Timeline Flanders

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 A medieval country in western Europe extending along the North Sea from the Strait of Dover to Schledt River. Now part of Belgium, France and Netherlands.
    (WUD, 1994, p.539)

1127        Mar 2, Charles the Good, Count of Flanders, was murdered. Flemish towns (Ghent, Bruges and Ypres) forced the selection of Thierry of Alsace as the new count despite Louis VI’s choice of the son of Normandy’s Robert Curthose.
    (PCh, 1992, p.92)(SC, 3/2/02)

1164        Nov 2, Thomas Becket, the archbishop of Canterbury, fled England and landed in Flanders.
    (ON, 8/20/11, p.2)

1177        A Christian army under the joint command of Philip of Flanders and Raymond of Tripoli marched west to campaign against the Muslims around Tripoli.
    (ON, 6/07, p.5)

1245        Cottage weavers went on strike against cloth merchants.
    (WSJ, 1/11/99, p.R25)

1299        The Count of Holland gained control of the County of Zeeland, which had been under contention between Holland and Flanders.

1300s        England recruited Flemish weavers with promises of "good beer, good food, good bed and good bedfellow."
    (WSJ, 1/11/99, p.R25)

1302        May 18, The weaver Peter de Coningk led a massacre of the Flemish oligarchs.
    (HN, 5/18/99)

1323        Oct 16, Amadeus V the Great, count of Flanders and Savoy, died at 74.
    (MC, 10/16/01)

1345        Jul 17, Jacob Van Artevelde, [Manner Man], Flemish broker, was lynched.
    (MC, 7/17/02)

1382        Nov 27, The French nobility, led by Olivier de Clisson, crushed the Flemish rebels at Flanders.
    (HN, 11/27/98)

1385        Apr 12, Willem van Oostervant wed Margaretha (10), Philip the Stout's daughter (Flanders).
    (MC, 4/12/02)

1386        Feb 15, Duke Philip the Stout formed the Council of Flanders.
    (MC, 2/15/02)

1400        Roger Van Der Weyden (d.1464), Flemish painter, was born.
    (AAP, 1964)(WUD, 1994, p.1624)(Econ, 10/3/09, p.107)

c1400-1474    Guillaume Dufay [Du Fay], Flemish composer. His work included the “Ecclesie militantis," which has four texts going simultaneously.
    (WUD, 1994, p.440)(WSJ, 7/29/97, p.A12)

1400-1500    Anetonello da Messina brought the technique of oil painting from Flanders to Italy.
    (SFEC, 12/26/99, p.C17)

1400-1500    Petrus Christus, painter, worked in this period.
    (SFC, 1/28/97, p.E1)

1426        Sep 18, Hubert [Huybrecht] van Eyck, painter, died.
    (MC, 9/18/01)

1430s        Jan van Eyck painted 2 works titled “St. Francis Receiving the Stigmata." For a time he was considered the inventor of oil painting, but later lost that distinction. He is still regarded as the inventor of a type of landscape painting with figures in realistic scale that influenced the entire Northern school of painting. Only 9 signed and dated works survive. In 2001 painter David Hockney and physicist Charles Falco alleged that Eyck and other artists of this period began using optical devices to project pictures and produce detailed tracings.
    (WSJ, 5/7/98, p.A21)(SFC, 1/5/01, p.C9)

1438        Jan van Eyck (1385-1441) painted his “Portrait of Cardinal Niccols Albergati."
    (SFC, 1/5/01, p.C9)

1441        Jun, Jan/Johannes van Eyck (b.1395), Flemish painter (Lamb Gods), died in Brugge.

c1450-1516    Hieronymus Bosch, painter was born. Hieronymous van Aken was born in the small Dutch Brabant city of ‘s-Hertogenbosch in Flanders.
    (AAP, 1964)(WUD, 1994, p.172)(WSJ, 8/25/98, p.A12)(WSJ, 10/11/01, p.A19)

1464        Jun 18, Roger Van Der Weyden (b.1400), Flemish painter, died. He had mastered the new technique of oil painting and served as the official painter to the city of Brussels.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Rogier_van_der_Weyden)(Econ, 10/3/09, p.107)

1466?-1530    Quentin Massys, Flemish painter. He painted “The Moneylender and His Wife."
    (AAP, 1964)(WUD, 1994, p.882)

1474        Nov 27, Guillaume Dufay (b.1399), French-Flemish composer, died. His work included “Ecclesiae militantis," a 5-part motet on Pope Eugenius IV’s short-lived supremacy over the Eastern Orthodox Church.
    (WSJ, 1/2/02, p.A15)(MC, 11/27/01)

c1475        Dieric Bouts, Flemish painter, created his painting "Virgin and Child."
    (SFEC, 12/19/99, DB p.42)

1478?-1533?    Jan Gossaert (Mabuse), Flemish painter. He painted “St Luke Drawing the Virgin Mary."
    (AAP, 1964)(WUD, 1994, p.858)

1487        Hans Memling (c.1440-1494), Flemish painter, painted the diptych “Virgin and Child" and “Maarten van Nieuwenhove" (1463-1500), who was his patron.
    (SFC, 10/18/05, p.D2)(SFC, 12/23/06, p.E12)

1492        Jun 16, Jan Coppenhole, Flemish rebel leader, was beheaded.
    (MC, 6/16/02)

1499        Nov 11, Pretender to the throne Perkin Warbeck was executed. [see Nov 23]
    (HN, 11/11/98)

1499        Nov 23, Perkin Warbeck, Flemish sailor, was hanged. [see Nov 11]
    (MC, 11/23/01)

1500        Herri met de Bles, Flemish oil painter, created “Landscape With Burning City."
    (WSJ, 9/8/00, p.W8)

1512        Mar 5, Gerardus Mercator (d.1594), Flemish philosopher and cartographer, was born in Rupelmonde, Flanders (later Belgium).

1517        Mar 26, The famous Flemish composer Heinrich Issac, whose music fused Flemish, Italian and Germanic styles, died.
    (HN, 3/26/99)

1523        Jul 1, Hendrik Voes, Flemish priest, church reformer, was burned at stake along with John of Esschen (Jan van Essen), Flemish priest, church reformer. The 2 monks were executed in Brussels for refusing to recant their Lutheran beliefs.
    (http://nl.wikipedia.org/wiki/Jan_van_Essen)(Econ, 12/17/11, p.94)

1527        Adrian Willaert, Flemish composer, was made maestro di capella at St. Mark’s, in Venice.
    (TL-MB, 1988, p.13)

1537        Gerhardus Mercator, Flemish geographer, surveyed and drew a map of Flanders that was so accurate that Charles V made him his geographer.
    (TL-MB, 1988, p.15)

1538        Mercator (1512-1594), Flemish cartographer, used the name "America" for the first time.
    (TL-MB, 1988, p.15)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Gerardus_Mercator)

1546        Gerardus Mercator, Flemish geographer, affirmed that the earth has magnetic pole.
    (TL-MB, 1988, p.17)

1549        Oct 1, Anna of H Bartolomaeus was born. She was a Flemish prioress and founded a nunnery.
    (MC, 10/1/01)

1553        Apr 29, A Flemish woman introduced to England the practice of starching linen.
    (MC, 4/29/02)

1557        Pieter Breughel the Elder created his painting “The Drunkard Pushed Into the Pigsty."
    (WSJ, 9/6/02, p.W14)

1558        Pieter Breughel the Elder created his painting “Ice skating Before the Gate of Saint George." He also did “Ira," a depiction of anger.
    (WSJ, 10/1/01, p.A22)

1560        Nicolas Gombert (b.~1495), Flemish composer, died about this time. He was one of the most famous and influential composers between Josquin Desprez and Palestrina, and best represents the fully-developed, complex polyphonic style of this period in music history.
    (SFC, 6/9/09, p.E2)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Nicolas_Gombert)

1561        Simon Bening, Flemish painter, died. He was known as the best illuminator of his time.
    (Econ, 1/3/04, p.62)

1563        Pieter Breughel the Elder, great Flemish artist, painted the “Tower of Babel." [see 1568-1625]
    (TL-MB, 1988, p.20)(WSJ, 2/18/00, p.W12)

1563        Gerardus Mercator, Flemish geographer, produced the first detailed map of Lorraine.
    (TL-MB, 1988, p.20)

1564        Oct 15, Andreas Vesalius (b.1514), Flemish anatomist, died. Andreas Vesalius, the father of modern anatomy, was forced by the Inquisition to make a pilgrimage to the Holy Land. He disappeared during the voyage. In 1543 he authored of one of the most influential books on human anatomy, De humani corporis fabrica (On the Fabric of the Human Body).
    (TL-MB, 1988, p.20)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Andreas_Vesalius)

1568        Jun 4, Lamoraal, Count Egmont, prince of Gavere, was beheaded in Brussels for opposition to the Spanish Inquisition. He became a heroic figure in Goethe's play and Beethoven's musical setting. Philips van Montmorency comte d'Horn, admiral, statesman, was also beheaded along with 18 other leaders of the Flemish opposition.
    (PCh, 1992, p.195)(MC, 6/5/02)

1568-1625    Jan Breughel, the Elder, a son of Pieter Breughel, painted the "teeming textures of normal existence."
    (WSJ, 2/18/00, p.W12)

1568        Leaders of the Flemish opposition to the Spanish Inquisition were beheaded as traitors in Brussels.
    (TL-MB, 1988, p.21)

1569        Sep 5, Pieter Breughel, South Netherlands (Flemish) painter, died at about 44.
    (MC, 9/5/01)

1569        Gerhardus Mercator (1512-1594), Flemish geographer, produced his "Map of the World" for the use of navigators on the projection that bears his name to this day. He was the first to use the term "atlas" for a collection of maps. In 2004 Andrew Taylor authored “The World of Gerard Mercator."
    (TL-MB, 1988, p.21)(WSJ, 11/5/04, p.W9)

c1570        Pieter Breughel the Elder created his paintings “Spring" and “Summer."
    (WSJ, 10/1/01, p.A22)

1570-1612    The first modern atlas, Theatrum orbis terrarum, was published by Abraham Ortelius of Amsterdam in 1570. The Flemish mapmaker compiled it using the best maps available and issued dozens of editions in this period. [see 1602]
    (TL-MB, 1988, p.22)(WSJ,11/24/95, p.B-8)

1572        Oct 5, The Spanish army under Duke of Alva's son Don Frederik plundered Mechelen.
    (MC, 10/5/01)

1574        Justus Lipsius, Flemish scholar, edited “The Histories and The Annals of Tacitus."
    (TL-MB, 1988, p.22)

1577        Jun 28, Pietro Paul Rubens (d.1640), Flemish painter, was born in Germany, the child of protestants exiled from Antwerp. His work included "Helene Fourment" and "The Abduction of the Daughters of Leucippus."
    (AAP, 1964)(WUD, 1994, p.1250)(HN, 6/28/01) (Econ, 5/15/04, p.81)

1591        Flemish engraver Theodor de Bry published “A Brief Narration of Those Things Which Befell the French in the Province of Florida" in Latin and Germany editions. It focused on the 1564-1565 French settlement of Fort Caroline. The book included 42 engravings said to be based on water color paintings by Jacques de Moyne de Morgues (d.1588), who had accompanied the French expedition. Moyne also provided a narrative and a map. In 1946 Stefan Lorant translated Moyne’s text into English and reproduced his engravings and map in “The New World."
    (Arch, 5/05, p.28)

1592        Mar 10, Michiel Coxcie, Flemish court painter, carpet designer, died.
    (MC, 3/10/02)

1594        Apr 15, Flemish painter Pieter Stevens was appointed royal painter of Rudolf II in Prague.
    (MC, 4/15/02)

1594        Jun 14, Orlando di Lasso (b.~1532), Franco-Flemish composer, died in Munich.  He was the most famous and influential musician in Europe at the end of the 16th century. Along with Palestrina (of the Roman School), he is considered to be the chief representative of the mature polyphonic style of the Franco-Flemish School.

1594        Dec 2, Gerardus Mercator (82), Flemish philosopher and cartographer, died. Mercator's dream was to publish a volume of maps, which would also give a history of the world since creation. Called the 'Atlas', the first section came out in 1569. It contained a chronology from creation to 1568.

1596        Abraham Ortelius, Flemish mapmaker, recorded his belief that the continents had not always been fixed in their positions.
    (NH, 10/02, p.79)

1599        Feb 22, Anthony Van Dyck, painter, was born in Antwerp, Belgium. [See Mar 22]
    (MC, 2/22/02)

1599        Mar 22, Sir Anthony Van Dyck, Flemish artist, was born. He gave his name to the Vandyke beard. [See Feb 22]
    (AP, 3/22/99)

1602        Feb 9, Franciscus van de Enden, Flemish Jesuit, free thinker, tutor of Spinoza, was born.
    (MC, 2/9/02)

1602        An atlas made by the Flemish mapmaker Abraham Ortelius, bound in vellum with text in Spanish, was one of dozens issued between 1570 and 1612.  It is available in 1995 for $160,000 from New York dealer W.G. Arader III.
    (WSJ, 11/24/95, p.B-8)

1605        Apr 8, Louis de Vadder, Flemish painter, was born.
    (MC, 4/8/02)

1605        The painting "Death of Samson" was attributed to Peter Paul Rubens, but may have been done by a student and completed as late as 1650. The work was later purchased by the Getty Museum for $6 million through Italian art dealers from the Corsini family and contested whether or not it was a national treasure.
    (WSJ, 4/2/99, p.W12)

1608        Rubens painted “Adoration of the Shepherds."
    (WSJ, 2/8/00, p.A20)

c1609        Rubens painted “The Head of St. John the Baptist." In 1998 it sold for $5.5 mil to Alfred Bader.
    (SFC, 2/3/98, p.E3)

1609-1611    The painting “The Massacre of the Innocents" was attributed to Peter Paul Rubens in 2002 and expected to sell for $5.7-8.5 million.
    (SFC, 3/7/02, p.D12)

1610        Jun 3, Jacob Neefs, Flemish engraver, publisher, was baptized.
    (MC, 6/3/02)

1611        Apr 1, Gillis van Valkenborch (~72), Flemish painter, was buried.
    (MC, 4/1/02)

1613        Jan Breughel (1568-1625), the Elder, a son of Pieter Breughel, painted the "A Village Street with Carts, Villagers and Gentlefolk."
    (WSJ, 2/18/00, p.W12)

1618-1664    Michael Sweerts, Flemish painter.
    (SSFC, 12/24/00, DB p.39)

1619        Apr 16, Denijs Calvaert (Caluwaert), [Dionisio Fiamingo], Flemish painter, died.
    (MC, 4/16/02)

1626        Apr 5, Jan van Kessel (d.1679), Flemish painter, was born. He was the grandson of Jan Breughel. He is known for his small paintings on copper and wood. His “Study of Butterflies, Spiders, Lizards, a Beetle, an Ant, a Grasshopper and Other Insects" sold at a Sotheby’s auction in 2000 for $1,655,750.
    (WSJ, 6/9/00, p.W10)(MC, 4/5/02)

1629        May 29, Arnold Baert (~74) Flemish lawyer, member of Great Council, died.
    (SC, 5/29/02)

1629        Peter Paul Rubens, Flemish painter, created an allegorical design depicting “Honor and Virtue." The painting was commissioned in this year and in 1998 was part of the collection of the Prince of Liechtenstein. A separate small oil sketch for the painting was first made and made public in 1998. Rubens also made a copy of Titian’s “The Rape of Europa," and he painted the portrait of “Thomas Howard, Earl of Arundel."
    (SFC, 2/19/98, p.E4)(WSJ, 3/9/98, p.A16)

1637        Oct 20, Nicolaas van der Veken, Flemish sculptor (confessional chairs), was born.
    (MC, 10/20/01)

1640        May 30, Peter Paul Rubens (b.1577), Flemish painter, died in Antwerp.
    (www.newadvent.org/cathen/13214c.htm)(Econ, 5/15/04, p.81)

1640        Dec 6, Matthijs Elsevier (75), Flemish-Dutch book publisher and merchant, died.
    (MC, 12/6/01)

1641        Dec 9, Anthonie "Antoon" van Dyck (42), Flemish painter, died.
    (MC, 12/9/01)

1652        Oct 13, Abraham Verhoeven, Flemish printer and newspaper publisher, died.
    (MC, 10/13/01)

1659-1661    Michael Sweerts painted his rosy “Portrait of a Youth."
    (SFC, 6/17/02, p.D1)

1674        Nov 24, Franciscus van Enden (72), Flemish Jesuit and free thinker, was executed.
    (MC, 11/24/01)

1679        Apr 17, John van Kessel (53), Flemish painter, died.
    (MC, 4/17/02)

1685        Feb 11, David Teniers III (46), Flemish painter, died.
    (MC, 2/11/02)

1714        Mar 6, the Treaty of Rastatt ended the war between Austria and Spain. It complemented the Treaty of Utrecht, which had, the previous year, ended hostilities with Britain and the Dutch Republic. The Spanish Netherlands became the Austrian Netherlands, and Spain gave up her possession in Italy, Luxembourg and Flanders. A third treaty, the Treaty of Baden (Sep 7, 1714), was required to end the hostilities between France and the Holy Roman Empire.
    (PCh, ed. 1992, p.279)(http://tinyurl.com/b8uxbje)

1752        May 4, Pieter Snyers (71), Flemish painter, engraver, died.
    (MC, 5/4/02)

1759-1840    Pierre-Joseph Redoute, Flemish-born painter. He was one of the most celebrated flower painters and worked under the patronage of Empress Josephine Bonaparte. His 169 stipple engravings “Les Rose" were made in Paris between 1817-1824.
    (2000 Taschen Calendar)

1793-1795    The British engaged in the ill-fated Flanders Campaign.
    (SSFM, 4/1/01, p.42)

1865        May 9, August de Boeck (d.1937), Flemish composer, was born.

1869        May 29, Philippe Vandermaelen (73), Flemish cartographer, publisher, died.
    (SC, 5/29/02)

1894        May 25, Dirk Vansina, Flemish playwright (Verschaeve Gives Evidence), was born.
    (SC, 5/25/02)

1914-1918    In 2002 Winston Groom authored “A Storm in Flanders: The Ypres Salient: 1914-1918: Tragedy and Triumph on the Western Front."
    (SSFC, 6/30/02, p.M4)

1917        Jul 11, The assault on Flanders began and lasted to Nov 10, for a total gain of four miles and the occupation of Passendaele. [see Nov 10]
    (AM, 7/04, p.9)

1917        Aug 14, The Chinese Parliament declared war on the Central Powers, Germany and Austria, during World War I. Some 100,000 Chinese laborers ended up serving near the front lines in Flanders as the “Chinese Labor Corps," which endured military discipline under British officers. Hundreds died in the influenza that swept post-war Europe and the last were shipped home in 1920.
    (AP,  8/14/97)(Econ, 4/24/10, p.41)

1917        Nov 10, The assault on Flanders, begun July 11, finally ground to a halt. The British Expeditionary Force (BEF) had suffered losses of 300,000 men and German losses were around 200,000--for a total gain of four miles and the occupation of Passchendaele. The battle was later described by Edwin Campion Vaughan in “Some Desperate Glory" (1981).
    (HN, 6/7/98)(HNQ, 11/2/98)(WSJ, 10/7/06, p.P12)

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