Timeline France (F) 1968-1999

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1968        Jan 8, The documentary series “The Undersea World of Jacques Cousteau" first aired on US network TV.
    (www.imdb.com/title/tt0845400/)(Econ, 10/31/09, p.97)

1968        Feb 10, Peggy Fleming of the United States won the gold medal in women's figure skating at the Winter Olympic Games in Grenoble, France.
    (AP, 2/10/97)

1968        May 3-1958 May 17, Student riots and strikes hit France. 10 million workers went on strike. Workers struck the Renault factory on Seguin Island for 33 days until the government recognized their union.
    (WUD, 1994, p.1687)(SFC, 5/22/98, p.C12)(WSJ, 3/31/99, p.B14)

1968        May 6, In Paris violent fighting took place in the morning and then from 2 p.m. in the afternoon to 1 a.m. the next morning on the Boulevard Saint-Michel and Saint-Germain. Close to 600 students and police were wounded. Student strikes spread to the provinces.

1968        May 10, Preliminary Vietnam peace talks began in Paris.
    (AP, 5/10/97)

1968        May 11, In France PM Georges Pompidou made a speech conceding to the demand to reopen the universities and implied the government would release arrested students. The night of May 10-11 became known as the ``Night of the Barricades.’ These events galvanized public support for the students.

1968        May 13, Peace talks between the US and North Vietnam began in Paris.
    (WUD, 1994, p.1687)(HN, 5/13/98)
1968        May 13, In France a general strike and monster demonstration took place in Paris. Some 1,000,000 French demonstrated in support of student protesters.

1968        May 24, France’s Pres. Charles de Gaulle issued an ultimatum to striking students and workers who have brought the country to a standstill during 3 weeks of violent demonstrations.

1968        May 30, French Pres. Charles de Gaulle delivered a forceful televised address in order to regain control of public opinion, thrown into confusion by the political events resulting from a student protest.

1968        cMay, Foreign minister Maurice Couve de Murville took charge as prime minister following the May riots.
    (SFC, 12/25/99, p.B4)

1968        Aug 24, France became the world's fifth thermonuclear power as it exploded a hydrogen bomb in the South Pacific.
    (AP, 8/24/97)

1968        Oct 2, Marcel Duchamp (b.1887), French painter, died. He was known best for his 1915 "Nude Descending a Staircase."

1968        Charles de Gaulle switched sides to align France with the Arabs. This laid the foundation for Israel’s high-tech industry.
    (Econ 5/20/17, SR p.4)
1968        Kourou, French Guiana, launched its 1st commercial satellite. A space center opened there in 1970.
    (AP, 8/27/02)

1969        Jan 1, President Nixon nominated Henry Cabot Lodge as negotiator at the Paris Peace Talks.

1969        Jan 5, Henry Cabot Lodge replaced Harriman as chief US negotiator at Paris.

1969        Jan 25, US-North Vietnamese peace talks began in Paris.

1969        Apr 9, The 1st flight of Concorde 002 was from Filton to Bristol.
    (MC, 4/9/02)

1969        Apr 28, French President Charles de Gaulle resigned his office after a referendum on the reform of the Senate and local government failed. Alain Pohrer (1909-1996), as president of the Senate, then served as interim president for 7 weeks.
    (SFC, 12/12/96, p.C8)(AP, 4/28/97)(Econ, 6/19/10, p.86)

1969        Jun 20, Georges Jean Raymond Pompidou (1911-1974) former PM of France (1962 to 1968) began serving as president and continued until his death in 1974.
1969        Jun 20, Jacques Chaban-Delmas (1915-2000) began serving as prime minister of France under Georges Pompidou and continued to July 6, 1972. He was a hero of the French Resistance and served as the mayor of Bordeaux for 48 years.
    (https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Jacques_Chaban-Delmas)(SFEC, 11/12/00, p.D4)

1969        Oct 1, The prototype Concorde 001, designed by the British and French, broke the sound barrier during a test flight. Commercial service began in 1976.
    (WSJ, 7/26/00, p.B1)(MC, 10/1/01)

1969        Dec 1, On the initiative of the French President, Georges Pompidou, the Heads of State or Government of 6 European countries met in The Hague in order to define the methods of reviving the European integration process. The Hague Summit was held to establish the goal of European monetary union.
    (WSJ, 3/25/98, p.A22)(www.ena.lu/hague_summit_december_1969-022500027.html)

1969        The film "La Femme Douce" was directed by Robert Bresson.
    (SFC, 12/22/99, p.A27)

1969        The film "The Wild Child" was directed by Francois Truffaut. He also acted in the film.
    (WSJ, 7/11/97, p.A12)

1969-1973    In France Maurice Schumann (1911-1998 at 86) served as foreign minister under Pres. Georges Pompidou. He was also a novelist and writer on religion and other topics.
    (SFC, 2/11/98, p.A24)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Maurice_Schumann)

1970        Mar 4, The French submarine Eurydice exploded and sank in the Mediterranean off Cape Camarat killing all 57 of its  crew.

1970        Mar 5, A nuclear non-proliferation treaty went into effect after 43 nations ratified it. France and China only signed on in 1992.
    (AP, 3/5/98)(Econ, 6/10/06, p.21)

1970        Mar 25, The Concorde, an Anglo-French airplane, made its first supersonic flight.
    (HN, 3/24/98)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Concorde)

1970        Apr 20, Paul Celan (49), Romania born poet, drowned himself in the Seine. English translations of his poems were published in 2001.
    (SSFC, 4/1/01, BR p.5)

1970        Jul 15, Frederik Lugt (b.1884), Dutch founder of the Fondation Custodia (1947), died in Paris. The foundation, which he founded with his wife, kept intact his collection of Old Master drawings at the Institut Neederlandais, the Dutch cultural center in Paris.
    (Econ, 2/13/10, p.86)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Frits_Lugt)

1970        Sep 13, The supersonic airliner Concorde landed for the 1st time at Heathrow airport.

1970        Oct 10, Edouard Daladier (b.1884), 3 time premier of France (1933, 1934, 1938-40), died.

1970        Oct, The Nobel Prize for Physics was won by Louis Neel (d.2000 at 95) of France for discoveries about magnetic fields and Hanes Alfven of Sweden for work on interactions between plasmas and magnetic fields.
    (SFC, 11/25/00, p.A23)

1970        Nov 1, A discotheque near Grenoble, France, burned. All exits were padlocked and 142 people died.

1970        Nov 9, Charles De Gaulle (b.1890), former French president (1959-1969), died. In 1996 Daniel Mahoney published "De Gaulle: Statesmanship, Grandeur, and Modern Democracy."  Michel Droit (d.2000 at 77) authored the 5-volume “Man of Destiny" (1972), widely regarded as the most thorough examination of de Gaulle’s life and work.
    (AP, 11/9/97)(WSJ, 1/19/98, p.A20)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Charles_de_Gaulle)(SFC, 6/23/00, p.D5)

1970        Dec 23, French journalist Regis Debray was freed in Bolivia.
    (MC, 12/23/01)

1970        Michel Crozier (1922-2013), French sociologist, authored “The Blocked Society".
1970        Airbus Industrie was formally set up following an agreement between Aerospatiale (France) and Deutsche Aerospace (Germany). In 1971 it was joined by CASA (Spain). The name "Airbus" was taken from a nonproprietary term used by the airline industry in the 1960s to refer to a commercial aircraft of a certain size and range, as term was acceptable to the French linguistically.
1970        The first radioactive pacemaker was put into a patient in France.
    (Econ, 3/7/09, TQ p.26)
1970        An International Federation ruled current depth records too dangerous and refused to accept further records after French diver Jacques Mayol (1927-2001) and Italian diver Enzo Maiorca (1931-2016) reached 249 feet (about 73m). Their rivalry inspired much of the 1988 film, "Big Blue," directed by Luc Besson.
    (https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Enzo_Maiorca)(AP, 11/13/16)

1970s        Presidents Georges Pompidou [1969-1974] and Valery Giscard d’Estaing [1974-1981] incorporated the former Belgian colonies of Africa into France’s neoempire.
    (WSJ, 1/24/97, p.A14)

1971        Jan 10, Gabrielle "Coco" Chanel (b.1883), French fashion designer, died in Paris. In 2011 Hal Vaughan authored “Sleeping With the Enemy: Coco Chanel’s Secret War."
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Coco_Chanel)(SSFC, 8/21/11, p.F5)

1971        Feb 24, Algeria nationalized French oil companies.

1971        Mar 10, In France a group of homosexuals of both sexes disrupted a live general public radio show, devoted to “Homosexuality, that painful problem," and put the newly-born gay movement on the French political map.

1971         Jun 16, Francois Mitterrand (1916-1996) became the new leader of the French Socialist Party at the Socialist Party Congress in Epinay. Over the next few years he embarked on a strategy of electoral union with the Communist Party. Jean Poperen (1925-1997) was present at the inception of the modern-day Socialist Party. He served twice as a minister of parliamentary relations and as a deputy for more than 15 years.
    (SFC, 8/25/97, p.A8)(http://findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_m1282/is_v39/ai_5024046/pg_2)

1971        Jul 3, James Douglas Morrison (b.1943), singer for the Doors rock group, died of an apparent heart attack in Paris, France. Jim Morrison (27) was buried at the Pere Lachaise cemetery.
    (SFC, 7/4/96, p.D2)(AP, 7/3/97)

1971        Jul 4, France performed a nuclear test at Muruora Island.

1971        Jul 24, The Berne Convention for the Protection of Literary and Artistic Works was promulgated in Paris. It was first accepted in Berne in 1886 at the instigation of Victor Hugo.
    (www.ifla.org.sg/documents/infopol/copyright/ucc.txt)(PNI, 2/5/97, p.4)

1971        Sep 3, The Quadripartite Agreement on Berlin, between the United States, the Soviet Union, the United Kingdom and France. ended a long time source of tension.
    (WUD, 1994, p. 1688)(http://usa.usembassy.de/etexts/ga5-710903.htm)

1971        Dec 20, Ten French physicians created a team that later became known as "Doctors Without Borders" (Medecins Sans Frontieres) to help the people in the Nigerian region of Biafra. They formed in frustration with the neutrality of the Int'l. Committee of the Red Cross. Bernard Kouchner (1939), later French foreign minister, was among the co-founders.
    (SFC, 10/16/99, p.A17)(SFEC, 12/19/99, p.A14)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bernard_Kouchner)

1971        Dec 22, Aid group Doctors Without Borders, known by its French acronym MSF, was founded in Paris.

1971        There was an exhibition of Musicalist art at the Salpetriere Basilica in Paris.
    (Exc, 6/96, p.118)
1971        The French film “Le Chagrin et la Pitie" was directed by Marcel Ophuls. It was banned in France for years because it showed how many Frenchmen collaborated with the German occupation forces under the Vichy regime of WW II.
    (WSJ, 8/7/00, p.A13)
1971        The film “Murmur of the Heart" starred Benoit Ferreux and Lea Massari. It was directed by Louis Malle. The French comedy was set in 1954.
    (SFEC, 4/13/97, DB p.42)(WSJ, 3/23/00, p.W8)
1971        Peter Brook (b.1925), British stage and film director, founded his Int’l. Center for Theater Research in Paris. In 1998 Brook published his memoir "Threads of Time: Recollections."
    (SFEC, 6/14/98, BR p.5)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Peter_Brook)
1971        Franklin Louffrani, French journalist, registered the mark for the yellow "smiley face," which he began using in 1968 to show good news after the student riots. The very earliest known examples of the graphic are attributed to Harvey Ball, a commercial artist in Worcester, Massachusetts. He devised the face in 1963 for an insurance firm that wanted an internal campaign to improve employee morale. In 2006 the Web site http://www.mysmiley.net/ came online to provide a broad range of free smileys.
    (WSJ, 7/1/98, p.B1)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Smiley)
1971        French politicians challenged IRIA, a state funded computer science institute, to begin research into a national computer network. Louis Pouzin was chosen to head the project, which became known as CYCLADES. The project’s first connection debuted in 1973.
    (Econ, 11/30/13, TQ p.20)

1972        Jan 1, Maurice Chevalier (b.1888), French actor, singer and dancer, died in Paris. He sang “Thank Heaven for Little Girls" in the 1958 film “Gigi."
    (SSFC, 8/8/04, Par p.2)(www.jimpoz.com)

1972        Apr 24, Natalie Clifford Barney (b.1876), lesbian writer and US expatriate, died in Paris. In 2002 Suzanne Rodriguez authored "Wild Heart, A Life: Natalie Clifford Barney’s Journey From Victorian America to the Literary Salons of Paris."
    (www.findagrave.com/cgi-bin/fg.cgi?page=gr&GRid=7157)(SSFC, 10/27/02, p.M6)

1972        May 28, Edward VIII, the Duke of Windsor (b.1894), died of throat cancer in Paris. He had abdicated the English throne (1936) to marry Wallis Warfield Simpson (1937).
    (AP, 5/28/97)(www.bbc.co.uk/history/historic_figures/edward_viii_king.shtml)

1972        Jul 6, Pierre Messmer (1916-2007), former member of the French Resistance, began serving as prime minister of France under President Georges Pompidou.
    (AP, 8/30/07)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pierre_Messmer)

1972        Jul 22, Eddy Merckx (b.1945)), Belgian professional cyclist, won his 4th consecutive Tour de France.
    (WSJ, 10/22/04, p.A1)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/1972_Tour_de_France)

1972        Aug 29, Rene Leibowitz (b.1913), Warsaw-born French conductor and composer, died in Paris.

1972        Sep 19, Robert M Casadesus, French pianist and composer (Prix DiAmer), died at 73.
    (MC, 9/19/01)

1972        Oct 24, Henry Kissinger in secret unauthorized talks in Paris proposed to end the war in Vietnam by this date, but was urged by Pres. Nixon to stretch the timing a few months so as to insure re-election in Nov. A drama was made in 1995 depicting these events based on the book by Walter Isaacson: “Kissinger: A Biography." The peace agreement allowed North Vietnam to keep its army in the South.
    (WSJ, 11/30/95, p.A-20)(WSJ, 1/23/96, p.A-15)

1972        Dec 11, In Paris peace negotiations between Kissinger and Le Duc Tho collapsed after Kissinger presented a list of 69 changes demanded by South Vietnamese President Thieu. President Nixon now issues an ultimatum to North Vietnam that serious negotiations must resume within 72 hours. Hanoi does not respond. As a result Nixon ordered Operation Linebacker II (see Dec 18), eleven days and nights of maximum force bombing against military targets in Hanoi by B-52 bombers.
1972        Janet Flanner wrote her book “Paris Was Yesterday."
    (SFC, 6/16/96, T-5)
1972        The film “Two English Girls" with Jean-Pierre Leaud was directed by Francois Truffaut.
    (SFEC, 5/11/97, DB p.37)
1972        In France Jean-Marie Le Pen, a former paratrooper, founded the National Front (FN) party.
    (Econ., 3/14/15, p.53)
1972        France made it a crime to incite to racial or religious hatred.
    (Econ, 1/24/15, p.53)
1972        A French government decree fixed Wednesday as a mandatory day off for students. A day off on Thursday had since 1882 provided for students to attend religious education outside the school.
    (Econ, 9/21/13, p.55)
1972        David McTaggart (d.2001), one of the founders of Greenpeace Int’l., sailed his small boat into the French nuclear-testing site at Mururoa atoll in the South Pacific.
    (SFC, 3/24/01, p.A22)(SSFC, 10/19/03, p.A31)

1973        Jan 8, Secret peace talks between the US and North Vietnam resumed near Paris.
    (AP, 1/8/98)

1973        Jan 27, The Paris Agreement froze the status quo on the ground in South Vietnam. The agreement by the United States and North Vietnam included a ban on infiltration of arms or personnel to reinforce North Vietnamese troops in the South, as well as a ban on the use of Laotian or Cambodian territory for that purpose. The Paris Agreement provided for continued US supply of the army of the Republic of Vietnam. Peace Accords were signed in Paris over events in Vietnam.
    (WSJ, 2/5/96, p.A-19)(WSJ, 11/30/95, p.A-23)(HN, 1/27/99)

1973        Apr 8, Pablo Picasso (b.1881), Spanish artist, died at his home near Mougins, France, at age 91. He left some 50,000 works that included 1,885 paintings, 1,228 sculptures, 2,880 ceramics, 18,095 engravings, 6,112 lithographs, 3,181 linocuts, 7,089 drawings plus 4,669 drawings and sketches in 149 notebooks, 11 tapestries and 8 rugs. Two books of a planned 4-volume biography were published by John Richardson, who then interrupted the series in 2000 with "The Sorcerer’s Apprentice: Picasso, Provence, and Douglas Cooper." Picasso’s estate owed so much in death duties that many of his works fell into government hands. In 2007 John Richardson authored “A Life of Picasso: The Triumphant Years, 1917-1932."
    (AP, 4/8/97)(SFEC, 1/30/00, BR p.6)(SSFC, 5/20/01, p.T8)(Econ, 11/17/07, p.99)

1973        Apr 12, Viet Nam and France officially established diplomatic relations.

1973        Jun 3, A Soviet supersonic Tupelov 144, nicknamed Concordski, exploded in flight at the Paris Air Show and crashed into a nearby village, killing the six-man crew and seven people on the ground. The plane beat the French and English through the sound barrier.
    (SFEC, 10/10/99, p.T4)(AP, 7/27/02)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Tupolev_Tu-144)

1973        Aug 25,  France performed a nuclear test at Muruora Island.

1973        Sep 26, Concorde flew from Washington DC to Paris in 3hr. 33m.

1973        Dec 13, Claude Vorilhon, former French race car driver, began the Rael movement in France. While commuting to his job as a sportswriter, he decided to drive past the office and stop at a nearby volcano in Auvergne. During his stop, Vorilhon saw the flashing red light of a space ship, which opened its hatch to reveal a green alien with longish dark hair. Once aboard the spaceship, he said he was entertained by voluptuous female robots and learned that the first human beings were created by aliens called Elohim, who cloned themselves. Vorilhon said that he was instructed to take the name Rael and spread the news that humans were placed on Earth by extraterrestrials who had engineered our DNA. In 1997 Rael founded Clonaid, a company dedicated to cloning people. In 2001 the Raelian movement numbered about 55,000 members world-wide.
    (WSJ, 8/24/01, p.W14)(Reuters, 12/28/02)

1973        French singer Maxime le Forrestier produced his song “La Maison Bleue" (The Blue House). It was based on a house at 3841 18th St. in San Francisco, where he lived in 1971.
    (www.youtube.com/watch?v=q61cFrsB9Gw)(SFC, 9/25/10, p.E1)

1973        The film "Day for Night" starred Jean-Pierre Aumont (d.2001 at 90). It was directed by Francois Truffaut. It won a best foreign film Oscar in 1974.
    (SFEC, 10/11/97, DB p.35)(SFEC, 5/9/99, DB p.53)(SFC, 1/31/01, p.C2)
1973        The 215 min. film “The Mother and the Whore" starred Jean-Pierre Leaud, Francoise Lebrun and Bernadette Lafont. It was directed by Jean Eustache.
    (SFC, 7/17/98, p.D3)

1973        French wines were re-ranked according to taste, rather than price, and Mouton Rothschild was elevated to the first rank.
    (SFEC, 2/1/98, p.T4)
1973        A Frenchman invented a standard Eurobarometer poll to show how various member countries agreed and disagreed. The first poll was published in 1974.
    (Econ, 2/23/08, p.72)(http://ec.europa.eu/public_opinion/standard_en.htm)
1973        Antoine Riboud (1918-2002) merged his glassware company BSN with the dairy business Gervais Danone, creating Danone, the biggest food group in France. The group stopped making glass in 1981.
    (http://tinyurl.com/7zxts)(Econ, 11/19/05, p.70)

1973-1980    Rolf Liebermann (d.1998 at 88), Swiss composer, led the Paris opera.
    (SFC, 1/4/99, p.D2)

1974        Mar 3, A Turkish Airlines DC-10 crashed shortly after takeoff from Orly Airport in Paris and 346 people were killed. It was the worst air disaster to date.
    (AP, 3/3/98)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Turkish_Airlines_Flight_981)

1974        Mar 8, Charles the Gaulle Airport (aka Roissy I) opened outside of Paris.

1974        Apr 2,    French President Georges Pompidou (62) died in Paris. Alain Pohrer (1909-1996) as president of the Senate then served as interim president for 7 weeks.
    (SFC, 12/12/96, p.C8)(AP, 4/2/97)

1974        Apr 18, Marcel Pagnol (b.1895), French writer and film director, died.

1974        May 19, Valeri Giscard d'Estaing won French presidential elections.
    (SFEC, 11/12/00, p.D4)(www.loc.gov/today/pr/2003/03-008.html)

1974        May 27, In France Valerie Giscard d’Estaing began serving as president. He nominated Jacques Chirac (b.1932) to serve as prime minister. Chirac served his 1st term as prime minister to Aug 26, 1976.
    (Econ, 3/17/07, p.28)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Jacques_Chirac)

1974        Aug 7, French stuntman Philippe Petit walked a tightrope strung between the twin towers of New York's World Trade Center. In 2002 Petit authored "To Reach the Clouds: My High Wire Walk Between the Twin Towers." In 2003 Steven Galloway authored "Ascension," a novel that featured a fictional Gypsy tightrope walker named Ursari, who makes a final, fateful skywalk between the Twin Towers of the World Trade Center on July 4, 1976. In 2008 James Marsh produced his documentary film of the event: Man On Wire."
    (AP, 8/7/97)(SSFC, 9/8/02, p.M4)(SSFC, 10/11/03, p.M3)(WSJ, 8/8/08, p.W1)

1974        Aug 24,  France performed another nuclear test at Muruora Island.

1974        Sep 13, In the Netherlands the French embassy at the Hague was taken over by Haruo Wako and 2 other Japanese Red Army militants. A 4-day standoff ended with the release of comrade Yutaka Suyaka from a French jail. The attack was linked to Carlos the Jackal, aka Ilich Ramirez Sanchez. In 2005 a Tokyo District Court sentenced Wako to life imprisonment.
    (http://my-my-miyuki.blogspot.com/)(SFC,12/11/97, p.C2)(SFC, 11/9/00, p.C2)

1974        Oct 27, Chantal Langlace of France ran a female world record marathon (2:46:24).

1974        The French film “Touche Pas a la Femme Blanche" (Don't Touch the White Woman) was directed by Marco Ferreri. It was a Western satire with Marcello Mastroianni, Michel Piccoli, Ugo Tognazzi and Catherine  Deneuve.
    (SFC, 7/7/99, p.E3)
1974        In France Rene Dumont (d.2001 at 97) was the 1st candidate ever to run on an environmental platform.
    (SFC, 6/22/01, p.D5)
1974        France's health minister Simone Veil (1927-2017) led the battle to get parliament to legalize abortion. The law became known as the "Loi Veil."
    (AP, 7/1/18)
1974        The economy slowed following the Arab oil embargo and the policy of recruiting foreign labor ended.
    (NG, 5/93, p.110)
1974        General Electric began a joint venture with Snecma, a French state-owned enterprise, to produce jet engines. Snecma was privatized in 2004.
    (Econ, 5/5/07, p.79)
1974        Motorola helped launch the smartcard market by building the first smartcard chip with Groupe Bull of France.
    (FT, 3/4/98, p.21)
1974        The Int'l. Energy Agency was formed in Paris to coordinate oil sharing.
    (WSJ, 9/13/99, p.R4)
1974        The Suresnes Congress in France handed power over the Spanish Socialist Workers' Party to Felipe Gonzalez (b.1942), who became prime minister of Spain four times (1982-1996).
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Felipe_Gonz%C3%A1lez)(Econ, 12/7/13, p.56)
1974        Mayotte Island was the only part of the Comoros archipelago that voted to remain part of France in a referendum.
    (AP, 3/13/18)

1975        Mar 2, Madeleine Vionnet (b.1876), French dressmaker, died at age 98. In 1999 Betty Kirke published the biography: "Madeleine Vionnet."
    (SFEC, 5/16/99, BR p.8)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Madeleine_Vionnet)

1975        Apr 12, Josephine Baker (b.1906), US-French revue artist (Folies-Bergere), died in Paris, France.

1975        Jun 2, In Lyon, France, more than a hundred sex workers occupation of Église Saint-Nizier  to draw attention to their inhumane working conditions. In 1976 this day became celebrated as International Whores' Day or International Sex Workers Day.

1975        Jun 27, Two French intelligence agents, Raymond Dous and Jean Donatini, who were investigating attacks on planes of Israel’s El Al airline at Orly Airport, were killed by Carlos the Jackal, aka Ilich Ramirez Sanchez. Sanchez  was identified by an arrested Palestinian Front militant, Michel Moukharbal, who was also killed.
    (SFC,12/11/97, p.C2)(SFC,12/13/97, p.A10)

1975        Aug 21, A 3 truck pile up killed 10 and injured 26 on a French highway.
    (SC, 8/21/02)

1975        Nov 15, The first Summit of 6 leading industrialist nations, G-6, met in Rambouillet, France, for discussions on currency and oil prices. The Group of Six included leaders from Britain, France, Germany, Italy, Japan and the United States. They were joined a year later by Canada making the "G7". The group was originally established as a vehicle for leading industrialized democracies to discuss the global economy. It later expanded its scope to issues such as peace, the environment and terrorism. Russia, which attended the summit as a guest in 1992, was in 1998 allowed for the first time to attend all summit meetings. The grouping was officially renamed the "G8". In 2014 Vladimir Putin's Russia was suspended from the G8 after it annexed Ukraine's Crimea peninsula and sanctions were imposed on Moscow.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/1st_G6_summit)(SFC, 6/20/97, p.A16)(AFP, 6/9/18)

1975        Jacques Pepin published "A French Chef Cooks at Home."
    (SFC, 10/20/99, Z1p.4)
1975        The film "The Happy Hooker" starred Jean-Pierre Aumont.
    (SFC, 1/31/01, p.C2)
1975        The French film “The Story of Adele H" with Isabelle Adjani was directed by Francois Truffaut. It was based on the story of Adele Hugo, daughter of Victor Hugo.
    (WSJ, 3/13/98, p.A14)

1975        French law began to permit abortions.
    (SFC, 8/25/97, p.A8)

1975        French retailer Carrefour began operating in Brazil.
    (Econ, 10/10/09, p.68)

1975        In France Ricard merged with Pernod, another French maker of the pastis apertif.
    (Econ, 11/12/05, p.66)

1976        Jan 21, The supersonic Concorde jet was put into service by Britain and France.
    (AP, 1/21/98)

1976        Feb 13, Lily Pons (b.1898), French, US soprano, opera diva (Met Opera), died.

1976        Mar 3, Pierre Moliniere (b.1900), French artist and photographer, shot himself to death rather than face prostate surgery and a reduced sex life.
    (WSJ, 11/22/96, p.A14)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pierre_Molinier)

1976        Apr 1, Max Ernst (b.1891), German-French surrealist painter, sculptor, died in Paris.

1976        May 11, Col. Joaquin Zenteno Anaya, Bolivia’s ambassador to France, was assassinated in Paris. Members of the Che Guevara brigade claim credit. Zenteno had led the army division that captured and executed Che Guevara in 1967.

1976        May 24, Britain and France opened trans-Atlantic Concorde service to Washington. This was the 1st commercial supersonic transport (SST).
    (AP, 5/24/97)
1976        May 24, In France 2 California wines won a tasting event over several French classics for the 1st time. Stephen Spurrier, English owner of a wine shop and wine school in Paris, held a competition tasting of French and American wines. The best white wine was a 1973 Napa Valley Chardonnay from Chateau Montelena, owned by Jim Barrett (1926-2013). The best red wine was a 1973 Cabernet Sauvignon from Stag’s Leap Wine Cellars. Winemaker Miljenko Grgich created the Napa Chardonnay that beat French wines in the legendary Paris Tasting. In 2005 George M. Taber authored “Judgement of Paris," an account of the 1976 tasting.
    (SFC, 5/29/96, ZZ1 p.4)(SSFC, 1/21/01, p.T8)(WSJ, 5/24/01, p.A20)(SFC, 6/16/05, p.F4)(SSFC, 2/17/13, p.C2)

1976        Jun 27, An Air France Airbus flight AF139, from Tel Aviv to Paris, was hijacked shortly after departing Athens and taken to Uganda. It was hijacked by members of the Popular Front for the Liberation of Palestine and a German radical group. The hijackers released 148 non-Israeli passengers after the plane landed in Uganda. French pilot Michel Bacos (d.2019) remained with the hostages despite offers of release.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Air_France)(AP, 3/27/19)

1976        Jul 3, Israel launched its daring mission to rescue 103 passengers and Air France crew members being held at Entebbe Airport in Uganda by pro-Palestinian hijackers.
    (AP, 7/3/97)

1976        Jul 4, Jonathan Netanyahu, brother of Benjamin, led and was killed in an Israeli raid called Operation Thunderball that rescued the [105] hostages held at Entebbe Airport in Uganda. The raid was by Sayeret Matkal, Israel’s elite counter-terrorist unit led by Muki Betser, and it freed all but 3 of the 104 Israeli and Jewish hostages and crew of an Air France jetliner seized by pro-Palestinian hijackers. A total of 45 Ugandan soldiers were killed during the raid. The events are described by Muki Betser and Robert Rosenberg in "Secret Soldier, The True Life of Israel’s Greatest Commando." The hijacking was linked to Carlos the Jackal, aka Ilich Ramirez Sanchez.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Operation_Entebbe)(AP, 7/4/97)(SFC,12/11/97, p.C2)

1976        Jul 16, In the "Spaggiari Affair," a heist masterminded by Albert Spaggiari (1932-1989), a gang tunneled into the vault of a branch of Societe Generale in Nice during a public holiday, spent two days and two nights there and made off with about 24 million euros (21 million pounds) worth of cash and valuables. The heist spawned several books and movies.
    (AP, 4/4/10)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Albert_Spaggiari)

1976        Aug 26, In France Raymond Barre (1924-2007) began serving as prime minister and continued to 1981.
    (Econ, 11/20/10, p.58)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Raymond_Barre)

1976        Oct 25, Raymond Queneau (b.1903), Parisian surrealist, died. His work included the prewar novel "Les Enfants du Limon." In 1998 it was translated to English as "Children of Clay."
    (SFEC, 8/2/98, BR p.4)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Raymond_Queneau)

1976        Nov 18, Man Ray (b.1890), American Dada artist, died in Paris. He was born as Emmanuel Radnitzky in Philadelphia and spent much of his time in France.  He fled to the United States from France during World War II and returned to Paris in the early 1950s where he lived until his death. His relationship with photographer Lee Miller inspired both his painting and her photography.
    (WSJ, 12/2/96, p.A16)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Man_Ray)(SFC, 7/14/12, p.E2)

1976        Nov 23, Andre Malraux (b.1901), author (Conquerors) and French Minister of Culture (1958-1969), died.

1976        James Monaco authored “The New Wave," an examination of the new French films.
    (SSFC, 12/22/02, p.M2)
1976        Alain Peyrefitte (1925-1999), French scholar, authored “Le Mal Francaise," which addresses the question of whether there is something unique to the French character or gene pool that has caused some of the country's peculiar recurring problems.
    (Econ, 4/23/11, p.29)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Alain_Peyrefitte)
1976        French composer Pierre Boulez (b.1925) wrote "Messagesquisse." Boulez had studied under Messiaen.
    (SFC, 1/31/03, p.D2)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pierre_Boulez)
1976        Composer Philip Glass and director/designer Robert Wilson collaborated on their production of "Einstein on the Beach" at the NY Met. The opera had premiered in Avignon.
    (SFC, 12/30/99, p.E1)(Econ, 7/22/06, p.82)(Econ, 6/9/12, p.89)
1976        Composers Gerard Grisey (d.1998 at 52), Michael Levinas and Tristan Murail formed the group L’Iteneraire and pioneered what they called “spectral music."
    (SFEC, 11/22/98, p.D10)
1976        The French film "Mr. Klein" starred Alain Delon and Jeanne Moreau and was directed by American Joseph Losey. Delon played an art director during WWII who takes advantage of Jews fleeing the country, buying their art collections at bargain prices.
    (SFC, 12/6/19, p.E6)

1977        Jan 11, France set off an international uproar by releasing Abu Daoud, a Palestinian suspected of involvement in the massacre of Israeli athletes at the 1972 Munich Olympics. In 1999 Mohammed Oudeh, aka Abu Daoud, published an autobiography in France in which he admitted to playing a mastermind role in the 1972 Munich hostage episode.
    (AP, 1/11/98)(SFC, 6/14/99, p.A14)

1977        Jan 12, Anti-French demonstrations took place in Israel after Paris released Abu Daoud, responsible for the 1972 Munich massacre of Israeli athletes.
1977        Jan 12, Henri-Georges Clouzot (b.1907), French film director and producer, died. His films included “Les Diaboliques" (1955) and “La Verite" (1960).

1977        Apr 11, Jacques Prevert (b.1900), French poet (La puil et le beau), died.

1977        Jun 8, The final run of the Paris to Istanbul Orient Express, begun in 1883, took place.

1977        Jun 27, Djibouti gained independence from France.
    (SC, 6/27/02)

1977        Sep 10, Convicted murderer Hamida Djandoubi, a Tunisian immigrant, became the last person to date to be executed by the guillotine in France.
    (SFEC, 2/9/97, Z1 p.6)(AP, 9/10/97)

1977        Oct 19, The body of West German industrialist Hanns Martin Schleyer, who had been kidnapped by left-wing extremists, was found in the trunk of a car in Mulhouse, France.
    (AP, 10/19/97)

1977        Nov 21, The 1st commercial flight of the Anglo-French Concorde jet was from London to Bahrain.

1977        Nov 22, Regular passenger service between New York and Europe on the supersonic Concorde began on a trial basis.
    (AP, 11/22/97)

1977        Dec 8, In Argentina Leonie Duquet, a French nun, was abducted in a commando-style operation by state security agents. Alice Domon, another French nun, was abducted later this month, but her remains were never recovered. They were killed after befriending mothers of detained dissidents, who were among the first victims of a crackdown on dissent against the 1976-83 dictatorship.
    (AP, 12/9/07)

1977        The Georges Pompidou Center, designed by British architect Richard Rogers and Italian architect Renzo Piano, opened in Paris.
    (SFEC, 4/20/98, p.A12)(WSJ, 2/3/00, p.A24)
1977        France’s 1st nuclear plant, built by Areva, began operations near Colmar. It was rated at 900 megawatts.
    (www.dw-world.de/dw/article/0,1564,1369259,00.html)(Econ, 9/8/07, TQ p.26)
1977        France banned frog fishing to protect the local green and red varieties. Poaching remained a problem.
    (WSJ, 4/2/02, p.A1)
1977        Philippe de Villiers (b.1949), French student and later politician, created the Puy du Fou historical theme park in the Vendee region.
    (Econ, 10/27/12, p.86)

1977-1995    Jacques Chirac served as mayor of Paris, France.
    (Econ, 7/14/07, p.56)

1978        Mar 16, The Amoco-Cadiz oil tanker spilled a record 1.6 million barrels of crude oil off the coast of France.
    (WSJ, 9/13/99, p.R4)(www.cedre.fr/uk/spill/amoco/amoco.htm)

1978        Aug 17, The first successful trans-Atlantic balloon flight ended as Americans Maxie Anderson, Ben Abruzzo and Larry Newman landed their Double Eagle II outside Paris.
    (AP, 8/17/97)(HN, 8/17/98)

1978        Aug, PSA Group, the French owner of Citroen and Peugeot, acquired Chrysler Europe for a nominal $1. All former Chrysler products registered in Britain after 1 August 1979 bore the Talbot badge. The tie-up crashed a few years later with the demise of Talbot.
    (https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Talbot)(Econ., 1/9/21, p.55)

1978        Oct 3, Ayatollah Khomeini (1902-1989) left Iraq for Kuwait after the Shah sought his deportation. He was refused entry in Kuwait and moved to Paris.

1978        Oct 9, Jacques Brel (b.1929), Belgian-born French cabaret singer, died. He was buried at Atuona on the Marquesas Island of Hiva Oa. An American musical revue of his songs, “Jacques Brel Is Alive and Well and Living in Paris," debuted in 1968 and has played around the world since.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Jacques_Brel)(SSFC, 10/11/03, p.C9)

1978        The film “Robert and Robert" starred Germaine Montero and was directed by Claude Lelouch.
    (SFC, 7/1/00, p.C2)

1978        French Pres. Valery Giscard d’Estaing (b.1926) created the centrist UDF party. He served as president from 1974 to 1981.
    (Econ, 5/20/06, p.51)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Val%C3%A9ry_Giscard_d'Estaing)

1978-1981    Maurice Papon served as the French Budget Minister.
    (SFC, 10/13/97, p.A12)

1979        Feb 12, Jean Renoir (b.1894), French actor and director (Rules of the Game), died in Beverly Hills, Ca. His body was returned to France.

1979        Mar 16, Jean Omer Marie Gabriel Monnet (b.1888), French entrepreneur, diplomat, financier, administrator, and political visionary, died in France. He was an influential supporter of European unity and is considered as one of the founding fathers of the European Union. "Europe is forged in crisis".
    (https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Jean_Monnet)(Econ., 8/1/20, p.43)

1979        Jun 28, Philippe Cousteau (b.1940), the youngest son of Jacques Cousteau, was killed while testing a seaplane near Lisbon.
    (SFC, 6/26/97, p.A7)

1979        Jul 17, Simone Veil (1927-2017) of France began serving as the 12th president of the European Parliament.

1979        Aug 30, Jean Dorothy Seberg (b.1938),  American actress who lived half her life in France, disappeared in Paris. On Sep 8 her decomposing body was found wrapped in a blanket in the back seat of her Renault, parked close to her Paris apartment. Romain Gary, Seberg's second husband, called a press conference shortly after her death where he publicly blamed the FBI's campaign against Seberg for her deteriorating mental health.

1979        Oct 10, Paul Paray (b.1886), French composer, died at age 93. He was the resident conductor of the Detroit Symphony Orchestra (1951-1962) for more than a decade.

1979        Nov 20, Some 200 armed men and women, Mahadiists, seized the Grand Mosque in Mecca. They denounced the monarchy and demanded an end to corrupting modernization and "foreign ways." Saudi preacher Juhayman al Uteybi (Juhayman al-Otaibi) led the radicals. After two weeks French special forces shot dead all the Wahhabi extremists.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/The_Siege_of_Mecca)(SSFC, 10/21/01, p.C3)(WSJ, 11/12/03, p.A18)(WSJ, 9/18/07, p.A8)

1979        Martin Bouygues founded Maison Bouygues to sell prefabricated homes in France. By 1984 the firm was France’s 2nd largest of its kind.
    (Econ, 12/2/06, p.72)

1979        Claude Tabet (b.1924), French painter and illustrator, died.
    (SFC, 1/25/06, p.G2)

1980        Feb 25, Roland Barthes (b.1915), French philosopher and writer, died. His books included “Mythologies" (1957), a collection of his essays.

1980        Apr 15, Jean-Paul Sartre (b.1905), Existentialist philosopher, novelist and dramatist, died in Paris. His work included "Being and Time" (1927) and "Nausea" (1938). He won the 1964 Nobel Prize for literature and his work included "Being and Nothingness." Philosophical replies to this work were written by Claude Levi-Strauss: "The Raw and the Cooked," a book that popularized structuralism in France, and by Michael Foucault: "Words and Things," ("The Order of Things" in the American edition). "If you're lonely while you’re alone, you’re in bad company." In 2000 Bernard-Henri Levy authored "Sartre: The Philosopher of the Twentieth Century." In 2015 Thomas R. Flynn authored “Sartre: A Philosophical Biography."
    (SFEC, 4/19/98, BR p.8)(SFEC, 6/21/98, Z1 p.8)(AP, 4/15/99)(Econ, 8/30/03, p.60)(Econ., 2/21/15, p.82)

1980        May 30, Pope John Paul II arrived in France on the first visit by the head of the Roman Catholic Church since the early 19th century.
    (AP, 5/30/97)

1980        Aug 14, It was reported that France’s Moet-Hennessy is buying Schieffelin & Co., its New York based US distributor. The deal also included the Simi Winery in Healdsburg, Ca.
    (SFC, 8/12/05, p.F3)

1980        Sep 17, The musical Les Miserables opened at the Palais des Sports in Paris. Boublil & Schonberg composed the music.
    (SI-WPC, 12/6/96)(www.hugo-online.org/070402.htm)

1980        Oct 3, In France a Paris synagogue bombing killed 3 French men and one Israeli woman. In 2008 Canadian police arrested Hassan Diab in response to a request from France, where he was wanted on charges of murder and attempted murder in the bombing. Diab denied guilt and stamps in his 1980 passport indicated he was not in France at the time of the bombing. In April 2012 Canada’s then-justice minister Rob Nicholson signed an extradition order surrendering Diab to France. On Nov 15, 2014, Diab was charged in Paris. He has claimed that he was studying in Beirut at the time of the bombing and has said that he had been confused with someone with the same name.
    (AP, 11/13/14)(AFP, 11/15/14)

1980        Dec 2, Romain Gary, born as Roman Kacew, (aka Romain Gary, Émile Ajar, Fosco Sinibaldi, Shatan Boga) died of a self-inflicted gunshot wound in Paris. Gary was born in 1914 in Vilnius, Lithuania, to Jewish parents. He was one of France's most popular and prolific writers, authoring more than 30 novels, essays and memoirs, some of which he wrote under a pseudonym. He also wrote the screenplay for the motion picture "The Longest Day" and co-wrote and directed the film "Kill!" (1971), which starred his wife at the time, Jean Seberg (d.1979).

1980        Gisele Freund (d.2000 at 91) won France’s national Grand Prize for Photography.
    (SFC, 4/1/00, p.A26)
1980        Jean Dausset (1916-2009), French immunologist, shared the Nobel Prize for medicine with Americans George D. Snell and Baruj Benacerraf for their work on genetically determined structures on cell surfaces that regulate immunological reactions. Dausset's discovery in 1958 of the human leukocyte antigen (HLA) tissue system allowed doctors to verify compatibility between donor and receiver for an organ transplant.
    (AP, 6/24/09)
1980        Pernod Ricard SA acquired the US bourbon Wild Turkey.
    (WSJ, 9/7/05, p.B2)
1980        French oil giant Total SA leased an oil patch in southern Sudan the size of Pennsylvania. In 2005 the lease came under dispute as southern Sudan gained limited autonomy and signed an oil deal with London-based White Nile Ltd.
    (WSJ, 6/19/06, p.A1)(www.sudantribune.com/spip.php?article20234)
1980        Marius Giuge (b.1909), French potter, died. He had begun working in the Vallouris around 1950.
    (SFC, 12/10/08, p.G4)

1980        The 2,032 passenger SS France became the SS Norway, flagship of the Norwegian Cruise Lines.

1981        Feb 26, The French Trainset 16 averaged 380 kph as part of Operation TGV 100.

1981        Mar 15, Rene Clair (b.1898), French director (It Happened Tomorrow), died.

1981        May 10, Socialist Francois Mitterrand defeated Valery Giscard d’Estaing for Pres. of  France in the second round of presidential elections. When the socialists took power they increased the money supply and the deficit. The franc collapsed and inflation accelerated.
    (SFC, 10/24/96, p.C3)(SFC, 6/25/97, p.A8)(AP, 5/10/01)

1981        May 21, Francois Mitterrand began serving as president of France. He was the first socialist president of the Fifth Republic and the first left-wing head of government since 1957.

1981        Jul 7, The 1st solar-powered aircraft, Solar Challenger, crossed the English Channel flying 163 miles from Paris to Canterbury. It was created by Dupont and Paul MacCready.
    (www.nasa.gov/centers/dryden/news/FactSheets/FS-054-DFRC.html)(Econ, 9/8/07, p.88)

1981        Sep 5, Aime Maeght (b.1906), French painter and art dealer, died. In 1964 he and his wife founded the Marguerite and Aime Maeght Foundation in honor of a son lost to leukemia in the 1950s.
    (http://tinyurl.com/kqt5ow2)(Econ, 7/26/14, p.71)

1981        Sep 18, The French National Assembly voted to abolish the death penalty. This in effect outlawed execution by the guillotine.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Capital_punishment_in_France)(SFEC, 2/9/97, Z1 p.6)

1981        Sep 24, Four Armenian gunmen seized the Turkish consulate in Paris, holding 60 hostages for 15 hours before surrendering.
    (AP 9/24/01)

1981        Sep, Pres. Mitterrand announced the Grand Louvre Project to renovate and modernize the exhibition spaces of the museum.
    (WSJ, 10/7/98, p.A20)

1981        Nov 10, Abel Gance (b.1889), French movie director, died in Paris. In 1919 he achieved international recognition for his 3 hour epic “J’Accuse," a powerful anti-war film which included location filming of battles shot towards the end of World War I. His films also included “Napoleon" (1927).

1981        Nov, Pres. Francois Mitterrand was diagnosed with prostate cancer but the information was kept secret until disclosed by his physician, Dr. Claude Gubler, in his 1996 book “The Great Secret." A court banned release of the book.
    (SFC, 10/24/96, p.C3)

1981        The French film “Diva" was produced.
    (SFC, 2/20/98, p.C13)

1981        French Pres. Mitterrand (1916-1996) nationalized the country’s banks. Similar rounds of nationalization had taken place in 1936 and 1945-46.
    (Econ, 10/18/08, p.15)(Econ, 10/25/08, p.18)
1981        French Pres. Mitterrand introduced a tax on great wealth (impot sur les grandes fortunes). It was abolished in 1986 under PM Jacques Chirac and reintroduced in 1988 under the name impot de solidarite sur la fortune (ISF) and applied to total assets greater than $850,000.
    (Econ, 7/16/05, p.45)
1981        The wartime role of Maurice Papon was revealed by a satirical weekly. A committee composed of top French resistance figures said Papon gave occasional service to the underground, but concluded he should have resigned when the roundup of Jews began in July 1942.
    (AP, 9/18/02)
1981        The club Les Henokiens was formed in France as a fraternity of companies whose members were at least 200 years old.
    (Econ, 12/18/04, p.104)
1981        The Trains Grand Vitesse (TGVs) were initiated with speeds of 168 mph on the Paris-Lyon line.
    (SFEC, 4/25/99, p.T8)

1981-1984    In France PM Pierre Mauroy (d.2013 at 84) served under Socialist President Francois Mitterrand. His reforms included cutting the legal work week, lowering the retirement age and raising the number of paid holidays.
    (AP, 6/7/13)

1982        Feb 16, In France Magdalena Kopp, lover of Carlos the Jackal, aka Ilich Ramirez Sanchez, was captured by French officials.
    (www.colin-smith.info/pages/books/extracts/carlos/extract_03.htm)(SFC,12/11/97, p.C2)

1982        Mar 1, In France Patrice Hyvert (23), an aspiring guide, went for a solo ascent on Mont Blanc and disappeared in a snowstorm. On July 3, 2014, climbers found his body.
    (AP, 7/10/14)

1982        Mar 2, The French term "région" was officially created by the Law of Decentralization, when by the same act their legal status was conferred. The first direct regional elections for representatives took place on 16 March 1986. France is administratively divided into 26 regions (French: régions), of which 22 are on mainland France, and four are overseas.

1982        Mar 3, Georges Perec (b.1932), French novelist born as George Peretz, died of lung cancer in Ivry-sur-Seine. He was also a filmmaker, documentalist, and essayist. Many of his works deal with absence, loss, and identity, often through word play. Perec urged other authors to describe the streets and objects around them.
    (https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Georges_Perec)(Econ., 5/9/20, p.68)

1982        Mar 29, The Paris-Toulouse express train was bombed. 5 people were killed and 15 injured. The attack was attributed to Carlos the Jackal, aka Ilich Ramirez Sanchez.
    (SFC,12/11/97, p.C2)(www.alertnet.org/thenews/newsdesk/L27801114.htm)

1982        Apr 22, A bombing in Paris killed a pregnant woman and injured 63 people. The attack was attributed to Carlos the Jackal, aka Ilich Ramirez Sanchez.
    (SFC,12/11/97, p.C2)(http://lists.jammed.com/IWAR/1997/12/0117.html)

1982        May 29, Romy Schneider (b.1938), Austrian-born actress, died in Paris of cardiac arrest. Her many films included “The Cardinal" (1963). Her death came one year after her son (14) died in a freak accident. The actress had been unwell after a kidney operation. French film idol Alain Delon later called her the love of his life.
    (www.imdb.com/name/nm0002769/)(AFP, 6/6/18)

1982        Jul 10, In Germany Kalinka Bamberski (14) was found dead in her bed in the home of Dr. Dieter Krombach. The girl and her mother had moved in with Krombach after her parents' separation. The girl's father, Andre Bamberski, believed that Krombach gave his daughter a dangerous injection to make her lose consciousness so he could rape her, leading to her death. France convicted Krombach in absentia in 1995 of "intentional violence that led to unintentional death" and sentenced him to 15 years in prison. In 1997 Krombach was convicted in a German court to a two-year suspended sentence and suspended from medical practice after pleading guilty to drugging and raping a 16-year-old girl in his office. In 2009 Krombach (74) was kidnapped from his German town, tied up, and appeared near the courthouse in the eastern French city of Mulhouse. Andre Bamberski later acknowledged involvement, and was hit with preliminary charges of kidnapping. In 2011 Krombach was sentenced to 15 years in prison for "intentional violence that led to unintentional death." On Dec 20, 2012, a French court upheld the conviction against Krombach. Kidnapping charges were still pending against Bamberski.
    (http://tinyurl.com/4agzq8a)(AP, 3/29/11)(AP, 12/20/12)

1982        Aug 9, In France grenade-throwing Palestinians burst into the Jo Goldenberg deli in Paris, and sprayed machine-gun fire. 6 people, including two Americans, were killed, and 21 injured. In 2015 international arrest warrants were issued for three suspects, who were believed to be members of the Abu Nidal group. On June 1, 2015, Souhaur Mouhamad Hassan Khalil Al-Abbassi, the alleged chief of the attack, was arrested in Jordan. In 2020 a Norwegian citizen in his 60s was arrested in southern Norway at the request of France as a suspect in the attack.
    (AP, 3/4/15)(SFC, 6/18/15, p.A3)(AP, 9/9/20)

1982        Sep 24, US, Italian and French peacekeeping troops began arriving in Lebanon. Some 400,000 Israelis gathered at the first of many demonstrations to protest the Lebanon War.

1982        Oct 18, Pierre Mendes-France (b.1907), premier of France (1954-55), died. "Let them drink milk!"

1982        Nov 4, Jacques Tati (b.1909), French mime and director, died.

1982        Nov 28, The United States led by John McEnroe beat France 4-1 to win the Davis Cup.

1982        Thich Nhat Hanh, a Vietnamese Zen master, founded Plum Village, a Buddhist community in southern France.
    (SFC, 10/12/97, Z1 p.3)
1982        Holocaust victims filed suit against Maurice Papon and Bordeaux prosecutors opened investigations.
    (AP, 9/18/02)
1982        The French firm JC Decaux invented the self-cleaning toilet.
    (SFC, 8/18/96, p.B5)
1982        France launched Minitel, a national videotex communications network. It became outdated with the rise of the Internet and was scheduled to close in 2011. During the first half of 1982, the Division of l'lnformatique Parlementaire studied the feasibility of an internal videotex system for the Chamber of Deputies in France and in September 1982, M. Louis Mexandeau, Minister of the PTT gave his support to the project. On 30 October 1982, the Bureau of the Assemblée Nationale approved implementation in two phases; first of 100 terminals; and secondly equipment to support all deputies with constituencies in metropolitan France.
    (Econ, 9/4/10, p.18)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Minitel)

1983        Jan 25, Klaus Barbie, SS chief of Lyon in Nazi-France, was arrested in Bolivia.

1983        Feb 5, Former Nazi Gestapo official Klaus Barbie (1913-1991), expelled from Bolivia, was brought to trial in Lyon, France. He was convicted and sentenced to life in prison.
    (AP, 2/5/03)(www.izieu.com/new_page_7.htm)

1983        Mar 7, In France Claude Vivier (b.1948), a French-Canadian composer, was found stabbed to death. A 19-year-old man was convicted of the murder. Vivier left behind 48 completed scores and part of a 49th. His 1976 "Siddartha" was a 30 minute orchestral piece written on commission from the CBC.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Claude_Vivier)(SFEC, 1/4/98, DB. p.31)

1983        Apr 5, France threw out 47 Soviet diplomats.

1983        May 25, France performed a nuclear test at Mururoa Atoll in the South Pacific.

1983        Jul 15, In France a bomb explodes in front of the THY counter at Orly airport. 8 people were killed and more than sixty injured. A 29 years old Syrian-Armenian named Varadjian Garbidjian (d.2019) confessed to having planted the bomb. He admitted that the bomb was intended to have exploded once the plane was airborne. Karapetian (d.2019), who headed the French branch of the Armenian Secret Army for the Liberation of Armenia, later confessed to paying a passenger to check a bomb-carrying bag for him onto a Turkish Airlines flight, claiming he had too much luggage himself. Karapetian was sentenced to life imprisonment in France, but was released in 2001 on condition of his being deported to Armenia.
    (http://armenians-1915.blogspot.com/2006/12/1273-this-month-in-history-armenian.html)(AP, 1/29/19)

1983        Aug 25, The French cultural center in West Berlin was bombed. One person was killed and 23 injured. The attack was attributed to Carlos the Jackal, aka Ilich Ramirez Sanchez.
    (SFC,12/11/97, p.C2)(http://lists.jammed.com/IWAR/1997/12/0117.html)

1983        Oct 23, A truck filled with explosives, driven by a Moslem suicide terrorist, crashed into the US Marine barracks near the Beirut International Airport in Lebanon. The bomb killed 241 Marines and sailors and injured 80. Almost simultaneously, a similar incident occurred at French military headquarters, where 58 died and 15 were injured. Hezbollah leader Imad Mughniyah was suspected of involvement. In 2007 under a law allowing foreign governments to be sued in US courts, US federal judge Royce Lamberth ordered Iran to pay $2.65 billion to victims' families.
    (WSJ, 8/1/96/p.B1)(AP, 10/23/97)(WSJ, 9/19/01, p.A14)(AFP, 7/6/12)

1983        Dec 12, A truck bomb exploded at the US Embassy in Kuwait. Shiite Muslims backed by Iran drove bomb-laden trucks into six targets. The most deadly of these struck the US Embassy, killing five persons and wounding 62. Other trucks destroyed the French embassy and several Kuwaiti installations (www.danielpipes.org/article/173).
    (WSJ, 4/28/05, p.A1)

1983        Dec 31, In France bombings in the main railroad terminal in Marseilles and on the Paris-Marseilles express train killed 5 people and injured 50. The attack was attributed to Carlos the Jackal, aka Ilich Ramirez Sanchez.
    (SFC,12/11/97, p.C2)(http://lists.jammed.com/IWAR/1997/12/0117.html)

1983        The opera “St. Francis d’Assise" by Olivier Messiaen premiered in Paris.
    (SFC, 9/30/02, p.D1)
1983        The French film “The Balance" starred Philippe Leotard (d.2001 at 60).
    (SFC, 9/13/01, p.C7)
1983        The French film “Sans Soleil" was directed by Chris Marker.
    (SFEC, 4/11/99, DB p.38)
1983        The French Green Party was founded.
    (SFC, 6/22/01, p.D5)
1983        French Pres. Francois Mitterrand in a U-turn jettisoned hyper-taxation and accepted the free market.
    (Econ, 10/3/15, p.58)
1983        French Pres. Francois Mitterrand lowered the retirement age from 65 to 60.
    (Econ, 9/11/10, p.31)
1983        Maurice Papon was first charged with crimes against humanity. Thirty-seven new families file suit and Papon was again charged.
    (AP, 9/18/02)

1983        In France Dr. Luc Montagnier and his team, which included Dr. Francoise Barre-Sinoussi, published a paper fingering HIV as the cause of AIDS.
    (Econ, 10/11/08, p.110)

1984        Feb 8, Philippe Aries (b.1914), French medievalist and historian of the family and childhood, died. His books included Essais sur l'histoire de la mort en Occident: du Moyen Âge à nos jours, Seuil (1975). English translation: Western Attitudes Toward Death from the Middle Ages to the Present. Patricia M. Ranum (translation). Johns Hopkins University Press. 1974.

1984        Apr 22, The US Centers for Disease Control (CDC) said French researchers had discovered that a virus causes AIDS. Scientists identified a retrovirus named human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) as the cause of AIDS.
    (SSFC, 6/3/01, p.A20)(www.avert.org/his81_86.htm)

1984        Jul 3, Raoul Salan (b.1899), French general, OAS leader (Algeria), died. Salan was one of the four Generals who organized the 1961 Algiers Putsch operation, and then founded the Organization armée secrète (OAS) terrorist group.

1984        Oct 16, In France Gregory Villemin (4) was found drowned in the Vologne River in the eastern Vosges region with his hands and feet tied. A suspect identified as “the Crow" was never caught. On June 16, 2017, The great aunt and uncle of boy were charged with his kidnapping, raising hopes that a case that has gripped the country could finally be solved. Jacqueline Jacob (72) and her husband Marcel Jacob (71) were arrested on June 14 following handwriting analysis of an anonymous threatening letter sent to Gregory's father in 1983.
    (SFC, 6/15/00, p.C3)(AFP, 6/16/17)

1984        Oct 18, Henri Michaux (b.1899), Belgian poet and painter, died. In 1954 he became a citizen of France, and he lived the rest of his life there along with his family. In 1965 he won the National Prize of Literature, which he refused to accept. His books included “Miserable Miracle" and “The Major Ordeals of the Mind and the Countless Minor Ones."

1984        Oct 21, Francois Truffaut (b.1932), French film director (Fahrenheit 451), died of brain cancer. In 1999 Antoine de Baecque and Serge Toubiana published "Truffaut: A Biography."
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Fran%C3%A7ois_Truffaut)(SFEC, 5/9/99, DB p.53)(SFEC, 6/27/99, BR p.4)

1984        French composer Oliver Messiaen composed his 5-hour opera “Saint Francis d’Assise."
    (SFC, 9/5/96, p.B1)
1984        Isabelle Adjani won the best actress award at the Cannes Film Festival for “Deadly Summer."
    (SFC, 11/8/96, p.C13)
1984        France-based Hermes introduced its Birkin handbag, named after British actress Jane Birkin, at a starting price of around $7,000. In 2008 Michael Tonello authored “Bringing Home the Birkin."
    (WSJ, 4/25/08, p.W5)(www.alphadictionary.com/business-tree/bags/bag%20birkin.html)
1984        Pres. Francois Mitterrand appointed Laurent Fabius (38) as Prime Minister.
    (SFC, 2/9/99, p.A1)
1984        French Pres. Francois Mitterrand visited California’s Silicon Valley and met with Steve Jobs. Soon after the French government promised a microcomputer in every French school.   
    (Econ, 2/8/14, p.50)
1984        Gyula Halasz, Hungarian born photographer aka Brassai, died. He was a friend of Picasso and Henry Miller and was known as the "Eye of Paris" for his night time photographs in the 1930s. His "Secret Paris of the 30s" was published in 1976. He published 2 books on Henry Miller and "Conversations With Picasso."
    (WSJ, 1/15/98, p.W12)

1985        Mar 28, Marc Chagall (b.1887), Belarus-born French painter, died.

1985        May 9, Laurent Fabius, head of the French Socialist government, blocked the sale of an AIDS virus detection test made by Abbott Laboratories. Fabius and others were later charged with criminal negligence and manslaughter in the deaths of hundreds who died from transfusions of tainted blood. In 1999 Fabius and Georgina Dufoix were cleared of the charges. Edmond Herve, the health minister under Dufoix, was convicted of negligence in 2 cases.
    (SFEC, 2/7/99, p.A2)(SFC, 3/10/99, p.A1)

1985        Jul 10, French security forces sank the Rainbow Warrior, a ship operated by Greenpeace near NZ. Fernando Pereira, a Dutch photographer, was killed in the sinking. In 2015 a retired French secret service agent apologized for planting the bombs. Jean-Luc Kister said that he and his colleagues never meant to kill anybody.
    (SFC, 5/7/99, p.A14)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Rainbow_Warrior)(AP, 9/7/15)

1985        Aug 1, The French government began to require the testing of all donated blood for AIDS following the launch of a test by Diagnostic Pasteur. By this time some 1,300 hemophiliacs were contaminated with AIDS-tainted blood. By 1997 over 500 had died, most of them children. Four health officials were charged and convicted in the case.
    (SFEC, 2/7/99, p.A2)

1985        Aug 26, French government claimed no knowledge of assault on Rainbow Warrior.

1985        Sep 1, A US-French expedition located the wreckage of the Titanic, sunk in 1915, about 560 miles off Newfoundland, Canada. Oceanographer Robert Ballard used the ship Knorr to pinpoint the location of the Titanic. The Knorr was decommissioned in 2014 and in 2016 was transferred to the Mexican Navy.
    (www.titanic-titanic.com/discovery_of_titanic.shtml)(SFC, 3/14/16, p.A5)

1985        Sep 2, It was announced that a U.S.-French expedition had located the wreckage of the Titanic about 560 miles off Newfoundland. [see Sep 1]
    (AP, 9/2/97)

1985        Sep 22, In France the premier confessed to the June 10 attack of Green Peace's Rainbow Warrior.

1985        Sep 30, Simone Signoret, German-French actress (Room at Top, Gina), died at 64.

1985        Nov 27, Fernand Braudel (b.1902), French historian, died. Braudel has been considered one of the greatest of the modern historians who have emphasized the role of large-scale socioeconomic factors in the making and writing of history.

1985        Dec 13, France sued the U.S. over the discovery of an AIDS serum.
    (HN, 12/13/98)

1985        Christo wrapped the 12 arches of Pont-Neuf in Paris with some 450,000 square-feet of fabric. The project cost some $3.5 million.
    (SFC, 3/2/97, p.E4)(SSFC, 2/13/05, p.A10)
1985        Georges Vigarello (b.1941), French historian and sociologist, authored “Le Propre et le Sale" (The Clean and the Dirty).
    (www.iiac.cnrs.fr/cetsah/spip.php?article35)(Econ, 12/19/09, p.139)
1985        The 9-hour film “Shoah," a French documentary on the Holocaust, was directed by Claude Lanzmann.
    (SFC,11/28/97, p.C6)(SFEC, 10/31/99, DB p.44)(Econ, 3/20/10, p.60)
1985        Claude Simon (1913-2005, French novelist, won the Nobel Prize in Literature.
    (AP, 10/8/09)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Claude_Simon)
1985        A French law prohibited the demolition of the classy Parisian facades along the boulevard  Champs-Elysees.
    (SSFC, 2/11/07, p.G3)
1985        Magdalena Kopp, the wife of Carlos the Jackal, aka Ilich Ramirez Sanchez, was freed after a series of bloody attacks against France.
    (SFC,12/11/97, p.C2)
1985        Pernod Ricard SA acquired the Italian bitters group Ramazzotti.
    (WSJ, 9/7/05, p.B2)
1985        In France Seamus Ruddy (32), a Northern Ireland activist, vanished while working as an English teacher in Paris. He was reportedly murdered by republican paramilitaries.
    (AP, 5/6/17)

1985-1995    Frenchman Jacques Delors served as president of the European Commission.
    (Econ, 2/14/04, p.50)

1986        Jan 20, Britain and France announced plans to build the Channel Tunnel.
    (AP, 1/20/98)

1986        Feb, Jean-Claude “Baby Doc" Duvalier was ousted from power ending 28 years of family dictatorship. He fled to France with his wife and mother.
    (TMC, 1994, p.1986)(SFC,12/31/97, p.A17)

1986        Mar 7, In France thieves made off with 1.5 million francs in an armored car robbery. In 2007 Jean Pierre Belkalem, a former Cartier employee, was arrested in San Francisco on charges of aiding and abetting in the robbery.
    (SSFC, 4/1/07, p.D3)

1986        Mar 16, In France the first direct regional elections for representatives took place. The French term "région" was officially created by March 2, 1982, Law of Decentralization.

1986        Mar 8, Four French television crew members were abducted in west Beirut; a caller claimed the Islamic Jihad was responsible. All four were eventually released.
    (AP, 3/8/98)

1986        Apr 14, Simone de Beauvoir (b.1908), French feminist author, died in Paris. Her books included “The Second Sex" (1949). In 2008 her Wartime Diary was published in English.
    (AP, 4/14/02)(SFC, 12/23/08, p.E3)

1986        Apr 15, Jean Genet (75), French playwright (Lesson Negres), was found dead in Paris.

1986        Apr 24, Bessie Wallis Warfield Simpson (b.6/19/1896), the Duchess of Windsor, for whom King Edward VIII gave up the British throne, died in Paris at age 89. Wallis Simpson was King Edward VIII's wife. In the early 1950s Simpson engaged in an affair with playboy Jimmy Donahue. In 2000 Christopher Wilson authored "Dancing with the Devil: The Windsors and Jimmy Donahue."
    (AP, 4/24/97)(SFC, 2/28/98, p.A5)(SFC, 1/4/01, p.D10)

1986        Sep 17, A bomb attack in Paris killed 5 people. This began a 10 month series of bomb attacks in France attributed to Lebanese and Armenian terrorists.

1986        Nov 17, Renault President Georges Besse was shot to death by leftists of the Direct Action Group in Paris.
    (HN, 11/17/98)

1986        Dec 1, Musee d'Orsay opened in Paris.

1986        African art was brought to Paris by the Dapper Foundation of Amsterdam and housed in an elegant private museum at 50 Avenue Victor Hugo.
    (SFEC, 1/4/98, p.T7)

1986-1988    Jacques Chirac served his 2nd term as prime minister of France.
    (Econ, 3/17/07, p.28)

1986        In France Michel Lescanne, in response to the crises in Ethiopia, founded Nutriset to develop a product for feeding malnourished children. An initial product met WHO standards F-75 and F-100 for therapeutic milk products that needed to be mixed with water. In 1997 he hit upon a peanut-based spread and called the new product Plumpy’nut.
    (WSJ, 4/12/05, p.A14)

1987        Jan 22, France named Manuel Noriega, head of Panama, a Commander of the Legion of Honor (Legion d’Honneur).

1987        Feb 22, The Finance Ministers and Central Bank Governors of six major industrial countries (Canada, France, Germany, Japan, United Kingdom, United States, G6) met in Paris and agreed in the Louvre Accord to bring down the value of the dollar.
    (Econ, 4/29/06, p.82)(www.g7.utoronto.ca/finance/fm870408.htm)

1987        Mar 24, French Premier Jacques Chirac signed a contract with Walt Disney Productions for the creation of a Disneyland amusement park, the first in Europe.
    (AP, 3/23/97)

1987        Apr 7, Ali Mecili, a lawyer active in Algeria's human rights movement, was killed by three gunshots in the foyer of his Paris apartment. Colleagues accused the Algerian government of involvement. In 2008 Algerian diplomat Mohamed Ziane Hasseni was arrested at an airport in the French port city of Marseille, based on an international arrest warrant. A Paris judge had signed the orders for the arrest of Hassani and the suspected killer, Abdelmalek Amellouet, in December last year. Hasseni was released on Feb 27.
    (AP, 10/17/08)(http://tinyurl.com/67pryj)(AP, 2/2809)

1987        May 11, The trial of former Gestapo official Klaus Barbie began in Lyons, France.
    (AP, 5/11/97)

1987        Jun 30, The prosecutor at the trial of Klaus Barbie in Lyon, France, denounced the crimes of the former Nazi Gestapo official and demanded the maximum sentence of life in prison. Barbie died in 1991 at age 77.
    (AP, 6/30/97)

1987        Aug 11,  Britain and France ordered minesweepers to the Persian Gulf, but said they would not be used in combined operations with the United States as it escorted reflagged Kuwaiti ships.
    (AP, 8/11/97)

1987        Aug, In central France the body of a girl (4), bearing the signs of horrific abuse including burns from an iron and human bite marks, was found in a ditch alongside the A10 motorway. It remained a cold case until the 2016 arrest of her brother in an assault probe that allowed police to identify her through DNA, leading in 2018 to the arrest of their parents.
    (AFP, 6/14/18)

1987        Oct 3, Jean Anouilh (77), French playwright (Ball of the Voleurs), died.

1987        Nov 27, French hostages Jean-Louis Normandin and Roger Auque were freed by their pro-Iranian captors in west Beirut, Lebanon.
    (AP, 11/27/97)

1987        Dec 1, Digging of the Eurotunnel began on the English side to link England and France, under co-chairman Alastair Morton (d.2004).
    (www.scripophily.net/eurotunnel.html)(Econ, 9/11/04, p.82)

1987        The French film “36 Fillette" was directed by Catherine Breillat. It was about a 14-year-old girl's quest to lose her virginity.
    (SFC, 9/29/99, p.D1)
1987        The Monde Arabe (The Arab World Institute) was opened in Paris. The building at 1 Rue des Fosses Saint-Bernard was designed by Jean Nouvel.
    (SFEC, 1/4/98, p.T7)
1987        La Bellevilleuse was a grass-roots group founded to protect residents in their Paris quarter and improve living conditions.
    (SFEC, 6/28/98, p.T9)
1987        France ousted Libyan troops from a disputed area of northern Chad. In the proxy war, code-named Arid Farmer, France and the US backed government forces against Libyan troops.
    (SFC, 6/22/99, p.A12)(WSJ, 2/11/03, p.D8)
1987        An appeals court dismissed the case against Maurice Papon case for procedural irregularities.
    (AP, 9/18/02)
1987        The French CAC-40 stock market index began.
    (Econ, 11/17/12, SR p.3)
1987        Eurotunnel started trading on the Paris Bourse for $6.35 a share. It peaked in 1989 at $23.04, but in 2004 was down to 44 cents.
    (WSJ, 5/19/04, p.A1)

1987-2001    In France Michel Fourniret, dubbed the "Ogre of the Ardennes", admitted in his trial to murdering, raping and kidnapping seven young girls and women during this period. His wife, Monique Olivier, was accused of helping him trap the victims. In 2008 Fourniret (66) and Olivier (59) were convicted and sentenced to life in prison for the murders.
    (AFP, 5/26/08)(AFP, 5/28/08)

1988        Jan 20, Philippe de Rothschild (b.1902), Bordeaux Vineyard manager, died in Paris.

1988        May 8, French President Francois Mitterrand was elected to a second seven-year term, defeating conservative challenger Jacques Chirac.
    (AP, 5/8/98)

1988        May 10, The Edgar Degas sculpture "Danseresie of 14" (Little Dancer at 14 years of Age) sold for $10,120,000. In 1996 it sold for nearly $12 million.
    (http://tinyurl.com/lx277)(SFC, 11/13/96, p.A3)

1988        Jun 12, In runoff elections in France, President Francois Mitterrand's Socialist Party fell short of a majority in the National Assembly. But a right-wing coalition also failed to retain its legislative control.
    (AP, 6/12/98)

1988        Jun 26, Three people were killed when a new Airbus A-320 jetliner carrying more than 130 people crashed into a forest during an air show demonstration flight in Mulhouse, France.
    (AP, 6/26/98)
1988        Jun 26, The Matignon Agreements were agreements signed in the Hôtel Matignon by Jean-Marie Tjibaou and Jacques Lafleur between loyalists who wanted to keep New Caledonia as a part of the French Fifth Republic, and separatists, who did not. The agreements were arranged under the aegis of the Government of France as a result of discussions and compromises arranged by Christian Blanc, the negotiator for Michel Rocard's government.

1988        Jun 27, Fifty-seven people were killed in a train collision in Paris.
    (AP, 6/27/98)

1988        Aug 11, Jean-Pierre Ponnelle (b.1932), French opera director (Figaro, Barber of Seville, numerous operas in Europe, Bayreuth, Met Opera), died in Munich, Germany.

1988        Oct 18, Maurice Allais of France won the Nobel Prize in economics for contributions to the theory of markets and the efficient use of resources.
    (SFC, 10/15/98, p.A2)(AP, 10/18/98)(AP, 10/11/09)

1988        Oct 26, A French pharmaceutical company, Roussel Uclaf, announced it would halt worldwide distribution of RU-486, a pill to induce abortions, because of "an outcry of opinion at home and abroad." The French government ordered the company to reverse itself two days later.
    (AP, 10/26/98)

1988        Oct 28, A French pharmaceutical company that manufactured the abortion pill RU-486 announced it would resume distribution on command of the French government.
    (AP, 10/28/98)

1988        Michel Deville made his film “La Lectrice" with Maria Casares (1922-1996).
    (SFC, 11/25/96, p.B2)
1988        The French TV show “Les Guignols de l’Info" was launched. It was based on the British show “Spitting Image" (1988-1991) and used puppets to lampoon politicians.
    (Econ, 7/11/15, p.49)
1988        Controls on capital movement across borders were abandoned by France, Italy and other member states of the European Community.
    (WSJ, 5/28/96, p. R-44)
1988        Maurice Papon was again charged with crimes against humanity.
    (AP, 9/18/02)
1988        French Archbishop Marcel Lefebvre was expelled for defying the liberal reforms of the 1962-65 Vatican Council. The Vatican excommunicated Lefebvre after he consecrated four bishops without Rome's consent. The bishops also were excommunicated.
    (AP, 5/5/06)
1988        George Soros, billionaire financier, traded shares of French bank Societe Generale prior to a takeover. A court in 2002 alleged insider knowledge and fined him $2.2 million. Soros had declined to participate in takeover deal but bought shares that gained him $2.28 million.
    (SFC, 12/21/02, p.B1)
1988        Pernod Ricard SA acquired the Irish whiskies Jameson, Paddy and Bushmills.
    (WSJ, 9/7/05, p.B2)
1988        Albert Fert of France and Peter Grunberg of Germany independently discovered the phenomenon of giant magnetoresistance. It was later adopted for use in computer hard-drives. In 2007 they won the Nobel Prize in Physics for their discovery.
    (Econ, 10/13/07, p.94)
1988        Patrice Vic (31) jumped out of his 12th story apartment window. His death was linked to counseling sessions and charges to the Church of Scientology.
    (SFC, 11/23/96, p.A10)

1988-1993    Jacques Chirac was mayor of Paris and Alain Juppe was the finance director.
    (SFC, 8/26/98, p.A10)

1989        Mar 29, I.M. Pei's glass pyramidal entrance to the Louvre opened in Paris.
    (SFC, 6/16/96, T-5)(http://tinyurl.com/emvfc)

1989        May 24, French war criminal Paul Touvier was arrested in a monastery in Nice.
    (MC, 5/24/02)

1989        Jul 2, Jean Painleve (b.1902), French film maker, died. His science and nature films inspired the Surrealists.
    (WSJ, 6/19/00, p.A44)(http://tinyurl.com/z8n2m)

1989        Jul 12, A farmer in eastern France went on a shooting rampage, killing 14 people before being captured.
    (AP, 7/12/99)

1989        Jul 15, Leaders of the seven major industrial democracies, meeting in Paris, voiced support for democracy behind the Iron Curtain and condemned repression in China.
    (AP, 7/15/99)

1989        Jul 23, Greg LeMond of the United States won the Tour de France.
    (AP, 7/23/99)

1989        Sep 6, The Guardian reported that a French police computer had mixed codes and accused 41,000 Parisians of murder and prostitution rather than traffic fines.

1989        Sep 19, A Paris-bound French DC-10, UTA Flight 772, was bombed over the Sahara desert of Niger and all 170 passengers died. French authorities placed the blame on Libya’s Abdallah Senoussi, brother-in-law of Moammar Khadafy and chief of foreign operations for the Libyan secret service. The six Libyan suspects were named by a French judge in 1998 and tried in absentia in 1999. The attack was in retaliation for French intervention on behalf of Chad in a war with Libya since the mid 1980s. In 2004 Libya signed a $170 million compensation accord with families of the people killed. In 2008 a federal judge in Washington ordered Libya and six of its officials to pay more than $6 billion in damages to the families of 7 Americans killed in the attack.
    (SFC, 5/7/97, p.C3)(SFEC,10/19/97, p.A26)(WSJ, 1/30/98, p.A1)(SFC, 6/13/98, p.A11)(SFC, 3/9/99, p.B10)(AP, 9/19/99)(AP, 1/9/04)(Reuters, 1/16/08)

1989        Oct 6, Actress Bette Davis (81) died in Neuilly-sur-Seine, France. In 1962 she authored her memoir “The Lonely Life." In 2006 Charlotte Chandler authored “The Girl Who Walked Home Alone," a personal biography of Davis.
    (AP, 10/6/97)(WSJ, 3/4/06, p.P8)(WSJ, 2/21/09, p.W8)

1989        Nov 26, In the Comoro Islands Pres. Ahmed Abdallah was assassinated in his presidential palace in Moroni. In 1999 Bob Denard (Gilbert Bourgeaud), a French mercenary and head of the presidential guard, and Dominique Malacrino were put on trial for the killing. Denard was acquitted.
    (SFC, 5/6/99, p.A15) (SFC, 5/20/99, p.A13)(www.reference.com/browse/wiki/Ahmed_Abdallah)

1989        Dec 5, A French TGV train reached a world record speed of 482.4 kph.

1989        Dec 22, Samuel Beckett (83, playwright, died in Paris. His work included the novel "The Unnamable." In 1997 2 biographies of Beckett were published: "Damned to Fame" by James Knowlson and "Samuel Beckett: The Last Modernist," by Anthony Cronin. In 1999 Maurice Harmon published "No Author Better Served: The Correspondence of Samuel Beckett and Alan Schneider." Schneider (d.1984) was Beckett's American director.
    (SFEC, 9/30/96, p.A23)(WSJ, 7/11/97, p.A12)(SFEC, 1/17/99, BR p.7)(AP, 12/22/99)

1989        Patrick Rance (d.1999) authored "The French Cheese Book."
    (SFC, 8/30/99, p.A24)

1989        Construction of the new Tres Grand Bibliotheque (aka TGB, the national library) was begun. It was designed by Dominique Perrault and the first quarter was scheduled to open in 1997.
    (WSJ, 8/28/97, p.A12)

1989        Maria Casares (1922-1996) won the Moliere prize for best comedienne.
    (SFC, 11/25/96, p.B2)

1989        Christine Deviers-Joncour was hired by state-owned Elf oil company to use her wiles on foreign minister Roland Dumas to go along with a sale of 6 French-made warships to Taiwan. In 1998 she published “The Whore of the Republic," and told her story.
    (SFC, 11/28/98, p.A14)

1989        Gerard Fusil, a French journalist, conceived “adventure racing" as a sport.
    (WSJ, 5/19/00, p.A1)

1989        France ruled that the school ban on religious symbols was illegal.
    (WPR, 3/04, p.9)

1989        Pernod Ricard SA acquired the Australian wine brand Jacob’s Creek.
    (WSJ, 9/7/05, p.B2)

1989        A cable car accident killed 8 people in the Isere region of the French Alps.
    (SFC, 7/2/99, p.A10)

1989        Bernard Villemot (b.1911), French poster artist, died. In 1945-1946 he carried out many posters for the Red Cross.
    (SFC, 10/21/06, p.F3)(http://fr.wikipedia.org/wiki/Villemot)

1990        Apr 18, A Franco-German proposal was made at the Dublin summit for the political union of the 12 European Community member countries.

1990        May 18, The French TGV-train hit record speed of 515.3 kph.

1990        Jul 3, Maurice Girodias (71), French publisher, died.
    (MC, 7/3/02)

1990        Jul 4, France performed nuclear test at Muruora Island.

1990        Sep 15, France announced it would send 4,000 more soldiers to the Persian Gulf and expel Iraqi military attaches in Paris in response to Iraq’s raids on French, Belgian and Canadian diplomatic compounds in Kuwait.
    (AP, 9/15/00)

1990        Oct 22, Louis Althusser (b.1918), Algeria-born French Marxist philosopher, died.

1990        Oct 23, Iraq announced the release of 330 French hostages.

1990        Oct, French Pres. Francois Mitterrand called for an economic government of Europe during a Franco-German summit in Paris.
    (Econ, 7/14/07, p.58)

1990        Nov 19, Leaders of 16 NATO members and the remaining six Warsaw Pact nations signed treaties in Paris making sweeping cuts in conventional arms throughout Europe and pledging non-aggression toward one another. The Treaty on Conventional Armed Forces in Europe (CFE) was signed by the United States and 21 other NATO and WTO countries at a CSCE summit in Paris.
    (AP, 11/19/00)(www.fas.org/nuke/control/cfe/chron.htm)

1990        Dec 1, British and French workers digging the Channel Tunnel between their countries finally met after knocking out a passage in a service tunnel.
    (AP, 12/1/97)

1990        Maria Casares (1922-1996) won the French National Grand prix of Theater.
    (SFC, 11/25/96, p.B2)
1990        The Australian firm Thomas Hardy & Sons, a family firm that had made wine for 160 years, entered the market in Europe with an investment in Domaine de la Baume in Languedoc, France.
    (WSJ, 5/30/03, p.A3)
1990        Bui Tin, a former Vietnamese army journalist, defected to France during a trip for a meeting organized by l'Humanite communist newspaper in Paris.
    (AP, 8/12/18)

1990-1993    Rwandan President Juvenal Habyarimana, an ethnic Hutu, requested French troops to help block an ethnic Tutsi exile force that was penetrating the country from Uganda. French troops were present over the next 3 1/2 years.
    (WSJ, 1/24/97, p.A14)

1991        Feb 23, French forces unofficially started the Persian Gulf ground war by crossing the Saudi-Iraqi border. Lessons learned in the savage 1972 Eastertide Offensive paid off at the Battle of Khafji in the Gulf War.
    (HN, 2/23/98)

1991        Mar 2, Serge Gainsbourg (b.1928), French singer-songwriter, actor and director, died of a heart attack. His extremely varied musical style and individuality make him difficult to categorize. His legacy has been firmly established, and he is often regarded as one of the world's most influential popular musicians.

1991        Mar, Sartrouville, France, was badly scarred by riots after the killing of Djamel Chettouh (18) by a Euromarche supermarket security guard.
    (Econ, 4/7/07, p.50)(http://tinyurl.com/25eqm7)

1991        May 15, French President Francois Mitterrand appointed Edith Cresson to be France’s first female premier.
    (AP, 5/15/01)

1991        May 18, France performed a nuclear test at Muruora Island.
    (SC, 5/18/02)

1991        Jun 10, Vercors (b.1902) [Jean Bruller], French writer (Silence of Mer), died.

1991        Jul 28, Miguel Indurain of Spain won the Tour de France bicycle race.
    (SC, 7/28/02)

1991        Aug 6, Former Iranian PM Shahpour Bakhtiar and his chief of staff were killed in Bakhtiar’s residence outside Paris. Their bodies were found 2 days later. In 1994 Ali Vakili Rad was arrested in Switzerland and sentenced to life in prison for stabbing Shapour Bakhtiar to death. In 2010 France issued a deportation order to send Rad back to Iran shortly after Tehran freed a young French academic accused of spying.
    (AP, 8/8/01)(AP, 5/17/10)

1991        Sep 25, Nazi war criminal Klaus Barbie died in Lyon, France, at age 77.
    (AP, 9/20/01)

1991        Nov 9, Singer-actor Yves Montand died near Paris at age 70. His body was exhumed in 1998 for DNA tests in a paternity suit filed by Aurore Drossard (22).
    (SFC, 3/13/98, p.A17)(AP, 11/9/01)

1991        Nov 18, France deported Marlon Brando's daughter Cheyenne (21) to Tahiti to face charges of acting as an accomplice in the killing of her lover last year.

1991        Pierre Pflimlin (d.2000 at 93), former mayor of Strasbourg, published his memoirs: “Memoirs of a European under the Fourth and Fifth Republic." Pflimlin served as president of the European Parliament from 1984-1987.
    (SFC, 6/28/00, p.A21)

1991        The French film "The Lovers on the Bridge" starred Denis Lavant and Juliette Binoche. It was set in 1989 on the Pont Neuf. It was directed by Leos Carax.
    (SFC, 10/8/99, p.C3)

1991        The French film “Tous les Matins du Monde" was based on the life of composer Marin Marais (1656-1728) and his teacher Monsieur de Sainte Colombe. Jordi Savall, artist of the viola da gamba, performed on the soundtrack.
    (Econ, 4/22/06, p.82)(www.classical.net/music/comp.lst/marais.html)

1991        The French satirical magazine La Grosse Berthe was launched.
    (Econ, 12/20/03, p.76)

1991        Edith Cresson became the first female prime minister in France.
    (SFC, 3/2/00, p.A11)

1991        Jen-Pierre Chevenement resigned as defense minister over France’s involvement in the Gulf War against Iraq. He later became head of the center-left Citizens’ Movement party.
    (SSFC, 3/24/02, p.A14)

1991        French frigates were sold to Taiwan. In 2004 a fake list of French public figures (including later president Nicolas Sarkozy), who allegedly held accounts at a Luxembourg-based clearing house (Clearstream Banking S.A.), was leaked to a French judge. This came to be known as the 2nd Clearstream affair.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Clearstream)(Econ, 12/6/08, p.70)

1991        Executive Life, a large California insurer, collapsed under the stewardship of Frederick Carr. He had invested premiums of policy holders in junk bonds, whose value plunged as the US economy tanked. Credit Lyonnais, a French bank, made an illegal arrangement to purchase the depressed bonds and together with French billionaire Francois Pinault reaped a $2.54 billion profit. In 2004 the French government pleaded guilty to fraud for its role.
    (WSJ, 4/16/04, p.A1)

1992        Jan 20, A French Airbus A-320 crashed near Strasbourg, killing 87 people.
    (AP, 1/20/98)

1992        Feb 7, Russian President Boris N. Yeltsin and President Francois Mitterrand signed a cooperation treaty in Paris.
    (AP, 2/7/02)

1992        Feb 8, The 16th Olympic Winter Games opened in Albertville, France.
    (AP, 2/8/02)

1992        Feb 13, Donna Weinbrecht of the United States won the gold medal in women's freestyle skiing moguls at the Olympic games in Albertville, France.
    (AP, 2/13/02)

1992        Feb 14, American speed skater Bonnie Blair won her second gold medal of the Albertville Olympics, in the 1,000 meters event.
    (AP, 2/14/02)

1992        Feb 21, Kristi Yamaguchi of the United States won the gold medal in women's figure skating at the Albertville Olympics; Midori Ito of Japan won the silver, Nancy Kerrigan of the United States the bronze.
    (AP, 2/21/98)

1992        Feb 22, At the Winter Olympics in Albertville, France, American speedskater Cathy Turner won the women's 500-meter race.
    (AP, 2/22/02)

1992        Feb 23, The XVI Winter Olympic Games ended in Albertville, France.
    (AP, 2/23/02)

1992        Mar 14, Jean Poiret (65), French actor, writer (La Cage aux Folles), died.

1992        Mar 22, France's governing Socialist Party was rebuffed in regional elections.
    (AP, 3/22/02)

1992        Apr 2, French Premier Edith Cresson, who had served 10 turbulent months as France's first woman prime minister, resigned after election setbacks for the ruling Socialists.
    (AP, 4/2/02)

1992        Apr 12, After five years in the making, Euro Disneyland, a theme park costing $4 billion, opened in Marne-La-Vallee, France, amid controversy as French intellectuals bemoaned the invasion of American pop culture.
    (AP, 4/12/97)

1992        Apr 27, Olivier Messiaen (b.1908), French composer, died. His work included the 1983 opera "St. Francis d’Assise."
    (WSJ, 10/3/02, p.D6)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Olivier_Messiaen)

1992        May 6, Actress Marlene Dietrich (b.1901), film star and singer, died at her Paris home at age 90. She was buried in Germany on May 16.
    (SFC, 5/8/96, p.D-2)(AP, 5/16/97)

1992        Jul 26, Miguel Indurain of Spain won cycling's Tour de France for the second year in a row.
    (AP, 7/26/97)

1992        Aug 26, The United States, Britain and France imposed a 2nd no-fly zone south of the 32nd parallel, the southern one-third of Iraq aimed at protecting Iraqi Shiite Muslims.
    (AP, 8/26/97)(SFC, 9/24/02, p.A11)

1992        Sep 20, French voters narrowly approved the Maastricht Treaty on European union.
    (AP, 9/20/97)

1992        Sep, The French finance ministry placed Credit Lyonnais under administrative control. A 1998 bailout of the company ended up costing French taxpayers twice the bank’s 1991 published capital.
    (Econ, 5/20/06, Survey p.13)(www.erisk.com/Learning/CaseStudies/CreditLyonnais.asp)

1992        Oct 14, The Nobel Prize for physics went to George Charpak of France.
    (AP, 10/14/97)

1992        Oct 19, Maurice le Roux, French conductor and composer (Contes immoraux), died.
    (MC, 10/19/01)

1992        Marc Sautet, philosophy professor and writer, started philosophy debates at the Cafe des Phares in Paris. Success encouraged him to export the idea of philosophy cafes around the world.
    (SFEC, 4/21/97, p.A9)
1992        Foreign investors account for more than 20% of shareholdings in French companies, up from 12% in 1977.
    (WSJ, 10/17/95, A-20)
1992        Total, a France-based oil and gas company, was privatized. It was founded in 1924 as  the Compagnie française des pétroles (CFP).
    (https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Total_SE)(Econ., 12/12/20, p.68)
1992        Elf-Aquitaine purchased the former East German Leuna refinery. It was later alleged that bribes totaling $44 million were paid by the French government to the German Social Democrats under Helmut Kohl.
    (SFC, 1/24/00, p.A6)
1992        An Italian court sentenced Marina Petrella, a member of the Red Brigades, in absentia to life in prison on charges including murder and kidnapping. In 2007 French police arrested Petrella for a petty crime and planned to extradite her to Italy. In 2008 a French court ordered her that she be freed from prison because of health problems.
    (AP, 8/23/07)(AP, 8/5/08)

1993        Jan 6, Ballet dancer Rudolf Nureyev died of AIDS in Paris at age 54. In 1961 his defection from the Soviet Union made headline news. In 2007 Julie Kavanagh authored “Nureyev: The Life."
    (AP, 1/6/98)(WSJ, 10/1/98, p.A20)(SSFC, 10/14/07, p.M3)
1993        Jan 9, In France Jean-Claude Romand killed his parents, wife and children in an effort to save his pride following years of lies. He had spent nearly 20 years pretending he was a successful doctor and researcher working for the Geneva-based World Health Organization. In 2001 Emmanuel Carrere authored “The Adversary: A True Story of Murder and Deception."
    (www.truecrimeink.com/bkreview01.htm)(WSJ, 6/9/07, p.P8)(AFP, 6/28/19)   

1993        Jan 15, In Paris a historic disarmament ceremony ended with the last of 125 countries signing a treaty banning chemical weapons.
    (AP, 1/15/98)

1993        Mar 21, Voters in France handed the Socialist government a devastating defeat in first-round parliamentary elections.
    (AP, 3/21/03)

1993        May 13, In suburban Paris, a masked man armed with dynamite took a roomful of nursery school children hostage, demanding $18.5 million. The man was shot to death by police two days later.
    (AP, 5/13/98)

1993        Aug 30, The 150 millionth person visited the Eiffel Tower.
    (MC, 8/30/01)

1993        Sep 5, Claude Renoir, French cinematographer (Spy Who Loved Me), died at 78.

1993        Sep 6, Automakers Renault of France and Volvo of Sweden announced they would merge; however, Volvo canceled the deal the following December.
    (AP, 9/6/98)

1993        Nov 23, Record cold was blamed for at least 34 deaths in parts of Europe and prompted the French army to send out troops to feed the homeless in Paris.
    (AP, 11/23/02)

1993        Amin Maalouf (b.1949), Lebanese writer, won France’s Prix Goncourt for his novel “The Rock of Tanios."
    (Econ, 7/5/08, p.91)
1993        French Pres. Mitterrand moved the offices of the Ministry of Finance out of the Louvre’s Richelieu Wing to free 245,000 sq. ft. of exhibit space.
    (WSJ, 10/7/98, p.A20)
1993        France forbade polygamy as it tightened immigration laws to stop husbands from bringing extra wives into the country.
    (Econ, 5/8/10, p.55)
1993        France scrapped its saint-strewn list of acceptable names.
    (Econ, 1/14/12, p.59)
1993        French Dr. Luc Montagnier created the World Foundation for AIDS Research and Prevention under the auspices of UNESCO. He was one of the first to isolate the AIDS virus.
    (SFC, 11/16/96, p.A1)
1993        Sanofi-Aventis of France introduced its Ambien sleeping pill to the US.
    (SFC, 3/3/06, p.D1)

1994        Jan 22, Jean-Louis Barrault (83), French actor (La Ronde), died.

1994        Jan 30, Pierre Boulle (b.1912), French writer (Executioner), died.
    {Writer, France}

1994        Feb 24, Jean Sablon (87), French crooner, died.
    (MC, 2/24/02)

1994        Mar 28, Absurdist playwright Eugene Ionesco died in Paris at age 81.
    (AP, 3/28/99)

1994        Apr 6, The presidents of Rwanda and Burundi were killed on a return trip from Tanzania in a mysterious plane crash near Kigali, Rwanda; widespread violence erupted in Rwanda over claims the plane had been shot down: Agatha Uwilingiyimana, Rwanda’s and Africa’s 1st female PM, Cyprian Niayamira (Ntaryamira), president of Burundi (1993-94) and Juvenal Habyarimana, president of Rwanda (1973) were killed along with the French aircrew. In Rwanda the Interhamwe, an extremist organization, and the Rwandan armed forces, FAR, launched a massacre of Tutsis and sympathizers that killed some 800,000. [see Aug 1, 1997] A French report in 2004 concluded that Paul Kagame, Tutsi rebel leader, was behind the crash. In 2010 a Rwandan government-commissioned inquiry said Rwandan Hutu soldiers shot down the Hutu president's plane and sparked the slaughter of more than 500,000 people. In 2012 a French judge determined that the missile fire that brought down the plane and sparked the Rwanda genocide came from a military camp, and not Tutsi rebels. This finding supported the theory that Habyarimana was killed by extremist members of his own ethnic Hutu camp.
    (WSJ, 11/15/96, p.A16)(SFC, 2/21/97, p.A26)(AP, 4/6/99)(SFC, 2/11/04, p.A8)(AP, 1/12/10)(AFP, 1/11/12)

1994        May 6, Britain's Queen Elizabeth II and French President Francois Mitterrand formally opened the Channel Tunnel between their countries. A first dividend to shareholders, promised in 1995, was paid in 2009.
    (AP, 5/6/04)(Econ, 5/10/14, p.68)

1994        Jun 6, President Clinton joined leaders from America's World War II allies to mark the 50th anniversary of the D-Day invasion of Normandy.
    (AP, 6/6/04)

1994        Jun 14, Marcel Mouloudji (b.1922), Algeria-born French actor/chansonnier, died in Paris.

1994        Jun 23, French marines and Foreign Legionnaires headed into Rwanda to try to stem the country's ethnic slaughter.
    (AP, 6/23/99)

1995        Jul 25, A bomb exploded at the Paris subway St. Michel station, killing seven people and injuring at least 60. The Armed Islamic Group claimed responsibility. In 1999 five people linked to Algerian militants were sentenced to 10-year prison terms for the attacks. 16 others received lesser sentences. In 2002 Boualem Bensaid and Smain Ait Ali Belkacem, Islamic militants, were convicted and sentenced to life in prison for their roles in the bombings. British police arrested Rachid Ramda (25) at the request of the French government due to his connections with Bensaid. In 2005 Ramda was still in Belmarsh prison awaiting extradition.
    (www.emergency.com/frncboms.htm)(AP, 7/25/00)(Econ, 10/22/05, p.61)

1994        Aug 14, Ilich Ramirez Sanchez, the terrorist known as "Carlos the Jackal," was captured in Khartoum, Sudan. He was jailed in France the next day.
    (SFC,12/17/97, p.A18)(AP, 8/15/97)

1994        Aug 15, Ilich Ramirez Sanchez, the terrorist known as "Carlos the Jackal," was jailed in France after being captured in Sudan. By his own count he had killed 83 people before being captured. Bernard Violet is the author of  “Carlos - The Secret networks of Int’l. Terrorism."
    (AP, 8/15/97)(SFC,12/11/97, p.C2,4)

1994        Oct 4, Florence Rey (19), a literature student, participated in a bungled holdup that left 3 police officers, a taxi driver, and her accomplice-lover dead following a car chase. In 1998 she was sentenced to 20 years in prison.
    (SFC, 10/2/98, p.B3)

1994        Nov 14, The 1st trains for public ran in Channel Tunnel under the English Channel.

1994        Nov 30, Guy Debord (b.1931), French political theorist and filmmaker, died. His books included “Society of the Spectacle" (1967).

1994        Nov, The Var River overflowed and washed away bridges and stretches of the Nice-Digne railroad track. Rail service was not restored until Apr 1996 at a cost of F50 Million (US$10 mil).
    (Hem., 1/97, p.116)

1994        Dec 24, Armed Islamic fundamentalists hijacked an Air France Airbus A-300 carrying 227 passengers at the Algiers airport; three passengers were killed before the hijackers were killed by French commandos in Marseille two days later.
    (SFC, 9/27/97, p.A10)(AP, 12/24/99)

1994        Dec 26, French commandos stormed a hijacked Air France jetliner on the ground in Marseille, killing four Algerian hijackers and freeing 170 hostages. The Air France plane was hijacked by the Armed Islamic Group of Algeria.
    (SFC, 9/27/97, p.A10)(AP, 12/26/99)

1994        Dec 27, Four Roman Catholic priests—three French and a Belgian—were shot to death in their rectory in Algiers, a day after French commandos killed four radicals who had hijacked an Air France jet from Algiers to Marseille.
    (AP, 12/27/00)

1994        Dana Facaros and Michael Pauls authored their guidebook “The South of France: Provence, Cote d’Azur & Languedoc-Rousillon."
    (SSFC, 6/17/01, p.T10)
1994        In France the Cartier Foundation building at 261 Boulevard Raspail was opened. It was designed by Jean Nouvel with 7 floors above ground and 8 below.
    (SFEC, 1/4/98, p.T7)
1994        The French education minister ruled that public schools could ban “ostentatious" religious symbols.
    (WPR, 3/04, p.9)
1994        Elf Aquitaine, a state-owned oil company, was privatized.
    (SFC, 2/5/02, p.A6)
1994        The French government rescued Credit Lyonnais. In 2013 the government authorized the borrowing of €4.5 billion to pay off the last of the debt incurred in the bank rescue. The total cost to taxpayers hit almost €15 billion.
    (Econ, 11/16/13, p.77)
1994        In France Baron Edmond Adolphe Maurice Jules Jacques de Rothschild (d.1997 at 71) was named an officer in the Legion of Honor.
    (SFC,11/4/97, p.A19)
1994        Three French explorers discovered the stone-age Chauvet Cave with paintings that dated back more than 30,000 years. In 1996 they published "Chauvet Cave: The Discovery of the World’s Oldest Paintings."
    (NH, 7/96, p.73)
1994        France was the No. 1 supplier of arms to the developing world.
    (SFC, 8/21/96, p.A10)   
1994        French legislator Yann Piat of the UDF was shot to death in her car by 2 men on motorcycle. A 1997 book, “The Yann Piat Case" by Andre Rougeot and Jean-Michel Verne," says that she was killed by the French secret service to keep her from revealing a plot to sell military land to the Mafia. The book was suspended after its first printing sold out. Many believe the tale to be disinformation. Seven men were on trial in 1998 for the murder.
    (SFC,10/17/97, p.A25)(SFC, 5/15/98, p.A14)

1994        Pakistan’s military purchased three Agosta 90 B submarines from France. PM Edouard Balladur’s 1995 campaign for the French presidency was later suspected of having been financed in part from kickbacks in the submarine sale.
    (AP, 6/25/09)(www.digitaljournal.com/article/274427)(Econ, 10/1/11, p.54)

1995        Feb 22, France accused four American diplomats and a fifth U.S. citizen of spying, and asked them to leave the country.
    (AP, 2/22/00)

1995        May 1, In France Brahim Bouarram (29), a father of two, was thrown into the Seine by a group of skinheads leaving a May Day rally held nearby in Paris by Nation al Front Party leader Jean-Marie Le Pen.
    (Reuters, 5/1/17)

1995        May 7, Jacques Chirac, the conservative mayor of Paris, won France's presidency in his third attempt, defeating Lionel Jospin in a runoff to end 14 years of Socialist rule.
    (AP, 5/7/00)

1995        May 17, Jacques Chirac was sworn in as president of France, ending the 14-year tenure of Socialist Francois Mitterrand.
    (AP, 5/17/00)

1995        May 27, In Bosnia General Mladic launched an assault against the UN observation point of the Vrbanja bridge. French soldiers Marcel Amaru and Jacky Humboldt were killed in the operation of liberating the Vrbanja Bridge under siege in Sarajevo. They became the symbol of the 84 French soldiers, who gave their lives for Bosnia.

1995        Jun 3, Jean-Patrick Manchette (b.1942), French novelist, died. His 11 novels included the "Three to Kill," (1976).
    (https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Jean-Patrick_Manchette)(Econ., 9/5/20, p.74)

1995        Jun 13, France announced it would abandon its 1992 moratorium on nuclear testing and conduct eight more tests between September and May.
    (AP, 6/13/00)

1995        Jul 25, A bomb exploded at the Paris subway St. Michel station, killing 8 people and injuring some 200. The Armed Islamic Group claimed responsibility. In 1999 five people linked to Algerian militants were sentenced to 10-year prison terms for the attacks. 16 others received lesser sentences. In 2002 Boualem Bensaid and Smain Ait Ali Belkacem, Islamic militants, were convicted and sentenced to life in prison for their roles in the bombings. British police arrested Rachid Ramda (25) at the request of the French government due to his connections with Bensaid. In 2005 Ramda was still in Belmarsh prison awaiting extradition. In 2007 Ramda (38) was sentenced to life in prison with no possibility of parole for 22 years.
    (www.emergency.com/frncboms.htm)(AP, 7/25/00)(Econ, 10/22/05, p.61)(AP, 10/26/07)

1995        Sep 5, France under Pres. Chirac resumed nuclear testing, after a three-year moratorium, in the French South Pacific atoll of Mururoa. World-wide protests failed to stop testing.
    (WSJ, 9/8/95, p.A-8)(AP, 9/5/00)

1995        Sep 24, A 16-year-old boy in Cuers, France, killed 13 people before turning a gun on himself.
    (AP, 9/24/00)

1995        Sep, Bob Denard, a French mercenary soldier, and accomplices overthrew Comoran President Mohammed Djohar, and put opposition leaders Mohammed Taki and Said-Ali Kemal in power in the Indian Ocean state. The French army intervened in October under bilateral accords with the Comoros islands, a former French colony, and captured the mercenaries.  In 2006 Denard was found guilty for his part in the coup and given a suspended five-year prison sentence. His 26 accomplices were found guilty but were given suspended sentences or were not penalized.
    (Reuters, 6/20/06)

1995        Oct 1, France detonated another nuclear device, 5 times more powerful than the last one, on Fangatouga Atoll in the South Pacific.
    (WSJ, 10/2/95, P.A-1)

1995        Nov, In France weeks of chaos in the streets and paralysis to the railways began as Pres. Chirac tried to end the country’s “special regimes" for public sector pensions.
    (Econ, 11/17/07, p.57)
1995         Nov, France conducted its 4th nuclear test at the Mururoa atoll in French Polynesia.
    (WSJ, 11/22/95, p.A-1)

1995         Dec 23, 16 cult members of the Order of the Solar Temple were found dead in an Alpine clearing in eastern France. This was the same cult in the 1994 mass suicide in Switzerland and Canada.
    (WSJ, 12/26/95, p. A-1)

1995         Dec 27, France set off a fifth nuclear bomb at a South Pacific Atoll.
    (WSJ, 12/28/95, p. A-1)

1995         Dec, A wave of strikes lasted weeks as the French government struggled to establish cuts to rein in its $65.5 bil. deficit. Led by the railroad workers, the strikes bring transport to a halt. France was attempting to restructure its finances in time to meet the deadline for European monetary union in 1999.
    (WSJ, 11/30/95, p.A-12)(Econ, 9/22/07, p.63)
1995         Dec, France’s PM Alain Juppe backed down from a bid to force public sectors workers to work 40 years instead of 37.5 for full pension benefits. Cost cutting plans for the state railway are also set aside for re-negotiation.
    (WSJ, 12/18/95, p.A-10)

1995        Jacques Foccart (1913-1997), architect of French policy in Africa, published “Foccart Speaks," a book on French policymaking in Africa under Charles de Gaulle.
    (SFC, 3/20/97, p.A24)

1995        The French film “La Heine" (Hatred) was written and directed by Matthieu Kassovitz (26). The film opened French eyes to the rage on the housing estates on the country’s banlieues.
    (Econ, 5/31/08, p.89) (Econ, 5/16/15, p.79)
1995        The French film “Son of Gascogne" starred Gregoire Colin and was directed by Pascal Aubier. It was about a young man mistaken for the son of a fabled New Wave filmmaker.
    (SFC, 5/22/98, p.C3)

1995        France imposed lengthy cross-checks for Algerians traveling to Europe due to the war with Islamist rebels. The weeks long wait was finally reduced in 2006.
    (Econ, 11/18/06, p.48)
1995        State prosecutors in Bordeaux reduced charges against Maurice Papon to complicity in crimes against humanity.
    (AP, 9/18/02)
1995        French retailer Carrefour began operating in China.
    (Econ, 10/10/09, p.68)
1995        British income per head overtook the French.
    (Econ, 5/28/05, p.28)
1995        The Vatican dismissed bishop Jacques Gaillot of Paris for preaching liberal views on homosexuality, priest celibacy and other touchy issues.
    (SFC, 9/5/96, p.A9)
1995         The population of France was about 57 million people. The 1995 budget-deficit target under PM Alain Juppe was $322 bil.
    (WSJ, 11/17/95, p.A-10)

1995-1997    Alain Juppe served as prime minister of France.
    (Econ, 7/31/04, p.44)

1996         Jan 8, Francois Mitterrand (79), former Socialist president of France (1981-1995), died of prostate cancer. He had been in office for 14 years and helped to make France an engine of European unity and changed the face of Paris with his grand projects. In 2013 Philip Short authored “Mitterrand: A Study in Ambiguity."
    (WSJ, 1/9/96, p.A-1)(SFC, 10/24/96, p.C3)(Econ, 11/30/13, p.83)

1996         Jan 27, The sixth and most powerful nuclear bomb was detonated. In 1998 the Int’l. Atomic Energy Agency confirmed that the test sites in the South Pacific would be contaminated for centuries. Plutonium particles were scattered in the sediment of the lagoons at Mururoa and Fangatoufa.
    (WSJ, 1/30/96, p.A-16)(SFC, 6/27/98, p.A7)

1996        Jan 29, French President Jacques Chirac ordered an early end to underground nuclear tests in the South Pacific.
    (AP, 1/29/01)

1996        Mar 3, Marguerite Duras, French writer, died at age 81 in Paris. She was very prolific and was best known for her novel “The Lover." In 2008 her Wartime Writings: 1943-1949," translated by Linda Coverdale, was published.
    (WSJ, 3/4/96, p. A-1)(SSFC, 3/30/08, Books p.1)

1996          Mar 27, In Algeria seven French Trappist monks were kidnapped overnight from the Notre Dame del’Atlas monastery near Medea. The monks were abducted from the Priory of Our Lady of Atlas in Tibehirine, about 80 km (50 miles) south of Algiers, by members of the insurgent Armed Islamic Group of Algeria (GIA). Their heads were discovered two months later and their death was announced by the GIA. On Jan. 26, 2018, Pope Francis declared the monks to be martyrs.
    (SFC, 5/24/96, p.A14)(AFP, 1/27/18)

1996        Apr, Pres. Jacques Chirac announced that the draft would be phased out over the next 5 years. The army would be shrunk from 500,000 to 350,000.
    (SFC, 6/11/96, p.A15)

1996        May 1, François Chalais (b.1919), prominent French reporter, journalist, writer and film historian, died. In 1997 the François Chalais Prize at the annual Cannes Film Festival was named after him.

1996        May 14, Renault outlined a plan to become majority owned by private investors after more than 5 decades of state control.
    (WSJ, 1/2/97, p.R2)

1996        May 16, French unions scheduled a series of strikes to protest Prime Minister Juppe’s plans to eliminate thousands of civil service jobs.
    (WSJ, 5/16/96, p.A-1)

1996        May 20, Two French soldiers were shot and wounded as they assisted French citizens to evacuate from Bangui in the Central African Republic. This was the second uprising by the army in two months with 7 people killed since fighting started.
    (SFC, 5/21/96, p.A-11)

1996        May 23, The Armed Islamic Group said that it had killed 7 French Trappist monks who were kidnapped two months ago from the Notre Dame de l’Atlas monastery at Tibhirine near Medea on Mar 27. Only their decapitated heads were found. In 2002 John W. Kister authored "The Monks of Tibhirine." In 2010 this story was covered in the French film “Of Gods and Men."
    (SFC, 5/24/96, p.A14)(WSJ, 2/19/02, p.A24)(Econ, 2/19/11, p.95)

1996        Jun 3, Prime Minister Juppe proposed a major reform of the tax system over 5 years and shift the cost of health care from wages onto savings.
    (SFC, 6/4/96, p.A11)

1996        Jun 9, The latest unemployment rate was 11.6%.
    (SFC, 6/9/96, Parade, p.9)

1996        Jun 28, In France immigrants began a hunger strike at St. Bernard’s Church in Paris in protest to new hard-line immigration policies.
    (SFC, 8/13/96, p.A3)

1996        Jul 7, The average cost of a Big Mac in France was $3.41.
    (SFC, 7/7/96, Parade, p.17)

1996        Jul 21, Danish cyclist Bjarne Riis won the Tour de France. In 2007 he admitted to using performance enhancing drugs to win the race.
    (WSJ, 5/26/07, p.A1)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/1996_Tour_de_France)

1996        Jul, Caroline Dickinson, a 13-year-old British girl, was raped and strangled at a youth hostel in the town of Pleine-Fougeres. A DNA test was planned to be performed on volunteers of the 170 young men in the town who fit an age profile of the murderer.
    (SFC, 10/11/97, p.A8)

1996        Aug 17, The first French woman in space, Claudie Andre-Deshays (later Haignere), took off from the Baikonur cosmodrome in Kazakhstan in a Soyuz-U rocket.
    (SFC, 8/18/96, p.A2)

1996        Aug 21, Thousands marched in support of illegal immigrants and called for the removal of newly appointed Interior Minister Jean Louis-Debre.
    (SFC, 8/22/96, p.E2)

1996        Sep 4, France said it will stop changing its clocks twice a year.
    (SFC, 9/5/96, p.A10)

1996        Sep 5, Prime Minister Alain Juppe proposed a tax cut. It would reduce the top marginal rate to 54% next year from 56.8%, and to 47% in 2000.
    (WSJ, 9/66/96, p.A11)

1996        Sep 17, In France Maurice Papon, a member of the Vichy government of WW II, was declared eligible for trial for his role in arresting and deporting 1,690 Jews during WW II.
    (SFC, 9/19/96, p.A10)

1996        Sep 18, The 1997 budget was unveiled with total spending of $301.88 bil.
    (WSJ, 9/19/96, p.A14)

1996        Oct 5, A bomb exploded in the mayoral offices of French Prime Minister Alain Juppe. There were no casualties.
    (SFEC, 10/6/96, A12)

1996        Oct 17, A one-day strike was held by about 1.6 million public employees, a third of the total public service sector. French unemployment stood at 12.5%.
    (SFC, 10/18/96, A14)

1996        Nov 15, The SF Symphony performed in Paris and Music Director Michael Tilson Thomas was awarded the Chevalier des Arts et Lettres, France’s highest arts honor.
    (SFC, 11/16/96, p.A15)

1996        Nov 22, Truckers continued their Operation Escargot strike for higher pay and earlier retirement for a 5th day.
    (SFC, 11/23/96, p.A10)

1996        Nov 29, Truckers signed agreements to end a 12-day strike. The government agreed to allow early retirement at age 55 with boosts in sick pay. An issue of work hours was still pending.
    (SFC, 11/30/96, p.A14)

1996        Dec 2, The Roussel Uclaf SA of France, a pharmaceutical firm mostly owned by Hoechst of Germany, agreed to reduce the workweek for 7,000 domestic employees to 35 from 38 hours without pay cuts. Employees will also get less in profit sharing but more vacation.
    (WSJ, 12/3/96, p.A17)

1996        Dec 3, In France a bomb exploded in the Paris subway at the Port-Royal station. Two (4) people were killed and dozens injured. It appeared to be the work of Algerian extremists.
    (WSJ, 12/4/96, p.A1)(AP, 12/3/97)

1996        Dec 6, The National Assembly approved tax breaks for Corsica.
    (SFC, 12/7/96, p.A10)

1996        Dec 10, The African aid budget was more than $3 billion, nearly 4 times that of the US aid to Africa. French troops were garrisoned in Cameroon, the CAR, Chad, Cote d’Ivoire, Djibouti, Gabon and Senegal.
    (WSJ, 12/10/96, p.A22)

1996        Dec 23, Sophie Toscan du Plantier (b.1957), the wife of high-profile French filmmaker Daniel Toscan du Plantier (d.2003), was beaten to death near her remote home in Schull. On Mar 1, 2012, Ian Bailey, a British journalist and the chief suspect in the murder, won his appeal against extradition to France. Ireland's Supreme Court refused the extradition of suspect Ian Bailey on the grounds that France had at the time not taken the decision to send him to trial. In 2019 the murder trial of Bailey began in absentia in France on May 27.
    (http://tinyurl.com/y57qezpa)(AFP, 3/1/12)(AFP, 5/27/19)

1996        Dec 27, The foreign ministry said that it would no longer participate in the Operation Provide Comfort after the end of the year. The operation was a multi-national air reconnaissance effort to safeguard Kurdish civilians in northern Iraq.
    (SFC, 12/28/96, p.A12)

1996        Andre Comte-Sponville authored “A Small Treatise on the Great Virtues." The English translation was published in 2001.
    (WSJ, 9/5/01, p.A24)

1996        The French film “For Ever Mozart" by John-Luc Godard starred Madeleine Assas.
    (SFC, 3/20/98, p.D5)

1996        The French film “Ponette" by Jacques Doillon starred little Victoire Thivisol as a 4-year-old who has lost her mother in a car accident. She won the best actress award at the Venice Film Festival.
    (SFEC, 6/29/97, DB p.11)

1996        The Francis Poulenc Museum of Sacred Art opened in Rocamadour. It featured a collection religious objects spanning 8 centuries.
    (SFEC, 7/26/98, p.T11)

1996        Jean-Claude Mery (d.1999), an aide to Pres. Chirac, made a video tape that accused Chirac of operating a slush fund through kickbacks while mayor of Paris. The tape was made public in 2000.
    (SFC, 9/22/00, p.D2)

1996        The French firm Ecco merged with Adia of Switzerland to form Adecco. The merger made Adecco the world’s largest employment firm ahead of Manpower.
    (Econ, 1/6/07, p.57)

1996        Louis Vuitton Moet Hennessy purchased Duty Free Shopper (DFS), founded in the 1960s by Chuck Feeney (b.1931) and partners. In the 1980s Feeney had put most of his one-third share and other assets into charitable trusts in Bermuda operating as Atlantic Philanthropies. Feeney scheduled the foundation to go out of business by 2016. In 2007 Connor O’Clery authored “The Billionaire Who Wasn’t: How Chuck Feeney Secretly Made And Gave Away a Fortune.
    (WSJ, 9/26/07, p.D13)(Econ, 10/6/07, p.99)

1997        Jan 7, It was announced that a 20.6% value-added tax would be placed on telephone services offered by phone companies outside the European Union. The charge was directed at “call-back" services mainly in the US.
    (WSJ, 1/7/97, p.A14)

1997        Jan, The Paris Music Museum, Musee de la Musique, opened as part of the Cite de la Musique complex at 221 avenue Jean-Jaures.
    (SFEC, 9/14/97, p.T7)

1997        Feb 17, Striking bus and tram drivers in Lille returned to work after an agreement was reached to reduce their workweek to 35 hours from 38, without a pay reduction, along with an extra 2 weeks annual vacation.
    (SFC, 2/18/96, p.A10)

1997        Feb 17, The National Front was the fastest growing political party in the country and was led by Bruno Megret (47), a former student at UC Berkeley. The party championed a national preference program where jobs, public housing and univ. slots would be reserved for the ethnic French majority.
    (SFC, 2/18/96, p.A1)

1997        Feb-Mar, Over 700 dolphins and whales piled up on the Atlantic coast of France. They had been discarded by mid-water commercial fishing trawlers as bycatch.
    (NG, 12/97, p.149)

1997        Mar 9, French journalist Jean-Dominique Bauby died in Paris. He had been completely paralyzed in Dec 1995 and had recently finished dictating the book: “Le Scaphandre et le Papillon" (The Diving Suit and the Butterfly) by blinking his left eyelid, the only moveable part of his body. The book was published 2 days before he died. The film “The Diving Bell and the Butterfly," based on the book, was directed by Julian Schnabel and opened in the US in 2007.
    (SFC, 3/11/97, p.A20)(Econ, 12/1/07, p.100)

1997        Mar 22, Etienne Bacrat, “the Mozart of Chess," became a grand master at the age of 14.
    (SFEC, 3/23/97,  p.A13)

1997        Mar 29, Over 25,000 people demonstrated against the convention of the  racist National Front Party led by Jean-Pierre Le Pen.
    (SFEC, 3/30/97, p.A18)

1997        Apr 24, The French film “When the Cat’s Away" opened at the SF film festival.
    (SFC, 4/25/97, p.D6)

1997        May 1, The French film “La Promesse" was shown at the SF Film Festival.
    (SFC, 4/23/97, p.D3)

1997        May 25, The Socialist Party and allies claimed 42.8% of the popular vote in elections. In the first round of parliamentary elections, French voters gave the leftist opposition the biggest share of votes in a surprising setback for President Jacques Chirac's conservatives.
    (SFC, 5/26/97, p.A10) (AP, 5/25/98)

1997        May 26, France's deeply unpopular prime minister, Alain Juppe, announced he would resign, a day after the country's governing center-right coalition suffered major losses in first-round parliamentary elections.
    (SFC, 5/27/97, p.A1)(AP, 5/26/98)

1997        May 27, In Paris, Russian President Boris Yeltsin joined 16 NATO leaders, including President Clinton, to sign a historic agreement giving Moscow a voice in NATO affairs. Boris Yeltsin joined Bill Clinton and the leaders of the 15 other NATO member states in signing the "Founding Act on Mutual Relations, Cooperation and Security between NATO and the Russian Federation."   
    (AP, 5/27/98)(www.armscontrol.org/act/1997_05/jm)

1997        Jun 1, The Socialists won control of the government and party leader Lionel Jospin was expected to become prime minister. New conditions for creating the new European Union and new common currency were expected. Value added taxes on common purchases were expected to be slashed; plans to privatize France Telecom were expected to be abolished and the legal workweek was expected to be reduced to 35 hours without paycuts to provide more jobs.
    (SFC, 6/2/97, p.A1,9)

1997        Jun 2, Lionel Jospin was handed the premiership by Pres. Chirac.
    (SFC, 6/3/97, p.A12)

1997        Jun 4, In France PM Lionel Jospin appointed women to 6 of 16 ministerial positions.
    (SFC, 6/5/97, p.C2)

1997        Jun 6, The French film “A Single Girl" opened in SF. It was directed by Benoit Jacquot and starred Virginie Ledoyen and Benoit Magimel.
    (SFC, 6/6/97, p.D7)

1997        Jun 25, Oceanographer Jacques-Yves Cousteau (b.1910) died in Paris. In 2009 Brad Matsen authored “Jacques Cousteau: The Sea King."
    (AP, 6/25/98)(Econ, 10/31/09, p.97)

1997        Jun, Ira Einhorn was arrested in France. A French court ruled against extradition and released Einhorn. Einhorn was arrested in 1998 under a new extradition warrant. The events were broadcast as a TV crime story in 1999 titled "The Hunt for the Unicorn Killer." In 1999 The French Supreme Court ruled that Einhorn should be returned to the US. In Sep 1977, in Philadelphia Helen “Holly" Maddux, a Bryn Mawr College graduate from Tyler, Texas, was murdered and stuffed into a steamer trunk for 18 months until her body was discovered. Ira Einhorn, “hippie guru" was arrested for the murder in 1979 but released on bail. He fled to hide in France. Fred Maddux, Holly's father, committed suicide in 1988. Einhorn was convicted in absentia in 1993.         
    (SFC, 6/17/97, p.A2)(SFC,12/5/97, p.A17)(SFC, 9/22/98, p.A3)(WSJ, 5/3/99, p.A20)(WSJ, 5/12/99, p.A23)(SFC, 5/28/99, p.D3)

1997        Aug 4, In France the world’s oldest person, Jeanne Calment (b.1875), died in Arles at the record age of 122. The title was passed on to Christien Mortensen of San Rafael, Ca., (115). It was later found that Marie-Louise Febronie Meilleur of Ontario was to turn 117 in August.
    (https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Jeanne_Calment)(SFC, 8/5/97, p.A18)(SFC, 8/15/97, p.A20)

1997        Aug 21, Pope John Paul II began a visit to Paris with an outdoor encounter with 500,000 young people from around the world.
    (SFC, 8/22/97, p.A14)

1997        Aug 24, In France Pope John Paul II offered tough challenges and affectionate encouragement to more than 1 million faithful attending Mass during closing World Youth Day ceremonies in Paris.
    (AP, 8/24/98)

1997        Aug 31, Princess Diana (36) and Dodi al-Fayed were killed in a car crash in Paris while trying to evade paparazzi photographers.
    (SFEC, 8/31/97, p.A1)

1997        Sep 8, In France a passenger train collided with a gasoline truck in Perigord town and killed at least 12 people and injured 39.
    (WSJ, 9/9/97, p.A1)

1997        Sep 29, The oil company Total signed a $2 billion contract to explore for gas in Iran despite warnings from the Clinton administration.
    (SFC, 9/30/97, p.A14)

1997        Oct 27, In the Comoros the island of Anjouan held a referendum to re-unite with France and voters overwhelmingly approved the measure. France refused to accept the results.
    (SFC,10/28/97, p.A10)(www.infoplease.com/ipa/A0107423.html)

1997        Nov 30, In Tajikistan Karine Mane of France and 5 of her suspected abductors were killed by a grenade during a confrontation with government forces trying to free her. A companion had been released hours earlier. Faction leader Rezvon Sadirov was accused of the kidnapping, staged to seek freedom for his brother, Bakhrom, who was awaiting trial on kidnapping charges.
    (SFC, 12/1/97, p.A13)(AP, 11/30/98)

1997        Oct 4, It was reported that France banned 20% of all cars from the streets of Paris for one day last week due to smog.
    (SFC, 10/4/97, p.A17)

1997        Oct 4, It was reported that Greenpeace had found crabs contaminated with twice Europe’s allowed radiation level near the La Hague nuclear waste reprocessing plant near Cherbourg in northwestern France.
    (SFC, 10/4/97, p.A17)

1997        Oct 6, In Vitrolles the cafe Sous-marin was shut down for criticism of the National Front, a far-right party in control of the town.
    (SFC, 10/7/97, p.A15)

1997        Oct 8, The trial of Maurice Papon opened in Bordeaux after a court rejected his appeal. During the trial the judge called 4 historians to explain the background to the jury. These included Robert O. Paxton, who in 2004 authored The Anatomy of Fascism."
    (AP, 9/18/02)(Econ, 3/13/04, p.85)
1997        Oct 8, A 36-hour rail strike disrupted travelers.
    (SFC, 10/9/97, p.A17)

1997        Oct 10, Prime Minister Lionel Jospin proposed a law to cut the workweek to 35 hours from 39 as a means to create jobs by Jan 1, 2000.
    (SFC, 10/11/97, p.A9)

1997        Nov 2, Some 250,000 union truckers began a strike over pay and work hours. Huge traffic pile-ups resulted.
    (SFC,11/4/97, p.A12)

1997        Nov 5, Trucker barricades went up in Paris. Unions representing France’s 300,000 truckers demanded pay raises up to 7% and a guaranteed salary 0f $1,600 for 200 hours work per month plus compensation for downtime during loading.
    (SFC,11/6/97, p.C2)

1997        Nov 6, Paul Ricard, the aperitif king, died at age 88. [see 1932]
    (SFC,11/8/97, p.A22)

1997        Nov 7, Most truckers ended their strike after the largest signed an agreement for a 6% raise by year 2000 and a guaranteed $1700 for 200 hours of work per month.
    (SFC,11/8/97, p.A10)

1997        Nov 24, Singer Monique Serf, stage-name Barbara, died at 67. She was famous for her songs “Aigle Noir," “Nantes," “La Solitude," and “Une Petite Cantate."
    (SFC,11/26/97, p.C4)

1997        Nov 30, It was reported that Stephane Courtois led 11 scholars in the publication of the “Black Book of Communism." It was called the first global balance sheet of the “crimes, terror and repression" committed under communism.
    (SFEC,11/30/97, p.A19)

1997        Dec 1, Stephane Grappelli, jazz violinist, died in Paris. In the mid-30s the Quintet of the Hot Club of France, with Grappelli and Django Reinhardt, recorded “Tiger Rag," “Dinah," and “Lady Be Good." His albums included “Live at Carnegie Hall, “Jazz Round Midnight," “Plays Jerome Kern," “Tivoli Gardens" (1979), “Satin Doll," ‘’Stardust," ‘For Django," and “Plays Gershwin."
    (SFC, 12/2/97, p.A22)(SFC, 12/4/97, p.E3)

1997        Dec 4, It was reported that Paul Cezanne graces the new 100 franc bill. He replaces Eugene Delacroix, who was on the old bill with his painting depicting the French Revolution and its topless symbol Marianne.
    (SFC, 12/4/97, p.C5)

1997        Dec 12, Ilich Ramirez Sanchez, the international terrorist known as "Carlos the Jackal," went on trial in Paris on charges of killing two French investigators and a Lebanese national. He was convicted and began serving a life prison sentence.
    (AP, 12/12/98)

1997        Dec 17, In France Salima Ghezali, Algerian human rights campaigner, received the European Parliament’s Sakharov Prize for freedom of thought.
    (SFC,12/18/97, p.C12)
1997        Dec 17, The US and 33 other countries signed a convention in Paris aimed at eradicating bribery in international business. Turkey was one of 34 signatories of the OECD’s anti-corruption convention. By 2008 38 countries had signed on.
    (AP, 12/17/98)(Econ, 3/19/05, Survey p.14)(Econ, 5/1/10, p.73)

1997        Dec 23, In France "Carlos the Jackal," aka Ilich Ramirez Sanchez, was convicted in the murder of 2 French agents and a Lebanese informant on Jun 27, 1975. He was sentenced the next day to life in prison.
    (SFC,12/24/97, p.A6)

1997        Dec 24, Ilich Ramirez Sanchez, the aging revolutionary known as "Carlos the Jackal," was sentenced by a French court to life in prison for the 1975 murders of two French investigators and a Lebanese national.
    (AP, 12/24/98)

1997        Jean Guitton (d.1999 at 97), Catholic philosopher and author, published "The Spiritual Genius of St. Therese."
    (SFC, 3/27/99, p.C2)
1997        The sci-fi film by Luc Besson “The Fifth Element" was set in Manhattan in the year 2259. The film used a song by Khaled Hadj Brahim, the Algerian-born singer who combined western and African music in a style called “rai." His latest song, “Aicha," has sold more than 1.5 million copies. Besson won a 1998 French Cesar Award for best director. The film was France’s top box-office hit.
    (SFEC, 5/4/97, DB p.39)(SFEC, 9/14/97, Par p.14)(SFC, 3/3/98, p.B5)
1997        The French film “Irma Vep" with Maggie Cheung was written and directed by Olivier Assayas. It was a remake of the 1915-1916 10-part silent serial “Les Vampires" by Louis Feuillade.
    (SFC, 8/8/97, p.D3)
1997        The French comedy film “Les Visiteurs" was about 2 men transplanted from the Middle Ages to modern-day France.
    (WSJ, 11/5/97, p.B1)
1997        The film “Marius et Jeannette" was a love story by Robert Guediguian.
    (SFC, 3/3/98, p.B5)
1997        The French film “On Cunnait la Chanson" (Same Old Song) won the 1998 Cesar Award for best French film of the year.
    (SFC, 3/3/98, p.B5)
1997        The French film “A Self-Made Hero" starred Matthieu Kassovitz and was directed by Jacques Audiard. It was about a man who joins the French underground near the end of the war.
    (SFEC,11/23/97, DB p.43)(SFC,12/5/97, p.C3)
1997        The French film “Un Air de Famille" (Family Resemblances) was directed by Cedric Klapisch. It was based on the play by Agnes Jaoui and Jean-Pierre Bacri.
    (WSJ, 6/12/98, p.W5)(SFC, 1/29/99, p.D3)
1997        The French film “When the Cat’s Away" was directed by Cedric Klapisch. One of its songs was "Mona Ki Ngi Xica" by Barcelo de Carvalho, aka “Bongo," recorded on the album “Angola 72."
    (SFC, 4/25/97, p.D6)(WSJ, 6/20/97, p.A16)

1997        Jacques Pepin, gourmet chef, received the Chevalier de L'Ordre des Arts from the French government.
    (SFC, 10/20/99, Z1p.4)
1997        France-based Pernod Ricard SA acquired the Spanish gin Larios.
    (WSJ, 9/7/05, p.B2)
1997        Mario Sandoval obtained French citizenship. The Argentine ex-police officer had moved to France after the fall of Argentina's 1976-1983 military dictatorship and was later accused by Buenos Aires of over 600 human rights violations. Argentina began seeking his extradition in 2012.
    (AP, 2/18/15)
1997        Francois Furet, French historian, died. He was the acknowledged pre-eminent historian of the French Revolution and in 1995 authored "The Passing of an Illusion." It was translated by his wife into English in 1999.
    (WSJ, 5/11/99, p.A20)

1998        Jan 8, Prime Minister Lionel Jospin was forced to meet with protestors angry over the nation’s 12.4% unemployment.
    (SFC, 1/9/98, p.A11)

1998        Jan 9, Prime Minister Jospin pledged $160 million to help the unemployed, in an attempt to end over a month of sit-ins at unemployment offices across the country.
    (SFC, 1/10/98, p.A8)

1998        Jan 23, In France a massive avalanche killed at least 11 people near the Italian border.
    (SFC, 1/24/98, p.A9)

1998        Feb 6, In Corsica Claude Erignac, the French governor, was shot a killed by 2 gunmen. In 2003 French police arrested Yvan Colonna for the murder.
    (SFC, 2/7/98, p.A11)(SSFC, 7/6/03, p.A3)

1998        Feb 10, French legislators approved a reduction in the workweek from 39 to 35 hours.
    (SFC, 2/11/98, p.B3)

1998        Mar 17, Alain Bosquet, poet, novelist and critic, died at 78. He was born as Anatole Bisk in Odessa in the Ukraine. His autobiographical novel “A Russian Mother" was a best-seller in France and translated to English in 1996.
    (SFC, 4/9/98, p.C14)

1998        Mar 28, In France tens of thousands marched in demonstrations against the right-wing National Front, which made gains in recent regional elections.
    (SFEC, 3/29/98, p.A12)

1998        Mar 31, In Lille an 18-year-old boy was shot dead by a fellow student in front of his classmates and teacher.
    (SFC, 4/22/98, p.A10)

1998        Apr 2, A French court found Maurice Papon (1910-2007), a career civil servant, guilty of deporting Jews from Bordeaux in 1942-1943, when he was secretary-general of the Gironde Prefecture. He was sentenced to 10 years in prison, but served only 3 due to ill health.
    (SFC, 4/2/98, p.C2)(SFC, 4/3/98, p.B2)(Econ, 2/24/07, p.99)

1998        May 8, A bomb exploded in Marseilles and damaged the Regional Council building. Corsican militants were suspected.
    (SFEC, 5/10/98, p.A22)

1998        May 9, A bomb exploded near the Spanish border at Siant-Pierre d’Irube and caused damage to a bank branch and the City Hall. Basque militants were suspected.
    (SFEC, 5/10/98, p.A22)

1998        May 20, The EU approved a rescue package to save the French Credit Lyonnais banking group. In exchange the state bank would be privatized and assets would have to be sold.
    (SFC, 5/22/98, p.D4)

1998        May 24, At the 51st Cannes Film Festival the Golden Palm award went to the Greek film “Mia Eoniotita Ke Mia Mera (Eternity and a Day), directed by Theo Angelopoulos. The Grand Prize went to the Italian film “La Vita e Bella" (Life Is Beautiful) by director Roberto Benigni.
    (SFC, 5/25/98, p.E5)

1998        May 26, Police in 5 European countries arrested 74 alleged Algerian separatists. 53 were arrested in France and 21 in Belgium, Germany, Italy and Switzerland. The idea was to dismantle terrorist networks prior to the World Cup.
    (SFC, 5/27/98, p.A10)

1998        Jun 1, In France pilots of Air France began a pay-dispute strike.
    (SFC, 6/2/98, p.A11)

1998        Jun 10, Pilots agreed to end their strike after accepting shares in Air France in exchange for salary cuts.
    (SFC, 6/11/98, p.A10)

1998        Jun 12, Jean-Paul Guerlain (63), renowned perfumer, was shot and his mansion was plundered when some 12 armed and masked men invaded his home.
    (SFC, 6/13/98, p.A11)

1998        Jun 10-1998 Jul 12, The World Cup soccer championships were held in France.
    (SFEC, 5/10/98, p.A22)

1998        Jul 12, The French soccer team beat Brazil 3-0 in the World Cup finals.
    (SFC, 7/13/98, p.A1)

1998        Jul 30, A Proteus Airlines Beechcraft collided with a Cessna off the west coast and 15 people were killed.
    (SFC, 8/1/98, p.A11)

1998        Jun, Rhone-Poulenc, a French pharmaceutical maker later acquired by Sanofi-Aventis, spun off Rhodia SA. It was later alleged that costly environmental and pension liabilities were dumped on the Rhodia and not disclosed to investors.
    (WSJ, 6/30/05, p.C1)

1998        Aug 13, Julien Green (97), the first American to be elected to the Academie Francaise, died in Paris. The Catholic and homosexual writer produced 18 novels that included “Moira" and “Each in his Darkness." He also published
    14 volumes of journals and 5 volumes of memoirs.
    (SFC, 8/18/98, p.A18)

1998        Sep 24, French doctors performed a hand transplant on a New Zealand man, Clint Hallam (48). He had lost his hand in a sawing accident in a New Zealand prison where he was serving a 2-year sentence for fraud. The hand was removed in 2001 due to alleged failure to follow correct immuno-suppression treatment.
    (SFC, 10/16/98, p.D2)(SSFC, 2/4/01, p.A5)

1998        Sep 25, Frenchman Benoit Lecomte reached the Brittany coast after a 72-day swim across the Atlantic that began Jul 16 at Hyannis, Mass.
    (SFC, 9/26/98, p.A11)

1998        Sep 30, Gerhard Schroeder visited with Socialist leaders in France and endorsed controls on capital flows.
    (WSJ, 10/1/98, p.A1)

1998        Oct 8, A wildcat transportation strike went into its 3rd day.
    (USAT, 10/9/98, p.13A)

1998        Oct 12, In France thousands of high-school students demonstrated for more teachers and school equipment.
    (WSJ, 10/13/98, p.A1)

1998        Oct 15, Over 200,000 high-school students protested overcrowded classes, a shortage of teachers, over-loaded schedules, and ill-equipped, unsafe schools.
    (SFC, 10/16/98, p.D2)

1998        Oct 20, Over 300,000 high-school students demonstrated for smaller classes and more teachers. There was scattered violence.
    (WSJ, 10/21/98, p.A1)

1998        Oct 21, In France the government announced emergency plans to improve conditions in the high schools.
    (SFC, 10/22/98, p.C3)

1998        Nov 8, Jean Marais, French actor, died at age 84. His films included the 1946 “Beauty and the Beast" by Jean Cocteau (d.1963).
    (SFC, 11/10/98, p.A24)

1998        Nov 21, Rail workers in southern France extended their strike for the 12th day. A Europe-wide rail strike was planned for Nov 27.
    (SFEC, 11/22/98, p.A26)

1998        Nov 28, Countries fighting in Congo agreed to a cease-fire during an African summit in Paris. The deal was brokered by UN Sec. Gen’l. Kofi Annan. Rebel leaders were not present.
    (SFEC, 11/29/98, p.A21)

1998        Dec 4, Britain and France signed an agreement for greater cooperation in crises management and military operations. At the Anglo-French summit in St Malo, the leaders of the UK and France decided on the need for a "capacity for autonomous action, backed up by credible military forces." This led to the establishment of the European Security and Defense Policy (ESDP).
    (www.heritage.org/Research/Europe/bg2053.cfm)(SFC, 12/5/98, p.A10)

1998        Dec 9, In France the National Assembly instituted the Civil Solidarity Pact, a bill to improve the lot of cohabiting gay and unmarried couples.
    (SFC, 12/10/98, p.C7)

1998        Dec 13, Riots erupted in the Reynerie suburb of Toulouse after a teenager was killed by a stray police bullet during an alleged car theft arrest.
    (SFC, 12/14/98, p.C2)

1998        Dec 23, In Belgium the top court convicted former NATO chief Willy Claes, French aerospace tycoon Serge Dessault and 2 ex-aides of corruption in the Agusta scandal. All got suspended sentences. Guy Spitaels (1931-2012), a Belgian socialist leader, was also convicted in the bribery scandal linked to the purchase of Italian helicopters for the air force.
    (WSJ, 12/24/98, p.A1)(AP, 8/21/12)

1998        Dec 30, Jean-Claude Forest, creator of the Barbarella sci-fi comic character, died at age 68 in Paris.
    (SFC, 1/2/99, p.C2)

1998        Dec, The [email protected] opened in the Jardin d'Acclimatation, a children's park in the suburbs of Paris. It was modeled after the Exploratorium in San Francisco.
    (SFC, 4/1/99, p.E1)

1998        In France Eric Baratay and Elisabeth Hardouin-Fugier authored “Zoo: A History of Zoological Gardens in the West." An English translation by Oliver Welsh was published in 2002.
    (SSFC, 8/4/02, p.M6)

1998        Christine Deviers-Joncour (51) published “The Whore of the Republic." In it she told how she had been hired in 1989 by state-owned Elf oil company to use her wiles on foreign minister Roland Dumas to go along with a sale of 6 French-made warships to Taiwan.
    (SFC, 11/28/98, p.A14)

1998        Michel Houellebecq authored “Les Particules Elementaires" (The Elementary Particles), a nihilist novel that looked at the current era from the year 2079. In it 2 half brothers served as emblems of 2 self-destructive tendencies in modern life: radical individual autonomy and technological perfection. It created a literary scandal in France and was denounced as racist, fascist, sexist, and homophobic. An English translation came out in 2000.
    (WSJ, 11/15/00, p.A24)(Econ, 9/17/05, p.87)(WSJ, 5/27/06, p.P8)

1998        The French book “The City of Man," by Pierre Manent was translated to English by Marc A. LePain. It was a philosophical assault on the principles of modernity that began with the Enlightenment.
    (WSJ, 6/18/98, p.A16)

1998        Michael Tournier’s book, “The Mirror of Ideas," was translated into English from the French. The 58 essays revived the ancient notion that a limited number of concepts and categories govern all our thoughts, and that their staying power is owed to our custom of pairing them off.
    (SFEC, 4/19/98, BR p.8)

1998        The French film “Diary of a Seducer" starred Chiara Mastroianni and Melvil Oiupaud. It was directed by Daniele Dubroux.
    (SFC, 9/4/98, p.C5)

1998        The French film “Full Speed" was directed by Gael Morel. It was about a young writer who undergoes a rite of passage with the publication of his latest novel.
    (SFC, 3/23/98, p.E2)

1998        The French film “Geneologies of a Crime" starred Catherine Deneuve and was directed by Raoul Ruiz. It was a psychological mystery of a killer whose crime was predicted by his victim.
    (SFC, 8/28/98, p.B6)

1998        The French film “Marie Baie des Anges" starred Frederic Malgras and Vahina Giocante. It was about teenage passion on the Riviera.
    (SFEC, 7/12/98, DB p.10)

1998        The French film “Post Coitum" was directed by Brigitte Rouan.
    (WSJ, 3/13/98, p.A14)

1998        The French film “La Separation" starred Isabelle Huppert and Daniel Auteuil and was directed by Christian Vincent.
    (WSJ, 10/13/98, p.A20)

1998        The French comedy film “Western" was written and directed by Manuel Poirier. It starred Sergi Lopez and Sacha Bourdo.
    (WSJ, 8/18/98, p.A20)

1998-2002    Thierry Breton, Rhodia SA director, chaired the chemicals group’s audit committee.
    (WSJ, 6/30/05, p.C1)

1999        Jan 1, The Maastricht Treaty specified that a monetary union will be established by this date, and laid down several criteria that EU nations must fulfill in order to join. Some of the criteria included: maximum budget deficits of 3% of GDP, a cap on government debt of 60% of GDP. The European economic and monetary union (EMU) was scheduled to start with a new "Euro" currency. Austria, Belgium, Finland, France, Germany, Ireland, Italy, Luxembourg, the Netherlands, Portugal and Spain made the transition. Public use was set for Jan 1, 2002.
    (WSJ, 9/25/95, p.A-12)(WSJ, 12/5/95, p.A-14)(SFC, 11/16/96, p.A1)(SFC, 1/1/99, p.A8)

1999        Jan 19, In France 8 men were sentenced to prison for providing arms and logistics to the banned Islamic Salvation Front (FIS) in Algeria.
    (SFC, 1/20/99, p.A10)

1999        Jan 22, France convicted 107 people for supporting insurgents in Algeria.
    (SFC, 1/23/99, p.C1)

1999        Jan, Raymond Peynet, cartoon illustrator, died at age 90. He was known for the starry-eyed "Lovers" created during World War II.
    (SFC, 1/16/99, p.A18)

1999        Feb 8, A French helicopter crashed in Antarctica and 3 people were killed.
    (SFC, 2/9/99, p.A7)

1999        Feb 9, In Europe heavy snows caused avalanches that killed at least 5 people. Ten people were killed in the French Alps.
    (WSJ, 2/10/99, p.A1)(WSJ, 2/11/99, p.A1)

1999        Feb 14, In Rambouillet, France, Madeline Albright brought together the Serb and Albanian sides in the Kosovo peace talks and the talks were extended one week. The plan for a 3-year interim settlement included a NATO force of some 25,000 troops, who would collect the weapons of the Albanian rebels.
    (SFC, 2/15/99, p.A8)

1999        Feb 23, In France the Kosovo Albanians agreed in principle to a peace settlement but asked for 2 more weeks for consultations at home.
    (SFC, 2/24/99, p.A1)

1999        Feb 23, Heavy rain and snow in the Alps left 5 people dead and 13 missing in Austria, Switzerland, France and Germany. An avalanche in the Austrian Alps at Galtuer killed 9 people and at least 30 were missing.
    (WSJ, 2/23/99, p.A1)(SFC, 2/24/99, p.A8)

1999        Mar 9, French police arrested Javier Arizcuren-Ruiz, aka Kantauri, leader of the military wing of the Basque ETA along with 5 other ETA members.
    (SFC, 3/10/99, p.A14)

1999        Mar 14, In Kosovo heavy fighting preceded the resumption of peace talks in Paris.
    (SFC, 3/15/99, p.A1)

1999        Mar 20, In Paris thousands of French teachers marched to demand a greater say in educational reform.
    (SFEC, 3/21/99, p.A22)

1999        Mar 24, In the 7-mile Mt. Blanc tunnel between France and Italy a fire erupted from a truck transporting flour. The death toll was raised to 9 with 24 injured. The fire was extinguished after 3 days and the death toll rose to 35. Identification of the remains of at least 40 people began Mar 28. Thirty-nine people were killed when fire erupted in the Mont Blanc tunnel in France and burned for two days. It re-opened in 2002. In 2005 a French court convicted 10 people and 3 companies for safety lapses in the 2-day fire.
    (SFC, 3/26/99, p.A14)(SFC, 3/27/99, p.A10)(SFC, 3/29/99, p.A8)(AP, 3/24/00)(SSFC, 3/17/02, p.C4)(AP, 3/24/04)(WSJ, 7/28/05, p.A1)

1999        May 4, Prime Minister Jospin dissolved an antiterrorist squad linked to the firebombing of a restaurant in Corsica frequented by nationalists.
    (WSJ, 5/5/99, p.A1)

1999        May 19, Employees of the Culture Ministry went on strike and shut down the government-owned museums and historic chateaus.
    (SFEC, 5/23/99, p.A26)

1999        Jun 1, Olivier Debre, abstract painter, died in Paris at age 79. His work included the stage curtain at the Comedie Francaise. He attempted to evoke emotion through abstraction in what he called figurative and landscape signs: "signes personnages" and "signes paysages."
    (SFC, 6/7/99, p.A20)

1999        Jun 21, Mayor Jean Tiberi inaugurated a sundial at the Place de la Concorde. The Obelisk of Luxor was the pointer (gnomon), and the base was the northern half of the Place de la Concorde.
    (WSJ, 10/26/99, p.A24)

1999        Jul 1, In France a cable car crashed and killed 21 people in Grenoble.
    (SFC, 7/1/99, p.A15)

1999        Jul 13, Merhan Karini Nasseri (54), a resident of Charles DeGaulle Airport for the last 11 years, was granted refugee credentials by Belgium.
    (SFC, 7/14/99, p.A6)

1999        Jul 14, In France robbers raided the Draguignan Museum during Bastille Day celebrations. A stolen Rembrandt painting, “Child With a Soap Bubble," was recovered in Nice in 2014 and two suspects were detained.
    (SFC, 3/22/14, p.A2)

1999        Jul 21, David Ogilvy (88), British-born American advertising executive, died in Bonnes, France. In 2009 Kenneth Roman authored “the King of Madison Avenue: David Ogilvy and the making of Modern Advertising."
    (AP, 7/21/00)(WSJ, 1/21/08, p.A15)

1999        Jul 25, Lance Armstrong won the Tour de France cycling race for his 1st time. In 2005 a French sports newspaper reported that frozen urine specimens indicated that Armstrong had used EPO (erythropoietin), a hormone drug that boosts production of red cells.
    (AP, 7/25/00)(SFC, 8/26/05, p.A1)

1999        Aug 21, The St. Pierre-de-Trivisy town council, home of Roquefort cheese, imposed a 100% tax on Coca Cola in retaliation for American tariffs on European goods.
    (SFC, 8/27/99, p.D4)

1999        Aug, Jose Bove and 9 others were arrested after trashing a soon-to-open McDonald’s. Bove was the author of the book “The World Is Not Merchandise." In 2000 Bove was sentenced to 3 months in prison.
    (SFC, 6/30/00, p.A18)(SFC, 9/14/00, p.C2)

1999        Sep 29, Euro Disney unveiled plans for a movie theme park outside Paris next door to its Magic Kingdom park.
    (WSJ, 9/30/99, p.A18)

1999        Oct 4, Bernard Buffet, painter, killed himself at age 71. The prolific figurative painter often completed a work every other day and was respected abroad but not at home.
    (SFC, 10/5/99, p.A26)

1999        Oct 20, In France it was reported that Maurice Papon (89), convicted for collaboration with the Nazis, had fled the country.
    (SFC, 10/21/99, p.A12)

1999        Oct 21, France’s highest court upheld the conviction of Maurice Papon, the former Vichy official who had fled France rather than face prison for his role in sending Jews to Nazi death camps; Papon was captured in Switzerland and deported the following day to begin a 10-year sentence.
    (AP, 10/21/00)(AP, 9/18/02)

1999        Oct, In France thousands of fish were killed when the residue of seasonal pressing for champagne grapes was washed into the Marne River by heavy rains. Dead fish were piled 6 feet high along a 20-mile stretch and fisherman said it could take 10 years for stocks to return to normal.
    (SFC, 10/9/99, p.C1)

1999        Oct 11, In Paris riot police used tear gas against egg-throwing chefs, who demanded that the government lift a 20.6% tax on restaurant meals.
    (SFC, 10/12/99, p.A1)

1999        Oct 13, France legalized same sex unions under legislation called "civil solidarity pacts" pushed through by the Socialist-dominated National Assembly.
    (SFC, 10/14/99, p.A12)

1999        Oct 15, The French organization "Doctors Without Borders" (Medecins Sans Frontieres) won the Nobel Peace Prize.
    (SFC, 10/16/99, p.A1)

1999        Oct 20, In France it was reported that Maurice Papon (89), convicted for collaboration with the Nazis, had fled the country.
    (SFC, 10/21/99, p.A12)
1999        Oct 20, Nathalie Sarraute, a Russian-born French novelist, died at age 99. Her 17 books included 10 novels and her form was characterized by Sartre as the "antinovel." In 1983 she authored her autobiographical "Childhood."
    (SFC, 10/21/99, p.A25)

1999        Oct 22, Maurice Papon (89), was arrested in Gstaad, Switzerland, and turned over to French police.
    (SFC, 10/23/99, p.A10)

1999        Oct 23, Pres. Jiang Zemin of China visited France and signed a $2.5 billion deal that included an order for 28 Airbus planes.
    (SFEC, 10/24/99, p.A28)

1999        Oct 29, A EU Commission ruled that British beef was safe to eat despite French arguments for a ban to guard against mad cow disease.
    (SFC, 10/30/99, p.A12)

1999        Nov 2, In France the Dominique Strauss-Kahn, the finance minister, resigned in a corruption scandal.
    (SFC, 11/3/99, p.C3)

1999        Nov 13, Heavy rains in southeastern France caused mudslides that left at least 22 people dead in the Tarn Aude, Eastern Pyranees and Herault regions.
    (SFEC, 11/14/99, p.A15)

1999        Nov, The French government decided to make morning-after contraception pills available to teenage girls through school nurses. 10,000 girls under 18 were becoming pregnant each year and 6,000 were having abortions.
    (SFC, 12/1/99, p.A15)

1999        Dec 5, In France Michele Alliot-Marie (53) was elected as the 1st female leader of the conservative Rally for the Republic.
    (SFC, 12/6/99, p.A14)

1999        Dec 8, In France a court ruled that Seita, the maker of Gauloise and Gitane cigarettes, was partly responsible for the death of a Richard Gourlain, a 3-pack-a-day smoker.
    (SFC, 12/9/99, p.C8)

1999        Dec 12, The Erika, a Maltese registered oil tanker, broke in two during a storm off the coast of Brest, France, with 8 million gallons of diesel oil. Half the ship was towed to deeper waters and 3 million gallons were spilled. In 2008 a French court found Total SA guilty of maritime pollution and fined it the maximum penalty of $560,000. It also ordered Total and three other defendants to pay total damages of $285 million.
    (SFC, 12/13/99, p.A13)(WSJ, 12/13/99, p.A1)(SFC, 11/20/02, p.A14)(AP, 1/16/08)

1999        Dec 18, Robert Bresson, film director, died at age 98. His films included "La Femme Douce" and "L'Argent."
    (SFC, 12/22/99, p.A27)

1999        Dec 26, In Europe heavy winds and rain killed 88 people in France, 17 dead in Germany and 13 dead in Switzerland. A 2nd storm hit a day later. Damages from the storms were later estimated to be at least $4 billion. The storms destroyed an estimated 400 million trees across France.
    (SFC, 12/27/99, p.A12)(WSJ, 12/27/99, p.A1)(SFC, 12/28/99, p.A8)(SFC, 1/4/00, p.A11)(SFC, 1/15/00, p.A1)(AP, 1/25/09)

1999        Jean Douchet authored “French New Wave."
    (SSFC, 12/22/02, p.M2)

1999        Jonathan Fenby, English journalist, published "France on the Brink," a diagnosis of what ails French society.
    (WSJ, 8/4/99, p.A20)

1999        Bruce LeFavour authored "France on Foot, Village to Village, Hotel to Hotel: How to Walk the French Trail System on Your Own" with photographs by Faith Ecthermeyer.
    (SFEC, 1/9/00, BR p.8)

1999        The French psychological drama film “Dry Cleaning" starred Miou Miou, Charles Berling and Stanislas Merhar. It was directed by Anne Fontaine. A reserved couple get involved with a group of sexually ambiguous nightclub performers.
    (SFC, 5/31/99, p.D3)

1999        The French film “I Stand Alone" was directed by Gaspar Noe. It was about an unemployed butcher.
    (SFEC, 4/11/99, DB p.39)
1999        The French musical film “Jeanne and the Perfect Guy" starred Oliver Duscatel and Jacques Martineau.
    (SFC, 7/26/99, p.E3)
1999        The French film "Late August, Early September" starred Mathieu Amalric and Virginie Ledoyen. It was directed by Olivier Assayas.
    (SFC, 7/23/99, p.C5)
1999        The French film "Romance" was written and directed by Catherine Breillat. It was about a woman's sexual journey and starred Italian porn star Rocco Siffredi and Caroline Ducey.
    (SFEC, 8/29/99, DB p.60)(SFC, 9/29/99, p.D1)
1999        The French film "Same Old Song" was directed by Alain Resnais.
    (SFEC, 4/11/99, DB p.37)
1999        The French film "Sitcom" was directed by Francois Ozon.
    (SFC, 7/5/99, p.B3)
1999        The French film "The School of Flesh" was directed by Benoit Jacquot.
    (SFC, 3/26/99, p.C3)
1999        The French romantic comedy film "Seventh Heaven" starred Sandrina Kimberlain and Vincent Lindon and was directed by Benoir Jacquot.
    (SFC, 4/9/99, p.C7)
1999        The French film “So Be it" starred Gerard Blain.
    (SFC, 12/19/00, p.B5)
1999        The French film "Soleil" starred Sophie Loren and Philippe Noiret. It was directed by Roger Hanin. It was about  Jewish mother and her family pushed to Algiers during WW II.
    (SFC, 8/6/99, p.C6)
1999        The French film "Women" starred Carmen Maura, Miou-Miou, and Marisa Berenson. It was directed by Luis Glavao Teles.
    (SFC, 12/3/99, p.C3)

1999        In France the Sangatte Red Cross center, near the 33-mile Channel Tunnel, was set up to house refugees.
    (SFC, 12/27/01, p.A4)
1999        France finally called the Algerian conflict a "war." Prior to this France referred only to operations to "maintain order."
    (AP, 11/29/05)
1999        France tried Manuel Noriega, former dictator of Panama, in absentia on money laundering charges. He was convicted and sentenced to 10 years in prison.
1999        French retailer Carrefour merged with Promodes, a French supermarket chain, to form the world’s 2nd biggest retailer. This marked the beginning of problems for Carrefour.
    (Econ, 10/22/05, p.71)(Econ, 3/17/07, p.72)
1999        Renault of France spent $50 million to acquire a controlling stake in Dacia, a sickly Romanian car maker formerly owned by the state. The first Renault-Dacia Logan was produced in 2004. The millionth Logan was produced in mid 2008.
    (Econ, 11/15/08, SR p.14)
1999        French bank BNP bought Paribas forming BNP Paribas. 60% of the bank’s activity was in France. BNCI and CNEP were merged in 1966 to form BNP. BNP was privatized in 1993. Originally the Compagnie Financière de Paris et des Pays-Bas (Finance Corporation of Paris and the Netherlands), the Compagnie Financière de Paribas became simply Paribas in 1998 after acquiring the Compagnie Bancaire.
    (Econ, 10/23/10, p.92)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/BNP_Paribas)

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