Timeline Estonia

Return to home

The smallest of the Baltic states Estonia is about the size of Vermont and New Hampshire. Suur Nunamagi is the highest point in all of the Baltics at 318 meters (1,043 ft). The country has more than 1400 lakes of which Lake Peipus, the 4th largest in Europe, is shared with Russia.
    (SFC, 4/21/03, p.E3)(SSFC, 5/23/04, p.D10)(SSFC, 7/22/07, p.G6)
Heavily forested Estonia lies on the eastern shore of the Baltic Sea, covering some 17,550 square miles. It's bounded to the east by Russia and to the south by Latvia.
    (AP, 9/14/03)

The Baltics: http://www.balticsww.com
The Baltic Times:
Google Map:
IBS Timeline:
Lonely Planet:

1030        The city of Tartu was founded.
    (Hem, 4/96, p.24)

1200-1300    The Danes built a castle at Narva.
    (WSJ, 1/25/99, p.A1)

1270        Feb 16, In the Karusa Ice war in Estonia, Lithuanian forces defeated the Livonian Knights of the Cross.
    (LHC, 2/16/03)

1300-1400    The town hall of Tallinn, Estonia, was founded.
    (BN, 10/96, p.2)

1341        German Knights of the Cross negotiated the acquisition of Tallinn from Denmark and took over all of Estonia.
    (Ist. L.H., 1948, p. 61)

1561        Poland-Lithuania gaining control over Livonia. In response Sweden seized the territory of Estonia with the major port of Reval.  Denmark, also invested in the war, seized the Livonian Islands.

1582        Jan 15, Russia ceded Livonia and Estonia to Poland, and lost access to Baltic.
    (MC, 1/15/02)

1632        Estonia’s Tartu Univ. was founded in Tartu, on the banks of the Emajogi River.
    (Hem, 4/96, p.23)

c1669        The King of Sweden took over Estonia and cast his eye over to Livonija, then under Lithuanian control. Jonas Karolis Katkus (Chodkevicius), a military leader, gathered a small army and moved to stop the Swedish advance. He approached Riga with some 4,000 men against a Swedish force of 14,000 and was able to repel them successfully.
    (H of L, 1931, p.76-78)

1718-1736    Russian Czar Peter the Great, having conquered Estonia in the Great Northern War, constructed the baroque, peach and white Kadriorg Palace on the outskirts of Tallinn.
    (Hem, 4/96, p.23)(CNT, 3/04, p.145)

1870        The Vanemuine Theater was founded in Tartu, Estonia.
    (Hem, 4/96, p.23)

1901        Nov 19, Louis Kahn (d.1974), architect, was born in Saarama, Estonia. His designs included the capital building of Bangladesh, completed in 1983.
    (PBS, Internet)

1905        Herman Ammende, a rich merchant, built the Ammende Villa at Parnu beach.
    (CNT, 3/04, p.150)

1918        Feb 15, Estonia, Latvia & Lithuania adopted the Gregorian calendar.
    (440 Int’l., 2/15/99)

1918        Feb 22, Germany claimed the Baltic states, Finland and Ukraine from Russia.
    (MC, 2/22/02)

1918          Feb 24, Estonia's Independence Day. Estonia proclaimed independence from Russia.
    (LHC, 2/23/03)(www.historycommission.ee/temp/conclusions_frame.htm)

1918          Mar 3, Germany, Austria-Hungary, Bulgaria, the Ottoman Empire and Russia signed the Treaty of Brest-Litovsk, which ended Russian participation in World War I. Germany and Austria forced Soviet Russia to sign the Peace of Brest, which called for the establishment of 5 independent countries: Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania, Poland and Ukraine. The Treaty of Brest-Litovsk, which ended Russian participation in World War I, was annulled by the November 1918 armistice. The treaty deprived the Soviets of White Russia.
    (HN, 3/3/99)(LHC, 3/1/03)(AP, 3/3/08)

1918        Nov 19, An agreement was signed in Riga between the chief commissioner of the German government in Estonia and Latvia, August Winnig, and representatives of the Estonian Provisional Government, whereby Germany transferred supreme power in Estonia to the provisional government.

1918        Nov 28, Soviet Russia massed Red Army units at the Estonian border and attacked Narva.

1918        Nov 29, The Provisional Government of the Republic of Estonia declared a general mobilization. The Estonian War of Independence began.

1918        Idel-Ural (Volga-Ural), a 1917 union of Finno-Ugric people in the middle of Russia, was crushed by the Bolsheviks. Its foreign minister Sadri Maqsudi Arsal was welcomed in Finland and then Estonia.
    (Econ, 12/24/05, p.73)

1919        Jan-1919 Feb, Red Army units were driven out of Estonia.

1919        Estonia established the kroon as its currency. It continued until soviet occupation in 1940 and was restored following independence in 1992.
    (Econ, 1/1/11, p.44)

1920        Estonia adopted a constitution.

1921        Feb 2, The Tartu Peace Treaty between Estonia and the Soviet Union recognized a free and independent Estonian Republic in perpetuity with fixed borders recognized in the treaty.
    (BN, V.15, No.55, p.4)(www.historycommission.ee/temp/conclusions_frame.htm)

1921        Sep 22, Estonia became a member of the League of Nations.

1924        Dec 1, Estonian communists attempted a rebellion under the guidance of agents sent from the Soviet Union. It was put down the same day.

1925        The Estonia Parliament passed the national minorities cultural autonomy act. It allowed Russians, Germans, Jews and Swedes to complete secondary school education in their own language.

1926        Estonian writer Anton Hansen (1878-1940) authored the first volume of his 5-part novel, "Truth and Justice," under the pseudonym A.H. Tammsaare. The first volume of Truth and Justice was translated into English 2014.
    (https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Anton_Hansen_Tammsaare)(Econ., 3/7/20, p.76)

1928        Newspapers across the US published “Visiting the World Children," a geography aid for American kids with pictures that were to be colored and clipped. Book No.34 was titled “Some Children in Esthonia, the Potato Republic."
    (BN, V.15, No.55, p.1)

1934        Jan 24, Estonia’s new Constitution went into effect. It was backed by the right-wing Vaps Movement and gave the president sweeping powers.

1934        Mar 12, PM Konstantin Päts declared a state of national emergency and asked the leader of the Estonian Army, Lt. General Johan Laidoner, to accept the position of Commander-in-Chief of the Armed Forces. Vaps organizations were shut down and their leaders were jailed.

1934        Sep 12, Estonia, Latvia & Lithuania signed the Baltic Entente in Geneva against the USSR.
    (LC, 1998, p.24)(MC, 9/12/01)

1934        Oct 2, Estonia’s government dissolved the parliament.

1937        Estonia’s Rahvuskogu (National Assembly) was convoked and worked out a new Constitution.

1938        Jan 1, Estonia’s new Constitution went into effect.

1938        Apr, Konstantin Päts was elected president of Estonia.

1938        May, Estonia’s Pres. Konstantin Päts granted an amnesty to release 183 political prisoners from prison.

1939        Aug 23, German Foreign Minister Joachim von Ribbentrop and Soviet Commissar for Foreign Affairs Vyacheslav M. Molotov signed a Treaty of Non-Aggression, the Molotov-Ribbentrop Pact freeing Hitler to invade Poland and Stalin to invade Finland. Secret protocols, made public years later, were added that assigned Finland, Estonia, Latvia and Bessarabia to be within the Soviet sphere of influence. Poland was partitioned along the rivers Narev, Vistula and San. Germany retained Lithuania enlarged by the inclusion of Vilnius. Just days after the signing, Germany invaded Poland, and by the end of September, both powers had claimed sections of Poland.
    (WP, 6/29/96, p.A16)(AP, 8/23/97) (HNPD, 8/22/98)(HN, 8/23/98)

1939        Sep 28, The Boundary and Friendship Treaty between the USSR and Germany was supplemented by secret protocols to amend the secret protocols of Aug 23. Among other things Lithuania was reassigned to the Soviet sphere of influence. Poland’s partition line was moved eastwards from the Vistula line to the line of the Bug. Germany kept a small part of south-west Lithuania, the Uznemune region. A separate Soviet mutual defense pact was signed with Estonia that allowed 25,000 Soviet troops to be stationed there.
    (DrEE, 9/28/96, p.3)(DrEE, 10/26/96, p.4)(DrEE, 10/26/96, p.4)

1939        Oct 6, Adolph Hitler called upon all Germans living in Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania, Italy and Russia to relocate to Germany.

1939        Oct-1940 May, Some 14,000 Germans in Estonia left for resettlement Germany.

1940        Jun 16, Soviet Foreign Minister Molotov presented August Rei, Estonia’s envoy in Moscow, an ultimatum to allow an unlimited number of Soviet troops, which was accepted. Latvia received a similar ultimatum.
    (DrEE, 10/26/96, p.4)(www.historycommission.ee/temp/conclusions_frame.htm)

1940        Jun 17, The Soviet Union occupied Lithuania, Latvia, and Estonia.
    (HN, 6/17/98)

1940        Jun 18, The Soviet occupation of Estonia was completed. The government of PM Jüri Uluots resigned.
    (DrEE, 10/26/96, p.4)(www.historycommission.ee/temp/conclusions_frame.htm)

1940        Jun 21, Estonia’s Pres. Päts appointed a new government led by PM Johannes Vares under pressure from Andrei Zhdanov, head of the Leningrad branch of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union.

1940        Jun-1941 Jul, After a Communist coup leading Estonian Republic officials were mass-murdered in Tallinn.
    (BN, 10/97, p.3)

1940        Jul 17, General Laidoner, the last Commander-in-Chief of the Estonian Armed Forces, was deported with his wife to banishment in Penza. He died in Vladimir Prison in 1953.

1940        Jul 21, The new USSR-organized parliaments of Estonia, Latvia, and Lithuania held simultaneous sessions. They declared their countries to be soviet socialist republics and applied for admission to the USSR.

1940        Jul 30, President Päts was deported with his son, daughter-in-law and two grandsons to banishment in Ufa. Päts died in a special mental hospital in Kalinin oblast in 1956.

1940        Aug 3, The Supreme Soviet officially registered the acceptance of Estonia, Latvia and Lithuania into the USSR.
    (SC, 8/3/02)(www.historycommission.ee/temp/conclusions_frame.htm)

1940        Aug 25, The ‘parliaments’ of Estonia, Latvia and Lithuania declared themselves ‘provisional Supreme Soviets’ and adopted new constitutions that were composed according to the example of the constitutions of already existing union republics of the USSR.

1940        Aug, The Armies of Estonia, Latvia and Lithuania were reorganized as territorial rifle corps of the Red Army and placed under the control of the political leaders of the Red Army.

1940        Russia seized Estonia’s presidential seal and regalia as it annexed the country. As of 2010 Russia continued to refuse to hand the items back.
    (Econ, 4/10/10, p.64)

1940-1941    The NKVD imprisoned nearly 1000 citizens and residents of the Republic of Estonia in 1940. The NKVD and NKGB imprisoned nearly 6000 in 1941. The overwhelming majority of them were convicted and sent to prison camps in the USSR where most of them died.

1941        Jan-1941 Apr, Another 7,500 individuals left Estonia for resettlement in Germany.

1941        Jun 14, The Russian secret police gathered up some 40,000 men, women and children and exiled them to Siberia in cattle cars. This was the first of many shipments. Some 10,000 Estonians, more than 15,000 Latvians and between 16,000 and 18,000 Lithuanians were herded onto cattle trains and transported to the far eastern reaches of the Soviet Union, where many of them died.
    (WP, 6/29/96, p.A16)(http://tinyurl.com/5jxmas)
1941        Jun 14, Over 10,000 people (10,861 according to some sources) were deported as whole families from Estonia. About 230 Estonian officers serving in the 22nd Estonian Territorial Corps of the Red Army were imprisoned at the summer camp of the Estonian Army in southeastern Estonia. Most of them were sent to the Norilsk prison camp, where most of them either died or were executed.

1941        Jun 22, Estonians started armed resistance against Soviet occupation.
    (MC, 6/22/02)

1941        Jun-1941 Oct, Over 2000 civilians were killed in Estonia. This includes up to a hundred so-called ‘forest brothers’ (Estonian patriotic partisans) who put up armed resistance to retreating units of the NKVD, NKGB or Red Army.

1941        Jul 8, Under Nazi occupation all Jews living in the Baltic States were obligated to wear the Star of David.
    (MC, 7/8/02)

1941        Jul-1941 Aug, Some 32,000–33,000 Estonian men were gathered and taken to the USSR. About 3000 perished on the way.

1941        Aug 19, The final German assault on Tallinn began.

1941        Aug 27, The Soviet armada began to move out of Tallinn. By the next day 5 ships were sunk by German bombers and Soviet ships began to encounter minefields set by the Kriegsmarine and Finnish Navy. The Soviets succeeded in evacuating 165 ships, 28,000 passengers and 66,000 tons of equipment from Tallinn.

1941        Oct, Some 243 Estonian Roma (Gypsies) were killed in Estonia.

1942        Aug 7, The Nazi 36th Police Battalion, made up of ethnic Estonians, massacred some 2,500 Jews at Novogrudok, Belarus (according to the Simon Wiesenthal Foundation).
    (SSFC, 2/15/04, p.A4)

1942        A labor camp was established at Jägala, commanded by Aleksander Laak, an Estonian. During 1942 several transports arrived from Terezin. Some 3,000 Jews not selected for work were taken to Kalevi-Liiva and shot. The Jägala camp was liquidated in the spring of 1943: most of the prisoners were shot.

1943        Sep, A camp complex based at Vaivara, Estonia, was established, commanded by German officers (Hans Aumeier, Otto Brennais and Franz von Bodman). The complex consisted of approximately twenty field camps, some of which existed only for short periods. As the Russians advanced in autumn 1944, a number of prisoners were evacuated by sea to the concentration camp in Stutthof, near Danzig. At Klooga, approximately 2,000 prisoners were shot, their bodies stacked on pyres and burned.

1943        The ballet “Kratt" (The Goblin) by Eduard Tubin was first performed in Estonia. Tubin left the country in 1944 and took up residence in Stockholm.
    (SFC, 2/13/98, p.C8)

1943        Michael Gorshkow, Estonian-Nazi interrogator, helped round up some 3,000 Jewish men, women and children at Slutsk, Belarus, where they were shot to death.
    (SSFC, 2/15/04, p.A4)

1944        Gustav Ernesaks, father of modern Estonian choral music, founded the State Academic Male Chorus (RAM). He directed it until 1975.
    (BN, 10/96, p.3)

c1946        After WW II Narva, Estonia, was rebuilt as a giant Soviet industrial park and tens of thousands of immigrants came to work in the regions metal factories and nuclear-power plant.
    (WSJ, 12/2/04, p.A11)

1949        Mar, Some 20,000 Estonian civilians were rounded up and deported to Siberia under orders from Joseph Stalin.
    (SFC, 4/3/04, p.A10)

1949        Sep 30, The Baltic Univ. in Hamburg, Germany, closed. It was opened three years earlier by 170 Lithuanian, Estonian and Latvian academics in a displaced persons camp. In 2015 Helga Merits premiered her documentary film “A Phoenix Born of Ashes and Desire: The Story of the Baltic University."

1953-1954    Members of the Estonian Forest Brothers resistance movement were killed by Stalin's NKVD secret police.
    (SFC, 4/3/04, p.A10)

1959        Veljo Tormis composed his 11-minute effusion “Overture No. 2."
    (SFC,11/6/97, p.C9)

1962        Estonia convicted US resident Karl Linnas in absentia of being a Nazi war criminal and sentenced him to death.

1982        Composer Eduard Tubin died in Stockholm.
    (SFC, 2/13/98, p.C8)

1987        Jul 2, Karl Linnas, accused Nazi, died of heart failure in Leningrad Russia. In 1962 he was convicted in Estonia of being a Nazi war criminal and sentenced to death in absentia.

1989        Aug 23, Approximately two million people joined their hands to form an over 600 km (373 mi) long human chain across the three Baltic states: Estonia, Latvia, and Lithuania. This original demonstration was organized to draw the world's attention to the common historical fate which these three countries suffered. It marked the 50th anniversary of August 23, 1939, when the Soviet Union and Germany in the secret protocol of the Molotov-Ribbentrop Pact divided spheres of interest in Eastern Europe, which led to the occupation of these three states.

1990        May 12, The presidents of Estonia, Latvia and Lithuania forged a united front by reviving a 1934 political alliance in hopes of enhancing their drive for independence from the Soviet Union.
    (AP, 5/12/00)

1990        May 14, In separate decrees, Soviet President Gorbachev declared that the republics of Estonia and Latvia had no legal basis for moving toward independence.
    (AP, 5/14/00)

1991        Mar 3, Latvia and Estonia voted to become independent of the USSR.
    (SC, 3/3/02)

1991        Sep 6, In the Soviet Union, the State Council, a new executive body composed of President Mikhail S. Gorbachev and republic leaders, recognized the independence of the Baltic states. All three were admitted into the UN later this month.
    (AP, 9/6/01)(http://countrystudies.us/lithuania/25.htm)

1991        Sep 14, US Secretary of State James A. Baker III met with leaders of the Baltic nations, which had declared independence from the Soviet Union.
    (AP, 9/14/01)

1991        Sep 17, The U.N. General Assembly opened its 46th session, welcoming new members Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania, North and South Korea, the Marshall Islands and Micronesia.
    (AP, 9/17/01)

1991        City Paper was founded in Tallinn shortly after independence.
    (USAT, 6/11/04, p.5D)

1992        Mar 5, In Copenhagen the Ministers for Foreign Affairs of Denmark, Estonia, Finland, Germany, Latvia, Lithuania, Norway, Poland, Russia and Sweden, in the presence of the representative from the European Commission, opened a 2-day meeting and decided to establish a Council of the Baltic Sea States to serve as a forum for guidance and overall coordination among the participating states. Iceland joined the CBSS in 1995
    (Econ, 6/7/08, p.63)(www.bmwi.de/English/Navigation/European-policy/baltic-market.html)

1992        Jun, Estonia began to mint its own legal tender, the kroon. Deposits held in Estonian banks were redenominated from roubles to kroons.
    (Hem, 4/96, p.23)(Econ, 9/13/14, p.84)

1992        In Estonia Mart Laar (32) was sworn in as prime minister. The fiscal conservative led the 1992-94 and 1999-2002 governments.
    (AP, 4/10/03)

1992        Estonia revamped its intelligence service with a small British-trained unit.
    (Econ, 12/23/06, p.74)

1993        Estonia adopted a land tax.
    (Econ., 4/4/15, p.23)
1993        Aleksander Einseln returned to Estonia from the Bay Area and became commander of the military. He planned to run for parliament in 1999.
    (BN, 10/98, p.6)

1994        Jun, In the infamous “June Agreement" Estonia Pres. Meri bypassed lawmakers when he signed a deal on the withdrawal of Russian troops and social guarantees for Russian military retirees.
    (SFC, 9/21/96, p.A10)(BN, 10/96, p.3)

1994        Aug 31, Russia officially ended its military presence in the former East Germany and the Baltics after a half-century.
    (AP, 8/31/99)

1994        Sep 28, More than 900 people died when the ferry Estonia capsized and sank Off the Finnish coast in the Baltic sea. 852 people of 989 onboard were killed. In 1999 evidence was reported that 3 explosive devices had been placed on the ship's visor-like bow door.
    (AP, 9/28/99)(SFC, 12/31/99, p.A16)

1994        Estonia became the 1st European country to introduce a flat tax (26%) on personal and corporate income. Latvia and Lithuania soon followed suit.
    (Econ, 3/5/05, p.54)

1995        Royalists in Estonia invited Prince Edward of the British Royal family to wear the Estonian crown.
    (Hem, 4/96, p.23)

1996        Sep 16, The US cut off aid and the Estonian government threw a party.
    (BN, 10/96, p.2)

1996        Sep 20, Estonia’s Pres. Lennart Meri was re-elected to a second term of 5 years in the largely ceremonial post.
    (SFC, 9/21/96, p.A10)(BN, 10/96, p.3)

1996        Sep 27, US Defense Sec. William Perry said the 3 Baltic nations would not be among the first new NATO members drawn from Eastern Europe. The Estonian armed forces number only 4,500 troops.
    (SFC, 9/28/96, p.A8)

1996        Nov, In Estonia Foreign Minister Siim Kallas of the right-of-center Reform Party was replaced by Toomas Hendrik Ilves by Prime Minister Tiit Vahi. Kallas had led a coalition with the Centrist Union Party and the left-of-center Farmers Union until the “Tape-gate" scandal in the spring of Center party leader Edgar Savisaar.   
    (BN, V.15, No.55, p.4)

1997        Apr, Three container ships with military hardware were unloaded in Tallinn. They were donations from the US of automatic weapons and small arms as well as ammunition for the Estonian Defense Forces.
    (BN, 7/97, p.3)

1997        Jun, Terms of the Baltnet Group, an Air Surveillance System for Lithuania, Latvia and Estonia, were established in Oslo, Norway.

1997        Oct, The Estonian Philharmonic and Tallinn Chamber Orchestra toured the US and performed music by composer Arvo Part.
    (WSJ, 10/14/97, p.A20)

1998        Jan 16, Baltic leaders signed an agreement, the US-Baltics Charter of Partnership, at the White House strengthening US and NATO ties with Latvia, Lithuania, and Estonia. The leaders also established a $15 million fund with equal contributions from the Agency for Int’l. Development and George Soros to promote nongovernmental organizations (NGOs).
    (WSJ, 1/16/98, p.A1)(SFC, 1/17/98, p.A8)

1998        Jul 4, In the annual Wife Carrying World Championships in Finland, 2 Estonian couples won top honors in the 278 yard course in Sonkajarvi.
    (SFEC, 7/5/98, p.A2)

1998        Jul, After the failure of Estonia’s Maabank, a partly government-owned “country bank," a third of its deposits was turned over to Iuhispank, another bank with government links.
    (BN, 10/98, p.4)

1998        Nov 18, The Swedish bank Skandinavska Enskilda acquired a 32% stake in Eesti Uhispank, as well as a 36% stake in Latvia’s Latvijas Unibanka.
    (WSJ, 11/19/98, p.A16)

1998        Dec 8, Estonia’s Parliament approved an amendment to its citizenship law that made it easier for its Russian-speaking minority to become citizens. It granted citizenship to some 6,500 children born in Estonia of Russian parents following the 1991 independence.
    (SFC, 12/9/98, p.B8)

1998        A documentary video on the Baltic States: “Seven years of Success and Still Growing" was produced.
    (BN, 10/98, p.6)

1999        Feb 11, The Estonian Bowed Piano Ensemble performed in San Francisco with the Colorado Bowed Piano Ensemble.
    (BN, 3/99, p.5)

1999        Mar 5, Elections in Estonia were held for the 101 seats of the Riigikogu (parliament).
    (BN, 3/99, p.4)

1999        Jul 30, Mikhail Neverovsky (79), a former KGB agent, was convicted of crimes against humanity and sentenced to 4 years in prison in Estonia. He had participated in mass deportations during the Soviet era 50 years earlier.
    (SFC, 7/31/99, p.A7)

2000        Nov, Estonia planned a rail transport system with Asia to replace declining Russian oil products shipped from Tallinn.
    (WSJ, 11/13/00, p.B19B)

2000        Dec 15, Under Estonian law the cryptographic signature became legally equivalent to a manual signature.

2000        Estonia’s government decided to go paperless and conduct as much business as possible online. Estonia made internet access a human right.
    (NW, 5/13/02, p.72)(Econ, 2/12/11, p.68)

2001        Sep 13, The death toll from tainted alcohol, consumed in or near the seaside resort of Parnu, Estonia, rose to 51. At least 85 more remained hospitalized and methanol was blamed.
    (SFC, 9/14/01, p.A32)

2001        Sep 21, Arnold Ruutel (73), a former Communist leader in Estonia, was chosen as president by a special government assembly.
    (SFC, 9/22/01, p.A20)

2001        Estonia sold its entire rail network (Eesti Raudtee) to an int’l. consortium of investors.
    (Econ, 5/28/05, p.63)

2001        A UN world population report showed that Estonia was one of the fastest shrinking nations on earth, with a fertility rate of 1.3.
    (WSJ, 10/20/06, p.A1)

2002        May 25, The Eurovision Song Contest was set to take place in Tallinn, Estonia.
    (NW, 5/13/02, p.72)

2002        Jun 8-2002 Jun 9, A weekend meeting was held in Tallinn for Baltic and Nordic defense ministers. Donald Rumsfeld, US Sec. of Defense, attended.
    (SSFC, 6/9/02, p.A13)

2002        Sep 26, NATO planned to issue invitations in November to Bulgaria, Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania, Romania, Slovakia and Slovenia. Expansion would commit the current 19 members to defend the borders of the new members.
    (SFC, 9/26/02, p.A1)

2002        Oct 9, The European Union's executive Commission declared Bulgaria, the Czech Republic, Cyprus, Estonia, Hungary, Latvia, Lithuania, Malta, Poland, Romania, Slovenia, and Slovakia nearly ready for EU membership and recommended they be invited to join in 2004. Romania and Bulgaria likely will be delayed until 2007 because of weak economies, the Commission said, adding Turkey was the weakest link among candidates.
    (AP, 10/9/02)

2002        Nov 21, The Baltic nations of Latvia, Estonia and Lithuania joined former communist states Bulgaria, Romania, Slovakia and Slovenia as the next wave of NATO states.
    (AP, 11/21/02)

2002        Dec 13, The EU reached agreement to accept 10 new countries in 2004. These included Czech Republic, Cyprus, Estonia, Hungary, Latvia, Lithuania, Malta, Poland, Slovakia, and Slovenia.
    (SFC, 12/14/02, p.A3)

2002        Estonia’s government began issuing electronic ID cards.
    (http://ccdcoe.org/cycon/2012/workshops/e-Estonia_03.2012.pdf)(Econ, 2/9/13, p.60)

2003          Mar 2, In Estonia a center-left party depicting itself as a champion of the poor barely won the popular vote in parliamentary elections, which could make it difficult to form a coalition government.
    (AP, 3/3/03)

2003        Apr 10, In Estonia Juhan Parts, a 36-year-old former auditor, took over as prime minister, becoming Europe's youngest leader.
    (AP, 4/10/03)

2003        Apr 21, Estonia was reported to rank No. 2 in Internet banking and 3rd in e-government.
    (SFC, 4/21/03, p.E3)

2003        Jul 6, The annual Wife Carrying World Championship took place in Sonkajarvi, Finland. An Estonian team was again favored to win.
    (WSJ, 7/2/03, p.A1)

2003        Aug, Skype released the 1st version of its software which allowed people to make free voice and video calls over the internet. Niklas Zennstrom (b.1966) of Sweden and Janus Friis (b.1976) of Denmark co-founded Skype, an internet telephony company shortly after moving to London. The Skype software was developed by Estonians Ahti Heinla, Priit Kasesalu and Jaan Tallinn, who were also behind the peer-to-peer file sharing software Kazaa.
    (Econ, 9/16/06, p.79)(Econ, 8/6/11, p.46)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Skype)

2003        Sep 14, Estonians passed a referendum to join the European Union.
    (AP, 9/15/03)

2003        Estonia’s GDP for the year was 9.2 billion euros.
    (WSJ, 12/14/04, p.A13)

2004        Jan 9, Estonian prosecutors said they have launched an investigation into whether Michael Gorshkow, an 80-year-old former U.S. resident, took part in the massacre of 3,000 Jews during World War II. Gorshkow (19) allegedly helped murder Jews in the Slutsk ghetto of Belarus in 1943 while serving as an interpreter and interrogator for the Gestapo.
    (AP, 1/9/04)

2004        Mar 29, Pres. Bush hosted a White House ceremony to welcome Bulgaria, Estonia, Lithuania, Latvia, Romania, Slovakia and Slovenia into the NATO alliance.
    (WSJ, 3/30/04, p.A1)

2004        Apr 2, In Brussels an official ceremony welcomed Bulgaria, Estonia, Lithuania, Latvia, Romania, Slovakia and Slovenia into the NATO alliance.
    (SFC, 4/3/04, p.A11)

2004        Apr 27, Russian Foreign Minister Sergey Lavrov and EU officials signed an accord extending the EU-Russia partnership accord to Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania, Poland, Hungary, the Czech Republic, Slovakia, Slovenia, Cyprus and Malta, which join May 1.
    (AP, 4/27/04)

2004        May 1, Revelers across ex-communist eastern Europe celebrated their historic entry to the European Union. 10 new members (Cyprus, the Czech Republic, Estonia, Hungary, Latvia, Lithuania, Malta, Poland, Slovakia, and Slovenia) joined. Malta joined with 70 exemptions to EU rules. Poland had 43 exemptions. Latvia had 32. The Turkish occupied area of Cyprus was suspended from entry.
    (AP, 5/1/04)(Econ, 2/28/04, p.50)(Econ, 4/16/05, p.16)

2004        Jul 3, Two Estonian students clinched the country's seventh straight wife-carrying world championship on Saturday, winning the "wife's" weight in beer and a sauna.
    (AP, 7/4/04)

2004        Sep 2, A controversial monument commemorating Estonians who fought in the German army against Soviet troops during World War II was removed, after the government said it damaged the Baltic state's image.
    (AP, 9/2/04)

2004        Oct 25, In Iraq bombs hit 4 coalition and Iraqi convoys killing at least 12 including an American and Estonian. Saboteurs blew up a pipeline feeding Iraq’s biggest refinery.
    (WSJ, 10/26/04, p.A1)

2004        Estonia began paying women up to $1,560 for 15 months to have babies, in order to help reverse a trend of declining population.
    (WSJ, 10/20/06, p.A1)

2004-2006    Estonia expected to receive €253 million in EU subsidies.
    (WSJ, 12/14/04, p.A13)

2005        Jan 1, Estonia was forecast for 6% GDP growth with a population at 1.3 million and GDP per head at $9,310.
    (Econ, 1/8/05, p.88)

2005        Jan 20, Estonia's Jewish community broke ground on a new synagogue to replace the house of worship destroyed by bombing in World War II.
    (AP, 1/20/05)

2005        Mar 21, In Estonia PM Juhan parts (38) resigned after lawmakers said they had no confidence in his justice minister, Ken-Marti Vaher, due to an anti-corruption plan. Pres. Arnold Ruutel had 2 weeks to nominate a new prime minister.
    (SFC, 3/22/05, p.A3)

2005        Aug 10, The Sikorsky 76 helicopter on a scheduled flight from Tallinn to Helsinki, Finland, went down with 2 pilots and 12 passengers about 3 miles off the coast of Estonia.
    (AP, 8/10/05)

2005        Sep 12, EBay has agreed to buy fast-growing Internet start-up Skype for up to $4.1 billion in cash and shares, in a move to tap new sources of growth and add free Web telephone calls to its online auctions. Niklos Zennstrom of Sweden and Janus Friis of Denmark founded Skype using a programming team from Estonia.
    (AP, 9/12/05)(Econ, 9/17/05, p.69)

2005        Sep 23, Maarike Harro, director of the National Institute for Health Development said the World Health Organization (WHO) estimates that one in every 100 people in Estonia in the 15 to 49 age group may be infected with HIV.
    (AFP, 9/23/05)

2005        Estonia became the first country to implement Internet voting in a nationwide election.
    (http://estonia.eu/about-estonia/economy-a-it/e-estonia.html)(AP, 11/9/12)

2006        Mar 14, Lennart Meri (b.1929), Estonia’s former president (1992-2001), died overnight in Tallinn. The writer, film director and statesman’s relentless struggle against communist oppression helped the Baltic nation break free from the Soviet Union in 1991. Among his most well-known films is the 1977 documentary "The Winds of the Milky Way," describing the lives of Finno-Ugric people, which won a silver medal at the New York Film Festival but was banned in the Soviet Union for its culturally sensitive content.
    (AP, 3/14/06)(Econ, 3/25/06, p.90)

2006        May 26, The government of Estonia banned rallies near a statue in Tallinn marking the Red Army's victory over Nazi Germany, moving to ease recent tensions between some ethnic Estonians and native Russian speakers.
    (AP, 5/26/06)

2006        Aug 22, Kristjan Lepik of Tallinn, Estonia, settled theft charges with the SEC. He agreed to return over $550,000 in trading profits and pay a $15,000 penalty for illegally trading on corporate information. The SEC said Lepik and co-worker Oliver Peek made at least $7.8 million trading on advanced looks at hundreds of press releases.
    (SFC, 8/23/06, p.C2)

2006        Aug 28, Ene Ergma (62), a Soviet-trained astronomer, failed to win enough votes in parliament to become Estonia's next president, forcing a new vote on a second candidate.
    (AP, 8/28/06)

2006        Sep 23, Toomas Hendrik Ilves (52), a Western-leaning former diplomat and journalist, was narrowly elected Estonia's president, ousting the incumbent who was favored in the race.
    (AP, 9/23/06)

2006        Oct 19, Queen Elizabeth II arrived in Estonia on the last leg of a landmark trip to the Baltic states, during which the 80-year-old monarch has repeatedly praised the Baltic people for their determined fight for freedom.
    (AFP, 10/19/06)

2006        Nov 27, Pres. Bush flew to Estonia on his way to a NATO meeting centered on Afghanistan in Riga, Latvia.
    (WSJ, 11/28/06, p.A1)

2006        Dec 4, The Estlink cable connected power grids of the Baltic States with Finland. The cost of Estlink, which measures 100 kilometers (60 miles), was around 110 million euros (132 million dollars). It was built by Swiss-Swedish group ABB.
    (AP, 12/4/06)

2007        Jan 17, Russian lawmakers sharply criticized Estonia for possible plans to remove a 1947 statue that honors Red Army soldiers who helped drive Nazi forces from the Baltic nation. Last week the Estonian president signed into law a bill allowing for the removal of the statue. The monument upset many in the country that suffered five decades of Soviet occupation.
    (AP, 1/18/07)

2007        Feb 15, Estonian lawmakers narrowly approved a bill calling for the removal of a Soviet war memorial from their capital, ignoring Moscow's warning of "irreversible consequences" for relations between the two countries.
    (AP, 2/15/07)

2007        Feb 22, Estonia's president vetoed legislation calling for the removal of a Soviet war memorial, averting at least temporarily a confrontation with Russia. Estonia chose Baltic herring over the pike in a government-sponsored contest to find a fish suitable to join the blue, black and white flag, the blue cornflower, limestone, and chimney swallow as national symbols.
    (AP, 2/22/07)(http://tinyurl.com/2l7acu)

2007        Feb, Estonia became the first country in the world to institute electronic voting for parliamentary elections.

2007        Mar 4, Voting stations opened in Estonia's first Parliamentary election since joining the EU. PM Andrus Ansip's center-right Reform Party narrowly won parliamentary elections. Ansip's party had 27.8% of the votes, ahead of the left-leaning Center Party led by political veteran Edgar Savisaar, which had 26.1%. Ansip pledged to preserve the market-friendly policies credited with the Baltic nation's impressive growth. President Toomas Hendrik Ilves likely will ask Ansip to form the next government of the country of 1.3 million.
    (AP, 3/4/07)

2007        Apr 26, In Estonia protesters gathered at a Soviet war grave in downtown Tallinn, as authorities prepared to remove the bodies despite Russia's angry objections. Estonia's government intends to relocate the Soviet grave, believed to contain the remains of 14 soldiers, and the Bronze Soldier statue next to it.
    (AP, 4/26/07)

2007        Apr 27, Estonia removed a Soviet war memorial from downtown Tallinn under cover of darkness, carrying out a plan that has rankled Russia and provoked protests that left one person dead and dozens injured.
    (AP, 4/27/07)

2007        Apr 28, In Estonia minority Russian youths angry over the government's decision to remove a Soviet war memorial from Tallinn rioted for a second night, with unrest spreading to at least two other towns. 66 people were injured in the capital, including six policemen. More than 500 people, many of them adolescents, were detained overnight as vandals prowled the streets, breaking shop windows and looting stores.
    (AP, 4/28/07)

2007        May 2, Russian oil firms rushed to re-route a quarter of their refined products exports away from ports in Estonia after Russia's railways halted the route amid a political dispute with Tallinn. Young Russians staged raucous protests in Moscow to denounce neighboring Estonia for removing a Soviet war memorial from its capital, and the Estonian ambassador said pro-Kremlin activists tried to attack her as she arrived at a news conference.
    (Reuters, 5/2/07)

2007        May 3, Russia lashed out at the EU and NATO for supporting Estonia in its row with Moscow over the relocation of a Soviet war monument.
    (AP, 5/3/07)

2007        May 9, In the early hours Internet traffic in Estonia spiked to thousands of times the normal flow. May 10 was heavier still, forcing Estonia’s biggest bank to shut down its online service for more than an hour. Hansabank continued under assault and worked to block access to 300 suspect Internet addresses. On March 12, 2009, Konstantin Goloskokov, an activist with Russia's Nashi youth group and aide to a pro-Kremlin member of parliament, said he had organized a network of sympathizers who bombarded Estonian Internet sites with electronic requests, causing them to crash.
    (www.lunchoverip.com/2007/05/estonia_under_c.html)(Reuters, 3/12/09)

2007        May 16, Following a six-decade wait, Estonia's 3,000-strong Jewish community inaugurated its new and only synagogue in Tallinn in the presence of top Israeli dignitaries.
    (AP, 5/16/07)

2007        May 17, Estonia's defense minister said that the massive cyber attacks that have crippled the high-tech country's Web sites are a threat to national security, and that it's possible the Russian government was behind them.
    (Econ, 5/5/07, p.65)(AP, 5/17/07)

2007        May 24, Japanese Emperor Akihito and Empress Michiko arrived in Estonia's seaside capital on their first-ever visit to a former Soviet republic.
    (AP, 5/24/07)

2007        Jun 6, PM Andrus Ansip said Estonia is seeking help from Russia to find the culprits behind a massive wave of attacks on the country's Internet infrastructure.
    (AP, 6/6/07)
2007        Jun 6, Housing prices in the major cities of Estonia, Latia and Lithuania were reported to average around $202,375.
    (WSJ, 6/6/07, p.B9)

2007        Aug 22, In Estonia prosecutors said Arnold Meri (88), cousin of Estonia's late president Lennart Meri, committed genocide by helping deport his countrymen to Siberia in 1949.
    (AP, 8/23/07)

2007        Sep 20, Estonia decided it will not allow a German-Russian consortium to conduct a survey of its exclusive economic zone in the Baltic Sea for a planned underwater gas pipeline.
    (AP, 9/20/07)

2007        Dec 20, Estonia, Latvia and Lithuania along with 6 other EU members halted land and sea border controls at midnight, becoming the first in a wave of new members of Europe's passport-free Schengen zone.
    (AFP, 12/20/07)(WSJ, 12/21/07, p.A1)

2007        James and Maureen Tusty produced “The Singing Revolution," a film that covered the Estonian people’s move to re-establish independence. The film begins with independence in 1918 and then moves to Soviet and German occupation during WWII. The spirit of the nation is then captured with a focus on how the singing nation moved re-establish itself in its non-violent “singing revolution" (1987-1991).

2008        Mar 12, The United States signed agreements with EU members Latvia and Estonia that will enable the tiny Baltic nations to join the U.S. visa waiver program this year.
    (AP, 3/12/08)

2008        Jul 25, Estonia urged the EU to take stronger action against Somali pirates attacking cargo ships bound for Europe, after an Estonian sailor was held hostage for 41 days.
    (AFP, 7/26/08)
2008        Jul 25, Energy companies in the three Baltic states and Poland agreed to set up a joint venture to develop a nuclear power plant in Lithuania.
    (Reuters 7/25/08)

2008        Sep 21, Hermann Simm, a middle ranking civil servant in Estonia’s defense ministry, was arrested along with his wife and charged with spying for an unnamed foreign power. He had set up and run a system for handling top secret documents from NATO allies and handled security clearances for Estonian officials in the military, security and intelligence services.
    (Econ, 11/8/08, p.68)

2008        Dec 12, Estonia’s parliament passed a law making it the first country to allow cellphone voting.
    (WSJ, 12/13/08, p.A1)

2009        Jan 22, Estonia said it will end its nearly six-year military mission in Iraq after it failed to agree with the Iraqi government on terms for its troop deployment.
    (AP, 1/22/09)

2009        Feb 25, An Estonian court convicted a former top security official of treason for passing domestic and NATO secrets to Russia, the Baltic country's biggest espionage scandal since the Cold War. Herman Simm (61), the former head of security at the Estonian Defense Ministry, pleaded guilty and was sentenced to 12 years and six months in prison. Russia’s foreign service (SVR) had recruited Mr. Simm on his holiday in Tunisia in 1995.
    (AP, 2/25/09)(Econ, 2/28/09, p.56)

2010        Apr 23, NATO ministers meeting in Tallinn, Estonia, agreed to begin handing over control of Afghanistan to the Afghan government this year, a process that if successful would enable President Barack Obama to meet his target date of July 2011 for starting to bring US troops home.
    (AP, 4/23/10)

2010        May 27, Israel officially joined the OECD club of rich economies. PM Benjamin Netanyahu attended a ceremony at the Paris headquarters of the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development as it welcomed Israel along with Estonia, Slovenia and Chile to the 31-nation grouping.
    (AFP, 5/27/10)

2010        Aug 30, In southern Afghanistan 7 US troops were killed in two Taliban-style bomb attacks. An 8th soldier, a 20-year-old Estonian, died of his injuries after insurgents set off an improvised explosive device (IED) in Nad-e-Ali in Helmand province. A bomb blast in Jalalabad killed a district chief and wounded up to five others. A French soldier was killed when the armored vehicle he was travelling in tumbled into a ravine.
    (AFP, 8/30/10)(AP, 8/31/10)

2011        Jan 1, Estonia became the first former Soviet republic to join the euro, Europe’s common currency.
    (SFC, 1/1/11, p.A2)

2011        Feb 20, In Estonia 8 disabled children (7-16) and 2 adults (20-21) were killed in an orphanage fire in the coastal town of Haapsalu. The orphanage was built in 1996 with help from Swedish and Finnish donations.
    (AP, 2/20/11)(AP, 2/21/11)

2011        Mar 6, Estonia’s center-right, 2-party coalition government of PM Andrus Ansip won elections. Ansip’s free-market Reform Party gained 2 seats giving it 33 in the 101-seat parliament.
    (SSFC, 3/6/11, p.A4)(SFC, 3/7/11, p.A2)(Econ, 3/12/11, p.62)

2011        Mar 23, In Lebanon 7 Estonian tourists were kidnapped while cycling in Zahle.
    (SFC, 3/24/11, p.A2)

2011        May 20, The Embassy of the United States of America announced the official opening of the Office of the U.S. Secret Service in Estonia. The Secret Service office will work closely with its law enforcement partners within the criminal investigative infrastructure in the Baltic nations of Estonia, Latvia and Lithuania.

2011        Jul 14, In Lebanon 7 Estonian tourists abducted nearly four months ago while cycling through Lebanon's eastern Bekaa Valley were released in good health. Harakat al-Nahda wal-Islah, or the Movement for Renewal and Reform, had claimed responsibility for the March 23 abduction and demanded an unspecified ransom. Two men suspected of involvement in the kidnapping were killed in a September 20 shootout with police.
    (AP, 7/14/11)(AP, 11/2/11)

2011        Aug 11, In Estonia a gunman armed with explosives entered the Defense Ministry and opened fire, but police stormed the building and killed him. No one else was hurt. Officials identified the attacker as Karen Drambjan, an Armenian-born lawyer who has held Estonian citizenship since the early 1990s. He was a member of the small, left-wing Estonian United Left Party that is not represented in Parliament.
    (AP, 8/11/11)

2011        Aug 29, Estonia's parliament re-elected US-educated President Toomas Hendrik Ilves (57) for a second 5-year term as head of state. It was the first time a presidential candidate has managed to get the required two-thirds majority since Estonia declared independence in 1991.
    (AP, 8/29/11)

2011        Nov 2, A Syrian security official said Syria has arrested Wael Abbas, a top suspect in the kidnapping of 7 Estonians, freed four months after their abduction in Lebanon, and handed him over to Beirut.
    (AFP, 11/2/11)

2011        Nov 9, US federal officials said an Eastern European pack of cyber thieves, known as the Rove group, hijacked at least four million computers in over 100 countries, including at least half a million computers in the US, to make off with $14 million in "illegitimate income" before they were caught. The accused hackers, six Estonian nationals and a Russian national, rerouted the internet traffic illegally on the infected computers for the last four years in order to reap profits from internet advertisement deals.
    (ABCNews, 11/9/11)

2012        Jan 13, In Estonia volunteers from 83 countries converged on Tallinn to launch World Cleanup 2012, a voluntary 6-monthy rubbish collection effort to begin on March 24.
    (Econ, 1/7/12, p.52)

2012        Jan 20, In Japan Estonian sumo wrestler Baruto won his first tournament, logging an unbeatable 13th straight victory with only two bouts to go in the New Year basho.
    (AFP, 1/20/12)

2012        Feb 8, NATO said it has decided to extend until 2018 an operation to protect the airspace of Baltic members Estonia, Latvia and Lithuania with fighter jets.
    (AP, 2/8/12)

2012        Mar 3, In Libya Estonian technician Kaido Keerdo (31) working for Danish church Aid was killed while examining unexploded munitions scattered near a police compound in Ad Dafniyah.

2012        Mar 21, Estonia legislators passed measures to make human trafficking a crime punishable by up to 15 years in prison.
    (SFC, 3/22/12, p.A)

2012        Jun 2, In Latvia several hundred activists from the Baltic states and neighboring countries braved rain and hail to participate in an annual parade in defense of gay and lesbian rights. The Baltic states of Estonia, Latvia and Lithuania have largely proven to be intolerant toward gays and lesbians despite having joined the European Union in 2004.
    (AFP, 6/2/12)

2012        Finnish writer Sofi Oksanen (b.1977) authored “When the Doves Disappeared." It was set in Estonia as the country was caught between Stalin’s hammer and Hitler’s anvil. In 2015 it was translated to English by Lola Rogers.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sofi_Oksanen)(Econ, 5/2/15, p.74)

2013        Jan 1, Tallinn, Estonia, launched free public transport for all of its citizens.
    (AP, 4/4/13)

2013        May 30, It was reported that Estonia, a country of 1.3 million people, gets more than 90% of its electricity needs from oil shale — by far the world's most shale-dependent country. A board member at Eesti Energia said the country has 100 years' experience working with oil shale.
    (AP, 5/30/13)

2013        Oct 15, Eurocrats and transport industry folk began a two day train ride from Vilnius to Talinn. Rail Baltica, an idea to build a proper rail way connection from Helsinki to Tallinn, Riga, Kaunas, Warsaw and continuing on to Berlin was on the agenda in a conference onboard the train.
    (www.balticsea-region-strategy.eu/item/486861)(Econ, 10/19/13, p.60)

2013        In Estonia Markus Villig (19) founded Taxify, a taxi app, in Tallinn. The company was later renamed Bolt and focused offering rides through the smartphone app in a business model similar to Uber. By 2019 Bolt was operating in more than 100 cities and 30 countries.
    (SFC, 4/29/19, p.D2)

2014        Feb 26, Estonian Foreign Minister Urmas Paet told EU foreign policy chief Catherine Ashton in a phone call that the Ukrainian opposition to president Viktor Yanukovych may have been involved in sniper attacks (Feb 18-20). News of the call was leaked in early March and prompted Russian Foreign Minister Sergei Lavrov to call for an OSCE investigation.
    (AFP, 3/8/14)(SFC, 3/8/14, p.A4)

2014        Mar 4, Estonia's three-term PM Andrus Ansip submitted his resignation in a long-planned move to pave the way for his successor to lead a new government into a general election next year.
    (Reuters, 3/4/14)

2014        Mar 14, Estonia's President Toomas Hendrik Ilves nominated cabinet minister Taavi Roivas (34) to form a new government and seek approval from parliament to lead the small euro zone country. Roivas is set to take over from PM Andrus Ansip, who resigned on March 4.
    (Reuters, 3/14/14)

2014        Mar 21, France said it is suspending military cooperation with Russia as Defense Minister Jean-Yves Le Drian visited Baltic states in a trip designed to reassure them as tensions mount with Russia over its seizure of Ukraine's Crimea region.
    (Reuters, 3/21/14)

2014        Jun 12, Jordan said it has reached an agreement with Enefit, an Estonian firm, and its partners on a $2.1 billion contract to build a 540 MW shale-fueled power station.
    (Econ, 6/28/14, p.58)

2014        Jun 20, Estonian PM Taavi Roivas urged NATO to establish a permanent presence in the Baltic state in response to Russia's actions in Ukraine.
    (Reuters, 6/20/14)

2014        Sep 3, President Barack Obama arrived in Estonia in a show of solidarity with NATO allies. He vigorously vowed to come to the defense of NATO allies that fear they could be Vladimir Putin's next target.
    (AP, 9/3/14)

2014        Sep 5, Estonia said that security service officer Eston Kohver was abducted by unknown gunmen and taken across the border, but Russia said the man was detained on its territory and suspected of being a spy.
    (AP, 9/5/14)

2014        Sep, Estonia carried out a dry run of its digital continuity project in conjunction with Microsoft. It aimed to ensure that even if the government is sabotaged it would continue to operate over the internet.
    (Econ., 3/7/15, TQ p.3)

2014        Oct 9, Estonia became the first former Soviet nation to legalize gay partnerships.
    (AP, 10/9/14)

2014        Oct 24, Turkey's president said that Ankara would allow hundreds of Syrian rebels to travel to the embattled border town of Kobani in order to help Kurdish fighters there fend off an Islamic State onslaught. During a state visit in Estonia, Erdogan said the Western-backed Free Syrian Army would send 1,300 fighters to the Syrian town. A spokesman for the Western-backed Syrian opposition in exile, Kenan Mohammed, said there were no plans to send fighters to Kobani.
    (AP, 10/24/14)

2014        Oct 27, In Estonia a boy (15) shot and killed a teacher (53) of German in Paalalinna school in the town Viljandi. The weapon was registered to the father of the shooter.
    (AP, 10/27/14)

2014        Nov 13, Eight northern European nations (Britain, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, Latvia, Lithuania, Norway, Sweden) agreed to step up cooperation to counter an increase in Moscow's military activity that has included a tripling of NATO intercepts of Russian jets this year.
    (Reuters, 11/13/14)

2014        Sigrid Rausing authored “Everything is Wonderful: Memories of a Collective Farm in Estonia."
    (Econ, 5/10/14, p.82)

2015        Jan 21, In Estonia Mart Laar, ex-PM and current supervisory board chairman of Estonian central bank, proposed his own ideas of what kind of reforms Estonia needs.

2015        Jan 30, NATO said it will deploy small units in six Eastern European nations to help coordinate a spearhead force set up in response to Russia's actions in Ukraine. The units in Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania, Poland, Bulgaria and Romania will be the first of their kind there.
    (AP, 1/30/15)

2015        Feb 13, In Virginia Andrus Nomm of Estonia pleaded guilty to conspiracy to commit copyright infringement in federal court in Alexandria. He was sentenced to a year and a day in prison. Nomm, one of seven men indicted in a massive copyright-piracy scheme run through the now-defunct website Megaupload three years ago, was the first to be brought to the US to face charges.
    (AP, 2/13/15)

2015        Mar 1, Estonians voted for a new parliament in an election dominated by economic issues and security concerns due to Russia's actions in Ukraine. PM Taavi Roivas’ pro-Western Reform party won the election, but lost seven seats giving it 45 seats in the 101-seat parliament. Roivas quickly ruled out cooperating with the pro-Russian Center Party and planned to form a coalition with his current partner, the Social Democrats.
    (AP, 3/1/15)(SFC, 3/3/15, p.A2)(Econ., 3/7/15, p.52)

2015        Mar 9, The United States delivered more than 100 pieces of military equipment to vulnerable NATO-allied Baltic states in a move designed to provide them with the ability to deter potential Russian threats.
    (AFP, 3/9/15)

2015        May 30, In Estonia a racing car plunged off the road during the local Harju Rally, killing 2 men and a woman who were watching the competition on the roadside.
    (AP, 5/31/15)

2015        Jun 1, US-led NATO drills began in the Baltic states and Poland, a move intended to reassure Russia's nervous neighbors amid tensions over Ukraine.
    (AFP, 6/1/15)

2015        Jun 23, US Defense Secretary Ash Carter announced that the United States will pre-position tanks, artillery and other military equipment in eastern and central Europe, moving to reassure NATO allies unnerved by Russian involvement in Ukraine. Carter, during a trip to Tallinn, said the Baltic states - Estonia, Lithuania, Latvia -- as well as Bulgaria, Romania and Poland agreed to host elements of this heavy equipment.
    (Reuters, 6/23/15)

2015        Aug 12, Estonia’s Agriculture ministry spokeswoman Karin Volmer said a total of 15,700 pigs have been killed to prevent the spread of African swine fever since the first case was reported there on July 21.
    (AP, 8/12/15)

2015        Aug 19, Russia sentenced Estonian intelligence officer Eston Kohver to 15 years in jail, drawing ire from the EU after Tallinn said he was kidnapped September 5, 2014, at gunpoint on its territory.
    (AFP, 8/19/15)

2015        Aug 28, Estonia said it is planning to cover a 136-km (84-mile) stretch of land along its border with Russia with state-of-art technology to combat illegal border-crossing and illicit traffic.
    (AP, 8/28/15)

2015        Sep 26, Russia exchanged Estonian Eston Kohver, who had been convicted of espionage, for Aleksei Dressen, a former Estonian policeman convicted of treason for passing state secrets to Moscow.
    (AP, 9/26/15)

2015        Sep 28, Estonia launched its first full-scale Russian-language television channel in an attempt to lure the country's sizable Russian-speaking minority away from Moscow's sphere of influence.
    (AP, 9/28/15)

2015        Oct 7, In Estonia a small, anti-immigrant opposition party called for a referendum to make sure the tiny Baltic country doesn't increase the number of refugees (550) it has agreed to take in.
    (AP, 10/7/15)   

2015        Oct 15, Poland signed a landmark $636 million deal to build the first EU gas pipeline to Lithuania, Latvia and Estonia, reducing their uneasy reliance on Russian supplies. Construction is set to begin next year on the GIPL (Gas Interconnection Poland-Lithuania) pipeline.
    (AFP, 10/15/15)

2015        Nov 7, Estonia's flagship airline announced its bankruptcy after the European Union ruled it would have to pay back 85 million euros plus interest of state aid pumped into the struggling business to keep it flying. Authorities in Tallinn moved to absorb the shock by immediately setting up a new carrier to take over key routes.
    (AFP, 11/8/15)

2015        Nov 19, In Estonia thirty-three countries attended NATO's largest ever cyberdrill, focusing on malware in tablets and how infected devices may compromise data privacy for staff of the world's biggest military alliance.
    (AP, 11/19/15)

2016        Jan 1, In Estonia a law allowing gay partnerships took effect, but same-sex couples are being advised to hold off on getting hitched until a series of legal issues have been worked out.
    (AP, 1/1/16)

2016        Mar 8, It was reported that Estonia, Latvia and Lithuania are tightening ID controls and erecting fences on their eastern borders, worried the Baltic region will become a new entry point for refugees as migrant routes through the Balkans becomes harder.
    (Reuters, 3/8/16)

2016        May 7, Estonian border officials detained seven Iranian migrants who managed to cross the Narva River separating Russia and Estonia in an inflatable boat.
    (AP, 5/10/16)

2016        Jun 13, NATO's secretary-general Jens Stoltenberg announced that the alliance will agree this week to send four multinational battalions to the Baltic states and Poland to boost their defenses against Russia.
    (AP, 6/13/16)

2016        Oct 7, Estonia said a Russian jet violated its airspace, hours after neighboring Finland said two similar planes passed over its territory as it prepared to sign a defense pact with the United States.
    (Reuters, 10/7/16)

2016        Nov 8, Estonian PM Taavi Roivas refused to step down a day after his three-party coalition collapsed and faced a confidence vote in parliament that he is unlikely to survive.
    (AFP, 11/8/16)

2016        Nov 9, Estonian PM Taavi Roivas lost a parliamentary vote of no confidence vote after his junior coalition partners deserted him, possibly opening up the path for a traditionally pro-Russian party to gain power.
    (Reuters, 11/9/16)

2016        Nov 20, Estonia's Pres. Kersti Kaljulaid nominated Juri Ratas, the new leader of a center-left, traditionally pro-Russian party, as prime minister who promised to leave foreign policy unchanged in a region worried about possible Russian aggression. Ratas (38) headed a 3-way coalition consisting of his own Center Party, the left-leaning Social Democrats and the Conservative IRL party.
    (Reuters, 11/20/16)(SFC, 11/24/16, p.A2)

2016        Nov 23, Estonia said Captain Sten Sepper, the commander of its Navy, has resigned. Customs officials found smuggled alcohol and cigarettes aboard the Estonian minehunter Sakala taking part in NATO operations on the Baltic Sea earlier this month. Sakala Lt. Cmdr. Ott Laanemets also announced his resignation.
    (AP, 11/23/16)

2016        Dec 14, The defense ministers of Latvia, Lithuania and Estonia renewed their call for a strong US engagement in the Baltic region amid concerns over the attitude of the incoming Trump administration.
    (Reuters, 12/14/16)
2016        Dec 14, US and Polish defense officials said the United States has decided to accelerate the deployment of troops to Poland, the Baltic states and Romania as part of raising the security of the region.
    (AP, 12/14/16)

2016        Dec 27, In Estonia US Sen. John McCain pledged US support to the security of Russia's three Baltic neighbors amid worries that the US may not be fully committed to the defense of NATO allies following statements by President-elect Donald Trump.
    (AP, 12/27/16)

2017        Jan 24, An Estonian defense official said his country is experimenting with the idea of cyberconscription, a move that gives draftees with tech skills the chance to work shoring up their military's electronic infrastructure.
    (AP, 1/24/17)

2017        Feb 8, The head of Estonia's foreign intelligence service said that Russia was "the greatest source of a threat" to Estonia in cyberspace because Estonia is a member of both the EU and NATO. He also said Estonia has teamed up with the US Secret Service ahead of its first EU presidency to train local officials to handle cyber threats.
    (AP, 2/8/17)

2017        May 26, The Estonian foreign ministry said it had expelled two Russian diplomats. A Russian foreign ministry official said the expulsion will not go unanswered.
    (Reuters, 5/26/17)

2017        May 31, Russia's Foreign Ministry said it had ordered two Estonian diplomats to leave Russia within five days, a move it said was retaliation for Estonia's expulsion of two Russian diplomats.
    (AP, 5/31/17)   

2017        Jul 1, Estonia assumed the rotating presidency of the EU’s Council of Ministers.
    (http://tinyurl.com/y8sp4l6j)    (Econ 7/8/17, p.48)

2017        Jul 17, Denmark’s Defense Minister Claus Hjort Frederiksen said Danish troops will get training in how to deal with Russian misinformation before being sent to join a NATO military build-up in Estonia in January.
    (Reuters, 7/17/17)

2017        Jul 31,  US Vice President Mike Pence met with the presidents of Estonia, Latvia and Lithuania in the Estonian capital of Tallinn and strongly pledged America's commitment to protecting NATO allies against attacks.
    (AP, 7/31/17)

2017        Aug 2, Spanish police arrested Yyacheslav Gulevich (57) a Russian gang boss who headed up the Kemerovo organization which dealt in drugs, weapons and human trafficking, as well as prostitution in Estonia. Three other group leaders were also detained in the Estonian capital Tallinn.
    (AFP, 8/8/17)

2017        Sep 29, French President Emmanuel Macron said European Union leaders agreed during a summit dinner in Talinn that they should push ahead more quickly with reforms of the bloc. Macron won backing from Angela Merkel for plans to reform the European Union after Brexit.
    (Reuters, 9/29/17)

2017        Oct 15, Estonia's ruling Center Party won local elections in a key litmus test for PM Juri Ratas, who has seen his party split into two rivaling factions since he took up the job less than a year ago.
    (AP, 10/16/17)

2017        Nov 7, Estonian prosecutors said a Russian citizen was detained over the weekend over suspicions of spying and preparing a computer crime on behalf of Russia's domestic security agency.
    (AP, 11/7/17)

2017        Estonian police choked off the supply of fentanyl. Drug users turned to cocktails of other kinds of synthetic drugs, including amphetamines, alpha-PVP, a dangerous stimulant also known as flakka and prescription drugs.
    (AP, 3/26/20)

2018        Jan 12, Japan’s PM Shinzo Abe arrive in Estonia kicking off a five-day European tour that will also take him to Latvia, Lithuania, Bulgaria, Serbia and Romania — becoming the first-ever head of the Asian nation to visit these countries.
    (AP, 1/12/18)   

2018        Jan 13, Latvia’s PM Maris Kucinskis met with Japan’s PM Shinzo Abe. It was reported that Japan has entered into a pact with Estonia, Latvia and Lithuania to boost economic and political ties.

2018        Feb 7, A feasibility study by Estonia and Finland said the world's longest undersea rail tunnel (103 kms) between the two countries could cost up to 20 billion euros ($24.7 billion) and be opened for traffic by 2040.
    (AP, 2/7/18)

2018        Feb 10, Estonia and Russia exchanged two men convicted of espionage at a border crossing between the two countries. Raivo Susi, an Estonian found guilty of espionage and sentenced to 12 years in prison in Russia, was exchanged for Artern Zintsenko, who had been given five years by Estonia for spying for Russia in May.
    (AP, 2/10/18)

2018        Feb 24, Estonia celebrated 100 years of independence.
    (AP, 2/24/18)

2018        Mar 9, The Vatican said Pope Francis will visit Lithuania, Latvia and Estonia in September in the first papal visit to the Baltic states in 25 years.
    (Reuters, 3/9/18)

2018        Mar 30, Russia ordered new cuts to the number of British envoys in the country, escalating a dispute with the West over the poisoning of an ex-spy in Britain. Scores of foreign ambassadors streamed into the Russian Foreign Ministry in Moscow to receive the notices given to 23 nations: Albania, Australia, Canada, Croatia, the Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, France, Germany, Ireland, Italy, Latvia, Lithuania, Macedonia, Moldova, the Netherlands, Norway, Poland, Romania, Spain, Sweden and Ukraine.
    (AP, 3/30/18)

2018        May 22, Estonian President Kersti Kaljulaid told local broadcaster ERR that she will only visit Moscow after Russia ratifies a border treaty that must be approved by both countries' parliaments. The treaty was originally signed by Russia and Estonia in 2005 but it fell through. It was re-signed in 2014.
    (AP, 5/23/18)

2018        May 25, Estonia's police Financial Intelligence Unit (FIU) said that besides more than $6 billion laundered via Estonian banks in schemes discovered by national financial inspection agencies, a further unreported 7.3 billion euros was channeled via Estonian banks through the sale of Russian stocks and bonds.
    (Reuters, 5/25/18)

2018        Jun 3, A major US-led military exercise with 18,000 soldiers from 19 primarily NATO countries kicked off in the alliance's eastern flank involving Poland and the three Baltic states of Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania.
    (AP, 6/3/18)

2018        Jun 26, Estonia signed a deal to buy South Korean artillery in a 46 million-euro ($54 million) deal. The contract with Seoul-based weapons producer Hanwha Land Systems is for 12 K9 Thunder howitzers, training, maintenance and spare parts.
    (AP, 6/26/18)

2018        Jun 29, James D. Melville, the US ambassador to Estonia, resigned over frustrations with President Donald Trump's comments about the European Union and his treatment of Washington's European allies.
    (AP, 6/30/18)

2018        Aug 24, Israel's Benjamin Netanyahu asked Baltic state leaders for help in convincing the EU to step up pressure on Iran and slammed a Brussels aid package for Teheran at a news conference in Vilnius with his Estonian, Latvian and Lithuanian counterparts.
    (AFP, 8/24/18)

2018        Sep 3, Estonian officials arrested former military officer Deniss Metsavas (b.1980) and his father Pjotr Volin (b.1953) on suspicion of treason and spying for Russia.
    (AP, 9/5/18)

2018        Sep 19, The chief executive of Denmark's largest bank, Thomas Borgen, resigned after an internal report into allegations of massive money laundering via an Estonian subsidiary showed that "the vast majority" of transactions were deemed to be "suspicious."
    (AP, 9/19/18)

2018        Sep 25, Pope Francis arrived in Estonia and wound up a trip to the Baltic states. He said that nations should not measure their strength by their military capability to prevail over others. Estonia has only about 4,500 Catholics, or about 0.4 percent of the population of 1.3 million.
    (Reuters, 9/25/18)

2018        Dec 7, Pete Shelley (63), the lead singer and songwriter with influential British pop punk band the "Buzzcocks", died at his home in Estonia. The band helped create the New Wave genre, fusing punk's energy with a more melodic sound.
    (AP, 12/7/18)

2018        Dec 19, It was reported that ten former employees of the Estonian branch of Danske Bank have been detained in connection with a probe into a major money laundering scandal that allegedly involved money from Russia and former Soviet states.
    (AP, 12/19/18)

2018        The grey wolf was voted Estonia's national animal by nature organizations.
    (AP, 2/24/19)

2019        Feb 6, Estonia extradited to the United States a man suspected of trafficking hundreds of kg of heroin to the New York area and using the profits to fund the Taliban. Haji Abdul Satar Abdul Manaf was detained in Tallinn on Oct. 9.
    (AP, 2/7/19)

2019        Feb 11, A court in Estonia found former Estonian military officer Deniss Metsavas (38) and his father, Pjotr Volin (65), guilty of treason for spying for Russia. Metsavas passed information along for a decade and was sentenced to 15½ years in prison. Volin worked with the GRU for approximately half as long and received a six-year prison term.
    (AP, 2/11/19)

2019        Feb 19, Estonian authorities said that the local branch of Danske Bank must close after the financial group admitted that massive amounts of money from Russia and former Soviet states had been laundered through the subsidiary.
    (AP, 2/19/19)

2019        Mar 3, Estonians voted in a general election with the center-left coalition fighting for survival in a duel with its traditional liberal rivals and a surging far-right party buoyed by a backlash from mostly rural voters in the Baltic eurozone state. Estonia was on track for its first woman prime minister after the opposition liberal Reform party, led by Kaja Kallas (41), won a general election with 28.8 percent of the vote.   
    (AFP, 3/3/19)(AFP, 3/4/19)(SFC, 3/5/19, p.A3)

2019        Mar 6, In Estonia Liberal party leader Kaja Kallas, on track to become the country's first female prime minister, announced talks for a grand coalition with the center-left party of outgoing PM Juri Ratas.
    (AFP, 3/6/19)

2019        Apr 4, Henn Polluaas of the Estonian Conservative People's Party (EKRE), known for its anti-immigration and euroskeptic stance, was elected speaker of parliament in the 101-seat Riigikogu assembly.
    (AP, 4/4/19)

2019        Apr 6, Estonian PM Juri Ratas unveiled a detailed plan for a three-party coalition, including the far-right EKRE-party, which could see him hold power despite his party having come second in an inconclusive election.
    (Reuters, 4/6/19)

2019        Apr 12, Estonia's intelligence agency said a Russian state-controlled television station has been portraying members of the Jehovah's Witnesses in Estonia in "a hostile and ridiculing" way.
    (AP, 4/12/19)

2019        Apr 15, Estonia's parliament rejected the leader of the center-right Reform Party, Kaja Kallas, as prime minister and President Kersti Kaljulaid was expected instead to tap Center Party head Juri Ratas to lead the Baltic country.
    (Reuters, 4/15/19)

2019        Apr 17, Estonia's Center party leader Juri Ratas secured parliament's support to continue as prime minister and form a new government that will bring a far-right party into the cabinet for the first time.
    (Reuters, 4/17/19)

2019        Apr 18, Estonia's Pres. Kersti Kaljulaid met with Russian counterpart Vladimir Putin in Moscow for talks on trade and global relations, during the first such Russian visit in eight years.
    (AFP, 4/18/19)

2019        Aug 23, Thousands of chanting Hong Kong protesters joined peaceful "Baltic Chain" links of hands, with almost three months of anti-government demonstrations showing no sign of let-up across the Chinese-ruled territory. In 1989, an estimated two million people joined arms across the three Baltic states of Lithuania, Latvia and Estonia in a protest against Soviet rule that became known as the "Baltic Way" or "Baltic Chain".
    (Reuters, 8/23/19)

2019        Sep 25, Police in Estonia discovered the body of Aivar Rehe, who ran the Danish bank's Estonian business between 2007 and 2015 and had been among those questioned as a witness in a probe by Estonian prosecutors. Rehe had not been seen since he left his home in Tallinn on Sept. 23.
    (AP, 9/25/19)

2019        Oct 29, Estonia's state prosecutor's office said police and prosecutor have launched a separate criminal investigation of Swedbank over alleged money laundering in 2011-2017.
    (Reuters, 10/29/19)

2020        Feb 7, President Vladimir Putin ordered payments to be made to Russian World War II veterans in Russia and the Baltic States as well as to those who were held in Nazi concentration camps. The one-time payments of 50,000 rubles to 75,000 rubles ($790-$1,200) will also go to the widows or widowers of veterans in Russia as well as Russian citizens in Lithuania, Latvia and Estonia.
    (AP, 2/7/20)

2020        Mar 27, In the Baltic states Estonia reported 575 coronavirus infections and one death, Latvia reported 280 cases, Lithuania reported 344 cases and four deaths.
    (Baltic News Network, 3/27/20)

2020        Apr 2, The US Embassy in Talinn, Estonia, said the US has delivered 128 anti-tank javelin missiles as part of a larger contract with the NATO member.
    (SFC, 4/3/20, p.A2)

2020        May 6, Estonia, Latvia and Lithuania said they will open their borders to each others' citizens from May 15, creating a Baltic "travel bubble" within the European Union.
    (Reuters, 5/6/20)

Go to http://www.timelinesdb.com
Subject = Estonia
End of file

privacy policy