Timeline Great Britain (A) to 1550

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BBC:  http://www.bbc.co.uk/history/british/launch_tl_british.shtml

The United Kingdom is about the same size as Oregon.
    (SSFC, 10/9/05, Par p.27)
The 1st known name for Britain was Albion, which meant white land.
    (SFC, 1/15/00, p.B3)

120Mil BC    The dinosaur Eotyrannus lengi roamed Britain. In 2001 a 15-foot skeleton was discovered.
    (WSJ, 5/10/01, p.A1)

50Mil BC    In 2008 a well-preserved skull of a bird, named Dasornis emuinus, unearthed on the Isle of Sheppey, east of London, was dated to 50 million years ago. Dasornis was said to have been "like an ocean-going goose, almost the size of a small plane."
    (AFP, 9/26/08)

450k BC    Scientists in 2017 reported that a giant waterfall tens of kilometers wide broke down a ridge which connected modern-day England to mainland Europe about this time, unleashing a mega-flood that gouged out the Channel and created the island of Britain.
    (AFP, 4/4/17)

450k BC - 180k BC    In 2007 scientists using sonar reported that at least 2 massive floods during this period cut Britain off from the European continent. Evidence of humans living in Britain began to show up only from about 60,000 BC.
    (SFC, 7/19/07, p.A7)

>200,000    In 1911 a broken wooden spear shaped earlier than this age was found at Clacton-on-Sea, Essex, UK.
    (SFC, 6/28/97, p.E3)

42200BC-39500BC    Home sapiens populations were living in England by this time.
    (SFC, 6/15/12, p.A11)

11,000BCE    The earliest amber artifacts are from this time and were found in caves in Cheddar, England. The British Isles were connected to Europe and the English Channel could be walked across.
    (PacDis, Winter/’97, p.9)

10.2-10.4 BCE    In 2003 Scientists reported that human bone fragments found in a cave from Aveline's Hole in the Mendip Hills of southwest England date from this period.
    (AP, 9/23/03)

9000BC    Archeologists in 2010 reported that a circular shaped home was built about this time next to an ancient lake at Star Carr, near Scarborough, in northeastern England. At this time Britain was still connected to continental Europe.
    (AP, 8/11/10)(SFC, 8/12/10, p.A2)

8000BC    In 1903 the skeleton of a man, 10,000 years old, was discovered in the underground caves at Cheddar, 130 miles west of London, England. In 2018 scientists from Britain's Natural History Museum and University College London said DNA from the skeleton, named "Cheddar Man," suggests the oldest-known Briton had dark skin and blue eyes.
    (SFC, 3/8/96, p.A8)(AP, 2/7/18)

8000BC - 6500BC    A few gigantic pine posts, possibly totem poles, were raised at Stonehenge during this period. New research in 2013 suggested that the ancient structures may perhaps have been raised to honor a sacred hunting ground.
    (Live Science, 4/24/13)

4431BCE    Timbers of a possible ship of this time were found off Hayling Island near Portsmouth, England, in 1997. The structure might also have been a causeway.
    (AM, Jul/Aug ‘97 p.13)

4050BC    Agriculture arrived fully formed in Kent, Engalnd, about this time.
    (Econ, 6/11/11, p.82)

4000-1500BCE    Southern Britain was settled by emigrants from what is now the Netherlands and the French province of Brittany. They started farming, herding and burying their dead and are called the "beaker people" after a distinctive drinking vessel found in chambered mounds called "barrows." It is speculated that these people and their descendants began worshiping inside "henges," circular areas enclosed by big ditches and small banks of dirt. Four phases of development at Stonehenge in the Salisbury plain have been defined. During the Summer Solstice sunbeams pass directly over the center of a pointer rock outside the circle down a track called the "Avenue," and onto the altar stone in the center.
    (HT, 3/97, p.20,22)(SFC, 6/22/98, p.A10)

3200BC-2500BCE    Henges, enormous ditches enclosing circular constructs dating to this period, were enigmatic features of Neolithic and Bronze age Britain. In 2008 researchers dating cremated bones concluded that Stonehenge was initially established as a “domain of ancestors," and that burials were a major component in all its stages.
    (SFC,11/11/97, p.A12)(SFC, 5/30/08, p.A6)

3100BCE    The first known incarnation of Stonehenge, the ancient stone monument in the south of England, is thought to have been built by native Neolithic peoples around this time. Archaeological interpretation of the site is primarily based on a series of modern excavations carried out since 1919. The studies have concluded that there were three different building periods representing markedly different materials and methods. Stonehenge I was primarily an earthen structure built by native Neolithic peoples using deer antlers as picks. Two entry stones were also placed to the northeast of the circle, one of which (the "Slaughter Stone") survives in the latest monument.
    (HNQ, 3/3/01)

3000BC    In Britain timber temples were constructed about this time prior to stone circles. Remains of one was found in 1997 at Stanton Drew in Somerset that measured 443 feet on the outer diameter.
    (SFC,11/11/97, p.A17)
3000BC    In 2009 archeologists identified a site named "Bluehenge," dating to about this time, about a mile (2km) away from Stonehenge. It was named after the color of the 27 Welsh stones that were laid to make up a path. The stones were gone but the path of holes remained.
    (AP, 10/3/09)
3000BC    In 2013 British researchers proposed a new theory for the origins of Stonehenge. They said it may have started as a giant burial ground for elite families around this time.
    (AP, 3/9/13)

c2800BCE    Stonehenge Phase I  saw the construction of the henge’s bank and ditch. A pair of upright stones formed a ceremonial entrance with a larger stone opposite. 56 small pits encircled the whole area.
    (HT, 3/97, p.22)

2600BC-2500BC    British archeologists reported in 2007 that houses found at Durrington Walls near Stonehenge, the world's largest known henge (an enclosure with a bank on the outside and a ditch inside), were radiocarbon dated to this time.
    (AFP, 1/30/07)

2500BC    Shards of pottery dating to about this time were later excavated in Wiltshire, England, close to Stonehenge, followed patterns originating in Orkney, a Scottish archipelago.
    (Econ, 12/21/13, p.94)
2500BC    At Stonehenge a ditch and bank area was created on the grassy chalkland about this time.
    (SSFC, 12/24/00, p.T5)
2500BC     In 2015 British archaeologists said they had found the buried remains of a mysterious prehistoric monument close to the famous Stonehenge heritage site dating back to about this time. The discovery was made at Durrington Walls -- a so-called "superhenge" located less than three km (1.8 miles) from Stonehenge.
    (AFP, 9/7/15)

2400BC-2200BC    Archeologists in 2008 said evidence from Stonehenge dating to this period indicated that the site was used as a place of pilgrimage for the sick.
    (WSJ, 9/23/08, p.A26)

c2100BCE    Stonehenge Phase II incorporated 60 "bluestones" from the Preseli Mountains in southwest Wales, about 135 miles away. 90 bluestones were set up in a horseshoe shape within a circle of another 60. Some 500 years after Stonehenge I fell into disuse, builders created a radically different Stonehenge with dozens of stone pillars weighing up to 4 tons.
    (HT, 3/97, p.22)(SSFC, 12/24/00, p.T5)(HNQ, 3/3/01)

c2100-1900    In Stonehenge Phase III the builders encircled the bluestones with sarsen stones, a sandstone (probably from a quarry in Avebury, 20 miles away). These were topped by caps and the bluestones were re-arranged and dug into the ground. The axis of the circle was also re-calculated so that one way Stonehenge points to the summer solstice at sunrise and lined up the other way it points to the winter solstice at sunset.
    (HT, 3/97, p.22)(SD)

c2000BCE    At Arbor Low in Derbyshire a Bronze Age stone circle was constructed.
    (SFEM, 10/11/98, p.21)
c2000BCE    The West Kennet Long Barrow, a megalith burial vault, was sealed.
    (SSFC, 12/24/00, p.T4)
c2000BCE     Silbury Hill, located on the prehistoric site of Avebury (named after nearby Avebury, England), is the largest prehistoric mound in Europe. The artificial hill, which rises up 130 feet, was constructed over three separate phases beginning at least 4,000 years ago. Although the shape of the mound is similar to smaller earthen constructions used for burials, its purpose remains a mystery.
    (HNQ, 6/8/01)
2000BCE    The initial phase of what scientists call Stonehenge III was begun about 100 years after Stonehenge II with the lentil structure familiar to modern visitors. The builders continued improvements on Stonehenge III up until about 1550 BCE, well before historical records of the Druids or the Romans. Both Stonehenge and a neighboring circular monument were added to UNESCO's World Heritage List--a listing of cultural and natural sites--in 1986.
    (HNQ, 3/3/01)

1550BC    A wealthy young teenager, later dubbed "The Boy with the Amber Necklace," was buried near Britain's mysterious Stonehenge monument at about this time. Scientists in 2010 determined that he came from the Mediterranean hundreds of miles away, proof of the site's importance as a travel destination in prehistoric times.
    (AP, 9/29/10)

1300BCE    A 50-foot boat of this time was discovered in 1992 at Dover, England.
    (AM, Jul/Aug ‘97 p.13)

c1100-1000    In Stonehenge Phase IV the path across the henge ditch was extended into the fields and over the hill to the River Avon.
    (HT, 3/97, p.22)

c1000BCE    The British Bronze Age site Flag Fen, estimated to  about this time, was accidentally discovered in 1982 by archaeologist Francis Pryor. Flag Fen is the site of some of the most recent and unusual discoveries of ancient British culture. In 1982 archaeologist Francis Pryor tripped over a piece of wood while walking along a dyke in the Fenlands near Peterborough. Noticing that the wood showed signs of deliberate shaping, he poked around in the peaty, wet soil and soon discovered a series of posts. The wood was set deeper into the ground than the surface of a nearby Roman road, so Pryor knew the wood had to have been placed into the ground well before the Roman engineers arrived on the scene.
    (HNQ, 5/12/01)

c700BCE    The White Horse of Uffington, a 365-foot long and 130-foot high image scratched into a chalk hillside, was dated to this time from pottery at the site. The shape is typical of the La Tene art style that spread across Western Europe between the 5th and 1st centuries BCE.
    (AM, 9/01, p.40,43)

400BC - 250BC    Amateur treasure hunters in late 2016 found gold jewelry buried in Staffordshire that date to about this time. The objects included three torcs and a bracelet decorated in Celtic art likely made in France or Germany.
    (AFP, 2/28/17)

325BC    Pytheas (c380BC-310BC), Greek merchant, geographer and explorer, made a voyage of exploration to northwestern Europe around this time. He traveled around Great Britain, circumnavigating it between 330 and 320 BCE. He claimed to have sailed past Scotland and mentioned a land called Thule, where the surrounding ocean froze and the sun disappeared in winter.

c100BCE    Camulodunum (later Colchester in southeastern England) was established about this time as a fortress dedicated to the Celtic god of war.
    (Arch, 7/02, p.46)

55BC        Aug 26, Roman forces under Julius Caesar invaded Britain. 80 war galleys with some ten thousand foot soldiers prevailed over the native Britons.
    (AP, 8/26/97)(ON, 6/09, p.6)

54BC        Jul, Roman forces under Julius Caesar invaded Britain for a 2nd time. He was accompanied by Mandubracius, an exiled British chieftain. The expedition of 10,000 foot soldiers and 2,00 cavalry was followed by a number of privately owned vessels commissioned by Roman merchants eager to take advantage of Caesar’s anticipated victory.
    (ON, 6/09, p.7)

54BC        The Romans under Julius Caesar fought the first skirmishes with the Celts in England. British chieftain Cassivellaunus, who had killed the father of Mandubracius, led a guerilla style war against Caesar’s legions. Caesar’s forces prevailed and Cassivellaunus agreed not to make war against Mandubracius.
    (SFEC, 6/22/97, BR p.3)(ON, 6/09, p.7)

40        Jun 13, Gnaeus Julius Agricola, Roman general and governor of Britain, was born. [WUD says 37-93AD]
    (WUD, 1994, p.29)

43        The Romans under Claudius, the great nephew of Caesar, invaded and conquered Britain. They founded a settlement on the "Tamesis River" where a bridge could be built that grew to become London.
    (SFEC, 6/22/97, BR p.3)(ON, 6/09, p.7)

43        The Briton Caratacus, also known as Caradoc and chief of the Catuvellauni, mounted a guerrilla uprising against the Romans. His uprising ultimately failed after he was betrayed by the Brigantian queen, Cartimandua. He was taken to Rome where he was later pardoned by Claudius.
    (HNQ, 9/23/00)

43        British Celts battled the Roman invaders in 2-wheeled chariots. The Belgae from northern Gaul had settled in Britain and ushered in the concept of towns and the art of enameling.
    (NGM, 5/77)

43        The Romans under Claudius, the great nephew of Caesar, invaded and conquered Britain. They founded a settlement on the "Tamesis River" where a bridge could be built that grew to become London.
    (SFEC, 6/22/97, BR p.3)(ON, 6/09, p.7)

43        The Romans brought with them the board game latrunculi (little soldiers), when they conquered Britain.
    (Arch, 1/05, p.39)

50        The Romans established a colony at the site of Camulodunum.
    (Arch, 7/02, p.46)

57        Jan 8, A tablet with this date, making it Britain's earliest dated hand-written document. Archeologists in 2016 said it was one among hundreds discovered during excavations in London's financial district for the new headquarters of media and data company Bloomberg. It was an IOU in which one freed slave promises to repay another "105 denarii from the price of the merchandise which has been sold and delivered."
    (AP, 6/1/16)

60        Boudicaa, queen of the Iceni in Britain, burned Roman London. Boudicaa rose up in revolt against the Roman occupation of Britain. When Prasutagus, chief of the Iceni tribe, died without heirs, the Romans confiscated his lands. His wife and Queen, Boudicaa, protested and as a result was publicly scourged. Calling on all native Britons to rise against the oppressors, she then led them in revolt, killing 70,000 Romans and destroying several towns before she was defeated and captured. She killed herself while in Roman custody.
    (NGM, 5/77)(HNQ, 8/5/00)

71        York became the Roman provincial capital of Northumbria. From the 9th to the 11th centuries it was dominated by Norse warrior-kings and was called Jorvik.
    (SSFC, 2/23/14, p.M7)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Scandinavian_York)

85-130    Some 2000 letters on wooden tablets were excavated beginning in 1973 at Vindolanda in northern England from Roman soldiers stationed there.
    (AM, May/Jun 97 p.14)

97-105    Flavius Cerialis was prefect of Cohort IX of Batavians and the last occupant of the commandant’s house at Vindolanda. The cohort was transferred to the Danube to join Trajan’s forces gathering for the Second Dacian War.
    (AM, May/Jun 97 p.17)

c100        Oct 31, The pagan Celts of Britain and Ireland celebrated Samhain on October 31 as the end of the season of the sun and the beginning of the season of darkness. It was believed that on this day the souls of the dead revisited their homes. Bonfires were lit to chase away evil spirits. When the Romans conquered Britain in the first century A.D., their fall harvest festival, Poloma Day, mixed with the traditions of Samhain to form a major fall festival at the end of October.
    (HNPD, 10/31/99)

122        Jun, Emp. Hadrian visited Britain as part of a tour of the northern frontiers. He ordered a wall built to protect the Romans from the Picts of Scotland.
    (AM, 7/01, p.17)

122        Sep 13, Building began on Hadrian's Wall.
    (MC, 9/13/01)

122-130CE    Roman Emperor Hadrian ordered a great wall to be built in northern England along with a series of forts "to separate the Romans from the barbarians." It extended for 73.5 English miles from the estuary of the river Tyne on the east to Solway Firth on the west.
    (AM, May/Jun 97 p.15)(AM, 7/01, p.17)

c140CE    Emperor Antoninus Pius ordered Hadrian’s Wall to be abandoned and a more northerly defense to be established. Remnants could later be seen of the Antonine Wall around Falkirk, Scotland. Roman troops advanced northwards into the Scottish lowlands, driving the barbarians back before them and establishing a new frontier called the Antonine Wall, named for the new Emperor, Antoninus Pius. The Antonine Wall was later abandoned, reoccupied, and abandoned a second and final time under the Emperor Marcus Aurelius.
    (NG, 12/97, forum)(HNQ, 9/9/00)

c160CE    The Romans abandoned their garrison at Cramond, Scotland, and retreated to Hadrian’s Wall.
    (AM, Jul/Aug ‘97 p.14)

175        Roman forces defeated Sarmatian tribes on the Danube and Marcus Aurelius ordered  them to provide 8,000 cavalry for the Roman fort of Brocavum, later Brougham, England. It had been built in the last decades of the first century. The fort was partially covered by a castle in the 13th century.
    (Arch, 5/05, p.62)

208        Roman Emperor Lucius Septimius Severus brought his troublesome sons to the frontier fort of Brocavum, later Brougham, England, to campaign against the barbarians to the north and hopefully distract them from the temptations of Rome.
    (Arch, 5/05, p.63)

268        Marcus Cassianius Latinius Postumus, a Roman emperor of Batavian origin, died about this time. He usurped power from Gallienus in 260 and formed the so called Gallic Empire. He was recognized in Gaul, Germania, Britannia and Iberia until his murder in 268.

286        Carausius, a Roman naval officer, seized power in Britain and northern Gaul ruled until he was assassinated in 293.
    (AP, 7/8/10)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Carausius)

310        Roman Emperor Constantine built a defense tower at Eboracum on the banks of the River Ouse in what later became the English city of York.
    (SSFC, 4/13/14, p.Q1)

400-500     The Angles and Saxons crossed the North Sea to England bringing with them the 5 day week: Tiwsday - of the god Tiw; Wodensday - of the god Woden; Thorsday - of the god Thor; Frigsday - of the goddess Frig; and Seternesday - of the god Seterne. The Anglo-Saxons, a group of Germanic tribes, gradually invaded England by sea starting in the 5th century in the wake of the collapse of the Roman Empire. 
    (K.I.-365D, p.107)(AP, 9/24/09)

c400-500    The Jutes hailed from Jutland, at the northern tip of the Danish peninsula and migrated to Britain in the 5th century as part of the Germanic invasion. The notion that they settled in what is now Kent and the Isle of Wight, as is recorded by Anglo-Saxon chronicler Bede the Venerable, has been confirmed by archaeological evidence.
    (HNQ, 10/7/00)

500        In England, the Anglo-Saxons brought Futhark from continental Europe in the 5th century and modified it into the 33-letter "Futhorc" to accommodate sound changes that were occurring in Old English, the language spoken by the Anglo-Saxons. An early offshoot of Futhark was employed by Goths, and so it is known as Gothic Runes. It was used until 500 CE when it was replaced by the Greek-based Gothic alphabet.
c500        Arthur was a fabled British warlord from the late 5th or early 6th century. In 1998 Richard White published "King Arthur in Legend and History."
    (WSJ, 3/27/98, p.W10)
c500        The Ridgeway, the oldest road in Europe, wanders along empty, open ridges over Wiltshire’s Marlborough Downs in England. Fifteen centuries ago invading Saxons gave this ancient track its present name, `The Ridgeway`, but even then it was old beyond all memory. Fifty centuries earlier, Stone Age traders probably followed this track to barter stone axe heads with farmer folk in the valleys. These Neolithic merchants picked up The Ridgeway at the Thames River ford at Goring, then followed it westward and southward along the crest of the Downs, into what would become the counties of Berkshire and Wiltshire in the times of the Wessex kings. Since those first Neolithic peddlers, 200 generations have found their own good reasons to tramp along the Ridgeway track.
    (HNQ, 7/29/01)

c500-600    Gildas of the 6th century was the only historian whose work survived. He made no mention of King Arthur.
    (WSJ, 3/27/98, p.W10)

600        Germanic invaders, who occupied England after 600AD, saw themselves as a nation of immigrants, according to Prof. Nicholas Howe (1953-2006) of UC Berkeley, author of “Migration and Mythmaking in Anglo-Saxon England" (1989).
    (SFC, 10/16/06, p.B6)

c600-625    The burial site of the Prince of Prittlewell, an East Saxon prince or king, dated to about this time.

604-617    King Saebert of Essex reigned in England. St. Mellitus converted him to Christianity.

c625        Raedwald, king of the East Angles and high king of the English peoples, was buried about this time. The burial mound at Sutton Hoo is believed to be that of the Raedwald.
    (Arch, 7/02, p.61)

c650-850    The alliterative epic poem Beowulf was composed at least 100 years before the manuscript was written. It was written in the 8th century. In 1999 Seamus Heaney wrote a new translation of the old English tale of a Scandinavian warrior who kills a trio of monsters including Grendel. In the Anglo-Saxon epic Beowulf, the hero of the Geats people, mortally wounds the monster Grendel--who has been terrorizing the court of the king of Danes--by tearing off one of his arms with his bare hands. Based on folk tales known to the Anglo-Saxons prior to their invasion of England, the work is made up primarily of pagan myths and legends. The poem is believed to date from the late seventh or early eighth century and the only surviving text, now in the British Museum, dates from about 1000 A.D.
    (WUD, 1994, p.140)(WSJ, 2/24/00, p.A16)(WSJ, 1/11/99, p.R53)(HNQ, 1/10/02)

654CE    A Saxon monk founded St. Botolph’s Town in England. The name gradually changed to Boston.
    (SFC, 8/12/00, p.B3)

669        Theodore, a native of Tarsus in Cilicia, arrived in England to take over the See of Canterbury under the direction of Pope Vitalian. He was well received everywhere and was the first Archbishop whose authority the whole English Church was willing to acknowledge.

c672        The Venerable Bede (d.735), Beda Venerabilis, English speaking church historian, was born.
    (WSJ, 10/22/03, p.D12)

685        May 21, Battle at Nechtansmere: Picts trounced the Northumbrians.
    (MC, 5/21/02)

687        Cuthbert, a former monk hermit and reluctant bishop of Lindisfarne, died. His life and “miracles" were set down by the Venerable Bede. A gospel commissioned to honor Cuthbert was placed in his coffin around 698.  His remains were carried to the mainland when the monks and people of the island fled Viking invaders, and ended up in Durham. In 1104 the coffin was opened in preparation for a formal reinterment and the book was re-discovered. It was given to the Jesuits in 1769 and in 2011 they sold it to Britain for £9 million.
    (Econ, 7/16/11, p.62)(Reuters, 5/17/12)

700-800    King Offa decreed that an earthen barrier be built along the border between Wales and his kingdom of Mercia. Llwybr Clawdd Offa opened as a hiking trail in 1971.
    (SSFC, 4/7/02, p.C10)

709        Apr 24, Wilfried (~76), bishop of York, died.
    (MC, 4/24/02)

709        May 25, Aldhelmus (~69) of Ealdhelm, England, abbot, bishop, poet, saint, died.
    (SC, 5/25/02)

729        Apr 24, Egbertus (89), English bishop, St. Egbert, died in Iona.
    (MC, 4/24/02)

735        May 26, The Venerable Bede (~62), Beda Venerabilis, English speaking church historian, died.
    (MC, 5/26/02)(WSJ, 10/22/03, p.D12)

754        Jun 5, Friezen murdered bishop Boniface [Winfrid], English saint, archbishop of Dokkum, and over 50 companions.
    (MC, 6/5/02)

775        According to the Anglo-Saxon Chronicle a red crucifix appeared in the heavens after sunset. Scientists later believed that solar radiation had stimulated auroras and generated high levels of ¹⁴Carbon.
    (Econ 7/22/17, p.64)

793        Jun 8, Vikings raided the Northumbrian coast in England. Corfe served as a center of West Saxon resistance to Viking invaders. Vikings plundered the monastery and St. Cuthbert convent at Lindsfarne
    (HN, 6/8/98)(AM, 7/00, p.64)(PC, 1992, p.68)

796        Jul 26, Offa, king of Mercia (in central England), died.
    (MC, 7/26/02)

796-821    Anglo Saxon king Coenwulf of Mercia, ruled a kingdom that covered vast swathes of the English midlands and northern counties to the southeast. In 2001 a metal detector enthusiast discovered a gold coin beside the River Ivel in Bedfordshire, southern England. The 4.25 gram coin depicts Anglo Saxon king Coenwulf of Mercia.
    (AFP, 2/8/06)

c800        England’s King Lear lived about this time. Shakespeare wrote his play “King Lear" in 1606.
c800        The inhabitants of the British Isles did not comb their hair until they were taught by the Danes about this time.
    (SFC, 6/30/96, Z1 p.5)

c800-900    Nennius wrote a history in the early 9th century and mentioned King Arthur as a fabulous figure.
    (WSJ, 3/27/98, p.W10)
800-900    In Scandinavia Futhark evolved around the 9th century. Instead of 24 letters, the Scandinavian "Younger" Futhark had 16 letters. In England, Anglo-Saxon Futhorc started to be replaced by the Latin alphabet by the 9th century, and did not survive much more past the Norman Conquest. Futhark continued to be used in Scandinavia for centuries longer, but by 1600 CE, it had become nothing more than curiosities among scholars and antiquarians.

828        The Historia Brittonum, written about this time, states that "The island of Britain derives its name from Brutus, a Roman consul" who conquered Spain. According to legend the first king of Britain was Brut, who founded the royal line that produced king Coel, (Old King Cole was a marry old soul), and Arthur of the Round Table.
    (https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Historia_Brittonum)(SFC, 2/15/97, p.D4)

835-1500    Medieval British history for this period is covered by timeref.com.

849        Alfred the Great (d.899) was said to have been born near Uffington. He became King of the West Saxons in 871. He was the 5th and youngest son of King Aethelwulf and Queen Osburga of Wessex.
    (AHD, 1971, p.32)(AM, 9/01, p.42)(ON, 4/08, p.4)

866        Nov, Danish Viking Ivar the Boneless first invaded the trading port of Eoforwic, the old Roman settlement of Eboracum. The Jorvic Viking settlement was discovered in 1976 when workers in York excavated for a new shopping center.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Scandinavian_York)(SSFC, 4/13/14, p.Q5)

867        A last surviving older brother of Alfred, became King Aethelred I of Wessex, an Anglo-Saxon kingdom in southern England.
    (ON, 4/08, p.4)

867        Danes fought Saxons in the battle of Eoferwic (York).
    (WSJ, 1/28/05, p.W6)

870        Dec 31, Skirmish at Englefield. Ethelred of Wessex beat back a Danish invasion army.
    (MC, 12/31/01)

871        Jan 4, Ethelred of Wessex was defeated by Danish forces at Reading.
    (PCh, 1992, p.72)

871        Jan 8, Ethelred of Wessex defeated the Danish forces at Ashdown.
    (PCh, 1992, p.72)

871        Mar 2, Battle at Marton (Maeretun): Ethelred van Wessex (d.871) beat the Danish invasion army. Ethelred died in April and his brother Alfred (22) took over. Alfred became Alfred the Great and ruled until 899.
    (PCh, 1992, p.72)(SC, 3/2/02)

871        Apr 23, Ethelred I, king of Wessex, brother of Alfred the Great, died.
    (MC, 4/23/02)

878        Jan, Danish forces from north of Wessex launched an unexpected attack on Wessex, ruled by King Alfred. In 1911 G.K. Chesterton authored the historical novel “The Ballad of the White Horse" set in England during this time.
    (SSFC, 4/22/07, p.P10)(ON, 4/08, p.4)

899        Oct 26, Alfred the Great (b.849), writer and king of Wessex (871-99), died. He helped to bring about the English state, the Royal Navy and English universities. He translated Pope Gregory’s “Pastoral Care," the universal history by Orosius, Bede’s Ecclesiastical History, and the “Consolation of Philosophy" by Boethius. Alfred also compiled England’s first code of laws, The Doom Book.
    (Econ, 5/26/07, p.18)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Alfred_the_Great)(ON, 4/08, p.5)

900        The Abbots Bromley Horn Dance, an Old English pagan ritual, used horns from reindeer that dated to about this time. A dozen male dancers in Staffordshire traditionally performed the dance once a year in early September. The first rendition of the Horn Dance was recorded near the town of Abbots Bromley in 1226.
    (SFC, 9/4/10, p.A1)(SFC, 9/7/10, p.C2)

924        Jul 17, Edward the Older, English king (899-924) and son of Alfred the Great, died. He was succeeded by his son Athelstan.
    (PC, 1992, p.75)

924-940    Athelstan ruled as king of England.

929        Eadgyth (910-946), the sister of King Athelstan and the granddaughter of Alfred the Great, was given in marriage to Otto I, the king of Saxony and the Holy Roman Emperor. She had at least two children before her death in 946 at age 36. In 2010 her remains were found in Magdeburg Cathedral in northern Germany.
    (AFP, 1/20/10)(AFP, 6/17/10)

937        King Athelstan unified the various Saxon and Celtic kingdoms following the battle of Brunanburgh. He was the brother of Eadgyth, wife of Holy Roman Emp. Otto I, and is generally considered to have been the first King of England.
    (AFP, 1/20/10)

945        Monks settled along the Thames riverbank at Bablock Hythe.
    (SFEC, 8/20/00, p.T9)

946        May 25, Edmund the Older, king of Wessex, England, (939-46), died.
    (SC, 5/25/02)

955        King Eadwig failed to appear at his coronation feast. Dunstan, chronicler of the event, found him cavorting with a young lady and her mother.
    (WSJ, 1/29/99, p.W7)

960        England’s King Edgar imposed an annual tribute of 300 wolf skins on Idwal, king of Wales.
    (Econ, 12/22/12, p.125)

978        Mar 18, Edward the Martyr (15), King of Anglo-Saxons (975-78), was murdered.
    (MC, 3/18/02)

979        Apr 14, There was a challenge to throne of King Aethelred II, the Unrede (Unready), of England (979-1016). He attempted to buy peace with from Scandinavian invaders and called for England’s 1st general tax, the Danegeld. Some 140,000 pounds of silver was paid in tribute.
    (WSJ, 5/24/01, p.A20)(MC, 4/14/02)

988        May 19, Dunstanus, English archbishop of Canterbury, died.
    (MC, 5/19/02)

994-1035    Life of Canute, later King of England, Denmark and Norway.
    (AHD,1971, p.198)

995-1030    Olaf Haraldsson, aka Saint Olaf, the patron saint of Norway. He was king from 1016-1029. He and a crew of Vikings attacked London and pulled down the London Bridge with ropes. This is remembered in the nursery rhyme "London Bridge is falling down..."
    (WUD, 1994, p.1002)(SFC, 8/23/97, p.E3)

c1000    The Vikings established a thriving economy in the town they called Jorvik. It had been founded by the Romans as a fortress and later came to be called York.
    (SFEC,10/26/97, p.T4)

1000        A divided England, ruled by Ethelred the Unready, was in a state of intermittent warfare with the Vikings, who controlled much of the realm.
    (SFC, 4/23/01, p.E1)

1000CE    In 1999 Robert Lacey and Danny Danziger published "The Year 1000: What Life Was Like at the Turn of the First Millennium." It focused on life in England and used the Julius Work Calendar as a major source.
    (WSJ, 1/29/99, p.W7)

1000-1100    Eilmer of Malmesbury (also known as Oliver due to a scribe's miscopying, or Elmer, was an 11th-century English Benedictine monk best known for his early attempt at a gliding flight using wings. He reportedly strapped wings to his hands and feet and jumped off a tower at England's Malmesbury Abbey gliding some 200 meters before crashing and breaking both legs.
    (https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Eilmer_of_Malmesbury)(Econ., 10/10/20, p.75)

c1000-1200    The 11th or 12th century document "De Mirabilibus Brittanniae" (the Wonders of Britain) was written by Radulfi de Diceto Lundoniensis.
    (AM, 9/01, p.42)

1002        Nov 13, English king Ethelred II launched a massacre of Danish settlers.

c1002-1066    Edward the Confessor, English king (1042-1066), saint and founder of Westminster Abbey.
    (WUD, 1994, p.454)

1014        Feb 3, Sweyn Forkbeard (b.960), Danish-born Viking king of England (1013-14), died.

1014        Apr 23, The Battle of Contarf ended Danish rule in Ireland but a Dane killed Irish King Brian Boru (87).
    (PCh, 1992, p.80)(MC, 4/23/02)

1016        Apr 23, Ethelred II "the Unready", king of England (979-1016), died.
    (MC, 4/23/02)

1016-1035    Canute the Great of Denmark became King of England.
    (AHD, 1971, p.198)

1018-1035    Canute the Great becomes King of Denmark as well as King of England.
    (AHD, 1971, p.198)

1035        Nov 12, Cnut the Great (b.c995), King of Denmark, England and Norway, died in England. The area of his rule is often referred to as the North Sea Empire. As a Danish prince, Cnut (Canute) won the throne of England in 1016 in the wake of centuries of Viking activity in northwestern Europe. Scotland submitted to him in 1017. His later accession to the Danish throne in 1018 brought the crowns of England and Denmark together.

1040        Mar 7, Harold I, King of England (1035-40), died.
    (MC, 3/7/02)

1042-1066    Edward the Confessor (b.1002) served as King of England. Monks penned the manuscript "The Life of King Edward the Confessor" and in 1998 it was put on a WWW page: www.lib.cam.ac.uk/MSS/Ee3.59
    (WUD, 1994, p.454)

1043        Apr 3, Edward the Confessor was crowned king of England.
    (MC, 4/3/02)

1057        Jul 10, Lady Godiva rode naked on horseback throughout Coventry on a dare from her husband, the Earl of Mercia, who abolished taxation in this year.
    (MC, 7/10/02)

1057        Aug 31, Leofric, count of Mercia and husband of Lady Godiva, died. His wife, the Countess Godgifu (Godiva), had founded a Benedictine priory on a hill overlooking the River Sowe, and the town of Coventry grew up around it. The priory probably ran a market that would have formed the nucleus of the growing town. Such a market would bring fees and taxes to the priory and the Earl while flooding the district with goods and money. Godiva may well have ruled the settlement between Leofric’s death and her own in 1066.
    (HNC, 12/2/00)(MC, 8/31/01)

1060        England minted a coin shaped like a four-leaf clover. Users broke off each leaf as needed as a separate piece of currency.
    (SFC, 6/30/96, Z 1 p.5)(SFEC, 8/1/99, Z1 p.8)

1061        Apr 24, Halley's Comet inspired an English monk to predict that England would be destroyed.
    (MC, 4/24/02)

1065        Dec 28, Westminster Abbey opened in London.
    (MC, 12/28/01)

1066        Jan 5, Edward  the Confessor (b.1003), king of England (1043-66), died heirless.

1066        Jan 6,  Harold Godwinson, Earl of Wessex, was crowned King of England.
    (TLC, BTCW, 6/25/95)(HN, 1/6/99)

1066        Mar 23, The 18th recorded perihelion passage of Halley's Comet. Haley’s Comet was seen and soon after depicted on the Bayeux Tapestry. The 230-foot tapestry was created by craftsmen working for a Norman Bishop to depict the 1066 Norman invasion. In 2005 Andrew Bridgeford authored “1066: The Hidden History in the Bayeux Tapestry."
    (SS, 3/23/02)(NH, 7/98, p.78)(WSJ, 4/22/05, p.W6)

1066        Sep, Duke William of Normandy sailed with 12,000 men to capture the English crown. His fleet encountered a severe storm that disrupted his landing.
1066        Sep, Harold Hardrata, King of Norway, sailed south with 10,000 men in 300 ships to attack England.
    (TLC, Battles That Changed the World, 6/25/95)

1066        Sep 21, At the Battle at Fulford Norway’s King Harald III Hardrada beat the British militia.
    (MC, 9/21/01)

1066        Sep 25, King Harold Godwinson II marched north and attacked the Vikings at the Battle of Stampford Bridge in Yorkshire. Harald III Hardrada (51), King of Norway    (1046-1066), died in battle. Godwinson’s forces destroyed the Vikings who returned to Norway in 24 of their 300 ships. Marching north to face a Norwegian invasion force commanded by King Harald Sigurdsson, aka Hardraade, and by his usurper brother, Tostig, Godwinson defended his crown at Stamford Bridge, resulting in a Saxon victory and the deaths of both Harald and Tostig. Soon afterward, however, Harold had to march south to face another invading contender for his throne, Duke William the Bastard of Normandy, who defeated and killed Harold at Hastings on October 14, and took the English crown as William the Conqueror.

1066        Sep 28, William the Conqueror invaded England to claim the English throne.
    (AP, 9/28/97)

1066        Oct. 2, The Normans landed in southern England and King Harold was forced to march his men south to face the Normans.
    (TLC, Battles That Changed the World, 6/25/95)

1066        Oct 14, King Harold and his army locked into a massive shield wall and faced Duke William, William the Conqueror, and his mounted knights near the town of Hastings, Battle of Hastings. Duke William planned a three point attack plan that included a) heavy archery b) attack by foot soldiers c) attack by mounted knights at any weak point of defense. The bloody battle gave the name Sen Lac Hill to the battle site. The Normans won out after Harold was killed by a fluke arrow. This placed William on the throne of England.
    (TLC, Battles That Changed the World, 6/25/95)(AP, 10/14/97)(HN, 10/14/98)

1066        Dec 25, William the Conqueror (d.1087), Duke William of Normandy, was crowned king of England. Under the reign of William I the construction of Windsor Castle began. Over the next 50 years every English cathedral church and most big abbeys were raised to the ground, and rebuilt in a new continental style.
    (https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/William_the_Conqueror)(SFC, 5/25/96, p.A12)(AP, 12/25/97)(Econ, 12/24/16, p.34)

1066        The Channel Islands, 35 miles off the coast of France, became possessions of the English Crown when the Normans conquered England.
    (SFC, 8/10/96, p.A10)

1066        In England prior to 1066, hunting was virtually unrestricted. The Forest Laws, strictly enforced by English kings starting in the 11th century, placed restrictions on hunting, making it the sole privilege of the nobility. Unauthorized slayers of the king’s deer were often put to death.
    (HNQ, 3/3/00)

1066        The Countess Godgifu (Godiva) died. She had founded a Benedictine priory on a hill overlooking the River Sowe, and the town of Coventry grew up around it.
    (HNC, 12/2/00)

1067        Chepstow Castle was built in Wales to protect a strategic crossing of the River Wye and for the defense of the Wye Valley near the English border by the troops of William the Conqueror.
    (SFEC, 5/25/97, p.T5)(SFEC, 5/10/98, p.T4)

1077        Windsor Castle was erected by William the Conqueror to monitor travel on the Thames River.
    (USAT, 11/19/97, p.2D)

1078        William the Conqueror began work on the Tower of London. Henry III ordered it whitewashed in 1240.
    (NG, V184, No. 4, Oct. 1993, p.41)(Hem, 9/04, p.28)

c1080    Windsor Castle began as an earthwork-and-timber fortification by William the Conqueror.
    (WSJ, 1/11/99, p.R36)

1081        The House of Lords originated under William the Conqueror.
    (SFC, 10/27/99, p.A13)

1085        William the Conqueror ordered the Domesday survey of English manor's production capacity in order to collect taxes. The survey was completed in 1086.
    (WSJ, 1/11/99, p.R42)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Domesday_Book)

1086        Aug 1, English barons submitted to William the Conqueror.
    (MC, 8/1/02)

1087        Sep 9, William the Conqueror, Duke of Normandy and King of England, died in Rouen while conducting a war which began when the French king made fun of him for being fat.
    (HN, 9/9/00)

1089        May 28, Lanfrance, Archbishop of Canterbury, died.
    (MC, 5/28/02)

1093        Aug 12, In England the foundation stone for Durham Cathedral was laid down. The main chapel was completed in 1175. It served as the seat of the Bishop and the church of the Benedictine monastery of Durham.
    (SSFC, 12/14/08, p.E4)(www.sacred-destinations.com/england/durham-cathedral.htm)

1093        Trade guilds were noted in England.
    (WSJ, 1/11/99, p.R25)

1100        Aug 2, William II (44), [Rufus], king of England, was shot dead in New Forest.
1100        Aug 2, Henry I (1068-1135), the son of William the Conqueror, became King of England. He soon published the Charter of Liberties to persuade barons that he would behave more reasonably than his brother William Rufus.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Henry_I_of_England)(Econ, 12/20/14, p.34)
1100        The Tower of London took in its 1st prisoner.
    (Hem, 9/04, p.28)

1100-1200    Chretien de Troyes of France in the 12th century introduced Camelot into the Arthurian legend and placed Lancelot in the saga along with the quest for the Holy Grail.
    (WSJ, 3/27/98, p.W10)
1100-1200    The wooden London Bridge was replaced by a stone structure that carried traffic and included shops and houses.
    (SFEC, 6/11/00, p.A17)

1100-1300    Over 100 new towns were founded in England during this period and the population jumped from 2.25 million to 6 million.
    (Econ, 12/24/16, p.34)

1102        In England the Westminster Council outlawed “the selling of men like brute animals."
    (ON, 12/08, p.8)

1106        Sep 28, King Henry I of England defeated his brother Robert Curthose of Normandy at the Battle of Tinchebrai and reunited England and Normandy. Robert remained a prisoner until he died in 1134.
    (HN, 9/28/98)(PC, 1992, p.90)

1109        Apr 21, Anselmus, philosopher, archbishop of Canterbury, died.
    (MC, 4/21/02)

1118        Dec 21, Thomas Becket (d.1170), archbishop of Canterbury, was born (some sources say 1120). His close friend Henry II of England later ordered his martyrdom.

1120        Nov 25, Countess of Perche, bastard daughter of English king Henry I, drowned along with William (17), English crown prince and son of Henry I.
    (MC, 11/25/01)

1124        The quality of English silver coins improved after mint masters caught adultering coins had their right hands cut off.
    (WSJ, 1/11/99, p.R42)

1125         William of Malmesbury (c1095-c1143) completed his Gesta Regum Anglorum ("Deeds of the English Kings"), consciously patterned on Bede, which spanned from AD 449–1120.

1133        Mar 25, Henry II, King of England (1154-1189) , was born.
    (HN, 3/24/98)

1135        Dec 1, Henry I Beauclerc of England died and the crown was passed to his nephew Stephen of Bloise. He had decreed that the standard linear measure of one foot be a third the length of his arm which was 36 inches. He was the 1st English king able to read.
    (HN, 12/1/98)(SFEC, 2/14/99, Z1 p.8)(MC, 12/1/01)

1135        Dec 22, Stephen of Blois was crowned the king of England.
    (HN, 12/22/98)

1138        Aug 22, English defeated Scots at Cowton Moor. Banners of various saints were carried into battle which led to its being called Battle of the Standard.
    (MC, 8/22/02)

1143        William of Malmesbury (b.c1095), the foremost English historian of the 12th century, died about this time.

1150        Mar 26, Tichborne family of Hampshire, England, started tradition of giving a gallon of flour to each resident to keep deathbed promise.
    (SS, 3/26/02)

1151        Sep 7, Geoffrey Plantagenet, earl of Anjou and duke of Normandy, died at 38.
    (MC, 9/7/01)

1154        Oct 25, King Steven of England (1135-54), died.
    (MC, 10/25/01)

1154        Dec 19, Henry Plantagenet of the Angevin dynasty was crowned Henry II, King of England.
    (HN, 12/19/98)(WSJ, 3/10/99, p.A22)(ON, 6/12, p.5)

1155        Jan, Sir Thomas Becket (~1118-1170) was given the high office of Chancellor to the King, Henry II.

1157        Sep 8, Richard I, [Richard the Lion Hearted], King of England (1189-99), was born.
    (MC, 9/8/01)

1159        Sep 1, Adrian IV, [Nicole Breakspear], only English pope (1154-59), died.
    (MC, 9/1/02)

1162        May 23, Thomas Becket was elected archbishop of Canterbury.

1164        Jan 30, Henry II held a council at the Clarendon hunting lodge and presented a document called the Constitutions of Clarendon. In sixteen constitutions he sought less clerical independence and a weaker connection with Rome. Thomas Becket refused to sign.
    (ON, 8/20/11, p.2)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Thomas_Becket)

1164        Nov 2, Thomas Becket, the archbishop of Canterbury, fled England and landed in Flanders.
    (ON, 8/20/11, p.2)

1167        Feb 27, Robert of Melun, English philosopher, bishop of Hereford, died.
    (MC, 2/27/02)

1167        Dec 24, John "Lackland" Plantagenet, King of England (1199-1216), was born.
    (HN, 12/24/98)(MC, 12/24/01)

1170        Jun 14, Henry II of England crowned his son as heir apparent in a ritual performed by the archbishop of York.
    (ON, 8/20/11, p.2)

1170        Dec 2, Thomas Becket, archbishop of Canterbury, returned to Canterbury from France.
    (ON, 8/20/11, p.3)

1170        Dec 29, Thomas Becket (b.1117), archbishop of Canterbury, was murdered in Canterbury Cathedral by 4 English knights. Barons had heard Henry II cry out, "Will no one rid me of this meddlesome priest?"
    (AP, 12/29/97)(HN, 12/29/98)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Thomas_Becket)

1170        Henry II began replacing the original timber structures of Windsor Castle with stone.
    (WSJ, 1/11/99, p.R36)

1170        Henry II sent his Anglo-Norman barons to invade Ireland after he gained support from the English pope.
    (SFEM, 2/22/98, p.37)

1173        Feb 21, Pope Alexander III canonized Thomas Becket (1117-1170) of Canterbury.

1173        Queen Eleanor took the part of her young son in his rebellion against Henry II. The rebellion was put down and Henry imprisoned Eleanor. She remained inprisoned for 16 years.
    (ON, 6/12, p.5)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Eleanor,_Duchess_of_Aquitaine)

1174        The earliest known English horse races were held.
    (WSJ, 1/11/99, p.R34)

1175        William de Braose (1130-1211), a court favorite of King John of England, carried out the Abergavenny Massacre, luring three Welsh princes and other Welsh leaders to their deaths.

1178        Jun 18, 5 Canterbury monks reported an explosion on moon (only known observation). This is the proposed time of origin of lunar crater Giordano Bruno.
    (MC, 6/18/02)

1178        English raiders attacked the Irish town of Clonmacnoise but spared the churches.
    (SFEC, 8/1/99, p.T8)

1183        James Goldman wrote his 1966 play "The Lion in Winter," set in 1183 England. The 1968 film "The Lion in Winter" focused on Henry II and his estranged wife, Eleanor of Aquitaine, and their battle over succession. The 1834 opera by Gaetano Donizetti,  "Rosmonda d’Inghilterra," was the story of Rosamond Clifford, who was put in a tower by her lover King Henry II, and offered death by dagger or poison by Queen Eleanor.
    (SFC, 10/30/98, p.D4)(WSJ, 11/10/98, p.A20)(WSJ, 3/17/99, p.A24)   

1189        Jan 21, Philip Augustus, Henry II of England and Frederick Barbarossa assembled the troops for the Third Crusade.
    (V.D.-H.K.p.109)(HN, 1/21/99)

1189        Feb 6, Riots of Lynn in Norfolk spread to Norwich,  England.
    (MC, 2/6/02)

1189        Jul 6, Henry II (56), King of England (1154-89), died.
    (SFC, 10/30/98, p.D4)(MC, 7/6/02)

1189        Sep 3, After the death of Henry II, Richard Lionheart, King Richard I, was crowned king of England in Westminster. Richard was the 2nd son of Henry II and Eleanor of Aquitaine.
    (AP, 9/3/97)(HN, 9/3/98)(ON, 6/12, p.5)
1189        Sep 3, Jacob of Orleans, Rabbi, was killed in the London anti Jewish riot  in which 30 Jews were massacred.
    (MC, 9/3/01)

1189        The first lord mayor was elected in London.
    (WSJ,3/13/95, p.A-1)

1190        Mar 16, An estimated 150 Jews were massacred in York, England. The Jewish population of York fled to Clifford’s Tower overlooking the rivers Ouse and Foss during an anti-Jewish riot. A crazed friar set fire to the tower and rather than be captured, the inhabitants committed mass suicide.
    (http://www.historyofyork.org.uk/themes/norman/the-1190-massacre)(SFEC, 10/26/97, p.T5)(HN, 3/16/99)

1190        Mar 18, The people of Bury St. Edmonds, England, killed 57 Jews.

1190        Emo of Friesland entered Oxford and was later remembered as Oxford’s first recorded foreign student.
    (Econ, 8/7/10, p.13)

1191        May 12, Richard the Lionheart married (Bernegaria) Berengaria of Navarre in Limassol, Cyprus.
    (NH, 4/97, p.62)(EofA, p.161)

1191        Jul 12, Richard Coeur de Lion and Crusaders defeated the Saracens in Palestine.
    (MC, 7/12/02)

1191        Aug 20, Crusader King Richard I (1157-1199), Coeur de Lion (the "Lionheart"), executed some 2,700-3,000 Muslim prisoners in Acre (Akko).
    (MC, 8/20/02)

1192        Oct 9, Richard Coeur de Lion left Jerusalem in disguise. [see Sep 21, 1192]
    (MC, 10/9/01)

1192        Dec 20, English King Richard I the Lionheart was captured in Austria on his return from the Third Crusade. He was held in a castle above Durnstein, Austria, after disrespecting  local Duke Leopold V. An entire year’s supply of wool from the Cistercian and two other monasteries in England was promised as ransom for the King. It was never paid in full.
    (NG, 5.1988, pp. 569)(http://tinyurl.com/33kall)(SSFC, 8/5/12, p.N4)

1194        Feb 4, Richard I, King of England, was freed from captivity in Austria with the payment of Leopold VI's ransom of 100,000
    (HN, 2/4/99)(ON, 8/07, p.9)

1194        Mar 13, Richard I, King of England, landed at Sandwich and immediately prepared to march north to recover his castles.
    (ON, 8/07, p.9)

1194         Mar 27, The Archbishop of Canterbury, on behalf of King Richard I, talked with the rebels inside the castle at Nottingham, who soon surrendered.
    (ON, 8/07, p.10)

1199        Apr 6, Richard I "the Lion-hearted" (41), King of England (1189-99), died. Richard was killed by an arrow at the siege of the castle of Chaluz in France.
    (HN, 4/6/99)(MC, 4/6/02)

1199        King John of England was crowned.
    (ON, 7/04, p.1)

1202        The English again attacked the Irish town and monastery at Clonmacnoise.
    (SFEC, 8/1/99, p.T8)

1202        King John of England proclaimed the 1st food law, the Assize of Bread. It prohibited the adulteration of bread with ground peas.
    (Econ Sp, 12/13/03, p.15)

1203        Arthur of Brittany, a political rival of King John of England, died while being held prisoner in one of John’s dungeons.
    (ON, 7/04, p.1)

1204        Apr 1, Eleanor of Aquitaine (81), wife of Louis VII and Henry II, died in Poitiers. In 1950 Amy Kelly authored “Eleanor of Aquitaine and the Four Kings."
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Eleanor,_Duchess_of_Aquitaine)(WSJ, 5/12/07, p.P10)

1204        France won back Normandy but the people of the isle of Jersey chose to remain loyal to England.
    (Sky, 4/97, p.28)

1207        Oct 1, Henry III, king of England (1216-72), was born.

1208        Mar 24, King John of England opposed Innocent III on his nomination for archbishop of Canterbury.
    (HN, 3/24/99)

1209        King John of England was excommunicated by Pope Innocent III.
    (HN, 10/19/98)

1209        England’s Cambridge University was established.
    (AFP, 10/11/06)

1210        Nov 1, King John of England began imprisoning Jews.
    (MC, 11/1/01)

1210        William de Braose fled Wales disguised as a beggar, to France. His wife and eldest son were captured and left to die in Corfe Castle.
    (Econ, 12/20/14, p.34)(http://tinyurl.com/m5t6tvs)

1213        May 15, King John submitted to the Pope, offering to make England and Ireland papal fiefs. Pope Innocent III lifted the interdict of 1208. He named Stephen Langton Archbishop of Canterbury.
    (HN, 5/15/99)(MC, 5/15/02)

1214        Jul 27, At the Battle of Bouvines in France, Philip Augustus of France defeated John of England.
    (HN, 7/27/98)

1214?-1294?    Roger Bacon, English philosopher and scientist. He was imprisoned for alchemy in 1284.
    (WUD, 1994, p.109)(HC, 1/9/98)

1215        Jan 6, King John met with disgruntled barons of northern England who demanded that taxes be lowered.
    (ON, 7/04, p.1)

1215        Apr 19-26, During Easter week English barons assembled an army of some 2,000 men near London and demanded that King John address their call for tax relief.
    (ON, 7/04, p.1)

1215        May 3, English barons led their forces on an attack of Northampton Castle. Loyalists to King John successfully defended the castle and the rebels returned to London.
    (ON, 7/04, p.2)

1215        May 12, English barons served an ultimatum on King John (known as "Lack land").
    (MC, 5/12/02)

1215        June 15, The Magna Carta ("the Great Charter") was adopted and sealed by King John, son of Henry II, at Runnymede, England, granting his barons more liberty. King John signed the Magna Carta, which asserted the supremacy of the law over the king, at Runnymede, England. Commercial clauses protected merchants from unjust tolls.
    (CFA, '96, p.48)(HFA, '96, p.32)(AP, 6/15/97)(HN, 6/15/98)(WSJ, 1/11/99, p.R49)

1215        Aug 24, Pope Innocent III, following a request from King John, declared the Magna Carta invalid. The barons of England soon retaliated by inviting King Philip of France to come to England. Philip accepted the offer.
    (ON, 7/04, p.2)(Econ, 12/20/14, p.34)

1215-1216     King John avoided rebel forces in the south but marched his army across the countryside subduing adversaries in the north, east and west. Scottish and Welsh armies raided the English borders.
    (ON, 7/04, p.2)

1216        Oct 19, John, King of England (1199-1216) died at Newark at age 49. He signed the Magna Carta and was excommunicated in 1209. King John was succeeded by his nine-year-old son Henry. The Royal Menagerie was begun during the reign of King John.
    (HN, 10/19/98)(SFEC, 10/10/99, p.T3)

1216        Oct 28, Henry III of England (9) was crowned. Regent William Marshal led him to agree to the demands made by the barons at Runnymede. Prince Louis, repudiated by the barons, returned to France.
    (HN, 10/28/98)(ON, 7/04, p.2)(Econ, 12/20/14, p.35)

1217        Feb 18, Alexander Neckum de Sancto Albano (59), English encyclopedist, died.
    (MC, 2/18/02)

1217        Nov 6, The Charter of the Forest was sealed in England by the young King Henry III, acting under the regency of William Marshall, 1st Earl of Pembroke, as a complementary charter to the Magna Carta (1215) from which it had evolved.

1220        Construction began on the English Cathedral of Salisbury. It was inaugurated in 1258.
    (MC, 9/20/01)(Econ, 12/20/03, p.29)
1220        Construction began on England’s York Minster Cathedral. It was completed in 1472.
    (SSFC, 4/13/14, p.Q5)

1225        Henry III came of age and reissued the Magna Carta and the Charter of the Forest (1217).
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Magna_Carta)(Econ, 1/10/15, p.14)

1226         The first recorded rendition of the Horn Dance took place near the town of Abbots Bromley. A dozen male dancers in Staffordshire traditionally performed the dance once a year in early September. The dance, an Old English pagan ritual, used horns from reindeer that dated to about 900.
    (SFC, 9/4/10, p.A1)(SFC, 9/7/10, p.C2)

1235        Henry III received 3 leopards from Frederick II, the Holy Roman Emperor. They became part of the Royal Menagerie housed in the Tower of London.
    (SFEC, 10/10/99, p.T3)

1236        Jan 14, Henry III married Eleanor of Provence.
    (HN, 1/14/99)

1239         Jun 17, Edward I (Longshanks), king of England (1272-1307), was born. He became king of England following the death of his father Henry III. Edward I has been called "the English Justinian" because of his legal reforms, but is usually known as one of the foremost military men of the medieval world. His rule strengthened the authority of the crown and England’s influence over her neighbors. While successfully subduing Wales he died while attempting to conquer Scotland.
    (HN, 6/17/00)(HNQ, 2/1/01)

1240        Nov 26, Edmund Van Abingdon, archbishop of Canterbury and Saint, died.
    (MC, 11/26/01)

1240        Henry III ordered the Tower of London to be whitewashed.
    (Hem, 9/04, p.28)

1243        A Charter granted permission for a fair at the monastery of St. Michael at Glastonbury Tor.
    (Local Inscription, 2000)

1247        Nov 22, Robin Hood died according to the 1400 ballad "A Lytell Geste of Robyn Hode." The legend of Robin Hood is believed to extend into antiquity.
    (MC, 11/22/01)(SFC, 2/17/04, p.A2)

1247        In London the Priory of St. Mary of Bethlehem was founded. It survived centuries of religious turmoil and eventually became an insane asylum. The word “bedlam" is a contraction of its name.
    (Econ, 8/27/16, p.65)

1249        Oxford’s first college, University College, was founded by William of Durham. (The oldest part of the existing buildings dates from 1634).
    (Econ, 5/21/05, p.16)(http://tinyurl.com/c6eny)

1250        Newbridge, the 2nd oldest bridge over the Thames, was built.
    (SFEC, 8/20/00, p.T1)

1252        The new "Round Table" jousting tournament appeared in England.
    (WSJ, 1/11/99, p.R34)

1258        Sep 20, The Cathedral of Salisbury, begun in 1220, was inaugurated.
    (MC, 9/20/01)(Econ, 12/20/03, p.29)

1264        May 14, The Baron's War was fought in England. King Henry III was captured by his brother in law Earl of Leicester Simon de Montfort at the Battle of Lewes in England.
    (HN, 5/14/99)(PC, 1992, p.113)

1265        Jan 20, The 1st English Parliament was called into session by Earl of Leicester.
    (MC, 1/20/02)

1265        Jan 23, The 1st English Parliament formally convened.
    (MC, 1/23/02)

1265        Aug 4, King Henry III in the Battle at Evesham put down a revolt of English barons lead by Simon de Montfort. Montfort, the English earl of Leicester, died in the battle.
    (HN, 8/4/98)(MC, 8/4/02)

1271        Nov 16, Henry III (b.1207), king of England (1216-71), died.

1272        Nov 21, Edward I was proclaimed King of England.

1274        Upon Edward‘s succession to the English throne, he demanded Llywelyn ap Gruffydd pay homage to him before he recognized him as Prince of Wales.
    (HNQ, 7/14/00)

1275        May 23, King Edward I of England ordered a cessation to the persecution of French Jews.
    (MC, 5/23/02)

1275        There was an earthquake at Glastonbury.
    (Local Inscription, 2000)

1276        Nov 12, Suspicious of the intentions of Llywelyn ap Gruffydd, the Prince of Wales, English King Edward I resolved to invade Wales. Edward decided to force Llywelyn ap Gruffydd into submission. Edward was aided by Llywelyn's brother Daffydd ap Gruffydd and Prince Gruffydd ap Gwenwynwyn of Powys—both of whom Llywelyn had expelled for plotting his assassination.
    (HNQ, 7/14/00)(HN, 11/12/00)

1277        King Edward of England invaded Wales. Edward was aided by Llywelyn ap Gruffydd’s brother Daffydd ap Gruffydd and Prince Gruffydd ap Gwenwynwyn of Powys—both of whom Llywelyn had expelled for plotting his assassination.
    (HN, 2/17/99)(HNQ, 7/14/00)

1278        May 10, Jews of England were imprisoned on charges of coining. [see Nov 17]
    (MC, 5/10/02)

1278        Nov 17, In England 680 Jews were arrested for counterfeiting coins. 293 were hanged. [see May 10]
    (MC, 11/17/01)

1282        Dec 11, Llywelyn ap Gruffydd (b.~1223), the last prince of an independent Wales, died after he was lured into a trap and killed at the Battle of Orewin Bridge by forces under Edward I.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Llywelyn_the_Last)(Econ, 11/24/12, p.63)

1283-1289    Conwy Castle was built by Edward I during his conquest of Wales. It was constructed as part of a wider project to create the walled town of Conwy.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Conwy_Castle)(SSFC, 1/27/13, p.N6)

1284        Apr 25, Edward II, king of England (1307-1327), was born.

1284        In England the eldest son of Edward I became the Prince of Wales.
    (SFC, 7/23/97, p.A10)

1290        Jul 12, Jews were expelled from England by order of King Edward I.
    (MC, 7/12/02)

1290        Oct 9, Last of 16,000 English Jews, expelled by King Edward I, left. The country was on the verge of bankruptcy. The debt to Jewish bankers was written off and all Jews were expelled from England. The Medicis and other northern Italian bankers were invited as a replacement.
    (SFEC, 6/22/97, BR p.3)(MC, 10/9/01)

1290        William of Ockham (d.1349), English Franciscan scholastic philosopher, was born. He became known for the maxim called Occam’s Razor (Ockham’s razor): "Entia non sunt multiplicanda praeter necessitatem." (Entries should not be multiplied unnecessarily). A modern version of this principle of logic might be: "The simpler, the better." [see 1349]
    (V.D.-H.K.p.123)(WUD, 1994 p.996)(AP,  2/4/99)

1291        May 10, Scottish nobles grudgingly recognized the authority of English king Edward I.
    (MC, 5/10/02)

1296        Apr 27, England’s King Edward I defeated the Scots at the Battle of Dunbar. He deposed King John and exiled him to France.
    (HN, 4/27/99)

1296        England's King Edward I invaded Scotland but his army was defeated by Scotsman William Wallace. After a series of battles England regains some control over Scotland.
    (Reuters, 2/16/12)
1296        King Edward I of England stole the 458-pound Stone at Scone from Scotland. It was returned to Scotland in 1996.
    (SFC, 11/16/96, p.A11)

1297        Sep 11, Scots under William Wallace "Braveheart" defeated the English army at Stirling Bridge, Scotland. The 1995 epic film Braveheart dramatized the life of 13th-century Scot William Wallace. While many Scots and others praised the film for reviving the legend of the Scottish hero, just as many people criticized the film for its numerous historical inaccuracies. For instance, the Battle of Stirling Bridge is an excellent example of Wallace’s military genius and what led him to being knighted in the film and real life. However, in the film, the battle takes place on an open field. (Reportedly, when a local asked actor/director Mel Gibson why the battle was being filmed with such an obvious discrepancy, Gibson explained that the bridge got in the way. The local responded, "Aye. That’s what the English found!") In addition, one of the film’s most intriguing twists is pure Hollywood invention. A calendar puts the lie to the tale of Wallace’s affair with Princess Isabella, wife of Prince Edward II, and his fathering of her child. Isabella and Edward II married in 1307, two years after Wallace’s execution. Her son, Edward III, was born in the years that followed.
    (WSJ, 9/9/97, p.A1)(HN, 9/11/98)(HNQ, 3/19/01)
1297        Sep 11, Hugh de Cressingham, English treasurer, died in battle.
    (MC, 9/11/01)

1298        Jul 22, King Edward I combined bowmen and cavalry to defeat William Wallace's Scots at Falkirk.
    (HN, 7/22/98)

1300s    England recruited Flemish weavers with promises of "good beer, good food, good bed and good bedfellow."
    (WSJ, 1/11/99, p.R25)

1300-1400    In the 14th century "The Dunmow Flitch" prize was awarded in Dunmow, Essex, England, to any couple who could come after a year of marriage and truthfully swear that they never quarreled and did not regret the marriage and would do it over again.
    (SFC, 12/26/96, p.C16)

1303        May 20, France returned Gascony to England’s Edward I.
    (HN, 5/20/98)(PC, 1992 ed, p121)

1303        The avoirdupois pound was invented by London merchants. As of 1959 the international pound, abbreviation "lb" or sometimes # in the US, became the mass unit defined as exactly 0.45359237 kilogram (or 453.59237 grams).

1305        Aug 23, Scottish patriot William Wallace was hanged, drawn, beheaded, and quartered in London.
    (HN, 8/23/98)

1306        English forces defeated Scottish forces under Robert Bruce at Methven near Perth. Bruce escaped to Rathlin Island.
    (ON, 2/08, p.6)

1307        May 10, Forces under Robert Bruce of Scotland defeated the English at Loudoun Hill. Over the next few years Bruce gained control over much of the Scottish countryside.
    (ON, 2/08, p.6)

1307        Jul 7, Edward I (b.1239), King (Longshanks) of England (1272-1307), died.

1307        Edward II ascended the English throne and had his former tutor, Piers Gaston, brought back to England and made him the Earl of Cornwall.

1308        Feb 25, Edward II was crowned King of England.
    (AP, 2/25/07)

1308        Princess Isabella (12) married England’s King Edward II (23). In 2005 Alison Weir authored “Isabella: She-Wolf of France, Queen of England.
    (Econ, 9/10/05, p.81)

1309        In Hoo, England, a girl was decapitated an buried in unconsecrated ground beside St. Werburgh parish church about this time. Her head a body were found by archeologists in 2007 and she was reburied in the main churchyard. Experts believed she may have been executed or committed suicide and then decapitated. The ritual was sometimes done during medieval times to deny Christians eternal life.
    (AP, 3/14/09)     

1310        English forces under Edward II crossed into Scotland to regain control of the territory.
    (ON, 2/08, p.6)

1312        Jun 19, Piers Gaveston, earl of Cornwall, was beheaded.
    (MC, 6/19/02)

1312        Nov 13, Edward III, King of England (1327-77), was born. He later raped  the countess of Salisbury.
    (WUD, 1994 p.454)(HN, 11/13/98)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Edward_III_of_England)

1312        Scots under Robert Bruce attacked Perth, held by the English, and gained control of the city and castle.
    (ON, 2/08, p.6)

1314        Jun 24, King Robert I (Robert the Bruce) of Scotland with 6,000 men and 500 horses routed English King Edward II with his army of 20,000 at Bannockburn. Bruce secured Scotland’s independence from England and ruled until his death in 1329. A film "The Bruce" was made in 1995 on a $500,000 budget.
    (AP, 6/24/97)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Battle_of_Bannockburn)(ON, 2/08, p.7)

1314        England banned football (soccer) for being too violent.
    (WSJ, 1/11/99, p.R34)

1315        Scotland assaulted the English border city of Carlisle during the First War of Scottish Independence. Robert the Bruce was driven off with heavy casualties finally giving up when the siege tower got stuck.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Siege_of_Carlisle_%281315%29)(Econ., 4/11/15, p.52)

1320        Apr 6, Scotland declared its independence in the Declaration of Arbroath. In a letter to the Pope they said: “As long as only one hundred of us remain alive we will never on any conditions be brought under English rule."
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Declaration_of_Arbroath)(Econ, 7/12/14, p.50)

1322        Mar 23, In York, England, Roger de Clifford was hanged and left hanging in a cage outside a tower (Clifford’s Tower) for a year and a day. He had been involved in a rebellion against King Edward II's favorite Huge Lord de Despencer, and ultimately against the King himself.
    (http://tinyurl.com/qamdvyl)(SSFC, 4/13/14, p.Q5)

1327        Jan 7, Edward II of England was deposed. [see Jan 20, Feb 1]
    (HN, 1/7/99)

1327        Jan 20, Edward II of England was deposed by his eldest son, Edward III. [see Jan 7, Feb 1]
    (HN, 1/20/99)

1327        Jan 25, King Edward III inherited the British throne. [see Jan 7,20]
    (MC, 1/25/02)

1327        Feb 1, Edward III was crowned King of England. [see Jan 7,20]
    (HN, 2/1/99)

1327        Sep 21, Edward II of England died. He was believed murdered by order of his wife, Queen Isabella, and Baron Robert Mortimer.

1328-1384    John Wycliffe, English theologian and biblical translator. He was posthumously declared a heretic and his body was exhumed for burning in 1428.
    (WSJ, 4/4/01, p.A18)

1330        Jun 15, Edward the Black Prince, the eldest son of Edward III and Prince of Wales (1343-1376), was born. He was the first Duke created in England, the Duke of Cornwall.
    (HN, 6/15/99)(MC, 6/15/02)

1337        Edward III’s claim to the French throne sparked the Hundred year’s War between England and France.
    (Econ, 8/24/13, p.75)

1337-1453    The Hundred Years War was a series of wars between England and France in which England lost all possessions in France except Calais.
    (WUD, 1994, p.693)

1339        King Edward III of England repudiated his debt to Florentine bankers.
    (Econ, 1/24/09, p.79)

1340        Jun 24, The English fleet defeated the French fleet at Sluys, off the Flemish coast.
    (HN, 6/24/98)

1343        The Peruzzi Bank, Europe's biggest, collapsed following risky loans to English kings.
    (WSJ, 1/11/99, p.R42)

1343        Geoffrey Chaucer (d.1400), English author, poet and diplomat, was born about this time.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Geoffrey_Chaucer)(WSJ, 9/18/00, p.A36)

1346        May, Edward III called for a fleet of 1000 ships and an army of 10,000 knights and soldiers to assemble at Portsmouth for an attack on his distant cousin, Philip VI of France.
    (ON, 9/00, p.1)

1346        Jul 12, Edward III landed his army on the Normandy beaches unopposed.
    (ON, 9/00, p.1)

1346        Jul 18, Edward III divided his army into 3 groups and began a march on Paris.
    (ON, 9/00, p.2)

1346        Aug 16, Philip VI offered Edward III sovereignty over Aquitaine in return for peace. Edward rejected the offer and learned that Philip had raised an army of 36,000 that included 15,000 Genoese crossbowmen. Edward marched toward Flanders in order to meet with allies.
    (ON, 9/00, p.2)

1346        Aug 25, Edward III of England defeated Philip VI's army at the Battle of Crecy in France. The English overcame the French at the Battle of Crecy. The longbow proved instrumental in the victory as French knights on horseback outnumbered the British 3 to 1. At the end of the battle 1,542 French lords and knights were killed along with 20,000 soldiers. The English lost 2 knights and 80 men. [see Aug 26]
    (WSJ, 8/3/98, p.A12)(HN, 8/25/98)

1346        Aug 26, During the Hundred Years War, King Edward III's 9,000-man English army annihilated a French force of 27,000 under King Philip VI at the Battle of Crecy in Normandy. The battle is regarded as one of the most decisive in history. [see Aug 25]
    (PC, 1992, p.128)(WSJ, 11/4/04, p.D10)

1346        Sep 3, Edward III of England began the siege of Calais, along the coast of France.
    (HN, 9/3/98)

1346        Sep 28, Edward III and Philip VI signed a temporary truce. Their hostilities marked the beginning of the Hundred Years War, which only ended in 1453.
    (ON, 9/00, p.2)

1346        Oct 17, English forces defeated the Scots under David II during the Battle of Neville's Cross, Scotland.
    (HN, 10/17/98)

1347        Aug 3, Six burghers of the surrounded French city of Calais surrendered to Edward III of England in hopes of relieving the siege.
    (HN, 8/3/98)

1347        Aug 4, English troops conquered Ft. Calais. After an 11 month siege, French Calais fell to England's King Edward III. English rule lasted for more than two centuries.
    (WSJ, 11/6/95, p. A-1)(MC, 8/4/02)

1347-1350    The Black Death: A Genoese trading post in the Crimea was besieged by an army of Kipchaks from Hungary and Mongols from the East. The latter brought with them a new form of plague, Yersinia pestis. Infected dead bodies were catapulted into the Genoese town. One Genoese ship managed to escape and brought the disease to Messina, Sicily. The disease quickly became an epidemic. It moved over the next few years to northern Italy, North Africa, France, Spain, Austria, Hungary, Switzerland, Germany, the Low countries, England, Scandinavia and the Baltic. There were lesser outbreaks in many cities for the next twenty years. An estimated 25 million died in Europe and economic depression followed. In 2005 John Kelly authored “The Great Mortality: An Intimate History of the Black Death, the Most Devastating Plague of All Time."
    (NG, 5/88, p.678)(WSJ, 1/11/99, p.R42)(SSFC, 3/6/05, p.B1)(SFC, 10/13/11, p.A6)
1347-1350    British limited records later suggested up to 50,000 victims were buried in less than three years in the Farringdon cemetery as the bubonic plague ravaged London.
    (Reuters, 3/15/13)

1348        Apr 23, King Edward III of England established the Order of the Garter, the first English order of knighthood.
    (AP, 4/23/97)(HN, 4/23/99)(www.royal.gov.uk/output/page490.asp)

1348        The Black Plague struck England and wiped out a third of the population.
    (Econ 6/17/17, p.67)

1349        William of Ockham (b.1290), English Franciscan scholastic philosopher, died. He proclaimed that the only real things are singular entities like an apple or man, and that universals have no existence whatever; they are mere names. The divine and nature each has its own validity, but the one is vastly more important that the other, with the one determining salvation, and the other the mere comfort of the body during its life. [see 1290]
    (V.D.-H.K.p.123)(WUD, 1994 p.996)(AP,  2/4/99)

1350        In Northumberland Langley Castle was built with 7-foot thick walls on a wooded estate.
    (WSJ, 2/27/98, p.B8)

1351        The Statute of Treasons was passed under which anyone who violated the wife of the heir to the throne was guilty of high treason.
    (WSJ, 5/23/96, p.A-10)

1355      Nov 1, During the Hundred Years’ War (1337-1457) an English invasion army under Black Prince Edward (25) landed at Calais.
    (DoW, 1999, p.213)(PC, 1992 ed, p.131)

1356        Sep 19, In a landmark battle of the Hundred Years' War, English Prince Edward, the Black Prince, defeated the French at Poitiers. Jean de Clermont, French marshal, died in battle.
    (HN, 9/19/98)(Econ, 8/24/13, p.76)

1359        Jeanne de Clisson (b.1300), also known as Jeanne de Belleville and the Lioness of Brittany, died. She was a Breton former noblewoman who became a privateer to avenge her husband after he was executed for treason by the French king. She plied the English Channel and targeted French ships, often slaughtering the crew, leaving few alive.

1360        Mar 15, French invasion army landed on English south coast and conquered Winchel.
    (MC, 3/15/02)

1360         The vaulting of York Minster cathedral was completed in northern England. The first recorded church on the site was a wooden structure built hurriedly in 627 to provide a place to baptize Edwin, King of Northumbria.

1361        England enacted its first Corn Laws. They barred the export of corn in order to keep local grain supplies cheap.
    (WSJ, 1/11/99, p.R50)

1364        May 20, Sir Henry Percy (d.1403), [Harry Hotspur], British soldier, politician, and rebel leader, was born.
    (WUD, 1994, p.1069)(MC, 5/20/02)

1367        Jan 6, Richard II, son of Edward the Black Prince, was born in Bordeaux. He served as king of England from 1377-1399.
    (HN, 1/6/99)(MC, 1/6/02)

1367        Apr 3, Birth of Henry Bolingbroke, aka Henry of Lancaster and later Henry IV, King of England (1399-1413) in Lincolnshire.
    (MWH, 1994)
1367        Apr 3, John of Gaunt and Edward the Black Prince won the Battle of Najara, in Spain.
    (HN, 4/3/99)

1376        Apr 28, English parliament demanded the supervision on royal outlay.
    (MC, 4/28/02)

1376            Jun 8, Edward (b.1330), the "Black Prince" of Wales, son of King Edward III of England and Queen Philippa of Hainault, died at Westminster Palace, Middlesex.

1377        Jun 21, Edward III (b.1312), King of England (1322-1377), died. Richard II, who was still a child, succeeded his father. In 1966 H.J. Hewitt authored "The Organization of War Under Edward III." In 1978 Richard Barber authored "Edward, Prince of Wales and Aquitaine." In 1980 Michael Prestwich authored "The Three Edwards: War and State in England 1272-1377." Lines of his 3rd and 4th sons, houses Lancaster and York engaged in the Wars of the Roses. In 2006 Ian Mortimer authored “The Perfect King: The Life of Edward III, Father of the English Nation."
    (WSJ, 1/11/99, p.R6)(ON, 9/00, p.2)(AM, 7/01, p.69)(HN, 6/21/98)(Econ, 4/15/06, p.84)

1380        Henry Of Lancaster at 13 married Mary de Bohun, daughter and co-heiress of Humphrey, the last Earl of Hereford.
    (MWH, 1994)

1381        May 30, English peasant uprising began in Essex.
    (MC, 5/30/02)

1381        Jun 14, The Peasant’s Revolt, led by Wat Tyler, climaxed when rebels marched on Jordan, plundered, burned and captured the Tower of London and killed the Archbishop of Canterbury. The revolt was a response to a statute intended to hold down wages during a labor shortage. The peasant demands also included access to privately owned land.
    (HN, 6/14/98)(SFC, 6/21/99, p.A7)

1381        Jun 15, The English peasant revolt was crushed in London and Wat Tyler, the rebel leader, was beheaded.
    (HN, 6/15/98)(MC, 6/15/02)

1381        England’s King Richard II issued a grant specifying tolls from every ship entering London, including "two roundlets of wyne" for any galley passing the Tower.
    (AP, 7/18/09)

1381        When the peasant’s revolt subsided England’s King Richard II (14) reneged on his promises to the peasants, rounded up the surviving ringleaders and had them executed.
    (Econ, 11/26/05, p.96)

1382        John Wycliffe’s heresy hearing was interrupted by an earthquake that toppled the tower of Canterbury Cathedral.
    (WSJ, 12/31/04, p.W6)

1384        Dec 31, John Wycliffe, English religious reformer and bible translator, died.
    (MC, 12/31/01)

1385        Aug 31, English King Richard the Second invaded Scotland with a force estimated at 80-thousand men.
    (MC, 8/31/01)

1386        The Earl of Suffolk, Michael de la Pole, was the first person to be impeached along modern lines of procedure.
    (WSJ, 1/25/99, p.A19)

1387        Aug 9, Henry V, British king famous for his victory at Agincourt, France, was born. [see Aug 29]
    (HN, 8/9/98)

1387        Aug 29,  Henry V, king of England (1413-22) / France (1416-19), was born. [see Aug 9]
    (MC, 8/29/01)

1387        Henry of Lancaster supported his uncle Thomas, Duke of Gloucester, in an attack on the government of Richard II.
    (MWH, 1994)

1387-88    Henry of Lancaster was a participant in the "Merciless" Parliament.
    (MWH, 1994)

1389        Henry of Lancaster rejoined King Richard II.
    (MWH, 1994)

1390        English king Henry IV spent a full year supporting the unsuccessful siege of Vilnius by Teutonic Knights with his 300 fellow knights. During this campaign Henry Bolingbroke also bought captured Lithuanian princes and then apparently took them back to England. King Henry's second expedition to Lithuania in 1392 illustrates the financial benefits to the Order of these guest crusaders. His small army consisted of over 100 men, including longbow archers and six minstrels, at a total cost to the Lancastrian purse of £4,360. Much of this sum benefited the local economy through the purchase of silverware and the hiring of boats and equipment. Despite the efforts of Bolingbroke and his English crusaders, two years of attacks on Vilnius proved fruitless.

c1392        Sir Jean Froissart authored "The Chronicles of England, France and Scotland."
    (ON, 4/00, p.6)

1393        Henry of Lancaster returned to England as a hero.
    (MWH, 1994)

1394        Mary de Bohun, wife of Henry of Lancaster, died. She and Henry had 4 sons and 2 daughters.
    (MWH, 1994)

1397        Henry of Lancaster was made Duke of Hereford and then banished from the realm for a presumed conspiracy to murder the Duke of Gloucester.
    (MWH, 1994)

1399        Aug 19, King Richard II of England surrendered to his cousin Henry Bolingbroke (Henry IV). Henry of Lancaster returned to England to claim his inherited lands. He marched with an army into Briston and captured Richard II and claimed the throne. [see Sep 29]
    (MC, 8/19/02)

1399        Sep 29, Richard II (1367-1400) of England signed his "Cession and Renunciation." His cousin, Henry of Lancaster, declared himself king under the name Henry IV. Richard had earlier introduced the lace handkerchief, triple-taxed the citizenry and stole the estates of his relatives. [see Sep 30, Oct 13]
    (HN, 9/29/98)(SFEC, 10/29/00, Z1 p.2)

1399        Sep 30, British Parliament accepted Richard II's "Cession and Renunciation." [see Sep 29]
    (HN, 9/30/98)

1399        Oct 13, Henry IV of England was crowned.
    (HN, 10/13/98)

1399        Oct, Richard II was imprisoned at Pontefract Castle, where he died 4 months later. [See Feb 14,1400]
    (MWH, 1994)(HN, 10/13/98)

1399-1413    The reign of Henry IV of England (1367-1413). He was the first king of the House of Lancaster.
    (WUD, 1994, p.1671)

1400        Feb 14, Richard II (33), deposed king of England (1377-99), was murdered in Pontefract Castle in Yorkshire.
    (HN, 2/14/99)(MC, 2/14/02)

1400        Oct 25, Geoffrey Chaucer (b.~1343), author (Canterbury Tales), died in London. In 1965 Charles Muscatine (1920-2010) authored “Chaucer and the French Tradition: A Study in Style and Meaning."
    (AP, 10/25/97)(WSJ, 9/18/00, p.A36)(SFC, 3/16/10, p.C5)

c1400        In Wales Owain Glyndwr (Owen Glendower c1359-c1460) with followers led the warriors of Gwynned in a bloody revolt against Henry IV. The event was marked by a comet.
    (SFEC, 6/22/97, p.D2)

1401        Feb 19, William Sawtree, 1st English religious martyr, was burned in London.

1401        In England King Henry IV passed the medieval statute De Heretico Comburendo.
    (MWH, 1994)

1402        The English Bedlam institution, a former monastery whose named derived from Bethlehem, began to house the poor and incurably mad. From 1728-1853 it was presided over by a family of doctors all descended from James Monro. On 2003 Jonathan Andrews and Andrew Scull published their 2-volume study: "Undertaker of the Mind" and "Customers and patrons of the mad-Trade," based on Monro’s Case Book.
    (WSJ, 1/29/03, p.D10)

1403        Jul 21, Henry IV defeated the Percys in the Battle of Shrewsbury in England. Henry IV fought down an insurrection from Henry Percy, the Earl of Northumberland and Ralph Neville, the Earl of Westmorland, the same men who had helped him overthrow Richard II. Henry Percy (39), [Harry Hotspur] was killed in the battle.
    (WUD, 1994, p.1671)(MWH, 1994)(HN, 7/21/98)

1404        Sep 27, William of Wykeham, chancellor and Bishop of Winchester, died.
    (MC, 9/27/01)

1404        In Wales Owain Glyndwr convened a parliament in Macchynlleth.
    (SFEC, 6/22/97, p.D2)

1408        Feb 19, Henry IV led a victory in  the Battle of Brabham Moor that marked the end of domestic threats. The revolt of Henry Percy, Earl of Northumberland, against King Henry IV, ended with his defeat and death at Brabham Moor.
    (MWH, 1994)(HN, 2/19/98)

1408        A law was enacted making it illegal to translate any part of the scriptures into English. It was declared a capital offense to possess an English Bible.
    (WSJ, 12/22/94, A-20)(WSJ, 4/4/01, p.A18)

1413        Mar 20, Henry IV (b.1367), King of England (1399-1413), died in the house of the Abbot of Westminster. He was succeeded by Henry V (b.1387).
    (AP, 3/20/97)(www.bbc.co.uk/history/historic_figures/henry_iv_king.shtml)

1414        Feb 19, Thomas Arundel, archbishop of Canterbury, chancellor of England, died.
    (MC, 2/19/02)

1415        Aug 13, King Henry V of England took his army across the English Channel and laid siege on the French port of Harfleur.
    (ON, 6/08, p.9)

1415        Oct 25, An English army under Henry V defeated the French at Agincourt, France. The French had out numbered Henry’s troops, but Welsh longbows turned the tide of the battle. The French force was under the command of the constable Charles I d’Albret. Charles I d’Albret, son of Arnaud-Amanieu d’Albret, came from a line of nobles who were often celebrated warriors. His ancestors had fought in the First Crusade (1096-99) and his father had fought in the Hundred Years War himself--first for the English before joining the side of France. Charles’ own exploits in the ongoing conflict came to an end at the Battle of Agincourt. The decisive victory for the outnumbered English saw the death of not only Charles, but a dozen other high-ranking nobles as well. But Charles’ fate did not end the Albrets as his descendants went on to become kings of Navarre, and later, France. In 2005 Juliet Barker authored “Agincourt: The King, the Campaign, and the Battle."
    (MH, 12/96)(HN, 10/25/98)(Econ, 10/22/05, p.88)(ON, 6/08, p.10)
1415        Oct 25, Edward (b.1373), duke of York, died at the Battle of Agincourt.

1415        In 2009 Ian Mortimer authored “1415: Henry V’s Year of Glory."
    (Econ, 11/21/09, p.86)

1417-145    This period was covered by Juliet Barker in her 2009 book: “Conquest: The English Kingdom of France 1417-1450."
    (Econ, 11/28/09, p.100)

1419        An English army under Henry V captured the duchy of Normandy.
    (ON, 6/08, p.11)

1420        May 21, King Charles VI of France signed the Treaty of Troyes. It recognized all the territorial gains of King Henry V, gave Henry the daughter of Charles, Catherine of Valois, in marriage, and acknowledged Henry as the legitimate heir to the French throne.
    (ON, 6/08, p.11)

1420        Dec 1, Henry V, King of England and de facto ruler of France, entered Paris.

1421        Dec 6, Henry VI, the youngest king of England, was born. He acceded the thrown at 269 days of age.
    (HN, 12/6/02)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Henry_VI_of_England)

1422        Aug 13, William Caxton (d.1491), 1st English printer, was born.
    (http://en.thinkexist.com/birthday/August_13/)(WSJ, 5/12/05, p.D8)

1422        Aug 31, Henry V (b.1387), King of England (1413-22) and France (1416-19), died.

1423        Dick Whittington (b.1354), four times Lord Mayor of London, a Member of Parliament and a sheriff of London, died and gave all his money to charity.
    (Reuters, 11/26/11)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Richard_Whittington)

1428        Dec 22, Richard Neville Warwick, 2nd earl of Salisbury, was born.
    (MC, 12/22/01)

1428        John Wycliffe (1328-1384), English theologian and biblical translator, was posthumously declared a heretic and his body was exhumed for burning.
    (WSJ, 4/4/01, p.A18)

1429        Apr 29, Joan of Arc led French troops to victory over the English at Orleans during the Hundred Years’ War. Legend has it that King Charles VII of France had a suit of armor made for Joan at a cost of 100 war horses. In 1996 a suit of armor was found and proposed to be Joan’s armor.
    (ATC, p.107)(SFC, 6/19/96, p.A10)(AP, 4/29/98)(HN, 4/29/98)

1429        May 7, English siege of Orleans was broken by Joan of Arc.
    (HN, 5/7/98)

1429        May 9, Joan of Arc defeated the besieging English at Orleans.
    (HN, 5/9/98)

1429        Nov 6, Coronation of Henry VI, King of England.
    (HN, 11/6/98)

1430        May 23, Joan of Arc was captured by the Burgundians, who sold her to the English.
    (AP, 5/23/97)(HN, 5/23/98)

1431        Dec 16, Henry VI of England (10) was crowned King of France.
    (HN, 12/16/98)(Econ, 11/28/09, p.100)

1434        Nov 24, The Thames River froze.
    (MC, 11/24/01)

1435        Sep 21, Treaty of Atrecht. Philippe le Bon of Burgundy and French king Charles VII signed a treaty at Arras. Philippe broke with the English and recognized Charles as France’s only king.
    (PCh, 1992, p.145)

1439        Jul 16, Kissing was banned in England in order to stop germs from spreading.
    (MC, 7/16/02)

1440        Eton, the top British public school, was established by Henry VI.
    (Hem, 4/96, p.68)

1442        Apr 28, Edward, the son of Richard Plantagenet, Duke of York, was born in Rouen, France. He was crowned as Edward IV in 1461 and became the first king of the House of York (1471-1483). In a 2004 television documentary, records were found in the Rouen Cathedral archives which revealed that, from 14 July to 21 August 1441, the crucial five-week period in which Edward must have been conceived, Edward's supposed father was away on campaign at Pontoise, several days' march from Rouen (where Cecily of York was based), and that prayers were being offered for his safety. This was taken to suggest that the Duke of York could not have been available to father Edward.

1443        Cardinal Beaufort (1375-1447) lent the English monarchy funds to finance 300 ships to carry 6 knights, 592 men-at-arms, and 3,949 archers to keep the French at bay.
    (Econ, 11/28/09, p.100)(www.nashfordpublishing.co.uk/bishops/henry_beaufort.html)

1445        Charles VII introduced France’s first standing army and within 2 years crushed the overstretched English.
    (Econ, 11/28/09, p.100)

1450        May 8, Jack Cade's Rebellion-Kentishmen revolted against King Henry VI.
    (HN, 5/8/98)

1450        Jul 12, Jack Cade was slain in a revolt against British King Henry VI.

1450        The Duke of York returned to England from Ireland after having been banished there by Queen Margaret.
    (MH, 12/96)

1452        Oct 2, King Richard III, of England (1483-85), was born.
    (MC, 10/2/01)

1453        Jul 17, France defeated England at the 1st Battle at Castillon, France, ending the 100 Years' War. [see Oct 19]
    (HN, 7/17/98)

1453        Oct 19, In the 2nd Battle at Castillon: France beat England, ending  the hundred year war. [see Jul 17]
    (MC, 10/19/01)

1453        Henry VI, of the house of Lancaster, suffered a nervous breakdown and Richard, the Duke of York, was named protector.
    (AM, 7/01, p.69)

1455        May 22, King Henry VI was taken prisoner by the Yorkists at the Battle of St. Albans, the 1st battle in the 30-year War of the Roses. The army of the Duke of York met the army of Queen Margaret at the Battle of St. Alban’s. The 2nd Duke of Somerset was killed as Yorkists briefly took possession of King Henry VI.
    (MH, 12/96)(HN, 5/22/99)(MC, 5/22/02)

1455-1485    The War of the Roses. During the war Margaret of Anjou, wife of the feeble-minded King Henry VI, was head of the House of Lancaster whose heraldic badge was a red rose. She struggled against the House of York, whose badge was a white rose, for the control of the government.
    (MH, 12/96)

1457        Jan 28, Henry Tudor (later Henry VII), 1st Tudor king of England (1485-1509), was born in Pembroke Castle, Wales.

1459        Oct, The Lancastrians defeated the Yorkists at Ludford.
    (AM, 7/01, p.69)

1460        Jun, Yorkist earls returned and met Henry VI’s Lancastrian army at Northampton. Henry was captured and taken to London to serve as a figurehead.
    (AM, 7/01, p.69)

1460        Jul 10, Wars of Roses: Richard of York defeated King Henry VI at Northampton.
    (MC, 7/10/02)

1460        Sep, The Duke of York returned from Ireland. The nobility would not allow his usurpation of the crown but agreed to pass it to him on Henry’s demise.
    (AM, 7/01, p.69)

1460        Dec 30, Richard Plantagenet (b.1411), English Duke of York, was killed by Lancastrians at the Battle of Wakefield. Queen Margaret hung his head from Micklegate Bar, one of the original entries to the city of York.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Richard_of_York,_3rd_Duke_of_York)(Econ, 12/18/10, p.111)(SSFC, 4/13/14, p.Q4)

1460        In 2009 academic Julian Luxford found a note written in Latin by a medieval monk about this time that read when translated into English: "Around this time, according to popular opinion, a certain outlaw named Robin Hood, with his accomplices, infested Sherwood and other law-abiding areas of England with continuous robberies."
    (AP, 3/14/09)

1461        Feb 2-3, The English houses of York and Lancaster battled at Mortimer’s Cross, the Battle of the Three Suns. In the War of the Roses Edward of York defeated the Welsh Lancastrians in the 2nd battle of St Alban's.
    (MH, 12/96)(AM, 7/01, p.69)(MC, 2/2/02)

1461        Feb 17, The Houses of York and Lancaster battled again at St. Alban’s. Queen Margaret defeated the Earl of Warwick and freed Henry VI.
    (MH, 12/96)(AM, 7/01, p.69)

1461        Mar 4, Henry VI was deposed and the Duke of York was proclaimed King as Edward IV and continued as King of England until 3 October 1470.

1461        Mar 29, Edward IV secured his claim to the English thrown in defeating Henry VI’s Lancastrians at the battle of Towdon (Towton). Some 50,000 fought and an estimated 28,000 were killed as the War of the Roses continued.
    (AM, 7/01, p.69)(AM, 7/01, p.68)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Battle_of_Towton)

1461        Jun 28, Edward IV was crowned king of England.

1464        May 15, The English Houses of York and Lancaster battled at Hexham. Among the Lancastrians the 3rd Duke of Somerset was killed.
    (MH, 12/96)

1465        Feb 11, Elizabeth of York, consort of King Henry VII, was born in London.
    (MC, 2/11/02)

1465        The Nevill Feast at Cawood Castle in Yorkshire, England. 2,500 people were entertained. The guests ate over several days, 113 oxen, sic wild bulls, 1,000 sheep,2,00 each of geese, pigs, and chickens, 12 porpoises, and 4,000 cold venison pasties. Such a feast would show how many fighting men a family could muster.
    (N.G., Nov. 1985, M. Girouard, p.74)

1465        King Henry VI was captured and imprisoned in the Tower of London.
    (MH, 12/96)

1470        Mar 2, At Lose Coat Field canon under Edward IV turned a group of Lincolnshire rebels into a panicked mob.
    (MH, 12/96)

1470        Sep, While Queen Margaret was in France, Richard Neville, the Duke of Warwick, forced Edward IV to flee to the Low Countries and Henry VI was re-instated as king.
    (MH, 12/96)

1470        Oct 9, Henry VI of England was restored to the throne.
    (HN, 10/9/98)

1470        Nov 1, Edward V, King of England, was born. [see Nov 3]
    (HN, 11/1/98)

1470        Nov 3, Edward V, King of England (Apr 9-Jun 25 1483), was born. [see Nov 1]
    (MC, 11/3/01)

1471        Mar, Edward IV returned to England.
    (MH, 12/96)

1471        Apr 11, King Edward IV of England captured London from Henry VI in the War of the Roses.
    (MC, 4/11/02)

1471        Apr 14, On Easter Sunday Edward IV led an army of mercenaries and Yorkists at the Battle of Barnet and defeated the Lancastrians under the Earl of Warwick. Richard Neville Warwick (42), 2nd earl of Salisbury, was killed in battle. Margaret of Anjou returned from France. With her son, the Prince of Wales, she planned to join with Jasper Tudor, a Welsh ally, and attack Edward west of London.
    (MH, 12/96)(HN, 4/14/00)

1471        May 4, The Yorkists defeated the Lancastrians in the Battle of Tewkesbury between the English House of Lancaster and House of York. King Edward IV routed the forces of ex-queen Margaret. The Lancastrian forces were led by Edmund Beaufort, 4th Duke of Somerset. Edward, the 17-year-old prince of Wales, was killed at the battle of Tewkesbury.
    (MH, 12/96)(HN, 5/4/99)(www.britainexpress.com/History/battles/tewkesbury.htm)

1471        May 6, The 4th Duke of Somerset and other Lancastrian nobles were beheaded at the Tewkesbury marketplace after trial presided over by the Duke of Gloucester, Constable of England.
    (MH, 12/96)

1471        May 21, Henry VI, king of England (1422-61, 70-71) and France (1431-71), was killed in the tower of London and Edward IV took the throne.
    (HN, 5/21/98)

1473/1474    The book "Recuyell of the Historyes of Troye" was translated and printed from the French by William Caxton. A copy sold in 1998 for $1.2 million.
    (SFC, 7/9/98, p.A12)

1475        British fishermen lost access to fishing grounds off Iceland due to a war in Europe. The cod catch did not go down and it is presumed that they had discovered the cod-rich waters off Newfoundland, whose discovery was later attributed to John Cabot.
    (SFEM, 11/15/98, p.23)

1476/1477    The first edition of Chaucer’s Canterbury Tales (1387-1400) was printed by William Caxton. A copy of the red, leather-bound edition sold at auction in 1998 for $7.5 million. In 1905 the Caxton Club in Chicago published the leaf book “William Caxton" by E. Gordon Duff. Each book contained one of 148 leaves from a Caxton 1st edition of the Canterbury Tales.
    (SFC, 7/9/98, p.A12)(WSJ, 5/12/05, p.D8)

1477        Nov 18, William Claxton published the first dated book printed in England. "Dictes & Sayengis of the Phylosophers," by Earl Rivers. It was a translation from the French. [see 1473/1474]
    (HN, 11/18/99)

1478        Feb 7, Sir Thomas Moore (d.1535), English humanist, statesman and writer, was born in London. He was best friend of Erasmus, and called by Erasmus: "a man for all seasons." He studied law and rose to the post of lord chancellor after the fall of Cardinal Wolsey. More would not accept Henry VIII's divorce from Catherine of Aragon nor his subsequent marriage to Anne Boleyn. The king had charges of treason filed and More was beheaded on July 6, 1535. He was canonized in 1935. The 1966 film "A man for All Seasons" was based on his life. He is famous for "Utopia."
    (V.D.-H.K.p.160)(CU, 6/87)(WUD, 1994, p.931)(HN, 2/7/99)

1478        Feb 18, George, the Duke of Clarence, who had opposed his brother Edward IV, was murdered in the Tower of London. George underwent forced drowning in a wine barrel ("A butt of Malmsey").
    (HN, 2/18/99)(MC, 2/18/02)

1482        The border town of Berwick-upon-Tweed ended up in English hands after changing hands 13 times in wars between England and the Scots.
    (WSJ, 7/8/08, p.A14)

1483        Apr 9, Edward IV (b.1442), King of England (1461-70, 71-83) died. His young sons, Edward and Richard, were left in the protection of their uncle Richard, Duke of Gloucester. He housed them in the Tower of London where they were probably murdered on his orders.

1483        Jun 25, The short reign of Edward V (b.1470), king of England (Apr 9-Jun 25, 1483), ended. He disappeared after being sent (ostensibly for safety) to the Tower of London.

1483        Jun 26, Richard III, Duke of Gloucester, usurped himself to the English throne.
    (HN, 6/26/98)(MC, 6/26/02)

1483        Jul 6, England's King Richard III was crowned.
    (AP, 7/6/97)

1483          Nov 2, Henry Stafford (b.1454), earl of Buckingham and constable of England, was beheaded at Salisbury for his rebellion against King Richard III (1452-1485).
    (DoW, 1999, p.71)

1483        Dec 24, Leaders of the English rebels swore fealty to Henry Tudor in the Cathedral of Rennes in Brittany.
    (ON, 12/06, p.1)

1485        Aug 1, Henry (VII) Tudor's army set sail from Harfleur to Wales.
    (ON, 12/06, p.1)

1485        Aug 7, Henry (VII) Tudor's army landed in Milford Haven, South-Wales.
    (ON, 12/06, p.1)

1485        Aug 22, Henry Tudor defeated Richard III (32) at Bosworth. England's King Richard III (1483-1485), the last of the Plantagenet kings, was killed in the Battle of Bosworth. This victory established the Tudor dynasty in England and ended the War of the Roses. 12 miles west of Leicester, the forces of Richard III met the forces under Henry Tudor (later to become Henry VII). Henry Tudor had returned from French exile on August 7 at Milford Haven and assembled forces including two Yorkist defectors, Thomas Stanley and his brother Sir William. These allies, plus the defection of Henry Percy, the 4th earl of Northumberland helped decide the outcome of the battle. Richard, whose forces had taken position on Ambien Hill, died fighting in an attempt to get at Henry Tudor himself. On Feb 4, 2013, scientists announced that they had identified his skeleton, which was found in a car park in 2012. 
    (AP, 8/22/97)(HN, 8/22/98)(HNQ, 8/22/00)(Reuters, 2/4/13)

1485        Sep 3, Henry Tudor entered London following his Aug 22 victory at Bosworth.
    (ON, 12/06, p.4)

1485          Oct 30, Henry Tudor (1457-1509) of England was crowned as Henry VII. This followed his defeat of King Richard III at Bosworth Field on Aug 22.
    (HN, 10/30/98)(DoW, 1999, p.66)

1485        Dec 16, Katherine of Argon, first wife of Henry VIII, was born.
    (HN, 12/16/98)

1485        Yeoman Warders, all men, began patrolling the parapets and passages of the Tower of London. They became known colloquially as Beefeaters because of the rations of meat they were given during medieval times. In 2007 the 1st woman joined their ranks.
    (AP, 1/3/07)

1485-1603    The Tudor family ruled over England.
    (WUD, 1994, p.1523)

1486        Jan 18, English King Henry VII (1457-1509) married Elizabeth of York, daughter of Edward IV. This ended the Wars of the Roses.
    (HN, 1/18/99)(ON, 12/06, p.4)

1487        Jun 16, Battle at Stoke: Henry VII beat John de la Pole & Lord Lovell.
    (MC, 6/16/02)

1488        Jul 28, Some 440 men from the Isle of Wight declared war on France. They were crushed in the Battle of St Aubin near Rennes. Over four hours some 5,000 Breton soldiers were beaten and stabbed to death. According to legend, just one lad made it back to the Island to pass on the appalling news.
    (Econ, 2/19/11, p.64)(www.iwbeacon.com/the-battle-of-st-aubin-1488.aspx)

1489        Feb 14, Henry VII and Holy Roman Emperor Maximilian I ally to assist the Bretons in the Treaty of Dordrecht.

1489        Jul 2, Thomas Cranmer, first Protestant archbishop of Canterbury (1533-1556), was born.
    (HN, 7/2/01)

1491        Jun 28, Henry VIII, King of England (1509-1547) and founder of the Church of England, was born at Greenwich. He later divorced four times. An inventory of his wealth in 1547 estimated his wealth at £300,000 and his military equipment at another £300,000.
    (CFA, '96, p.48)(AP, 6/28/99)(WSJ, 1/11/99, p.R8)

1491        Perkin Warbeck appeared in Ireland and claimed to be the missing Duke of York, thought by many to have been murdered by Richard III. After winning support in France and Scotland, Warbeck's fortunes turned and he was captured and executed in 1497.
    (HNQ, 4/17/02)

1491        William Caxton (b.1422), 1st English printer (Histories of Troy), died.
    (http://tinyurl.com/cj5dn)(WSJ, 5/12/05, p.D8)

1495        Nov 27, Scottish king James IV received Perkin Warbeck (21), a pretender to the English throne. James gave Warbeck, a Walloon, Lady Catherine Gordon in marriage.
    (MC, 11/27/01)(PCh, 1992, p.160)

1496        Mar 5, English king Henry VII hired John Cabot (Giovanni Caboto) to explore.
    (MC, 3/5/02)

1497        May 2, John Cabot departed for North America. [see Jun 24]
    (MC, 5/2/02)

1497        Jun 24, Italian explorer John Cabot (1450-1498?), (aka Giovanni Caboto), on a voyage for England, landed in North America on what is now Newfoundland or the northern Cape Breton Island in Canada. He claimed the new land for King Henry VII. He documented the abundance of fish off the Grand Banks from Cape Cod to Labrador.
    (NH, 5/96, p.59)(WUD, 1994, p.206)(AP, 6/24/97)(HN, 6/24/98)

1497        Jul 26, "Edward IV's son" Perkin Warbeck's army landed in Cork.
    (MC, 7/26/02)

1497        Aug 6, John Cabot returned to England after his first successful journey to the Labrador coast.
    (HN, 8/6/98)

1497        Aug 10, John Cabot told King Henry VII of his trip to "Asia."
    (MC, 8/10/02)

1497        Sep 7, Sailor Perkin Warbeck became [briefly] England’s King Richard I. Warbeck had invaded Cornwall after failing to find support in Ireland. He was soon forced to surrender and was imprisoned in the Tower of London.
    (MC, 9/7/01)(PCh, 1992, p.161)

1497        Sep, Henry VII defeated the Cornishmen at Blackheath. An insurrection in Cornwall had developed over taxes to support English defenses against Scottish invasion forces.
    (PCh, 1992, p.161)

1497        Robert Fayrfax (1464-1521), English royal composer, wrote one of 2 Magnificats that survived to modern times. He was considered the most prominent and influential composer during of the reigns of Kings Henry VII and Henry VIII of England.
    (SFC, 6/4/10, p.F4)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Robert_Fayrfax)

1499        Nov 12, Perkin Warbeck, Flemish sailor, was hanged for conspiring to escape from the tower of London with the imprisoned earl of Warwick. [see Nov 23]
    (PCh, 1992, p.162)

1499        Nov 28, Edward Plantagenet, 18th Count of Warwick, was beheaded.
    (MC, 11/28/01)

1500        Monasteries in England by this time owned a quarter of all English land. Glastonbury Abbey was the most powerful and wealthy.
    (SSFC, 10/29/17, p.F3)

1501        Oct 15, English crown prince Arthur married Catharina of Aragon. [see Nov 14]
    (MC, 10/15/01)

1501        Nov 14, Arthur Tudor married Katherine of Aragon. [see Oct 15]
    (HN, 11/14/98)

1502        Apr 2, Arthur, English crown prince, husband of Catharina of Aragon, died.
    (MC, 4/2/02)

1503        Feb 11, Elizabeth of York (b.1466), consort of King Henry VII, died on 38th birthday.

1503        Feb 18, Henry Tudor created Prince of Wales (later Henry VIII).
    (MC, 2/18/02)

1504        Apr 1, English guilds went under state control.
    (MC, 4/1/02)

1504        Aug 6, Matthew "Nosey" Parker, archbishop of Canterbury, was born.
    (MC, 8/6/02)   

1505-1585    Thomas Tallis, English organist and vocal composer, especially of church music.
    (WUD, 1994, p.1450)

1508        Althorp was bought by John Spencer, the ancestor of the 9th Earl Spencer, Princess Diana’s brother. The estate in Great Brington was selected as the grave site for Princess Diana in 1997. The Spencer family history was later detailed in "The Royal Family and the Spencers: Two Hundred Years of Friendship" by Nerina Shute; and "The Spencer Family History, 1817-1980" by O.M. Richards.
    (SFC, 4/3/98, p.B2)(SFEC, 11/29/98, Par p.2)

1509        Apr 21, Henry VII (b.1457), 1st Tudor king of England (1485-1509), died. In 2011 Allen Lane authored “Winter King: The Dawn of Tudor England."
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Henry_VII_of_England)(Econ, 9/24/11, p.107)

1509        Apr 22, Henry Tudor became King  Henry VIII of England following the death of his father, Henry VII. He soon married Catherine of Aragon, his brother’s widow and the aunt of Charles V (the Holy Roman Emperor), and fathered Mary, future Queen of England.
    (V.D.-H.K.p.161)(AP, 4/22/08)

1509        Jun 11, England's King Henry VIII married his 1st wife, Catherine of Aragon.
    (AP, 6/11/97)(HN, 6/11/98)

1509        Jun 24, Henry VIII was crowned king of England.
    (AP, 6/24/97)(HN, 6/24/98)

1509        Erasmus (1466-1536), a Dutch philosopher and Christian scholar, lectured at Cambridge and dedicated his "In Praise of Folly," a witty satire on church corruption and scholastic philosophy, to Thomas More. The essay was first printed in June, 1511.

1513        Aug 16, Henry VIII of England and Emperor Maximilian defeated the French at Guinegatte, France, in the Battle of the Spurs.
    (HN, 8/16/98)

1513        Sep 9, James IV (40), King of Scotland (1488-1513), was defeated and killed by English at the Battle of Flodden Field. The Scottish navy was sold to France.
    (TL-MB, 1988, p.10)(HN, 9/9/98)(MC, 9/9/01)

1514        Sep, Thomas Wolsey (1473-1530) was appointed archbishop of York.
    (TL-MB, p.10)

1514        Dec 4, Richard Hunne, English "heretic", allegedly committed suicide.
    (MC, 12/4/01)

1514        Hampton Court Palace was begun for Wolsey.
    (TL-MB, p.10)   

1514        England and France declared a truce in their warfare. Mary Tudor, sister of Henry VIII, married Louis XII.
    (TL-MB, p.10)

1515        Nov 15, Thomas Wolsey (1473-1530), archbishop of York, was made a cardinal.

1515        Dec 24, Thomas Cardinal Wolsey was appointed English Lord Chancellor.
    (MC, 12/24/01)

1515        In England the Gothic style chapel at King’s College in Cambridge was completed.
    (Econ 6/3/17, p.71)

1516        Feb 18, Mary Tudor, later Queen Mary I of England (1553-1558) and popularly known as "Bloody Mary," was born in Greenwich Palace.
    (HN, 2/18/98)(AP, 2/18/98)

1516        Thomas More published his "Utopia," the "golden little book" that invented a literary-world immune from the evils of Europe, where all citizens were equal and believed in a good and just God. "Your sheep, which are usually so tame and cheaply fed, begin now... to be so greedy and so wild that they devour human beings themselves and devastate and depopulate fields, houses, and towns." From More’s Utopia.
    (V.D.-H.K.p.160)(NG, 5.1988, pp. 574)

1516        Corpus Christi College, Oxford, was founded.
    (TL-MB, p.11)

1518        Cardinal Wolsey arranged the Peace of London between England, France, the Pope, Maximilian I and Spain.
    (TL-MB, p.11)

1518        Henry VIII authorized a college of physicians and it was founded by Oxford physician Thomas Linacre.
    (TL-MB, p.11)

1519-1579    Sir Thomas Gresham, merchant prince. He was a British banker and money-changer and served as the financial agent for Elizabeth I. He ran a news service in the Netherlands to keep informed of finances there and built the Royal Exchange of London modeled on the Antwerp commodities exchange.
    (WSJ, 1/11/99, p.R8)

1520        Oct 15, King Henry VIII of England ordered bowling lanes at Whitehall.
    (MC, 10/15/01)

1520        A home for the master shipwright of the royal dockyards was built in Deptford. It later came to be called the Shipwright’s Palace.
    (WSJ, 5/24/00, p.A24)

1520-1598    William Cecil. He later became the Lord Treasurer and chief adviser for Queen Elizabeth I, for which he was made Lord Burghley. He built the Burghley House.
    (WSJ, 8/24/99, p.A16)

1521        Oct 11, Pope Leo X titled King Henry VIII of England "Defender of the Faith" in recognition of his writings in support of the Catholic Church. Henry had penned a defense of the seven Catholic Sacraments in response to Martin Luther‘s Protestant reform movement. By 1534, Henry had broken completely with the Catholic Church, and the Pope‘s authority in England was abolished.
    (TL-MB, p.12)(HNQ, 8/12/00)(MC, 10/11/01)

1522        Sheep farmer John Spencer began building the family home of Althorp in Northamptonshire.
    (WSJ, 1/22/98, p.A1(WSJ, 1/22/98, p.A14)

1522        England declared war on France and Scotland. Holy Roman Emp. Charles V visited Henry VIII and signed the Treaty of Windsor. Both monarchs agreed to invade France.
    (TL-MB, p.12)

1523        Sep 19, Emperor Charles V and England signed an anti-French covenant.
    (MC, 9/19/01)

1523        Oct 27, English troops occupied Montalidier, France.
    (MC, 10/27/01)
1523        Anthony Fitzherbert published the "Book of Husbandry," the first English manual of agriculture.
    (TL-MB, p.12)

1525        The bishop of London recruited Augustine Packington as an agent in Antwerp to buy up all copies of Tyndale’s translation of the New Testament. Packington, a supporter of Tyndale, sent copies to London, where they were burned and passed payments on to Tyndale, who used the money for a new version of his work.
    (www.tyndale.org/TSJ/17/cooper.html)(Econ, 12/20/08, p.103)

1525        William Tyndale (1494-1536), English religious scholar, completed his translation of the New Testament in Hamburg, Germany. It was published in Worms in Spring 1526, and then smuggled to England.
    (ON, 11/04, p.2)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/William_Tyndale)

1526        William Tyndale published the first complete version of the New Testament in English at Worms, Germany. "Tyndale was the first translator of the biblical texts from their original Greek and Hebrew into English."
    (WSJ, 12/22/94, A-20)(WSJ, 11/19/96, p.A20)

1527        Apr 30, Henry VIII and King Francis of France signed the treaty of Westminster.
    (HN, 4/30/98)

1528        Jan 22, England & France declared war on Emperor Charles V of Spain. The French army was later expelled from Naples and Genoa.
    (TL-MB, 1988, p.13)(MC, 1/22/02)

1528        England established its first colony in the New World at St. Johns, Newfoundland.
    (SFEC, 4/25/99, Z1 p.8)

1529        Jun 21, John Skelton (69), English poet, died.
    (MC, 6/21/02)

1529        Oct 17, Henry VIII removed Cardinal Thomas Wolsey as Lord Chancellor for failing to secure an annulment of his marriage.
    (HN, 10/17/98)(PCh, 1992ed, p.176)

1529        Oct 21, Henry VIII of England was named Defender of the Faith by the Pope after defending the seven sacraments against Luther.
    (HN, 10/21/98)

1529        Oct 26, Thomas More was appointed English Lord Chancellor.
    (MC, 10/26/01)

1529        Nov 3, The first Reformation Parliament for five years opened in London, England and the Commons put forward bills against abuses amongst the clergy and in the church courts.
    (HN, 11/3/99)(MC, 11/3/01)

1529        Nov 4, Thomas Wolsey, English Lord Chancellor and cardinal, was arrested.
    (MC, 11/4/01)

1530        Mar 7, King Henry VIII's divorce request was denied by the Pope. Henry then declared that he, not the Pope, is supreme head of England's church.
    (MC, 3/7/02)

1530        Nov 29, Cardinal Thomas Wolsey (55), former adviser to England's King Henry the VIII, died. He had served as Lord Chancellor from 1514-1529. Wolsey had amassed a fortune second only to that of the king.
    (AP, 11/29/97)(PCh, 1992ed, p.176)

1530        In Antwerp William Tyndale published his translation into English of the Pentateuch, the first five books of the Old Testament, and shipped copies to England.
    (WSJ, 12/22/94, A-20)(ON, 11/04, p.2)

1530        Jacobus Calchus, a Carmelite friar, wrote a 34-page Latin treatise on whether a man might marry the widow of his deceased brother. It was used to bolster Henry VIII’s case to divorce Catherine of Aragon in favor of Anne Boleyn.
    (SFC, 5/14/02, p.A2)

1531        Jan 5, Pope Clemens VII forbade English king Henry VIII to re-marry.
    (MC, 1/5/02)

1531        Feb 11, Henry VIII was recognized as the supreme head of the Church of England.
    (HN, 2/11/97)

1532        Mar 18, English parliament banned payments by English church to Rome.
    (MC, 3/18/02)

1532        May 16, Sir Thomas More resigned as English Lord Chancellor.
    (MC, 5/16/02)

1532        Nov 15, Pope Clemens VII told Henry VIII to end his relationship with Anne Boleyn.
    (MC, 11/15/01)

1533        Jan 25, England's King Henry VIII secretly married his second wife, Anne Boleyn (who later gave birth to Elizabeth I) in a service performed by Thomas Cranmer. 
    (AP, 1/25/98)(HN, 1/25/99)(PCh, 1992ed, p.177)

1533        Mar 30, Henry VIII made Thomas Cranmer archbishop of Canterbury. Cranmer had advised Henry that his 1509 marriage to Catherine of Aragon was null and void because she had previously married Henry’s late brother Arthur, even though that marriage was ever consummated.
    (PCh, 1992ed, p.177)

1533        May 23, The marriage of England's King Henry VIII to Catherine of Aragon was declared null and void.
    (AP, 5/23/97)(HN, 5/23/98)

1533        Jun 1, Anne Boleyn, the second wife of King Henry VIII, was crowned as Queen Consort of England.
    (AP, 6/1/08)

1533        Jul 11, Henry VIII, who divorced his wife and became head of the church of England, was excommunicated from the Catholic Church by Pope Clement VII.
    (AP, 7/11/97)(HN, 7/11/98)

1533        Sep 7, Elizabeth I, Queen of England, was born in Greenwich. She led her country during the exploration of the New World and war with Spain which destroyed the Spanish Armada. Elizabeth Tudor (d.1603), the daughter of Henry VIII and Anne Boleyn, reigned as Queen of England from 1558 to 1603. She went bald at age 29 due to smallpox.
    (WUD, 1994, p.463)(SFC,10/18/97, p.E4)(AP, 9/7/97)(HN, 9/7/98)(MC, 9/7/01)

1533-1556    Thomas Cranmer was the archbishop of Canterbury. In 1996 Diarmaid MacCulloch wrote his story: "Thomas Cranmer."
    (WSJ, 9/12/96, p.A14)

1534        Mar, England’s King Henry VIII imposed the Oath of Royal Supremacy.

1534        Apr 17, Sir Thomas Moore (d.1535) was jailed in the Tower of London.
    (SFEC, 12/19/99, p.T3)(MC, 4/17/02)

1534        Apr 20, Elizabeth Barton, [St Magd van Kent], British prophet, died.
    (MC, 4/20/02)

1534        Nov 3, English Parliament passed Act of Supremacy, making King Henry VIII head of the English church, a role formerly held by the Pope. Henry VIII was declared "the only supreme head in Earth of the Church of England." He suppressed the monasteries, ordered Bibles burned and renounced papal jurisdiction. He issued the Act of Supremacy which signified a break with the Catholic Church of Rome.
    (WSJ, 9/12/96, p.A14)(SFEC, 6/11/00, p.A30)(WSJ, 4/4/01, p.A18)(http://tinyurl.com/86a3z)

1534        Jan Van Wynkyn (Wynkyn de Worde) published "Tullius Offyce," the 1st Latin-English dictionary. He was the 1st printer in England to use italic type.
    (SFEC, 6/11/00, p.A30)
1534        Britain passed a statute that made buggery a capital offense.
    (Econ, 2/11/12, p.82)

1535        Jan 15, Henry VIII declared himself head of English Church. [see Oct 30, 1534]
    (MC, 1/15/02)

1535        Jan, Thomas Cromwell sent out his agents to conduct a commission of enquiry into the character and value of all ecclesiastical property in the kingdom.
    (HNC, 6/14/02)

1535        Apr 29, John Houghton, English, was executed.
    (MC, 4/29/02)

1535        May 21, Imperial authorities in Antwerp captured and imprisoned William Tyndale for heresy over his translation of the Bible into English.
    (WSJ, 12/22/94, A-20)(www.hyperhistory.net/apwh/bios/b2tyndalew.htm)

1535        Jun 22, John Fisher (65), English bishop (1504-35), cardinal, saint, was beheaded  by Henry VIII.
    (MC, 6/22/02)

1535        Jul 1, Sir Thomas More went on trial in England for treason.
    (MC, 7/1/02)

1535        Jul 6, Thomas More (b.1478) was beheaded in England for treason, for refusing to renounce the Catholic church in favor of King Henry VIII's Church of England. More’s sentence to death by hanging was commuted to beheading. He was canonized by the Catholic Church in 1935. In 1966 Robert Bolt authored the play "A Man for All Seasons" based on More’s struggle with Henry. In 1998 Peter Ackroyd published "The Life of Thomas More." Pope John Paul II named More as the patron saint of politicians in 2000.
    (V.D.-H.K.p.161)(AP, 7/6/97)(HN, 7/6/98)(WSJ, 10/22/98, p.A20)(WSJ, 11/7/00, p.A27)

1535        Aug 31, Pope Paul III deposed & excommunicated King Henry VIII.
    (YN, 8/31/99)

1535        Oct 4, The 1st full English translation of the Bible was printed in Switzerland. Miles Coverdale’s translation of the Bible into English (from Dutch and Latin) was the first complete version in English and was dedicated to Henry VIII.
    (TL-MB, 1988, p.15)(MC, 10/4/01)

1536        Apr 14, English king Henry VIII expropriated minor monasteries.
    (MC, 4/14/02)

1536        May 2, King Henry VIII accused Anna Boleyn of adultery, incest, and treason. [see May 15, May 19]
    (MC, 5/2/02)

1536        May 6, King Henry VIII ordered a bible placed in every church.
    (MC, 5/6/02)

1536        May 10, Thomas Howard, 4th duke of Norfolk, English Earl Marshall, was born.
    (MC, 5/10/02)

1536        May 15, Anna Boleyn and Lord Rochford were accused of adultery, incest, treason. [see May 2, May 19]
    (MC, 5/15/02)

1536        May 17, Anne Boleyn's 4 "lovers" were executed.
    (MC, 5/17/02)

1536        May 19, Anne Boleyn, the second wife of England's King Henry VIII, was beheaded after she was convicted of adultery and incest with her brother, Lord Rochford, who was executed two days before.
    (AP, 5/19/97)(DTnet 5/19/97)

1536        May 30, English king Henry VIII married Jane Seymour (wife #3).
    (MC, 5/30/02)

1536        May, English poet Thomas Wyatt was imprisoned in the Tower of London for allegedly committing adultery with Anne Boleyn.

1536        Jul 18, The authority of the pope was declared void in England.
    (AP, 7/18/97)

1536        Oct 6, William Tyndale (b.1494), the English translator of the New and Old Testament, was burned at the stake at Vilvoorde Castle (Belgium) as a heretic by the Holy Roman Empire.

1536        Nov 13, Robert Packington (d.1536), a mercer in London and brother of Augustine Packington, was shot and killed. Packington had spoken against the covetousness and cruelty of the clergy in the House of Commons.

1536        Although English conquest of Wales took place under the 1284 Statute of Rhuddlan, a formal Union did not occur until 1536, shortly after which Welsh law, which continued to be used in Wales after the conquest, was fully replaced by English law under the Laws in Wales Acts 1535-1542. There was another Act of Union in 1542.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Wales)(SFC, 7/23/97, p.A10)

1536        Hyde Park was seized from the monks at Westminster Abbey by Henry VIII and preserved as forest for the royal hunt.
    (SFEM, 3/21/99, p.8)

1536        Robert Aske led an uprising of some 30,000 people against the dissolution of the monasteries in the northern counties of England. It ended a year later with the arrest and hanging of Aske.
    (TL-MB, 1988, p.15)

1537        Oct 12, Edward IV, King of England (1547-53), was born. He was the only son of Henry VIII by his third wife Jane Seymour.
    (HN, 10/12/98)(MC, 10/12/01)

1537        Oct 13, Jane Grey, Queen of England for 9 days, was born.
    (MC, 10/13/01)

1537        Oct 24, Jane Seymour, the third wife of England's King Henry VIII, died 12 days after giving birth to Prince Edward, later King Edward VI.
    (AP, 10/24/97)

1537        Hans Holbein’s masterpiece was his life-size Tudor dynastic portrait in Whitehall Palace that included Henry VIII and his father Henry VII..
    (TL-MB, 1988, p.15)(AM, Jul/Aug ‘97 p.23)

1537        Miles Coverdale completed William Tyndale’s English translation of the Bible. A complete Bible, two-thirds of which had been translated by Tyndale, was published by royal permission.
    (WSJ, 4/4/01, p.A18)(Econ, 12/20/08, p.102)

1538        Mar 10, Thomas Howard (d.1572), Duke of Norfolk, executed by Queen Elizabeth, was born.
    (HN, 3/10/98)(MC, 3/10/02)

1538        Dec 17, Pope Paul III excommunicated England's King Henry VIII. [see Aug 31, 1535]
    (MC, 12/17/01)

1538        Construction of Henry VIII’s Nonsuch Castle in Cuddington, Surrey, southeast England, began. It took eight years to complete and was still incomplete when Henry died in 1547. It stood for less than 150 years having fallen into disrepair in the 1680s. By 1690 the palace had vanished. A watercolor picture of the castle was painted by Joris Hoefnagel in 1568 as part of a record of the most important buildings in Europe. The picture was put up for auction in 2010.
    (Reuters, 11/3/10)
1538        The Thirteen Articles of the Church of England were written. In 1964 A.G. Dickens (d.2001 at 91) authored "The English Reformation."
    (HNQ, 10/20/98)(SFC, 8/4/01, p.E2)
1538        Thomas Cromwell ordered an English Bible to be available to the public in every Church.
    (WSJ, 4/4/01, p.A18)

1539        Nov 15, Richard Whiting (b.1461), the Bishop of Glastonbury, was hung, drawn and quartered on Glastonbury Tor after being convicted of treason for remaining loyal to Rome. Little Jack Horner was reputed to have been the steward to Whiting, whose jury included Horner. 12 deeds, sent by Whiting as a bribe to the king, were reportedly carried by Horner, who was said to have stolen the one to the manor of Mells, it being the real 'plum' of the twelve manors. The first publication date for the lyrics to the Little Jack Horner nursery rhyme is 1725.

1540        Jan 6, England's King Henry VIII married his fourth wife, Anne of Cleves. The marriage lasted about six months.
    (HN, 1/6/99)(AP, 1/6/98)

1540        Jan 25, Edmund Campion, saint, Jesuit martyr (Decem Rationes), was born in London.
    (MC, 1/25/02)

1540        Feb 9, The 1st recorded race met in England at Roodee Fields, Chester.
    (MC, 2/9/02)

1540        Jun 10, Thomas Cromwell was arrested in Westminster.
    (MC, 6/10/02)

1540        Jun 24, Henry VIII divorced his 4th wife, Anne of Cleves.
    (MC, 6/24/02)

1540        Jun 29, Thomas Cromwell, English ex-chancellor, was sentenced to death.
    (MC, 6/29/02)

1540        Jul 9, England's King Henry VIII had his 6-month-old marriage to his fourth wife, Anne of Cleves, annulled.
    (AP, 7/9/97)

1540        Jul 28, King Henry VIII's chief minister, Thomas Cromwell, was executed. The same day, Henry married his fifth wife, Catherine Howard. In 2014 Tracy Borman authored “Thomas Cromwell: The Untold Story of Henry VIII’s Most Faighful Servant."
    (AP, 7/28/97)(HN, 7/28/98)(PCh, 1992, p.181)(Econ, 9/13/14, p.91)

1540s        Edward Seymour, Protector Somerset, built a palace in London at a site that was later used for Somerset House.
    (WSJ, 6/15/00, p.A24)

1541        Jun 18, Irish parliament "selected" Henry VIII as King of Ireland.
    (SFEC, 12/22/96, Z1 p.6)(MC, 6/18/02)

1541        Nov 9, Queen Catharine Howard was confined in the London Tower.
    (MC, 11/9/01)

1541        Thomas Wyatt (1503-1542), British poet, authored his “Defence," an attempt to get out of the Tower of London where he faced charges of treason.
    (Econ, 5/7/11, p.91)
1541        John Brooke & Sons was founded as a textile-maker in Huddersfield, England. In 2004 it operated as a business park and was considered to be Britain’s oldest family business.
    (Econ, 12/18/04, p.104)

1542        Feb 13, Catherine Howard (b.c1520), the fifth wife of England's King Henry VIII, was executed for adultery.
    (WUD, 1994, p.689)(AP, 2/13/98)

1542        Sep 24, Thomas Wyatt (b.1503), British poet, died. He is credited with introducing the sonnet into English. In 2011 Nicola Shulman authored “Graven With Diamonds: The Many Lives of Thomas Wyatt, Courtier, Poet, Assassin."
    (Econ, 5/7/11, p.91)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Thomas_Wyatt_%28poet%29)

1542        Nov 24, The English defeated the Scots under King James at the Battle of Solway Moss, in England.
    (HN, 11/24/98)(MC, 11/24/01)

1542        Dec 8, Mary, Queen of Scotland (1542-67), was born. She became the Queen of England when she was a week old, but was forced to abdicate her throne to her son because she became a Catholic. She was executed for plotting against Elizabeth I.
    (HN, 12/8/00)

1542        Magdalen College, Cambridge, was founded.
    (TL-MB, p.16)

1542        An 2nd Act of Union united Wales into England. It followed the 1542 Act of Union.
    (SFC, 7/23/97, p.A10)

1542        Britain’s 1st bankruptcy laws were crafted under Henry VIII.
    (Econ, 3/6/04, p.53)

1543        Jul 1, England and Scotland signed the peace of Greenwich.
    (HN, 7/1/98)

1543        Jul 12, England's King Henry VIII married his sixth and last wife, Catherine Parr, who outlived him.
    (AP, 7/12/97)

1543        Sep 9, Mary, Queen of Scots, was crowned Queen of England.
    (HN, 9/9/01)

1544        May 17, Scot earl Matthew van Lennox signed a secret treaty with Henry VIII.
    (MC, 5/17/02)

1544        May 24, William Gilbert, English physicist, was born. He coined the terms "electric" and "magnetic" poles.
    (HN, 5/24/99)

1544        Sep 14, Henry VIII's forces took Boulogne, France.
    (HN, 9/14/98)

1544        Sep 18, English King Henry VIII's troops occupied Boulogne, France. [see Sep 14]
    (MC, 9/18/01)

1544        Henry VIII crossed the Channel to Calais to campaign with Charles V against Francis I.
    (TL-MB, 1988, p.16)

1545        Jul 19, A French fleet entered The Solent, the channel between the Isle of Wight and Hampshire, England, and French troops landed on the Isle of Wight. King Henry VIII of England watched his flagship, Mary Rose, capsize in Portsmouth harbor as it left to battle the French. 73 people died including Roger Grenville, English captain of Mary Rose. The Mary Rose was raised in 1982.
    (TL-MB, 1988, p.17)(HN, 7/19/98)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mary_Rose)

1545        Oct 18, John Taverner, English composer (Western Wynde), died.
    (MC, 10/18/01)

1546        Mar 29, Cardinal Beaton, English archbishop of St. Andrews, was murdered.
    (MC, 3/29/02)

1546        May 29, Cardinal Beaton, English archbishop of St. Andrews, was murdered.
    (SC, 5/29/02)

1546        Jun 7, The Peace of Ardes ended the war between France and England.
    (TL-MB, 1988, p.17)(HN, 6/7/98)

1546        The first Welsh book, "Yny Lhyvyr Mwnn," was printed.
    (TL-MB, 1988, p.17)

1546        Henry VIII founded Christ Church, Oxford’s largest college, and Trinity College in Cambridge. He conferred a portfolio of land to both.
    (https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Trinity_College,_Cambridge)(Econ., 1/23/21, p.60)

1546        Henry VIII closed the bath houses of Southwark.
    (Econ, 12/19/09, p.139)

1547        Jan 19, Henry Howard (29), earl of Surrey, army commander, poet, was beheaded.
    (MC, 1/19/02)

1547        Jan 28, England's King Henry VIII died; his sixth and last wife was Catherine Parr. He was succeeded by his 9-year-old son, Edward VI. In 1996 Alison Weir authored "The Children of Henry VIII."
    (V.D.-H.K.p.162)(AP, 1/28/98)(HN, 1/28/99)

1547        Jan, An inventory of the possessions of King Henry VIII was begun under Edward VI, Henry’s son and successor. It took three years to complete. His total wealth amounted to some 600,000 pounds. A commoner’s daily wage at this time was about two and one-half pence.
    (AM, Jul/Aug ‘97 p.20)

1547        Feb 20, King Edward VI of England was enthroned following the death of Henry VIII  (Jan 28).
    (MC, 2/20/02)

1547        Sep 10, The Duke of Somerset led the English to a resounding victory over the Scots at Pinkie Cleugh. This was the last battle to be fought between English and Scottish royal armies and the last in which the longbow was used tactically en masse.
    (HN, 9/10/98)(WSJ, 11/4/04, p.D10)
1547        Sep 10, The English demanded that Edward VI (10), wed Mary Queen of Scots (5).
    (MC, 9/10/01)

1547        The English parliament repealed the Statute of the Six Articles, which defined heresy.
    (TL-MB, 1988, p.17)

1548        Sep 5, Catharine Parr (36), queen of England and last wife of Henry VIII, died.
    (MC, 9/5/01)

1549        Mar 20, Thomas Seymour of Sudely, English Lord Admiral, was beheaded.
    (MC, 3/20/02)

1549        Jun 9, Book of Common Prayer was adopted by the Church of England. Thomas Cranmer, Archbishop of Canterbury, issued the "Book of Common Prayer." Other prayer books were forbidden by the Act of Uniformity. The book was mandated by the government under Edward VI, son of Henry VIII, so that services could be spoken in the language of the people.
    (TL-MB, 1988, p.17)(WSJ, 9/12/96, p.A14)(MC, 6/9/02)

1549        Jun 10, English villagers protested the new liturgy adopted by the Church of England. Uprisings that followed in Norfolk, Oxfordshire and the south-west led to perhaps 10,000 deaths as King Edward’s regime suppressed dissent.
    (Econ, 4/29/17, p.67)

1549        Jul 8, Kett's Rebellion began in Norfolk, England, during the reign of Edward VI, largely in response to the enclosure of land. It started at Wymondham when a group of rebels destroyed fences that had been put up by wealthy landowners. One of their targets was yeoman farmer Robert Kett who, instead of resisting the rebels, agreed to their demands and offered to lead them.

1549        Aug 9, France declared war on England. England declared war on France.
    (TL-MB, 1988, p.17)(HN, 8/9/98)

1549        The Ye Old Cock Tavern opened in London.
    (SFEC, 9/12/99, p.T14)

1550        Mar 24, France and England signed the Peace of Boulogne. It ended the war of England with Scotland and France. France bought back Boulogne for 400,000 crowns.
    (TL-MB, 1988, p.18)(MC, 3/24/02)

1550        Apr 12, Edward de Vere, 17th Earl of Oxford, was born (d.1604). Some claimed that he was responsible for all the 37 plays, 154 sonnets and 2 long narrative poems that are attributed to William Shakespeare. De Vere was first advanced as the author of Shakespeare’s work in 1918 by English schoolmaster J. Thomas Looney.
    (SFC, 4/26/97, p.E1)(WSJ, 5/1/97, p.A16)(WSJ, 4/18/09, p.A2)

1550        Sep 5, William Cecil appointed himself English minister of foreign affairs.
    (MC, 9/5/01)

1550-1563    Henry Machyn, a merchant tailor in London, kept a diary over this time that described the funerals of noble persons, the coronation of Queen Elizabeth I, the murder of Arden of Feversham by his wife and her lover, and other London events. A definitive edition of the diaries was in process by English Prof. R.W. Bailey and graduate students at the Univ. of Mich. in 1996.
    (MT, 6/96, p.9)(MT, Fall 02, p.22)

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