Timeline Great Britain (E) 1860-1910

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1860        Feb 29, George Bridgetower (b.1778), African-Polish violinist, died in Peckham, south London. He was born in Biała, Poland, where his father worked for Hieronimus Wincenty Radziwill. Bridgetower lived in England for much of his life.

1860        Apr 17, English boxer Tom Sayers (1826-1865) fought John Heenan (1833-1873) of the US for 37 rounds in an international bare-knuckle match at Farnborough, Hampshire, that was called a draw. Heenan was later acclaimed as the "World Boxing Champion."

1860        Apr, John Speke and James Grant left England on an expedition to confirm Lake Victoria as the source of the Nile.
    (ON, 10/01, p.9)

1860        May 2, William Maddock Bayliss, British physiologist, co-discoverer of hormones, was born.
    (HN, 5/2/02)

1860        Jun 6, William R. Inge, English theologian, Deacon St. Paul's Cathedral, was born.
    (MC, 6/6/02)

1860        Jun 29, Thomas Addison (67), English physician (A-Biermer Disease), died.
    (MC, 6/29/02)

1860        Aug 30, The first British tramway was inaugurated at Birkenhead by an American, George Francis Train.
    (HN, 8/30/98)

1860        Oct 7, During the 2nd Opium War British troops on the outskirts of Beijing began to plunder the gardens of Yuanmingyuan (the garden of perfection and light), the imperial summer palace built by the Qing emperor Qianlong in 1709. Lord Elgin’s cavalry soon set fire and let the gardens burn for 3 days and nights.
    (WSJ, 1/13/04, p.A8)(www.china.org.cn/english/features/beijng/31186.htm)

1860        Oct 12, British and French troops captured Beijing.
    (MC, 10/12/01)

1860        Oct 17, The British Open was 1st held at the Prestwick Golf Club in Scotland. The prize was a red leather belt with a silver buckle. The belt was retired in 1872 and replaced with a silver claret jug.
    (https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/The_Open_Championship)(WSJ, 7/21/00, p.W9)

1860        Walter Richard Sickert (d.1942), English Impressionist painter, was born. In 2002 Patricia Cornwell, crime writer, reported that he was Jack the Ripper.
    (WSJ, 9/27/01, p.A16)(SSFC, 2/24/02, Par p.2)
1860         Henry Creswicke Rawlinson (1810-1895), English diplomat and Assyriologist, authored “Cuneiform Inscriptions of Western Asia," the 1st book on deciphering Assyrian script.
    (ON, 11/07, p.4)(http://tinyurl.com/34fg4f)
1860        Queen Victoria decreed that men who chose to remain unmarried would not be welcome in Her Majesty’s Rifle Corp. She held that "normal married life improves a man’s marksmanship."
    (SFEC, 12/15/96, Z1 p.5)
1860        In Britain William Ewart Gladstone (1809-1898) began using a red box to deliver the government's budget to the House of Commons. Most Chancellors of the Exchequer continued to use it. PM Gordon Brown was an exception, using a new red box during his years heading the Treasury (1997-2007). The box was retired in 2010.
    (AP, 6/22/10)
1860        Britain forswore most import duties. Britain and France signed a free-trade treaty, which drastically reduced the duty on French wines.
    (Econ, 9/1/07, p.74)(Econ, 12/19/09, p.132)
1860        Florence Nightingale (1820-1910) founded the Nightingale School and Home for Nurses in London, the first secular institution in the world to train nurses.
    (ON, 12/11, p.6)
1860        British printing firm Thomas De La Rue received a contract to print banknotes for Mauritius.
    (Econ, 4/8/17, p.58)
1860        English inventor Frederick Walton made "linoleum" out of linseed oil.
    (SFC, 2/15/97, p.D4)

1860s        In Britain palace garden parties were begun to extend royal hospitality to Brits from all walks of life.
    (WSJ, 8/9/96, p.A8)

1861        Feb 6, English Adm. Robert Ritzroy issued the 1st storm warnings for ships.
    (MC, 2/6/02)

1861         Feb 15, Alfred North Whitehead (d.1947), English philosopher (Advocate of Ideas) and mathematician: "We think in generalities, but we live in detail." "I have always noticed that deeply and truly religious persons are fond of a joke, and I am suspicious of those who aren’t." "It is more important that a proposition be interesting than that it be true."
    (AP, 4/11/97)(AP, 10/5/97)(AP, 9/8/98)(MC, 2/15/02)

1861        Feb 20, Steeple of Chichester Cathedral was blown down during a storm.
    (MC, 2/20/02)

1861        Mar 23, London's 1st tramcars, designed by Mr. Train of New York, began operating.
    (SS, 3/23/02)

1861        May 9, The Banshee, a British ship designed to run the American blockade on Confederate ports, departed Nassau for Wilmington, NC. This was the first of its many successful runs under the direction of Thomas E. Taylor, a shipping clerk for the Anglo-Confederate Trading Company.
    (ON, 8/09, p.11)

1861        May 13, Britain declared its neutrality in the American Civil War.
    (HN, 5/13/98)

1861        Nov 8, Union Captain Charles Wilkes of the sloop San Jacinto seized Confederate commissioners John Slidell and James M. Mason from the British mail ship Trent. Lincoln's response to uproar: "One war at a time." The Confederates were released. In 1977 Norman F. Ferris authored "The Trent Affair: A Diplomatic Crisis."
    (HN, 11/6/98)(ON, 1/01, p.7)(MC, 11/8/01)

1861        Nov 30, The British Parliament sent to Queen Elizabeth an ultimatum for the United States, demanding the release of two Confederate diplomats who were seized on the British ship Trent.
    (HN, 11/30/98)

1861        Dec 14, Prince Albert of England, husband of Queen Victoria and one of the Union’s strongest advocates, died in London. The book "Uncrowned King: The Life of Prince Albert" was later written by Stanely Weintraub.
    (WUD, 1994, p.34)(WSJ, 1/26/98, p.A16)(AP, 12/14/98)(HN, 12/14/98)

1861        Dec 20, Transports were loaded with 8,000 troops in England. They were setting sail for Canada so that troops would be available if the "Trent Affair" was not settled without war.
    (HN, 12/20/98)

1861        Dec 23, Lord Lyons, The British minister to America presented a formal complaint to secretary of state, William Seward, regarding the Trent affair.
    (HN, 12/23/98)

1861        Sam Beeton and his wife Isabella Mayson (1840-1868) published “Beeton’s Book of Household Management." Mayson was a columnist for the Englishwoman’s Domestic Magazine." Beeton had made his fortune publishing the British edition of “Uncle Tom’s Cabin." In 2005 Kathryn Hughes authored “The Short Life and Long Times of Mrs. Beeton."
    (Econ, 11/5/05, p.93)
1861        The book "Great Expectations" by Charles Dickens was published.
    (SFEC, 1/25/98, DB p.43)
1861        Sir Francis Turner Palgrave (1824-1897) edited “The Golden Treasury," a 4-volume anthology of the best songs and lyrical poems in the English language.
    (WSJ, 1/20/07, p.P11)(WSJ, 11/15/08, p.W10)
1861        Anthony Trollope (1815-1882), British novelist, authored his novel “Orley Farm," which told the story of an unjust will.
    (WSJ, 2/24/07, p.P10)

1861        Britain passed a law for drivers of horse-drawn carriages with a maximum penalty of two years for wanton and furious driving.
    (AFP, 9/18/17)
1861        Britain passed a law against soliciting for murder.
    (Econ, 2/18/06, p.53)
1861        Britain introduced the Single Bottle Act allowing grocers to sell wine by the bottle.
    (Econ, 12/19/09, p.132)
1861        The British firm Butterfield & Swire began trading in Hong Kong and China.
    (Econ, 6/30/07, SR p.13)
1861        Henry Gray (b.1827), English anatomist and surgeon, died of smallpox. He had authored the textbook “Gray’s Anatomy" (1858).
    (Econ, 11/15/08, p.100)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Henry_Gray)

1862        May 15, The Confederate cruiser Alabama ran aground near London.
    (MC, 5/15/02)

1862        May 24, Westminster Bridge opened across the Thames.
    (MC, 5/24/02)

1862        Jun 24, U.S. intervention saved the British and French at the Dagu forts in China.
    (HN, 6/24/98)

1862        Jul 4, Charles Dodgson, an Oxford mathematician whose penname of Lewis Carroll would make him world famous, told little Alice Liddell on a boat trip the fairy tale he had dreamed up for her called "Alice's Adventures Underground." He later wrote it out for her and it became the classic children's tale, "Alice in Wonderland."
    (IB, Internet, 12/7/98)

1862        Jul 17, James Glaisher (52), British meteorologist, rose to some 22,000 over Wolverhampton with balloonist Henry Tracy Coxwell in an attempt to set an altitude record. They reached 24,000 feet in a 2nd attempt on Aug 18. On Sep 5 Glaisher passed out as they reached 29,000 feet. At a record 7 miles Coxwell managed to begin their descent.
    (ON, 4/03, p.11)

1862        Aug 24, The C.S.S. Alabama was commissioned at sea off Portugal's Azore Islands, beginning a career that would see over 60 Union merchant vessels sunk or destroyed by the Confederate raider. The ship was built in secret in the in Liverpool shipyards, and a diplomatic crisis between the US government and Britain ensued when the Union uncovered the ship’s birth place.
    (MC, 8/24/02)

1862        The Naval and Military Club, later known as the "In and Out" Club was founded by a party of officers. In 1865 it moved to 94 Piccadilly. The club moved to No. 4 St. James Square after the Piccadilly address was sold to a group of Kuwaitis following the Gulf War.
    (WSJ, 8/23/00, p.A20)
1862        William Banting, a London undertaker, was the first dieter on record. He went from 253 pounds to 153 on lean meat, fish and fruit.
    (SFEC, 2/14/99, Z1 p.8)
1862        Britain legislated a Companies Act that defined the limited-liability joint stock company, and removed the restriction that they be established by an act of Parliament.
    (WSJ, 5/7/03, p.D10)
1862        The East India House in London, headquarters of the East India Company, was demolished.
    (Econ, 12/17/11, p.111)
1862        By this time 75% of Britain’s cotton originated in India.
    (Econ, 1/3/15, p.68)

1863        Jan 10, London's Metropolitan, the world's first underground passenger railway, opened to the public. The first stretch of rail had opened the day before. It was nationalized in 1948. In 2004 Christian Wolmar authored “The Subterranean Railway: How the London Underground was Built and How it Changed the City Forever."
    (AP, 1/10/98)(HN, 1/10/99)(Econ, 1/22/05, p.81)(AP, 1/9/13)

1863        Jan 17, David Lloyd George (d.1945), British Prime Minister, was born. First Earl Lloyd-George of Dwyfor, English statesman: "It is always too late, or too little, or both. And that is the road to disaster."
    (AP, 8/13/97)(HN, 1/17/99)

1863        Mar 27, Sir Henry Royce, Rolls Royce founder, was born.
    (HN, 3/27/98)

1863        In northern England the Stoke City Football Club was founded.
    (Econ, 10/1/16, SR p.8)
1863        The sailing ship Star of India was built as Euterpe, a full-rigged iron ship in Ramsey, Isle of Man. In 1926, Star of India was sold to the Zoological Society of San Diego, to be the centerpiece of a planned museum and aquarium. The Great Depression and World War II caused that plan to be canceled; it wasn't until 1957 that her restoration began.
    (SFC, 11/13/06, p.B1)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Star_of_India_(ship))
1863        William Makepeace Thackeray (b.1811), English novelist and satirist, died. His books, which included "Vanity Fair," were published as monthly serials. In 2001 D.J. Taylor authored the biography "Thackeray: The Life of a Literary Man." Thackeray was a chronicler of upward mobility.
    (HN, 7/18/98)(WSJ, 11/12/01, p.A20)

1863        The Cayman Islands became a British Caribbean territory.
    (AP, 5/10/03)

1864        Jan 11, H. George Selfridge, founder of the British store Selfridge and Co., Ltd., was born. He was the first to say "the customer is always right."
    (HN, 1/11/99)
1864        Jan 11, Charing Cross Station opened in London.
    (MC, 1/11/02)

1864        Mar 14, Samuel and Florence Baker arrived at Lake Luta N’Zige and named it Lake Albert. They soon found that the Nile entered the lake at a 130-foot waterfall that they named Murchison Falls (Uganda) after the president of the British Royal Geographical Society. In 2004 Pat shipman authored “To the Heart of the Nile: Lady Florence Baker and the Exploration of Central Africa."
    (ON, 10/01, p.12)(Econ, 4/24/04, p.87)

1864        Mar 18, The Dale Dike on Humber River, England, crumbled drowning some 240.
    (MC, 3/18/02)

1864        Mar 26, British metalworkers in Scunthorpe charged their first blast furnace. Iron ore mining in the area had begun in July 1860.

1864        Sep 5, British, French & Dutch fleets attacked Japan in Shimonoseki Straits.
    (MC, 9/5/01)

1864        Sep 15, British explorer John Speke (b.1827) died in England by his gun own during in an alleged hunting accident. In 2006 W.B. Carnochan authored “The Sad Story of Burton, Speke, and the Nile; or Was John Hanning Speke a Cad."
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/John_Hanning_Speke)(WSJ, 5/20/06, p.P9)

1864        Oct 17, Elinor Glyn, British novelist (3 Weeks), was born.
    (MC, 10/17/01)

1864        Anthony Trollope’s novel “Can You Forgive Her" began to appear in England in serial form.  It is the first of six novels in his "Palliser" series.
1864        Scottish servant John Brown began to attend to Queen Victoria and drew the widowed queen out of a severe depression. He remained with her until his death in 1883. The 1997 film "Mrs. Brown" suggested an affair between the two.
    (SFEC, 7/13/97, Par p.2)
1864        The T.G. Green & Co. pottery opened in Church Gresley, Derbyshire, England.
    (SFC, 9/30/98, Z1 p.3)
1864        In southern India a flood surge wrecked the British naval fleet at the mouth of the Krishna River.
    (Econ, 12/12/15, p.40)

1865        Feb 9, Mrs. [Beatrice] Patrick Campbell, actress (Pygmalion), was born in England.
    (MC, 2/9/02)

1865        Feb 23, England’s Reform League was established to concentrate solely on manhood suffrage. The Universal League for the Material Elevation of the Industrious Classes became defunct.

1865        Mar 2, British newspaper "Morning Chronicle" began publishing.
    (SC, 3/2/02)

1865        Mar, Thomas Sutherland of Scotland founded the Hong Kong and Shanghai Banking Corporation (HSBC) to finance  the growing trade between China and Europe. It established the Shanghai branch on April 3, 1865.

1865        Apr 2, Richard Cobden (b.1804), English manufacturer and Radical and Liberal statesman, died. He had advocated for free trade and led the campaign against Corn Laws, which were repealed in 1846.
    (https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Richard_Cobden)(Econ, 10/1/16, SR p.16)

1865        Jul 2, William Booth (1829-1912), British Methodist preacher, held his first meeting for the Salvation Army in London.

1865        Jun 3, George V, Saksen-Coburg [Windsor], King of Great Britain, was born.
    (MC, 6/3/02)

1865        Jul 4, 1st edition of "Alice in Wonderland" was published. English mathematician Charles Lutwidge Dodgson is best known for writing the children’s book Alice’s Adventures in Wonderland under the pen name Lewis Carroll. Born in 1832, also a skilled portrait photographer, Dodgson pioneered in the art of photographing children.
    (SFEM, 11/24/96, p.59)(HNQ, 6/12/98)(Maggio, 98)

1865        Jul 5, Great Britain imposed world’s 1st maximum speed laws.
    (MC, 7/5/02)

1865        Jul 25, Dr. James Barry (b.1795), British military medical officer and senior inspector general, died. It was soon revealed that Dr. Barry was likely a female. In 2003 Rachel Holmes authored “Scanty Particulars: the Scandalous Life and Astonishing Secret of Queen Victoria’s Most Eminent Military Doctor."
    (NYTBR, 2/2/03, p.21)(www.geocities.com/hotsprings/2615/medhist/barry.html)

1865        Sep 23, Emmuska Orczy (d.1947), baroness and writer, was born in Tarnaors, Hungary. Her family moved to London in 1880. Her books included "The Scarlet Pimpernel" (1905)
    (HN, 9/23/00)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Baroness_Orczy)

1865        Oct 18, British PM Henry John Temple (b.1874), the 3rd Viscount Palmerston, died at his home in Romsey.

1865        Oct, Samuel and Florence Baker arrived back in England following a 4 year exploratory trip in Africa where they found and named Lake Albert and Murchison Falls.
    (ON, 10/01, p.12)

1865        Nov 6, The Confederate ship Shenandoah under Capt. James Waddell surrendered in Liverpool, England, after attacking Yankee commercial shipping off the coast of Alaska. It had sunk of captured 38 vessels, mostly New Bedford whaleships. The surrender of the Shenandoah was the last act of the US Civil War.
    (SFC, 1/3/15, p.C2)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/CSS_Shenandoah)

1865        Nov 8, Thomas Sayers (b.1826), English bare-knuckle fighter, died. He was the first boxer to be declared the World Heavyweight Champion.
    (AP, 9/29/09)(www.flickr.com/photos/belowred/2407857092/)

1865        Dec 30, Rudyard Kipling (d.1936), British author and poet, best known for "Jungle Book" and "Soldiers Three," was born in Bombay, India. "There are only two classes of mankind in the world -- doctors and patients."
    (AP, 12/30/97)(HN, 12/30/98)(AP, 2/7/00)

1865        The Goathland RR Station opened in Goathland, North Yorkshire.
    (SSFC, 11/11/01, p.C10)
1865        The East London Railway Company bought the Thames Tunnel. It later became part of the London Underground subway system.
    (ON, 4/06, p.9)
1865        A commercial treaty was established between Britain and the German zollverein.
    (G&M, 7/31/97, p.A2)
1865        Elizabeth Garrett Anderson started practicing as Britain’s first female doctor. She qualified via the Society of Apothecaries when medical schools refused to admit her. She and 5 other women began studying for a degree course from Cambridge in 1869. Cambridge did not let women graduate with degrees until 1948, and was the last English university to do so. In 2009 Jane Robinson authored “Bluestockings: The Remarkable Story of the First Women to Fight for an Education."
    (Econ, 8/8/09, p.73)
1865        Henry Bessemer, English mechanical engineer, filed a patent to cast strips of steel directly, rather than as large ingots to be reheated and shaped.
    (Econ, 3/11/17, p.65)
1865        During the Orissa famine in India the British political secretariat of the Bengal government refused to import rice to the stricken areas because it was “a breach of the laws of political economy."
    (WSJ, 2/23/06, p.D8)
1865        Robert Fitzroy (b.1805), British sea captain, died. He commanded the H.M.S. Beagle and co-authored a 4-volume account of the ship’s 1831-1836 circumnavigation. In 2004 John and Mary Gribbin authored the biography “Fitzroy."
    (WSJ, 10/8/04, p.W8)

1865-1866    Lord John Russel served as Prime Minister of England for a 2nd time.
    (HN, 8/18/98)

1866        Jan 11, Steamship London sank in storm off Land's End England and 220 people died.
    (MC, 1/11/02)

1866        Mar 6, Rev Dr William Whewell (b.1794), an English polymath, died in Cambridge. He was also a scientist, Anglican priest, philosopher, theologian, historian of science and was Master of Trinity College, Cambridge. One of Whewell's greatest gifts to science was his wordsmithing. He often corresponded with many in his field and helped them come up with new terms for their discoveries. Whewell contributed the terms scientist, physicist, linguistics, consilience, catastrophism, uniformitarianism, and astigmatism amongst others; Whewell suggested the terms electrode, ion, dielectric, anode, and cathode to Michael Faraday.

1866        Mar 19, The immigrant ship Monarch of the Seas sank in Liverpool; 738 died.
    (MC, 3/19/02)

1866        May 11, The Overend Gurney, known as the 'bankers bank,' suspended payments and went into liquidation owing £11 million to shareholders and the public. Overend Gurney began collapsing in the early months of 1866. The bank run on Overend Gurney was the last in the UK until 2007. The Bank of England’s role as a lender of last resort helped to establish sterling as an international currency.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Overend,_Gurney_and_Company)(Econ, 9/22/07, p.16)(Econ, 1/31/15, p.62)

1866        Jun 20, Lord George ESMH Carnarvon, Egyptologist (Tutankhamen), was born in England.
    (MC, 6/20/02)

1866        Jun 29, England’s Reform League, organized a demonstration in Trafalgar Square. Its size and violence surprised everyone. A second meeting on 2 July was even more heated. The Trafalgar Square meetings were followed by a giant meeting held at Hyde Park on 23 July.

1866        Jul 21, A cholera-epidemic killed hundreds in London.
    (MC, 7/21/02)

1866        Jul 23, England’s Reform League organized a giant meeting held at Hyde Park.

1866        Jul 28, Beatrix Potter (d.1943), English author of children's stories (The Tale of Peter Rabbit), was born.
    (HN, 7/28/98)

1866        Sep 8, Siegfried Sassoon, British author and poet famous for his anti-war writing about World War I, was born. His work included "Counterattack."
    (HN, 9/8/98)(MC, 9/8/01)

1866        Sep 21, H.G. Wells (d.1946), English novelist and historian was born as Herbert George Wells in Bromley, Kent, England. His work included the novel "Marriage," "The Time Machine" (1895), "The Invisible Man" (1897) and "The War of the Worlds" (1898).
    (WSJ, 11/21/96, p.A20)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/H._G._Wells)

1866        Nov 10, William Thompson (1824-1907), Irish-born Scottish professor, was knighted by Queen Victoria as Sir William Thompson. On his ennoblement in 1892 in honor of his achievements in thermodynamics, and of his opposition to Irish Home Rule, he adopted the title Baron Kelvin of Largs.
    (ON, 10/2010, p.3)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/William_Thomson,_1st_Baron_Kelvin)

1866        Samuel Baker authored "The Albert N’yanza, Great Basin of the Nile, and Explorations of the Nile Sources."
    (ON, 10/01, p.12)
1866        The West Pier at Brighton, England, was built by Eugenius Birch. It was closed in 1975.
1866        In England Hyde Park was trashed by citizens who were outraged that it could no longer be used for public demonstrations or speech. The government relaxed restrictions against free speech and orators began preaching at Speakers Corner near the Marble Arch in Hyde Park. [see 1872]
    (BS, 5/3/98, p.1R)(SFEM, 3/21/99, p.24)
1866        Henry Wickham (1846-1928) ventured from Britain to South America hoping to shoot exotic birds and ship home feathers for lady’s hats. This venture failed as the birds exploded from the rifle shots. He returned to the Amazon region and in 1876 gathered seeds of the Hevea brasiliensis tree, which produced latex. Less than 4% of some 70,000 seeds germinated, but this was enough to ship seedlings to Ceylon, India, Malaya and Singapore and begin a global rubber plantation boom.
    (WSJ, 2/27/08, p.D10)
1866        America abrogated a trade agreement with Britain. Lord Elgin had negotiated a reciprocity agreement with the British North American colonies in 1854.
    (Econ, 11/26/16, p.18)

1866-1886    Dr. John Kirk, a Scottish botanist, served as the British representative on the island of Zanzibar. He made great effort to abolish the local slave trade. In 2011 Alastair Hazell authored “The Last Slave Market: Dr John Kirk and the Struggle to End the African slave Trade.
    (Econ, 8/6/11, p.72)

1866-1947     Richard Le Gallienne, English poet and essayist: "It is only on paper that one moralizes -- just where one shouldn't."
    (AP, 6/21/98)

1867        Mar 5, An abortive Fenian uprising against English rule took place in Ireland.
    (AP, 3/5/98)

1867        Mar 29, The British Parliament passed the North America Act (later known as the Constitution Act)  to create the Dominion of Canada.
    (HN, 3/29/98)(AP, 3/29/07)

1867        Apr 1,  Singapore, Penang & Malacca became British crown colonies.

1867        May 20, British parliament rejected John Stuart Mill’s law on women suffrage.
    (MC, 5/20/02)

1867        May 26, Mary, queen of Great Britain-North Ireland, was born.
    (MC, 5/26/02)

1867        May 27, Arnold Bennett (d.1931), English novelist, playwright and critic, was born. His books included “Riceyman Steps" (1923) in which he probes the unsettling and symbolic depths of a marriage that becomes too close.

1867        Jul 1, Canada became a self-governing dominion of Great Britain as the British North America Act took effect. The Dominion of Canada included New Brunswick, Nova Scotia, Ontario and Quebec.
    (SFC, 7/2/96, p.A2)(AP, 7/1/97)(HN, 7/1/98)(MC, 7/1/02)

1867        Aug 3, Stanley Earl Baldwin, (C) British Prime Minister  (1923-24, 1924-29, 1935-37), was born.
    (HN, 8/3/98)(SC, 8/3/02)

1867        Aug 14, John Galsworthy (d.1933), English novelist and dramatist (Forsyth Saga, Nobel 1932), was born in England. He was reported to have thrown a brick through a glass window in order to be arrested so that he could have time to write. His play "Justice" was the result of this experience.
    (WUD, 1994, p.581)(SFC, 12/5/98, p.E4)(MC, 8/14/02)

1867        Aug 25, Michael Faraday (b.1791), discoverer of electromagnetic induction (1831), died. In 2004 James Hamilton authored “A Life of Discovery: Michael Faraday, Giant of the Scientific Revolution."
    (www.bbc.co.uk/history/historic_figures/faraday_michael.shtml)(WSJ, 12/14/04, p.D10)

1867        Aug, The first recorded race of two self powered road vehicles over a prescribed route was between Ashton-under-Lyne and Old Trafford, a distance of eight miles. It was won by Isaac Watt Boulton against Daniel Adamson, each in steam cars of their own manufacture.

1867        Oct, Karl Marx (1818-1883), London-based German philosopher, sociologist, economic historian, journalist, and revolutionary socialist, published Volume 1 of “Das Kapital, Kritik der politischen Okonomie" (Capital: Critique of Political Economy). The first English edition was published in 1887. It is a critical analysis of capitalism as political economy, meant to reveal the economic laws of the capitalist mode of production, and how it was the precursor of the socialist mode of production. Volumes II and III remained mere manuscripts upon which Marx continued to work for the rest of his life and were published posthumously by Engels.

1867        Dec 13, The Clerkenwell bombing killed 12 people. It was an attempt to free Richard O’Sullivan-Burke, a senior Fenian arms agent, and was the most infamous action carried out by the Fenians in Britain.

1867        Walter Bagehot (1826-1877), British economist, authored “The English Constitution."
    (Econ, 4/1/06, p.13)(http://en.wikiquote.org/wiki/Walter_Bagehot)
1867        The book “Progress of the Working Class: 1832-1867" by J.M. Ludlow and Lloyd Jones was published in London.
1867        Anthony Trollope authored “Phineas Finn," the 2nd of his 6 Palliser novels, which chronicled political life in Victorian England.
    (WSJ, 8/18/07, p.P14)
1867        Robert Lowe (1811-1892), British statesman, introduced a system for paying schools by results.
    (https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Robert_Lowe)(Econ., 8/22/20, p.48)
1867        The 2nd Earl of Pomfret died. The family property, the Easton Neston estate, built around 1700 by Nicholas Hawksmoor, in Northamptonshire, England, passed to Sir Thomas George Fermor-Hesketh.
    (SFC, 5/11/05, p.G6)
1867        The Vatican distrusted the Oxford Movement atmosphere sufficiently to issue a decree forbidding Catholics to attend Oxford University. This was not relaxed until 1895.

1867-1875    The Suez Canal Co. issued bonds for some hundred million francs to keep afloat. The Khedive went bankrupt and the British under Disraeli snapped up the Khedive's shares for £4 million.
    (WSJ, 7/10/03, p.D8)

1867-1931     Arnold Bennett, English poet, author and critic: "Good taste is better than bad taste, but bad taste is better than no taste at all."
    (AP, 11/5/97)

1868        Feb 29, British Prime Minister Benjamin Disraeli formed his first cabinet.
    (HN, 2/29/00)

1868        Mar 5, A stapler was patented in England by C.H. Gould.
    (MC, 3/5/02)

1868        Apr 13, Tewodros II (1818-1868), also known as Theodore II, committed suicide at Magdala while under British siege. He was Emperor of Ethiopia from 1855-1868.

1868        May 26, Michael Barrett, Irish nationalist, was executed for his part in the 1867 Clerkenwell bombing. This was the last British public execution.

1868        Jun 6, Robert F. Scott (d.1912), British explorer, was born.
    (HN, 6/6/01)

1868        Oct 16, Denmark ended its involvement in India by selling the rights to the Nicobar Islands to the British.
    (SFC, 11/3/11, p.A2)

1868        The British Foreign Office building on Whitehall street was completed.
    (Econ, 6/25/16, p.51)
1868        The St Pancras station opened in London. It was known as the “Cathedral of the Railways" and for a time was the largest enclosed space in the world.
    (Econ, 11/10/07, p.71)
1868        The world’s first traffic light was installed outside Britain’s House of Parliament. The gaslit  signal controlled the flow of London’s carriages.
    (Econ, 8/5/17, p.45)
1868        The Anglican church began to hold conferences for bishops. The conferences were then convened every ten years.
    (SFEC, 8/2/98,  p.A23)
1868        A collection of photos by Gustave Le Gray was donated to the Victoria and Albert Museum.
    (WSJ, 3/24/98, p.A20)
1868        Britain’s first fully diversified managed fund (mutual fund), appeared. Foreign & Colonial was established to invest in foreign bonds.
    (WSJ, 1/3/07, p.R6)(Econ, 3/17/12, p.85)
1868        Matthew Boulton obtained a British patent on a design for ailerons as control surfaces.
    (NPub, 2002, p.5)
1868        A new meat market opened in London at the site of the old Smithfield livestock market. The original Metropolitan Railway passed underneath allowing the market to receive much of its meat by hydraulic lifts. The railways stopped carrying meat after 1950.
    (Econ, 1/26/13, p.16)
1868        Judah P. Benjamin (1811-1884), born a British subject in the Virgin Islands in 1811, went on to become the first professed Jew elected to U.S. Senate, from the state of Louisiana in 1852. He served the American Confederacy as attorney general (1861) and then as secretary of war (1861--2) and escaped to Britain. He wrote the Treatise on the Law of Sale of Personal Property (1868), which at once became the standard in the field. In 1872, he became a counsel to the queen. Benjamin died in Paris.
    (HNQ, 12/8/98)
1868        Ethiopia’s Prince Alemayehu (7), son of Tewodros II, was placed on a ship to Britain and enrolled in boarding school. He died aged 18 of suspected pleurisy in the northern city of Leeds, after years of loneliness. In 2007 Ethiopia called for the return of his remains.
    (Reuters, 6/3/07)
1868        Following the defeat of Ethiopian emperor Tewodros by British troops, victorious soldiers stole an 18-carat gold crown, more than 500 ancient manuscripts and a painting. A British soldier took the wooden Tabot of St. Michael from the fortress of Emp. Tewodros II at Maqdala. It was returned in 2002. In 2007 Ethiopia requested that all the stolen treasures be returned. In 2021 13 stolen artefacts were finally returned home following months of negotiations.
    (AM, 5/01, p.10)(AP, 6/3/10)(Reuters, 4/24/18)(Reuters, 11/22/21)

1868-1926    Gertrude Bell, British adventuress, advisor to kings, ally of Lawrence of Arabia. She wrote "The Desert and the Sown" and spent much of her life in the Arab world whilst spying for Britain in Egypt and Mesopotamia. Her 1996 biography by Janet Wallach is: "Desert Queen, The Extraordinary Life of Gertrude Bell."
    (SFEC, 9/15/96, BR p.5)(Hem., 5/97, p.99)

1868-1952    Norman Douglas, Scottish [British] author: Justice is too good for some people and not good enough for the rest. "You can tell the ideals of a nation by its advertisements."
    (AP, 11/3/97)(AP, 5/22/99)

1869        Mar 18, Neville Chamberlin, British Prime Minister (1937-40), was born. He tried to make peace "in our time" with German Chancellor Adolf Hitler, but instead made it easier for Hitler to take over continental Europe.
    (HN, 3/18/99)

1869        Aug 17, Oxford beat Harvard on the Thames River in the 1st international boat race.
    (SC, 8/17/02)

1869        Sep 12 Peter M. Roget, English physician and lexographer, died. In 2008 Joshua Kendall authored “The Man Who Made Lists: Love, Death, Madness, and the Creation of Roget’s Thesaurus" (1852).
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Peter_Roget)(WSJ, 3/22/08, p.W10)

1869        Nov 22, The Cutty Sark, a British 3-masted clipper ship, was launched to win the tea race in China. It later became the fastest ship on the Australia wool run.
    (Econ, 4/14/12, p.67)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cutty_Sark)

1869        Francis Galton, British psychologist, authored “Hereditary Genius," in which he argued that natural abilities are derived by inheritance.
    (Econ, 9/17/05, p.32)(www.thoemmes.com/psych/galton.htm)

1869        Thomas Henry Huxley, English biologist, naturalist and writer, coined the term "agnostic" after he got tired of being called an atheist.
    (SFEC, 2/15/98, Z1 p.8)

1869        The grandparents of Alan Sainsbury (1902-1998) founded a family grocery in London that grew to become a supermarket empire.
    (SFC, 10/27/98, p.B6)

1869-1876    The Midland Railway Company built the 70-mile Settle-Carlisle railway.
    (Hem., 1/97, p.114)

1870        Feb 16, The clipper ship Cutty Sark left London on its first voyage, proceeding around Cape Hope to Shanghai 3 1/2 months later. The ship made only eight voyages to China in the tea trade, as steam ships replaced sail on the high seas.
    (AP, 5/21/07)

1870        Jun 9, Charles Dickens (58), writer, died in Gad’s Hill, England. His work included the "Pictures from Italy" and “Oliver Twist." In 2009 Michael Slater authored “Charles Dickens." In 2011 Claire Tomalin authored “Charles Dickens: A Life."
    (www.lang.nagoya-u.ac.jp/~matsuoka/CD-Chro.html)(AP, 6/9/07)(Econ, 9/12/09, p.92)(SSFC, 11/27/11, p.F5)

1870        Aug 25, Richard Seymour-Conway (b.1800), the Fourth Marquees of Hertford, died in Paris. Richard Wallace (1818-1890), his illegitimate son, learned that the nobleman was his father and inherited a priceless collection of paintings, sculptures, furniture and decorative objects. Much of the collection was bequeathed to Britain following the 1897 death of Wallace’s French wife.
    (http://tinyurl.com/lpesbym)(Econ, 9/20/14, p.80)

1870        Sep 6, The last British troops to serve in Austria were withdrawn.
    (HN, 9/6/98)

1870        Oct 19, The British SS Cambria left for the North Sea coast. 196 were killed.
    (MC, 10/19/01)

1870        Oct 20, The Summer Palace in Beijing, China, was burnt to the ground by a Franco-British expeditionary force.
    (HN, 10/20/98)

1870        Nov 29, Compulsory education was proclaimed in England.
    (MC, 11/29/01)

1870        Cecil Charles Windsor Aldin, popular artist, was born in London. His "Fallowfield Hunt" scenes were published in 1900 for home decoration. The Buffalo Pottery Co. of NY used the prints on dishes from 1908-1909.
    (SFC, 1/8/97, z-1 p.6)
1870        Britain’s neo-Gothic Palace of Westminster was completed.
    (Econ, 7/27/19, p.51)
1870        The 1st place golf prize for the British Open in Scotland, a red leather belt with a silver buckle, was retired.
    (https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/The_Open_Championship)(WSJ, 7/21/00, p.W9)
1870        Britain’s Forfeiture Act abolished the forfeiture of goods and land as a punishment for treason and felony. It did not apply to Scotland. Section 2 has remained in force, and states that anyone convicted of treason shall be disqualified from holding public office and shall lose his right to vote in elections (except in elections to local authorities).
    (Econ, 10/31/09, p.16)(http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/uk_news/4316148.stm)
1870        By this time the British government had begun attempts to regulate firearms.
    (WSJ, 8/6/02, p.D6)
1870        British PM William Gladstone introduced the first excise duties to tax beer on its strength.
    (Econ, 12/24/16, p.62)
1870        The US surpassed Britain about this time as the world’s largest economic power, but it was not until about 1925 that the dollar overtook sterling in international importance.
    (Econ, 1/22/11, p.98)

1870-1963    Herbert Samuel, English political leader: "The world is like a mirror; frown at it, and it frowns at you. Smile, and it smiles, too."
    (AP, 1/5/00)

1871        Jan 1, Sir Henry Durand (b.1812), British lord of the frontier between India and Afghanistan, died after an elephant he was riding reared and brained him on a stone archway in Tonk (later Tank, Pakistan).
    (Econ, 1/2/10, p.18)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Henry_Marion_Durand)

1871        Mar 29, Queen Victoria opened Albert Hall in London.
    (MC, 3/29/02)

1871        Sep 7, Cowper Phipps Coles, English inventor (Steel warships), drowned.
    (MC, 9/7/01)

1871        Oct 18, Charles Babbage (b.1792), English mathematician and inventor of a calculating machine, died. In 2001 Doron Swade authored “The Difference Engine: Charles Babbage and the Quest to Build the First Computer."
    (www.thocp.net/biographies/babbage_charles.html)(WSJ, 3/7/09, p.W8)

1871        Dec 27, World's 1st cat show took place at the Crystal Palace, London.
    (MC, 12/27/01)

1871        Thomas Moran of England was the artist on a US government expedition to Yellowstone and painted "Nearing Camp, Evening on the Upper Colorado River." The painting sold for $2.2 million in 1999 to the municipal art gallery in Bolton, Lancashire.
    (SFC, 1/18/99, p.B2)
1871        Charles Darwin (1809-1882) published his "Descent of Man, and Selection in Relation to Sex."
1871        English author Charles Lutwidge Dodgson (1832-1989), aka Lewis Carroll, authored “Through the Looking Glass," as sequel to “Alice’s Adventures in Wonderland."
1871        Belize was declared a Crown Colony.
    (SFC, 11/2/00, p.A12)
1871        Pepita, a celebrated Spanish dancer, died. She had captivated British diplomat Lionel Sackville, later the second Lord Sackville in 1852 and bore him seven children, five of whom survived. In 2014 Robert Sackvile-West authored “The Disinherited: A Story of Family, Love and Betrayal."
    (Econ, 4/26/14, p.82)

1871-1872    George Eliot (1819-1880), English writer born as Mary Ann Evans, published her novel "Middlemarch" in 8 parts.
    (WSJ, 2/10/07, p.P8)(www.kirjasto.sci.fi/gelliot.htm)

1871-1914    Robert Hugh Benson, English author and clergyman: "You can love a person deeply and sincerely whom you do not like. You can like a person passionately whom you do not love."
    (AP, 9/16/98)

1872        Feb 6, Sir Thomas Phillips (b.1792), English book collector, died. He had declared that he wanted a copy of every book in the world.
    (www.kingkong.demon.co.uk/ngcoba/ph.htm)(Econ, 12/24/05, p.110)

1872        May 18, Bertrand Russell (d.1970), English mathematician, philosopher and social reformer, was born.
    (WSJ, 9/27/96, p.A16)(AP, 1/7/99)(HN, 5/18/99)

1872        Jul 18, Britain introduced the Ballot Act for voting by secret ballot. [see Aug. 15]
    (AP, 7/18/97)(HN, 7/18/98)

1872        Aug 15, The first secret ballot voting in England was conducted to re-elect Hugh Childers as MP for Pontefract in a ministerial by-election following his appointment as Chancellor of the Duchy of Lancaster. [see July 18]

1872        Aug 21, Aubrey Beardsley (d.1898), English artist (Salome), was born in Brighton.
    (SC, 8/21/02)

1872        Aug 24, Max Beerbohm (d.1956), critic, caricaturist, writer, wit (Saturday Review), was born in England. His work included  "Nobody ever died of laughter."
    (AP, 4/9/97)(MC, 8/24/02)

1872        Sep 14, Britain paid US $15 million for damages during Civil War. The British government paid £3 million in damages to the United States in compensation for building the Confederate commerce-raider Alabama. The confederate navy‘s Alabama was built at the Birkenhead shipyards. Despite its official neutrality during the American Civil War, Britain allowed the warship to leave port, and it subsequently played havoc with Federal shipping. The U.S. claimed compensation, and a Court of Arbitration at Geneva agreed, setting the amount at £3 million.
    (HNQ, 9/2/00)(ON, 9/01, p.12)

1872        Oct 12, Ralph Vaughan Williams, composer (Hugh the Drover), was born in Down Amp, England.
    (MC, 10/12/01)

1872        Dec 3, George Smith, Assyriologist at the British Museum, presented a lecture before the Biblical Archeology Society in London, on Assyrian tablets that described an ancient flood as part of an epic whose hero was named Gilgamesh.
    (ON, 11/07, p.4)

1872        Dec 21, The HMS Challenger, under Captain George Nares, sailed from Portsmouth, England, on a 4-year journey to survey the world’s oceans.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Challenger_expedition)(Econ, 4/17/10, SR p.13)

1872        Dante Gabriel Rosetti (1828-1882), English painter and founder of the a Pre-Raphaelite Brotherhood created his work "Veronica Veronese."
    (https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Dante_Gabriel_Rossetti)(SSFC, 7/1/18, p.E2)
1872        C.P. Scott began editing the Guardian in England and continued for almost 60 years. Scott was a friend of Zionist Chaim Weizmann. In 2004 Daphna Baram authored “Disenchantment: The Guardian and Israel."
    (Econ, 7/31/04, p.71)
1872        London’s Clerkenwell fire station began operations. Its closure on Jan 9, 2014, marked the end of Britain’s oldest operating fire station.
    (AFP, 1/9/14)
1872        The right of assembly was established and the first lawful public meetings were held at the Reformer's Tree in Hyde Park.
    (SFEM, 3/21/99, p.24)

1873        Mar 24, Mary Ann Cotton (b.1832), English serial killer, was tried and hanged. She was said to have killed three of her four husbands, a lover, her mother and 11 of her 13 children.
    (https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mary_Ann_Cotton)(Econ, 1/7/17, p.34)

1873                Apr 1,  The British White Star steamship Atlantic sank off Nova Scotia killing 547.

1873        May 1, David Livingstone (60), British physician, explorer (Africa), died in Chitambo, Zambia. His body passed through Zanzibar for a funeral in London in Apr 18, 1874.
    (MC, 5/1/02)(SSFC, 7/13/03, p.C9)

1873        May 8, John Stuart Mill (b.1806), British philosopher and economist, died in Avignon, France. He completed his autobiography just before death. Here he wrote that happiness is the incidental by-product of pursuing some other worthy goal.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/John_Stuart_Mill)(Econ, 4/21/12, p.84)

1883        Jun 2, Four gentlemen departed London on velocipedes and spent the next 2 weeks bicycling 800 miles to John O’Grouts in Scotland.
    (ON, 1/00, p.5)

1873        Sep 20, A financial panic hit the US when the high-flying bond dealer, Jay Cooke, granted too many loans to the railroads. Panic spread to Europe as London and Paris markets crashed and the New York Stock Exchange closed for the first time for 10 days.
    (WSJ, 2/27/95, p.A-10)(WSJ, 7/8/96, p.C1)(WSJ, 10/7/98, p.A22)

1873        Walter Bagehot (1826-1877), British economist, authored “Lombard Street: A Description of the Money Market." The 1st edition was dated Dec 31, 1872.
    (Econ, 8/18/07, p.68)(www.econlib.org/Library/Bagehot/bagLom.html)
1873        British army officers brought back from India the game of poona. They played it on the country estate of the Duke of Beaufort. The estate was named Badminton and thus poona became known as badminton.
    (WSJ, 7/23/96, p.A6)
1873        Britain sent an agent, Henry Wickham, to Brazil to get rubber seeds. The Seedlings were cultivated in Kew Gardens and transplanted to Malaysia.
    (WSJ, 1/11/99, p.R50)
1873        In England the Brunner Mond chemical firm began operating a few miles from Quarry Bank Mill at Styal. In 2006 Brunner Mond was bought by India’s Tata Chemicals.
    (Econ, 9/24/11, SR p.19)
1873        The British based Rio Tinto Company was formed by investors to mine ancient copper workings at Rio Tinto near Huelva in southern Spain. By 2003 the company had mining interests in 40 countries and revenues of $11.8 billion.
    (www.riotinto.com/whoweare/timeline.asp)(WSJ, 11/17/04, p.A12)
1873        Hancock & Whittingham made earthenware in Stoke, Staffordshire, England, and continued to 1879.
    (SFC, 1/23/08, p.G5)
1873        The four Martin brothers began making stoneware in London and continued to 1923. In 1885 they introduced jugs modeled with human faces on each side.
    (SFC, 12/19/06, p.G3)

1874        Feb 20, Benjamin Disraeli replaced William Gladstone as English premier. Disraeli's 2nd ministry continued to 1880.

1874        Apr 16, Dr. David Livingstone's corpse arrived in Southampton.
    (MC, 4/16/02)

1874        Apr 18, David Livingstone was buried in Westminster Abbey.
    (MC, 4/18/02)

1874        May 29, G.K. Chesterton (d.1936), English poet-essayist, was born. "Every man is dangerous who only cares for one thing."
    (AP, 8/4/99)(HN, 5/29/01)

1874        Jul 12, Start of Sherlock Holmes Adventure, "Gloria Scott."
    (MC, 7/12/02)

1874        Nov 30, Sir Winston Churchill, British statesman, was born at Blenheim Palace in Oxfordshire, England. After attending the Royal Military College, he served as a reporter and writer, and then in different positions in Parliament as his political power grew. His most influential role was as British prime minister during World War II from 1940 to 1945. Churchill had been part of the Cabinet during World War I, but his judgment was questioned and his political career ebbed. Up against the threat of Adolf Hitler, however, Churchill committed himself to defeating the Nazis and succeeded. Working together with President Franklin D. Roosevelt and Josef Stalin, he managed to turn the tide of the war in favor of the Allies. Churchill served again as prime minister from 1951 to 1955. He died at his home in London in 1965.
    (AP, 11/30/97)(HNPD, 11/30/98)(HN, 11/30/98)

1874        Edward Burne-Jones painted "The Beguiling of Merlin."
    (WSJ, 5/29/98, p.W10)
1874        The British East India Company, having paid it final dividend in 1873, folded.
    (Econ, 12/17/11, p.111)
1874        David Stanley, British journalist, crossed Africa from the east to the west across the Congo River basin on a 999-day journey sponsored by London’s Daily Telegraph. In 2004 Tim Butcher, also a journalist for the Daily Telegraph, followed Stanley’s path on a trip that took 44 days. In 2008 Butcher authored “Blood River: A Journey to Africa’s Broken Heart."
    (WSJ, 10/31/08, p.A15)

1874-1948    Holbrook Jackson, British critic and historian: "A mother never realizes that her children are no longer children."
    (AP, 5/14/00)

1874-1965     W. Somerset Maugham English author-dramatist: "The tragedy of love is indifference."
    (AP, 11/29/97)

1875        Apr 1, Edgar Wallace, novelist, playwright, journalist (Terror), was born in England.
    (MC, 4/1/02)

1875        Apr 17, The game of "snooker" was invented by Sir Neville Chamberlain.
    (HN, 4/17/98)

1875        Aug 2, The world’s 1st roller skating rink opened in London.
    (MC, 8/2/02)

1875        Aug 9, Albert William Ketelbey, composer (In a Monastery Garden), was born in Aston, England.
    (MC, 8/9/02)

1875        Aug 25, Captain Matthew Webb (1848-1883) became the first person to swim across the English Channel, traveling from Dover, England, to Calais, France, in 21 hours and 45 min. Swimming the Channel entails about 35 miles of swimming due to currents in waters that are 55 to 65 degrees Fahrenheit.
    (AP, 8/25/97)(HN, 8/25/98)(ON, 2/05, p.12)

1875        Oct 12, Aleister [Edward S] Crowley (d.1947), (75 pseudonyms), British occultist-American mystic, was born.
    (SSFC, 1/14/01, BR p.12)(MC, 10/12/01)

1875        William Ernest Henley, English poet, wrote his poem "Invictus" at the end of his stay in an infirmary for tuberculosis. The last 2 lines read "I am the master of my fate: I am the captain of my soul."
    (SFC, 6/12/01, p.A12)
1875        Anthony Trollope authored “The Way We Live Now," a scathing satirical novel published in London. It was regarded by many of Trollope's contemporaries as his finest work. The story includes the description of a great railroad stock swindle by Augustus Melmotte, a foreign-born financier with a mysterious past.
    (Econ, 4/25/09, p.88)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/The_Way_We_Live_Now)

1876        Feb 16, George Macauley Trevelyan (d.1962), English historian (Giuseppi Garibaldi), was born: "’History repeats itself’ and ‘History never repeats itself’ are about equally true ... We never know enough about the infinitely complex circumstances of any past event to prophesy the future by analogy."
    (AP, 4/14/01)(MC, 2/16/02)

1876        Feb 18, A direct telegraph link was established between Britain & New Zealand.
    (MC, 2/18/02)

1876        Jun 21, The first gorilla arrived in Britain.
    (Camelot, 6/21/99)

1876        Aug 19, George Smith (b.1840), British Assyriologist, died of dysentery in Syria. He was on his way home from a 3rd trip to Mesopotamia. Smith had completed the translation of the complete Epic of Gilgamesh in 1874.
    (ON, 11/07, p.6)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/George_Smith_(assyriologist))

1876        George Eliot (1819-1880), Englishwoman writer, authored “Daniel Deronda," the story of man who discovers his Jewish origins.
    (WSJ, 9/22/07, p.W6)
1876        William Morris (1834-1896), English textile designer, published his epic poem about Sigurd the Volsung.
    (https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/William_Morris)(Econ, 3/4/17, p.68)
1876        Anthony Trollope (1815-1882) authored “The Prime Minister," the 5th of a sextet of novels known as “The Pallisers." It offered sharp insights on power, sex, love and money.
    (WSJ, 8/26/06, p.P8 )
1876        Queen Victoria added the title of Empress of India.
    (SFEC, 8/3/97, p.A15)
1876        British Parliament passed the Unseaworthy Ships Bill (Merchant Shipping Act). It was advocated by Samuel Plimsoll (1824-1898), author of “Our Seaman." The Act required a series of lines to be painted on the ship to show the maximum loading point. A salesman for the Liverpool Rubber Company attached the Plimsoll name to a line of canvas shoes.
    (www.victorianweb.org/history/plimsoll.html)(Econ, 7/8/06, p.79)
1876        James Murray agreed to take over as editor of a new dictionary being compiled by England’s Philological Society. In 1878 Oxford Univ. Press agreed to publish the dictionary and Murray agreed to produce the work in 10 years.
    (ON, 11/05, p.5)
1876        Charles Roberts reported the statures of some 100,000 children drawn from the registers of London military hospitals. It was one of the first statistical inquiries into the economics of height.
    (Econ, 4/5/08, p.82)

1877        Jan, Englishmen Sir Erasmus Wilson donated money to bring the obelisk of Alexandria to Britain. He hired civil engineer John Dixon to bring it to London. Dixon designed an iron pontoon ship called the Cleopatra to carry the obelisk.
    (ON, 6/20/11, p.9)

1877        Mar 24, Walter Bagehot (b.1826), British economist and author of “The English Constitution" (1867), died. He edited the Economist Magazine from 1861 until his death.
    (WSJ, 11/7/02, p.D8)(http://en.wikiquote.org/wiki/Walter_Bagehot)

1877        Apr 10, The 1st human cannonball act was performed in London.
    (MC, 4/10/02)

1877        Jun 3, Frank Pocock, British explorer, drowned in the Congo.
    (MC, 6/3/02)

1877        Jul 9, The All England Croquet and Lawn Tennis Club began hosting the first Wimbledon tennis tournament. There was only a men's draw that year, and on July 19 Spencer Gore bested a field of 22 players to win the first title.

1877        Oct 14, A storm in the Bay of Biscay caused the British pontoon ship Cleopatra, carrying  the obelisk of Alexandria, to tilt precariously in the sea. 6 seamen from the tow ship Olga died as they tried to assist the men on the Cleopatra.
    (ON, 6/20/11, p.10)

1877        Aug 27, Charles Stewart Rolls, British auto manufacturer (Rolls-Royce Ltd.), was born.
    (MC, 8/27/02)

1877        Sep 11, James Jeans (d.1946), English physicist, mathematician and astronomer, was born. He was the first to propose that matter is continuously created throughout the universe.
    (HN, 9/11/00)(www.britannica.com)

1877        Sep 17, William Henry Fox Talbot (b.1800), British inventor, died. He pioneered instantaneous photography and invented paper photography with the negative-positive system now in use. Talbot produced the first book with photographic illustrations, serialized as "The Pencil of Nature," from 1844-1846. In 1980 Gail Buckland authored "Fox Talbot and the Invention of Photography."
    (AHD, 1971, p. 1312)(WSJ, 3/24/98, p.A20)(ON, 4/00, p.11)(SFC, 12/26/02, p.E9)

1877        Nov 17, Gilbert & Sullivan's operetta "The Sorcerer," premiered (London).
    (MC, 11/17/01)

1877        John Roddam Spencer Stanhope, member of Britain’s Aesthetic Movement, painted "Love and the Maiden." Stanhope (1829-1908) is often regarded as a second-wave pre-Raphaelite.
    (https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/John_Everett_Millais)(SFC, 2/4/03, p.D2)(SFC, 6/30/18, p.E2)
1877        James McNeil Whistler completed his interior room “Harmony in Blue and Gold" better known as the Peacock Room. The 2-year project was his transformation of the London dining room of shipping magnate Frederick Leyland. The room was later transported to the Smithsonian’s Freer Gallery. In 1998 Linda Merrill authored “The Peacock Room: A Cultural Biography."
    (WSJ, 9/15/07, p.W16)
1877        The Grosvenor Gallery opened in London as an alternative showplace for painters ignored by the Royal Academy.
    (SFC, 2/4/03, p.D2)
1877        The London Metal Exchange was founded.
    (Econ, 5/12/12, p.82)(http://www.lme.com/who_ourhistory.asp)
1877        In England the oldest known calendar plate with a business advertisement was made by J.W. Harrison of Liverpool.
    (SFC, 12/15/98, Z1 p.6)
1877        Arthur Downes and Thomas P. Blunt of Shrewsbury proved the bactericidal action of light. Blunt was offered a British knighthood for his achievements in research, but humbly declined. His partner in research, Arthur Downes, accepted the title.

1877        A Hawaiian princess gave a patch of land, smaller than a tennis court, on Kealakekua Bay, Hawaii, to Britain as a memorial to Capt. James Cook.
    (SSFC, 12/22/02, p.C4)

1878        Mar 3, Russia and the Ottomans signed the Treaty of San Stefano, granting independence to Serbia. With the Treaty of San Stefano (and subsequent negotiations in Berlin) in the wake of the last Russo-Turkish War, the Ottoman Empire lost its possession of numerous territories including Bulgaria, Montenegro, Romania, and Serbia. The Russo-Turkish wars dated to the 17th century, the Russians generally gaining territory and influence over the declining Ottoman Empire. In the last war, Russia and Serbia supported rebellions in the Balkans. In concluding the Treaty of San Stefano, the Ottomans released control of Montenegro, Romania and Serbia, granted autonomy to Bosnia and Herzegovina, and allowed an autonomous state of Bulgaria to be placed under Russian control.
    (HN, 3/3/99)(HNQ, 2/23/01)
1878         Mar 3, The Treaty of San Stefano was signed after Russo-Turkish War. It assigned Albanian-populated lands to Bulgaria, Montenegro and Serbia; but Austria-Hungary and Britain blocked the treaty's implementation. Albanian leaders meet in Prizren, Kosova, to form the League of Prizren. The League initially advocated autonomy for Albania. At the Congress of Berlin, the Great Powers overturned the Treaty of San Stefano and divided Albanian lands among several states. The League of Prizren began to organize resistance to the Treaty of Berlin's provisions that affected Albanians.
    (www, Albania, 1998)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Treaty_of_San_Stefano)

1878        May 25, Gilbert & Sullivan’s opera "HMS Pinafore" premiered in London.
    (SC, 5/25/02)

1878        Jun 1, John Masefield (d.1967), England’s 15th poet laureate, was born. "To most of us the future seems unsure. But then it always has been; and we who have seen great changes must have great hopes."
    (AP, 1/1/00)(HN, 6/1/01)(MC, 6/1/02)

1878        Jun 4, The Ottoman Empire turned over control of Cyprus to the British. The Congress of Berlin leased Cyprus to Britain.
    (AP, 6/4/08)(Econ, 10/23/10, SR p.10)

1878        Jun 23, Adm. George Back (b.1796), English Arctic explorer, died in London.

1878        Jul 13, The Treaty of Berlin was the final act of the Congress of Berlin (13 June – 13 July 1878), by which the United Kingdom, Austria-Hungary, France, Germany, Italy, Russia and the Ottoman Empire under Sultan Abdul Hamid II revised the Treaty of San Stefano signed on 3 March the same year. The Treaty of San Stefano had ended the Russo-Turkish War of 1877-78. The Congress of Berlin divided the Balkans among European powers. The Slavic converts to Islam in the Sandzak region of southwestern Serbia were separated from their ethnic cousins in Bosnia.
    (https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Treaty_of_Berlin_(1878))    (AP, 7/13/97)(HN, 7/13/98)(WSJ, 6/16/99, p.A20)

1878        Sep 21, The obelisk of Alexandria was erected upright at a public park in London.
    (ON, 6/20/11, p.10)

1878        Nov 25, In London a trial opened to hear the suit of James McNeill Whistler (1834-1903) against critic John Ruskin for libel. After a 2-day hearing the jury found Ruskin guilty and awarded Whistler one farthing, a quarter of a penny. Whistler later authored “The Gentle Art of Making Enemies" (1890).
    (www.abcgallery.com/W/whistler/whistlerbio.html)(ON, 4/03, p.9)

1878        The English soccer club Manchester United was formed as Newton Heath LYR Football Club by the Carriage and Wagon department of the Lancashire and Yorkshire Railway depot at Newton Heath.
    (SFC, 8/11/12, p.D2)(www.spartacus.schoolnet.co.uk/FmanchesterU.htm)
1878        The New Wharf Pottery Co. began operating in Burslem in the Staffordshire district of England. It later became part of Wood & Son and from 1890-1894 used a rope identification mark.
    (SFC, 2/5/97, z-1 p.7)
1878        Henry and James Doulton purchased a major interest in Pinder, Bourne & Co., a pottery in Burslem, Staffordshire, England. In 1882 they changed the name to Doulton & Co.
    (SFC, 10/18/06, p.G3)
1878        The 1st electric street lights were deployed alongside Holburn Viaduct in London, England.
    (Econ, 12/1/07, p.79)

1878        In Afghanistan the new Amir, Dost Mohammad’s son, signed a treaty of friendship with Russia. British Gen’l. Frederick "Little Bobs" Roberts was sent with an army to force Afghanistan into a treaty ceding foreign policy to the British. The treaty was concluded but the British envoy was murdered.
    (WSJ, 8/25/98, p.A14)
1878         Start of second Anglo-Afghan War. The British invaded and the Afghans quickly  put up a strong resistance.

1879        Jan 1, E.M. [Edward Morgan] Forster, English novelist famous for "A Passage to India" and "A Room With a View," was born in London. His novels exemplified his ideas about the conflict  between the imaginative and the earthy component of the human soul and character.
    (V.D.-H.K.p.366)(HN, 1/1/99)

1879        Jan 11, The Zulu war against British colonial rule in South Africa began. [see Jan 12]
    (MC, 1/11/02)

1879        Jan 12, British-Zulu War began as British troops under Lieutenant General Frederic Augustus invaded Zululand from the southern African republic of Natal. [see Jan 11]
    (MC, 1/12/02)

1879        Mar 2, Julia Martha Thomas (55), a wealthy widow, was killed by her housekeeper Kate Webster (29) very close to Park Road in well-to-do Richmond, England, but her head was never found. Webster was tried and executed, but Thomas’ head was never found until it was unearthed in October, 2010, by workmen building an extension at the home of David Attenborough, the face of BBC natural history programs for more than 50 years. In 2011 the skull was formally recognized as that of Julia Martha Thomas.
    (AFP, 7/6/11)

1879        Mar 12, The British Zulu War began. [see Jan 11]
    (HN, 3/12/98)

1879        Mar 28, British mounted troops under Colonel Henry Evelyn Wood went up Hlobane Mountain to battle the Zulus—only to be surrounded by a 22,000-man impi (army). Lieutenant Colonel Redvers Buller, received the Victoria Cross for his gallantry during the difficult withdrawal of his troopers from the mountain. Hlobane was the worst rout of British cavalry—and the last Zulu victory—of the Anglo-Zulu War in South Africa.
    (HN, 3/12/98)(HN, 3/28/99)

1879        Mar 29, Some 2,000 British and Colonial troops of the 90th Light Infantry Regiment under the command of Colonel Henry Evelyn Wood repulsed a major attack by 20,000 Zulu tribesmen at Khambula, Zululand. Jubilant over their victory at Hlobane the day before, the Zulus prepared to finish off the British at Khambula. This time, however, the outcome was different as the Zulus vainly assaulted British foes who were dug in and ready for them. The assault, depicted in "The Battle of Khambula" by Angus McBride, ended in failure for the Zulus, leaving them doubting for the first time their ability to win the Anglo-Zulu War.
    (HN, 3/29/99)(MC, 3/29/02)
1879        Apr 29, Sir Thomas Beecham, founder of London Philharmonic, was born.
    (HN, 4/29/98)

1879        May 19, Lord Waldorf Astor, British publisher, was born.
    (HN, 5/19/98)
1879        May 19, Lady Nancy Astor (Nancy Witcher Langhorne) was born. She was the first woman to sit in the British House of Commons.
    (HN, 5/19/99)

1879        May 25, W. Maxwell Aitken, Lord Beaverbrook, Canada-English banker, was born.
    (SC, 5/25/02)

1879        Aug 13, John N. Ireland, English composer, pianist (Mai-Dun), was born.
    (MC, 8/13/02)

1879        Oct 12, British troops occupied Kabul, Afghanistan.
    (MC, 10/12/01)

1879        Dec 30, Gilbert & Sullivan's "Pirates of Penzance," premiered in London.
    (MC, 12/30/01)

1879        A cylindrical lump of platinum-iridium alloy was cast in Hatton Garden, England, and then dispatched to the Int’l. Bureau of weights and Measures (BIPM) in Sevres, France, as the standard measure for one kilogram.
    (Econ, 1/29/11, p.79)   

1879        Gen’l. Roberts returned to Kabul to hang some Afghans in punishment for the murder of a British envoy. Roberts was besieged and another British force in southern Afghanistan was almost annihilated. Roberts retreated in a march from Kabul to Kandahar.
    (WSJ, 8/25/98, p.A14)
1879         Sher Ali died in Mazar-i-Shariff, and Amir Muhammad Yaqub Khan took over until October 1879. Amir Muhammad Yaqub Khan gave up the following Afghan territories to the British: Kurram, Khyber, Michni, Pishin, and Sibi. Afghans lost these territories permanently.

1879        The Cyrus Cylinder was discovered by the Assyro-British archaeologist Hormuzd Rassam in the foundations of the Esagila, the main temple of Babylon, and was later placed in the British Museum in London. The cylinder was created following the Persian conquest of Babylon in 539 BC, when Cyrus overthrew the Babylonian king Nabonidus and replaced him as ruler, ending the Neo-Babylonian Empire.  It was later considered as the world's first declaration of human rights.
    (http://tinyurl.com/lma678)(AFP, 2/7/10)

1879-1949    Robert Lynd, British essayist: "Were I a philosopher, I should write a philosophy of toys, showing that nothing else in life need to be taken seriously, and that Christmas Day in the company of children is one of the few occasions on which men become entirely alive."
    (AP, 12/25/98)
1879-1963    Lord Beveridge, British economist: "Scratch a pessimist, and you find often a defender of privilege."
    (AP, 3/25/99)

1880        Mar 1, Lytton Strachey (d.1932), English biographer, critic (Benson Medal 1923), was born. "Uninterpreted truth is as useless as buried gold." 
    (AP, 3/25/00)(SC, 3/1/02)

1880        Apr 15, William Gladstone became Prime Minister of England.
    (HN, 4/15/98)

1880         Jul, In the Battle of Maiwand an Afghan woman named Malalai carried the Afghan flag forward after the soldiers carrying the flag were killed by the British. She becomes a heroine for her show of courage and valor. The 1892 Kipling poem “Barracks Room Ballads" recalled the Battle of Maiwand.
    (https://www.afghan-web.com/history/chronology/)(SSFC, 10/28/01, p.C8)

1880        Aug 1, Sir Frederick Roberts freed the British Afghanistan garrison of Kandahar from Afghan rebels.
    (HN, 8/1/98)

1880        Nov 25, Leonard Sidney Woolf (d.1969), English publisher, writer, was born.

1880        Dec 19, Frank Buckland (b.1826), English surgeon, zoologist, popular author and natural historian, died. In 2016 Richard Girling authored “The Man Who Ate the Zoo: Frank Buckland, Forgotten Hero of Natural History."
    (http://tinyurl.com/jk9t4x2)(Econ, 11/12/16, p.74)

1880        Britain assigned all North American Arctic islands to Canada, right up to Ellesmere Island. From this vast swath of territory were created three provinces (Manitoba, Saskatchewan, Alberta) and two territories (Yukon and Nunavut), and two extensions each to Quebec, Ontario, and Manitoba.
1880        A British effort to tunnel under the Channel stopped after 1½ miles.  The Chunnel was completed in 1994.
    (WSJ, 1/11/99, p.R49)
1880        William Harry Grindley started W.H. Grindley & Co. of Tunstall, Staffordshire, England, for the manufacture of English china. The business continued until 1991.
    (SFC, 12/19/07, p.G5)
1880        Britain’s exports of manufactured goods accounted for 40% of the global total.
    (Econ, 2/3/07, SR p.3)
1880        The British, shortly after the accession of the new Amir, withdrew from Afghanistan, although they retained the right to handle Afghanistan's foreign relations.

1880s        The Doulton factory in Burslem produced traditional-style earthenware pieces.
    (SFC, 2/4/98, Z1 p.6)

1880-1958    Dame Christabel Pankhurst, English suffragist: "Never lose your temper with the press or the public is a major rule of political life."
    (AP, 3/21/99)

1881        Feb 5, Thomas Carlyle (b.1795), Scottish essayist and historian, died in London.

1881        Feb 26, SS Ceylon began its 1st round-the-world cruise from Liverpool.
    (SC, 2/26/02)

1881        Mar 4, Fiction’s Sherlock Holmes and Watson began "A Study in Scarlet", their 1st case together.
    (SC, 3/4/02)
1881        Mar 4, South African President Kruger accepted a cease-fire with the British in the First Boer War (1880-1881 – aka Transvaal Revolt). [see Mar 23]
    (SC, 3/4/02)

1881        Mar 23, Boers and Britain signed a peace accord. This ended the 1st Boer war.
    (SS, 3/23/02)

1881        May 24, Samuel Palmer (b.1805), English painter and printmaker, died. He was a leading light in a brotherhood of painters called the “Ancients," for their preference of archaic Gothic architecture. In 2011 Rachel Campbell-Johnston authored “Mysterious Wisdom: the Life and Work of Samuel Palmer."
    (Econ, 6/25/11, p.98)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Samuel_Palmer)

1881        Apr 19, Benjamin Disraeli, 1st Earl of Beaconsfield, British PM (1868, 1874-1880), novelist, died.
    (WUD, 1994 p.415)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Benjamin_Disraeli)

1881        Apr 23, Gilbert & Sullivan's opera "Patience" was produced in London.
    (MC, 4/23/02)

1881        Aug 6, Alexander Fleming (d.1955), British (Scottish) bacteriologist who co-discovered penicillin in [1928] 1929, was born. He won the Nobel Prize in 1954.
    (AHD, 1971, p.501)(WUD, 1994, p.542)(HN, 8/6/98)(MC, 8/6/02)

1881        Oct 15, Pelham Grenville Wodehouse (d.1975), British writer and humorist, was born in Guildford, Surrey, England. He produced 93 books and countless articles and short stories. He was the creator of the two great comic characters: Bertie Wooster and his valet, Jeeves.
    (Hem., 10/’95, p.109)(HN, 10/15/00)

1881        Dec 10, Viscount Alexander of Tunis, British soldier, was born. He took his title from his part in the Allied victories in North Africa.
    (HN, 12/10/99)

1881        In London a court and police station on Bow Street opened opposite the Royal Opera House in Covent Garden. The Bow Street court closed in 2006.
    (SFC, 7/14/06, p.A2)
1881         The new Natural Museum in South Kensington, London, opened. The move from the old British Museum was not fully completed until 1883.

1881-1958     Rose Macaulay, English poet and essayist: "Work is a dull thing; you cannot get away from that. The only agreeable existence is one of idleness, and that is not, unfortunately, always compatible with continuing to exist at all."
    (AP, 12/30/97)

1882        Jan 25, Virginia Woolf (d.1941), English author, critic, was born. She was a member of the intellectual circle known as the Bloomsbury Group and wrote "Mrs. Dalloway" and "Orlando." "On the outskirts of every agony sits some observant fellow who points." "I read the Book of Job last night, I don’t think God comes out of it well." "The compensation of growing old was simply this: that the passions remain as strong as ever, but one has gained—at last! -- the power which adds the supreme flavor to existence, the power of taking hold of experience, of turning it round, slowly, in the light." In 1997 Panthea Reid published: "Art and Affection: A Life of Virginia Woolf." In 1998 Mitchell Leaska published: "Granite and Rainbow: The Life of Virginia Woolf."
    (AP, 7/6/97)(IW 12/29/97)(AP, 1/18/98)(SFC, 5/25/98, p.E6)(HN, 1/25/99)

1882        Apr 18, Leopold Stokowski, conductor (Philadelphia Orchestra), was born in London England.
    (MC, 4/18/02)

1882        Apr 19, Charles R. Darwin (b.1809), English naturalist (Origin of Species), died at Downe, England, at age 73. In 1995 Janet Browne authored "Voyaging" the 1st of her 3-part biography. In 2002 her 2nd volume "The Power of Place" was published.
    (MC, 4/19/02)(WBO, 2002)(FT, 12/14/02, p.IV)

1882        Aug 13, William Jevons (b.1835), English economist, drowned while bathing near Hastings. His book “The Theory of Political Economy" (1871) declared that value depends entirely upon utility.
    (Econ, 7/26/08, p.84)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/William_Stanley_Jevons)

1882        Aug 29, Australia defeated England in cricket for the first time. The following day an obituary appeared in the Sporting Times addressed to the British team.
    (HN, 8/29/98)

1882        Sep 13, British troops defeated Egyptian forces in the Battle at Tel-el-Kebir.

1882        Sep 14, British General Wolseley (d.1913) reached Cairo.

1882        Dec 6, Anthony Trollope (b.1815), English writer, died. His autobiography "An Autobiography," was published in 1883. He wrote harshly about his mother and made her out to be a second-rate writer.
    (WUD, 1994 p.1517)(WSJ, 12/11/98, p.W10)(WSJ, 6/9/00, p.W17)(MC, 12/6/01)

1882        Dec 28, Sir Arthur Stanley Eddington, English astronomer who confirmed Einstein’s theory of relativity, was born.
    (HN, 12/28/98)

1882        The opera "Iolanthe" by Gilbert and Sullivan opened in New York and London.
    (SFC, 6/21/00, p.E4)

1882        In Egypt a military coup against the Khedive furnished a pretext for a British invasion.
    (WSJ, 7/10/03, p.D8)

1882        Parliament passed the Electric Lights Act to regulate electric utilities.
     (WSJ, 1/7/98, p.B1)

1882        In London euphoric investors pushed up the stock prices of the first companies to issue shares for companies with new patents for equipment to power electric lights.
    (WSJ, 1/7/98, p.B1)

1882        The Royal Worcester pottery company in England began making the "Asthetic" or "Oscar Wilde" teapots. They depicted a man on one side and a woman on the other and were inspired by the Gilbert and Sullivan operetta "Patience."
    (SFC, 12/30/96, z-1 p.2)

1882        James Atkinson, British engineer, invented the Atkinson cycle engine, an ultra-lean internal combustion engine.
    (Econ, 8/16/08, p.77)(www.jyrojak.com/steamtime.htm)

1883        Jan 3,  Clement Attlee Britain’s prime minister [1945-1951; head of Labour Party, was born.
    (440 Int'l. 1/3/99)

1883        Feb 17, A. Ashwell patented a free toilet in London.
    (MC, 2/17/02)

1883        Mar 14, Karl Marx (64), German political philosopher (Communist Manifesto, Das Kapital), died in London.
    (AP, 3/14/97)(MC, 3/14/02)

1883        Jun 5, Economist John Maynard Keynes (d.1946), economist, was born in Cambridge, England. He developed theories on the causes of prolonged unemployment and advised wide government expenditures as a counter measure to deflation and depression. "I do not know which makes a man more conservative -- to know nothing but the present, or nothing but the past."
    (V.D.-H.K.p.253)(AP, 6/5/97)(WSJ, 1/11/99, p.R20)(HN, 6/5/99)(AP, 7/29/99)

1883        Jul 4, Alan Brooke, English general, was born.
    (MC, 7/4/02)

1883        Jul 23, Lord Allanbrooke (d.1963), English soldier, was born.
    (AP, 7/23/97)

1883        Aug 29, Seismic sea waves, created by Krakatoa eruption, created a rise in the English Channel 32 hrs after explosion.
    (MC, 8/29/01)

1883        Sep 6, Lord Birkett, England, judge (Nuremberg Trials), was born.
    (MC, 9/6/01)

1883        Oct 17, A.S. Neill, British headmaster (Summerhill), was born.
    (MC, 10/17/01)

1883        Oct 18, The weather station at the top of Ben Nevis, Scotland, the highest mountain in Britain, was declared open.
    (HN, 10/18/98)

1883        Nov 8, Arnold Edward Trevor Bax, composer (Farewell My Youth), was born in London, England.
    (MC, 11/8/01)

1883        Lord Frederick Leighton painted "Kittens."
    (WSJ, 5/29/98, p.W10)
1883        In England production of Bretby Art Pottery was begun by Tooth & Co. in South Derbyshire.
    (SFC,10/22/97, Z1 p.7)
1883        In Britain Francis Galton developed the questionnaire.
    (WSJ, 1/11/99, p.R14)
1883         The barque West Ridge vanished while sailing from England to India with 28 sailors. Its iron wreck was believed found on Dec 19, 2015.
    (AP, 5/3/18)

1883-1884    In Sudan British officered Egyptian armies were defeated by the forces of El Mahdi, called Dervishes by the British.
    (WSJ, 8/25/98, p.A14)

1884        Jan 18, General Charles ("Chinese") Gordon departed London for Khartoum.
    (MC, 1/18/02)

1884        Jan, Lord Garnet Wolseley, adjutant-general of the British Army, asked Charles Gordon to come out of retirement and lead an evacuation of 15,000 European and Egyptian civilians from Khartoum, Sudan. Gordon agreed.
    (ON, 4/02, p.9)

1884        Mar 13, Siege of Khartoum, Sudan, began. Gen. Gordon ordered a counter-attack at Halfaya and troops rescued some 500 from a Mahdist assault.
    (ON, 4/02, p.10)(MC, 3/13/02)

1884        Apr 2, The London prison for debtors closed.
    (MC, 4/2/02)

1884        May 29, 1st steam cable trams started in Highgate.
    (SC, 5/29/02)

1884        Jun 5, Dame Ivy Compton-Burnett, British author, was born.
    (HN, 6/5/01)

1884        Jun 21, Field Marshal Sir Claude Auchinleck, British general, was born. He revived the flagging Eighth Army to go back on the offensive against the German army under Rommel in the Middle East, but was later replaced.
    (Camelot, 6/21/99)

1884        Aug 12, Frank Swinnerton, novelist (Summer Storm, Sanctuary), was born in England.
    (SC, 8/12/02)

1884        Oct 13, Greenwich was established as the universal time meridian of longitude. 41 delegates from 25 nations met in Washington, D.C. for the International Meridian Conference. This conference selected the Greenwich Meridian as the official Prime Meridian due to its popularity. However, France abstained from the vote and French maps continued to use the Paris Meridian for several decades.

1884        Oct 22, General Charles Gordon received a letter from Mahdi near Khartoum. British Gen’l. Charles "Chinese" Gordon was sent to Khartoum to evacuate the Egyptian garrison. Gordon decided to hold the city against El Mahdi.
    (WSJ, 8/25/98, p.A14)(MC, 10/22/01)

1884        Dec, The steamship Tongariro, equipped with one of the first refrigeration units, left London with 282 bumblebee queens for Wellington. 48 survived the journey and their offspring flourished on New Zealand’s South Island. By 2009 one of the deported honeybee species had died out in Britain and plans were underway to reintroduce the species.
    (Econ, 9/19/09, p.67)

1884        In England part 1 of the Oxford English Dictionary, compiled under the direction of James Murray, was published. Consecutive volumes in alphabetical order of the OED continued to 1928.
    (ON, 11/05, p.6)(Econ, 10/29/16, p.78)
1884        Herbert Spencer (1820-1903), English philosopher, authored his libertarian bible: “The Man versus the State."
    (Econ, 3/19/11, SR p.18)
1884        Peacocks was founded in Warrington, England, as a family-run business selling a wide range of cheap goods. In 2012 the British clothing chain fell into administration putting at risk almost 10,000 jobs.
    (Econ, 1/21/12, p.61)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Peacocks_%28clothing%29)
1884        Horatio Phillips of England designed a wing with a curved airfoil shape.
    (NPub, 2002, p.5)
1884        The colony of Rugby, Tennessee, had 350 residents. Thomas Hughes (1822-96), English novelist, reformer, jurist, and author of "John Brown’s School Days," had purchased 75,000 acres in rural Tennessee and founded the colony of Rugby. It was a school for the younger children of England’s wealthy families who were not eligible to inherit family estates. It was meant to teach farming and other useful skills.
    (WUD, 1994, p.691)

1884-1963     Phyllis Bottome, English author: "There is nothing final about a mistake, except its being taken as final." "Nothing ever really sets human nature free, but self-control."
    (AP, 5/25/98)(AP, 3/299)

1885        Jan 2, Gen. Wolseley received the last distress signal of Gen. Gordon in Khartoum.
    (MC, 1/2/02)

1885        Jan 26, In Sudan General "Chinese" Gordon (Charles George Gordon, 51), British gov-gen of Sudan, was killed on the palace steps in the garrison at Khartoum by the forces of Muhammad Ahmed, El Mahdi.
    (WSJ, 8/25/98, p.A14)(HN, 1/26/99)(MC, 1/26/02)

1885        Jan 28, Gen’l. Garnet Wolseley arrived at Khartoum to relieve Gen’l. Gordon, but arrived 2 days late. El Mahdi died soon thereafter but was succeeded by the Khalifa.
    (WSJ, 8/25/98, p.A14)

1885        Feb 23, John Lee survived three attempts to hang him in Exeter Prison, as the trap failed to open.
    (HN, 2/23/99)

1885        Feb 25, Princess Alice of Battenberg, later Princess Andrew of Greece and Denmark (d.1969), was born at Windsor Castle.
    (SSFC, 4/7/02, p.M4)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Princess_Alice_of_Battenberg)

1885        Feb 26, The General Act of the Conference of Berlin was signed. The conference ushered in a period of heightened colonial activity by European powers, which eliminated or overrode most existing forms of African autonomy and self-governance.

1885        Mar 14, Gilbert & Sullivan's opera "Mikado," premiered in London.
    (WSJ, 11/22/00, p.A20)(MC, 3/14/02)

1885        Apr 3, Harry St. John Philby, [sheik Abdullah], British explorer, was born.
    (MC, 4/3/02)

1885        May 29, Erwin F. Finlay-Freundlich, British astronomer, was born.
    (SC, 5/29/02)

1885        Jul 28, Moses Montefiore (b.1784), Italy-born British financier, banker, philanthropist and Sheriff of London (1837-1838) died. Abigail Green authored Moses Montefiore: Jewish Liberator, Imperial Hero."
    (Econ, 3/27/10, p.92)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Moses_Montefiore)

1885        Aug 15, Samuel Coleridge-Taylor (d.1912), composer (Hiawatha's Wedding Feast), was born in London, England.

1885        Sep 11, D.H. Laurence (David Herbert Lawrence d.1930), English novelist, author of "Lady Chatterley's Lover" and "Sons and Lovers," was born.
    (WUD, 1994, p.812)(HN, 9/11/98)

1885        Frederic Leighton (1830-1896), English painter and sculptor, created his sculpture "The Sluggard."
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Frederic_Leighton,_1st_Baron_Leighton)(WSJ, 12/6/01, p.A19)
1885        Richard Burton, British adventurer and linguist, published his translation of “The Thousand and One Nights." The 1835 Cairene manuscripts formed the cornerstone of the canonical version of the fluid text.
    (Econ, 5/15/10, p.54)
1885        Britain enacted a "gross indecency" law. It was later used to persecute thousands of English homosexuals, including playwright Oscar Wilde, who spent two years in prison after a trial in 1895, and World War II code breaker Alan Turing, who committed suicide after being convicted in 1952.
    (AP, 1/16/13)
1885        Britain began maintaining records of elections.
    (Econ, 10/23/10, p.72)
1885        William Hesketh Lever opened his 1st factory to make Sunlight Soap in Britain. In 2004 Adam Macqueen authored “The King of Sunlight: How William Lever Cleaned Up the World."
    (Econ, 7/24/04, p.75)
1885        In England John Starley introduced the safety bicycle.  It had 2 wheels of the same size and pedals attached to a chain to the rear wheel.
    (Hem, 8/96, p.34)(Econ, 7/31/10, p.70)

1886        Feb 8, Two rival leftist organizations, the London United Workmen's Committee and H.F. Hyndman's revolutionary Social Democratic Federation, gave notice of their intention to hold meetings simultaneously in Trafalgar Square. A brief riot occurred and sometimes became referred to as Black Monday.

1886        Feb 15, Sax Rohmer, author (Dr. Fu Manchu), was born in England.
    (MC, 2/15/02)

1886        Feb 23, London Times published the world's 1st classified ad.
    (MC, 2/23/02)

1886        Mar 26, The 1st cremation in England took place.
    (SS, 3/26/02)

1886        Jun 25, Britain adopted its Riot (Damages) Act, intended to provide compensation for losses by riots.

1886        Jul 23, Arthur Whitten Brown, British aviator, was born.
    (HN, 7//2302)

1886        Jul 26, William Gladstone was replaced by Lord Salisbury as prime minister of England.
    (HN, 7/26/98)

1886        Aug 27, Eric Coates, viola player, composer, was born in Hucknall, Nottinghamshire, England.
    (MC, 8/27/02)

1886        Nov 21, Harold G. Nicolson, English diplomat and author (Good Behavior), was born.
    (MC, 11/21/01)

1886        Dec 12, Edward Richard Woodham (b.1831), English survivor of the Charge of the Light Brigade (1854), died.
    (AP, 9/29/09)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Edward_Richard_Woodham)

1886        Thomas Hardy, English writer, authored "The Mayor of Casterbridge."
    (SFC, 8/16/03, p.D1)
1886        London’s Soho district of this year was the setting for Joseph Conrad’s 1907 novel "The Secret Agent."
    (SFC, 12/20/96, p.C12)
1886        The Clunies-Ross family was granted the Cocos Islands in the Indian Ocean, about 2,700 kilometers (1,680 miles) northwest of Perth, by Queen Victoria. Captain John Clunies-Ross, a Scottish trader, had landed there in 1825.
    (AFP, 1/21/08)
1886        Arthur Wharton (1865-1930), Accra, Gold Coast (now Ghana)-born athlete, won the British Amateur Athletics Association 100 yards sprint in a world record time of exactly 10 seconds. He is believed to have been the world's first black professional footballer.
    (AP, 6/30/11)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Arthur_Wharton)

1886-1967    Siegfried Sassoon, English poet and novelist. He met Wilfred Owen in a sanatorium and published his poetry after Owen died at the front.
    (WUD, 1994, p.1270)

1887        Apr 5, British historian Lord Acton wrote, "Power tends to corrupt and absolute power corrupts absolutely. Great men are almost always bad men."
    (AP, 5/5/08)

1887        Apr 14, Start of Sherlock Holmes adventure "Reigate Squires."
    (MC, 4/14/02)

1887        Jun 21, Britain celebrated the golden jubilee of Queen Victoria.
    (HN, 6/21/98)

1887        Aug 3, Rupert Brooke (d.1915), English poet who mainly wrote about World War I, was born: "Cities, like cats, will reveal themselves at night."
    (AP, 2/20/98)(HN, 8/3/98)

1887        Sep 5, A gas lamp at Theater Royal in Exeter started a fire killing about 200.
    (MC, 9/5/01)

1887        Sep 26, Barnes Wallis, British aeronautical engineer, was born. He invented the "Bouncing Bombs" used to destroy German dams during World War II.
    (HN, 9/26/99)

1887        Nov 17, Bernard Law Montgomery, British Field Marshall who defeated Rommel in North Africa and lead allied troops from D-day to the end of World War II, was born.
    (HN, 11/17/98)

1887        Nov 23, Boris Karloff (d.1969), English actor most famous for his role as the monster in the movie Frankenstein, was born in Dulwich, England.
    (HN, 11/23/98)(MC, 11/23/01)

1887        Dec 1, Sherlock Holmes 1st appeared in print: "Study in Scarlet." Sir Arthur Conan Doyle’s first story about the detective he named Sherlock Holmes was published in Beeton’s Christmas Annual. It wasn’t until a London magazine called the Strand  began publishing Doyle’s shorter Holmes adventures in 1891 that the detective became a phenomenon. Today hundreds of books, articles and movies have been devoted to the great detective and his biographer, Dr. John Watson, at 221b Baker Street, London.
    (HNQ, 4/7/01)(ON, 3/06, p.11)

1887        Spitalfields opened as a fruit and vegetable market in London. It was built over the site of a medieval hospital and construction c2000 revealed some 6,000 bodies buried 30 feet deep.
    (SSFC, 10/21/01, p.T7)
1887        British paleontologist Harry Seeley divided dinosaurs into two groups naming them Saurischia (lizard-hipped) and Ornithischia (bird-hipped).
    (Econ, 3/25/17, p.72)

1887-1964    Hesketh Pearson, British biographer: "Misquotations are the only quotations that are never misquoted."
    (AP, 1/29/00)

1888        Jan 29, Edward Lear (b.1812), English artist, illustrator, musician, author and poet, died in Italy. He is known mostly for his literary nonsense in poetry and prose and especially his limericks.

1888        Mar 21, Arthur Pinero's "Sweet Lavender," premiered in London.
    (MC, 3/21/02)

1888        Apr 7, Start of Sherlock Holmes adventure "Yellow Face."
    (MC, 4/7/02)

1888        Apr 15, Matthew Arnold (65), English poet, died.
    (MC, 4/15/02)

1888        Jun 29, Professor Frederick Treves performed the first appendectomy in England.
    (HN, 6/29/98)

1888        Aug 6, Martha Turner was murdered by an unknown assailant, believed to be Jack the Ripper, in London, England. Between August and November 506 women were murdered in London’s Whitechapel district. In 1994 Philip Sugden authored “The Complete History of Jack the Ripper."
    (HN, 8/6/98)(WSJ, 1/31/09, p.W8)

1888        Aug 15, The British soldier T.E. Lawrence, better known as Lawrence of Arabia for his military exploits against the Turks in World War I, was born in Tremadoc, Wales.
    (AP, 8/15/97)(HN, 8/15/98)

1888        Aug 31, Mary Ann Nicholls, a 42-year-old prostitute, was found murdered in London's East End. She is generally regarded as the first of at least five murder victims of "Jack the Ripper." [see Aug 6]
    (AP, 8/31/99)(YN, 8/31/99)

1888        Sep 18, Start of Sherlock Holmes adventure "Sign of Four."
    (MC, 9/18/01)

1888        Sep 25, Start of Sherlock Holmes "Hound of Baskervilles."
    (MC, 9/25/01)
1888        Sep 25, The Royal Court Theatre, London, opened.
    (MC, 9/25/01)

1888        Sep 30, "Jack the Ripper" butchered 2 more women, Elizabeth Stride (45), aka Long Liz, on Berner St. and Kate Eddowes (45). Donald Rumbelow later authored "The Complete Jack the Ripper."
    (SSFC, 10/21/01, p.T7)
1888        Sep 30, Catherine Eddowes became Jack the Ripper's fourth victim. In 2014 sleuth Russell Edwards said that Jack has identified through DNA traces found on a bloodied shawl from Eddowes. Edwards identified the killer as Aaron Kosminski (1865-1919), a Jewish emigre from Poland, who worked as a barber.
    (AFP, 9/7/14)

1888        Oct 29, Lord Salisbury granted Cecil Rhodes a charter for the BSA Company.
    (MC, 10/29/01)

1888        Oct 30, In London Jack the Ripper murdered his last victim. [see Nov 3]
    (MC, 10/30/01)

1888        Nov 3, In London Jack the Ripper murdered his last victim. In 2002 Patricia Cornwell, crime writer, reported that Walter Richard Sickert (1860-1942), English Impressionist painter, was Jack the Ripper. [see Oct 30]
    (WSJ, 9/27/01, p.A16)(MC, 11/3/01)(SSFC, 2/24/02, Par p.2)   

1888        The Lever brothers, William Hesketh Lever (1851-1925) and James Darcy Lever (1854–1916), began work on Port Sunlight in north-west England to accommodate, socialize and Christianize workers for their soap factory.
    (Econ, 2/27/15, p.56)

1888-1957    Joyce Cary, English author: "It is the tragedy of the world that no one knows what he doesn't know -- and the less a man knows, the more sure he is that he knows everything."
    (AP, 1/30/99)

1889        Mar 27, John Bright (b.1811), Quaker and British Radical and Liberal statesman, died. He was associated with Richard Cobden in the formation of the Anti-Corn Law League. In 2011 Bill Cash authored “John Bright: Statesman, Orator, Agitator."
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/John_Bright)(Econ, 12/31/11, p.68)

1889        Apr 8, Adrian Boult, conductor, composer (BBC Sym Orch), was born in Chester, England.
    (MC, 4/8/02)

1889        Apr 14, Arnold Toynbee (d.1975), English historian, was born. He wrote the 12-volume "A Study of History." "The history of almost every civilization furnishes examples of geographical expansion coinciding with deterioration in quality." "Of the 20 or so civilizations known to modern Western historians, all except our own appear to be dead or moribund, and, when we diagnose each case ... we invariably find that the cause of death has been either War or Class or some combination of the two."
     (AP, 3/24/98)(AP, 8/24/98)(HN, 4/14/99)

1889        Apr 16, Charlie Chaplin (d.1977), actor,  was born. He was a British motion-picture actor, producer, writer, director and composer and worked in America from 1913-1952. In 1997 his biography "Charlie Chaplin and His Times" by Kenneth S. Lynn was published.
    (HFA, '96, p.28)(AHD, p.225)(WUB, 1994, p.247)(WSJ, 3/7/97, p.A12)

1889        Jul, Queen Victoria granted the royal charter to the British South Africa Company (BSAC) in Zimbabwe.

1889        Sep 23, Wilkie Collins (b.1824), English novelist and playwright, died. He wrote some 30 novels including are “The Woman in White" (1860), “No Name" (1862), “Armadale" (1866) and “The Moonstone" (1868). In 2012 Peter Ackroyd authored “Wilkie Collins."
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Wilkie_Collins)(Econ, 2/25/12, p.98)

1889        Dec 7, Gilbert and Sullivan’s "Gondoliers," premiered in London.
    (MC, 12/7/01)

1889        Dec 12, Robert Browning (77), English poet (Ring & Book), died.
    (MC, 12/12/01)

1889        British Lord Baden Powell authored “Pigsticking: or Hoghunting: a Complete Account for Sportsmen; and others."
    (Econ, 5/18/13, p.18)(http://tinyurl.com/nod8ams)
1889        J.J. Thomas (1840-1889) authored “Froudacity," an attack on the writings about the West Indies of English historian J. Anthony Froude. The Trinidad-born, self-educated black intellectual, wrote the work during a visit to London where he died of TB.
    (www.wwnorton.com/nael/victorian/topic_4/thomas.htm)(WSJ, 10/4/05, p.D8)
1889        The British Royal Society for the Protection of Birds (RSPB) was founded.
1889        In the English League First Division match, the 1st professional league soccer championship, Preston North End won against the Aston Villa Football Club. Preston went through its 22-game season without losing a match.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/1889_in_football_(soccer))(Econ, 7/14/07, p.15)

1889-1944    Philip Guedalla, British writer: "History repeats itself; historians repeat each other."
    (AP, 7/24/99)

1890        Jan 11, William Morris (1834-1896), English artist, designer and socialist pioneer, began presenting his novel “News From Nowhere." It was first published in serial form in the Commonweal journal beginning on this date.
    (https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/William_Morris)(Econ 5/20/17, p.78)

1890        Jun 16, Stan Laurel (d.1965), British-born entertainer, was born. He teamed up with Oliver Hardy (Laurel & Hardy) to make over 100 comedy films.
    (WUD, 1994 p.811)(HN, 6/16/01)

1890        Aug 11, Cardinal John Henry Newman (b.1801), a prominent Anglican convert, died in England.
    (https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/John_Henry_Newman)(AP, 2/13/19)

1890        Sep 15, Agatha Christie, English writer of mystery novels, was born. Her books included "Death on the Nile" and "And Then There Were None."
    (HN, 9/15/99)

1890        Oct 19, Richard Francis Burton (b.1821), explorer, British consul, translator, died. In 1893 Lady Burton published a biography of her late husband.

1890        Oct, Dr. William Penny Brookes (81) met Baron Pierre de Coubertin (27) of France, widely regarded as the founder of the modern Olympics, over several hours at the Raven Hotel in Much Wenlock, England. The two spoke about de Coubertin's wish to stage an international Olympic festival in Athens.
    (AP, 7/1/11)

1890        Daisy Ashford (9) wrote a novel for her ailing mother titled “The Young Visiters." Discovered 29 years later, it was turned into a real book and became a British classic.
    (SFC, 11/1/04, p.E1)
1890        Arthur Conan Doyle’s 2nd Sherlock Holmes novel, “The Sign of Four," was published.
    (ON, 3/06, p.11)
1890        Alfred Marshall published his "Principles of Economics," considered the bible of British economics. He stressed that the output and price of a good are determined by supply as well as demand.
    (WSJ, 1/11/99, p.R20)
1890        In England Jenny Pipes, convicted of being a scold, was sentenced to public humiliation and underwent ducking in the Kenwater river by order of the Magistrates. This was the last recorded use of the ducking stool, in which the victim was strapped to a stool and plunged into water.
    (WSJ, 1/18/08, p.W10)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Tumbrel)
1890        James F. Wiltshaw and brothers J.A. Robinson and W.H. Robinson founded their Wiltshaw & Robinson pottery in Staffordshire, England. Their pieces were marked “Carlton Ware," which became the company’s name in 1958. In 1973 it began producing “Walking Ware." In 1989 the company went into receivership.
    (SFC, 3/21/07, p.G2)
1890        Use of the brand name Royal Enfield was licensed by the Crown. The Enfield Cycle Company made motorcycles, bicycles, lawnmowers and stationary engines under the name Royal Enfield out of its works based at Redditch, Worcestershire. The legacy of weapons manufacture is reflected in the logo comprising the cannon, and the motto "Made like a gun." The first Royal Enfield motorcycle was built in 1901. The Redditch factory ceased production in 1967 and the Bradford-on-Avon factory closed in 1970, which meant the end of the British Royal Enfield.
    (https://tinyurl.com/yczjtpe3)(https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Royal_Enfield)(Econ., 11/14/20, p.60)
1890        Britain ceded the island of Heligoland to Germany in exchange for a free hand in the former slave-trading sultanate of Zanzibar.
    (Econ, 2/18/17, p.69)

1890s        Gen’l. Herbert Kitchener led the British conquest of the Sudan. The "kit bag," another name for a knapsack, was named after him.
    (SFEC, 3/29/98, Z1 p.8)

1891        Feb 9, Ronald Colman, 1947 Academy Award actor (Tale of 2 Cities), was born in England.
    (MC, 2/9/02)

1891        Mar 15, Joseph Bazalgette (b.1819), English civil engineer, died. He built interceptor sewers along the banks of the Thames and ended cholera outbreaks in London.
    (Econ, 12/15/12, p.78)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Joseph_Bazalgette)

1891        Mar 17, The British steamer Utopia sank off the coast of Gibraltar.
    (HN, 3/17/98)

1891               Apr 1,  The London-Paris telephone connection opened.

1891        Apr 24, Start of Sherlock Holmes adventure "Final Problem."
    (MC, 4/24/02)

1891        Jul 31, Great Britain declared territories in Southern Africa up to the Congo to be within their sphere of influence.
    (HN, 7/31/98)

1891        Aug 2, Arthur Edward Drummond Bliss, composer (Olympians), was born in London.
    (MC, 8/2/02)

1891        Arthur Conan Doyle’s historical novel, “The White Company," was published. It was about the wartime adventures of a medieval band of English archers.
    (ON, 3/06, p.11)

1891        William Morris (1834-1896), English poet, designer, painter, decorator and author, portrayed a vision of utopia in his novel entitled "News from Nowhere." The book describes a utopian fantasy in which people return to handicrafts. The ideas in the novel reflected the emphatic socialist views Morris would further explore in "How I Became a Socialist," published in 1896. A pioneer of the British socialist movement, Morris was apprenticed to an architect and later founded a manufacturing and decorating firm. He was of the Pre-Raphaelite school with a taste for simplicity and beauty in art and literature.
    (HNQ, 5/2/00)

1891        The magazine "The Strand" was established and devoted itself to popular fiction and celebrity interviews. Arthur Conan Doyle became an early contributor.
    (WSJ, 4/12/99, p.A21)

1891        The Brownfields Guild Pottery Society began business in Staffordshire, England, and continued operations to 1900.
    (SFC, 10/5/05, p.G3)

1891-1959    Stanley Spencer, English painter. He lived and worked in the village of  Cookham and experienced visions of sexual and religious feelings that he translated into paintings.
    (SFC, 10/14/97, p.B1,5)(SFC, 6/5/98, p.C1)

1892        Jan 3,  J.R.R. Tolkien writer (d.1973): Lord of the Rings, The Hobbit, was born. "All that is gold does not glitter; not all those that wander are lost."
    (440 Int'l. 1/3/99)(AP, 1/5/99)

1892        Feb 22, "Lady Windermere's Fan," a melodrama by Oscar Wilde, was first performed, at London's St. James's Theater. It was about suspected infidelity.
    (WSJ, 7/29/98, p.A13)(AP, 2/22/99)

1892        Mar 9, David Garnett, novelist, editor (Lady into Fox), was born in England.
    (MC, 3/9/02)

1892        Mar 10, Eva Turner, British soprano, was born.
    (MC, 3/10/02)

1892        Apr 13, Arthur ("Bomber") Harris, Marshal of the RAF, was born in Cheltenham.
    (MC, 4/13/02)

1892        Jul 4, James Keir Hardie was 1st socialist chosen in British Lower house.
    (Maggio, 98)

1892        Jul 18, Thomas Cook (83), English tour director (Thomas Cook & Son), died.
    (MC, 7/18/02)

1892        Oct 6, Alfred Tennyson (b.1809), writer and poet laureate, died at 83.
    (MC, 10/6/01)

1892        Dec 9, "Widowers' Houses," George Bernard Shaw's first play, opened at the Royalty Theater in London.
    (AP, 12/9/06)

1892-1937     The Gilbert Islands (Kiribati Islands) were amalgamated as British possessions.
    (WSJ, 1/22/96, p.A-1)

1892-1962     Vita Sackville-West, English poet and author: "Summer makes a silence after spring."
    (AP, 6/21/97)

1892-1969     Dame Ivy Compton-Burnett, English author: "There are different kinds of wrong. The people sinned against are not always the best."
    (AP, 10/21/98)

1893        Jan 13, Britain's Independent Labour Party, a precursor to the current Labour Party, had its 1st meeting. Scottish socialist Keir Hardie (1856-1915) helped form the Independent Labour Party (ILP). In 1900 he helped form the union-based Labour Representation Committee, soon renamed the Labour Party, with which the ILP later merged.
    (AP, 1/13/00)(https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Keir_Hardie)

1893        Jan 15, Fanny Kemble (b.1809), actress and writer, died in London. Her work included "Journal of a Residence on a Georgia Plantation." In 2000 Catherine Clinton authored "Fanny Kimble’s Civil Wars" and edited "Fanny Kemble’s Journals." In 2007 Deirdre David authored “Fanny Kemble: A Performed Life."
    (www.pbs.org/wgbh/aia/part4/4p1569.html)(WSJ, 9/21/00, p.A24)(Econ, 6/23/07, p.95)

1893        Mar 18, Wilfred Owen (d.1918), World War I English poet, was born. He was killed one week before Armistice Day of WW I. His fellow poet Siegfried Sassoon published Owen’s single slim volume of poetry.
    (NH, 10/98, p.18)(HN, 3/18/01)

1893        Apr 3, Leslie Howard, [Stainer], actor (Gone With the Wind), was born in London.
    (MC, 4/3/02)

1893        Apr 19, The Oscar Wilde play "A Woman of No Importance" opened at the Haymarket Theatre in London.
    (WSJ, 9/16/98, p.A20)(AP, 4/19/03)

1893        Jun 13, Dorothy Leigh Sayers (d.1957), English detective writer, creator of Lord Peter Wimsey, was born. "The worst sin -- perhaps the only sin -- passion can commit, is to be joyless."
    (AP, 5/17/97)(HN, 6/13/01)

1893        Sep 4, Beatrix Potter, English author, first told the story of Peter Rabbit in the form of a "picture letter" to Noel Moore, the son of Potter's former governess. A 2nd illustrated letter the same month later became “The Tale of Jeremy Fisher." The “Tale of Peter Rabbit" was published in 1901.
    (HN, 9/4/00)(AP, 9/4/04)(Econ, 1/6/07, p.67)

1893        Oct 6, Ford Madox Brown (b.1821), English painter, died in London. In 2010 Angela Thirlwell authored “Into the Frame: The Four Loves of Ford Madox Brown."
    (Econ, 3/13/10, p.87)(http://tinyurl.com/yhpg5ut)

1893        Oct 7, In England the Gilbert and Sullivan operetta “Utopia Limited-or the Flowers of Progress" premiered and ran for 245 performances.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Utopia,_Limited)(Econ, 1/3/15, p.20)

1893        Dec, Arthur Conan Doyle’s Sherlock Holmes story, “The Adventures of the Final Problem," appeared in The Strand Magazine. In it Holmes and his archenemy, Prof. Moriarty, plunged to their death at the Reichenbach Falls.
    (ON, 3/06, p.12)

1893         The Durand line, drawn by British diplomat Sir Mortimer Durand, fixed the borders of Afghanistan with British India, splitting Pushtun tribal areas and leaving half of these Afghans in what is now Pakistan. The agreement was first signed by Sir Mortimer Durand and Abdur Rahman Khan, the ruler of Afghanistan.
    (https://www.afghan-web.com/history/chronology/)(Econ, 7/22/06, p.44)(Econ, 8/18/07, p.34)(Econ, 6/4/11, p.18)

1893        The first electric bread toasters were made in England about this time.
    (SFC, 1/23/08, p.G4)

1893-1970    Vera Brittain, British author: "Politics are usually the executive expression of human immaturity."
    (AP, 10/8/00)

1894        Feb 10, Harold MacMillan, British prime minister from 1957 to 1963, was born.
    (HN, 2/10/97)(HN, 2/10/99)

1894        Mar 3, British PM William Gladstone submitted his resignation to Queen Victoria, ending his fourth and final premiership. Gladstone was later quoted as saying this year: “Do not let me be told that one nation has no authority over another. Every nation, and if need be every human being, has authority on behalf of humanity and justice."
    (AP, 3/3/08)(Econ, 9/27/08, p.98)

1894        Apr 21, George Bernard Shaw's "Arms & the Man," premiered in London.
    (MC, 4/21/02)

1894        Apr 30, Giuseppe Farnara and Francis Polti were convicted and sentenced to 30 years in prison for attempted terrorism in London.
    (Econ, 5/3/08, p.65)

1894        Jun 23, Edward VIII [Duke of Windsor], King of England, was born. He abdicated his throne for American Wallis Simpson.
    (HN, 6/23/99)

1894        Jul 25, Japanese forces sank the British steamer Kowshing which was bringing Chinese reinforcements to Korea.
    (HN, 7/25/98)

1894        Jul 26, Aldous L. Huxley (d.1963), author (Brave New World), was born in Surrey, England. "Most human beings have an almost infinite capacity for taking things for granted." "Parodies and caricatures are the most penetrating of criticisms."
    (AP, 7/13/97)(AP, 7/26/98)(MC, 7/26/02)

1894        Sep 10, London taxi driver George ("Mac") Smith was 1st to be fined for drunk driving (no horse to take him home).
    (MC, 9/10/01)

1894        Sep 13, J.B. Priestley (d.1984), British novelist and playwright, was born. "The weakness of American civilization, and perhaps the chief reason why it creates so much discontent, is that it is so curiously abstract. It is a bloodless extrapolation of a satisfying life. ... You dine off the advertiser's 'sizzling' and not the meat of the steak."
    (AP, 9/13/98)(HN, 9/13/00)

1894        Oct 24, J. Anthony Froude (b.1818), English historian, died. In 2005 Julia Markus authored “J. Anthony Froude: The Last Undiscovered Great Victorian."
    (WSJ, 10/4/05, p.D8)(http://en.thinkexist.com/birthday/October_24/)

1894        George Curzon authored "Problems of the Far East."
    (WSJ, 6/11/03, p.D10)
1894         London's famous Tower Bridge over the Thames was completed. Construction had begun in 1886.
    (SFEC, 6/11/00, p.A17)(AP, 8/22/20)
1894        In England the Manchester Ship Canal opened in an effort to bypass Liverpool’s port with a more direct water route from the Mersey to central Manchester.
    (Econ, 4/19/14, p.49)
1894        In Britain William Harcourt introduced the estate duty to replace 5 death duties.
    (Econ, 10/27/07, p.90)(www.tax.org.uk/showarticle.pl?id=1566)
1894        The British introduced the Land Acquisition Act in India in order to build railroads and canals. It obliged private owners to part with land required for a public purpose.
    (Econ, 8/30/08, p.63)

1895        Jan 13, J.R. Seeley (b.1834), English essayist and historian, died. His essay Ecce Homo, published anonymously in 1866, and afterwards acknowledged by him, was widely read, and prompted many replies, being deemed an attack on Christianity.
    (WSJ, 12/8/08, p.A17)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/John_Robert_Seeley)

1895        Jan 29, A massacre occurred in Nembe over palm oil. Koko Mingi VIII (1853-1898), king of the Nembe people, led a pre-dawn raid on the headquarters of the Royal Niger Company, a British firm that had monopolized the palm-oil trade in the Niger delta. The British sent gunboats in response and kept their monopoly intact.
    (https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Frederick_William_Koko_Mingi_VIII_of_Nembe)(SFC, 9/30/98, p.A10)(Econ., 10/3/20, p.37)

1895        Feb 14, Oscar Wilde's final play, "The Importance of Being Earnest," opened at the St. James' Theatre in London.
    (AP, 2/14/98)

1895        Mar 5, Henry Creswicke Rawlinson (85), soldier and scholar, died in England. In 1835 he had begun examining the ancient inscriptions on the rock of Behistun in the Kurdish foothills of the Zagros mountain range and found that they had been made to honor Darius the Great, Persian ruler in the 5th century BCE. He deciphered text from Old Akkadian cuneiform. In 2004 Lesley Adkins authored “Empires of the Plain: Henry Rawlinson and the Lost Languages of Babylon."
    (www.mnsu.edu/emuseum/information/biography/pqrst/rawlinson_henry.html)(ON, 4/04, p.9)(WSJ, 12/21/04, p.D8)

1895        Mar 28, Major James McCudden, the first RAF pilot to receive the Victoria Cross, was born.
    (HN, 3/28/99)

1895        Apr 5, Playwright Oscar Wilde lost his criminal libel case against the Marquess of Queensberry, who'd accused the writer of homosexual practices.
    (AP, 4/5/97)

1895        Apr 13, Start of Sherlock Holmes "Adventure of Solitary Cyclist."
    (MC, 4/13/02)

1895        Apr 29, Malcolm Sargent, English conductor (Promenade Concerts), was born.
    (MC, 4/29/02)

1895        May 25, Playwright Oscar Wilde was convicted of a morals charge in London; he was sentenced to two years in prison.
    (AP, 5/25/08)

1895        Jul 14, William Leefe Robinson, the first man to win the Victoria Cross for shooting down a German Zeppelin, was born.
    (HN, 7/14/98)

1895        Jul 24, Robert Graves (d.1985), British poet and novelist (Goodbye to All That, I Claudius), was born. "There's no money in poetry, but then there's no poetry in money either."
    (AP, 4/8/99)(HN, 7/24/02)(Econ, 8/17/13, p.71)

1895        Aug 5, Friedrich Engels (b.1820), English socialist who collaborated with Karl Marx on “The Communist Manifesto" (1848) and “Das Kapital" (1867), died. Engels had edited the second and third volumes of Das Kapital after Marx's death (1883). In 2009 Tristram Hunt authored “Marx’s General: The Revolutionary Life of Friedrich Engels."

1895        Aug 10, The 1st Queen's Hall Promenade Concert featured Wagner's "Rienzi."
    (MC, 8/10/02)

1895        Aug 20, Start of Sherlock Holmes "Adventure of Norwood Builder."
    (MC, 8/20/02)

1895        Oct 31, Basil H. Liddell Hart, English military historian and publicist, was born.
    (MC, 10/31/01)

1895        Dec 14, Britain’s King George VI (d.1952), was born.  He rule from 1936-1952.
    (HN, 12/14/98)(MC, 12/14/01)

1895        Oscar Wilde wrote his play "An Ideal Husband."
    (WSJ, 5/9/96, p.A-16)(WSJ, 9/16/98, p.A20)
1895        The burghers of Bristol, England, erected a statue of Edward Colston, a 17th-century merchant who had endowed local charities. Colston had made his money largely through the Royal African Company, which shipped slaves from Africa to the West Indies. His statue weas toppled in 2020.
    (Econ., 7/6/20, p.8)
1895        Britain’s National Trust was founded by three Victorian philanthropists: Miss Octavia Hill, Sir Robert Hunter and Canon Hardwicke Rawnsley.
1895        Winston Churchill was garrisoned in Havana, Cuba, and began smoking cigars at age 22. On leave for several months from his unit, the 4th Hussars, he reported on the events for the Daily Graphic.
    (SFEM, 12/15/96, p.15)(HNQ, 1/25/01)
1895        An musical event called "The Last Night of the Proms," a musical tribute to British history, was first held. It became an annual affair.
    (WSJ, 7/19/01, p.A20)
1895        The British began shipping thousands of Indians to east Africa to build a railway. Many settled there to become station masters, artisans, clerks and shopkeepers.
    (Econ, 4/12/08, p.67)

1895-1956    Michael Arlen, English novelist: "Any man should be happy who is allowed the patience of his wife, the tolerance of his children and the affection of waiters."
    (AP, 9/27/98)

1896        Mar 7, Gilbert and Sullivan's last operetta "Grand Duke," premiered in London.
    (MC, 3/7/02)

1896        May 9, The 1st horseless carriage show in London featured 10 models.
    (MC, 5/9/02)

1896        Aug 13, John Everett Millais (67), English painter, died.
    (MC, 8/13/02)

1896        Oct 3, William Morris (b.1834), English artist and writer, died. “Have nothing in your house that you do not know to be useful of believe to be beautiful." In 1995 Fiona MacCarthy authored the biography: “William Morris."
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/William_Morris)(Econ, 1/4/14, p.50)(WSJ, 1/21/07, p.P9)

1896        Oct 11, Chinese agents tricked Sun Yat-sen (1866-1925), Chinese revolutionary, into entering the Chinese Legation in London. They planned to ship him secretly back to China where a reward for his arrest amounted to half a million dollars. The story was made public by the London press and the Legation was forced to release him. In 1911 Sun Yat-sen played an important role in the overthrow of the Qing dynasty and came to be revered as the “Father of Modern China." 
    (ON, 10/08, p.7)

1896        Nov 16, Oswald Mosley, baron and British Nazi, was born.
    (MC, 11/16/01)

1896        English poet A.E. Housman (1859-1936) published "A Shropshire Lad," a collection of 63 poems. He paid £30 towards the publication. By 1918 16,000 copies a year were being sold in England and America. The 1997 play "The Invention of Love," by Tom Stoppard was based on Housman’s life. In 2016 Peter Parker authored “Housman Country: Into the Heart of England."
    (SFC, 7/7/96, Par, p.10)(WSJ, 10/27/97, p.A20)(Econ, 7/9/16, p.72)
1896        George Bernard Shaw wrote his comedy play "You Can Never Tell."
    (WSJ, 6/24/98, p.A16)
1896        Arthur Conan Doyle published 2 historical novels, “The Exploits of the Brigadier Gerard" and “Rodney Stone."
    (ON, 3/06, p.12)
1896        The British decided to conquer Sudan and sent Gen’l. Horatio Kitchener to lead the expedition. Gen’l. Herbert Kitchener led the British conquest of the Sudan. The "kit bag," another name for a knapsack, was named after him.
    (SFEC, 3/29/98, Z1 p.8)(WSJ, 8/25/98, p.A14)
1896        Winston Churchill and his unit, the 4th Hussars, was sent to the Indian frontier where his writings were later collected into "The Story of the Malakand Field Force." His twin function as soldier and correspondent was repeated in the service of Lord Kitchener’s Nile expeditionary force. He resigned his commission to enter politics shortly thereafter, meeting defeat at the polls, but finding employment reporting on the war in South Africa.
    (SFEM, 12/15/96, p.15)(HNQ, 1/25/01)
1896        Alfred Harmsworth, later Lord Northcliffe, launched the Daily Mail newspaper.
    (SFC, 9/3/98, p.C6)
1896        Harrods Department Store of London installed its 1st conveyer belt for foot traffic. Some riders feinted and were revived with cognac.
    (SFEC, 6/18/00, Z1 p.2)
1896        The London Trocodero restaurant opened just off Picadilly Circus. After a long decline it closed in 1965 and was gutted.
    (Econ, 2/20/15, p.49)
1896        The Mountain Copper Co. of Great Britain bought the Iron Mountain Mine in Northern California and developed it into the only big copper producer on the Pacific Coast.
    (SFEC,11/2/97, p.A13)
1896        A Catholic Chaplaincy was established at Britain’s Oxford University.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Oxford_University_Newman_Society)(Econ, 9/4/10, p.57)

1896-1951    Peter Cheyney, English author: "The line of least resistance was always the most difficult line in the long run."
    (AP, 11/4/98)

1897        Feb 6, Ebenezer C. Brewer, British writer (Dictionary of Phrase & Fable), died.
    (MC, 2/6/02)

1897        Feb, China’s Qing dynasty ceded the Kokang region to British Burma under the Beijing Convention. Kokang became part of Burma’s Shan state.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Kokang)(Econ., 3/14/15, p.41)

1897        Apr 30, Physicist Joseph John Thompson described the electron as a particle of negative charge whose motion constitutes electricity at a meeting of the Royal Institution in London.
    (SFC, 5/1/97, p.A7)

1897        May 18, A public reading of Bram Stoker's new novel, "Dracula, or, The Un-dead," was staged at the Royal Lyceum Theatre in London, an event that roughly coincided with the book's publication.
    (AP, 5/18/97)

1897        Jun 12, Anthony Eden, British prime minister from 1955 to 1957, was born. He helped establish the Southeast Asia Treaty Organization (SEATO).
    (HN, 6/12/99)

1897        Jun 19, Charles Cunningham Boycott (b.Mar 12, 1832) English land agent in Ireland, died in England. He was a faulty estate manager whose tenants "boycotted" him into poverty; when the crops failed and the farmers went broke, he unsympathetically gave them the choice of paying immediately or being evicted. The farmers retaliated and his staff quit. His family was isolated. This tactic gave us the word whose last name became part of the English language.

1897        Jul 21, The Tate Gallery opened in England.
    (MC, 7/21/02)

1897        Jul 31, The commercial treaty between Britain and the German zollverein (established in 1865) was denounced by Britain and pronounced to end in one year.
    (G&M, 7/31/97, p.A2)

1897        Aug 31, General Kitchener occupied Berber, North of Khartoum.
    (MC, 8/31/01)

1897        Oct 22, The world's 1st car dealer began business in London.
    (MC, 10/22/01)

1897        Nov 15, Sacheverell Sitwell, English poet and author (People's Palace), was born.
    (MC, 11/15/01)

1897        Nov 19, The Great "City Fire" in London.
    (HN, 11/19/98)

1897        Britain celebrated a Diamond Jubilee for Queen Victoria.
    (SSFC, 5/18/03, p.M6)
1897        The suffragette movement started in England as a peaceful protest. The movement turned militant in 1903. Women in England won the right to vote in 1918.
    (SFC, 8/23/06, p.G7)
1897        The Royal Pigeon Racing Association formed in England. In 2004 it began drug testing among its members for the use of steroids in their pigeons.
    (WSJ, 11/11/04, p.A1)
1897        Isaac Pitman (b.1813), inventor of Pitman shorthand, died in Britain.
    (WSJ, 8/20/04, p.A1)
1897        Benin City, capital of Edo state, Nigeria, was burned and ransacked by the British after the Bini killed a British diplomatic mission. 16th century brass plaques were looted from the royal palace and sold to the British Museum.
    (SFC, 3/29/02, p.D8)

1898        Jan 14, Author Charles Lutwidge Dodgson -- better known as "Alice in  Wonderland" creator Lewis Carroll -- died in Guildford, England. In 2008 Robin Wilson authored “Lewis Carroll in Numberland: His Fantastical Mathematical Logical Life."
    (AP, 1/14/98)(Econ, 7/5/08, p.93)

1898        Mar 14, Henry Bessemer (b.1813), English inventor and mechanical engineer, died. Bessemer developed the first process for mass-producing steel inexpensively.
    (ON, 9/06, p.6)(www.lucidcafe.com/library/96jan/bessemer.html)

1898        Apr 8, British General Horatio Kitchener defeated the Khalifa, leader of the dervishes in Sudan, at the Battle of Atbara. Anglo-Egyptian forces crushed 6,000 Sudanese.
    (HN, 4/8/99)(MC, 4/8/02)

1898        Jun 17, Sir Edward Burne-Jones (b.1833), British painter and member of the Pre-Raphaelite Brotherhood, died. In 2011 Fiona MacCarthy authored “The Last Pre-Raphaelite: Edward Burne-Jones and the Victorian Imagination."
    (Econ, 8/20/11, p.77)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Edward_Burne-Jones)

1898        Jul 4, Gertrude Lawrence, English actress, was born.
    (HN, 7/4/01)

1898        Jul 8, Alec Waugh (d.1981), novelist (Island in the Sun); brother of Evelyn, was born in London. "If we knew where opinion ended and fact began, we should have discovered, I suppose, the absolute."
    (AP, 2/9/00)(MC, 7/8/02)

1898        Jul 12, Xenon, an inert substance, was discovered in England by the Scottish chemist William Ramsay and English chemist Morris Travers.
    (Econ, 2/8/14, p.76)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Xenon)

1898        Jul 28, Start of Sherlock Holmes "Adventure of the Retired Colourman."
    (SC, 7/28/02)

1898        Sep 1, Lord Kitchener's army bombed Omdurman, Sudan. Lt. Winston Churchill approached Omdurman, the rebel capital, as a scout in the cavalry along with the rest of Gen. Kitchener's army of 25,000 men. [see Sep 2]
    (ON, 10/99, p.2)(MC, 9/1/02)

1898        Sep 2, Anglo-Egyptian lines under Gen’l. Kitchener were charged by 50,000 fanatical Dervishes and were mowed down by howitzers, machine guns and rifles. Lt. Winston Churchill led one of the last (and most useless) cavalry charges in history.
    (WSJ, 8/25/98, p.A14)

1898        H.G. Wells (1866-1946) published the classic "War of the Worlds." It was about an invasion of Earth by Martians.
    (SFC, 11/29/96, p.A16)

1898        The Gramophone Company was founded by William Barry Owen and Trevor Williams in London, England. Owen was acting as agent for Emile Berliner, inventor of the gramophone record, whilst Williams provided the finances. Most of the company's early discs were made in Hanover, Germany at a plant operated by members of Berliner's family, though it had operations around the world.
1898        British army officers began using the new portable Roorkhee chair. It was named in honor of the headquarters of the Indian Army corps of Engineers at Roorkhee.
    (SSFM, 4/1/01, p.46)
c1898        Edmund Dene Morel, a London employee of the shipping line Elder Dempster, came to realize that a wealth of rubber and ivory cargo was arriving from Congo in exchange for military officers, firearms and ammunition. He deduced that forced labor was being used by King Leopold II of Belgium to extract native wealth.
    (SFEM, 8/16/98, p.4)
1898        Charles Booth, shipping magnate, led a project to color-code every street in London according to its social make-up. Booth also logged the incidence of poverty in London for the years 1898-1899.
    (Econ, 5/6/06, p.57)(Econ, 6/30/12, SR p.8)
1898        In England chemists William Ramsay and Morris Travers discovered a new gas that they named neon. It had a natural orange-red glow.
    (G&M, 7/31/97, p.A20)
1898        William Gladstone (b.1809), former English prime minister, died. His biography, "Gladstone," by Roy Jenkins was published in 1995.
    (WSJ, 2/21/97, p.A12)
1898        John Henry Patterson (29), a British army engineer, was commissioned to oversee the construction of a bridge for the Uganda Railway in British East Africa (later Kenya). His job was to build a bridge over the Tsavo River and finish laying rails for 30 miles on either side of Tsavo, a stop on the old slave caravan route. Male lions killed about 30 mainly Indian laborers. By the end of the year Patterson killed 2 man eating lions. In 1907 he published “The Man-Eaters of Tsavo."
    (ON, 10/20/11, p.7)(Econ., 2/28/15, p.39)

1898        Joseph Silver (d.1918), a Polish-born Jew, arrived in Johannesburg fresh from a stint in Sing Sing for burglary and a stay in London a decade earlier. Shortly after arriving in Johannesburg, Silver set up a string of cafes, cigar shops and police-protected brothels. Silver was executed as a spy in Poland in 1918. In 2007 Charles van Onselen authored "The Fox and The Flies: The World of Joseph Silver," in which he suggested that Silver was London’s “Jack the Ripper."
    (AP, 5/2/07)

1898-1963     C.S. Lewis, British author. His work included "The Chronicles of Narnia." He chose a theistic view of reality over a materialistic one and affirmed the mutual existence of soul, god and nature. His autobiography was titled "Surprised by Joy." His work included "The Abolition of Man," "Miracles" and "The Problem of Pain." "Friendship is unnecessary, like philosophy, like art. ... It has no survival value; rather it is one of those things that give value to survival."
    (AP, 12/20/97)(WSJ, 10/8/98, p.W13)(SFEC, 11/15/98, p.T3)

1899        Feb 18, Sir Arthur Bryant, English historian, was born.
    (HN, 2/18/98)

1899        Mar 27, The first international radio transmission between England and France was achieved by the Italian inventor G. Marconi.
    (HN, 3/27/99)

1899        Jul 1, Charles Laughton, actor (Mutiny on Bounty, Spartacus), was born in England.
    (MC, 7/1/02)

1899        Jul 30, Gerald Moore, English pianist (Am I Too Loud), was born.
    (MC, 7/30/02)

1899        Aug 13, Movie director Alfred Hitchcock was born in London.
    (AP, 8/13/97)(HN, 8/13/98)

1899        Aug 27, C.S. Forester (Cecil Scott Forester), novelist, was born in England. He authored the "Horatio Hornblower" series.
    (HN, 8/27/00)(MC, 8/27/02)

1899        Sep 8, The British government sent an additional 10,000 troops to Natal South Africa.
    (MC, 9/8/01)

1899        Sep 17, The 1st British troops left Bombay for South Africa.
    (MC, 9/17/01)

1899        Oct 11, South African Boars, settlers from the Netherlands, declared war on Great Britain. In the Boer War Dutch settlers of the South African Republic (the Traansvaal) and Orange Free State refused to accept English rule in southern Africa.
    (V.D.-H.K.p.289)(HN, 10/11/98)

1899        Oct 12, The Anglo-Boer War began. [see Oct 11]
    (HN, 10/12/98)

1899        Oct 14, Morning Post reporter Winston Churchill departed for South Africa. Shortly after his arrival he was caught in an ambush and taken prisoner in Pretoria from whence he escaped. In 1999 his granddaughter Celia Sandys authored "Churchill: Wanted Dead Or Alive."
    (WSJ, 12/29/99, p.A12)(MC, 10/14/01)

1899        Oct 30, British Morning Post reporter Winston Churchill reached Capetown.
    (MC, 10/30/01)
1899        Oct 30, In South Africa two battalions of British troops were cut off, surrounded and forced to surrender to General Petrus Joubert's Boers at Nicholson's Nek.
    (HN, 10/30/98)

1899        Oct, An int'l. tribunal in Paris ruled on a border dispute between Venezuela and British Guiana (Guyana). Britain received most of the claim for the Essequibo region, close to 111,000 square miles. Venezuela was represented by 2 US judges and the chairman of the panel was Russian jurist Frederic de Martens. Venezuela rejected this decision in the 1960s.
    (SFC, 10/26/99, p.A12)(Econ, 9/29/07, p.44)

1899        Nov 11, Stuart-Rubens-Boyd-Jones' "Floradora," premiered in London.
    (MC, 11/11/01)

1899        Nov 15, Winston Churchill (24), war correspondent for London’s Morning Post, was captured by Boers in Natal, South Africa. He escaped prison in Pretoria on Dec 12 and after some days reached the English colony in Durban, Natal.
    (ON, 12/08, p1)

1899        Nov 28, The British were victorious over the Boers at Modder River.
    (HN, 11/28/98)

1899        Dec 2, John Barbirolli, English conductor (NY Philharmonic Orchestra), was born.
    (MC, 12/2/01)

1899        Dec 15, In South Africa the Boars defeated the British at the Battle of Colenso.
    (HN, 12/15/98)

1899        Dec 16, Sir Noel Coward (d.1973), the English actor, playwright and composer, was born in London. "I love criticism just so long as it's unqualified praise."
    (AP, 12/16/99)

1899        Harry Graham, English versifier, authored "Ruthless Rhymes for Heartless Homes."
    (SFEC, 5/14/00, Z1 p.2)
1899        Musicologist Cecil Sharp stumbled on a performance of Morris dancers at the Oxford Corn Exchange. He wrote down the songs, annotated the dances and begat a revival. Morris dancing had been banned as pagan by Oliver Cromwell in the 17th century.
    (WSJ, 5/17/04, p.A13)
1899        The Gramophone Company bought a painting by Francis Barraud of the dog Nipper listening to a cylinder phonograph. The painting was titled "His Master's Voice".  The first HMV-branded store was opened by the Gramophone Company on Oxford Street in 1921.  
1899        The Landmark Hotel was built in London, England.
    (AP, 2/17/10)
1899        A treaty between American, Germany and Britain gave Western Samoa to the Germans and Eastern Samoa to the Americans. In an Anglo-German treaty the UK renounced its rights to the Samoan Islands
    (HN, 1/16/99)(SFCM, 10/14/01, p.45)
1899        A telegraph cable connecting Britain to Cape Town came ashore on Ascension Island.
    (Econ, 12/18/10, p.160)
1899        Army officer W.J. Myers (b.1858) died in the Boer War. His collection of Egyptian antiquities was left to Eton College.
    (WSJ, 10/3/00, p.A24)
1899        The charter of the Royal Niger Company was revoked, an act seen as partly a consequence of the short war with Nembe King Koko Mingi VIII.

1899-1902    The Anglo-Boer War. Winston Churchill took part as a war correspondent for the Morning Post.
    (WSJ, 12/29/99, p.A12)

1899-1905    Lord George Nathaniel Curzon served as Viceroy of India.
    (SSFM, 4/1/01, p.43)

1900        Jan 1, The Royal Niger Company sold all its possessions and concessions in Africa to the British government for £865,000, considered to be a very low price.

1900        Feb 5, The United States and Great Britain signed the Hay-Pauncefote Treaty, giving the United States the right to build a canal in Nicaragua but not to fortify it.
    (HN, 2/5/99)

1900        Feb 6, Battle at Vaalkrans, South Africa (Boers vs. British army).
    (MC, 2/6/02)

1900        Feb 8, General Buller was beaten at Ladysmith; the British fled over the Tugela River. [need details]
    (HN, 2/8/98)

1900        Feb 14, General Roberts invaded South Africa’s Orange Free State with 20,000 British troops.
    (HN, 2/14/98)

1900        Feb 15, The British threatened to use natives in the Boer War fight.
    (HN, 2/15/98)

1900        Feb 18, Battle at Paardeberg (Boer War), 1,270 British killed or injured.
    (MC, 2/18/02)

1900        Feb 28, After a 119-day siege by the Boers, the English defenders of Ladysmith, under General Sir George White were relieved.
    (HN, 2/28/98)

1900        Feb, In London, England, 129 socialists and union members gathered to secure parliamentary representation for the labor movement. Automatic donations to Labour by union members dates back to this founding event.
    (Econ, 7/13/13, p.50)

1900        Mar 11, British Prime Minister Lord Salisbury (1830-1903) rejected the peace overtures offered from Boer leader Paul Kruger.
    (HN, 3/11/98)(WUD, 1994, p.1262)

1900        Mar 27, The London Parliament passed the War Loan Act which gave 35 million pounds to the Boer War cause.
    (HN, 3/27/98)

1900        Apr 4, There was an assassination attempt on Prince of Wales, King Edward VII.
    (MC, 4/4/02)

1900        Apr 9, British forces routed the Boers at Kroonstadt, South Africa.
    (HN, 4/9/98)

1900        Apr 19, Richard Hughes, English novelist and playwright (A High Wind in Jamaica), was born.
    (HN, 4/1901)

1900        Apr 24, Elizabeth Goudge, English author, was born.
    (HN, 4/24/01)

1900        May 18, Britain proclaimed a protectorate over kingdom of Tonga.
    (SC, 5/18/02)

1900        May 28, Britain annexed the Orange Free State in South Africa.
    (HN, 5/28/98)

1900        Jun 25, Lord Louis Mountbatten of Burma, the last British viceroy of India, was born. He survived World War II only to be killed by an IRA bomb.
    (HN, 6/25/99)

1900        Jul 9, Queen Victoria signed The Commonwealth of Australia Constitution Act, uniting 6 separate colonies under a federal government, effective Jan 1, 1901.
    (HN, 7/9/98)(www.servat.unibe.ch/icl/as__indx.html)

1900        Aug 4, Elizabeth Bowes-Lyon (d.2002), later known as the Queen Mum (mother of Queen Elizabeth II), was born in Scotland as the daughter of Lord Glamis, who became the 14th Earl of Strathmore and Kinghorne. She later became the wife of King George VI.
    (SFC, 8/4/00, p.A18)(SFC, 8/5/00, p.A12)(WSJ, 8/10/00, p.A16)(MC, 8/4/02)

1900        Sep 9, James Hilton, British novelist who authored "Lost Horizon" and "Goodbye Mr. Chips," was born. In Lost Horizon he created the imaginary world of "Shangri-La."
    (HN, 9/9/98)

1900        Oct 1, Oldham, England, announced that Winston Churchill had won the election as the town's second MP, beginning Churchill's long career in the House of Commons.

1900        Oct 3, Edward Elgar, Cardinal John Henry Newman's oratorium, premiered in Birmingham.
    (MC, 10/3/01)

1900        Oct 10, Fred Holland Day exhibited his work at the London Exhibition under the auspices of the Royal Photographic Society.
    (Civilization, July-Aug. 1995, p.40-47)

1900        Nov 22, Sir Arthur Sullivan (b.1842), English composer, died. His operas included "H.M.S. Pinafore," "Iolanthe," "Patience," "The Pirates of Penzance," "Princess Ida," "The Mikado," "Trial by Jury," and "The Yeoman of the Guard."
    (WSJ, 11/22/00, p.A20)

1900        Nov 30, The French government denounced the British government and declared sympathy for the Boers.
    (HN, 11/30/98)

1900        Dec 16, V.S. Pritchett (d.1997), English writer, was born in Ipswich. The first volume of his autobiography was called "A Cab at the Door."
    (SFC, 3/22/97, p.A21)

1900        In Britain employees of the Taff Vale Railway Co. in South Wales greased the tracks and cut telegraph wires during a bitter strike. In 1901 the House of Lords ruled that their union could be sued for damaging the company. The shock to the union movement inspired the Labour Party and a 1906 Trade Disputes Act.
    (Econ, 5/22/10, p.60)
1900        Kensal Rise library in the London borough of Brent was opened by Mark Twain. In 2011 it faced closure due to government cuts.
    (AFP, 12/12/11)
c1900    Charles Spearman, an English psychologist, hypothesized the g factor as a measure of smartness based on correlations on how people performed on tests of different mental abilities. He invented a mathematical technique called factor analysis to measure the factor dubbed g, for general. In 1998 Arthur R. Jenson published "The g Factor: The Science of Mental Ability."
    (WSJ, 6/2/98, p.A20)
c1900    Sir Arthur Conan Doyle wrote numerous articles and pamphlets in defense of British concentration camps during the Boer War, for which he was knighted.
    (SFC, 9/5/98, p.E3)
1900        John Ruskin (b.1819), Victorian art critic and social commentator, died. He was considered in his time a colossus of esthetic, moral and social wisdom. In 1985 Tim Hilton authored "John Ruskin: The Early Years." In 2000 Tim Hilton authored "John Ruskin: The Later Years."
    (WSJ, 5/12/00, p.A24)
1900        Britain had 188 banks and Canada had 35. Within 25 years half the banks in both countries had disappeared.
    (Econ, 11/10/12, p.78)
1900        American businessman Charles Tyson Yerkes arrived in London, the world’s largest city with 6.5 million inhabitants. Over the next five years he was intrumental in expanding the London underground. 
    (Econ, 12/20/14, p.72)
1900        In London an estimated 300,000 horses pulled cabs and omnibuses as well as a variety of transport wagons. NYC counted some 100,000 horses.
    (Econ, 11/26/16, SR p.3)

1900-1902    Lord Herbert Horatio Kitchener created concentration camps in South Africa where hundreds of thousands of Boer women, children and old men were herded. An estimated 16,000 died in the camps.
    (WSJ, 2/27/00, p.A24)

1901        Jan 1, The Commonwealth of Australia became official as established in the July 9, 1900, Commonwealth of Australia Constitution Act. 6 colonies became an independent federation with Edmund Barton as the 1st prime minister. Although independent it still recognized Britain’s royalty as Australia’s head of state. The governor-general, a representative of the queen nominated by the prime minister, was appointed by the British monarch.
    (AP, 1/1/98)(SFC, 2/3/98, p.A7)(SFC, 12/31/00, p.A18)

1901        Jan 22, Queen Victoria died at age 82. She was the monarch of Great Britain and Ireland and Empress of India, and died after presiding over her vast empire for nearly 64 years--the longest reign in British history. Born in 1819, the only child of George III's fourth son, Victoria became queen in 1837. In 1840, she married Prince Albert of Saxe-Coburg-Gotha. Although the match was a political one, the two were devoted to each other, having nine children before Albert's death in 1861. Through dynastic marriages, Victoria's descendants are connected to almost all 20th-century Europe's royal houses. During Victoria's long reign the monarchy lost much of its political power to Parliament, but she was the beloved symbol of the Victorian Era--a golden age of British history. In 2000 Christopher Hibbert authored "Queen Victoria: A Personal History."
    (AP, 1/22/98)(HNPD, 1/22/99)(WSJ, 12/29/00, p.W6)
1901        Jan 22, After 63 years England stopped the sale of Queen Victoria postage stamps series & began the King Edward VII series.
    (MC, 1/22/02)

1901        Feb 23, Britain and Germany agreed on a boundary between German East Africa [later Tanganyika, Rwanda and Burundi] and Nyasaland [later Malawi].
    (HN, 2/23/98)(WUD, 1994, p.593,990)

1901        Mar 23, The world learned that Boers were starving to death in British concentration camps.
    (HN, 3/23/98)

1901        Apr 15, The 1st British motorized burial took place.
    (MC, 4/15/02)

1901        Jun 1, John van Druten, English playwright (I am a Camera), was born.
    (HN, 6/1/01)

1901        Aug, Arthur Conan Doyle published the 1st installment of his book "Hound of the Baskervilles" in The Strand Magazine. It was later reported that he had stolen the idea for the novel from his friend Bertram Fletcher Robinson. A 1st edition copy with dust jacket sold at auction for $131,541 in 1998.
    (WSJ, 10/16/98, p.W14)(WSJ, 9/20/00, p.A24)(ON, 3/06, p.12)

1901        Sep 15, Sir Howard Bailey, British engineer, was born. He gave his name to a prefabricated bridge used extensively during World War II.
    (HN, 9/15/99)

1901        Sep 17, At the Battle at Elands River Port, Boer Gen. Smuts destroyed the 17th Lancers unit .
    (MC, 9/17/01)

1901        Oct 2, The 1st Royal Naval submarine launched at Barrow.
    (MC, 10/2/01)

1901        Oct 19, Edward Elgar's "Pomp and Circumstance" March premiered in Liverpool.
    (MC, 10/19/01)

1901        Nov 6, Kate Greenaway (b.1846), English children’s book illustrator, died of breast cancer.

1901        Nov 18, The 2nd Hay-Pauncefote Treaty was signed. The U.S. was given extensive rights by Britain for building and operating a canal through Central America.
    (HN, 11/18/98)

1901        Dec 11, Marconi sent his 1st transatlantic radio signal from Cornwall, England to Newfoundland, Canada. The first transmission failed, but another the next day succeeded.

1901        The earliest recorded use for the term “Buggins's turn" is by Admiral Fisher, later First Sea Lord, in a letter dated this year.  Buggins' turn is a system by which appointments or awards are made in rotation rather than by merit.
1901        Winston Churchill prophetically warned: "The wars of peoples will be more terrible than those of kings."
    (SFEC, 1/4/98, Par. p.6)
1901        A fingerprint system, developed by Inspector Edward R. Henry of the London Police, was introduced.
    (ON, 4/04, p.11)
1901        Edmund Dene Morel (28) quit his London shipping line job and began a full time campaign to expose the barbarities in the Congo under Leopold II. He started his own publication, "The West African Mail," an illustrated weekly journal in 1903 as a forum on West and Central African Questions.
    (SFEM, 8/16/98, p.4)(SFEM, 8/16/98, p.7)
1901        English millionaire William Knox D’Arcy arranged to pay £40,000 in cash and company stock to the Shah of Tehran, Muzaffar al-Din, for the right to drill for oil in western Persia. The deal included a pledge, should commercial production begin, to pay the Persian government 16% of annual profits until 1961.
    (ON, 8/08, p.1)
1901        Mixed bathing was permitted on British beaches.
    (Econ 7/15/17, p.73)

1901        India’s population of about 300 million was secured and governed by a British contingent of some 154,000 including dependents. In 2005 David Gilmour authored “The Ruling Caste: Imperial Lives in the Victorian Raj."
    (Econ, 11/12/05, p.89)

1901-1910    The Edwardian period named after Edward VII (1902-1910).
    (SSFM, 4/1/01, p.44)

1901-1953    Jan Struther, nee Joyce Anstruther, English poet: "Private opinion creates public opinion... . That is why private opinion, and private behavior, and private conversation are so terrifyingly important."
    (AP, 11/12/99)

1902        Mar 10, The Boers scored their last victory over the British, capturing British General Methuen and 200 men.
    (HN, 3/10/98)

1902        cMar 19, Japan formed an alliance with England.
    (Jap. Enc., BLDM, p. 215)

1902        Mar 20, France and Russia acknowledged the Anglo-Japanese alliance, but asserted their right to protect their interests in China and Korea.
    (HN, 3/20/98)

1902        Mar 22, Great Britain and Persia agreed to link Europe and India by telegraph.
    (HN, 3/22/97)

1902        Mar 29, William Walton, composer (Troilus and Cressida, Wise Virgins), was born in England.
    (MC, 3/29/02)

1902        Apr 10, South African Boers accepted British terms of surrender.
    (HN, 4/10/98)

1902        May 1, John Glover (85), English chemist (production sulfuric acid), died.
    (MC, 5/1/02)

1902        May 5, Bret Harte, American writer (b.1836), died in England. In 2000 Axel Nissen authored "Bret Harte: Prince and Pauper."
    (WUD, 1994, p.648)(SFEC, 9/3/00, BR p.6)(MC, 5/5/02)

1902        May 6, British SS Camorta sank off Rangoon and 739 died.
    (MC, 5/6/02)

1902        May 31, The Boer War ended between the Boars of South Africa and Great Britain with the Treaty of Vereeniging. This effectively ended a 3-year uprising by the Boers, led by Commander Louis Botha. The combination of superior fire power and a brutal war of attrition launched by Lord Kitchener forced the Boers to give in. Kitchener burned the farms of Africans and Boers alike and collected as many as a 100,000 women and children in carelessly run and unhygienic concentration camps on the open veldt. Britain annexed Transvaal.
    (V.D.-H.K.p.289)(HN, 5/31/99)(SFC, 9/25/99, p.A21)(MC, 5/31/02)

1902        Jun 19, John E E Dalberg, baron van Acton (69), English historian, died.
    (MC, 6/19/02)

1902        Jan 31, A French soccer team played in England for the first time: Paris lost, 4-0, to Marlow FC.
    (HC, 2003, p.64)

1902        Mar 26, British magnate Cecil Rhodes (b.1853), Prime Minister of Cape Colony (1890-96), died. In his last will and testament, he provided for the establishment of the Rhodes Scholarship, the world's first international study program. The first scholars were selected in 1903. In Rhodesia [later Zimbabwe] after Cecil John Rhodes died he was buried in a tomb in the Matopos Hills. He had co-founded De Beers Consolidated Mines Ltd., and built great railways through southern Africa. In 2008 Philip Ziegler authored “Legacy: Cecil Rhodes, the Rhodes Trust and Rhodes Scholarships."
    (https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cecil_Rhodes)(AP, 4/4/97)(SFC, 12/9/98, p.A25)(WSJ, 12/9/98, p.A1)(Econ, 5/10/08, p.95)

1902        Jul 1, Start of Sherlock Holmes "Disappearance of Lady Frances Carfax."
    (MC, 7/1/02)

1902        Aug 9, Edward VII was crowned king of England following the death of his mother, Queen Victoria.
    (SFEM, 1/26/97, p.40)(AP, 8/9/98)

1902        Dec 13, The Committee of Imperial Defense held its first meeting in London.
    (HN, 12/13/98)

1902        The novel "The Four Feathers" by A.E.W. Mason, was published. It was set mainly in England and Ireland over the years 1882-1888 during England’s war in the Sudan and went on to inspire 7 films.
    (SFC, 9/20/02, p.D1)(http://www.stmoroky.com/reviews/books/4feather.htm)

1902        Arthur Conan Doyle was knighted by King Edward VII for his work in South Africa as a physician in a field hospital and his scholarly book about the Boer War.
    (ON, 3/06, p.12)

1902        The Greenwich Foot Tunnel, a passageway under the Thames that to the Royal Naval College, was constructed.
    (SFEC, 10/17/98, p.T9)

1902        Ronald Ross (1857-1932), an English physician, won the Nobel Prize for his work on malaria. His story is part of the 1997 novel "The Calcutta Chromosome: A Novel of Fevers, Delirium and Discovery" by Amitav Ghosh. In 2003 Fiammetta Rocco authored "The Miraculous Fever Tree: Malaria and the Quest for a Cure That Changed the World."
    (WUD, 1994, p.1245)(SFEC,10/26/97, BR p.8)(WSJ, 8/26/03, p.D5)

1902        The British enacted a law that froze the number of Irish pubs at the existing level to help reduce drinking.
    (WSJ, 3/17/99, p.A1)
1902        Britain passed a law against outdoor cremation.
    (AP, 7/12/06)

1902-1932    Doulton pottery in Burslem produced Doulton Burslem wares. They used a lion and crown as an insignia. They made bone china from 1928-1957. China was stamped with a number indicating year of manufacture with "1" representing the year 1928.
    (SFC,12/17/97, Z1 p.16)

1903        Jan 7, Alan Napier, actor (Alfred-Batman), was born in Birmingham, England.
    (MC, 1/7/02)

1903        Jan 18, Berthold Goldschmidt, German-British (opera) composer (Beatrice Cenci), was born.
    (MC, 1/18/02)

1903        Jan 19, Guglielmo Marconi broadcast the first transatlantic radio message from his station (Marconi Beach) on Cape Cod. It was beamed to King Edward of England from President Theodore Roosevelt. [see 1901]
    (Hem, Dec. 94, p.44)

1903        Jan 24, U.S. Secretary of State John Hay and British Ambassador Herbert created a joint commission to establish the Alaskan border.
    (HN, 1/24/99)

1903        Mar 15, The British complete the conquest of Nigeria, 500,000 square miles are now controlled by the United Kingdom.
    (HN, 3/15/99)

1903        Mar 29, A regular news service began between New York and London on Marconi's wireless.
    (HN, 3/29/98)

1903        Apr 15, John Williams, actor (Niles-Family Affair, Dial M for Murder), was born in England.
    (MC, 4/15/02)

1903        May 12, Lennox R.F. Berkeley, British composer (Castaway), was born.
    (MC, 5/12/02)

1903        May 26, Start of Sherlock Holmes "Adventure of 3 Gables."
    (MC, 5/26/02)

1903        May 29, Bob Hope (d.2003), US comedian, was born as Leslie Townes Hope in Eltham, England.
    (SFC, 5/28/97, p.D5)(AP, 5/29/05)

1903        May, In Britain the House of Commons passed a resolution urging that Congo natives be governed with humanity. Also the British consul in the Congo, Roger Casement, was asked to travel to the interior and report on conditions there.
    (SFEM, 8/16/98, p.8)

1903        Jun 25, George Orwell (d.1950), English novelist, essayist and critic, was born in India as Eric Arthur Blair. He took his pen name in 1932. His books included "Animal Farm" (1945) and "1984" (1949), which attacked totalitarianism. "Each generation imagines itself to be more intelligent than the one that went before it, and wiser than the one that comes after it."
    (HN, 6/25/99)(AP, 9/23/00)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/George_Orwell)

1903        Jun 29, The British government officially protested Belgian atrocities in the Congo. Missionaries, such as William Sheppard of Virginia, had provided information that soldiers of Leopold’s private army turned over the right hand of villagers they had killed in order to account for their used bullets. Leopold’s 19,000 man private army held hostage the wives of workers to force men to work.
    (HN, 6/29/98)(SFEM, 8/16/98, p.7,8)

1903         Jul 1, Amy Johnson, English aviator, was born.
    (HN, 7/1/01)

1903        Jul 2, Lord Alex Douglas-Home, British PM (1963-64), was born.
    (SC, 7/2/02)
1903        Jul 2, Olav V, King of Norway (1957), was born in England.
    (SC, 7/2/02)

1903        Aug 22, Robert Arthur Talbot Gascoyne-Cecil (b.1830), 3rd Marquess of Salisbury, died. He served as British prime minister three times (1885-1886, 1886-1892, 1895-1902) for a total of over thirteen years and acted as his own foreign minister.

1903        Aug 31, Bernard Lovell, radio astronomer and founder of Jodrell Bank, was born in England.

1903        Oct 10, Emmeline Pankhurst (1858-1928), British suffragist, and her daughter Christabel (23) founder the Women's Social and Political Union (WSPU).
    (ON, 10/2010, p.7)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Emmeline_Pankhurst)

1903        Oct 28, Evelyn Waugh (d.1966), English novelist, was born in London. Waugh served in WWII as a SAS Commando. He wrote "Decline and Fall" and "Brideshead Revisited." "News is what a chap who doesn't care much about anything wants to read. And it's only news until he's read it. After that it's dead."
    (AP, 3/29/99)(HN, 10/28/99)(MC, 10/28/01)

1903        Nov 2, The Daily Mirror of London began operating as the first tabloid newspaper.
    (WSJ, 12/29/07, p.A8)(http://educationforum.ipbhost.com/lofiversion/index.php/t6351.html)

1903        Dec 4, Alfred Leslie Rowse (d. 10/3/97), Shakespeare scholar and authority on Tudor England, was born in St. Austell, England. He authored 90 volumes of history, poetry and biography. His best seller was "A Cornish Childhood." He asserted that the "Dark Lady" in Shakespeare’s sonnets was the Italian poet Emilis Bassano Lanier.
    (SFEC, 10/5/97, p.D10)(MC, 12/4/01)

1903        Dec 8, Herbert Spencer (b.1820), English philosopher, died. He was later considered to be the father of Social Darwinism. He is best known for coining the phrase "survival of the fittest," which he did in “Principles of Biology" (1864).
    (WSJ, 1/9/09, p.A11)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Herbert_Spencer)

1903        Dec 10, Mary Norton, English children's author, was born. Her work included "Bedknobs and Broomsticks."
    (HN, 12/10/00)

1903        Dec 15, The British Parliament placed a 15-year ban on whale fishing in Norway.
    (HN, 12/15/98)

1903        Robert Erskine Childers (1870-1922), British author, wrote his spy novel “The Riddle of the Sands." The Irish nationalist was executed by the authorities of the nascent Irish Free State during the Irish Civil War.
    (Econ, 6/6/09, p.81)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/The_Riddle_of_the_Sands)
1903        The Burlington Magazine, a journal of art history, was founded in Britain. In 2003 Michael Levy edited "The Burlington Magazine: A Centenary Anthology," with articles by a roster of legendary art historians.
    (WSJ, 5/29/03, p.D8)
1903        Princess Alice (18) married the son of a Greek king
    (SSFC, 4/7/02, p.M3)
1903        The Commonwealth Naturalization Act excluded all non-Europeans from the right to apply for naturalization, or from bringing spouses and children into the country. Britain passed legislation restriction immigration.
    (Econ, 11/20/10, p.63)(http://tinyurl.com/25dmgfa)
1903        London gin distiller George Gilbey began selling aristocrats do-it-yourself gadgets to carbonate tap water.
    (SFC, 7/9/11, p.D2)
1903         In southwest England a 10,000-year-old skeleton was found in the underground caves at Cheddar Gorge. In 2018 scientists from Britain's Natural History Museum and University College London said DNA from the skeleton, named "Cheddar Man," suggests the oldest-known Briton had dark skin and blue eyes.
    (SFC, 3/8/96, p.A8)(AP, 2/7/18)
1903        English Col. Francis Younghusband (1863-1942) marched off from Darjeeling, India, with 1,000 British and Indian soldiers, 7,000 mules and 4,000 yaks to invade Tibet.
    (SSFC, 7/15/07, p.G5)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Francis_Younghusband)

1903-1974    Cyril Connolly, British critic: "We fear something before we hate it. A child who fears noises becomes a man who hates  noise."
    (AP, 6/16/00)

1903-1990    Malcolm Muggeridge, British author and commentator: "It is only believers in the Fall of Man who can really appreciate how funny men are."
    (AP, 6/11/99)

1903-1997    Dec 4, A.L. Rowse (d. 10/3/97), Shakespeare scholar and authority on Tudor England, was born in St. Austell, England. He authored 90 volumes of history, poetry and biography. His best seller was "A Cornish Childhood." He asserted that the "Dark Lady" in Shakespeare’s sonnets was the Italian poet Emilis Bassano Lanier.
    (SFEC, 10/5/97, p.D10)

1904        Jan 7, The Marconi International Marine Communication Company, Limited, of London announced that the telegraphed letters “C-Q-D" would serve as a maritime distress call. It was later replaced by “S-O-S".
    (AP, 1/7/07)

1904        Jan 11, British troops massacred 1,000 dervishes in Somaliland.
    (HN, 1/11/99)

1904        Jan 18, Cary Grant (d.1986), U.S. actor, was born in England. He was famous for his roles in "Gunga Din," "Bringing Up Baby," "The Philadelphia Story" and "North by Northwest."
    (HN, 1/18/99)(MC, 1/18/02)

1904        Feb 19, Winston Churchill spoke at the Free Trade Hall in Manchester and said: “Large views always triumph over small ideas."
    (http://tinyurl.com/jpb2gsu)(Econ, 4/9/15, p.58)

1904        Mar 22, The first color photograph was published in the London Daily Illustrated Mirror.
    (HN, 3/22/97)

1904        Apr 8, Britain and France signed a series of agreements dubbed the entente cordial. It marked the end of almost a century of intermittent conflict between the two nations and their predecessor states. King Edward VII gifted French president Emile Loubet a richly-decorated casket to seal the deal. It was in fact a series of agreements between Britain and France on issues from colonialism in North Africa to fishing rights in Newfoundland. The casket contained a roll of parchment inscribed with a text celebrating Anglo-French friendship and, on the lid, a golden sculpture, the allegorical figure of Peace crowning France and Britain with laurels. The Entente cordiale, along with the Anglo-Russian Entente and the Franco-Russian Alliance, later became part of the Triple Entente among the UK, France, and Russia.
    (Econ, 3/26/11, p.64)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Entente_cordiale)(AP, 1/23/21)

1904        Apr 14, George Bernard Shaw's "Candide," premiered in London.
    (MC, 4/14/02)

1904        May 8, Eadweard J. Muybridge (b.1830 as Edward Muggeridge), English photographer, died in England. He had spent much of his life in the USA and is known for his pioneering work on animal locomotion which used multiple cameras to capture motion, and his zoopraxiscope, a device for projecting motion pictures that pre-dated the flexible perforated film strip.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Eadweard_Muybridge)(Econ, 10/9/10, p.122)

1904        May 10, Henry Morton Stanley (b.1841 as John Rowlands), Welsh-born British explorer, died in London. In 2007 Tim Jeal authored “Stanley: The Impossible Life of Africa’s Greatest Explorer."
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Henry_Morton_Stanley)(Econ, 3/17/07, p.90)

1904        Sep 18, In East London Jewish anarchists on Brick Lane pelted Ultra-Orthodox worshippers with bacon sandwiches on Yom Kippur.
    (http://tinyurl.com/3x7moee)(Econ, 3/5/11, p.17)

1904        Oct 22, Russian fleet fired on a British fishing ship.
    (MC, 10/22/01)

1904        Nov 1, George Bernard Shaw's "John Bull's Other Island," premiered in London.
    (MC, 11/1/01)

1904        Nov 28, Nancy Mitford, English author (Love in a Cold Climate), was born. The eldest of 7 Mitford children was born to Lord and Lady Redesdale. In 2001 Mary S. Lovell authored "The Sisters: The Saga of the Mitford Family." Jessica Mitford, author of "The American Way of Death" (1963) died in 1996.
    (SSFC, 1/6/02, p.M1)(MC, 11/28/01)

1904        Dec 27, Duke of York Theatre opened in London with the 1st performance “Peter Pan: The Boy Who Wouldn't Grow Up," a dream-play written by J.M. Barrie.
    (SFC, 1/10/04, p.D1)(www.amrep.org/past/peter/peter1.html)

1904        Dec 28, The 1st daily wireless weather forecasts were published in London.
    (MC, 12/28/01)

1904        Oct 2, Graham Greene (d.1991), British author, was born. His work included "The Power and the Glory," "The Heart of the Matter" and "Ministry of Fear," which was made into a 1940s movie by Fritz Lang. "I didn't invent the world I write about- it's all true." In 2004 Norman sherry concluded his 3-volume biography: “The Life of Graham Greene."
    (SFEC,10/26/97, DB p.44)(AP, 4/3/00)(HN, 10/2/00)(SFC, 10/2/04, p.E1)

1904        British writer Hector Hugh Munro, aka Saki (1870-1916), authored his short story “Reginald on Besetting Sins: The Woman Who Told the Truth."
    (Econ, 12/17/11, p.47)
1904        The London Symphony Orchestra was formed.
    (Econ, 2/28/04, p.82)
1904        William and Gilbert Foyle founded Foyle's bookstore. They began by selling their textbooks after failing the entrance exam for the civil service.
    (SFC, 6/11/99, p.D6)
1904         John William Strutt (1842-1919), 3rd Baron Rayleigh and British physicist, won the Nobel Prize in Physics for his investigations of the densities of the most important gases and for his discovery of argon in connection with these studies.
1904        In England the Grand Pier opened at Weston-super-Mare on the northern Somerset coast and stretched a quarter of a mile (400 meters) into the Bristol Channel. The theatre pavilion on the Grand Pier was destroyed by fire in 1930 and rebuilt, opening three years later. In 2008 another fire destroyed the pier.
    (AFP, 7/28/08)
1904        The Congo Reform Association was born following the return of Roger Casement from the Congo and his meeting with Edmund Morel.
    (SFEM, 8/16/98, p.9)
1904        The British Rover Motor Car Company was founded.
    (SSFC, 11/22/09, p.H1)
1904        Christopher Dresser (b.1834), English designer, died. In 1876 he became the 1st European designer to visit Japan.
    (WSJ, 4/6/04, p.D4)

1905        Jan 2, Sir Michael Tippett, British composer, was born in London. His childhood was divided among England, France and Italy. His work included the oratorio "Vision of St. Augustine."
    (SFC, 1/10/98, p.A19)

1905        Jan 18, Edward Henry Corbould (b.1815), English artist, died.
    (WSJ, 11/22/08, p.W11)(www.corbould.com/artists/ehc/ehc.html)

1905        Mar 9, Rex Warner, English poet, writer (Wild Goose Chase), was born.
    (MC, 3/9/02)

1905        Apr 19, Tom Hopkinson, British writer, was born.
    (HN, 4/1901)

1905        May 25, Binnie Barnes, actress (Adventures of Marco Polo, Diamond Jim), was born in London.
    (SC, 5/25/02)

1905        Jul 19, Boyd Neel, conductor (Story of  an Orch), was born in Blackheath, Kent England.
    (MC, 7/19/02)

1905        Sep 30, British director Michael Powell ("The Red Shoes") was born in Bekesbourne, Kent, England.
    (AP, 9/30/05)

1905        Oct 13, Henry Irving (b.1838), British actor, died in England. In 2008 Michael Holroyd authored “A Strange Eventful History: The Dramatic Lives of Ellen Terry, Henry Irving and Their Remarkable Families." Irving was the first actor to be awarded a British knighthood (1895).
    (WSJ, 3/6/09, p.W6)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ellen_Terry)

1905        Oct 15, Charles P. Snow (d.1980), English novelist (Death Under Sail), was born. He pointed out that the university’s separate worlds have ceased to talk to one another. The "uni" in the university has become meaningless as the institution, possessing more and more power as government funds were pumped into it for research, turned into a loose confederation of disconnected mini-states, instead of an organization devoted to the joint search for knowledge and truth.
    (V.D.-H.K.p.142)(HN, 10/15/00)(MC, 10/15/01)

1905        Nov 18, George Bernard Shaw's "Major Barbara," premiered in London.
    (MC, 11/18/01)

1905        Nov 19, 100 people drowned in the English Channel as the steamer Hilda sank.
    (HN, 11/19/98)

1905        Nov 22, British, Italian, Russian, French and Austrian-Hungarian fleet attacked the Grecian Isle of Lesbos.
    (MC, 11/22/01)

1905        H.E. Marshall authored “Our Island Story," a history of Britain for children.
    (Econ, 8/20/05, p.44)

1905        Gustav Holst, composer, became music master at St. Paul’s Girls’ School. He added a posting as director of music at Morley College in 1907.
    (WSJ, 9/1/00, p.W2)

1905        Herbert Austin began making cars at Longbridge near Birmingham, England. The site later became the main factory of MG Rover.
    (Econ, 3/11/06, p.53)

1906        Jan, Britain’s liberals won a landslide victory. Henry Campbell-Bannerman (1936-1908) led the Liberals to a massive election victory in the UK on a promised program of reform.
    (http://tinyurl.com/gse4h5h)(Econ, 11/14/15, p.58)

1906        Feb 10, Britain's 1st modern and largest battleship, the "HMS Dreadnought," was launched.
    (MC, 2/10/02)

1906        Feb 15, British Labour Party organized.
    (MC, 2/15/02)

1906        Mar 10, London Underground opened Bakerloo line from Baker Street to Waterloo Line.
    (MC, 3/10/02)

1906        Mar 20, George B. Shaw's "Captain Brassbound's Conversion," premiered in London.
    (MC, 3/20/02)

1906        Mar 24, "Census of the British Empire" showed England ruled 1/5 of the world.
    (MC, 3/24/02)

1906        Mar 25, Alan John Percivale Taylor (d.1990), English historian, was born. He pioneered the presentation of the history lecture on British television.

1906        Mar 29, E. Power Biggs, organist, composer (CBS), was born in Westcliff-on-Sea, England.
    (MC, 3/29/02)

1906        Apr 24, William Joyce was born. He was the British traitor, who during World War II gave anti-British broadcasts known as 'Lord Haw-Haw.'
    (HN, 4/24/99)

1906        May 29, T.H. White, British writer (The Sword in the Stone), was born.
    (HN, 5/29/01)

1906        Jul 7, In England Joseph Chamberlain (1836-1914), British politician and statesman and the former mayor of Birmingham (1873-1876), led an 80-car rally in the city for 17 miles to celebrate his July 8, 70th birthday.
    (http://tinyurl.com/z4b89k5)(Econ, 8/6/16, p.45)

1906        Aug 28, John Betjeman (d.1984), poet laureate of England (1972-1984), was born.

1906        Oct 8, Karl Ludwig Nessler first demonstrated a machine in London that put permanent waves in hair. The client wore a dozen brass curlers, each weighing two pounds, for the six-hour process.
    (HN, 10/8/00)

1906        Nov 20, George Bernard Shaw's "Doctor's Dilemma," premiered in London.
    (MC, 11/20/01)

1906        Dec 30, Sir Carol Reed (d.1976) British movie director ("The Third Man," "Our Man in Havana," "Oliver!") was born in London.
    (AP, 12/30/06)

1906        William Empson, English critic and poet, was born. He wrote the book "Seven Types of Ambiguity," in which he attempted to translate the new ideas of physics into literary criticism.
    (WUD, 1994, p.468)(SFEC, 8/17/97, Z1 p.3)
1906        H. Elves and A. Henry published their classic work on dendrology: "The Trees and Shrubs of Great Britain and Ireland."
    (NH, 6/96, p.46)
1906        Edmund Morel wrote "Red Rubber: the Story of the Rubber Slave Trade Flourishing on the Congo in the year of Grace 1906."
    (SFEM, 8/16/98, p.9)
1906        Joseph Malaby Dent (1849-1926), British bookbinder turned publisher, began Everyman’s Library, a collection of low cost classic books.
    (WSJ, 1/9/06, p.D4)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/J._M._Dent)
1906        David Casement, a British consul, was sent to Brazil, first as consul in Pará, then transferred to Santos, and lastly promoted to consul-general in Rio de Janeiro. When he was attached as a consular representative to a commission investigating murderous rubber slavery by the British-registered Peruvian Amazon Company, effectively controlled by the archetypal rubber baron Julio Cesar Arana and his brother, Casement had the occasion to do work among the Putumayo Indians of Peru similar to that which he had done in the Congo.
1906        The Manchester engineer Henry Royce and millionaire’s son Charles Rolls built the first Rolls-Royce car.
    (WSJ, 10/28/97, p.B1)
1906        In Britain a Trade Disputes Act was passed. It aimed to protect striking workers from retaliation through the courts [see 1900].
    (Econ, 5/22/10, p.60)

1907        Jan 4, George Bernard Shaw's "Don Juan in Hell" scene from "Man and Superman" premiered in London.
    (MC, 1/4/02)

1907        Feb 13, English suffragettes stormed the British Parliament and 60 women were arrested.
    (MC, 2/13/02)

1907        Feb 21, Wystan Hugh Auden (d.1973), English born American poet, critic and playwright, was born. He wrote the libretto for Benjamin Britten’s first music drama, "Paul Bunyan." He died in Austria after suffering from Touraine-Solente-Gole in which the skin of the forehead, face, scalp, hands, and feet becomes thick and furrowed. "Political history is far too criminal and pathological to be a fit subject of study for the young. Children should acquire their heroes and villains from fiction."
    (HFA, '96, p.22)(AHD, 86)(WSJ, 2/12/96, p.A-13)(WSJ, 1/8/98, p.A7)(AP, 4/15/98)

1907        Feb 22, The 1st cabs with taxi meters began operating in London.
    (MC, 2/22/02)

1907        Feb 26, Royal Oil and Shell merged to form British Petroleum (BP).
    (SC, 2/26/02)

1907        Mar 16 The British cruiser Invincible, the world's largest, was completed at Glasgow shipyards.
    (HN, 3/16/98)

1907        May 12, Leslie Charteris, English-US detective writer (The Saint), was born.
    (MC, 5/12/02)

1907        May 13, Daphne du Maurier (d.1989), author (Rebecca), was born in England.
    (HN, 5/13/01)(WSJ, 8/2/08, p.W4)

1907        May 22, Lord Laurence Olivier, English actor, was born in Dorking, Surrey. He made Shakespeare movies and was knighted in 1947.
    (HN, 5/22/99)(AP, 5/22/07)

1907        May 28, Patrick Browne, British Lord justice of appeal, was born.
    (MC, 5/28/02)

1907        Jun 1, Frank A. Whittle, England inventor (jet engine), was born. (MC, 6/1/02)

1907        Jul 15, The London Electrobus Company began picking up passengers in the world’s biggest trials of battery-powered buses. The service collapsed in 1909. It suffered from an investment scam led by Baron de Martigny, a Canadian music-hall artist, the front man for Edward Lehwess, a German lawyer and con-artist. In 1906 Lehwess had sold the company a worthless patent that caused investors to demand the return of some 80,000 pounds.
    (Econ, 9/8/07, TQ p.10)

1907        Jun 27, Valerie Cossart (d.1994), actress (The Hartmans), was born in London.

1907        Aug 31, England, Russia and France formed their Triple Entente.
    (MC, 8/31/01)

1907        Sep 7, The British liner RMS Lusitania set out on its maiden voyage, from Liverpool, England, to New York, arriving six days later. The Lusitania was sunk by a German submarine in 1915.
    (AP, 9/7/07)

1907        Dec 10, Rumor Godden, English novelist (Black Narcissus), was born.
    (HN, 12/10/00)

1907        Dec 18, Christopher Fry, playwright (Ring Around the Moon), was born in Bristol, England.
    (MC, 12/18/01)

1907        Dec 22, Actress Dame Peggy Ashcroft was born in Croydon, England.
    (AP, 12/22/07)

1907        The current Old Bailey building was built. It stands on the site of the old Newgate Jail.
    (SFEC, 10/27/96, p.T11)
1907        Britain urged the adoption of Daylight Savings Time (DST) to conserve fuel and provide more hours to train soldiers. British architect and golfer William Willet authored a pamphlet deploring the waste of daylight.
    (WSJ, 1/11/99, p.R14)(WSJ, 3/31/05, p.D8)
1907        Britain and Russia carved Iran into spheres of influence. Russia and Great Britain signed the convention of St. Petersburg, in which Afghanistan was declared outside Russia's sphere of influence.
    (https://www.afghan-web.com/history/chronology/)(WSJ, 4/2/07, p.A6)
1907        The British forced the abolition of slavery on the new Sultan of Zanzibar and Lamu Island went into an economic decline.
    (SSFC, 4/15/01, p.T7)
1907        Florence Nightingale (1820-1910) became the first woman to receive the British Order of Merit.
    (ON, 12/11, p.6)
1907        India’s Tata firm opened an office in London to buy supplies for its Indian operations.
    (Econ, 9/10/11, p.61)

1907-1934    HJ was a mark used by A.G. Harley Jones, operator of the Royal Vienna Art Pottery in the Staffordshire district of England at this time.
    (SFC, 7/9/97, Z1 p.3)

1907-1989     Laurence Olivier, British actor: "I take a simple view of living. It is keep your eyes open and get on with it."
    (AP, 3/18/98)

1908        Jan 18, Jacob Bronowsky, British mathematician, cultural historian, was born.
    (MC, 1/18/02)

1908        Jan 24, This is considered the starting date of the Boy Scouts movement in England. Lt. General Robert S.S. Baden-Powell, had achieved fame as a hero in the Boer War and applied his methods of training British soldiers in South Africa in woodcraft and survival methods to young English boys in the early 1900s. The Boy Scouts of America was incorporated in 1910 and united with two previously existing organizations, the Sons of Daniel Boone, founded by Daniel Beard in 1905 and Ideals of the Woodcraft Indians, founded by Ernest Seton in 1902. The scout oath to be “morally straight" was added in the American version.
    (AP, 1/24/08)(HNQ, 11/12/01)(Econ, 6/1/13, p.28)

1908        Feb 14, Russia and Britain threatened action in Macedonia if peace was not reached soon.
    (HN, 2/14/98)

1908        Mar 2, An international conference on arms reduction opened in London.
    (HN, 3/2/99)

1908        Mar 5, Rex Harrison, actor (My Fair Lady), was born in Lancashire, England.
    (AP, 3/5/08)

1908        Mar 8, The House of Commons, London, turned down the women's suffrage bill.
    (HN, 3/8/98)

1908        Mar 20, Michael Redgrave (d.1985), actor (Browning Version, Lady Vanishes), was born in Bristol, England.

1908        Mar 25, Bridget D'Oyly Carte, British theater and hotel director, was born.
    (MC, 3/25/02)
1908        Mar 25, David Lean (d.1991), British film director (Bridge on the River Kwai, Lawrence of Arabia), was born in Croydon, England.
    (HN, 3/25/01)(AP, 3/25/08)

1908        May 12, George Bernard Shaw's "Getting Married," premiered in London.
    (MC, 5/12/02)

1908        May 26, Robert Morley, British character actor, was born in Semley, England.
    (AP, 5/26/08)
1908         May 26, The first major oil strike in the Middle East took place as engineers working for British entrepreneur William Knox D'Arcy and led by George B. Reynolds hit a gusher more than 1,100 feet below ground in Masjid-i-Suleiman, Persia (Iran). The Concessions Syndicate Limited, later the Anglo-Persian Oil Co., included the Burmah Oil Company of Glasgow, Scotland, and the Persian oil project of William Knox D'Arcy.
    (WSJ, 9/13/99, p.R4)(WSJ, 4/2/07, p.A6)(AP, 5/26/08)(ON, 8/08, p.3)

1908        May 28, Ian Fleming (d.1964), author of James Bond novels, was born in Mayfair, London. He also wrote the children’s book "Chitty Chitty Bang Bang" (1964).
    (HN, 5/28/98)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Chitty_Chitty_Bang_Bang)(AP, 5/28/08)

1908        Jun 8, King Edward VII of England visited Czar Nicholas II of Russia in an effort to improve relations between the two countries.
    (HN, 6/8/98)

1908        Aug 5, Miriam Rothschild, English scientist and writer, was born.
    (HN, 8/5/00)

1908        Aug 11, Britain's King Edward VII met with Kaiser Wilhelm II to protest the growth of the German navy.
    (HN, 8/10/98)

1908        Sep 3, James Barries "What Every Woman Knows," premiered in London.
    (MC, 9/3/01)

1908        Sep 12, Winston Churchill married Clementine Hozier.
    (MC, 9/12/01)

1908        Oct 13, Some 60 thousand British suffragists led by Emmeline Pankhurst, founder of the WSPU, gathered in Parliament Square the rush the House of Commons. 24 women and 13 men were arrested.
    (ON, 10/2010, p.8)

1908        Oct 16, The first airplane flight in England was made at Farnsborough, by Samuel Cody, a U.S. citizen.
    (HN, 10/16/98)

1908        Nov 20, Alistair Cooke (d.2004), English journalist, who hosted "Masterpiece Theater," was born in Salford, England.
    (SFC, 3/31/04, p.A2)(AP, 11/20/08)

1908        Arnold Bennet, English writer, published “the Old Wives’ Tale,“ later regarded as his finest novel.
    (WSJ, 8/22/08, p.W8)
1908        Kenneth Grahame wrote the classic British children’s book "Wind in the Willows." It was made into a movie in 1997.
    (SFC, 1/9/98, p.D3)
1908        Jane Ellen Harrison (1850-1928), British classical scholar and linguist, authored "Prolegomena to Greek Religion."
    (https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Jane_Ellen_Harrison)(Econ., 12/19/20, p.46)
1908        Thomas Hiram Holding, Englishman, authored “The Camper’s Handbook."
    (Econ, 7/16/11, p.87)
1908        Helena Rubinstein, following her success in Australia, moved to London and opened a beauty.
    (SFEM, 8/23/98, p.29)
1908        The marathon of the Olympic Games was changed from 24 to 26 miles so that the finish line would fall in front of the Royal Box in England.
    (SFEC, 1/9/00, Z1 p.2)
1908        The first advertising lights came on at London’s Piccadilly Circus.
    (Econ, 6/11/11, p.62)
1908        Oil was discovered in Persia. The Anglo-Persian Oil Co. Struck oil in Iran.
    (WSJ, 9/13/99, p.R4)(WSJ, 4/2/07, p.A6)

1909        Jan 23, An armed robbery in Tottenham, North London, resulted in a two-hour chase between the police and armed criminals over a distance of six miles (10 km), with an estimated 400 rounds of ammunition fired by the thieves. The robbery was carried out by Paul Helfeld and Jacob Lepidus, Jewish Latvian immigrants. Of the 23 casualties, two were fatal and several others serious, among them seven policemen. The two thieves committed suicide at the end of the pursuit, dubbed the Tottenham Outrage. 

1909        Feb 28, Stephen Spender (d.1995), English poet, critic, was born.
    (HN, 2/28/01)(Econ, 6/19/04, p.81)

1909        Mar 2, Great Britain, France, Germany and Italy asked Serbia to set no territorial demands.
    (SC, 3/2/02)

1909        Mar 12, British Parliament increased naval appropriations for Britain.
    (HN, 3/12/98)

1909        Mar 23, British Lt. Shackleton found the magnetic South Pole.
    (HN, 3/23/98)

1909        Apr 10, Algernon Charles Swinburne (b.1837), English poet, died.
    (MC, 4/10/02)

1909        May 15, James Mason, actor (The Desert Fox, Lolita, Bloodline, Boys From Brazil), was born in England.
    (MC, 5/15/02)

1909        May 18, George Meredith (81), English poet, writer (Diana of Crossways), died.
    (SC, 5/18/02)

1909        Jun 7, Jessica Tandy, actress (Birds, Cocoon, Batteries Not Included), was born in London.
    (SC, 6/7/02)

1909        Jul 25, French aviator Louis Bleriot (1872-1936) made the first crossing of the English Channel from Calais to the grounds of Dover Castle in a powered aircraft, winning a £1,000 prize offered by the London Daily Mail. Piloting his Type XI monoplane at an average of 39 miles per hour, Blériot made the trip of 23.2 miles in just under 36 minutes.
    (AP, 7/25/97)(HNPD, 7/25/98)(ON, 6/07, p.9)

1909        Jul, Imprisoned English suffragette Marion Dunlop refused to eat. Prison officials, afraid that she might die and become a martyr to her cause, released her. Soon after, so many suffragettes had adopted the same tactics that prison authorities began force-feeding the women. Mary Leigh told her own story of being force-fed in the September 1909 edition of The Suffragette. The hunger strike was one of the most formidable weapons in the arsenal of suffragettes in Britain and America.
    (HNPD, 10/23/98)

1909        Oct 4, The Cunard liner "Lusitania" crossed  the Atlantic in four days, 15 hours and 52 minutes.
    (MC, 10/4/01)

1909        Oct 28, Francis Bacon (d.1992), English artist who painted expressionist portraits, was born in Dublin to English parents. He had no formal training as an artist. After earning a modest reputation in the 1920s as a modernist interior designer, he began oil painting in 1929. He first established himself as a major in 1944, when his now-famous triptych Three Studies for Figures at the Base of a Crucifixion was exhibited at London’s Tate Gallery.
    (https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Francis_Bacon_(artist))(SFEC, 5/30/99, DB p.29)

1909        Oct, Britain’s Secret Service Bureau, the first incarnation of the Security Service, was established in to combat Imperial Germany's espionage operations in the United Kingdom. Captain Vernon G.W. Kell of the South Staffordshire Regiment and Captain Mansfield Cumming of the Royal Navy were nominated to head the new Bureau. In 1914 it came under the branch known as MO5, which was subdivided into eight sub-sections. Its chief, Major Vernon Kell, was given responsibility for MO5(g). It was renamed as MI5 in January 1916 and was incorporated into a new Directorate of Military Intelligence.

1909        Nov 11, J.M. Synge's "Tinker's Wedding," premiered in London.
    (MC, 11/11/01)

1909        Norman Angell (1872-1967), English journalist, authored “Europe's Optical Illusion," in which he argued that war was going out of fashion due to the growing integration of the global economy. In 1910 it was expanded and retitled as “The Great Illusion."
1909        Beatrix Potter (1866-1943), English writer, authored the children’s novel “The Tale of Ginger and Pickles." The book tells the story of shopkeepers Ginger, a tomcat, and Pickles, a terrier. Margaret Thatcher later regarded it as the only business book worth reading.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/The_Tale_of_Ginger_and_Pickles)(Econ, 1/23/10, p.65)

1909        Selfridges, one of London’s great department stores, was completed with a façade of 22 pillars.
    (Econ, 12/23/06, p.106)
1909        Woolworths was founded in Liverpool. In 2008 it began a closing-down sale just before Christmas after accountants Deloitte were appointed as administrators.
    (AFP, 12/11/08)
1909        The first roundabout, a one-way gyratory for car management not to circumvent a monument, was intoduced in England’s Letchworth Garden City. By 2013 there were some 60,000 around the world.
    (Econ, 10/5/13, p.16)
1909        In Britain Lloyd George’s People’s Budget raised income taxes and inheritance taxes at the top to fund basic pensions as well as unemployment and health insurance for workers.
    (Economist, 10/13/12, SR p.8)
1909        Englishman Henry Frederick Stanley Morgan (1981-1959) made his first 3-wheel car. In 1912 his company became the Morgan Motor Company Ltd.
    (SSFC, 12/25/11, p.D3)(www.morgandc.com/History/HistoryPage.htm)

1909-1914    Alfred Colley Ltd. was a pottery manufacturer in Staffordshire. They made a China pattern named Lusitania after an ancient Roman province on the Iberian peninsula.
    (SFC, 6/3/98, Z1 p.6)

1909-1917    T.S. Eliot wrote a number of bawdy poems that were compiled and with extensive remarks in 1996 by Christopher Ricks in "Inventions of the March Hare: Poems 1909-1917."
    (WSJ, 9/12/96, p.A14)

1910        Jan 3, British miners struck for an 8 hour working day.
    (MC, 1/3/02)

1910        Jan 20, Joy Adamson, British author and naturalist, was born. He lived in Kenya and wrote "Born Free."
    (HN, 1/20/99)

1910        Jan 21, A British-Russian military intervention took place in Persia.
    (MC, 1/21/02)

1910        Jan, Admiral John Arbuthnot Fisher (69), First Sea Lord, retired.
    (ON, 3/02, p.10)

1910        Feb 19, English premiere of Richard Strauss' "Elektra."
    (MC, 2/19/02)

1910        Feb 20, Julian Trevelyan, English Surrealist painter, collage maker, was born.
    (MC, 2/20/02)

1910        Feb 21, John Galsworthy's "Justice," premiered in London.
    (MC, 2/21/02)

1910        Feb 23, George Bernard Shaw's "Misalliance," premiered in London.
    (MC, 2/23/02)

1910        Apr 2, Boyd Alexander (37), English explorer (Niger to the Nile), was murdered.
    (MC, 4/2/02)

1910        May 10, The 1st aircraft air display was held at Hendon, England.
    (MC, 5/10/02)

1910        Apr 28, The first night air flight was performed by Claude Grahame-White in England.
    (HN, 4/28/98)

1910        May 6, Edward VII (68), Britain's King (1901-1910), died and George V ascended to the British throne.
    (AP, 5/6/97)(MC, 5/6/02)

1910        May 31, The Union of South Africa was founded as a union within the British Empire. It combined four British colonies: the Cape Colony, the Natal Colony, the Transvaal Colony and the Orange River Colony. (The latter two were, before the Second Boer War, independent republics known as the South African Republic and the Orange Free State.) These colonies became the four original provinces of the Union: Cape Province, Transvaal Province, Natal Province and Orange Free State Province.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Provinces_of_South_Africa)(NG, Oct. 1988, p. 566)(AP, 5/31/97)

1910        Jun 2, Charles Stewart Rolls, one of the founders of Rolls-Royce, becomes the first man to fly an airplane nonstop across the English Channel both ways. Tragically, he became Britain's first aircraft fatality the following month when his biplane broke up in midair.
    (HN, 6/2/00)

1910        Jun 15, The ship Terra Nova departed Cardiff, Wales, on its expedition to the Ross Sea and South Pole. Expedition leader Robert Falcon Scott  joined the ship in South Africa. Herbert Ponting (1870-1935) served as the expedition photographer and cinematographer. In this role, he captured some of the most enduring images of the Heroic Age of Antarctic Exploration.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Terra_Nova_Expedition)(SSFC, 11/3/13, DB p.42)

1910        Aug 13, Florence Nightingale (90), British nurse famous for her care of British soldiers during the Crimean War, died. In 2004 Gillian Gill authored “Nightingales: The Extraordinary Upbringing and Curious Life of Miss Florence Nightingale." In 2008 Mark Bostridge authored Florence Nightingale: The Making of an Icon."
    (HN, 8/13/98)(SSFC, 9/5/04, p.M3)(AP, 8/13/07)(WSJ, 10/21/08, p.A17)

1910        Sep 1, Jack Hawkins, actor (Ben-Four Just Men) was born in London, England.
    (SC, 9/1/02)

1910        Oct 18, M. Baudry was the first to fly a dirigible across the English Channel--from La Motte-Breil to Wormwood Scrubbs.
    (HN, 10/18/98)

1910        Dec 16, Three London police officers were shot dead while trying to prevent a burglary at a jewelers in Houndsditch. This incident and the events surrounding it formed the precursor to the famous Siege of Sidney Street on January 3, 1911.

1910        Dec 21, Explosion in coal mine in Hulton, England, killed 344 mine workers.
    (MC, 12/21/01)

1910        Dec, The 1996 book "On or About December 1910: Early Bloomsbury and its Intimate World" by Peter Stansky tells the story of the British Bloomsbury group of writers and artists: Clive Bell, Thoby Stephen, Lytton Strachey, Saxon Sydney-Turner, Leonard Woolf, Vanessa and Virginia Stephen.
    (SFEC, 9/22/96, BR p.3)

1910        E.M. Forster (1879-1970) wrote "Howard’s End," his next to last novel and good description of the English class system.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/E.M._Forster)(SFEC, 9/22/96, BR p.3)(WSJ, 9/20/08, p.W8)
1910        Virginia Stephen (later Woolf), Adrian Stephen, Duncan Grant, Horace Cole and others of the Bloomsbury group dressed as the Abyssinian Emperor and his entourage and infiltrated the British warship the Dreadnought making a mockery of national defense.
    (SFEC, 9/22/96, BR p.3)(SFEC, 6/22/97, BR p.8)
1910        Zeppelin scare stories began to appear in the press in England.
    (AH, 1/97)
1910        The Hearst Corp. established The National Magazine Company Ltd. In the United Kingdom.
    (SFC, 8/7/99, p.A9)
1910        Vinayak Damodar Savarkar (1883-1966), an Indian lawyer, was charged in London with conspiring to wage war against the king and with providing weapons used to assasinate a Briton in the Indian service. He was sentenced to two life terms and sent back to India. He was free in 1921.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Vinayak_Damodar_Savarkar)    (Econ, 12/20/14, p.57)

1910-1914    In 1935 George Dangerfield authored “The Strange Death of Liberal England." It was an attempt to explain the decline of the British Liberal Party during this period.
    (Econ, 9/25/10, p.104)

1910-1939    In 2007 Katie Roiphe authored “Uncommon Arrangements: Seven Portraits of Married Life in London Literary Circles 1910-1939."
    (WSJ, 1/7/07, p.P9)

1910-1997     Dame C.V. Wedgwood, English historian: "An educated man should know everything about something, and something about everything."
    (AP, 12/1/97)

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