

2007        Jun 11, In London, England, Mahmod Mahmod (52), a Kurdish father who ordered his daughter brutally slain for falling in love with the wrong man in a so-called "honor killing," was found guilty of murder. In early 2006 Banaz Mahmod (20) was strangled with a boot lace, stuffed into a suitcase and buried in a back garden. In 2007 Mahmod Mahmod, and uncle Ari Mahmod, were sentenced to life in prison.
    (AP, 6/11/07)(AP, 7/20/07)

2007        Jun 12, In London Chinua Achebe (76), a Nigerian novelist, won the Booker Intíl. Prize for fiction, awarded every 2 years for a body of fiction. He is best known for his 1st book ďThings Fall Apart" (1958).
    (SFC, 6/13/07, p.E5)

2007        Jun 13, British Home Secretary John Reid said the government is to run a pilot scheme giving convicted pedophiles drugs to suppress their libido, or so-called "chemical castration."
    (AFP, 6/13/07)

2007        Jun 15, Britain announced the knighthood of author Salman Rushdie. This soon sparked rage among many Muslims.
    (Econ, 6/23/07, p.63)
2007        Jun 15, A London court jailed 7 Britons linked to a plot to blow up US financial institutions and stage a series of attacks in Britain, for a total of 136 years.
    (AP, 6/15/07)
2007        Jun 15, The Gulf state of Qatar tightened its grip on J Sainsbury, Britain's third biggest supermarket chain, by raising its stake to 25%, sparking speculation it may launch a takeover.
    (AP, 6/15/07)
2007        Jun 15, Russia's security agency announced an espionage investigation based on statements by the suspect in Andrei Litvinenko's radiation poisoning, a move apparently targeting a Kremlin foe in Britain.
    (AP, 6/15/07)

2007        Jun 16, Spanish police, working with US and British authorities, seized four tons of cocaine aboard a ship off the northwest coast.
    (AP, 6/18/07)

2007        Jun 18, Authorities said British police, with aid from US investigators, have shattered a global Internet pedophile ring, rescuing 31 children and rounding up more than 700 suspects worldwide.
    (AP, 6/18/07)
2007        Jun 18, Pakistan demanded that Britain withdraw a knighthood awarded to author Salman Rushdie, as a government minister said the honor gave a justification for suicide attacks by Muslims.
    (AP, 6/18/07)

2007        Jun 19, "The Lord of the Rings" musical, the most expensive production in West End history, opened at London's Theatre Royal to mixed reviews, with some critics praising it as brilliant and others calling it corny and "a thumping great flop."
    (AP, 6/20/07)

2007        Jun 21, In London, England, Damien Hirstís ďLullaby spring" sold for $19.1 million, the highest price paid at auction for a work by a living artist. The work consisted of a stainless steel cabinet containing 6,136 hand-crafted and painted pills. It was purchased by Sheikha al-Mayassa al-Thani, the daughter of the emir of Qatar.
    (SFC, 6/23/07, p.E4)(Econ, 9/11/10, p.99)
2007        Jun 21, Britain and the United States signed a treaty to cut red tape on arms deals and improve the compatibility of military equipment.
    (AP, 6/21/07)
2007        Jun 21, A hitman sent to Britain to kill Boris Berezovsky (61) was arrested by British security services as he planned the murder.  He was turned over to immigration services and soon deported.
2007        Jun 21, At Stonehenge, England, Druids, drummers, pagans and partygoers welcomed the sun as it rose above the prehistoric monument of Stonehenge on the longest day of the year, the summer solstice.
    (AP, 6/21/07)
2007        Jun 21, In Pakistan thousands rallied in support of the suspended chief justice, accusing President Gen. Pervez Musharraf of attacking the judiciary and burning a US flag to protest Washington's backing for the general's continued rule. Pakistani traders announced a reward of 10 million rupees (165,000 dollars) for anyone who beheads Salman Rushdie following Britain's decision to award the novelist a knighthood. Islamic scholars bestowed a top honor on Osama bin Laden in response to the British accolade.
    (AP, 6/21/07)(AFP, 6/21/07)

2007        Jun 22, British energy group BP, facing pressure from the Kremlin, said that it had agreed to sell its stakes in a Siberian gas field and company to Russian gas giant Gazprom for up to 900 million dollars (669 million euros).
    (AP, 6/22/07)(WSJ, 6/22/07, p.A3)

2007        Jun 23, Britainís PM Tony Blair held long talks with Pope Benedict XVI, with the Vatican stop on his farewell tour fueling rumors that he plans to convert to Catholicism.
    (AP, 6/23/07)

2007        Jun 24, Treasury chief Gordon Brown, three days before taking over from Tony Blair as premier, replaced Blair as leader of Britain's Labor Party and vowed that the country's foreign policy will recognize that defeating terrorism "involves more than military force."
    (AP, 6/24/07)

2007        Jun 25, The final British troops withdrew from the Northern Ireland borderland long known as "bandit country," ending a 37-year mission to keep watch over the Irish Republican Army's most dangerous power base.
    (AP, 6/25/07)

2007        Jun 26, Residents across England mopped up after flash floods killed 4 people and forced hundreds from their homes.
    (AP, 6/26/07)(Econ, 6/30/07, p.66)
2007        Jun 26, In Jerusalem international Mideast negotiators searched for ways to revive peace talks after Hamas' takeover of the Gaza Strip. US officials said they were expected to name outgoing British PM Tony Blair as a senior envoy.
    (AP, 6/26/07)

2007        Jun 27, Gordon Brown became British prime minister, promising a new government with new priorities, after Tony Blair resigned to end a decade in power. Major Western powers agreed on the mandate for a new Middle East envoy and named Tony Blair to the position after he stepped down as prime minister. A statement from the Quartet (US, UN, EU, Russia) said Blair will focus on mobilizing international support and assistance for the Palestinians.
    (AP, 6/27/07)(Reuters, 6/27/07)(AP, 6/28/07)

2007        Jun 29, British police thwarted a devastating terrorist plot, discovering two Mercedes loaded with nails packed around canisters of propane and gasoline set to detonate and kill possibly hundreds in London's crowded theater and nightclub district. On Dec 16, 2008, Bilal Abdulla (29), an Iraqi doctor who claimed he intended only to frighten Britons, was convicted of conspiracy to murder with car bombs in London and Scotland.
    (AP, 6/30/07)(AP, 12/16/08)
2007        Jun 29, Britain's first postal strike in more than a decade was triggered by a row over pay and government plans to cut thousands of jobs. Union bosses claimed the 24-hour walkout would be carried out by up to 130,000 workers.
    (AFP, 6/29/07)
2007        Jun 29, In Scotland a four-wheel-drive Jeep rammed into the main terminal at Glasgow airport and exploded in flames. Police arrested two men for the attack, one of them under guard in the hospital after being engulfed in flames when the Jeep crashed into the airport. The driver was later identified as Kafeel Ahmed (28), an Indian aeronautical engineer.
    (Reuters, 6/30/07)(AP, 7/1/07)(SFC, 7/9/07, p.A8)

2007        Jul 1, British police arrested two people, a 26-year-old man and a 27-year-old woman, on a major highway in Cheshire, northern England, in a joint swoop by officers from London and Birmingham, Scotland Yard said in London in relation to the attack in Glasgow and 2 car bombs in London. A fifth suspect was arrested in Liverpool. 2 more arrests in the failed car bombings brought the total to 7.
    (AP, 7/1/07)(AP, 7/2/07)
2007        Jul 1, England slammed the door on smoking in bars, workplaces and public buildings in what campaigners hail as the biggest boost to public health since the creation of the National Health Service in 1948.
    (AP, 7/1/07)

2007        Jul 2, Police in Australia arrested a 27-year-old Indian doctor over the foiled terror attacks in London and Glasgow, and were interviewing a second doctor in the case.
    (AP, 7/3/07)
2007        Jul 2, Count Gottfried von Bismarck (44), whose life of privileged excess as a descendant of Germany's "Iron Chancellor" was clouded by two deaths at his decadent parties, was found dead at his $10 million apartment in London's Chelsea district.
    (AP, 7/4/07)
2007        Jul 2, In Ghana 2 British girls were stopped with 300,000 pounds (443,000 euros, 610,000 dollars) worth of cocaine during a joint Ghanaian-British narcotics operation. They were found guilty on November 21 and were released on July 17, 2008.
    (AFP, 7/17/08)

2007        Jul 3, British police focused on at least four physicians with roots outside Britain, including a doctor seized at an Australian airport with a one-way ticket, in the investigation into failed car bombings in Glasgow and London.
    (AP, 7/3/07)

2007        Jul 4, Palestinian gunmen released Alan Johnston, a British journalist, who had been kidnapped March 12. The powerful Dughmush clan got to keep its weapons in return for giving Johnston up.
    (AP, 7/5/07)(Econ, 7/7/07, p.46)

2007        Jul 5, British media reported that a Scottish house had been used as a makeshift bomb factory to carry out the terror attacks in London and Scotland. Three "cyber-jihadis" who used the Internet to urge Muslims to wage holy war on non-believers were jailed for between six-and-a-half and 10 years in the first case of its kind in Britain. Morocco-born Younis Tsouli (23), an al-Qaida-inspired computer expert who dubbed himself "the jihadist James Bond," was sentenced to 10 years in prison for running a network of extremist Web sites. Accomplices Tariq al-Daour and Waseem Mughal also got prison terms.
    (AP, 7/5/07)(AFP, 7/5/07)(Econ, 7/14/07, p.29)
2007        Jul 5, The Bank of England raised its key interest rate by a quarter of a percentage point to 5.75 percent, the fifth increase this year, in an attempt to curb inflation.
    (AP, 7/5/07)
2007        Jul 5, Two thieves showed up at a London jeweler in a flashy car and made off with an even flashier haul, stealing about $20 million worth of diamonds and gems.
    (AP, 7/11/07)
2007        Jul 5, George Melly, English jazzman and writer, died in London of lung cancer.
    (Econ, 7/14/07, p.92)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/George_Melly)

2007        Jul 7, Britainís PM Gordon Brown pledged 14 million pounds in extra aid for parts of northern England hit by floods which killed at least four people.
    (AFP, 7/7/07)

2007        Jul 9, A London jury convicted four Muslim militants of plotting to bomb London's public transport system.
    (AP, 7/9/08)

2007        Jul 13, A court in Brazil issued an arrest warrant for self-exiled Russian tycoon Boris Berezovsky on charges of money-laundering, but he denied any involvement. The case dates back to 2004, when MSI spent millions of dollars acquiring new players, which raised the interest of Sao Paulo state prosecutors. They wanted to know more about the investment group, its Iranian-born president, Kia Joorabchian, and the origin of the money he and his unidentified partners injected into the club. Brazilian prosecutors said they have also issued an arrest warrant for Joorabchian, a British citizen.
    (AP, 7/13/07)

2007        Jul 14, In London an Indian doctor arrested the same day his brother allegedly drove a Jeep Cherokee loaded with gas bombs into Glasgow's main airport was charged with a terrorism offense. A distant cousin in Australia was also charged in the failed attacks in London and Glasgow.
    (AP, 7/14/07)

2007        Jul 15, Britain released without charge 2 suspects in the failed car bomb attacks in London and Glasgow last month.
    (AFP, 7/15/07)

2007        Jul 16, Britain ordered the expulsion of four Russian diplomats because of Moscow's refusal to extradite the lead suspect in the fatal poisoning of a former KGB officer in London.
    (AP, 7/17/07)
2007        Jul 16, The High Court in London upheld a ban on a teenager from wearing a so-called "purity ring" at school to signal her refusal of sex before marriage.
    (AP, 7/16/07)

2007        Jul 17, A British court sentenced Yassin Nassari (27), a British-born Syrian cleric, to 3Ĺ years in prison for bringing missile plans into Britain in 2006. He had led a branch of the Islamic Society at the Univ. of Westminster. Nassari served just over seven months of his sentence.
    (Econ, 1/9/10, p.61)(www.guardian.co.uk/uk/2008/mar/28/terror.release)
2007        Jul 17, Russia vowed a "targeted and appropriate" response to Britain's expulsion of four diplomats in a mounting confrontation over the probe into the radiation poisoning death of a former KGB officer.
    (AP, 7/17/07)

2007        Jul 18, In London 3 Muslim men were jailed for 6 years for their role in a heated protest outside the Danish embassy in 2006, following the publication of cartoons in a Danish newspaper making fun of the Prophet and of Muslims generally. A 4th man was sentenced to 4 years.
    (Econ, 7/21/07, p.55)

2007        Jul 21, The protracted suspense finally lifted for Harry Potter fans who flooded bookshops worldwide to grab the series finale, "Harry Potter and the Deathly Hallows," and find out whether author J.K. Rowling slays or spares the boy wizard.
    (AFP, 7/21/07)(AP, 7/21/08)
2007        Jul 21, Helicopters rescued dozens of people following heavy rains and floods in England that also forced more than 2,000 motorists, homeowners and train passengers to spend the night in shelters.
    (AP, 7/21/07)

2007        Jul 23, Former British Prime Minister Tony Blair, in his new capacity as a Mideast envoy, opened his mission to help Palestinians build solid foundations for their future state.
    (AP, 7/23/08)

2007        Jul 24, Heavy rain and extreme temperatures continued to batter Europe, with Britain caught in its worst floods in living memory while the Balkans sizzled in heatwaves that killed at least 35 people.
    (AP, 7/24/07)

2007        Jul 25, British Defense Secretary Des Browne announced that Britain has agreed to let the US use a Royal Air Force base as part of its planned missile defense system. The British government said it will build two new aircraft carriers costing 3.9 billion pounds in a project which will support 10,000 British jobs over the next ten years.
    (AP, 7/25/07)

2007        Jul 26, In London, England, Bachan Athwal (70), a British grandmother, faced life imprisonment after being convicted of the "honor killing" of her son's wife who she murdered after luring her to India. Her son (43) was also found guilty of murder. The two killed Sikh Heathrow Airport worker Surjit Kaur Athwal (27), who disappeared in December 1998 after she decided to walk out of her arranged marriage.
    (Reuters, 7/26/07)
2007        Jul 26, A London court sentenced five students to jail for collecting information on bomb-making and terrorism.
    (AP, 7/26/07)
2007        Jul 26, A bull named Shambo was taken away from a Hindu monastery at Skanda Vale, Wales, ending a long and public battle between Hindus who revere bulls and authorities who said he must be killed because he had tested positive for tuberculosis.
    (AP, 7/28/07)

2007        Jul 27, Afghan and NATO troops over the last 24 hours clashed with Taliban insurgents and called in airstrikes, killing at least 50 suspected militants and dozens of civilians. The third British soldier to die in three days in southern Afghanistan was killed in a rocket attack.
    (AP, 7/27/07)(AFP, 7/28/07)

2007        Jul 29, Britainís PM Gordon Brown traveled to the United States, saying he planned to use the official visit to strengthen what Britain already considers its "most important bilateral relationship."
    (AP, 7/29/07)

2007        Jul 30, US President George W. Bush and Britainís PM Gordon Brown held talks. Brown hoped to secure support for a Darfur peace deal and movement on stalled world trade talks. Bush and PM Brown, meeting at Camp David, forged a unified stand on Iraq.
    (AP, 7/30/07)(AP, 7/30/08)

2007        Jul 31, The British army marked a milestone of peacemaking as it formally ended its 38-year mission to bolster security in Northern Ireland.
    (AP, 7/31/07)
2007        Jul 31, Norman Cohn (92), English historian, died. He studied the links between apocalyptic Medieval sects and 20th century totalitarianism and genocide. His 1957 book: "Pursuit of the Millennium: Revolutionary Millenarians and Mystical Anarchists of the Middle Ages" drew parallels between millenarian movements in the Middle Ages and the rise of 20th-century totalitarianism.
    (AP, 8/27/07)

2007        Jul, Andy Coulson, former editor at News of the World, became the communications head for David Cameron, leader of the Britainís opposition Conservative Party.
    (Econ, 7/16/11, p.26)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Andy_Coulson)

2007        Aug 1, A financial watchdog said British Airways has been fined a record 121.5 million pounds (180 million euros, $246 million) after admitting collusion with Virgin Atlantic over fuel surcharges on tickets. British Airways and Korean Air (for collusion with Lufthansa) agreed to pay $300 million each in fines and plead guilty to federal charges that they colluded with other airlines to set ticket prices. In 2012 the fine against BA was reduced to £58.5 million.
    (AFP, 8/1/07)(SFC, 8/2/07, p.C2)(Econ, 8/4/07, p.48)(AFP, 4/19/12)

2007        Aug 3, Four people were killed after a helicopter flying from northern England to southern Scotland crashed in northwest England. The wreckage was found the next day.
    (AFP, 8/4/07)

2007        Aug 4, British PM Gordon Brown said that authorities were doing "everything in our power" to track the source of a foot-and-mouth disease outbreak and wipe out the animal illness before it wreaked economic devastation.
    (AP, 8/4/07)

2007        Aug 6, The European Commission announced a formal EU-wide import ban on meat and livestock from the British mainland following the outbreak there of foot and mouth disease. The outbreak halted British animal movement and the export ban was estimated to be costing the British meat industry some £10 million a week.
    (AP, 8/6/07)(Econ, 8/11/07, p.45)

2007        Aug 7, Britain called for the Bush administration to release five British residents held at Guantanamo Bay, a policy reversal that suggests new PM Gordon Brown is pursuing a tougher line with the US than his predecessor.
    (AP, 8/7/07)
2007        Aug 7, Britainís Environment Secretary Hilary Benn said tests had confirmed a second foot-and-mouth outbreak in southern England as he awaited an initial report into biosecurity at a vaccine laboratory suspected of being at the center of the cases.
    (AP, 8/7/07)
2007        Aug 7, Britain's GW Pharmaceuticals Plc said that Health Canada had approved its cannabis-based medicine Sativex for treatment of cancer patients.
    (AP, 8/7/07)

2007        Aug 8, A British air force helicopter crashed near an army base in northern England, killing two military personnel and injuring 10.
    (AP, 8/9/07)

2007        Aug 10, PM Gordon Brown said that foot-and-mouth disease had been contained within a small area of England, despite tests for a suspected new outbreak in a herd several miles from the initial cluster of cases.
    (AP, 8/10/07)

2007        Aug 12, In England Gerry Tobin was shot in the back of the head as he rode home from an annual biker event, the Bulldog Bash, in Warwickshire. Police later arrested 3 men in connection with the shooting death of the Canadian Hells Angel biker on the M40 motorway.
    (Reuters, 8/22/07)

2007        Aug 13, AkzoNobel, a Dutch chemicals group under Hans Wijers, made a cash offer for the British firm ICI (Imperial Chemical Industries) under John McAdam for $16 billion. The deal turned Akzo into the worldís biggest maker of paints.
    (Econ, 10/04/08, p.72)(www.ici.com/main/cms/cmRender.asp?i=2162)

2007        Aug 17, Bill Deedes (b.1913), British journalist and politician, died in Kent, England. He is the only person in Britain to have been both a member of the British cabinet and the editor of a major daily newspaper.
    (Econ, 8/25/07, p.14)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bill_Deedes)

2007        Aug 18, In Britain a man died and six other people were missing after a fire gutted a hotel in the popular seaside resort of Newquay.
    (AP, 8/18/07)

2007        Aug 20, Britain eased restrictions on the movement of cattle and sheep to following the outbreak of foot-and-mouth disease in southern England.
    (AP, 8/20/07)

2007        Aug 22, Rhys Jones (11) was killed as he was kicking a ball around with friends outside a pub in Liverpool, north-west England. Police soon arrested five young people, including two girls, in relation to his murder. On Dec 16, 2008, Sean Mercer (18) was found guilty of murdering Jones and was sentenced to a minimum of 22 years in prison.
    (AFP, 8/25/07)(AFP, 4/16/08)(AP, 12/16/08)

2007        Aug 23, The EU relaxed a ban on exports of British livestock, meat and dairy products that was imposed after an outbreak of foot-and-mouth disease in southeastern England earlier this month.
    (AP, 8/23/07)
2007        Aug 23, In southern Afghanistan a bomb dropped by a US fighter jet was believed to have killed 3 British soldiers in Helmand province. Two other soldiers were injured.
    (AP, 8/24/07)

2007        Aug 29, Britain unveiled a statue of Nelson Mandela outside the houses of Parliament, honoring the South African anti-apartheid campaigner as one of the great leaders of his era.
    (AP, 8/29/07)

2007        Aug 30, In London a diamond-encrusted skull by British artist Damien Hirst (41) sold for 100 million dollars (75 million euros), a record price for work sold by a living artist.
    (AFP, 8/30/07)
2007        Aug 30, Michael Jackson (65), a leading world beer critic, died in London. He praised the brews of Belgium and his books "The Great Beers of Belgium" and "World Guide to Beer" introduced them to many export markets, including the United States.
    (AP, 8/31/07)(www.beerhunter.com/)

2007        Aug, In London, England, Baby P (Peter Connelly) was 17 months old when he died in a blood-spattered cot, having spent much of his life being used as "a punchbag." Social workers, police and health professionals failed to save him despite 60 visits over eight months, during which time he suffered more than 50 horrific injuries. His mother (27) and 2 men were charged with causing the babyís death. The trio received minimum prison terms of 5, 12 and 3 years respectively. Sharon Shoesmith was sacked as director of children's services from Haringey Council in December 2008 after a damning Ofsted report into her department's role into the death of Baby P. In 2010 Dr Jerome Ikwueke (63) was found guilty of misconduct after a series of failings during consultations with the toddler at his north London surgery.
    (AFP, 11/12/08)(AFP, 4/23/10)(AFP, 7/16/10)

2007        Sep 3, A woman joined the protectors of the Crown Jewels as one of the famed Beefeaters of the Tower of London, becoming the first female Yeoman Warder since the corps of Tower guards was created in 1485.
    (AP, 9/3/07)
2007        Sep 3, Iraqi soldiers hoisted the nation's flag over the Basra palace compound after British troops withdrew from their last garrison in the city, leaving the country's second biggest city largely in the hands in the hands of Iranian-backed Shiite militias. In a statement posted on an Islamic Web site, the Islamic State of Iraq, made up of 8 insurgent groups, including al-Qaida in Iraq, said its leader Abu Omar al-Baghdadi chose Mohammed Khalil al-Badria for the education position. The so-called 10-member "Islamic Cabinet" was set up in April to challenge the Iraqi government. President Bush made a surprise visit to al-Asad Air Base west of Baghdad, hoping to bolster his case that the buildup of US troops is helping to stabilize the country.
    (AP, 9/3/07)

2007        Sep 4, Most of London's sprawling transport network shut down after maintenance workers walked off the job, arousing commuter anger and drawing warnings the strike will inconvenience millions of Britons. Subway maintenance workers agreed to cut short the strike.
    (AP, 9/4/07)(AP, 9/4/07)
2007        Sep 4, A Eurostar train shattered the record for the quickest rail journey between Paris and London, using a new high-speed track that shaved some 30 minutes off the previous fastest time. The 306 mile (492 kilometer) journey from the Gare du Nord in Paris to Saint Pancras took just two hours, three minutes and 39 seconds from station to station.
    (AP, 9/4/07)
2007        Sep 4, Jane Tomlinson (43), terminal cancer sufferer, died in London following a 7-year battle against the disease. Tomlinson had raised thousands of pounds after being diagnosed with terminal breast cancer by taking on a series of grueling physical challenges.
    (AFP, 9/4/07)

2007        Sep 6, Media reports said Chinese computer hackers are infiltrating British government networks, giving them access to secret information.
    (AFP, 9/6/07)

2007        Sep 9, The British couple named as suspects in the disappearance of their 4-year-old daughter returned to England, days after being grilled by Portuguese police about new forensic evidence authorities believe ties them to the case.
    (AP, 9/9/07)

2007        Sep 10, Dame Anita Roddick (64), founder of Body Shop, died after suffering a major brain hemorrhage. She used her international cosmetics chain to promote eco-friendly practices long before they were widely fashionable. She had opened her first shop in Brighton in 1976 and sold the business in 2006 to LíOreal for $1.1 billion.
    (AP, 9/10/07)(Econ, 9/15/07, p.80)

2007        Sep 11, The European Commission has ditched its attempt to impose the metric system on Ireland and Britain, where a grocer was once convicted of selling bananas by the pound rather than by the kilo. The EU said it will lift all remaining restrictions on British meat and livestock next month after veterinary experts agreed that the threat from a foot-and-mouth disease outbreak was over.
    (AP, 9/11/07)(AFP, 9/11/07)

2007        Sep 12, The specter of foot and mouth disease returned to haunt Britain after a new suspected outbreak was detected close to last month's outbreak site.
    (AFP, 9/12/07)

2007        Sep 13, In London, England, Ian Strachan (30) and Sean McGuigan (40) were charged with blackmail. The two suspects had approached an unidentified royal family member in August and demanded $100,000 not to publicize a video allegedly showing the royal engaged in a sex act. The charges did not become public until Oct 28.
    (AP, 10/30/07)

2007        Sep 14, The global credit crisis struck Northern Rock PLC, Britainís 5th largest mortgage lender, as the Bank of England said it had approved emergency funding to help the bank overcome a liquidity crisis.
    (AP, 9/14/07)(Econ, 9/22/07, p.92)

2007        Sep 17, In London, England, panicky depositors converged on Northern Rock branches for a third day to grab savings from the beleaguered mortgage lender, the latest victim of a global credit crunch.
    (AFP, 9/17/07)
2007        Sep 17, Sotheby's canceled a London auction Set for Sep 18 after Alisher Usmanov, a Russian tycoon paid about 25 percent more than the estimated price for the art collection of the late cellist Mstislav Rostropovich. A government agency "presented some guarantees to Sotheby's that this transaction would be in the interest of the Russian Federation."
    (AP, 9/18/07)
2007        Sep 17, Saudi Arabia announced it has signed a 4.43 billion pound (8.86 billion dollar) deal to buy 72 Eurofighter planes, after tortuous negotiations on one of the largest ever British export orders.
    (AP, 9/17/07)

2007        Sep 18, In London shares in troubled mortgage lender Northern Rock rose on a promise by the central bank to back its deposits, but worried customers continued to line up to withdraw their savings.
    (AP, 9/18/07)

2007        Sep 19, The Bank of England announced that it would inject 10 billion pounds into longer-term money markets next week amid the ongoing global credit squeeze.
    (AFP, 9/19/07)
2007        Sep 19, Bachan Athwal (70), a London grandmother, was jailed for life for ordering the execution of Surjit Athwal, her cheating daughter-in-law in India, after discovering she was having an affair with a married man. Athwalís 43-year-old son Sukhdave was also found guilty and jailed for a minimum 27-year term.
    (AFP, 9/19/07)

2007        Sep 20, The British competition watchdog accused British supermarkets and dairies on of colluding to fix prices, resulting in customers being overcharged 270 million pounds (386 million euros, 542 million dollars) for dairy products.
    (AP, 9/20/07)
2007        Sep 20, Borse Dubai and Nasdaq, rivals to take over Nordic market operator OMX, said they had joined forces to acquire it together in a deal that gives Borse Dubai 19.99 percent of US-based Nasdaq and 28 percent of the London Stock Exchange.
    (AP, 9/20/07)

2007        Sep 21, Playboy opened its first store in Europe at the heart of London's shopping district, continuing its evolution from adult magazine to international merchandising brand.
    (AP, 9/21/07)
2007        Sep 21, A new case of foot-and-mouth disease was confirmed in cattle on a farm in southern England.
    (AP, 9/21/07)

2007        Sep 23, The campaign group End Child Prostitution, Child Pornography and the Trafficking of Children for Sexual Purposes (ECPAT) said criminal gangs are trafficking hundreds of children into Britain and forcing them to work in cannabis factories, with at least one child per week being found by police.
    (AFP, 9/23/07)

2007        Sep 27, Miles Cooper (27), a caretaker at a primary school in Cambridge, was convicted of sending a spate of letter bombs that hurt eight people in England and Wales earlier this year.
    (AFP, 9/27/07)

2007        Sep 28, Britain's biggest water supplier was handed a fine of more than 12 million pounds for "inadequate" reporting to the industry regulator and poor customer service to its eight million customers.
    (AFP, 9/28/07)
2007        Sep 28, Britainís deputy chief veterinarian said bluetongue disease is circulating in Britain after being reported in a cow at the weekend in southern England.
    (AP, 9/28/07)

2007        Oct 1, Britainís Racial and Religious Hatred Act came into force. This made it a crime for anyone to use threatening words or behavior with the intention of stirring up religious hatred. Britainís Equality and Human Rights Commission (EHRC) was created to succeed the Commission for Racial Equality.
    (Econ, 10/13/07, p.67)(Econ, 6/27/09, p.61)(www.out-law.com/page-8512)
2007        Oct 1, The London Stock Exchange completed its purchase of Borsa Italiana, cementing its position as Europe's biggest equity market.
    (AP, 10/1/07)
2007        Oct 1, The British Broadcasting Corp. said it bought a 75-percent stake in the Lonely Planet travel guides.
    (AP, 10/1/07)

2007        Oct 2, Magda Pniewska (26), a Polish woman, was shot in the head and died after being caught in the cross-fire between two gunmen in a residential street in London. On April 22, 2008, Armel Gnango (17) was convicted of murder for being involved in the gunfight.
    (AFP, 10/3/07)(AFP, 5/22/08)
2007        Oct 2, The United Iraqi Alliance, the Shiite bloc of PM al-Maliki, demanded that the US military abandon its recruitment of Sunni tribesmen into the Iraqi police force. Britain's PM Brown arrived in Iraq to meet troops and lawmakers and announced plans to withdraw more than 1,000 troops from Iraq by year's end, and Iraq said it will take over security from British forces in the southern Basra province within two months. 11 people were killed, including two women, a child and four police officers, in five separate attacks, including a suicide car bombing at a police checkpoint near Khalis, 50 miles north of Baghdad.
    (AP, 10/2/07)(SFC, 10/3/07, p.A3)

2007        Oct 4, A British soldier was killed in an explosion about 19 miles west of Kandahar city. 82 British personnel, including 57 soldiers, have been killed in Afghanistan since operations began there in November 2001.
    (AP, 10/5/07)

2007        Oct 6, The Stirling Prize, Britain's most prestigious architecture prize, was awarded to Germany's Museum of Modern Literature. The classically influenced building designed by David Chipperfield Architects, opened last year in Marbach, southwest Germany.
    (AP, 10/7/07)
2007        Oct 6, In London the New Economics Foundation think-tank said the world moved today into "ecological overdraft," the point at which human consumption exceeds the ability of the earth to sustain it in any year and goes into the red. If everyone in the world had the same consumption rates as in the US it would take 5.3 planet earths to support them, NEF said, noting that the figure was 3.1 for France and Britain, 3.0 for Spain, 2.5 for Germany and 2.4 for Japan.
    (Reuters, 10/6/07)

2007        Oct 7, Qatar's Diar real estate investment company announced it has agreed to buy phase two of the Grosvenor Waterside residential development in the upmarket London district of Chelsea.
    (AP, 10/7/07)

2007        Oct 8, PM Gordon Brown said that Britain will cut its troop levels in Iraq to 2,500 in early 2008, trimming the force by nearly half. Britain ended up postponing the withdrawal amid a spike in militia violence.
    (AP, 10/8/07)(AP, 10/8/08)
2007        Oct 8, British postal workers started a second 48-hour strike as a dispute over pay and restructuring remained unresolved.
    (AP, 10/8/07)

2007        Oct 9, Britainís Labor Party announce a decision to raise capital gains taxes to a flat 18% from an effective 10% on most business assets as of April 2008.
    (Econ, 12/1/07, p.71)(http://tinyurl.com/37mapa)

2007        Oct 11, Doris Lessing, British author of dozens of works from short stories to science fiction, including the classic "The Golden Notebook," won the Nobel Prize for literature. She was praised by the judges for her "skepticism, fire and visionary power."
    (AP, 10/11/07)

2007        Oct 12, A consortium headed by Richard Branson and his Virgin Group Ltd. submitted a proposal to Northern Rock PLC for an equity swap that would see the struggling mortgage lender rebranded as Virgin Money.
    (AP, 10/12/07)

2007        Oct 16, Barbara West Dainton (96), believed to be one of the last two survivors from the sinking of the Titanic in 1912, died in Camborne, England.
    (AP, 10/16/08)
2007        Oct 16, British actress Deborah Kerr (86) died. She shared one of cinema's most famous kisses with Burt Lancaster in "From Here to Eternity" (1953).
    (AP, 10/18/07)

2007        Oct 18,     The head of the British Broadcasting Corp. announced budget cuts that will lead to a net loss of 1,800 jobs.
    (AP, 10/18/07)
2007        Oct 18,     London's Science Museum canceled talk by Nobel Prize-winning geneticist James Watson after the co-discoverer of DNA's structure told a newspaper that Africans and Europeans had different levels of intelligence.
    (AP, 10/18/07)

2007        Oct 21,     Thousands of British Muslims gathered for a charity peace concert dubbed "Muslim Live 8" to raise money for victims of Sudan's long-running Darfur conflict.
    (AP, 10/21/07)
2007        Oct 21, South Africa beat England (15-6) in the Rugby World Cup Final at the Stade France in Paris.
    (AFP, 10/23/07)

2007        Oct 23,     In London a Quran written in 1203, believed to be the oldest known complete copy, sold for more than $2.3 million at an auction. A nearly complete, 10th-century Kufic Quran, thought to be from North Africa or the near East, sold $1,870,000.
    (AP, 10/24/07)

2007        Oct 26, A British soldier was convicted at a court martial of his part in a plot to smuggle guns out of Iraq and sell them to colleagues at his unit's base in Germany. Lance Corporal Anthony Creswick was involved in selling illegal pistols bought on the black market in Basra.
    (AFP, 10/26/07)

2007        Oct 28, In London a media report said US financial services group GMAC will lead a rescue bid for stricken bank Northern Rock.
    (AP, 10/28/07)

2007        Oct 30, In London Saudi Arabia's King Abdullah received a lavish welcome from Queen Elizabeth II as he started a state visit amid angry protests and headlines after accusing Britain of anti-terrorism failures. The Policy Exchange, an independent think tank, said Agencies linked to the Saudi government have distributed extremist literature to mosques and Islamic centers in Britain.
    (AP, 10/30/07)

2007        Oct 31, In London King Abdullah of Saudi Arabia met PM Gordon Brown to discuss Middle East issues and counter-terrorism, amid a swirl of protests.
    (AP, 10/31/07)

2007        Nov 1, London's Metropolitan Police force was convicted of breaching health and safety laws in the fatal shooting of Jean Charles de Menezes, a Brazilian, who officers mistook for a suicide bomber on July 22, 2005.
    (AP, 11/1/07)
2007        Nov 1, In Italy Meredith Kercher (21), a British university student, was killed [see Nov 2].
    (AP, 12/5/09)

2007        Nov 2, In England a massive fire at a vegetable packing warehouse in Atherstone On Stour, near Stratford-upon-Avon, left one fire fighter dead and 3 missing.
    (AFP, 11/3/07)
2007        Nov 2, In Italy Meredith Kercher (21), a British university student, was found dead with her throat slashed in the bedroom of a house in the central city of Perugia. A week later 3 suspects in the murder were remanded in custody by an Italian investigating magistrate. On Nov 19 police in Perugia identified a 4th suspect as Rudy Hermann Guede, an Ivory Coast native. Guede was arrested in Germany the next day and DNA evidence confirmed that he had sex with Kercher the night she was stabbed. In 2009 roommate Amanda Knox, of Seattle, Wa.,  was convicted and sentenced to 26 years in prison. The court also convicted Knox's co-defendant and former boyfriend, Italian Raffaele Sollecito, and gave him a 25-year jail term for the murder. Rudy Hermann Guede, an Ivory Coast citizen, had already been convicted in the murder and sentenced to 30 years in prison.
    (AP, 11/2/07)(AFP, 11/10/07)(AP, 11/19/07)(AP, 11/22/07)(AP, 12/5/09)

2007        Nov 4, Welshman Joe Calzaghe confirmed his status as boxing's best super-middleweight by unanimously outpointing Denmark's Mikkel Kessler in a triple world title fight at the Millennium Stadium in Cardiff.
    (AFP, 11/4/07)

2007        Nov 8, Samina Malik (23), who called herself the "Lyrical Terrorist" and penned poems with titles including "How To Behead," became the first woman to be convicted under Britainís terrorism legislation. In December she was given a suspended 9-month prison sentence and community service.
    (AFP, 11/8/07)(Econ, 12/8/07, p.67)
2007        Nov 8, Britainís Privy Council ruled that Prince Jefri Bolkiah (53) of Brunei must transfer ownership of 2 US hotels and 3 residences in Los Angeles, London and Paris along with a trust fund to the Brunei Investment Agency. Jefri had failed to return assets in a 2000 agreement to settle accusations of embezzlement.
    (SSFC, 12/2/07, p.A31)(http://tinyurl.com/39fvcf)

2007        Nov 13, Britainís government said an outbreak of bird flu in eastern England is the deadly H5N1 strain of the disease. A two-mile protection zone and a six-mile surveillance zone were created around the infected farm in Suffolk.
    (AP, 11/13/07)(Econ, 11/17/07, p.67)

2007        Nov 14, The final stage of the cross-Channel high-speed rail service opened for business from the newly rebuilt St. Pancras station in London.
    (SFC, 11/28/07, p.E2)(www.raileurope.com)

2007        Nov 18, British ambassador Andrew Anderson said Algeria has formally demanded the extradition from Britain of former Algerian bank chief Rafik Khalifa, sentenced to life over a massive embezzlement scandal.
    (AP, 11/18/07)

2007        Nov 20, British Treasury chief Alistair Darling revealed a lapse at Britain's tax and customs service regarding missing computer disks with details of 25 million British individuals and 7.25 million families claiming child benefit. There were gasps from lawmakers when Darling described the scale of the loss.
    (AP, 11/21/07)(Econ, 11/24/07, p.24)
2007        Nov 20, The British government announced that the legal age of sexual consent in Northern Ireland will be lowered to 16 in line with the rest of the United Kingdom.
    (AP, 11/21/07)
2007        Nov 20, A British Puma helicopter crashed southeast of Baghdad, killing two soldiers and seriously injuring two others. A sophisticated roadside bomb killed a US soldier and an Iraqi interpreter and wounded three other soldiers on patrol in eastern Baghdad.
    (AP, 11/21/07)

2007        Nov 21, PM Gordon Brown tried to reassure Britons their personal details were safe after the one of the biggest security breaches in the country's history left millions of people exposed to identity theft and bank fraud.
    (AP, 11/21/07)
2007        Nov 21, Two British teenagers (16) faced up to three years in jail after a Ghanaian court found them guilty of smuggling 6 kg (13 lbs) of cocaine. The teenagers, who pleaded not guilty, had told British TV they were tricked into carrying the bags by male acquaintances in Ghana and Britain and did not know their content. In 2008 the 2 girls were sentenced to one year in jail to include time already served. They were released on July 17, 2008.
    (Reuters, 11/21/07)(AP, 1/23/08)(AFP, 7/17/08)

2007        Nov 26, Peter Watt, the general secretary of Britainís Labor Party, resigned after admitting that he knew of an arrangement in which David Abrahams, a north-east property developer, had donated money to the party through intermediaries since 2003. PM Brown claimed not to have known of the arrangement and promised to return the money.
    (Econ, 12/1/07, p.69)

2007        Nov 27, Russiaís Gazprom made clear its interest in buying a half share of TNK-BP and any large UK power company that may come up for sale, while repeating its warning that wholesale gas prices could rise sharply in Europe next year.

2007        Nov 29, The European Parliament voted to allow Britain and Ireland to keep some of their old imperial measurements so pubs can still serve pints and road signs can show miles instead of kilometers.
    (AP, 11/29/07)
2007        Nov 29, Gillian Gibbons, the British teacher arrested in Sudan on Nov 25 for insulting Islam by allowing her students to name a teddy bear "Muhammad," was sentenced to 15 days in prison and deportation. She avoided the more serious punishment of 40 lashes. Gibbons was pardoned after spending more than a week in custody; she then left the country.
    (AP, 11/30/07)(AP, 11/29/08)

2007        Dec 1, The Times reported that Jonathan Evans, the head of Britain's domestic security service, has warned business leaders that China has been carrying out state-sponsored espionage against vital parts of the economy.
    (AFP, 12/1/07)

2007        Dec 3, Artist Mark Wallinger won Britain's prestigious Turner Prize for a fiercely anti-war exhibit based on a lone protester's six-year vigil outside British parliament.
    (AP, 12/3/07)
2007        Dec 3, The Bank of England under governor Mervyn King brought down its base interest rate by a quarter point to 5.5%.
    (Econ, 12/8/07, p.65)

2007        Dec 5, British police arrested John Darwin (57) on fraud charges, five years after he vanished in an apparent canoeing accident in the North Sea, only to reappear last weekend, claiming he had amnesia.
    (AP, 12/5/07)

2007        Dec 9, Anne Darwin, whose husband is accused of faking his own death in an insurance scam, was arrested upon her return to Britain from Panama on suspicion of fraud. Police said Darwin masterminded an elaborate fraud to pay off family debts.
    (AP, 12/9/07)
2007        Dec 9, Maj. Gen. Jalil Khalaf, the police chief of Basra, said religious vigilantes have killed at least 40 women this year there because of how they dressed. A roadside bomb struck a convoy carrying Brig. Gen. Qais al-Maamouri, the police chief of Babil, the provincial capital of Hillah, a predominantly Shiite province south of Baghdad, killing him and two of his bodyguards. British PM Gordon Brown flew into southern Iraq to rally troops and confirm that Iraqi forces will take command of the last region under British control in mid-December.
    (AP, 12/9/07)(AP, 12/10/07)

2007        Dec 10, In London Led Zeppelin performed their first full concert in nearly three decades. Three surviving members, singer Robert Plant, guitarist Jimmy Page and bassist-keyboardist John Paul Jones, were joined by the late John Bonham's son Jason on drums.
    (AP, 12/11/07)
2007        Dec 10, Afghan and international forces retook the southern town of Musa Qala, held by Taliban militants since February. A Taliban spokesman said the militants fled to avoid civilian and Taliban casualties. In Sangin district Afghan police clashed with a group of Taliban militants, leaving 15 militants dead and 11 others wounded. An Afghan army helicopter crashed in central Afghanistan because of bad weather, killing four people. British PM Gordon Brown stopped in at Camp Bastion, the main British camp in Helmand province.
    (AP, 12/10/07)(AFP, 12/10/07)

2007        Dec 12, Russia ordered a British cultural organization to suspend all of its operations outside Moscow at the beginning of 2008, the latest move in a long-running dispute. Russian officials accused the British Council, a non-governmental organization that acts as the cultural department of the British Embassy, of operating illegally in St. Petersburg and Yekaterinburg.
    (AP, 12/12/07)

2007        Dec 14, Britainís Department for Environment, Food and Rural Affairs (DEFRA) confirmed a new case of the livestock disease bluetongue in a  cow imported from Germany, two months after an earlier outbreak was said to have been contained.
    (AFP, 12/14/07)

2007        Dec 16, British forces formally handed over responsibility for Basra, the last region in Iraq under their control, marking the start of what Britain hopes will be a transition to a mission aimed at aiding the economy and providing jobs in an oil-rich region beset by militia infighting. A total of 174 British personnel have died in Iraq since the March 2003 invasion. The venture cost Britain some $10 billion.
    (Econ, 12/22/07, p.94)(AP, 12/16/08)

2007        Dec 21, Former British PM Tony Blair left the Church of England and converted to Catholicism, the faith of his wife and children.
    (AP, 12/22/07)
2007        Dec 21, The British pound hit an historic low against the euro owing to heightened expectations of cuts to British interest rates in 2008.
    (AP, 12/21/07)

2007        Dec 25, Actress Pat Kirkwood (b.1921), once a star of British musical theater, died.
    (AP, 12/26/07)(SFC, 12/29/07, p.B5)

2007        Dec 26, Britainís Daily Telegraph newspaper reported that British intelligence agents held secret talks with Taliban leaders on several occasions this year. Earlier this month, British PM Gordon Brown ruled out direct talks with Taliban insurgents, telling the House of Commons: "I make it clear that we will not enter into any negotiations with these people."
    (AFP, 12/26/07)

2007        The painting ďWhite Canoe," by British artist Peter Doig, sold for $11.2 million, a record for a living European artist.
    (Econ, 2/9/08, p.91)
2007        Robin Aitken authored ďCan We Trust the BBC."
    (WSJ, 5/5/07, p.P10)
2007        Michael Billington authored ďBritish Theater since 1945."
    (Econ, 12/1/07, p.100)
2007        Kate Colquhoun authored ďTaste: The Story of Britain through its Food."
    (Econ, 11/24/07, p.89)
2007        John Major, former British prime minister, authored ďMore Than a Game: The Story of Cricketís Early Years."
    (Econ, 6/16/07, p.97)

2007        Global wind power amounted to about 1,200 megawatts with Denmark accounting for about a third and Britain in 2nd place with 400 megawatts.
    (WSJ, 11/29/07, p.B2)

2008        Jan 1, Britain defied a Russian order to close the regional offices of its cultural arm from New Year's day, but there was no evidence of Russian attempts to forcibly close British Council centers.
    (Reuters, 1/1/08)

2008        Jan 2, Sterling slumped to a record low against the euro after the release of weak British economic data that raised expectations of further interest rate cuts by the Bank of England.
    (AP, 1/2/08)
2008        Jan 2, George MacDonald Fraser (82), English author of the "Flashman" series of historical adventure yarns, died. "Flashman," published in 1969, introduced readers to an enduring literary antihero: the roguish, irrepressible Harry Flashman. Fraserís work also included over 30 movie scripts including ďThe Three Musketeers" (1973).
    (AP, 1/3/08)(WSJ, 1/17/08, p.D7)(Econ, 1/12/08, p.78)

2008        Jan 7, Britainís PM Gordon Brown announced plans for a new national screening program to combat some of the country's biggest killer diseases.
    (AP, 1/7/08)

2008        Jan 8, Britainís PM Gordon Brown said that he wants a 3-year public sector pay deal, rather than the traditional annual deals, to control inflation and maintain economic stability.
    (AP, 1/8/08)
2008        Jan 8, Britain's Royal Mail issued a set of stamps commemorating James Bond to mark 100 years since the birth of his creator, Ian Fleming.
    (AP, 1/8/08)
2008        Jan 8, Sohail Qureshi (29), a dentist, was jailed in London after admitting planning to travel to Pakistan to carry out unspecified acts of terrorism. Qureshi, who was sentenced to four and a half years, was detained at London Heathrow Airport in October 2006 carrying thousands of pounds in cash, as well as a night sight, medical supplies and computer material.
    (AFP, 1/8/08)

2008        Jan 9, British police and animal welfare authorities rescued 84 neglected horses from a farm where they had found 31 dead horses, ponies and donkeys.
    (AP, 1/9/08)
2008        Jan 9, Sir John Harvey Jones, British corporate manager and TV star, died. He served as chairman of Imperial Chemical Industries (ICI) from 1982-1987. In 1990 he became the presenter of the pioneering BBC TV show ďTroubleshooter" (1990-1992) which ďaimed to interest the general public in the nitty-gritty of running a business." From 1989 to 1994 he served as chairman of The Economist.
    (Econ, 1/19/08, p.94)

2008        Jan 10, Britainís government unveiled a new energy policy, which included a decision to support the building of new nuclear-power stations.
    (Econ, 1/12/08, p.49)
2008        Jan 10, British media reports said 3 swans found dead on a nature reserve in south-west England have tested positive for the H5N1 strain of bird flu.
    (AFP, 1/10/08)

2008        Jan 11, Liverpool launches its year as European Capital of Culture with events including a musical about its past and future starring ex-Beatle Ringo Starr.
    (AFP, 1/11/08)

2008        Jan 14, The British government said all visitors to Britain requiring visas will have to be fingerprinted starting today.
    (AP, 1/14/08)
2008        Jan 14, Russiaís Foreign Ministry said no more visas will be issued for new British Council expatriate employees in Saint Petersburg and Yekaterinburg, accreditation renewals for existing employees will be blocked and a tax inquiry will be launched against the Saint Petersburg office after a British cultural organization reopened offices in defiance of an order to close. Russia last month ordered the closure of the two regional offices of the British Council, a nonprofit organization that acts as the cultural arm of the British Embassy, saying they were operating illegally.
    (AFP, 1/14/08)(AP, 1/14/08)
2008        Jan 14, Pakistani security forces killed 23 Taliban fighters and lost seven of their own men during clashes, while a Taliban spokesman said 17 troopers were captured. Six British detectives left Pakistan bound for London with evidence collected from their investigation into the assassination of Pakistani opposition leader Benazir Bhutto.
    (Reuters, 1/14/08)(AP, 1/14/08)

2008        Jan 15, Britain and Russia traded threats and recrimination as a diplomatic feud over the role of the British government's cultural arm worsened.
    (Reuters, 1/15/08)

2008        Jan 16, A British cultural organization accused Russian authorities of harassing its staff and said it had temporarily closed its offices in St. Petersburg.
    (AP, 1/17/08)

2008        Jan 17, Britain accused Russia of "conduct not worthy of a great country" after what it called a campaign of intimidation by security services forced its cultural centers in two Russian cities to halt operations.
    (AP, 1/17/08)
2008        Jan 17, A British Airways jet from Beijing carrying 152 people crash-landed, injuring 19 people and causing more than 200 flights to be canceled at Europe's busiest airport.
    (AP, 1/17/08)

2008        Jan 18, British PM Gordon Brown brought a high-profile delegation of business leaders to China for a visit focused on expanding economic ties between the countries. Brown began a major effort to position Britain as China's premier international business partner, offering London as a base for distribution of the Asian nation's state fund for private investment.
    (AP, 1/18/08)

2008        Jan 20, Britain's PM Gordon Brown arrived in India hailing relations between the two countries as a "partnership of equals" as he looked to further boost links.
    (AP, 1/20/08)

2008        Jan 24, In Britain almost two dozen Romanians were arrested after police swooped on a child slave gang.
    (Reuters, 1/24/08)

2008        Jan 25, Scottish & Newcastle, the UK's largest brewer, announced it has agreed to be bought by Carlsberg and Heineken, for around 7.6 billion pounds.
    (AFP, 1/25/08)

2008        Jan 28, In London demonstrators staged noisy protests as Pakistan's President Pervez Musharraf held talks with PM Gordon Brown, amid criticism over human rights and concern over elections.
    (AP, 1/28/08)

2008        Jan 29, Gold prices hit a record high 933.33 dollars in London as the market was driven higher by production problems in key producer South Africa and the weak US dollar.
    (AFP, 1/29/08)

2008        Feb 5, British scientists said they have created human embryos containing DNA from two women and a man in a procedure that researchers hope might be used one day to produce embryos free of inherited diseases.
    (AP, 2/5/08)

2008        Feb 6, PM Gordon Brown announced that evidence gathered through wiretapping will be allowed in British courts for the first time under proposals aimed at bringing more terrorism suspects to justice.
    (AP, 2/6/08)

2008        Feb 7, The Bank of Englandís monetary policy committee (MPC) lowered interest rates from 5,75% to 5.5%.
    (Econ, 2/9/08, p.63)

2008        Feb 8, Scotland Yard released a report saying that Pakistan's opposition leader Benazir Bhutto died as a result of a suicide bomb blast, not a gunshot. The findings supported the Pakistani government's version of the events.
    (AP, 2/8/08)

2008        Feb 9, A massive fire in London's famed Camden market caused extensive damage to the market and area buildings.
    (AP, 2/10/08)

2008        Feb 10, In northern Iraq car bombs and gunmen struck new US allies, police and civilians. At least 80 people were reported killed or found dead in a spasm of violence that coincided with a visit by US Defense Secretary Robert Gates to Baghdad. A US soldier was killed in a roadside bombing. 8 masked gunmen wielding machine guns stormed the Sultan Palace Hotel in Basra and seized a British reporter and his Iraqi interpreter. Richard Butler was seized in Basra with his translator and held hostage for two months. Butler was rescued on April 14. In 2011 the Iraqi central criminal court issued a 15-year prison sentence against a defendant for kidnapping the British journalist Richard Butler.
    (AP, 2/11/08)(SFC, 2/11/08, p.A14)(AP, 2/12/08)(AFP, 7/2/11)

2008        Feb 11, In London the price of platinum struck an historic high nearing $1,900 on supply disruptions caused by power shortages in South Africa, the white metal's biggest producer.
    (AP, 2/11/08)

2008        Feb 12, England's commissioner for children and a civil liberties group joined in on a campaign to ban high-frequency devices intended to drive misbehaving children away from shops and other areas.
    (AP, 2/12/08)
2008        Feb 12, Badri Patarkatsishvili (52), a Georgian tycoon, was found dead in his mansion near London. Police said they were treating the death as suspicious. He had claimed he was the target of assassination plot after helping lead anti-government protests in his homeland. He had built his fortune in Russia, where he became Berezovsky's business partner. However, the two men claimed in British court documents that the Russian government forced them to sell their stakes in oil company Sibneft, Russian Aluminum and television channel ORT for a fraction of their value. Interim tests indicated that Patarkatsishvili died of natural causes.
    (AP, 2/13/08)(AP, 2/14/08)

2008        Feb 14, In London the price of platinum soared past 2,000 dollars an ounce to a record as power shortages affected mining production in South Africa, the biggest supplier of the white precious metal.
    (AP, 2/14/08)

2008        Feb 17, British chancellor Alistair Darling announced that stricken mortgage lender Northern Rock would be nationalized.
    (Econ, 2/23/08, p.73)

2008        Feb 18, The British government introduced emergency legislation to temporarily nationalize Northern Rock PLC. British PM Gordon Brown, detailing nationalization plans, said the stricken mortgage lender will remain nationalized until adverse market conditions change.
    (AP, 2/18/08)

2008        Feb 19, In England Karen Matthews reported that her daughter was missing in the Yorkshire town of Dewsbury. Shannon (9) was found safely 24 days later in the base of a divan bed at the flat of Michael Donovan. On Dec 4 Karen Matthews (33) and Michael Donovan (40) were found guilty of kidnapping. The mother allegedly hoped to scoop the reward money when the girl was found.
    (AP, 12/4/08)

2008        Feb 21, In London Steve Wright (49) was found guilty of murdering five prostitutes in a killing spree which brought terror to the English market town of Ipswitch in 2006.
    (AFP, 2/21/08)

2008        Feb 24, The first flight by a commercial airline to be partly powered by biofuels took off from London on a short trip to Amsterdam billed as heralding a new eco-friendlier era of airline travel.
    (AFP, 2/24/08)
2008        Feb 24, Pearl Cornioley, British spy (nom de guerre was Genevieve Touzalin), died. She parachuted into France during WWII posing as a cosmetics saleswoman to deliver coded messages to Resistance members.
    (AP, 4/1/08)

2008        Feb 25, Police on the Channel Island of Jersey, where a child's buried remains were found, widened their search for bodies to six more sites in and around Haut de la Garenne, a former children's home.
    (AFP, 2/25/08)

2008        Feb 26, Mohammed Hamid (50), a man who dubbed himself "Osama bin London" was found guilty by a British court of organizing extremist training camps and soliciting murder.
    (AFP, 2/26/08)

2008        Feb 29, The British military decided to pull Prince Harry out of Afghanistan "immediately" after news of his deployment leaked out in foreign media.
    (AP, 2/29/08)

2008        Mar 3, Colin Norris (32), convicted of killing four elderly patients in northern England with insulin overdoses, was sentenced to life in prison. must serve at least 30 years before being eligible for parole. Norris was arrested in December 2002 but not charged until 2005.
    (AP, 3/4/08)

2008        Mar 6, Britain unveiled a timetable for the introduction of controversial biometric identity cards, starting with non-European foreigners who will be obliged to have them from later this year.
    (AP, 3/6/08)
2008        Mar 6, In Britain the Public and Commercial Services union (PCS) said that up to 700 hundred personnel of the Maritime and Coastguard Agency (MCA) had begun a 24-hour stoppage in response to poor pay conditions and below-inflation wage increases over the past few years.
    (AFP, 3/6/08)

2008        Mar 7, Francis Pym (86), former Northern Ireland secretary (1973-74) under Edward Heath, died after a long illness. He also served as former PM Margaret Thatcherís foreign secretary during the Falklands War (1982) but was fired in 1983 and became a Thatcher antagonist.
    (AP, 3/8/08)

2008        Mar 11, The Bank of England said it would inject a further 10 billion pounds into money markets amid the ongoing credit crunch.
    (AP, 3/11/08)

2008        Mar 17, A judge awarded Heather Mills a total of $48.6 million in the financial settlement of her divorce from former Beatle Paul McCartney. This was a fifth of what she had demanded.
    (AP, 3/17/08)(Econ, 3/22/08, p.65)

2008        Mar 18, A British judge ruled against Exxon Mobil Corp., tossing out an order to freeze $12 billion in assets belonging to Venezuela's state oil company in a case that stemmed from the nationalization of a project last year.
    (AP, 3/19/08)
2008        Mar 18, The world's biggest passenger plane, Airbus's A380, touched down in London on its first commercial flight to Europe facing questions from green groups over its eco-friendly billing.
    (AP, 3/18/08)
2008        Mar 18, Anthony Minghella (54), Oscar winning British director, died. He turned such literary works as "The English Patient," "The Talented Mr. Ripley" and "Cold Mountain" into acclaimed movies.
    (AP, 3/18/08)

2008        Mar 19, Arthur C. Clarke (b.1917), English-born science fiction writer, died in Sri Lanka. Clarke wrote or collaborated on close to 100 books and had moved to Sri Lanka in 1956.
    (AP, 3/19/08)(SFC, 3/19/08, p.A2)
2008        Mar 19, Philip Jones Griffiths (72), Welsh-born photojournalist, died. He spent years traveling across Vietnam to capture the effects of the war on its people.
    (AP, 3/19/08)
2008        Mar 19, Paul Scofield (b.1922), towering British stage actor, died. He won international fame and an Academy Award for the film "A Man for All Seasons," in which he played Sir Thomas More.
    (AP, 3/20/08)

2008        Mar 20, The Bank of England said it would inject 5.0 billion pounds into short-term money markets every week until April 9.
    (AP, 3/20/08)
2008        Mar 20, In southern Afghanistan security forces said an exchange of fire between British soldiers and police left a policeman dead and two men wounded from each side.
    (AFP, 3/20/08)

2008        Mar 25, Auctioneers said the painting "La Surprise" (~1718) by French artist Jean-Antoine Watteau, missing for 200 years, has been found in a British country house and could now sell for up to five million pounds.
    (AFP, 3/25/08)

2008        Mar 26, It was reported that British pig husbandry is in crisis due to exploding global grain prices. Last month British pig farmers recorded ďStand By Your Ham" based on the 1968 US country classic ďStand By Your Man" by Tammy Wynette.
    (WSJ, 3/26/08, p.A1)
2008        Mar 26, French Pres. Nicolas Sarkozy vowed to open a new chapter in ties with Britain as he arrived for a state visit which he hopes will also help repair his image as a statesman.
    (AP, 3/26/08)

2008        Mar 28, British Airways Plc cancelled a fifth of flights from its new $8.6 billion terminal at London's Heathrow airport as chaos from its shambolic opening spilled into a second day.
    (AP, 3/28/08)

2008        Mar 29, British Airways said that it was canceling more flights to and from London Heathrow airport's new Terminal 5 for a third day running because of logistical problems.
    (AFP, 3/29/08)
2008        Mar 29, Angus Fairhurst (b.1966), one of the group of "Young British Artists" who stormed the international art scene in the 1990s, died of suicide during a walk in Scotland.
    (AP, 4/1/08)

2008        Mar 30, British Airways cancelled another batch of flights as it struggled to cope with a massive backlog of luggage at London Heathrow airport's new multi-billion-pound Terminal 5.
    (AP, 3/30/08)

2008        Mar 31, Some of England's most sacred soil was disturbed for the first time in more than four decades as archaeologists worked to solve the enduring riddle of Stonehenge: When and why was the prehistoric monument built?
    (AP, 3/31/08)
2008        Mar 31, A clash in southern Afghanistan killed a Danish soldier and wounded two others. A separate attack on a NATO patrol killed two British troops. an airstrike killed three men irrigating land close to a road in Kandahar province. The men may have been mistaken for militants planting roadside bombs. In Helmand province police arrested Mullah Naqibullah, a senior Taliban commander who has escaped twice from Afghan prisons. Naqibullah was nabbed during a clash that left three insurgents dead.
    (AP, 3/31/08)(AP, 4/1/08)

2008        Apr 1, Britainís border agency (UKBA) was formed following the dismemberment 2007 of the Home Office.
    (Econ, 11/12/11, p.64)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/UK_Border_Agency)

2008        Apr 4, In London a prosecutor told a court that Assad Sarwar (27), a man accused of plotting to down trans-Atlantic airliners, was also developing plans to cripple nuclear power stations, a European gas pipeline and Britain's electricity grid.
    (AP, 4/5/08)

2008        Apr 5, British PM Gordon Brown called the current global economic crisis the largest challenge of its kind in centuries while addressing some of the world's key decision makers at a summit on climate change, the economy and global poverty.
    (AP, 4/5/08)
2008        Apr 5, London Heathrow airport's new Terminal 5 was hit by fresh flights disruption when the baggage system suffered a major software problem.
    (AP, 4/5/08)

2008        Apr 6, Thousands of anti-China protesters draped in Tibetan flags disrupted the Olympic torch relay through London, billed as a journey of harmony and peace.
    (AP, 4/6/08)

2008        Apr 7, In London a coroner's jury decided that Diana and Dodi Fayed were unlawfully killed due to reckless speed and drinking by their driver, and by the reckless pursuit of vehicles chasing them, not as part of a murder conspiracy.
    (AP, 4/8/08)
2008        Apr 7, In London Oleg Gordievsky, a double agent who became the most senior Soviet spy to defect to the West during the Cold War, said that he became sick after taking the pills at his home in southern England on Oct. 31.
    (AP, 4/7/08)

2008        Apr 8, English Channel tunnel operator Groupe Eurotunnel SA reported profits of $1.57 million for 2007, its first annual net profit, less than a year after the company nearly drowned in debt.
    (AP, 4/8/08)

2008        Apr 10, The Bank of England cut its key interest rate .25% to five%, balancing the risks of rising near-term inflation and economic slowdown spread by the credit crisis.
    (AP, 4/10/08)
2008        Apr 10, The West's last remaining feudal system came to an end after the Privy Council endorsed a vote by locals on the tiny Channel Island of Sark to change the way they are governed.
    (Reuters, 4/10/08)

2008        Apr 11, Sabeel Ahmed (26), a doctor originally from Bangalore in India, pleaded guilty to withholding information from police about the June 29, 2007, attack at Glasgow airport. His brother died after a failed suicide car bombing at the airport.
    (AFP, 4/11/08)

2008        Apr 12, In Ecuador 5 young British women were killed in a bus crash while the 15 other people on board were injured.
    (AFP, 4/13/08)

2008        Apr 14, Richard Butler, a kidnapped British journalist, was rescued by Iraqi troops after two months in captivity in Basra. A roadside bomb in downtown Baghdad killed five people and wounded nine. In northern Iraq 18 people were killed in two car bombings and a suicide attack. The US military said it will release Associated Press photographer Bilal Hussein, more than two years after he was detained by US Marines on suspicions of links to insurgents. The military said it has determined Hussein is not a threat and plans to free him Apr 16.
    (AP, 4/14/08)(AP, 4/15/08)

2008        Apr 14, In London Nepalese Gurkha soldiers demonstrated outside a landmark immigration tribunal which could decide if 2,000 veterans who fought for Britain can settle here.
    (AFP, 4/15/08)

2008        Apr 16, Britainís PM Gordon Brown, on the first of a 3-day visit to the US, met with bankers to discuss solutions to the credit crisis.
    (WSJ, 4/17/08, p.A12)

2008        Apr 21,     The Bank of England announced a 50-billion-pound plan, the special Liquidity Scheme, to free up Britain's home loan market in one of the biggest moves by a major central bank to combat the global credit crunch.
    (AFP, 4/21/08)(Econ, 4/26/08, p.96)

2008        Apr 23, PM Gordon Brown pledged that Britain would promote proposals for an arms embargo on Zimbabwe.
    (AP, 4/23/08)

2008        Apr 24, Britain's foreign secretary held talks with Iraqi PM Nouri al-Maliki. PM al-Maliki said all political blocs have agreed to return to the government. At least 13 people were reported killed in the ongoing fighting between Shiite militiamen and Iraqi and US-led forces. A US soldier was killed in a roadside bombing south of Baghdad.
    (AP, 4/24/08)(AP, 4/25/08)(WSJ, 4/25/08, p.A1)

2008        Apr 24, In England police in Leeds found Damien Oldfield (33) stabbed to death. Anthony Morley (36) attacked Damien Oldfield (33) during a night the pair spent together at Morley's home. Morley slit Oldfield's throat as he lay in his bed, stabbed him repeatedly and cooked some of his flesh. On Oct 20 Morley was sentenced to a minimum of 30 years in prison.
    (AP, 10/20/08)(http://tinyurl.com/6nw7hx)

2008        Apr, In southern England Isa Ibrahim (19), a British Muslim convert, was arrested for planning a bomb attack at the Broadmead shopping mall in Bristol. In 2009 he was sentenced to a minimum of 10 years in jail.
    (AP, 7/17/09)

2008        May 2, Britain's ruling Labor Party suffered its worst local election defeat on record. Labor won 24% of the votes, a warning to PM Brown that he must fix Britainís credit crunch.
    (AP, 5/2/08)(WSJ, 5/3/08, p.A1)

2008        May 3, Early results showed Boris Johnson defeating Ken Livingstone as mayor of London. Voters also picked opposition candidates in more than 300 municipal council races, prompting PM Brown to humbly pledge to heed the scathing verdict.
    (AP, 5/3/08)

2008        May 7, London's new mayor Boris Johnson announced a ban on alcohol on the capital's transport system, as part of a wider clampdown on crime and anti-social behavior.
    (AP, 5/7/08)

2008        May 15, Britain's third-biggest bank, said that first quarter profits fell after suffering a 1.0 billion-pound (1.25 billion-euro, 1.95 billion-dollar) hit from the global credit crunch.
    (AP, 5/15/08)

2008        May 19, British lawmakers voted to approve controversial plans to allow the use of animal-human embryos for research.
    (AP, 5/19/08)

2008        May 20, British PM Gordon Brown urged rich countries to end agricultural subsidies, and said he will press for a global trade agreement to help the world's poorest farmers escape poverty.
    (AP, 5/20/08)
2008        May 20, The Dalai Lama began an 11-day visit to Britain, including talks with PM Gordon Brown who faces a delicate balancing act between supporting Tibetan rights while not offending China.
    (AP, 5/20/08)
2008        May 20, Ian Shuttleworth (42), a former British police officer, was arrested in Bangkok in an international crackdown on a sex trafficking ring that saw nine Thais detained last month in London. He was arrested at his apartment in downtown Bangkok, where he had set up a security company providing bodyguards to Thailand's elite. He is accused of luring Thai women into prostitution by promising them well-paid restaurant jobs in London, and then selling them to a madam.
    (AFP, 5/21/08)

2008        May 21, In Moscow, Russia, Manchester United prevailed over Chelsea in the soccer final of the Champions League.
    (Econ, 5/24/08, p.77)

2008        May 22, Britainís PM Gordon Brown called for a total ban on the use of cluster bombs by the British military. Nicky Reilly, would-be suicide bomber, tried to detonate a nail bomb in a restaurant in Exeter but injured only himself. He had embraced Islam between 2002 and 2003 and called himself Mohammad Rashid Saeed Alim. In 2009 Reilly (22) was sentenced to a minimum of 18 years in prison.
    (AFP, 5/22/08)(AP, 1/30/09)

2008        May 24, In England Rob Knox (18), teenage actor who had a part in the next Harry Potter film, was stabbed and killed in a scuffle outside a bar. Karl Bishop (21), from Sidcup in Kent, was accused of the murder. On March 4, 2009, Bishop was convicted of murder. The next day he was sentenced to life in prison.
    (AFP, 5/27/08)(AP, 3/5/09)

2008        May 27, Horn-honking truckers rumbled en masse into central London to protest against soaring fuel prices.
    (AP, 5/27/08)

2008        Jun 4, British officials said an outbreak of the H7 strain of bird flu at a farm in central England is "highly pathogenic." All the chickens on the farm were slaughtered following detection of the virus in Banbury, Oxfordshire.
    (AFP, 6/4/08)

2008        Jun 6, A judge at City of Westminster Magistrates Court said 4 men: Vincent Bajinya, also known as Doctor Vincent Brown, Charles Munyaneza, Celestin Ugirashebuja and Emmanuel Nteziryayo, should be sent back to Rwanda for trial for their involvement in the 1994 genocide.
    (AFP, 6/6/08)

2008        Jun 8, In Afghanistan the body of Abdul Samad Rohani (25), an Afghan reporter for the BBC, was found in Helmand province. 3 British paratroopers were killed in Helmand province in a suicide bomb attack, bringing total British military deaths in Afghanistan since 2001 to 100.
    (AFP, 6/8/08)(AP, 6/9/08)

2008        Jun 9, British constable Ian Terry (32), a father of two from Burnley, was fatally shot by a colleague during a training exercise in a disused warehouse in Manchester. An inquest in 2010 found he had been unlawfully killed. In 2012 the Health and Safety Executive (HSE) said Greater Manchester police and two of the force's officers will be prosecuted over the death of the constable.
    (AFP, 3/7/12)
2008        Jun 9, Some 32 common dolphins were found beached in and around a creek off the Percuil River, near Falmouth, England. Some were rescued, but 26 dolphins suffered painful, protracted deaths. 2 days later a marine animal protection group said the dolphins may have been killed after becoming disoriented by British navy sonar exercises.
    (AP, 6/11/08)

2008        Jun 10, The British government published its annual poverty figures. They showed a rise in 2006-07 of 100,000 in the number of children living in poverty to 2.9 million.
    (Econ, 6/14/08, p.72)

2008        Jun 11, Yeshi Girma (32), the partner of Hussain Osman, a would-be suicide bomber who attempted to attack London's subway system, was convicted in London for not warning police about the July 1, 2005, plot. Her sister and brother were also both found guilty of failing to disclose information and helping Osman.
    (AP, 6/11/08)

2008        Jun 12, The Bank of England reported that inflation in May had risen to a record 4.3%.
    (Econ, 6/14/08, p.71)
2008        Jun 12, Afghanistan's Pres. Hamid Karzai appealed to world donors in Paris for massive, long-term aid for police, road-building and agriculture to help make his country safer and his countrymen less hungry. Donors ranging from the US the World Bank pledged more than $21 billion for Afghanistan. 2 British troops were killed by enemy fire while patrolling the area around their base in the Upper Gereshk Valley.
    (AP, 6/12/08)(AP, 6/13/08)(AP, 6/13/08)

2008        Jun 13, In London, administrators said a takeover deal to rescue small business-class airline Silverjet has collapsed. The airline employed 370 pilots and cabin crew and 50 administrative staff in Luton, where it operated flights to New York and Dubai.
    (AFP, 6/13/08)(http://tinyurl.com/56mjgg)

2008        Jun 15, US President George W. Bush arrived in Britain to hold talks with PM Gordon Brown on issues including Iraq and Iran's suspect nuclear program. Bush urged Brown to withdraw forces from Iraq based on conditions on the ground and not an arbitrary timetable.
    (AFP, 6/15/08)(Reuters, 6/15/08)

2008        Jun 16, US President George W. Bush won Europe's backing for tighter sanctions on Iran over its nuclear program and secured a British pledge to send more troops to Afghanistan.
    (AP, 6/16/08)
2008        Jun 16, UN Secretary-General Ban Ki-moon unveiled an arresting shaft-of-light memorial in London to journalists killed in the line of work.
    (AP, 6/16/08)

2008        Jun 17, Residents and officials said Taliban militants destroyed bridges and planted mines in several villages they control outside southern Afghanistan's largest city in apparent preparation for battle, as some 4,000 people or more fled the Arghandab district 10 miles northwest of Kandahar city. An explosion elsewhere killed 4 British soldiers in Helmand province.
    (AP, 6/17/08)(AP, 6/18/08)
2008        Jun 17, The Rev. Henry Chadwick (b.1920), a Church of England priest and renowned scholar of the early centuries of Christianity, died. The first of his many books was a translation of "Contra Celsum" by Origen of Alexandria, the third century church father, published in 1953.
    (AP, 6/20/08)

2008        Jun 19, It was reported that Bristol has been designated as Britain's first "cycling city" as part of a 100 million pound scheme aimed at getting people to exercise by using bicycles.
    (AP, 6/19/08)

2008        Jun 21, Sean Langan (43), British freelance television journalist, was released by kidnappers along the Afghan-Pakistan border after being held for 3 months. Langan has spent the last few years making films about Afghanistan, Iraq and Zimbabwe, and his documentary "Fighting the Taliban" was short-listed for a Bafta this year.
    (AFP, 6/24/08)   

2008        Jun 22, Saudi Arabia held meeting in Jiddah between oil producing and consuming nations as a way to show that it was not deaf to international cries that high oil prices have caused social and economic turmoil. Oil Minister Ali al-Naimi said Saudi Arabia is willing to produce more oil if customers need it without citing any specific output increase. Britainís PM Gordon Brown called for cash-rich Gulf nations to invest in renewable and nuclear energy production in Britain and elsewhere.
    (AP, 6/22/08)

2008        Jun 25, Queen Elizabeth II conferred a knighthood on "The Satanic Verses" author Salman Rushdie, a year after the announcement of the knighthood provoked protests from the Muslim world.
    (AP, 6/25/08)

2008        Jun 26, The Federation of American Scientists, which studies the US nuclear arsenal, said in a report that Washington had removed its last atomic bombs from the British Royal Air Force base at Lakenheath, where they had been stationed since 1954.
    (Reuters, 6/26/08)

2008        Jun 29, Britainís Glastonbury music festival, begun in 1970, wrapped up with a double bill of golden oldies following controversy over its first ever hip-hop headliner, Jay-Z, and troubled star Amy Winehouse.
    (AFP, 6/29/08)
2008        Jun 29, The bound and battered bodies of Laurent Bonomo and Gabriel Ferez, both 23, were found in a burning ground-floor bedsit (studio) in New Cross, southeast London. Bonomo was stabbed nearly 200 times while Ferez suffered around 50 wounds during a prolonged ordeal. The two scholars, both biochemists from a university in Clermont-Ferrand, central France, were on a short exchange program at London's Imperial College. On July 7 Nigel Edward Farmer (33) turned himself in at a London police station. On July 10 London police arrested a 5th suspect, Daniel Sonnex (23), over the brutal stabbing murders. Police were also questioning a 35-year-old man and a 25-year-old woman about the killings. Another man had been arrested but was released without charge.
    (AFP, 7/3/08)(AP, 7/6/08)(AP, 7/10/08)

2008        Jul 2, The British government said police have arrested more than 500 suspects in a crackdown on human trafficking in the sex trade. Police made 528 arrests in the operation, codenamed Pentameter 2, after raiding 822 premises, of which 157 were massage parlors and 582 houses and flats. The operation began in October and involved 55 police forces.
    (AFP, 7/2/08)

2008        Jul 7, The Church of England's ruling body voted its support for women to become bishops without giving traditionalist supporters of male-only priesthood the concessions they had sought.
    (AP, 7/8/08)

2008        Jul 9, In northwestern Afghanistan a group of villagers used a machine gun, sticks and stones to kill two Taliban militants and chase 10 others away. NATO-led forces in central Logar province killed a Taliban militant involved with suicide bombing networks. 9 British soldiers were injured in Helmand province when an Apache helicopter opened fire after mistaking them for the enemy.
    (AP, 7/10/08)

2008        Jul 10, Britons voted in a by-election triggered when David Davis, a top opposition MP, quit in protest at government plans to increase the period police can hold terror suspects before charging them.
    (AFP, 7/10/08)
2008        Jul 10, Salman Rushdie's novel "Midnight's Children" was named as the greatest Booker Prize winner ever, scooping a special "best of the best" award for the second time.
    (AP, 7/10/08)
2008        Jul 10, The Interfax news agency, citing a source in Russia's secret services, reported that the head of the embassy's trade and investment section, Christopher Bowers, was believed to be a senior British intelligence officer.
    (AP, 7/11/08)

2008        Jul 13, Algeriaís government newspaper El Moudjhaid said a consortium of British-based oil services company Petrofac and Indonesian engineering company IKPT provisionally won a contract to build an LNG plant in western Mediterranean port of Arzew.
    (AP, 7/13/08)

2008        Jul 14, Britain vowed to increase pressure on Zimbabwe's leaders by pushing for tougher EU sanctions and hunting down their assets around the world, after failing to secure bolstered UN action.
    (AF, 7/14/08)
2008        Jul 14, Three British Muslim men pleaded guilty to conspiring to cause explosions, part of a plan prosecutors say would have involved smuggling liquid bombs onto airliners with the intention of blowing them up mid-flight.
    (Reuters, 7/14/08)
2008        Jul 14, At Britainís Farnborough International Airshow Etihad Airways, the national carrier of the United Arab Emirates, said it had agreed to buy 45 Boeing passenger jets worth 9.4 billion dollars (5.9 billion euros).
    (AFP, 7/14/08)
2008        Jul 14, Spain's biggest bank, Santander, said it had reached agreement to buy British lender Alliance and Leicester in an all-share deal worth 1.26 billion pounds (1.57 billion euros) as it continues its push into the British market.
    (AFP, 7/14/08)

2008        Jul 16, Thousands of British local government employees began a two-day strike over pay. Unions expected more than half a million workers in England, Wales and Northern Ireland to join the walkout that began after midnight.
    (AP, 7/16/08)
2008        Jul 16, Anglican bishops from around the world gathered in Canterbury for the Lambeth Conference, with the 10-yearly meeting set to be dominated by deep splits over the roles of women and homosexuals.
    (AP, 7/16/08)

2008        Jul 19, Czech police said a 21-year-old British man, wanted for child sex and pornography offences in Britain, has been detained in a Prague suburb where he had been in hiding for two years.
    (AFP, 7/19/08)

2008        Jul 20, In Israel British PM Gordon Brown, on his first official visit as prime minister, said that economic development was key to bringing peace to the Middle East. Brown demanded that Israel cease settlement construction and promised more money to jump-start the battered Palestinian economy.
    (AP, 7/20/08)

2008        Jul 21, Eric Dowling (b.1915), former English POW, died. He was nicknamed "Digger" for helping excavate tunnels used in the breakout from a World War II German prison camp that became known as the "Great Escape." Dowling played a key role in planning the march 24, 1944, escape by 76 prisoners from Stalag Luft III prison near Sagan in eastern Germany ó now Zagan, Poland.
    (AP, 8/7/08)

2008        Jul 24, Hundreds of Anglican bishops from around the world were among 1,500 people who marched through central London calling for urgent action to tackle global poverty.
    (AFP, 7/24/08)
2008        Jul 24, Max Mosley (68), motor racing chief and son of Britain's 1930s Fascist leader Oswald Mosley, won 60,000 pounds ($119,100) in damages at London's High Court from the News of the World newspaper for breaching his privacy by reporting details of a German-themed sex session with five prostitutes.
    (Reuters, 7/26/08)

2008        Jul 25, British PM Gordon Brown suffered another serious blow to his leadership after Scottish nationalists won a longtime Labour seat in Glasgow.
    (AFP, 7/25/08)(WSJ, 7/26/08, p.A1)

2008        Jul 26, US presidential hopeful Barack Obama met PM Gordon Brown in London, focusing on key foreign policy issues facing both countries, particularly Afghanistan and Iraq. Obama also met with Tory leader David Cameron and Middle East envoy Tony Blair.
    (AFP, 7/26/08)

2008        Jul 27, In Antigua newlyweds Benjamin and Catherine Mullany, both 31, were attacked inside their cottage at the Cocos Hotel resort in the island's southwest. Both were shot in the head. Catherine was killed. A comatose Benjamin was flown back to Britain where he was pronounced dead on August 3. On August 18 a 20-year old man and 17-year-old male were taken to a magistrate court in St. John's and were charged with murder, robbery and receiving stolen goods. The trial of Avie Howell and Kaniel Martin began June 1, 2011.
    (AP, 8/2/08)(AP, 8/4/08)(AP, 8/19/08)(AP, 6/2/11)

2008        Jul 28, In England hijackers made off with boxes of blank British passports worth a fortune on the black market in a raid on a delivery van in the Manchester suburb of Oldham. British policed later said the passports were "very secure" as they contained a micro-chip which had not been activated.
    (AFP, 7/29/08)(AP, 7/31/08)

2008        Jul 29, In Britain a Sikh teenager won a High Court discrimination case against a school which banned her from classes after she refused to remove a religious bangle.
    (AFP, 7/29/08)

2008        Jul 30, Media watchdog Ofcom fined the BBC 400,000 pounds, the largest financial penalty it has ever issued against the public broadcaster, for misleading the public through fake quizzes and competitions.
    (Reuters, 7/30/08)

2008        Aug 9, In northeast England Xi Zhou and Zhen Xing Yang, both 25, were found murdered with serious head injuries in Newcastle.
    (AFP, 8/11/08)

2008        Aug 10, Welshwoman Nicole Cooke handed Britain their first gold of the Beijing Olympic Games when she won the women's cycling road race.
    (AP, 8/10/08)

2008        Aug 12, Tesco, the biggest British retailer, announced plans to open wholesale grocery stores in India that will supply goods to hypermarkets owned by Indian conglomerate Tata Group.
    (AFP, 8/12/08)

2008        Aug 13, Scientists from Britainís University of Reading unveiled Gordon, a neuron-powered machine, whose grey matter was stitched together from cultured rat neurons.
    (AFP, 8/13/08)

2008        Aug 14, American Airlines, British Airways and Iberia of Spain said they had signed an agreement to cooperate over flights between North America and Europe to help them overcome soaring fuel costs.
    (AP, 8/14/08)

2008        Aug 17, Two small planes collided in midair and crashed near Coventry in central England, killing five people.
    (AP, 8/17/08)

2008        Aug 18, In Britain Philip Thompson (27), a pedophile who acted as a "librarian" for a global Internet child abuse ring, was jailed after one of the biggest undercover police investigations into online abuse.
    (Reuters, 8/18/08)
2008        Aug 19, Vietnamese authorities freed British glam rocker Paul Gadd, aka Gary Glitter, after nearly three years in prison on child molestation charges, then moved immediately to deport him.
    (AP, 8/19/08)(Econ, 8/36/08, p.36)

2008        Aug 19, Aabid Khan (23), a Briton who recruited Islamist extremists online to stage holy war worldwide, including Britain's youngest terrorism convict, was jailed for 12 years. Sultan Muhammad (23), one of his accomplices, received a 10-year term.
    (Reuters, 8/19/08)
2008        Aug 19, Vietnamese authorities freed British glam rocker Paul Gadd, aka Gary Glitter, after nearly three years in prison on child molestation charges, then moved immediately to deport him.
    (AP, 8/19/08)(Econ, 8/16/08, p.36)

2008        Aug 21, British PM Gordon Brown visited Kabul after meeting with British troops in Helmand province. Brown pledged more support for Afghanistan including 120 million dollars towards a development fund that would include paying teachers' salaries and 17 million dollars for a radio station in Helmand. 11 militants reportedly died in a clash in the south. Afghan and international troops clashed with militants in Khas in Uruzgan province, killing 11 militants.
    (AP, 8/21/08)(AP, 8/22/08)
2008        Aug 21, Britain's government confirmed that a contractor lost a memory device containing information on every prison inmate in England and Wales.
    (AP, 8/22/08)

2008        Aug 22, Aon Corp., the world's biggest insurance broker, said it has agreed to buy Britain's Benfield Group Ltd. for almost $1.6 billion in cash.
    (AP, 8/22/08)

2008        Aug 24, In London some 40,000 people, including record-breaking swimmer Michael Phelps, gathered to celebrate 2012 host London taking over from Beijing as the Olympic city.
    (AP, 8/24/08)

2008        Aug 28, Grant Wilkinson (34) was jailed for life for running Britainís biggest-ever gun factory which converted dozens of replica submachine guns into deadly weapons used in nine gangland murders. He legally bought 90 replica Mac-10s in 2004, saying they were for use on the set of the James Bond film "Casino Royale" and paying 55,000 pounds in cash.
    (AFP, 8/28/08)

2008        Aug, Samantha Orobator (20), a British citizen, was arrested in Laos and charged with trying to smuggle 1.5 pounds (680 grams) of heroin in her luggage. In 2009 a government spokesman said she will not face the death penalty because the law bans executing expectant convicts.
    (AP, 5/5/09)

2008        Sep 2, The British government slashed stamp duty, meaning homes worth up to 175,000 pounds would be exempt from the land sales tax for the next year in a move aimed at reenergizing the housing market.
    (AFP, 9/2/08)

2008        Sep 7, In London an urgent inquiry was underway after a disc containing the personal details of 5,000 justice staff went missing in yet another embarrassing data loss blunder. Private contractor EDS told the Prison Service in July that the hard drive had gone astray. The missing disc was last seen in July 2007.
    (AP, 9/7/08)

2008        Sep 8, In London 3 of 8 British Muslims with ties to Pakistan were found guilty of conspiracy to murder in a terrorist bombing campaign, but jurors failed to reach a verdict on whether they plotted to blow up multiple trans-Atlantic airliners with liquid explosives disguised as soft drinks. Abdullah Ahmed Ali, Assad Sarwar and Tanvir Hussain were convicted of trying to make a bomb out of hydrogen peroxide.
    (AP, 9/8/08)(SFC, 9/9/08, p.A8)(Econ, 9/13/08, p.63)

2008        Sep 9, The Iraqi oil ministry said Anglo-Dutch energy giant Royal Dutch Shell has agreed to a gas joint venture with Iraq worth up to four billion dollars, becoming the first Western oil major to gain access to the violence-wracked country's vast energy reserves.
    (AP, 9/9/08)

2008        Sep 12, British and French firefighters extinguished a 1,000-degree inferno in the Channel Tunnel but tens of thousands of travelers faced more delay as they waited for the undersea link to reopen.
    (AP, 9/12/08)

2008        Sep 15, In London the sale of pickled sharks, butterfly paintings and other pieces by Damien Hirst (43), the provocative British artist, raised some US$127 million. The sale continued the next day. Total sales reached $199 million. In 2009 his total auction sales shrunk to $19 million. Hirst had taken over Sothebyís London headquarters for his two-day show ďBeautiful Inside My Head Forever."
    (AP, 9/16/08)(Econ, 9/20/08, p.73)(Econ, 9/11/10, p.99)(Econ, 4/15/17, p.72)
2008        Sep 15, Richard Wright (65), a founding member of the rock group Pink Floyd, died. Pink Floyd's spokesman, Doug Wright, who is not related to the artist, said Wright died after a battle with cancer at his home in Britain. The band released a series of commercially and critically successful albums including 1973's "Dark Side of the Moon," which has sold more than 40 million copies.
    (AP, 9/16/08)

2008        Sep 17, Barclays PLC said it may pick up some of Lehman Brothers assets and employees in Europe and Asia, on top of the British bank's deal to acquire key U.S. operations from the failed investment bank.
    (AP, 9/17/08)

2008        Sep 18, HBOS, Britainís biggest mortgage lender, agreed under government pressure to be taken over by Lloyds TSB.
    (Econ, 9/20/08, p.90)

2008        Sep 19, A global recovery in markets took place after the US took steps to limit damage from a seize-up in world credit markets following the forced private sale or government takeover in recent days. The Bank of England offered to lend an additional 22 billion pounds (40 billion dollars) to financial institutions struggling to obtain funds amid a worldwide squeeze on credit.
    (AP, 9/19/08)
2008        Sep 19, Hammaad Munshi (18), said by prosecutors to be the youngest Briton to be convicted of a terrorism offence, was jailed for two years. He was found guilty last month of being part of a cell that spread extremist propaganda and provided practical guides on how to make poisons and suicide vests.
    (Reuters, 9/19/08)
2008        Sep 19, David Heiss (21), German office worker, stabbed Matthew Pyke (20) 86 times in an attack in Nottingham. He had met Pyke and Joanna Witton, Pykeís girlfriend, on a war games website, and flew to England after the couple made disparaging remarks about him. On May 11, 2009, Heiss was sentenced to life in prison.
    (http://news.cnet.com/technically-incorrect/?keyword=David+Heiss)(AFP, 5/11/09)

2008        Sep 24, Britain pledged 26.9 million pounds for drought-hit Ethiopia, where some 9.6 million people are in need of emergency food aid.
    (AP, 9/24/08)
2008        Sep 24, French power provider EDF said it has agreed to acquire British Energy Group PLC for about $23.2 billion in cash in a deal that would create a powerhouse in nuclear energy.
    (AP, 9/24/08)

2008        Sep 25, Britain unveiled its new biometric identity card which the government says will be vital in fighting illegal immigration and terrorism, while critics call it an expensive attack on civil liberties.
    (Reuters, 9/25/08)

2008        Sep 26, Yves Rossy of Switzerland leapt from a plane and into the record books, crossing the English channel in 13 minutes on a homemade jet-propelled wing.
    (AP, 9/26/08)

2008        Sep 28, In England Frank McGarahan (45), a top Barclays executive, was beaten to death by a group of youths in Norwich as he tried to stop them attacking a homeless man.
    (AFP, 9/30/08)

2008        Sep 29, Britain seized control of mortgage lender Bradford & Bingley. Germany organized a credit lifeline for blue-chip commercial real estate lender Hypo Real Estate Holding AG, while Iceland's government took over Glitnir bank, the country's third largest.
    (AP, 9/29/08)
2008        Sep 29, The US Federal Reserve with the help of the ECB, the Bank of England and the Bank of Japan agreed to lend banks a further $620 billion.
    (Econ, 10/04/08, p.73)
2008        Sep 29, British candy maker Cadbury said it is recalling 11 types of Chinese-made chocolates found to contain melamine, as police in northern China raided a network accused of adding the banned chemical to milk.
    (AP, 9/29/08)

2008        Sep 30, Former Nepalese Gurkha soldiers won a legal test case on their bid for the right to settle in Britain.
    (AFP, 9/30/08)

2008        Oct 1, The Bank of England offered 40 billion dollars (22.6 billion pounds) to banking institutions on a one-week tender amid ongoing world economic turmoil.
    (AP, 10/1/08)

2008        Oct 2, Britainís Beckley Foundation, a charity which numbers senior experts and other academics among its advisors, reported that cannabis is less harmful than alcohol or tobacco,  and called for a "serious rethink" of drug policy.
    (AFP, 10/2/08)(www.beckleyfoundation.org/aboutus/)

2008        Oct 4, The leaders of Britain, France, Germany and Italy began meeting in Paris at a summit on the world financial crisis threatening banks, growth and jobs across the continent. They vowed to do all they could to prevent Wall Street's turmoil from destabilizing their banking systems. Germany's No. 2 commercial property lender, Hypo Real Estate Holding AG, said its $48 billion rescue plan had unraveled when private banks pulled out.
    (AP, 10/5/08)

2008        Oct 8, Britain added to the financial chaos engulfing Iceland by declaring it planned to sue over lost deposits held by thousands of Britons with Icelandic bank accounts. The news from London overshadowed an emergency loan from Sweden to Iceland's biggest bank.
    (AP, 10/8/08)
2008        Oct 8, Six central banks jolted markets by cutting interest rates together in an attempt to shore up confidence in the world's crisis-stricken financial system. The US Fed reduced its key rate from 2% to 1.5%. The Bank of England unexpectedly slashed its key lending rate by a half-point to 4.5%. The Bank of Canada cut its key interest rate by 50 basis points to 2.5%. China also cut its key interest rates for a second time in less than one month to 6.9%. The European Central Bank sliced its rate by half a point to 3.75%. Sweden, and Switzerland also cut rates. Earlier in a day Japan's Nikkei showed its biggest drop since the October, 1987 stock market crash. The IMF said the world economy is entering a major downturn.
    (AP, 10/8/08)(AFP, 10/8/08)(Econ, 10/11/08, p.100)

2008        Oct 10, The London stock market plunged by almost 10.0 percent again, after fresh falls on Wall Street, as investors continued to fret over the worldwide financial crisis.
    (AP, 10/10/08)

2008        Oct 12, Dozens of renowned British writers came out against new anti-terrorism legislation, publishing a collection of satire, essays, fiction and poetry to protest a proposal allowing police to hold suspects without charge for up to 42 days. The next day the House of Lords rejected the plan and the government said it would abandon the proposal.
    (AP, 10/12/08)(SFC, 10/14/08, p.A4)

2008        Oct 13, Stock markets rejoiced after governments worldwide launched multibillion-dollar bailouts to shore up banks, and Britain called for a new Bretton Woods agreement to reshape the world financial system. The US Central Bank said it would provide unlimited dollars the European Central Bank, the Bank of England and the Swiss National Bank. Britain committed £37 billion ($64 billion) to capitalize its big banks. Wall Street rebounded with the biggest stock rally since the Great Depression. The DJIA rose 936 points to close at 9,387.61, its largest point gain ever and one of its largest percentage increases.
    (Reuters, 10/13/08)(SFC, 10/14/08, p.A1)(WSJ, 10/14/08, p.A3)(Econ, 10/18/08, p.83)
2008        Oct 13, Iraq's oil minister met 34 oil company representatives in London to set out the ground rules for foreign multinationals' first bite at the country's enormous energy reserves since the U.S.-led invasion in 2003.
    (AP, 10/13/08)

2008        Oct 14, Indian author Aravind Adiga (b.1974) won the 2008 Booker Prize with his first novel: ďThe White Tiger." The book follows Balram Halwai, the son of a rickshaw puller, who dreams of better things than life as teashop worker and driver.
    (AFP, 10/15/08)

2008        Oct 15, Nicky Reilly (22), a convert to Islam, pleaded guilty at a London court to attempted murder and engaging in preparation for terrorism by researching how to make bombs. He was arrested shortly after a blast rattled a family restaurant in the southwest English city of Exeter 200 miles (320 kilometers) west of London on May 22.
    (AP, 10/15/08)
2008        Oct 15, The Shell Anglo-Dutch group said a Nigerian court has ordered it to hand over land around its giant Bonny oil terminal to the local population, a key demand of armed rebels in the volatile region. Shell said ruling was given some months ago but we have appealed.
    (AFP, 10/15/08)

2008        Oct 16, In Dubai a British couple was sentenced to three months in jail in a case that has caused controversy because the two were charged in July with having sex on the beach.  The Dubai Court of Appeals upheld the guilty verdict but dropped the prison sentences for Michelle Palmer and Vince Acors, though it ruled the couple must still be deported from the United Arab Emirates and pay a fine of about $272 each.
    (AP, 10/15/08)(AP, 11/25/08)

2008        Oct 18, Phil Woolas, Britainís new immigration minister, said the government will impose tougher restrictions on immigration as the global financial crisis lifts unemployment to the highest rate in nearly a decade.
    (AFP, 10/18/08)

2008        Oct 21, The Pentagon said it has dropped war-crimes charges against five Guantanamo Bay detainees after the former prosecutor in their cases complained that the military was withholding evidence helpful to the defense. Lawyers for Ethiopian refugee Binyam Mohamed, a British resident held at Guantanamo, said the US has dropped all charges against him, but he is still being held at the US prison camp.
    (AP, 10/21/08)

2008        Oct 22, The British government won its appeal to the highest court against previous rulings allowing displaced Indian Ocean Chagos islanders to return home. The resettlement of the Chagossians in the 1960s and1970s allowed Britain to lease the main island, Diego Garcia, to the United States military for 50 years.
    (AFP, 10/22/08)
2008        Oct 22, British researchers said a drug, known by its lab name of alemtuzumab and licensed for use against leukemia, braked and even reversed the effects of multiple sclerosis among patients with MS.

2008        Oct 23, England Schools Minister Jim Knight said millions of children in England aged from five to 16 in state-funded schools will receive compulsory lessons about subjects including sex and drug use.
    (AFP, 10/23/08)

2008        Oct 29, David Miliband, Britainís foreign secretary, acknowledged Chinaís suzerainty over Tibet.
    (Econ, 11/8/08, p.54)

2008        Oct 30, Westfield London mall, London's biggest mall, opened despite the gloomy economic climate that threatens to dampen vital Christmas sales.
    (AP, 10/30/08)

2008        Oct 31, Petrofac evacuated 56 non-essential workers from the North Sea Heather Alpha oil rig after a reports of 10-20 ton oil spill.
    (AP, 10/31/08)
2008        Oct 31, Top British filmmaker Danny Boyle's new Mumbai-based film "Slumdog Millionaire" won rave reviews after its screening at the close of the London Film Festival.
    (AP, 10/31/08)
2008        Oct 31, Middle East investors will own up to one third of Barclays Plc after Abu Dhabi and Qatar provided most of 7.3 billion pounds ($12.1 billion) raised by the bank to repair damage from the global financial crisis and avoid taking UK government rescue funds.
    (Reuters, 10/31/08)

2008        Nov 1, Britainís PM Gordon Brown left for a tour of oil-rich Gulf states, hoping to persuade them to give extra funds to help countries hit by the world economic turmoil.
    (AP, 11/1/08)
2008        Nov 1, It was reported that British Major Sebastian Morley, commander of SAS (Special Air Service) troops in Afghanistan, has resigned, reportedly in disgust at equipment failures that he believes led to the death of four of his troops.
    (AFP, 11/1/08)
2008        Nov 1, Three Tunisian men accused of terrorism links by Italian prosecutors arrived in Milan under heavy security after being extradited from Britain. Habib Ignaoua, Mohamed Khemiri and Ali Chehidi were arrested in the London and Manchester areas last year as part of coordinated raids across Europe against an alleged Italian-based network recruiting fighters for Iraq and Afghanistan.
    (AP, 11/2/08)

2008        Nov 2, British PM Gordon Brown said he is confident that Saudi Arabia will contribute to the International Monetary Fund's bailout reserves after he promised business leaders in the Gulf that they would have a say in any future new world economic order.
    (AP, 11/2/08)

2008        Nov 3, UK Financial Investments (UKFI) was set up to mange the British governmentís stakes in rescued banks. John Kingman, a Treasury executive, was placed in charge.
    (Econ, 3/7/09, p.64)

2008        Nov 4, In London A sketch by Winnie the Pooh illustrator E.H. Shepard titled "Tiggers Don't Like Honey" fetched 31,200 pounds ($49,770) at auction, well above the pre-sale estimate of 15,000 to 20,000 pounds ($24,000 to $32,000).
    (AP, 11/4/08)

2008        Nov 5, Queen Elizabeth II approved a new constitution for the Falkland Islands. It formalizes the system of self-government on the South Atlantic archipelago, while giving Britain the final say on foreign policy, policing and the administration of justice.
    (AP, 11/7/08)
2008        Nov 5, Cpl. Daniel James (45), a former British army interpreter, was convicted of espionage for sending e-mails to an Iranian diplomat while serving in Afghanistan in 2006.
    (AP, 11/5/08)

2008        Nov 6, The European Central Bank cut its key interest rate by half a percentage point to 3.25% and the Bank of England made an even more aggressive reduction of 1.5%, from 4.5% to 3%, in an effort to ease the financial crisis and boost their flagging economies. The rate in England was lowest since 1955.
    (AP, 11/6/08)(Econ, 11/8/08, p.71)

2008        Nov 11, Jack Scott (b.1923), former BBCís chief weatherman, died.

2008        Nov 12, In Afghanistan a bomb-filled tanker exploded outside the office of the provincial council in Kandahar, killing six people and wounding 42. Two British troops were killed in an explosion in southern Helmand province. Men squirted the acid from water bottles onto three groups of students and teachers walking to school in Kandahar. Some of the girls received burns only on their school uniforms but others will have scars on their faces. On Nov 25 officials announced the arrest of 10 Taliban militants involved in the acid attack.
    (AP, 11/12/08)(AP, 11/13/08)(AP, 11/14/08)(AP, 11/25/08)
2008        Nov 12, Pirates commandeered the Karagol, a Turkish chemical tanker, off the coast of Yemen. 14 Turkish personnel were aboard the tanker. The Russian frigate Neustrashimy and the British frigate Cumberland foiled pirates who fired automatic weapons toward a Danish ship and twice tried to seize it in the Gulf of Aden. The Karagol was released on Jan 12, 2009. 
    (AP, 11/12/08)(AP, 1/13/09)

2008        Nov 14, Iraq's national security advisor said all British troops will be out of Iraq by the end of next year.
    (AFP, 11/14/08)

2008        Nov 16, Reg Varney (92), a comic actor who played a cheery Cockney bus driver in British sitcom "On the Buses," died.
    (AP, 11/16/08)(Econ, 12/6/08, p.109)

2008        Nov 19, The British government announced plans to make it illegal to pay for sex with women forced into prostitution and to name men who solicit sex on the streets, measures that prostitutes say will put more women at risk.
    (AP, 11/19/08)

2008        Nov 20, Britain called on Rwandan President Paul Kagame to use his "influence" over Congolese rebels led by general Laurent Nkunda to end to violence in eastern Democratic Republic of Congo.
    (AFP, 11/20/08)

2008        Nov 25, In Britain the application process began for a national identity card for some foreign nationals in an attempt to combat terrorism and identity fraud. On June 30, 2009, home secretary Alan Johnson said Britons would not be required to have the new ID cards. A British law went into effect that allows courts to prevent someone from being forced into marriage, a move that comes as governments across Europe confront immigrant practices that sometimes clash with more liberal values. On Oct 12, 2011, Britainís highest court ruled that the ban on foreign spouses aged under 21 entering Britain is unlawful.
    (AP, 11/25/08)(Econ, 7/4/09, p.55)(AP, 10/12/11)
2008        Nov 25, In Britain a Sheffield man (56) was sentenced to life in prison for raping his children for more than 25 years, from the time they were between 8 and 10, beating them when they resisted. Between them, the daughters bore their father seven surviving children. Two more died at birth; the other pregnancies ended in abortion or miscarriage.
    (AP, 11/26/08)

2008        Nov 26, British data showed its economy shrank 0.5% in the 3 months to September, placing it perilously close to recession as it feels the chill from the global financial crisis.
    (AP, 11/26/08)

2008        Nov 27, In southern Afghanistan 2 British troops were killed after being fired at by insurgents while on patrol. A suicide car bomber targeting an American convoy exploded about 200 yards (meters) outside the US Embassy in Kabul, killing at least four Afghan bystanders as people entered the compound for a Thanksgiving Day race.
    (AFP, 11/27/08)(AP, 11/27/08)

2008        Dec 2, A British judge ordered Abu Qatada, a radical Muslim cleric, to be jailed because of fears he was preparing to abscond. Qatada was once described as Osama bin Ladenís ambassador in Europe.
    (SFC, 12/3/08, p.A14)
2008        Dec 2, Mike Terry (61), anti-apartheid activist, died. He led Britain's anti-apartheid movement for nearly two decades and played a pivotal role in turning British public opinion against South Africa's white minority rule.
    (AP, 12/5/08)

2008        Dec 3, Lynn Gilderdale (31), who suffered from myalgic encephalomyelitis (aka chronic fatigue syndrome), died in East Sussex with the assistance of her mother, Kay Gilderdale. In 2010 a British jury cleared the mother of murder charges.
    (www.timesonline.co.uk/tol/news/uk/health/article5309918.ece)(SSFC, 1/31/10, p.A4)

2008        Dec 4, The Bank of England cut its base interest rate from 3% to 2%, a rate last seen in 1951.
    (Econ, 12/6/08, p.74)
2008        Dec 4, Europe's top human rights court ruled that storing DNA from people with no criminal record is in breach of their rights, a landmark decision that could force Britain to destroy the samples of nearly 1 million people on its database.
    (AP, 12/4/08)

2008        Dec 8, British car parts maker Wagon PLC said it planned to file for a form of bankruptcy protection after a global slump in demand for cars crippled its business.
    (AP, 12/8/08)
2008        Dec 8, British and French leaders met with European business executives to discuss plans for major government spending on infrastructure and energy projects aimed at helping Europe to beat the downturn.
    (AP, 12/8/08)

2008        Dec 10, British television broadcast a documentary of the assisted suicide of Craig Ewert (d.2006 at 59), a terminally ill American, as he died in Switzerland. The documentary, ďRight to Die?," was made by Oscar-winning director John Zaritsky.
    (SFC, 12/11/08, p.A2)
2008        Dec 10, Anglo-Australian mining giant Rio Tinto said it will slash some 14,000 jobs globally to cut its debt by 10 billion US dollars as it battles falling prices and a global slowdown.
    (AFP, 12/10/08)

2008        Dec 13, Britainís PM Gordon Brown paid a surprise visit to Afghanistan, where he spoke to troops battling the Taliban and held talks with President Hamid Karzai. 3 Canadian soldiers were killed and one wounded in southern Afghanistan when an explosive device detonated near the armored car in which they were riding.
    (AFP, 12/13/08)(Reuters, 12/14/08)

2008        Dec 15, Europe's biggest bank, London-based HSBC, joined a list of top names in world finance admitting huge potential losses in a suspected pyramid fraud scam run by Wall Street figurehead Bernard Madoff.
    (AP, 12/15/08)
2008        Dec 15, A spokeswoman in London said Madonna has settled her divorce with ex-husband Guy Ritchie by parting with at least 50 million pounds ($76 million).
    (AP, 12/16/08)

2008        Dec 17, British PM Gordon Brown said his country's troops will leave Iraq by May 31, ending a mission that provided the second-largest military presence in Iraq after the United States. Police said a double-bombing in Baghdad targeting traffic police left at least 18 people dead and 52 others wounded. The US military reported nine killed and 43 wounded.
    (AP, 12/17/08)
2008        Dec 17, A London judge sentenced Bilal Abdulla (29) to at least 32 years in prison for his role in the June 29, 2007, attempted car bombs in London and an attack at Glasgow Airport the following day.
    (SFC, 12/18/08, p.A17)

2008        Dec 20, The British government said it has sold its final stake in the country's nuclear weapons plant, prompting criticism from MPs who said it throws the independence of the British nuclear deterrent into question. State-owned British Nuclear Fuels Limited (BNFL) sold its one-third stake of the Aldermaston Atomic Weapons Establishment (AWE) at Aldermaston, Berkshire, to Jacobs Engineering Group of the United States.
    (AFP, 12/20/08)

2008        Dec 21, Christopher Hibbert (1924), a British historian, died. His over 50 books covered subjects from the medieval Battle of Agincourt to the American Revolutionary War.
    (AP, 1/6/09)

2008        Dec 24, British stores deepened discounts, hoping to lure in last-minute shoppers on Christmas Eve. Music and DVD seller Zavvi joined tea merchant Whittard and menswear store The Officers Club on the growing list of casualties of a severe downturn in consumer spending and tight credit conditions.
    (AP, 12/24/08)
2008        Dec 24, Harold Pinter (78), a Nobel Prize-winning British playwright, died. He was one of theater's biggest names for nearly half a century. His 32 plays included "The Birthday Party", "The Dumb Waiter" and "The Homecoming". His first play, "The Room," appeared in 1957 and his breakthrough came with "The Caretaker" in 1960. In 2010 Antonia Fraser published ďMust You Go? My Life With Harold Pinter."
    (AFP, 12/25/08)(SSFC, 11/7/10, p.F4)

2008        Dec 29, The British pound fell to a record low against the euro, flirting with one pound per euro as two gloomy economic forecasts stoked expectations that the Bank of England will make further interest rate cuts next year.
    (AP, 12/29/08)

2008        Peter Ackroyd authored ďThames: The Biography."
    (SSFC, 11/16/08, Books p.5)
2008        Sir Richard Branson, chairman of the British Virgin Group, authored ďBusiness stripped Bare: Adventures of a Global Entrepreneur."
    (Econ, 9/27/08, p.80)
2008        Anthony Seldon authored ďBlair Unbound," a continuation of his 2004 book ďBlair," which covered the career of former British PM tony Blair.
    (WSJ, 4/28/08, p.A17)
2008        Britain enacted a law protecting transgender people at work.
    (Reuters, 6/17/15)
2008        The British Royal Mint produced at least 100,000 20-pence coins with no date. The error was acknowledged in June, 2009. The last time a similar error occurred was in 1672.
    (SFC, 6/30/09, p.A2)
2008        Britainís National Ballistics Intelligence Survey (NABIS) was set up to identify guns and bullets as the number of shootings rose.
    (Econ, 10/5/13, p.61)

2009        Jan 2, In Britain 2 people were feared dead after a light aircraft crashed into a major railway line, causing severe disruption to train services between Rugeley and Stafford.
    (AFP, 1/2/09)

2009        Jan 3, Sir Alan Walters (b.1926), a top economic adviser to former British PM Margaret Thatcher, died. Walters received a knighthood from Queen Elizabeth II in 1983.
    (AP, 1/6/09)(Econ, 1/10/09, p.50)
2009        Jan 3, Tens of thousands of people demonstrated in European cities against Israel's bombardment of Gaza, including protesters who hurled shoes at the tall iron gates outside the British prime minister's residence in London.
    (AP, 1/3/09)

2009        Jan 4, British PM Gordon Brown pledged to create 100,000 jobs through a public works program and said he would press banks to resume normal lending as Britain faces its sharpest economic downturn in decades.
    (AP, 1/4/09)

2009        Jan 5, British company Waterford Wedgwood PLC, the maker of classic china and crystal, filed for bankruptcy protection after attempts to restructure the struggling business or find a buyer failed.
    (AP, 1/5/09)

2009        Jan 6, Signs mounted that the conflict in Gaza is starting to spill over into violence in Europe's towns and cities, with assaults against Jews and arson attacks on Jewish congregations in France, Sweden and Britain.
    (AP, 1/6/09)

2009        Jan 8, The Bank of England cut interest rates from 2% to 1.5%, the lowest level since its founding in 1694, taking it into uncharted territory as it attempts to ward off a prolonged recession.
    (AP, 1/8/09)(WSJ, 1/9/09, p.A5)(Econ, 1/10/09, p.49)
2009        Jan 8, Britain's Financial Services Authority fined insurance broker Aon Ltd. 5.25 million pounds ($8 million) for weak anti-bribery controls, the largest penalty of its kind.
    (AP, 1/8/09)

2009        Jan 9, Lloyds TSB Bank said it has agreed to pay a 350-million dollar penalty to settle a probe that it illegally handled financial transfers from 1995 to 2007 for Iran and Sudan in violation of US sanctions.
    (AFP, 1/10/09)
2009        Jan 9, In Worcestershire, England, four armed robbers shot and killed Craig Hodson-Walker (29), a postmaster's son, during a robbery in Fairfield near Bromsgrove. His father was wounded in the leg.
    (AFP, 1/10/09)

2009        Jan 10, Two British climbers, including the youngest Briton to conquer Everest, fell hundreds of meters to their deaths on Mont Blanc in the French Alps.
    (AFP, 1/11/09)

2009        Jan 12, Sofa retailer Land of Leather filed for bankruptcy protection, becoming the latest British retailer to succumb to a downturn in consumer spending amid the global economic slowdown.
    (AP, 1/12/09)

2009        Jan 14, In Afghanistan 2 British NATO soldiers were killed in a blast in southern Helmand province.
    (AFP, 1/15/09)
2009        Jan 14, Jan Kaplicky (b.1937), a British-based Czech architect, died in Prague just hours after his wife Eliska gave birth to their daughter Johanka. He designed the award-winning media center at Lord's cricket ground in London.
    (AP, 1/15/09)

2009        Jan 15, The British government announced its support for a controversial third runway at London's chronically overcrowded Heathrow Airport, despite angry opposition from green groups and locals.
    (AP, 1/15/09)

2009        Jan 16, British pop star Boy George (47) was sentenced to 15 months in jail for imprisoning a Norwegian male escort (29) after a nude photoshoot. The singer and disc jockey, who stood trial under his real name George O'Dowd, admitted to police to handcuffing Audun Carlsen to his bed on April 28, 2007, as he investigated the Norwegian's alleged tampering with his computer.
    (AFP, 1/16/09)
2009        Jan 16, Farhad Hakimzadeh, a wealthy US businessman with a passion for books about the Middle East, was sentenced to two years in jail for stealing pages from rare texts at two of Britain's most venerable libraries.
    (AP, 1/16/09)
2009        Jan 16, John Mortimer (b.1923), British lawyer and writer, died. He was the creator of the curmudgeonly criminal lawyer Rumpole of the Bailey.
    (AP, 1/16/09)

2009        Jan 17, PM Gordon Brown told British banks they must own up to the extent of their bad assets amid more reports his government could launch a fresh bailout of the struggling sector.
    (AP, 1/17/09)
2009        Jan 17, Edmund de Rothschild (93), former chairman of N.M. Rothschild and Sons merchant bank and a noted horticulturist, died at his home in England.
    (AP, 1/21/09)

2009        Jan 18, British television presenter Tony Hart (83) died. He had charmed generations of children with his artsy antics.
    (AP, 1/18/09)

2009        Jan 19, Britain announced a second rescue plan for the country's ailing banks, hoping to thaw frozen lending by offering to insure banks against large-scale losses on bad assets they already hold.
    (AP, 1/19/09)
2009        Jan 19, An Atheist Bus Campaign's message, translated into Catalan, began appearing on two routes in Barcelona, with plans to extend the campaign to the rest of the country. A campaign with the concise message "There's probably no God. Now stop worrying and enjoy your life," took to the road in Britain this month. In Italy buses with the slogan "The bad news is that God does not exist. The good news is that we do not need him" will begin traversing the northern Italian city of Genoa on February 4.
    (AFP, 1/24/09)

2009        Jan 21, Official data showed Britain's economy is weakening fast, with more figures due this week expected to confirm the country has sunk into recession for the first time since 1991.
    (AP, 1/21/09)
2009        Jan 21, In London the Daily Mail and General Trust PLC, owner of the Evening Standard newspaper, announced that Alexander Lebedev, Russian tycoon and former KGB spy, has bought the money-losing paper for a nominal sum, reported to be one pound. Lebedev and his son Evgeny (28) would acquire 75.1% of the paper.
    (SFC, 1/22/09, p.A3)

2009        Jan 23, The British economy was officially declared in recession as a galloping economic crisis has driven down the value of the British pound to a 23-year low and threatened to remake the country's political landscape.
    (McClatchy Newspapers, 1/23/09)

2009        Jan 27, Lord Mandelson, business secretary to Britainís PM Gordon Brown, announced loan guarantees of up to 2.3 billion pounds (2.5 billion euros, 3.2 billion dollars) in credit funding for its ailing auto industry.
    (AP, 1/27/09)(Econ, 1/31/09, p.63)

2009        Jan 29, Britainís PM Gordon Brown vowed to act with "purpose and determination" to restore economic growth a day after the IMF said Britain would be the country worst hit by the global recession.
    (AP, 1/29/09)

2009        Jan 30, In Britain wildcat strikes against foreign workers spread through oil refineries and other energy facilities, fuelled by fears of rising job cuts due to the global slowdown.
    (AP, 1/30/09)

2009        Jan 31, On the streets of Birmingham, the queen's English is now the queens English. This week the city council made it official. England's second-largest city decided to drop apostrophes from all its street signs, saying they're confusing and old-fashioned.
    (AP, 1/31/09)
2009        Jan 31, Chinese Premier Wen Jiabao arrived in London in the latest leg of a European tour aimed at tackling the global financial and economic crisis and improving relations between the trading partners.
    (Reuters, 1/31/09)

2009        Feb 2, In England a protester hurled abuse and then a shoe at China's Premier Wen Jiabao as he delivered a speech on the global economy at Cambridge University.
    (AP, 2/3/09)
2009        Feb 2, Hundreds more British power plant workers went on strike in a widening labor campaign over the use of overseas workers to build an oil refinery in Immingham. Workers were upset over the decision by Italian construction company IREM SpA to use Italian and Portuguese workers for a 200 million-pound ($280 million) project at a Total refinery. An estimated 6 million people skipped work when the largest snowstorm to hit London in 18 years stopped bus and subway services, grounded airliners and hobbled businesses.
    (AP, 2/2/09)(AP, 2/3/09)

2009        Feb 3, The Bank of England said high-street banks had borrowed 185 billion pounds since April to help to free up the home-lending market.
    (AFP, 2/3/09)

2009        Feb 4, The British military said an army officer has been arrested in Afghanistan on suspicion of leaking official secrets. Britainís Sun newspaper said Lt. Col. Owen McNally had leaked figures about civilian deaths in coalition operations to a worker from a human rights group.
    (AP, 2/4/09)

2009        Feb 5, The Bank of England cut interest rates by a half-point to a record low 1 percent as it fought a deepening recession brought on by the world financial crisis.
    (AP, 2/5/09)
2009        Feb 5, British workers voted to end a week-long unofficial strike over the use of foreign labor at a French-owned oil refinery that sparked sympathy protests across Britain.
    (AP, 2/5/09)
2009        Feb 5, The British Council said that it has suspended work in Iran because of what it calls intimidation by the authorities there. The British Council reopened its Tehran office in 2001 after a 22-year break following the 1979 Islamic revolution. It said 13,000 Iranians took part in English lessons and other programs it ran in Tehran last year.
    (AP, 2/5/09)

2009        Feb 8, In London the film "Slumdog Millionaire", the rags-to-riches tale of a Mumbai tea boy who wins big, swept the board at the British Academy Film Awards (BAFTAs) with seven prizes including best film.
    (AP, 2/8/09)

2009        Feb 10, The British government banned Dutch right-wing lawmaker Geert Wilders from visiting the country to show his anti-Islam film "Fitna" at the Houses of Parliament. In a telephone interview Wilders called the government's decision "cowardly" and vowed to defy it.
    (AP, 2/10/09)
2009        Feb 10, In England William Foxton (65), died from a single bullet wound to the head in the southern port city of Southampton. He killed himself after losing his life savings in an alleged $50 billion fraud run by Wall Street financier Bernard Madoff. Foxton had served in the British Army and more recently worked as a defense contractor in Afghanistan.
    (AP, 2/14/09)

2009        Feb 12, The Aluminum Corporation of China (Chinalco) announced that it would invest $19.5 billion in Anglo-Australian miner Rio Tinto. In June it was reported that Chinalco would not complete the deal.
    (Econ, 2/14/09, p.73)(AFP, 6/4/09)

2009        Feb 13, Lloyds Banking Group (LBG), already 43% owned by the British government announced a £10billion loss at HBOS, which it had taken over last September.
    (Econ, 2/21/09, p.56)

2009        Feb 14, Sir Bernard Ashley (82), British businessman, died. He teamed up with his wife to build the Laura Ashley (d.1985) fashion and home furnishing brand into a global business.
    (AP, 2/17/09)

2009        Feb 15, Britain's Sunday Times reported that Zimbabwean President Robert Mugabe has bought a 4 million pound ($5.6 million) home in Hong Kong. It was bought last year, as Mugabe's 20-year-old daughter began studying at the University of Hong Kong. The paper said it was one of several properties the Mugabes own in Asia but the first to be documented.
    (AP, 2/16/09)

2009        Feb 16, A new British anti-terrorism law went into effect that could effectively bar photographers from taking pictures of police of military personnel.
    (SFC, 2/17/09, p.A2)
2009        Feb 16, Authorities acknowledged that nuclear-armed submarines from Britain and France collided in the Atlantic Ocean earlier this month, touching off new concerns about the safety of the world's deep sea missile fleets. The HMS Vanguard, the oldest vessel in Britain's nuclear-armed submarine fleet, and the French Le Triomphant submarine, which was also carrying nuclear missiles, both suffered minor damage in the collision.
    (AP, 2/16/09)
2009        Feb 16, Sir Ernest Harrison (b.1926), British businessman, died. He led Racal Electronic PLC and oversaw the birth of Vodafone Group PLC (1988).
    (WSJ, 2/28/09, p.A8)

2009        Feb 17, British experts that they have found the first evidence of a hemophiliac contracting mad cow disease from contaminated blood products.
    (AP, 2/17/09)

2009        Feb 18, A British judge discharged the jury in the trial of a group of British Muslims accused of plotting to blow up trans-Atlantic passenger jets in mid-air, citing legal reasons. Britainís high court ruled that Abu Qatada, an extremist Muslim preacher, can be deported to Jordan  despite fears he could face torture there.
    (AP, 2/18/09)(SFC, 2/19/09, p.A2)

2009        Feb 19, Europe's highest human rights court has awarded Abu Qatada, an extremist Muslim preacher, euro2,800 ($3,550) for being held unlawfully by British authorities during an anti-terrorist probe. A day earlier Britain's highest court ruled that Abu Qatada could be deported to Jordan despite fears he could face torture there. The European Court of Human Rights ruled that Qatada and 10 other detainees had their right to liberty violated when they were held in high-security conditions.
    (AP, 2/19/09)

2009        Feb 23, Binyam Mohamed (b.1978), Ethiopian-born former British resident, was freed from Guantanamo after nearly seven year in US captivity without facing trial. He claimed that he was tortured at a covert CIA site in Morocco. He was arrested at the Karachi airport in April, 2002, while trying to fly back to Britain on a false passport. During three months of detention in Pakistan, he was allegedly tortured by Pakistani agents. In 2004 he was taken to the US prison at Bagram Air Base in Afghanistan and signed a confession, which he later claimed was extracted under duress. On Sep 20, 2004, he was flown to the US military detention center at Guantanamo Bay.
    (AP, 2/23/09)

2009        Feb 24, British mining group Lonmin announced up to 5,500 job cuts in South Africa, dealing a new blow to the continent's biggest economy as it contracted for the first time in a decade.
    (AP, 2/24/09)

2009        Feb 26, British prosecutors said they would not bring charges against Gary McKinnon, a computer expert accused by a US attorney of the "biggest military hack of all time," dealing a blow to his bid to avoid extradition.
    (AP, 2/26/09)
2009        Feb 26, The Royal Bank of Scotland posted a 2008 loss of 24.1 billion pounds, the largest in British corporate history, because of the credit crunch and the mis-timed takeover of ABN Amro. The British government has meanwhile agreed to insure RBS "toxic" assets worth 325 billion pounds in its Asset Protection Scheme (APS) and will cover 90 percent of losses stemming from such holdings. Sir Fred Goodwin (50), head of RBS for a decade, insisted that he is entitled to his full pension of over £700,000 ($980,000) a year. In March Goodwin received a $4 million tax-free advance as part of his negotiated pension package. In 2013 Iain Martin authored ďMaking it Happen: Fred Goodwin, RBS and the men who blew Up the British Economy."
    (AFP, 2/26/09)(Econ, 3/7/09, p.22)(SFC, 3/18/09, p.A2)(Econ, 10/26/13, p.95)
2009        Feb 26, Former EastEnders star Wendy Richard (65), who was diagnosed with cancer in January, died in London. She best known for her role as Pauline Fowler in the London-based soap whom she played for more than two decades.
    (AFP, 2/26/09)

2009        Mar 2, A Chinese man said he was the mystery collector behind winning bids for two imperial bronzes auctioned last week at Christie's over Beijing's objections, and that he made the bogus offers to protest any sale of the looted relics. The sculptures disappeared from the Summer Palace on the outskirts of Beijing when French and British forces sacked and burned it at the end of the second Opium War in 1860. The sculptures date to the early Qing Dynasty, established by invading Manchu tribesmen in 1644. The Christie's catalog said they were made for the Zodiac fountain at the imperial palace.
    (AP, 3/2/09)

2009        Mar 3, US President Barack Obama and British PM Gordon Brown held their first White House talks. They discussed the coordination of worldwide actions to stimulate economies.
    (AFP, 3/3/09)(SFC, 3/4/09, p.A5)

2009        Mar 4, British PM Gordon Brown addressed a joint session of the US Congress and bestowed an honorary knighthood for Senator Edward Kennedy.
    (Econ, 3/7/09, p.65)
2009        Mar 4, Channel tunnel operator Eurotunnel said it will pay its first ever dividend after making a net profit of 40 million euros in 2008 despite fire damage of 200 million euros (250 million dollars).
    (AP, 3/4/09)

2009        Mar 5, The Bank of England cut interest rates by 50 basis points to a record low of 0.5%, and said it would pump 75 billion pounds of new money into buying assets in its battle with recession.
    (Reuters, 3/5/09)
2009        Mar 5, The European Court of Justice said Britain's law requiring retirement at age 65 is legal under EU rules. The advocacy group Age Concern took the British government to court in 2006 to demand the reversal of the forced retirement rule.
    (AP, 3/5/09)

2009        Mar 7, The British government said it will take a majority stake in Lloyds Banking Group and guarantee toxic assets, leaving only two major British banks outside the state's control.
    (AFP, 3/7/09)
2009        Mar 7, Suspected IRA dissidents opened fire on British troops and pizza delivery men at the entrance to Massereene army barracks in Antrim, west of Belfast, killing two soldiers and wounding four other people. The attackers fired on Mark Quinsey (23) and Patrick Azimkar (21) again as they lay wounded on the ground. A week later 3 men were arrested over the killings. On March 27 Colin Duffy (41), a prominent dissident republican, was remanded in custody after being charged with the murders of the two British soldiers. He was linked to the soldiers' murder by DNA evidence. On April 2 police arrested a 19-year-old man on suspicion of gunning down the two British soldiers. On Jan 20, 2012, Brian Shivers (46) was found guilty of the shooting and sentenced to at least 25 years in prison. Colin Duffy was cleared. On May 3, 2013, a judge dismissed the forensic evidence against Shivers and ruled he was too feeble to have played a role.
    (AP, 3/8/09)(AFP, 3/14/09)(Econ, 3/14/09, p.59)(AFP, 3/27/09)(AP, 4/2/09)(AFP, 1/20/12)(AP, 2/10/12)(AP, 5/3/13)

2009        Mar 8, Ali Bongo (William Oliver Wallace), English master magician, died at age 79.
    (Econ, 3/21/09, p.93)

2009        Mar 13, Thousands of people across Britain took part in events for Red Nose Day, with money going towards helping the disadvantaged in Africa and Britain.
    (AFP, 3/13/09)
2009        Mar 13, John Worboys (b.1957), a London cab driver, was found guilty of raping or assaulting 12 women over an 18-month period, often after persuading them to drink champagne spiked with sedatives. On April 21 he was sentenced  to at least 8 years in prison. In 2010 Scotland Yard said 102 women have come forward to accuse Worboys of sexually motivated crimes since his highly publicized trial. In 2017 Britain's Parole Board announced that a panel had approved his release.
    (AP, 10/26/10)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/John_Worboys)(AP, 1/6/18)

2009        Mar 14, In England G20 finance officials held a day of talks to pave the way for the April 2 London G20 summit on tackling the downturn. They worked to find common ground amid deep divisions on how to tackle the global downturn, with key players trying to inject optimism into talks that many fear could result in little real progress.
    (AP, 3/14/09)(AFP, 3/14/09)

2009        Mar 16, Sir Nicholas Henderson (89), a former British ambassador to the US, died in London. He  helped build support for Britain's war effort in the Falklands Islands.
    (AP, 3/16/09)

2009        Mar 18, Sean Hodgson (57), a British man who spent 27 years in prison, walked free after his murder conviction was overturned because of new DNA evidence in a case that may help others who have been wrongly convicted.
    (AP, 3/18/09)
2009        Mar 18, Natasha Richardson (45). British actress, died in NYC from a severe brain injury in a skiing accident in Canada earlier this week.
    (Reuters, 3/19/09)

2009        Mar 22, In England a murder hunt started with the discovery of a victim's left leg and foot on the side of a Hertfordshire road. By Apr 11 all other body parts were found except for the manís hands.
    (AFP, 4/13/09)
2009        Mar 22, British reality television star Jade Goody (27) died in her sleep, after a very public battle with cervical cancer.
    (AFP, 3/22/09)(Econ, 3/28/09, p.98)

2009        Mar 24, The British government published its revamped counter-terrorism strategy.
    (Econ, 3/28/09, p.67)

2009        Mar 26, The archives from the London Historical Records, dating back to the 16th century, began to be made available online. Around 250,000 records were currently available, with all 77 million uploaded by 2011.
    (AP, 3/26/09)

2009        Mar 28, Thousands of demonstrators marched through London to demand action on poverty, jobs and climate change at the start of a week of protests aimed at the G20 summit in the capital.
    (AP, 3/28/09)

2009        Mar 31, Sir Sacheverell Reresby Sitwell (81) died in London. He restored the stately home of his famously eccentric family to its former glory. In 1965 Reresby Sitwell inherited Renishaw Hall in Derbyshire, the family seat since 1625. Sitwell was the elder son of Sacheverell Sitwell, who with his brother Osbert and sister Edith were famed for their literary talent and their quirks.
    (AP, 4/2/09)

2009        Apr 1, In London Presidents Dmitry Medvedev and Barack Obama said Russia and the United States will pursue a new deal to cut nuclear warheads, making good on a pledge to rebuild relations from a post-Cold War low. The US and China agreed to establish a "strategic and economic dialogue" group that would first meet in Washington later this year.
    (Reuters, 4/1/09)
2009        Apr 1, G20 protesters clashed with riot police in downtown London, breaking into the heavily guarded Royal Bank of Scotland and smashing its windows. Earlier, they tried to storm the Bank of England and pelted police with eggs and fruit. Ian Tomlinson (47) was filmed being hit by an officer with a baton shortly before collapsing in the City of London financial district. He had not been taking part in the protests and died of a hemorrhage. In 2012 Dr Freddy Patel was found guilty of misconduct by the Medical Practitioners Tribunal Service (MPTS) in relation to his handling of the examination of Ian Tomlinson's body. The pathologist had concluded that Tomlinson died from a heart attack.
    (AP, 4/1/09)(AFP, 4/17/09)(AFP, 8/23/12)
2009        Apr 1, A helicopter returning to Aberdeen with 16 people from an oil platform crashed in the North Sea. The Bond Super Puma helicopter went down off the northeast coast of Scotland. 8 bodies were recovered and the others were presumed dead. 7 bodies were later found inside the wreckage of the helicopter.
    (AFP, 4/1/09)(AP, 4/2/09)(AP, 4/5/09)

2009        Apr 2, In London G20 leaders pledged $1.1 trillion in loans and guarantees to struggling countries and agreed to crack down on tax havens and hedge funds, but failed to reach sweeping accord on more stimulus spending to attack the global economic decline.
    (AP, 4/2/09)

2009        Apr 4, A pair of British brothers (10 & 11) in Edlington lured two young boys (9 & 10) into a clearing to see some animals, and then tortured them in an attack so violent it left one of the victims pleading to be left alone to die. On Sep 3 the brothers admitted charges of robbery, intentionally causing grievous bodily harm and causing a child to engage in sexual activity.
    (AP, 9/4/09)

2009        Apr 6, The US Federal Reserve said it will supply new lines of credit worth up to $287 billion to the central banks of Japan, Switzerland, the United Kingdom and EU.
    (AP, 4/6/09)

2009        Apr 8, British police arrested 12 suspects in a major anti-terror operation. 11 of the 12 were Pakistani nationals. One 18-year-old was soon handed over to the UK border agency for questioning about his immigration status. All the suspects were released after 2 weeks.
    (AP, 4/9/09)(AP, 4/11/09)(AP, 4/22/09)
2009        Apr 8, In France workers at a British-owned adhesives factory held three British executives and a local manager captive over plans to close the site down. Scapa, which announced in February it would close its plant in Bellegarde, said it was forced to cut back after the market for car industry adhesives collapsed by 50 percent in 2008.
    (AP, 4/8/09)

2009        Apr 9, Bob Quick, Scotland Yard's Assistant Commissioner and Britain's most senior counter-terrorism officer, quit after his security blunder forced police to bring forward a major operation to thwart a suspected al Qaeda plot involving Pakistani nationals.
    (Reuters, 4/9/09)

2009        Apr 10, In Britain 11 environmental activists from a group called Eastside Climate Action were arrested after they entered the power station and climbed onto equipment at the coal-fired Ratcliffe-on-Soar plant outside Nottingham. In 2011 a trial against 6 of the accused activists broke down after a police infiltrator prepared to give evidence on their behalf.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ratcliffe-on-Soar_Power_Station)(AFP, 1/10/11)

2009        Apr 12, Sir John Maddox (b.1925), former editor of the British journal Nature, died.
    (Econ, 4/25/09, p.83)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/John_Maddox)

2009        Apr 14, The EU started legal action against Britain for not applying EU data privacy rules that would restrict an Internet advertising tracker called Phorm from watching how users surf the Web.
    (AP, 4/14/09)
2009        Apr 14, In London Sahnoun Daifallah (42) of Algeria, an unemployed chemist, was jailed for spraying a mix of urine and feces on food, wine and children's books in several British stores. Daifallah was sentenced to 9 years in prison after being found guilty of four counts of contaminating goods. Deportation proceedings were in progress.
    (AP, 4/15/09)

2009        Apr 15, A blockade by French fishermen angry at EU quotas cut ferry links with Britain for a second day as a union official threatened to block the Channel Tunnel in support of the movement.
    (AFP, 4/15/09)
2009        Apr 15, Clement Freud (84), a grandson of Sigmund Freud, died. He became a well-known writer, politician and urbane regular on British radio. He was best known from his three decades appearing on the BBC game show, "Just a Minute," in which panelists compete to see who can talk the longest without hesitation, deviation or repetition. In 2016 his widow apologized after he was accused in a television documentary of sexually abusing two girls between the late 1940s and 1970s.
    (AP, 4/16/09)(AP, 6/15/16)

2009        Apr 16, The British government promised a multimillion pound investment to try to jumpstart the market for environmentally friendly electric cars.
    (SFC, 4/17/09, p.A2)

2009        April 18, Eddie George (70), British central banker, died. He had helped give Britain over 40 successful quarters of economic growth.
    (Econ, 4/25/09, p.90)

2009        Apr 19, Author J.G. Ballard (78), a China-born author and survivor of a Japanese prison camp, died in London. His vision was so dark and distinctive it was labeled "Ballardian." His first novel, "The Wind From Nowhere" (1962) sold well enough for Ballard to become a full-time writer. Other works included the novels "The Drowned World" and "The Crystal World" and the story collection "Vermilion Sands." He reached a wide audience with the autobiographical "Empire Of The Sun" (1984), adapted as a film (1987) by Steven Spielberg.
    (AP, 4/20/09)

2009        Apr 20, Thousands of Tamils blocked some of London's busiest roads, demonstrating outside the Houses of Parliament for an immediate ceasefire in the war between Tamil rebels and Sri Lanka's government.
    (AFP, 4/20/09)
2009        Apr 20, British pharmaceutical giant GlaxoSmithKline said it has agreed to buy US-based skincare group Stiefel Laboratories in a deal worth up to 2.4 billion pounds ($3.6 billion).
    (AP, 4/20/09)

2009        Apr 21, Scientists attending a conference in England said that a planet named Gliese 581 e, has been located in a galaxy outside our solar system. The new planet is probably too hot for human life because it sits very close to the sun-like star it orbits. A 2nd planet, Gliese 581 d found in 2007, was said to be in a zone habitable for potential life.
    (AP, 4/21/09)(SFC, 4/22/09, p.A10)
2009        Apr 21, Jack Jones (96), Britain union leader, died. He became a household name in Britain through his battles to secure better rights for workers.
    (AP, 4/22/09)

2009        Apr 22, Britainís Chancellor Alistair Darling said the government will pay drivers to swap old cars for new in a scheme to boost its stricken auto sector, mirroring moves in Germany and other European nations. He also said he saw the economy starting to grow again by the end of this year following the worst recession since World War II.
    (AP, 4/22/09)(AFP, 4/21/09)
2009        Apr 22, Jack Cardiff (94),  British cinematographer, died. Cardiff was one of the first cinematographers to shoot in Technicolor. He won an Academy Award for the film "Black Narcissus" and was awarded an honorary Oscar for his work in 2001.
    (AP, 4/22/09)

2009        Apr 24, Margaret Gelling (84), expert on English place names, died. From 1986 to 1998 she served as the president of the English Place-Name Society.
    (Econ, 5/16/09, p.93)

2009        Apr 28, Ursula Askham Fanthorpe (b.1929), a highly regarded English poet, died near her home in Wotton-under-Edge in western England. She was first inspired by the human tragedy she saw in a neurological hospital.
    (AP, 5/1/09)

2009        Apr 29, Britainís PM Gordon Brown said it will boost its troops in Afghanistan to 9,000 to help the country through upcoming elections, unveiling a new strategy for Afghanistan and Pakistan.
    (AP, 4/29/09)
2009        Apr 29, Britain and Libya ratified a prisoner transfer deal that could potentially allow Abdel Basset Ali al-Megrahi (57), the man convicted of the Lockerbie bombings, to serve out the remainder of his sentence in the North African country.
    (AP, 4/29/09)

2009        Apr 30, British forces formally ended combat operations in Iraq, one month ahead of schedule. A solemn ceremony remembered 179 dead comrades from six years of warfare.
    (AFP, 4/30/09)(SFC, 5/1/09, p.A2)

2009        May 1, Britain awarded the role of national poet laureate to Carol Ann Duffy (53), the first woman to hold a post that has been filled by William Wordsworth, Alfred Lord Tennyson and Ted Hughes. Duffy, a gay woman, has published more than 30 books, plays and children's stories as well as poems that mix accessible modern language with traditional forms.
    (AP, 5/1/09)(SFC, 5/2/09, p.A3)

2009        May 5, Britain for the first time published a list of people barred from entering the country for what the government says is fostering extremism or hatred.
    (AP, 5/5/09)

2009        May 7, Britain promised it would remove the DNA records of hundreds of thousands from its vast national registry of genetic information, but said it will still keep the details of some innocent people for up to 12 years.
    (AP, 5/7/09)

2009        May 8, In London Marks & Spencer admitted it had "boobed" in a row over larger bras, agreeing to slash the prices of its DD-plus cup sizes to bring them in line with smaller models.
    (AFP, 5/8/09)

2009        May 10, The British government hit record opinion polls lows as more details of lawmakers' expenses, detailing lavish spending on everything from home improvement to pest control, emerged in the press. Labor legislator Stuart Bell said Parliament will set up an independent body to oversee legislators' expenses following a series of damaging revelations.
    (AFP, 5/10/09)(AP, 5/10/09)

2009        May 11, British PM Gordon Brown and the leader of the country's main opposition party apologized over lawmakers' excessive expenses claims, pledging to overhaul the allowance system and win back public trust.
    (AP, 5/11/09)

2009        May 12, Vittorio Calao head of Vodafone, a British mobile phone operator, announced a plan to build a joint global platform through which software companies and content providers could sell things to mobile subscribers.
    (Econ, 5/16/09, p.75)

2009        May 14, Britainís PM Gordon Brown suspended former agriculture and environment minister Elliot Morley over embarrassing expenses claim revelations. It had emerged that Morley claimed over 16,000 pounds for a home loan 18 months after it was paid off. Hours earlier the opposition Conservatives announced that Andrew MacKay, a lawmaker, had resigned as an aide to leader David Cameron after it emerged he and his wife, also a Conservative MP, had claimed expenses for two home loans at the same time.
    (AFP, 5/14/09)
2009        May 14, A British parliamentary report into human trafficking said more than 5,000 mostly women and children have been smuggled into Britain to work as sex slaves and beggars.
    (AFP, 5/14/09)

2009        May 15, Britain's expense scandal widened with the suspension of a justice minister who claimed more than 65,000 pounds ($98,000) in housing costs over three years. The Daily Telegraph reported that Justice Minister Shahid Malik put in the claims while he was given a discounted rent of 100 pounds ($150) a week by a local landlord.
    (AP, 5/15/09)
2009        May 15, The Wolfram Alpha Internet search engine was officially launched. Stephen Wolfram, British physicist, described it as a ďcomputational knowledge engine." It was created to compute answers from its own source of materials.
    (Econ, 5/16/09, p.86)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Wolfram_Alpha)(Econ, 6/4/11, TQ p.30)

2009        May 16, In Britain David Chaytor, a ruling party lawmaker, became the latest casualty of a growing row over MPs' expenses when he was suspended, as police said they would examine whether the issue merited an investigation. He was reprimanded after The Daily Telegraph newspaper reported he claimed 13,000 pounds (14,500 euros, 19,700 dollars) for mortgage interest on a loan that had already been paid off. He has said he will repay the amount.
    (AFP, 5/16/09)

2009        May 18, British PM Gordon Brown called for "root and branch" reform to defuse an expenses scandal that has damaged the main political parties and put pressure on parliament's most senior figure to quit. A group of MPs launched a rare bid to oust the Speaker of the House of Commons, over the expenses scandal.
    (Reuters, 5/18/09)(AFP, 5/18/09)

2009        May 19, Michael Martin, the Speaker of Britain's lower house, said he would step down in June after criticism of his handling of a scandal over lawmakers' expenses that has badly tarnished the reputation of the "Mother of Parliaments." The last Speaker to be forced from the post was John Trevor, who lost the confidence of the house in 1695 for taking a bribe.
    (Reuters, 5/19/09)
2009        May 19, In London, England, a protest outside parliament turned violent early as relief agencies and governments called for urgent humanitarian aid after Sri Lanka announced defeat for Tamil Tiger rebels.
    (AFP, 5/19/09)

2009        May 20, In Britain hundreds of protesters blocked roads near an oil refinery, as other sites were hit by a second day of wildcat strikes in a dispute over hiring foreign workers.
    (AP, 5/20/09)
2009        May 20, British actress Lucy Gordon (28), an up-and-coming talent who played a role in Spider-Man 3 and will soon appear as Jane Birkin in a Serge Gainsbourg biopic, killed herself in Paris.
    (AFP, 5/21/09)

2009        May 21, The British government announced a climbdown over settlement rights for Gurkha veterans, saying all of the Nepalese fighters who have served at least four years can apply to live here.
    (AFP, 5/21/09)

2009        May 25, In Britain an internal military memo published confirmed that computer disks lost at a British Royal Air Force base last September contained sensitive files on the private lives of senior officers, including answers to vetting questions about drug abuse, extramarital affairs and the use of prostitutes.
    (AP, 5/25/09)

2009        May 28, The British Royal Society for the Protection of Birds said in a new report that the cuckoo bird and 51 other species were in danger of extinction due largely to a decrease in their food and water supply in sub-Saharan Africa, from where many migrate.
    (SFC, 5/29/09, p.A2)

2009        May 30, Susan Boyle (48), Scottish singing sensation, was been beaten in the televised finals of "Britain's Got Talent," by the street dance group "Diversity," who jumped, kicked and shook their way to victory against her. "Diversity" mesmerized audiences with a frenetic but perfectly choreographed dance routine.
    (AP, 5/31/09)
2009        May 30, Michelle Samaraweera (35) was rape and murdered in Walthamstow, England. On July 4, 2009, Aman Vyas (26), a suspect in her murder and other sexual assaults, was arrested at Indira Gandhi International Airport just before he boarded a flight for Thailand.
    (AP, 7/5/11)(http://michelle-samaraweera.gonetoosoon.org/)

2009        May 31, Britain's PM Gordon Brown, facing a national uproar over lawmakers claiming lavish expenses, promised to pursue constitutional reforms including a proposal to take away legislators' power to decide their own pay.
    (AP, 5/31/09)

2009        Jun 2, British media reported that Home Secretary Jacqui Smith is quitting her post following the scandal over lawmakers' expenses.
    (AP, 6/2/09)

2009        Jun 3, British Communities Secretary Hazel Blears announced she was resigning, the second British cabinet minister to resign, undermining PM Gordon Brown's authority and his future as leader of the increasingly out-of-favor Labor Party. Blears last month agreed to pay more than 13,000 pounds ($21,000) in tax on the sale of a property.
    (AP, 6/3/09)
2009        Jun 3, A court in Laos found Samantha Orobator (20), a pregnant British woman, guilty of trafficking heroin and sentenced her to life in prison. Under a pact signed last month by Laos and Britain that still needs ratification, Orobator could be extradited to serve her time in Britain. On Aug 6 Orobator returned to Britain to serve the remainder of her sentence, just weeks before she was due to give birth.
    (AP, 6/3/09)(AP, 8/6/09)

2009        Jun 4, British naturalist Sir David Attenborough won Spain's prestigious Prince of Asturias social sciences prize for his "great contributions to the defense of life and conservation of our planet."
    (AP, 6/4/09)
2009        Jun 4, About 375 million voters across the 27-nation European Union began 4 days of voting, to appoint candidates to 736 seats on the assembly in the second-largest election in the world after India's. Voting began in Britain and the Netherlands.
    (AP, 6/4/09)

2009        Jun 5, British PM Gordon Brown shook up his Cabinet in hopes of hanging on to his job in the midst of a scandal over lawmakers' expenses, a string of top-level resignations and catastrophic results expected in local elections. Alan Johnson confirmed he has been named home secretary in a reshuffle carried out by PM Brown.
    (AP, 6/5/09)(AFP, 6/5/09)
2009        Jun 5, The Anglo-Australian firm Rio Tinto cancelled its controversial tie-up with China's Chinalco in favor of a joint venture with fierce rival BHP Billiton and a 15.2 billion US dollar rights issue.
    (AFP, 6/5/09)

2009        Jun 8, Final results showed a British far-right party won its first-ever parliamentary seats in EU elections. The British National Party, which does not accept nonwhite members and calls for the "voluntary repatriation" of immigrants, won two of Britain's 72 seats in the European Parliament. Austria's Freedom Party, which also campaigned on an anti-Islam platform, more than doubled its share of the vote to 13.1%. Hungary's Jobbik party, which describes itself as Euro-skeptic and anti-immigration and wants police to crack down on what it calls "Gypsy crime," won three of the country's 22 seats and almost 15% of the vote. The Greater Romania Party, which is, among other things, pro-religion, anti-gay and anti-Hungarian, made surprise gains, winning almost 9% of the vote and taking two of Romania's 33 seats. A bloc of center-right parties remained the largest group.
    (AP, 6/8/09)
2009        Jun 8, In Britain van maker LDV was placed in administration after the collapse of a rescue deal by Malaysian firm Weststar collapsed. Up to 850 jobs and thousands more in the supply chain were threatened. The company, owned by Russian giant GAZ, applied to Birmingham County Court for administrators to be appointed.
    (AFP, 6/8/09)

2009        Jun 10, Millions of Londoners faced a grim commute, taking boats, buses and bicycles or walking in the rain as a strike by subway workers crippled the city's subway system.
    (AP, 6/10/09)

2009        Jun 11, The London subway workersí strike continued for the second day in a row shutting down much of the city's Underground network. The strike ended as Transport for London agreed with workers to restart talks.
    (AP, 6/11/09)(SFC, 6/12/09, p.A2)

2009        Jun 15, Virgin Media, the cable TV operator owned by entrepreneur Richard Branson, launched a new kind of music download subscription service with Universal, the world's largest music company.
    (AP, 6/15/09)

2009        Jun 16, The British government declared a goal for Britain become the world's "digital capital" by building cutting-edge broadband, telecoms and media infrastructure to cement its role as a "global economic powerhouse."
    (AFP, 6/16/09)
2009        Jun 16, The $13.5 billion takeover of Barclays Global Investors by BlackRock was finalized. This created the worldís largest asset manager.
    (Econ, 6/20/09, p.73)(Econ, 9/3/11, p.74)
2009        Jun 16, A new hydrogen car designed for use in cities and backed by Sebastian Piech, a relative of the founder of German luxury sportscar maker Porsche, was unveiled in London. The two-seater Riversimple Urban Car can travel 240 miles without refueling, weighs just 350 kilograms (770 pounds) and has a top speed of 50 miles per hour.
    (AFP, 6/16/09)

2009        Jun 18, The Bank of Scotland said Fred Goodwin, its disgraced former boss, has agreed to take a 40% pension cut, after widespread pressure to do so. He will see his annual pension reduced to 342,500 pounds from 555,000 pounds. The agreement was condemned by trade unions who said it did not go far enough.
    (AFP, 6/18/09)

2009        Jun 19, The bodies of two men were handed over to the British embassy in the Iraqi capital with the Foreign Office saying the remains were "highly likely" to be those of Jason Swindlehurst (38) and Jason Creswell (39). They were among four guards protecting Peter Moore when around 40 heavily armed militants seized all five men at the finance ministry in central Baghdad on May 29, 2007.
    (AP, 6/22/09)

2009        Jun 20, Zimbabwean PM Morgan Tsvangirai was booed and shouted down by exiles during a speech in London when he pleaded with them to return home to help rebuild the shattered country.
    (AFP, 6/21/09)

2009        Jun 22, Britain pledged an extra five million pounds in aid to Zimbabwe, hailing progress under a new unity government but urging more reform after landmark talks between leaders of the two countries.
    (AFP, 6/22/09)

2009        Jun 23, In Britain wildcat strikes spread to oil refineries and power plants across the country. Thousands of workers demonstrated outside the Lindsey terminal in Lincolnshire, where almost 650 contract workers were sacked by French oil giant Total last week.
    (AFP, 6/23/09)

2009        Jun 28, Iranian media reported that eight local British embassy staff were detained for an alleged role in postelection protests.
    (AP, 6/28/09)

2009        Jul 1, British actress Mollie Sugden (86), best-known for her role as Mrs. Slocombe in the television comedy series "Are You Being Served?" (1972-1985), died.
    (Reuters, 7/2/09)

2009        Jul 2, A British RAF Tornado fighter aircraft crashed in a remote area of Scotland.
    (AFP, 7/2/09)

2009        Jul 3, In London a fire ripped through the 12-story Lakanal House block of Sceaux Gardens Estate,  a 1960s-era public housing block in south London, killing six people including a newborn baby.
    (AFP, 7/4/09)
2009        Jul 3, Ayatollah Ahmad Jannati, a top Iranian cleric, said that some of the detained Iranian staffers of the British Embassy in Tehran will be put on trial, and he accused Britain of a role in instigating widespread protests that erupted over the country's disputed presidential election.
    (AP, 7/3/09)

2009        Jul 5, Terry Herbert (55), an unemployed treasure hunter, unearthed the biggest hoard of Anglo-Saxon gold and silver ever found in a country field in Staffordshire. The trove of at least 1,350 items, including five kilos (11 pounds) of gold and a smaller amount of silver, was found by Herbert with a metal detector near his home in Burntwood, some 15 miles north of Birmingham. It is believed to date from the seventh century AD, and may have belonged to Saxon royalty. It was later valued at more than three million pounds, to be split equally between the man who found it and the owner of the land.
    (AFP, 9/24/09)(AFP, 11/26/09)(www.nydailynews.com/topics/Terry+Herbert)

2009        Jul 7, British officials unveiled a memorial of 52 steel pillars in a London park, one for each victim of the July 7, 2005, attacks on the city's transit system.
    (AP, 7/7/09)

2009        Jul 8, The British government set out plans to toughen regulation of its banking sector, including greater oversight of bonuses paid to staff.
    (AFP, 7/8/09)
2009        Jul 8, British scientists claimed to have created human sperm from embryonic stem cells for the first time. Several critics said the sperm cells were clearly abnormal.
    (SFC, 7/9/09, p.A5)

2009        Jul 10, Britainís the last ever Royal Show closed in Warwickshire. The agricultural jamboree, intended to spread innovation among farmers, ended a 170 year run.
    (Econ, 7/11/09, p.57)
2009        Jul 10, In Afghanistan 8 British soldiers were reported killed over the last 24 hours. A US service member wounded in June in Afghanistan died in the US.
    (AP, 7/11/09)(AP, 7/12/09)
2009        Jul 10, In Switzerland British conductor Edward Downes (b.1924) died with his wife Joan (74) at an assisted suicide clinic. He was a longtime stalwart at the Royal Opera and maestro of the first-ever performance at Sydney's iconic Opera House.
    (AP, 7/14/09)

2009        Jul 13, British and Israeli officials said Britain has revoked several licenses granted to British companies to sell weapons parts to Israel because of concerns over their use in Israel's recent war in the Gaza Strip.
    (AP, 7/13/09)

2009        Jul 15, Luxury carmaker Jaguar, owned by India's Tata Motors, announced it would end Liverpool production of its X-Type car by the end of the year with the loss of up to 300 jobs.
    (AFP, 7/15/09)

2009        Jul 17, Leszek Kolakowski (b.1927), Polish-born Oxford philosopher and historian of ideas, died in Oxford. ďWe Learn history not in order to know how to behave or how to succeed, but to know who we are." His work included the 3-volume series ďMain currents of Marxism: Its Rise, Growth and Dissolution" (1976).
    (Econ, 8/1/09, p.76)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Leszek_Ko%C5%82akowski)

2009        Jul 25, In Britain a new poll was released showing solid support for the right to die. The Royal College of Nursing said it was adopting a neutral stance on the issue after its research showed nurses were divided. The British Medical Association remained opposed.
    (AP, 7/25/09)

2009        Jul 28, A majority of people in Britain see the Afghan war as impossible to win, according to a new poll taken amid steeply rising casualties and growing government emphasis on finding a political solution to the conflict.
    (AP, 7/28/09)
2009        Jul 28, Britain said it will withdraw its remaining 100-odd troops in Iraq to Kuwait by the end of the month after the Iraqi parliament failed to pass a deal allowing them to stay to protect oil platforms and provide training.
    (AP, 7/28/09)

2009        Jul 29, In Zimbabwe the British Broadcasting Corp. resumed broadcasting for the first time since it was banned in 2001. The five-month-old coalition government said it also was considering allowing CNN back.
    (AP, 7/30/09)

2009        Jul 30, South African President Jacob Zuma accepted "very substantial damages" from Britain's Guardian newspaper over an article that wrongly suggested he was a rapist.
    (AP, 7/30/09)

2009        Jul 31, Britain's defense ministry said Sikh soldiers have begun guarding the monarch and her treasures. ďRegiments take it in turn to stand in for the Household Division and it just happens that two of the soldiers this time round are Sikh."
    (AP, 7/31/09)
2009        Jul 31, Anuradha Koirala, the founder of Nepalese charity Maiti Nepal, said British actress Joanna Lumley has agreed to be its international ambassador. The charity helps victims of human trafficking.
    (AFP, 7/31/09)

2009        Jul, Latviaís leading newspaper, Diena, along with sister publication Dienas Bizness, was bought by Luxembourg based Nedela S.A. in a highly clandestine transaction. The deal was initially structured as a loan to Tralmaks' company Nedela, allowing it to buy the two papers from then-owner, Sweden's Bonnier Business Press. The loan was later restructured, placing the Rowlands as the new owners. The Rowland Capital family office runs an asset management business, Blackfish Capital Management, a London based company.
    (http://tinyurl.com/yjgb4ls)(Econ, 10/17/09, p.64)

2009        Aug 6, Two well-dressed thieves walked into a London Bond Street jewelry store and, after brandishing handguns at shop workers, made off with $65 million worth of gems in one of Britain's biggest jewelry heists. The arrest of one suspect was announced on Aug 12. On Sep 7 a 9th suspect, David Joseph (22), was detained. On June 25, 2010, Aman Kassaye (24) was convicted for his role in the robbery. On Aug 6, 2010, Kassaye was sentenced to 23 years in jail. Three other men involved in the robbery, Solomun Beyene, Clinton Mogg and Thomas Thomas, were sentenced to 16 years each. Two others were cleared by the court.
    (AP, 8/12/09)(SFC, 8/13/09, p.A2)(SFC, 9/8/09, p.A2)(AFP, 6/25/10)(AP, 8/6/10)
2009        Aug 6, In western Afghanistan four American service members were killed in a roadside bombing. 3 British paratroopers were killed after their armored vehicle was hit by a roadside bomb and Taliban opened fire during a patrol with Afghan forces north of Lashkar Gah in Helmand province. Roadside bombs killed 5 policemen in Kandahar's Arghandab district. An airstrike in Zabul province killed 3 suspected militants who were planting a bomb on a road.
    (AP, 8/6/09)(AP, 8/7/09)

2009        Aug 7, Britainís Ministry of Justice said Great Train Robber Ronnie Biggs (79) has been officially released from his prison sentence. Biggs earned notoriety for his role in the 1963 Great Train Robbery, for which he was sentenced to 30 years in prison. Escaping, he spent 35 years as a celebrity fugitive, living a party lifestyle in Brazil before returning home.
    (AFP, 8/7/09)
2009        Aug 7, James Robinson (71), a former California priest, arrived at London's Heathrow Airport after being extradited from the United States. He was charged with sexually abusing young boys when he served in the United Kingdom between 1959 and 1983.
    (AP, 8/8/09)

2009        Aug 9, Iraqi authorities arrested Daniel Fitzsimmons, a British contractor, on murder charges over the shooting deaths of a British and an Australian contractor in Baghdad's protected Green Zone. Two employees of ArmorGroup Iraq, identified as Paul McGuigan of Britain and Darren Hoare of Australia, were killed in the firearms incident. On Feb 28, 2011, An Iraqi court convicted Fitzsimmons and sentenced him to 20 years in prison, making him the first Westerner convicted in an Iraqi court since the 2003 US invasion.
    (AP, 8/9/09)(AP, 8/10/09)(AP, 2/28/11)

2009        Aug 11, Liechtenstein raised the gate on its tax-haven fortress, making a deal enabling London to snare about 5,000 British accounts holders with up to 3.0 billion pounds in secret deposits.
    (AFP, 8/11/09)

2009        Aug 15, In Afghanistan a suicide car bomb exploded outside the main gate of NATO's headquarters five days before presidential elections, killing seven and wounding 91 in the biggest attack in the Afghan capital in six months. A British soldier succumbed to injuries sustained while out on foot patrol in Helmand province, becoming the 201st British military fatality in Afghanistan.
    (AP, 8/15/09)(AFP, 8/16/09)

2009        Aug 19, London's Metropolitan Police said two men were arrested in the Aug 6 robbery of $66 million in jewelry. The Barnes Flying Squad, a specialist unit that deals with armed robberies and high value thefts, made the arrests.
    (AP, 8/20/09)

2009        Aug 20, Kenny MacAskill, Scotlandís justice secretary, freed Abdel Baset al-Megrahi (57), former Libyan intelligence agent and alleged Lockerbie bomber (Dec 21, 1988), on compassionate grounds after eight years in jail allowing him to go home to Libya to die. Al-Megrahi has terminal prostate cancer and has been given less than three months to live. In 2010 Professor Karol Sikora, who assessed for the Libyan authorities, told The Sunday Times it was "embarrassing" that he had outlived his three-month prognosis and that al-Megrahi could survive for 10 years or longer. It was later reported that BP had promoted the deal in order to protect a $900 million oil and gas exploration deal off the Libyan Mediterranean coast.
    (AP, 8/20/09)(Econ, 8/29/09, p.48)(AP, 7/03/10)(SFC, 7/16/10, p.A2)

2009        Aug 22, Vicki Cruse (40) from Santa Paula, Calif., died in an accident during the World Aerobatic Championships at Britain's Silverstone motor racing circuit. She was a former member of the US national aerobatics team and was the first woman to qualify to race in her class at the Reno National Championship Air Races.
    (AP, 8/22/09)

2009        Aug 25, Four Ethiopian athletes, two women and two men, fled their hotel in London and failed to make a connecting flight to Edinburgh ahead of the Falkirk Cup athletics event.
    (AFP, 8/26/09)

2009        Aug 27, Mike Perham (17) became the youngest person to sail solo around the world with assistance, as he entered British waters after 156 days at sea. The Guinness Book of World Records created a new category for Perham: youngest sailor to circumnavigate the globe solo, supported. His father, Peter, sailed in a boat behind him, but did not offer assistance, which Guinness defines as being accompanied on the boat by another human being.
    (AFP, 8/27/09)

2009        Aug 28, PM Gordon Brown said Britain will commit 665 million pounds ($1.08 billion) in aid to help Pakistan stabilize its violent border areas and tackle the underlying causes of extremism.
    (AP, 8/28/09)
2009        Aug 28, Iceland's parliament approved a controversial deal to pay back billions of euros (dollars) lost by British and Dutch savers in the collapse of the online Icesave bank. The deal provided for the payment of 3.8 billion euros by 2023 to the British and Dutch governments for the compensation they forked out to disgruntled savers.
    (AFP, 8/28/09)

2009        Aug 29, Britainís PM Gordon Brown made a surprise visit to Afghanistan, where he pledged to speed up the training of Afghan security forces.
    (AFP, 8/29/09)
2009        Aug 29, Britainís Cairn Energy began pumping crude from a vast oilfield in the Indian desert state of Rajasthan that is set to increase the country's crude output by 20 percent.
    (AFP, 8/29/09)
2009        Aug 14, Britain removed Michael Misick, the elected premier of the Turks and Caicos Islands as well as the cabinet and assembly due to systemic corruption. The constitution was suspended for 2 years and the population of 38,000 would be run for the next 2 years by a governor representing Queen Elizabeth.
    (Econ, 8/22/09, p.34)

2009        Aug 30, British police estimated that about 220,000 people turned up to dance, drink and eat jerk chicken for the first of two days of the Notting Hill Carnival in west London. The Afro-Caribbean carnival began the 1950s in response to deteriorating race relations, and has been based in Notting Hill since 1964.
    (AFP, 8/31/09)

2009        Sep 5, The Group of 20 rich and developing countries held talks in London. They were expected to commit to further efforts to boost growth, despite fledging signs of an economic recovery.
    (AP, 9/5/09)
2009        Sep 5, In Britain racially charged violence erupted between a group protesting Islamic extremism and counter-demonstrators in the central city of Birmingham. Authorities arrested 90 people. The clashes erupted when a rally by the English Defense League ran into counter-demonstrators including anti-fascists and youths of South Asian descent.
    (AP, 9/6/09)
2009        Sep 5, Keith Waterhouse (80) a prolific British author, journalist and playwright, died. Waterhouse was best known for the 1959 novel Billy Liar -- the story of a day-dreamer who plans his escape from a depressing job as an undertaker. It was made into a film in 1963.
    (AFP, 9/5/09)

2009        Sep 6, British PM Gordon Brown said he would support compensation claims against Libya by families of IRA victims who say Tripoli helped to arm the guerrillas.
    (Reuters, 9/6/09)

2009        Sep 7, Three British Muslims were convicted of conspiring to kill thousands of civilians by blowing up trans-Atlantic flights in mid-air with liquid explosives disguised as soft drinks. Abdulla Ahmed Ali (28), Assad Sarwar (29), and Tanvir Hussain (28) were found guilty of conspiracy to murder by detonating explosives on aircraft. The men's arrests in August 2006 had led to huge travel chaos. 5 others were also tried. Umar Islam was convicted of conspiracy to murder. The jury failed to reach a verdict on 3 others. Donald Stewart-Whyte was cleared.
    (AP, 9/7/09)(Econ, 9/12/09, p.62)
2009        Sep 7, US snacks company Kraft Foods launched a 10.2 billion pound bid for its British rival Cadbury, with traders expecting the price to run higher as takeover activity returns to the markets. Cadbury immediately rejected the offer.
    (AP, 9/7/09)

2009        Sep 8, The British government said the last remaining armed paramilitary groups in Northern Ireland had pledged to decommission all their weapons within six months. Hours later army experts in Northern Ireland defused a massive roadside bomb, averting what could have been a "devastating" explosion in the long-troubled British province.
    (AP, 9/8/09)(AFP, 9/8/09)
2009        Sep 8, A British judge sentenced Neil Lewington (44), a racist who planned to attack people he considered "non-British," to at least six years in jail for terrorist offenses.
    (AP, 9/8/09)
2009        Sep 8, Deutsche Telekom AG and France Telecom SA said they intend to combine their British mobile phone units, shaking up the country's intensely competitive market and forming the country's biggest mobile operator. Analysts said Nokia Siemens Networks, the key equipment vendor to British operations of Deutsche Telekom and France Telecom, had most to lose in the merger.
    (AP, 9/8/09)(Reuters, 9/8/09)

2009        Sep 14, A British judge sentenced Abdulla Ahmed Ali (28), the ringleader of a plot to bring down trans-Atlantic planes with liquid explosives, to at least 40 years in jail and three fellow British Muslims to long prison sentences.
    (AP, 9/14/09)

2009        Sep 17, Brixton, England, officially launched Brixton  pounds (B£), a local currency fixed at a one-to-one exchange rate with sterling. It aimed to boost the local economy and build a mutual support system amongst independent businesses.
    (https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Brixton#Brixton_Pound)(Econ, 1/7/17, p.56)
2009        Sep 17, In Britain the Communication Workers Union called for a national walkout following a rolling program of local postal strikes that began in July. The strikes over higher pay and job security have already caused a backlog of 20 million letters and parcels, about a quarter of the Royal Mail's daily volume.
    (AP, 9/17/09)
2009        Sep 17, In London the musical play ďEnron," written by Lucy Prebble, opened at the Royal Court Theater.
    (Econ, 10/10/09, p.90)

2009        Sep 22, Britainís Office of Fair Trading (OFT) said it has imposed fines totaling 129.5 million pounds on 103 construction firms in England which it has found had colluded with competitors on building contracts.
    (AFP, 9/22/09)

2009        Sep 23, England's top prosecutor unveiled new guidelines that could decriminalize many forms of assisted suicide, saying that most people who help close friends or family kill themselves aren't likely to face charges.
    (AP, 9/23/09)

2009        Sep 28, Britainís Business Secretary Peter Mandelson said the government will extend its car scrapping scheme with extra funding for an additional 100,000 cars and vans.
    (AP, 9/28/09)

2009        Sep 30, The British Office of Fair Trading said six recruitment companies have together been fined almost 40 million pounds for price-fixing and the boycott of a rival company. They had all breached Britain's 1998 Competition Act.
    (AFP, 9/30/09)

2009        Sep, Britain launched its Future Jobs Fund (FTJ). It aimed to help long term unemployed people back into employment. It was cut by the Coalition government of PM David Cameron claiming the scheme was "expensive, badly targeted and did not work". However, a 2012 report by the Department for Work and Pensions (DWP)[2] found that the scheme produced a net benefit though tax receipts and a reduced benefits bill.
    (https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Future_Jobs_Fund)(Econ., 8/22/20, p.47)

2009        Oct 1, Britainís Serious Fraud Office announced that it would seek prosecution of defense equipment firm BAE Systems over alleged corruption involving contracts with European and African nations.
    (AFP, 10/1/09)
2009        Oct 1, Benjamin Chocat (20), from Choisy-Le-Roi south of Paris, and his mother Christiane Chocat (51), a councilor in Lumigny-Nesles-Ormeaux southeast of Paris, helped to smuggle at least 13 men and 3 women in a hire van on a ferry from Cherbourg in France to Portsmouth. The Vietnamese immigrants were hidden behind boxes of shrimp noodles.
    (AP, 1/4/10)

2009        Oct 2, In England a Sikh policeman was awarded 10,000 pounds in compensation by a tribunal after bosses ordered him to remove his turban for riot training.
    (AFP, 10/2/09)

2009        Oct 5, The first official history of Britain's MI5 was published, ending 100 years of secrecy over British spying during two world wars, the Cold War and the current fight against Islamic extremism. "The Defence of The Realm: The Authorized History of MI5" was written by Cambridge University historian Christopher Andrew, who was given virtually unrestricted access to some 400,000 files, and even joined the domestic intelligence agency himself.
    (AFP, 10/5/09)(Econ, 10/10/09, p.87)

2009        Oct 6, Hilary Mantel won the 2009 Man Booker Prize for her historical novel ďWolf Hall." It covered the period Henry VIIIís divorce from Catherine of Aragon and marriage to Anne Boleyn. A sequel, ďBring Up the Bodies," was published in 2012.
    (Econ, 10/10/09, p.89)(www.themanbookerprize.com/news/stories/1291)(Econ, 5/5/12, p.81)
2009        Oct 6, In London the play ďThe Power of Yes," written by Sir David Hare, opened at the Royal National Theater.
    (Econ, 10/10/09, p.90)

2009        Oct 7, The first British-built Honda Jazz auto rolled off the assembly line after production was switched from Japan in a move the manufacturer hopes will end a troubled year for the factory.
    (AFP, 10/7/09)

2009        Oct 8, Britain's postal workers agreed to launch a nationwide strike after months of rolling regional strikes over pay and job security. The Communication Workers Union said that 76% of more than 80,000 union members voted in favor of the action. The union was required to give seven days notice before any strike.
    (AP, 10/8/09)

2009        Oct 10, British police in fluorescent jackets stood between hundreds of anti-Islam protesters and anti-racist counter-demonstrators in Manchester, arresting 48 people in a bid to keep the peace.
    (AP, 10/10/09)

2009        Oct 11, Alan Peters (76), British master furniture maker, died.
    (Econ, 11/7/09, p.80)

2009        Oct 12, Britainís PM Gordon Brown announced on Monday a 16-billion-pound sale of state assets including a rail link between London and the Channel Tunnel to cut soaring debt caused by economic crisis.
    (AFP, 10/12/09)

2009        Oct 13, Iraqi lawmakers approved the return of a limited number of British troops to Iraq to help protect the country's southern oil ports, an area where Iraq is lagging in its ability to provide security. A total of 254 parliamentary deputies and senators voted to oust PM Emil Boc, more than the 236 needed, and 176 voted against. Under the constitution it was up to Pres. Traian Basescu to name a new prime minister.
    (AFP, 10/13/09)

2009        Oct 14, British PM Gordon Brown ordered hundreds more troops to Afghanistan, pledging to bolster the international effort on the condition that Britain's allies also do their fair share to support the war effort. He said Britain's overall contribution would rise to 9,500 troops, an increase of about 500.
    (AP, 10/14/09)

2009        Oct 15, The far-right British National Party agreed to change its constitution to let nonwhite people become members.
    (AP, 10/15/09)

2009        Oct 16, Queen Elizabeth II formally opened Britain's new Supreme Court in a ceremony attended by several US Supreme Court justices.
    (AP, 10/16/09)

2009        Oct 18, Representatives of the world's biggest carbon polluters began two days of informal talks in London to map out common ground 50 days before a key UN climate conference in Copenhagen.
    (AFP, 10/18/09)

2009        Oct 21, A Briton who cost the insurance industry some 1.6 million pounds by staging almost 100 car crashes as part of a scam to win fraudulent payouts, was jailed for 4-1/2 years. Mohammed Patel (24) charged 500 pounds a time to stage accidents which enabled fraudsters to claim an average of 17,000 pounds from their insurers.
    (Reuters, 10/21/09)
2009        Oct 21, Spanish-owned airports operator BAA announced the sale of the second busiest hub Gatwick to a US investment fund for 1.51 billion pounds following an antitrust ruling.
    (AFP, 10/21/09)

2009        Oct 22, More than 8 million people watched British National Party leader Nick Griffin slam Islam as a wicked faith, express his disgust at homosexuals and defend the Ku Klux Klan on its "Question Time" program.
    (AP, 10/23/09)
2009        Oct 22, British Royal Mail workers began a two-day strike in a bitter row over pay, conditions and modernization, causing widespread disruption to mail services.
    (AFP, 10/22/09)

2009        Oct 23, British far-right leader Nick Griffin accused the BBC of mounting a "lynch mob" on him in a charged appearance on a TV political panel show, and called for it to be re-recorded.
    (AFP, 10/23/09)
2009        Oct 23, British couple Paul and Rachel Chandler were heading from the Seychelles to Tanzania in their yacht, the Lynn Rival, when the distress signal was sent. Reports followed that the couple were seized by pirates. The couple were taken to the Somali pirate lair of Harardhere and $7 million was later demanded for their release. The Chandlers were released on Nov 14, 2010, after a ransom of at least 750,000 dollars was paid.
    (AP, 10/27/09)(AFP, 10/29/09)(AP, 10/31/09)(AFP, 11/14/10)

2009        Oct 25, Energy giant BP signed a deal with Jordan to explore for natural gas reserves in the Risheh field near the border with Iraq in an investment that could reach billions of dollars.
    (AFP, 10/25/09)

2009        Oct 26, British-based Barclays bought the home loans and savings arm of insurer Standard Life for ₤226 million, pursuing its expansion strategy after the part-purchase of failed US titan Lehman Brothers last year. Standard Life Bank, which has no retail branch network, was launched back in 1998.
    (AFP, 10/26/09)

2009        Oct 27, Algeria and Britain signed a new defense agreement. An embassy spokeswoman said "This outline agreement aims to regularize cooperation between the two countries in defense matters, particularly the training of Algerian officers in Great Britain."
    (AFP, 10/27/09)
2009        Oct 27, An Italian appeals court upheld the conviction of British lawyer David Mills for accepting a bribe to lie in court to protect Silvio Berlusconi. A lower court found Mills guilty of corruption in May and sentenced him to 4 1/2 years. In 2010 Italyís highest court overturned a guilty verdict against Mills, ruling that the stature of limitations had expired.
    (AP, 10/27/09)(SFC, 2/25/10, p.A2)

2009        Oct 28, Britainís PM Gordon Brown welcomed Indian President Pratibha Patil on the second day of her state visit which he said showed growing ties between the two nations.
    (AFP, 10/28/09)

2009        Oct 30, The British government sacked David Nutt, the nationís top drug advisor, following his remarks that marijuana, ecstasy and LSD were less dangerous than alcohol.
    (SFC, 10/31/09, p.S2)(Econ, 11/7/09, p.54)
2009        Oct 30, The BBC said Anton Turner (38), a British guide working on a children's television show in Tanzania, was killed after being charged by an elephant. The show "Serious Explorers" followed David Livingstone's famous 19th-century trek across the African continent.
    (AP, 10/31/09)

2009        Oct 31, A British government official said the Royal Bank of Scotland, Northern Rock, and Lloyds Banking Group are to sell off as many as 700 branches in the next few years in exchange for the public aid they received during the economic meltdown.
    (AP, 10/31/09)

2009        Nov 3, Britain pressed ahead with a fresh wave of restructuring in its crisis-ravaged banking system, as Lloyds Banking Group PLC sought at least 21 billion pounds ($34.2 billion) through a record share issue and debt swap. World stock markets mostly fell amid renewed concerns about the banking sector after Britain's Royal Bank of Scotland PLC got more government help and Switzerland's UBS AG booked another massive charge.
    (AP, 11/3/09)
2009        Nov 3, The British government said survivors of the Darfur conflict will no longer be deported from Britain, after concerns about a deterioration in conditions in the Sudanese capital. The Home Office said asylum seekers will have the right to remain in Britain for up to five years, or until the situation improves in Sudan.
    (AFP, 11/3/09)
2009        Nov 3, Afghanistan's Pres. Karzai welcomed his new term, by reaching out to opponents and promising to banish the corruption that has undermined his administration. In northern Kunduz province, Afghan and international troops have been fighting for two days to take the Taliban-held town of Ghor Tapa. About 200 insurgents were holed up in the town, including foreign fighters, mostly Chechens. 11 insurgents and one Afghan soldier were killed. A "rogue" Afghan policeman gunned down five British soldiers at a checkpoint in Helmand province, fuelling growing questions about the Afghan mission.
    (AP, 11/3/09)(AFP, 11/4/09)

2009        Nov 4, British lawmakers will be banned from using taxpayers' money to make mortgage payments on second homes or hiring family members as staff under new rules published today in the wake of a scandal over legislators' allowances.
    (AP, 11/4/09)

2009        Nov 6, British Airways revealed a quadrupling of net losses in its first half, and axed an extra 1,200 jobs in an "essential" cost-reduction program.
    (AP, 11/6/09)
2009        Nov 6, Two British ticketholders shared a jackpot of 90 million pounds ($150 million) in the EuroMillions competition, the largest lottery prizes ever paid out in the UK.
    (AP, 11/7/09)

2009        Nov 7, British boxer David Haye (29) won the WBA Heavyweight crown against Russian Nikolai Valuev in a 12-round bout in Germany. Haye became the first Briton to hold a world heavyweight crown since Lennox Lewis retired in 2003.
    (AFP, 11/8/09)

2009        Nov 9, US giant Kraft Foods launched a hostile 9.8-billion-pound takeover bid for Cadbury which the British confectioner rejected.
    (AFP, 11/9/09)

2009        Nov 10, The hotly-anticipated video game "Call of Duty: Modern Warfare 2" was launched in Britain amid a political row over its levels of violence.
    (AFP, 11/10/09)

2009        Nov 11, The British Home Office said DNA of innocent people arrested then cleared without charge will be held by the government for no more than six years.
    (AFP, 11/11/09)

2009        Nov 12, British Airways PLC and Spanish airline Iberia SA confirmed they are holding separate board meetings about a long-awaited merger, responding to feverish speculation that has sent the companies' shares soaring.
    (AP, 11/12/09)

2009        Nov 13, British adventurers Mick Dawson and Chris Martin completed a 189-day record voyage, begun on May 8, rowing their 23-foot, Kevlar boat across the Pacific from Choshi, Japan, to San Francisco.
    (SFC, 11/14/09, p.A1)

2009        Nov 15, British officials said PM Gordon Brown will apologize to thousands of British children who were shipped to new lives overseas, where many say they suffered neglect and abuse. Thousands of poor British children were sent to Australia, Canada and other former colonies under the Child Migrants Program, which ended in the 1960s. Many ended up in institutions or as farm laborers. The British government has estimated that a total of 150,000 British children may have been shipped abroad between 1618 ó when a group was sent to the Virginia Colony ó and 1967, most of them from the late 19th century onwards.
    (AP, 11/15/09)
2009        Nov 15, Dr. Brooke Magnanti (34), who works for The Bristol Initiative for Research of Child Health, revealed herself to be the woman behind the nom de plume "Belle de Jour," which is the title of a 1967 French film starring Catherine Deneuve. Magnanti kept a weblog of her antics in 2003-2004, which were turned into a best-selling book, "The Intimate Adventures of a London Call Girl." Her memoirs were adapted into a hit 16-episode television series "Secret Diary of a Call Girl," which starred Billie Piper and was screened in countries around the world.
    (AFP, 11/16/09)

2009        Nov 16, In London, England, Geeta Aulakh (28), a receptionist at a local Asian radio station and mother of two young boys, was found by a passerby in Greenford near Ealing. A week later Sher Singh (18) was court charged with the mutilation and murder of the Asian mother of 2 young boys. Family members say Aulakh, who had recently separated from her husband of 11 years and was filing for divorce, had been threatened in the months leading up to her death.
    (AFP, 11/23/09)
2009        Nov 16, Australiaís PM Kevin Rudd issued an historic apology to thousands of impoverished British children shipped to Australia with the promise of a better life. But his government ruled out paying compensation for the abuse and neglect that many suffered.
    (AP, 11/16/09)

2009        Nov 19, Herman Van Rompuy, Belgium's Prime Minister and former economist, was named the European Union's first permanent President. Baroness Catherine Ashton, Britain's European Commissioner, was appointed as the EUís Foreign Minister-designate, with the unwieldy title of High Representative for Foreign Affairs and Security Policy.
    (AP, 11/19/09)

2009        Nov 20, In northern England military helicopters winched dozens of people to safety and emergency workers in inflatable boats rescued scores more as floods swamped the picturesque Lake District. One police officer was missing and feared dead after a bridge was swept away.
    (AP, 11/20/09)

2009        Nov 21, The University of East Anglia, in eastern England, said computer hackers have broken into a server at a well-respected climate change research center and posted hundreds of private e-mails and documents online, stoking debate over whether some scientists have overstated the case for man-made climate change. More than a decade of correspondence between leading British and US scientists was included in about 1,000 e-mails and 3,000 documents posted on Web sites following the security breach last week.
    (AP, 11/21/09)

2009        Nov 24, Lloyds launched the country's largest-ever rights issue to raise 13.5 billion pounds from existing shareholders.
    (AFP, 11/24/09)

2009        Nov 25, British PM Gordon Brown says 10 NATO nations are ready to offer about 5,000 more troops for the war in Afghanistan.
    (AP, 11/25/09)
2009        Nov 25, The British government said Scotland will be given greater tax-raising powers under the biggest shake-up of the nation's finances for 30 years.
    (Reuters, 2/16/12)
2009        Nov 25, Iran stopped the yacht, ďKingdom of Bahrain," owned by Sail Bahrain as it sailed from Bahrain to the Gulf city of Dubai. It had been due to join the 360-mile (580km) Dubai-Muscat Offshore Sailing Race, which was to begin Nov. 26. Five British sailors were detained. The 5 sailors were released on Dec 2.
    (AP, 11/30/09)(AP, 12/2/09)

2009        Nov 30, Scotland First Minister Alex Salmond set out plans which could pave the way for a referendum on independence.
    (Reuters, 2/16/12)

2009        Dec 2, Iran freed five British sailors detained last week when their racing yacht drifted accidentally into Iranian waters in the Persian Gulf. Britain said it was delighted with the release and praised Tehran's handling of the incident. The Fars agency reported that analyst Saeed Leilaz, known for his criticism of the government, was sentenced to nine years in prison for possession of classified documents. The Revolutionary Court also slapped the brother-in-law of opposition leader Mir Houssein Mousavi with a one-year sentence.
    (AP, 12/2/09)

2009        Dec 7, ITV, the British TV channel behind hit show "I'm A Celebrity... Get Me Out Of Here!", apologized for the death of a rat during filming in Australia, as the stars who killed it faced police charges.
    (AFP, 12/7/09)
 2009        Dec 7, Afghan lawmakers, refusing to be a rubber stamp, demanded a full, not partial, list of President Hamid Karzai's new Cabinet, the first test of the embattled leader's commitment to clean up graft and bribery in his government. Kabul Mayor Abdul Ahad Sahebi 963) was found guilty of awarding a contract for a city project without competition. An Afghan court sentenced him to four years in jail and ordered him to repay more than $16,000 involved in the contract. A British soldier from 1st Battalion The Royal Anglian Regiment was killed in Nad-e Ali in southern Helmand Province. He became Britainís 100th soldier to die in the current war.
    (AP, 12/7/09)(AFP, 12/8/09)(AP, 12/9/09)

2009        Dec 8, Ratings agency Moody's warned of a "fiscal crisis" lasting "several years" in Britain, France, Germany and the United States, but saw no immediate threat to their top AAA credit assessments.
    (AFP, 12/8/09)

2009        Dec 9, The British government fired a broadside at banks, slapping a 50% tax rate on bonuses over 25,000 pounds to recoup cash spent saving the sector.
    (AFP, 12/9/09)

2009        Dec 15, British Airways sought a court injunction to prevent a 12-day strike by cabin crew that would cause havoc for one million travelers over the Christmas and New Year's holidays.
    (AP, 12/15/09)
2009        Dec 15, Israelís PM Benjamin Netanyahu rejected the issuing in Britain of an arrest warrant against Israel's former foreign minister Tzipi Livni for alleged war crimes. She was targeted by Palestinians for her role in last winter's brutal offensive against Hamas in Gaza, when she was foreign minister.
    (AP, 12/15/09)

2009        Dec 16, The British board of the UK Payments Council, the body for setting payment strategy in Britain, agreed to set a target date of October 31, 2018 for winding up the check clearing system.
    (AP, 12/16/09)

2009        Dec 19, Four passenger trains broke down in the Channel Tunnel between Britain and France, stranding more than 2,000 passengers for hours, many without heating, light or water. Fatigued passengers arrived in London 10 hours late after a long night trapped on trains. The problem began because of the abrupt temperature change when trains traveled through extremely cold air in France and then entered the warm tunnel.
    (AP, 12/19/09)

2009        Dec 22, Budget airline EasyJet cancelled about 180 flights due both to the "significant snowfall" and airport closures across Britain, in a fresh blow to passengers hoping to travel for the Christmas holidays.
    (AFP, 12/22/09)
2009        Dec 22, Eurostar resumed its high-speed rail service linking Britain, France and Belgium after a three-day suspension that stranded tens of thousands of holiday travelers.
    (AP, 12/22/09)

2009        Dec 23, Britain banned several drugs known as "legal highs" amid mounting public concern about their health risks. Substances including chemical solvent GBL, often used by nightclub-goers, and BZP, a stimulant similar to amphetamine, are now illegal, as are herbal smoking products containing man-made chemicals such as "Spice."
    (AFP, 12/23/09)
2009        Dec 23, Thousands of Eurostar passengers anxious to get away for Christmas battled for train places out of London as heavy rains and freezing conditions sparked yet more travel chaos across Europe.
    (AFP, 12/23/09)

2009        Dec 30, In Iraq staggered explosions killed at least 26 people in Ramadi, 13 of them policemen, and wounded Anbar provincial governor Kassim Mohammad Fahdlawi as well as some 100 others. Peter Moore, a British hostage held for over two years by militants, was released safely in Baghdad. In the town of Khalis, about 50 miles (80km) northeast of Baghdad, a bomb killed 7 pilgrims taking part in a procession to commemorate the death of a Shiite revered saint.
    (AP, 12/30/09)(Reuters, 12/30/09)(SFC, 12/31/09, p.A3)

2009        Dan Cruickshank authored ďThe Secret History of Georgian London: How the Wages of Sin shaped the Capital."
    (Econ, 10/17/09, p.99)
2009        David Horspool authored ďThe English Rebel: "One Thousand Years of Trouble-Making from the Normans to the Nineties."
    (Econ, 8/8/09, p.73)
2009        The book ďIt's Our Turn to Eat," written by the veteran British journalist Michaela Wrong, was published in the UK. It is the story of whistleblower John Githongo's crusade against political corruption in Kenya. It portrays President Mwai Kibaki and his ethnic group, despite pledges to clean up one of the sleaziest bureaucracies in the world, as bent on making themselves rich and keeping power at all costs.
    (AP, 2/25/09)

2009        The English Defence League, an Islamophobic group, was formed in Luton by a solarium keeper (26) with the pseudonym Tommy Robinson. On October 13,  2013, Mr. Robinson that he and his right-hand man, Kevin Caroll, were quitting the EDL because it had been overrun by Nazi extremists.
    (Econ, 10/19/13, p.64)
2009        Britainís Home Office estimated that 300 major importers brought in drugs and passed them to some 30,000 wholesalers, who then passed them to some 70,000 street dealers.
    (Econ, 3/7/09, p.33)
2009        British animal rights activist Debbie Vincent became the public face of Stop Huntingdon Animal Cruelty (SHAC) after seven members of the group were jailed for a total of 50 years for their role in an animal rights campaign.
    (AFP, 4/17/14)

2010        Jan 1, In Britain the VAT returned to 17.5% after 13 months in which it was reduced to 15% to help combat the economic downturn.
    (Econ, 1/2/10, p.41)

2010        Jan 3, The US and Britain closed their embassies in Yemen in the face of al-Qaida threats, after both countries announced an increase in aid to the government to fight the terror group linked to the failed attempt to bomb a US airliner on Christmas.
    (AP, 1/3/10)

2010        Jan 4, Irish writer Colm Toibin was named novelist of the year in Britain's lucrative Costa Book Awards for his emigrant saga "Brooklyn."
    (AP, 1/4/10)

2010        Jan 6, In Britain unusually heavy snowfall stranded hundreds of motorists, disrupted trains and shut down schools and airports across the land as the country suffered through its longest cold snap in nearly 30 years.
    (AP, 1/6/10)

2010        Jan 7, Eurostar passengers faced further disruption after one of its high-speed trains got stuck for 2 hours in the Channel Tunnel again, weeks after a major breakdown due to the cold.
    (AFP, 1/7/10)

2010        Jan 8, Virgin Money, part of Richard Branson's Virgin empire, took big strides towards becoming a major retail bank able to compete in a battered sector seeking to recover from the financial crisis.
    (AFP, 1/8/10)
2010        Jan 8, The beleaguered Eurostar train service cancelled half of its trains between London and Paris because of freezing temperatures.
    (AP, 1/8/10)

2010        Jan 9, British media reported that Iris Robinson (60), the disgraced wife of Northern Ireland's leader, will step down as a lawmaker within days as pressure mounted on Peter Robinson and the province's shaky coalition government. The reported move follows the revelation that she had an adulterous relationship with a man nearly 40 years her junior, and allegations that she solicited tens of thousands of pounds (dollars) from businessmen to help the teenager launch a cafe. She was 58 at the time, and the man was 19.
    (AP, 1/9/10)
2010        Jan 9, Germans faced the cancellation of hundreds of flights as fresh snow blew in from the south, and Britons shivered through the country's longest cold snap in three decades as icy weather maintained its grip on Europe.
    (AP, 1/9/10)
2010        Jan 9, Afghan President Hamid Karzai presented a second slate of nominees to fill his Cabinet after parliament rejected 70 percent of his first picks. Afghan and NATO officials signed an agreement for NATO to hand over control of the prison at Bagram airbase near Kabul to Afghan authorities. A blast hit a convoy carrying a provincial council member from Wardak province, killing a bodyguard and wounding five others. Another explosion killed one policeman and wounded two in Kandahar. In southern Helmand province an explosion outside Nawa village killed a US Marine and Sunday Mirror journalist Rupert Hamer (39), a veteran war correspondent. Hamer became the first British journalist killed in the conflict. Photographer Philip Coburn (43) was seriously wounded.
    (AP, 1/9/10)(AFP, 1/9/10)(AP, 1/10/10)

2010        Jan 11, In Britain former Gurkha soldiers from Nepal lost a test case against Ministry of Defence over pension rights at the High Court in London.
    (AFP, 1/11/10)
2010        Jan 11, Indian PM Manmohan Singh laid out ambitious plans to make his country a global leader in solar power as he launched a government initiative to boost use of the technology. Andy Pag (35) was detained in the western state of Rajasthan for having an unlicensed satellite phone. He (Andrea Pagnacco) was ordered held for 14 days while police investigate whether he is a threat to national security. The London-based environmental campaigner was traveling around the world in a biofuel-driven bus. In March ordered to pay a fine for illegally using a satellite phone and became free to leave India 69 days after his arrest.
    (AFP, 1/11/10)(AP, 1/17/10)(AP, 3/21/10)

2010        Jan 12, The European Court of Human Rights condemned British anti-terror legislation allowing people to be searched by police without reasonable suspicion of wrongdoing.
    (AFP, 1/12/10)

2010        Jan 13, Heavy snow hit central London as a fresh whiteout covered much of the country, forcing airports to close as businesses counted the cost of the worst winter in decades.
    (AFP, 1/13/10)
2010        Jan 13, Britainís Huddersfield University launched an investigation after its students allegedly started an Internet craze for a Hitler drinking game. The original page on the social networking site had nearly 12,000 members but has now been shut down, although another similar page has since been set up.
    (AFP, 1/13/10)

2010        Jan 19, The British government said it will ban drinking contests in bars and force pub owners to offer patrons tap water in a bid to help tackle the countryís boozy culture.
    (AP, 1/19/10)
2010        Jan 19, British chocolate bar maker Cadbury melted into the arms of US giant Kraft in a multi-billion-dollar deal to create a world leader in food and confectionery that sparked fears of job losses.
    (AP, 1/19/10)
2010        Jan 19, Swiss bank Credit Suisse said that it would reduce bonuses paid to its top executives in London by about 30% in response to a tax announced last month by British authorities.
    (AP, 1/19/10)

2010        Jan 22, The British government raised its terror threat assessment from substantial to severe, suggesting an attack was "highly likely", ahead of international meetings on Yemen and Afghanistan in London next week.
    (AFP, 1/23/10)
2010        Jan 22, In Britain two brothers, ages 10 & 11, from the Yorkshire village of Edlington were convicted of torturing and sexually abusing two younger boys in an ordeal that one of them close to death.
    (Econ, 2/6/10, p.61)
2010        Jan 22, Sir Percy Cradock (86), the British diplomat who negotiated the terms for returning Hong Kong to Chinese rule, died. He was ambassador to Beijing in 1983 when Britain opened negotiations on the hand-over of Hong Kong. Britain gained an agreement on the principle of "one nation, two systems" which preserved some of Hong Kong's democratic and economic freedoms.
    (AP, 1/29/10)(Econ, 2/13/10, p.87)

2010        Jan 23, The British Department for Business Innovation and Skills halted the export of the ADE651 after a Jan 22 BBC Newsnight investigation challenged the claims of the company, ATSC. The broadcaster took the key aspects of the device to a laboratory, which concluded that a component intended to detect explosives contained technology used to prevent theft in stores. The government banned its export to Iraq and Afghanistan because of the risk that it could hurt British and allied forces.
    (AP, 1/23/10)

2010        Jan 25, The British and Irish governments launched a mission to save Northern Ireland's unraveling administration, a Catholic-Protestant coalition that the territory's 1998 peace accord intended would promote a lasting new era of nonviolent compromise.
    (AP, 1/25/10)

2010        Jan 26, The prime ministers of Britain and Ireland held a second day of talks with political parties in Northern Ireland as they struggled to keep the fractious Catholic-Protestant government there from collapsing.
    (AP, 1/26/10)
2010        Jan 26, British actress Joanna Lumley was named "Oldie of the Year" by the monthly Oldie magazine for campaigning for the rights of retired Nepalese Gurkha soldiers wanting to settle in Britain.
    (AP, 1/26/10)

2010        Jan 27, The prime ministers of Britain and Ireland presented a compromise plan to keep Northern Ireland's fractious politicians from breaking up their Catholic-Protestant government, but neither side accepted the deal.
    (AP, 1/27/10)
2010        Jan 27, In Britain world powers gathered in London for talks on how to tackle Al-Qaeda militants operating out of Yemen. The conference was called to help world powers chart a roadmap out of Afghanistan amid rising US and NATO casualties and falling public support.
    (AFP, 1/27/10)(AP, 1/28/10)

2010        Jan 28, In Britain world powers agreed on a timetable for the handover of security duties in Afghan provinces starting in late 2010. The 70 nations said Pres. Karzai had promised to crack down on corruption and said a summit in Kabul later this year would offer specific plans to bolster his faltering government.  The Afghan Taliban dismissed the London conference as a propaganda ploy and said the London summit will fail to produce results.
    (AP, 1/28/10)(AFP, 1/28/10)

2010        Jan 29, Former British PM Tony Blair said there had been no "covert" deal with then US president George W. Bush to invade Iraq in 2003, and robustly defended his decision to take Britain to war.
    (AFP, 1/29/10)

2010        Feb 3, "L'homme qui marche I" (Walking Man I), a 1961 life-size bronze statue of a man by Swiss artist Alberto Giacometti, smashed the world record for an art work at auction, selling in London for £65,001,250.
    (AFP, 2/4/10)
2010        Feb 3, Israel announced that British and American architects were named winners of its prestigious Wolf Prize. British architect David Chipperfield was recognized for overseeing the reconstruction of Berlin's Neues Museum in a building that had been abandoned since World War II. American architect Peter Eisenman designed the Holocaust Memorial in Berlin, inaugurated in 2005.
    (AP, 2/3/10)

2010        Feb 4, Britain's Treasury said it will rush through new legislation after a court ruled the way it freezes the bank accounts of suspected terrorists was unlawful. Britainís Supreme Court ruled last week that the asset-freezing system was unlawful.
    (AP, 2/4/10)

2010        Feb 5, Britainís chief prosecutor said 4 British lawmakers will face criminal charges and the prospect of jail for alleged shady accounting practices during Britain's 2009 expense claims scandal. A report issued a day earlier into the expense scandal ordered 392 current and former British legislators to repay a total of 1.12 million pounds ($1.7 million).
    (AP, 2/5/10)
2010        Feb 5, Defense giant BAE Systems said it had agreed to pay fines of nearly 288 million pounds settle charges brought by Britain's Serious Fraud Office and the US Department of Justice. The fines, 258 million pounds to the DoJ and 30 million pounds to the SFO, related to investigations into BAE deals with countries including Tanzania, the Czech Republic, Romania and South Africa.
    (AFP, 2/5/10)
2010        Feb 5, A breakthrough deal to save Northern Ireland's Catholic-Protestant government gave a new lease of life to an awkward partnership of former foes that still must overcome many obstacles to survive. The deal commits the Northern Ireland Assembly to elect a justice minister March 9 and Britain to transfer control of more than 20 criminal justice and law-enforcement agencies to Belfast on April 12.
    (AP, 2/5/10)
2010        Feb 5, British actor Ian Carmichael (89) died at his home in northern England. He appeared in a series of comedies for the Boulting Brothers including "Private's Progress," "Brothers in Law," "Lucky Jim" and "I'm All Right Jack." Later in his career he played the upper-class twit Bertie Wooster, and Dorothy L. Sayers suave detective Lord Peter Wimsey, in television series.
    (AP, 2/8/10)

2010        Feb 6, Sir John Dankworth (b.1927), British jazz artist, died in London. His film score credits included ďDarling" (1965), ďModesty Blaise" (1966) and the theme of televisionís ďThe Avengers" (1961-1969).
    (SFC, 2/8/10, p.C3)(http://www.imdb.com/title/tt0060708/)

2010        Feb 7, In Afghanistan 2 two British soldiers were killed by an explosion in Sangin in Helmand Province, taking the death toll in Afghanistan to 255 since 2001. This raised Britain's death toll to that of the Falklands war.
    (AFP, 2/8/10)

2010        Feb 8, Iran said it will cut ties with the British Museum because of the museum's failure to lend Tehran the Cyrus Cylinder, an ancient Babylonian artifact described as the world's earliest bill of rights.
    (AP, 2/8/10)

2010        Feb 11, British fashion designer Alexander McQueen (40) was found dead at his London home. McQueen received recognition from Queen Elizabeth II in 2003, when she made him a Commander of the British Empire for his fashion leadership. A Feb 17 coronerís report gave the cause of the fashion designer's death as asphyxiation and hanging.
    (AP, 2/11/10)(AP, 2/17/10)
2010        Feb 11, Christopher Grady (41) drove his car into the freezing into the River Avon in Evesham, Worcestershire, England, while his daughter was in the passenger seat. Gabrielle was trapped inside the submerged car for two hours and died three days later in hospital. His then six-year-old son Ryan Grady, survived after being rescued from the water by police. On March 18, 2011, Christopher Grady was convicted of murdering his daughter.
    (AFP, 3/18/11)

2010        Feb 14, British documentary filmmaker Paul Martin (55) was detained at a Gaza military tribunal where he was to testify on behalf of a local man accused of collaborating with Israel. Hamas officials said that he would detained for 15 days. Martin was released on March 11.
    (AP, 2/15/10)(AP, 3/11/10)
2010        Feb 14, British author Dick Francis (b.1920), a former jockey whose thrillers rode high in best-selling lists for decades, died at his Caribbean home in Grand Cayman. His first book was a 1957 autobiography titled ďThe sport of Queens." His first novel, ďDead Cert," came out in 1962 and was followed by 41 more.
    (AFP, 2/14/10)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Dick_Francis)(SFC, 2/15/10, p.C3)

2010        Feb 15, In London, England, a 33-year-old man was arrested after the body of a Saudi man (32) was discovered at the prestigious Landmark Hotel in the Marylebone area. The suspect claimed to be a member of the Saudi royal family. Prince Saud Bin Abdulaziz Bin Nasir Bin Abdulaziz Al Saud was soon charged for the killing of Bandar Abdullah Abdulaziz. On Oct 19 the prince was convicted of murder. Photographs of Abdulaziz stored on a mobile phone had shown that there was a "sexual element" to the abuse.
    (AFP, 2/17/10)(AP, 2/19/10)(AP, 10/19/10)
2010        Feb 15, British Airways said it would use low-carbon fuel to power part of its fleet from 2014 once Europe's first sustainable jet-fuel plant was built by US biofuels specialist Solena Group. A plant to be built in London will convert 500,000 tons of waste into 16 million gallons of green jet fuel annually.
    (AFP, 2/15/10)

2010        Feb 16, Argentinaís Pres. Cristina Fernandez issued a decree seeking to control all shipping to and from the Falkland Islands, escalating her fight with Britain over drilling for oil and gas in the South Atlantic.
    (SFC, 2/17/10, p.A2)
2010        Feb 16, Thailand officials said tests conducted by the government have found that British-made bomb detectors it bought for a total of $21 million have an accuracy rate of only 20 percent, but they will continue to be used.
    (AP, 2/16/10)

2010        Feb 18, London police released Ray Gosling, a veteran British TV reporter, on bail after he was arrested and questioned about claims he made on the air that he killed his lover who was dying of AIDS.
    (AP, 2/18/10)

2010        Feb 19, Two Muslim women were stopped from boarding a flight at Manchester airport  from Britain to Pakistan for refusing to go through new body scanners, citing religious and medical reasons.
    (AFP, 3/4/10)
2010        Feb 19, Lionel Jeffries (b.1926), British actor and film director, died. He played Grandpa Potts in the ďChitty Chitty Bang Bang" (1968). He wrote and directed the 1970 film ďThe Railway Children" adopted from the Edwardian childrenís book by E. Nesbit.
    (SSFC, 2/21/10, p.C11)

2010        Feb 21, The British public was introduced to what one political journalist has painted as the dark face as the country's prime minister: A man so whose rages were so damaging that the country's top bureaucrat had to intervene to comfort his distressed staff. The description, carried in book "The End of the Party," by The Observer journalist Andrew Rawnsley, was vigorously contested by Brown and his lieutenants.
    (AP, 2/21/10)

2010        Feb 22, Latin American and Caribbean nations backed Argentina's claim of sovereignty to the Falkland Islands in a growing dispute with Britain over plans to drill for oil off the islands in the Atlantic. British exploration company Desire Petroleum PLC said it started drilling for oil about 62 miles north of the disputed islands.
    (AP, 2/23/10)(SFC, 2/23/10, p.A2)

2010        Feb 25, Prosecutors in England and Wales received fresh guidelines on assisted suicide that reduce the likelihood of people facing criminal charges for helping ailing loved ones to die.
    (AFP, 2/25/10)

2010        Feb 26, London-listed Petra Diamonds sold a 507-carat diamond for $35.3 million, breaking a record as the highest price ever paid for a rough diamond.
    (Reuters, 2/26/10)

2010        Feb 25, Rajib Karim, a British Airways computer specialist, was arrested at his BA desk in Newcastle. On Feb 28, 2011, he was convicted after a trial at Woolwich crown Court in London of plotting with US-born extremist cleric Anwar al-Awlaki to blow up an airplane. He pleaded guilty to helping produce a terrorist group's video, fundraising and volunteering for terror abroad, but insisted he never planned an attack in Britain. On March 18, 2011, Karim was sentenced to 30 years in prison.
    (www.globaljihad.net/view_news.asp?id=1400)(AP, 2/28/11)(AP, 3/18/11)

2010        Mar 1, Daniel Houghton (25), a former MI6 spy, was arrested after British intelligence posed as the potential buyer of top secret files on intelligence gathering techniques. Prosecutor Piers Arnold later said Houghton, who is a dual Dutch and British national, is accused of copying top secret files from the domestic agency MI5 to CD and DVDs while working for the MI6 overseas intelligence service between September 2007 and May 2009. On Sep 3, 2010, Houghton was sentenced to one year in prison. He was expected to walk free as he has already spent 184 days in custody.
    (AP, 3/3/10)(AFP, 9/3/10)
2010        Mar 1, British insurer Prudential PLC said it will buy the Asian unit of bailed out American International Group Inc. in a deal worth $35.5 billion that will allow AIG to pay back some of the money it owes US taxpayers.
    (AP, 3/1/10)

2010        Mar 2, In London, England, Muhammad Tahir-ul-Qadri, a former Pakistani lawmaker and the leader of a global Muslim movement, issued a fatwa, or religious edict, that he calls an absolute condemnation of terrorism. The 600-page fatwa bans suicide bombing "without any excuses, any pretexts, or exceptions." The religious scholar is the founder of Minhaj-ul-Quran, a worldwide movement that promotes a nonpolitical, tolerant Islam.
    (AP, 3/2/10)
2010        Mar 2, The BBC volunteered to become smaller.
    (Econ, 3/6/10, p.74)

2010        Mar 3, A British judge ordered former Bosnian Vice President Ejup Ganic held in custody despite a request to release him while he challenges a Serbian demand that he be extradited for alleged war crimes. Ganic was arrested March 1 at Heathrow Airport after Serbia issued an arrest warrant accusing him of war crimes in connection with the 1992 deaths of Serbian troops in Bosnia.
    (AP, 3/3/10)
2010        Mar 3, Michael Foot (b.1913), British left-wing politician, died. He led the Labour party long before its media-friendly transformation under Tony Blair. He became Labour leader from 1980 to 1983, advocating left-wing policies like nuclear disarmament which led one colleague to call his 1983 election manifesto "the longest suicide note in history."
    (AFP, 3/3/10)

2010        Mar 4, A collection of 300 films capturing the final days of the British Empire in India and other parts of south Asia was released by the University of Cambridge. The free archive footage is available at www.s-asian.cam.ac.uk/films.html. The silent films, taken between 1911 and 1956, celebrate unique moments in history, from life after the Quetta earthquake of 1935 to the partition of India and Pakistan in 1947.
    (AFP, 3/4/10)
2010        Mar 4, In Pakistan robbers kidnapped Sahil Saeed, a five-year-old British boy, in the town of Jhelum, about 100 km (65 miles) south of Islamabad, demanding a ransom of 100,000 pounds, prompting his mother to make a tearful plea for the return of her boy. In the northwest an overnight gunbattle left 30 insurgents and one soldier dead in the Chamarkand area of the Mohmand tribal region. Sahil Saeed was released on March 16. Spanish police arrested 3 suspects in the kidnapping in Tarragona province. They were suspected of having traveled to another European city to collect ransom money.
    (AFP, 3/4/10)(SFC, 3/5/10, p.A2)(AFP, 3/16/10)(AP, 3/17/10)

2010        Mar 5, It was reported that the advocacy group Big Brother Watch found, through a series of Freedom of Information requests, that many local governments, called councils in Britain, are installing  microchips in trash cans distributed to households, but in most cases have not yet activated them ó in part because officials know the move would be unpopular. Proponents called it a bid to push recycling. Microchips were first fitted into some British trash bins eight years ago, and the debate over whether the state has the right to weigh or otherwise analyze residents' refuse has surfaced periodically since.
    (AP, 3/6/10)
2010        Mar 5, Dutch anti-Islam maverick Geert Wilders (46) took his cinematic assault on the Quran to Britain's House of Lords, sparking heated debate inside the building and angry protests outside. Wilders screened his 15-minute film "Fitna" to about 60 people, including a half-dozen peers, in a wood-paneled committee room in Parliament. The film associates the Quran with terrorism, homophobia and repression of women.
    (AP, 3/5/10)

2010        Mar 6, British PM Gordon Brown made a surprise visit to troops in Afghanistan.
    (AP, 3/6/10)

2010        Mar 7, Sir Kenneth Dover (89), a distinguished British historian of Greek culture, died. He gained wider fame by admitting his wish to kill a fellow historian Trevor Aston (d.1985). His books included commentaries on Thucydides, Theocritus and Aristophanes; "Ancient Greek Literature" (1980), "Greek and the Greeks" (1987), "The Greeks and Their Legacy" (1989), "Greek Popular Morality in the Times of Plato and Aristotle" (1994), "The Evolution of Greek Prose Style" (1997) and a popular history, "The Greeks" (1981) written in conjunction with a television series for the British Broadcasting Corp.
    (AP, 3/9/10)

2010        Mar 10, In London self-exiled Russian tycoon Boris Berezovsky won his libel case against RTR, a Kremlin-owned broadcaster, that aired allegations he masterminded the 2006 murder in London of former KGB renegade agent Alexander Litvinenko. RTR, which did not take part in the hearings, called the judgment illegal.
    (AP, 3/10/10)

2010        Mar 11, British bank HSBC said  information on 24,000 customers with Swiss accounts has been stolen, potentially exposing large numbers of international clients to prosecution by tax authorities in their home countries.
    (AP, 3/11/10)

2010        Mar 15, In Britain Louis Wainwright (18) and Nicholas Smith (19), both from Scunthorpe, were found dead at different addresses following a night out. They had both taken the drug mephedrone, sold online as plant food and also goes by the names meow meow, mcat and bubble. The deaths come a week after a secondary school in Leicestershire reported that 180 pupils had missed school after taking the drug, which can be bought for less than £10 a gram.
    (AFP, 3/17/10)

2010        Mar 18, Michael Daly (49), a former detective with Scotland Yard's drug squad, was sentenced to 22 years in prison for his role in a plot to smuggle hundreds of millions of dollars worth of cocaine into Ireland. Daly's plan was foiled when his boat ran out of fuel in rough seas and was shipwrecked off the Irish coast on July 2, 2007. Daly his co-conspirator Alan Wells, a former firefighter (57), have both admitted conspiring to supply to the drug. Wells was sentenced to 15 years.
    (AP, 3/18/10)

2010        Mar 19, In London last-ditch talks aimed at preventing a strike by some 12,000 British Airways (BA) cabin crew collapsed, leaving thousands of passengers facing chaos within hours.
    (AFP, 3/19/10)

2010        Mar 20, British Airways canceled more than 1,000 flights after its cabin crew launched a three-day strike, wreaking havoc on the plans of tens of thousands of passengers just before the busy spring holiday season. .
    (AP, 3/20/10)

2010        Mar 21, British Airways cabin crews walked off the job for a second day, upsetting travel plans for scores of customers, but the airline said its contingency plans were working well and more planes were taking off than expected.
    (AP, 3/21/10)

2010        Mar 22, British Airways cabin crew held a 3rd day of strike action, prolonging travel misery for thousands. A business group warned the action threatens Britain's global reputation.
    (AP, 3/22/10)

2010        Mar 23, Britain expelled an Israeli diplomat to rebuke Israel for its alleged use of forged British passports in the assassination of a Hamas operative in a suspected Mossad hit.
    (AP, 3/23/10)

2010        Mar 25, In London a teenager (15) was stabbed in front of commuters during the evening rush hour at Victoria station. Paramedics were unable to resuscitate the boy. 20 detainees (14 to 17) and were being questioned in connection with the incident.
    (AFP, 3/26/10)

2010        Mar 27, British Airways cabin crew launched a four-day strike, the second wave of action in a week as part of a bitter, long-running dispute over pay and conditions.
    (AFP, 3/27/10)

2010        Mar 28, British Airways cabin crew entered the second day of a four-day strike, bringing further travel disruption with no end in sight for a dispute that has become increasingly political.
    (AFP, 3/28/10)

2010        Mar 30, Britain's media watchdog, the Press Complaints Commission, upheld a complaint against a blog written by a journalist in what was its first-ever move to censure a newspaper or magazine over comments by a blogger. Former BBC journalist and commentator Rod Liddle was censured over a blog in which he said that young Afro-Caribbean men carried out the "overwhelming majority" of violent crime in London. The blog which was published in December on the website of right-wing weekly magazine The Spectator.
    (AFP, 3/30/10)
2010        Mar 30, Amnesty International said Europe had its first year without executions in 2009. But the London-based organization said the spell was recently broken by the execution of two men in Belarus.
    (AP, 3/30/10)

2010        Mar, British Grenadier Guardsman Daniel Crook stabbed Ghulam Nabi (10) while on a patrol in the Nad-e Ali district of southern Helmand province. In 2011 Crook was jailed for 18 months for bayoneting the boy. The boy's father said that he had received $800 (600 euros) in compensation but no apology.
    (AFP, 12/3/11)

2010        Apr 1, Britain said it will create the world's largest marine reserve by banning fishing around the Chagos Islands, a U.K.-owned archipelago in the Indian Ocean. The cluster of 55 islands is spread across about a quarter of a million square miles of ocean.
    (AP, 4/1/10)

2010        Apr 6, PM Gordon Brown announced that Britain will hold a national election on May 6. The bitterly contested race will be dominated by a recession-wracked economy and a sense that 13 years of Labour rule may be coming to an end.
    (AP, 4/6/10)

2010        Apr 8, The inaugural 3-day conference of the Institute for New Economic Thinking (INET) opened at Kingís College, Cambridge, England. The institute was sponsored by renowned investor  George Soros.
    (Econ, 4/17/10, p.86)

2010        Apr 15, British TV broadcast the countryís first live debate between leaders of its 3 main political parties.
    (Econ, 4/17/10, p.60)
2010        Apr 15, British airport operator BAA Ltd. said all flights at London's Heathrow Airport have been suspended for the rest of the day, causing travel chaos as ash clouds from Iceland's spewing volcano halted air traffic across Europe.
    (AP, 4/15/10)

2010        Apr 16, A German court convicted ultraconservative British Bishop Richard Williamson of incitement for denying the Holocaust in a television interview. The court ordered the Roman Catholic bishop  to pay a fine of euro10,000 ($13,544).
    (AP, 4/16/10)

2010        Apr 19, The chief of British Airways said test flights have proven that the blanket restrictions EU governments have imposed on flights because of volcanic ash are unnecessary. The airline industry said it has lost at least $1 billion due to five days of closed airports. A senior Western diplomat says several NATO F-16 fighters suffered engine damage after flying through the volcanic ash cloud covering large parts of Europe.
    (AP, 4/19/10)

2010        Apr 20, Airplanes gradually took to the skies after five days of being grounded by a volcanic ash cloud that has devastated European travel. Only limited flights were allowed to resume at some European airports and UK authorities said London airports would remained closed for at least another day due to new danger from the invisible ash cloud.
    (AP, 4/20/10)

2010        Apr 24, Angus Maddison (83), British economic historian and chiffrephile (a lover of figures) died. His life work included 20 books and 130 article plus 19 volumes that he edited or co-authored. 
    (Econ, 5/1/10, p.80)(Econ, 10/4/14, p.82)

2010        Apr 25, Kifah Hassan, chief executive of Iraqi Airways, had his passport seized and the plane he arrived on was impounded at Gatwick Airport in a long-running legal dispute with Kuwait Airways. The dispute dated back to Saddam Hussein's invasion of Kuwait  in 1990, when, according to the oil-rich emirate, 10 of its planes and aircraft parts were plundered after its airport was seized.
    (AFP, 4/30/10)

2010        Apr 27, British researchers reported that a single sigmoidoscopy between ages 55 and 64 can reduce deaths by at least 43%.
    (SFC, 4/28/10, p.A8)

2010        Apr, British treasure hunter Dave Crisp, using a metal detector, located some 52,500 Roman coins in a field in southwestern England.
    (AP, 7/8/10)

2010        May 3, Energy giant BP vowed to pay "all necessary and appropriate clean-up costs" from the US oil pollution disaster in the Gulf of Mexico. Oil has been spewing into the Gulf of Mexico since a deepwater oil rig operated by BP exploded and sank on April 20 killing 11 men.
    (AP, 5/3/10)

2010        May 4, British Petroleum said efforts to contain a giant oil leak in the Gulf of Mexico are costing nearly four million pounds a day. Winds pushed a giant slick towards fragile wetlands on the US coast as efforts intensified to bottle up a ruptured oil well causing the growing environmental disaster.
    (AFP, 5/4/10)

2010        May 5, Britain and Ireland grounded flights again after a fresh cloud of ash swept in from the Icelandic volcano which sparked unprecedented air travel chaos in Europe last month.
    (AFP, 5/5/10)

2010        May 6, Britain held national elections expected to deny all three major parties an outright majority, meaning the first so-called hung Parliament since 1974 is likely. David Cameron claimed the mantle of power after the Conservatives won the most seats in the election, though not enough to form a majority. Labour came in second, which for the first time since the 1970s produced no outright winner. Labour could still govern with the help of the Liberal Democrats.
    (AP, 5/6/10)(AP, 5/7/10)

2010        May 8, It was reported that Egyptian billionaire Mohamed Al Fayed has sold luxury London department store Harrods to Qatar Holding, the Gulf royal family's investment arm.
    (AFP, 5/8/10)

2010        May 11, Britainís PM Gordon Brown resigned ending 5 days of uncertainty after last week's general election left the country with no clear winner. Queen Elizabeth II named David Cameron (43) as the new prime minister.
    (AP, 5/12/10)(AFP, 5/12/10)

2010        May 12, Britain's first coalition government since 1945 unveiled its ministerial team on and said it would speed up efforts to cut the country's budget deficit as it emerges from a deep recession. A deal was struck between Cameronís Conservative party and the third-placed Liberal Democrats with Nick Clegg (43) to serve as deputy premier. The Conservatives became parliament's largest party after last week's election, but fell 20 seats short of an outright majority. With the LibDems, they will have a majority of 76 seats.
    (Reuters, 5/12/10)

2010        May 14, British lawmaker Stephen Timms (54), a member of Parliament for the constituency of East Ham and the former financial secretary to the Treasury, was stabbed by Roshonara Choudhry (21) during an advice session with his constituents. His injuries were not life-threatening and the women was arrested. Choudhry was convicted on Nov 2 of trying to murder Timms in retaliation for his support for the Iraq conflict. The next day she was sentenced to at least 15 years in prison.
    (AP, 5/15/10)(AP, 11/2/10)(AP, 11/3/10)

2010        May 15, British PM David Cameron and Afghan President Hamid Karzai agreed to strengthen ties between London and Kabul in the first meeting between the new British PM and a foreign leader.
    (AFP, 5/15/10)

2010        May 18, Britainís new chancellor George Osborne called for a freeze to the EU's 2011 budget, saying it was "unacceptable" for Brussels to demand a huge increase.
    (AFP, 5/18/10)
2010        May 18, Britain rebuffed a new appeal by Argentina to resume talks with London over the long-disputed Falklands Islands in the south Atlantic.
    (AFP, 5/18/10)
2010        May 18, Martin Smith (45) was flown back from Spain to Britain, the same day as the bodies of his children were found dead in the coastal resort of Lloret de Mar, Spain. His wife, Lianne Smith (43), was arrested on suspicion of the murder of his two children Rebecca (5) and Daniel (11 months). Lianne Smith was charged with murder on May 21.
    (AFP, 5/19/10)(AP, 5/21/10)

2010        May 19, Nick Clegg, Britain's new deputy leader, says he'll scrap an unpopular national identity card program, limit the retention of DNA samples and tightly regulate the use of closed circuit TV cameras in a sweeping civil liberties drive.
    (AP, 5/19/10)

2010        May 20, Supermarket chain Asda said that it is to sell cancer drugs at cost-price and called on its peers who make massive profits on the treatments to follow suit. The group, owned by US supermarket giant Wal-Mart, said its initiative follows the success of a similar scheme by Asda for in-vitro fertility (IVF) treatments.
    (AFP, 5/20/10)
2010        May 20, Britain's coalition government outlined a joint legislative program, promising support for the Afghanistan war, a new drive toward Middle East peace and a "close and frank" relationship with the United States.
    (AP, 5/20/10)

2010        May 23, Britain's Duchess of York Sarah Ferguson said she was "very sorry" for her lapse of judgment after she was recorded apparently offering to sell access to her ex-husband Prince Andrew in return for 500,000 pounds ($724,000).
    (AP, 5/23/10)

2010        May 24, Britain's new coalition government outlined more than 6 billion pounds ($8.7 billion) in spending cuts, including scaling back computer purchases, official cars for ministers and first-class air travel, but warned that these are only first steps toward slashing the nation's record budget deficit.
    (AP, 5/24/10)
2010        May 24, British Airways cabin crew started a five-day strike, throwing travel plans for thousands of passengers into disarray after last-ditch efforts to avert the action collapsed.
    (AP, 5/24/10)

2010        May 26, Vampire saga "Twilight" took home three prizes from the ITV1 awards at London's Royal Festival Hall. The "Twilight Saga: New Moon", the second in the series, was named best fantasy film, while its British star Robert Pattinson took the award for best performance.
    (AFP, 5/27/10)
2010        May 27, Danish container shipping and oil group A.P. Moller-Maersk A/S said it has sold its British supermarket chain Netto to Wal-Mart subsidiary Asda Stores Ltd. for 778 million pounds ($1.1 billion).
    (AP, 5/27/10)

2010        May 28, Stephen Griffiths (40), a British criminology student, described himself as "the crossbow cannibal" when he appeared in court to face charges that he murdered three prostitutes in northern England.
    (AP, 5/28/10)

2010        May 30, British Airways cabin crew started a fresh five-day strike with little sign of a breakthrough in the long-running dispute between their union and the airline.
    (AFP, 5/30/10)

2010        Jun 1, Christie Ibori-Ibie was found guilty by London's Southwark Crown Court on charges of aiding her brother James Ibori, the former governor of Delta state, who himself stands accused of siphoning nearly 300 million dollars of public funds in Nigeria.
    (AFP, 6/2/10)
2010        Jun 1, A court in Morocco sentenced Ibrahim Lee Murray (32), a cage fighter with British and Moroccan nationality, to 10 years in jail for Britain's biggest cash robbery carried out on Feb 22, 2006.
    (AFP, 6/2/10)

2010        Jun 2, BP Plc forged ahead with its latest effort to curb the flow of oil spewing into the Gulf of Mexico as the British energy giant's shares fell anew as the US government launched criminal and civil probes into the disaster.
    (Reuters, 6/2/10)
2010        Jun 2, In northwestern England Derrick Bird (52), a taxi driver described as quiet but friendly, went on a shooting spree across a picturesque rural area, killing 12 people, including his twin brother, and wounding 11 before apparently turning the gun on himself.
    (AP, 6/2/10)(AP, 6/3/10)(AP, 6/5/10)

2010        Jun 3, Britain's financial regulator said it had slapped a record £33.32 million fine on a unit of US banking giant JP Morgan for having failed to properly protect client money over a period of seven years.
    (AFP, 6/3/10)
2010        Jun 3, The European Commission announced it has sent a final warning to Britain over its failure to comply with EU air quality rules, due to the levels of dangerous airborne particles in London and Gibraltar.
    (AFP, 6/3/10)
2010        Jun 3, Roz Savage (42), a British environmentalist, became the first woman to row solo across the Pacific Ocean as she landed in Madang, Papua New guinea. She covered nearly 7,000 miles in three separate legs beginning May 25, 2008, when she departed from San Francisco.
    (SFC, 6/4/10, p.C3)(AP, 6/5/10)

2010        Jun 8, Britainís state-owned bank Northern Rock said that it plans to cut up to 650 jobs by the end of 2010 as part of an ongoing restructuring process after a government bailout.
    (AP, 6/8/10)
2010        Jun 8, Britainís Anglican Communion suspended US Episcopalians from serving on ecumenical bodies because of the election of lesbian Rev. Canon Mary Glasspool as an assistant bishop in Los Angeles on June 5.
    (SFC, 6/9/10, p.A2)

2010        Jun 10, Britainís PM David Cameron made his first official visit to Afghanistan, ruling out the prospect of sending extra forces and calling for quicker progress to bring troops home.
    (AFP, 6/10/10)
2010        Jun 10, BP shares fell in London as US politicians pressed the British oil company to halt its dividend payments and fork out greater compensation for American workers and companies devastated by the massive Gulf of Mexico oil spill.
    (AP, 6/10/10)

2010        Jun 11, A Credit Suisse analyst, briefed by BPís Chief of Staff, said in a research note that BP expects the total bill for the clean up of the Gulf of Mexico oil spill to be $3-6 billion.
    (Reuters, 6/11/10)
2010        Jun 11, Norman Macrae, deputy editor of The Economist (1965-1988), died.
    (Econ, 6/19/10, p.88)

2010        Jun 12, Food critic Egon Ronay (b.1915), whose eponymous restaurant guides helped Britain embrace fine dining after years of postwar austerity, died. Ronay left communist Hungary for Britain in 1946 and began writing about food for The Daily Telegraph newspaper. In 1957 he produced the first Egon Ronay Guide to British restaurants, modeled on France's Michelin guides.
    (AP, 6/12/10)

2010        Jun 13, The London School of Economics issued new research report saying Pakistan's main spy agency continues to arm and train the Taliban and is even represented on the group's leadership council despite US pressure to sever ties and billions in aid to combat the militants.
    (AP, 6/13/10)
2010        Jun 13, The London-based Mo Ibrahim Foundation said that for the second year in a row its $5 million annual prize for good governance in Africa will not be awarded.
    (AP, 6/13/10)

2010        Jun 14, Britainís new Office of Budget Responsibility (OBR) put the deficit for the financial year to March 2011 at £155 billion ($299 billion), or 10.5% of GDP.
    (Econ, 6/19/10, p.57)

2010        Jun 15, An epic 12-year investigation into Northern Ireland's biggest mass killing by British soldiers reached a bittersweet climax as relatives of the 13 Catholic demonstrators killed on "Bloody Sunday" began reading a 5,000-page report into why the 1972 slaughter happened. The probe ruled that British soldiers were entirely to blame for the killings.
    (AP, 6/15/10)(SFC, 6/16/10, p.A2)

2010        Jun 21,  The US White House slapped BP with a new 51-million-dollar bill, the third sent to the British energy giant and its partners for government expenses incurred in efforts to halt the Gulf of Mexico oil spill. BP revealed it has so far spent two billion dollars on the Gulf of Mexico oil spill, after an internal BP document suggested the gusher might be spewing far faster than initially feared.
    (AFP, 6/21/10)

2010        Jun 22, Britain announced the toughest cuts to public spending in decades and new tax rises in an emergency budget aimed at sharply reducing the country's record debts.
    (AP, 6/22/10)
2010        Jun 22, Britain, France and Germany committed to levying a fee on banks to shield taxpayers from the cost of resolving financial crises and said they would ask other countries to join them.
    (AP, 6/22/10)
2010        Jun 22, In Britain an 1878 self-portrait by Edouard Manet sold for 22.4 million pounds at Sotheby's auction house in London, setting a new record for a work by the master impressionist.
    (AFP, 6/22/10)

2010        Jun 23, British Foreign Secretary William Hague pledged to deepen strategic relations with Pakistan as he paid his first visit to Islamabad since the new government in London took power.
    (AFP, 6/23/10)
2010        Jun 23, Embattled BP CEO Tony Hayward handed over the handling of the Gulf of Mexico oil spill to Bob Dudley (54), an American executive brought up in Mississippi, one of the states affected by the disaster.
    (AP, 6/23/10)

2010        Jun 26, Britainís newspaper, The Times, reported that the country's new government intends to impose a temporary limit on the number of foreign workers from outside the European Union it allows into the country.
    (AP, 6/26/10)

2010        Jun 28, The British Home Office unveiled plans to limit the numbers coming to live and work in the country for the first time, cutting visas for skilled non-EU migrants by five percent.
    (AP, 6/28/10)

2010        Jun 30, The British the Supreme Court ruled that British troops are not protected by human rights laws on the battlefield, after the government argued that such protection could hamper military decision-making.
    (AFP, 6/30/10)

2010        Jul 3, The British government said it has ordered many ministries to plan for spending cuts of up to 40%, far greater than announced in an emergency budget. As Britain bid to slash a record budget deficit, departments had been warned to expect spending cuts of about 25%, but many ministries have now been asked to identify where cuts of 40% could be made.
    (AFP, 7/3/10)
2010        Jul 3, In Northumbria, England, Raoul Moat (37), a nightclub bouncer and bodybuilder, seriously injured a policeman and his ex-girlfriend and killed her new partner in and around Newcastle, before apparently fleeing to the nearby Northumbria National Park. One of Britain's biggest ever manhunts ended dramatically on July 10 when Raoul Moat shot himself dead after a six-hour stand-off with armed police.
    (AP, 7/9/10)(AP, 7/10/10)

2010        Jul 4, In Northumbria, England, Raoul Moat (37), a nightclub bouncer and bodybuilder, shot policeman David Rathband as he sat in his patrol car in Newcastle. Rathband lost his sight and was fitted with prosthetic eyes. On Feb 31, 2012, Rathband (44) was found dead at his home.
    (AP, 7/9/10)(AP, 7/10/10)(AFP, 3/1/12)
2010        Jul 4, In London Rafael Nadal  reclaimed his Wimbledon title. The match lasted just two hours and 13 minutes before being concluded 6-3 7-5 6-4.
    (AP, 7/4/10)

2010        Jul 6, Britain's Queen Elizabeth (84) addressed the UN for the first time since1957. The queen's 10-minute speech to a special session of the General Assembly was finished before Netherlands and Uruguay returned to their soccer match in Cape Town. Netherlands progressed to the finals after beating Uruguay 3-2.
    (Reuters, 7/6/10)
2010        Jul 6, Britain said it will hold a judge-led inquiry into allegations that its spies were complicit in the torture of terror suspects held by the US and other allies. The government also announced it will pay compensation to detainees found to have been mistreated in the global pursuit of terrorists after the Sept. 11 attacks.
    (AP, 7/6/10)
2010        Jul 6, Britainís Guardian newspaper, citing unnamed political sources, said British troops will turn over responsibility for one of the deadliest districts in southern Afghanistan to Americans in a reconfiguration of NATO-led forces in the area, and that Britain would soon withdraw its 1,000 soldiers from the Sangin district of Helmand province, where they would be replaced by US troops who now outnumber them in Helmand. Britainís Defense Secretary Liam Fox confirmed the announcement the next day.
    (Reuters, 7/6/10)(AFP, 7/7/10)

2010        Jul 7, Police in northeast England detained Abid Naseer (24), the alleged ringleader of an al-Qaida bomb plot, at the request of the US  government. He was among 12 people arrested last year in raids across northern England. All were released without charge.
    (AP, 7/7/10)
2010        Jul 7, In Britain scientists at a top research unit embroiled in a row over climate research were cleared of dishonesty, but their lack of openness was criticized. The Independent Climate Change Email Review found nothing in the emails to undermine reports from the United Nations' climate change panel.
    (AFP, 7/7/10)

2010        Jul 8, A British court in London convicted Ibrahim Savant, Arafat Waheed Khan and Waheed Zaman of conspiracy to murder in a case linked to a 2006 plot to blow up transatlantic jet planes.
    (AFP, 7/8/10)

2010        Jul 10, One of Britain's biggest ever manhunts ended dramatically when Raoul Moat shot himself dead after a six-hour stand-off with armed police in Rothbury, Northumberland.
    (AP, 7/9/10)(AP, 7/10/10)(AFP, 3/1/12)

2010        Jul 12, Britain sentenced conspirators Ibrahim Savant (29), Arafat Waheed Khan (29), and Waheed Zaman (26) to at least 20 years each in prison, bringing a long-running legal saga to an end. They were part of a 2006 plot to bomb trans-Atlantic airliners and kill thousands of people. A total of 9 conspirators have been convicted in the plot.
    (AP, 7/12/10)(SFC, 7/13/10, p.A3)
2010        Jul 12, The Church of England national assembly decided that women should be allowed to become bishops, making only minor concessions to theological conservatives who have threatened to break away over the issue.
    (AP, 7/12/10)

2010        Jul 14, British Airways and Iberia won the EU's regulatory approval to merge and to team up with American Airlines to share more of their lucrative trans-Atlantic routes.
    (AP, 7/14/10)

2010        Jul 18, In England plane manufacturers, airlines, government ministers and military top brass gathered for the Farnborough International Airshow amid hopes that the two-year downturn in the aviation and defense industry is nearing a bottom.
    (AP, 7/18/10)

2010        Jul 19, In England Boeing Co. and Airbus announced new orders worth almost $13 billion at the start of the Farnborough International Airshow, raising hopes that the aviation industry is on the way back up after a dire two-year slump.
    (AP, 7/19/10)

2010        Jul 26, Campaign group Global Witness said it was launching legal action against the British government for allegedly failing to refer companies trading Congolese "conflict minerals" for UN sanctions.
    (AFP, 7/26/10)
2010        Jul 26, The British culture department announced plans to abolish the UK Film Council, a body responsible for funding 900 British films since it was set up in 2000.
    (AFP, 7/27/10)

2010        Jul 27, British PM David Cameron visited Turkey, saying the world needs Turkey's help in pushing Iran to address concerns about its nuclear program and harshly criticizing Israel's raid on a Gaza-bound flotilla that killed nine Turkish activists.
    (AP, 7/27/10)

2010        Jul 28, British PM David Cameron kicked off a much-hyped visit to India, pitching for investment and open trade to boost Britain's fragile post-recession recovery.
    (AP, 7/28/10)
2010        Jul 28, British authorities found a suspect package "at a premises on Albert Embankment," the location of Britain's foreign intelligence agency. Another device was intercepted at a postal sorting office. Two men, aged 52 and 21, were later arrested in Wales on explosives charges and were being held on Aug 1 at a London police station.
    (AP, 8/1/10)

2010        Jul, London, England, launched a bicycle-hire scheme with 5,000 bikes scattered around hundreds of docking stations in the center of the city.
    (Econ, 1/8/11, p.57)
2010        Jul, In Derby, England, a group of Muslim men handed out leaflets calling for homosexuals to be "punished" and given the death sentence outside and near the Jamia Mosque in Rosehill Street. They also put the leaflets through people's letterboxes in the neighborhood. In 2012 Ihjaz Ali (42), Mehboob Hussain (45), Umar Javed (38), Razwan Javed (27), and Kabir Ahmed (28), are accused of stirring up hatred on the grounds of sexual orientation, denied the charges.
    (AFP, 1/10/12)

2010        Aug 1, British Chancellor of the Exchequer George Osborne told the country's banks they must use their first-half profits to start lending to businesses again.
    (AFP, 8/1/10)

2010        Aug 3, British MPs of Pakistani origin hit out at President Asif Ali Zardari, saying he should be back home sorting out the flooding disaster rather than launching his son's career.
    (AFP, 8/3/10)
2010        Aug 3, British oil giant BP said it will sell its Colombian business for a total of 1.9 billion dollars (1.4 billion euros) to national oil company Ecopetrol and Talisman of Canada.
    (AFP, 8/3/10)

2010        Aug 6, Britain and Pakistan agreed to do more together to fight Islamist militancy, brushing aside a diplomatic spat that followed British criticism of Pakistani efforts to counter extremism. Visiting Pakistan's Pres. President Asif Ali Zardari held official talks with PM David Cameron, roughly a week after the British leader ignited a diplomatic row by accusing Pakistan of exporting terrorism during a trip to the country's nuclear rival, India.
    (Reuters, 8/6/10)(AP, 8/6/10)

2010        Aug 11, Researchers reported that plastic surgery patients have carried a new class of superbugs resistant to almost all antibiotics from South Asia to Britain and they could spread worldwide. This so-called NDM-1 gene was first identified last year by Cardiff University's Timothy Walsh in two types of bacteria, Klebsiella pneumoniae and Escherichia coli, in a Swedish patient admitted to hospital in India.
    (AFP, 8/11/10)

2010        Aug 12, Leicester City, the English Championship soccer club, announced that a consortium led by Thai businessman Aiyawatt Raksriaksorn has bought the organization.
    (AFP, 8/12/10)

2010        Aug 17, The ďGreat British Bake Off" (GBBO), a British television baking competition produced by Love Productions, began airing on BBC Two.
    (https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/The_Great_British_Bake_Off)(Econ, 9/2/17, p.74)
2010        Aug 17, British retiree Christopher Tappin (63) insisted he is the innocent victim of entrapment by US customs agents. American authorities accuse him of plotting to sell missile components to Iran in a deal exposed in an undercover sting. Tappin told reporters at a news conference in London he had been duped by the customs agents, had no contacts with Iran and had stood to make only $500 from his role in the deal.
    (AP, 8/17/10)
2010        Aug 17, A new British report said police detected more than 6,800 cannabis farms and factories in the UK in the last 12 months, more than double the number found in 2007-2008.
    (AFP, 8/17/10)

2010        Aug 18, Anglo-Australian mining giant BHP Billiton launched an enormous hostile takeover bid for Canada's Potash Corp which values the world's largest fertilizer producer at 40 billion dollars.
    (AP, 8/18/10)

2010        Aug 20, BHP Billiton Group announced commencement of all cash-offer to acquire Potash Corp. for $130 per share. On Nov 3 Canada blocked the Anglo-Australian mining giantís $39 billion bid. The deal would have cost Saskatchewan an estimated C$200m a year in tax revenues.
    (Reuters, 8/20/10)(Reuters, 11/3/10)(Econ, 11/6/10, p.50)

2010        Aug 20, Charles Haddon, the lead singer of the British electro-pop group Ou Est Le Swimming Pool, committed suicide after performing at a rock festival in Belgium.
    (AFP, 8/21/10)

2010        Aug 23, Gareth Williams (31), an employee of code-breaking agency GCHQ, was found dead at a flat near the agency's headquarters in the upmarket Pimlico area of London. His naked and decomposing body was found inside a padlocked sports bag. Williams was working on attachment for Britain's Secret Intelligence Service MI6 when he died. In 2012 a coroner concluded at an inquest that another person was probably involved in Williams's death.
    (Reuters, 8/25/10)(AP, 2/15/11)(AP, 3/30/12)(AFP, 11/13/13)

2010        Aug 25, Cosan, Brazilís biggest sugar and ethanol producer, signed a $12 billion joint venture with Royal Dutch Shell.
    (Econ, 9/4/10, p.41)

2010        Aug 26, Asil Nadir (69), a Turkish Cypriot businessman, returned to London to face charges of fraud. He had fled Britain almost two decades ago following the spectacular collapse of his business empire. Nadir fled the country in May of 1993, four months before he was scheduled to face trial.
    (AP, 8/26/10)

2010        Aug 27, British researchers said they have decoded the genetic sequence of wheat.
    (SFC, 8/28/10, p.A2)

2010        Aug 28, In Britain 13 men were arrested in the ethnically-mixed city of Bradford as a far-right, anti-Islamist group clashed with anti-fascist demonstrators in the streets.
    (AFP, 8/28/10)

2010        Aug 29, In Britain 2 men and a woman were arrested in connection with allegations that Pakistani cricket players were involved in a betting scam.
    (AFP, 8/31/10)

2010        Aug 31, British aid group Oxfam said it had suspended operations in a northern Afghan region after two employees and a local volunteer were killed there on Aug 28.
    (Reuters, 8/31/10)(AP, 9/1/10)

2010        Aug, Cairn Energy, a British petrochemicals company, announced the discovery of worthwhile oil deposits off the coast of Greenland. Its licensed acreage was estimated to hold some 4 billion barrels of oil.
    (Econ, 8/28/10, p.43)

2010        Sep 2, The London Times published extracts of a new book by the eminent British theoretical physicist Stephen Hawking in which he argues that  God did not create the universe and the "Big Bang" was an inevitable consequence of the laws of physics. "The Grand Design" was co-authored with US physicist Leonard Mlodinow.
    (Reuters, 9/3/10)

2010        Sep 3, Britain and France announced they are talking about sharing the cost of military aircraft programs, but rejected reports that they plan to merge their aircraft carrier fleets.
    (AFP, 9/3/10)
2010        Sep 3, In southern England cellist Mike Edwards (62), a founding member of the Electric Light Orchestra (ELO) band, died after the 600 kg (1,323 lb) bale rolled down a steep field in Devon, smashed through a hedge and careered on to the road.
    (Reuters, 9/7/10)

2010        Sep 4, British tax collectors said a new computer system has revealed that almost 6 million people have paid the wrong amount of income tax, and 1.4 million will be told to repay an average of 1,500 pounds ($2,300) each.
    (AP, 9/4/10)

2010        Sep 5, Afghanistan's Taliban said they would attempt to disrupt the Sep 18 elections and warned Afghans to boycott the vote, the first explicit threat against the poll by the hardline Islamists. A British soldier was killed by an exploding grenade. The death takes to 333 the British death toll in Afghanistan since 2001. Afghan journalist Sayed Hamid Noori was found outside his Kabul home covered in stab wounds. Noori had once been an anchor for state television and a newspaper editor. More recently, he held a leadership position in Afghanistan's Association of Independent Journalists and teacher of young journalists.
    (Reuters, 9/5/10)(AFP, 9/5/10)(AP, 9/6/10)

2010        Sep 6, A British judge sentenced a Church of England minister to four years in jail for his part in a sham-marriage scam which saw hundreds of African men marry European women so they could stay in Britain.
    (AP, 9/6/10)

2010        Sep 7, Strikes hobbled public transit in London and across France, forcing tourists and commuters to alter their plans as they bore the brunt of a wave of discontent over government cost-cutting measures, a wave expected to soon prompt walkouts elsewhere on the continent. Some 1.2-2.7 million people in France took to the streets for the one-day strike.
    (AP, 9/7/10)(Econ, 9/11/10, p.31)

2010        Sep 8, British mobile phone giant Vodafone lost a legal appeal against an Indian tax bill estimated at $2.0 billion relating to the group's 2007 purchase of local group Hutchison Essar.
    (AFP, 9/8/10)
2010        Sep 8, Michael Lassen (61), English stained-glass artist, died in a hospital after falling from a ladder on Sep 3, while working on a widow at the Durham cathedral.
    (Econ, 10/9/10, p.124)

2010        Sep 9, British legislators authorized a sweeping inquiry into illicit snooping on politicians and celebrities by tabloids, as one lawmaker called for media tycoon Rupert Murdoch to testify over allegations one of his newspapers illegally hacked into cell phones.
    (AP, 9/9/10)

2010        Sep 13, British trade unions voted overwhelmingly to back rare coordinated strikes as they were urged to "stand up and fight" government austerity cuts at their congress.
    (AFP, 9/13/10)

2010        Sep 14, The British embassy said Britain has offered to build 11 warships for Brazil, as Brazil hones a maritime defense contract to protect recently found vast offshore oil deposits.
    (AFP, 9/15/10)

2010        Sep 16, In Britain Imran Farooq (50), a founding member of Pakistan's Muttahida Qaumi Movement (MQM), a major political force in Karachi, was found with head injuries and stab wounds outside his home in north London. On Dec 9 British police arrested a 34-year-old man on suspicion of murdering Farooq. On Aug 27, 2014, British police arrested another man (30) in connection with the 2010 murder.
    (AFP, 9/17/10)(AFP, 12/9/10)(AP, 8/27/14)
2010        Sep 16, Pope Benedict XVI, arrived in Edinburgh beginning a controversial visit to Britain. He acknowledged that the Catholic Church had failed to act decisively or quickly enough to deal with priests who rape and molest children. He said the church's top priority now was to help the victims heal.
    (AP, 9/16/10)

2010        Sep 17, Bat Khurts, a key figure in Mongolia's National Security Council, was detained as he flew into London's Heathrow airport, for allegedly abducting a Mongolian murder suspect in 2003. On Feb 18, 2011, a British judge ruled that Khurts can be extradited to Germany.
    (AFP, 2/18/11)

2010        Sep 18, In Britain Pope Benedict XVI said he was ashamed of the "unspeakable" sexual abuse of children by priests, issuing an apology to the British faithful even as thousands of people opposed to his visit marched in central London in the biggest protest of his five-year papacy.
    (AP, 9/18/10)

2010        Sep 19, In Britain Pope Benedict XVI beatified Cardinal John Henry Newman at an open-air Mass and marked the 70th anniversary of the Battle of Britain with a personal reflection on the evil of the Nazi regime, praising those who "courageously" resisted it.
    (AP, 9/19/10)

2010        Sep 21, Greenpeace said that its activists have climbed aboard a Chevron-operated ship to protest drilling operations in the deep waters off Britain's Shetland Islands.
    (AP, 9/21/10)

2010        Sep 23, Britain opened the world's largest offshore wind farm off its southeast coast, as part of a government's push to boost renewable energy.
    (AP, 9/23/10)

2010        Sep 25, In Britain Ed Miliband (40) narrowly defeated brother David, the 45-year-old ex-foreign secretary, in a Labour Party leadership contest, winning a slender majority of 1.3 percent of votes. On Sep 29 former foreign secretary David Miliband said he was quitting front-line politics in the U.K. after losing to his younger brother in a battle for the leadership of the country's main opposition Labour Party.
    (AP, 9/26/10)(AP, 9/29/10)

2010        Sep 26, British businessman James Heselden (62), who last year bought the company that makes the two-wheeled Segway personal transporter, died in an accident on one of the vehicles in the River Wharfe near Boston Spa. He had made a fortune through his firm Hesco Bastion which developed a system replacing sand bags to protect troops.
    (AP, 9/27/10)

2010        Sep 28, A Scotland Yardís special crimes unit arrested 19 people suspected of draining millions of dollars from British banks by hacking into customersí accounts.
    (SFC, 9/30/10, p.A2)

2010        Sep 29, Security sources and media reports said Western intelligence agencies have uncovered an Al-Qaeda plot to launch attacks in Britain, France and Germany by extremists based in Pakistan.
    (AFP, 9/29/10)

2010        Sep 30, US federal prosecutors said over 50 people have been charged in intíl. schemes that used computer viruses to steal millions of dollars from bank accounts in the US and England. The cyberattacks included malware known as the ďZeus Trojan."
    (SFC, 10/1/10, p.A8)

2010        Sep, The FBI and its counterparts in Ukraine, the Netherlands and Britain took down a cyber-theft ring they first got wind of in May 2009 when a financial services firm tipped the bureau's Omaha, Neb., office to suspicious transactions. Since then, the FBI's Operation Trident Breach has uncovered losses of $14 million and counting.
    (AP, 11/22/10)

2010        Oct 1, In Britain most provisions of the 2010 Equality Act took effect, including a measure to stop pay secrecy clauses being used to hide unfair differences between men and women's pay. But 10 percent of the legislation, which was passed by Parliament in April, will be left out, while the government reviews certain sections of it.
    (AFP, 10/1/10)

2010        Oct 2, Britainís Druids hailed a semi-governmental Charity Commissionís decision to grant it charitable status just like mainstream religions such as the Church of England. The Druid Network, a group of about 350 Druids, will receive exemptions from taxes on donations.
    (AP, 10/2/10)

2010        Oct 3, The US and Britain warned their citizens of an increased risk of terrorist attacks in Europe, with Washington saying al Qaeda might target transport infrastructure.
    (Reuters, 10/3/10)

2010        Oct 4, Britainís treasury chief George Osborne said payments to jobless families will be capped and child benefits for high earners scrapped in a sweeping overhaul of the country's welfare system.
    (AP, 10/4/10)
2010        Oct 4, Millions of commuters in London endured a grim journey to work after staff on the Underground network walked out for the second time in a month, sparking calls for tougher strike laws.
    (AFP, 10/4/10)

2010        Oct 5, Two Russian-born scientists shared the Nobel Prize in physics for groundbreaking experiments with ultrathin carbon. In 2004 University of Manchester professors Andre Geim and Konstantin Novoselov used Scotch tape to isolate graphene, a form of carbon only one atom thick but more than 100 times stronger than steel, and showed it has exceptional properties, the strongest and thinnest material known to mankind.
    (AP, 10/5/10)(Econ, 12/5/15, TQ p.9)

2010        Oct 6, American Airlines, British Airways and Iberia launched their transatlantic joint business, unveiling new routes and detailing benefits for customers that include a shared frequent flyers program.
    (AP, 10/6/10)

2010        Oct 6, In Britain Halima Bashir (30), a doctor who says she was gang-raped in 2004 by Sudanese soldiers after speaking out about atrocities in Darfur, won the Anna Politkovskaya award for women human rights defenders. She wrote about her experiences in her memoir, "Tears of the Desert" (2008).
    (Reuters, 10/6/10)

2010        Oct 7, Researchers at Londonís Kew Gardens said they have discovered that the Paris japonica has a genetic code 50 times longer than that of a human being. To date this was the longest genome discovered.
    (SFC, 10/8/10, p.A2)

2010        Oct 8, Organizers said a ticket-holder in Britain has won a record 129 million euros (181 million dollars) on the Euromillions lottery, although nobody has yet come forward to claim the prize. The Euromillions lottery, launched in 2004, is now played by nine countries across western Europe.
    (AFP, 10/9/10)
2010        Oct 8, In northern Afghanistan Kunduz provincial governor Mohammad Omar and at least 19 other people were killed by a massive bomb blast inside a packed mosque during Friday prayers in Takhar province. NATO helicopters killed six Afghan militiamen in eastern Khost province. An insurgent attack killed a NATO service member and two others died in separate roadside bombings in the south. Armed men burst into a mosque and shot dead religious scholar Molvi Mohammad during Friday prayers in Kandahar city. Linda Norgrove (36) a British aid worker was killed during a botched US rescue raid. She had been abducted at gunpoint on Sep 26. A rescue team was closing in on the house where Norgrove was being held when a grenade was thrown into the room where she was kept, killing her. Troops opened fire and killed all the captors. An investigation over her death confirmed that a grenade thrown by US forces had killed Norgrove.
    (AP, 10/8/10)(AFP, 10/9/10)(AFP, 10/11/10)(AP, 12/2/10)

2010        Oct 11, Queen Elizabeth named a new British cruise ship the Queen Elizabeth. British monarchs have launched seven merchant ships bearing royal names since the Queen Mary in 1934. The newest vessel is the third named Queen Elizabeth.
    (AP, 10/11/10)

2010        Oct 13, Britain's Lloyds Banking Group said that it will axe another 4,500 jobs, including 1,750 posts outside the UK, as the crisis-hit lender continues its painful restructuring.
    (AFP, 10/13/10)

2010        Oct 14, British actor Simon MacCorkindale (58), who starred on British television in "Casualty" and in the United States in "Falcon Crest," died in London of bowel cancer. His film roles include the murderer Simon Doyle in "Death on the Nile" in 1977 and as Philip FitzRoyce in "Jaws 3-D" ("Jaws III").
    (AP, 10/16/10)

2010        Oct 18, A new British government strategy was published saying International terrorism and cyber attacks pose the biggest threat to national security, ahead of a major shake-up of the defense budget.
    (AFP, 10/18/10)

2010        Oct 19, Britain will lose thousands of troops, build new aircraft carriers, without new fighter jets, and delay a multibillion pound upgrade to its nuclear deterrent under sweeping defense cuts announced following the first major military review in more than a decade.
    (AP, 10/19/10)
2010        Oct 19, European Union finance ministers sealed a deal to regulate the trillion-dollar hedge fund industry after Britain and France settled a long-running conflict.
    (AFP, 10/19/10)
2010        Oct 19, Deutsch Bahnís high-speed train, ICE-3, became the first German train to pass through the Channel tunnel on its way to Londonís St Pancras station.
    (Econ, 10/23/10, p.77)

2010        Oct 20, Britainís treasury chief George Osborne announced 81 billion pounds ($128 billion) in spending cuts through 2015, which will ax welfare payments, savage government services and see as many as half a million public sector jobs lost.
    (AP, 10/21/10)
2010        Oct 20, British Justice David Bean sentenced Prince Saud Abdulaziz bin Nasser Al Saud  to a life sentence without the possibility of parole for 20 years for the brutal assault at the Landmark Hotel in London on Feb 15.
    (AP, 10/20/10)
2010        Oct 20, Britain's Supreme Court ruled in favor of German heiress Katrin Radmacher (40), seeking to protect her considerable fortune from her ex-husband Nicolas Granatino (39). The decision gave new strength to prenuptial agreements in England.
    (AP, 10/20/10)

2010        Oct 21, In Britain the Privileges and Conduct Committee of the House of Lords suspended Pola Uddin, Swraj Paul and Amirali Bhatia after declaring they did not act in good faith in filing their expense claims. They were ordered to repay amounts ranging from 27,000 pounds ($45,000) to just over 125,000 pounds ($197,000).
    (AP, 10/21/10)

2010        Oct 22, A British judge sentenced James Robinson (73), a former Roman Catholic priest, to 21 years in jail after he was convicted of 21 charges of sexual offenses against boys. Ordained in 1971, he was accused of abusing boys from 1959 to 1983.
    (AP, 10/22/10)
2010        Oct 22, A nuclear-powered British submarine, the HMS Astute, was grounded in an accident off the coast of Scotland. Officials said the incident was not serious and no one was injured.
    (AP, 10/22/10)

2010        Oct 29, Britainís PM David Cameron claimed that the days of "crazy" European Union spending are finished after a deal to keep Brussels in line with reduced national budgets.
    (AFP, 10/29/10)
2010        Oct 29, Authorities on 3 continents thwarted attacks when they seized explosives on cargo planes in the United Arab Emirates and England. The plot sent tremors throughout the US, where after a frenzied day searching planes and parcel trucks for other explosives, officials temporarily banned all new cargo from Yemen. The next day police in Dubai said that the bomb discovered there contained the powerful explosive PETN and bore the hallmarks of al-Qaida. One of the two powerful bombs mailed from Yemen to Chicago-area synagogues traveled on two passenger planes within the Middle East. A tip of the plot came from Jabir al-Fayfi, a Saudi who was held for years at the US military prison at Guantanamo Bay. On Nov 5 al Qaeda's Yemen-based wing claimed responsibility for the explosive parcels.
    (AP, 10/30/10)(AP, 10/31/10)(AP, 11/2/10)(Reuters, 11/5/10)

2010        Nov 1, Britain's BG Group announced it will spend 15 billion US dollars on a liquefied natural gas (LNG) project in Australia, an investment Canberra hailed as a boost for the national economy.
    (AFP, 11/1/10)
2010        Nov 1, British scientists said alcohol is a more dangerous drug than both crack and heroin when the combined harms to the user and to others are assessed.
    (Reuters, 11/1/10)

2010        Nov 2, BP lifted its estimate of the likely cost of its Gulf of Mexico oil spill to $40 billion, denting profits, but its underlying performance beat all expectations on higher refining margins and a lower tax rate.
    (Reuters, 11/2/10)
2010        Nov 2, Britain and France vowed to work hand-in-glove as their leaders ushered in an unprecedented era of defense cooperation by agreeing to create a joint force and share nuclear test facilities.
    (AP, 11/2/10)
2010        Nov 2, Reprieve, a London-based legal advocacy group opposed to the death penalty, filed suit to try to prevent a British company from exporting a drug that could be used in the execution of an American inmate.
    (AP, 11/2/10)

2010        Nov 3, Israel suspended a special strategic dialogue with London as long as Israeli officials visiting Britain face possible arrest for suspected war crimes against Palestinians. The two countries announced the dialogue two years ago to boost relations. But Israel put them on hold at the beginning of the year after former Foreign Minister Tzipi Livni canceled a trip to London for fear of arrest.
    (AP, 11/3/10)

2010        Nov 4, British Foreign Secretary William Hague pledged that Britain would act fast to amend a law that puts visiting Israeli officials at risk of arrest for alleged war crimes.
    (AFP, 11/4/10)
2010        Nov 4, The Bank of England voted to keep its key interest rate at a record low 0.50 percent and opted against following in the footsteps of the US Federal Reserve with fresh stimulus measures.
    (AFP, 11/4/10)

2010        Nov 5, Britain began a 3-day hearing on Iraqi civilian claims of abuse. Lawyers for 222 Iraqi civilians were suing the British government, claiming their clients were subjected to a regime of systematic abuse by British soldiers and interrogators, and that their only realistic remedy is a far-reaching public investigation into how the U.K. treated its captives in Iraq.
    (AP, 11/5/10)
2010        Nov 5, The British government said it has sold the right to run the rail line from London to the Channel Tunnel to a Canadian consortium for 2.1 billion pounds.
    (AFP, 11/5/10)

2010        Nov 6, BBC reporters planned further strikes after a two-day walkout over pension changes successfully disrupted the broadcaster's TV and radio programs.
    (AP, 11/6/10)

2010        Nov 8, Britainís PM David Cameron departed for a 2-day trip to China. He brought along 4 cabinet ministers and 50 businessmen. Cameron hoped to double trade with China over the next five years.
    (Econ, 11/13/10, p.65)
2010        Nov 8, Five Church of England bishops announced they are converting to Catholicism following an invitation to disaffected Anglicans from Pope Benedict XVI, the highest-profile defectors among conservatives opposed to gay bishops and female clergy.
    (AP, 11/8/10)

2010        Nov 9, Londoners Tom Freeman (26) and Katherine Doyle (26), after having their application to form a civil partnership rejected by officials at their local town hall in Islington, north London, said they will go to court to win the right. They were being backed by gay rights activists, who hope a ruling that allows straight couples the right to a civil partnership would mean, in turn, that gay couples have the right to wed.
    (AP, 11/9/10)
2010        Nov 9, Turkeyís Pres. Abdullah Gul received this yearís Chatham House prize from Britainís queen.
    (Econ, 11/13/10, p.60)

2010        Nov 10, Some 52,000 people marched noisily through London to oppose plans to triple university tuition fees, in the largest street protest yet against the government's sweeping austerity measures.
    (AP, 11/10/10)(SSFC, 11/14/10, p.A4)

2010        Nov 11, The British government unveiled plans to stop handouts for up to three years to jobless who refuse work, in the biggest shake-up in the history of the welfare state, a day after violent protests rocked London.
    (AFP, 11/11/10)
2010        Nov 11, In Britain an 18th-century Chinese porcelain vase, sold by a family clearing out a deceased relative's house in a suburb of London, went to a Chinese buyer for 51.6 million pounds ($83 million), more than 40 times the pre-sale estimate and a record for a Chinese work of art. The price included 20% in fees.
    (AP, 11/12/10)

2010        Nov 12, British detectives investigating the 2009 theft of nearly 300 brightly colored stuffed birds from the Natural History Museum in Tring arrested Edwin Rist (22), a US citizen.
    (AP, 11/15/10)

2010        Nov 13, In South Africa Anni Dewani (28), a British tourist, was found dead after being abducted by armed men in Cape Town just days after she and her new British husband, Shrien Dewani, arrived for a holiday. By Nov 18 two suspects, both 26, were arrested. A 3rd suspect (31) was arrested on Nov 20. On Dec 7 a court heard allegations that her husband had connived with a taxi driver to stage a robbery and have his wife shot dead.
    (AFP, 11/14/10)(AP, 11/18/10)(AP, 11/21/10)(AFP, 12/7/10)

2010        Nov 16, It was reported that Britain has agreed to pay hefty settlements to a group of former Guantanamo Bay detainees who sued the government for alleged complicity in their torture, one of the first big pay-outs stemming from the US-led war on terrorism.
    (AP, 11/16/10)
2010        Nov 16, In Argentina the SRZero electric sports car, developed by engineers from Imperial College London, arrived in Ushuaia, Tierra del Fuego, ending a 70-day, 16,000 mile journey that began on July 3 at Chena Hot Springs, Alaska. It managed as much as 6 hours and over 250 miles on a single charge.
    (SFC, 11/18/10, p.A19)

2010        Nov 17, British officers in Sunningdale, near Ascot, stopped a van after a tip-off, causing four men inside to try to escape. Police arrested them before searching the vehicle, when they found a man wrapped in bags in the back. He had been tortured and soon died.
    (AP, 11/18/10)

2010        Nov 24, In Britain a student mob attacked a police van in central London as violence marred a second mass protest in the last fortnight against the government's plans to triple university fees.
    (AFP, 11/24/10)
2010        Nov 24, Emirati (UAR) leaders prepared a lavish welcome for Britain's Queen Elizabeth II, who is making her first state visit in more than 30 years to a country with deep British ties.
    (AP, 11/24/10)

2010        Nov 25, British PM David Cameron defended a new index aimed at measuring the population's social and environmental wellbeing rather than just its wealth.
    (AFP, 11/25/10)
2010        Nov 25, Bernard Matthews (80), Britainís largest turkey processor, died. He began in 1950 with an investment in 20 eggs. In 1953 he bought a derelict country house, Great Witchingham Hall, where he and his wife, Joyce, raised turkeys in all but one of the 36 rooms. It is still the company headquarters.
    (AP, 11/26/10)

2010        Nov 27, The British government said it is paying for more than 1,000 medical staff to work in Haiti as part of an aid package worth more than 5.6 million pounds to help combat a deadly cholera outbreak there.
    (AFP, 11/27/10)

2010        Nov 28, BP said it has agreed to sell its 60 percent stake in Pan American Energy to Argentina-based oil and gas firm Bridas Corporation, as part of asset sales to pay for the Gulf of Mexico oil spill.
    (AFP, 11/28/10)

2010        Nov 29, The British government said it has issued an order to control the export of a sedative used to execute death-row prisoners in the US. Exporters will now be required to prove drugs will be used for legitimate medical reasons, not execution.
    (AP, 11/29/10)
2010        Nov 29, British pay-TV giant BSkyB and Abu Dhabi Media Investment Corp. said they will launch a free-to-air Arabic language news channel under a joint venture.
    (AFP, 11/29/10)

2010        Nov 30, British students held a third day of protests over plans to triple university tuition fees, with police urging them to avoid the violence that marked earlier demonstrations. Police arrested 153 people as over 1,000 students took to the streets of London.
    (AFP, 11/30/10)(SFC, 12/1/10, p.A2)

2010        Dec 2, Heavy snow caused travel chaos across much of northern Europe, keeping London's Gatwick airport closed for a second day and disrupting road and rail travel in France, Germany and Switzerland. Freezing temperatures and often blinding snowfall killed 12 people, 10 in Poland and 2 in Germany. Poland had already reported 8 dead due to the cold. Some of the worst floods in a century devastated parts of the Balkans. Authorities declared a state of emergency in Bosnia, Serbia and Montenegro.
    (Reuters, 12/2/10)(AP, 12/2/10)

2010        Dec 3, Former British Labor MP David Chaytor (61) pleaded guilty to fraud charges, becoming the first politician to be convicted over his expenses claims.
    (AP, 12/3/10)
2010        Dec 3, British forecasters issued warnings of widespread ice and hazardous conditions lasting well into the weekend as the country's cold snap tightened its grip and three more deaths were reported.
    (AFP, 12/3/10)

2010        Dec 5, Mike Hancock (64), a member of the British House of Commons Defense Committee, and the European Security and Defense Assembly of the Western EU, said that his Russian assistant, Katia Zatuliveter (25), is facing deportation as a suspected spy. On Nov 29, 2011, a special immigration tribunal ruled that Zatuliveter can remain in Britain because she does not pose a threat to national security.
    (AP, 12/5/10)(AP, 11/29/11)

2010        Dec 6, British researchers said they may have found a way to reverse damage in the central nervous system caused by multiple sclerosis, in a study hailed by campaigners as a major breakthrough.
    (AFP, 12/6/10)

2010        Dec 7, WikiLeaks' founder Julian Assange was remanded in custody until December 14 by a London court after he said he would fight extradition to Sweden where he faces rape allegations.
    (AFP, 12/7/10)
2010        Dec 7, John James Audubon's "Birds of America," a rare blend of art, natural history and craftsmanship, sold for more than $10.27 million at a London auction, making it the world's most expensive book.
    (AP, 12/7/10)

2010        Dec 9, Heavy British police presence held off angry student protesters marching to London's Parliament Square as lawmakers debated a controversial plan to triple university tuition fees in England. Protesters attacked a Rolls Royce carrying Prince Charles and wife Camilla Parker-Bowles, as they drove through Londonís West End. The couple were not hurt.
    (AP, 12/9/10)(SFC, 12/10/10, p.A6)
2010        Dec 9, Englandís Glastonbury Holy Thorn Tree, venerated for centuries by Christians, was chopped down overnight after a sprig from the tree was cut off in a ceremony so it could be given to Queen Elizabeth II to decorate her Christmas table. Religious tradition holds that the original tree was planted by St. Joseph of Arimathea, the wealthy merchant who volunteered his tomb to Jesus, after he first made landfall in England some 2,000 years ago.
    (AP, 12/10/10)

2010        Dec 15, British-based explorer Tullow Oil PLC led a consortium and started producing 55,000 barrels per day from rigs off Ghana's Atlantic Ocean coast in the Jubilee Field, which was discovered three years ago and holds an estimated 1.8 billion barrels of oil.
    (AP, 12/14/10)

2010        Dec 16, London's High Court upheld a decision to release WikiLeaks founder Julian Assange, under strict conditions, as he fought extradition to Sweden over alleged sex crimes.
    (AP, 12/16/10)

2010        Dec 17, British landscape architect Joanna Yeates (25) went missing following a night out. Her body was found in the Failand area of Bristol on Christmas Day. She had been strangled. On Jan 20, 2011, Dutch engineer Vincent Tabak (32) was detained after police uncovered fresh evidence. On Oct 28 Tabak was found guilty of murder.
    (AFP, 1/4/11)(AFP, 1/22/11)(Reuters, 10/28/11)

2010        Dec 18, Fresh snow brought much of Britain to a standstill, on what is traditionally the busiest weekend for shopping and travel in the run-up to Christmas. Blizzards and freezing temperatures shut down runways, train tracks and highways across Europe.
    (Reuters, 12/18/10)(AP, 12/18/10)
2010        Dec 18, Andrew Lindo (29) strangled, battered and stabbed Marie Stewart to death while their children were asleep, at their home in Holmfirth, West Yorkshire. Hours later, he took the two children to collect his lover, Angela Rylance (30), spending the night with her in the bedroom where he had carried out the brutal murder. On Sep 21 a judge ordered that Lindo serve a minimum of 22 years behind bars.
    (AFP, 9/21/11)(www.bbc.co.uk/news/uk-england-leeds-14842805)

2010        Dec 20, British police arrested a dozen men suspected of plotting a large-scale terror attack, the biggest anti-terrorist sweep since April 2009, when 12 men were detained over an alleged al-Qaida bomb plot in the northern city of Manchester.
    (AP, 12/20/10)

2010        Dec 21, British man Stephen Griffiths (40), who called himself the "Crossbow Cannibal," was sentenced to life in prison after pleading guilty to killing three prostitutes. Griffiths admitted murdering Suzanne Blamires (36), Shelley Armitage (31) and Susan Rushworth (43), who all worked as prostitutes near his home in Bradford.
    (AP, 12/21/10)

2010        Dec 25, In London Kristy Bamu (15) died after days of abuses in a Congolese exorcism ritual by his sister Magalie (29) and her partner, football coach Eric Bikubi (28). Bikubi and Magalie were found guilty of murder in 2012. Bikubi was sentenced to at least 30 years in prison and Bamu a minimum of 25 years.
    (AFP, 3/5/12)

2010        Dec 26, Londonís Underground drivers went on a 24-hour strike in a dispute over holiday pay. Members of the Aslef trade union voted to walk out after transport chiefs refused their demand for triple pay and a day off for working on December 26, the day after Christmas being a national holiday in Britain.
    (AP, 12/26/10)

2010        Dec 31, Britain said it no longer recognized the ambassador appointed by Ivory Coast strongman Laurent Gbagbo who is refusing to step down after elections widely viewed as having been won by his rival Alassane Ouattara. Britain said it would give support at the UN for the use of force to oust Ivory Coast's incumbent president Laurent Gbagbo if West African nations sought backing for a military intervention.
    (AFP, 12/31/10)(Reuters, 12/31/10)

2010        Richard Aldrich authored ďGCHQ: The Uncensored Story of Britainís Most Secret Intelligence Agency."
    (Econ, 7/10/10, p.80)
2010        Tom Bingham, British jurist, authored ďThe Rule of Law."
    (Econ, 2/13/10, p.84)
2010        Tony Blair, former British prime minister, authored his memoir ďA Journey."
    (Econ, 9/4/10, p.60)
2010        Douglas Hurd (b.1930), former British foreign secretary (1989-1995), authored ďChoose Your Weapons: The British Foreign secretary, 200 Years of Argument, Success and Failure."
    (Econ, 3/20/10, p.93)
2010        Neil MacGregor authored ďA History of the World in 100 Objects." This followed his BBC radio series of the same title.
    (Econ, 11/6/10, p.106)
2010        Britainís Behavioral Insights Team (BIT) was set up to help policymakers change behavior through nudges rather than taxes or laws. BIT was spun out of the government in  2014, and became partly owned by the Cabinet Office, employees and Nesta, an innovation foundation.
    (Econ 5/20/17, p.51)

2010        Marine biologists predicted that Scotlandís Firth of Clyde was about to become Britainís first ecological desert. This was based on historic catch data in the area.
    (Econ, 8/31/13, p.50)

2011        Jan 1, In England rioting inmates caused heavy damage to Ford open prison, smashing windows and setting fires that engulfed buildings and spewed clouds of black smoke.
    (AP, 1/1/10)

2011        Jan 2, British actor Pete Postlethwaite (b.1946) died following a lengthy illness. He had earned an Oscar nomination for his role in "In the Name of the Father" (1994).
    (AP, 1/3/11)

2011        Jan 3, Ed Miliband, Britainís Labor leader, warned that the VAT rise from 17.5% to 20% will cost families £7.50 from January 4, and put 250,000 jobs at risk.
    (AFP, 1/3/11)

2011        Jan 4, Mick Karn (52), bass player in the 1980s group Japan, died in London. Karn, born in Cyprus as Andonis Michaelides, was co-founder of Japan along with David Sylvian and Steve Jansen. The group's 1982 album, "Tin Drum," included a hit song, "Ghosts."
    (AP, 1/5/11)

2011        Jan 7, Former British legislator David Chaytor (61) was jailed over the country's lawmakers' expense check scandal, becoming the first person to be imprisoned following the damaging affair which dented public trust in politics. Chaytor had held a House of Commons seat in the northern England town of Bury from 1997 to 2010. He was suspended by the Labour Party in 2009, and stepped down as a lawmaker ahead of a national election last May.
    (AP, 1/7/11)

2011        Jan 9, Chinese Vice Premier Li Keqiang kicked off a business-focused state visit to Britain with the sealing of a renewable energy deal between Scottish and Chinese companies.
    (AFP, 1/9/11)
2011        Jan 9, British film director Peter Yates (b.1929) died in London. His films included ďBullitt" (1968) and ďBreaking Away" (1979).
    (SFC, 1/11/11, p.C4)

2011        Jan 10, John Gross (b.1935) English literary critic, author, and anthologist, died. His work included the book: ďThe Rise and Fall of the Man of Letters" (1969).
    (Econ, 1/29/11, p.85)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/John_Gross)

2011        Jan 11, British lawmaker Eric Illsley (55) admitted dishonestly claiming more than 14,000 pounds (16,800 euros, 21,800 dollars) in expenses, becoming the first sitting MP to face jail over parliamentary allowances. Illsley confirmed the next day that he planned to stand down within the next month.
    (AFP, 1/11/11)(AP, 1/12/11)

2011        Jan 14, BP and Russian state-run firm Rosneft unveiled an agreement to swap shares and launch a joint venture to exploit the Arctic's vast untouched energy resources. BPís share in Rosneft would increase to 10.8% and Rosneft would get 5% of BP.
    (AFP, 1/15/11)(Econ, 1/22/11, p.74)

2011        Jan 15, Three former Church of England bishops who are opposed to the consecration of women bishops were ordained as Roman Catholic priests, the first traditionalist Anglicans to take up an offer by Pope Benedict.
    (Reuters, 1/15/11)
2011        Jan 15, British actress Susannah York (72), one of the leading stars of British and Hollywood films in the late 1960s and early 1970s, died in London. She received an Oscar nomination in 1970 for her role in "They Shoot Horses, Don't They?" and also appeared in the classic "A Man For All Seasons" before going on to play Christopher Reeve's biological mother in the Superman series of movies.
    (AP, 1/16/11)

2011        Jan 17, British drugs firm GlaxoSmithKline said it expects to be hit by a total legal charge of £2.2 billion linked to its former blockbuster diabetes product Avandia, sparking a sharp drop in its shares.
    (AFP, 1/17/11)

2011        Jan 26, The British government said it would water down controversial measures allowing it to hold terror suspects under virtual house arrest, after a widespread review of counter-terrorism laws.
    (AFP, 1/26/11)
2011        Jan 26, BBC world Service said that it would close 5 of its 32 language services, including its Russian language radio broadcasts, and reduce its work force by about a quarter, or up to 650 jobs.
    (SFC, 1/27/11, p.A2)(Econ, 1/29/11, p.55)
2011        Jan 26, Environmental groups accused Anglo-Dutch oil giant Shell of destroying lives and the environment in the Niger Delta, and urged Dutch MPs to intervene as the company defended its record.
    (AFP, 1/26/11)

2011        Jan 27, Britain's Times newspaper reported that Iranís state-run news channel Press TV has had its British bank account frozen. The English language channel, which is headquartered in Tehran but also has an office in London, has seen its main trading account at the National Westminster Bank suspended.
    (AFP, 1/27/11)

2011        Jan 28, British-based Vodafone said the Egyptian government has ordered all mobile telephone operators to suspend services "in selected areas" of the country. Egypt's four primary Internet providers, Link Egypt, Vodafone/Raya, Telecom Egypt, Etisalat Misr, and all went dark at 12:34 a.m.
    (AP, 1/28/11)

2011        Feb 1, BP reported its first annual loss in almost two decades, as a result of the Gulf of Mexico oil spill disaster, and outlined plans to shift its focus away from the United States. BP also announced it is resuming dividend payouts for the first time since the Gulf of Mexico well disaster.
    (AP, 2/1/11)
2011        Feb 1, Derek Rawcliffe (89), the first Church of England bishop to be open about his homosexuality, died. Rawcliffe disclosed his homosexuality on television in 1995, when he was serving as an honorary bishop in Ripon and Leeds diocese. He was dismissed the following year for conducting blessings of same-sex couples.
    (AP, 2/11/11)

2011        Feb 2, British investment banker Christian Littlewood (37) was sentenced to 40 months in prison for insider trading. He pleaded guilty to eight counts of insider dealing after a Financial Services Authority (FSA) investigation. His wife and co-conspirator Angie Littlewood was given a 12-month suspended sentence.
    (Econ, 10/15/11, p.83)(http://tinyurl.com/6jxggd2)

2011        Feb 3, British lawmakers demanded an explanation into why 1.85 million pounds ($2.99 million) of foreign aid money helped pay for the pope's visit to the U.K. last year.
    (AP, 2/3/11)
2011        Feb 3, Allison Cox, a former nanny employed by the boss of a chain of British sex shops, pleaded guilty to spiking her employer's soup with windshield washer fluid. She admitted contaminating Jacqueline Gold's food in an attempt to get the household's chef in trouble.
    (AP, 2/3/11)

2011        Feb 5, British PM David Cameron, in a speech to the Munich Security Conference, condemned Britain's long-standing policy of multiculturalism as a failure, calling for better integration of young Muslims to combat home-grown extremism. He also said Europe must stamp out intolerance of Western values within its own Muslim communities and far-right groups if it is to defeat the roots of terrorism.
    (AFP, 2/5/11)
2011        Feb 5, J. Paul Getty III (b.1956), grandson of oil magnate J. Paul Getty, died in England following a long illness. He had lost an ear to kidnappers in Rome in 1973 and suffered a devastating stroke in his twenties that left him severely impaired and in a wheelchair for the rest of his life.
    (SFC, 2/9/11, p.A4)

2011        Feb 7, Britainís Guardian newspaper reported that scientists in Britain have successfully tested a vaccine which could work against all known flu strains.
    (AFP, 2/7/11)

2011        Feb 8, Guy Savage (42), owner of Nashville-based Sabre Defense Industries LLC, was detained in London after armed officers shot out the tires of his Mercedes. He was wanted by US authorities investigating illegal weapons trading between 2003 and 2009.
    (AP, 2/15/11)(http://tinyurl.com/5v44er3)

2011        Feb 9, The British government said it has struck a deal with the country's top banks to curb bonus payments and boost lending to businesses as it seeks to draw a line under a crisis that culminated in a multibillion pound (dollar) state bailout of the sector.
    (AP, 2/9/11)
2011        Feb 9, The London Stock Exchange agreed to buy Canada's stock market operator TMX, while Germany's Deutsche Boerse was in talks to buy NYSE Euronext, signaling that exchanges globally are looking to consolidate.
    (Reuters, 2/9/11)

2011        Feb 11, A British court approved the extradition to the US of retired British businessman Christopher Tappin, a man who allegedly plotted to sell missile components to Iran. US authorities say Tappin offered in 2006 to sell five specialized batteries for Hawk missiles for $25,000, not knowing that his contacts were undercover US agents instead of Iranians.
    (AP, 2/11/11)

2011        Feb 15, The London-based Gulf Dialogue Forum said intense contacts are under way among Saudi activists and scholars to form a political party in the oil-rich absolute monarchy. The online forum said the National Saudi Party advocates establishing a civil democratic government because of the recent turmoil in Tunisia and Egypt.
    (AP, 2/15/11)

2011        Feb 17, Britain's government said gay couples are to be allowed civil partnership ceremonies in churches, erasing some of the last remaining distinctions between gay partnerships and traditional marriages.
    (AP, 2/17/11)
2011        Feb 17, Cyber crime costs the British economy some 27 billion pounds ($43.5 billion) a year and appears to be "endemic," according to the 1st official government estimate of the issue.
    (Reuters, 2/17/11)
2011        Feb 17, Analysts of the British research firm, Capital Economics, wrote that the government of Venezuela could default on its obligations in 2012.
    (Econ, 2/26/11, p.43)

2011        Feb 21, British detectives named the country's 10 most wanted fugitives who have bolted to the "Costa del Crime", fleeing the urban ganglands for the Spanish sunshine.
    (AFP, 2/21/11)
2011        Feb 21, British energy giant BP and India's Reliance Industries announced a massive investment deal which could be worth up to $20 billion with later investment in key Indian oil and gas assets.
    (AFP, 2/21/11)
2011        Feb 21, British-based Diageo announced the takeover of Mey Icki, Turkeyís largest maker of raki, an aniseed drink, for $2.1 billion.
    (Econ, 3/5/11, p.70)
2011        Feb 21, Egypt asked Britain for its support in seeking debt forgiveness from Europe, in the latest push to boost an economy bruised by weeks of protests that toppled Pres. Mubarak. Egypt owed the EU member states about $9 billion. According to central bank figures the country's total foreign debt stood at about $34.7 billion as of the end of September 2011.
    (AP, 2/22/11)

2011        Feb 23, Britain said separating couples will be ordered to try mediation to resolve disputes over their break up before heading to court, in a move aimed at reducing the number of people who end up embroiled in costly divorce battles.
    (AP, 2/23/11)

2011        Feb 24, A British judge ruled that WikiLeaks founder Julian Assange (39), who rocked the US government by publishing thousands of secret diplomatic memos, must be extradited to Sweden to face sex crimes allegations.
    (Reuters, 2/24/11)
2011        Feb 24, A British specialist ice cream parlor planned to serve up breast milk ice cream and says people should think of it as an organic, free-range treat. The breast milk concoction, called the "Baby Gaga" ($23 per serving), will be available from Feb 25 at the Icecreamists restaurant in London's Covent Garden.
    (Reuters, 2/24/11)

2011        Feb 27, Britainís Sunday Times reported that Hong Kong tycoon Li Ka-shing is set to clinch the acquisition of a power distribution business in a deal which would see him control half of Britain's electricity network.
    (AFP, 2/27/11)
2011        Feb 27, Britain froze the assets of Libyan leader Moamer Kadhafi in the country. The Daily Telegraph reported that the liquid assets amount to about £20 billion.
    (AFP, 3/4/11)

2011        Mar 2, Britain seized £100 million ($160 million, 117 million euros) of Libyan currency found on a Libya-bound ship after escorting the vessel to an English port.
    (AFP, 3/4/11)

2011        Mar 3, Britain released 35 previously classified files documenting sightings of UFOs, unidentified flying objects, by the military and members of the public dating back to the 1950s.
    (Reuters, 3/4/11)

2011        Mar 7, Palestinian president Mahmud Abbas travelled to Britain for a one-day visit to discuss the stalled peace process with Israel.
    (AFP, 3/7/11)

2011        Mar 10, British public sector workers were informed that their pensions would become less generous.
    (Econ, 3/12/11, p.66)
2011        Mar 10, The Natural History Museum in London said that it has agreed to return 138 sets of skeletal remains of indigenous people to Australia, in what it hailed as a new approach to the delicate subject of repatriation.
    (AFP, 3/10/11)

2011        Mar 13, Broadway import "Legally Blonde The Musical," based on the 2001 Reese Witherspoon film, picked up this yearís Olivier Award for Best New Musical, in the Society of London Theatre's prize-giving ceremony at the Theatre Royal Drury Lane.
    (AFP, 3/14/11)

2011        Mar 18, In India 2 British men were sentenced to six years in jail in India for sodomizing young boys living at the Anchorage Shelter Home in Mumbai. Charges against Duncan Grant and John Allan Waters were originally filed in 2001.
    (AFP, 3/18/11)

2011        Mar 19, British office worker Sian O'Callaghan (22) went missing. She has not been seen since leaving Suju nightclub in Swindon. Her mobile phone was active in the Savernake Forest, near Malborough, just 34 minutes after she left the nightclub.
    (AP, 3/23/11)

2011        Mar 20, Britain said its air and sea strikes on Libya had been "very successful" and stressed it was doing everything it could to avoid civilian casualties as it enforces a UN-sanctioned no-fly zone. at least seven demolished tanks smoldered in a field 12 miles (20 km) south of Benghazi, many of them with their turrets and treads blown off. Turkey was blocking NATO action, which requires agreement by all 28 members of the alliance.
    (AFP, 3/20/11)(AP, 3/21/11)

2011        Mar 22, The British government said it would opt in a European Union directive on human trafficking, days after the country saw its first case of "modern-day slavery" involving a woman trafficked from Tanzania.
    (AFP, 3/22/11)

2011        Mar 24, In London Delroy Grant (53) a former British taxi driver dubbed the "Night Stalker", was found guilty of preying on 18 men and women over a 17-year period. Grant had preyed on the elderly for nearly two decades and may have assaulted scores of victims. On March 25 Grant was sentenced to at least 27 years in prison.
    (AP, 3/24/11)(AP, 3/25/11)

2011        Mar 26, Some 250,000 Britons marched through London in a demonstration against the government's austerity measures, amid a heavy police presence that failed to stop outbreaks of violence. More than 200 people were arrested. Rioters went on the rampage after the rally, attacking police and smashing up shops in a night of violence.
    (AP, 3/26/11)(AFP, 3/27/11)

2011        Mar 30, Britain said it has expelled five Libyan diplomats loyal to Moammar Gadhafi's regime because of their intimidation of opposition supporters and their potential threat to the UK's national security.
    (AP, 3/30/11)
2011        Mar 30, US officials revealed that the CIA has sent small teams of operatives into rebel-held eastern Libya while the White House debates whether to arm the opposition. The British government said Libyan Foreign Minister Moussa Koussa had arrived in Britain from Tunisia and resigned.
    (AP, 3/31/11)

2011        Mar 31, Britainís former Labor Party MP Jim Devine was sentenced to 16 months in prison. He had been convicted of two charges of false accounting for filing bogus invoices for cleaning and printing work totaling more than 8,000 pounds ($13,000).
    (AP, 3/31/11)
2011        Mar 31, The British government said in a human rights report published about 1,000 people are believed to have been killed in clashes between supporters and opponents of Libyan leader Muammar Gaddafi. Britain refused to offer Libyan Foreign Minister Moussa Koussa immunity from prosecution after his apparent defection.
    (AP, 3/31/11)
2011        Mar 31, Britain's Prince Charles met with Spanish PM Jose Luis Rodriguez Zapatero for talks centering on the environment and sustainable development.
    (AP, 3/31/11)

2011        Apr 2, Libyan government forces killed six civilians in the city of Misrata in an unrelenting campaign aimed at driving rebels from the main city they hold in the west. Rebels claimed victory in the battle for Brega as heavy fighting ensued around the oil town. A British delegation arrived in Benghazi, nearly a month after a special forces team was seized in a bungled mission to contact the rebels.
    (AP, 4/2/11)(AFP, 4/2/11)(AFP, 4/3/11)

2011        Apr 4, BP said that it has agreed to sell its ARCO Aluminum unit to a Japanese consortium for $680 million ($421 million) as it seeks to meet the costs of last year's disastrous Gulf of Mexico oil spill.
    (AFP, 4/4/11)

2011        Apr 5, Two British tabloid journalists were arrested on suspicion of illegally intercepting voice-mail messages left on cell phones. Media reports identified Neville Thurlbeck and Ian Edmondson of news of the World in the ongoing phone-hacking scandal.
    (SFC, 4/6/11, p.A3)

2011        Apr 8, British Lt. Cmdr. Ian Molyneux, a submarine weapons engineer, was shot dead while the submarine was docked in the southern English port of Southampton. Able Seaman Ryan Donovan (22) was later charged with murder and the attempted murder of 3 other crew on HMS Astute, one of Britain's fleet of 11 nuclear-powered submarines.
    (AP, 4/10/11)

2011        Apr 11, Britainís Independent Commission on Banking, led by Sir John Vickers, published its initial report.
    (Econ, 4/16/11, p.62)

2011        Apr 14, Britain's Guardian newspaper published a statement by the co-authors of a scathing UN report on Israel's conduct during its 2008-2009 offensive in Gaza. They said they stand by their work, hitting back at critics who've pushed to have its findings withdrawn after the report's lead author, Richard Goldstone, aired doubts about one of its central conclusions.
    (AP, 4/14/11)
2011        Apr 14, Denmark's foreign minister said she will urge US states such as Texas and Ohio to stop using a drug produced by a Danish company in lethal injections. Lene Espersen said she cannot take direct action against the company that produces pentobarbital because the drug is not exported from Denmark. It is produced by a plant in Kansas that is owned by Denmark's Lundbeck A/S. Britain announced it was banning the export of three such drugs to the United States.
    (AP, 4/14/11)

2011        Apr 16, In Sarasota, Florida, British tourists James Cooper (25) and Thomas Kouzaris (24) were found shot to death. A boy (16) was soon charged with the killing. On March 28 Shawn Tyson (17) was sentenced to life in prison.
    (SFC, 4/19/11, p.A4)(SFC, 3/29/12, p.A7)

2011        Apr 19, Britain said it will send a team of up 20 senior military officers to Libya to help organize the country's haphazard opposition forces.
    (AP, 4/19/11)

2011        Apr 20, In England Tina Nash (31), a mother-of-two, was assaulted by her boyfriend at her home in Hayle. Shane Jenkin (32) gauged out her eyes and broke her jaw and nose. He kept Nash imprisoned for the next 12 hours, stopping her from seeking help. On April 13, 2012, Jenkin pleaded guilty.
    (AFP, 4/13/12)(www.bbc.co.uk/news/uk-england-cornwall-13268302)

2011        Apr 24, Sir Denis Mahon (b.1910), a renowned art collector and historian, died in London. He left his collection to the Art Fund charity with instructions it should be placed on display in specific venues in perpetuity.
    (Reuters, 2/20/13)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Denis_Mahon)

2011        Apr 29, In London Kate Middleton married Prince William in a union that promised to revitalize the British monarchy.
    (AP, 4/29/11)
2011        Apr 29, In Northampton, England, university lecturer Jifeng Ding (46), his wife Helen Chui (47), and their daughters Xing (18) and Alice (12) were stabbed to death. Anxiang Du (53), a former business associate of the family who lived in Coventry, was named as the only suspect in the case shortly after the bodies were discovered. On July 7, 2012, a man believed to be Anxiang Du was arrested in Tangiers.
    (AFP, 7/8/12)

2011        Apr, Britain's Government Digital Service (GDS),  a unit of the Government of the United Kingdom's Cabinet Office tasked with transforming the provision of online public services, was founded by Francis Maude at the suggestion of Martha Lan Fox. It was formed to implement the "Digital by Default" strategy proposed by a report produced for the Cabinet Office in 2010 called 'Directgov 2010 and beyond: revolution not evolution'.
    (https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Government_Digital_Service)(Econ., 10/31/20, p.50)

2011        May 1, Britainís Foreign Secretary William Hague said he was expelling the Libyan ambassador to London following attacks on British embassy premises in Tripoli blamed on Moamer Kadhafi's forces.
    (AFP, 5/1/11)

2011        May 5, British voters looked set to reject a change in the way they elect their MPs as they cast their ballots in a national referendum that has threatened to tear the ruling coalition apart. British voters punished the Liberal Democrats for their role in a deficit-cutting government, deserting the party in local elections and almost certainly rejecting its efforts to reform the electoral system.
    (AFP, 5/5/11)(AP, 5/6/11)

2011        May 16, British scientists said they have found that a gene, called KLF14, linked to diabetes and cholesterol is a "master switch" that controls other genes found in fat in the body, and say it should help in the search for treatments for obesity-related diseases.
    (Reuters, 5/16/11)

2011        May 17, Britain's Queen Elizabeth arrived in Dublin for a historic state visit steeped in symbolism and surrounded by security after a makeshift bomb was found, highlighting the lingering hostility of a small minority.
    (AP, 5/17/11)
2011        May 17, The British government pledged to cut the countryís carbon emissions in half by 2025 from benchmark levels of 1990.
    (SFC, 5/18/11, p.A2)
2011        May 17, British defense contractor BAE Systems said it has agreed to pay a fine of up to $79 million to settle an arms export controls case with the US Department of State, the largest civil fine ever levied by the department. Separately, BAE pleaded guilty in Britain to a charge relating to payments to a former adviser in Tanzania, and agreed to pay a fine of 30 million pounds ($49 million).
    (AP, 5/17/11)

2011        May 20, A London court sentenced a former government minister to 16 months in prison over the largest bogus claim exposed in Britain's lawmaker expenses scandal. Elliot Morley (58), former Labour Party politician, had pleaded guilty last month to two charges of false accounting over bills worth 32,000 pounds (nearly $52,000).
    (AP, 5/20/11)
2011        May 20, BP said that it had recovered more than $1.0 billion in costs linked to last year's devastating Gulf of Mexico oil spill from a US subsidiary of Japanese trading house Mitsui & Co. MOEX USA Corporation held a 10-percent stake in the Macondo well project.
    (AP, 5/20/11)

2011        May 22, The last of Britain's military forces in Iraq pulled up anchor, ending more than eight years of fighting militants and training security forces since invading in 2003.
    (AP, 5/22/11)
2011        May 22, Auction site eBay said a bidder paid £81,100 ($131,648) for a silk bow hat worn by Princess Beatrice to last monthís royal wedding. The Philip Treacy creation was put on sale to raise money for UNICEF and Children in crises.
    (SFC, 5/23/11, p.A2)

2011        May 24, President Barack Obama and wife Michelle Obama were welcomed to Buckingham Palace in grand royal style by Queen Elizabeth II as they began their official state visit to Britain.
    (AP, 5/24/11)
2011        May 24, About 250 flights to northern Britain were canceled over concerns about the ash cloud spewing from an Icelandic volcano, but British and Irish officials dismissed fears of a mass shutdown of airspace.
    (Reuters, 5/24/11)

2011        May 31, Britainís Lord John Taylor (58) of Warwick, a Conservative member of the House of Lords, became the fifth lawmaker to be jailed over the scandal which rocked British politics in 2009. Taylor, a former lawyer, was sentenced to months in jail. He became the first black Conservative peer when he took his seat in the House of Lords in 1996.
    (AFP, 5/31/11)(Econ, 6/4/11, p.67)

2011        May, Britain's Serious Fraud Office convicted Edward Davenport (45) and five of his cronies of defrauding victims of millions of pounds. They had set up a company that claimed to have money to lend for major commercial projects. The gang was estimated to have collected more than 4 million pounds ($6.2 million) from victims.
    (AP, 10/5/11)

2011        Jun 2, In London Nobel-winning writer V.S. Naipaul (78) faced criticism for saying he does not regard any female authors as his equal, even famed novelist Jane Austen, because they are "sentimental."
    (AFP, 6/2/11)
2011        Jun 2, In Britain an explosion at a Chevron oil refinery in Pembroke, Wales, killed four contractors.
    (SFC, 6/3/11, p.A2)

2011        Jun 6, In Britain Asim Kauser (25), a British national, was arrested at his home following an operation by the North West Counter Terrorism Unit. The alleged offenses took place between January 2009 and June 2011.
    (AP, 6/16/11)

2011        Jun 9, London said it will allow the Scottish Government to start borrowing money for infrastructural investment from 2011, earlier than a proposal to give Scotland full borrowing powers from April 2015.
    (Reuters, 2/16/12)

2011        Jun 10, Sir Patrick Leigh Fermor (b.1915), English traveler and writer, died. His books included ďA Time of Gifts" (1977) and ďBetween the Woods and Water" (1986). In 2012 Artemis Cooper authored ďPatrick Leigh Fermor: An Adventure." In 2013 Fermorís book ďThe Broken Road: From the Iron Gates to Mount Athos" was published posthumously. 
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Patrick_Leigh_Fermor)(Econ, 6/18/11, p.93) (Econ, 10/20/12, p.77)(Econ, 9/14/13, p.90)

2011              Jun 15, In London, police arrested two men on suspicion of trying to kidnap and murder soul singer Joss Stone. Suspects Junior Bradshaw and Kevin Liverpool, were arrested near Stoneís country home; they were said to be in possession of swords, rope, and a body bag.     
            (AFP, 6/15/11)

2011        Jun 16, The British government set out legislation to return the task of overseeing banks to the Bank of England.
    (Econ, 6/25/11, p.69)

2011        Jun 20, British police arrested a man (19) suspected of hacking attacks on intíl. businesses and intelligence agencies. The arrest took place following a joint operation by its Internet crimes unit and the FBI. Police would not say whether the man is believed to be linked to either the Anonymous or Lulz Security (LulzSec) hacking collectives, which have called for "war" on governments that control the Internet and claimed responsibility for a string of high-profile attacks on targets such as Sony, the CIA web page and the US Senate computer system.
    (AP, 6/21/11)(SFC, 6/23/11, p.A2)
2011        Jun 20, British-based Rolls-Royce said it had won an order worth $2.2 billion to supply its Trent XWB jet engines to power the Airbus A350 long-haul planes bought by Brazil's TAM airlines.
    (AFP, 6/20/11)
2011        Jun 20, Google and the British Library announced an agreement that will let Internet users read, search, download and copy thousands of texts published between 1700 and 1870.
    (AP, 6/20/11)

2011        Jun 23, A British court convicted Levi Bellfield (43) of abducting and murdering Milly Dowler (13) after she walked past his home in 2002. It took Milly's parents Bob and Sally nine years to get justice, even though her killer had been living 50 yards from where she was last seen in Station Avenue, Walton-on-Thames, Surrey. The former wheelclamper and bouncer went on to kill Miss McDonnell and to murder Amelie Delagrange (22), and attempt to murder Kate Sheedy (18) in 2004. Bellfield was jailed for life for those crimes in February 2008 and was told he would never be released.
    (AFP, 6/24/11)(SFC, 7/6/11, p.A5)

2011        Jun 27, Chinese Premier Wen Jiabao and British PM David Cameron signed trade deals worth £1.4 billion at a summit as Wen faced questions over his country's rights record. Jiabao proceeded to Berlin for a visit that with Chancellor Angela Merkel.
    (AP, 6/27/11)(Reuters, 6/27/11)

2011        Jun 28, British immigration officials arrested Arab-Israeli Islamist leader Sheikh Raed Saleh after he returned from an event in the central English city of Leicester.
    (AP, 6/29/11)

2011        Jun 29, Britainís first nationwide study into the scale of child grooming on its streets has identified more than 2,000 victims. The Child Exploitation and Online Protection Center (CEOP) report said the victims were aged 14 and 15 and female.
    (AFP, 6/29/11)
2011        Jun 29, In Hong Kong Birmingham City owner Carson Yeung (51), a one-time hairdresser turned football tycoon, was arrested by police. The next day he appeared in court and was charged with money-laundering. Prosecutors said investigations had revealed around HK$720 million ($92 million) passing through accounts connected with Yeung. He was released on HK$7 million ($900,000) bail following a brief appearance at the magistrates court.
    (AFP, 6/30/11)

2011        Jun 30, British teachers and public service workers swapped classrooms and offices for picket lines as hundreds of thousands walked off the job to protest pension cuts.
    (AP, 6/30/11)

2011        Jul 2, British mobile phone giant Vodafone said it is taking full control of its Indian joint venture by buying out its local partner Essar Group.
    (AFP, 7/2/11)
2011        Jul 2, In Germany Wladimir Klitschko of the Ukraine became the undisputed world heavyweight champion by beating Great Britain's David Haye on a unanimous points decision at Hamburg's football stadium.
    (AFP, 7/2/11)

2011        Jul 5, British MPs said the Ministry of Defense lost track of £6.3 billion ($10.1 billion, 7 billion euros) of equipment, as they urged the Ministry of Defence to get a grip on stock control.
    (AFP, 7/5/11)
2011        Jul 5, News International acknowledged that it gave Londonís Metropolitan Police a set of e-mails documenting payments from News of the World journalists in 2003 and after.
    (Econ, 7/9/11, p.53)

2011        Jul 6, British PM David Cameron confirmed that the UK will withdraw 500 troops from Afghanistan by the end of 2012.
    (AP, 7/6/11)
2011        Jul 6, Britain's tabloid phone hacking scandal dominated the airways as it swelled to allegedly involve more missing schoolgirls and the families of London terror victims. Lawmakers held an emergency debate, companies hastily pulled their ads and the prime minister demanded two new inquiries.
    (AP, 7/6/11)

2011        Jul 7, Rupert Murdoch caused astonishment when he killed off the 168-year-old News of the World after it was dogged by allegations that it hacked the voicemails of a teenage murder victim and the families of dead soldiers. This was widely seen as a way to quell the scandal and save the bid by his News Corp. for control of the satellite broadcaster BSkyB, on which the British government is due to decide.
    (AFP, 7/8/11)
2011        Jul 7, British officers arrested Eneko Gogeaskoetxea Arronategui (44), a suspected Basque separatist, in connection with a 1997 attempted assassination of Spain's King Juan Carlos. The arrest came a day after the arrest of ETA suspect Daniel Derguy on terrorism charges in Cahors, France.
    (AFP, 7/7/11)

2011        Jul 8, Britainís PM David Cameron said he would establish a full public inquiry led by a judge into the News of the World scandal. London's Metropolitan Police arrested Andy Coulson (43), Cameron's ex-media chief, "in connection with allegations of corruption and phone hacking." Coulson was editor of Britain's biggest-selling Sunday newspaper from 2003 to 2007. Police also re-arrested Clive Goodman (53), the News of the World's former royal editor, who was jailed in 2007 for hacking the voicemails of Princes William and Harry.
    (AFP, 7/8/11)

2011        Jul 9, British author Alan Shadrake (76), who spent five weeks in Singaporeís new Changi Prison for contempt after publishing a book questioning executions in the city-state, was deported to London, hours after being released.
    (AFP, 7/9/11)

2011        Jul 10, Britain's News of the World was published for the last time after the tabloid was axed amid the phone-hacking scandal, as its owner Rupert Murdoch flew in to take charge of managing the crisis.
    (AFP, 7/10/11)

2011        Jul 11, Southern Cross, the financially-troubled owner of 752 care homes in Britain, said that it is to close, although its 31,000 residents will continue to receive care. The company said in a statement that it plans to cease operating and hand its homes over to its landlords.
    (AP, 7/11/11)

2011        Jul 12, Lottery operator Camelot announced that a British ticket holder has won a record £161 million (185 million euros) in the Euromillions lottery.
    (AFP, 7/13/11)

2011        Jul 13, Media mogul Rupert Murdoch dramatically dropped his bid for control of pay-TV giant BSkyB, bowing to pressure from the British government over the phone-hacking firestorm at his newspaper empire.
    (AFP, 7/14/11)
2011        Jul 13, In eastern England a powerful explosion at a suspected illegal alcohol distillery in Lincolnshire killed five men and seriously injured another.
    (AP, 7/14/11)

2011        Jul 14, British police arrested Neil Wallis (60), another former News of the World executive, in connection with the phone hacking scandal at the tabloid. Wallis was deputy editor at the 168-year-old title from 2003 to 2007 under editor Andy Coulson.
    (AFP, 7/14/11)
2011        Jul 14, Britain's Department for International Development (DFID) announced it was suspending budgetary aid to Malawi over poor governance, as fast-deteriorating relations between the two countries reached a new low. The Malawi opposition quickly blamed President Bingu wa Mutharika's "sheer arrogance" for the decision.
    (AFP, 7/15/11)

2011        Jul 15, BBC journalists began a 24-hour strike in a row over job losses, disrupting some of the British broadcaster's flagship programs.
    (AFP, 7/15/11)
2011        Jul 15, Rebekah Brooks (43), the embattled chief executive of Rupert Murdoch's British newspaper wing, quit as the phone hacking scandal forced the once-mighty media baron to sacrifice his cherished aide. Les Hinton, chide executive of the Murdoch owned Dow Jones & Co., published of the Wall Street Journal, also announced his resignation.
    (AP, 7/15/11)(SFC, 7/16/11, p.A4)
2011        Jul 15, Christian Emde (28) and Robert Baum (24) were arrested in the English port town of Dover. In 2012 the 2 German men pleaded guilty to possessing information useful for terrorist acts.
    (AP, 2/6/12)

2011        Jul 17, London police arrested Rebekah Brooks (43), Rupert Murdoch's former British CEO, in the phone hacking and police bribery scandal. The former News of the World editor said she was assisting the police with their inquiries.
    (AP, 7/17/11)

2011        Jul 18, In Britain senior Metropolitan police officer John Yates, who in 2009 refused to reopen an investigation into phone hacking at the News of the World tabloid, resigned. British police said Sean Hoare, the whistleblower reporter who alleged widespread hacking at the News of the World, has been found dead.
    (AFP, 7/18/11)(AP, 7/18/11)
2011        Jul 18, British PM David Cameron sought to bridge the gap with South African President Jacob Zuma over the Libya conflict on a visit overshadowed by the phone-hacking scandal back home. The focus of Cameron's trip was on boosting trade with a continent.
    (AP, 7/19/11)
2011        Jul 18, Lulz Security (LulzSec) hacker group attacked the website of the Rupert Murdoch owned Sun newspaper, replacing the online version with a fake story pronouncing the mogul's death.
    (AFP, 7/18/11)
2011        Jul 18, Hong Kong ordered pharmaceutical giant GlaxoSmithKline to recall an antibiotic used to treat infections in children after tests revealed the British firm's Augmentin antibiotic tablet contained several plasticizers, including diisodecyl phthalate (DIDP).
    (AFP, 7/19/11)

2011        Jul 19, Britainís PM David Cameron visited Nigeria, pushing a message of trade, aid and democracy before making an early return home to deal with the spiraling phone hacking crisis. Fresh clashes between Muslim and Christian youths left five people dead and 12 seriously injured in Jos.
    (AFP, 7/19/11)(AFP, 7/20/11)
2011        Jul 19, Britain's competition watchdog reiterated its ruling for Spanish-owned airports operator BAA to sell two more airports including London Stansted followed by Edinburgh or Glasgow Airport.
    (AFP, 7/19/11)
2011        Jul 18, Lulz Security hacker group attacked the website of the Rupert Murdoch owned Sun newspaper, replacing the online version with a fake story pronouncing the mogul's death.
    (AFP, 7/18/11)
2011        Jul 19, British health bosses at Stepping Hill Hospital in Stockport, where three patients died after contaminated saline solution was found, said they were dealing with a "criminal act." Two more people died on July 14 and July 21. On July 20 Rebecca Leighton, a 26-year-old nurse at the hospital, was arrested on suspicion of murder. On August 2 prosecutors dropped their case against.
    (AFP, 7/19/11)(AP, 7/20/11)(AP, 7/22/11)(AFP, 9/3/11)

2011        Jul 20, Lucian Freud (b.1922), Berlin-born realist painter, died in London. The grandson of psychoanalyst Sigmund Freud was widely seen as Britain's top contemporary artist. In 2013 Geordie Greig authored ďBreakfast with Lucian: The Astounding Lie and Outrageous Times of Britainís Great Modern Painter." 
    (AFP, 7/22/11)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Lucian_Freud)(Econ, 10/26/13, p.94)

2011        Jul 21, Britainís Financial Services Authority said it has fined insurance broker Willis Limited nearly £7 million for failing to ensure payments to overseas third parties were not used for corrupt purposes. The announcement came after Britain earlier this month implemented new bribery laws.
    (AFP, 7/21/11)
2011        Jul 21, Afghan security forces took over responsibility for the city of Herat, the country's western capital. 2 British nationals were reported detained in Herat as part of a counter-terrorism operation to stop a possible attack back home.
    (AFP, 7/21/11)

2011        Jul 23, Thousands of people marched through the streets of Derby protesting the British governmentís decision to award a contract for new trains to Siemens, German engineering company.
    (Econ, 7/30/11, p.51)cc
2011        Jul 23, Amy Winehouse (b.1983), the beehived soul-jazz diva whose self-destructive habits overshadowed a distinctive musical talent, was found dead in her London home. On Oct 26 an inquest was told she had suddenly drunk heavily after abstaining from alcohol for three weeks and was poisoned by alcohol.
    (AP, 7/24/11)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Amy_Winehouse)(AFP, 10/26/11)
2011        Jul 23, In Afghanistan NATO troops handed control of the northern capital Mazar-i-Sharif to local forces. It was the sixth of seven areas to transition to Afghan control. A NATO helicopter attack wounded 5 children in Helmand province. On July 25 Britain took responsibility for the attack, voicing "deep regret" and saying an investigation was under way.
    (AFP, 7/23/11)(AFP, 7/25/11)

2011        Jul 27, Britain officially recognized Libya's main opposition group as the country's legitimate government, and expelled all diplomats from Moammar Gadhafi's regime.
    (AP, 7/27/11)
2011        Jul 27, Scottish teenager Jake Davis (18) was arrested with 16 computers in the Shetland Islands. This was the alleged nerve center of Lulz Security (LulzSec), a group of internet hackers whose targets included computer-security and online gaming firms. The group had broken from Anonymous, another hacker group, three months earlier. Ryan Cleary (19) was arrested in June at his home in Wickford, Essex, charged with attacking websites as part of LulzSec.
    (Econ, 8/6/11, p.49)(http://shetlopedia.com/Jake_Davis)(AFP, 8/30/11)

2011        Jul 28, Britainís Business Secretary Vince Cable said he is to scrap a raft of "ridiculous" business regulations including alcohol licenses to sell chocolate liqueurs and age limits on buying Christmas crackers.
    (AFP, 7/28/11)

2011        Aug 1, BBC journalists began a second 24-hour strike in a row over job losses, threatening disruption to some of the broadcaster's flagship programs.
    (AFP, 8/1/11)

2011        Aug 2, Londonís Metropolitan Police, investigating phone hacking and police bribery at the defunct British tabloid News of the World, arrested Stuart Kuttner (71), a former News of the World managing editor.
    (AP, 8/2/11)

2011        Aug 3, British officials said they have seized about 300 million pounds ($492 million) worth of cocaine in a record-setting drug bust on a pleasure boat. 1.2 tons of cocaine were found hidden in a specially-designed compartment on a boat docked in southern England in June and it took six days of searching the Louise to find the drugs. Six men arrested were all Dutch nationals.
    (AP, 8/3/11)

2011        Aug 4, In Britain north London police shot and killed Mark Duggan (29) during an attempted arrest in Tottenham. See August 6. The family only learned of the death of their son from watching television.
    (Econ, 8/13/11, p.51)(AFP, 8/7/11)(AFP, 2/29/12)

2011        Aug 5, In the Norwegian Arctic archipelago of Svalbard a polar bear mauled one person to death and left four other members of a British youth expeditions group seriously injured.
    (AFP, 8/5/11)

2011        Aug 6, A riot tore through parts of north London's deprived Tottenham neighborhood. 8 officers were hospitalized after a peaceful protest against the Aug 4 shooting death of Mark Duggan (29), a passenger in a minicab, degenerated into a Saturday night rampage. The riots soon spread to Birmingham and other cities and involved as many as 15,000 people.
    (AP, 8/7/11)(AFP, 8/7/11)(Econ, 8/4/12, p.51)
2011        Aug 6, The group known as Anonymous said it has hacked into some 70 law enforcement websites across the southern and central United States in retaliation for arrests of its sympathizers in the U.S. and Britain.
    (AP, 8/6/11)

2011        Aug 7, Nancy Wake (98), Australia's greatest World War II heroine, died in London. She was a prominent figure in the French Resistance.
    (AFP, 8/8/11)(Econ, 8/13/11, p.82)

2011        Aug 8, London police said they had arrested 100 people in a second night of rioting, condemning it as "copycat" disorder following weekend unrest sparked by the death of a man in a police shooting.
    (AFP, 8/8/11)

2011        Aug 9, British PM David Cameron recalled Parliament from its summer recess and nearly tripled the number of police on the streets rioting in London blossomed into a full-blown political crisis. A 26-year-old was found shot dead in a car. A Scotland Yard official said 525 people have now been arrested in London after three days of "unprecedented" rioting.
    (AP, 8/9/11)

2011        Aug 10, London police arrested former News of the World news editor Greg Miskiw (61) on suspicion of hacking phones, the 12th person detained over the long-running scandal.
    (AFP, 8/10/11)(AFP, 8/11/11)
2011        Aug 10, Britons took to social networking sites to expose the rioters who went on the rampage for four nights, posting photos of masked gangs looting and hurling missiles. Three Asian men died after being hit by a car during riots in the Winson Green area of Birmingham. Witnesses said they died while trying to protect their community from looters. On Aug 13 a man and teenager were charged with the murder of three men. On July 19, 2012, eight men were cleared of murdering the three friends who died after being hit by a car.
    (AP, 8/14/11)(AFP, 7/19/12)

2011        Aug 11, Police in London raided houses to round up more rioting suspects as Britain's big cities remained largely quiet after four days of rioting and looting that drew thousands of police officers onto the streets. The four days of riots left five people dead, thousands facing criminal charges and hundreds of millions in damages.
    (AP, 8/11/11)(AP, 8/15/11)

2011        Aug 12, Royal Dutch Shell PLC said it is trying to stop oil leaking from a flow line at one of its drilling platforms in the North Sea off the coast of Scotland. On Aug 15 Shell estimated that 54,600 gallons had leaked from the Gannet Alpha oil rig. On Aug 16 Shell said a 2nd smaller leak had been found at the rig.
    (AP, 8/13/11)(SFC, 8/16/11, p.A4)(SFC, 8/17/11, p.A3)

2011        Aug 16, In Britain a 16-year-old boy was ordered to stand trial for the murder of a retiree attacked when he confronted rioters in London. Richard Bowes (68) was found lying in a street during violence in Ealing, on Aug. 8. He died of head injuries three days later.
    (AP, 8/16/11)

2011        Aug 19, In England Judith Richardson (77) was found battered to death with a hammer in Hexam, Northumberland. Graeme Jarman (47), serial sex attacker, was suspected in the murder. He went missing after failing to appear in court on a shoplifting charge on August 23.
    (AFP, 8/30/11)
2011        Aug 19, In Afghanistan 5 suicide attackers stormed a British compound in Kabul, killing at least 8 people in a series of explosions and a more than eight-hour gunfight on the anniversary of the country's 1919 independence from Britain.
    (AP, 8/19/11)

2011        Aug 20, A British military Red Arrows jet crashed while taking part in an air show in Bournemouth. Lt. John Egging (33) was the first Red Arrows pilot to die since 1978, when two were killed in a training accident. The Red Arrows display team were formed in 1965.
    (AP, 8/20/11)

2011        Aug 22, John Howard Davies (72), a BAFTA award winning comedy director, died in Oxfordshire. He produced TV comedy classics including "Fawlty Towers" and the "Good Life." He won his first BAFTA for best director for the first series of "Monty Python's Flying Circus."
    (AFP, 8/23/11)

2011        Aug 25, Libyan rebels battled forces loyal to Moammar Gadhafi on the streets of Tripoli.  European officials confirmed that small numbers of British, French and other special forces have been working inside Libya in recent months.
    (AP, 8/25/11)

2011        Aug 26, In Britain the makers of painkiller Nurofen Plus recalled the tablets after anti-psychotic and epilepsy drugs were found to have been placed in packets in acts of suspected sabotage.
    (AP, 8/27/11)

2011        Aug 28, British Police arrested a 28-year-old man on suspicion of attempted murder of two Metropolitan Police officers during the height of the London riots earlier in August.
    (AP, 8/28/11)

2011        Aug 31, Britain's biggest retailer Tesco announced that it is pulling out of Japan after eight years and putting its 129 small supermarkets on sale to focus on other operations in Asia.
    (AP, 8/31/11)

2011        Sep 2, Lebanese imam, Sheikh Maymun Zarzur, was killed after leading prayers at the Muslim Welfare House in London. Scotland Yard said they had made one arrest. The Muslim Welfare House was founded in 1970 functioning as a community center.
    (AFP, 9/3/11)

2011        Sep 3, English Defense League far-right protesters clashed with London police during a demonstration held despite a ban on marches in six parts of Britain's capital.
    (AP, 9/3/11)

2011        Sep 8, British fashion icon John Galliano (50) was convicted of anti-Semitism for hurling abuse at bar patrons in Paris' Jewish quarter in a career-breaking outburst he has blamed on drink and drugs. In the French trial in July Galliano apologized for his conduct. He received suspended fines totaling 6,000-euro (£5,200, $8,400).
    (AFP, 9/8/11)

2011        Sep 9, The British government said it would ban lawyers paying fees to people who refer accident victims to them, earning plaudits from insurers that say the practice has encouraged spurious claims and forced them to charge customers more.
    (Reuters, 9/9/11)
2011        Sep 9, A British judge sentenced Munir Farooqi (54), a former Taliban fighter, to life in prison for trying to recruit holy warriors for jihad in Afghanistan. Farooqi was arrested in a counterterrorism operation on Nov. 16, 2009 along with his 27-year-old son, Harris, and two other men Matthew Newton and Israr Malik. Farooqi's son was acquitted on one terror charge, while Newton was jailed for six years and Malik given an "Indeterminate Sentence for Public Protection," and told he must serve a minimum of five years before parole is considered.
    (AP, 9/9/11)

2011        Sep 11, British police said they have freed 24 men believed to have been held against their will, some for more than a decade. Four men and a woman were arrested under a slavery act introduced last year after the operation involving more than 200 police officers.
    (AP, 9/11/11)(Reuters, 9/12/11)
2011        Sep 11, Kenya police said armed men killed a British man and kidnapped his wife from a beach resort in the north near the border with lawless Somalia.
    (AP, 9/11/11)

2011        Sep 13, Westfield Stratford City, Europe's biggest urban shopping center, opened in a deprived area of east London where it will act as the gateway to the 2012 Olympics.
    (AFP, 9/13/11)
2011        Sep 13, British pop art pioneer Richard Hamilton (b.1922) died. His work ranged from images of consumer culture to parodies of political leaders. One of his best-known works was the plain white cover for the Beatlesí "White Album" of 1968.
    (AFP, 9/14/11)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Richard_Hamilton_%28artist%29)
2011        Sep 13, In Nigeria Kindreck Dion Lee (34), one of Britain's most wanted drug and firearm suspects, was arrested in Lagos. He was wanted for his alleged involvement in bringing cocaine, cannabis, firearms and ammunition into the country from Amsterdam.
    (AFP, 9/16/11)

2011        Sep 15, British PM David Cameron and French President Nicolas Sarkozy gave Libya's new rulers strong support during a landmark visit to Tripoli, vowing to release billions of dollars more in frozen assets and to push ahead with NATO strikes against Gadhafi's last strongholds. 11 fighters were killed and 34 wounded in a first assault on Sirte launched before sunset.
    (AP, 9/15/11)(AFP, 9/16/11)
2011        Sep 15, British police arrested Kweku Adoboli (31) in London after the rogue trader at Swiss bank UBS lost an estimated $2.3 billion in unauthorized trades. On Sep 24 UBS announced the resignation of CEO Oswald Gruebel.
    (AFP, 9/15/11)(AFP, 9/16/11)(SSFC, 9/25/11, p.A15)
2011        Sep 15, British scientists reported that fluctuating levels of the brain chemical serotonin, often brought on when someone hasn't eaten or is stressed, affect brain regions that enable people to regulate anger.
    (Reuters, 9/15/11)
2011        Sep 15, In Britainís south Wales a mine flooded at the Gleision Colliery near Swansea. 4 miners died after being trapped by the flooding.
    (AFP, 9/16/11)

2011        Sep 19, Bailiffs preparing to clear residents from Britain's biggest settlement of travelers entered the site for the first time and urged protesters to stop obstructing the eviction.
    (AFP, 9/19/11)
2011        Sep 19, Luxury car maker Jaguar Land Rover, part of Indian group Tata Motors, said it will invest 355 million pounds on a new engine plant in central England. The British government will provide up to 10 million pounds for a plant expected to create 750 jobs and thousands of jobs across the wider economy.
    (Reuters, 9/19/11)

2011        Sep 21, Australian beer giant Foster's said it has accepted an improved takeover worth Aus$9.9 billion (£6.5 billion) from British-based brewer SABMiller.
    (AFP, 9/21/11)

2011        Sep 22, The book "Julian Assange: The Unauthorized Autobiography" went on sale in Britain, against the wishes of Assange (40), who condemned his publisher for releasing it.
    (AP, 9/22/11)
2011        Sep 22, US biotech company Advanced Cell Technology said it will soon begin the first-ever European trials using human embryonic stem cells in an experimental treatment for people with a form of juvenile blindness. The clearance to begin the European trials came from the UK Medicines and Healthcare products Regulatory Agency and the Gene Therapy Advisory Committee. The same Massachusetts-based company became the first to launch a US trial of embryonic stem cells to treat Stargardt's disease in November 2010.
    (AP, 9/22/11)
2011        Sep 22, Aid agency Oxfam said in a report that at least 22,500 Ugandans have been forced from their homes to make way for New Forests Company, a British timber company founded in 2004, and called for an investigation into alleged abuses. The evictions stopped in July 2010.
    (AFP, 9/22/11)

2011        Sep 23, British police arrested Christopher McGuire (30). He was charged the next day with placing anti-psychotic and epilepsy drugs in packets of the painkiller Nurofen Plus.
    (AFP, 9/25/11)

2011        Sep 24, In Britain thousands of Muslims rallied at Londonís Wembley arena to promote a moderate version of Islam. The rally was led by Muhammad Tahir-ul-Qadri, a Pakistani-born Islamic scholar.
    (SSFC, 9/25/11, p.A4)
2011        Sep 24, In Britain a mother and five of her children were killed when a fire tore through a house in the Neasden district of northwest London.
    (AFP, 9/24/11)

2011        Sep 26, A new British law, the Prisoners' Earnings Act, went into effect. Inmates earning more than £20 ($31, Ä23) a week after deductions will see 40% deducted from what remains.
    (AFP, 9/26/11)

2011        Sep 27, BAE Systems, Europe's biggest defense contractor, said it will cut nearly 3,000 jobs in Britain as smaller global defense budgets hit orders for its fighter jets.
    (AP, 9/27/11)

2011        Sep 28, A British High Court judge said in a landmark ruling that a brain-damaged, minimally conscious woman should not be allowed to die.
    (Reuters, 9/28/11)
2011        Sep 28, In London Reginald Davis, a 77-year-old man from Australia, was charged with a string of child sex attacks dating back to 1949.
    (AFP, 9/28/11)

2011        Sep 29, British police and medical regulators said Russian gangs and their Chinese associates are making billions of dollars from selling fake and unlicensed medicines over the Internet, putting thousands of people at risk. More than 2.5 million doses of counterfeit, controlled and withdrawn drugs were seized across 79 countries in seven days of raids coordinated by international police organization Interpol under an operation codenamed Pangea that ended on Sep 27.
    (Reuters, 9/29/11)

2011        Oct 1, Cigarette vending machines were banned in England, a move the government hopes will cut the numbers of children smoking.
    (AFP, 10/1/11)
2011        Oct 1, Mitchell Harrison (23), a convicted child rapist, was found dead in his cell at HM Prison Frankland, England. He was jailed in 2009 for raping a 13-year-old girl in Kendal, Cumbria. A post-mortem found he died from multiple injuries. Two men, aged 32 and 23, were soon charged with his murder.
    (AFP, 10/3/11)

2011        Oct 4, British company Heritage Oil PLC said that it has acquired a controlling interest in a Libyan company licensed to provide oil field services including offshore and land-based drilling. Heritage said it paid $19.5 million for a 51% stake in Sahara Oil Services Holdings Ltd.
    (AP, 10/4/11)

2011        Oct 5, A prosecutor told a London court that 2 Pakistani cricketers took bribes to fix parts of a match against England in a case that exposes "rampant corruption" at the heart of the international game.
    (AFP, 10/5/11)
2011        Oct 5, Datawind, a British technology company, released a student tablet costing $35. It claimed to have developed the world's least expensive computer tablet for wireless Internet access. In February, 2012, Datawind released an updated version of the Aakash computer tablet for the commercial market that costs $50.
    (AFP, 2/19/12)(http://tinyurl.com/79ngd6m)

2011        Oct 6, The Bank of England launched a second round of quantitative easing to defend Britain's faltering economy against the euro zone debt crisis, pledging to buy 75 billion pounds of assets with new money in a dramatic move to stave off recession.
    (Reuters, 10/6/11)
2011        Oct 6, Britain and Switzerland signed an agreement to tax money kept by British residents in secret Swiss bank accounts, a move which could net the British government billions of pounds and help Swiss banking clean up its image. The deal, which must still be approved by the parliaments of both countries, should come into force in 2013.
    (Reuters, 10/6/11)
2011        Oct 6, The British Broadcasting Corporation (BBC) said it is to cut around 2,000 jobs as the publicly-funded broadcaster makes savings as part of government efforts to reduce a record deficit.
    (AFP, 10/6/11)

2011        Oct 7, Dubai's flagship Emirates airline said it will sponsor Britain's first urban cable car spanning London's river Thames, saying it hoped the new addition to the city's skyline would be ready for next year's Olympics. The 10-year-deal was valued at 36 million pounds.
    (Reuters, 10/7/11)

2011        Oct 10, Pirates of Somalia attacked the Italian cargo ship Montecristo carrying a crew of 23. US and British Navy ships freed the ship and 11 pirates were apprehended.
    (AP, 10/11/11)

2011        Oct 11, Dave Dawes (47), a shift supervisor at a food producer, and his partner Angela Dawes, a charity shop volunteer, were the only winners of ÄuroMillions Britain's third-largest lottery jackpot, worth 116 million euros or $157 million.
    (AFP, 10/13/11)

2011        Oct 14, Britain's defense minister Liam Fox quit his post after days of allegations about the influence-peddling of a close personal friend who joined key visits overseas and posed as an unofficial aide. PM David Cameron appointed Philip Hammond as the new defense minister.
    (AP, 10/14/11)(Reuters, 10/15/11)
2011        Oct 14, A British pilot (29) and his passenger (40) died in the crash of their small plane in Switzerland.
    (AFP, 10/15/11)

2011        Oct 15, Around 800 people rallied in London's financial heart amid a heavy police presence as part of world protests against corporate greed and budget cutbacks. Protesters began occupying the front of St. Paulís Cathedral.
    (AFP, 10/15/11)(Econ, 11/5/11, p.67)
2011        Oct 15, British actress Betty Driver (91) died. The much-loved actress had starred  for 42 years on "Coronation Street," Britain's longest-running television soap opera.
    (AFP, 10/16/11)

2011        Oct 16, Several hundred protesters spent the night overnight outside St Paul's Cathedral in London's financial district, as the anti-capitalism demonstration entered its second day.
    (AFP, 10/16/11)
2011        Oct 16, In Nevada British IndyCar driver Dan Wheldon died after a horrific 15-car crash at the Las Vegas Motor Speedway which left the motor sports world in shock.
    (AP, 10/17/11)

2011        Oct 16, In Nevada British IndyCar driver Dan Wheldon (33) died after a horrific 15-car crash at the Las Vegas Motor Speedway which left the motor sports world in shock.
    (Reuters, 10/17/11)
2011        Oct 16, Kenya police arrested two British men (18), one of Pakistani origin and the other of Somali origin, in the resort town of Lamu on suspicion of trying to join Somali militants. Police said the men would be deported. Mohamed Mohamed Abdallah, of Somali descent, and Iqbal Shahzad, of Pakistani descent were deported to Britain on Oct 26. British authorities arrested them under terrorism laws and then freed them six hours later.
    (AP, 10/18/11)(AFP, 10/20/11)

2011        Oct 18, British writer Julian Barnes (65) won the Booker Prize for fiction for his novel ďThe Sense of an Ending, a novel about youth and memory.
    (SFC, 10/19/11, p.E4)(Econ, 4/6/13, p.97)

2011        Oct 19, Britainís Department for Energy and Climate Change (DECC) said an energy act, which aims to boost energy efficiency in residential homes, is now law.
    (Reuters, 10/19/11)
2011        Oct 19, British police in riot gear used sledgehammers and crowbars to clear the way for the eviction of Irish Travelers from the Dale Farm site, in fields 30 miles (50 km) east of London, where they have lived illegally for a decade. There are estimated to be between 15,000 and 30,000 Irish Travelers in Britain, where they are recognized as a distinct ethnic minority.
    (AP, 10/19/11)

2011        Oct 21, A Lithuanian judge found Michael Campbell (39), an Irish man, guilty of trying to buy weapons and explosives in a six-year sting orchestrated by Britain's domestic spy agency MI5, a case that drew attention to a hardcore Irish Republican Army splinter group's plans to spread terror to London. He was sentenced to 12 years in prison for weapons offenses and supporting a terrorist group.
    (AP, 10/21/11)
2011        Oct 21, George Daniels (85), English master watchmaker, died.
    (Econ, 11/19/11, p.106)

2011        Oct 22, Anti-capitalist protesters set up a second camp in London, as they marked one week of demonstrations outside St Paul's Cathedral, which forced the 300-year-old monument to close a day earlier.
    (AFP, 10/23/11)

2011        Oct 24, The British government won a House of Commons vote by 483 votes to 111 due to support from the Liberal Democrats as 79 Tory MPs voted in favor of a referendum on Britain's relationship with Europe. The Tory eurosceptic wing ignored PM Cameron's plea that it was the wrong time for a referendum because of the debt crisis engulfing the eurozone.
    (AFP, 10/25/11)

2011        Oct 28, St. Paulís Cathedral reopened after a weeklong closure triggered by protest against economic inequality and corporate greed. The City of London Corporation said it was launching legal action on the grounds that the protest is an "unreasonable user of the highway." Scores of tents are pitched on the pedestrianized square in front of the cathedral and near a footpath alongside the building.
    (AP, 10/28/11)
2011        Oct 28, Commonwealth leaders agreed to drop rules that give sons precedence as heir to the throne and bar anyone in line for the crown from marrying a Roman Catholic. The agreement came on the sidelines of a Commonwealth summit presided over by the Queen in the west Australian city of Perth. Current succession rules, dating back to 1688 and 1700, were designed to ensure a Protestant monarchy, and bar anyone in line to the throne from marrying a Catholic.
    (Reuters, 10/28/11)

2011        Oct 29, Jimmy Savile (b.1926), popular British children's TV entertainer, died. His gold coffin went on public display and he was lauded as a "national treasure" who had raised millions of pounds for good causes. In 2012 allegations that Savile sexually abused young girls for decades first emerged in an expose on the TV channel ITV. Since then, police say some 300 victims had come forward.
    (AP, 10/28/12)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Jimmy_Savile)

2011        Oct 30, Britainís PM David Cameron announced that British merchant ships traveling around the Horn of Africa will for the first time be able to carry armed guards to protect them from pirates.
    (AFP, 10/30/11)
2011        Oct 30, Venezuela's Pres. Chavez ordered the expropriation of 716,590 acres belonging to a British-owned company amid a disagreement over compensation for earlier takeovers of ranchland from the firm. Chavez announced the latest seizure after saying that Venezuela refuses to pay compensation in foreign currency to Agropecuaria Flora, a local subsidiary of the British company Vestey Group.
    (AP, 10/30/11)

2011        Oct 31, The head of British intelligence agency GCHQ warned of a "disturbing" rise in cyber attacks on the country's government and industry systems which he said risked damaging the economy.
    (AFP, 10/31/11)
2011        Oct 31, EDF Energy submitted its application to build the first new nuclear power plant in Britain, the country's Infrastructure Planning Commission (IPC) confirmed in a statement.
    (Reuters, 10/31/11)

2011        Nov 1, In London former Pakistan Test captain Salman Butt (27) and fast bowler Mohammad Asif (28) were found guilty of involvement in a "spot-fixing" betting scam during a match against England in August, 2010.
    (AP, 11/1/11)

2011        Nov 2, UK shale gas firm Cuadrilla Resources said exploration work triggered small tremors at its drill site near Blackpool in northwest England earlier this year, as activists scaled a rig protesting against its gas recovery methods.
    (Reuters, 11/2/11)

2011        Nov 3, GlaxoSmithKline Plc said it has agreed in principle to settle several long-standing disputes with the US government over the way it marketed and developed drugs, at a cost of $3 billion (1 billion pound), which is covered by existing provisions. It includes a Department of Justice investigation into the company's controversial diabetes drug Avandia, which has been linked to heart risks.
    (Reuters, 11/3/11)
2011        Nov 3, Pakistan cricket authorities said they were more determined to eradicate corruption from the game after three of their key players were sentenced in London to jail in a corruption case. Former Test captain Salman Butt received 30 months, fast bowler Mohammad Asif received one year in jail and Mohammad Aamer (19) was jailed for six months.
    (AFP, 11/3/11)

2011        Nov 4, British Airways owner IAG said it has agreed to buy Lufthansa's UK unit bmi in a bid to squeeze more growth from its capacity constrained Heathrow hub and expand services to emerging markets in Asia and Latin America.
    (Reuters, 11/4/11)

2011        Nov 4, At least seven people were killed and 51 injured, in one of the biggest British motorway crashes in decades, with an inferno burning vehicles to cinders on the M5 near Taunton. Police expected the death toll to rise. Police said smoke from a fireworks display may be linked to the 34-car pile-up.
    (AFP, 11/5/11)(AP, 11/6/11)

2011        Nov 6, Miss Venezuela, Ivian Sarcos, was crowned the 2011 winner of the Miss World beauty pageant at a glittering final ceremony in London.
    (AFP, 11/7/11)

2011        Nov 7, US electricals retailer Best Buy Co Inc said it is buying its British partner, Carphone Warehouse Group Plc, out of a fast-growing US mobile phone joint venture for $1.3 billion (809.4 million pounds) and scrapping plans for a chain of European megastores. Best Buy and Carphone Warehouse said they are launching a mobile phone venture with Best Buy's Chinese partner Five Star and are in talks to enter other emerging markets together.
    (Reuters, 11/7/11)

2011        Nov 8, A French court ruled that the News of the World had violated the privacy of former world motorsport chief Max Mosley when it published photographs of him in a sadomasochistic orgy. The court fined Rupert Murdoch's News Group, publisher of the now-defunct tabloid, 10,000 euros ($13,800) and ordered it to pay 7,000 euros in damages for violating Mosley's privacy, but said there was no defamation. Mosley (71) had already won a case in a British court against News Group, after the News of the World published a front-page story in March 2008 entitled "F1 boss has sick Nazi orgy with 5 hookers."
    (AFP, 11/8/11)
2011        Nov 8, Indonesian police said they had arrested a British-born man accused of molesting nine children following a tip-off from authorities in Britain. The 61-year-old man, who became an Indonesian citizen after changing his nationality, was also allegedly involved in an online child pornography network.
    (AFP, 11/8/11)

2011        Nov 9, Thousands of students marched through London in the latest display of anger against the government's austerity measures, with large numbers of police aiming to prevent a repeat of violence and rioting seen last year.
    (Reuters, 11/9/11)
2011        Nov 9, An independent report recommended the Ealing Abbey monastery should no longer be allowed to run St. Benedict's School, a London Roman Catholic school where pupils were physically and sexually abused over several decades. Former St. Benedict's headmaster, the Rev. David Pearce, was jailed in 2009 for abusing boys at the school over a 35-year period.
    (AP, 11/9/11)

2011        Nov 11, A British judge sentenced Steven Cardwell, a British man, to at least 11 years in prison for selling handguns smuggled into the country by Steven Greenoe, a former US Marine.
    (AP, 11/11/11)

2011        Nov 15, The City of London Corporation said that it will resume legal action to clear an anti-capitalist camp outside St Paul's Cathedral.
    (AFP, 11/15/11)
2011        Nov 15, Europe's top court barred Britain from enacting a corporate tax reform in its tiny territory of Gibraltar, ruling the scheme would amount to illegal state aid for offshore companies.
    (AFP, 11/15/11)
2011        Nov 15, Nigerian airport officials fined British Airways $135 million and Virgin Atlantic $100 million amid a dispute over ticket prices. The airlines were given 14 days to respond and were ordered to compensate passengers. In 2012 a panel "cancelled the fines because at the time of the offence between 2004 and 2006, there was no law to make them culpable."
    (AFP, 11/17/11)(AFP, 2/10/12)

2011        Nov 16, London officials attached eviction notices to protest tents outside St. Paul's Cathedral, asking the demonstrators to remove them within a day or face legal action. More than 200 tents have been pitched outside the iconic church since Oct. 15 in a protest against capitalist excess inspired by New York's Occupy Wall Street, and the protesters said they would resist attempts to move them.
    (AP, 11/16/11)

2011        Nov 17, The Northern Rock bank, nationalized at the height of the global financial crisis in 2008, was sold to Richard Branson's Virgin Money at a loss for British taxpayers. The government agreed to sell Northern Rock to online lender Virgin Money for £747 million ($1.18 billion, 872 million euros) in cash, although the final amount could rise to about £1.0 billion.
    (AFP, 11/17/11)

2011        Nov 18, Protesters facing a legal battle over the right to stay camped outside St. Paul's Cathedral said they have taken over a building owned by the UBS bank in east London.
    (AP, 11/18/11)
2011        Nov 18, In London Munir Patel (22), the first person to be convicted under new bribery laws, was jailed. He was given three years in prison for bribery offences and six years for misconduct in a public office, with the sentences to run concurrently. Patel had helped at least 53 individuals evade prosecution for driving offences.
    (AP, 11/18/11)
2011        Nov 18, India's Reliance Industries and British giant BP announced the creation of an equal joint venture firm to source and market natural gas in India.
    (AFP, 11/18/11)

2011        Nov 20, Eighteen Church of England bishops have signed an open letter published on Sunday criticizing planned welfare reforms, in a rare intervention by the religious establishment in politics. The bishops said that plans to cap the amount any household can claim in benefits at £500 ($790, 580 euros) a week risked pushing vulnerable children into poverty.
    (AFP, 11/20/11)

2011        Nov 21, Britainís PM David Cameron and deputy PM Nick Clegg launched a scheme to support first-time home buyers through a scheme enabling them to take out 95% mortgages. They will pledged an extra £50 million on top of the £100 million from this year's budget towards an initiative to refurbish empty homes.
    (AFP, 11/21/11)

2011        Nov 22, A British court ruled in favor of a group of more than 100 Iraqi civilians who have demanded a new public inquiry into allegations of torture against British soldiers. Some 128 Iraqis claim torture and inhuman and degrading treatment by British soldiers and interrogators in Iraq between March 2003 and December 2008.
    (AFP, 11/22/11)
2011        Nov 22, A British soldier was reported killed by an explosion in Afghanistan while on patrol in Central Helmand province.
    (AFP, 11/22/11)
2011        Nov 22, In Malaysia former US president George W Bush and British ex-prime minister Tony Blair were found guilty at a mock tribunal for committing "crimes against peace" during the Iraq war. The Kuala Lumpur War Crimes Tribunal, part of an initiative by former Malaysian premier Mahathir Mohamad, a fierce critic of the Iraq war, found the former leaders guilty after a four-day hearing.
    (AFP, 11/22/11)

2011        Nov 24, Uganda ruled that Heritage Oil must pay a $404 million tax bill, dismissing an appeal by the UK-listed company. Heritage argues it is not liable to pay tax in the country on the $1.45 billion sale last year of stakes in two oil blocks in western Uganda to Anglo-Irish firm Tullow Oil. Uganda in March allowed Tullow to sell two-thirds of its Uganda interests to France's Total and China's CNOOC in a $2.9 billion deal, after Tullow agreed to pay over $300 million as security against Heritage's unpaid taxes.
    (AFP, 11/24/11)

2011        Nov 25, Britainís Deputy PM Nick Clegg unveiled a £1 billion youth contract to create hundreds of thousands of work and training placements for jobless youngsters.
    (AFP, 11/25/11)
2011        Nov 25, The British government published its new Cyber Security Strategy, setting out how the UK will support economic prosperity, protect national security and safeguard the publicís way of life by building a more trusted and resilient digital environment.

2011        Nov 26, Britainís Finance Ministry said it plans to spend an extra 600 million pounds on so-called "free schools" outside municipal control over the next three years.
    (Reuters, 11/26/11)

2011        Nov 27, The Swanland cargo ship, with eight people on board, sank in the Irish Sea. It was carrying thousands of tons of limestone and five people remain missing off the coast of north Wales.
    (AP, 11/27/11)
2011        Nov 27, Ken Russell (b.1927), British director of "Women in Love" (1969) and "The Devils" (1971), died. His biggest commercial success came three years later with "Tommy," an adaptation of The Who's rock opera.
    (AP, 11/28/11)
2011        Nov 27, Iran's parliament voted on expel the British ambassador in retaliation for fresh Western sanctions over Tehran's nuclear program and warned that other countries could also be punished. The bill now has to go to the Guardians Council for approval.
    (AFP, 11/27/11)

2011        Nov 28, Iran enacted legislation to downgrade relations with Britain in retaliation for intensified sanctions imposed last week by Western nations for their suspected nuclear development program.
    (SFC, 11/29/11, p.A2)

2011        Nov 29, Three-quarters of British-grown oysters contain norovirus, a bug which causes diarrhea and vomiting, according to new research published by the Food Standards Agency (FSA).
    (AFP, 11/29/11)
2011        Nov 29, Hard-line Iranian students stormed British diplomatic sites in Tehran, bringing down the Union Jack flag, burning an embassy vehicle and throwing documents from windows in scenes reminiscent of the seizing of the US compound in 1979.
    (AP, 11/29/11)

2011        Nov 30, Britain's foreign secretary ordered all Iranian diplomats out of the UK within 48 hours following attacks on the British embassy and a residential compound in Tehran. The ransacked embassy in Tehran was shuttered.
    (AP, 11/30/11)(SFC, 12/1/11, p.A3)
2011        Nov 30, Britainís biggest carbon capture (CC) pilot plant began siphoning emissions from SSE's 490 megawatt coal-fired station at Ferrybridge, West Yorkshire, in the latest effort to prove the technology on an industrial scale.
    (Reuters, 11/30/11)

2011        Nov 30, Amid fears of a eurozone collapse, central banks of the United States, the eurozone, Britain, Japan, Canada and Switzerland said that they would cut the cost of providing dollars to banks. The move pushed the DJIA up 490 points, its biggest gain since March 2009.
    (AFP, 12/1/11)(SFC, 12/1/11, p.D1)

2011        Dec 1, Britainís navy arrested 7 suspected pirates after a helicopter chase off the coast of Somalia. A Spanish fishing vessel had come under attack by a group of pirate vessels.
    (SFC, 12/2/11, p.A2)

2011        Dec 2, Britainís PM David Cameron held emergency talks with French President Nicolas Sarkozy, while France and Germany tried to drum up support for a new EU treaty to enforce budget discipline.
    (AFP, 12/2/11)
2011        Dec 2, Royal Bank of Scotland said it has sold its 918 tenanted pubs in Britain to Dutch brewer Heineken for 422 million pounds, another step in its exit from non-core businesses following a government bailout.
    (Reuters, 12/2/11)
2011        Dec 2, Christopher Logue (85), English poet, died.
    (Econ, 12/17/11, p.166)
2011        Dec 2, Spanish police said they have arrested L. Morris (66), a British man, suspected of raping his step-daughter when she was nine years old and years later abusing her daughter as well. He had moved to Spain from Kent where the alleged rapes took place.
    (AFP, 12/2/11)

2011        Dec 3, The London-based Iranian and Kurdish Women's Rights Organization (IKWRO) reported that more than 2,800 so-called honor attacks, punishments for bringing shame on the family, were recorded by Britain's police in 2010.
    (AFP, 12/3/11)

2011        Dec 4, Black Mirror, a British science fiction television anthology series, was released. It was created by Charlie Brooker and centered around dark and satirical themes that examine modern society, particularly with regard to the unanticipated consequences of new technologies.
    (https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Black_Mirror)(Econ, 2/11/17, SR p.6)

2011        Dec 5, WikiLeaks founder Julian Assange was granted permission to apply to England's highest court in his year-long battle to block his extradition to Sweden over rape and sexual assault allegations.
    (AFP, 12/5/11)
2011        Dec 5, Scottish artist Martin Boyce (44), whose works include a modernist reworking of a library table and artificial trees, won Britain's Turner Prize at a ceremony in Gateshead, north-east England.
    (AFP, 12/5/11)

2011        Dec 7, Scotland Yard said Ilir Nazmi Kumbaro (58), a former Albanian intelligence chief, is on the run after failing to attend a Dec 1 extradition hearing in Britain over charges of torture and kidnap in his homeland.
    (AFP, 12/7/11)

2011        Dec 8, Britainís Defense Secretary Philip Hammond announced that women will be allowed to serve on British navy submarines, with female officers taking up roles from late 2013.
    (AFP, 12/8/11)
2011        Dec 8, British ministers ordered an urgent inquiry into England's exam system, after undercover reporters recorded examiners advising teachers on what questions were likely to come up.
    (AFP, 12/8/11)

2011        Dec 9, The EU said that 26 of its 27 member countries are open to joining a new treaty tying their finances together to solve the euro crisis. Only Britain remained opposed, creating a deep rift in the union. Britain's leaders argued that the revised treaty would threaten their national sovereignty and damage London's financial services industry.
    (AP, 12/9/11)

2011        Dec 10, British police said the final number of victims of phone hacking by Rupert Murdoch's News of the World will be around 800 people, far fewer than originally thought.
    (AFP, 12/10/11)
2011        Dec 10, Bob Diamond, the chief executive of Barclays bank, described in a published interview how he has introduced a "no jerks rule" to weed out bankers he considers too greedy or ostentatious. He also said pay for investment bankers at Barclays will be lower this year but the actual level has yet to be set.
    (AFP, 12/10/11)(Reuters, 12/10/11)
2011        Dec 10, It was reported that British researchers have successfully treated 6 patients suffering from the blood clotting disease known as hemophilia B, by injecting them with the correct form of the defective gene, Factor IX.
    (SSFC, 12/11/11, p.A5)
2011        Dec 10, Police in London arrested 143 people during an angry demonstration by up to 500 people against the re-election of President Joseph Kabila in the Democratic Republic of Congo.
    (AFP, 12/10/11)

2011        Dec 13, European Commission chief Jose Manuel Barroso said that a demand by Britain for its financial services industry to be exempted from EU regulation threatened to break up the single market.
    (AFP, 12/13/11)

2011        Dec 16, England's highest court granted WikiLeaks founder Julian Assange permission  to appeal against his extradition to Sweden to face rape allegations, setting the hearing for February 1.
    (AFP, 12/16/11)

2011        Dec 18, Donald Neilson (b.1936), one of Britain's most notorious serial killers, died. He was known as the Black Panther, whose savage murder of Lesley Whittle (17), a teenage heiress, repulsed the nation in 1975.
    (AP, 12/19/11)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Donald_Neilson)

2011        Dec 20, British treasury minister Danny Alexander said the government has reached a tentative deal on pension reform with most public sector unions, easing fears of further strikes after a mass walkout over the issue last month.
    (Reuters, 12/20/11)
2011        Dec 20, The South American trading bloc Mercosur -- which includes Brazil, Argentina and Uruguay -- agreed to close its ports to ships flying the flag of the British-controlled Falkland Islands.
    (AFP, 12/23/11)

2011        Dec 21, Finnish officials said they have found around 160 tons of explosives and 69 surface-to-air Patriot missiles on a cargo ship bearing a British flag and ultimately destined for China. They didn't know the origin of the missiles or who was supposed to receive them.
    (AP, 12/21/11)

2011        Dec 26, In London thousands of shoppers seeking post-Christmas bargains were delayed, but not deterred, by a subway strike that shut down parts of the network. Seydou Diarrassouba (18), was stabbed to death in front of horrified shoppers during a fight between two groups of youths on London's Oxford Street. 11 people were arrested the next day in relation to the fatal stabbing. 3 more people were arrested on Dec 31.
    (AP, 12/26/11)(AFP, 12/28/11)(AFP, 12/31/11)
2011        Dec 26, A British-registered ship, the M/S Thor Liberty, held in a Finnish port after authorities discovered 69 surface-to-air missiles and 160 tons of explosives onboard, received permission to travel again, but without those materials or its captain. The Patriot missiles were an official shipment from Germany to South Korea. Finnish authorities said the explosives were a legitimate shipment for China, but the missiles lacked proper transit documents, and the explosives weren't safely stored. On Jan 4 the Finnish government authorized the transport.
    (AP, 12/26/11)(AP, 1/4/12)
2011        Dec 26, Anuj Bidve (23), an Indian student, was gunned down at point blank range as he walked with friends near their hotel in Salford, England. A boy (17) was soon arrested on suspicion of murder after a warrant was executed in the Salford area. 4 more people, including 2 teens, were soon arrested in relation to the murder. On Dec 2 Kiaran Stapleton (20), accused of the shooting, identified himself in court as ďPsycho Stapleton." On July 26, 2012, Stapleton was convicted of murder. The next day he was sentenced to life in prison.
    (AFP, 12/27/11)(Reuters, 12/26/11)(AP, 12/28/11)(AFP, 12/29/11)(AFP, 1/2/12)(AFP, 7/27/12)

2011        Dec 30, In Britain administrator Deloitte said around 1,600 jobs are to go at shoe retailer Barratts Priceless after attempts to find a buyer for the concessions business failed. The Bradford-based Barratts collapsed into administration earlier this month.
    (Reuters, 12/30/11)

2011        Dec 31, Britain's biggest cosmetic surgery chain revealed that rupture rates on allegedly faulty French-made breast implants are seven times higher than previously thought.
    (AFP, 1/1/12)

2011        Peter Ackroyd, London writer, authored ďLondon Underground: The Secret History Beneath the Streets."
    (SSFC, 11/13/11, p.F8)
2011        British entrepreneur Sir Richard Branson authored ďScrew Business As Usual."
    (Econ, 12/3/11, p.104)
2011        Henry Hitchings authored ďThe Language Wars: A History of Proper English."
    (Econ, 3/12/11, p.100)
2011        A new British law allowed police to collect DNA from offenders who had been convicted of serious offenses before the DNA database was created in 1995. Europe's top human rights court in 2008 struck down a British law that allowed the government to store DNA and fingerprints from people with no criminal record.
    (AP, 1/16/13)
2011        Manchester, England, and its nine metropolitan neighbors formed the greater Manchester Combined Authority (GMCA).
    (Econ, 9/27/14, p.56)
2011        Schmallenberg virus - named after the German town where it was first detected - infected sheep and cows on at least 2,600 farms in eight EU countries in 2011. In 2013 British farmers became the first in Europe to get a new vaccine, made by Merck, against the virus.
    (Reuters, 5/20/13)

2012        Jan 1, A British man (40) is suspected of shooting dead three female members of his own family before turning the gun on himself in Horden, County Durham, on a New Year's Day rampage.
    (AFP, 1/2/12)
2012        Jan 1, In Britain a woman's body was found in a forest at Anmer at the vast rural estate in Norfolk where Queen Elizabeth II and her family celebrated New Year's. Forensic tests later identified the decomposed body as that of Latvian Alisa Dmitrijeva (17), who was reported missing from her home in eastern England in August.
    (AP, 1/3/12)(AP, 1/8/12)

2012        Jan 4, British engineers battled to restore electricity to thousands of homes after fierce storms battered the UK, killing two men and causing widespread travel chaos.
    (AFP, 1/4/12)
2012        Jan 4, British company Everything Everywhere said it is launching a mobile virtual network in Britain in partnership with telecoms giant China Telecom, targeting Chinese residents and visitors.
    (AFP, 1/4/12)

2012        Jan 6, In London Rebekah Brooks (47), a long-serving personal assistant to the former Rupert Murdoch, was arrested by police investigating phone hacking. She was the 17th person to be arrested as part of Operation Weeting.
    (Reuters, 1/6/12)
2012        Jan 6, City of London police said that Michael Brown, a fugitive multimillionaire fraudster, has been detained in the Dominican Republic and that British authorities would be seeking his return to the U.K. to serve his sentence. Four former clients, including an ex-chairman of Manchester United football club, had accused Brown of duping them out of about 40 million pounds ($62 million). Brown was sentenced in his absence to seven years in jail in 2008 after he was convicted of fraud. On April 21 Brown was deported to Spain.
    (AP, 1/6/12)(AFP, 4/22/12)
2012        Jan 6, French President Nicolas Sarkozy vowed to push ahead with a new tax on financial transactions, also known as a Tobin tax, even without France's EU partners, in the face of stiff British resistance. The EU's executive European Commission adopted plans last September for a financial transaction tax under which stock and bond trades would be taxed at the rate of 0.1 percent, with derivatives taxed at 0.01 percent.
    (Reuters, 1/8/12)

2012        Jan 7, British developers said they are planning to create a luxury holiday resort in rural Wales designed specifically for Chinese tourists, with the aim of bringing 20,000 to the country each year.
    (AFP, 1/7/12)

2012        Jan 8, Britainís PM David Cameron said he would veto a European-wide financial transaction tax unless it was imposed globally, deepening a confrontation with European Union heavyweights France and Germany. Cameron also suggested that legislation to curb excessive executive pay, including giving shareholders new voting powers, could be set out in the spring.
    (Reuters, 1/8/12)

2012        Jan 9, Britainís PM David Cameron said Scotland should hold an independence referendum as early as 2013, clashing with the SNP which does not want to hold a one before autumn 2014 - the 700th anniversary of the Battle of Bannockburn.
    (Reuters, 2/16/12)
2012        Jan 9, Britons were urged to avoid drinking alcohol for at least two days a week to protect their health, a committee of MPs said in a report published today.
    (Reuters, 1/9/12)
2012        Jan 9, Richard Branson's Virgin Money opened its first bank branch in northeast England. Northern Rock was sold in November to Virgin Money for £747 million ($1.18 billion, 872 million euros) in cash.
    (AFP, 1/9/12)

2012        Jan 10, A British court annulled the bankruptcy of Sean Quinn (64), once the Republic of Ireland's richest man, in a victory for Irish Bank Resolution Corporation which has been pursuing debts of up to 2.9 billion euros (2.4 billion pounds). He had turned a rural quarrying operation into a 4 billion euro fortune before running up a large stake in the now failed Anglo Irish Bank. Quinn made the bankruptcy declaration in November, taking advantage of British laws which would have allowed him to go back into business in under a year.
    (Reuters, 1/10/12)
2012        Jan 10, The British government approved the construction of a high-speed rail network linking London with cities in central and northern England from 2026 at a cost of almost £33 billion.
    (AFP, 1/10/12)
2012        Jan 10, The British government set out conditions under which Scotland would be allowed to hold a referendum - limiting it to a single yes-or-no question and rejecting a second question on greater powers of devolution.
    (Reuters, 2/16/12)

2012        Jan 11, In England the body of Oxford Professor Steven Rawlings (50) was found at the home of his friend Dr Devinder Sivia (49) after a neighbor called police to report an incident. Sivia, a maths lecturer, was arrested on suspicion of murder.
    (Reuters, 1/13/12)
2012        Jan 11, In Birmingham, England, Avtar and Carole Kolar were found dead at their home in Handsworth Wood having suffered blunt force trauma to the head in an apparent bungled burglary. On Jan 16 Rimvydas Liorancas (37) from Lithuania was arrested for the murders. On Jan 28 Liorancas was found hanged at Woodhill prison in Milton Keynes.
    (AFP, 1/31/12)

2012        Jan 12, A Turkish court files charges against Britainís Duchess of York for secretly filming orphanages in the country in 2008 for a British TV program.
    (SFC, 1/13/12, p.A2)

2012        Jan 13, British PM David Cameron held talks with Saudi King Abdullah in Riyadh.
    (AFP, 1/13/12)
2012        Jan 13, Christopher Tappin (64), a retired British businessman, lost a High Court battle against extradition to the United States on charges of conspiring to sell batteries for surface-to-air missiles to Iran. Tappin has said he believed he was exporting batteries for the car industry in the Netherlands.
    (AFP, 1/13/12)
2012        Jan 13, A British court ruled that Richard O'Dwyer (23), a student at Sheffield Hallam University, can be extradited to the US to answer copyright infringement allegations. He had created a website allowing people to watch films and TV shows for free. After O'Dwyer was arrested in London in November 2010, he admitted to police that he owned TVShack.net and TVShack.cc and earned about £15,000 (18,000 euros, $23,000) a month from online advertising.
    (AFP, 1/14/12)
2012        Jan 13, British store owner Peter Avis (66) was killed at his home above his Collis and Son shop in Bury St Edmunds, Suffolk. In February suspect, Pytor Malaniuk, was detained during a police raid in the eastern Polish city of Biala Podlaska.
    (AFP, 2/21/12)

2012        Jan 15, Britain's foreign secretary William Hague said that European nations will intensify pressure on Iran over its nuclear program, but insisted the West wasn't pressing for military action.
    (AP, 1/15/12)

2012        Jan 16, Britain's deputy prime minister Nick Clegg accused Israel of carrying out "deliberate vandalism" by continuing to build settlements on land the Palestinians hope will form part of a future state.
    (AP, 1/16/12)

2012        Jan 17, Britain announced defense cuts. Around 400 of Nepalese Gurkha fighters will lose their jobs as part of the cuts, which will see more than 4,000 posts slashed from the armed forces in total.
    (AFP, 1/17/12)
2012        Jan 17, Britain said it has signed deals with China to research stem cells and smart grids, after Chancellor of the Exchequer George Osborne held 2-day talks with officials in Beijing aimed at attracting investment.
    (AFP, 1/17/12)
2012        Jan 17, The European Court of Human Rights blocked Britain from extraditing Abu Qatada (aka Omar Mohammed Othman), an alleged top aide of Osama bin Laden to Jordan, saying evidence against him may have been obtained through torture.
    (AFP, 1/17/12)

2012        Jan 18, Britainís High Court in London approved a bid by authorities to evict anti-capitalist protesters from outside St Paul's Cathedral. Dozens of protesters from the Occupy London movement have been camping outside St Paul's since October.
    (Reuters, 1/18/12)

2012        Jan 19, Britainís PM David Cameron said bonuses in the financial services sector have "got out of control" in recent years, adding cash payments at state-backed banks would again be limited to 2,000 pounds.
    (Reuters, 1/19/12)
2012        Jan 19, In London a $6 billion (3.8 billion pound) lawsuit between two of Russia's best-known tycoons ended after a four-month High Court hearing. Former Kremlin insider Boris Berezovsky (65) claimed he was extorted into handing the crown jewel of his business empire to Roman Abramovich (45), the billionaire owner of Chelsea football club. A ruling was expected at the end of March or in early April.
    (AP, 1/20/12)

2012        Jan 20, British authorities revoked the license of Press TV, the Iranian state broadcaster's English-language outlet, saying the channel had breached a string of regulations.
    (AFP, 1/20/12)

2012        Jan 21, Anti-capitalist protesters said they have taken over a large building in the City of London financial district. Occupy London publicly repossessed Roman House, an abandoned nine-storey office building in the Barbican. They left the premises later in the day after a request from contractors employed by the building's owners.
    (AFP, 1/21/12)(AFP, 1/22/12)

2012        Jan 22, British author Salman Rushdie accused Indian police of making up an underworld plot to assassinate him that forced him to pull out of a literary festival this weekend.
    (AFP, 1/22/12)

2012        Jan 23, A British court heard that Turkish-Cypriot business magnate Asil Nadir (70), one of Britain's most infamous fugitives, stole almost £150 million from his Polly Peck business empire. Nadir fled to northern Cyprus in 1993, months before he was due to stand trial for fraud, but dramatically returned to Britain in August 2010 and was immediately arrested.
    (AFP, 1/23/12)
2012        Jan 23, British adventurer Felicity Aston (34) finished her Antarctic crossing, becoming the first woman to ski across the icy continent alone.
    (AP, 1/23/12)
2012        Jan 23, Martin Smith (46), a former TV psychic from North Shields, was found dead at HMP Manchester, formerly Strangeways Prison. Smith was jailed for 16 years in March 2011 after being found guilty of a string of offences including rape, attempted rape and indecent assault. His wife Lianne Smith (43) faced murder charges for the deaths of their 2 children in a hotel in Spain in 2010.
    (AFP, 1/25/12)

2012        Jan 24, The Coryton refinery in Essex, one of Britain's largest oil refineries halted sales, casting doubt over the future of 1,000 jobs and putting petrol supplies at risk. Petroplus, its Swiss owner, said it would file for insolvency. It had bought the refinery from BP in 2007.
    (AFP, 1/24/12)

2012        Jan 25, Scotlandís first minister, Alex Salmond, announced the wording of a referendum on the nationís independence, scheduled for the autumn of 2014, in a consultation document. His wording kept open the option maximum self-government.
    (Econ, 1/28/12, p.57)

2012        Jan 27, A paralyzed British man who wants to die won the first round in his legal battle, when the High Court ruled his lawyers won't be prosecuted if they seek out experts to help him commit suicide.
    (AP, 1/27/12)

2012        Jan 28, British police searched the offices of Rupert Murdoch's British newspapers after arresting a police officer and four current and former staff of his tabloid The Sun as part of an investigation into police bribery by journalists.
    (AP, 1/28/12)

2012        Jan 31, Britain stripped Fred Goodwin, the former head of Royal Bank of Scotland, of his knighthood. He had steered one of Britain's largest banks to near collapse with the catastrophic buyout of a Dutch bank, a disaster that helped bring on the global financial crisis.
    (Reuters, 2/1/12)

2012        Feb 1, Four British Islamists - Mohammed Chowdhury (21), Shah Rahman (28), and brothers Gurukanth Desai (30) and Abdul Miah (25), inspired by a former Al-Qaeda leader Anwar al-Awlaqi, admitted in court to plotting to blow up the London Stock Exchange in 2010.
    (AFP, 2/1/12)

2012        Feb 3, Britainís Energy Secretary Chris Huhne resigned after learning he would face criminal charges for allegedly lying to police, a fall from grace that could tweak the dynamics of the coalition government and weaken its environmental agenda. Huhne's troubles stemmed from an allegation that after committing a speeding offence in 2003 in Essex, east of London, he asked his then wife Vicky Pryce to take the blame so he would not lose his driving license.
    (Reuters, 2/3/12)

2012        Feb 5, Britainís Heathrow Airport cut around half of the 1,300 flights scheduled for today after snow and freezing temperatures hit much of England a day earlier.
    (Reuters, 2/5/12)
2012        Feb 5, Mark Thompson, director-general of the BBC, said Iranian authorities are increasingly arresting and threatening the families of BBC journalists to force them to quit its Persian news service.
    (Reuters, 2/5/12)

2012        Feb 6, A British appeals court ordered the government to release radical Muslim cleric Omar Mahmoud Mohammed Othman, aka Abu Qatada, arrested in 2002 on suspicion of inciting terrorism. On Feb 13 Qatada was freed from prison and put under virtual house arrest.
    (SFC, 2/7/12, p.A2)(SFC, 2/14/12, p.A2)

2012        Feb 7, Argentina's Pres. Cristina Fernandez accused Britain of "militarizing the South Atlantic" and said she would complain to the UN, as tension rises ahead of the 30th anniversary of the Falklands war.
    (Reuters, 2/8/12)

2012        Feb 8, The Trident Gang Crime Command, a new specialist Metropolitan Police Service (MPS) unit tackling London gangs, carried out hundreds of raids exactly six months on from the riots that hit the capital, arresting nearly 160 people.
    (AFP, 2/8/12)

2012        Feb 9, A British judge sent 9 British Muslims men to prison with sentences of 5-16 years for plots to bomb the London Stock Exchange in 2010.
    (SFC, 2/10/12, p.A2)

2012        Feb 10, Mayor Boris Johnson said London will be the first city in England to test electronic monitoring to force persistent alcohol offenders to stop drinking. The trial program was expected to start later this year. Electronic devices which continuously monitor alcohol are used in several US states. Offenders who break their no-drink order can be sent to jail.
    (AP, 2/10/12)
2012        Feb 10, Judge Duncan Ouseley ruled in London's High Court: "The saying of prayers as part of the formal meeting of a council is not lawful under section 111 of the Local Government Act 1972, and there is no statutory power permitting the practice to continue." The legal challenge was launched in July 2010 after the National Secular Society was contacted by Clive Bone, a non-believer who was then a councilor in Bideford.
    (AFP, 2/10/12)
2012        Feb 10, Argentina accused Britain of sending nuclear weapons to the disputed Falkland islands, while UN leader Ban Ki-moon appealed to both sides to avoid an "escalation" of their sovereignty battle.
    (AFP, 2/10/12)

2012        Feb 11, Britain's biggest-selling tabloid newspaper, The Sun, was fighting to contain the damage after five of its employees were arrested in an inquiry into the alleged payment of bribes to police and other officials. A 39-year-old female employee at Britain's defense ministry, a 36-year-old male member of the armed forces and a 39-year-old serving police officer with Surrey Police, were also arrested in an early morning raid.
    (AP, 2/11/12)

2012        Feb 12, Black-and-white turned to gold as silent movie "The Artist" won seven BAFTA awards including best film at a ceremony in London, raising expectations of a strong showing at the Academy Awards. Meryl Streep clinched the leading actress prize for her portrayal of former British PM Margaret Thatcher both as a politician at the height of her power and as a frail elderly lady suffering from dementia, in "The Iron Lady."
    (Reuters, 2/13/12)
2012        Feb 12, The 54th Grammy Awards were held in Los Angeles. British singer Adele won every award she was up for including Album of the year for ď21" and Record of the year for ďRolling in the Deep."
    (SFC, 2/13/12, p.D1)

2012        Feb 14, British Rev. John Suddards' body was discovered by workmen at the vicarage in Thornbury, about 125 miles (200 km) west of London. Police said he was stabbed multiple times in his home. On Feb 19 Kent Police said that suspect Stephen Farrow (47) was detained overnight in Folkestone, near the major port town of Dover. Farrow was also suspected in the murder of Betty Yates, a retired teacher, on January 2. The body of a young man was also found at the house where Farrow was arrested.
    (AP, 2/19/12)(AFP, 2/23/12)
2012        Feb 14, Italian prosecutors asked the country's highest criminal court to reinstate the murder convictions of American Amanda Knox and her former boyfriend in the brutal slaying of a British student.
    (AP, 2/14/12)

2012        Feb 15, Official data showed that Britain's unemployment rate hit a 16-month peak in the three months to December, while the number of people claiming jobless benefits struck the highest total in two years.
    (AFP, 2/15/12)

2012        Feb 16, Britainís PM David Cameron, on a trip to meet first minister Alex Salmond in Edinburgh, made an impassioned plea to the Scots to remain within the United Kingdom, offering instead more devolved power.
    (Reuters, 2/16/12)

2012        Feb 17, In France British PM David Cameron and French President Nicolas Sarkozy put recent disputes behind them to unveil a nuclear power deal and renew their own sometimes shaky political alliance. Cameron said the British engineering firm Rolls-Royce will secure a £400 million (481 million euro, $632 million) share in the work to build Britain's first French-pioneered EPR reactor at Hinkley Point in southern England.
    (AFP, 2/17/12)
2012        Feb 17, France and Britain pledged to help the Syrian opposition in its struggle against Bashar al-Assad's regime but said conditions were not right for a foreign intervention as in Libya. Pres. Sarkozy urged anti-Assad forces to unite and be better organized.
    (AFP, 2/17/12)

2012        Feb 19, In northern France a coach taking 47 British holidaymakers home from a school skiing trip rolled into a ditch, killing a teacher and injuring 23 people.
    (AFP, 2/19/12)

2012        Feb 20, The British government staged a "drought summit" to decide what action to take as low rainfall in recent months means large areas of Britain will face drought this year.
    (AFP, 2/20/12)

2012        Feb 21, Britainís Deputy PM Nick Clegg unveiled a £126 million fund to focus on the "ticking time bomb" of young people who are not in employment, education or training.
    (AFP, 2/21/12)
2012        Feb 21, The Brit Awards cut off singer Adele's speech as she accepted the main prize of the ceremony, a move which prompted the singer to raise her middle finger at the crowd. The organizers apologized in a statement after the event.
    (AFP, 2/22/12)
2012        Feb 21, A senior Tata executive said Indiaís Tata Motors has selected a partner to build an assembly plant for its luxury British car brands Jaguar and Land Rover in China.
    (AFP, 2/21/12)
2012        Feb 21, Libyaís leader Mustafa Abdul-Jalil acknowledged that his government is powerless to control militias that are refusing to lay down their arms after ousting Moammar Khadafy. The Swehli militia of Misrata, which also operates in Tripoli, seized Nicholas Davies and Gareth Montgomery-Johnson while they were reportedly filming in the capital. The two British journalists, working for Iran's English-Language Press TV, were being held for illegal entry and possible espionage. On March 18 deputy interior minister Omar al-Khadrawi said the men had committed no crime and were free to leave Libya.
    (SFC, 2/22/12, p.A4)(http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/uk-wales-17260958)(AFP, 3/20/12)
2012        Feb 21, Malaysia's Home Ministry said in a statement that bookstores were no longer allowed to sell "Where did I come from?" by British author Peter Mayle pending a review.
    (AFP, 2/21/12)

2012        Feb 22, Occupy London protesters braced for eviction after a court ruled that local authorities can remove their four-month-old camp from outside St. Paul's Cathedral.
    (AP, 2/22/12)

2012        Feb 24, A British legal filing indicated that fugitive oligarch Mukhtar Ablyazov (48), accused of embezzling at least $5.0 billion (3.2 billion pounds) from his former Kazakh bank BTA, is believed to have fled Britain on a coach bound for France to escape a jail sentence for contempt of court.
    (Reuters, 2/24/12)
2012        Feb 24, Christopher Tappin (65), a retired British businessman, arrived in the United States after failing to overturn an extradition order. He was accused of plotting to sell missile components to Iran.
    (AP, 2/24/12)

2012        Feb 26, Rupert Murdoch's Sun tabloid hit British news stands, replacing the defunct News of the World with a pledge to meet high ethical standards after a "challenging" chapter in its history. Inside, an editorial titled "A new Sun rises today" said the newspaper was appointing a so-called Readers' Champion to deal with complaints and correct errors, while also vowing that its journalists would be ethical.
    (AFP, 2/26/12)

2012        Feb 27, James Ibori (49), former governor of Nigeria's oil-rich Delta state, pleaded guilty in a British court to charges of money-laundering, conspiring to defraud and obtaining a money transfer by fraud.
    (AP, 2/27/12)

2012        Feb 28, British police and bailiffs cleared an anti-capitalist camp from outside St Paul's cathedral in London, ending a four-month protest which resonated with Britons angered by huge bonuses awarded to bankers during an economic slowdown.
    (Reuters, 2/28/12)
2012        Feb 28, Argentina's Industry Minister Debora Giorgi called on firms importing British products to buy substitute goods elsewhere, amid rising tension over the disputed Falkland islands.
    (AFP, 2/29/12)

2012        Feb 29, Britain accused Argentina of pursuing a "policy of confrontation" over the disputed Falkland Islands after the country's industry minister called for a block on British imports.
    (AFP, 2/29/12)
2012        Feb 29, In Britain, the world's oldest running nuclear reactor shut down at Oldbury-on-Severn after 44 years of operation, starting the countdown to 2025, by when a new nuclear station is expected to open on a site just a few hundred meters away.
    (Reuters, 2/29/12)

2012        Feb 29, Britain withdrew its diplomatic staff from Syria because of a growing risk to their safety.
    (AFP, 3/1/12)

2012        Mar 1, Britainís Financial Services Authority (FSA) regulator said 3 people have been arrested and are being held in custody in relation to an insider-dealing investigation.
    (Reuters, 3/1/12)

2012        Mar 2, Norman St John-Stevas (82), a gay British academic and Conservative politician died.
    (Econ, 3/10/12, p.70)

2012        Mar 6, The limbless and headless torso of Gemma McCluskie (29) was found when a member of the public reported a suspicious object floating close to a market in Hackney, east London. She was a former actress in the BBC's top soap opera "EastEnders" (2001) and had gone missing on March 1. On March 10 Tony McCluskie (35) was charged with killing his sister.
    (AFP, 3/9/12)(AFP, 3/10/12)

2012        Mar 7, In Afghanistan 6 British soldiers were killed when a massive explosion hit their armored vehicle, taking the British toll in the war against Taliban insurgents to more than 400. In Uruzgan province 9 policemen were killed by Taliban insurgents after a checkpoint guard allowed them to enter a sleeping area.
    (AFP, 3/7/12)(SFC, 3/9/12, p.A3)

2012        Mar 8, In Nigeria a British-Nigerian operation involving 100 troops, military trucks and a helicopter attempted to rescue a pair of British and Italian hostages. At least two hostage-takers were killed in the operation in Sokoto. Italian engineer Franco Lamolinara (48) and his British colleague Chris McManus (28) were shot by their captors. Italyís PM Monti was only informed by Britainís PM Cameron once the operation was under way. The two hostages were kidnapped by heavily armed men who stormed their apartment in Kebbi state in May 2011. Nigerian authorities detained five Islamist militants suspected of involvement in the kidnapping.
    (AFP, 3/9/12)(AP, 3/9/12)Reuters, 3/10/12)

2012        Mar 9, The Libyan transitional government won possession of a plush London mansion belonging to a son of the late Libyan dictator Moamer Kadhafi. The house, in the exclusive Hampstead Garden Suburb district of north London, was worth in excess of £10 million ($15.7 million, 12 million euros).
    (AFP, 3/9/12)

2012        Mar 13, Some 3,000 people gathered in Liverpool, England, for the annual Global Entrepreneurship Congress.
    (Econ, 3/17/12, p.79)
2012        Mar 13, British chip designer ARM unveiled what it said was the world's most energy-efficient microprocessor design that will help devices ranging from fridges to medical equipment to parking meters to communicate with other devices.
    (Reuters, 3/13/12)

2012        Mar 14, British PM David Cameron his wife Samantha arrived at the White House for an official visit mixing talks on global threats with the formal flourishes of a state dinner.
    (AFP, 3/14/12)
2012        Mar 14, Britainís Office for National Statistics (ONS) said in a statement that the number of unemployed people climbed by 28,000 over the period, the smallest increase for almost one year as the unemployment rate hit the highest level for almost 17 years.
    (AFP, 3/14/12)
2012        Mar 14, Britain launched a website and Facebook page for Iranians, harnessing the power of social media to try to evade Iranian censorship and take its message directly to the people.
    (Reuters, 3/15/12)
2012        Mar 14, British scientists warned that research into debilitating diseases is under threat from a refusal by ferry operators and airlines to transport laboratory animals into the country.
    (AFP, 3/14/12)

2012        Mar 15, Britain jailed 2 men who had posed as good Samaritans to steal from an injured Malaysian student, Asyraf Haziq Rosli (21), an infamous incident caught on camera during riots in London last year. Reece Donovan (22) was sentenced to a total of five years in jail for robbery, violent disorder and burglary offences. John Kafunda (22) was sentenced to three and a half years for robbery and nine months for violent disorder.
    (AFP, 3/15/12)

2012        Mar 16, Britainís Environment Agency said Indonesia has asked Britain to take back 1,800 tons of waste after inspectors found liquid and illegal mixed waste in containers marked as "scrap metal."
    (AFP, 3/16/12)

2012        Mar 20, Russian banker German Gorbuntsov (45) was shot outside his home in east London and was put into a medically induced coma. Hew was days away from giving evidence to an investigation into the attempted murder of a former business associate. His lawyer believed the attack was connected to an assassination attempt on Gorbuntsov's partner and co-owner of Konvers Group, Alexander Antonov, in 2009. A bank he owned in Moldova, Universalbank, was closed down in February and he was wanted there for financial crimes. The Kommersant business daily wrote that Gorbuntsov said he himself was a victim of a raider attack that caused him to lose his stake of more than 70 percent in Universalbank.
    (AFP, 3/24/12)(Reuters, 3/25/12)

2012        Mar 21, The British government unveiled its latest annual budget. Chancellor of the Exchequer George Osborne cut personal income taxes but aimed new levies on the wealthy, taking a political gamble while pledging to stick to his government's tough austerity plan. He cut a 50% income tax band for the highest earners to 45%, from next year on. Osborne also raised the income tax threshold by more than previously announced to 9,205 pounds ($14,300), taking more poorly paid people out of the tax net.
    (Reuters, 3/21/12)
2012        Mar 21, British hostage Judith Tebbutt (57), captured in Kenya on Sep 11, 2011, ago by gunmen who killed her husband, was released in central Somalia and flown out to Nairobi.
    (AP, 3/21/12)
2012        Mar 21, European Union anti-trust regulators approved British government plans to provide pension relief and slash the debt of Royal Mail Group as part of its privatization.
    (AFP, 3/21/12)

2012        Mar 22, Britainís ruling Conservatives were pilloried as a party pandering to millionaires and slapping a "Granny Tax" on pensioners in a budget they defended as a spur to economic growth.
    (Reuters, 3/22/12)
2012        Mar 22, Deaths from liver disease have risen 25 percent in England in less than a decade, mainly due to increased alcohol consumption, a study revealed. Alcohol-related liver disease accounted for over a third (37 percent) of the deaths, according to the National End of Life Care Intelligence Network report.
    (AFP, 3/22/12)

2012        Mar 23, In Britain a group of 35 Nigerian villages sued Royal Dutch Shell PLC claiming that the companyís slow response to two spills in 2008 left their delta region soaked in crude oil.
    (SFC, 3/24/12, p.A2)

2012        Mar 25, British Tory treasurer Peter Cruddas, a senior member of David Cameron's Conservative party, resigned after he apparently offered access to the British premier in return for party donations of £250,000.
    (AFP, 3/25/12)

2012        Mar 26, Britainís PM David Cameron bowed to pressure to disclose his own contacts with wealthy donors after a newspaper sting caught a top fundraiser for his party offering meetings with the premier in return for big contributions.
    (Reuters, 3/26/12)
2012        Mar 26, Britainís Financial Services Authority handed Coutts, the private bank which counts the queen as a client, an £8.75-million fine for failing to ensure it was not handling laundered money.
    (AFP, 3/26/12)
2012        Mar 26, British video games retailer GAME collapsed into administration, placing more than 5,500 jobs at risk, becoming the latest victim of tough economic conditions. GAME's international divisions were operating as normal.
    (AFP, 3/26/12)

2012        Mar 27, Britainís Health and Socal Care Act 2012 received Royal Assent. It increased competition, gave the NHS greater autonomy, and put more decisions about care in the hands of local doctors.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Health_and_Social_Care_Act_2012)(Econ, 3/29/14, p.60)
2012        Mar 27, British Royal Mail announced that stamp prices will shoot up to record highs of 60p for first class and 50p for second class effective April 30.
    (AFP, 3/27/12)
2012        Mar 27, A cloud of explosive natural gas boiling out of the North Sea from a leak at Total's abandoned Elgin platform forced wider evacuations off the Scottish coast as the French firm warned it may take six months to halt the flow.
    (Reuters, 3/27/12)

2012        Apr 1, Britainís Sunday Telegraph newspaper reported that security services have uncovered a plot to assassinate exiled Chechen separatist Akhmed Zakayev in London. The paper said it has seen documents outlining the MI5 security agency's fears that Ramzan Kadyrov, the Kremlin-backed head of Russia's volatile Chechen republic, wanted former rebel commander Zakayev killed.
    (AFP, 4/1/12)

2012        Apr 3, James Murdoch, under pressure over his role in Britain's tabloid phone hacking scandal, stepped down as chairman of British Sky Broadcasting PLC (BSkyB).
    (AP, 4/3/12)

2012        Apr 4, British officials said a new batch of counterfeit cancer drug Avastin discovered in the United States was bought in Turkey and shipped through Britain by a UK-based business. Avastin, made by Roche, is a complex injectable biotech drug with annual sales of $6 billion.
    (Reuters, 4/4/12)

2012        Apr 5, Britain broadcaster Sky News admitted it had authorized a journalist to access emails belonging to John Darwin and his wife Anne, who had faked his death in a canoe accident before moving to Panama to start a new life with the insurance payout.
    (AFP, 4/5/12)
2012        Apr 5, Around 20 million Britons were banned from using garden hoses, after one of the driest two-year periods on record.
    (AFP, 4/5/12)
2012        Apr 5, Jaguar Land Rover, owned by India's Tata Motors, announced that it plans to build its new Jaguar F-Type sports car in Britain.
    (AFP, 4/5/12)
2012        Apr 5, In England a Chinese student (24) died after he was knocked down by an unmarked British police car in Birmingham.
    (AFP, 4/6/12)

2012        Apr 7, Britain's Home Office interior ministry said it was investigating reports that hacking group Anonymous had attacked its website over the government's plans to boost Internet surveillance.
    (AFP, 4/7/12)

2012        Apr 8, In England the body of Jamie Dack (22) was found by Southampton firefighters called to tackle a blaze at the Empress Road industrial estate. Four men were soon charged with murder, false imprisonment and conspiracy to rob.
    (AFP, 4/11/12)

2012        Apr 9, Bruno Iksil, a London-based JP Morgan Chase & Co trader of derivatives linked to the financial health of corporations, was reported to have amassed positions so large that he's driving price moves in the $10-trillion market, traders outside the firm said.
    (http://tinyurl.com/cdgofmx)(Econ, 4/14/12, p.84)

2012        Apr 10, Britain and Japan pledged to expand collaboration on defense equipment as PM David Cameron looked to open Tokyo's potentially lucrative arms market.
    (AFP, 4/10/12)
2012        Apr 10, Europe's human rights court ruled that Britain can extradite radical Muslim cleric Mustafa Kamal Mustafa, also known as Abu Hamza al-Masri (53), and four other suspects to the United States to face terrorism charges.
    (AP, 4/10/12)

2012        Apr 11, Indonesian carrier Garuda International and European plane manufacturer Airbus signed a $2.5 billion deal in Jakarta, as British PM David Cameron visited Southeast Asia's biggest economy.
    (AFP, 4/11/12)

2012        Apr 13, A British judge sentenced computer hacker James Jeffery (27) to two years and eight months in jail for breaking into the website of Britain's biggest abortion provider and stealing the personal details of thousands of women.
    (AP, 4/13/12)
2012        Apr 13, In Myanmar British PM David Cameron and opposition leader Aung San Suu Kyi issued a joint call for the suspension of sanctions against the former pariah state after landmark talks. Cameron also met reformist President Thein Sein as he became the first Western leader in decades to visit the country.
    (AFP, 4/13/12)

2012        Apr 16, Half of England was officially in drought after the Environment Agency declared another 17 counties short of water, and warned the situation may continue until the end of the year.
    (AFP, 4/16/12)

2012        Apr 17, British authorities arrested radical Islamist cleric Abu Qatada (51), who is accused of ties to late Al-Qaeda chief Osama Bin Laden, as they resumed efforts to deport him to Jordan. The UK government has been trying to extradite the Jordanian since 2005 arguing that he is a threat to national security. He was convicted in Jordan in absentia of involvement in terror attacks in 1998, and faces a retrial on his return.
    (AFP, 4/17/12)
2012        Apr 17, UK authorities gave approval to drill for shale gas onshore after a temporary ban on the controversial extraction technique known as hydraulic fracturing, or fracking. Energy experts believed Britain may have enough offshore shale gas to catapult it into the top ranks of global producers.
    (Reuters, 4/17/12)
2012        Apr 17, In London James Ibori, former Nigerian state governor (1997-2007), was sentenced to 13 years in prison over a fraud involving $250 million of state funds.
    (AFP, 4/17/12)

2012        Apr 18, The British government promised to release 8,800 files from 37 former colonies as an official revue concluded that thousands of documents detailing shameful acts in the final years of the British Empire were systematically destroyed.
    (SSFC, 4/22/12, p.A4)
2012        Apr 18, At Edinburgh High Court a man was sentenced to life in prison for the murder of his ex-lover in a hearing which was the first of its kind in Britain to be filmed by television cameras. David Gilroy (49) must spend a minimum of 18 years behind bars for killing his colleague Suzanne Pilley (38) two years ago, after she ended their affair.
    (AFP, 4/18/12)

2012        Apr 20, British diplomat George Fergusson (56) was mugged as he walked through Hammersmith in West London. He lost sight in his left eye following the attack. He is due to take up the post of governor in the British overseas territory of Bermuda.
    (AFP, 4/22/12)
2012        Apr 20, British guitarist Bert Weedon (91) died. He inspired a generation to pick up the string instrument. The Beatles' George Harrison, John Lennon as well as Paul McCartney, Eric Clapton, Queen guitarist Brian May and Pete Townshend of The Who were all among those who started out with Weedon's books. His first "Play In A Day" book was published in 1957.
    (AFP, 4/20/12)
2012        Apr 20, Switzerland said it has revised a tax pact agreed with Britain last year and will offer it a higher rate of withholding tax, after Germany earlier this month succeeded in obtaining more favorable terms in a similar deal with the Swiss government.
    (Reuters, 4/20/12)

2012        Apr 22, Kenya's Wilson Kipsang and Mary Keitany triumphed in the London Marathon. Claire Squires (30) collapsed and died near the end of her charity run in the race.
    (AFP, 4/22/12)(SFC, 4/25/12, p.A2)

2012        Apr 23, Ferrovial-owned BAA said it had agreed to sell Edinburgh airport to Global Infrastructure Partners (GIP) for 807 million pounds ($1.3 billion), adding the Scottish hub to an investment portfolio that includes London's Gatwick and City airports.
    (Reuters, 4/23/12)

2012        Apr 24, British police arrested five men on suspicion of terror offences in Luton, in pre-planned raids. The men were arrested "on suspicion of the commission, preparation or instigation of acts of terrorism" in the Bury Park area, which has been home to a large Muslim Pakistani community since the 1970s. On April 30 four men Zahid Iqbal (30), Mohammed Sharfaraz Ahmed (24), Umar Arshad (23), and Syed Hussain (21) were charged with intention to commit acts of terror or assisting others to commit such acts.
    (AFP, 4/24/12)(AFP, 4/30/12)
2012        Apr 24, In London Gianfranco Techegne (49) was arrested at the Broadway Post Office by detectives from Scotland Yard's extradition unit. He has been wanted by Italian police since 1982 in connection with the armed robbery of a car rental agency in Naples during which a young police officer was fatally wounded.
    (AP, 4/28/12)

2012        Apr 29, British police arrested James Allen (36), of Lothian Road, Middlesbrough, for the deaths of Colin Dunford (81) from Middlesbrough, and Julie Davison (50) from Whitby, North Yorkshire. Their bodies were discovered last week.
    (AFP, 5/2/12)

2012        Apr 30, A British police report said British police discovered more than 20 cannabis farms and factories in the UK every day last year, seizing drugs worth up to £100 million.
    (AFP, 4/30/12)

2012        May 1, British police said one woman and six men were arrested at four separate residences in London, Coventry and Cardiff, Wales, on suspicion of financing terrorism in Somalia by smuggling khat leaf, which can produce a mild high, into the United States. It has been illegal in the US since 1993, but is still legal in many countries worldwide. It has been illegal in the US since 1993, but is still legal in many countries worldwide.
    (AP, 5/1/12)
2012        May 1, The Scotland Act 2012, an Act of the Parliament of the United Kingdom, received Royal Assent. It set out amendments to the Scotland Act 1998 with the aim of devolving further powers to Scotland in accordance with the recommendations of the Calman Commission.

2012        May 2, Britainís national police agency closed the website of the Serious Organized Crime Agency (SOCA) following an attack by hackers. It was a distributed denial of service (DDoS) attack, where a website's host computers are bombarded with requests for information, making them crash.
    (AFP, 5/3/12)

2012        May 3, British insurer Aviva became the latest victim of investor activism as shareholders rebelled over boardroom pay amid under-performance in the poor economic climate. More than half of Avivaís shareholders rejected annual executive pay awards, delivering a major snub to chief executive Andrew Moss at the group's annual meeting.
    (AFP, 5/6/12)
2012        May 3, China's Bright Food said it is buying 60% of Weetabix from British owner Lion Capital in a deal valuing the breakfast cereal giant at £1.2 billion (1.48 billion euros, $1.94 billion).
    (AFP, 5/3/12)

2012        May 4, British PM David Cameron's Conservative Party took an electoral bruising, suffering widespread losses in local elections as voters punished the leader for biting austerity measures and a stalled economy. Deputy PM Nick Clegg's Liberal Democrats suffered similar woes. In London Cameron's Conservative Party colleague Boris Johnson swept to a second four-year term as the British capital's mayor.
    (AP, 5/4/12)

2012        May 5, More than 40,000 spectators watched as a cascade of white balloons was released to open London's Olympic stadium, before the Games begin on July 27.
    (AFP, 5/5/12)

2012        May 6, Sky News Arabia, a joint venture between an Abu Dhabi royal and the British broadcaster BSkyB, launched a 24-hour Arabic-language news channel with a pledge to be impartial in a region where government influence over media is endemic.
    (Reuters, 5/8/12)

2012        May 9, Britainís Queen Elizabeth unveiled the governmentís agenda in her annual QueenĎs Speech.
    (SFC, 5/10/12, p.A2)
2012        May 9, A group of London investment bankers won their High Court battle to receive 50 million euros ($65 million) in unpaid bonuses. The bankers claimed that Commerzbank had reneged on a deal to pay bonuses promised to them by Dresdner before the takeover in 2008.
    (AFP, 5/9/12)
2012        May 9, Nine men in northwest England were sentenced to jail terms for luring girls as young as 13 into sexual encounters using alcohol and drugs. The men, aged between 22 and 59, were all of Pakistani or Afghan origin.
    (AP, 5/9/12)
2012        May 9, British police in Newcastle arrested a suspected spokesman (17) for Team Poison, a hacking group that has claimed responsibility for a series of high-profile cyber-attacks.
    (AFP, 5/10/12)
2012        May 9, British drugmaker GlaxoSmithKline said it has gone hostile over its $2.6 billion (2.0 billion-euro) takeover bid for US research partner Human Genome Sciences Inc.
    (AFP, 5/9/12)

2012        May 10, Thousands of off-duty police officers took to the streets in London in a rare display of collective anger against government austerity measures, joining a mass protest by public sector workers including immigration officials, healthcare workers and prison officers.
    (Reuters, 5/10/12)

2012        May 11, British police arrested two people on suspicion of murder after five children died in a house fire in the central English city of Derby. A 6th child died soon after at Birmingham Children's Hospital. The suspects were released on may with no charges. Investigators later said the fire was sparked by petrol poured through the letterbox. On May 29 parents Mick Philpott (55) and his wife Mairead (31) were arrested on suspicion of murder. In 2013 the parents and a family friend were convicted of manslaughter. On April 4 the Philpots and Paul Mosley were sentenced to 17 years in prison.
    (AFP, 5/11/12)(AFP, 5/14/12)(AFP, 5/16/12)(AFP, 5/29/12)(AP, 4/4/13)
2012        May 11, British police arrested 2 local men, aged 52 and 31, over explosives offences in raids on two locations in a quiet residential suburb of Cheltenham, which is also home to Britain's national electronic surveillance center.
    (AFP, 5/12/12)

2012        May 15, British prosecutors accused former Rupert Murdoch aide Rebekah Brooks (43) and five others of obstructing justice in the first criminal charges from the News of the World phone hacking scandal.
    (AFP, 5/15/12)
2012        May 15, French energy giant Total said it has begun the operation to plug a gas leak under one of its North Sea platforms by pumping it full of mud at high pressure.
    (AFP, 5/15/12)

2012        May 16, French energy giant Total said it had plugged a gas leak under the North Sea Elgin platform that cost the firm hundreds of millions of dollars and threatened to trigger a major explosion off the coast of Scotland.
    (AFP, 5/16/12)

2012        May 17, US carmaker General Motors said it has opted to build the next generation of its Astra compact in Britain, leaving its plant in Bochum, Germany in danger of closure. GM said it would invest $200 million (126 million pounds) in its Ellesmere Port plant.
    (Reuters, 5/17/12)

2013        May 18, French police arrested Julian Stevenson (48), a British unemployed man after the bodies of his daughter (5) and son (10) were found with their throats slit at his apartment in a suburb of Lyon. Stevenson hanged himself in prison on Dec 30.
    (Reuters, 5/19/13)(AFP, 12/31/13)

2012        May 20, Robin Gibb (b.1949), one of the 3 Bee Geesí brothers, died in London of cancer. He sang lead vocals on the Bee Gees' first British number one, "Massachusetts", in 1967, before they switched styles to disco in the 1970s.
    (AFP, 5/21/12)

2012        May 22, The first woman to command a major Royal Navy warship took up her post. Commander Sarah West (40) took control of the frigate HMS Portland. West has served in the Royal Navy for 16 years.
    (AP, 5/22/12)
2012        May 22, The art collection of the late German-born playboy Gunter Sachs, featuring works celebrating his obsession with his former wife Brigitte Bardot, fetched over $56 million at a London sale.
    (AFP, 5/23/12)

2012        May 23, Family history website ancestry.co.uk published online for the first time the wills of famous Britons such as Winston Churchill, among those of six million other people.
    (AFP, 5/23/12)
2012        May 23, Saudi Arabiaís SPA state news said Saudi Arabia has signed a $3-billion deal with Britain to buy Hawk trainer jets for the Gulf kingdom's air force. The majority of the Hawks will be made at BAE's plants in Samlesbury and Warton in Lancashire, northwest England.
    (AFP, 5/23/12)(Reuters, 5/23/12)

2012        May 30, Britainís Supreme Court ruled that WikiLeaks founder Julian Assange can be extradited to Sweden, but put his deportation on hold to give his lawyers a final chance to reopen the case.
    (AFP, 5/30/12)

2012        May, Kenya police said Alexander Monson (28), a British national, has died of a drug overdose while under police custody. Monson had been arrested in the beach resort of Diani for possession of cannabis. In 2018 Kenya's director of public prosecutions ordered the arrest of four police officers for killing Monson. In 2019 a trial of four Kenyan policemen accused of killing Monson opened in a Mombasa court. In 2021 the four police officers were given jail terms of between nine and 15 years but between five and six years were suspended in each case.
    (http://tinyurl.com/y84ao5vy)(AP, 6/28/18)(Reuters, 1/22/19)(AP, 11/16/21)

2012        Jun 2, Britainís Queen Elizabeth II arrived at Epsom racecourse to kick off four days of celebrations for her diamond jubilee.
    (AFP, 6/2/12)

2012        Jun 4, Argentina declared British oil exploration off the Falklands "illegal" and immediately set about suing five companies for pursuing activities around the contested islands.
    (AFP, 6/4/12)

2012        Jun 5, Cheering crowds thronged the streets of London for the grand finale to four days of festivities marking the Queen's Diamond Jubilee attended by millions across Britain.
    (Reuters, 6/5/12)

2012        Jun 7, Japanís coastguard plucked British adventurer Sarah Outen to safety after she got into trouble in the northern Pacific during her attempt to row solo across the ocean. A patrol boat was also heading towards fellow Briton Charlie Martell, who was separately attempting to row solo across the Pacific when he was also caught in bad weather.
    (AFP, 6/8/12)

2012        Jun 8, In Britain 6 men were handed jail sentences for running a website, Confidential Access, that earned millions of pounds by selling fake documents and coaching fraudsters in how to conduct successful scams. Two masterminds ran the site from villas in Alicante in Spain while associates in Britain created fake documents including bank statements, pay slips, driving licenses and bills.
    (AFP, 6/9/12)

2012        Jun 11, British workers from Coryton oil refinery marched on a fuel terminal in the southeast of the country and disrupted the supply of fuel heading to petrol stations to protest against the plant's closure. Coryton is currently being wound down as crude supplies run out, and 900 jobs were threatened.
    (Reuters, 6/11/12)(Reuters, 6/14/12)

2012        Jun 14, Bank of England Governor Mervyn King said the country would launch a scheme to provide cheap long-term funding to banks to encourage them to lend to businesses and consumers. It will flood Britain's banking system with more than 100 billion pounds, seeking to pump credit through an economy struggling to escape recession under the "black cloud" of the euro zone crisis.
    (Reuters, 6/15/12)
2012        Jun 14, Britainís Ministry of Defense said a British soldier has been killed in a grenade attack in southern Afghanistan. This brought to 418 the number of British troops killed since operations in Afghanistan began in October 2001.
    (AFP, 6/14/12)

2012        Jun 19, WikiLeaks chief Julian Assange made a run for the Ecuadorean Embassy in London, seeking asylum in a long shot move that, if successful, would place him in a small, friendly South American country rather than in Sweden facing questioning about alleged sex crimes.
    (AP, 6/20/12)
2012        Jun 19, US-based Walgreens said it was spending $6.7 billion (£4.3 billion) to take a 45-percent stake in British-based Alliance Boots to create the world's largest retail pharmacy chain.
    (AFP, 6/19/12)
2012        Jun 19, A Russian ship allegedly carrying refurbished attack helicopters and missiles destined for Syria has stopped off the Scottish coast after its British insurer, Standard Club, withdrew cover for the MV Alaed. On June 24 the ship was re-flagged as a Russian vessel.
    (AFP, 6/19/12)(SFC, 7/13/12, p.A4)

2012        Jun 21, Doctors in Britain's state-funded health service took industrial action for the first time in 37 years in a dispute over changes to their pensions, cancelling thousands of patients' non-urgent appointments and operations. The Department of Health claimed the next day that only 8% of NHS doctors took part in the industrial action.
    (Reuters, 6/21/12)(AFP, 6/22/12)

2012        Jun 25, British hackers Ryan Cleary (20) and Jake Davis (19), linked to the Lulz Security group, pleaded guilty to a slew of computer crimes.
    (SFC, 6/26/12, p.A3)

2012        Jun 26, British officials said Big Ben, parliament's famous clock tower, is to be renamed Elizabeth Tower in honor of the queen's diamond jubilee.
    (AFP, 6/26/12)
2012        Jun 26, Dan Penteado (40) a presenter on the BBC program Rogue Traders pleaded guilty to illegally obtaining housing and council tax benefit worth over £24,000. The offences dated back to 2007 and Penteado repeated the fraud in subsequent years up to 2011.
    (AFP, 6/26/12)
2012        Jun 26, British police loaded almost 3,000 images onto a smartphone App and invited the public to help them identify people suspected of taking part in the Aug 6, 2011, Tottenham riots.
    (AFP, 6/26/12)

2012        Jun 27, Barclays bank revealed that it will pay fines of £290 million ($452 million, 362 million euros) to British and US authorities over a probe into rate manipulation, and top staff will take a bonus cut.
    (AFP, 6/27/12)
2012        Jun 27, John Massey (64) one of Britain's longest-serving prisoners, escaped from Pentonville prison in Islington, North London. He was serving a life sentence for the murder of a man at a Hackney pub in 1975.
    (AFP, 6/28/12)

2012        Jun 28, A British security official said 2 Muslim converts have been arrested in London on suspicion of terror offenses. It remained unclear whether the men were arrested as part of an alleged plot.
    (AP, 6/28/12)

2012        Jun 29, Britain's major banks, including HSBC and Barclays, were ordered to pay up for misleading businesses over interest rate insurance, in a second blow to the image of the City. Bank of England Governor Sir Mervyn King described an interest rate rigging scandal engulfing British banks as "deceitful manipulation," calling for fundamental changes in the culture of the banking industry.
    (AFP, 6/29/12)(Reuters, 6/29/12)

2012        Jun 30, British police stopped a car on the M1 highway in South Yorkshire and impounded it for not having insurance. Firearms, offensive weapons and other material were later found hidden in the vehicle, which prompted police to trace and arrest the driver, passenger and 5 other suspects.
    (AP, 7/6/12)

2012        Jul 2, Barclays chairman Marcus Agius resigned, paying the price for the "devastating" damage to the bank caused by the rigging of key global interest rates which has sullied London's image as a financial center. Agius, who has chaired the bank for six years, will remain in his post until a successor was found.
    (AFP, 7/2/12)
2012        Jul 2, British drugmaker GlaxoSmithKline was socked with $3 billion in fines by US authorities over charges it marketed drugs for unauthorized uses, held back safety data, and cheated the government's Medicaid program.
    (AFP, 7/2/12)

2012        Jul 3, Barclays Plc Chief Executive Bob Diamond quit under fire from politicians and regulators, the highest-profile casualty of an interest rate-rigging scandal spanning more than a dozen big banks across the world.
    (Reuters, 7/3/12)
2012        Jul 3, Two British Tornado GR4s from Royal Air Force Lossiemouth, each piloted by a two member crew, went down in the Moray Firth in northeast Scotland. A helicopter airlifted two airmen to a hospital in Inverness while efforts to find the missing pair were called off due to poor visibility and bad weather.
    (AFP, 7/4/12)

2012        Jul 5, The British government gave details of major army cuts which will see it lose 20,000 regular soldiers by 2020, taking force levels to their lowest since the early 19th century.
    (AFP, 7/5/12)
2012        Jul 5, British police in London arrested 6 people over an alleged plot to launch a terrorist attack. A 7th person, female (22) was arrested on July 7. A woman (30) among the 6 arrested was reported released without charge on July 8.
    (AP, 7/7/12)(AFP, 7/8/12)
2012        Jul 5, Europe's tallest skyscraper the Shard was inaugurated in London by Qatari PM Hamad bin Jassem al-Thani, whose country has funded it, and Queen Elizabeth II's son Prince Andrew. The name was coined by its Italian architect Renzo Piano.
    (AFP, 7/5/12)
2012        Jul 5, Capital Economics, a British-based consultancy, scooped the Wolfson Economics Prize for coming up with the best method for an "orderly exit" of one or more member countries wishing to leave the European Monetary Union.
    (AFP, 7/5/12)
2012        Jul 5, London's iconic but derelict Battersea Power Station was acquired by a Malaysian consortium for £400 million ($620 million, 501 million euros).
    (AFP, 7/5/12)
2012        Jul 5, Colin Marshall (78), who guided British Airways on its transition from state ownership to privatization, died. He was appointment as chief executive of British Airways in 1983 and was given a knighthood after the airline was privatized in 1987.
    (AFP, 7/11/12)

2012        Jul 6, The British government hoisted the rainbow flag symbolizing gay pride over one of its ministries for the first time.
    (AFP, 7/6/12)

2012        Jul 9, Boeing Co. clinched the first big deal of this year's Farnborough Airshow with a firm order from Air Lease Corp. for 75 of its redesigned 737 aircraft worth $7.2 billion.
    (AP, 7/9/12)
2012        Jul 9, A British judge ruled that Samsung's Galaxy tablet was not "cool" enough to be confused with Apple's iPad giving South Korea's Samsung a patent battle win against US rival Apple.
    (AFP, 7/9/12)
2012        Jul 9, British police found Eva Rausing (48) dead at her multimillion-pound (dollar) London home. Initial post-mortem examinations failed to establish a formal cause of her death. Her husband Hans Kristian Rausing (49) is an heir to the Tetra Pak fortune his father built in Sweden as a globally successful manufacturer of laminated cardboard drink containers. British media later reported that she had been dead for several days. On August 1 Rausing pleaded guilty to preventing her proper burial and was given a 10-month suspended jail sentence. On Dec 14 a coroner said she died from cocaine abuse.
    (AFP, 7/11/12)(SFC, 7/18/12, p.A2)(AP, 8/1/12)(AP, 12/14/12)

2012        Jul 10, Barclayís chairman Marcus Agius said former chief executive Bob Diamond will give up bonuses worth £20 million after resigning over a rate-rigging scandal. Agius also said Diamond would still receive a final pay-off of around £2 million.
    (AFP, 7/10/12)
2012        Jul 10, Boeing Co. revealed a further large order for its remodeled short-haul 737 aircraft, a $9.2 billion with GE Capital Aviation Services. Rival Airbus announced its first billion-dollar order at this year's Farnborough Airshow.
    (AP, 7/10/12)

2012        Jul 11, British police investigating corruption in the media (Operation Elveden) arrested two more journalists, both from rival tabloids to Rupert Murdoch's now-closed News of the World: Justin Penrose, a reporter for the Sunday Mirror tabloid, and Tom Savage, deputy news editor of the Daily Star Sunday.
    (AFP, 7/11/12)
2012        Jul 11, The British government and the Gates Foundation organized a summit on family planning. The last big UN conference on family planning took place in 1994.
    (Econ, 7/14/12, p.53)

2012        Jul 12, The BBC World Service transmitted its final bulletin from Bush House in London, ending 71 years of radio broadcasts from the building that kept millions informed across the globe. Since March, the service has gradually moved to the new east wing attached to Broadcasting House in Portland Place, two km away.
    (AFP, 7/12/12)
2012        Jul 12, Airbus, a subsidiary of EADS, said it booked a potential $6.35 billion worth of orders. The four deals, if completed, take Airbus' total by the fourth day of the UK airshow to $16.9 billion for a total of 115 aircraft.
    (AFP, 7/12/12)

2012        Jul 13, The British government launched an £80-billion initiative to provide the banking sector with cheap funding to stimulate lending and boost growth.
    (AFP, 7/13/12)

2012        Jul 14, It was announced that former British PM Gordon Brown is to become a special global education envoy to UN Secretary General Ban Ki-moon.
    (AFP, 7/14/12)

2012        Jul 16, Jon Lord (b.1941), keyboardist for the British Deep Purple rock band, died in London. His work included ďConcerto for Group and Orchestra" (1969).
    (SFC, 7/18/12, p.C4)

2012        Jul 17, Britainís visiting minister for Africa, Henry Bellingham, said Britain will give its poor former colony Malawi additional aid of 24 million pounds for its economic recovery program.
    (AFP, 7/17/12)

2012        Jul 19, The British government warned unions that they risked public anger if planned industrial actions went ahead. The Aslef rail union announced that 450 of its members in central England would walk out between August 6 and 8 in a dispute over pensions. The decision coincided with a move by border officials to strike on July 26, the day before the start of the Olympic Games.
    (Reuters, 7/19/12)
2012        Jul 19, Britainís state-rescued Lloyds Banking Group agreed to sell 632 branches at a loss to The Co-operative Group after an EU competition ruling.
    (AFP, 7/19/12)
2012        Jul 19, Scotland Yard officer Constable Simon Harwood (45) was cleared by a jury of killing newspaper seller Ian Tomlinson (47), who became caught up in the G20 protests in London On April 1, 2009.
    (AFP, 7/19/12)

2012        Jul 20, Sir Alastair Burnet (84), British veteran television newscaster, died. He was ITN's head anchor from 1967 to 1991, except between 1974 and 1976, when he anchored the BBC's coverage of the two 1974 general elections and edited the Daily Express. He edited The Economist from 1965-1974.
    (AFP, 7/20/12)(Econ, 7/28/12, p.82)

2012        Jul 22, A British man attempting to swim the Channel died off the French coast.
    (AFP, 7/22/12)

2012        Jul 24, British prosecutors brought criminal charges against 8 of the most prominent figures in the phone-hacking scandal by one or Rupert Murdockís tabloid newspapers. They included Andy Coulson and Rebekah Brooks.
    (SFC, 7/25/12, p.A5)

2012        Jul 25, Britainís the Department of Health said it is to extend its seasonal flu vaccination program to all British children, free of charge, becoming the first country in the world to do so.
    (Reuters, 7/25/12)
2012        Jul 25, Official figures showed Britain is suffering a far deeper recession than thought, in a development that is likely to increase the pressure on the government to ease up on its tough austerity approach.
    (AP, 7/25/12)
2012        Jul 25, The Olympics kicked off with a women's football match between Britain and New Zealand in Cardiff. The match in the Welsh capital comes two days before the July 27 opening ceremony at the main London stadium but marks the competitive sporting debut for the Games.
    (Reuters, 7/25/12)
2012        Jul 25, Mexican regulators said they have fined HSBC $28 million for failing to prevent money laundering through accounts at the bank. Mexico's National Securities and Banking Commission said the Mexico subsidiary of the London-based bank has paid the fines. Officials said HSBC in 2007 and 2008 sent about $7 billion in cash from Mexico to the US.
    (AP, 7/25/12)

2012        Jul 26, The Murdoch media empire unexpectedly jettisoned the News of the World after a public backlash over the illegal guerrilla tactics it used to expose the rich, the famous and the royal and remain Britain's best-selling Sunday newspaper. James Murdoch, son of the media magnate, said: "This Sunday will be the last issue of the News of the World."
    (AP, 7/26/12)

2012        Jul 27, Britainís Queen Elizabeth II declared the London Olympics open after playing a cameo role in a dizzying ceremony designed to highlight the grandeur and eccentricities of the nation that invented modern sport. More than 10,000 athletes from 204 countries will compete in 26 sports over 17 days of competition in the only city to have staged the modern Games three times.
    (Reuters, 7/28/12)

2012        Jul 30, HSBC PLC, Europeís biggest bank, apologized to shareholders as it disclosed a $700 million charge to cover the cost of US penalties for lapses including its failure to enforce money-laundering controls in Mexico.
    (AP, 7/30/12)
2012        Jul 30, In London Lithuanian Ruta Meilutyte, claimed as an "adopted Brit," became the youngest winner of the Olympic event at 15 years and 133 days when she won the 100m breaststroke final over American world champion Rebecca Soni. She became Lithuania's first Olympic swimming champion.
    (AFP, 8/1/12)

2012        Jul, In London the 377-foot ArcelorMittal Orbit, a torch-like structure in red steel, rose over the new Olympic Stadium.
    (SSFC, 7/22/12, p.N3)

2012        Aug 1, A court in London jailed identical twin brothers for three years after they admitted a charge of fundraising for acts of terrorism abroad. Mohammed Shabir Ali and Mohammed Shafiq Ali (25) were part of a "network of support" for their older brother while he was at a terrorist training camp in Somalia.
    (AFP, 8/1/12)
2012        Aug 1, Eight badminton players were dramatically disqualified from Olympic competition after a scandal over "throwing" matches left the sport in uproar. Four pairs in the women's doubles competition, one from China, one from Indonesia and two from South Korea, were barred after being hit by disciplinary charges.
    (AFP, 8/1/12)

2012        Aug 2, A court in London jailed an Ethiopian diplomat for trying to smuggle a large stash of cannabis through London's Heathrow Airport. Amelework Wondemagegne (36), an official at the Ethiopian embassy in Washington, had tried to claim diplomatic immunity when she was caught at the airport in April with 56 kilograms (123 pounds) of cannabis.
    (AFP, 8/2/12)
2012        Aug 2, John Keegan (b.1934), a leading British scholar on battles, died. His books included ďThe Face of Battle" (1976).
    (SFC, 8/4/12, p.C4)

2012        Aug 3, Britainís Foreign Secretary William Hague pledged greater support for Syria's rebel fighters, as the battle for the country's commercial capital Aleppo intensified.
    (AFP, 8/3/12)
2012        Aug 3, Britain's GlaxoSmithKline PLC said it has completed its $3.6 billion acquisition of US biotech company Human Genome Sciences for 14.25 per share.
    (AP, 8/3/12)

2012        Aug 6, Britainís Deputy PM Nick Clegg announced that the government has dropped plans to introduce a mainly-elected upper house of parliament, in a serious blow to the ruling coalition.
    (AFP, 8/6/12)
2012        Aug 6, Bernard Lovell (98), founder of Britainís Jodrell Bank radio telescope, died. Sir Lovell was knighted in 1961.
    (Econ, 8/18/12, p.82)
2012        Aug 6, New York State Department of Financial Services alleged that Standard Chartered PLC schemed with the Iranian government to launder $250 billion from 2001 to 2007.
    (AP, 8/7/12)

2012        Aug 7, Jessica Harper (50), former security chief of Lloyds Banking Group, pleaded guilty at Southwark Crown Court in London to taking the money from her employers using false invoices over a four-year period from 2007 to 2011 and then laundering the cash.
    (AFP, 8/7/12)
2012        Aug 7, Shares in Standard Chartered PLC dropped 22% sharply as investors reacted to US charges that the bank was involved in laundering money for Iran.
    (AP, 8/7/12)(Econ, 8/18/12, p.64)

2012        Aug 8, Britain arrested Spaniard Kemen Uranga Artola (43) in London suspected of being a member of the Basque separatist group ETA. Media reports said Uranga is suspected of the murder of a judge, Jose Maria Lidon, who was killed by an ETA group in 2001.
    (Reuters, 8/8/12)
2012        Aug 8, In South Africa Mziwamadoda Qwabe (27), one of the men accused of killing Swedish honeymooner Anni Dewani, pleaded guilty and was sentenced to 25 years in prison in a plea deal. South Africa was still awaiting the extradition of the victim's British husband Shrien Dewani, who is accused of masterminding the November 2010 killing in a murder set up to look like a botched carjacking. On Aug 15 Xolile Mngeni, named by Qwabe as the gunman, denied charges of murder, kidnapping, robbery and illegal possession of a firearm and ammunition.
    (AFP, 8/8/12)(AFP, 8/15/12)

2012        Aug 10, Britain's government, meanwhile, said it was offering 5 million pounds (US$7.8 million) to Syria's rebel forces to pay for communications equipment and medical supplies in an effort to bolster ties with the Syrian opposition. World powers were set to name veteran Algerian diplomat Lakhdar Brahimi (78) as their new envoy to seek a peaceful and politically workable end to a 17-month uprising that has cost more than 21,000 lives.
    (AP, 8/10/12)(AFP, 8/10/12)
2012        Aug 10, Manchester United PLC raised some $233 million as its shares sold for $14 on the NYSE. The IPO represented 10% of the Glazer familyís ownership.
    (SFC, 8/11/12, p.D2)

2012        Aug 11, The International Boxing Association (AIBA) said it has begun legal action after the BBC repeated the previous evening that boxing medals could be bought at London 2012. The BBC had repeated an allegation first made in a Newsnight documentary last September that around $10m had been paid from Azerbaijan to boxing authorities in return for two golds.
    (AFP, 8/11/12)
2012        Aug 11, British police investigating the disappearance of Tia Sharp (12) were holding her grandmother, Christine Sharp (46), and two others after a body was found in south London. The girl was said to have gone missing after leaving the house to visit a nearby shopping center on August 3. Stuart Hazell (37), the grandmother's boyfriend, was charged with murder.
    (AFP, 8/11/12)(AFP, 8/12/12)

2012        Aug 12, Marathon man Stephen Kiprotich delivered Uganda's second ever Olympics gold medal, celebrating victory in the shadow of Buckingham Palace as the curtain slowly dropped on the 2012 Games. Ugandaís last gold medal came 40 years ago when 400m hurdler John Akii-Bua struck gold at the Munich Games. The closing ceremony was billed as a diverse "Symphony of British Music."
    (AFP, 8/12/12)

2012        Aug 13, British energy group BP said that it has agreed to sell its Carson refinery in California to US peer Tesoro Corporation for $2.5 billion (2.02 billion euros) as part of its ongoing restructuring. BP also said that Eagle Rock Energy Partners is paying $227.5 million in cash for the Sunray and Hemphill gas processing plants in Texas.
    (AFP, 8/13/12)
2012        Aug 13, Germanyís Munich Re, the world's largest reinsurer, said it has acquired three wind parks in Britain as part of a 2.5-billion-euro ($3.0-billion) investment in renewable energies.
    (AFP, 8/13/12)

2012        Aug 14, Britainís Office for National Statistics said consumer price inflation inched up to 2.6 percent from 2.4 percent in June as prices for airfares soared and clothing retailers reined in seasonal discounts.
    (Reuters, 8/14/12)
2012        Aug 14, Britainís Standard Chartered settled allegations that it helped Iranian clients dodge US sanctions, announcing a fine of $340 million from a New York banking watchdog. Standard Chartered also agreed to house a government anti-laundering monitor for two years at its New York branch.
    (AFP, 8/15/12)

2012        Aug 16, British High Court judges dismissed a legal plea by Tony Nicklinson (58) for the right to die, unanimously ruling that it would be wrong to depart from a precedent that equates voluntary euthanasia with murder. Nicklinson had locked-in syndrome after suffering a stroke on a business trip to Athens in 2005. He died at his home in Melksham on Aug 22 after contracting pneumonia.
    (AFP, 8/22/12)
2012        Aug 16, It was reported that Britainís town of Bristol has re-scheduled the launch of the Bristol pound, usable only with member businesses in the city in southwest England, to Sep 19. The Bristol pound will not be legal tender and must be exchanged through the Bristol Credit Union, with a three percent charge for conversion back to sterling.
    (AFP, 8/16/12)
2012        Aug 16, Ecuador granted political asylum to WikiLeaks founder Julian Assange, setting up a diplomatic confrontation with Britain, which angrily insisted it would extradite him to Sweden.
    (AFP, 8/16/12)

2012        Aug 20, In London Turkish Cypriot tycoon Asil Nadir (71) was found guilty of theft in relation to the collapse of his Polly Peck business empire, one of a series of debacles that focused public attention on the corporate greed of 1980s Britain. On Aug 23 he was sentenced to 10 years in prison.
    (AP, 8/20/12)(AFP, 8/23/12)

2012        Aug 24, Rupert Murdoch's British tabloid The Sun published nude photographs of Prince Harry (27), claiming it defied royal orders not to print them in defense of press freedom.
    (AFP, 8/24/12)

2012        Aug 26, Britainís Scotland Yard arrested 96 people during the annual Children's Day of the Notting Hill Carnival, mainly for drug and public order offences as well as robbery and assault.
    (AFP, 8/28/12)

2012        Aug 29, The British government stripped London Metropolitan University of its right to sponsor visas for overseas students over alleged failings in its procedures, leaving thousands of students facing possible deportation.
    (AFP, 8/30/12)
2012        Aug 29, Queen Elizabeth II officially opened the London Paralympic Games at a showpiece ceremony involving more than 3,000 volunteer and professional performers.
    (AFP, 8/30/12)

2012        Aug 30, The first day of competition at the London Paralympics got under way.
    (AFP, 8/30/12)

2012        Aug 31, In London self-exiled tycoon Boris Berezovsky lost his multibillion-dollar legal battle against fellow Russian mogul Roman Abramovich after a British judge ruled that he didn't tell the truth in the clash over vast oil wealth.
    (AP, 8/31/12)

2012        Sep 5, In the French Alps the bodies of 3 British vacationers and French cyclist, Sylvain Mollier (45), were found slain near the village of Chevaline. A 4-year-old girl was found alive among the bodies. Her sister (7) was beaten and shot but survived. Their BMW car was registered to Baghdad-born Saad al-Hilli (b.1962), who had lived in Britain since at least 2002. His family had been in France since August. A Swedish passport and Iraqi passport were also found at the scene. A family feud was suspected. On June 24, 2013, the brother of Saad al-Hilli was arrested after investigators gathered evidence that the siblings were fighting over their father's inheritance.
    (AP, 9/6/12)(AP, 9/7/12)(AP, 6/24/13)

2012        Sep 6, Qatarís sovereign wealth fund, a major stakeholder in Xstrata, agreed to a Glencore offer of 3.05 shares of Glencore per Xstrata share. The deal was brokered by former British PM Tony Blair.
    (Economist, 9/15/12, p.61)

2012        Sep 9, In England a man fell to the ground in the Mortlake neighborhood of West London when a jet passing overhead lowered its landing gear as it neared the runway at Heathrow Airport. The apparent stowaway had no identification papers, just some currency from Angola. The man was later identified as Jose Matada of Mozambique.
    (AP, 12/10/12)(SFC, 4/12/13, p.A2)

2012        Sep 12, British privacy activists, citing findings gathered via freedom-of-information requests, identified King Ecgbert as one of more than 200 high schools across Britain that have installed surveillance cameras in bathrooms or locker rooms.
    (AP, 9/12/12)

2012        Sep 13, British insurers launched a register of insurance fraudsters after calculating that bogus claims rose 5 percent last year, adding 50 pounds to the average policyholder's bill.
    (Reuters, 9/13/12)

2012        Sep 14, A French magazine published photos of Prince William's wife Kate sunbathing topless at a private house in southern France, prompting a strong condemnation from the royal family.
    (AP, 9/14/12)

2012        Sep 18, Two unarmed policewomen were killed in a shooting in Manchester. Police constables Fiona Bone (32) and Nicola Hughes (23) were gunned down in a hail of bullets after responding to a hoax call about a burglary in the northern English city of Manchester. The attack was by Dale Cregan (29), one of Britainís most wanted fugitives, and was likely to reignite a long-running debate in Britain over whether officers should carry guns.
    (Reuters, 9/18/12)(Reuters, 9/19/12)

2012        Sep 20, British gangster Charlie Richardson (b.1934), one of the most feared underworld figures of 1960s London, died. He had fought a vicious turf war with the more famous Kray brothers. Known as the "Torture Gang," his associates were said to nail victims to the floor, cut off their toes with bolt cutters and give them electric shocks in a bath full of water. He was the subject of a 2004 feature film, "Charlie." His 2nd autobiography, ďThe last Gangster: My Final Confession," was published in 2014.
    (Reuters, 9/20/12)(Econ, 3/8/14, p.58)

2012        Sep 24, The British government said it would allocate 1 billion pounds towards a new state-backed business bank designed to expand lending to smaller firms.
    (Reuters, 9/24/12)

2012        Sep 26, Radical Islamist cleric Abu Hamza al-Masri (54) won a delay in his extradition from Britain to the United States, days after he lost an appeal to the European Court of Human Rights.
    (Reuters, 9/27/12)

2012        Sep 27, In London Russian billionaires Oleg Deripaska and Michael Cherney reached an 11th-hour settlement in a dispute over a billion dollar slice of aluminium giant RUSAL, shortly before they were due to give evidence in a drawn-out London court case.
    (Reuters, 9/27/12)
2012        Sep 27, Kareem Serageldin, a former Credit Suisse executive facing extradition to the U.S. on fraud charges for his handling of mortgage-based securities during the financial crisis, was freed on bail after an appearance before a British court. He was slated to receive more than $7 million in compensation in 2007 before the company learned about the alleged fraud and withheld $5.2 million of his pay.
    (AP, 9/27/12)

2012        Sep 28, Britainís PM David Cameron told reporters that his country would be exercising its right to opt out of a mass of European policing and crime measures, including the European Arrest Warrant (EAW).
    (Economist, 10/6/12, p.68) 

2012        Oct 1, Eric Hobsbawm (b.1917), renowned British left-wing historian, died. His writing influenced students and politicians across Europe. He won critical acclaim with a four-volume history of Europe in the 19th and 20th centuries. His bestselling memoirs charted the pivotal moments in modern European history through which he lived.
    (AP, 10/1/12)(Economist, 10/6/12, p.110)

2012        Oct 3, British ministers froze three more rail franchise competitions after the Department for Transport (DfT) said that "completely unacceptable" flaws had been uncovered in its handling of bids to run the West Coast Main Line, a jewel in the crown of the rail network linking London and Scotland.
    (AP, 10/3/12)
2012        Oct 3, In Britain a documentary screened on ITV showing interviews with several people who claimed they had been abused as children by Jimmy Savile, a popular BBC presenter who died in 2011.
    (Econ, 10/27/12, p.58)

2012        Oct 4, London listed steelmaker Evraz, part-owned by tycoon Roman Abramovich, is to gain control of one of Russia's largest coal mines after acquiring a half stake in Cyprus-based investment vehicle Corber Enterprises for an undisclosed sum.
    (AP, 10/4/12)

2012        Oct 5, Britain's High Court ruled that three elderly Kenyans tortured during a rebellion against British colonial rule can proceed with compensation claims against the British government.
    (AP, 10/5/12)
2012        Oct 5, Radical preacher Abu Hamza al-Masri (54) and four other terror suspects were extradited from the U.K. after Britain's High Court ruled they had no more grounds for appeal in their years long battles to avoid facing charges in the United States. Al-Masri was wanted in the US on charges that included conspiring to set up a terrorist training camp in Oregon and helping abduct 16 hostages in Yemen in 1998.
    (AP, 10/5/12)(SFC, 10/6/12, p.A2)

2012        Oct 8, Scientists from Britain and Japan shared the Nobel Prize in Medicine. John Gurdon (79) of the Gurdon Institute in Cambridge, Britain, and Shinya Yamanaka (50) of Kyoto University in Japan, discovered ways to create tissue that would act like embryonic cells, without the need to harvest embryos. Dr. Yamanaka called his cells ďinduced pluripotent stem cells".
    (AP, 10/8/12)(Econ, 2/18/17, p.19)
2012        Oct 8, A British judge ordered supporters of Julian Assange to pay thousands of pounds they promised for his bail because the WikiLeaks founder violated the conditions for his release.
    (AP, 10/8/12)
2012        Oct 8, Eric Lomax (b.1919), a former British prisoner of war whose moving tale of wartime torture and forgiveness, died in Berwick-upon-Tweed. His celebrated memoir, "The Railway Man" (1996), was being turned into a film.
    (AP, 10/9/12)

2012        Oct 10, A deal to create a European defense and aerospace giant to rival Boeing Co. collapsed when Britain's BAE Systems and EADS NV called off their merger discussions because of conflicting interests between the British, French and German governments.
    (AP, 10/10/12)

2012        Oct 11, Britain asked Jordan to pardon radical Islamist preacher Abu Qatada (51) because evidence used to convict him of terrorism there was obtained through torture. The Palestinian-born Jordanian cleric, whose real name is Omar Mahmoud Mohammed Othman, has been convicted in absentia in Jordan over bomb plots and faces retrial if extradited.
    (AP, 10/11/12)

2012        Oct 11, British military police arrested seven Royal Marines on suspicion of murder. The arrests relate to an incident in Afghanistan in 2011. The incident followed an engagement with an insurgent and there were no civilians involved.
    (Reuters, 10/11/12)

2012        Oct 12, British lawyers said Russian businessman Boris Berezovsky has agreed to pay 35 million pounds towards the legal fees of Chelsea Football Club owner Roman Abramovich after failing in a $6 billion (3.7 billion pounds) London court battle with his former protťgť.
    (AP, 10/12/12)
2012        Oct 12, London police arrested Maksim Bakiyev (34), the fugitive son of Kyrgyzstan's deposed president, on a US extradition warrant on suspicion of fraud. released on bail until his next court hearing on Dec 7.
    (AP, 10/13/12)
2012        Oct 12, It was reported that Britain planned to shoot badgers for six consecutive weeks in each of the next four years in parts of Gloucestershire and the neighboring county of Somerset. The aim was to reduce the badger population by 70 percent. At issue was how to stem the spread of bovine tuberculosis, which many farmers blamed on roaming badgers.
    (Reuters, 10/12/12)

2012        Oct 14, Britain's Ministry of Defense said five Royal Marines have been charged with murder over a death in Afghanistan last year. They are the first British troops to be charged with murder in the country since deployments began in 2001.
    (AP, 10/14/12)
2012        Oct 14, Nicholas Mockford (60), a British national and executive for ExxonMobil living in Belgium, was shot dead as he left an Italian restaurant in Neder-over-Heembeek. Helmeted assailants escaping on a motorcycle.
    (AP, 10/26/12)

2012        Oct 15, Scotland set up a historic independence referendum after PM Alex Salmond signed an agreement with Britain's PM David Cameron finalizing arrangements for a 2014 vote which could lead to the demise of its 3-centuries-old union with England.
    (Reuters, 10/15/12)
2012        Oct 15, Malala Yousufzai (14), the Pakistani schoolgirl shot by Taliban gunmen for advocating education for girls, was flown in an air ambulance, provided by the United Arab Emirates, to the United Kingdom for medical treatment.
    (AP, 10/15/12)

2012        Oct 16, Britain's Home Secretary Theresa May said computer hacker Gary McKinnon (46), accused by the United States of causing more than $700,000 damage to US military systems, will not be extradited because of the high risk he could kill himself. McKinnon, arrested in 2005, has Asperger's Syndrome and has said he was looking for evidence of UFOs. In December British authorities opted not to charge McKinnon.
    (AP, 10/16/12)(AP, 12/14/12)
2012        Oct 16, British writer Hilary Mantel won the Booker literary prize for a 2nd time with her Tudor saga ďBring Up the Bodies," the 2nd of a planned trilogy about Thomas Cromwell. Her first part of the trilogy, ďWolf Hall," won in 2009. In 2020 Mantel published the final volume of her trilogy: "The Mirror and the Light."
    (SFC, 10/17/12, p.A2)(Econ., 2/29/20, p.66)

2012        Oct 18, The European Court of Justice ruled that Britain faces large fines for breaching EU law on water treatment after plants in northern England and London dumped raw sewage into waterways.
    (AP, 10/18/12)
2012        Oct 18, Rosneft, Russiaís state-controlled oil giant, offered British Petroleum $28 billion for its half of the TNK-BP joint venture. A day earlier AAR, a consortium of Russian billionaires, had agreed to sell its half of the TNK-BP joint venture for the same amount.
    (Econ, 10/20/12, p.57)

2012        Oct 19, Britain's financial regulator fined Bank of Scotland (BoS) 4.2 million pounds for failures in its systems which meant it held inaccurate mortgage records for 250,000 of its customers.
    (Reuters, 10/20/12)
2012        Oct 19, Relatives of four British soldiers killed in the war in Iraq in 2003 won the right to sue the government for negligence, in a landmark appeal court ruling that could open the door for other claims. Families of some of the soldiers who lost their lives said Britain sent them to the front line with inadequate equipment.
    (Reuters, 10/19/12)
2012        Oct 19, British engineers at Air Fuel Synthesis (AFS) in Teeside, northern England, said they have produced 5 liters of synthetic petrol over a period of three months. AFS said it has developed a way to create petrol from air and water.
    (AP, 10/19/12)

2012        Oct 22, The BBC faced growing fallout over sexual abuse allegations against Jimmy Savile, a popular children's TV entertainer, as PM David Cameron accused the broadcaster of changing its story about why it killed a news segment on the accusations. Savile had been hailed as a popular fixture in children's TV when he died at 84 last year.
    (AP, 10/22/12)

2012        Oct 23, Britainís Environment Secretary Owen Paterson said a plan to shoot thousands of badgers to stop the spread of tuberculosis in cattle has been delayed in the face of overwhelming public opposition to the cull.
    (AP, 10/24/12)

2012        Oct 28, London police arrested one-time pop star Gary Glitter as part of an investigation into allegations of child sex abuse by the late BBC presenter Jimmy Savile. Glitter, born Paul Gadd, shot to fame in the early 1970s with the hit "Rock and Roll". He has long been dogged by child sex accusations. He was convicted of abusing two girls in Vietnam in 2006 and has been jailed in that country.
    (AP, 10/28/12)

2012        Oct 30, Hitachi won a bid to take over a company building up to six nuclear power plants in Britain, reviving hopes for investment in the UK's ageing energy infrastructure but leaving doubts they will come online in time.
    (AP, 10/30/12)

2012        Oct 31, Former British cabinet minister Lord Hazeltine (79) published a report demanding a new British industrial policy.
    (Econ, 11/3/12, p.57)
2012        Oct 31, Spanish infrastructure company Ferrovial said an arm of China's sovereign wealth fund has taken a 10 percent stake in the holding company controlling Britain's largest airport Heathrow.
    (AP, 10/31/12)

2012        Nov 1, British police arrested comedian Freddie Starr as part of an investigation triggered by allegations that the late BBC presenter Jimmy Savile sexually abused hundreds of children.
    (Reuters, 11/2/12)

2012        Nov 4, In Cyprus David Lee Collins (19), an off-duty British soldier, was stabbed to death  in a nightclub. On Nov 5 a court in Cyprus remanded three British tourists in custody on suspicion of the fatal stabbing. On May 17, 2013, Mohammed Abdulkadir Osman (19) of London was jailed for eight years for the fatal stabbing. Charges against two other men arrested with him were dropped in a plea bargain.
    (AP, 11/5/12)(Reuters, 5/17/13)

2012        Nov 5, Former British stockbroker Nicholas Levene (48), who swindled investors out of 32 million pounds in a "ponzi" scheme, was jailed for 13 years. Investors had handed Levene, a former deputy chairman at London football Club Leyton Orient, more than 250 million pounds between January 2005 and October 2009.
    (AP, 11/6/12)

2012        Nov 6, British actor Clive Dunn (b.1920), best known as a bumbling old butcher in the popular World War Two sitcom "Dad'    s Army" (1968-1970), died in Portugal.
    (AP, 11/7/12)
2012        Nov 6, Russia wheeled out one of its treasured Cold War trophies, publishing a rare interview with George Blake, a 90-year-old British double agent. Blake worked for the British Secret Intelligence Service, MI6, from the 1940s. He became a committed communist while a North Korean prisoner during the Korean war, and worked for Moscow after being posted by MI6 to Berlin in 1955.
    (AP, 11/6/12)

2012        Nov 7, Western efforts to oust Syrian President Bashar Assad shifted dramatically, with Britain announcing it will deal directly with rebel military leaders and Turkey saying NATO members have discussed using Patriot missiles to protect a safe zone inside Syria.
    (AP, 11/7/12)

2012        Nov 9, Britainís PM David Cameron announced that Justin Welby (56), ordained in 1992 with a background in the oil industry and in conflict resolution, has been appointed succeed Rowan Williams as the next Archbishop of Canterbury.
    (AP, 11/9/12)
2012        Nov 9, PM David Cameron's government announced that Britain will halt all aid spending in India in 2015 in a significant shift in relations between the emerging economic giant and its former colonial ruler.
    (AP, 11/9/12)

2012        Nov 10, BBC Director General George Entwistle resigned, just two months into the job, after the state-funded broadcaster put out a program denounced by the corporation's chairman as shoddy journalism. A day later the BBC confirmed that Entwistle will get a full year's salary after 54 days in the post.
    (AP, 11/10/12)(AP, 11/12/12)
2012        Nov 10, Alexander Perepilichny (44) collapsed and died not far from his home on an upmarket, heavily protected estate in the county of Surrey, south of London. The Russian businessman had helped Swiss prosecutors uncover a powerful fraud syndicate. He had also provided evidence against those linked to the 2009 death of anti-corruption lawyer Sergei Magnitsky. He is now the fourth person linked to the Magnitsky case to have died in strange circumstances. In 2015 a toxicologist at a pre-inquest hearing reported that his stomach contained a compound associated with the poisonous plant gelsemium. In 2018 a British coroner said he probably died of natural causes.
    (AP, 11/29/12)(Econ, 5/23/15, p.47)(Reuters, 12/19/18)

2012        Nov 12, British judges ruled that Abu Qatada, a radical Islamist cleric described by prosecutors as a key al-Qaida operative in Europe, cannot be deported from Britain to Jordan to face terrorism charges. Britain's Special Immigration Appeals Commission said it was not convinced that Jordan would guarantee Abu Qatada a fair trial.
    (AP, 11/12/12)
2012        Nov 12, Helen Boaden, the head of news at the BBC, stepped aside after a program falsely accusing a former senior politician of child abuse sparked one of the worst crises in the publicly-funded broadcaster's 90-year history. Boaden and her deputy Stephen Mitchell stepped aside pending a review of why editors spiked the report last year on Savile, who has been accused of abusing children on BBC premises.
    (AP, 11/12/12)
2012        Nov 12, British MPs criticised executives of Starbucks, Google and Amazon for not paying more tax in Britain and Amazon said it had received a $252 million (159 million pounds) demand for back taxes from France. A Reuters report last month showed that Starbucks had paid no corporation, or income, tax in the UK in the past three years and had paid only 8.6 million pounds since 1998.
    (Reuters, 11/12/12)

2012        Nov 13, British Petty officer Edward Devenney (30), from Northern Ireland, pleaded guilty at the Old Bailey to a charge of misconduct in public office, relating to the alleged theft of passwords and computer programmes used to encrypt secret information.
    (Reuters, 11/13/12)
2012        Nov 13, Peter Ball (80), a former Church of England bishop was arrested in western England on suspicion of sexually assaulting boys as young as 12 in the late 1980s and early 1990s. A 2nd man, a retired Anglican priest aged 67, was detained in Sussex on suspicion of separate offences against two teenage boys in 1981 and 1983.
    (AP, 11/13/12)

2012        Nov 15, British regulators filed charges against the owners of the Sellafield nuclear waste site on allegations of illegal dumping of radioactive waste, adding to the plant's history of controversy and complaints.
    (AP, 11/15/12)
2012        Nov 15, The BBC agreed to pay 185,000 pounds to Lord Alistair McAlpine, a former treasurer of Britain's Conservative Party, who was wrongly accused of child sex abuse as a result of one of its reports.
    (AP, 11/15/12)

2012        Nov 16, Britain suspended all aid to the government of Uganda over new evidence that British taxpayers' money may have been stolen.
    (Reuters, 11/17/12)

2012        Nov 20, Britain announced that it has formally recognized the newly formed Syrian opposition as the sole legitimate representative of the Syrian people.
    (AP, 11/20/12)
2012        Nov 20, Former UBS trader Kweku Adoboli (32) was convicted and sentenced to seven years in jail for the biggest fraud in British history, which resulted in a loss of $2.3 billion for the Swiss bank. Adoboli was released on parole in 2015 after serving about half his sentence.
    (Reuters, 11/20/12)(AP, 6/24/15)
2012        Nov 20, Amnesty International workers in London walked off the job for the second strike in as many months. Tensions had been rising dramatically in recent weeks as Amnesty's international operations prepare to re-organize transferring some of its 500 jobs from a centralized London base to 10 regional hubs around the world.
    (AP, 11/20/12)
2012        Nov 20, The Church of Englandís governing General Synod failed to get a required two-thirds majority to allow women to serve as bishops.
    (AP, 11/21/12)

2012        Nov 22, The British government banned Ansaru, a Nigeria-based Islamist group, it said was aligned with al Qaeda. Ansaru's full name is Jama'atu Ansarul Musilimina Fi Biladis Sudan, which translates as "Vanguards for the Protection of Muslims in Black Africa." A minister said the oulawed organisation was probably responsible for the killing of Chris McManus, a Briton, and Franco Lamolinara, an Italian.
    (Reuters, 11/22/12)

2012        Nov 25, In London the Rolling Stones held the first of 5 concerts to mark the 50th anniversary of their debut.
    (SFC, 11/26/12, p.A2)

2012        Nov 26, Britain named Canadian central bank chief Mark Carney to head the Bank of England.
    (Reuters, 11/26/12)
2012        Nov 26, France's EDF and partner Centrica have received the first UK site licence for a new nuclear plant in 25 years, paving the way for Britain's first new nuclear station since 1995.
    (AP, 11/26/12)
2012        Nov 26, A man (22) from Northern Ireland was arrested in Britain in connection with the death of Northern Ireland policeman Ronan Kerr, who was killed in April last year when a bomb exploded under his car.
    (Reuters, 11/26/12)

2012        Nov 27, British police found the body of an elderly woman in a flooded home in the Welsh city of St. Asaph. Sustained wet weather kept many areas of Britain under water.
    (SFC, 11/28/12, p.A2)

2012        Nov 29, Britainís Lord Justice Brian Leveson said a new regulatory body should be established in law to prevent more people from being hurt by "press behavior that, at times, can only be described as outrageous," following a yearlong inquiry into newspaper wrongdoing.
    (AP, 11/29/12)
2012        Nov 29, A British environmental group released a report saying China is helping to propel a $4 billion trade in illegally harvested timber and spurring the destruction of fragile ecosystems across the globe.
    (SFC, 11/30/12, p.A2)

2012        Dec 4, The British government said Chancellor George Osborne will invest 5 billion pounds in schools, science and transport projects.
    (AP, 12/4/12)

2012        Dec 6, British police arrested prominent publicist Max Clifford (69) in connection to the broad investigation into child sex abuse spurred by the Jimmy Savile case.
    (AP, 12/6/12)

2012        Dec 7, In London nurse Jacintha Saldanha (46) was discovered hanging by a scarf from a wardrobe in her nurses' quarters by a colleague and a member of security staff at London's King Edward VII Hospital. She had answered the phone on Dec 4 when two Australian disc jockeys called to seek information about the former Kate Middleton, who was being treated for severe morning sickness.
    (AP, 12/13/12)

2012        Dec 9, British astronomer Patrick Moore (89) died. He helped map the moon and inspired generations of star gazers with decades of broadcasts on  ďThe Sky At Night," a BBC television show.
    (Reuters, 12/9/12)

2012        Dec 10, PM Cameron said Britain will be the first country to introduce a database of genetic sequences into a mainstream health service, giving doctors a more advanced understanding of a patient's illness and what drugs and other treatments they need.
    (Reuters, 12/10/12)
2012        Dec 10, The UK's Ministry of Defence said it has awarded a 1.2 billion-pound ($1.92 billion) submarine contract to British defense contractor BAE Systems.
    (Reuters, 12/10/12)
2012        Dec 10, Britainís Standard Chartered PLC agreed to pay a fine of $327 million on top of an earlier $340 million penalty over money-laundering allegations by American regulators.
    (Econ, 12/15/12, p.73)
2012        Dec 10, Australian radio announcers Mel Greig and Michael Christian, who made a Dec 4 prank call to a British hospital treating Prince William's pregnant wife Kate, broke a three-day silence to speak of their distress at the apparent suicide of nurse Jacintha Saldanha. Saldanha (46) was found dead in staff accommodation near London's King Edward VII hospital on Dec 7 after putting the hoax call through to a colleague who unwittingly disclosed details of Kate's morning sickness to 2DayFM's presenters.
    (Reuters, 12/10/12)
2012        Dec 10, It was reported that a Bangladesh war crimes tribunal has accused The Economist magazine of hacking the computer of its presiding judge to record conversations and read e-mails he exchanged with a lawyer regarding charges related to its 1971 war of independence.
    (SFC, 12/10/12, p.A2)(Econ, 12/15/12, p.41)

2012        Dec 11, Britain's Serious Fraud Office (SFO) and London police made the first arrests as part of a global investigation into the manipulation of interbank lending rates, a scandal that has rocked the banking industry.
    (Reuters, 12/11/12)
2012        Dec 11, British bank HSBC agreed to pay a fine of $1.9 billion over money-laundering allegations by American regulators.
    (Econ, 12/15/12, p.73)

2012        Dec 12, Royal Navy Petty Officer Edward Devenney was sentenced to eight years in prisons for passing nuclear submarine secrets to British intelligence agents impersonating Russian spies.
    (AP, 12/12/12)

2012        Dec 16, A British medical watchdog ruled that Derek Keilloh, a former army doctor, failed to protect detainees and acted dishonestly following the death of Baha Mousa, an Iraqi civilian beaten and killed in the custody of UK troops in Sep, 2003.
    (AP, 12/17/12)

2012        Dec 17, British energy regulator Ofgem approved 24.4 billion pounds of investment by energy companies to overhaul the country's gas and electricity grid, reducing initial overall spending plans by 16% to 2021.
    (Reuters, 12/17/12)

2012        Dec 18, British electrical retailer Comet closed its remaining stores for the final time as part of a deal that will cost the government more than 23 million pounds.
    (Reuters, 12/18/12)

2012        Dec 19, The Bank of England said that new governor Mark Carney, currently governor of the Bank of Canada, will receive a 250,000 pound a year housing allowance in addition to his 624,000 pound salary.
    (Reuters, 12/19/12)
2012        Dec 19, British oil company BP said it is selling its stake in a South China Sea gas field to Kuwait Foreign Petroleum Exploration Company for $308 million in cash.
    (AP, 12/19/12)

2012        Dec 21, British Dr. Derek Keilloh was stripped of his medical license for misconduct and dishonesty over the death of an Iraqi man who was beaten and killed while in the custody of British troops. Keilloh had treated Baha Mousa, a hotel clerk who died at a British base after being detained in Basra in September 2003.
    (AP, 12/21/12)

2012        Dec 25, The British Antarctic Survey (BAS), an ambitious plan to search for minute forms of life in an ancient lake beneath Antarctica's ice, was suspended because of technical problems.
    (AP, 12/27/12)

2012        Dec 30, In London Mary Konye (22) disguised herself with a veil and attacked Naomi Oni (22), leaving her with disfiguring burns on her face, a hand and a thigh. On March 21, 2014, Konye was sentenced to 12 years in jail for throwing acid on her friend's face following an argument.
    (AP, 3/21/14)

2012        "Britannia Unchained," a book lamenting Britain's "bloated state, high taxes and excessive regulation," was published by a clutch of newly elected Tory MPS, including Priti Patel, Dominic Raab and Liz Truss.
    (Econ, 3/21/20, p.50)
2012        Dan Conaghan authored ďThe Bank: Inside the Bank of England. In concentrated on the period since 1997.
    (Econ, 3/31/12, p.95)
2012        John Darwin authored ďUnfinished Empire: The Global Expansion of Britain."
    (Economist, 9/15/12, p.77)
2012        British MP David Lammy authored ďOut of the Ashes: Britain After the Riots," a reflection on three consecutive Labor governments and a commentary on the 2011 Tottenham riots.
    (Econ, 2/8/14, p.57)
2012        Will Self authored his novel ďUmbrella." It was short-listed for this yearís Man Booker Prize. A US edition came out in 2013.
    (Econ, 1/5/13, p.70)
2012        Stephen Wall authored ďThe Official History of Britain and the European Community, Vol. II From Rejection to Referendum, 1963-1975."
    (Econ, 1/19/13, p.82)
2012        Britain asked Germanyís national security agency (BND) to tap data pipes and swap information in an operation code-named ďmonkey-shoulder." This was stopped by Pres. Gerhard Schindler in 2013.
    (Econ, 6/6/15, p.41)
2012        Ben Francis (19) and Lewis Morgan (19) founded Gymshark, a British athletic clothing brand, from Francis' parent's garage. In 2020 General Atlantic, an American fund manager, bought a 21% stake in the firm  in a deal that valued the company at more than $1.3 billion.
    (https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Gymshark)(Econ., 8/22/20, p.47)

2013        Jan 2, Britain's Health Protection Agency (HPA) said more than 1.1 million people in Britain have succumbed to the norovirus winter vomiting disease so far this season.
    (AP, 1/2/13)

2013        Jan 3, British police extradited terror suspect Abid Naseer (26) to the United States to face charges that he took part in an alleged al-Qaida plot to detonate explosives aboard the New York City subway system.
    (AP, 1/3/13)
2013        Jan 3, Argentine Pres. Cristina Fernandez called on Britain to relinquish control of the Falkland Islands.
    (SFC, 1/4/13, p.A2)
2013        Jan 3, In Northern Ireland 8 police officers were injured when protests at the removal of the British flag from Belfast City Hall turned violent for the first time in more than two weeks.
    (Reuters, 1/3/13)

2013        Jan 4, British police charged Nepali army colonel Kumar Lama (46) with two counts of torture committed in 2005 during the Himalayan nation's decade-long civil war, despite the Nepali government's demanding his immediate release.
    (Reuters, 1/4/13)
2013        Jan 4, The Church of England confirmed that its House of Bishops, one of its most senior bodies, has ended an 18-month moratorium on the appointment of gays in civil partnerships as bishops. The decision was made in late December.
    (Reuters, 1/4/13)

2013        Jan 7, An Afghan soldier turned his weapon against foreign and Afghan troops in a southern province, killing one British soldier. 6 British soldiers were also reported wounded.
    (AP, 1/8/13)

2013        Jan 9, British health officials said a new strain of the winter vomiting disease norovirus has spread to France, New Zealand and Japan from Australia and is overtaking all others to become the dominant local strain.
    (Reuters, 1/9/13)

2013        Jan 10, British Detective Chief Inspector April Casburn (53) was found guilty of one count of misconduct for trying to sell information to one of Rupert Murdochís tabloids.
    (SFC, 1/11/13, p.A3)

2013        Jan 11, British police released a report saying the late entertainer Jimmy Savile committed more than 200 sex crimes from 1955-2009, with most victims children and teens assaulted the length and breadth of Britain, from TV studios to hospitals and even a hospice.
    (AP, 1/11/13)

2013        Jan 14, Britainís coalition government unveiled sweeping reforms to the state pension system, scheduled to take place in 2017.
    (Econ, 1/19/14, p.58)
2013        Jan 14, A British court approved the extradition of former Credit Suisse trader Kareem Serageldin (39) to the United States, where he is accused of inflating the prices of subprime mortgage-backed bonds to the tune of $540 million in 2007-2008.
    (AP, 1/14/13)
2013        Jan 14, In Afghanistan a soldier from 1st Battalion The Duke of Lancaster's Regiment was wounded by enemy action. He died of his wounds in Birmingham on Jan 16.
    (AP, 1/16/13)

2013        Jan 15, British music retailer HMV announced that it was putting itself into administration.
    (Econ, 1/19/13, p.59)
2013        Jan 15, Europe's top court said religious freedom is a right but not an absolute one, ruling that British Airways discriminated against a devoutly Christian employee by making her remove her crucifix, but backing a UK charity that fired a marriage counselor who refused to give sex therapy to gay couples.
    (AP, 1/15/13)
2013        Jan 15, In Honduras British tourist Kaya Omer (33) was shot dead in the dangerous city of San Pedro Sula, after being assaulted by two gunmen who stole his camera.
    (Reuters, 1/15/13)

2013        Jan 16, British PM David Cameron condemned horse meat found in beef burgers sold by Tesco and said this was likely to prove both embarrassing and costly for the firm.
    (AP, 1/16/13)
2013        Jan 16, A helicopter crashed into a crane and fell on a crowded street in central London, sending flames and black plumes of smoke into the air. The pilot and one person on the ground were killed and 13 others injured.
    (AP, 1/16/13)
2013        Jan 16, In Algeria gunmen attacked the gas complex at Ain Amenas in retaliation for France's military intervention against al-Qaida-linked rebels in neighboring Mali. The attack was carried out by militants from across northern Africa and two from Canada. Gas processing was stopped because of the terrorist attack. The attack left 37 hostages and 29 militants dead. Moktar Belmoktar (41), aka MBM, orchestrated the attack.
    (AP, 1/16/13)(AP, 1/20/13)(AP, 1/21/13)(SFC, 2/25/13, p.A2)
2013        Jan 16, A Germany court in Regensburg fined British bishop Richard Williamson $2,400 for denying the Holocaust in a television interview some 4 years ago.
    (SFC, 1/17/13, p.A2)

2013        Jan 17, A British judge sentenced Achilleas Kallakis (44), a fake property tycoon, to seven years in jail for defrauding two banks out of over 700 million pounds ($1.1 billion), but said Allied Irish Banks and Bank of Scotland deserved some blame for poor risk controls. Co-defendant Alexander Williams (44), convicted of the same counts for his role in producing forged documents to back up Kallakis's applications for loans, was sentenced to 5 years. In May the jail terms for both men were extended, 4 more for Kallakis and 3 more for Williams.
    (AP, 1/18/13)(Reuters, 5/16/13)
2013        Jan 17, British, Norwegian and Spanish oil companies evacuated workers from Algerian energy facilities following the hostage-taking by Islamic militants in the Sahara desert and Algeria's attempt to free them.
    (AP, 1/17/13)

2013        Jan 18, The British defence ministry said Britain and Australia will increase ties on defence issues including cyber security and equipment programs such as the BAE Systems-built Type 26 frigate.
    (AP, 1/18/13)

2013        Jan 20, London's Heathrow Airport cancelled a fifth of flights and airlines scrapped 40 percent of flights to Paris's main airports as snow continued to blanket parts of Europe, with more forecast.
    (AP, 1/20/13)

2013        Jan 21, London's Heathrow airport cancelled 10 percent of flights, a day after it cut its capacity by a fifth, and said services could face further delays with more snowfall expected.
    (Reuters, 1/21/13)

2013        Jan 22, A foul-smelling cloud of gas escaped from a factory in northern France, making life unpleasant from the outskirts of Paris to Britain's shores and prompting scores of emergency calls. The mercaptan gas from the Rouen chemical factory was said to be harmless.
    (AP, 1/22/13)
2013        Jan 22, An Indonesian court sentenced British grandmother Lindsay June Sandiford (56), to death for smuggling 8.4 pounds of cocaine worth $2.5 million in her suitcase onto the resort island of Bali ó even though prosecutors had sought only a 15-year sentence. Indonesia has not carried out an execution since 2008, when 10 people were put to death.
    (AP, 1/22/13)(SFC, 4/9/13, p.A2)

2013        Jan 23, British PM David Cameron promised to give Britons a referendum choice on whether to stay in the European Union or leave if he wins an election in 2015.
    (AP, 1/23/13)
2013        Jan 23, A new report said irresponsible lending and intimidating debt collectors are pushing thousands of people in Britain into depression and suicide. Separate data showed more people are taking their own lives.
    (Reuters, 1/23/13)

2013        Jan 24, Britainís and Irelandís energy ministers signed a memorandum of understanding in Dublin, agreeing to assess the costs and benefits of trading renewable energy, to look at potential projects and to consider sharing renewable energy statistics.
    (Reuters, 1/24/13)

2013        Jan 28, Britain received an initial 340 million pounds from the Swiss government as part of a deal to tackle tax evasion that the government expects will net it some 5 billion pounds over the next six years.
    (Reuters, 1/29/13)

2013        Feb 1, Senior British counterterrorism Detective Chief Inspector April Casburn (53) was sentenced to 15 months in prison for trying to sell information to Rupert Murdoch's News of the World tabloid.
    (AP, 2/1/13)
2013        Feb 1, Chinese car maker Geely said it has bought Manganese Bronze, the maker of London's black taxis since 1948, for 11 million pounds, safeguarding jobs and production of the vehicles in Britain.
    (AP, 2/1/13)

2013        Feb 3, British PM David Cameron met in London with the presidents of Afghanistan and Pakistan for 2 days of talks to discuss prospects for peace with the Taliban.
    (AP, 2/4/13)

2013        Feb 4, Britainís Guardian newspaper said that London's Metropolitan Police Service had stolen the identities of dozens of dead children to use as aliases for undercover officers, mining those children's personal histories to build covers and even issuing fake passports in their names.
    (AP, 2/4/13)
2013        Feb 4, Former British energy secretary Chris Huhne (58) faced time behind bars after pleading guilty to perverting the course of justice by asking his then wife in 2003 to accept a penalty for a speeding offence he had committed.
    (AP, 2/4/13)
2013        Feb 4, Reg Presley (71), the lead singer of 1960s British rock band The Troggs, died at his home after a battle with cancer. He had scored a hit with the love anthem "Wild Thing" (1966).
    (Reuters, 2/4/13)

2013        Feb 5, European Union regulators gave approval for Britain's 600 million pounds of public support for the "Green Deal" energy-efficiency scheme. Britain's Green Deal permits loans to homeowners to help them pay for efficiency measures such as loft insulation, modern boilers, draught proofing and other materials.
    (AP, 2/5/13)

2013        Feb 6, A new British report said between 400 and 1,200 patients are estimated to have died needlessly at Stafford Hospital in central England between January 2005 and March 2009 in one of the worst scandals to hit the NHS since it was founded in 1948.
    (AP, 2/6/13)
2013        Feb 6, Chris Foster of the UK Border Agency said a significant smuggling operation has been disrupted by one of the biggest raids in UK history. Police said 26 people were arrested for human trafficking and immigration violations after raids that took place in London and other parts of England and Scotland.
    (AP, 2/6/13)
2013        Feb 6, British researchers unveiled the Halley VI Research Station, a futuristic Antarctic research base that can move, sliding across the frozen surface to beat the shifting ice and pounding snow that doomed its predecessors.
    (AP, 2/6/13)
2013        Feb 6, The Royal Bank of Scotland announced a settlement in which it agreed to pay American regulators $475 million and another $137 million to Britainís Financial Services Authority for rigging the London Interbank Offered Rate (LIBOR).
    (Econ, 2/9/13, p.71)

2013        Feb 7, UK authorities said beef lasagna products recalled from British supermarkets by frozen food company Findus had tested positive for more than 60% horsemeat.
    (SFC, 2/8/13, p.A2)

2013        Feb 8, In Britain two drug-addicted hit men who went to the wrong address and stabbed a teenager to death in 2010 were sentenced to a minimum of 40 years in jail. Prosecutors said Ben Hope (39) and Jason Richards (38) were paid 1,000 pounds ($1,600) each to kill a man who owed money to a businessman. But the pair killed Aamir Siddiqi (17) on his doorstep instead.
    (AP, 2/8/13)

2013        Feb 9, The French and British governments promised to punish those found responsible for selling horsemeat in beef products. French consumer safety authorities said companies from Romania, Cyprus and the Netherlands were part of a supply chain that resulted in horsemeat being disguised as beef in frozen lasagna sold around the continent.
    (Reuters, 2/9/13)(AP, 2/10/13)

2013        Feb 11, British health officials said a new virus from the same family as SARS, that sparked a global alert last September, has been found in a patient in Manchester, who had traveled to the Middle East and Pakistan.
    (AP, 2/11/13)

2013        Feb 12, British authorities raided a slaughterhouse in Yorkshire and a meat processing company suspected of selling horsemeat labeled as beef for kebabs and burgers.
    (SFC, 2/13/13, p.A2)
2013        Feb 12, Barclays' new chief executive pledged a fresh course for Britain's third biggest bank, axing at least 3,700 jobs and pruning its investment bank as he seeks to rebuild its reputation and boost profitability after a series of scandals.
    (Reuters, 2/12/13)
2013        Feb 12, G4S settled a months-long dispute with the organizers of the London Olympics, having failed to supply enough security guards for the 2012 Games, and said it will take a 70 million pound loss on the contract.
    (AP, 2/12/13)

2013        Feb 13, British police investigating the hacking of mobile phones to generate stories at Rupert Murdoch's now-defunct News of the World tabloid made six more arrests of journalists or former journalists.
    (AP, 2/13/13)
2013        Feb 13, British fashion retailer Republic became the latest casualty of the economic downturn, seeking protection from creditors and putting around 2,500 jobs at risk.
    (AP, 2/13/13)
2013        Feb 13, British couple Peter Root (34) and Mary Thompson (34), who had been chronicling their round-the-world cycling odyssey in a blog, died when they were hit by a pickup truck in a province east of Bangkok.
    (AP, 2/18/13)

2013        Feb 14, Ronald Dworkin (81), an American philosopher and constitutional law expert, died in London. He was best known for articulating the principle that the most important virtue the law can display is integrity. He was a professor of law at New York University and emeritus professor at University College London. His books included ďA Matter of Principle" (1985).
    (AP, 2/14/13)(SFC, 2/19/13, p.C3)

2013        Feb 15, British health officials said a fourth person in Britain has contracted a potentially fatal SARS-like virus which was unknown in humans until a few months ago, but said the risk to the population remained very low.
    (AP, 2/15/13)

2013        Feb 17, British actor Richard Briers (79), best known for the 1970s TV sit-com "The Good Life" but also for his Shakespearean roles, died at his London home. His film credits included "A Chorus Of Disapproval" (1989) and "Watership Down" (1978) in which he was the voice of Fiver.
    (Reuters, 2/18/13)

2013        Feb 18, British PM David Cameron flew into India promising to try to revive Indian interest in the Eurofighter even though New Delhi has chosen a French-made rival.
    (Reuters, 2/18/13)
2013        Feb 18, Britain's Royal Mint said it has started to manufacture gold sovereign coins in India for the first time since 1918.
    (Reuters, 2/18/13)

2013        Feb 20, Scottish singer Emeli Sande won the coveted best album honour at the BRIT Awards for "Our Version of Events", confirming her status as favourite going into British pop's big night of the year.
    (Reuters, 2/20/13)

2013        Feb 21, Britainís HM Revenue and Customs published the names of what it described as "tax cheats" for the first time, part of efforts to address public anger over tax evasion at a time of economic austerity.
    (Reuters, 2/21/13)
2013        Feb 21, A London jury found Irfan Naseer (31), Irfan Khalid (27) and Ashik Ali (27), arrested in September 2011, guilty of being central figures in a foiled plot to explode knapsack bombs in crowded areas.
    (AP, 2/21/13)
2013        Feb 21, Ray Cusick (84), BBC designer, died. He created the Daleks, mutant monsters in sinister shells, for the ďDoctor Who" TV series.
    (Econ, 3/2/13, p.90)
2013        Feb 21, Spainís Ferrovial, a construction and services company, announced that it would buy Enterprise, a British provider of municipal services, for £385 mil ($608m).
    (Econ, 3/9/13, p.68)

2013        Feb 22, Britain suffered its first ever sovereign ratings downgrade from a major agency when Moody's stripped the country of its coveted top-notch triple-A rating, dealing a major blow to Chancellor George Osborne.
    (Reuters, 2/22/13)
2013        Feb 22, BP tanker drivers have begun a 3-day strike at Petroineos's Grangemouth refinery in Scotland over a plan to transfer some of them to another employer, which would affect their pensions and pay.
    (AP, 2/22/13)
2013        Feb 22, Frozen food maker Birds Eye said it would withdraw some products in Britain and Ireland after it found traces of horse DNA in one of its ready meals sold in Belgium.
    (Reuters, 2/22/13)
2013        Feb 22, French catering and vouchers group Sodexo said it was withdrawing all frozen beef products from the market in Britain after finding horse meat in some of its products.
    (Reuters, 2/22/13)

2013        Feb 25, Britain's most senior Roman Catholic cleric, Cardinal Keith O'Brien (74), resigned following allegations he behaved in an inappropriate way with priests, and said he would not take part in the election of Pope Benedict's replacement. O'Brien said he had tendered his resignation some months ago.
    (Reuters, 2/25/13)

2013        Feb 27, British health officials said gonorrhea cases have soared by 25 percent in the past year in England as superbug or drug-resistant strains of the sexually transmitted infection (STI) take hold worldwide.
    (AP, 2/27/13)

2013        Feb 28, Bruce Reynolds (81), the mastermind of the 1963 "Great Train Robbery" in Britain that brought its perpetrators cash, incarceration and pop-culture fame, died.
    (AP, 2/28/13)

2013        Mar 1, Britainís Food Standards Agency said traces of horse meat has been found in ground beef sold by Taco Bell, which has only three British outlets. Horse DNA also was found in Birds Eye spaghetti Bolognese and beef lasagna and spicy minced beef skewers from catering supplier Brakes.
    (AP, 3/1/13)
2013        Mar 1, Andrey Borodin (45), former head of Russia's fifth largest bank, told a Russian newspaper his application for asylum has been granted in Britain after an application by his lawyers on the grounds that he faced political persecution in Russia. Borodin fled Russia in March, 2011.
    (Reuters, 3/1/13)

2013        Mar 5, Stealth action game "Dishonored," featuring a masked bodyguard-turned-assassin, was named best video game of the year at an award ceremony in London.
    (Reuters, 3/5/13)

2013        Mar 6, Britain said it will provide armored vehicles, body armor and search-and-rescue equipment to Syria's opposition, but was still stopping short of arming the country's rebels.
    (AP, 3/6/13)
2013        Mar 6, British travel firm Thomas Cook said it would cut 2,500 UK jobs and close 195 stores in Britain as the euro crisis, high fuel costs and unrest in key destinations like Egypt and Greece take their toll on the holiday business.
    (Reuters, 3/6/13)
2013        Mar 6, In Spain Alvin Lee (b.1944), British virtuoso rock guitarist, died following complications from routine surgery. He as a member of the band Ten Years After, which burst onto the US music scene following their 1969 Woodstock performance.
    (SFC, 2/8/13, p.D5)

2013        Mar 7, British stock market trader Paul Milsom was sentenced to two years in jail, the first sentence to come out of the Financial Services Authority's (FSA) biggest investigation into insider dealing. Milsom, who was a senior equities trader at the investment arm of life insurer Legal & General, was also ordered to pay 245,000 pounds, the total profit he made from insider trading.
    (AP, 3/7/13)
2013        Mar 7, Gogglebox, a British reality show, began airing on Channel 4. The show featured recurring couples, families and friends from around Britain sitting in their homes watching weekly British television shows.
2013        Mar 7, Coalfield Resources said Daw Mill Colliery in Warwickshire, Britain's largest coal mine, will close permanently with the loss of at least 550 jobs due to a fire that has burned ferociously for two weeks.
    (AP, 3/7/13)

2013        Mar 8, British police in London arrested Muslim cleric Abu Qatada (52), who has been described as a key al-Qaida operative in Europe, following a series of raids by counterterrorism police, three days before the government's latest court bid to extradite him to Jordan.
    (AP, 3/9/13)

2013        Mar 11, The British government launched a campaign to promote London as a center for Islamic finance, seeking to counter growing competition from rising centers such as Dubai and Kuala Lumpur.
    (AP, 3/11/13)
2013        Mar 11, Sally Davies, Britain's top health official, said antibiotic resistance poses a catastrophic threat to medicine and could mean patients having minor surgery risk dying from infections that can no longer be treated.
    (AP, 3/11/13)

2013        Mar 15, Three British Muslims, including a convert who was featured in a documentary about radical Islam, pleaded guilty to terrorism charges in London. Richard Dart (29), Imran Mahmood (21), and Jahangir Alom (26), were arrested last July and accused of traveling to Pakistan between 2010 and 2012 with the intention of committing terrorist acts.
    (AP, 3/15/13)
2013        Mar 15, In Britain Dr. Davinderjit Bains, arrested last year, admitted 39 charges against 30 victims, including sexual assault, voyeurism and sexual activity with a child. He had used a Tieex 4GB Waterproof HD Spy Watch DVR, which has a camera on its face, to record assaults on patients at his practice in Royal Wootton Bassett in western England.
    (AP, 3/15/13)

2013        Mar 17, Britain's Treasury chief said the government will compensate UK troops who lose money to Cyprus's bailout tax, a levy of 6.75 to 9.9 percent on all bank balances as part of a deal with creditors for Ä10 billion ($13 billion) in rescue money. British residents of Cyprus not working for the UK military or government could be out of pocket.
    (AP, 3/17/13)

2013        Mar 18, The Queen Elizabeth Prize for Engineering was awarded to Marc Andreessen, Sir Timothy Berners-Lee, Vint Cerf, Robert Kahn and Louis Pouzin, for their efforts in the development of the Internet.
    (Econ, 3/23/13, p.84)

2013        Mar 18, The British government said it will join industrial partners to create a 2 billion pound aerospace center, part of efforts to bolster manufacturers as it struggles to revive a flagging economy.
    (AP, 3/18/13)
2013        Mar 18, Britain's three main political parties agreed to create a new system to regulate the country's scandal-hungry newspapers, after a public inquiry exposed a culture of industrial-scale phone hacking and other unethical behavior.
    (Reuters, 3/18/13)
2013        Mar 18, Argentina's government accused the British banking giant HSBC of facilitating money laundering and tax evasion.
    (AP, 3/18/13)

2013        Mar 19, PM David Cameron's spokesman said Britain will trim the budgets of most government departments by 1 percent a year over the next two years to raise money for capital spending. The government also said up to 400,000 more Britons will qualify for a new higher flat-rate state pension and introduce the reform a year earlier than expected.
    (AP, 3/19/13)
2013        Mar 19, An English judge said oligarch Mukhtar Ablyazov, who has been in hiding since he was sentenced to jail for contempt of court last year, organised a complex fraud to embezzle billions of dollars from Kazakh bank BTA.
    (Reuters, 3/19/13)
2013        Mar 19, A British court ruled that two Saudi princes involved in litigation in London over a business dispute did not have immunity from being sued, a new blow to the royal pair after they failed in an attempt to have the case heard in secret. The litigation, which has been going through British courts since December 2011, stems from sales in 2010 and 2011 of shares in Fi Call Ltd, a company jointly owned by Prince Abdulaziz and Jordanian businessman Faisal Almhairat.
    (Reuters, 3/19/13)

2013        Mar 20, Chancellor George Osborne said Britain will raise the personal tax allowance to 10,000 pounds in 2014-15, a year earlier than expected.
    (AP, 3/20/13)
2013        Mar 20, James Herbert (69), best-selling British horror writer, died at his home in Sussex. His 23 novels included "The Rats" (1974).
    (Reuters, 3/20/13)

2013        Mar 21, Justin Welby, the new Archbishop of Canterbury was formally enthroned after using a radio interview to back Church of England positions on homosexuality, which include opposition to same-sex marriage.
    (AP, 3/21/13)

2013        Mar 22, A British judge upheld a decision to ban a Christian group from placing adverts on London buses that suggested people could be cured of homosexuality.
    (AP, 3/22/13)

2013        Mar 23, Boris Berezovsky (67), fervent critic of Russian President Vladimir Putin, died in unclear circumstances at his home in Ascot, 25 miles (40 km) west of London. A Home Office pathologist soon found the cause of death to be consistent with hanging.
    (Reuters, 3/24/13)(Reuters, 3/25/13)
2013        Mar 23, Spanish, Portuguese and British police boarded a ship loaded with nearly two tons of cocaine destined for sale in Europe and arrested nine people. The ship was in the Atlantic Ocean, some 700 miles southwest of Portugal's Cape Verde islands.
    (AP, 3/24/13)

2013        Mar 25, Yahoo acquired Summly, a British startup, for some $30 million. Summly founder Nick díAloisio (17) had created an iPhone app to summarize articles in 300-400 characters.
    (SFC, 4/18/13, p.66)

2013        Mar 26, The British government published its long-term Nuclear Industrial Strategy but fell short of announcing a guaranteed power price which operators want spelled out before investing billions in new power stations.
    (AP, 3/26/13)

2013        Mar 27, The Bank of England said that its recommendations for Britain's banks to plug a 25 billion-pound capital shortfall by December won't call on further taxpayer funds.
    (AP, 3/27/13)
2013        Mar 27, Abu Qatada, a radical Muslim cleric, thwarted another effort by Britain to have him deported to Jordan after a court accepted arguments that he would face testimony obtained by torture.
    (AP, 3/27/13)

2013        Mar 28, Britain's domestic spy agency (MI5) chose Andrew Parker (50) as its new director. Parker was an ornithologist with counter-terrorism experience in the Middle East and Northern Ireland.
    (AP, 3/28/13)
2013        Mar 28, In Britain Giovanni Di Stefano, a flamboyant but unqualified lawyer, was sentenced to 14 years in jail for fraud. His clients included deposed Iraqi leader Saddam Hussein. He had no legal qualifications and was not registered to practice in Britain or Italy, where he had offices.
    (AP, 3/28/13)

2013        Apr 3, British regulator Ofgem said Utility SSE has been fined 10.5 million pounds for mis-selling, the largest fine the regulator has ever imposed on an energy supplier.
    (AP, 4/3/13)

2013        Apr 5, Britain's most high-profile entertainment retailer HMV was handed a lifeline when Hilco, a turnaround group bought it in a deal worth about 50 million pound, ensuring a future for a firm which gave the Beatles one of their first big breaks.
    (AP, 4/6/13)

2013        Apr 7, Britain pledged $102 million to Sudan over three years, with about half going to Darfur.
    (AP, 4/8/13)

2013        Apr 8, Margaret Thatcher (b.1925), the "Iron Lady" who transformed Britain and inspired conservatives around the world, died following a stroke. The former prime minister (1979-1990) had radically rolled back the state during her 11 years in power.
    (AP, 4/8/13)

2013        Apr 9, Britainís Financial Conduct Authority (FCA) announced sweeping changes in financial regulation, telling banks they can no longer blame customers when products go wrong and promising to study how consumers behave to make sure they can make the right decisions.
    (Reuters, 4/10/13)
2013        Apr 9, British supermarket chain Asda said very low levels of the horse pain-killing drug phenylbutazone, also known as bute, had been found in horsemeat discovered in tins of corned beef. This was the first such case in Britain.
    (Reuters, 4/9/13)

2013        Apr 10, In London Mohammed Rizwan and Bahader Ali admitted engaging in conduct in preparation of acts of terrorism. Prosecutors said they were part of a gang that planned to detonate bombs hidden in backpacks. Three of the other plotters were convicted earlier this year.
    (AP, 4/10/13)
2013        Apr 10, Robert Edwards (87), a British Nobel prize-winning scientist (2010), died after a long illness. He was known as the father of in-vitro fertilisation (IVF) for pioneering the development of "test tube babies."
    (Reuters, 4/10/13)

2013        Apr 13, The renowned London School of Economics denounced the BBC for using a student-organized trip to North Korea as "cover" for a reporting trip to the secretive communist country.
    (AP, 4/14/13)

2013        Apr 15, The British government approved a 1.9% rise in the minimum wage, giving the country's lowest-paid employees a bigger increase than most other workers but one that is still less than inflation.
    (AP, 4/15/13)

2013        Apr 16, A European court blocked Britain from extraditing a mentally ill suspect accused of trying to set up a terrorist training camp in Oregon. The European Court of Human Rights ruled that sending Haroon Aswat to a prison in the United States would breach his human rights due to the "severity of his mental condition." Aswat was arrested on a US warrant in 2005, and has been fighting extradition ever since.
    (AP, 4/16/13)

2013        Apr 18, Four Britons were jailed for plotting al Qaeda inspired bombings across the country, including an attack on an army base using a remote-controlled toy car packed with explosives which they planned to drive under the gates. Zahid Iqbal, Mohammed Sharfaraz Ahmed, Umar Arshad and Syed Farhan Hussain, from Luton, north of London, had all pleaded guilty last month to preparing for acts of terrorism.
    (AP, 4/18/13)

2013        Apr 19, Britain's credit standing took a further blow when Fitch Ratings became the second major international agency to strip the country of its top-notch credit rating.
    (Reuters, 4/19/13)

2013        Apr 22, The British government said it will proceed with selling some or all of its 33 percent stake in uranium enrichment company Urenco. Three countries hold equal stakes in the world's second-largest nuclear fuel vendor - the UK, the Netherlands and Germany, whose stake is held by utilities E.ON and RWE.
    (AP, 4/22/13)

2013        Apr 24, Britain sought to inject new life into the country's stagnant economy by giving banks greater incentives to lend to small and medium-sized firms which complain they are starved of credit.
    (AP, 4/24/13)

2013        Apr 25, Britainís Ministry of Defense announced that a new drone-operating squadron had begun operating from RAF Waddington in eastern England.
    (AP, 4/27/13)
2013        Apr 25, Richard Dart (30), a white Briton who was the subject of a 2011 documentary detailing his conversion to radical Islam, was jailed on terrorism charges on the strength of evidence gleaned from fragments of deleted text recovered from a laptop.
    (Reuters, 4/25/13)

2013        Apr 26, Irfan Naseer, the ringleader of an al-Qaida-inspired plot to detonate knapsack bombs in England was sentenced in London to at least 18 years in jail.
    (AP, 4/26/13)
2013        Apr 26, British celebrity publicist Max Clifford (70) was charged with 11 counts of indecent assault, including on two underage girls. He was arrested in December as part of an investigation into sex crime allegations against the late Jimmy Savile.
    (Reuters, 4/26/13)

2013        Apr 27, British anti-war protesters demonstrated outside a Royal Air Force base used to control drone flights over Afghanistan. Until this week, British drones were operated only from a US Air Force base in Nevada.
    (AP, 4/27/13)

2013        Apr 29, Mohammed Saleem (82), a grandfather, was stabbed to death as he walked home from his mosque in the Small Heath area of Birmingham. On July 22 Pavlo Lapshyn (25), a Ukrainian in the UK on a sponsored work placement scheme, was charged with Saleemís murder. On Oct 21 Lapshyn pleaded to stabbing Saleem and planting bombs near three British mosques. On Oct 25 Lapshyn was sentenced to 40 years.
    (Reuters, 7/23/13)(http://tinyurl.com/llgflpp)(AFP, 10/25/13)

2013        Apr 30, In London, England, 6 men from the Birmingham area pleaded guilty to planning a terrorist attack on June 30, 2012, against a far-right anti-Muslim group. They were caught in a random highway check after the rally ended early.
    (SFC, 5/1/13, p.A3)

2013        Apr, A subsidiary of Saudi Arabia's Kingdom Holding Co agreed to refinance the debt it used to buy London's Savoy Hotel with a new 200 million-pound loan.
    (AP, 5/4/13)

2013        May 1, British judges ruled that the government has breached European Union air quality law and asked the European Court of Justice (ECJ) for guidance on what action needs to be taken, delaying immediate improvements to air pollution.
    (Reuters, 5/1/13)
2013        May 1, Bill Roache, Britainís longest-serving soap actor, was arrested on suspicion of a 1967 rape.
    (SFC, 5/2/13, p.A2)

2013        May 2, Britainís Chancellor George Osborne said tax havens such as Bermuda and the Cayman Islands will work more closely with Britain and other European countries to fight tax evasion.
    (Reuters, 5/2/13)
2013        May 2, A British judge sentenced businessman James McCormick (57), who sold fake bomb detectors, to 10 years in jail. The millionaire, convicted last month, made an estimated 50 million pounds ($77.8 million) from the sales of his non-working detectors ó which were based on a novelty golf ball finder ó to countries including Iraq, Belgium, Niger and Saudi Arabia.
    (AP, 5/2/13)
2013        May 2, British news media reported that Stuart Hall (83) had pleaded  guilty last month to sex abuse charges against young girls decades ago. Media were barred from reporting the plea until now.
    (SFC, 5/3/13, p.A5)

2013        May 4, Nigel Evans (55), a member of PM David Cameron's Conservative party, was detained over sexual attacks allegedly carried out at his home in Lancashire, northern England between July 2009 and March of this year. Evans had announced in 2010 that he was gay.
    (AP, 5/5/13)

2013        May 8, The British government announced a modest, austerity-sensitive program of legislation intended to tighten immigration controls, reform pensions and reduce red tape for business as Queen Elizabeth II laid out plans for the next year at the state opening of Parliament.
    (AP, 5/8/13)

2013        May 9, British yacht-racing champion Andrew "Bart" Simpson, who won a gold medal at the 2008 Summer Olympics in Beijing, was killed when his vessel capsized in SF Bay during training for the America's Cup.
    (Reuters, 5/9/13)

2013        May 10, British fugitive Andrew Terence Moran (31) was taken into custody in Spain's eastern town of Calpe. He was accused of taking part in the armed robbery of 25,000 pounds from a mail van in England in 2005, then escaping from security guards during his UK trial four years ago.
    (AP, 5/13/13)

2013        May 11, In England a 2-day meeting of G7 financial representatives concluded with formal acknowledgement that each member needed to secure their own countries' growth by balancing economically restraining austerity measures with growth-enhancing policies.
    (AP, 5/11/13)

2013        May 13, President Obama welcomed British PM David Cameron to the White House, where the two leaders discussed issues ranging from economic development to the unfolding conflict in Syria.

2013        May 14, Malaysia-based Genting Group, a major casino operator, accused Phil Ivey (37) of amassing millions of dollars in winnings by cheating at baccarat. Ivey, an American, is one of the world's top professional poker players. The game in question took place on Aug 20-21, 2012, at Crockfords, one of London's oldest and most respected casinos.
    (AP, 5/16/13)

2013        May 16, Four British LulzSec hackers, who pleaded guilty to a series of high-profile cyberattacks on computers in the US and Britain, were sentenced to up to 32 months in prison.
    (SFC, 5/17/13, p.A2)

2013        May 22, In the Woolwich area of south London, England, 2 men armed with meat cleavers and possibly a firearm, hacked off-duty soldier Lee Rigby (25) to death while horrified bystanders watched. They rushed toward police when officers arrived on the scene and police opened fire. British-born Londoner Michael Adebolajo (28) and Michael Adebowale (22) boasted of their exploits and warned of more violence. Two additional suspects were arrested the next day. On May 24 police arrested Abu Nusaybah after he told spoke on BBCís "Newsnight" that intelligence officers had approached Adebolajo six months ago to see if he would work for them as an informant. Adebolajo Adebowale faced trial in November.
    (AP, 5/23/13)(AP, 5/24/13)(SFC, 5/24/13, p.A5)(AFP, 10/9/13)

2013        May 23, Britainís Financial Conduct Authority (FCA) said it has fined a wealth management unit of US bank JPMorgan Chase 3.08 million pounds ($4.6 million) for being unable to show it was giving clients the right advice.
    (AP, 5/23/13)

2013        May 24, The Church of England published a plan to approve the ordination of women bishops by 2015, a widely supported reform it just missed passing last November after two decades of divisive debate.
    (Reuters, 5/24/13)
2013        May 24, In England Sarah McClay (24) was mauled by a Sumatran tiger in an enclosure at South Lakes Wild Animal Park in Cumbria. She soon died from her injuries.
    (AP, 5/25/13)

2013        May 25, British police in London arrested 3 more people as part of an investigation in the May 22 slaughter of Lee Rigby, an off-duty soldier.
    (SSFC, 5/26/13, p.A6)

2013        May 27, British police arrested a 10th suspect in connection with the May 22 street killing of soldier Lee Rigby, an apparent Islamic extremist attack that has horrified the country and heightened racial tensions.
    (AP, 5/27/13)

2013        May 28, French defense contractor Thales was reported to have won a 10-year contract worth 600 million pounds ($906 million) to service the British Royal Navy's submarines and ships.
    (Reuters, 5/28/13)

2013        Jun 1, Protesters dressed as badgers and led by Queen guitarist Brian May marched through central London demanding that the government scrap a plan to cull badgers, aimed at slowing the spread of a cattle disease.
    (Reuters, 6/1/13)

2013        Jun 2, Three members of Britain's House of Lords were suspended by their parties after apparently being caught in newspaper stings agreeing to lobby Parliament in return for cash. Labour peers Brian Mackenzie and Jack Cunningham and Ulster Unionist member John Laird were recorded by a Sunday Times reporter pretending to represent a solar energy firm.
    (AP, 6/2/13)

2013        Jun 4, Britain and France made back-to-back announcements that the nerve gas sarin was used in Syria's conflict. A UN probe said it had "reasonable grounds" to suspect small-scale use of toxic chemicals in at least four attacks in March and April in Syria.
    (AP, 6/4/13)

2013        Jun 5, Britainís Guardian newspaper reported that Americaís National Security Agency was collecting the telephone records of millions of Americans not suspected of crimes.
    (Econ, 6/15/13, p.23)

2013        Jun 6, The British Competition Commission barred France's Groupe Eurotunnel from docking its ferries at Dover for at least two years due to concerns its purchase of three ferries would allow it to dominate over half of the market.
    (Reuters, 6/6/13)
2013        Jun 6, Britain expressed regret about the abuse of Kenyans by colonial forces during the Mau Mau insurgency in the 1950s and announced a compensation package for more than 5,200 survivors worth a total of 20 million pounds.
    (AP, 6/6/13)
2013        Jun 6, British comic novelist Tom Sharpe (85), known for his "Wilt" series about a harassed and hen-pecked university lecturer, died in Spain. His first novel, "Riotous Assembly" (1971), lampoons South Africa's apartheid system and the police.
    (AP, 6/6/13)

2013        Jun 7, Vodafone Group Plc said it paid no corporation tax in Britain for the year to March 2013, prompting fresh criticism from campaigners who have made the UK mobile telephone group a target in the debate on corporate tax payments.
    (AP, 6/7/13)

2013        Jun 9, Britainís Guardian newspaper said that Edward Snowden (29), a contractor who says he worked at the National Security Agency and the Central Intelligence Agency, is the source of leaks about a phone records monitoring program and an Internet scouring program called PRISM. Snowden was working in an NSA office in Hawaii until he left for Hong Kong on May 20.
    (AP, 6/10/13)(Econ, 6/15/13, p.11)

2013        Jun 10, In London 6 men, who plotted to attack a rally by the anti-Islamist English Defence League (EDL) using guns, knives and a homemade nail bomb in June 2012, were given lengthy jail terms of almost 20 years each.
    (AP, 6/10/13)
2013        Jun 10, British drugmaker AstraZeneca PLC said it is to acquire Pearl Therapeutics Inc., a Redwood-City, California-based company involved in therapies for asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease for at least $560 million.
    (AP, 6/10/13)

2013        Jun 11, British police scuffled with scores of anti-G8 demonstrators in central London and surrounded a building where protest organizers were meeting before a summit of world leaders in Britain next week.
    (Reuters, 6/11/13)

2013        Jun 12, Britain's top court ruled that Nigeria-born, oil tycoon Michael Prest should surrender 7 properties to his English former wife, Yasmin. Prest was ordered to transfer the properties as partial payment of a 17.5 million pound (about $27 million) settlement.
    (AP, 6/12/13)

2013        Jun 13, An influential committee of British lawmakers accused search company Google of dodging its taxes in a scathing report that said the US Internet company took on highly contrived arrangements serving no purpose other than to avoid paying its fair share.
    (AP, 6/14/13)

2013        Jun 14, A British court fined the Sellafield nuclear waste site 700,000 pounds for the illegal dumping of radioactive material, the latest controversy to assail an industry that will have a toxic legacy lasting thousands of years.
    (Reuters, 6/14/13)

2013        Jun 15, Britain clinched a deal with its major offshore tax havens on Saturday that will see 10 British overseas territories and crown dependencies sign up to international protocols on information sharing. Those included were Bermuda, British Virgin Islands, the Cayman Islands, Gibraltar, Anguilla, Montserrat, Turks and Caicos Islands, Jersey, Guernsey and the Isle of Man.
    (AP, 6/15/13)

2013        Jun 18, Ballet dancer David Wall (67), known for becoming the youngest male principal at the Royal Ballet at the age of 21, died of cancer at his home in London.
    (Reuters, 6/19/13)
2013        Jun 18, Jordan's King Abdullah II published a royal decree endorsing a treaty with Britain that sets the stage for the possible deportation of radical Muslim preacher Abu Qatada.
    (AP, 6/18/13)

2013        Jun 19, Britain's Girl Guides unveiled their new pledge. Gone is the reference to loving God, replaced by a call to "be true to myself and develop my beliefs." It also retained a reference to serving the queen.
    (AP, 6/19/13)
2013        Jun 19, The UK's highest court ruled that the government was wrong to have imposed sanctions on an Iranian bank in 2009 over alleged links to Iran's nuclear program. The decision mirrored a January ruling by the European Union's General Court, which overturned sanctions imposed in 2010, and could result in the bank suing Britain for damages.
    (AP, 6/19/13)
2013        Jun 19, Chinese conglomerate Dalian Wanda Group said it would spend $1.6 billion (1 billion pounds) to buy British yacht maker Sunseeker and develop an upmarket London hotel, the latest example of a trend for Chinese companies to acquire top luxury global brands.
    (AP, 6/19/13)

2013        Jun 20, Britainís Prudential Regulation Authority (PRA) said the aggregate capital shortfall at five UK banks at the end of 2012 was 27.1 billion pounds, slightly higher than its 25 billion initial estimate in March this year.
    (AP, 6/20/13)

2013        Jun 21, Britainís Guardian newspaper reported that British spies are running an online eavesdropping operation so vast that internal documents say it even outstrips the international Internet surveillance effort of the US. The paper cited British intelligence memos leaked by former National Security Agency contractor Edward Snowden.
    (AP, 6/21/13)
2013        Jun 21, Britain's data regulator ordered Google to delete personal data scooped up in its Street View project ó or face contempt of court.
    (AP, 6/21/13)

2013        Jun 22, In southern England four-year-old colt Thomas Chippendale collapsed and died shortly after winning the Hardwicke Stakes at Royal Ascot.
    (Reuters, 6/22/13)

2013        Jun 24, British mobile phone operator Vodaphone announced its acquisition of Kabel Deutschland, Germanyís biggest cable-television company, for Ä7.7 billion.
    (Econ, 6/29/13, p.57)

2013        Jun 26, British Chancellor George Osborne unveiled a new round of spending cuts, but promised to pump some of the savings straight back into the economy to counter charges of excessive austerity.
    (AP, 6/26/13)

2013        Jun 28, In England the 3-day Glastonbury music festival opened. It featured acts on 58 stages across 900 acres.
    (SSFC, 6/30/13, p.A4)

2013        Jul 1, Mark Carney took over as the 120th governor of the Bank of England.
    (Econ, 6/15/13, p.58)

2013        Jul 3, The British government said it is banning khat, an herbal stimulant, despite advice against such a move by an official advisory body.
    (AP, 7/3/13)

2013        Jul 5, Tanzania police said they have arrested Iqbal Ahsan Ali, a British man, suspected of involvement in unspecified "terrorism activities" in Britain.
    (Reuters, 7/6/13)

2013        Jul 7, Abu Qatada, a radical Muslim cleric once called "Osama bin Laden's right-hand man in Europe," was deported from Britain to Jordan. Qatada pleaded innocent to terrorism charges in Jordan.
    (AP, 7/7/13)

2013        Jul 12, In Britain a fire erupted on a Boeing Dreamliner at London's Heathrow airport. The fire broke out on the plane, operated by Ethiopian Airlines, when it was parked at a remote stand with no passengers on board, eight hours after arriving from Addis Ababa.
    (Reuters, 7/13/13)

2013        Jul 13, British reservists Lance Corporals Craig Roberts and Edward Maher and Corporal James Dunsby, died after an arduous march in rugged terrain on the Brecon Beacons, a remote area of central Wales on one of the hottest days of the year. On March 2, 2016, British health and safety officials said they would give the Ministry of Defense (MoD) a "Crown Censure" over the deaths during the test for the elite Special Air Service (SAS).
    (AP, 3/2/16)

2013        Jul 17, Britain legalized gay marriage after Queen Elizabeth II gave her royal stamp of approval, clearing the way for the first same-sex weddings next summer.
    (AP, 7/17/13)
2013        Jul 17, The American Federal Energy Regulatory Commission accused Barclayís, a British bank, of manipulating energy prices in California and other states and slapped the bank with a $453 million fine. Barclayís said its trading was legitimate.
    (Econ, 7/20/13, p.64)

2013        Jul 18, British police arrested two men on terrorism charges following explosions at two mosques in central England.
    (Reuters, 7/19/13)

2013        Jul 21, Britainís Chris Froome pedaled through the streets of Paris as victor of the 2013 Tour de France.
    (CSM, 7/21/13)

2013        Jul 22, Kate Middleton, the Duchess of Cambridge, gave birth to a baby boy. The child is now third in line to the British throne.
    (AP, 7/22/13)

2013        Jul 26, Interpol rejected a second request from Moscow to put British investment fund head William Browder on its search list, dealing a fresh blow to Russia's drive to jail the man behind a campaign to expose corruption and rights violations.
    (Reuters, 7/26/13)

2013        Jul 27, In London, England, Ilya Segalovich (48) died of brain cancer. He was the co-founder of Russia's largest search engine, Yandex.
    (AP, 7/28/13)

2013        Jul 29, Britain's Home Office confirmed it will demand a 3,000-pound ($4,630) refundable bond for visas for "high-risk" visitors from six former colonies (Nigeria, Ghana, India, Pakistan, Bangladesh and Sri Lanka). The pilot scheme has brought warnings at home and abroad that it will damage trade.
    (AP, 7/29/13)

2013        Jul 31, Britainís Guardian newspaper reported that a top-secret US national Security Agency program called XKeyscore allows an analysts to search with no prior authorization through vast databases containing e-mails, online chats and the browsing histories of millions of individuals. 
    (SSFC, 8/4/13, p.A4)(Econ, 8/3/13, p.23)

2013        Jul, Renewal, a British think tank, was founded by David Skelton (35) to promote working-class Toryism.
    (Econ, 8/6/16, p.45)

2013        Aug 5, In Britain Dutch scientists served hamburgers made from cow stem cells at a public tasting in London. Sergey Brin, co-founder of Google, underwrote the 250,000-euro ($330,000) project, which began in 2006.
    (AP, 8/5/13)
2013        Aug 5, British Adm. John "Sandy" Woodward (81) died. He led the Royal Navy task force during the 1982 Falklands War. Woodward published a book about the conflict: "One Hundred Days" (1997).
    (AP, 8/5/13)

2013        Aug 6, It was reported that Somalia's government has signed an oil and gas exploration deal with Soma Oil and Gas, a newly formed British company, the first such agreement by a central government in Somalia following decades of conflict.
    (AP, 8/6/13)

2013        Aug 7, British police arrested Domenico Rancadore (64), a senior member of an Italian mafia clan. He had been sentenced to seven years in jail while on the run and was detained in west London under a European arrest warrant.
    (Reuters, 8/8/13)

2013        Aug 9, British authorities said they have captured Anthony Judge, one of their 'most wanted' tax criminals, and added 10 new names to a list of high-priority targets who are accused of cheating the government out of hundreds of millions of pounds. Judge was detained on July 4 when trying to enter Britain on a forged passport.
    (Reuters, 8/9/13)

2013        Aug 12, The City of London Corporation said it has demanded that ad-firm Renew pull the plug on a network of high-tech trash cans, which measure the Wi-Fi signals emitted by smartphones to follow commuters as they pass by.
    (AP, 8/12/13)

2013        Aug 14, In Switzerland British stuntman Mark Sutton (42) was killed during a gathering organized by Online extreme sports involving 20 wingsuit pilots who were filmed as they jumped from helicopters.
    (AP, 8/15/13)

2013        Aug 16, British PM David Cameron asked European Commission President Jose Manuel Barroso to "urgently" send monitors to Gibraltar's border with Spain where tightened security checks are fuelling a row between the two countries.
    (Reuters, 8/16/13)

2013        Aug 19, Anti-fracking protesters scuffled with police outside an oil exploration site in rural England and broke into the headquarters of the energy company which is pioneering shale gas exploration in Britain.
    (Reuters, 8/19/13)

2013        Aug 27, British farm union officials said a cull of badgers has begun in a bid to halt the spread of cattle tuberculosis. Plans called for about 5,000 badgers to be killed during the six-week program.
    (AP, 8/27/13)

2013        Aug 31, Veteran British journalist and broadcaster David Frost (74), who won fame around the world for his TV interviews with former President Richard Nixon, died aboard the Queen Elizabeth cruise ship, where he was due to give a speech.
    (AP, 9/1/13)

2013        Sep 7, British police arrested more than 160 people in east London during rival protests by hundreds of anti-Islamist activists and thousands of counter-demonstrators near an area home to one of Britain's largest Muslim communities.
    (Reuters, 9/7/13)

2013        Sep 12, Britain's government officially launched plans to privatize more than half of Royal Mail, saying an initial sale of shares in the state-run postal service would occur within weeks.
    (AFP, 9/12/13)

2013        Sep 13, London police arrested 12 men involved in a bold attempt to take control of a bank's computer in order to rob the institution. 4 men were charged the next day with trying to steal millions of pounds from Santander Bank by hacking into its computer system. 8 others were released on police bail pending further enquiries.
    (AP, 9/13/13)(Reuters, 9/14/13)

2013        Sep 16, Representatives from 15 Caribbean nations gathered in St. Vincent to seek slavery reparations from Britain, France and the Netherlands.
    (SFC, 9/17/13, p.A2)

2013        Sep 17, A man (23) was attacked in London in the early hours as he made his way home from a midnight launch event for the notoriously violent videogame "Grand Theft Auto V." Three British teenagers, ages 14-17, were later charged over the stabbing and robbery. The victim remained in hospital in a stable condition. On Sep 20 game's publisher Take-Two Interactive Software said that it had raked in more than a billion dollars during the first three days of sales, smashing previous records.
    (AFP, 9/21/13)

2013        Sep 19, The organizers of the Rhodes Scholarships said a Canadian philanthropist (the McCall MacBain Foundation) is giving of 75 million pounds ($120 million) to the program, the largest single donation since the prestigious program was founded in 1903.
    (AP, 9/19/13)

2013        Sep 23, British adventurer Sarah Outen arrived at Adak in the Aleutian Islands becoming the first woman to row solo from Japan to Alaska. She had left Choshi, Japan, on April 27.
    (SFC, 9/25/13, p.A6)

2013        Sep 20, British police said 8 men have been arrested on suspicion of stealing 1.3 million pounds ($2 million) from a Barclays bank branch by tapping into its computers.
    (AP, 9/20/13)

2013        Sep 24, A member of staff at London's Metropolitan Police (MPS) headquarters was one of two people arrested as part of a bribery investigation sparked by the phone-hacking scandal at the News of the World tabloid. A total of 74 people have now been arrested under Operation Elveden, the investigation into illegal payments to police and public officials by journalists.
    (AFP, 9/24/13)

2013        Sep 25, British police said they have arrested three more people as part of a long-running investigation into a suspected slavery ring in Wales, bringing the total number of arrests to seven.
    (AP, 9/25/13)

2013        Sep 26, Interpol issued an arrest notice on behalf of Kenyan authorities for Samantha Lewthwaite (29), a Muslim convert and fugitive Briton whom news media have dubbed the "white widow." Her first husband was one of the suicide bombers in the 2005 attack on the London transit system that killed 52 commuters. She was wanted by Kenyan authorities over alleged involvement in a plot to bomb holiday resorts.
    (AP, 9/26/13)

2013        Sep 30, Britain staff in hundreds of post offices started industrial action in a bitter row with the government over jobs, pay and closures.
    (AFP, 9/30/13)
2013        Sep 30, Swedish flat-pack furniture giant IKEA started selling residential solar panels at its store in Southamptom, Britain, the first step in its plan to bring renewable energy to the mainstream market worldwide.
    (AP, 9/30/13)

2013        Oct 7, Britain launched its new National Crime Agency (NCA) and unveiled a revamped strategy to combat serious organized crime, which it says costs the country 24 billion pounds ($38.6 billion) and represents a threat to national security.
    (Reuters, 10/7/13)

2013        Oct 8, Francois Englert of Belgium and Peter Higgs of Britain won the 2013 Nobel Prize in physics for their theory on how the most basic building blocks of the universe acquire mass.
    (AP, 10/8/13)
2013        Oct 8, British pharmaceutical firm GlaxoSmithKline said it would seek regulatory approval next year for RTS,S, a vaccine that has shown positive results against malaria in children.
    (Econ, 10/12/13, p.94)

2013        Oct 9, Sex workers in the legendary London district of Soho demonstrated in carnival masks and negligees against evictions they claim threaten their safety and the unique nature of the area.
    (AFP, 10/9/13)

2013        Oct 10, Britain confirmed that Liberia's former president and warlord Charles Taylor is to serve out his 50-year prison sentence for war crimes in a British jail.
    (AFP, 10/10/13)

2013        Oct 11, Shares in newly-privatized Royal Mail soared on their stock market debut, bolstering criticism that the company ó which traces its five-century history back to King Henry VIII ó was undervalued by the British government.
    (AP, 10/11/13)

2013        Oct 13, Companies involved in a $1.27 billion project to develop a business district around Britainís Manchester airpor announced that Chinese construction giant Beijing Construction Engineering Group (BCEG) has signed a deal with British firms to develop the area.
    (AFP, 10/13/13)

2013        Oct 15, Britainís chancellor of the exchequer, George Osborn, announced a deal with China intended to make Britain the main offshore hub for trading in Chinaís currency and bonds and for foreign institutions investing in China. In exchange Chinaís banks would be allowed to enter Britain as branches of the their parents rather than as subsidiaries.
    (Econ, 10/19/13, p.62)

2013        Oct 19, The violin played by the Titanic's bandmaster as the ship sank beneath the waves sold at a London auction for £900,000 ($1.45 million, 1.06 million euros), a world record for memorabilia from the doomed liner.
    (AFP, 10/19/13)
2013        Oct 19, British actor and musician Noel Harrison (79), suffered a heart attack in Devon and died in a hospital. He sang the Academy Award-winning ballad "The Windmills of Your Mind," by French composer Michel Legrand and American lyricists Alan and Marilyn Bergman.
    (AP, 10/22/13)

2013        Oct 23, British sculptor Anthony Caro (89), whose abstract metal sculptures were shown around the world, died of a heart attack.
    (AFP, 10/24/13)(Econ, 11/9/13, p.98)

2013        Oct 24, Italian weekly L'Espresso reported that US and British intelligence services have monitored Italian telecoms networks, targeting the government and companies as well as suspected terrorist groups.
    (Reuters, 10/24/13)

2013        Oct 25, Britainís PM David Cameron accused US whistleblower Edward Snowden and unnamed newspapers of assisting Britain's enemies by helping them avoid surveillance by its intelligence services.
    (Reuters, 10/25/13)
2013        Oct 25, British police appeared to downplay a raid after claiming to have seized suspected 3D-printed gun parts from a shop in Manchester. Some observers pointed out that the images released by police resembled printer parts.
    (AFP, 10/25/13)(AP, 10/25/13)
2013        Oct 25, British police freed a Malaysian woman (69), an Irishwoman (57) and a 30-year-old Briton. A man and a woman, both 69, were arrested following an investigation on slavery at a house in London. Police announced the release on Nov 21 and said the women had been held for at least 30 years.
    (AFP, 11/21/13)(SFC, 11/22/13, p.A5)

2013        Oct 26, In Manchester, England, Ray Teret (72), the former driver for disgraced late BBC entertainer Jimmy Savile appeared in court to face charges including multiple counts of raping girls younger than 16.
    (AP, 10/26/13)

2013        Oct 28, British security group G4S denied that its workers had electrocuted and drugged prisoners at South Africa's Mangaung prison, the maximum security facility it ran before the government stepped in to restore order earlier this month.
    (Reuters, 10/28/13)
2013        Oct 28, A major storm, dubbed the St Jude storm, lashed southern Britain, the Netherlands and parts of France, knocking down trees, flooding low areas and causing travel chaos. 5 deaths were reported.
    (AP, 10/28/13)

2013        Oct 30, Electronica singer-songwriter James Blake (25) won Britain's prestigious Mercury Prize for his second album, "Overgrown."
    (AFP, 10/30/13)
2013        Oct 30, Barclays, Britain's second-largest bank, revealed that it was the subject of an investigation by regulators in Britain and other countries over "possible attempts to manipulate certain benchmark currency exchange rates." Six traders were soon suspended amid an investigation into whether international currency markets were rigged.
    (AP, 11/2/13)

2013        Oct 31, In Britain television cameras were allowed into one of the highest courts for the first time, hailed as a landmark move towards open justice while still protecting the rights of vulnerable witnesses.
    (AFP, 10/31/13)
2013        Oct 31, In London Pakistani PM Nawaz Sharif told British Deputy PM Nick Clegg that his country had started talks with the Pakistani Taliban.
    (Reuters, 10/31/13)

2013        Nov 2, Britainís Guardian newspaper reported that spy agencies in Germany, France, Spain and Sweden are carrying out mass surveillance of online and phone traffic in collaboration with Britain, according to documents leaked by Edward Snowden.
    (AFP, 11/2/13)

2013        Nov 4, The British Co-operative Group announced plans to close around 50 of its bank branches as part of a £1.5 billion rescue plan that will give investors majority control of the lender.
    (AFP, 11/4/13)
2013        Nov 4, It was reported that Britain's biggest retailer Tesco plans to install screens at its petrol stations that scan customers' faces so that advertising can be tailored to their age and gender.
    (AFP, 11/4/13)

2013        Nov 5, Hundreds of Anonymous protesters wearing Guy Fawkes masks protested outside Buckingham Palace, Queen Elizabeth II's London home, as part of a global demonstration against austerity.
    (AFP, 11/5/13)
2013        Nov 5, Britain signed an information-sharing agreement with the Cayman Islands, one of its overseas territories, to help British authorities improve tax collection.
    (Reuters, 11/5/13)
2013        Nov 5, Britainís Ministry of Defense said a soldier from the 3rd Battalion, the Mercian Regiment, was killed "as a result of an explosion during a vehicle-born suicide attack" near Lashkar Gah, Helmand province.
    (AFP, 11/6/13)
2013        Nov 5, Somali money transfer company Dahabshiil welcomed a temporary injunction by a British court allowing its lifeline services to continue, transferring funds dwarfing levels of foreign aid to the war-torn nation.
    (AFP, 11/5/13)

2013        Nov 6, British energy firm Centrica said it has signed a deal to supply British homes with Qatari liquefied natural gas in a tie-up worth £4.4 billion and lasting until 2018.
    (AFP, 11/6/13)
2013        Nov 6, Britainís BAE Systems said it will axe 1,775 shipbuilding jobs and close a historic yard as a government austerity drive hits demand.
    (AFP, 11/6/13)

2013        Nov 7, Britain's spy chiefs gave public, televised testimony to British lawmakers for the first time ever amid a fierce debate over intelligence tactics following allegations of spying on other governments.
    (AP, 11/7/13)
2013        Nov 7, Former long-serving BBC political editor John Cole (b.1927) died in Surrey after a long illness.
    (AFP, 11/8/13)

2013        Nov 8, A British court martial board convicted a royal marine of murder following the execution of an injured insurgent in Afghanistan. The board ruled that Marine A, was guilty of killing the man in cold blood in Helmand Province more than two years ago. Sergeant Alexander Blackman was named on Dec 5, after a judge dismissed his claim that his identity should be protected for his own safety. On Dec 6 Blackman was sen tneced to at least 10 years in prison.
    (AP, 11/8/13)(AP, 12/5/13)(AP, 12/6/13)
2013        Nov 8, Merlin, an entertainment group, successfully floated shares on the London stock market. A year earlier it had opened a Legoland theme park in Malaysia.
    (Econ, 11/16/13, p.72)

2013        Nov 11, Britain said it has revived diplomatic relations with Iran and appointed a non-resident charge d'affaires, two years after an angry mob ransacked the British embassy in Tehran. Iran appointed a new charge d'affaires to Britain to revive diplomatic ties.
    (Reuters, 11/11/13)
2013        Nov 11, Struggling low-cost British airline Flybe said it plans to axe another 500 jobs as it pursues a round of cost-cutting measures.
    (AFP, 11/11/13)

2013        Nov 12, Mavis Batey (b.1921), a renowned British code-breaker during WWII, died.
    (SFC, 11/29/13, p.C4)
2013        Nov 12, British composer John Tavener (69) died. His spiritually inspired music was performed at the funeral of Princess Diana. He was best known for works including "The Whale", which was released in the late 1960s by the Beatles' record label Apple.
    (AFP, 11/13/13)

2013        Nov 13, The Bank of England said Britain's economic recovery "has finally taken hold," as it upgraded its growth forecasts despite headwinds from the eurozone debt crisis.
    (AFP, 11/13/13)

2013        Nov 15, The British government gave the green light for oil firm EnQuest to invest £4.0 billion in a North Sea oil field scheme that will support an estimated 20,000 jobs.
    (AFP, 11/15/13)
2013        Nov 15, The EU executive said it had found no proof of British claims that Spain had violated European Union rules on border and customs checks at Gibraltar's border.
    (AFP, 11/15/13)
2013        Nov 15, In Sri Lanka Britain's Prince Charles formally opened a Commonwealth summit in Colombo. Its build-up has been dogged by a dispute over rights abuses at the end of Sri Lanka's ethnic war. Britain's PM David Cameron landed in the war-torn Jaffna region to meet victims of Sri Lanka's ethnic conflict after leaving the Commonwealth summit.
    (AFP, 11/15/13)

2013        Nov 16, PM David Cameron announced that Britain was providing a further 30 million pounds to help the relief effort after the devastating typhoon in the Philippines.
    (AFP, 11/16/13)
2013        Nov 16, Britain's PM David Cameron threatened to push for an independent international inquiry into allegations of war crimes at the climax of Sri Lanka's 26-year civil war if the island nation does not conduct its own probe by March 2014.
    (Reuters, 11/16/13)

2013        Nov 17, Doris Lessing (b.1919), the Nobel prize-winning, free-thinking, world-traveling and often-polarizing British author, died. Her work included "The Golden Notebook" (1962) and dozens of other novels that reflected her own improbable journey across the former British empire.
    (AP, 11/17/13)

2013        Nov 18, Britain's Labour Party suspended Paul Flowers, the former chairman of Co-operative bank, after a video emerged in which he is allegedly caught buying illegal drugs.
    (AP, 11/18/13)
2013        Nov 18, In London female serial killer Joanna Dennehy (30) admitted murdering three men and dumping their bodies in ditches. Their bodies were found in March and April riddled with stab wounds.
    (AFP, 11/18/13)

2013        Nov 19, Britainís Oxford Univ. Press declared ďselfie," a smart phone self-pportrait, the 2013 word of the year. Use of the word dated back to at least 2002.
    (SFC, 11/20/13, p.A3)
2013        Nov 19, British biochemist Frederick Sanger (b.1918) died. He twice won the Nobel Prize in chemistry (1958 & 1980) and was a pioneer of genome sequencing.
    (AP, 11/20/13)

2013        Nov 20, The Church of England's ruling body voted overwhelmingly for proposals that could see the ordination of women bishops next year.
    (AFP, 11/20/13)
2013        Nov 20, At UN talks in Poland the governments of Norway, Britain and the United States said they will allocate $280 million of their multi-billion dollar climate change finances to a new initiative aimed at halting deforestation.
    (Reuters, 11/20/13)

2013        Nov 22, The disgraced ex-chairman of Britain's Co-op Bank, Paul Flowers (63), was arrested in a probe into the supplying of drugs in a scandal that has fast become a political row.
    (AFP, 11/22/13)

2013        Nov 27, In England a businessman who stabbed a Chinese family of four to death at their home on April 29, 2011, was found guilty of murdering them. Du Anxiang (54), a Chinese citizen, was convicted by a jury at Northampton Crown Court in central England.
    (AFP, 11/27/13)
2013        Nov 27, The first autopsies in Europe to take place without bodies being cut open are to take place after a new machine was unveiled in Sheffield. This will enable many post-mortem examinations to be carried out digitally, saving the body from being cut open with a scalpel.
    (AFP, 11/27/13)

2013        Nov 28, London Mayor Boris Johnson stated in so many words that inequality is in the nature of capitalism because those with a low IQ are ill-equipped to spread opportunity to all who can compete for its spoils.
    (Econ, 12/7/13, p.61)
2013        Nov 28, England's High Court overturned a decision to grant bail to an Italian mafia boss who was arrested in London after two decades on the run. Domenico Rancadore was wanted in Italy to serve a seven-year jail term for his role in the Sicilian mafia and authorities are seeking his extradition.
    (AFP, 11/28/13)
2013        Nov 28, In London Rakesh Bhayani (41) was sentenced for the murder of Carole Waugh, a wealthy London woman whose body was found stuffed in a car trunk months after her disappearance. Nicholas Kutner (48), was ordered to serve 13 years in prison after he admitted conspiracy to commit fraud.
    (AP, 11/28/13)
2013        Nov 28, British energy provider Npower, a subsidiary of German giant RWE, announced plans to cut about 1,460 jobs in Britain and outsource customer service operations to India.
    (AFP, 11/28/13)

2013        Nov 30, Britain said it is giving 10 million pounds ($16.4 million) in aid to Central African Republic amid a dramatic escalation in the former French colony's humanitarian crisis.
    (AP, 11/30/13)

2013        Dec 2, At a ceremony in Londonderry, Northern Ireland, French artist Laure Prouvost won Britain's Turner prize for contemporary art for her video installation set among a mock-tea party setting entitled "Wantee."
    (AFP, 12/3/13)

2013        Dec 3, Ida Pollock (b.1908), romance novelist, died in southwest England. Her more than 120 books included some 70 "bodice-rippers" for romance publisher Mills & Boon, the British arm of Harlequin Enterprises.
    (AP, 12/9/13)

2013        Dec 4, British PM David Cameron faced demands for the return of priceless artefacts looted from Beijing in the 19th century, the last day of his visit to China.
    (AFP, 12/4/13)

2013        Dec 6, In London three members of a self-styled "Muslim patrol" who harassed passers-by for wearing short skirts, holding hands and drinking alcohol were jailed for up to 16 months after admitting a variety of public order and assault charges.
    (AFP, 12/7/13)
2013        Dec 6, The death toll from hurricane-force Storm Xaver sweeping across northern Europe rose to 6 when high winds hurled a tree limb against a car, killing 3 people in Poland. Britain and Denmark had already reported 3 deaths. Thousands of people in Britain faced a second day of flooding as the country confronted its worst tidal surge in 60 years after Xaver roared across northern Europe.
    (Reuters, 12/6/13)(AP, 12/6/13)
2013        Dec 6, Romania's Interior Ministry said Adrian Procop (21), a Romanian man accused of stealing seven masterpieces from a Dutch museum, was arrested in Britain after months on the run. Procop entered the Kunsthal museum at night in Oct 2012 with a friend, Radu Dogaru, and stole artworks worth 18 million euros ($24 million).
    (AFP, 12/6/13)

2013        Dec 8, British MPs lined up to condemn plans by an independent body to grant them an 11-percent pay rise, embarrassed at how such largesse will be perceived at a time of deep public spending cuts.
    (AFP, 12/8/13)
2013        Dec 8, Britain's National Crime Agency (NCA) arrested three people following fresh allegations of match-fixing at English non-league games.
    (AFP, 12/8/13)

2013        Dec 9, Two Damien Hirst (48) signed prints, "Pyronin Y" and "Oleoylsarcosin," were taken from the Exhibitionist Gallery in west London in the early hours by a thief who forced the gallery doors.
    (AP, 12/11/13)

2013        Dec 11, British regulators announced a record £28 million fines against state-rescued Lloyds Banking Group after finding staff were at risk of selling unsuitable products amid the lure of bonuses.
    (AFP, 12/11/13)
2013        Dec 11, G8 health ministers met in London to tackle what experts warn is a dementia time-bomb, with cases set to soar as the world's population ages.
    (AFP, 12/11/13)
2013        Dec 11, The United States and Britain suspended all non-lethal aid to the opposition in northern Syria after Islamist rebels seized key bases and warehouses belonging to the Western-backed Free Syrian Army.
    (Reuters, 12/11/13)

2013        Dec 12, Britainís Independent Parliamentary Standards Authority (IPSA), the body which sets MPs' pay, recommended an 11 percent pay rise despite a public outcry and PM David Cameron plus other top politicians rejecting the plan.
    (AFP, 12/12/13)

2013        Dec 13, Prince Harry became the first member of Britain's royal family to reach the South Pole after a three-week charity trek with injured military veterans from Britain, the United States, Canada and Australia.
    (AFP, 12/13/13)

2013        Dec 14, Peter O'Toole (b.1932), the star of "Lawrence of Arabia," died in London.
    (AP, 12/16/13)
2013        Dec 14, Dissident Ugandan General David Sejusa launched an opposition party in London and said it was time for President Yoweri Museveni to end his 28-year rule, a fresh challenge to a leader who is now among the longest serving in Africa.
    (Reuters, 12/14/13)

2013        Dec 16, British Petroleum said it has won official approval to develop a key shale gas project in Oman at a cost of $16 billion (11.6 billion euros).
    (AP, 12/16/13)

2013        Dec 18, The Bank of England said it will issue plastic banknotes for the first time in its history, with Winston Churchill gracing the first run. The note, carrying a value of ¬£5 ($8.2, 6.0 euro), is to be released in 2016.
    (AFP, 12/18/13)
2013        Dec 18, A British judge sentenced the former lead singer of the rock band Lostprophets to 29 years in jail, saying that Ian Watkins had "plumbed new depths of depravity" in committing a string of sexual offenses against very young children.
    (AP, 12/18/13)
2013        Dec 18, Great Train Robber Ronnie Biggs (84), part of a gang of at least 12 men that robbed a Glasgow-to-London Royal Mail train on Aug 8, 1963, died.
    (AP, 12/18/13)(Econ, 1/4/14, p.74)

2013        Dec 19, A jury at London's Old Bailey criminal court decided unanimously that Michael Adebolajo (29) and Michael Adebowale (22) were guilty of murdering Lee Rigby (25), an Afghan war veteran, on May 22 but not guilty of the attempted murder of a police officer.
    (Reuters, 12/19/13)
2013        Dec 19, Hunks of plaster and dust rained down on a packed audience when the ceiling of Londonís Apollo Theater partially collapsed. More than 75 people were injured ó seven seriously.
    (AP, 12/20/13)(SFC, 12/20/13, p.A5)

2013        Dec 20, The British government said it has agreed to destroy part of Syria's chemical weapons stockpile at a commercial facility.
    (Reuters, 12/20/13)

2013        Dec 23, Britain's disgraced former Europe minister Denis MacShane (65) was jailed for six months after admitting he falsely claimed thousands of pounds in parliamentary expenses.
    (AFP, 12/23/13)
2013        Dec 23, British retailer Marks & Spencer faced criticism after it emerged that it allows Muslim staff to refuse to sell customers pork and alcohol.
    (AFP, 12/23/13)

2013        Dec 24, Hurricane-force winds and torrential rain disrupted transport networks and cut power supplies in Britain and France, one of the busiest travel days of the year just before Christmas, pushing the death toll to at least 6 people.
    (Reuters, 12/24/13)
2013        Dec 24, Britain posthumously pardoned Alan Turing (1912-1954) for a 1952 gay sex conviction which tarnished the brilliant career of the code breaker credited with helping win the war against Nazi Germany and laying the foundation for the computer age.
    (AP, 12/24/13)

2013        Dec 25, Tens of thousands of Britons remained without electricity after torrential rainfall flooded homes and hurricane-force winds battered the country.
    (Reuters, 12/25/13)

2013        Dec 29, British police said they have arrested two men after a suspected arson attack last evening on the MS King Seaways, a ferry in the North Sea carrying more than 1,000 people from Newcastle in England to Amsterdam.
    (Reuters, 12/29/13)

2013        Vic Gatrell authored ďThe First Bohemians: Life and Art in Londonís Golden Age."
    (Econ, 9/28/13, p.79)
2013         Chris Sheldrick founded the British firm What3Words. The company created a geocoding system for the simple communication of locations with a resolution of three meters.
    (https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/What3words)(Econ, 7/2/16, p.71)
2013        The British Virgin Islands with 30,000 inhabitants pulled in $92 billion in foreign direct investment this year.
    (Econ, 3/29/14, p.38)

2014        Jan 2, The influential New York Times and Britainís Guardian newspapers hailed fugitive intelligence leaker Edward Snowden as a "whistleblower" and threw its weight behind calls for him to be shown clemency.
    (AP, 1/2/14)
2014        Jan 2, British author Elizabeth Jane Howard (b.1923) died. She was best known for "The Cazalet Chronicles," which followed the tangled lives and loves of several generations of an aristocratic household in the run-up to World War II.
    (AP, 1/3/14)

2014        Jan 7, In eastern England HH-60G Pave Hawk chopper, based at the US-run Lakenheath air base, crashed at a nearby nature reserve in Cley-next-the-Sea, Norfolk, while flying low on night time training exercise. 4 airmen were killed. Investigators later reported that the chopper had flown into flock of geese likely startled by its noise.
    (AFP, 1/8/14)(AP, 7/9/14)

2014        Jan 8, Britainís Electoral Commission said voters should have to prove their identity at polling stations, as it launched a study into fraud concerns around ethnic South Asian communities.
    (AFP, 1/8/14)

2014        Jan 10, A new analysis of British census figures said almost one in 10 babies and toddlers in England and Wales are Muslim, illustrating the growth of the minority community.
    (AFP, 1/10/14)

2014        Jan 13, Britain vowed to honor all government debt up until the date of Scotland's possible independence, should Scottish people vote to break away from the United Kingdom later this year.
    (AFP, 1/13/14)
2014        Jan 13, France's Total said it has agreed to explore for shale gas in Britain, making it the first major oil company to enter the country's market in the face of widely publicized environmental protests.
    (AP, 1/13/14)

2014        Jan 15, British actor Roger Lloyd-Pack (69), best known for playing dim-witted street-sweeper Trigger on the sitcom "Only Fools and Horses" (1981-1991), died at his home in London.
    (AP, 1/16/14)

2014        Jan 16, British police working alongside counterparts in the Philippines and Australia said they had dismantled a paedophile ring that streamed live sexual abuse of Filipino children as young as six over the Internet, with victims' parents involved in some cases.
    (AFP, 1/16/14)

2014        Jan 17, In Romania a British diplomat (46) plummeted from the highest floor of a hotel in the northern city of Baia Mare after leaving a farewell note.
    (AFP, 1/17/14)

2014        Jan 18, BBC presenter Komla Dumor (41), one of Ghana's best known journalists, died suddenly. Dumor, a presenter on the BBCís World News channel and its "Focus on Africa" program, suffered a heart attack at his London home.
    (AFP, 1/19/14)

2014        Jan 19, British athletics great Chris Chataway (82), best known for being one of the pacemakers for Roger Bannister's landmark four-minute mile run in 1954, died after a long battle with cancer. He was knighted by Queen Elizabeth II in 1995 for his services to the aviation industry.

2014        Jan 21, Britain told Iran to stop supporting the Syrian government of Bashar al-Assad militarily, urging it to back efforts to broker peace in Syria instead.
    (Reuters, 1/21/14)

2014        Jan 27, Google said that it had agreed to buy British artificial intelligence start-up company DeepMind. The company, co-founded Demis Hassabis, was purchased for $400 million.
    (AFP, 1/27/14)(Econ, 6/25/16, SR p.4)

2014        Jan 28, Britain announced it would take in hundreds of vulnerable Syrian refugees, targeting those most traumatized by the 3-year civil war.
    (AFP, 1/28/14)
2014        Jan 28, Debut author Nathan Filer won Britain's Costa Book Award for his novel "The Shock of the Fall", which draws on his experience as a mental health nurse.
    (AFP, 1/28/14)
2014        Jan 28, Canada's BMO Financial Group said it will acquire UK-based financial manager F&C for 1.3 billion Canadian dollars (860 million euros).
    (AFP, 1/28/14)

2014        Jan 30, England-based Oxfam confirmed accepting US actress Scarlett Johansson's decision to step down, saying her promotion of Israeli drinks firm SodaStream, which has a factory in a settlement east of Jerusalem, was "incompatible" with her role at the international aid agency.
    (AFP, 1/30/14)

2014        Feb 3, French comedian Dieudonne M'bala M'bala was banned from entering Britain after he reportedly planned to visit to support Nicolas Anelka over the footballer's use of the "quenelle" gesture. The "quenelle" is Dieudonne's trademark stiff-armed gesture that critics say is a disguised Nazi salute but that he defends as a generic "up yours" to the French establishment.
    (AFP, 2/3/14)

2014        Feb 5, In southwest England more than 8,000 homes were without power after fresh storms battered the region, sending huge waves crashing onto the coastline and damaging sea defenses.
    (AFP, 2/5/14)
2014        Feb 5, Millions of commuters in London faced delays and disruption after Tube staff went on strike over plans to close London Underground ticket offices.
    (AFP, 2/5/14)

2014        Feb 6, Millions of commuters faced a second day of travel chaos due to a 48-hour strike by London Underground workers angry over ticket office closures and job cuts.
    (Reuters, 2/6/14)

2014        Feb 9, Severe flooding and landslips cut off rail links to large parts of southwest England for more than 24 hours as the government came under pressure for its handling of storms battering Britain.
    (Reuters, 2/9/14)

2014        Feb 10, The River Thames burst its banks after reaching its highest level in years, flooding riverside towns upstream of London.
    (AP, 2/10/14)

2014        Feb 11, Barclays PLC faced widespread criticism after the scandal-plagued bank announced plans to slash up to 12,000 jobs this year while also setting aside more money to pay bonuses.
    (AP, 2/11/14)

2014        Feb 12, British police searched a home in the southeastern town of Crawley as part of an investigation into reports that a man named as Abdul Waheed Majid (41) was responsible for a suicide attack in Syria.
    (AFP, 2/13/14)
2014        Feb 12, Britainís Serious Fraud Office (SFO) arrested Sudhir Choudhri, an Indian-born donor to one of Britain's ruling political parties, and his son as part of an investigation into Rolls-Royce's dealings in Asia.
    (Reuters, 2/14/14)
2014        Feb 12, Flooded communities in Britain faced a fresh battering from storms and high winds as emergency efforts in stricken areas picked up following criticism of a sluggish response.
    (AFP, 2/12/14)

2014        Feb 15, Two people died in weather-related incidents as storms continue to batter Britain. Officials said that 22 severe flood warnings are in place. More heavy rain and winds were expected.
    (AP, 2/15/14)

2014        Feb 19, Europe's largest defense contractor BAE Systems says the governments of the United Kingdom and Saudi Arabia have agreed on new pricing for a massive sale of 72 Eurofighter Typhoon jets.
    (AP, 2/19/14)

2014        Feb 20, Former News of the World editor Rebekah Brooks (45) was acquitted of one charge at Britain's phone hacking trial as she began her defense against four more.
    (AP, 2/20/14)
2014        Feb 20, Formula One boss Bernie Ecclestone won a multimillion-dollar case at London's High Court relating to the sale of F1 in 2005.
    (AP, 2/20/14)

2014        Feb 25, British police arrested former Guantanamo Bay detainee Moazzam Begg and three other people in the latest in a string of detentions linked to suspected terror offences relating to Syria.
    (AFP, 2/25/14)

2014        Feb 26, Britain sentenced Michael Adebolajo (29) to life in prison without parole for the May 22, 2013, murder of Fusilier Lee Rigby. Accomplice Michael Adebowale (22) was sentenced to 45 years.
    (SFC, 2/27/14, p.A2)

2014        Feb 27, Yahoo Inc. strongly condemned a reported multiyear effort by American (NSA) and British (GCHQ) spy agencies to snatch webcam images from the Internetís giantís user accounts in a program code-named Optical nerve starting in 2008.
    (SFC, 2/28/14, p.C1)

2014        Feb 28, British authorities said anti-fraud police have arrested 110 people in Europe and the United States in an international crackdown on gangs selling bogus shares that cost some investors their life savings.
    (Reuters, 2/28/14)

2014        Mar 2, At the Hollywood Academy Awards ď12 Years a Slave," directed by Steve McQueen of Britain, won the Best Picture Oscar. Matthew McConaughtey won the Best Actor Oscar for his role in ďDallas Buyers Club." Cate Blanchett won the Best Actress Oscar for her role in ďBlue Jasmine." Actress Lupita Nyong'o (31) of Kenya won an Oscar for Best Supporting Actress in the movie "12 Years A Slave." Jared Leto won the Best Supporting Oscar for his role in ďDallas Buyers Club." Alfonso Cuaron won the Best Director Oscar for ďGravity," which won a total of seven Oscars.
    (SFC, 3/3/14, p.C4)(Econ, 3/8/14, p.58)

2014        Mar 7, Hundreds of British lawyers marched on Parliament to protest legal aid cuts. The government planned to reduce the legal aid budget by $360 million a year through 2019.
    (SFC, 3/8/14, p.A2)
2014        Mar 7, BAE Systems Applied Intelligence, the cyber arm of Britain's premier defense contractor, published its own research on suspected Russian spyware known as Turla, which it called "snake." The sophisticated piece of spyware has been quietly infecting hundreds of government computers across Europe and the United States in one of the most complex cyber espionage programs uncovered to date.
    (Reuters, 3/7/14)

2014        Mar 11, Bank of England governor Mark Carney said the alleged manipulation of foreign exchange markets is "as serious as" the Libor rate rigging scandal that rocked the financial sector. Global regulators were investigating a number of firms linked to the suspected rigging of foreign exchange trading.
    (AFP, 3/11/14)

2014        Mar 13, Edward Haughey (70), Northern Ireland's wealthiest man, died after his helicopter crashed in thick fog in eastern England. He had founded Norbrook Laboratories, a world-leading veterinary drugs company.
    (AP, 3/14/14)

2014        Mar 14, Tony Benn (88), the totem of the British left, died at his London home. The Labour cabinet minister in the 1960s and 1970s had spearheaded the movement against the Iraq war.
    (AFP, 3/14/14)

2014        Mar 17, A British judge ruled that Domenico Rancadore (65), a convicted Mafia boss, will be allowed to return to his comfortable home in west London rather than sent back to Italy and put in prison. The judge cited concerns about conditions in Italian prisons.
    (AP, 3/17/14)
2014        Mar 17, British telecommunications company Vodafone agreed to buy Spain's Ono for 7.2 billion euros ($10 billion) as it seeks to expand operations across Europe.
    (AP, 3/17/14)
2014        Mar 17, In London fashion designer L'Wren Scott, the girlfriend of Mick Jagger, died of an apparent suicide. Her LS Fashion Ltd. company was heavily in debt at the time it filed its most recent accounts.
    (AP, 3/18/14)

2014        Mar 20, British regulators fined Mark Stevenson, an ex-Credit Suisse trader, for attempting to rig the price of government bonds in order to profit from the Bank of England's quantitative easing program. He was fined £662,700 ($1.1 million, 794,000 euros) for "deliberately manipulating" a government bond, or gilt, on October 10, 2011.
    (AFP, 3/21/14)

2014        Mar 21, British state prosecutors said a London doctor and another man have become the first people to be charged in Britain over female genital mutilation.
    (AP, 3/21/14)

2014        Mar 22, Britainís Scotland Yard arrested three boys after Shereka Fab-Ann Marsh (15) was shot dead in east London. On March 24 one boy (15) was charged with her murder. The two other boys (16) were released.
    (AFP, 3/23/14)(AFP, 3/24/14)

2014        Mar 24, British Judge Jonathan Gosling Francis sentenced Paul Cullen (85), a former Catholic priest who spent decades on the run, to 15 years in jail for sexually abusing seven children between 1957 and 1991.
    (AFP, 3/25/14)

2014        Mar 25, Royal Mail, Britain's main postal operator, said it plans to axe 1,600 jobs under a fresh cost-cutting program, six months after its controversial part-privatization by the government.
    (AFP, 3/25/14)

2014        Mar 26, A British financial watchdog said it has fined Spanish banking giant Santander almost £12.4 million for mis-advising customers.
    (AFP, 3/26/14)

2014        Mar 29, Gay couples across England and Wales said "I do" as a law authorizing same-sex marriage came into effect at midnight, the final stage in a long fight for equality.
    (AFP, 3/29/14)
2014        Mar 29, British police said a male nurse has been charged with the murder of three patients who were poisoned with contaminated medical products at a hospital in Stockport. Victorino Chua (48), a father of two children, was charged with murdering 3 of 8 patients who died following the poisoning at Stepping Hill hospital, in June and July 2011. On May 18, 2015, Chua was convicted of using insulin to murder two patients and trying to poison twenty others.
    (AFP, 3/29/14)(SFC, 5/19/15, p.A2)
2014        Mar 30, British actress Kate O'Mara (74), best known for her role in the 1980s soap opera "Dynasty," died in a nursing home in southern England after a short illness.
    (AP, 3/30/14)

2014        Mar, Britainís Lord Tony Hall (63) took youth television channel BBC3 off the air.
    (Econ, 3/15/14, p.56)

2014        Apr 1, Britain said PM David Cameron has ordered an investigation into the Muslim Brotherhood over concerns that the group is planning radical activities from a base in London.
    (AFP, 4/1/14)

2014        Apr 2, Britain summoned the Spanish ambassador to condemn what it called a provocative incursion by Spanish boats into Gibraltar's territorial waters a day earlier.
    (Reuters, 4/2/14)
2014        Apr 2, British authorities warned people with heart or lung conditions to avoid exertion as a combination of European emissions and Sahara dust created a "perfect storm" of pollution that blanketed the country in smog.
    (AP, 4/2/14)

2014        Apr 3, Britain's Queen Elizabeth II paid a private call on Pope Francis at the Vatican, making him the fifth pontiff she has met.
    (AP, 4/3/14)

2014        Apr 4, British police re-arrested Domenico Rancadore in London after they received a new arrest warrant request from Italy. The warrant alleges that the 65-year-old has an "outstanding sentence of seven years of imprisonment to serve for participation in Mafia association" from 1987 to 1995 in Sicily.
    (AP, 4/5/14)

2014        Apr 6, In London three women from the United Arab Emirates were in hospital after being savagely attacked in their room at the four-star Cumberland Hotel by a man wielding a hammer. On April 8 officers arrested three men aged 56, 34 and 32 on suspicion of attempted murder following raids at addresses in north London. A woman (31) was also arrested on suspicion of handling stolen goods.
    (AFP, 4/7/14)(AP, 4/9/14)

2014        Apr 7, Peaches Geldof (25), the daughter of Irish musician and Band Aid founder Bob Geldof and TV presenter Paula Yates, was pronounced dead by paramedics at her home in Wrotham, southeast of London. On July 23 a coroner ruled that she was a heroin addict and died of a drug overdose.
    (AP, 4/8/14)(AFP, 7/23/14)

2014        Apr 8, President Michael Higgins became the first Irish head of state to make a state visit to Britain, crowning a big improvement in historically fraught relations between Dublin and its former colonial master.
    (Reuters, 4/8/14)

2014        Apr 9, British Culture Secretary Maria Miller, who was in charge of legislation on press regulation and gay marriage, resigned after an embarrassing row over her parliamentary expense account.
    (AP, 4/9/14)

2014        Apr 10, Richard Hoggart (95), a distinguished cultural historian and a significant witness in the 1960 court case that ended British censorship of "Lady Chatterley's Lover," died.
    (AP, 4/11/14)
2014        Apr 10, British author Sue Townsend (68) died. Her books about awkward teenage diarist Adrian Mole sold tens of millions of copies worldwide.
    (AP, 4/11/14)

2014        Apr 11, Patrick Seale (83), a veteran journalist and author on Middle Eastern affairs as well as one of the world's leading historians on Syria, died in London after a battle with cancer. His books included the authoritative biography of the late Syrian President Hafez Assad, "Assad of Syria: The Struggle for the Middle East" (1988).
    (AP, 4/14/14)

2014        Apr 13, Wilson Kipsang (32) of Kenya captured his second London Marathon title by breaking the course record by 11 seconds in 2 hours, 4 minutes, 29 seconds. Kenya's Edna Kiplagat saw off compatriot Florence Kiplagat to win the women's London Marathon.
    (AP, 4/13/14)
2014        Apr 13, Chinese conglomerate Sanpower said it has agreed to buy a majority stake in British department store House of Fraser in a deal worth £480 million (578 million euros, $800 million).
    (AP, 4/13/14)

2014        Apr 15, Imperial Tobacco announced the closure of factories in Britain and France with the loss of 900 jobs, citing declining sales, tougher anti-smoking measures and the growth of contraband sales.
    (AFP, 4/15/14)

2014        Apr 16, British food bank operator Trussell Trust reported that the number of people in Britain using food banks has nearly tripled to more than 900,000 over the past 12 months.
    (AFP, 4/16/14)

2014        Apr 17, Debbie Vincent (52), a former soldier who underwent a sex change, was jailed for six years for her part in a Europe-wide campaign of intimidation targeting a leading animal testing company. The British animal rights activist was found guilty last month for her part in a conspiracy to blackmail British-based Huntingdon Life Sciences (HLS).
    (AP, 4/17/14)

2014        Apr 22, London Metropolitan Police arrested Tania Clarence (42), a graphic designer from  South Africa, after the bodies of a four-year-old girl and two three-year-old boys were found at her home. The three children had "life-limiting" genetic disorders.
    (AFP, 4/23/14)

2014        Apr 26, British teenager Stephen Sutton (19) broke all records on the JustGiving fundraising website by breaking the ¬£2.5 million ($4.2 million, three million euro) mark in donations to charity. He was diagnosed with bowel cancer at 15, but despite surgery, the cancer spread, and doctors concluded it was incurable.
    (AFP, 4/26/14)

2014        Apr 28, Britain's Serious Fraud Office said it had opened a criminal investigation into possible money laundering associated with corruption in Ukraine and had frozen $23 million of assets in the UK in relation to the case.
    (Reuters, 4/29/14)
2014        Apr 28, British celebrity publicist Max Clifford (71), one of the most influential figures in Britain's entertainment world, was convicted of eight counts of indecent assault on victims aged between 15 and 18 at the time of offense in the 1970s and '80s. On May 2 he was sentenced to eight years in prison for the string of indecent assaults on four women.
    (AP, 5/2/14)
2014        Apr 28, In Britain Anne Maguire (61), a popular Spanish teacher, was stabbed multiple times in front of pupils at Corpus Christi Catholic College, Leeds, in what is thought to be the first time a teacher has been fatally stabbed in a British classroom. A male pupil (15) was arrested. On Nov 3 Will Cornick (16) was sentenced to life in prison and ordered to serve a minimum of 20 years.
    (AFP, 4/29/14)(AFP, 11/3/14)

2014        Apr 29, US Attorney General Eric Holder said the United States is determined to help Ukraine find and recover billions of dollars of assets it says were stolen by its former president and his aides. Holder spoke at the start of a two-day international meeting in London, jointly organized by Britain and the United States and attended by representatives from 35 countries, which is aimed at helping Ukraine's government recover money from President Viktor Yanukovich.
    (Reuters, 4/29/14)

2014        May 2, British judge Constance Briscoe (56) was jailed for 16 months for a catalogue of lies and deception in a case that last year brought down government minister Chris Huhne.
    (AFP, 5/2/14)

2014        May 7, A British court ordered former Co-operative Bank boss Paul Flowers (63), a clergyman the media has dubbed the Crystal Methodist, to pay a fine after he admitted to possessing cocaine, methamphetamine and ketamine.
    (AP, 5/7/14)

2014        May 8, British police officers across London will wear video cameras when responding to emergency calls as part of a year-long pilot project launched today.
    (AFP, 5/8/14)
2014        May 8, Religious leaders in Britain called for all meat to be labelled with details of how it was slaughtered after it emerged halal and kosher meat in supermarkets is often not marked as such.
    (AFP, 5/8/14)
2014        May 8, Colin Pillinger (70), an ebullient British space scientist died. He captured the popular imagination with his failed 2003 attempt to land a British probe on Mars.
    (AP, 5/8/14)

2014        May 9, British experts arrived in Abuja to help find at least 276 girls being held by Islamic militants in northeastern Nigeria as an international effort began taking hold.
    (AP, 5/9/14)

2014        May 14, Chinese police said they have charged the former British boss of drugmaker GlaxoSmithKline PLC's China business and other colleagues with corruption, after a probe found the firm made billions of yuan from elaborate schemes to bribe doctors and hospitals. Mark Reilly and two Chinese executives, Zhang Guowei and Zhao Hongyan, were also suspected of bribing officials in the industry and commerce departments of Beijing and Shanghai.
    (Reuters, 5/14/14)

2014        May 16, Four British sailors went missing after their yacht, Cheeki Rafiki, capsized about 1,000 miles off Cape Cod, Mass.
    (Reuters, 5/19/14)

2014        May 19, A Manhattan jury convicted Mustafa Kamel Mustafa (aka Abu Hamza al-Masri), a former London-based Egyptian Islamic cleric, for providing material to support terrorist organizations, for sending men to establish an al-Qaida training camp in Bly, Oregon, and sending at least one man to an al-Qaida training camp in Afghanistan. Al-Masri (56) was extradited in 2012 from England where in the 1990s he led Londonís Finsbury Park Mosque.
    (SFC, 5/20/14, p.A8)(SFC, 5/21/14, p.A2)

2014        May 20, A British man, for the first time, was convicted of terrorism-related offenses after going to Syria with the intention of joining the conflict there. Kingston Crown Court convicted Mashudur Choudhury (31) of engaging in conduct in preparation of terrorist acts.
    (AP, 5/20/14)
2014        May 20, Prince Rupert Loewenstein (80), former business manager of the Rolling Stones (1968-2007), died in a London hospital after suffering from Parkinson's disease. He was the prince who helped make the Rolling Stones as rich as kings.
    (AP, 5/22/14)

2014        May 22, Britain voted in local and European elections. An opinion poll exposed a paradox: The anti-EU UK Independence Party was forecast to win the vote yet public opinion favored staying inside the EU.
    (Reuters, 5/22/14)
2014        May 22, EU parliamentary elections began in Britain and the Netherlands at the start of 4 days of balloting across the 28 members.
    (SFC, 5/23/14, p.A5)

2014        May 30, Britainís Office of National Statistics said prostitution and the import, manufacture and consumption of illegal drugs will be counted when making the quarterly calculations of the gross domestic product (GDP).
    (SFC, 5/31/14, p.A3)

2014        May 31, The Queen musical "We Will Rock You" closed in its London home after 12 straight years. It had played to more than 6.5 million people at the Dominion Theatre with over 4,600 performances.
    (AFP, 3/11/14)

2014        May, Wiko, a 2-year-old French company, introduced its smartphone in Britain. Prices in France started at about Ä70 ($96). 
    (Econ, 4/5/14, p.57)

2014        Jun 3, British police arrested Altaf Hussain (60), one of Pakistan's most well-known and divisive politicians, on suspicion of money-laundering, sparking fears of violence in his power base of Karachi where businesses closed early and residents rushed home. Hussain, the leader of the Muttahida Qaumi Movement (MQM), has lived in self-imposed exile in Britain since 1992. Hussain was released on bail on June 7.
    (AP, 6/3/14)(AP, 6/7/14)

2014        Jun 6, British telecommunications giant Vodafone admitted the existence of secret wires that allow government agencies to listen in to conversations on its networks. Vodafone said that in about six countries where it operates, phone tapping is required by law, although it did not identify the countries.
    (AFP, 6/6/14)

2014        Jun 11, Londonís new Trafficking and Kidnap Unit of its  Metropolitan Police arrested six people suspected of sex trafficking. The arrests were part of an ongoing investigation of a Hungarian organized crime group.
    (AP, 6/11/14)
2014        Jun 11, Taxi drivers staged protests in London, Berlin, Barcelona, Madrid and Paris. Cabbies and train workers walked off the job, leaving traffic snarled, as they protested changes to the travel industry that they say could endanger passengers and give untested upstarts an unfair advantage.
    (AP, 6/11/14)

2014        Jun 16, Britain said it would ban the Sunni Islamist insurgent group the Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant (ISIL), whose stunning offensive in northern Iraq in the past week has spurred fears of all-out sectarian warfare in the Middle East.
    (AP, 6/16/14)
2014        Jun 16, Britain's food safety watchdog said you should not wash a chicken before cooking it, because washing raw chicken spreads the campylobacter bacteria.
    (AFP, 6/16/14)
2014        Jun 16, Chinese Premier Li Keqiang arrived in Britain on a 3-day visit that included a planned meeting with Queen Elizabeth II and talks aimed at boosting fragile diplomatic relations.
    (AP, 6/16/14)

2014        Jun 17, In England a unanimous jury decision at Birmingham Crown Court found two Singaporean businessmen and a footballer guilty of involvement in a match-fixing conspiracy targeting English lower league games.
    (AP, 6/17/14)
2014        Jun 17, Chinese premier Li Keqiang began his visit to Britain with a meeting with Queen Elizabeth II at Windsor Castle. He then traveled to central London for a formal inspection of British soldiers and a meeting with PM David Cameron at his office in Downing Street. Mr Li, who was accompanied by a large business delegation, formally agreed during the trip to commercial deals and investments worth £14bn ($24 billion) in areas such as energy and finance.
    (AP, 6/17/14)(Econ, 7/19/14, p.11)
2014        Jun 17, In England Nahid Almanea (31), a Saudi student, died after she was stabbed 16 times while walking on a public path in Colchester, northeast of London. She was wearing a full-length Muslim robe and a headscarf and had been studying English as part of an advanced degree program.
    (AP, 6/20/14)

2014        Jun 20, A British husband and wife were convicted of murdering the woman's parents, burying their bodies and collecting their pension checks for 15 years. A jury at Nottingham Crown Court found Susan and Christopher Edwards guilty of shooting William and Patricia Wycherly in May 1998.
    (AP, 6/20/14)

2014        Jun 22, British newspaper The Sunday Times reported that the 25 board members of FIFA, the international governing body of association football, futsal and beach soccer, now get a $200,000 stipend for their part-time duties. FIFA declined to comment on claims that annual payments were doubled for executive committee members after their bonuses were stopped last December.
    (AP, 6/22/14)
2014        Jun 22, Felix Dennis (67), British hedonist and media magnate, died. His 20,000 hectare Forest of Dennis included a garden of heroes with life-size statues of famous figures. 
    (Econ, 7/5/14, p.78)

2014        Jun 24, Britain became the latest nation to formally outlaw the herbal stimulant khat, the bushy leaf chewed by many Somalis, Yemenis, Kenyans and Ethiopians. As of today khat is a "class C drug", making possession punishable by up to two years in jail and supply and production punishable by up to 14 years.
    (AFP, 6/24/14)
2014        Jun 24, Two powerful British political insiders met starkly different fates as former News of the World editor Andy Coulson was convicted of phone hacking but fellow editor Rebekah Brooks was acquitted.
    (AP, 6/24/14)

2014        Jun 25, Britain's Supreme Court said an assisted-suicide ban is incompatible with human rights, but it dismissed the appeal from two severely disabled men who argued the law should be changed to allow doctors to legally kill them.
    (AP, 6/25/14)

2014        Jun 27, British authorities ordered Eurotunnel to stop running its ferry service to France on grounds of unfair competition.
    (AFP, 6/27/14)
2014        Jun 27, German travel group TUI and its British subsidiary TUI Travel said that they had agreed to a tie-up that will create the world's biggest tourism operator.
    (AFP, 6/27/14)

2014        Jun 30, In England Rolf Harris (84) an Australian-born artist, TV presenter and performer of songs like "Tie Me Kangaroo Down, Sport," was convicted at Southwark Crown Court on all 12 counts of indecently assaulting girls and young women from 1968-1986.
    (AFP, 6/30/14)

2014        Jul 2, Britain sentenced five members of a gang to between three and 12 years in prison for luring victims with false promises of legitimate work. The organizer and Indian national Vishal Chaudhary (35), received 12 years. Over 120 eastern European women were forced to have sex with up to 20 men a day in brothels across London.
    (AP, 7/3/14)
2014        Jul 2, London Metropolitan Police expressed disappointment about an employment tribunal's finding that police discriminated against a black female officer because of her gender and race.
    (AP, 7/2/14)
2014        Jul 2, Norwegian energy companies Statoil and Statkraft announced plans to build a wind farm off the British coast in a 15 billion kroner ($2.4 billion) investment, expected to be completed in 2017.
    (AP, 7/2/14)

2014        Jul 4, In London Andy Coulson (46), former News of the World editor and PM David Cameron's communications chief, was sentenced to 18 months in prison for conspiring to hack phones. Private investigator Glenn Mulcaire, the newspaper's chief phone hacker, received a suspended six-month sentence.
    (AP, 7/4/14)
2014        Jul 4, In London television entertainer Rolf Harris, who for decades cultivated an image of the affectionate uncle with numerous children's television programs, was sentenced to five years and nine months in prison for a string of abuses against young girls.
    (AP, 7/4/14)

2014        Jul 5, England began hosting the first three stages of the three-week Tour de France  race before it enters France.
    (AP, 7/6/14)

2014        Jul 10, Britainís PM David Cameron unveiled emergency laws designed to force phone and Internet companies to store and search records for a year.
    (SSFC, 7/13/14, p.A4)

2014        Jul 14, British PM David Cameron announced an investment of £1.1 billion (1.38 billion euros, $1.88 billion) into the armed forces, the bulk of it on intelligence and surveillance equipment.
    (AFP, 7/14/14)
2014        Jul 14, The British government faced a call to impose legal caps on executive salaries after a study found top pay in Britain has reached 180 times average wages.
    (AFP, 7/14/14)
2014        Jul 14, The Church of England voted overwhelmingly in favor of allowing women to become bishops.
    (SFC, 7/15/14, p.A3)

2014        Jul 15, British PM David Cameron pushed through his biggest government shake-up since coming to power in 2010, promoting women and Eurosceptics to senior roles ahead of a national election in May, 2015.
    (Reuters, 7/15/14)
2014        Jul 15, Britain's financial regulator announced new limitations on what payday lenders can charge their customers. From January payday loan rates must not exceed a daily rate of 0.8 percent of the amount borrowed. Customers must never have to pay back more in fees and interest than the amount borrowed.
    (AP, 7/15/14)

2014        Jul 16, Britainís National Crime Agency said police have arrested 660 suspected pedophiles including doctors, teachers and care workers in a six-month operation targeting people watching indecent images online.
    (AFP, 7/16/14)

2014        Jul 17, Airbus said that its orders and commitments for 496 aircraft at Englandís Farnborough International Airshow. Boeing, meanwhile, secured business for 201 airplanes.
    (AP, 7/17/14)
2014        Jul 17, Japan said it would join forces with Britain to jointly develop missile technology for fighter jets, while also moving to export Japanese-made parts for US surface-to-air missiles.
    (AFP, 7/17/14)

2014        Jul 24, The first archive dedicated to the culture and experiences of black people in Britain opened in Brixton, south London, with the aim of shining a light on a long overlooked history.
    (AFP, 7/25/14)

2014        Jul 28, Britainís Passport Office staff launched a 24-hour strike over staffing shortages and pay just weeks after extra workers were drafted in to tackle a backlog of tens of thousands of applications.
    (AFP, 7/28/14)

2014        Jul, In Bristol, England, seven men aged 20 to 22 were convicted of charges including rape, paying for the sexual services of a child, facilitating child prostitution, possessing indecent pictures of a child and supplying heroin and cocaine.
    (AP, 11/27/14)

2014        Aug 1, Britain's state-rescued Royal Bank of Scotland said it has capped lending in Russia after the imposition this week of new economic sanctions against Moscow linked to the Ukraine crisis.
    (AFP, 8/1/14)

2014        Aug 12, Britain said it will send Chinook helicopters to help refugees trapped in northern Iraq, particularly on Mount Sinjar.
    (Reuters, 8/12/14)

2014        Aug 16, At Britainís Tilbury Docks one man was found dead and 34 others still alive in a shipping container after staff at the port heard banging and screaming coming from inside. The men, women and children, were all from Afghanistan. On Aug 19 Northern Ireland police arrested a man (34) in Limavady suspected of smuggling the migrants.
    (AFP, 8/16/14)(SFC, 8/20/14, p.A2)

2014        Aug 24, Sir Richard Attenborough (b.1923), Oscar winning English actor and director, died. His films included ďIn Which We Serve" (1942), ďBrighton Rock" (1947), ďOh! What A Lovely War" (1969) and ďJurassic Park" (1993). He won an Oscar for directing ďGandhi" (1982).
    {Britain, Filmstar}
    (SFC, 8/25/14, p.C3)

2014        Aug 26, A new report by Alexis Jay, a former chief social work adviser to the Scottish government, concluded that from 1997-2013 some 1,400 children were sexually exploited in Rotherham, northern England.
    (AP, 8/26/14)

2014        Aug 27, Britain's bailed-out Royal Bank of Scotland was fined £14 million for not taking enough care to explain to home-buyers the costs of taking out a mortgage.
    (AFP, 8/27/14)

2014        Aug 28, Alice Gross (14) was last seen in the Ealing and Hanwell area of west London. Her body was found in the River Brent on Sep 30. Arnis Zalkalns (41) of Latvia, a suspect in her disappearance, was last sighted on Sep 3. His body was found in Boston Manor Park on Oct 4.
    (AP, 9/22/14)(AP, 10/5/14)

2014        Sep 10, Britainís PM David Cameron begged Scots not to rip apart Britain's "family of nations", visiting Scotland in an attempt to stem a steep last minute rise in secessionist support ahead of a Sept. 18 referendum on independence.
    (Reuters, 9/10/14)
2014        Sep 10, Englandís Birmingham Univ. said researchers have produced digital maps of whatís beneath Stoenhenge revealing 17 previously unknown  ritual monuments and a huge timber building.
    (SFC, 9/11/14, p.A2)

2014        Sep 13, The Islamic State released a video showing the beheading of British subject David Haines and threatening the life of another British hostage.
    (AFP, 9/14/14)

2014        Sep 15, In Thailand British tourists Hannah Witheridge (23), and David Miller (24) were found battered to death on a beach on Koh Tao, a small island in the Gulf of Thailand. An autopsy indicated that Witheridge had been raped. On Oct 2 police said two workers from Myanmar have confessed to the murders. On Oct 21 Win Zaw Htun and Zaw Lin, both 21, sent a retraction letter to prosecutors handling their case claiming they were tortured and forced to confess under police custody. On Dec 24, 2015, Win Zaw Htun and Zaw Lin were sentenced to death.
    (AP, 9/15/14)(AP, 10/2/14)(AP, 10/22/14)(AP, 12/24/15)

2014        Sep 18, Scotland voted on whether to stay within the United Kingdom or end the 307-year-old union with England and become an independent nation.
    (Reuters, 9/18/14)

2014        Sep 22, Britainís Tesco supermarket chain had to issue its third profit warning in two years as it struggled to compete with low-cost rivals. The company said it has suspended four executives and launched an accounting investigation after admitting that its half-year profit was overstated by 250 million pounds ($407 million).
    (AP, 9/22/14)

2014        Sep 24, Deborah Devonshire (94), the Dowager Duchess of Devonshire and the youngest of the six Mitford sisters, died.
    (Econ, 10/4/14, p.102)

2014        Sep 25, British police arrested nine men as part of an operation into Islamist-related militancy. Anjem Choudar, the country's most high-profile radical Muslim preacher, was among those held.
    (Reuters, 9/25/14)
2014        Sep 25, In London Dale Bolinger (59), an NHS nurse dubbed the "Canterbury Cannibal", was found guilty of attempting to meet a girl under the age of 16 following sexual grooming. He had plotted to behead and eat the girl and was jailed for nine years.
    (AFP, 9/25/14)

2014        Sep 29, Britainís Lloyds Banking Group said it has sacked eight workers and withheld bonuses in disciplinary measures linked to the Libor interest rate-rigging scandal.
    (AFP, 9/29/14)

2014        Oct 1, Britain awarded contracts worth ¬£3.2 billion to support the management of the nation's naval bases and upkeep of the fleet.
    (AFP, 10/1/14)

2014        Oct 3, In London Ian Edmondson, a former news editor at Britain's News of the World, pleaded guilty to conspiring to hack the phones of celebrities, politicians and royals.
    (AP, 10/3/14)
2014        Oct 3, A video was posted on YouTube showing Alan Henning (47), a British taxi driver, kneeling before a masked knife man against a desert setting. Henning had been part of an aid convoy taking medical supplies to a hospital in northwest Syria in December last year when it was stopped by gunmen and he was abducted. He was the fourth hostage to have been beheaded by Islamic State (IS).
    (Reuters, 10/4/14)

2014        Oct 4, Several hundred people marched in central London to protest Britain's involvement in US-led air strikes against Islamic State (IS) group targets in Iraq.
    (AFP, 10/4/14)

2014        Oct 6, Richard Branson's Virgin Atlantic said it will shut its short-haul domestic service in Britain, partly owing to a lack of demand for connections with its long-haul operations.
    (AFP, 10/6/14)

2014        Oct 8, The EU approved Britain's bid to heavily subsidize a new nuclear power plant, overriding opposition from environmentalists and questions over the project's 24.5 billion pound ($39 billion) price tag.
    (AP, 10/8/14)

2014        Oct 9, Britain said it will start screening travelers coming from Ebola-hit parts of west Africa at Heathrow and Gatwick airports and on Eurostar trains from Belgium and France.
    (AFP, 10/10/14)

2014        Oct 10, Britain's anti-EU UK Independence Party won its first seat in the House of Commons, sending jitters through PM David Cameron's Conservatives months before what is likely to be a tight general election.
    (AFP, 10/10/14)

2014        Oct 13, The British House of Commons in a symbolic move voted 274 to 12 in favor of recognizing Palestine as a state.
    (SFC, 10/14/14, p.A2)

2014        Oct 14, British counterterrorism police arrested six people in raids across southern England reflecting heightened concern that the rise of the Islamic State has helped foment Jihadism.
    (SFC, 10/15/14, p.A2)

2014        Oct 21, The tail end of Hurricane Gonzalo brought high winds and travel chaos to Britain. One woman was found dead under a fallen tree in west London.
    (AFP, 10/21/14)

2014        Oct 23, The chairman of Britain's biggest retailer Tesco resigned as the troubled supermarket group said a huge accounting error began earlier than thought and contributed to plunging profits.
    (AFP, 10/23/14)
2014        Oct 23, Alvin Stardust (b.1942), British singer and former glam rock star, died after a short battle with cancer, just weeks before he was due to release a new album. His real name was Bernard Jewry.
    (AFP, 10/23/14)

2014        Oct 25, Jack Bruce (71), British vocalist and bassist for the blues trio Cream, died at his home in Suffolk. The group also included drummer Ginger Baker and guitarist Eric Clapton. Cream the worldís first platinum disc for the double album ďWheels of Fire" (1968).
    (SSFC, 10/26/14, p.D8)

2014        Oct 26, British troops ended their combat operations in Afghanistan as they and US Marines handed over two huge adjacent bases in Helmand province to the Afghan military. Helmand province produces 80-90 percent of the opium that helps finance the Taliban's insurgency.
    (Reuters, 10/26/14)

2014        Oct 27, In Afghanistan the last British troops were flown out of Camp Bastion in Helmand province. 453 of their compatriots had died during Britainís 13-year deployment.
    (Econ, 11/1/14, p.55)

2014        Oct 28, The European Court of Human Rights in London ruled that Stephen Goughís rights were not violated by repeated arrests and convictions for being naked in public. Gough (55), a former Royal Marine nicknamed the ďNaked Rambler," has twice walked the length of Britain naked with frequent arrests, court appearances and jail time.
    (SFC, 10/29/14, p.A2)

2014        Oct 30, Britainís first national sperm bank opened to the public in Birmingham.
    (Econ, 11/1/14, p.55)

2014        Nov 4, Britainís Rolls-Royce, the maker of aircraft engines, said that it plans to shed 2,600 jobs, mainly at its aerospace division, over the next 18 months to cut costs.
    (AFP, 11/4/14)

2014        Nov 7, In London Ian Edmondson (45), a former news editor at the News of the World, was jailed for eight months after admitting involvement in phone hacking at Rupert Murdoch's now defunct tabloid newspaper.
    (AP, 11/7/14)
2014        Nov 7, The EU said Britain will have to pay only around 1 billion euros, rather than more than 2 billion, more to the European Union budget as a result of a Europe-wide revision of statistics, because the British rebate will also increase.
    (Reuters, 11/7/14)

2014        Nov 11, Thai police banned a British journalist's book about politics in Thailand for "defaming" the monarchy, in a country with one of the world's strictest lese majeste laws. The sale and distribution of "A Kingdom in Crisis" by freelance journalist and author Andrew MacGregor Marshall, formerly based in Bangkok, was banned in Thailand a month after it was published by London-based Zed Books.
    (AFP, 11/13/14)

2014        Nov 12, British police arrested 13 people in the Manchester area in an investigation of an alleged trafficking ring which tricked women into visiting Britain, then sold them into forced marriages.
    (AP, 11/13/14)

2014        Nov 13, A British woman, Amal El-Wahabi (28), who tried to send 20,000 euros ($25,000) to her husband fighting with Islamic State (IS) group in Syria, was jailed for 28 months and seven days.
    (AFP, 11/13/14)
2014        Nov 13, Eight northern European nations (Britain, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, Latvia, Lithuania, Norway, Sweden) agreed to step up cooperation to counter an increase in Moscow's military activity that has included a tripling of NATO intercepts of Russian jets this year.
    (Reuters, 11/13/14)

2014        Nov 17, British jurors were dismissed after law student Erol Incedal (26), a Turkish-born Londoner accused of targeting Tony Blair and plotting a Mumbai-style attack, was found guilty in a secret trial at the Old Bailey of possessing material likely to be useful to a terrorist. Co-defendant, Mounir Rarmoul-Bouhadjar (26) had pleaded guilty before the trial began to having the same bomb-making document.
    (AP, 11/17/14)

2014        Nov 18, British lawmakers in parliament's lower House of Commons voted to overhaul the 400-year-old "beer tie", under which publicans purchase alcohol exclusively from their parent company in return for reduced rent.
    (AFP, 11/19/14)

2014        Nov 19, The British government banned controversial US-based "pick-up artist" Julien Blanc from entering the country after nearly 160,000 people signed a petition accusing him of encouraging "physical and emotional abuse".
    (AFP, 11/19/14)
2014        Nov 19, Several thousand students took to the streets of central London to protest against tuition fee increases and education budget cuts.
    (AP, 11/19/14)

2014        Nov 20, British regulators fined Royal Bank of Scotland PLC 56 million pounds ($87 million) for computer problems that made it impossible for customers to get access to their accounts.
    (AP, 11/20/14)
2014        Nov 20, Britain's first bus powered entirely by human and food waste took to the road in Bristol. The Wessex Water subsidiary GENeco's Bristol sewage treatment plant became the first in the UK to start providing gas generated from food waste and sewage to the national gas grid network.
    (AFP, 11/20/14)

2014        Nov 21, Britainís PM David Cameron's Conservatives lost a second parliamentary seat in the southeast English constituency of Rochester and Strood to the anti-EU UKIP party.
    (Reuters, 11/21/14)
2014        Nov 21, In central London two Polish nationals died on a construction site while trying to lift a sofa into a first floor apartment. On July 7, 2014, Martin Gutaj (44), a company director, was sentenced to 14 months in jail and barred from being a company director for the next four years for failing to properly train the two workers.
    (AP, 7/7/17)

2014        Nov 24, Thousands of British nurses, midwives and hospital cleaners went on a four-hour strike calling for a pay rise, weeks after walking out for the first time in 32 years.
    (AFP, 11/24/14)

2014        Nov 26, Britain unveiled draft legislation to ban extremist preachers from universities, increase surveillance on suspected radicals and stem the flow of jihadists joining the Islamic State group.
    (AFP, 11/26/14)

2014        Nov 27, Britainís Food Standards Agency (FSA) said some 70 percent of fresh chickens on sale in Britain are contaminated with a food poisoning bug.
    (AFP, 11/27/14)
2014        Nov 27, Britain's main political parties agreed to grant Scotland new tax and spending powers to fulfill a promise of greater autonomy made as politicians scrambled to persuade Scots to reject independence in a recent referendum.
    (AP, 11/27/14)
2014        Nov 27, The BBC reported that billionaire hedge fund manager Chris Hohn has been ordered to pay his estranged wife Jamie Cooper-Hohn 337 million pounds ($530 million) in one of the largest divorce settlements in British legal history.
    (Reuters, 11/27/14)
2014        Nov 27, British police arrested Lithuanian builder Viktoras Bruzas (38) after two people were stabbed to death in Surrey. Another man in his 30s has been arrested in Walton-on-Thames on suspicion on conspiracy to commit murder.
    (AFP, 11/27/14)(AFP, 11/28/14)
2014        Nov 27, British detective writer P. D. James (b.1920) died at home in Oxford. She created the best-selling series featuring poetry-writing sleuth Adam Dalgliesh. Her first novel, "Cover Her Face," was published in 1962.
    (AFP, 11/27/14)
2014        Nov 27, In Afghanistan a suicide bomber attacked a British embassy vehicle in Kabul, killing 5 people including one Briton.
    (Reuters, 11/27/14)
2014        Nov 27, Argentina's tax agency charged British bank HSBC with helping more than 4,000 Argentines to commit tax evasion by stashing money in secret Swiss accounts.
    (AFP, 11/27/14)

2014        Nov 28, Britain sentenced 7 Somali men for charges including rape, sexual activity with a child, causing or inciting child prostitution and trafficking for sexual exploitation, relating to four victims.
    (AFP, 11/27/14)
2014        Nov 28, British police blasted stores for bringing "Black Friday" to Britain, with the US sales event descending into chaotic fist fights as frenzied consumers battled to grab discounted goods.
    (AFP, 11/28/14)
2014        Nov 28, British scientists announced trials on a 15-minute Ebola test in Guinea as France's Francois Hollande arrived in Conakry, becoming the first Western leader to visit one of the countries devastated by the epidemic. France has pledged 100 million euros ($125 million) in the fight against the epidemic focusing its efforts on Guinea.
    (AFP, 11/28/14)

2014        Nov 29, The British government reported that up to 13,000 people in Britain are victims of trafficking, sexual exploitation or other forms of modern slavery.
    (AP, 11/29/14)

2014        Dec 3, Britainís Treasury chief George Osborne unveiled plans to crack down on multinational tax avoiders as he sought to deflect criticism for failing to meet his budget targets.
    (AP, 12/3/14)

2014        Dec 5, The British Museum plunged into a geopolitical tempest by lending one of the disputed Greek Elgin Marbles to Russiaís Hermitage Museum.
    (SFC, 12/6/14, p.A2)

2014         Dec 6, Bahrain and Britain said they planned to open a new military camp in Bahrain. This would be Britainís 1st permanent camp in the Middle East region since it officially pulled out from the area in 1971.

2014        Dec 8, The body of British financier Scot Young (52) was found impaled on railings outside his luxury London apartment. During a drawn-out divorce court battle, Young claimed he was bankrupt and couldn't pay his wife a 27,500-pound monthly maintenance fee ordered by a judge. He said he had suffered a financial "meltdown" and was heavily in debt.
    (AP, 12/11/14)
2014        Dec 8, Angela Wrightson (39), was found with more than 100 injuries in her blood-spattered living room in the British industrial town of Hartlepool. On April 7, 2016, two teenage girls, who beat the woman to death, were sentenced to life in prison, with a minimum term of 15 years.
    (www.bbc.com/news/uk-england-35924491)(AP, 4/7/16)

2014        Dec 9, London's New Scotland Yard, the world's most famous police headquarters, was reported sold to the Abu Dhabi Financial Group for 370 million pounds ($580 million), 120 million pounds over the asking price. The Gulf investors plan to develop luxury apartments. The Metropolitan Police was moving to a smaller headquarters as it tries to cut more than 500 million pounds ($800 million) in spending.
    (AP, 12/9/14)

2014        Dec 10, The British Scouting Association apologized after revealing that 48 sexual abuse lawsuits had been made since the movement started in 1907, 36 of which had been brought since October 2012.
    (AFP, 12/11/14)
2014        Dec 10, A group of Gambian diplomats were jailed after being found guilty of running a huge tax-dodging tobacco operation out of the Gambian embassy in London. Yusupha Bojang (54), was identified as the ringleader of the operation, ordering half-a-million packets of tax-free rolling tobacco over three years and selling it out of the west London building.
    (AFP, 12/10/14)
2014        Dec 10, Up to 17,000 residents in the west of Scotland were left without power as a "weather bomb" of wet and windy conditions battered parts of Britain with gusts expected to reach up to 80 miles per hour.
    (Reuters, 12/10/14)

2014        Dec 11, Britain's Scout Association was warned that sexual abuse claims that have led to payouts of £500,000 were only the "tip of the iceberg."
    (AFP, 12/11/14)
2014        Dec 11, In London Aravindan Balakrishnan (74), the leader of an obscure Maoist collective, was charged with false imprisonment, rape, cruelty to a person under 16 years old and indecent assault. He allegedly held three women, freed last year, against their will in a London house for 30 years.
    (AP, 12/11/14)
2014        Dec 11, In Vienna, Austria, several states (Britain, Norway, Netherlands and the US) pledged to back a UN nuclear agency (IAEA) request for 4.6 million euros ($5.7 million) as soon as possible to pay for its monitoring of an extended, interim nuclear deal between Iran and world powers.
    (AP, 12/11/14)

2014        Dec 12, In Britain a system failure affecting air traffic control workstations was to blame for disruption to thousands of passengers coming in and out of Britain's biggest airports.
    (Reuters, 12/13/14)

2014        Dec 16, A British jury cleared three security guards of manslaughter in the 2010 death of Jimmy Mubenga (46), an Angolan man, who collapsed while being deported.
    (AP, 12/16/14)

2014        Dec 17, The Church of England named Libby Lane, a saxophone-playing vicar with a taste for football, as its first female bishop in a move hailed as an important step towards greater equality.
    (AFP, 12/17/14)

2014        Dec 18, The EU's top court found Britain at fault for demanding that non-EU citizens with resident permits issued in other member states must obtain a visa before entering the country.
    (AFP, 12/18/14)
2014        Dec 18, Mandy Rice-Davies (70), a key figure in the 1963 "Profumo Affair," a sex-and-politics scandal that rocked Cold War Britain, died.
    (AP, 12/19/14)

2014        Dec 21, British actress Billie Whitelaw (82), who collaborated closely with Irish playwright Samuel Beckett and appeared on stage and screen for decades, died in a London nursing home. She made more than 50 movies, including Alfred Hitchcock's "Frenzy" in 1972.
    (AP, 12/22/14)

2014        Dec 27, Snow and icy weather swept through parts of Europe, stranding drivers overnight and leaving thousands of homes without power in Britain.
    (AP, 12/27/14)

2014        Dec 29, Health worker Pauline Cafferkey (39) became the first person diagnosed with Ebola on British soil. She had returned a day earlier from Sierra Leone.
    (SSFC, 1/4/15, p.A2)
2014        Dec 29, In Florida a motion was filed in which a woman, Jane Doe #3, alleges she was "forced to have sexual relations" with Andrew, the Duke of York, in London, New York and the Caribbean at the behest of Jeffrey Epstein from 1999-2002. In 2008 Epstein was sentenced to 18 months in prison after pleading guilty to a single Florida state charge of soliciting prostitution. He remains a registered sex offender.
    (AFP, 1/3/15)

2014        Nick Bostrom, professor of philosophy at Oxford, authored ďSuperintelligence: Paths, Dangers, Strategies," an examination of artificial intelligence. Here he asks the question: What happens when machines surpass humans in general intelligence?
    (Econ, 8/9/14, p.68)(http://tinyurl.com/j2oc2cx)
2014        Innes Bowen authored ďMedina in  Birmingham, Najaf in Brent: Inside British Islam.
    (Econ, 6/28/14, p.74)
2014        Ronald Hutton authored ďPagan Britain." The author described the book as a history of religious belief from the ďOld Stone Age to the coming of Christianity."
    (Econ, 12/14/13, p.89)
2014        Allen Lane authored ďThe English and Their History."
    (Econ, 12/13/14, p.82)

2015        Jan 8, The Pentagon said the US military will close a major air base in Britain and withdraw from more than a dozen installations across Europe as part of a reorganization of forces.
    (AFP, 1/8/15)

2015        Jan 12, British author John Bayley (89) died of a heart ailment. His "Elegy for Iris" (1999) chronicled his wife's descent into Alzheimer's Disease and was turned into an Oscar-winning movie starring Judi Dench and Jim Broadbent.
    (AP, 1/22/15)

2015        Jan 13, Britain launched a trade mission to Egypt with more than 40 companies received in Cairo, the largest such effort in over a decade by the top foreign investor in the Arab world's most populous country.
    (AP, 1/13/15)

2015        Jan 21, British technology firm Satellite Applications Catapult launched a new satellite tracking system aiming to crack down on the industrial-scale theft known as "pirate fishing." Experts will be able to watch satellite feeds of the waters around Easter Island, a Chilean territory in the southeastern Pacific Ocean, and the western Pacific island nation of Palau.
    (Reuters, 1/21/15)
2015        Jan 21, British politician Leon Brittan (75), a trusted minister under Margaret Thatcher and former European commissioner, died. Brittan was recently caught up in accusations that, while interior minister, he covered up a report into an alleged pedophile ring involving MPs and prominent public figures.
    (AFP, 1/22/15)

2015        Jan 22, In Britain a topless model appeared on the Sunís third page, after an absence of several days sparked reports that the controversial feature had been dropped.
    (AP, 1/22/15)

2015        Jan 26, The Church of England ended centuries of male-only leadership as Libby Lane became its first female bishop in a ceremony briefly disrupted by a traditionalist priest's protest.
    (AFP, 1/26/15)

2015        Feb 3, British lawmakers in the House of Commons voted to allow scientists to create babies from the DNA of three people, a move that could prevent some children from inheriting potentially fatal diseases from their mothers.
    (AP, 2/3/15)
2015        Feb 3, Martin Gilbert (78), Winston Churchill's official biographer and a leading historian of the Holocaust, died following a lengthy illness. His 80 books included eight on the Holocaust as well as a three-volume "History of the 20th Century."
    (AP, 2/4/15)

2015        Feb 6, British jihadi Imran Khawaja (27), who joined a terrorist training camp in Syria then faked his death in an attempt to sneak back to England, was sentenced to 12 years in prison.
    (AP, 2/6/15)

2015        Feb 12, England and Wales passed a new law banning "revenge porn" -- sexually explicit images shared online by a former partner without their ex's consent. The devolved governments in Scotland and Northern Ireland, which have responsibility for justice matters, are also looking at introducing similar laws.
    (AFP, 2/12/15)
2015        Feb 12, Steve Strange (55), a singer with the British band Visage and one of the founders of the 1980s' New Romantic style, died in a hospital in the Egyptian Red Sea resort of Sharm el-Sheik.
    (AP, 2/13/15)
2015        Feb 12, Oliver Rackham (75), British plant pathologist and woodland archeologist, died. His last book, ďThe Ash Tree," was written in response to the outbreak of the Chalara fungus.
    (Econ., 3/14/15, p.94)

2015        Feb 15, Musical Miss Saigon swept the board at the What's on Stage theatre awards in London's West End, where it won nine awards.
    (AFP, 2/16/15)
2015        Feb 15, HSBC, Britain's largest bank, issued a public apology, describing the media firestorm that followed allegations it helped rich clients dodge taxes as painful and insisting it has changed the way it does business.
    (AP, 2/15/15)

2015        Feb 17, Three British girls (Kadiza Sultana (16) and 15-year-olds Shamima Begum and Amira Abase) flew from London to Turkey in a suspected bid to join the Islamic State group. On March 12 Turkey announced the arrest of an agent who helped the girls cross into Syria. The agent also worked as a courier to transfer money to jihadists.
    (SSFC, 2/22/15, p.A5)(AP, 3/15/15)(AFP, 3/15/15)

2015        Feb 18, Swiss authorities raided the offices of British banking giant HSBC's Swiss unit as part of a money laundering probe into the bank that has been accused of helping clients to dodge millions of dollars in taxes.
    (AFP, 2/18/15)

2015        Feb 19, British teenager Brusthom Ziamani (19) was found guilty of plotting to behead a soldier in London after being influenced by the murder of an Afghan war veteran who was hacked to death by two Islamists in the capital a year earlier. Ziamani was arrested last August carrying a 12-inch (30-cm) knife and a hammer, wrapped in a black Islamic flag.
    (Reuters, 2/19/15)
2015        Feb 19, British teenager Becky Watts was last seen at home in Bristol, and her disappearance sparked a huge "Find Becky" campaign. On Feb 28 a 28-year-old man and a 21-year-old woman were arrested on suspicion of kidnapping Watts. On Mar 3 police said they had found body parts at an address in Bristol.
    (AFP, 3/3/15)
2015        Feb 19, The website Intercept posted documents saying the US National Security Agency (NSA) and Britainís GCHQ had hacked into the networks of Gemalto, a SIM card maker, to steal codes allowing them to seamlesslessly eavesdrop on mobile phones worldwide.
    (SFC, 2/21/15, p.A3)
2015        Feb 19, The French victim of a racist incident, involving Chelsea soccer fans in the Paris metro on Feb 17, lodged an official complaint with police. He had not initially know the incident had been filmed and widely broadcast.
    (Reuters, 2/19/15)(SFC, 2/19/15, p.A2)

2015        Feb 20, A British court overturned a previous ruling that prison overcrowding in Italy could breach his human rights allowing convicted Sicilian mafioso Domenico Rancadore (65) to be extradited. He had spent two decades living incognito in Britain.
    (Reuters, 2/20/15)

2015        Feb 23, Two British former foreign ministers, Jack Straw and Malcolm Rifkind, were suspended from their parties after claims that they offered to use their positions to help a private company for cash in an undercover investigation.
    (AFP, 2/23/15)

2015        Feb 24, In Britain Conservative Party lawmaker Malcolm Rifkind quit as head of the parliamentary committee overseeing the intelligence services and announced his retirement after being caught in a hidden-camera sting operation appearing to discuss swapping political influence for money.
    (SFC, 2/25/15, p.A2)

2015        Feb 26, ďJihadi John," a member of the Islamic State and the beheader of at least 5 Western hostages, was identified as a British Islamist named Mohammed Emwazi. He first appeared in a video last August, when he apparently killed the US journalist James Foley.
    (www.bbc.com/news/uk-31637090)(Econ., 3/7/15, p.59)

2015        Feb 27, Britain and France dismissed any suggestion of restoring relations with Syrian President Bashar al-Assad, saying this would likely end all hope of a political transition and push moderates into the arms of radical Islamist groups.
    (Reuters, 2/27/15)
2015        Feb 27, Former British pop star Gary Glitter (70), aka Paul Gadd, received a 16-year prison sentence after being convicted of sexually abusing three young girls in the 1970s.
    (AP, 2/27/15)

2015        Mar 2, British police said they had charged 10 men with sexual offences against children and adults, part of a wider investigation into child sexual exploitation in the northern English town of Rochdale.
    (Reuters, 3/2/15)
2015        Mar 2, Motorists in England and Wales faced tougher penalties for driving under the influence of drugs as new laws took effect. Drivers will be prosecuted if they are caught exceeding new legal limits for eight illegal drugs and eight prescription drugs.
    (AFP, 3/2/15)
2015        Mar 2, Konstandinos Erik Scurfield (25), a former Royal Marine, died in a battle with IS militants, becoming the first Briton to be killed while fighting with Kurdish forces battling Islamic State jihadists in Syria.
    (AFP, 3/4/15)

2015        Mar 4, The BBC aired the documentary ďIndiaís Daughter," about a fatal New Delhi gang rape in which one attacker blamed the victim. A court order in India had halted a March 1 screening.
    (SFC, 3/6/15, p.A2)
2015        Mar 4, The British government said it has agreed to sell its stake in Eurostar, the high-speed rail service that connects London with Paris and Brussels through a tunnel under the English Channel, for 757 million pounds ($1.1 billion) to a group of international investors, Canada's Caisse de depot et placement du Quebec and U.K.-based Hermes Infrastructure.
    (AP, 3/4/15)
2015        Mar 4, British counter-terrorism police arrested two men over an alleged "cash-for-jihad" fraud that saw elderly residents conned of money by fake police officers.
    (AP, 3/4/15)

2015        Mar 5, Mexico's President Enrique Pena Nieto ended his three-day state visit to Britain by overseeing the signing of deals that boost ties between the two countries in energy, including a $1 billion oil agreement.
    (AFP, 3/5/15)

2015        Mar 10, Britainís Queen Elizabeth II christened P&O Cruises' 141,000-ton liner Britannia, a 473 million pound ($714 million) mega ship that's longer than four superjumbo jets.
    (AP, 3/10/15)

2015        Mar 11, Britainís 2015 Templeton Prize went to Canadian Jean Vanier, who founded the pioneering global network of "L'Arche" residential communities for people with and without mental disabilities. The prize, established in 1972, honors "entrepreneurs of the spirit".
    (AFP, 3/11/15)

2015        Mar 12, British science fiction and fantasy author Terry Pratchett (66) died. His 40 Discworld novels made him Britainís bestselling author in the 1990s. By 2015 he sold some 85 million books in 37 languages.
    (AFP, 3/12/15)(Econ., 3/28/15, p.94)

2015        Mar 13, In Turkey three male British teenagers planning to join Islamic State militants in Syria were detained in Istanbul.
    (Reuters, 3/15/15)

2015        Mar 14, In London a statue of Indian independence leader Mahatma Gandhi was unveiled at Parliament Square, the symbolic heart of the British establishment that once loathed him for his campaign against imperial rule.
    (AFP, 3/14/15)

2015        Mar 17, Britain announced a three percent rise in the minimum wage, the largest real terms increase since 2008.
    (AFP, 3/17/15)
2015        Mar 17, British officials said three judges who looked at pornography on their work accounts have been fired. A fourth judge who was also found to have viewed similar material at work resigned before the inquiry had concluded.
    (AP, 3/17/15)

2015        Mar 19, Officials said around 30 British military personnel have arrived in Ukraine to provide medical and tactical training to the country's troops.
    (AP, 3/19/15)

2015        Mar 22, A Turkish opposition lawmaker said he is helping the families of nine British medical students and doctors of Sudanese origin believed to have crossed into Syria from Turkey.
    (AP, 3/22/15)(AFP, 3/22/15)

2015        Mar 26, Britain's world-first Modern Slavery Act became law. It required companies whose turnover exceeds 36 million pounds ($46 million) to produce an annual statement outlining the actions they have taken to identify and root out slavery from their operations.
2015        Mar 26, Britain buried King Richard III with pomp 530 years after his violent death. His remains had been found under a parking lot in 2012.
    (SFC, 3/27/15, p.A2)

2015        Mar, The British government set aside 834,000 square km (322,000 square miles) of ocean for the Pitcairn Islands Marine Reserve, the largest single marine protected area anywhere.
    (Econ, 2/13/15, p.84)

2015        Apr 5, British army Sgt. Emile Cilliers sabotaged the parachute of his wife by damaging her main and reserve parachutes in order to collect insurance money. Virginia Cilliers survived by landing in a newly plowed field. In 2018 jurors convicted Emile (38) of two attempted murder charges and damaging a home gas valve.
    (SFC, 5/25/18, p.A2)

2015        Apr 6, London's jewelry industry found that thieves had got away with a record haul of diamonds after a brazen heist in Hatton Garden netted an estimated ¬£200 million worth (275 million euro, $300 million) of gems over the Easter weekend. On Jan 14, 2016, Carl Wood (58) of Cheshunt, William Lincoln (60) of Bethnal Green, were convicted of conspiracy to burgle. Hugh Doyle (52) of Enfield, was convicted of concealing, converting or transferring criminal property. Altogether six men between the ages of 49 and 77 were convicted of tunneling into the vault.
    (AFP, 4/8/15)(http://tinyurl.com/j9acfjh)(SFC, 1/15/16, p.A2)(AP, 1/6/17)

2015        Apr 8, British police found Abdul-Hadi Arwani (48) dead in a parked car with gunshot wounds to his chest in the Wembley area of London. The Syria-born Muslim cleric had been critical of Syria's President Bashar Assad.
    (AP, 4/8/15)
2015        Apr 8, Royal Dutch Shell said it will pay the equivalent of 13.67 pounds in cash and stock for each share of British rival BG Group, 50 percent more than the April 7 closing price.
    (AP, 4/8/15)

2015        Apr 9, Argentina and Britainís longstanding dispute over the Falklands escalated as Buenos Aires took legal action against companies exploring for oil off the islands and the countries summoned each other's ambassadors for a dressing-down.
    (AFP, 4/9/15)

2015        Apr 14, A London judge ruled that Antonio Troitino, a convicted ETA militant who spent years in prison in Spain, should be extradited back to the country. He had spent 24 years in Spanish prisons for his role in 22 murders by ETA. A legal bungle in April 2011 set Troitino free and before it was resolved he went on the run to London, where he was arrested the following year.
    (AFP, 4/14/15)
2015        Apr 14, Turkey deported nine Britons, including the son of a local councilor, two weeks after arresting them for attempting to cross into Syria.
    (AFP, 4/14/15)

2015        Apr 15, Britainís Financial Conduct Authority said it has fined the Bank of New York Mellonís London branch and Bank of New York Mellon International Limited 126 million pounds ($186 million) for breaking rules meant to protect customer assets between 2007 and 2013.
    (AP, 4/15/15)

2015        Apr 16, British prosecutors said they will not charge former lawmaker Greville Janner (86) with alleged sex crimes due to his severe dementia. More than a dozen people had accused Janner of abusing them in the 1960s-1980s. Janner died on Dec 19, days after a court ruled him unfit because of ill health to stand trial.
    (SFC, 4/17/15, p.A2)(AP, 12/20/15)

2015        Apr 20, Britain informed a United Nations sanctions panel of an active Iranian nuclear procurement network linked to two blacklisted firms.
    (Reuters, 4/30/15)

2015        Apr 23, British coastguard seized more than two tons of cocaine off the east coast of Scotland. French customs shared "specific information allowing two ships from the Royal Navy and the British coastguards to board a tug 100 km (60 miles) east of Scotland carrying the cocaine. Nine men were soon charged with drug trafficking.
    (AFP, 4/26/15)

2015        May 2, British mystery writer Ruth Rendell (b.1930), crime novelist, died in London. She brought psychological insight and social conscience to the classic British detective story. Her Wexford books were made into a popular TV series, "The Ruth Rendell Mysteries," which ran for more than a decade from 1987. In 1997 she was appointed to the House of Lords by PM Tony Blair's Labour government, becoming Baroness Rendell of Babergh.
    (AP, 5/2/15)

2015        May 7, Britain held general elections. PM David Cameron won a stunning election victory. The Conservatives won 331 of 650 seats. Cameron will form the first majority Conservative government since John Major's surprise victory in 1992. Labor won 232 seats. The Scottish National Party (SNP) obliterated its opponents, taking 56 of Scotland's 59 seats in the Westminster parliament.
    (AP, 5/7/15)(Reuters, 5/8/15)(SSFC, 5/10/15, p.A4)

2015        May 14, British police said more than 700 potential terror suspects have traveled to Syria from the UK to fight or support extremists, and about half are believed to have returned.
    (AP, 5/14/15)

2015        May 19, London police arrested nine men over an audacious heist in London's diamond district Easter weekend, when a gang drilled through a reinforced concrete vault and broke into 72 safe deposit boxes.
    (AFP, 5/19/15)(SFC, 5/20/15, p.A6)

2015        May 20, A national UK police group looking into potential links between multiple British investigations into past child sex abuse said that more than 1,400 suspects have been identified.
    (AP, 5/20/15)
2015        May 20, JPMorgan Chase, Citigroup, Barclays and The Royal Bank of Scotland announced a settlement with the US Justice Dept. and will pay $2.5 billion in fines and plead guilty to criminally manipulating global currency market going back to 2007. UBS, has agreed to plead guilty to manipulating key interest rates and will pay a separate $203 million criminal penalty.
    (AP, 5/20/15)

2015        Jun 3, Britainís Tidal Lagoon Swansea Bay plc (TLSB) named China Harbour Engineering Company Ltd (CHEC) as preferred bidder for a ¬£300 million ($548 million, 412 million euros) contract the world's first artificial tidal lagoon.
    (AFP, 6/3/15)

2015        Jun 4, Britain's newly elected government announced plans to sell off its remaining stake in Royal Mail and slash ministry budgets in a bid to cut ¬£4.5 billion ($6.9 billion, 6.1 billion euros) from state debt this year.
    (AFP, 6/4/15)
2015        Jun 4, British police arrested four Polish drivers on suspicion of facilitating illegal immigration after 68 people were found inside lorries at Harwich International Port.
    (AFP, 6/5/15)

2015        Jun 5, British regulators said they have fined Lloyds Banking Group ¬£117 million for unfair treatment of customer complaints after they were mis-sold an insurance product. Lloyds and other British banks had already been ordered to compensate customers for mis-selling PPI insurance products.
    (AFP, 6/5/15)

2015        Jun 7, British actor Christopher Lee (b.1922) died in London. He appeared in over 250 movies and is best known for his role as Count Dracula in a slew of ďHammer Horror" thrillers.
    (SFC, 6/12/15, p.A6)

2015        Jun 10, George Osborne, Britainís chancellor of the exchequer, announced a new fiscal rule where under normal conditions the government would be banned from running a budget deficit.
    (Econ, 6/13/15, p.55)
2015        Jun 10, British NGO Global Witness said British oil company Soco International paid off an army officer accused of silencing critics of exploration in Democratic Republic of Congo's Virunga National Park. Global Witness published scans of four checks totaling $15,600 (14,000 euros) allegedly issued by Soco's Congolese subsidiary to the major posted to the park. Two receipts for the checks signed by the officer were dated May 15, 2014 and April 30, 2014.
    (AFP, 6/10/15)

2015        Jun 11, Tim Hunt (72), British Nobel Prize-winning scientist (2001), resigned from his post at University College London over controversial comments he made about female scientists. He had suggested that female scientists could not take criticism without crying, and that relationships between men and women in the laboratory disrupted work.
    (AFP, 6/11/15)
2015        Jun 11, In northern England a boy (14) stabbed his teacher Vincent Uzomah (50) in the stomach at a school in Bradford in a racially-motivated attack. On August 10 a judge sentenced the boy to six years in custody and a further five years on license.
    (http://www.bbc.com/news/uk-england-33847293)(AFP, 8/10/15)

2015        Jun 14, The Sunday Times reported that Britain has pulled out agents from live operations in "hostile countries" after Russia and China cracked top-secret information contained in files leaked by former US National Security Agency contractor Edward Snowden.
    (Reuters, 6/14/15)

2015        Jun 19, Britain said it will take in "several hundred more" vulnerable Syrian refugees, after PM David Cameron said London was expanding a resettlement program for the conflict-ravaged country.
    (Reuters, 6/19/15)

2015        Jun 20, Thousands of protesters marched through central London to demonstrate against the newly re-elected Conservative government's plans for public spending cuts.
    (Reuters, 6/20/15)
2015        Jun 20, British police arrested Karenzi Karake (54), the head of Rwanda's intelligence service, on a warrant issued by Spain.
    (AFP, 6/23/15)

2015        Jun 21, In England nine people were arrested as thousands gathered at the prehistoric stone circle in Stonehenge to mark the longest day of the year.
    (AFP, 6/21/15)

2015        Jun 23, Eurostar said it has canceled all passenger trains for the rest of the day through the tunnel that links France and England, after striking ferry workers swarmed the train line setting tires alight.
    (AP, 6/23/15)

2015        Jun 25, Thousands of Rwandans protested outside the British embassy in Kigali against Britain's arrest of Karenzi Karake, Rwanda's intelligence chief.
    (Reuters, 6/25/15)

2015        Jun 26, In Tunisia 39 people were killed and 40 wounded in a gun attack on the five-star Riu Imperial Marhaba beachside hotel in Sousse. The confirmed death toll of Britons reached 30 out of the 38 foreign tourists who were mowed down by a Kalashnikov-toting gunman, identified as 23-year-old student Seifeddine Rezgui.
    (Reuters, 6/26/15)(AFP, 6/29/15)(Reuters, 7/1/15)

2015        Jun 28, In Belgium    a British bus with 34 children on board overturned and crashed on a motorway, killing just the driver.
    (Reuters, 6/28/15)

2015        Jun 30, Striking ferry workers invaded the railroad tracks leading to the Eurotunnel linking France and England, and train service across the Channel was suspended until further notice.
    (AP, 6/30/15)

2015        Jul 1, Nicholas Winton (b.1909), British humanitarian, died. He almost single-handedly saved 669 mostly Jewish children from the Holocaust. In 1938 Winton arranged trains to carry Jewish children from occupied Prague to Britain.
    (https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Nicholas_Winton)(AP, 7/1/15)

2015        Jul 8, Britainís Chancellor of the Exchequer George Osborne unveiled fresh austerity measures to slash the country's debt. Osborne said Britain will commit to maintaining defense spending at NATO's target of 2 percent of gross domestic product every year for the rest of the decade.
    (AFP, 7/8/15)(Reuters, 7/8/15)

2015        Jul 9, In England a 24-hour strike by staff and drivers brought Londonís underground rail network to a halt and left millions struggling to get to work.
    (Reuters, 7/9/15)

2015        Jul 11, Serena Williams won a sixth Wimbledon title as the world number one became the oldest woman to win a Grand Slam crown with a 6-4, 6-4 victory against Garbine Muguruza.
    (AP, 7/11/15)

2015        Jul 13, British authorities confirmed an outbreak at a farm of the H7N7 strain of avian flu that is both highly contagious and potentially deadly for birds.
    (AFP, 7/13/15)
2015        Jul 13, In London Ashley Mote (79), a former Eurosceptic member of the European Parliament, was sentenced to five years in prison for fraudulently claiming almost 500,000 pounds ($777,000) in expenses.
    (AP, 7/13/15)

2015        Jul 16, Britainís Independent Parliamentary Standards Authority confirmed that it has given lawmakers a 10 percent pay increase, a headache for PM David Cameron who has pledged that public sector workers should only get a 1 percent raise.
    (AP, 7/16/15)

2015        Jul 17, In England an explosion ripped through the mill in the village of Bosley, in Cheshire. Three men and a woman, believed to be at the site, were missing.
    (AP, 7/18/15)

2015        Jul 19, The family of Babar Ahmad, a British man who was last year sentenced by a US court to 12-1/2 years in prison after pleading guilty to running a website that supported the Taliban, said he has been released. His sentence included 10 years he had already served.
    (Reuters, 7/19/15)

2015        Jul 20, PM David Cameron set out a five-year strategy to tackle extremism in Britain, vowing to take on those responsible for radicalizing young British Muslims and demanding that internet companies do more to help.
    (Reuters, 7/20/15)
2015        Jul 20, British cosmologist Stephen Hawking launched the biggest-ever search for intelligent life in the universe in a 10-year, $100-million (143-million-euro) project to scan the heavens. The Breakthrough Listen project was backed by Russian Silicon Valley entrepreneur Yuri Milner.
    (AFP, 7/20/15)

2015        Jul 23, In England Simon Reynolds (50) was absent from the court in Sheffield as a jury returned a verdict of four counts of theft. The Church of England priest was convicted of pocketing around 24,000 pounds ($37,000) of church funds. Reynolds turned himself in to police on July 27. On July 28 a judge jailed Reynolds for two years and eight months for pocketing church funds.
    (AP, 7/24/15)(AFP, 7/27/15)(AP, 7/28/15)
2015        Jul 23, Pearson PLC, the owner of the Financial Times, said it has agreed to sell FT Group to Nikkei Inc. for 844 million pounds ($1.3 billion), payable in cash.
    (AP, 7/23/15)
2015        Jul 23, The European Union launched an antitrust case against six major US movie studios and British satellite broadcaster Sky UK, in a move that could profoundly shake up the highly lucrative pay-television market in Europe.
    (AP, 7/23/15)

2015        Jul 24, Mining groups Anglo American and Lonmin announced plans to cut their headcounts by a combined 12,000 staff owing to falling metals prices in a weak global economy. Lonmin, the world's third largest platinum producer, said it would cut 6,000 jobs in South Africa.
    (AFP, 7/24/15)

2015        Jul 25, Britain lifted an official warning against all but essential travel to Iran, citing "decreased hostility" in the wake of a landmark nuclear deal.
    (AFP, 7/25/15)

2015        Jul 26, Britainís deputy speaker of the House of Lords, John Sewel (69), resigned his position after publication of photos and a video allegedly showing him using cocaine with prostitutes. He remained a member of the House of Lords. On July 28 Sewel terminated his membership in the House of Lords
    (AP, 7/26/15)(AP, 7/28/15)

2015        Jul 30, British teenager Liam Lyburd (19) was convicted of planning a gun and bomb attack at his former college, buying a semi-automatic handgun and ammunition online to carry out a massacre at northern England's Newcastle College, which had expelled him for being disruptive in class.
    (AP, 7/30/15)
2015        Jul 30, Royal Dutch Shell announced deep cuts to jobs and investment on as the global energy giant prepares for a prolonged period of low oil prices.
    (AP, 7/30/15)

2015        Jul 31, Britain's Serious Fraud Office (SFO) said it has opened a criminal investigation into Soma Oil and Gas following allegations of corruption in Somalia. On August 3 Soma, a private company chaired by Lord Michael Howard, denied paying more than half a million dollars to Somali government officials to protect an oil exploration deal signed in 2013. On
    (AFP, 8/6/15)
2015        Jul 31, Britain performed an about-face and granted a six-month visa to dissident Chinese artist Ai Weiwei, apologizing for rejecting his application over an alleged criminal conviction.
    (AFP, 7/31/15)
2015        Jul 31, In southern England a pilot and three passengers died when a Saudi-owned executive jet crashed into a parking lot and burst into flames while trying to land at Blackbushe Airport. The dead included a sister, brother-in-law and stepmother of Osama bin Laden as well as the plane's Jordanian pilot.
    (AP, 8/1/15)

2015        Aug 1, Rival protests featuring those welcoming migrants and far-right wingers opposed to their presence were held in the British port town of in Folkestone at the mouth of the Channel Tunnel.
    (AFP, 8/1/15)

2015        Aug 2, Britain and France vowed that a cross-Channel migrant crisis was their "top priority" in a united front that belied simmering anger over an issue which has become a political hot potato.
    (AFP, 8/2/15)

2015        Aug 3, Britain's government promised new measures to crack down on illegal immigrants by making landlords evict them, as the Calais migrants crisis continued to dominate the headlines.
    (AFP, 8/3/15)
2015        Aug 3, Former British PM Edward Heath (d.2005) was drawn into a child sex abuse scandal when police watchdog the Independent Police Complaints Commission said it would investigate a retired policeman's claim that a prosecution was dropped in the 1990s when the accused threatened to expose the ex-premier. Heath led Britain between 1970 and 1974, taking it into the European Economic Community in 1973.
    (AFP, 8/4/15)
2015        Aug 3, In London Tom Hayes, (35), a trader who worked for UBS and Citigroup, was jailed for 14 years after becoming the first person to be found guilty by a jury of rigging the benchmark Libor inter-bank lending rate. Prosecutors said Hayes was the "ringmaster" of more than a dozen traders who worked to rig the London Interbank Offered Rate (Libor).
    (AFP, 8/3/15)

2015        Aug 5, British radical preacher Anjem Choudary (48) was charged under anti-terror laws with inviting support for the Islamic State jihadist group.
    (AFP, 8/5/15)
2015        Aug 5, London Underground staff walked out this evening and will not return until August 7 morning, causing a shutdown of the subway network that has severely disrupted transport in the capital.
    (AP, 8/6/15)

2015        Aug 5, British cell phone retailer Carphone Warehouse discovered a security breach. On August 8 the company said personal details of up to 2.4 million customers may have been accessed after the company was hit by a cyber-attack.
    (AP, 8/8/15)

2015        Aug 11, British Defense Secretary Michael Fallon said his nation is doubling the number of Ukrainian troops it will train this year to 2,000 in an effort to support Kiev in its fight against Russia-backed separatists.
    (AP, 8/11/15)

2015        Aug 12, British publishing company Pearson said it has agreed to sell its 50-percent stake in The Economist Group, owner of prestigious magazine The Economist, for $730 million (663 million euros), split between The Economist Group itself and Italian investment firm Exor, which is controlled by the Agnelli family.
    (AFP, 8/12/15)

2015        Aug 13, Britain said it would make a formal protest to Ecuador over its decision to provide asylum to WikiLeaks founder Julian Assange in its London embassy and so prevent his extradition to Sweden over alleged sex crimes.
    (Reuters, 8/13/15)

2015        Aug 21, A UK military drone strike killed 3 fighters in Syria, including 2 British men, Reyaad Khan and Ruhul Amin, who had joined Islamic State militants. This was the first such drone strike acknowledged by the British government.
    (AP, 9/7/15)(Econ, 9/12/15, p.44)(AP, 4/26/17)

2015        Aug 22, In southern England a single-seater jet, participating in the Shoreham Airshow, crashed near Brighton. 11 people died when the jet plowed into several cars on a busy road near the air show. In 2019 Pilot Andrew Hill (54), whose plane crashed at the airshow, was cleared of manslaughter charges.
    (AP, 8/22/15)(AFP, 8/23/15)(AP, 3/8/19)

2015        Aug 23, Britain's foreign secretary reopened his country's embassy in Tehran in a long-awaited step signaling better relations four years after a mob stormed the compound, forcing its closure.
    (AFP, 8/23/15)

2015        Aug 24, British citizen Damian Moran said almost 80,000 people had signed a petition urging the arrest of Israeli PM Benjamin Netanyahu for war crimes when he visits London next month. Israel launched military action in the Gaza Strip on July 8, 2014, leading to the deaths of more than 2,000 Palestinians and 66 Israeli soldiers.
    (AFP, 8/24/15)
2015        Aug 24, In Syria a US air strike outside Raqqa killed Junaid Hussain (21), an Islamic State hacker from Birmingham, England. The strike also killed 3 civilians.
    (SFC, 8/28/15, p.A4)(AFP, 1/29/16)

2015        Sep 1, The Lizard Squad of hackers claimed they had downed the website of Britain's lead law enforcement agency. The attack came four days after the NCA arrested six hackers, accusing them of buying code from Lizard Squad that enables DDoS attacks.
    (AFP, 9/1/15)

2015        Sep 3, PM David Cameron promised Britain would fulfil its "moral responsibilities" in the migrants crisis but resisted growing pressure at home and abroad to accept a bigger share of Syrian refugees.
    (AFP, 9/3/15)

2015        Sep 4, PM David Cameron said Britain will provide an extra 100 million pounds (137 million euros, $153 million) in humanitarian aid for the Syrian crisis, bringing its total contribution to more than 1.0 billion pounds. Cameron said Britain will take in thousands more Syrian refugees.
    (AFP, 9/4/15)

2015        Sep 7, PM David Cameron said Britain will take 20,000 Syrian refugees from camps near the war-torn country's borders over the next five years.
    (AFP, 9/7/15)
2015        Sep 7, British archaeologists said they had found the buried remains of a mysterious prehistoric monument close to the famous Stonehenge heritage site dating back some 4,500 years. The discovery was made at Durrington Walls -- a so-called "superhenge" located less than three km (1.8 miles) from Stonehenge.
    (AFP, 9/7/15)

2015        Sep 10, Kuwait agreed to buy 28 Typhoon warplanes, becoming the third country in the Gulf region to order the combat aircraft. Eurofighter is a partnership between Italy's Finmeccanica, Britain's BAE Systems and civilian plane maker Airbus.
    (AFP, 9/12/15)

2015        Sep 11, A British court sentenced seven men to prison for raping and sexually abusing babies and young children and sharing the abuse online through pictures and live videos.
    (AP, 9/11/15)

2015        Sep 12, Jeremy Corbyn was elected leader of Britain's opposition Labour party by 59% of the partyís electorate.
    (Reuters, 9/12/15)(Econ, 10/3/15, p.59)

2015        Sep 21, The British government said it will underwrite 2 billion pounds ($3.1 billion) in Chinese financing for a new nuclear power plant in southwest England, as it encourages major Chinese investment in the UK nuclear sector.
    (AP, 9/21/15)

2015        Sep 25, British officials said the US government has decided to release Shaker Aamer, the last British resident to be held at Guantanamo Bay, to the UK. Aamer was captured in Tora Bora in northern Afghanistan in December 2001 before being transferred to Guantanamo Bay in February 2002. Aamer was released in October. In December he told a newspaper that British security officers had witnessed him being tortured by American soldiers at Bagram air base in Afghanistan.
    (AFP, 9/25/15)(AP, 12/13/15)

2015        Sep 28, Britainís PM David Cameron says more than 300 British troops will be deployed to South Sudan and Somalia as part of peacekeeping efforts to counter Islamic militants.
    (AP, 9/28/15)

2015        Sep, In Britain Tony Jenkins, the co-founder of Snarl, a local animal rescue and rehabilitation shelter, began investigating reports of suspicious deaths and mutilations of cats in the south London area. After two years Snarl identified more than 400 suspected victims: mostly cats, but also some foxes and rabbits.
    (AP, 12/16/17)

2015        Oct 1, A smoking ban went into effect in Emngland and Wales against people in vehicles with children.
    (SFC, 10/2/15, p.A2)

2015        Oct 2, Nigeria's former oil minister Diezani Alison-Madueke was arrested in London. She was minister from 2010 until May 2015 under former president Goodluck Jonathan The National Crime Agency (NCA) said its International Corruption Unit had arrested five people across London on suspicion of bribery and corruption offences.
    (AP, 10/3/15)

2015        Oct 4, In Britain tens of thousands of anti-austerity protesters rallied as PM David Cameron's governing Conservative Party opened its annual conference in Manchester.
    (AFP, 10/4/15)

2015        Oct 5, Britainís Chancellor George Osborne set out ambitious plans to devolve power to local councils and upgrade the countryís infrastructure.
    (Econ, 10/10/15, p.57)

2015        Oct 7, A British court jailed former Bishop Peter Ball (83) for 32 months after he pleaded guilty to indecently assaulting teenagers in a case that has prompted accusations of a cover-up. Eighteen victims said they had been targeted by Ball at his home in Litlington, East Sussex.
    (AFP, 10/7/15)

2015        Oct 9, Geoffrey Howe (88), former British Treasury chief (1979-1983) and a prominent figure in Margaret Thatcher's government, died at his home in Warwickshire. He helped bring about her downfall after they parted ways over policy toward Europe.
    (AP, 10/10/15)

2015        Oct 12, Princeton Prof. Angus Deaton, a British-born economist, won the 2015 economics Nobel Prize for his work on consumption, poverty and welfare that has helped governments to improve policy through tools such as household surveys and tax changes.
    (Reuters, 10/12/15)(SFC, 10/13/15, p.A2)

2015        Oct 13, The British government pulled out of 5.9 million-pound ($9 million) deal to sell prison expertise to Saudi Arabia that had drawn opposition from rights groups and senior politicians.
    (AP, 10/13/15)
2015        Oct 13, British-based brewer SABMiller accepted in principle an improved takeover bid worth 69 billion pounds ($106 billion) from Anheuser Busch InBev to create a company that would control nearly a third of the global market and threaten to dominate the US by bringing together Budweiser and Miller Genuine Draft. The new company is expected to be based in Belgium.
    (AP, 10/13/15)

2015        Oct 17, In Turkey a British woman working for a London-based media charity who was heading to Iraq was found dead at Istanbul's Ataturk airport. Jackie Sutton (50) was reportedly found hanged in the toilets. There were no signs of foul play.
    (AFP, 10/19/15)(AP, 10/21/15)

2015        Oct 19, British citizen Stephen Port (40) was charged in London with drugging and murdering four young men he met on gay websites. The deaths took place between June 2014 and last month.
    (AP, 10/19/15)
2015        Oct 19, Chinese President Xi Jinping began a four-day state visit to Britain as part of a push to increase trade ties between the two countries.
    (AP, 10/19/15)

2015        Oct 20, China sold its first sovereign bond in London, worth over $3 billion.
    (Econ, 10/24/15, p.53)
2015        Oct 20, Manufacturer Tata Steel announced 1,200 job cuts in the UK, underscoring the damage caused by cheap Chinese imports.
    (AP, 10/20/15)

2015        Oct 21, PM David Cameron said Britain and China have signed deals worth around 40 billion pounds ($62 billion), during a state visit by Chinese President Xi Jinping.
    (Reuters, 10/21/15)
2015        Oct 21, British police arrested Shao Jiang (47), a survivor of the Tiananmen Square crackdown and raided his home, after he stepped out in front of Chinese President Xi Jinping's motorcade.
    (AFP, 10/23/15)
2015        Oct 21, More than 100 migrants crowded into two boats landed at a British airbase on the Mediterranean island of Cyprus, bringing the crisis that has rocked much of Europe to British sovereign soil.
    (AFP, 10/21/15)
2015        Oct 21, Swiss-based Credit Suisse said it plans to cut at least 3,400 jobs over three years in Britain and Switzerland and raise billions in a new share offering after its net profit fell 24 percent in the third quarter.
    (AP, 10/21/15)
2015        Oct 21, US Marine Corps pilot Maj. Taj Sareen was killed when his F/A-18 Hornet crashed on farmland after taking off from a US Air Force (USAF) base in eastern England.
    (Reuters, 10/21/15)(SFC, 10/22/15, p.A4)

2015        Oct 23, Chinese President Xi Jinping has ended his state visit to Britain after being greeted by hundreds of enthusiastic and well-organized well-wishers in the northwest England city of Manchester.
    (AP, 10/23/15)
2015        Oct 23, TalkTalk, a British telephone and broadband provider, said it has been hit by a "significant and sustained" cyber-attack and that the personal data of millions of Britons could be at risk after.
    (AFP, 10/23/15)

2015        Oct 25, Former British PM Tony Blair acknowledged the 2003 invasion of Iraq played a part in the rise of the Islamic State militant group, and apologized for some mistakes in planning the war.
    (Reuters, 10/2515)
2015        Oct 25, In Canada 5 Britons were killed when a Canadian whale-watching boat carrying 27 passengers sank off the coast of British Columbia. An Australian man remained missing and the rest were rescued.
    (Reuters, 10/2615)(SFC, 10/27/15, p.A2)

2015        Oct 26, Peter Farquhar (69), British novelist and former teacher of English, died in Maids Moreton, Buckinghamshire. His death was recorded as accidental as the result of acute alcohol intoxication. In 2018 Benjamin Field, his brother Tom Field, and magician friend Martyn Smith,  were arrested by police on suspicion of murdering Farquhar and attempting to murder his neighbor Ann Moore-Martin (83).

2015        Nov 2, British actor and writer Colin Welland (81) died. He famously told Hollywood "the British are coming" when he won an Academy Award for "Chariots of Fire" in 1981.
    (AP, 11/3/15)
2015        Nov 2, A young French fisherman was among eight people arrested on suspicion of helping migrants cross the Channel to Britain in a high-speed inflatable boat. The fisherman had been smuggling migrants to Britain "for several months" on an inflatable Zodiac boat that could carry some 20 people at a time.
    (AFP, 11/4/15)

2015        Nov 3, A British judge ordered a huge financial payout for Palestinian-born Janan Harb (68), who claims she was the "secret wife" of the late King Fahd of Saudi Arabia. Harb had told the court she secretly married the king in 1968 when he was still a prince.
    (AP, 11/3/15)
2015        Nov 3, Banking group Standard Chartered said it is slashing 15,000 jobs worldwide and plans to raise $5.1 billion from shareholders through a rights issue as part of a major restructuring to shore up its financial position.
    (AP, 11/3/15)

2015        Nov 6, British drugmaker AstraZeneca said it had agreed to buy US group ZS Pharma, a specialist in treating high potassium levels linked to kidney disease.
    (AFP, 11/6/15)

2015        Nov 7, A British official said Britain hopes to return all of its stranded tourists from Sharm al-Sheikh within 10 days.
    (Reuters, 11/7/15)

2015        Nov 10, British police arrested a former soldier for the Bloody Sunday killings in Londonderry in 1972, part of a probe aimed at healing the wounds of Northern Ireland's three decades of unrest.
    (AP, 11/10/15)

2015        Nov 12, Police announced a swoop on a European jihadist network that was allegedly planning to kidnap diplomats and carry out attacks to try to spring its leader out of detention in Norway. Seventeen arrest warrants were issued and 13 people were detained in Britain, Italy and Norway.
    (AFP, 11/12/15)

2015        Nov 13, A British judge sentenced Nathan Matthews to at least 33 years in prison for murdering and dismembering Becky Watts (16), his teenage stepsister. His girlfriend, Shauna Hoare, was sentenced to 17 years in prison for her role in the killing.
    (AP, 11/13/15)
2015        Nov 13, A new lung cancer pill from AstraZeneca, designed for patients whose disease has worsened after treatment with other therapies, won early US approval, in a boost for the British drugmaker.
    (Reuters, 11/13/15)

2015        Nov 15, Cynthia Payne (82), British brothel-keeper, died.
    (Econ, 11/28/15, p.82)

2015        Nov 17, Finance minister George Osborne said British spies are building elite cyber offensive forces to strike at Islamic State fighters, hackers and hostile powers.
    (Reuters, 11/17/15)
2015        Nov 17, Britain published ďA Fresh Start," a long-sought agreement with Northern Irelandís parties that all sides would sustain their Catholic-Protestant government.   
    (SFC, 11/18/15, p.A5)
2015        Nov 17, A British couple was found guilty of keeping a Nigerian immigrant enslaved for more than two decades, forcing him to work for no pay and threatening him with deportation if he tried to escape. Emanuel Edet (61) and Antan Edet (58) held their victim captive from the time he was brought to Britain when he was 14 years old.
    (Reuters, 11/18/15)

2015        Nov 20, British police issued an "unreserved apology" to seven women deceived into sexual relationships with officers on undercover assignments.
    (AFP, 11/20/15)

2015        Nov 26, Britain's financial regulator fined Barclays bank £72 million ($109 million, 102 million euros) for failing to carry out proper checks on a vast so-called "elephant" deal for ultra-wealthy clients.
    (AFP, 11/26/15)

2015        Nov 27, Queen Elizabeth openeed 24th biennial Commonwealth Summit in Malta. Leaders of 53 countries -- around a quarter of the world's countries and a third of its population, gathered to discuss global issues.
    (AFP, 11/27/15)

2015        Nov 28, In Duesseldorf, Germany, Britain's Tyson Fury (27) was crowned the new world heavyweight champion after a unanimous points win over Wladimir Klitschko (39), who suffered his first defeat in eleven years.
    (AFP, 11/29/15)

2015        Nov, British researchers announced they had successfully treated a one-year-old girl who had leukemia using gene-edited T-cells.
    (Econ, 12/5/15, p.79)

2015        Dec 2, Britain voted to extend airstrikes to Syria.
    (Reuters, 12/3/15)

2015        Dec 3, Britain joined the US-led air strikes against Islamic State in Syria.
    (Reuters, 12/3/15)

2015        Dec 4, British bombers made their second round of strikes on Islamic State targets in Syria late today, again hitting oil fields.
    (Reuters, 12/5/15)
2015        Dec 4, Aravindan Balakrishnan (75), a cult leader who led a secretive Maoist commune in London, was found guilty of raping and sexually assaulting his female followers and imprisoning his own daughter for 30 years.
    (AP, 12/4/15)

2015        Dec 5, Muhaydin Mire (29) slashed a man (56) at the east London Leytonstone metro station, reportedly screaming "this is for Syria", in what police described as a terrorist incident. On June 8 a British court convicted Mire, a mentally ill taxi driver, of attempted murder.
    (Reuters, 12/6/15)(AFP, 12/7/15)(AP, 6/8/16)
2015        Dec 5, In Britain Storm Desmond whipped across the country. A 90-year-old man died near a north London Underground station after he was apparently blown against the side of a moving bus.
    (AFP, 12/6/15)
2015        Dec 5, Guyana's Government Information Agency said British petroleum giant Tullow Oil PLC will be awarded an exploration license near an offshore basin where Exxon Mobil found large quantities of oil and gas in May.
    (AP, 12/5/15)

2015        Dec 8, Britain's National Crime Agency warned the average age of suspected cyber criminals has become younger, with investigations in the past year showing that suspects' average age dropped to just 17 compared to 24 in the previous year.
    (AP, 12/8/15)
2015        Dec 8, London-based Anglo American said it will shed 85,000 employees, 63 percent of its workforce, in a radical restructuring meant to cope with tumbling commodity prices.
    (AP, 12/8/15)

2015        Dec 9, Kenya and Britain signed a deal to allow British troops to continue military training in the East African nation for five more years, ending half a decade of protracted negotiations which tested their relations.
    (Reuters, 12/9/15)

2015        Dec 10, Four tobacco giants launched a High Court legal challenge against a British law banning the use of logos or branding on packets of tobacco products from May 2016.
    (AFP, 12/10/15)

2015        Dec 11, Jaguar Land Rover signed a deal with the Slovak government to build a new plant for the luxury car maker in Slovakia.
    (AP, 12/11/15)

2015        Dec 15, British police arrested a man (21) on hacking-related charges linked to the November hacking of childrenís technology maker VTech, which compromised the personal information of some 6.4 million children worldwide.
    (SFC, 12/16/15, p.C2)
2015        Dec 15, In Kazakhstan Tim Peake (43), the first British astronaut to travel to the International Space Station, blasted off from the Baikonur cosmodrome with Russian space veteran Yury Malenchenko and Tim Kopra of NASA for a six-month mission.
    (AFP, 12/15/15)

2015        Dec 16, British lawmakers voted in favor of the use of fracking to extract shale gas under national parks, weakening a decision against fracking in national parks made earlier this year and giving shale gas explorers access to more resources.
    (Reuters, 12/16/15)

2015        Dec 17, British Judges upheld a ruling that Britain's Mirror Group Newspapers must pay record damages to phone-hacking victims, saying the papers' staff engaged in "disgraceful conduct."
    (AP, 12/17/15)
2015        Dec 17, Britain cut more renewable energy subsidies, putting jobs at risk and drawing criticism for losing credibility in tackling climate change.
    (Reuters, 12/17/15)

2015        Dec 18, Britain's Kellingley Colliery in Yorkshire, the countryís last deep coal mine, closed.
    (AFP, 12/18/15)

2015        Dec 24, The Churches of England and Scotland said they have reached an historic agreement to work more closely together.
    (AFP, 12/24/15)

2015        Dec 26, Britain's Meteorological Office issued two of its most severe weather warnings after days of torrential rain in northern England caused rivers to burst their banks and flood several villages.
    (Reuters, 12/26/15)

2015        Dec 28, Ian "Lemmy" Kilmister (70), the hell-raising frontman of pioneering British heavy metal band Motorhead, died of cancer in Los Angeles, bringing to an end the story of a band dubbed the loudest in the world.
    (AFP, 12/29/15)(Econ, 1/9/16, p.78)

2015        Dec 30, In London a husband Mohammed Rehman (25) and his ex-wife (Sana Ahmed Khan (24), convicted of planning a major attack to mark the 10th anniversary of the London suicide bombings, were both sentenced to life in prison. The couple were accused of planning their attack for around May 28.
    (AFP, 12/30/15)

2015        Britain mandated that coal-fired power be phased out in England, Scotland and Wales within a decade.
    (Econ., 12/5/20, p.26)
2015        Britain gained 333,000 people through immigration this year ó a near-historic high that fanned the debate about newcomers ahead of a June 2016 vote on whether the country should remain in the European Union.
    (AP, 5/26/16)
2015        Britainís National Health Insurance (NHS) employed one in 18 workers.
    (Econ, 11/21/15, p.54)
2015        Chinese inward investment in Britain reached $3.3 billion this year.
    (Econ, 9/24/16, p.56)

2016        Jan 3, The Islamic State released a new video in which five purported British spies are shot dead by masked extremists as propaganda from a group that is losing control of territory in Syria and Iraq. Newspapers named Siddhartha Dhar, a British Indian, as the speaker in the tape.
    (AP, 1/4/16)(SFC, 1/4/16, p.A4)(Econ, 1/9/16, p.50)

2016        Jan 8, Two Britons, Trevor Brooks (40) and Simon Keeler (44) were jailed after being arrested in Hungary where they were suspected of heading to Syria, in breach of strict travel constraints because they had convictions for terrorism offences.
    (Reuters, 1/8/16)
2016        Jan 8, British health officials said drinking any alcohol regularly increases the risk of cancer, and have issued tough new guidelines that could be hard to swallow in a nation where having a pint is a hallowed tradition.
    (AP, 1/8/16)

2016        Jan 9, Organizers said Britain's biggest-ever national lottery win was shared by two players, after huge numbers of tickets were sold for the 66 million pound ($96 million) tax-free jackpot.
    (Reuters, 1/9/16)

2016        Jan 10, British singer David Bowie (b.1947) died in NYC. He had received little attention until his 5th album: ďThe Rise and Fall of Ziggy Stardust" (1972).
    (AP, 1/11/16)(Econ, 1/16/16, p.97)

2016        Jan 11, Belgian police aided by their British counterparts said they have smashed a ring that smuggled possibly thousands of migrants into Britain, with 12 suspects arrested in the case.
    (AFP, 1/11/16)

2016        Jan 12, Tens of thousands of junior doctors went on strike in England, causing major disruption to hospitals in the first walkout of its kind for 40 years.
    (AFP, 1/12/16)
2016        Jan 12, British energy major BP said that it will axe more than 4,000 jobs worldwide over the next two years in response to collapsing oil prices.
    (AFP, 1/12/16)

2016        Jan 14, Veteran British actor Alan Rickman (b.1946), a master of playing menacing screen villains, died after suffering from cancer. He played the largely malicious teacher Severus Snape in all eight "Harry Potter" films from 2001 to 2011.
    (AFP, 1/14/16)

2016        Jan 15, British brewer SABMiller said it will close the only beer factory in South Sudan due to an acute shortage of foreign currency in the world's youngest country.
    (AFP, 1/15/16)

2016        Jan 20, George Weidenfeld (b.1919), British publisher and philanthropist, died in London. He was responsible for publishing Vladimir Nabakovís ďLolita" in 1959.
    (Econ, 1/30/16, p.82)

2016        Jan 21, A British inquiry concluded that President Vladimir Putin probably approved a 2006 Russian intelligence operation to murder ex-KGB agent Alexander Litvinenko with radioactive polonium-210 in London, prompting a row with Moscow.
    (Reuters, 1/21/16)
2016        Jan 21, British education publisher Pearson unveiled plans to axe 4,000 jobs, or 10 percent of its global workforce, in an effort to combat weak demand.
    (AFP, 1/21/16)

2016        Jan 22, Technology giant Google said it will pay ¬£130 million ($185.4 million, 172 million euros) in back taxes to Britain following a government inquiry into its tax arrangements.
    (AFP, 1/23/16)

2016        Jan 23, British PM David Cameron urged the Maldives to open up its politics and release all remaining political prisoners after meeting former president Mohamed Nasheed.
    (AFP, 1/23/16)

2016        Jan 24, British adventurer Henry Worsley (55) died in an attempt to make history by crossing the Antarctic alone in a trip backed by members of the royal family. He was just 30 miles (48km) from the finish when he called for help and was airlifted to a hospital in Chile on Jan 22 suffering from exhaustion and severe dehydration.
    (AFP, 1/25/16)(Econ, 2/6/16, p.82)

2016        Jan 25, Britainís Chancellor George Osborne and Bill Gates announced a £3 billion ($4.28 billion, 4 billion euros) fund for research and to support efforts to eliminate malaria.
    (AFP, 1/25/16)

2016        Feb 1, British mother Tareena Shakil (26), who took her toddler to Syria and joined the Islamic State (IS) group, was sentenced to six years in prison after becoming the first British woman to be convicted after returning home.
    (AFP, 2/1/16)

2016        Feb 2, British energy giant BP posted the company's biggest loss in at least 20 years, ravaged by tumbling oil prices, and axed another 3,000 jobs.
    (AFP, 2/2/16)

2016        Feb 3, Iraqi-British architect Zaha Hadid was awarded Britain's Royal Gold Medal, becoming the first individual woman to win the award. Known for works including the Guangzhou Opera House in China and the London Aquatics Centre.
    (AFP, 2/3/16)

2016        Feb 4, Donor nations meeting in London pledged to give billions of dollars in aid to Syrians as world leaders gathered for a conference to tackle the world's worst humanitarian crisis. The British government announced £1.2 billion (1.6 million euros, $1.74 billion) in aid for war-torn Syria and its neighbours.
    (Reuters, 2/4/16)(AFP, 2/4/16)

2016        Feb 5, A UN panel said it had adopted an opinion "in which it considered that Mr Julian Assange was arbitrarily detained by the governments of Sweden and the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland." It added: "The working group also considered that the detention should be brought to an end and that Mr Assange should be afforded the right to compensation."
    (AFP, 2/5/16)

2016        Feb 10, Thousands of junior doctors throughout England wet on strike after the failure of contract negotiations.
    (AP, 2/10/16)

2016        Feb 11, Thousands of junior doctors at English hospitals continued a second strike against proposed new conditions and pay rates for working unsociable hours.
    (AFP, 2/11/16)

2016        Feb 12, Britain's competition watchdog fined drugmaker GlaxoSmithKline ¬£37.6 million ($54.5, 48.1 million euros) for entering into deals which delayed generic cheaper versions of its anti-depressant Seroxat.
    (AFP, 2/12/16)

2016        Feb 15, The English singer-songwriter Ed Sheeran won Song of the Year for "Thinking Out Loud," a bare guitar ballad that made history as a viral hit. Sheeran shared the rammy award with his co-writer Amy Wadge, a British folk artist.
    (AFP, 2/16/16)
2016        Feb 15, Britain's government intervened to try and save the tradition of printing all laws on vellum made of animal skin. The House of Lords decided last week that the centuries-old practice would be scrapped and laws would be printed on paper instead of goatskin or sheepskin in a bid to save ¬£80,000 (103,000 euros, $116,000) per year.
    (AFP, 2/15/16)

2016        Feb 18, EU leaders began meeting to thrash out a deal that aims to keep Britain in the bloc.
    (AP, 2/18/16)

2016        Feb 19, Britainís PM David Cameron faced a second day of tough talks with European Union partners after arguing for much of the night over concessions to help keep Britain in the bloc.
    (Reuters, 2/19/16)

2016        Feb 20, British PM David Cameron called a June 23 referendum on membership of the European Union as he sought to rally his divided Conservative Party behind a deal which he said would guarantee Britain's prosperity and security in the bloc.
    (Reuters, 2/20/16)

2016        Feb 21, Spanish police working with Britain's National Crime Agency and Manchester police announced the arrest of six suspected members of a British hit squad that had traveled to the Mediterranean Costa del Sol to allegedly kill the leader of a rival gang.
    (AP, 2/21/16)

2016        Feb 22, Douglas Slocombe (103), the chameleonic British cinematographer who filmed the Nazi invasion of Poland, the adventures of "Indiana Jones" and the madcap farce of Ealing comedies, diedin a London hospital.
    (AP, 2/23/16)

2016        Feb 23, Britain said it had seen disturbing evidence that Syrian Kurds were coordinating with the Syrian government of President Bashar al-Assad and the Russian air force.
    (Reuters, 2/23/16)

2016        Feb 24, Astronaut Tim Peake presented Adele with a Brit Award from space, as the singer swept the board at the annual British music awards rendered sober this year by the death of David Bowie.
    (AFP, 2/24/16)

2016        Feb 27, Thousands marched through London to oppose the renewal of Britain's Trident nuclear weapons system in what demonstrators describe as the biggest such rally in a generation.
    (AP, 2/27/16)

2016        Feb 29, Britain's defense minister said about 20 UK troops are being sent to Tunisia to help stop people crossing illegally from chaotic Libya.
    (AP, 2/29/16)

2016        Mar 2, Jason Lawrance (50), a British man, was found guilty of raping five women he met through the US Internet dating service match.com, which he was allowed to use despite complaints to the website from his victims. Lawrance was jailed for life with a minimum term of 12 years and six months for sexually violating seven women. In 2019 he was found guilty by the Nottingham Crown Court of further sex attacks on five women he met on the Match.com internet dating site.
    (AFP, 3/2/16)(The Telegraph, 7/31/19)

2016        Mar 8, British gas and electricity supplier Npower said it is cutting 2,400 jobs, a fifth of its workforce, after losing hundreds of thousands of customers and reporting poor financial results.
    (AP, 3/8/16)
2016        Mar 8, Sir George Martin (b.1926), British producer for the Beatles, died. Martin also worked with Jeff Beck, Elton John, Celine Dion and on several solo albums by Paul McCartney.
    (AP, 3/9/16)

2016        Mar 9, Thousands of British doctors began a 48-hour strike in an acrimonious dispute over a new contract.
    (AP, 3/9/16)

2016        Mar 10, It was reported that Abu Hamed, a disillusioned former member of Islamic State, has passed a stolen memory stick of documents identifying 22,000 supporters in over 50 countries to a British journalist, a leak that could help the West target Islamist fighters planning attacks.
    (Reuters, 3/10/16)

2016        Mar 14, Peter Maxwell Davies (81), an experimental, socially radical composer who served as Queen Elizabeth II's official master of music, died of leukemia at his home in Scotland's Orkney islands.
    (AP, 3/14/16)(Econ, 4/9/16, p.90)

2016        Mar 15, Norway's Academy of Science and Letters said British mathematician Sir Andrew J. Wiles has won the Abel Prize in math for his stunning proof of French mathematician Pierre de Fermat's Last Theorem, first conjectured by Fermat in 1637.
    (AP, 3/15/16)

2016        Mar 18, British minister Iain Duncan Smith quit, two days after cuts were unveiled in a sixth consecutive austerity budget that included plans to cut benefits for the disabled while giving tax breaks for the better off. The work and pensions secretary said he could no longer support policies that he believes are driven more by political ideology than economic necessity.
    (AP, 3/19/16)

2016        Mar 23, British police arrested an unnamed Russian broker in London on suspicion of fraud. He was later released on bail until July. Six weeks later London police said they had seized four checks for $22 million related to a suspected Russian organized crime scam that used the London futures market to launder cash through two Russian companies, a Swiss firm and a British Virgin Islands investment group.
    (Reuters, 5/11/16)

2016        Mar 24, Former England footballer Adam Johnson was sentenced to six years in prison at Bradford Crown Court for engaging in sexual activity with a 15-year-old fan.
    (AFP, 3/24/16)
2016        Mar 24, In Scotland shopkeeper Asad Shah (40), a Muslim of the pacifist Ahmadiya sect, was killed in Glasgow. Another Muslim man was soon arrested in connection with Shah's death. On July 7 suspect Tanveer Ahmed (32), A Sunni Muslim from Bradford in northern England, pleaded guilty at Glasgow's High Court. Ahmed said he killed Shah because he felt he had disrespected Islam.
    (AP, 3/26/16)(AP, 7/7/16)(Econ, 5/21/16, p.52)

2016        Mar 26, The final print edition of The Independent newspaper went on sale, ending its 30-year appearance on British newsstands.
    (AFP, 3/26/16)

2016        Mar 28, In Britain some 100,000 homes were left without power due to Storm Katie. High winds caused some 130 flights at Gatwick and Heathrow airports to be diverted or cancelled.
    (SFC, 3/29/16, p.A2)

2016        Mar 30, Indian giant Tata Steel put its British business up for sale, sparking calls for the government to intervene and safeguard thousands of jobs in the crisis-hit industry.
    (AFP, 3/30/16)

2016        Mar 31, British actor Douglas Wilmer (96) died in Ipswich. He played detective Sherlock Holmes in a television series (1964-1965) in the TV movie "The Adventure of Sherlock Holmes' Smarter Brother" (1975).
    (AP, 4/2/16)

2016        Apr 1, Britain's Conservative government raised the minimum wage by 7.5 percent in a move denounced by critics as largely symbolic in an era of state austerity. Workers aged 25 and over will now earn a minimum hourly gross wage of £7.20 ($10.36, 9.10 euros) compared with £6.70 previously.
    (AFP, 4/1/16)
2016        Apr 1, In London delivery driver Junead Khan (25) was convicted of plotting to kill US troops based in England by staging road accidents with soldiers' cars and then attacking them with knives and possibly a home-made bombs. He and his uncle Shazib Khan (23) were also convicted of planning to join IS in Syria.
    (Reuters, 4/1/16)

2016        Apr 6, Junior doctors in English hospitals went on strike again, withdrawing all but emergency care in their fourth walk-out in a bitter dispute with the government over working conditions.
    (AFP, 4/6/16)

2016        Apr 8, British PM David Cameron faced mounting pressure over his involvement in offshore investments after he finally admitted he benefited from his father's Panama-registered trust, an entity exposed by this week's massive data leak at a law firm specializing in global tax avoidance.
    (AP, 4/8/16)

2016        Apr 10, Howard Marks (70), a Wales-born convicted drug smuggler, died of cancer. He was arrested in 1988 in an operation led by the US Drug Enforcement Administration and sentenced to 25 years in prison. He was released on parole in 1995. He then reinvented himself as an author after publishing best-selling autobiography "Mr. Nice" (1996).
    (AP, 4/11/16)

2016        Apr 11, British children's author Helen Bailey (51) was last seen walking her miniature dachshund Boris in Royston. Her partner  Ian Stewart (55) reported her missing soon after and issued a note appealing for her to return. On July 16 Stewart was charged with murder after police found her body in the grounds of her home.
    (AP, 7/16/16)

2016        Apr 13, Prolific British playwright Arnold Wesker (83) died. He drew on his heritage as a working-class Jew to create plays that captured the dialogue and struggles of the common man.
    (AP, 4/13/16)
2016        Apr 13, In Thailand an elderly British couple (65 and 68) and their son (43) were savagely attacked and beaten unconscious during a family vacation in Hua, Hin. The attack was captured on video. On April 28 police said they have arrested the four suspected attackers. On May 23 the attackers were sentenced to two years in prison.
    (AP, 4/28/16)(AP, 6/6/16)

2016        Apr 14, Britain, France, Germany, Italy and Spain agreed to share information on company ownership to make it harder for criminals and tax cheats to avoid the law.
    (SFC, 4/16/16, p.A2)

2016        Apr 22, Bank of England governor Mark Carney announced that artist J. M. W. Turner will appear on the new £20 note.
    (AFP, 4/22/16)
2016        Apr 22, Disgraced tycoon Asil Nadir (74), jailed for stealing millions from his Polly Peck empire, was released from a Turkish prison just one night after being extradited from Britain. The Turkish Cypriot was convicted in 2012 of purloining nearly £29 million (37 million euros) -- the equivalent of more than ¬£70 million in today's terms -- from the major UK conglomerate in the late 1980s.
    (AFP, 4/22/16)

2016        Apr 26, Junior doctors in England staged their first ever all-out strike in a bitter, deadlocked row with PM David Cameron's government over pay and conditions. The National Health Service employs more than 50,000 junior doctors.
    (AFP, 4/26/16)

2016        Apr 29, Cuban officials said visiting British Foreign Secretary Anthony Hammond has reached an agreement on restructuring Cuban debt payments in a meeting with President Raul Castro.
    (AFP, 4/30/16)

2016        Apr, Britainís Sir John Chilcot, head of the Chilcot Inquiry, delivered a complete record of Britainís involvement in Iraq from mid-2001 to 2009. Formation of the inquiry was announced on 15 June 2009 by then PM Gordon Brown.
    (Econ, 4/23/16, p.48)
2016        Apr, At a London meeting Maltese academic Joseph Mifsud told an adviser to Republican presidential candidate Donald Trump that the Kremlin had "thousands of emails" about his Democratic rival, Hillary Clinton.
    (AP, 10/22/18)

2016        May 5, London held mayoral elections. It became the first EU capital with a Muslim mayor as voters went to the polls and elected Labour lawmaker Sadiq Khan (45), the son of a bus driver, as mayor. Khan took 57% of the vote.
    (AFP, 5/5/16)(Reuters, 5/7/16)(Econ, 5/14/16, p.50)

2016        May 10, British researchers warned that fifth of the world's plant species are at risk of extinction, in an unprecedented global census of the plant kingdom.
    (AFP, 5/10/16)

2016        May 12, Britainís PM David Cameron, the host of a global anti-corruption summit, announced that countries have pledged to set up public registers of company ownership in a collective effort to make it harder to launder the proceeds of corruption around the globe. Countries taking part in the summit issued a 34-point communique outlining pledges to tackle issues ranging from doping and match-fixing in sports to tax evasion and bribery.
    (Reuters, 5/12/16)

2016        May 16, French energy giant Total officially opened the Shetland Gas Plant in Britain's northernmost outpost, which cost $5 billion (4.4 billion euros) to build.
    (AFP, 5/16/16)

2016        May 21, Jan Fawcett (neť Janet Caroline Hughes), WWII  British codebreaker and savior of Victorian buildings, died.
    (Econ, 6/4/16, p.90)

2016        May 24, British media reported that singer-songwriter Adele has signed a contract with Sony worth up to £90 million (117 million euros, $131 million), in one of the biggest ever record deals. Adele has been at London-based independent label XL Recordings since she was a teenager.
    (AFP, 5/24/16)

2016        May 27, Britain told the G7 industrial powers meeting in Japan to do more to fight killer superbugs as the United States reported the first case in the country of a patient with bacteria resistant to a last-resort antibiotic.
    (Reuters, 5/27/16)
2016        May 27, The International Olympic Committee said that 23 athletes from five sports and six countries had positive findings in retests with improved techniques on 265 samples from the 2012 London Games, adding to the more than 30 already caught in retesting from the 2008 Beijing Games.
    (AP, 5/27/16)

2016        May 31, In London the Walk Free Foundation's Global Slavery Index said about 45.8 million people around the world are trapped in modern slavery. India reportedly had the largest number of modern slaves, 18.35 million, followed by China with 3.39 million and Pakistan with 2.13 million.
    (AP, 5/31/16)

2016        Jun 1, Mohamed Nasheed, a former president of the Maldives now in exile in Britain after being ousted from office and jailed in his country, formed an opposition group aimed at toppling the government of President Abdulla Yameen.
    (Reuters, 6/1/16)

2016        Jun 6, A court in Britain sentenced former schoolteacher Richard Huckle to 22 life sentences for child abuse after using his position teaching English in Malaysia to gain access to victims. He will have to serve a minimum of 25 years for 71 offenses against children aged between six months and 12 years from 2006 to 2014.
    (AP, 6/6/16)

2016        Jun 10, Northern Ireland police commanders in Belfast unveiled a mammoth criminal investigation into a former Irish Republican Army double agent codenamed "Stakeknife," who was allegedly permitted by British Army intelligence officers to interrogate, torture and kill IRA colleagues to maintain his cover as the outlawed group's internal security chief. The London-based investigation is expected to last five years and cost 30 million pounds ($43 million).
    (AP, 6/10/16)

2016        Jun 16, British opposition Labour Party lawmaker Jo Cox (41) died after she was shot and stabbed as she intervened in a scuffle between two men in Birstall near Leeds. Thomas Mair (52), who had a history of mental illness, was arrested by armed police. On Nov 23 Mair was sentenced to life in jail.
    (Reuters, 6/16/16)(Reuters, 6/17/16)(Reuters, 11/23/16)

2016        Jun 18, Protesters rallied outside the French embassy in London after an aid convoy intended for migrants was turned back by French border police. A 38-ton truck full of aid was allowed through.
    (AFP, 6/18/16)
2016        Jun 18, In Kazakhstan Tim Peake, the first British astronaut on the ISS, Russia's Yury Malenchenko and NASA's Tim Kopra parachuted down onto the Kazakh steppe in their Soyuz capsule at 0915 GMT after spending 186 days in orbit.
    (AFP, 6/18/16)

2016        Jun 23, Britons voted to exit the European Union. Scotland voted decisively to stay in the EU by 62 to 38 percent in the referendum, putting it at odds with the United Kingdom as a whole, which voted 52-48 percent in favor of an exit from the EU, or Brexit. 17.4 million people voted to leave.
    (Reuters, 6/23/16)(Reuters, 6/24/16)(Econ, 7/2/16, p.14)

2016        Jun 24, Britainís PM David Cameron said he would resign to make way for a new leader by early October after voters opted to exit the 28-nation alliance in defiance of his predictions of economic disaster and isolation.
    (AFP, 6/24/16)
2016        Jun 24, EU chairman Donald Tusk said European Union leaders are determined to keep the unity of the EU after Britain voted to leave the 28-nation bloc, noting the EU had been prepared for such an outcome. Britain's vote to leave the EU fired up populist eurosceptic parties across the continent, giving fresh voice to their calls to leave the bloc or its euro currency. Global financial markets plunged as results from the referendum defied bookmakers' odds to show a 52-48 percent victory for the leave campaign.
    (Reuters, 6/24/16)(AP, 6/24/16)
2016        Jun 24, Spain said it will seek to jointly govern Gibraltar with Britain following the British vote to leave the European Union.
    (Reuters, 6/24/16)

2016        Jun 25, The six founding members of the European Union sent a clear message to Britain to leave the bloc as soon as possible after Britons voted to quit in the biggest blow to the project since World War Two.
    (Reuters, 6/25/16)

2016        Jun 27, A wave of British lawmakers from the opposition Labour Party resigned in protest from leader Jeremy Corbyn's team, including his most senior business policy chief who said Corbyn was partly to blame for last week's vote to leave the EU.
    (Reuters, 6/27/16)

2016        Jun 28, British researchers reported a huge helium gas field in Tanzania amid a global shortage for the gas.
    (SFC, 6/29/16, p.A2)
2016        Jun 28, British Labour leader Jeremy Corbyn lost a vote of no confidence among Labour MPs by a vote of 172-40.
    (Econ, 7/2/16, p.49)

2016        Jun 29, Scottish First Minister Nicola Sturgeon made a dash to Brussels to tell the EU that Scots were intent on staying in the bloc, hours after David Cameron told a summit that Britain was pulling out.
    (Reuters, 6/29/16)

2016        Jun 30, British American Tobacco (BAT), the world's second biggest cigarette company, vowed to investigate some of its supply farms in Bangladesh after a Swedish campaign group uncovered the use of child workers to grow and process tobacco.
    (Reuters, 6/30/16)
2016        Jun 30, English Poet Geoffrey Hill (84) died.
    (Econ, 7/30/16, p.74)

2016        Jul 2, An estimated 40,000 people marched through London, waving European flags and chanting "We love you EU" to voice their opposition to Britain's stunning vote to quit the bloc.
    (AFP, 7/2/16)

2016        Jul 4, Leading Brexit campaigner Nigel Farage (52) stepped down as leader of the UK Independence Party as the shockwaves from Britain's decision to quit the EU continued to reverberate.
    (AFP, 7/4/16)
2016        Jul 4, London Stock Exchange Group shareholders voted overwhelmingly for a merger with Deusche Boerse, operator of the Frankfurt exchange, despite concerns it could be scuppered by Britain's EU exit.
    (AFP, 7/4/16)

2016        Jul 5, The Bank of England relaxed commercial banks' capital requirements to boost lending to businesses and households, and warned that financial stability risks "have begun to crystallise" after Brexit.
    (AFP, 7/5/16)

2016        Jul 6, Former British PM Tony Blair voiced "sorrow, regret and apology" after Sir John Chilcotís 2.6m-word damning report on the Iraq war, but said he did not mislead parliament and did not regret toppling Saddam Hussein.
    (AFP, 7/6/16)(Econ, 7/9/16, p.14)

2016        Jul 7, Britain jailed four former Barclays bankers for manipulating the key inter-bank Libor interest rate, with the highest sentence being 6.5 years.
    (AFP, 7/7/16)
2016        Jul 7, Five men were crushed to death when a concrete wall collapsed at a metal recycling site in Birmingham, Britain's second-largest city.
    (Reuters, 7/7/16)
2016        Jul 7, A British court awarded a £53 million (62 million euro, $69 million) divorce settlement to Christina Estrada (54), a former model, who had demanded £196 million from  Sheikh Walid Juffali (61), her Saudi billionaire husband, including £1 million a year just for clothes. Juffali is terminally ill with cancer and undergoing treatment in Switzerland. He divorced Estrada under Islamic law without her knowledge and married a 25-year-old Lebanese model in 2012.
    (AFP, 7/8/16)

2016        Jul 8, PM David Cameron announced that Britain is lifting a ban on women serving in frontline combat roles in the army.
    (AP, 7/8/16)

2016        Jul 9, British lawyers signed a letter saying: Our legal opinion is that the June 23 referendum is advisory." The letter was signed by 1054 prominent lawyers.
    (Reuters, 7/11/16)

2016        Jul 11, British Home Secretary Theresa May (b.1956) became the country's leader-in-waiting after her sole remaining rival unexpectedly withdrew. PM David Cameron welcomed the development and said he would offer his resignation to Queen Elizabeth II on July 13.
    (AP, 7/11/16)(Econ, 1/7/17, p.18)
2016        Jul 11, British veteran Labour MP Angela Eagle announced a challenge to Jeremy Corbyn as party leader.
    (Econ, 7/16/16, p.46)

2016        Jul 13, Outgoing British PM David Cameron urged his successor Theresa May to keep Britain close to the European Union, even as she embarks on the monumental task of ending four decades of membership.
    (Reuters, 7/13/16)
2016        Jul 13, New British PM Theresa May chose former London mayor Boris Johnson, known for his gaffes and buffoonery, as foreign minister.
    (AFP, 7/14/16)

2016        Jul 15, British PM Theresa May visited Scotland and met with First Minister Nicola Sturgeon in Edinburgh seeking to dampen speculation about another Scottish vote for independence, while insisting she is willing to listen to proposals about Scotland's future relationship with the European Union.
    (AP, 7/15/16)
2016        Jul 15, Britain listed the East Turkestan Islamic Movement (ETIM), aka Turkestan Islamic Party (TIP), as a terrorist organization. This pleased China, which had demanded Western support for its fight against a group it says seeks to split off its western region of Xinjiang.
    (Reuters, 7/20/16)

2016        Jul 18, British lawmakers voted to replace the countryís four aging nuclear-armed submarines with new vessels.
    (SFC, 7/19/16, p.A2)
2016        Jul 18, It was announced that ARM Holdings, a British Cambridge-based tech company, would be sold to Japanís SoftBank for £24 billion.
    (Econ, 7/23/16, p.44)

2016        Jul 19, A British court ordered disgraced Russian athlete Liliya Shobukhova (38) to repay organisers of the London Marathon almost £400,000 (476,000 euros, $527,000).
    (AFP, 7/19/16)

2016        Jul 20, A British nuclear submarine collided with an unspecified merchant vessel off the coast of Gibraltar, forcing it to dock in the disputed territory.
    (AFP, 7/21/16)

2016         Jul 24, British border agents moved in to help French officials deal with gigantic backups for travelers trying to cross the English Channel into France. The delays come at the start of the British holiday season when tens of thousands of vacationers head to continental Europe.
    (AP, 7/24/16)
2016        Jul 24, Chris Froome (31) became the first British cyclist to win the Tour de France three times.

2016        Jul 25, British prosecutors unveiled the extra charges against Stephen Port (41), who already faced murder charges in connection with the discovery of four bodies near Port's home in Barking, east London, between June 2014 and September 2015. They accused Port of nonlethal attacks on eight other men involving six criminal counts of poisoning, seven of rape and four of sexual assault.
    (AP, 7/25/16)

2016        Jul 31, British PM Theresa May set out a drive to tackle modern slavery, pledging more funding and a new cross-government taskforce to help stamp out what she called a "barbaric evil". She made the pledge as a review into the 2015 Modern Slavery Act.
    (Reuters, 7/31/16)

2016        Jul, Britain convicted radical cleric Anjem Choudary of inviting others to support the Islamic State. He faced up to a decade behind bars.
    (Econ, 8/20/16, p.47)
2016        Jul, Natasha Ednan-Laperouse (15), who was allergic to sesame seeds, collapsed on a British Airways flight from London to Nice after eating a baguette from the British sandwich chain Pret A Manger.
    (AP, 9/28/18)

2016        Aug 1, British drugs giant GlaxoSmithKline announced that it will form a joint venture with Google's parent company Alphabet to research and develop so-called bioelectronic medicines.
    (AFP, 8/1/16)
2016        Aug 1, An Indian bank issued the first ever offshore rupee-denominated bond in London, a landmark celebrated by officials keen to highlight Britain's international business prowess despite Brexit.
    (AFP, 8/1/16)

2016        Aug 2, A British court ruled that the state-funded health service (NHS) is responsible for paying for an HIV-prevention drug that has been called a "game changer" in the fight against AIDS. The health service said it would appeal.
    (AP, 8/2/16)

2016        Aug 3, In London Zakaria Bulhan (19), a Norwegian man of Somali origin, stabbed and killed retired US teacher Darlene Horton (64). He stabbed five others before he was immobilized and arrested by police. Bulhan was suspected to have mental health issues. On Feb 6, 2016, Bulhan pleaded guilty to manslaughter by diminished responsibility and guilty to five counts of wounding. On Feb 7, 2016, he was sentenced to be detained indefinitely at a mental hospital.   
    (AFP, 8/4/16)(AFP, 8/6/16)(AP, 2/6/17)(AP, 2/7/17)

2016        Aug 4, Britain's central bank moved to stem the economic fallout from the vote to leave the European union, approving its first interest rate cut since the global financial crisis as part of a broader stimulus package. The Bank of England cut its key rate to 0.25 percent from a previous record low of 0.5 percent.
    (AP, 8/4/16)

2016        Aug 5, British activists linked to the US-based group Black Lives Matter blocked a road leading to London's Heathrow Airport and held protests in other British cities. Officers arrested 10 people.
    (AP, 8/5/16)

2016        Aug 9, Britain defended its decision to review a planned $24 billion nuclear power project at Hinkley Point after criticism from China which planned to help fund the deal.
    (Reuters, 8/9/16)(Econ, 8/6/16, p.9)
2016        Aug 9, A British man who killed a fellow Muslim because he felt he had disrespected Islam has been sentenced to at least 27 years in prison. Tanveer Ahmed admitted to stabbing and beating shopkeeper Asad Shah to death at his Glasgow convenience store in March.
    (AP, 8/9/16)

2016        Aug 11, Reverend Roly Bain (62), Britainís only full-time clown-priest, died.
    (Econ, 9/3/16, p.78)

2016        Aug 12, Staff on the Eurostar rail service between Britain and mainland Europe started four days of strike action although the company insisted there would be minimal disruption to services.
    (AFP, 8/12/16)
2016        Aug 12, Fiji's men's sevens rugby team won the countryís first ever Olympic medal with a 43-7 victory over Great Britain.
    (AP, 8/12/16)(http://tinyurl.com/j2mcajn)

2016        Aug 21, British police arrested Laurence former priest Soper (72) for sex crimes he is accused of committing from 1972 to 1986. He was arrested at Luton Airport after he was deported from Kosovo.
    (Reuters, 8/22/16)

2016        Aug 22, Britain announced plans to house imprisoned Islamist extremists in separate units from other inmates, after a review found that some charismatic convicts were radicalizing the wider Muslim population in prisons.
    (AP, 8/22/16)
2016        Aug 22, Jordan signed grant agreements for the school program with Britain, the US, Norway and Switzerland. Donor countries pledged close to $100 million to help Jordan enroll all Syrian refugee children in the kingdom in schools next month.
    (AP, 8/22/16)

2016        Aug 23, In Australia visiting Frenchman Smail Ayad (29) shouted "Allahu Akbar" (God is Greatest) as he stabbed a British woman to death and wounded two people at a backpackers' hotel in in Home Hill, Queensland state. The dead woman was identified as Mia Ayliffe-Chung (21) from the English county of Derbyshire. On September 30 British backpacker Thomas Jackson (30) died of wounds suffered while trying to stop the attack on Chung.
    (Reuters, 8/24/16)(AFP, 8/25/16)(Reuters, 8/30/16)

2016        Aug 24, In Britain 5 men drowned off Camber Sands beach in southern England. The beach, known for rip-tides, had no lifeguard.
    (AP, 8/25/16)

2016        Aug 31, The Coalition for Epidemic Preparedness Innovations (CEPI) was founded in London. It planned to build up a bank of candidate vaccines for as many as possible of the viral diseases that lurk on the edges of human society. Founders included the Wellcome, the Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation, the World Economics Forum and the government of Norway.
    (Econ, 9/3/16, p.67)

2016        Sep 4, Iranian state TV reported that the Islamic Republic has appointed its envoy to London for the first time since 2011.
    (AP, 9/5/16)

2016        Sep 5, Britain appointed its envoy to Iran for the first time since 2011.
    (AP, 9/5/16)

2016        Sep 15, The British government approved the construction of the country's first new nuclear power plant in more than two decades. The French and Chinese-backed Hinkley Point plant had prompted high-level fears about national security.
    (AP, 9/15/16)

2016        Sep 16, A British judge ruled that Lauri Love (31), man accused of hacking into US government computer systems and stealing confidential information, should be extradited to the United States to face trial. Love was arrested in 2013 on suspicion of computer crimes but has not been charged in Britain.
    (AP, 9/16/16)

2016        Sep 23, A senior Royal Air Force officer said British Tornado and Typhoon aircraft stationed at a U.K. air base in Cyprus are pounding Islamic State targets ahead of a major offensive by Iraqi security forces next month to recapture the key northern city of Mosul from IS militants.
    (AP, 9/24/16)

2016        Sep, Czech national Zdenek Makar (31) died after a fight in London involving four Britons. One of them, 29-year-old Raymond Sculley, was acquitted by a jury in April 2017 of charges of murder and manslaughter.
    (AP, 4/21/17)

2016        Oct 4, British home secretary Amer Rudd announced new restrictions on foreign students in an effort to reduce the number of migrants.
    (Econ, 10/15/16, p.52)
2016        Oct 4, Three British-born scientists won the Nobel Prize in physics for discoveries about strange states of matter that could result in improved materials for electronics or quantum computers. David Thouless, Duncan Haldane and Michael Kosterlitz, now affiliated with universities in the United States, were honored for breakthroughs they made in the 1970s and '80s.
    (AP, 10/4/16)

2016        Oct 17, The editor-in-chief of Kremlin-funded television network RT said that all its bank accounts in Britain have been closed down.
    (AFP, 10/17/16)

2016        Oct 21, British American Tobacco offered to buy Reynolds American Inc. in a $47 billion deal that would create the world's largest publicly traded tobacco company and attempt to make up for a decline in smoking in the US and Europe.
    (AP, 10/21/16)

2016        Nov 1, Britain's Treasury Chief Philip Hammond promised that the UK will strike back against cyberattacks amid fears that state-sponsored hackers jeopardize society. The Kremlin dismissed as untrue allegations by the head of Britain's MI5 intelligence agency that Russia is mounting cyber-attacks and other aggressive measures which pose a growing threat to Britain.
    (AP, 11/1/16)(Reuters, 11/1/16)

2016        Nov 3, The High Court in London ruled that parliament must approve the start of Britain's withdrawal from the European Union.
    (AFP, 11/3/16)

2016        Nov 6, British PM Theresa May said she would deliver a full exit from the European Union, hitting back at critics of her Brexit strategy who have threatened to try to block the process in parliament.
    (Reuters, 11/6/16)
2016        Nov 6, Tesco Bank, the financial arm of Britainís biggest retailer, detected suspicious transactions over the last 24 hours on 40,000 current (checking) accounts. Raiders succeeded in stealing from 9,000 accounts. On Nov 8, Tesco Bank said it had reimbursed all losses to the tune of £2.5m ($3.1m).
    (Econ, 11/12/16, p.68)

2016        Nov 9, In England 7 people were killed, more than 50 others were injured after a tram overturned in south London.
    (Reuters, 11/9/16)(AP, 11/10/16)

2016        Nov 15, Thousands of British prison officers in England and Wales walked out in protest at rising levels of violence in jails, prompting the government to seek a court injunction to force them back to work.
    (Reuters, 11/15/16)

2016        Nov 16, The British Foreign Office said Indian Ocean islanders expelled from the British-ruled Chagos archipelago during the Cold War to make way for a U.S. military base will not be given the right to return to resettle.
    (Reuters, 11/16/16)

2016        Nov 17, Britain said it had ratified the Paris Agreement, the global deal to combat climate change. The 21-day period for parliamentary scrutiny in Britain expired with no objections on November 15.
    (Reuters, 11/17/16)

2016        Nov 20, Acclaimed Irish novelist William Trevor (b.1928) died at his adopted English home. Trevor won the Whitbread Prize three times for ďThe Children of Dynmouth" (in 1978), ďFools of Fortune (in 1983), and ďFeliciaís Journey" (in 1994). He was widely regarded as one of the greatest contemporary writers of short stories in the English language.
    (https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/William_Trevor)(SFC, 11/22/16, p.C4)

2016        Nov 25, British chef Stephen Port (41), convicted two days earlier of murdering three young men whom he met online, was sentenced to life in prison. Over a 15-month period Gabriel Kovari, Daniel Whitworth and Jack Taylor all overdosed on the psychoactive drug GHB. Port then dumped their bodies in and around a graveyard near his apartment.
    (AFP, 11/25/16)

2016        Nov 28, Britain's anti-European Union UK Independence Party (UKIP) elected its former chairman Paul Nuttall as leader, seeking to overcome months of internal turmoil and capitalize on its successful Brexit campaign. Nuttall (40) succeeded Nigel Farage.
    (Reuters, 11/28/16)(Econ, 12/3/16, p.47)

2016        Dec 2, Britainís Whitechapel Bell Foundry, the maker of Big Ben (1858), announced its closure. The foundry will close in May 2017, after nearly 450 years of bell making and 250 years at its present site.
    (http://tinyurl.com/jxfxhd7)(Econ, 12/24/16, p.122)

2016        Dec 6, A British man was found guilty of providing cash to a key suspect in the deadly Brussels and Paris bombings in a case that linked England to the Islamic State group attacks in Europe. Zakaria Boufassil was convicted of "engaging in conduct in preparation of acts of terrorism" by providing 3,000 pounds ($3,700) to bombing suspect Mohamed Abrini at a secret meeting in Birmingham, England.
    (AP, 12/6/16)

2016        Dec 7, In Bahrain British PM Theresa May and leaders from the six-member Gulf Cooperation Council (GCC) agreed to counter Iran's "destabilizing activities," a pledge meant to calm nerves following the nuclear deal with world powers. The summit aimed to advance plans to turn the (GCC) into a Gulf Union with tighter defense coordination.
    (AP, 12/7/16)(Econ, 12/10/16, p.50)

2016        Dec 7, Amazon completed its first delivery by drone, in what the global online giant hopes will become a trend in automated shipments by air. The delivery was made to a customer near Cambridge, England.
    (AFP, 12/14/16)
2016        Dec 7, British musician Greg Lake (b.1947) died. He had co-founded both King Crimson and Emerson, Lake and Palmer. ELP broke up in 1979, reunited in 1991, later disbanded again and reunited for a 2010 tour.
    (AP, 12/8/16)

2016        Dec 8, Britainís Committees of Advertising Practice (CAP) said junk food ads aimed at children from both print and social media will be banned from next year.
    (AFP, 12/8/16)
2016        Dec 8, Her Majestyís Inspectorate of Constabulary reported 436 accusations of sexual abuse by police in England and Wales over two years through the end of March.
    (SFC, 12/9/16, p.A5)

2016        Dec 9, Police overseeing the sex abuse scandal in British soccer said 83 potential suspects have been identified and linked to 98 clubs. The age range of potential victims was 7 to 20 years old.
    (AP, 12/9/16)

2016        Dec 12, British PM Theresa May introduced an official definition for anti-Semitism on Monday in hopes of curbing attacks against Jewish people. The definition states that "Anti-Semitism is a certain perception of Jews, which may be expressed as hatred toward Jews. Rhetorical and physical manifestations of anti-Semitism are directed toward Jewish or non-Jewish individuals and/or their property, toward Jewish community institutions and religious facilities."
    (AP, 12/12/16)
2016        Dec 12, Britain jailed Mohammed Ali Ahmed (27) and Zakaria Boufassil (26) for up to eight years for giving money to Brussels and Paris terror attacks suspect Mohamed Abrini when he visited Britain last year.
    (AFP, 12/12/16)
2016        Dec 12, British and Greek authorities said they have dismantled an international ring suspected of smuggling hundreds of migrants to Britain and other European countries using falsified travel documents. 24 suspects were arrested last week in the Athens area, and another nine in Glasgow, Northampton and Manchester in Britain.
    (AP, 12/12/16)
2016        Dec 12, A London judge sentenced Stefano Brizzi, a crystal meth addict, to life in prison with at least 24 years to serve for killing police officer Gordon Semple (59) during a bondage sex session and then attempting to cook and eat his body parts. Semple was last seen on 1 April and his dissolving body was found in an acid bath.
    (AP, 12/12/16)

2016        Dec 14, The Unite union said thousands of cabin crew working for British Airways have voted overwhelmingly in favor of strike action in a pay dispute and could walk out after Dec 21.
    (Reuters, 12/14/16)
2016        Dec 14, The leader of Yemen's rebel Huthi government accused Britain of war crimes by supplying weapons that Saudi-led forces were using to "bomb the people".
    (AFP, 12/14/16)

2016        Dec 15, Britainís fertility regulator approved controversial techniques allowing doctors to create babies using DNA from three people. The techniques were developed to help prevent some children from inheriting potentially fatal diseases from their mothers.
    (SFC, 12/16/16, p.A6)

2016        Dec 16, The British Home Office said that National Action, an organization that praised the murderer of lawmaker Jo Cox, has become the first far-right group in Britain to be banned as a terrorist organization. The government described he group as a "virulently racist, anti-Semitic and homophobic" neo-Nazi organization.
    (Reuters, 12/16/16)(AP, 6/12/18)
2016        Dec 16, A London jury found Ralph Clarke (101) guilty of 21 counts of indecency and indecent assault on two girls in the 1970s and '80s. The former truck driver had admitted nine other charges against a boy. On Dec 19 Clarke was sentenced to thirteen years in jail.
    (AP, 12/16/16)(AP, 12/19/16)
2016        Dec 16, In England an estimated 600 inmates seized control and launched a destructive rampage at HMP Birmingham. Ordered was restored the next day.
    (AP, 12/17/16)
2016        Dec 16, German discount supermarket group Lidl announced plans to create 5,000 new jobs in London as part of a major investment program in Britain, where it is enjoying rapid growth.
    (AFP, 12/16/16)

2016        Dec 17, BP PLC signed a $2.22-billion deal restoring its share of an onshore oil block in Abu Dhabi by agreeing to give the emirate stock in the company worth 2 percent of the oil giant's overall value.
    (AP, 12/17/16)

2016        Dec 19, British postal workers began what could become the longest strike in the Post Office's 300-year history as part of a wave of industrial action that is also threatening Christmas travel chaos.
    (AFP, 12/19/16)

2016        Dec 20, British-based Lloyds of London said it would buy MBNA, a credit card firm, for $2 billion.
    (Econ, 1/7/17, p.52)

2016        Dec 24, British author Richard Adams (96), author of Watership Down (1972), died in Oxfordshire. In 1978 the book was made into a movie.
    (SFC, 12/28/16, p.D3)

2016        Dec 26, British gay pop star George Michael (53) died of apparent heart failure. He had rocketed to stardom with WHAM! and went on to enjoy a long and celebrated solo career lined with controversies.
    (AP, 12/26/16)

2016        Dec 27, The British government announced plans to crack down on voter fraud by requiring voters to show official identification at polling stations, tightening rules on absentee ballots and preventing political activists from handling absentee ballots.
    (SFC, 12/28/16, p.A2)
2016        Dec 27, Research led by the Zoological Society of London (ZSL) said the Cheetah, the world's fastest land animal, is in danger of extinction because it is running out of space. The study said there are now just 7,100 cheetahs in the world.
    (Reuters, 12/27/16)

2016        Dec 28, The British Home Office said immigration officers have raided nearly 300 nail salons and arrested 97 people, mostly from Vietnam, for suspected immigration offences as part of a drive to tackle modern slavery.
    (Reuters, 12/28/16)
2016        Dec 28, Oil company BP said it has agreed to buy the fuel business of Australian supermarket chain Woolworths Ltd for $1.3 billion as part of its efforts to rebuild itself.
    (AP, 12/28/16)

2016        Dec 30, Former British pub owner Allan Williams (86), the first manager of The Beatles, died. He drove the band on their formative trip to Hamburg in 1960.
    (AP, 12/31/16)

2016        Dec 31, In southern England the RMT union launched a three-day strike on Southern Rail, which runs commuter services from the south coast into London, as part of a long-running dispute over plans to downgrade the role of the train guard.
    (AFP, 12/31/16)

2016        David Howell, former Tory energy secretary, authored ďEmpires in Collision."
2016        Ben Judah authored ďThis Is London: Life and Death in the World City."
    (Econ, 1/30/16, p.77)
2016        Mervyn King, former governor of the Bank of England (2003-2013) authored ďThe End of Alchemy: Money, Banking and the Future of the Global Economy."
    (Econ, 3/12/16, p.78)
2016        Helen Pearson authored ďThe Life Project: The Extraordinary Story of Our Ordinary Lives." Here she has charted the 1946 British cohort along with four other that followed in 1958, 1970, 1991 and 2000.
    (Econ, 4/9/16, p.85)
2016        James Sharpe authored ďA Fiery and Furious People: A History of Violence in England.
    (Econ, 10/1/16, p.79)
2016        Gillian Tindall authored ďThe Tunnel Through Time: A New Route for an Old London Journey. Her she covered the story of the Crossrail running east-west through London and its suburbs.
    (Econ, 8/27/16, p.64)
2016        Britain set up its National Cyber Security Center.
    (Econ., 9/19/20, p.78)
2016        Britain's Foreign Ministry extended the lease on Diego Garcia, the Chagos Islandsí biggest island, to the US until 2036 and declared the expelled islanders would not be allowed to go back.
    (AP, 9/3/18)
2016        British firms owned approximately 7% of Australiaís agricultural land.
    (Econ, 9/10/16, p.34)
2016        Britainís population stood at about 65 million and was expected to grow to 77 million by 2050.
    (Econ, 4/30/16, p.54)

2017        Jan 1, British economist Anthony Atkinson (b.1944)) died. His 40 books included: ďInequality: What Can Be Done" (2015).
    (Econ, 1/7/17, p.57)

2017        Jan 2, Britain's government announced plans to build 17 new towns and villages across the English countryside in a bid to ease a chronic housing shortage.
    (Reuters, 1/2/17)
2017        Jan 2, British police shot and killed Mohammed Yassar Yaqub of Huddersfield (27) during an operation in which five other people were arrested.
    (AP, 1/3/17)
2017        Jan 2, John Berger (b.1926), influential British art critic and prize-winning author, died in France. The self-declared revolutionary had controversially backed the far-left Black Panthers. He won the 1972 Booker Prize for Fiction for his experimental novel "G.", set in pre-World War I Europe. His ďWays of Seeing" (1972) spawned a BBC series and ushered in a political perspective to art criticism.
    (AFP, 1/3/17)(SFC, 1/3/17, p.C2)

2017        Jan 9, In England a 24-hour strike by London Underground station staff shut down much of the cityís subway network.
    (SFC, 1/10/17, p.A2)

2017        Jan 10, British Labour leader Jeremy Corbyn told the BBC that "I would like to see some kind of high-earnings cap" to reduce inequality. He said that it should kick in at a level "somewhat higher" than his own 138,000 pound ($167,000) annual salary.
    (AP, 1/10/17)
2017        Jan 10, UKIP founder Nigel Farage said Farage said that all differences with 5-Star had been resolved and that Italy's anti-establishment 5-Star Movement has backtracked from plans to quit the UKIP grouping in the European Parliament.
    (Reuters, 1/10/17)

2017        Jan 11, Thirteen funds and five firms managing over 2 trillion pounds ($2.4 trillion) launched an online tool at the London Stock Exchange called the Transition Pathway Initiative. It allows asset managers to check what companies have done to prepare for a low-carbon economy.
    (AP, 1/11/17)

2017        Jan 12, Dozens of flights at London's Heathrow Airport were canceled amid forecasts of snow and strong winds in Britain.
    (AP, 1/12/17)

2017        Jan 13, Lord Snowdon (b.1930), born as Antony Armstrong-Jones, the society photographer and filmmaker who married Britain's Princess Margaret and continued to mix in royal circles even after their divorce, died.
    (AP, 1/13/17)

2017        Jan 14, Unilever, a British-based consumer goods maker, said all of its plastic packaging would be fully reusable, recyclable or compostable by 2025.
    (Reuters, 1/14/17)

2017        Jan 15, Prince Charles, long a critic of man-made climate change, published the book "Climate Change" with Tony Juniper, a former Friends of the Earth director, and Emily A, a Cambridge University climate scientist.
    (AP, 1/15/17)

2017        Jan 16, British company Rolls Royce, in a deal with American, British and Brazilian regulators, agreed to pay £671 million to settle allegations that it had in the past secured sales with bribery of officials in six countries in schemes that lasted more than a decade.
    (Econ, 1/21/17, p.54)(Reuters, 5/8/20)

2017        Jan 17, Britain will quit the European Union's single market when it exits the bloc, PM Theresa May said, in a decisive speech that quashed speculation she would seek a compromise deal to stay inside the world's biggest trading bloc.
    (Reuters, 1/17/17)
2017        Jan 17, British American Tobacco announced that will take over Reynolds American Inc. for $49 billion to create the world's largest publicly traded tobacco company. It would seek to capitalize on growing demand for electronic cigarettes in the US and traditional ones in developing countries. BAT already owned 42% of Reynolds.
    (AP, 1/17/17)(Econ, 1/21/17, p.51)

2017        Jan 18, The first direct freight train service from China to Britain arrived in London, another leg in Beijing's plans for closer trade ties with Europe along a modern-day Silk Road.
    (AP, 1/18/17)
2017        Jan 18, A court in southwest France gave the go-ahead for the extradition of Stephen Carruthers (43), a suspected pedophile arrested on Jan 8, who is one of Britain's most wanted fugitives.
    (AFP, 1/18/17)

2017        Jan 19, At Davos, Switzerland, PM Theresa May unveiled her vision for Britain after Brexit, describing its future role as a defender of free trade and globalization in