Timeline Great Britain (D) 1800-1859

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1800        Jan 24, Edwin Chadwick, British social reformer, was born.
    (MC, 1/24/02)

1800        Feb 11, William Henry Fox Talbot (d.1877), British inventor and pioneer in instantaneous photography, was born.
    (AHD, 1971, p. 1312)(V.D.-H.K.p.273)(HN, 2/11/01)

1800        Mar 17, English warship Queen Charlotte caught fire and 700 people died.
    (MC, 3/17/02)

1800        Mar 28, The Parliament in Westminster passed an Act of Union formally binding Ireland with England and abolished the Irish parliament. The Act of Union entailed the loss of legislative independence of the Irish Parliament. The Act of Union received royal assent on August 1 and became effective on Jan 1, 1801.
    (www.britannica.com/EBchecked/topic/614673/Act-of-Union)(SFEC, 12/22/96, Z1 p.6)(WSJ, 11/20/98, p.W6)

1800        Apr 16, George Charles Bingham, British soldier, was born. He commanded the Light Brigade during its famous 1854 charge. [see Oct 16, 1797, Lord Cardigan]
    (HN, 4/16/01)

1800        May 15, King George III survived a 2nd assassination attempt.
    (MC, 5/15/02)

1800        Sep 5, Malta surrendered to British after they blockaded French troops.
    (MC, 9/5/01)

1800        Oct 25, Thomas Babington Macaulay (d.1859), England, poet and historian, was born. "No particular man is necessary to the state. We may depend on it that, if we provide the country with popular institutions, those institutions will provide it with great men."
    (AP, 11/30/97)(Econ, 10/30/04, p.48)

c1800    During the Napoleonic Wars Britain briefly occupied the Banda Island of Run and successfully transplanted nutmeg to Malaya, Singapore and Ceylon.
    (WSJ, 5/21/99, p.W7)
1800        Lieven Bauwens stole a spinning "mule jenny" machine from Britain. He had it dismantled and smuggled out in a cargo of coffee. This enabled the textile industry in Ghent to greatly expand. Britain sentenced Bauwens to death in absentia and Ghent made him a hero.
    (SFEC, 11/21/99, p.T11)
1800        The population of London, the largest city in Europe, was about one million.
    (Econ, 6/30/12, SR p.3)

1800-1830    The Regency Period of England. It was named after George Augustus Frederick, Prince of Wales, who became prince regent in 1811.
    (WSJ, 3/26/99, p.W10)

c1800-1900    J.H. Salisbury was a 19th century English dietician who recommended a diet of ground steak for a variety of ailments including pernicious anemia, tuberculosis and hardening of the arteries. His name gave rise to "Salisbury steak."
    (WUD, 1994, p.1262)

1801        Jan 1, The Act of Union formally binding Ireland with England and abolishing the Irish parliament, became effective.
    (www.britannica.com/EBchecked/topic/614673/Act-of-Union)(SFEC, 12/22/96, Z1 p.6)(WSJ, 11/20/98, p.W6)

1801        Jan 28, Francis Barber (ca. 1735 – 1801), the Jamaican manservant of Samuel Johnson (1752-1784), died at the Staffordshire General Infirmary.

1801        Feb 7, John Rylands, merchant, philanthropist, was born in England.
    (MC, 2/7/02)

1801        Mar 10, Britain conducted its first census in order to find out how many men were available for conscription.
    (Econ, 1/12/08, p.75)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/UK_Census)

1801        Apr 2, The British navy defeated the Danish at the Battle of Copenhagen.
    (AP, 4/2/99)

1801        Apr 28, Anthony Ashley-Cooper, the seventh Earl of Shaftesbury and a leading social reformer of the Victorian Age, was born. Shaftesbury labored to establish schools, to abolish the use of small children as chimney sweeps, and to wipe out child prostitution. He was a vocal opponent of slavery but had little respect for the United States’ President Abraham Lincoln and thought the South should be permitted to secede from the Union.
    (HNQ, 6/10/01)

1801        May 6, British Lt. Thomas Cochrane, commander of the 14-gun sloop HMS Speedy, engaged and captured the 32-gun Spanish frigate El Gamo. The climactic battle in Patrick O’Brian’s novel “Master and Commander" is based on the Speedy’s fight with El Gamo. Cochrane was later elected to Parliament, pointed out corruption and was arrested on trumped up charges. After that he served as the first commander of Chile’s navy, then Brazil’s navy and the Greek navy before returning to England. In 2000 Robert Harvey authored “Cochrane: The Life and Exploits of a Fighting Captain."
    (ON, 11/04, p.1)

1801        Jun 14, Former American Revolutionary War General Benedict Arnold died in London.
    (AP, 6/14/01)(ON, 11/01, p.5)

1801        Dec 24, Richard Trevithick, inventor of the steam locomotive, completed a road test of his 1st "traveling engine" in Camborne, England.
    (ON, 4/04, p.5)

1801        Samuel Taylor Coleridge, English poet, wrote to Sir Humphrey Davy a letter in which he says: "I seem to sink in upon myself in a ruin, like a Column of Sand, informed and animated only by a Whirl-Blast of the Dessert." Coleridge had become addicted to opium in this year.
    (OAPOC-TH, p.71)(WSJ, 4/15/99, p.A20)
1801        Thomas Bruce, the 7th Earl of Elgin, took the 2,500 year-old bas-reliefs from the Parthenon in Greece while he served as the British ambassador to the Ottoman Empire. 17 figures and 56 panels were put on display at the British Museum in 1816. Around 1939 the marbles were subjected to a botched scouring operation that damaged 40% of the collection.
    (SFC, 12/2/99, p.D6)
1801        The London Stock Exchange formed. British government debt was the only security traded and this remained so until 1822.
    (Econ, 4/2/05, p.70)(Econ, 12/24/05, p.104)

1801-1866 Jane Welsh Carlyle, English writer: "In spite of the honestest efforts to annihilate my 'I-ity,' or merge it in what the world doubtless considers my better half (historian Thomas Carlyle), I still find myself a self-subsisting and alas! self-seeking ME."
    (AP, 8/27/98)

1801-1921    A single Parliament legislated all the British Isles. A history of the archipelago was written in 2000 by Norman Davies: "The Isles."
    (WSJ, 3/9/00, p.A24)

1802        Jan, In London, England, William Cobbett (1763-1835) set up the Weekly Political Register. It spread dissent during the post-war recession.
    (Econ, 12/23/06, p.103)(www.nndb.com/people/245/000049098/)

1802        Mar 24, Richard Trevithick was granted a patent in London for his steam locomotive.
    (ON, 4/04, p.5)

1802        Jul 22, English workers organised an anti-machinery mill-burning riot that destroyed the Wiltshire woollen mill. Thomas Helliker (1784-1803) was accused of waving a pistol at a night-watchman during this attack and was hanged on March 22, 1803, for his alleged role in the machine-breaking riot.

1802        Oct 22, Samuel Arnold (62), English composer, died.
    (MC, 10/22/01)

1802        England passed its first law regulating child labor.
    (WSJ, 1/11/99, p.R28)
1802        Britain levied the first English income tax to raise money to fight Napoleon. William Pit the Younger 1st introduced the income tax to finance the war against France.
    (SFEC, 4/5/98, Z1 p.8)(Econ, 9/10/05, p.53)
1802        Edward Howard, English chemist, determined that the iron in meteorites was a unique blend of iron and nickel that did not occur in known terrestrial rocks.
    (ON, 7/02, p.5)
1802        A British exploring party led by Matthew Flinders landed on a 96-mile-long island southwest of Adelaide and slaughtered 31 kangaroos for a feast. This 3rd largest island off Australia was thus named Kangaroo Island. Flinders named the Great Barrier Reef and found a passage to the Corral Sea.
    (SFEC,12/21/97, p.T6)(SSFC, 3/24/02, p.C22)(WSJ, 7/23/04, p.W12)
1802        In Australia the Aboriginal warrior Pemulwuy (b.~1750) was shot dead. His head was cut off and believed to have been placed in a jar and sent to England. He opposed British settlement and was described by Sydney's then governor Philip King as "a terrible pest to the colony" but also "a brave and independent character."
    (AFP, 1/15/10)
1802        The Rosetta Stone was seized by the British in Egypt after the defeat of Napoleon’s army and was sent to England.
    (RFH-MDHP, p.182)

1802-1828    Richard Parkes, English watercolorist.
    (Hem., 3/97, p.94)

1802-1838     Letitia Landon, English poet: "Few, save the poor, feel for the poor."
    (AP, 1/21/00)

1802-1876    Harriet Martineau, English writer and social critic: "Religion is a temper, not a pursuit."
    (AP, 6/7/99)

1803        Feb 21, Colonel Edward Marcus Despard (b.1751) became the last person drawn & quartered in England. He was executed for high treason for his part in the failed Despard Plot. Evidence presented in court had suggested that Despard planned to assassinate the monarch George III and seize key strong points in London such as the Bank of England and Tower of London as a prelude to a wider uprising by the population of the city.  

1803        May 16, Great Britain and France renewed their war.
    (PCh, 1992, p.362)

1803        May 18, Great Britain declared war on France after General Napoleon Bonaparte continued interfering in Italy and Switzerland.
    (HN, 5/18/99)(ON, 11/99, p.4)(SC, 5/18/02)

1803        May 23, Lord Elgin and his family were detained in Paris. Elgin's family was allowed to proceed but he was arrested and declared a prisoner of war.
    (ON, 11/99, p.4)

1803        Jul 8, Frederick Augustus Hervey (b.1730), the 4th Earl of Bristol and Bishop of Derry, died. He had toured Europe with his own cook and entourage and inspired a number of hotels to take on the Bristol name.
    (WSJ, 9/27/08, p.A1)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Frederick_Hervey,_4th_Earl_of_Bristol)

1803        Jul 23, Irish patriots throughout the country rebelled against Union with Great Britain. Robert Emmett led the insurrection in Dublin.
    (HN, 7/23/98)(MC, 7/23/02)

1803        Aug, The British Sec. of State invited Mungo Park to lead a 2nd expedition into Africa.
    (ON, 7/00, p.10)

1803        Sep 8, A high pressure steam boiler, made by Richard Trevithick, exploded at a corn mill in Greenwich, England, and 3 men were killed. A worker had left a heavy wrench on the safety valve and gone fishing.
    (ON, 4/04, p.5)

1803        Sep 23, British Major General Sir Arthur Wellesley defeated the Marathas at Assaye, India.
    (HN, 9/23/98)

1803        Thomas Robert Malthus (1766-1834), English political economist, authored the 2nd edition of his 1798 “An Essay on the Principle of Population." This edition introduced the idea of moral restraint.
    (Econ, 5/17/08, p.94)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Malthus)

1803        John Dalton, British chemist and physicist, pointed out that the fact that chemical compounds always combined in certain proportions could be explained by the grouping together of atoms to form units called molecules.
    (BHT, Hawking, p.63)

1803        The steel ink pen was developed in Birmingham, England.
    (SFC, 12/13/06, p.E3)   

1804        Jan 31, British vice-admiral William Bligh (of HMS Bounty infamy) fleet reached Curacao (Antilles).
    (MC, 1/31/02)

1804        Mar 7, John Wedgwood, founder (Royal Horticulture Society), died.
    (MC, 3/7/02)

1804        Jun 3, Richard Cobden, English economist and politician, was born. He became known as 'the Apostle of free trade.' He led the Anti-Corn League, which in 1839-1846 fought to remove price controls and import barriers for wheat.
    (HN, 6/3/99)(Econ, 6/5/04, p.10)

1804        Aug 25, In England Alice Meynell became the 1st woman jockey.
    (chblue.com, 8/25/01)

1804        Oct 2, England mobilized to protect against an expected French invasion by Napoleon.
    (MC, 10/2/01)

1804        Oct 5, The Nuestra Senora de las Mercedes, a Spanish galleon, was sunk by the British navy southwest of Portugal with more than 200 people on board. In May 2007, Odyssey Marine Exploration announced that it had discovered a wreck in the Atlantic and its cargo of 500,000 silver coins and other artifacts worth an estimated $500 million. Spain claimed this was the Nuestra Senora de las Mercedes. In 2009 Peru pushed claims to the silver coins arguing that they were minted in Lima. In 2012 a US judge ordered that the treasure be returned to Spain.
    (AP, 5/8/08)(www.guardian.co.uk/world/2008/mar/24/usa.spain)(AP, 1/29/09)(SFC, 2/18/12, p.A7)

1804        Dec 21, Benjamin Disraeli (d.1881), Prime Minister of Great Britain (1868, 1874-80), was born. He instituted reforms in housing, public health and factory regulations. "Youth is a blunder; manhood a struggle; old age a regret." In 1993 Stanley Weintraub published "Disraeli: A Biography."
    (AP, 10/21/97)(WSJ, 11/17/98, p.21)(HN, 12/21/98)(MC, 12/21/01)

1804        Most of the sculptures from the Parthenon, removed under the orders of Lord Elgin, arrived in London.
    (ON, 11/99, p.4)
1804        The Royal Horticultural Society was formed.
    (WSJ, 5/30/01, p.A1)
1804        The Royal Watercolour Society was formed.
    (Hem., 3/97, p.94)

1804        Samuel Taylor Coleridge (32), poet, fled to Malta and worked as an assistant to the civilian governor. He returned to England in 1806.
    (WSJ, 4/15/99, p.A20)

1804        A motion in British Parliament for abolition of the slave trade passed in the House of Commons 124 to 29, but was defeated in the House of Lords.
    (ON, 4/05, p.2)
1804        In England John Barrow (1764-1848) was appointed Second Secretary to the Admiralty by Viscount Melville, a post which he held for forty years (apart from a short period in 1806-07 when there was a Whig government in power).

1804        Sir George Cayley, England’s “father of aeronautics," built and flew the world’s first successful model glider.
    (NPub, 2002, p.4)

1805        Jan 31, Mungo Park set sail from Portsmouth to Africa where he planned to navigate the Niger River to its mouth.
    (ON, 7/00, p.10)

1805        May 25, William Paley (b.1805), orthodox Anglican writer, died. He is remembered today primarily for classical formulation of the teleological argument for the existence of God. Arguing from the analogy of a watch and watchmaker, Paley suggested that the analogy offered evidence that the universe includes order and design, hence a Designer.

1805        Aug 9, Austria joined Britain, Russia, Sweden and the Kingdom of Piedmont-Sardinia in the Third Coalition against Napoleonic France and Spain.
    (HN, 8/9/98)(HNQ, 10/19/98)

1805        Oct 17, Vice Adm. Horatio Nelson wrotea letter to the governor, Rear Admiral John Knight just four days before the historic Battle og Trafalgar, in which Nelson was killed. In it Nelson declared he was "anxious for an Easterly wind," as that would encourage the enemy to leave port and finally face the British.
    (Reuters, 7/13/10)

1805        Oct 21, A British fleet commanded by Vice Adm. Horatio Nelson defeated a French-Spanish fleet in the Battle of Trafalgar fought off Cape Trafalgar, Spain. Admiral Nelson won his greatest victory and though fatally wounded in the battle aboard his flagship, he lived long enough to see victory: "England expects every man to do his duty." The crew fittingly preserved his body in rum. Over 8,500 Englishmen, Frenchmen and Spaniards were lost in the battle or the hurricane that swept over the ships the next day. In 1807 Nelson’s surgeon William Beatty authored “authentic narrative of the Death of Lord Nelson." In 1999 Barry Unsworth authored the novel "Losing Nelson." In 2001 Joseph F. Callo edited "Nelson Speaks: Admiral Lord Nelson in His Own Words." In 2005 Adam Nicolson authored “Men of Honour: Trafalgar and the Making of the English Hero;" Roy Adkins authored “Nelson’s Trafalgar," and Adam Nicolson authored “Seize the Fire."
    (WSJ, 5/24/01, p.A20)(Econ, 6/25/05, p.82)(WSJ, 8/19/05, p.W6)(ON, 3/06, p.2)(Reuters, 7/13/10)

1805        Joseph Mallord William Turner (1775-1851), English painter and printmaker, created his painting “The Shipwreck."

1805         Lord Charles Cornwallis, governor general of India, died in India.
    (HNQ, 9/9/02)

1806        Jan 10, The Capitulation of Papendorp: The Dutch in Cape Town surrendered to a British fleet.
    (EWH, 4th ed, p.884)

1806        Jan 23, William Pitt (46), the Younger, PM Great Britain (1783-1801 and 1804-1806), died. Pitt was the founder of the modern Conservative Party. In 2004 William Hague authored the biography “William Pitt The Younger."
    (http://dspace.dial.pipex.com/town/terrace/adw03/pms/pitt.htm)(WSJ, 2/9/05, p.D10)

1806        cFeb, Mungo Park drowned in the Niger River during an attack by armed men near Bussa. He had traveled some 1500 miles down the Niger River.
    (ON, 7/00, p.12)

1806        Mar 6, Elizabeth Barrett Browning (d.1861), English poet, was born in Durham, England. She wrote "Sonnets from the Portuguese." "Since when was genius found respectable?"
    (AP, 3/6/98)(HN, 3/6/99)(AP, 8/12/99)

1806        Mar 30, Lady Georgiana Cavendish, an adept negotiator for the Whigs, died at age 49. In 1999 Amanda Foreman authored "Georgiana," a biography of Georgiana Spencer.
    (WSJ, 1/7/00, p.W4)(WSJ, 4/6/00, p.A20)

1806        May 20, John Stuart Mill (d.1873), British philosopher and economist, was born. He promoted utilitarianism and is known as the last great economist of the classical school. He authored "Principles of Political Economy" wherein in theorized that production was the real basis for economic law. He felt that the market was capable of allocating resources but not of distributing income. "If all mankind minus one, were of one opinion, and only one person were of the contrary opinion, mankind would be no more justified in silencing that one person, than he, if he had the power, would be justified in silencing mankind."
    (V.D.-H.K.p.253)(WSJ, 1/11/99, p.R20)(AP, 1/13/00)(HN, 5/20/01)

1806        Jun 10, James Fox, British foreign minister, introduced a bill to ban British ships from transporting slaves to foreign countries. Parliament passed the bill.
    (ON, 4/05, p.3)

1806        Jun 27, Buenos Aires was captured by British. [see Jul 5]
    (SC, 6/27/02)

1806        Jun, Lord Elgin was paroled by the French government.
    (ON, 11/99, p.4)

1806        Jul 5, A Spanish army repelled the British during their attempt to retake Buenos Aires, Argentina.
    (HN, 7/5/98)

1806        Jul 10, George Stubbs (b.1724), British artist, died. His work included the publication “Anatomy of the Horse" (1766).
    (WSJ, 4/28/05, p.D8)(www.abcgallery.com/S/stubbs/stubbsbio.html)

1806        Oct 7, Carbon paper was patented in London by inventor Ralph Wedgewood.
    (MC, 10/7/01)

1806        Oct 8, British forces laid siege to French port of Boulogne using Congreve rockets, invented by Sir William Congreve.
    (MC, 10/8/01)

1806        In London James Beresford published his bestselling book “The Miseries of Human Life, or the groans of Samuel Sensitive and Timothy Testy. With a few supplementary sighs from Mrs. Testy. In twelve dialogues."
1806        Charles and Mary Lamb authored “Tales from Shakespeare." [see 1796: Mad Mary Lamb]
    (WSJ, 2/18/05, p.W6)
1806        In England the tailor Norton & Sons was founded.
    (Econ, 12/18/10, p.136)

1806        The British began the construction of Dartmoor Prisoner to house French soldiers captured in the Napoleonic Wars. It was capable of housing 10,500 prisoners and 2,000 guards.
    (AH, 10/02, p.33)

1806        Lord Grenville succeeded William Pitt as British prime minister.
    (ON, 4/05, p.3)

1806        The British wrested power over South Africa from the Dutch and prompt the Boer farmers to later move into the interior.
    (NG, Oct. 1988, p. 564)

1807        Jan 2, Lord Grenville presented to British Parliament a “Bill for the Abolition of the Slave Trade," effective May 1. He introduced it directly to the House of Lords. It passed the House of Lords by 64 votes and cleared the House of Commons on March 25.
    (ON, 4/05, p.3)

1807        Jan 7, Responding to Napoleon's blockade of the British Isles, The British blockaded Continental Europe.
    (HN, 1/7/99)

1807        Jan 28, London's Pall Mall was 1st street lit by gaslight.
    (MC, 1/28/02)

1807        Feb 24, In a crush to witness the hanging of Holloway, Heggerty and Elizabeth Godfrey in England 17 died and 15 were wounded.
    (MC, 2/24/02)

1807        Mar 25, William Wilberforce (1759-1833), evangelical member of Parliament, piloted a slave-trade abolition bill through the British House of Commons. This led to a labor problem in South Africa. In 1833 Britain abolished slavery throughout the British Empire when the Slavery Abolition Bill was read a third time
    (HN, 3/24/98)(WSJ, 5/26/04, p.A8)(www.anti-slaverysociety.addr.com/huk-wilberforce.htm)
1807        Mar 25, 1st railway passenger service began in England.
    (MC, 3/25/02)

1807        Jun 22, British officers of the HMS Leopard boarded the USS Chesapeake after she had set sail for the Mediterranean, and demanded the right to search the ship for deserters. Commodore James Barron refused and the British opened fire with broadsides on the unprepared Chesapeake and forced her to surrender. The British provocation led to the War of 1812.
    (NG, Sept. 1939, p.363)(HN, 6/22/98)

1807        Jul 2, In the wake of the Chesapeake incident, in which the crew of a British frigate boarded an American ship and forcibly removed four suspected deserters, President Thomas Jefferson ordered all British ships to vacate U.S. territorial waters.
    (AP, 7/2/07)

1807        Sep 2, British forces began bombarding Copenhagen for several days, until the Danes agreed to surrender their naval fleet.
    (AP, 9/2/07)

1807        Sep 7, Denmark surrendered to British forces that had bombarded the city of Copenhagen for four days.
    (AP, 9/7/07)

1807        Oct 17, Britain declared it would continue to reclaim British-born sailors from American ships and ports regardless of whether they held US citizenship.
    (AP, 10/17/07)

1807        After Britain outlawed the slave trade people called “Recaptives," those freed from slave ships, were sent to join the settlers in Sierra Leone. The settlers formed a new tribe called the Kri and created a language called Krio.
    (MT, summer 2003, p.8)
1807        Britain opened factories to make sailing blocks for the Royal Navy as part of the war effort against France. The factories were later cited as the world’s first standardized mass production line.
    (Econ, 11/23/13, p.82)

1808        Aug 21, Napoleon Bonaparte's General Junot was defeated by Wellington at the first Battle of the Peninsular War at Vimiero, Spain.
    (HN, 8/21/98)

1808-1830    In 2005 William Anthony Hay authored “The Whig Revival, 1808-1830," a picture of the British Whigs in the early 19th century.
    (WSJ, 4/6/05, p.D11)

1809        Feb 12, Charles Robert Darwin (d.1882) was born. He proposed that evolution was the principle that underlay the development of all species and that man, an animal, had evolved from nonhuman ancestors. Shortly after his graduation from Cambridge, Darwin sailed as a naturalist with the surveying ship HMS Beagle. All life, he said, is a struggle for existence and some species are better able to adapt to the environment and survive to pass along their characteristics. During the five-year voyage, Darwin's observations of wildlife led to the writing of his 1859 book "The Origin of the Species," in which he proposed the theory of natural selection. Besides the "Origin of the Species," he wrote three books on geology and devoted 8 years to his monograph on barnacles. His last book was "The Formation of Vegetable Mould Through the Action of Worms." In 1871 Darwin wrote "Descent of Man," which demonstrated that man and ape could have had a common ancestor. Darwin's theories were highly controversial and unsettling to those who believed in creationism. Many Victorians condemned Darwin as blasphemous, but many important scientists of the day agreed with his theories. "How can anyone not see that all observation must be for or against some view if it is to be of any service."
    (V.D.-H.K.p.281)(PacDis., Spg. 96, p.52)(NH, 2/97, p.69)(NH, 5/97, p.11)(HNPD, 2/13/99)

1809        Mar 12, Great Britain signed a treaty with Persia forcing the French out of the country.
    (HN, 3/12/99)

1809        May 21, Robert Milligan (b.1746), prominent Scottish merchant and ship-owner, died. Milligan headed a group of powerful businessmen who planned and built London's West India Docks (1800). At the time of his death Milligan owned 526 slaves in Jamaica who worked at his sugar plantation called Kellet's and Mammee Gully. On June 9, 2020, a statue of Milligan was removed from the front of the Museum of London Docklands by the local authority to "recognise the wishes of the community".

1809        May 24, Dartmoor Prison opened to house French prisoners of war.
    (MC, 5/24/02)

1809        Jun 8, Thomas Paine (b.1737), British born political essayist, died in poverty and obscurity in the US.  His revolutionary essays included "The Rights of Man" and "The Age of Reason." His body was exhumed in 1819 by William Cobbett, shipped to England, and kept in an attic trunk till Cobbett died in 1835. Parts of his skeleton were later said to be sold at auction.
    (HN, 1/29/99)(HNQ, 9/21/99)(SSFC, 4/1/01, p.A7)

1809        Aug 6, Alfred Lord Tennyson (d.1892), English poet laureate (1850), was born. His work included: "The Charge of the Light Brigade." "Knowledge comes, but wisdom lingers."
    (HN, 8/6/98)(AP, 10/6/00)

1809        Sep 18, The London Royal Opera House opened.
    (MC, 9/18/01)

1809        Sep, The Old Price Riots broke out in England when Covent Garden manager John Philip Kemble raised ticket prices. The riots continued to December.
    (SFC, 12/31/08, p.E2)

1809        Nov 27, Frances Anne "Fanny" Kemble (d.1893), Shakespearian actress, writer and anti-slavery activist, was born in London, England.  Her work included "Journal of a Residence on a Georgia Plantation.
    (WSJ, 9/21/00, p.A24)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Fanny_Kemble)

1809         Dec 29, William Gladstone (1809-1898), British statesman and four times Prime Minister from 1868-1894, was born. He was called the Grand Old Man of Victorian England. He began as a devout Tory but moved over to the liberal camp. A biography by Roy Jenkins, "Gladstone," was published in 1995.
    (CFA, '96, p.60)(AHD, p.559)(WSJ, 1/14/03, p.D6)

1809         Humphry Davy (1778-1809), an English chemist, invented the first electric light. Davy connected two wires to a battery and attached a charcoal strip between the other ends of the wires. The charged carbon glowed making the first arc lamp.
1809        Lord Byron (1788-1824) traveled to Spain, Albania and Greece with John Cam Hobhouse and soon met with Ali Pasha.
1809        Bourne’s Pottery in Denby, Derbyshire, England, dates to this time. In 1850 it began using the J. Bourne & Son mark.
    (SFC, 4/12/06, p.G4)
1809        English poet Samuel Taylor Coleridge published his essay “On the Vulgar Errors Respecting Taxes and Taxation."
    (Econ, 5/19/12, p.21)

1809-1891    Alexander William Kinglake, historian.
    (WUD, 1994, p.788)

1810        Feb 24, Henry Cavendish (b.1731), British natural philosopher, died. He is noted for his discovery of hydrogen or what he called "inflammable air" (1766).

1810        Jun 15, Englishman William Cobbett (1763-1810) was found guilty of treasonous libel after objecting in The Register to the flogging at Ely of local militiamen by Hanoverians. He was sentenced to two years imprisonment in infamous Newgate Prison. While in prison he wrote the pamphlet Paper against Gold, warning of the dangers of paper money, as well as many Essays and Letters. On his release a dinner in London, attended by 600 people, was given in his honor, presided over by Sir Francis Burdett who, like Cobbett, was a strong voice for parliamentary reform.

1810        Aug 14, Samuel Sebastian Wesley (d.1876), English composer, was born in London.
    (MC, 8/14/02)

1810        Dec 22, British frigate Minotaur sank killing 480.
    (MC, 12/22/01)

1810        In Bristol the Commercial Rooms were constructed under architect C.A. Busby.
    (SFEC, 7/13/97, p.T3)

1810        The British Bullion Committee pronounced that it was folly to let governments print as much money as they wanted and not expect inflation.
    (WSJ, 11/9/00, p.A24)

1810        The British wrestled Mauritius from France. Indians were brought in as indentured laborers and later waves of Chinese immigrants arrived.
    (SFC, 6/24/96, p.A8)

1810        Peter Durand, a British merchant, was granted a patent by King George III for his idea of preserving food in "vessels of glass, pottery, tin (tin can), or other metals or fit materials."

1810        Sake Dean Mahomed founded the Hindoostane Coffee House, London's first known curry establishment. Born in Patna, India in 1759, Mahomed was also the first known Indian to write a book in English. Published in 1786, it describes his adventures as a soldier with the East India Company's army, his journey to Europe, his marriage to an Irish woman and their move to London.
    (AP, 9/29/05)

1810-1862    The Regency Period in English architecture. Oriental curves and cupolas influenced English architecture.
    (SFC, 9/30/98, Z1 p.3)

1811        Feb 5, George, Prince of Wales, was named the Prince Regent due to the insanity of his father, Britain's King George III. George Augustus Frederick became prince regent after his father, George III, slipped permanently into dementia. In 1999 Saul David published "The Prince of Pleasure: The Prince of Wales and the Making of the Regency."
    (WSJ, 3/26/99, p.W10)(AP, 2/5/08)

1811        Feb 11, Pres. Madison prohibited trade with Britain for 3rd time in 4 years.
    (MC, 2/11/02)

1811        Mar 11, Ned Ludd led a group of workers in a wild protest against mechanization. Members of the organized bands of craftsmen who rioted against automation in 19th century England were known as Luddites and also "Ludds." The movement, reputedly named after Ned Ludd, began near Nottingham as craftsman destroyed textile machinery that was eliminating their jobs. By the following year, Luddites were active in Yorkshire, Derbyshire, Lancashire and Leicestershire. Although the Luddites opposed violence towards people (a position which allowed for a modicum of public support), government crackdowns included mass shootings, hangings and deportation to the colonies. It took 14,000 British soldiers to quell the rebellion. The movement effectively died in 1813 apart from a brief resurgence of Luddite sentiment in 1816 following the end of the Napoleonic Wars.
    (HN, 3/11/01)(HNQ, 5/14/01)(WSJ, 3/29/04, p.A1)

1811        Jul 18, William Makepeace Thackeray (d.1863), English novelist and satirist, was born. His books were published as monthly serials. "Next to excellence is the appreciation of it."
    (HN, 7/18/98)(AP, 10/28/00)

1811        Nov 16, John Bright, British Victorian radical, was born. He founded the Anti-Corn Law League.
    (HN, 11/16/99)

1811        The book "Sense and Sensibility," by Jane Austen (1775-1817), was published. It appeared anonymously as “written by a lady."

1811        The Dulwich Picture Gallery opened at Dulwich College. It contained an art collection gathered by Noel Desenfans and Francis Bourgeois, who had put it together for the Stanislaus Augustus Poniatowski, king of Poland, before he was forced to abdicate.
    (WSJ, 2/15/00, p.A24)

1811        Francis Cabot Lowell, an American industrialist, moved to England and gathered information on mill details. He returned to the US and started the textile industry in New England and the Massachusetts mill town of his name.
    (WSJ, 1/11/99, p.R50)

1811        In England John Williams, the Highway Hacker, murdered 2 whole families in the Docklands section of London. He committed suicide while awaiting trial. A crowd stole his body and drove a stake through his heart and buried him in a lime pit off Cannon St. The murder later inspired Thomas De Quincey’s essay “On Murder Considered as One of the Fine Arts."
    (SFEC, 10/17/98, p.T9)(WSJ, 6/9/07, p.P8)

1811        The British began a period of sovereignty in Java (Indonesia).
    (WSJ, 9/13/08, p.W18)

1811-1816    The Luddite bands of workman destroyed manufacturing machinery in England under the belief that their use diminished employment. They were named after Ned Ludd, the 18th cent. Leicestershire worker who originated the idea. Opponents of technology harken back to the English weavers who broke textile machinery, apparently at the urging of their leader, Ned Ludd. [see May 3, 1811]
    (WUD, 1994, p.852)(WSJ, 4/12/96, p.B-1)

1812        Feb 7, Charles Dickens, English novelist, was born in Portsmouth, England. His stories reflected life in Victorian England. In his novel "Dombey & Son," Dickens confronted the subject of money, and its use as a measure of success. His work also included "Master Humphrey’s Clock," published in installments like most of his novels. The closing line of A Christmas Carol: "And so, as Tiny Tim observed, God Bless Us, Every One!" Some of his more famous novels include "Oliver Twist" and "A Tale of Two Cities."
    (SFC, 6/17/97, p.E3)(AP, 2/7/97)(HN, 2/7/99)
1812        Feb 7, Lord Byron made his maiden speech in House of Lords.
    (MC, 2/7/02)

1812        May 7, Poet Robert Browning was born in London.
    (AP, 5/7/97)

1812        May 11, The Waltz was introduced into English ballrooms. Most observers considered it disgusting and immoral.
    (MC, 5/11/02)
1812        May 11, British PM Spencer Perceval was shot by a bankrupt banker in the lobby of the House of Commons. Lord Liverpool (1770-1828) was asked to serve as PM of Britain and he served until 1827.
    (HN, 5/11/99)(WSJ, 2/9/05, p.D10)(www.spartacus.schoolnet.co.uk/PRliverpool.htm)

1812        May 25, A series of coal mine explosions took place around the Felling Colliery in Durhamshire, England. 92 miners were killed. This prompted local clergymen to organize the Society for Preventing Accidents in Coal Mines.
    (ON, 12/01, p.6)

1812        Jun 18, The War of 1812 began as the United States declared war against Great Britain and Ireland. The term "war hawk" was first used by John Randolph in reference to those Republicans who were pro-war in the years leading up to the War of 1812. These new types of Republicans, who espoused nationalism and expansionism, included Henry Clay and John C. Calhoun. Most of them came from the agrarian areas of the South and West. In 2004 Walter R. Borneman authored “1812: The War That Forged a Nation."
    (AP, 6/18/97)(HN, 6/18/98)(HNQ, 5/13/99)(WSJ, 12/16/04, p.D8)

1812        Jul 18, Great Britain signed the Treaty of Orebro, making peace with Russia and Sweden.
    (HN, 7/18/98)

1812        Jul 22, English troops under the Duke of Wellington defeated the French at the Battle of Salamanca in Spain.
    (AP, 7/22/97)(HN, 7/22/98)

1812        Jul, British troops under the Duke of Wellington pillaged the Spanish town of Badajos. This prompted Wellington to call his troops "the scum of the earth."
    (WSJ, 1/6/95, A-10)

1812        Aug 12, British commander the Duke of Wellington occupied Madrid, Spain, forcing out Joseph Bonaparte.
    (HN, 8/12/98)

1812        Aug 16, Detroit fell to British and Indian forces in the War of 1812.
    (AP, 8/16/97)

1812        Aug 18, Returning from a cruise into Canadian waters Captain Isaac Hull's USS Constitution of the fledgling U.S. Navy encountered British Captain Richard Dacre's HMS Guerriere about 750 miles out of Boston. After a frenzied 55-minute battle that left 101 dead, Guerriere rolled helplessly in the water, smashed beyond salvage. Dacre struck his colors and surrendered to Hull's boarding party. In contrast, Constitution suffered little damage and only 14 casualties. The fight's outcome shocked the British Admiralty while it heartened America through the dark days of the War of 1812. [see Aug 19]
    (HNPD, 8/18/98)

1812        Aug 19, The USS Constitution, also known as Old Ironsides, got its name when it defeated the British warship Guerriere off Nova Scotia in a slugfest of broadsides, when cannonballs were said to have bounced off her sides. The USS Constitution won more than 30 battles against the Barbary pirates off Africa’s coast in the War of 1812. [see Aug 18]
    (SFEC, 7/13/97, Par p.14)(AP, 8/19/97)

1812        Aug, Lt. Governor of Nova Scotia John Coape Sherbrooke sent a naval force and 500 British troops to conquer Maine and re-establish the colony New Ireland. The Treaty of Ghent returned this territory to the United States and the British left in April 1815.

1812        Oct 13, At the Battle of Queenston Heights, a Canadian and British army defeated the Americans who had tried to invade Canada.
    (HN, 10/13/98)
1812        Oct 13, Isaac Brock, English general (conquered Detroit), died in battle.
    (MC, 10/13/01)

1812        Oct 22, The Duke of Wellington abandoned his 1st siege of Burgos, Spain.

1812        Oct 25, The U.S. frigate United States captured the British vessel Macedonian during the War of 1812.
    (AP, 10/25/98)

1812        Edward Lear, English writer, was born (d.1888).
    (HFA, '96, p.30)(WUD, 1994, p.815)

1812        Mary Anning of Lyme Regis in Dorcetshire, England, excavated a 17-foot-long skeleton and sold it to Henry Hoste Henley, Lord of the Manor of Colway for £23. The fossil was later named Icthyosaurus.
    (ON, 3/01, p.5)

1813        Jan 4, Isaac Pitman, inventor (stenographic shorthand), was born in Britain.
    (MC, 1/4/02)

1813        Jan 22, During the War of 1812, British forces under Henry Proctor defeated a U.S. contingent planning an attack on Fort Detroit.
    (HN, 1/22/99)

1813        Feb 24, Off Guiana, the American sloop Hornet sank the British sloop Peacock.
    (HN, 2/24/98)

1813        Mar 8, The 1st concert of Royal Philharmonic.
    (MC, 3/8/02)

1813        Mar 15, John Snow (d.1858), obstetrician, was born in York, England. He worked on the epidemiology of cholera.
    (ON, 5/05, p.8)(www.johnsnowsociety.org/johnsnow/facts.html)

1813         Jun 1, The U.S. Navy gained its motto as the mortally wounded commander of the U.S. frigate "Chesapeake", Captain James Lawrence was heard to say, "Don't give up the ship!", during a losing battle with a British frigate "Shannon"; his ship was captured by the British frigate.
    (DTnet, 6/1/97)

1813        Jul 6, Granville Sharp (b.1735), biblical scholar and English abolitionist, died.
    (ON, 12/08, p.9)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Granville_Sharp)

1813        Aug 14, British warship Pelican attacked and captured US war brigantine Argus.
    (MC, 8/14/02)

1813        Sep 10, Oliver H. Perry sent the message, "We have met the enemy, and they are ours," after an American naval force defeated the British in the Battle of Lake Erie in the War of 1812.
    (AP, 9/10/97)

1813        Oct 5, The Battle of Moraviantown was decisive in the War of 1812. Known as the Battle of the Thames in the United States, the US victory over British and Indian forces near Ontario at the village of Moraviantown on the Thames River is know in Canada as the Battle of Moraviantown. Some 600 British regulars and 1,000 Indian allies under English General and Shawnee leader Tecumseh were greatly outnumbered and quickly defeated by US forces under the command of Maj. Gen. William Henry Harrison. Tecumseh (45) was killed in this battle.
    (HN, 10/5/98)(PC, 1992 ed, p.378)

1813        Dec 19, British forces captured Fort Niagara during the War of 1812.
    (AP, 12/19/06)

1813        Dec 30, The British burned Buffalo, N.Y., during the War of 1812.
    (AP, 12/30/06)

1813        The British government removed the British East India Company’s monopoly of trade with India.
    (Econ, 12/17/11, p.111)
1813        William Charles Wells presented a paper to the Royal Society in which he introduced the idea of natural selection to explain why people might vary in skin color in different climates.
    (Econ, 2/7/09, p.73)
1813        Thomas De La Rue (1793-1866) launched a newspaper in Guernsey. He moved to London in 1821 and established a printing firm. It grew to become the world’s largest commercial banknote printer.
    (http://lunaticg.blogspot.com/2010/03/who-is-thomas-de-la-rue.html)(Econ, 8/11/12, p.50)

1813-1843    Robert Southey was the poet laureate of England over this period. He was the author of "The Three Bears."
    (SFEC, 2/15/98, Z1 p.8)

1814        Jan 14, The Treaty of Kiel or Peace of Kiel was concluded between the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland and the Kingdom of Sweden on one side and the Kingdoms of Denmark and Norway on the other side in Kiel. It ended the hostilities between the parties in the ongoing Napoleonic Wars, where the United Kingdom and Sweden were part of the anti-French camp (the Sixth Coalition) while Denmark-Norway was allied to Napoleon Bonaparte.

1814        Feb, A man claiming to be an aide-de-camp to the armies fighting Napoleon landed in Dover and claimed that Cossacks had butchered Napoleon and that Paris had fallen. Stock prices soared and conspirators sold shares at a 15% profit before the fraud was unmasked.
    (WSJ, 1/11/99, p.R42)

1814        Mar 30, Britain and allies marched into Paris after defeating Napoleon.
    (MC, 3/30/02)

1814        May 5, The British attacked Ft. Ontario, Oswego, New York.
    (HN, 5/5/98)

1814        May 11, Americans defeated the British at Battle of Plattsburgh.
    (MC, 5/11/02)

1814        May 30, The First Treaty of Paris was declared, after Napoleon's first abdication. It returned France to its 1792 borders and secured for the British definite possession of the Cape of Good Hope.
    (HN, 5/30/98)(HN, 5/30/99)(EWH, 4th ed, p.884)

1814        Jul 5, US troops under Gen. Jacob Brown and Gen. Winfield Scott defeated a superior British force under Maj. Gen. Phineas Riall near the Niagara River at Chippewa, Canada. British casualties exceeded 500 compared to some 300 Americans.
    (AH, 10/07, p.53)

1814        Jul 18, The British captured Prairie du Chien, Wisconsin.
    (MC, 7/18/02)

1814        Jul 19, British Royal Navy explorer Captain Matthew Flinders (b.1774) died in London. He was buried at St. James's burial ground, but the headstone was removed in the 1840s, leaving the precise location of his grave a mystery. He had led the first known circumnavigation of Australia. In 2019 his remains were found by archaeologists excavating the burial ground burial ground where a railway station is planned.
    (https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Matthew_Flinders)(AP, 1/25/19)

1814        Jul 22, Five Indian tribes in Ohio made peace with the United States and declared war on Britain.
    (HN, 7/22/98)

1814        Jul 25, British and American forces fought each other to a stand off at Lundy's Lane (Niagara Falls), Canada, in some of the fiercest fighting in the War of 1812.
    (HN, 7/25/98)

1814        Aug 13, Treaty of London-Netherland was signed to stop the transport of slaves. By agreement Britain paid the Dutch £6 million in compensation for the Cape of Good Hope. [see May 30]
    (EWH, 4th ed, p.884)(MC, 8/13/02)

1814        Aug 24, 5,000 British troops under the command of General Robert Ross marched into Washington, D.C., after defeating an American force at Bladensburg, Maryland. It was in retaliation for the American burning of the parliament building in York (Toronto), the capital of Upper Canada. Meeting no resistance from the disorganized American forces, the British burned the White House, the Capitol and almost every public building in the city before a downpour extinguished the fires. President James Madison and his wife fled from the advancing enemy, but not before Dolly Madison saved the famous Gilbert Stuart portrait of George Washington. This wood engraving of Washington in flames was printed in London weeks after the event to celebrate the British victory.
    (AP, 8/24/97)(HNPD, 8/24/98)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Battle_of_Bladensburg)

1814        Aug 25, British forces destroyed the Library of Congress, containing some 3,000 books.
    (MC, 8/25/02)

1814        Sep 11, An American fleet led by Thomas Macdonough scored a decisive victory over the British in the Battle of Lake Champlain in the War of 1812.
    (AP, 9/11/97)(HN, 9/11/98)

1814        Sep 12, The Battle of North Point was fought near Baltimore during War of 1812. British General Ross was killed by a sniper’s bullet in a skirmish just prior to the main battle. The battle proved to be strategic American victory, but since they left the field in the hands of the British, tactically it was a defeat for the Americans.

1814        Sep 14, In the dawn light Francis Scott Key saw that the American flag still waved over Fort McHenry in Maryland during the War of 1812. He looked on from the deck of a boat on the Patasco River nine miles away and wrote “The Star Spangled Banner." The lyrics were alter adopted to the British tune "To Anacreon in Heaven," which had also served as Irish drinking song and a number of other songs. "The Star-Spangled Banner" was officially recognized as the national anthem in 1931. The seldom sung third verse says: “No refuge could save the hireling and slave from the terror of flight or the gloom of the grave." The 40 feet long flag had been made by Baltimore widow Mary Young Pickersgill and her 13-year-old daughter just a month before the attack. In 1907 the flag was donated to the Smithsonian.
    (https://www.youtube.com/embed/YaxGNQE5ZLA)(SFC, 7/4/97, p.A2)(AP, 9/14/97) (WSJ, 7/3/02, p.B1)(SFC, 9/15/17 p.A5)

1814        Sep, The Congress of Vienna convened in late September and continued to June 8, 1815. Friedrich von Gentz of Austria served as secretary to the Congress. It was held after the banishment of Napoleon to Elba. The congress aimed at territorial resettlement and restoration to power of the crowned heads of Europe with Prince Metternich of Austria as the dominant figure. Viscount Castlereagh and the Duke of Wellington represented Britain. Alexander I stood for Russia. Talleyrand stood for France. Prince von Hardenberg stood for Prussia. In 2007 Adam Zamoyski authored “Rites of Peace: The Fall of Napoleon and the Congress of Vienna." In 2008 David King authored “Vienna 1814: How the Conquerors of Napoleon Made Love, War and Peace at the Congress of Vienna.
    (Econ, 4/14/07, p.94)(www.bartleby.com/65/vi/Vienna-C.html)(SSFC, 4/6/08, Books p.4)

1814        Oct 17, Two giant porter vats at the Horse Shoe Brewery on London’s Tottenham Court Road burst when the securing hoops failed. The 25-foot-high vats were owned by Sir Henry Meux and. Several lives were lost along with an estimated 8,000-9,000 barrels of porter.

1814        Oct 23, The 1st plastic surgery was performed in England.
    (MC, 10/23/01)

1814        Nov 7, Andrew Jackson attacked and captured Pensacola, Florida, defeating the Spanish and driving out a British force.
    (HN, 11/7/98)

1814        Dec 24, The Treaty of Ghent between the United States and Great Britain, terminating the War of 1812, was signed at Ghent, Belgium. The news did not reach the United States until two weeks later (after the decisive American victory at New Orleans). The treaty, signed by John Quincy Adams for the US, committed the US and Britain "to use their best endeavors" to end the Atlantic slave trade.
    (AP, 12/24/97)(WSJ, 12/31/97, p.A11)(HN, 12/24/98)(SFEC, 11/21/99, p.T10)

1814        Britain began overseeing the Chagos Archipelago.
    (Reuters, 11/16/16)
1814        British Royal Navy explorer Captain Matthew Flinders was buried at St. James's burial ground, but the headstone was removed in the 1840s, leaving the precise location of his grave a mystery. He had led the first known circumnavigation of Australia. In 2019 his remains were found by archaeologists excavating the St. James's burial ground burial ground where a railway station is planned.
    (AP, 1/25/19)

1815        Jan 8, US forces led by Gen. Andrew Jackson and French pirate Jean Lafitte led some 3,100 backwoodsmen to victory against 7,500 British veterans at Chalmette in the Battle of New Orleans in the closing engagement of the War of 1812. A British army marched on New Orleans without knowing that the War of 1812 had ended on Christmas Eve of 1814. A massacre ensued, as 2,044 British troops, including three generals, fell dead, wounded or missing before General Andrew Jackson's well-prepared earthworks, compared with only 71 American casualties. Among the British victims were Gen. Sir Edward Pakenham and the Highlanders of the 93rd Regiment of Foot. In 2000 Robert V. Remini published "The Battle of New Orleans."
    (AP, 1/8/98)(HN, 1/8/99)(WSJ, 1/26/00, p.A20)(AH, 2/05, p.16)

1815        Mar 20, Napoleon Bonaparte entered Paris, beginning his "Hundred Days" rule. He had escaped from his imprisonment on the island of Elba off the coast of Tuscany. He gathered his veterans and marched on Paris. At Waterloo, Belgium, he met the Duke of Wellington, commander of the allied anti-French forces and was resoundingly defeated. Napoleon was then imprisoned on the island of St. Helena in the south Atlantic. In 1997 Gregor Dallas published: The Final Act: The Roads to Waterloo." the book includes a good account of the Congress of Vienna.
    (AP, 3/20/97)(V.D.-H.K.p.232)(SFEC,11/2/97, Par p.10)

1815        Apr 6, At Dartmoor Prison in southwest England 7 American prisoners were killed by British soldiers under the command of Captain Thomas G. Shortland. Some 6,000 prisoners were awaiting return to the US. A farmer’s jury with no victims or witnesses issued a verdict on April 8 of "justifiable homicide."
    (AH, 10/02, p.36)

1815        Apr 24, Anthony Trollope (d.1882), British novelist, was born. His 47 novels included "The American Senator." His 33rd novel was "The Way We Live Now" (1875). "Nobody holds a good opinion of a man who has a low opinion of himself." An essay by Cynthia Ozick on the novel is in her 1996 book "Fame and Folly."
    (WSJ, 5/22/96, p.A-18)(AP, 10/13/97)(WSJ, 6/9/00, p.W17)(HN, 4/24/01)(Econ, 4/11/20, p.67)

1815        Apr, British General Arthur Wellesley, duke of Wellington, began assembling troops at Brussels, Belgium. 73,000 British troops were joined by 33,000 German, Dutch and Belgian troops preparing to face Napoleon. Prussian Gen. Gebhard Leberecht von Blucher gathered an army of 120,000 southeast of Brussels.
    (ON, 4/06, p.1)

1815        Jun 1, James Gillray (b.1757), British caricaturist and printmaker, died. He is famous for his etched political and social satires, mainly published between 1792 and 1810.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/James_Gillray)(Econ, 12/19/09, p.99)

1815        Jun 16, A French attack at the crossroads called Quatre Bras badly mauled Anglo-Dutch army under Wellington, but failed to rout it or to take the crossroads. Emperor Napoleon Bonaparte had marched into Belgium to find himself confronted by two allied armies, which he tried to split apart. Although similarly battered at Ligny that day, the Prussian army also retired intact. Both armies would face Napoleon again two days later at Waterloo.
    (HNPD, 6/16/99)(Econ, 5/23/15, p.71)

1815        Jun 18, British and Prussian troops under the Duke of Wellington defeated Napoleon Bonaparte and his forces at the Battle of Waterloo in Belgium. The French elite troops of the Imperial Guard wore bearskins to appear more intimidating. Afterwards Britain established towering bear skin hats for soldiers in ceremonial duties and to guard royal residencies and the Tower of London. Field Marshal Gebhard Leberecht von Blucher made a short speech to his troops saying that he was pregnant and about to give birth to an elephant. He was taken from the front in protective custody and missed the battle. Napoleon lost over 40,000 men at Waterloo; the British and Belgians lost 15,000; the Prussians lost 7,000. The total losses in 3 days of fighting was later estimated at 91,800. In 2002 Andrew Roberts authored "Napoleon and Wellington." In 2005 Andrew Roberts authored “Waterloo: Napoleon’s Last Gamble."
    (SFEC, 2/28/99, Z1p.10)(WSJ, 9/13/02, p.W10)(Econ, 2/12/05, p.81)(ON, 4/06, p.5)

1815        Jul 15, Napoleon Bonaparte was captured by the British Navy at Rochefort, France, while attempting to escape to America.
    (ON, 4/06, p.5)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Napoleon)

1815        Sep 26, Russia, Prussia and Austria signed a Holy Alliance. "Justice, charity and peace" were to be the precepts that guided the Holy Alliance as envisioned by Czar Alexander I of Russia. The alliance of Russia, Austria and Prussia was formed after the downfall of Napoleon and later all European rulers signed the agreement except the prince regent of Great Britain, the pope and the sultan of Turkey. With no specific aims beyond mutual assistance, the provisions of the Holy Alliance were so vague that it had little effect on European diplomacy. Metternich quietly replaced the entire alliance by the purely political alliance of 20 November, 1815, between Austria, Prussia, Russia and England.
    (www.newadvent.org/cathen/07398a.htm)(HNQ, 7/7/98)

1815        Oct 22, Ascension Island was garrisoned by the British Admiralty. For administrative purposes it was treated as a ship, the HMS Ascension. Some 20 million birds are believed to have lived on the island. By 2000 the number of birds was down to a few hundred thousand due to cats.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ascension_Island)(Econ, 12/18/10, p.160)(Econ, 9/14/13, SR p.9)

1815        Oct 31, Sir Humphrey Davy of London patented miner's safety lamp after being hired by the Society for Preventing Accidents in Coal Mines.
    (MC, 10/31/01)(ON, 12/01, p.7)

1815        Nov 2, George Boole (d.1864), English-Irish mathematician and logician (Boolean algebra), was born.
    (WUD, 1994, p.170)(SFC, 12/2/97, p.C3)(MC, 11/2/01)

1815        Nov 20, The treaties known collectively as the 2nd Peace of Paris were concluded. Austria’s Klemens von Metternich helped create a “Concert of Europe," a system by which 4-5 big powers kept miscreants in check and managed the affairs of smaller states for over a decade.
    (www.newadvent.org/cathen/07398a.htm)(http://tinyurl.com/2sqgp9)(Econ, 6/9/07, p.68)

1815        Dec 10, Ada Lovelace (d. Nov 27, 1852), Lord Byron’s daughter and the inventor of computer language, was born. In 1998 the sci-fi film, "Conceiving Ada," was directed by Lynn Hershman-Leeson.
    (SFC, 1/22/98, p.D7)(SFC, 4/30/98, p.E1)

1815        The novel "Emma," by English writer Jane Austen (1774-1817), was published.
    (ON, 12/09, p.8)
1815        William Smith (d.1839), British geologist, made the 1st geological map of England and became impoverished in the process. In 2001 Simon Winchester authored "The Map That Changed the World."
    (RTH, 8/28/99)(WSJ, 8/17/01, p.W6)(SSFC, 8/26/01, DB p.86)
1815        Britain passed a law severely restricting grain imports from European neighbors. Austria retaliated with tariffs on wool and cotton. Sicily raised tariffs on textiles, Sweden raised tariffs on silk, wool, cotton, iron steel and copper. English manufacturers formed the anti-Corn-Law League to lobby against the measure.
    (WSJ, 1/11/99, p.R50)
1815        Following the wars with Napoleon John Barrow, 2nd secretary to the admiralty, directed the British Navy to a campaign of exploration. In 2000 Fergus Fleming authored "Barrow’s Boys," an account of the expeditions he generated.
    (WSJ, 4/18/00, p.A16)
1815        Britain took action against pirate sheikhs protected by the Wahabis, later rulers of Saudi Arabia, because ships of the East India Company were attacked in int’l. waters. Britain allied with the ruler of Muscat and Oman and Mohamed Ali of Egypt.
    (WSJ, 10/9/01, p.A22)
1815        The British took over Ceylon (Sri Lanka).
    (Arch, 7/02, p.34)
1815        British debt reached 745 million pounds.
    (Econ, 12/24/05, p.105)
1815        Nepalese soldiers, later known as Gurkhas, began serving in the British military.
    (Econ, 5/2/09, p.58)

1816        Apr 21, Charlotte Bronte (d.1855), English novelist, writer of "Vilette" and "Jane Eyre," was born in Thornton, England. "Better to be without logic than without feeling." In 1999 Brian Wilks published "Charlotte in Love: The Courtship and Marriage of Charlotte Bronte."
    (WP, 1952, p.37)(AP, 9/13/99)(HN, 4/21/98)(WSJ, 7/28/99, p.A21)

1816        May 12, Lord Grimthorpe was born. He was the designer of "Big Ben," the most recognized structure in London.
    (HN, 5/12/99)

1816        Aug 14, Great Britain annexed Tristan da Cunha.

1816        Aug 27, Admiral Sir Edward Pellew, a noble from Devon, England, bombed Algiers, a refuge for Barbary pirates. He flew the green, white and black flag of St. Petroc. In 1836 the battle was pictured in a painting by George Chambers, Senior. Pellew was subsequently named Lord Exmouth.
    (http://tinyurl.com/gjooc)(Econ, 9/30/06, p.66)

1816        Dec, Henry “Orator" Hunt made a speech in Spa fields in East London which was disrupted by a group of revolutionaries who murdered a gunsmith and plundered his shop. They then set off for London, but the insurrection was quickly put down.
    (Econ, 12/23/06, p.104)

1816        In London, England, William Cobbett brought out twopenny version of his Weekly Political Register on a single sheet of paper to avoid the stamp duty.
    (Econ, 12/23/06, p.103)(www.nndb.com/people/245/000049098/)
1816        Robert Stirling, British clergyman, proposed a sealed heated air engine to compete with the ubiquitous steam engine. His Stirling engine converted heat into mechanical energy by compressing and expanding a fixed quantity of gas.
    (Econ, 8/14/04, p.72)(Econ, 6/6/09, p.24)
1816        Lord Elgin sold his Parthenon sculptures to the British government for 35,000 pounds. A request in 1811 for 62,400 pounds had been rejected. Elgin later fled to France to avoid his creditors.
    (ON, 11/99, p.4)
1816        Lord Byron (George Gordon), English romantic poet, separated from his wife Annabella (d.1860) following an incestuous relationship with his half-sister Augusta Leigh (d.1851). In 2002 David Crane authored "The Kindness of Sisters: Annabella Milbanke and the Destruction of the Byrons."
    (SSFC, 10/27/02, p.M2)
1816        Two British naval ships under Captain Basil Hall landed at Okinawa, in the Ryukyu archipelago, which was then known as Loo-Choo. In 1818 Hall published an account of his voyage: “Account of a Voyage of Discovery to the West Coast of Corea, and the Great Loo-Choo Island."
    (Econ, 10/29/05, p.44)(www.polybiblio.com/bibliotrek/BT000004..html)
1816        The British founded Banjul (Gambia) as a trading post and base for suppressing the slave trade. Captain Alexander Grant obtained the sandy bank of Banjul Island by a treaty from the Chief of Kombo and built the planned city of Bathurst, renamed Banjul in 1973. The British renamed Banjul Island as St. Mary's Island and first named Bathurst after the 3rd Earl Bathurst, Secretary of State for War and the Colonies at the time. The name was changed to Banjul in 1973.

1817        Feb 2, John Glover, English chemist (sulfuric acid), was born.
    (MC, 2/2/02)

1817        Apr 19, David Ricardo (1772-1823), British political economist, published "Principles of Political Economy and Taxation." Here Ricardo argued for the labor theory of value and explained why the best farmland often makes money for the landlord, not the farmer.
    (WSJ, 1/11/99, p.R20)(Econ, 11/5/05, p.91)(Econ, 4/22/17, p.69)

1817        Jul 18, Jane Austen (b.1775), English writer, died at age 41. In 1869 her nephew James Edward Austen-Leigh published “A Memoir of Jane Austen." Austen had introduced a new narrative style which moved deftly between the narrator’s voice and the character’s innermost thoughts.
    (www.pemberley.com/janeinfo/janelife.html)(SFEC,11/9/97, BR p.3)(ON, 12/09, p.8)(Econ 7/15/17, p.71)

1817        Dec 7, William Bligh (63), British naval officer of "Bounty" infamy, died.
    (MC, 12/7/01)

1817        Dec 28, Benjamin Robert Haydon (d.1846), British painter, threw a dinner party in London to show his nearly completed painting "Christ’s Entry Into Jerusalem" and to introduce poet John Keats to William Wordsworth. Other guests included essayist Charles Lamb. In 2002 Penelope Hughes-Hallett authored "The Immortal Dinner."
    (WSJ, 9/13/02, p.W10)

1817        Dec, The book “Northanger Abbey," by English novelist Jane Austen (1775-1817), was published following her death in July. It was written around 1798-1799 and revised in 1803.

1817        Thomas Love Peacock, a friend and neighbor of poet Percy Bysshe Shelley, authored his comic novel “Melincourt." A character in the novel was based on Shelley.
    (Econ, 12/23/06, p.94)

1817        Sir Thomas Stamford Bingley Raffles (1781-1826), British statesman, wrote a book entitled “History of Java." He was heavily involved in the conquest of the Indonesian island of Java from Dutch and French military forces during the Napoleonic Wars and contributed to the expansion of the British Empire.
    (Econ, 11/10/12, p.88)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Stamford_Raffles)

1817        Percy Bysshe Shelley (25), English romantic poet, authored his sonnet “Ozymandias." It was first published in 1818.
    (Econ, 12/21/13, p.125)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ozymandias)

1817        Britain banned private coins. They had been issued to address a major shortage of government coinage. From 1787 to 1797 and again from 1811 to 1818, the greater part of Great Britain's stock of coins came not from the Royal Mint in London but from a score of private mints in Birmingham.
    (WSJ, 1/5/09, p.A11)(http://mises.org/story/3168)

1818        Jan 1, The novel "Frankenstein" by Mary Wollstonecraft Shelley (1797-1851) was published anonymously. It was an attack on industrialization. The work stemmed from a contest in 1816 at Byron’s Villa Diodati in Geneva, between Byron, Shelley and Mary to produce a ghost story. In 1998 Joan Kane Nichols published "Mary Shelley: Frankenstein’s Creator." In 2006 Dorothy and Thomas Hoobler authored “The Monsters: Mary Shelley and the Curse of Frankenstein." In 2007 Susan Tyler Hitchcock authored “Frankenstein: A Cultural History."
    (WSJ, 1/11/99, p.R14)(SSFC, 5/21/06, p.M6)(WSJ, 10/30/07, p.D6)(ON, 11/07, p.8)

1818        Jan 2, Lord Byron (George Gordon) completed "Childe Harold's Pilgrimage" (4th canto).
    (MC, 1/2/02)

1818        Apr 16, U.S. Senate ratified the Rush-Bagot amendment to form an unarmed U.S.-Canada border. The Rush-Bagot Agreement between Great Britain and the U.S. had to do with mutual disarmament on the Great Lakes. In the exchange of notes between British minister to the U.S. Charles Bagot and Richard Rush, Acting Secretary of State, the countries agreed to limits on their inland naval forces. A sequel to the Treaty of Ghent, the agreement was approved by the U.S. Senate on April 16, 1818.
    (HN, 4/16/98)(HNQ, 6/7/00)

1818        Apr, Dr. John William Polidori published “The Vampyre," a novel based on an unpublished story fragment by Lord Byron. Polidori was Byron’s personal physician.
    (ON, 11/07, p.8)

1818        Jun 2, The British army defeated the Maratha alliance in Bombay, India.
    (HN, 6/2/98)

1818        Jul 30, Emily Bronte (d.1848), English author of "Wuthering Heights," was born. She was the younger sister of Charlotte Bronte and died of tuberculosis.
    (WP, 1952, p.38)(HN, 7/30/98)(WSJ, 7/28/99, p.A21)

1818        Aug 22, Warren Hastings (85), 1st governor-general of India (1773-84), died.
    (MC, 8/22/02)

1818        Oct 8, 2 English boxers were 1st to use padded gloves.
    (MC, 10/8/01)

1818        Oct 20, The United States and Britain established the 49th Parallel as the boundary between Canada and the United States.
    (HN, 10/20/98)

1818        Dec 24, James Prescott Joule (d.1889), British physicist, was born. Joule studied the nature of heat, and discovered its relationship to mechanical work. This led to the law of conservation of energy, which led to the development of the first law of thermodynamics.

1818        Copley Fielding painted a landscape of Stonehenge.
    (ON, 4/02, p.11)

1818        John Keats published his poem "Endymion."
    (WSJ, 1/15/98, p.A17)

1818        Dr. James Blundell (1791-1878), a British obstetrician, performed the first successful transfusion of human blood, for the treatment of postpartum hemorrhage.
1818        The first modern use for rubber was discovered by British medical student James Syme. He used it to waterproof cloth in order to make the first raincoats, a process patented in 1823 by Charles Macintosh.

1818-1820    John Keats (d.1821), English poet, lived in Hampstead and wrote "The Eve of St. Agnes," "Ode on a Grecian Urn," and "Ode to a Nightingale."
    (SFC, 12/24/96, p.E4)(WSJ, 1/15/98, p.A17)

1819        May 24, Queen Victoria (d.1901) was born in London. Her reign (1836-1901) restored dignity to the British crown. She had nine children. "Great events make me quiet and calm; it is only trifles that irritate my nerves."
    (AP, 5/24/97)(HN, 5/24/99)(AP, 2/24/99)

1819        May 26, The first steam-propelled vessel to attempt a trans-Atlantic crossing, the 350-ton Savannah, departed from Savannah, Ga., May 26 and arrived in Liverpool, England, Jun 20. [HNQ set May 24 for the departure]
    (AP, 5/22/97)(HNQ, 3/18/02)

1819        Aug 16, English police charged unemployed demonstrators at St. Peter's Field in the Manchester Massacre. Marchers were demanding voting rights for the working class. 18 people were killed in the Peterloo massacre. The press responded with a volley of attacks that included “The Political House that Jack Built" by William Hone and illustrator George Cruikshank.
    (https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Peterloo_Massacre)(Econ, 12/23/06, p.104)

1819        Aug 26, Albert "Bertie" von Saxon-Coburg-Gotha (d.1861), husband of queen Victoria, was born at Schloss Rosenau, near Coburg, Bavaria.
    (WUD, 1994, p.34)(http://encyclopedia.thefreedictionary.com)

1819        Nov 22, George Eliot (d.1880), English writer, was born as Mary Ann Evans. Her books included “Adam Bede," “Silas Marner" and “Middlemarch." She was driven out of England with her companion, G.H. Lewes, for a while for not being married. Her books tore away the curtain of Victorian life and revealed its bitter small-mindedness for anyone to see. "The happiest women, like the happiest nations, have no history."
    (www.kirjasto.sci.fi/gelliot.htm)(HN, 11/22/98)(SSFC, 2/9/14, p.F7)

1819        J.M.W. Turner (44), English artist (1775-1851), visited Venice for the 1st time. He returned in 1833 and 1840. His 1st oil painting with a Venetian setting was done in 1833.
    (WSJ, 3/17/04, p.D4)

1819        The British claimed Malacca from the Dutch. They used St. Paul’s church as an ammunition dump and put a lighthouse in front.
    (Econ, 11/15/14, SR p.5)
1819        Singapore was declared a free port after it was taken over by Sir Thomas Stamford Raffles (1781-1826), an officer of the British East India Co. Sultan Hussein was enthroned by the British but he never ruled. Raffles laid out the city into ethnic zones.
     (WSJ, 11/12/96, p.A18)(WSJ, 7/22/99, p.A23)(SFCM, 3/11/01, p.70)(SSFC, 2/07/04, p.C9)

1820        Jan 12, Royal Astronomical Society was founded in England.
    (MC, 1/12/02)

1820        Jan 20-1820 Jan 29, As George IV was about to become King of England, his wife Caroline (the German princess of Brunswick) returned to claim her rights. She had been living on the continent and was rumored to have had as lovers such men as: the politician George Canning, the admiral Sir Sydney Smith, the painter Sir Thomas Lawrence. The House of Lords introduced a Bill of Pains and Penalties, which sought to strip Caroline of her title of Queen on the grounds of her scandalous conduct. George had previously married Maria Anne Fitzherbert in secret. A trial ensued, but witnesses refused to speak against the queen and the bill had to be amended.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Caroline_of_Brunswick)(WSJ, 5/23/96, p.A-10)(WSJ, 3/26/99, p.W10)

1820        Jan 29, Britain's King George III (b.1760) died insane at Windsor Castle at age 81, ending a  reign that saw both the American and French revolutions. He was succeeded by his son George IV (1762-1830), who as Prince of Wales had been regent for 9 years during his father’s insanity. In 2005 scientists reported high levels of arsenic in the hair of King George III and said the deadly poison may be to blame for the bouts of apparent madness he suffered. In 2006 Stella Tillyard authored “A Royal Affair: George III and His Troublesome Siblings" and Jeremy Black authored “George III: America’s Last King."
    (http://tinyurl.com/gsbuj)(AP, 1/29/98)(WSJ, 12/26/06, p.D8)(Econ, 1/28/06, p.80)

1820        Jan 30, Edward Bransfield discovered Antarctica and claimed it for the UK.
    (MC, 1/30/02)

1820        Feb 28, John Tenniel (d.1914), illustrator of "Alice in Wonderland," was born. He was an English caricaturist.
    (HN, 2/28/98)(WUD, 1994, p.1463)

1820        Feb, The Cato Street Conspiracy, organized by revolutionary Arthur Thistlewood, was the.  assassination of the entire British Cabinet.  Earlier, in 1816, Thistlewood helped plan the Spa Fields Riots, during which the Bank of England and Tower of London were to be seized. In February, 1820, Thistlewood learned the entire British Cabinet planned to dine at the Earl of Harrowby’s house in London’s Grosvenor Square. His plot for murder was revealed to the police, who apprehended Thistlewood and a number of accomplices as they prepared to leave a room on Cato Street for Grosvenor Square. Thistlewood was tried for high treason and hanged, along with four others.
    (HNQ, 6/28/99)

1820        Mar 30, Anna Sewell, English novelist, was born. Her "Black Beauty" has become the classic story about horses.
    (HN, 3/30/99)

1820        Jun 19, Joseph Banks, English natural historian (Cook, Australia), died.
    (MC, 6/19/02)

1820            Aug 2, John Tyndall (d.1893), British physicist, was born. He was the first scientist to show why the sky is blue. "It is as fatal as it is cowardly to blink (at) facts because they are not to our taste."
    (AP, 9/25/99)(HN, 8/2/00)

1820        Aug 13, George Grove, biblical scholar, musicographer (Grove's Dictionary), was born in London, England.
    (MC, 8/13/02)

1820        Sep 28, Friedrich Engels (d.1895), socialist who collaborated with Karl Marx on The Communist Manifesto and Das Kapital, was born in Prussia.

1820        May 12, Florence Nightingale (d.1910), Crimean War British nurse known as “Lady with the Lamp," was born in Florence, Italy. She is also known as the founder of modern nursing.
    (AP, 5/12/97)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Florence_Nightingale)

1820        Anne Bronte (d.1849), younger sister of Charlotte and Emily, was born. Her novels included "Agnes Grey" and "The Tenant of Wildfell Hall."
    (WSJ, 7/28/99, p.A21)

1820        Constable made his painting of Salisbury Cathedral.
    (WSJ, 12/6/01, p.A19)

1820        Scotsman Gregor MacGregor (1791-1845), later known as His Serene Highness Gregor I, Prince of Poyais, returned to London from Venezuela and began selling land in the fictional kingdom of Poyais. He served 8 months in jail after English and French expeditions revealed the hoax. In 1839 he returned to Venezuela. In 2004 David Sinclair authored "The Land That Never Was: Sir Gregor MacGregor and the Most Audacious Land Fraud in History."
    (SSFC, 1/18/04, p.M2)

c1820        In London Thomas Hancock sliced up a rubber bottle from the Americas to create garters and waistbands.
    (SFC, 9/19/98, p.E3)

1820        Some 4,000 British colonists, the Albany settlers, settled in the eastern coastal region of the Cape of Good Hope.
    (EWH, 4th ed, p.884)

1820-1827    Humphrey Davy served as president of the Royal Society.
    (ON, 12/01, p.7)

1820s        Grain prices collapsed.
    (WSJ, 12/11/98, p.W10)

1821        Feb 3, Elizabeth Blackwell (d.1910), first woman to get an MD from a U.S. medical school, was born in Bristol, England.

1821        Feb 23, John Keats, English poet, died of tuberculosis at the age of 26. In 1998 the biography "Keats" by Andrew Motion was published. Earlier biographies included one by Walter Jackson Bate (1963), and a novelistic psychological portrait by Aileen Ward (1963). The standard work on Keats was written by Robert Gittings in 1968.
    (WP, 1951, p.11)(WSJ, 1/15/98, p.A17)(SFEC, 3/29/98, BR p.6)

1821        Mar 19, Sir Richard Burton (d.1890), English explorer, was born.
    (HN, 3/19/01)

1821        Jul 19, The coronation of George IV of England was held. His wife, Caroline, was refused admittance. She died Aug 7.

1821        Aug 7, Caroline of Brunswick (b.1768), wife of England’s King George IV, died. In 2006 Jane Robins authored “The Trial of Queen Caroline: The Scandalous Affair that Nearly Ended a Monarchy."
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/George_IV_of_the_United_Kingdom)(Econ, 8/5/06, p.76)

1821        William Playfair, Scottish engineer, political economist and scoundrel, published a visual chart that displayed the “weekly wages of a good mechanic" along with the price of a “quarter of wheat" with the reigns of monarchs displayed along the top.
    (Econ, 12/22/07, p.74)
1821        English economist David Ricardo noted that the influence of machinery is frequently detrimental to the interest of the working class.
    (Econ, 6/25/16, SR p.3)

1822        Feb 16, Francis Galton (d.1911), English scientist, was born. He was one of the first moderns to present a carefully considered eugenics program.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Francis_Galton)(NH, 6/97, p.18)(SFC, 8/28/97, p.A12)

1822        May, Dr. Gideon Mantell published his book “The Fossils of South Downs," based on his studies of huge teeth and bones found at the Tilgate Forest quarry.
    (ON, 7/06, p.1)

1822        Jun 14, Charles Babbage (1792-1871), a young Cambridge mathematician, announced the invention of a machine capable of performing simple arithmetic calculations in a paper to the Astronomical Society. His 1st Difference Engine could perform up to 60 error-free calculation in 5 minutes. Babbage and engineer John Clement completed the calculator portion of a new engine in 1832, but the project lost funding and remained unfinished.
    (I&I, Penzias, p.94)(ON, 5/05, p.5)

1822        Jul 8, Percy Bysshe Shelley (b.1792), English poet, drowned while sailing in Italy at age 29.
    (HN, 7/8/01)

1822        Sep 6, John Constable, English painter, painted his “Cloud Study, 6 September 1822." He painted some 100 studies of the sky between 1821-1822.
    (MC, 3/31/02)(WSJ, 6/9/04, p.D8)

1822        Oct 20, The 1st edition of the London Sunday Times was published.
    (MC, 10/20/01)

1822        Dec 4, Frances Crabbe, English feminist and founder of the Anti-Vivisection Society, was born.
    (MC, 12/4/01)

1822        Dec 14, John Christie, English patron of music, was born. He founded the Glyndebourne Festival Opera. 
    (HN, 12/14/99)

1822        London’s St. Matthew’s Church was built to commemorate the victory at Waterloo.
    (Econ, 12/22/12, p.100)
1822        A bronze Achilles cast from cannons from the Napoleonic wars was unveiled at the residence of the Duke of Wellington. A strategic fig leaf was soon added.
    (SFEM, 3/21/99, p.24)

1822-1888    Matthew Arnold, English poet and critic. His books included "Culture and Anarchy." His best known poem is Dover Beach." In 1999 Ian Hamilton wrote "A Gift Imprisoned: The Poetic Life of Matthew Arnold."
    (WSJ, 3/25/99, p.A24)

1823        May 8, "Home Sweet Home" was 1st sung in London.
    (MC, 5/8/02)

1823        Lord Byron returned to Greece to provide moral support to insurgents and draw attention to Ottoman massacres of Greek civilians.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Lord_Byron)(SFC, 9/7/08, Books p.5)

1823        English poet Lord Byron spent a summer on the Ionian island of Cephalonia.
    (SFEC, 1/18/98, p.T3)

1823        Philip Cazenova founded a British banking firm partnership. It incorporated in 2001.
    (Econ, 11/13/04, p.82)

1823        British Major Dixon Denham and Captain Hugh Clapperton entered Northern Nigeria from the north, crossing the desert from Tripoli.
    (Econ, 1/7/06, p.74)(www.britishempire.co.uk/maproom/nigeria.htm)

1823-1871    Charles Buxton, English author: "You will never 'find' time for anything. If you want time you must make it."
    (AP, 10/21/99)

1824        Jan 8, William Wilkie Collins, English novelist (Woman in White), was born.
1824        Jan 8, Tom Spring defeated Jack Langan in a British championship boxing match that lasted 2½ hours.
    (SFC, 2/1/06, p.G6)(www.cyberboxingzone.com/boxing/spring-t.htm)

1824        Jan 22, A British force was wiped out by an Asante army under Osei Bonsu on the African Gold Coast. This was the first defeat for a colonial power.
    (HN, 1/22/99)

1824        Apr 19, George Gordon, (6th Baron Byron, b.1788) aka Lord Byron, English poet, died of malaria in Greece at Missolonghi on the gulf of Patras preparing to fight for Greek independence. In 1999 Benita Eisler published the biography "Byron: Child of Passion, Fool of Fame." In 2002 Fiona MacCarthy authored "Byron : Life and Legend." In 2009 Edna O’Brien authored “Byron in Love."
    (SFC, 6/9/97, p.D3)(WSJ, 4/26/99, p.A16)(HN, 4/1901)(SSFC, 12/29/02, p.M2)(SSFC, 6/21/09, Books p.J5)

1824        Jun 16, The Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Animals was formed at Old Slaughter’s Coffee House in London under the direction of Arthur Broome.

1824        Jul 20, Marc Brunel (55) was appointed as engineer for the Thames Tunnel Company. He hired his son, Isambard Brunel, as his assistant. Brunel senior, a royalist, had fled the French Revolution to become, briefly, official engineer to the city of New York, and then, having settled in London, a consultant engineer to the Royal Navy. Educated and trained in both French and English schools and workshops, Brunel junior served his practical apprenticeship assisting his father in the building of the first tunnel under the Thames, which later carried the Underground between Wapping and Rotherhithe.
    (HN, 6/26/01)(www.bris.ac.uk/is/services/specialcollections/brunelchronology.html)

1824        Sep 23, Captain Richard Charlton was appointed British Consul to Hawaii.  He arrived in Hawaii and assumed his post in April, 1825.
    (Hawaii state archives)

1824        Oct 21, Joseph Aspdin patented Portland cement in Yorkshire, England.
    (MC, 10/21/01)

1824        John Hayter painted portraits of Hawaii’s King Kamehameha II and Queen Kamamalu in London shortly before they died there of measles.
    (AH, 10/01, p.14)
1824        In England the first animal welfare group was founded.
    (SFEC, 1/10/99, p.A20)
1824        The Royal National Lifeboat Institution was established in England.
    (Econ, 5/14/05, p.87)
1824        Charles Henry Harrod (25) established his first retail business. Until 1831 it was variously listed as a draper, mercer and a haberdasher. In 1834 he established a wholesale grocery in Stepney, at 4 Cable Street, London, with a special interest in tea.
1824        Newfoundland became a British colony. It became a province of Canada in 1949.
    (SFEC, 6/25/00, BR p.6)

1824-1889    (William) Wilkie Collins, English novelist. His work included the 1860 mystery: "The Woman in White." It was later made into a TV version on both "Mystery" (1985) and "Masterpiece Theater" (1998).
    (WUD, 1994, p.290)(WSJ, 2/19/98, p.A20)

1825        Jan 1, Dr. Gideon Mantell presented his paper “Notice on the Iguanodon" to members of England’s Philosophical Society. His paper linked the large hypothetical “Sussex lizard" to a modern species of reptile. This work led to his induction to the Royal Society on Dec 25, 1825.
    (ON, 7/06, p.3)

1825        Feb 22, Russia and Britain established the Alaska/Canada boundary.
    (HN, 2/22/98)

1825        May 4, Thomas Henry Huxley (d.1895), British biologist, naturalist and author, was born. "God give me strength to face a fact though it slay me." "My experience of the world is that things left to themselves don't get right." His work includes the collected Essays in nine volumes: 1. Method and Results, 2. Darwiniana, 3. Science and Education, 4. Science and the Hebrew Tradition, 5. Science and the Christian Tradition, 6. Hume, with Helps to the Study of Berkeley, 7. Man’s Place in Nature, 8. Discourses, Biological and Geological, 9. Evolution and Ethics and Other Essays. In 1997 Adrian Desmond wrote the biography: "Huxley." "God give me strength to face a fact though it slay me."
    (OAPOC-TH, p.71)(WSJ, 10/10/97, p.A20)(AP, 11/1/97)(AP, 1/26/99)(HN, 5/4/01)

1825        Sep 27, The Stockton and Darlington rail line opened in England. The first locomotive to haul a passenger train was operated by George Stephenson in England. The British engineers Richard Trevithick and George Stevenson were the first innovators of the technology.
    (AP, 9/27/97)(www.spartacus.schoolnet.co.uk/RAstephensonG.htm)

1825        Dec 27, The 1st public railroad using steam locomotive was completed in England.
    (MC, 12/27/01)

1825        The Bank of England began lending money aggressively and continued to 1826 to help stabilize a financial crisis, despite lacking the legal authority to do so.
    (Econ, 11/5/11, p.92)
1825        Clark Shoes began operations in Britain.
    (Econ, 6/18/05, Survey p.53)
1825        The British conquered the Burmese state of Arakon (aka Rakhine), called Rohang by early Muslims, and administered it as part of British India. Muslims are believed to have arrived here in as long ago as the 8th century.
    (Econ, 6/13/15, p.38)

1826        Feb 11, London University was founded.
    (MC, 2/11/02)

1826        Apr 12, Karl Maria von Weber's opera "Oberon," premiered in London.
    (MC, 4/12/02)

1826        Jul 5, Sir Thomas Stamford Bingley Raffles (b.1781), British statesman, died in London. He is best known for his founding of the city of Singapore (now the city-state of the Republic of Singapore). He is often described as the "Father of Singapore". He was also heavily involved in the conquest of the Indonesian island of Java from Dutch and French military forces during the Napoleonic Wars and contributed to the expansion of the British Empire. He was also an amateur writer and wrote a book entitled History of Java (1817). In 2012 Victoria Glendinning authored “Raffles and the Golden Opportunity."
    (Econ, 11/10/12, p.88)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Stamford_Raffles)

1826        Aug 7, Marc Brunel hired his son, Isambard, to replace William Armstrong as chief engineer for building the tunnel under England’s Thames River.
    (ON, 4/06, p.8)(www.bris.ac.uk/is/services/specialcollections/brunelchronology.html)

1826         Sir John Bernard Burke published “Burke’s Landed Gentry," a detailed listing of key families or other influential figures in the United Kingdom.
    (Econ, 12/3/11, p.104)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Burke%27s_Landed_Gentry)
1826        Pilkington, a British glass producer, was founded in St. Helens, Lancashire. In 2006 it was bought by Nippon Sheet Glass (NSG).
    (Econ, 3/27/10, p.78)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pilkington)
1826        Englishmen scientist James Smithson (1765-1829) drew up his will and named his nephew as beneficiary. In the will he stated that should his nephew die without heirs, the estate should go to the US of America to found at Washington, under the name of the Smithsonian Institute, an establishment for the increase and diffusion of knowledge among men.
    (SFEC, 8/25/96, p.T6)
1826        John James Audubon (1785-1851), painter and ornithologist, arrived in Britain to oversee the production of his "Birds of America." Although the 1st engravings were done in Edinburgh the project was soon transferred to London and completed over the next 12 years.
    (WSJ, 3/26/04, p.W6)(AH, 10/04, p.75)
1826        The Zoological Society of London was established by Sir Stamford Raffles and Sir Humphry Davy.

1826        The British Cape Colony was extended northward to the Orange River.
    (EWH, 4th ed, p.885)

1826-1852    The Duke of Wellington served as Constable of the Tower of London.
    (Hem, 9/04, p.71)

1826-1877     Walter Bagehot, English editor and economist: "One of the greatest pains to human nature is the pain of a new idea." "It is good to be without vices, but it is not good to be without temptation."
    (AP, 5/22/97)(AP, 9/2/98)

1827        Apr 2, William Holdman Hunt, English painter (Light of the World), was born.
    (MC, 4/2/02)

1827        Apr 5, Joseph Lister, English physician, was born. He founded the idea of using antiseptics during surgery.
    (HN, 4/5/99)

1827        Apr 7, English chemist John Walker invented wooden matches.
    (MC, 4/7/02)

1827        May 4, John Hanning Speke, English explorer, was born. He discovered Lake Victoria and the source of the Nile.
    (HN, 5/4/99)

1827        Aug 12, William Blake (b.1757), English visionary engraver and poet, died. “He who kisses the joy as it flies / Lives in eternity’s sunrise." In 2001 G.E. Bentley Jr. authored "The Stranger From Paradise: A Biography of William Blake."
    (SSFC, 5/27/01, DB p.73)(http://tinyurl.com/nd7vhfv)

1827        Oct 15, Charles Darwin reached Christ's Counsel, Cambridge.
    (MC, 10/15/01)

1827        Oct 20, British, French and Russian squadrons entered the harbor at Navarino, Greece, and destroyed most of the Egyptian fleet there. The Ottomans demanded reparations.
    (EWH, 4th ed, p.770)(www.ipta.demokritos.gr/erl/navarino.html)

1827        Joseph Niepce, French inventor, met with English botanist Francis Bauer, who agreed to present Niepce’s ground breaking photographic work to the Royal Society, which rejected the bid. Before leaving London Niepce made a gift of his 1826 pewter image to Bauer. The pewter image was re-discovered in 1952 by photo historian Helmut Gernsheim.
    (ON, 10/08, p.8)

1828        Apr 27, The London Zoo opened to fellows of the Zoological Society of London. It was originally intended to be used as a collection for scientific study.  As of 2017 it was the world's oldest scientific zoo and housed 20,166 animals.
    (https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/London_Zoo)(Reuters, 12/23/17)

1828        May 12, Dante Gabriel Rossetti (d.1882), English poet and painter, was born.

1828        May 16, Sir William Congreve (b.1772), British artillerist and inventor, died. In 1805 he developed the Congreve Rocket.
    (MC, 5/16/02)(WUD, 1994 p.310)

1928        Jun 14, British suffragette Emily Pankhurst (b.1858) died.

1828        Aug, England’s Thames Tunnel Company was forced to halt operations due to accidents and loss of financial support. Work was halted for 7 years.
    (ON, 4/06, p.9)

1828        Nov 8, Thomas Bewick (b.1753), English engraver and ornithologist, died. In 2007 Jenny Uglow authored “Nature’s Engraver: A Life of Thomas Bewick."
    (Econ, 5/26/07, p.98)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Thomas_Bewick)

1828-1830    Arthur Wellesley (1769-1852), the duke of Wellington, served as British prime minister. He blocked badly needed political reform and was later considered one of England’s worst prime ministers.
    (WSJ, 1/6/95, A-10)(ON, 4/06, p.5)

1828-1896    Elizabeth Charles, British writer: "To know how to say what others only know how to think is what makes men poets or sages; and to dare to say what others only dare to think makes men martyrs or reformers -- or both."
    (AP, 12/13/98)

1828-1909    George Meredith, English poet: "Cynicism is intellectual dandyism."
    (AP, 10/20/98)

1829        Apr 13, English Emancipation Act granted freedom of religion to Catholics.
    (MC, 4/13/02)

1829        May 29, Humphrey Davy (84), scientist, inventor (Miner's safety lamp), died at age 50. In 1963 Anne Treneer authored "The Mercurial Chemist: A Life of Sir Humphrey Davy."
    (ON, 12/01, p.7)(SC, 5/29/02)

1829        Jun 8, John Everett Millais, painter (Order of Release), was born in England.
    (MC, 6/8/02)

1829        Jun 27, James Smithson (b.1765), Englishmen scientist, died. His 1926 will he stated that should his nephew die without heirs, the estate should go to the US of America to found at Washington, under the name of the Smithsonian Institute, an establishment for the increase and diffusion of knowledge among men. In 2003 Nina Burleigh authored "The Stranger and the Statesman: James Smithson, John Quincy Adams and the Making of America's Greatest Museum, The Smithsonian." [see 1836]
    (SFEC, 8/25/96, p.T6)(SC, 6/27/02)(SSFC, 12/21/03, p.M1)(SSFC, 12/21/03, p.A1)

1829        Sep 29, London’s reorganized police force, "bobbies", which became known as Scotland Yard, went on duty. In 1828 Sir Robert Peel set up a committee whose findings paved the way for his police Bill, which led to the setting up of an organized police service in London.
    (http://www.met.police.uk/history/timeline1829-1849.htm)(AP, 9/29/97)

1829        Dec 4, Britain abolished "suttee" in India. This was the practice of a widow burning herself to death on her husband's funeral pyre.
    (MC, 12/4/01)

1829        William Cobbett, British writer, authored “The Emigrant’s Guide," offering advice on settling in the New World.
    (WSJ, 12/22/08, p.A17)
1829        In England a ban on Catholic voting was lifted.
    (SFEC, 10/6/96, BR p.5)
1829        Robert Stephenson built the Rocket, one of the world’s first steam locomotives, in Newcastle, England.
    (Econ, 6/6/15, p.46)
1929        Oxford and Cambridge held their first boat race on the River Thames at Henley in Oxfordshire. The second race occurred in 1836, with the venue moved to be from Westminster to Putney.
    (Econ, 3/28/09, p.95)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/The_Boat_Race)

1830        Feb 3, Robert Cecil, Marquess of Salisbury (C), British PM (1885-1902), was born.
    (MC, 2/3/02)

1830        Mar 16, London reorganized its police force, Scotland Yard.
    (MC, 3/16/02)

1830        Apr 9, Edward Muybridge, pioneered study of motion, photography, was born in England. In 2002 Rebecca Solnit authored "River of Shadows: Eadweard Muybridge and the Technological Wild West."
    (MC, 4/9/02)(SSFC, 1/26/03, p.M1)

1830        May 18, Edwin Beard Budding of England signed an agreement for the manufacture of his invention, the lawn mower. He adopted the rotary blade in the cloth industry to grass.
    (SC, 5/18/02)(Econ, 12/20/03, p.118)

1830        Jun 26, Britain’s King George IV (b.1762) died. George Augustus Frederick of Hanover, Prince of Wales, was called Prinny by his friends. He was succeeded by his brother, King William IV. In 2002 Steven Parissien authored "George IV." The crown passed to George's brother who became William IV.
    (WSJ, 4/5/02, p.W12)(www.bbc.co.uk/history/historic_figures/george_iv_king.shtml)(ON, 4/09, p.7)

1830        Jul-1830 Aug, In Britain the June 26 death of Britain’s King George IV triggered elections. Polling took place in July and August and the Tories won a majority over the Whigs, but division among Tory MPs allowed Earl Grey to form an effective government and take the question of electoral reform to the country the following year.
    (ON, 4/09, p.7)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/United_Kingdom_general_election,_1830)

1830        Aug, The Swing Riots, a widespread uprising by English agricultural workers, began with the destruction of threshing machines in the Elham Valley area of East Kent in the summer. By early December the riots spread throughout the whole of southern England and East Anglia.
    (Econ, 6/30/12, SR p.14)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Swing_Riots)

1830        Sep 15, British MP William Huskisson (b.1770) was killed under the wheels of the “Rocket" train at the opening of the Liverpool and Manchester Railway. He was the 1st person to be run-over by a railroad train.
    (SFEC,12/21/97, Z1 p.5)(www.wordiq.com/definition/William_Huskisson)

1830        Sep 18, William Hazlitt (b.1778), in his time England’s finest essayist, died. "A nickname is the heaviest stone that the devil can throw at a man." In 2008 Duncan Wu authored “William Hazlitt: The First Modern Man."
    (AP, 11/10/99)(WSJ, 1/16/09, p.W10)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/William_Hazlitt)

1830        Nov 15, In Britain Lord Grey used his majority in the House of commons to defeat the government of Arthur Wellesley, the Duke of Wellington. Wellington resigned the next day.
    (ON, 4/09, p.8)

1830        Dec 5, Christina Rossetti (d.1894), poet (Winter Rain, Passing Away), was born in London. She wrote devotional verse, curious fairy tales and category defying poems. Her brothers, William Michael and Dante Gabriel, helped found the Pre-Raphaelite Brotherhood, whose professed aim was to revive the purity and vividness they admired in late medieval art. Her story is told by Jan Marsh in "Christina Rossetti: A Writer’s Life." "Better by far you should forget and smile, Than that you should remember and be sad."
    (WSJ, 7/25/95, p.A-10)(AP, 12/11/98)(MC, 12/5/01)

1830        William Cobbett (1763-1835), English pamphleteer, farmer and journalist, authored his 2-volume work “Rural Rides." He wrote down what he saw from the points of view both of a farmer and a social reformer. The result documented the early nineteenth century countryside and its people as well as giving free vent to Cobbett's opinions.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/William_Cobbett)(Econ, 6/30/12, SR p.15)

1830s    Thomas Babington Macaulay (1800-1859), English essayist, historian and politician, served as a member of the British Supreme Council in India.
    (www.britannica.com)(Econ, 10/30/04, p.48)

1830-1859    Alfred King worked as a jeweler and clockmaker in Chippenham, England, during this time. He signed his work "A. King." His clocks fetch $2-3k.
    (SFC, 7/9/97, Z1 p.3)

1830-1862    Britain’s economy doubled in size over this period as increased productivity spread from cotton to other industries.
    (Econ, 9/24/11, SR p.5)

1831        Aug 1, London Bridge opened to traffic.
    (MC, 8/1/02)

1831        Aug 24, John Henslow asked Charles Darwin to travel with him on HMS Beagle.
    (MC, 8/24/02)

1831        Aug 29, Michael Faraday, British physicist, demonstrated the 1st electric transformer. Faraday had discovered that a changing magnetic field produces an electric current in a wire, a phenomenon known as electromagnetic induction.
    (www.acmi.net.au/AIC/FARADAY_BIO.html)(WSJ, 9/17/01, p.R6)

1831        Nov 8, Edward R.L. Bulwer-Lytton, English writer, was born.
    (MC, 11/8/01)

1831        Dec 27, HMS Beagle departed from Plymouth. Naturalist Charles Darwin set out on a voyage to the Pacific  aboard the HMS Beagle. (Darwin's discoveries during the voyage helped formed the basis of his theories on evolution.)
    (HN, 12/27/98)(AP, 12/27/97)

1831        Dec 28, Samuel Sharp (1801-1832) led a slave uprising that was put down at great cost by the British. The Rebellion lasted for eight days and resulted in the death of around 186 Africans and 14 white planters or overseers. The white vengeance convicted over 750 rebel slaves, of which 138 were sentenced to death.
    (Econ, 2/24/07, p.73)(http://tinyurl.com/3cu2ds)

1831        In London a 9-bedroom residence was built for a nobleman that in 1931 became the Abbey Road recording studio.
    (Sky, 9/97, p.53)

1831        The Garrick Club was founded in London for actors, writers and politicians.
    (SFEC, 8/16/98, p.A20)(NW, 4/24/03, p.55)

1831        The Game Act was enacted under William IV. It extended hunting rights to anyone who obtained a license.
    (HNQ, 11/18/01)

1831        The lawn mower was invented in England.
    (SFC, 7/14/99, p.4)

1831        A cholera epidemic broke out in London.
    (ON, 5/05, p.8)

1831-1832    Animals from the Tower of London menagerie created the core of the London Zoo.
    (Hem, 9/04, p.71)

1832        Jan 27, Charles Lutwidge Dodgson (d.1898), who wrote "Alice's Adventures in Wonderland" under the pen name Lewis Carroll, was born in Cheshire, England. He was also know as a skilled photographer and did nude photography with an "intense focus on his subjects' personalities." Dodgson lectured on mathematics at Oxford from 1855 to 1881 and made up the stories about Alice in Wonderland for his daughter Alice and her sisters. He wrote "Through the Looking Glass" in 1872 and other children's books. His most important mathematical work was the 1879 "Euclid and His Modern Rivals." "If you limit your actions in life to things that nobody can possibly find fault with, you will not do much." In 1995 Morton N. Cohen published an authoritative biography titled "Lewis Carroll: A Biography."
    (WSJ, 11/9/95, p.A-20)(AP, 1/14/98)(AP, 1/27/98)(HNQ, 6/12/98)

1832        Feb, A cholera epidemic ended in Great Britain. Some 800 people died of the disease in London. Dr. John Snow eventually traced the London epidemic to a water pump on Broad Street. [see 1849] In 2006 Steven Johnson authored “The Ghost Map," a history of London’s cholera outbreak.
    (www.mernick.co.uk/thhol/1832chol.html)(WSJ, 10/21/06, p.P8)

1832        Mar 24, The British Great Reform Act passed the House of Commons under the Whig government. It introduced the first changes to electoral franchise legislation in almost one hundred and fifty years. On June 4 it passed the House of Lords and on June 7 received Royal Assent.
    (www.historyhome.co.uk/peel/refact/campaign.htm)(Econ, 6/30/07, p.93)

1832        Apr 13, James Wimshurst, British designer, inventor (electric static generator), was born.
    (MC, 4/13/02)

1832        Jun 6, Jeremy Bentham (b.1748), English social reformer, died. He had his body preserved at the Univ. College, London. Bentham was later considered the father of utilitarianism. He thought that enlightened policymakers should seek the greatest happiness of the greatest number of people.
    (WSJ, 4/15/99, p.A20)(www.britannica.com)(Econ, 11/27/10, p.84)

1832        Jun 7, The British Reform Act received royal assent and became law. The act, pressed through by PM Earl Grey, forestalled a revolution by increasing the number of people who were eligible to vote. The bergamot-flavored Earl Grey tea was later named after the PM.
    (ON, 4/09, p.10)(AP, 2/1/13)

1832        Fanny Trollope (53) published her first book "Domestic Manners of the Americans."
    (WSJ, 12/11/98, p.W10)

1832        Britain passed the Anatomy Act, which allowed hospitals and workhouses to hand over for dissection bodies left unclaimed for two days.
    (Econ, 11/15/08, p.99)

1833        Jan 3, Britain ousted a small group of Argentine settlers and seized control of the Malvina Islands (Falkland Islands) in the South Atlantic. In 1982 Argentina seized the islands, but Britain took them back after a 74-day war.
    (AP, 1/3/98)(SFC, 4/3/02, p.A7)

1833        Jan 28, Charles George "Chinese" Gordon, general (China, Khartoum), was born in London.
    (MC, 1/28/02)

1833        Feb 17, Lt. George Back (1796-1878) departed Liverpool, England, on the packet ship Hibernia with 4 men to search for missing Arctic explorer Captain John Ross. Ross had left England in 1829 to seek a Northwest Passage by way of the Arctic Ocean.
    (ON, 5/04, p.10)(www.britannica.com/eb/article?tocId=9011650)

1833        Apr 22, Richard Trevithick (b.1771), British engineer, died in Kent, England. In 1804 he built the first steam locomotive.
    (ON, 4/04, p.6)(WSJ, 4/11/09, p.W8)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Richard_Trevithick)

1833        May 15, Edmund Kean (46), English actor (Shylock), died.
    (MC, 5/15/02)

1833        Jul 29, William Wilberforce (b.1759), English abolitionist, died. He was best known for his efforts relating to the abolition of slavery in the British Empire. A politician and philanthropist, Wilberforce was prominent from 1787 in the struggle to abolish the slave trade and slavery itself in British overseas possessions. He was an ardent and eloquent sponsor of anti-slavery legislation in the House of Commons until his retirement in 1825. Wilberforce University in Ohio, an African Methodist Episcopal Church institution (f.1856), was named for William Wilberforce. In 2008 William Hague authored “William Wilberforce: The Life of the Great Anti-Slave Trade Campaigner." In 2010 Stephen Tomkins authored “The Clapham Sect: How Wilberforce’s Circle Transformed Britain."
    (www.nndb.com/people/824/000049677/)(WSJ, 7/25/08, p.A13)(Econ, 8/28/10, p.74)

1833        Aug 23, The British Parliament ordered the abolition of slavery in its colonies by Aug 1, 1834. This would free some 700,000 slaves, including those in the West Indies. The Imperial Emancipation Act also allowed blacks to enjoy greater equality under the law in Canada as opposed to the US. Some 46,000 people were paid a total of 20 million pounds in compensation for freeing their slaves.1
    (V.D.-H.K.p.276)(MT, 3/96, p.14)(PC, 1992, p.412)(AH, 10/02, p.54)(SFC, 2/28/13, p.A2)

1833        Aug 28, Edward Burne-Jones, British painter, was born.
    (RTH, 8/28/99)

1833        Sep 8, Charles Darwin departed to Buenos Aires.
    (MC, 9/8/01)

1833        Oct, Capt. John Ross (1877-1856), Arctic explorer, returned to England.

1833        J.M.W. Turner completed his 1st oil painting "Bridge of Sighs and the Ducal Palace," his 1st exhibited painting of Venice.
    (WSJ, 3/17/04, p.D4)
1833        James Boardman (1801-1855), English traveler and writer, authored “America and the Americans."
1833        The British government removed the British East India Company’s monopoly of trade with China and banned it from trading in India entirely.
    (Econ, 12/17/11, p.111)
1833        England passed stronger measures regulating child labor.
    (WSJ, 1/11/99, p.R28)
1833        The first clearing house to exchange checks was built in London, England. Prior to this checks were exchanged informally in coffee houses.
    (AP, 12/16/09)

1834        Jan 10, Lord Acton [John E.E. Dalberg], English historian and editor of The Rambler, a Roman Catholic monthly, was born.
    (HN, 1/10/99)

1834        Mar 24, William Morris, English craftsman, poet, socialist, was born.
    (HN, 3/24/98)

1834        Apr 18, William Lamb became the prime minister of England.
    (HN, 4/18/98)

1834        Apr, England’s Parliament approved a loan of 270,000 pounds to continue the Thames tunnel project under the direction of engineer Isambard Brunel.
    (ON, 4/06, p.9)

1834        Jul 15, Lord Napier of England arrived at Macao, China as the first chief superintendent of trade.
    (HN, 7/15/98)

1834        Jul 25, Samuel Taylor Coleridge (b.1772), English poet, died. He and his friend William Wordsworth were among the founders of the Romantic Movement in England and later identified, along with Robert Southey, as the Lake School of poets. Coleridge’s work included "The Rime of the Ancient Mariner," "Frost at Midnight" and "Kubla Khan." In his later life he authored the "Bibliographia Literaria," a work of literary theory. In 1999 Richard Holmes published "Coleridge: Darker Reflections, 1804-1834," which focused on the poet's later life. His volume "Coleridge: Early Visions" was published in 1989. In 2007 Adam Sisman authored “The Friendship: Wordsworth & Coleridge."
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Samuel_Coleridge-Taylor)(WSJ, 4/15/99, p.A20)(WSJ, 2/20/07, p.D8)

1834        Aug 1, The British Emancipation Act went into effect abolishing slavery throughout the British Empire. This ended slavery in Canada, in the West Indies and in all Caribbean holdings. Some 35,000 slaves were freed in the Cape Colony. The Minstrels Parada in Cape Town, SA, originated as a spontaneous outpouring of marches, music and dancing to mark the abolition of slavery.
    (NH, 7/98, p.29)(HN, 8/1/98)(EWH, 4th ed, p.885)(AP, 1/2/06)

1834        Sep 9, Parliament passed the Municipal Corporations Act, reforming city and town governments in England.
    (HN, 9/9/98)

1834        Oct 16, In London the Houses of Parliament caught fire and many historic documents were burned. Artist J.M.W. Turner created two oil paintings of the burning of the Houses of Parliament.
    (www.bluffton.edu/~sullivanm/england/london/parliament/barry.html)(Econ, 9/29/07, p.90)

1834        Dec 10, Robert Peel (1788-1850) became prime minister of Britain after launching the first national election manifesto in British history.

1834        Dec 23, Joseph Hansom of London received a patent for Hansom cabs. Hansom put his Hansom cabs onto the streets.
    (SFEC, 5/31/98, Z1 p.8)(MC, 12/23/01)

1834        Dec 29, Thomas R. Malthus (b.1766), English vicar, economist ("Essay On Population"), died.

1834        Britain’s Parliament passed the Poor Law Amendment Act. It ensured that the poor were housed in workhouses, clothed and fed. The law was inspired by the thinking of Thomas Malthus blamed the plight of the poor on their own flaws.
    (www.nationalarchives.gov.uk/education/lesson08.htm)(Econ, 10/20/12, p.54)(Econ, 7/27/13, p.63)
1834         After this time the Tories, a political group in the British House of Commons, preferred to use the term Conservative. The word Tories was originally used to describe rural bandits in Ireland. In the 17th century it had become a term applied to monarchists in the House of Commons. By the 18th century the Tories were politicians who favored royal authority, the established church and who sought to preserve the traditional political structure and opposed parliamentary reform.
1834        William Bentinck, India's governor-general, wrote to his superiors in London that Indian cloth-makers were suffering severe hardship due to the efficiency of the English textile industry.
    (WSJ, 3/29/04, p.A1)
1834        Lord Sandys, English governor of Bengal, took a sample of an Indian sauce to an apothecary in Worcester, 100 miles northwest of London, and asked the pharmacists John Wheeley Lea and William Perrins to make a similar batch. The new batch tasted awful until it was allowed to age for a while. They then put together what became known worldwide as Worcestershire Sauce. [2nd source gave an 1835 date]
    (WSJ, 7/22/96, p.A1)(SFC, 4/12/97, p.E3)

1834-1894    Philip G. Hamerton, English artist and essayist: "Have you ever observed that we pay much more attention to a wise passage when it is quoted than when we read it in the original author?"
    (AP, 5/2/99)

1834-1902    Lord Acton, English historian: "Liberty is not a means to a higher political end. It is itself the highest political end."
    (AP, 10/4/99)

1835        Mar 29, Elihu Thomson, the English-born American inventor of electric welding and arc lighting, was born.
    (HN, 3/29/99)

1835        Apr 17, William Henry Ireland (b.1775)), English forger of Shakespeare’s works, died. He is less well-known as a poet, writer of gothic novels and histories.
    (ON, 8/10, p.5)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/William_Henry_Ireland)

1835        May 13, John Nash, British town planner, architect (Regent's Park), died.
    (MC, 5/13/02)

1835        Jun 18, William Cobbett (b.1763), English journalist, pamphleteer, and farmer, died in Surrey, England. “A full belly to the laborer is, in my opinion, the foundation of public morals and the only source of real public peace."

1835        Nov 16, Charles Darwin's voyage account was published in Cambridge Philosophical Society.
    (MC, 11/16/01)

1835        Nov 26, HMS Beagle left Tahiti for NZ.
    (MC, 11/26/01)

1835        Dec 7, The Adler, a steam engine built in Newcastle by British father and son George and Robert Stephenson, began running between Nuremberg and Furth, marking the birth of the German railway system.
    (Econ, 10/23/10, p.77)

1835        Madame Tussaud opened her London Wax Museum.
    (SFEC, 7/18/99, Par p.4)

1835        Alexander Forbes served as the British vice-consul in Monterey, Ca.
    (SFC, 12/5/03, p.D6)

1835-1902     Samuel Butler, English author: "There are two great rules of life, the one general and the other particular. The first is that everyone can, in the end, get what he wants if he only tries. This is the general rule. The particular rule is that every individual is more or less an exception to the general rule." "A hen is only an egg’s way of making another egg." "Life is one long process of getting tired."
    (AP, 4/25/97)(SFEC, 3/1/98, Z1 p.8)(AP, 4/22/98)

1836        Feb 7, The essays "Sketches by Boz" were published by Charles Dickens.
    (MC, 2/7/02)

1836        Mar 31, The first monthly installment of The Pickwick Papers by Charles Dickens was published in London.
    (HN, 3/31/01)

1836        Aug 14, Walter Besant (d.1901), English writer, philanthropist (Rebel Queen), was born.
    (MC, 8/14/02)

1836        Oct 2, Darwin returned to England aboard HMS Beagle after 5 years abroad. He visited Brazil, the Galapagos Islands, and New Zealand. His studies were important to his theory of evolution, which he put forth in his groundbreaking scientific work of 1859, "The Origin of Species by Means of Natural Selection."
    (MC, 10/2/01)

1836        Augustus Pugin (1812-1852), English Gothic architect and designer, authored “Contrasts," the first ever architectural manifesto.
    (WSJ, 3/20/09, p.W14)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Augustus_Pugin)

1836        The London-based Anti Slavery International human rights group was founded.
    (WSJ, 1/11/99, p.R28)

1836        Britain’s Peninsula and Oriental Steam Navigation (P&O Line) was founded to carry mail among Portugal, Spain and England and later expanded to passenger service. In 2005 Dubai’s DP World purchased the company for $5.7 billion.
    (www.theshipslist.com/ships/lines/pando.html)(SFC, 11/30/05, p.C2)

1836        The US Congress voted to accept the 100,000 gold sovereign donation of Englishman James Smithson and establish the Smithsonian Institution for the increase and diffusion of knowledge among men. The actual Institution was not established until 1846. [see 1826 and 1846]
    (SFEC, 8/25/96, p.T6)

1836        Nathan Rothschild, financier and son of Mayer Amschel Rothschild, died in London. His younger brother James took charge of the business.
    (WSJ, 11/17/98, p.21)

1837        Feb 12, Thomas Moran (d.1926), American painter, was born in Bolton, England. His paintings of Yellowstone helped persuade Congress to designate it a national park.
    (WSJ, 5/11/95, p. A-14)(SFC,10/15/97, p.D3)

1837        Mar 31, John Constable (60), English painter, water colors painter, died. His work included some 100 studies of the sky done between 1821-1822. In 2009 Martin Gayford authored “Constable in Love: Love, Landscape, Money and the Making of a Great Painter."
    (WSJ, 6/9/04, p.D8)(Econ, 3/21/09, p.92)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/John_Constable)

1837        Apr 5, Algernon Charles Swinburne (d.1909), English poet (Atalanta in Calydon), was born.
    (MC, 4/5/02)

1837        May 31, Joseph Grimaldi (b.1778), the greatest of clowns and most popular English entertainer of the Regency era, died in Islington.
    (https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Joseph_Grimaldi)(Econ, 9/3/16, p.78)

1837        Jun 20, Queen Victoria (18) ascended the British throne following the death of her uncle, King William IV (b.1765). She ruled for 63 years to 1901.
    (AP, 6/20/97)(WSJ, 4/27/00, p.A24)(HN, 6/20/01)

1837        Aug 18, The Great Western, a steamship designed by Isambard Kingdom Brunel, was towed out of the Bristol shipyard and proceeded under sail to London to be fitted with engines.
    (ON, 8/07, p.6)

1837        Dec 2, Dr. Joseph Bell, British physician, was born. He is believed to be the prototype of Sir Arthur Conan Doyle's detective 'Sherlock Holmes.'
    (HN, 12/2/99)

1837        Tennyson (1809-1892) wrote his poem “Locksley Hall." It included a vision of a tranquil world “lapt in universal law." It was published as part of a collection in 1842. The poem embodied the pain of lost love and looked forward to a time when the nations of the world would abandon war and form a “parliament of man."
    (WSJ, 6/28/06, p.D10)(www.firstscience.com/site/POEMS/tennyson4.asp)
1837        The Dickens novel "Great Expectations" was set in this year. A 1998 version of the novel by Australian writer Peter Carey was titled "Jack Maggs."
    (WSJ, 2/4/98, p.A20)
1837        England and Wales abolished the use of the pillory, used for punishment by public humiliation and often further physical abuse. Stocks remained in use, though extremely infrequently, until 1872.
1837        Moses Montefiore (1784-1885), Italy-born British financier, was elected Sheriff of London and served until 1838. He was also knighted  this same year by Queen Victoria and received a baronetcy in 1846 in recognition of his services to humanitarian causes on behalf of the Jewish people.
1837        English plumber Thomas Crapper came out with a flush model, valve controlled, water closet. Henry Wadsworth Longfellow installed one in his home in 1840 and sparked public attention. Thomas Crapper, popularly credited with inventing the water closet, held three patents, although he may simply have bought the siphon discharge system patent from Albert Giblin and marketed it himself. In 1969 Wallace Reyburn authored “Flushed with Pride: The Story of Thomas Crapper."
    (HNQ, 11/25/00)(http://tinyurl.com/2ws5w)
1837        In London construction began on the new Palace of Westminster. Architect Charles Barry and his assistant A.W.N. Pugin had won the open competition for the design.
    (WSJ, 3/20/09, p.W14)

1837-1901    The reign of Queen Victoria in England.
    (USAT, 2/14/97, p.8D)

1837-1901    The Victorian Era is covered by Peter Gay in his 5-volume work: The Bourgeois Experience: Victoria to Freud." The 5th volume "Pleasure Wars" came out in 1998. Other volumes were titled: Education of the Sense," "The Tender Passion," and "The Cultivation of Hatred."
    (SFEC, 1/11/98, BR p.9)

1838        Mar 18, Randal Cremer, British trade unionist, pacifist (Nobel 1903), was born.
    (MC, 3/18/02)

1838        Apr 8, The British steamship "Great Western" set out on its maiden voyage  from Bristol, England, to NYC.
    (ON, 8/07, p.7)

1838        Apr 22, The English steamship "Sirius" docked in NYC after a record Atlantic crossing.

1838        Apr 23, The British steamship "Great Western" arrived in NYC on its maiden voyage  from Bristol, England, just hours after the retrofitted steamship Sirius, which had departed Cork on April 4. The Great Western crossed the Atlantic in a record 15 days and 12 hours.
    (ON, 8/07, p.7)

1838         Jul 1, Charles Darwin presented a paper on his theory of evolution to the Linnaean Society in London.
    (HN, 7/1/01)

1838        Jun 28, Britain's Queen Victoria was crowned in Westminster Abbey.
    (AP, 6/28/98)(http://tinyurl.com/zezjg)

1838        Oct 1, Lord Auckland, British governor general in India, issued the Simla Manifesto, setting forth the necessary reasons for British intervention in Afghanistan. This led to the 1st Anglo-Afghan War.
    (Econ, 10/7/06, p.18)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Second_Anglo-Afghan_War)

1838        Dec, India’s British governor general dispatched to Kabul the Army of the Indus to protect British interests from growing Russian influence.
    (SSFC, 10/28/01, p.C8)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Second_Anglo-Afghan_War)

1838        Charlotte Bronte authored her novella "Stancliffe’s Hotel." It was published for the 1st time in 2003.
    (SFC, 3/15/03, p.A2)
1838        Dr. Gideon Mantell published his book “The Wonders of Geology" with a dramatic illustration of “The Country of the Iguanadon," depicting the plant-eating reptile under attack by the carnivorous Megalosaurus.
    (ON, 7/06, p.4)
1838        A raunchy tale of anarchy on the high seas was recorded by a junior officer, James Bell, aboard "The Planter" which sailed to Adelaide from Deptford in east London. In 2010 Bell’s 225-page diary went up for sale at auction in London after being bought in a market stall for a pittance.
    (Reuters, 2/24/10)
1838        The Curzon Street Station, the terminus of the London and Birmingham Railway, opened in Birmingham, England. After 55 years the neoclassical building closed to passengers.
    (Econ, 11/10/12, p.58)
1838        The London Prize Ring Rules were instituted with bare-knuckle rounds of unspecified length. Rounds ended when a fighter touched ground with a knee. The rules were based on those drafted by Britain's Jack Broughton in 1743, and governed the conduct of prizefighting/bare-knuckle boxing for over 100 years. They were later superseded by the Marquess of Queensberry rules (1865), the origins of the modern sport of Boxing.
    (AH, 2/06, p.32)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/London_Prize_Ring_rules)
1838        The National Gallery opened on Trafalgar Square. It was designed by William Wilkins. A 10-year renovation was completed in 1999.
    (SFC, 9/22/99, p.E3)
1838        The British began allowing American ships to carry opium from India to China.
    (SFC, 8/8/20, p.B1)
1838        William Ridgway, Son & Co. began using the "Humphrey clock" mark on its dishware.
    (SFC, 3/11/98, Z1 p.5)

1839        Jan 24, Charles Darwin was elected member of Royal Society.
    (MC, 1/24/02)

1839        Jan 28, William Henry Fox Talbot (1800-1877), English inventor, presented his discoveries and methods of photography to the Royal Society of London. His callotype, a negative to positive process, allowed multiple reproductions of a single image for the 1st time. Talbot suggested a daguerreotype camera with extra parts to hold mercury.
    (ON, 4/00, p.10)(SFC, 6/12/96, Z1 p.5)(SFC, 12/26/02, p.E9)

1839        Jan 29, Charles Darwin married Emma Wedgwood.
    (MC, 1/29/02)

1839        May 25, John Eliot, English meteorologist, was born.
    (SC, 5/25/02)

1839        Jul 5, British naval forces bombarded Dingai on Zhoushan Island in China and occupy it.
    (HN, 7/5/98)

1839        Jul 27, Chartist riots broke out in Birmingham, England.
    (MC, 7/27/02)

1839        Aug 23, The British captured Hong Kong from China.
    (MC, 8/23/02)

1839        Aug 28, William Smith, British geologist, died. He made the 1st geological map of England and became impoverished in the process. In 2001 Simon Winchester authored "The Map That Changed the World."
    (RTH, 8/28/99)(WSJ, 8/17/01, p.W6)

1839        Oct 1, The British government decided to send a punitive naval expedition to China.
    (HN, 10/1/98)

1839        Nov 3, The first Opium War between China and Britain broke out in and around Guangzhou and continued to 1942. Lin Zexu, a Qing official, started the Opium War when he ordered the dumping of 3 million pounds of Western-owned opium into the sea. 2 British frigates engaged several Chinese junks. In 2011 Julia Lovell authored “The Opium War: Drugs, Dreams, and the Making of China."
    (SFC, 6/10/97, p.D4)(AP, 11/3/97)(SSFC, 8/30/09, p.A21)(Econ, 10/29/11, p.99)

1839        Edward Bulwer-Lytton (1803-1873), English novelist, authored his play “Richelieu." It included his line “The pen is mightier than the sword."
1839        Cyrus Redding (1785-1870), English wine merchant and author, published “Every Man His Own Butler." This included the statement: “claret fro a bishop, port for a rector, currant for a curate and gin for the clerk."
    (Econ, 12/19/09, p.132)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cyrus_Redding)
1839        Construction began on Highclere Castle in Hampshire, England. The country house in the Jacobethan style was remodeled and largely rebuilt for the third Earl by Sir Charles Barry and featured a park designed by Capability Brown. In 2010 it became the main filming location for the British television period drama Downton Abbey.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Highclere_Castle)(SSFC, 1/27/13, p.N6)
1839        The British and Foreign Anti-Slavery Society was founded.
    (SFEM, 8/16/98, p.13)

1839        A British army marched to Kabul and replaced Dost Mohammad, the Amir of Afghanistan, with a more docile ruler. Britain had decided that Persian and Russian intrigues posed a threat to their control of India.
    (WSJ, 8/25/98, p.A14)

1839        The British & North America Royal Mail Steam Packet Co. formed. It later became Cunard and then a unit of Carnival Corp.
    (WSJ, 10/2/03, p.B4)

1839        The Elder Pottery in Cobridge, Staffordshire, began operating and continued to 1846. John and George Alcock created platters there.
    (SFC, 10/10/07, p.G3)

1839        Joseph Bourne began making salt glazed pottery at Denby, England. A line called Danesbury Ware was begun in the 1920s. It later became known as the Denby Pottery Co.
    (SFC, 10/29/08, p.G2)

1839-1842     First Anglo-Afghan War. After some resistance, Amir Dost Mohammad Khan surrendered to the British and was deported to India. In 1990 John H. Waller (1923-2004) authored “Beyond the Khyber Pass: The Road to British Disaster in the First Afghan War."
    (https://www.afghan-web.com/history/chronology/)(SSFC, 11/7/04, p.A23)
1839-1842    Shah Shuja, a deposed king, was installed as Afghan "puppet king" by the British. Shuja had been living in exile in India for three decades. In 2013 William Dalrymple authored “The Return of a King: The Battle for Afghanistan, 1839-42."
    (https://www.afghan-web.com/history/chronology/)(Econ, 1/26/12, p.73)
1839-1842    The Opium War between Britain and China started when Beijing tried to stop Western imports of the narcotic. The British won by steaming gunboats up the Yangtze River to the Grand Canal an then cutting off grain and other supplies to Beijing.
    (SFC, 6/10/97, p.D4)(WSJ, 1/11/99, p.R51)

1839-1846    Richard Cobden, 'the Apostle of free trade,' led the Anti-Corn League to remove price controls and import barriers for wheat.
    (HN, 6/3/99)(Econ, 6/5/04, p.10)

1840        Feb 10, Britain's Queen Victoria married Prince Albert of Saxe-Coburg-Gotha.
    (HN, 2/10/97)(AP, 2/10/97)

1840        Mar 30, "Beau" Brummell (b.1778), English dandy and former favorite of the prince regent, died of syphilis in a French lunatic asylum for paupers. In 2005 Ian Kelly authored the biography “Beau Brummel: The Ultimate Dandy."
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Beau_Brummell)(WSJ, 5/7/06, p.P9)

1840        May 1, The 1st adhesive postage stamps, the" Penny Blacks" from England, were issued.
    (MC, 5/1/02)

1840        May 21, New Zealand was declared a British colony. Treaty of Waitangi, signed by Maori chiefs of New Zealand granted sovereignty over all New Zealand to Queen Victoria, but only guaranteed the Maoris the land they wished to retain.
    (NG, Aug., 1974, C. McCarry, p.197)(AP, 5/21/97)

1840        Jun 2, Thomas Hardy (d.1928), English novelist and poet, was born in Higher Bockhampton and almost given up for dead until an observant midwife noticed he was breathing. He was driven by a sense of somber doom by the failure of his readers to wake up to the dreary fraud of their beliefs, and he devoted the last half of his long life to writing poems that expressed his haunted vision. When Hardy died (1928) his heart was removed and buried in the churchyard of St. Michael’s in Stinsford in the grave of his first wife, Emma, and his second wife, Florence. His ashes were buried in the Poet’s Corner of Westminster Abbey in London. His work included "Tess of D'Ubervilles" and "Jude the Obscure."
    (SFC, 12/4/94, p. T-4)(V.D.-H.K.p.279)(HN, 6/2/99)

1840        Jul 4, The Cunard Line took just over 14 days to make its first Atlantic crossing with the paddle steamer "Britannia", which embarked from Liverpool.
    (IB, Internet, 12/7/98)

1840        Aug 17, Wilfrid Scawen, writer (Irish Land League), was born in Blunt, England.
    (SC, 8/17/02)

1840        Nov 5, Afghanistan surrendered to the British.
    (HN, 11/5/98)

1840        In London the World Anti-Slavery Convention was held. Lucretia Mott and Elizabeth Cady Stanton were denied seats because of their sex.
    (SFEM, 6/28/98, p.30)

1840        The world's first postage stamp, "penny black," was issued with a picture of Queen Victoria. Up to this time postage was collected from the recipient.
    (WSJ, 1/11/99, p.R49)

1840        William Hislop established himself as a clockmaker in Biggar, England.
    (SFC, 3/16/05, p.G4)

1840        Fanny Burney (b.1752), English writer, died. Her books included "Evelina." In 1911 she underwent a mastectomy without anesthesia. In 2001 Claire Harman authored the biography: "Fanny Burney."
    (SSFC, 12/23/01, p.M5)

1840s        The Duchess of Bedford, Anna, introduced the first afternoon snack break, the afternoon tea.
    (SFC, 5/27/00, p.B3)

1840-1870    In 2005 Liza Picard authored “Victorian London: The Life of a City 1840-1870."
    (Econ, 10/1/05, p.79)

1840-1911    Henry Broadhurst, English politician: "Praise undeserved is satire in disguise."
    (AP, 1/22/00)

1841        Jan 20, The Convention of Chuenpi ceded the island of Hong Kong to Great Britain from China as part of the concessions from the Opium War. It became a capitalist bastion as opposed to the rest of China. The British won the first Opium War and forced China to open markets to foreign trade. Britain soon established a formal police force commanded mostly by British officers. Hong Kong returned to Chinese control in July 1997.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Convention_of_Chuenpee)(WSJ, 10/26/95, p.A-1)(SFEC, 11/10/96, Par p.14)(SFC, 3/11/97, p.A12)(SFC, 7/1/97, p.A8)(AP,  1/20/98)(WSJ, 1/11/99, p.R49)(WSJ, 2/2/04, p.A12)

1841        Jan 26, Britain formally occupied Hong Kong, which the Chinese had ceded to the British.
    (AP, 1/26/98)

1841        Feb 10, Upper Canada and Lower Canada were proclaimed united under an Act of Union passed by the British Parliament.
    (AP, 2/10/07)

1841        Mar 4, Dion Boucicault's "London Assurance" premiered in London.
    (SC, 3/4/02)

1841        Jul 5, Thomas Cook (1808-1892) opened the 1st travel agency as he arranged for the rail company to charge one shilling per person for rail tickets and food for a group of 540 temperance campaigners from Leicester Campbell Street station to a rally in Loughborough.

1841        Jul 17, The British humor magazine Punch was first published.
    (AP, 7/17/97)

1841        Aug 30, Robert Peel (1788-1850) became PM of Britain for a 2nd time. This was the 1st occasion in which Britain’s government was brought down by the votes of the electorate.

1841          Nov 2, Following the British occupation of Kabul during the 1st Afghan War (1839-1842), Afghans revolted and murdered British envoy, Lt. Col. Sir Alexander Burnes (1805-1841) and some 23 others. By Jan 1842 the British army decided to withdraw with its 4,500 Anglo-Indian troops and 10,000 camp followers. The column was wiped out by Ghilzai tribesmen with their long-barreled rifles called jezails.
    (WSJ, 8/25/98, p.A14)(HN, 11/2/98)(www.indhistory.com/afghan-war-1.html)

1841        Nov 9, Edward VII, King of England, was born. He succeeded his mother Victoria and served from 1901-1910.
    (HN, 11/9/00)

1841        J.M.W. Turner painted his watercolor “The Blue Rigi: Lake of Lucerne, Sunrise" following a visit to Switzerland. In 1942 it sold for 1,500 guineas (about $94,000 in 2006 money). In 2006 it sold at auction for $11 million.
    (SFC, 6/6/06, p.D4)
1841        Charles Barry laid out Trafalgar Square.
    (WSJ, 4/27/00, p.A24)
1841        Britain’s Royal Mail set up a postal service for Hong Kong.
    (Econ, 10/24/15, p.42)
1841        Britain's Jewish Chronicle was founded. In 2020 it sought liquidation in the wake of a coronavirus pandemic.
    (Reuters, 4/8/20)

1842        cJan 2-12, Akbar Khan, Afghan hero, was victorious against the British. Out of 4,500 (16,500) soldiers and 12,000 dependents only one survivor, of a mixed British-Indian garrison, reached the fort in Jalalabad, on a stumbling pony. The British retreated from Kabul to Jalalabad. The incident is the backdrop for George MacDonald Fraser’s novel "Flashman." [see Jan 13]
    (WSJ, 4/10/95, A-16)(www.afghan, 5/25/98)(WSJ, 9/20/01, p.A12)

1842        Jan 13, Dr. William Brydon (1811-1873), badly wounded, reached Jalalabad as the only survivor of a 16,000 person retreat from Kabul. In the 1st British-Afghan War British troops retreating from Kabul were ambushed and nearly all slaughtered at the Khyber Pass, even though the Afghans had promised them safe passage during their withdrawal from the Afghan capital [see Jan 2-12].
    (SSFC, 10/28/01, p.C8)(https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/William_Brydon)

1842        May 13, Composer Sir Arthur Sullivan was born in London. He collaborated with Sir William Gilbert in writing 14 comic operas that included "HMS Pinafore."
    (AP, 5/13/99)(HN, 5/13/99)

1842        May 14, 1st edition of London Illustrated News.
    (MC, 5/14/02)

1842        Jun 12, Dr Thomas Arnold (b.1795), British educator and historian, died. Arnold was an early supporter of the Broad Church Anglican movement. He was headmaster of Rugby School from 1828 to 1841, where he introduced a number of reforms. In 2012 Mihir Bose authored “The Spirit of the Game: How Sport Made the Modern World."
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Thomas_Arnold)(Econ, 3/3/12, p.95)

1842        Aug 29, Britain & China signed the Treaty of Nanking ending the Opium war. This opened the port of Shanghai to foreigners. The 1997 Chinese film "The Opium War" was directed by Xie Jin. It was about the events leading up to the Treaty of Nanking. The treaty of Nanking ceded Hong Kong Island to Britain in perpetuity.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Treaty_of_Nanjing)(SFC, 5/20/98, p.E3)

1842        Nov 17, Gaetano Donizetti's Opera "Linda di Chamounix" was produced (London).
    (MC, 11/17/01)

1842        Joseph Mallord William Turner (1775-1851), English painter and printmaker, created his painting “Snow Storm."
1842        Edwin Chadwick (1800-1890), British lawyer, oversaw the drafting of a scathing report on sanitary conditions in Britain. The report documented that the average age of death for tradesmen in London was 22, and for laborers 16.
    (Econ., 8/1/20, p.70)
1842        In England the Criminal Investigation Department, consisting of eight plainclothes detectives, was set up in London. It later became known as Scotland Yard after its location in rooms on land around the Great Scotland Yard.
    (WSJ, 1/31/08, p.W8)
1842        The British forced their way through the Khyber Pass. They recaptured Kabul and burned down the Great Bazaar in retribution before marching back to India.
    (WSJ, 8/25/98, p.A14)

1842-1924    Alfred Marshall, English economist. He was the chief founder of the neoclassical school of economics. This school studies both human behavior and wealth to understand human choices. He introduced such concepts as consumer's surplus, quasi-rent, elasticity of demand and the representative firm.
    (WSJ, 1/11/99, p.R20)

1843        Mar 21, Robert W. Southey (b.1774), British poet laureate and historian, died. In 2006 W. A. Speck authored the biography “Robert Southey."
    (WSJ, 8/12/06, p.P8)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Robert_Southey)

1843        Mar 25, England’s Thames Tunnel opened 18 years after construction began. It was completed under engineer Isambard Brunel, the son of Marc Brunel, who began the project in 1824.
    (www.bris.ac.uk/is/services/specialcollections/brunelchronology.html)(ON, 4/06, p.9)

1843        Mar 29, Captain Richard Spratly (c.1806/1811-1866), master of the British whaler, the Cyrus, sighted what later became known in English as Spratly Island and Ladd Reef in the South China Sea.
    (Econ, 9/13/14, p.89)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Richard_Spratly)

1843        Apr 5, Queen Victoria proclaimed Hong Kong a British crown colony.
    (HN, 4/5/99)

1843        Apr 15, Henry James (d.1916), US novelist, writer and critic, was born in England. His older brother was William James, the psychologist and philosopher. Henry James Sr. in the 1850s dragged his 4 sons and daughter across Europe in search a “sensual education." Henry’s first 40 years are documented by Sheldon M. Novick in "Henry James: The Young Master." There is also a 5-vol. biography by William Edel. His novels included "The Princess Casamassima," a work about the folly of radical politics. "It takes a great deal of history to produce a little literature." In 2008 Paul Fisher authored “House of Wits: An Intimate Portrait of the James Family."
    (WSJ, 10/17/96, p.A20)(WSJ, 2/24/97, p.A20)(HN, 4/15/98)(AP, 8/3/98)(WSJ, 6/17/08, p.A21)

1843        Jun 21, The Royal College of Surgeons was founded from the original Barber-Surgeons Company.
    (Camelot, 6/21/99)

1843        Sep, James Wilson (1805-1860), a Scottish hat maker, founded “The Economist" in London, England, a magazine devoted to free trade and laissez-faire principles from its very beginning.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/The_Economist)(WSJ, 6/6/95, p.A-14)(Econ, 6/28/03, p.13)
1843        Sep, The Liverpool Mercury reported on a large free-trade rally in the city.
    (Econ, 10/1/16, p.11)

1843        Nov 27, Balfe's opera "Bohemian Girl" was produced in London.
    (MC, 11/27/01)

1843        Dec 19, The novella "A Christmas Carol" by Charles Dickens was first published. It recounts the story of Ebenezer Scrooge, an elderly miser who is visited by the ghost of his former business partner Jacob Marley and the spirits of Christmas Past, Present and Yet to Come. After their visits, Scrooge is transformed into a kinder, gentler man. A Christmas card was also printed about this time, a lithograph by John Calcott Horsley, and is the first known card to have been printed and mailed.
    (https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/A_Christmas_Carol)(SFC, 12/23/19, p.A8)

1843        In Britain Punch coined the term “cartoon" to describe its satyrical sketches.
    (Econ, 12/22/12, p.129)
1843        Nelson’s column and the equestrian statue of George IV were erected in Trafalgar Square.
    (WSJ, 4/27/00, p.A24)

1844        May 3, Richard D'Oyly Carte, opera impresario (Gilbert & Sullivan operas, Ivanhoe), was born in England.
    (MC, 5/3/02)

1844        Jun 6, The Young Men's Christian Association (YMCA) was founded in London by George Williams.
    (AP, 6/6/97)(www.ymca.int/index.php?id=15)

1844        Jul 22, William Archibald Spooner, Anglican clergyman whose slips of the tongue caused words and syllables to be transposed and gave rise to the term "spoonerisms," was born in London.
    (AP, 7/22/02)

1844        Jul 28, Gerard Manley Hopkins, English poet and Jesuit priest, was born.
    (HN, 7/28/01)

1844        Benjamin Disraeli (1804-1881) authored his novel “Coningsby." Disraeli used his young friend George Smythe as the model for the novel’s scrupulously upright hero.
    (WSJ, 9/2/06, p.P9)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Coningsby_%28novel%29)
1844        Englishman Alexander Kinglake (25) authored his travel book “Eothen." The name was from the Greek for “from the east." It told of his adventures traveling across the Ottoman Empire from Belgrade to Cairo.
    (WSJ, 9/23/06, p.P8)(Econ, 9/14/13, p.90)
1844        William Makepeace Thackeray (1811-1863), English novelist, authored “The Memoirs of Barry Lyndon, Esq."
    (Econ, 6/13/15, p.81)
1844        The British co-operative movement started with the Rochdale Pioneers' shop in the northern English town of Rochdale. It was nominally owned by its customers rather than its employees.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/British_co-operative_movement)(Econ, 11/9/13, p.72)

1844-1847    Britain experienced a “railway mania" as Parliament during this period approved 9,500 miles of new railway lines. About a third never materialized. By 1847 railways soaked up investments of almost 7% of GDP.
    (Econ, 12/20/08, p.116)

1845        Mar 17, The rubber band was patented by Stephen Perry of London.
    (MC, 3/17/02)

1845        May 19, The HMS Erebus and Terror sailed from England under Sir John Franklin to navigate through the Arctic and find the elusive Northwest passage. Sir John Franklin and his 128-member crew all died on the journey and the ships vanished. By 1847 the British Admiralty had received no reports of Franklin. [see Franklin Jun 11, 1847]
    (WSJ, 2/10/95,  p.A-7)(www.coolantarctica.com)(Reuters, 8/23/12)

1845        Jul 17, Earl Grey (b.1764), former British prime minister (1830-1834), died. A member of the Whig Party, he backed significant reform of the British government and was among the primary architects of the Reform Act of 1832. In addition to his political achievements, Earl Grey famously gives his name to an aromatic blend of tea.

1845        Oct 12, Elizabeth Fry (b.1780), English Quaker prisoner reform advocate, died. In 1827 she published a book called “Observations, on the visiting superintendence and government of female prisoners." Since 2002 she has been depicted on the Bank of England £5 note.

1845        Benjamin Disraeli, future British prime minister, authored his novel “Sybil," a look at class through the lens of a romance between the daughter of a working class activist and the aristocratic hero.
    (WSJ, 1/10/08, p.W2)
1845        Friedrich Engels (1820-1895), German social scientist, authored in German “The Condition of the Working Class in England." It was not published in English until 1892.
1845        George Smythe (27) stood as the most articulate of Disraeli’s “Young England" political cabal, a group of Tories determined to forge an alliance between the laboring classes and the aristocracy.
    (WSJ, 9/2/06, p.P9)
1845        John Henry Newman (1801-1890) gave up a brilliant academic career at Oxford University and the pulpit of the university church to convert to Catholicism, convinced that the truth that he had been searching for could no longer be found in the Church of England. In 1847 he was ordained as a Catholic priest.
    (AP, 9/19/10)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/John_Henry_Newman)
1845        Walter Potter, English taxidermist, opened his stuffed animal museum in Bramble, south of London. Admission was 2 cents.
    (SFC, 11/29/02, pK8)
1845        The Economist Magazine began tabulating a food price index.
    (Econ, 12/8/07, p.11)
1845        The moat of the Tower of London, built by Edward I, was drained and filled.
    (Hem, 9/04, p.71)
1845        The SS Great Britain, designed by Isambard Kingdom Brunel, crossed the Atlantic in a record 14 days. Her protracted construction and high cost had left her owners in a difficult financial position, and they were forced out of business in 1846 after the ship was stranded by a navigational error.
    (Econ, 5/7/11, p.88)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/SS_Great_Britain)

1845-1932    Albert Goodwin, a brilliant watercolorist who traveled widely.
    (Hem., 3/97, p.94)

1846        Jan 21, 1st edition of Charles Dickens' "Daily News."
    (MC, 1/21/02)

1846        Jan 25, The dreaded Corn Laws, which taxed imported oats, wheat and barley, were repealed by the British Parliament in response to the Irish potato famine of 1845. 
    (HN, 1/25/99)(WSJ, 3/29/04, p.A8)

1846        Feb 10, British General Sir Hugh Gough decisively routed Tej Singh’s Sikhs in the Battle of Sobraon.
    (HN, 2/10/97)

1846        Jun 15, The United States and Britain signed a treaty settling a boundary dispute between Canada and the United States in the Pacific Northwest at the 49th parallel. Great Britain and the U.S. agreed on a joint occupation of Oregon Territory. President Polk agreed to a compromise border along the 49th parallel. The debate over the northwestern border of the United States. The campaign slogan "54-40 or fight" referred to the debate over the northwestern border of the United States. The slogan "54-40 or fight" refers to the north latitude degree and minute where many Americans wanted to place the border between the U.S. and then Great Britain in the Pacific Northwest.
    (AP, 6/15/97)(HN, 6/15/98)(SFC, 1/25/99, p.A3)(HNQ, 3/28/00)

1846        Aug 10, The US Congress chartered the Smithsonian Institution, named after English scientist James Smithson (1765-1836), whose bequest of $500,000 made it possible. The Smithsonian Institute was born and Joseph Henry became its first secretary.
    (AP, 8/10/97)(SFEC, 8/25/96, p.T6)

1846        Sep 19, Elizabeth Barrett and Robert Browning eloped.
    (SFEC, 2/1/98, p.T8)(MC, 9/19/01)

1846        A British parliamentary commission decided on a national railway standard with rails separated by less than 5 feet. This was a cheaper option than the 7-foot spacing used by Isambard Kingdom Brunel (1806-1859) for the Royal Albert railway bridge linking Cornwall and Devon.
    (Econ, 6/20/09, p.60)
1846        Britain passed the “Public Baths and Wash Houses Act," which gave local authorities the power to raise funds to keep the working classes clean and healthy.
    (Econ, 4/7/07, p.55)
1846        British firms began selling insurance policies in China.
    (Econ, 7/23/11, p.69)

1846-1852    Lord John Russel was Prime Minister of England from 1846 to 1852 in his  first term.
    (HN, 8/18/98)

1847        Jun 11, Dame Millicent Garrett Fawcett, leader of English women's movement, was born.
    (SC, 6/11/02)
1847        Jun 11, A written record was found in 1859, indicating that Sir John Franklin died on this day, and that Erebus and Terror were abandoned in April 1848. The crews' deaths have been attributed to either scurvy or lead poisoning originating from the solder on food tins. Both ships and the remains of most of the 129 crewmen have never been found. After commissioning three unsuccessful search expeditions, the British Admiralty posted a reward for anyone who could ascertain the fate of the crewmen of the HMS Erebus and Terror, who had sailed from England in May 1845 to navigate through the Arctic and find the elusive Northwest passage. Success was anticipated with Franklin commanding well-equipped crews and ships, but by 1847, the British Admiralty had received no reports of Franklin. Subsequent expeditions found evidence of the Franklin Expedition. Three graves dug into the permafrost were discovered in 1850 on Devon Island, their headstones dated 1846. In 2010 Anthony Brandt authored “The Man Who Ate His Boots: The Tragic History of the Search for the Northwest Passage." The book pivoted around explorer John Franklin (1786-1847).
    (HNQ, 6/11/98)(HN, 6/11/99)(ON, 11/03, p.12)(SFC, 4/9/10, p.F6)

1847        Oct 16, Charlotte Bronte's book "Jane Eyre" was published by Smith, Elder & Co. under the pen name Currer Bell. In 2017 John Pfordresher authored “The Secret History of Jane Eyre: How Charlotte Bronte Wrote her Masterpiece."
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Jane_Eyre)(http://tinyurl.com/84e3uwp)(Econ, 8/12/17, p.67)

1847        Anthony Trollope published his first novel.
    (WSJ, 12/11/98, p.W10)
1847        John Edwards began operating a pottery in Longton and later Fenton, Staffordshire, England. Operations continued to 1900.
    (SFC, 12/5/07, p.G2)
1847        Britain passed a Vagrancy Act to combat begging as famine swept Ireland.
    (AP, 11/25/08)
1847         The London Zoo opened to the public to aid funding.
1847        In Ireland a new British Poor Law dumped the cost of relief on the already strapped Irish landlords.
    (WSJ, 1/26/98, p.A1)

1847        Mauritius, a British ruled island nation, issued the two-pence “Post Office" Blue Mauritius postage stamp along with a similar one penny orange stamp. They became very rare and in 1904 Britain’s King George V acquired a Blue Mauritius for £1,450.
    (WSJ, 8/9/08, p.W9)

1848        Feb 26, Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels published "The Communist Manifesto".
    (HN, 2/26/98)

1848        Feb 27, Charles Hubert H. Parry, musicologist, composer (Jerusalem), was born in England.
    (MC, 2/27/02)

1848        Apr, The British ships Erebus and Terror of the Franklin Expedition to the Arctic were abandoned [see Franklin expedition 1850]. Wreckage of one of the vessels was found in 2014.
    (HNQ, 6/11/98)(SFC, 9/9/14, p.A5)

1848        Jul 18, W.G. Grace (d.1915), British cricket player, was born in Bristol. He has been widely acknowledged as the greatest cricket player of all time.

1848        Jul 25, Arthur James Balfour (d.1930), the First Earl of Balfour and prime Minister of Great Britain (1902-1905), was born: "A religion that is small enough for our understanding would not be large enough for our needs."
    (AP, 11/14/97)(HN, 7/25/98)

1848        Jul 29, An Irish rebellion against British rule was put down in a cabbage patch in Tipperary, Ireland. Irish Nationalists under William Smith O'Brien were overcome and arrested.
    (HN, 7/29/98)(MC, 7/29/02)

1848        Aug, Henry Walter Bates, British naturalist, traveled the rain forest of the Amazon estuary.
    (NH, 6/97, p.30)

1848        Sep 24, Branwell Bronte, brother of the Bronte sisters and the model for Hindley Earnshaw in Emily's novel "Wuthering Heights," died of tuberculosis.

1848        Nov 24, William Lamb (b.1779), 2nd Viscount Melbourne, died. He was a British Whig statesman who served as Home Secretary (1830–1834) and Prime Minister (1834 and 1835–1841). He is best known for being prime minister in Queen Victoria's early years and coaching her in the ways of politics.

c1848        Ellen Terry (d.1928), one of the great English actresses of the 19th century, was born. Her parents, Ben and Sarah Terry, lived on the edge of poverty, earning meager wages as strolling theatrical players who traveled from town to town. Ellen was their second child; six more children survived. All the Terry children expected to follow their parents on to the stage and by the age of nine, Ellen appeared on the London stage as Mamillius, the son of King Leontes in Shakespeare’s The Winter’s Tale.
    (WUD, 1994 p.1466)(HNQ, 8/31/01)
1848        Anne Bronte wrote her novel "The Tenant of Wildfell Hall."
    (WSJ, 10/16/97, p.A20)
1848        Charles Dickens (1812-1870, English author, published his novel “Dombey and Son."
    (Econ, 5/19/12, p.28)
1848        William Makepeace Thackeray (1811-1863), English novelist, authored “Vanity Fair".
    (SFC, 12/19/18, p.E1)
1848        Britain adopted Section three of the Treason Felony Act 1848. It was not used to prosecute anyone after 1879. Britain's law lords concluded in 2001 that the law was "a relic of a bygone age" that did not fit into the modern legal system -- but officially it remained a crime.
    (AFP, 12/13/13)
1848        England passed a Public Health Act to improve the lot of the working classes.
    (Econ, 5/1/04, p.59)
1848        Britain introduced khaki uniforms for British colonial troops in India.
    (WSJ, 5/28/02, p.B1)
1848        A new cholera epidemic struck in London.
    (ON, 5/05, p.8)

1848-1887    Richard Jefferies, English author: "The very idea that there is another idea is something gained."
    (AP, 9/21/98)

1849        Feb 13, Lord Randolph Churchill, was born. He was an English politician, Winston Churchill's father and member of Parliament.
    (HN, 2/13/99)

1849        Feb 21, In the Second Sikh War, Sir Hugh Gough’s well placed guns won a victory over a Sikh force twice the size of his at Gujerat on the Chenab River, assuring British control of the Punjab for years to come.
    (HN, 2/21/98)

1849        May 28, Anne Bronte, novelist, died.
    (MC, 5/28/02)

1849        Dec 12, Marc Brunel (b.1769), the initiating engineer of England’s Thames Tunnel, died.
    (ON, 4/06, p.9)(www.bris.ac.uk/is/services/specialcollections/brunelchronology.html)

1849        John Snow (1813-1858), English obstetrician, authored his 39-page pamphlet “On the Mode of Communication of Cholera." He presented evidence that the disease was spread through contaminated water.
    (ON, 5/05, p.8)(www.johnsnowsociety.org/johnsnow/facts.html)
1849        Britain began fishing negotiations with the newly established Kingdom of Belgium. A treaty was signed but Belgium insisted at the time it was “without prejudice" to a 1666 “fishing privilege".
    (The Telegraph, 10/9/20)
1849        Water-borne cholera killed some 14,000 people in London.
    (Hem., 12/96, p.127)
1849        Punjabi Duleep Singh (1838-1893), the son of Maharajah Ranjit Singh, allegedly gave the 186-carat Koh-i-Noor diamond to the British, who whittled it down to 106 carats and gave it to their queen. The Delhi Gazette of 1848 said the stone was kept under the security of British bayonets as a trophy of military valor.
    (https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Duleep_Singh)(Econ, 4/23/15, p.33)

1850        Jan 29, Ebenezer Howard, pioneer of garden cities, was born in London.
    (MC, 1/29/02)

1850        Mar 30, Charles Dickens published the first issue of his magazine “Household Words."
    (Econ, 9/10/11, p.95)(www.victorianweb.org/periodicals/hw.html)

1850        Apr 16, Thomas Sidney Gilchrist, British metallurgist and inventor, was born.
    (HN, 4/16/01)

1850        Apr 23, William Wordsworth (b.1770), English poet, died.

1850        May, An American expedition, organized by shipping magnate Henry Grinnell, departed to the Canadian Arctic to search for Sir John Franklin and his 1845 Expedition. In late August it joined with British rescue ships. They soon found 3 graves dug into the permafrost of Beechey Island with headstones dated 1846. A written record was found in 1859, indicating that Franklin died on June 11, 1847, and that Erebus and Terror were abandoned in April 1848. The crews’ deaths have been attributed to either scurvy or lead poisoning originating from the solder on food tins. Both ships and the remains of most of the 129 crewmen have never been found.
    (HNQ, 6/11/98)(ON, 6/09, p.3)

1850        Jul 2, Sir Robert Peel (b.1788), former British prime minister (1834-35 and 1841-46), died. He founded the Conservative Party and the London Police Force whose officers were called "bobbies." In 2007 Douglas Hurd authored “Robert Peel: A Biography."
    (HN, 2/5/99)(Econ, 6/30/07, p.93)

1850        Jun 4, A self deodorizing fertilizer was patented in England.
    (MC, 6/4/02)

1850        Jul 4, William Kirby (b.1759), English entomologist, died. He was an original member of the Linnean Society and a Fellow of the Royal Society, as well as a country priest. He had studied how the ichneumon insect devours the living body of the caterpillar upon which it preys.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/William_Kirby_%28entomologist%29)(SFC, 8/2/13, p.A10)

1850        Jul 26, The final design for London’s Great Council Exhibition, the first-ever World’s Fair, was officially approved. The structure of the glass and iron building,  designed by Joseph Paxton, was essentially completed by Jan 1, 1851. The Exhibition opened May 1.
    (WSJ, 1/26/98, p.A16)(ON, 7/04, p.12)

1850        Nov 16, George Wombell (b.1777), famous English menagerie exhibitor, died. He had founded "Wombwell's Travelling Menagerie."
    (AP, 9/29/09)(www.wardsbookofdays.com/16november.htm)

1850        Nov 19, Lord Tennyson became the British poet laureate.
    (MC, 11/19/01)

1850        Charles Dickens published “The Personal History, Adventures, Experience and Observation of David Copperfield the Younger of Blunderstone Rookery" in book format. It had been serialized a year earlier.
1850        England established its 1st public libraries.
    (Econ, 5/1/04, p.59)
1850        A mob in Athens burned down the home of a British citizen. In response Viscount Palmerston, Britain’s foreign secretary, called for a blockade of Greece.
    (Econ, 7/15/06, p.56)

1850-1933     Augustine Birrell, English author and statesman: "History is a pageant and not a philosopher."
    (AP, 9/10/97)

1850s        English inventor Alexander Parkes is credited with being the first to make plastic in the 1850s. Parkes' plastic was a cellulosic made by treating a mixture of cotton and nitric acid with camphor. In the United States, John and Isaiah Hyatt developed a similar plastic in 1869 as a substitute for ivory in the manufacture of billiard balls, which they called celluloid. The first completely synthetic plastic, Bakelite, was produced in 1909 by Dr. Leo H. Bakeland.
    (HNQ, 5/8/98)

1851        Feb 1, Mary Wollstonecraft Shelley (53), novelist (Frankenstein), died.
    (MC, 2/1/02)

1851        Mar 25, Sarah Chesham (41), of Clavering, Essex, was publicly executed at Chelmsford jail after being found guilty of attempting to murder her husband Richard by poisoning him with arsenic a year earlier. Legal and medical experts later determined that small traces of arsenic, found in her supposed victims, were not uncommon in the human body and that tests carried out at the time proved inconclusive. During Victorian Britain’s ‘poison panic’, 167 people were charged with murder or attempted murder by poison between 1840 and 1850. In 2019 her descendants wrote to David Gauke, the Justice Secretary, in a bid for a posthumous pardon so their ancestor's name will be cleared.
    (The Telegraph, 3/29/19)

1851        May 1, The Great Council Exhibition, the first-ever World’s Fair, opened in London’s Hyde Park. Some 6 million people came to see the new glass and iron Crystal Palace, designed by Joseph Paxton (1823-1865). Paxton used roof ventilators and underground air-cooling chambers to regulate indoor temperature.
    (WSJ, 1/26/98, p.A16)(ON, 7/04, p.12)(Econ, 12/4/04, TQ p.17)

1851        Jul 8, Sir Arthur John Evans, English archaeologist who excavated Knossos, Crete, was born.
    (MC, 7/8/02)

1851        Aug 22, The Schooner America, designed by George Steers, outraced the Aurora in the Solent, a stretch of sea separating the Isle of Wight from England proper, to win the Queen’s cup, a trophy that renamed as the America’s Cup. For 132 years the New York Yacht Club defeated all challengers to retain the prestigious America’s Cup, the record for the longest winning streak in sports history. The Liberty lost it to the Australia II in 1983.
    (AP, 8/22/97)(SFEC, 10/1/00, p.T4)(AH, 2/03, p.29)(SSFC, 4/15/07, p.G4)

1851        Oct 10-1851 Oct 31, In London, England, Richard Manks began his feat of walking 1,000 miles in 1,000 hours at the Surrey cricket ground.
    {Britain, World Record}
    (ON, 12/05, p.6)

1851        Nov 13, The London-to-Paris telegraph opened.
    (HN, 11/13/98)

1851        Dec 19, Joseph Mallord William Turner (b.1775), English painter and printmaker, died. In 2016 Franny Moyle authored “The Extraordinary Life and Momentous Times of J.M.W. Turner.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/J._M._W._Turner)(SFC, 6/20/15, p.E3)

1851        John Everett Millais (1829-1896) English painter and member of the a Pre-Raphaelite Brotherhood, created his work "Mariana."
    (https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/John_Everett_Millais)(SFC, 6/30/18, p.E1)
1851        Matthew Coates Wyatt created his dog sculpture of the Earl of Dudley’s Newfoundland Bashaw. It was a star exhibit at the Great Exhibition.
    (WSJ, 12/6/01, p.A19)

1851        Big Ben, the tower clock of the House of Parliament in London, was designed by Edmund Beckett Denison. He was assisted by clockmaker Edward John Dent and Sir George Airy, the royal astronomer. Originally the name "Big Ben" referred only to the clock’s huge bell.
    (SFC, 9/30/98, Z1 p.3)

1851        Paul Julius Reuter (1816-1899), a German-born immigrant, began transmitting stock-market quotes between London and Paris over the new Dover-Calais submarine telegraph cable.

1852        Jan 17, At the Sand River Convention, the British recognized the independence of the Transvaal Board.
    (HN, 1/17/99)

1852        Feb 11, The 1st British public female toilet opened at Bedford Street in London.
    (MC, 2/11/02)

1852        Feb 26, The British frigate Birkenhead sank off South Africa and 458 died.
    (SC, 2/26/02)

1852        Apr 29, The first edition of Peter Mark Roget’s Thesaurus was published. Roget (1779-1869) was a London physician of French-Swiss ancestry who began to collect and organize English words to improve his public speaking.
    (HN, 4/29/98)(WSJ, 9/3/98, p.B1)

1852        May 8, A war between Denmark and Prussia lasted three years (1848–50) and ended only when the Great Powers pressured Prussia into accepting the London Protocol of 1852. This was the revision of an earlier protocol, which had been ratified on August 2, 1850, by the major Germanic powers of Austria and Prussia. The 1852 London Protocol confirmed that the duchies of Schleswig-Holstein should remain undivided.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/London_Protocol)(Econ, 6/23/12, p.20)

1852        Sep 14, Augustus Pugin (b.1812), English Gothic architect and designer, died. He had just this year helped oversee the completion of the new Palace of Westminster and sketched a design for the clock tower shortly before his death. In 2007 Rosemary Hill authored “God’s Architect: Pugin and the Building of Romantic Britain.
    (Econ, 8/11/07, p.74)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Augustus_Pugin)(WSJ, 3/20/09, p.W14)

1852        Sep 14, Arthur Wellesley (b.1769), General and Duke of Wellington, died at 83.

1852        Nov 10, Dr. Gideon Mantell (b.1790), obstetrician and English fossil hunter, died from an overdose of opium.
    (ON, 7/06, p.4)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Gideon_Mantell)

1852        Nov 27, Ada Lovelace (b.1815), Lord Byron’s daughter and the inventor of computer language, was bled to death by physicians at age 36. She had helped Charles Babbage develop his "Analytical Engine," that performed mathematical calculations through the use of  punched cards.
    (SFC, 1/22/98, p.D7)(SFC, 4/30/98, p.E1)

1852        In England the Victoria and Albert Museum was founded by Henry Cole as the South Kensington Museum and later named after Queen Victoria and Prince Albert. It was the first museum to collect and exhibit photography. Charles Thurston Thompson was the first "superintendent of photography."
    (WSJ, 11/4/97, p.A20)(WSJ, 3/24/98, p.A20)

1852        Lady Charlotte Guest took over the helm of Dowlais Iron Co. after her husband died. [see 1759]
    (SFC, 2/16/04, p.A1)

1852-1853    Charles Dickens (1812-1870) authored his novel Bleak House in 20 monthly installments. It castigated the insufferable delays of the legal process in Britain. In the novel he describes a fictional court case, Jarndyce v Jarndyce, which concerns the fate of a large inheritance. It has dragged on for many generations prior to the action of the novel, so that, by the time it is resolved late in the narrative, legal costs have devoured nearly the entire estate. The case is thus a byword for an interminable legal proceeding.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Jarndyce_and_Jarndyce)(WSJ, 2/24/07, p.P10)

1853        Apr 7, Dr. John Snow administered chloroform to Queen Victoria at the birth of her 8th child, Prince Leopold.
    (ON, 5/05, p.9)

1853        May, The first public aquarium was opened in the London Zoo. It was the brainchild of English naturalist Philip Henry Gosse (1810-1888). The "Fish House", as it came to be known, was constructed much like a greenhouse.
    (Econ, 9/12/09, p.93)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Public_aquarium)

1853        Jul, Supported by Britain, the Turks took a firm stand against the Russians, who occupied the Danubian principalities (modern Romania) on the Russo-Turkish border. The Crimean War got under way in October. It was fought mainly on the Crimean Peninsula between the Russians and the British, French, and Ottoman Turkish, with support, from January 1855, by the army of Sardinia-Piedmont. The war aligned Anglican England and Roman Catholic France with Islam’s sultan-caliphs against the tsars, who saw themselves as the world’s last truly Christian emperors.
    (www.britannica.com/EBchecked/topic/143040/Crimean-War)(Econ, 10/2/10, p.89)

1853        Oct 13, Lillie Langtry (d.1929), British actress, was born. "The sentimentalist ages far more quickly than the person who loves his work and enjoys new challenges." She started the California Guenoc and Langtry Estate wineries.
    (AP, 7/27/98)(HN, 10/13/00)(SSFC, 6/9/02, p.C8)

1853        Oct, Henry Bessemer (1813-1898), English mechanical engineer, invented a new type of artillery shell. He presented it to the War Department for use in the Crimean War, but they were not interested. He then offered it to France’s Napoleon III, who agreed to test the shells. The larger shells demanded a new type of cannon made of stronger metal, which led to his experiments in making iron.
    (ON, 9/06, p.4)

1853        Matthew Arnold wrote his poem "Scholar Gypsy."
    (SFEC, 8/20/00, p.T9)
1853        Victorian England enacted a law criminalizing violence against women and children.
    (Econ, 1/28/17, p.14)
1853        Sarah Losh (b.1785), English architect, died. In 2012 Jenny Uglow authored “The Pinecone: The Story of Sarah Losh, Forgotten Romantic Heroine – Antiquarian, Architect and Visionary."
    (www.stmaryswreay.org/sara_losh.html)(Economist, 9/22/12, p.96)
1853        Hormuzd Rassam (1826-1910), Mosul-born Assyrian, and Sir Austen Henry Layard (1817-1894), British archeologist, uncovered ancient Assyrian tablets at Nineveh (Iraq). Layard published his paper on Assyrian-Egyptian Cross-Dating. By using seal-impressions of rulers occurring on the same piece of clay, Layard was able to assign a date to the Assyrian dynasty because the Egyptian ruler’s reign was firmly dated.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hormuzd_Rassam)(RFH-MDHP, 1969, p.59)(ON, 11/07, p.4)

1853-1902    Cecil Rhodes, imperialist. He discovered a vast lode of diamonds at Kimberley and founded the De Beers Mining Co. He ran for Cape parliament in 1881 and was prime minister of the Cape Colony from 1890-1896. He founded Rhodesia (later Zimbabwe) for mineral speculation and endowed the Rhodes scholarships upon his death with £3 million.
    (WSJ, 1/11/98, p.R18)

1854        Feb 23, Great Britain officially recognized the independence of the Orange Free State.
    (HN, 2/23/99)

1854        Feb, The Northcote-Trevelyan report was submitted to the British Parliament. It led to the creation of a politically neutral civil service with appointments made on merit.
    (Econ, 3/19/11, SR p.18)

1854        Mar 1, The SS City of Glasgow, a steamship of the Inman Line, left Liverpool harbor with 480 passengers and was never seen again.
    (SC, 3/1/02)(WSJ, 7/1/03, p.D8)

1854        Mar 28, During the Crimean War, Britain and France declared war on Russia.
    (AP, 3/28/97)

1854        May 5, English pirate Plumridge robbed along pro-English Finnish coast.
    (MC, 5/5/02)

1854        May 24, Louis Mountbatten (d.1921), British admiral (WW I), was born in Graz, Austria.

1854        Jun 21, The first Victoria Cross was awarded to Charles Lucas, an Irishman and mate aboard the HMS Hecla for conspicuous gallantry at Bomarsrund in the Baltic. The medal was made from metal from a cannon captured at Sebastopol.
    (Camelot, 6/21/99)

1854        Sep 14, Allied armies, including those of Britain & France, landed in Crimea.
    (MC, 9/14/01)

1854        Oct 16, Oscar Wilde, dramatist, poet, novelist and critic, was born. [see 1856-1900]
    (HN, 10/16/98)

1854        Oct 25, During the Crimean War, a brigade of British light infantry was destroyed by Russian artillery as they charged down a narrow corridor in full view of the Russians. The Crimean War is largely remembered for the Charge of the Light Brigade, a hopeless but gallant British cavalry charge against a heavily defended Russian force. The battle began when the Russians attacked the British-French supply depot at Balaclava near Chersonesos, some eight miles from Sevastopol, on the Black Sea Crimean Peninsula. Taken by surprise, the British counterattacked but failed to follow up. Through a staff error, Gen. Lord Cardigan's Light Brigade of 673 horsemen was ordered to charge the Russian position through a mile-long valley and prevent them from carrying away some captured cannon. The Light Brigade advanced up the valley, taking casualties all the way, and reached the guns. But once there, they could not hold their position and were forced to retreat. Of the 673 men who took part in the senseless charge, only 195 were present at roll call that night. The Charge of the Light Brigade ended the battle, but Balaclava remained in the hands of the British-French Allies. The event was described in a poem by Tennyson.
    (SFC,12/190/97, p.F6)(AP, 10/25/97)(HNPD, 10/25/98)(HN, 10/25/98)

1854        Nov 5, The British and French defeated the Russians at Inkerman, Crimea.
    (HN, 11/5/98)

1854        Nov, A wooden boat called Mystery set sail from Cornwall, bound for Australia with seven Cornishmen hoping to escape their lives of poverty and dig for gold Down Under, a trip that eventually took 116 days.
    (AFP, 10/21/08)

1854         Dec 9, Alfred, Lord Tennyson's poem, "The Charge of the Light Brigade," was published in England.
    (AP, 12/9/97)

1854        Charles Dickens authored “Hard Times." One of his reasons for writing it was that sales of his weekly periodical, Household Words, were low, and it was hoped the novel's publication in instalments would boost circulation – as indeed proved to be the case.
1854        Britain’s national meteorological office was founded. It began providing forecasts for the BBC in 1922.
    (Econ, 8/29/15, p.47)
1854        English naturalist Philip Henry Gosse (1810-1888) published “The Aquarium" and set off a mid-Victorian craze for household aquariums.
    (Econ, 9/12/09, p.93)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Philip_Henry_Gosse)
1854        Charles Wheatstone, British cryptologist, invented cipher to be used by diplomats, but a government official worried that it was too complicated. In 2006 Stephen Pincock authored “Codebreaker" a tale of codes and ciphers as well as their creators and crackers.
    (WSJ, 10/7/06, p.P12)
1854        Phillip Morris began making cigarettes in London.
    (SFC, 9/27/97, p.E3)
1854        Florence Nightingale (1820-1910) nursed wounded soldiers at Scutari Hospital in Turkey during the Crimean War.
    (HNQ, 4/29/01)
1854        Cholera broke out in London again. Dr. John Snow traced it to cesspool near a public water pump on Broad Street.
    (ON, 5/05, p.9)
1854        Robert Swinhoe (1836-1877), English naturalist, became the British council in Amoy (later Xiamen, China). Over the next 2 decades he collected and counted some 650 Chinese species of birds. In 1860 He became the first British representative on Formosa (later Taiwan).
    (Econ, 12/20/08, p.67)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Robert_Swinhoe)
1854        Lord Elgin negotiated a reciprocity trade agreement with the British North American colonies. In 1866 America abrogated the agreement.
    (Econ, 11/26/16, p.18)

1855        Jan 25, Dorothy Wordsworth (b.1771), English prose writer and the sister of poet William Wordsworth (1770-1850), died. In 2009 Frances Wilson authored “The Ballad of Dorothy Wordsworth."
    (WSJ, 2/19/09, p.A17)(www.kirjasto.sci.fi/dwordsw.htm)

1855        Feb 6, Britain’s home secretary Henry John Temple, 3rd Viscount Palmerston (70), became prime minister and served until his death in 1865.
    (http://tinyurl.com/zz6g5eq)(Econ, 7/9/16, p.46)

1855        Mar 31, Charlotte Bronte (b.1816), English author (Jane Eyre), died. In 1994 Lyndall Gordon authored “Charlotte Bronte: A Passionate Life." In 2015 Clare Harmon authored “Charlotte Bronte: A Life."
    (https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Charlotte_Bront%C3%AB)(Econ, 10/31/15, p.78)

1855        Jun 15, Stamp duty on British newspapers was abolished.
    (HT, 6/15/00)

1855        Jun 17, Heavy French-British shelling of Sebastopol killed over 2000.
    (MC, 6/17/02)

1855        Sep 9, Sevastopol, under siege for nearly a year, fell to the Allies. France, England, the Ottoman Empire and Sardinia (as Italy was then known) defeated the Russians at Sevastopol in the decisive battle of the Crimean War.
    (https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Crimean_War)(SFC, 7/27/13, p.C2)

1855        Aug 4, John Bartlett, a Cambridge bookseller, published the 1st edition of "Bartlett’s Familiar Quotations."
    (WSJ, 10/18/02, p.W17)(MC, 8/4/02)

1855        The English Commons voted for an inquiry into the conduct of the Crimean campaign.
    (Econ, 11/4/06, p.67)
1855        In England Edward Agar led the Great Bullion Robbery of a mail train with a railroad guard as an accomplice. In 1998 Donald Thomas published "The Victorian Underworld," on the emergence of the urban criminal class in Britain.
    (SFEC, 1/3/99, BR p.8)
1855        Sir Moses Montefiore, an Italian-born British Jew and financier, became the first European to be allowed by the Ottomans to visit Jerusalem.
    (Econ, 3/19/11, p.93)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Moses_Montefiore)
1855        London’s Smithfield livestock market closed and moved to Islington.
    (Econ, 1/26/13, p.16)

1856        Feb 14, Frank Harris, journalist, writer (My Life & Loves), was born in England.
    (MC, 2/14/02)

1856        Mar 5, Covent Garden Opera House was destroyed in a fire.
    (MC, 3/5/02)

1856        Apr 29, A peace treaty between England and Russia was signed.
    (HN, 4/29/98)

1856        Jun 8, The British resettled 194 people from Pitcairn Island onto Norfolk Island.
    (SFEM, 3/12/00, p.66)

1856        Jul 26, George Bernard Shaw (d.1950), Irish-born, English dramatist, critic and social reformer (Pygmalion-Nobel 1925), was born in Dublin. "The worst sin toward our fellow creatures is not to hate them, but to be indifferent to them; that's the essence of inhumanity."
    (V.D.-H.K.p.237)(HN, 7/26/98)(AP, 3/15/00)

1856        Aug, Henry Bessemer, English mechanical engineer, presented a paper titled “The Manufacture of Iron Without Fuel." In 1860 he established the Bessemer Steel Works in Sheffield. His Bessemer conversion process revolutionized the steel industry.
    (ON, 9/06, p.6)

1856        Sep 3, The Royal British Bank announced a suspension of business. In 1858 eight directors of the bank were put on trial for conspiracy to defraud the public. A jury found each of the defendants guilty of the charges. They were given sentences ranging from a nominal fine of one shilling to imprisonment for up to one year.
    (http://tinyurl.com/mefkksp)(http://tinyurl.com/m78b3q3)(Econ, 6/22/13, p.60)

1856        Oct 8, Chinese police boarded the British vessel Arrow, arrested 12 Chinese crewmen on suspicion of piracy and lowered the British flag. This began the 2nd Anglo-Chinese War.
    (EWH, 4th ed, p.911)(MC, 10/8/01)

1856        Dec 18, Joseph John Thomson, English physicist, was born. He discovered the electron and won a Nobel Prize in 1906.
    (MC, 12/18/01)

1856         British paleontologist Richard Owen was appointed Superintendent of the natural history departments of the British Museum.
1856        General limited liability was introduced in Britain.
    (Econ, 12/20/08, p.117)
1856        The British Board of Ordnance (BO) mark was replaced by the War Department (WD) mark.
    (SSFM, 4/1/01, p.44)
1856        The Victoria Cross was created to honor soldiers of the British Empire during the Crimean War who showed particular gallantry in the face of enemy attack. All the crosses were made from the bronze of Russian cannons captured in the Crimea.
    (AP, 4/27/05)
1856        Thomas Burberry founded a clothing firm to sell raincoats.
    (Economist, 9/22/12, p.76)
1856        William Thomson, later Lord Kelvin, discovered the property of magneto-resistance. The change in some materials of electrical resistance under a magnetic field was later used in data storage systems.
    (Econ, 3/31/07, p.89)
1856        In northeast India the East India Company first moved its troops to the border of the Awadh (Oudh) kingdom and then annexed the state (later part of Uttar Pradesh state). In 1857 rebels took control of Awadh, and it took the British 18 months to reconquer the region, a period which included the famous Siege of Lucknow. Oudh was placed back under a chief commissioner, and was governed as a British province. The descendants of the ruler, the Nawab, remained in the city as powerful landlords, living off the family's riches.
    (AP, 12/11/10)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Awadh)

1856-1900    Oscar Wilde, English [Irish] writer, poet and dramatist, a rebel of every kind, ended up playing the part of a mocking fool. He despaired of his countrymen ever waking up, but they did, for they became enraged by his mockery and jailed him, ruining his life. He wrote the play "The Importance of Being Ernest." He was found guilty of violating the Criminal Law Amendment Act which prohibited indecent relations between consenting adult males. He served 2 years in prison where he read the whole of Dante and wrote the letter "De Profundis," and the poem "The Ballad of Reading Gaol." "At every single moment of one's life one is what one is going to be no less than what one has been." [see 1854]
    (V.D.-H.K.p.279)(HT, 3/97, p.71)(AP, 10/10/99)

1857        Feb 22, Lord Robert Baden-Powell, founder of the Boy Scout Movement, was born in London.
    (AP, 2/22/07)

1857        Mar 3, Under pretexts, Britain and France declared war on China.
    (HN, 3/3/99)

1857        Apr, The Royal Society held their first meeting in Burlington House in London after moving over from Somerset House. They were soon joined by the Linnean Society and the Royal Society of Chemistry.
    (Econ, 9/15/07, p.104)(www.british-history.ac.uk/report.asp?compid=41482)

1857        May 10, The Seepoys of India revolted against the British Army. The Bengal Army, Indian soldiers in the British army, staged a revolt in what is viewed as the first attempt at independence.
    (SFEC, 8/3/97, p.A15)(HN, 5/10/98)

1857        May 11, Indian mutineers against the British seized Delhi.
    (HN, 5/11/98)

1857        Jun 2, Edward Elgar Broadheath, English composer (Pomp & Circumstance), was born in Worcester, England.
    (AP, 6/2/07)

1857         Jun 30, Charles Dickens read from "A Christmas Carol" at St. Martin's Hall in London--his first public reading. [see 1843]
    (HN, 6/30/01)

1857        Jul 15, British women and children were murdered in the second Cawnpore Massacre during the Indian Mutiny.
    (HN, 7/15/98)

1857        Jul 29, James Holman (1786), former British lieutenant in the Royal Navy, died in London. An illness in 1810 left him blind. In 1822 he set off on a journey to travel around the world. In 2006 Jason Roberts authored “A Sense of the World: How a Blind Man Became History’s Greatest Traveler."
    (SSFC, 6/4/06, p.M1)

1857        Aug 24, The New York branch of the Ohio Life Insurance and Trust Co. failed, sparking the Panic of 1857. The sharp but short 1857-58 financial crash in the US was touched off by the failure of the New York branch of the Ohio Life Insurance and Trust Company. Over speculation in real estate and railroad securities fed the panic. Financial crashes spread to Liverpool, Glasgow, Paris, Hamburg, Copenhagen and Vienna.
    (AP, 8/24/07)(WSJ, 9/28/95c, p.A-18)(Econ, 4/12/14, p.51)

1857        Sep 5, Charles Darwin first outlined his theory of evolution in a letter to American botanist Asa Gray dated September 5, 1857. The leading botanist of his time, Gray was one of the founders of the National Academy of Science.
    (HNQ, 3/14/99)

1857        Nov 7, Dennistoun, Cross and Co., an American bank with branches in Liverpool, Glasgow, New York and New Orleans, collapsed taking with it the Western Bank of Scotland with 98 branches. In the last three months of this year there were 135 bankruptcies.
    (Econ, 4/12/14, p.52)

1857        Nov 23, George Smythe (b.1818), 7th Viscount Strangford, died. In 2006 Mary S. Millar authored “Disraeli’s Disciple: The Scandalous Life of George Smythe."
    (http://tinyurl.com/mhqn3)(WSJ, 9/2/06, p.P9)

1857        Dec 31, Britain's Queen Victoria decided to make Ottawa the capital of Canada.
    (AP, 12/31/97)

1857        Charles Dickens (1812-1870), English novelist, published his serial novel “Little Dorrit" in book form. It had been serialized in 1855-1857.
    (WSJ, 7/19/08, p.W6)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Little_Dorrit)
1857        Thomas Hughes authored "Tom Brown’s School Days."
    (WSJ, 7/111/00, p.A26)
1857        Anthony Trollope (1815-1882), British novelist, authored his novel “Barchester Towers," which explored the mixed motives of various characters. The book established his fame.
    (WSJ, 12/11/98, p.W10)(WSJ, 9/1/07, p.P9)
1857        The Reading Room of the British National Library opened. It was designed by Sydney Smirke. His brother, Sir Robert Smirke, had designed the British Museum 7 years earlier. The design met the wishes of Sir Anthony Panazzi, the Italian librarian. Its copper dome,  supported by 20 cast iron ribs, measured 140 feet.
    (SFC,10/23/97, p.A17)(WSJ, 2/9/00, p.A24)
1857        The British Matrimonial Causes Act proclaimed that a husband’s legal responsibilities went on after a marriage ended.
    (SFC, 4/12/97, p.E3)
1857        Dean Richard Trench lectured on the need for a complete English dictionary at the London Library and the project was soon undertaken by The Philological Society.
    (WSJ, 9/14/98, p.A30)
1857        Alexander Herzen (1812-1870), Russia’s first socialist, and Nikolai Ogaryov (1813-1877) began publishing the newspaper Kolokol (Bell) in London, which was then smuggled back into Russia.
    (https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Kolokol_%28newspaper%29)(Econ, 2/13/15, p.52)

1858        Jan 25, Britain's Princess Victoria (the eldest daughter of Queen Victoria and Prince Albert), married Crown Prince Frederick William (the future German Emperor and King of Prussia) at St. James's Palace. The ceremony's tradition-setting music, personally selected by the Princess Royal, included the "Bridal Chorus" from Richard Wagner's "Lohengrin" and the "Wedding March" by Felix Mendelssohn.
    (AP, 1/25/08)

1858        Feb, British explorers Sir Richard Burton and John Speke (1827-1864) explored Lake Tanganyika, Africa.

1858        Mar 21, British forces in India lifted the siege of Lucknow, ending the Indian Mutiny.
    (HN, 3/21/99)

1858        Apr 10, London’s Big Ben bell, weighing over 13 tons, was cast at the Whitechapel Foundry in East London. It was placed into St. Stephen’s Tower at the Houses of Parliament.
    (SFC, 4/11/08, p.A16)(Econ, 12/24/16, p.122)

1858        May 28, Dion Boucicault's "Foul Play," premiered in London.
    (MC, 5/28/02)

1858        Jun 16, Dr. John Snow (b.1813), English obstetrician, died of a stroke. He is considered the father of epidemiology for his efforts in documenting the spread of cholera in London epidemics.
    (ON, 5/05, p.10)

1858        Jul 1, The Darwin-Wallace theory of evolution was 1st read at a meeting of the Linnaean Society of London.
    (NH, 2/02, p.75)

1858        Jul 14, Emmeline Pankhurst, British suffragist and founder of the Women's Social and Political Union, was born in Manchester, England.
    (HN, 7/14/98)(AP, 7/14/08)

1858        Jul 23, Jewish Disabilities Removal Act was passed by British Parliament.
    (MC, 7/23/02)

1858        Jul 26, Baron Lionel de Rothschild became the 1st Jew elected to British Parliament.
    (MC, 7/26/02)

1858        Jul-1858 Aug, The summer Great Stink, aka The Big Stink, took place when the smell of untreated sewage almost overwhelmed people in central London, England. This persuaded the government to commission Sir Joseph Bazalgette to lay down a new network of sewers.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Great_Stink)(WSJ, 10/21/06, p.P8)

1858        Aug 16, A telegraphed message from Britain’s Queen Victoria to President Buchanan was transmitted over the recently laid trans-Atlantic cable. The cable linked Ireland and Canada and failed after a few weeks.
    (AP, 8/16/97)(www.pbs.org/wgbh/amex/cable/peopleevents/e_inquiry.html)

1858        In 2017 Rosemary Ashton authored “One Hot Summer: Dickens, Darwin, Disraeli and the Great Stink of 1858.
    (Econ 7/22/17, p.67)
1858        Henry Gray (1827-1861), English anatomist and surgeon, authored the textbook “Gray’s Anatomy." It defined the genre and dissected the body along thematic lines. The illustrations were by Henry Vandyke (1831-1897) In 2008 Ruth Richardson authored “The Making of Mr Gray’s Anatomy: Bodies, Books, Fortune, Fame."
    (http://streetanatomy.com/blog/?p=48)(Econ, 11/15/08, p.99)(WSJ, 3/27/09, p.W6)
1858        John Henry Newman, English Catholic cardinal, authored “The Idea of a University."
    (Econ, 6/28/14, p.22)
1858        Florence Nightingale published her “Notes on matters affecting the health, efficiency and hospital administration of the British army," in which she presented a new form of data display later known as “Nightingale’s Rose" or Nightingale’s coxcomb." This year she also became the first female fellow of the Statistical Society of London.
    (Econ, 12/22/07, p.74)
1858        In England the Covent Garden Royal Opera House was constructed in London. In 1997 it was scheduled for a $361 million refurbishment and slated to reopen in Dec, 1999.
    (SFC, 7/14/97, p.E3)
1858        The British colonized the Andaman Islands home to 10 tribes of the Great Andamanese comprising some 5,000 people. Most were killed or died of diseases brought by the colonizers. In 2010 the last speaker of Bo, one of the ten dialects used by the tribes, died.
    (Reuters, 2/6/10)
1858        The East India Company was abolished and the British government assumed the administration of India.
    (SFEC, 8/3/97, p.A15)
1858        John Hanning Speke (1827-1864), British explorer, became the first European to visit Lake Victoria, Africa’s largest lake. Its shoreline touched Kenya, Tanzania and Uganda.

1858-1943    Beatrice Potter Webb, English sociologist: "Religion is love; in no case is it logic."
    (AP, 11/8/98)

1859        Mar 26, A.E. Houseman (d.1936), critic, classics scholar and poet, was born.  He is best known for his work "A Shropshire Lad." A 1997 fictionalized portrait of Houseman, "The Invention of Love: Memory Play," was written by Tom Stoppard.
    (SFEC, 3/29/98, p.T9)(SFC, 1/15/00, p.B1)(HN, 3/26/01)

1859        Apr 14, Charles Dickens' "A Tale Of Two Cities" was published.
    (MC, 4/14/02)

1859        May 22, Sir Arthur Conan Doyle (d.1930), author of the Sherlock Holmes series, was born in Edinburgh, Scotland. He wrote 4 novels featuring Sherlock Holmes. "Mediocrity knows nothing higher than itself, but talent instantly recognizes genius." In 1999 Daniel Stashower published the biography: "Teller of Tales."
    (AP, 6/17/97)(HN, 5/22/98)(WSJ, 4/12/99, p.A21)

1859        Aug 28, Leigh Hunt (b.1784), English poet and essayist, died. He is remembered for his immortal couplet: “The Two divinist things this world has got: / A lovely women in a rural spot. In 2005 Nicholas Roe authored “Fiery Heart: The first Life of Leigh Hunt." Anthony Holden authored “The Wit in the Dungeon: The Life of Leigh Hunt."
    (RTH, 8/28/99)(Econ, 1/29/05, p.80)(WSJ, 12/6/05, p.D8)

1859        Sep 1, British astronomers Richard C. Carrington (33) and R. Hodgson (1804-1872) independently made the 1st observation of a solar flare, aka coronal mass ejection. A day later auroras lit up all of the British Isles. Telegraph communication was disrupted in every technically advanced nation.
    (ON, 4/12, p.5)(Econ, 2/25/17, p.67)(Econ., 6/27/20, p.14)

1859        Sep 9, The SS Great Eastern's first voyage was cut short by a boiler explosion. The 22,500-ton (displacement) iron steamship, designed by Isambard Kingdom Brunel, was built on the Thames River, England. It had been christened Leviathan during an initial launching attempt in early November 1857. Thereafter it was always known as the Great Eastern.

1859        Sep 15, Isambard Brunel (b.1806), engineer of England’s Thames Tunnel, died. He was the son of Marc Brunel, the engineer who initiated the project. Isambard is best known for the creation of the Great Western Railway, a series of famous steamships, including the first with a propeller, and numerous important bridges and tunnels.  In 2002 R. Angus Buchanan authored “Brunel: The Life and Times of Isambard Kingdom Brunel."
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Isambard_Kingdom_Brunel)(ON, 8/07, p.7)

1859        Nov 24, British naturalist Charles Darwin published "On the Origin of Species," which explained his theory of evolution.
    (V.D.-H.K.p.280)(WSJ, 2/24/97, p.A20)(AP, 11/24/97)

1859        Dec 8, Thomas De Quincey (b.1785), English essayist, died. In 2006 his essays on murder were collected and published under the title “On Murder." He is best know for his famous “Confessions of an Opium Eater" (1821).
    (WSJ, 6/9/07, p.P8)(www.britannica.com/eb/article-9029613/Thomas-De-Quincey)

1859        Dec 28, Thomas Babington Macaulay (b.1800), English essayist, historian and politician, died. He was one of the first to advocate Indian independence, albeit on the grounds of English commercial self interest. In 2012 Zareer Masani authored “Macaulay: Pioneer of India’s Modernization.
    (www.britannica.com)(Econ, 10/30/04, p.48)(Econ, 11/10/12, p.86)

1859          The London Fish House unveiled 4 seahorses, long believed to mythical creatures. Seahorses are the only species in which the males become pregnant, providing the young with food and oxygen before giving birth to up to 1,000 babies, each the size of a flea.
    (Econ, 9/12/09, p.93)
1859        There was a rain of tiny fish over England.
    (SFC, 5/30/98, p.E4)
1859        James Whistler (1834-1903), American painter, moved to London.
    (Econ, 5/10/14, p.83)
1859        The British took Baluchistan, and Afghanistan became completely landlocked.

1859-1927     Jerome K. Jerome, English author and humorist: "It is impossible to enjoy idling thoroughly unless one has plenty of work to do."
    (AP, 5/30/97)

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