Timeline Eritrea

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  Eritrea is located north of Ethiopia, the capital is Asmara. Tigrinya is the country’s main language.
 (WSJ, 1/2/98, p.8)(SFC, 5/13/98, p.A10)(Econ, 11/8/03, p.46)

1.4 Mil-600,000 BP A human skull from this period found in Eritrea was the only one of this period from Africa and combined features of Homo erectus and Homo sapiens. Like sapiens the skull is widest at a higher point than the skulls of erectus.
    (SFC, 6/4/98, p.A2)

125,000 BP    Scientists in 2000 identified human stone tools of this time from a fossil reef along the Red Sea coast of Eritrea. They identified the area as the “world’s first oyster bar."
    (SFC, 5/5/00, p.A2)

1679-1719    Degesmati Hab'sulus of Tseazega, ruler of Midri-Bahri (Eritrea), controlled the Eritrean Highland.

1698        Abraham or Ibrahim (Abram Petrovich Gannibal) was born about this time in the Eritrean highland, north of the Mareb River in a town called Logon. Abraham's father was a local chief or a "prince". Within a few years Turks invaded the area and abducted Abraham following a battle lost by his father. Abraham spent a year in Constantinople and was sold with a bribe for service to Russia’s Peter the Great.

c1891-1941    Eritrea was occupied by the Italians for almost 50 years.
    (WSJ, 5/26/00, p.A22)

1894        Dec, An uprising in Eritrea was swiftly put down by the Italians. Italian troops under Gen. Oreste Baratieri then marched south from Eritrea and seized the northwestern Agame region of Ethiopia.
    (ON, 2/11, p.7)

1941        The British seized Eritrea from the Italians.
    (WSJ, 5/26/00, p.A22)

1941        Eritrea was the focal point of American participation in the early part of the war. The first American military advisors and contract civilians arrived in Asmara.

1943        Jan 26, A US War Department Disposition Form was issued with “Subject: establishment of a War Department Fixed Radio Station in Africa." It detailed operational objectives for what was to become the 4th Detachment of the Second Signal Service Battalion, Asmara, Eritrea. Over time the US paid Ethiopia more than $360m in military aid as rent for the eavesdropping installation at Kagnew.
    (www.kagnewstation.com/history/chapter4/index.html)(Econ, 1/22/05, p.80)

1945        After WW II Ethiopia annexed Eritrea, a former Italian colony, and ruled it ruthlessly.
    (SFC, 6/11/97, p.C16)

1950        Dec 2, The UN voted 46-10 for Eritrea to be federated with Ethiopia under the prompting of the United States. Union was to be achieved September 15, 1952.

1951        Oct 7, Dr. Eduardo Anze Matienzo of Bolivia, UN commissioner for Eritrea, announced that Eritrea had accepted the UN Federation plan.

1952        Jul 10, The new constitution of Eritrea, adopted and ratified on August 11, provided that Eritrea should have legislative, executive and judicial powers in matters not reserved to the federal government.

1952        Sep 11, Eritrean-Ethiopian federation act was signed and Eritrea became an independent (federated) nation. Washington, worried an emergent Eritrea would come under Soviet influence, had arranged for it to be yoked in a federation to U.S. client Ethiopia.
    (AP, 1/3/05)(http://nazret.com/history/)

1952        Sep 16, The last British troops left Eritrea.

1962        Ethiopia made Eritrea a separate province. Emperor Haile Selassie unilaterally dissolved the Eritrean parliament and annexed the country.
    (WSJ, 5/26/00, p.A22)(www.eia.doe.gov/emeu/cabs/hornafrica.html#eri)

1963        A guerrilla war with Ethiopia began for independence.
    (WSJ, 3/4/97, p.A14)

1988        Mar 17, Ethiopia and Eritrea engaged at the Battle at Afabet. Fighting continued through March 20. It was a watershed battle in the Eritrean War of Independence. This was Mengistu Haile Mariam's first humiliating defeat at the hands of the Eritreans.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Battle_of_Afabet)(SSFC, 4/15/12, p.P3)

1990        Feb, The port of Massawa, Eritrea, was liberated from Ethiopian forces.
    (SFC, 6/11/97, p.C2)(http://tinyurl.com/8byua)

1991        May 24, Eritrean rebels liberated Asmara from Ethiopian rule. Days later Ethiopian rebels from Tigray took Addis Ababa with the help of Eritrean counterparts and ended the 17-year rule of Marxist dictator Mengistu Haile Mariam.
    (SFC, 6/24/99, p.A10)

1991        May 27, Ethiopia ordered its troops to lay down their arms in the face of a rebel advance. An estimated 60,000 Eritreans died in the rebel war with Ethiopia.
    (AP, 5/27/01)(Econ, 2/19/05, p.80)

1991        Pres. Isaias Afeworki took over the leadership of Eritrea and the People’s Front for Democracy and Justice (PFDJ).
    (SFC, 5/13/98, p.A10)

1992        Apr 6, Eritrea published a Nationality Proclamation.

1993        Apr 23-1993 Apr 25, Eritrea voted to secede from Ethiopia.

1993        Apr 27, Eritrea declared itself an independent state.

1993        May 24, Eritrea achieved independence from Ethiopia after a 30-year civil war. Some 65,000 Eritreans lost their lives in the fight for independence. Pres. Meles Zenawi of Ethiopia allowed Eritrea to secede as a reward for the support of its rebel forces in 1991.
    (WSJ, 3/4/97, p.A14)(SFC, 6/11/97, p.C16)(MC, 5/24/02)

1993        May 28, Eritrea became a member of the United Nations.

1993        Eritrea elected a National Assembly in a freely contested election and then chose former liberation movement leader Isaias Afwerki as President.

1993        The Afar Revolutionary Democratic Unity Front was launched in the land of the Afars, over territory that straddled Ethiopia, Eritrea and Djibouti. The Afars numbered some 2 million and their territory had previously been called the French Territory of Afars and Issas.
    (Econ, 3/10/07, p.44)

1995        Dec 17, Eritrean and Yemeni forces clashed over control of the Hanish Islands, located just north of the Bab el-Mandeb. Eritrea used its warships to try to seize a disputed island in the mouth of the Red Sea from Yemen. Yemen sent warplanes to counter the attack.
    (WSJ, 12/18/95, p.A1)(www.eia.doe.gov/emeu/cabs/hornafrica.html#eri)

1995        Eritrea institued a national service program. It turned into an indefinite conscription as the border dispute with Ethiopia festered.
    (AP, 5/27/14)

1996        Aug, Eritrean and Yemeni forces again clashed over control of the Hanish Islands, located just north of the Bab el-Mandeb.

1996        Oct, Eritrean and Yemeni signed an agreement for arbitration over control of the Hanish Islands, located just north of the Bab el-Mandeb. [see Oct 1998]

1996        Jun 6, More than 70 Eritreans, Ethiopians, and Sudanese were killed when their ship caught fire near Dahlak Island off the Red Sea coast trying to slip into Saudi Arabia from Eritrea. 33 survived and were admitted to hospitals in Massawa.
    (SFC, 6/11/96, p.A16)

1996        Dec 30, Five Belgians were killed on an outing near Filfil along with their native driver.
    (SFC, 12/31/96, p.A11)

1997        Mar 4, It was announced that the US was providing as much as $20 million in military supplies to the country.
    (WSJ, 3/4/97, p.A14)

1997        Jun 11, Pres. Isaias Afwerki led the country with a strong anti-corruption policy. Self-reliance was a hallmark of the young nation.
    (SFC, 6/11/97, p.C16)

1997        Aug, Ethiopia and Eritrea, joint operators of the Assab refinery, decided to close it due to high operating and maintenance costs. They then imported refined petroleum products to meet domestic needs.

1997        Aug, Ethiopian officials set up an administration in the contested region known as Bada, that triggered skirmishes with Eritrea.
    (SFC, 6/13/98, p.A14)

1997        Eritrea introduced its own currency, the nakfa, and sought to make it directly exchangeable with the Ethiopian burr in cross-border transaction. The currency was named after the site of a major victory over Ethiopian forces in March, 1988.
    (SFC, 6/10/98, p.A10)(SSFC, 4/15/12, p.P3)

1998        May 6, There was a border skirmish between Ethiopia and Eritrea over the 150-square-mile area called the Badme triangle. This grew into a two-decades-long war with half a million civilians forced from their homes. Later a settlement of the border war was contingent on the borders prior to this date. An international panel in 2005, formed to resolve disputes between Eritrea and Ethiopia, said Eritrea violated int’l. law when it invaded the north of Ethiopia.
    (SFC, 1/30/99, p.A12)(SFC, 3/10/00, p.A12)(AFP, 12/22/05)(Econ., 11/7/20, p.14)

1998        May 12, Eritrea accused Ethiopian militiamen of invading its territory in a border skirmish. Ethiopia later said 20 people were killed and 20 wounded by Eritrean forces.
    (WSJ, 5/15/98, p.A1)(SFC, 5/18/98, p.A12)

1998        May 28, Veterans were mobilized to be sent to Ethiopian border where the 160-square-mile Yigra triangle was under dispute. Eritrea claimed ownership under the still binding Italian colonial borders.
    (SFC, 5/29/98, p.D4)

1998        Jun 3, Eritrean and Ethiopian soldiers clashed in heavy fighting along their disputed border.
    (SFC, 6/4/98, p.A11)

1998        Jun 5-6, Eritrea and Ethiopia sent warplanes on bombing raids against each other. In Mekele, Ethiopia, at least 40 people were killed and over 100 wounded.
    (SFC, 6/6/98, p.A10)(SFC, 6/8/98, p.A12)
1998        Jun 8, Eritrea appealed for direct talks with Ethiopia to end the border war.
    (SFC, 6/9/98, p.A14)

1998        Jun 9, Heavy fighting erupted on the Ethiopian-Eritrean frontier in the latest stage of their undeclared war.
    (SFC, 6/10/98, p.A8)

1998        Jun 11, Fighting was reported 50 miles from Eritrea’s Red Sea port of Assab.
    (SFC, 6/12/98, p.A12)

1998        Jun 14, Ethiopia and Eritrea agreed to halt the use of air strikes in their border war.
    (SFC, 6/15/98, p.A10)

1998        Jul 17, In Eritrea a Ukrainian IL-78 transport plane crashed near Asmara and killed 9 people.
    (SFC, 7/18/98, p.A14)

1998        Sep 22, In Ethiopia the government said that 2,000 Eritreans had been expelled over the past week bringing the total to 6,500. It charged that Eritrea had forced out 17,000 Ethiopians.
    (SFC, 9/23/98, p.A12)

1998        Oct, The Permanent Court of Arbitration ruled that the Hanish Islands are subject to the territorial sovereignty of Yemen.

1998        Eritrea planned a new constitution.
    (SFC, 6/11/97, p.C16)

1998        Six private newspapers began publishing in Eritrea in addition to the government published New Eritrea.
    (SFC, 5/13/98, p.A10)

1998-2000    An estimated 70,000 people were killed in the border war between Eritrea and Ethiopia.
    (Econ, 8/4/07, p.42)

1999        Jan 29, Amnesty Int'l. reported that Ethiopia had forcefully deported 52,000 Eritreans since the eruption of war in 1998.
    (SFC, 1/30/99, p.A12)

1999        Feb 6, Ethiopia and Eritrea resumed their clash after an 8-month lull. Heavy casualties were reported.
    (WSJ, 2/8/99, p.A1)

1999        Feb 9, An Ethiopian plane bombed an Eritrean village and at least 5 civilians were killed. Eritrea reported that a large number of Ethiopian forces were killed near Tsorena, but Ethiopia denied the Eritrean version of the fighting.
    (SFC, 2/10/99, p.C2)

1999        Feb 14, Eritrea shot down an Mi-24 Ethiopian helicopter gunship at Bure and the crew was killed. Eritrea said that 16 civilians had been killed by Ethiopian aircraft since Feb 6.
    (SFC, 2/15/99, p.A9)

1999        Feb 15, Eritrea reported that Ethiopia had begun a new round of shelling southwest of Assab.
    (SFC, 2/15/99, p.C2)

1999        Feb 21, Ethiopian planes struck the airport at Assab but Eritrean officials said the 12 bombs dropped by 2 planes failed to hit their targets.
    (SFC, 2/22/99, p.A14)

1999        Feb 23, Ethiopian troops attacked Eritrea with tanks and aircraft.
    (WSJ, 2/24/99, p.A1)

1999        Feb 24, Eritrea said that it had destroyed 31 Ethiopian tanks, captured 3 others and shot down a Mi-24 helicopter gunship.
    (SFC, 2/27/99, p.A14)

1999        Feb 26, Ethiopia claimed to have shot down a 2nd Eritrean MiG-29.
    (SFC, 2/27/99, p.A14)

1999        Feb 27, Eritrea agreed to accept an African sponsored proposal to end its border dispute with Ethiopia. This followed an Ethiopian breakthrough at Badme.
    (SFEC, 2/28/99, p.A23)

1999        Feb 28, Ethiopia claimed victory over Eritrea and said that it had killed, wounded and captured tens of thousands of Eritrean soldiers.
    (SFC, 3/1/99, p.A12)

1999        Mar 15, Eritrea claimed to have shot down an Ethiopian MiG-23 and to have destroyed 19 tanks. Ethiopia denied the claims.
    (SFC, 3/16/99, p.A9)

1999        Mar 17, Eritrea said it repulsed Ethiopian troops after a 3-day battle. 300 Ethiopian soldiers were reported dead and 57 tanks destroyed. Ethiopia said the results of the battle were staged.
    (SFC, 3/18/99, p.C3)

1999        Mar 28, Ethiopia claimed to have killed tens of thousands of Eritrean soldiers since Feb 23. Eritrea made equally high and unconfirmed claims of enemy casualties.
    (WSJ, 3/29/99, p.A1)

1999        Mar 30, Eritrea appealed to humanitarian organizations to account for some 1,000 missing citizens while Ethiopia continued shelling near Badme.
    (SFC, 4/2/99, p.D3)

1999        Mar, At the Battle of Tsorona Ethiopia sent waves of soldiers over minefields along a 3-mile front to clear a path for better trained soldiers. Thousands died from entrenched Eritrean troops and artillery fire.
    (SFC, 6/24/99, p.A10)

1999        May 24, Ethiopia said Eritrea had launched attacks at the western Badme front over the weekend, but was thwarted by a counterattack that killed 400 Eritrean soldiers.
    (SFC, 5/26/99, p.A12)

1999        May 25, Eritrea said that it had foiled a series of Ethiopian assaults over 4 days at Badme and that 380 Ethiopian soldiers were killed.
    (SFC, 5/26/99, p.A12)

1999        May 27, Ethiopia said it had killed 865 Eritrean troops in a 2 day battle near the Mereb River on the Badme front. Eritrea claimed that 585 Ethiopian troops were killed over 5 days of fighting.
    (SFC, 5/28/99, p.D3)

1999        Jun 11, Eritrea and Ethiopia clashed in a 2nd day of heavy fighting on the western Badme front.
    (SFC, 6/12/99, p.C1)

1999        Jun 14, Eritrea and Ethiopia battled for a 5th day. Eritrea claimed to have killed, wounded or captured over 12,000 soldiers, while Ethiopia claimed the same for 8,200 soldiers. Over half a million soldiers were stationed along the 600-mile border.
    (SFC, 6/15/99, p.C5)(SFC, 6/24/99, p.A10)

1999        Jun 25, Eritrea and Ethiopia began new fighting on their western front.
    (SFC, 6/26/99, p.A16)

1999        Jul 26, Eritrea and Ethiopia agreed to send delegates to Algeria to finalize arrangements to end their 14-month border war.
    (SFC, 7/27/99, p.A10)

1999        Aug 7, Pres. Isaias Afwerki of Eritrea made an unconditional offer for cooperation with the OAU to end its war with Ethiopia during a meeting with Algerian Pres. Bouteflika, the OAU chairman.
    (SFC, 8/9/99, p.A10)

1999        Aug 12, Ethiopia claimed to have almost eliminated 3 rebel groups based in Somalia which it said were supported by Eritrea. Most of the 1,103 killed or captured rebels were of the Oromo Liberation Front.
    (SFC, 8/13/99, p.D2)

1999        Sep 4, Ethiopia claimed that the proposed outline for the implementation of a peace plan contradicted an original agreement regarding the withdrawal of Eritrea's forces. Eritrea the next day took the statement as "tantamount to a declaration of war."
    (SFC, 9/7/99, p.A14)

2000        Mar, A private group of US Peace Corp volunteers worked to settle the 2-year border war based on the "status quo ante" border on May 6, 1998.
    (SFC, 3/10/00, p.A12)

2000        May 12, War erupted between Eritrea and Ethiopia after Ethiopian troops left their trenches and attacked Eritrean defenses. 600,000 troops were dug in along the 600-mile border.
    (SFC, 5/13/00, p.A8)

2000        May 14, Ethiopia claimed a major victory against Eritrea and claimed that 8 divisions had been destroyed over the last 2 days. Eritrea said 25,000 Ethiopian soldiers were killed or wounded.
    (SFC, 5/15/00, p.A14)

2000        May 16, Ethiopian troops penetrated into western Eritrea and attempted to cut off retreating forces.
    (WSJ, 5/17/00, p.A1)

2000        May 17, Ethiopian forces pushed into Eritrean territory and the UN Security council approved an embargo against both countries.
    (SFC, 5/18/00, p.A11)

2000        May 18, Ethiopian troops captured Barentu in Eritrea and some 250-550 thousand refugees were reported displaced by the fighting.
    (SFC, 5/19/00, p.A18)

2000        May 24, Eritrea decided to withdraw from land it seized in 1998 following a 12-day offensive by Ethiopia.
    (SFC, 5/25/00, p.A12)

2000        May 26, Eritrea and Ethiopia agreed to resume peace talks even as Ethiopia continued to push into Eritrean territory.
    (SFC, 5/27/00, p.A12)

2000        May 28, In Eritrea Ethiopian warplanes bombed a nearly completed power plant in Massawa as thousands of refugees fled north.
    (SFC, 5/29/00, p.A12)

2000        May 29, In Eritrea Ethiopian planes launched air raids on a military airstrip near Asmara as their foreign ministers prepared for talks in Algeria.
    (SFC, 5/30/00, p.A1)

2000        May 30, Ethiopia and Eritrea opened peace talks in Algeria.
    (SFC, 5/31/00, p.A10)

2000        May 31, Ethiopia declared victory over Eritrea as peace talks continued in Algeria.
    (SFC, 6/1/00, p.A16)

2000        Jun 5, Eritrea claimed that an Ethiopian attack near Assab was foiled and that 3,755 Ethiopian troops were “killed, wounded, or taken prisoner."
    (SFC, 6/6/00, p.A10)
2000        Jun 5, Ethiopia accused Eritrea of rounding up 7,529 Ethiopian citizens and putting them under armed guard for deportation.
    (SFC, 6/6/00, p.A10)

2000        Jun 9, Eritrea accepted an Organization of African Unity plan to end the conflict with Ethiopia.
    (SFC, 6/10/00, p.A12)

2000        Jun 10, Ethiopian troops stormed Eritrean positions on all 3 fronts of the disputed border in a break of the cease-fire. The Ethiopian government accepted cease-fire terms brokered in Algeria but asked for a “brief delay."
    (SFEC, 6/11/00, p.A31)

2000        Jun 15, Ethiopia accepted a preliminary cease-fire plan and together with Eritrea planned to sign documents in Algeria.
    (SFC, 6/16/00, p.A19)

2000        Jun 18, In Algeria the Foreign Ministers of Ethiopia and Eritrea signed an accord to cease hostilities immediately in a two-year-old border war. The agreement called for an int’l. peacekeeping force in a buffer zone reaching 15 miles into Eritrea.
    (SFC, 6/19/00, p.A8)(SFC, 6/20/00, p.A12)(AP, 6/18/05)

2000        Dec 12, Ethiopia and Eritrea signed a peace pact in Algiers. A 4,200 UN peacekeeping force was set to patrol the border. PM Zenawi and Pres. Afwerki signed the accord, which established a commission to mark the 620-mile border, exchange prisoners, returned displaced people and hear claims for war damages.
    (SFC, 12/4/00, p.E2)(WSJ, 12/5/00, p.A1)(SFC, 12/13/00, p.B3)

2001        Feb 6, Ethiopia and Eritrea agreed to set up a 16-mile wide UN-patrolled security zone effective Feb 12.
    (SFC, 2/7/01, p.A14)

2001        Sep 18, In Eritrea authorities ordered all independent newspapers closed and arrested 6 former generals and Cabinet ministers in an apparent crackdown on dissent.
    (SFC, 9/19/01, p.B4)(SSFC, 4/29/12, p.E9)

2001        Sep, In Eritrea mass arrests took place of hundreds of politicians, journalists and suspected spies.
    (AP, 9/19/11)

2002        Apr 13, The Eritrea Ethiopia Boundary Commission (EEBC), established to determine the new border, released its report. The UN panel ruled in favor of Ethiopia on all territory contested with Eritrea. The ruling stated that Engal is in fact Eritrean. The decision would divide the minority ethnic Irob community, spread across the region, one of the few centers of Ethiopian Catholicism, introduced in the 19th century by Italian saint Justin de Jacobis. Ethiopia's rejection of the UN ruling on the demarcation of the border threw Addis Ababa's relations with Asmara into deadlock, prompting Eritrea to seal its borders.
    (www.eia.doe.gov/emeu/cabs/hornafrica.html#eri)(WSJ, 4/15/02, p.A1)(AFP, 7/20/18)

2002        Sep 7, The U.N. Security Council has decided to keep U.N. peacekeepers in Ethiopia and Eritrea six more months to give the countries time to mark their border.
    (AP, 9/7/02)

2002        Oct 12, It was reported that 164,000 Eritrean refugees had begun returning home from camps in Sudan. Some 60,000 had already returned since 2001.
    (SFC, 10/12/02, p.A10)

2002        Inflation in Eritrea was 24%.

2003        Apr, Sudan accused Eritrea of supporting Sudanese rebels in the eastern part of Sudan.

2003        Sep 14, A Saudi importer of  some 58,000 Australian sheep was reported to be trying to give them away for free. The sheep had  been stranded for five weeks on the ship, the Cormo Express, due to a 6% infection rate for scabby mouth disease. Australia in 2002 had imposed tougher rules on ships exporting livestock to the Persian Gulf after it was revealed that 14,500 sheep had died from heat stress in one month. Some 5,700 sheep aboard the Cormo Express died before Eritrea accepted the animals.
    (AP, 9/14/03)(Econ, 12/2/06, p.88) 

2003        More journalists were jailed in Eritrea than in an other country in Africa.
    (Econ, 11/8/03, p.46)

2003        The population of Eritrea was about 4.4 million at this time.
    (Econ, 11/8/03, p.46)

2004        Aug 27, A group of Eritreans expelled from Libya hijacked a plane which was flying them home and forced it to land in Khartoum where they surrendered.
    (AFP, 8/27/04)

2004        Nov 25, Ethiopia finally accepted a special commission's ruling designed to resolve a border dispute with Eritrea that sparked a devastating war between 1998 and 2000.
    (AFP, 11/25/04)

2004        Michela Wrong authored “I Didn’t Do It For You: How the World Betrayed a Small African Nation."
    (Econ, 1/22/05, p.80)

2005        May 17, Eritrean President Issaias Afeworki met with Sudan Pres. Omar al-Beshir in Tripoli, Libya. Beshir demanded that Eritrea refrain from harboring armed Sudanese opposition and stops offering assistance to that opposition.
    (AP, 5/17/05)

2005        Aug 26, The UN food relief agency said that it's battling to feed 90,000 Eritrean and Ethiopian refugees displaced in eastern Sudan mainly due to a serious funding shortfall.
    (AP, 8/27/05)

2005        Oct 4, The UN Security Council warned Ethiopia and Eritrea against reigniting their border war and urged Eritrea to immediately reverse its ban on all helicopter flights by UN peacekeepers.
    (AP, 10/4/05)

2005        Nov 8, The US State Department issued its 7th annual report to Congress on religious freedom. It cited Burma, China, Eritrea, Iran, North Korea, Saudi Arabia, Sudan and Vietnam as restricting religious freedom.
    (AP, 11/8/05)

2005        Dec 7, The UN rejected an Eritrean order to expel Western members of the peacekeeping mission that monitors its tense border with Ethiopia amid concerns that war between the two countries could re-ignite.
    (AP, 12/07/05)

2005        Dec 14, The UN Security Council agreed to Eritrea's demand to withdraw Americans, Canadians and Europeans from the peacekeeping mission that monitors the tense border with Ethiopia.
    (AP, 12/14/05)

2005        Dec 21, An international panel, formed to resolve disputes between Eritrea and Ethiopia, said Eritrea violated int’l. law when it invaded the north of Ethiopia in May 1998.
    (AFP, 12/22/05)

2005        Michela Wrong authored “I Didn’t Do It For You," a survey of the recent history and present state of Eritrea.
    (WSJ, 6/17/05, p.W6)

2006        Jan 9, The US launched a diplomatic initiative to try to mark the contested border between Ethiopia and Eritrea, a dispute that led to a 2 1/2-year war in an area where both countries are again massing troops.
    (AP, 1/9/06)

2006        Feb 14, The UN said 13 Eritreans employed by the UN peacekeeping mission in Eritrea have been detained by local authorities and another 30 are in hiding for fear of being arrested.
    (AP, 2/14/06)

2006        Mar 10, Legal experts from Ethiopia and Eritrea flew to London for talks with international mediators to discuss demarcating their common border.
    (Reuters, 3/10/06)

2006        May 31, The UN Security Council cut the number of peacekeepers deployed in Eritrea and Ethiopia by at least one-third while extending the UN mission's mandate for another four months.
    (AP, 5/31/06)

2006        Jun 19, The Sudanese government and the Eastern Front under Eritrean mediation signed a ceasefire agreement and pledged to work for a comprehensive settlement of their dispute.
    (AFP, 10/10/06)

2006        Jun 27, Ethiopia claimed to have killed more than 110 rebels allegedly sent by arch-foe Horn of Africa neighbor Eritrea to destabilize the country since the beginning of the month. Eritrea flatly rejected the claim.
    (AP, 6/27/06)

2006        Jun 30, Three Darfur rebel groups, that have refused to sign up to an African Union-mediated peace deal for the troubled western Sudanese region, formed a new alliance to fight Khartoum. Officials from the groups created the National Redemption Front (NRF) after talks in the Eritrean capital and reaffirmed their opposition to the Abuja peace agreement.
    (AFP, 6/30/06)

2006        Jul 26, Somalia's virtually powerless government said a cargo plane landed at the capital's airport and was carrying weapons for Islamic militants who have seized control of much of southern Somalia. A spokesman for the country's official government, based 150 miles northwest of Mogadishu, said the plane was carrying land mines, bombs and long-range guns from Eritrea for a militia loyal to the Supreme Islamic Courts Council.
    (AP, 7/26/06)

2006        Aug 11, In north Kenya authorities said they caught at least 45 sympathizers or members of the Oromo Liberation Front (OLF), a small Ethiopian group operating on the border. Brigadier General Kemal Gelchu, a dissident Ethiopian general who defected this week to neighboring Eritrea, said that he would be joining the OLF to fight for his Oromo people's rights.
    (Reuters, 8/11/06)

2006        Sep 2, A small boat of African migrants from Eritrea was intercepted off the coast of Sicily. They said eight people died during their grueling trip. They had left from Libya 10-12 days earlier.
    (AP, 9/3/06)

2006        Sep 29, The UN Security Council extended the mandate of peacekeepers in Eritrea and Ethiopia by four months, and threatened to overhaul the mission if the two sides don't make progress toward demarcating their border.
    (AP, 9/29/06)

2006        Oct 10, The Sudanese government and eastern rebels signed a power sharing agreement in the Eritrean capital Asmara after months of peace talks. Under Eritrean mediation, Khartoum and the Eastern Front signed a ceasefire agreement on June 19 and pledged to work for a comprehensive settlement of their dispute.
    (AFP, 10/10/06)

2006        Oct 16, The UN accused Eritrea of moving 1,500 troops and 14 tanks into a buffer zone established after a 2 1/2-year border war with Ethiopia in "a major breach" of a cease-fire agreement reached in 2000.
    (AP, 10/16/06)

2006        Oct 27, Eritrea rejected a UN accusation that its recent movement of troops near the border with Ethiopia represented a "major breach" of a cease-fire agreement between the two countries.
    (AP, 10/27/06)

2006        Nov 7, An independent commission said it will demarcate the contested Ethiopian-Eritrean border on maps and leave the rival nations to establish the physical boundary themselves. It said both Ethiopian and Eritrean officials were invited to a November 20 meeting in The Hague to discuss the procedure.
    (Reuters, 11/14/06)

2006        Nov 15, Eritrean President Issaias Afeworki said the simmering border row between arch-foes Eritrea and Ethiopia is a "solved problem."
    (AFP, 11/15/06)

2006        Nov 17, UN aid bodies said torrential rains and floods have hit up to 1.8 million people in the Horn of Africa, driving tens of thousands from their homes and threatening to trigger epidemics. Torrential rains have pounded the Horn of Africa this month, bringing misery to large parts of Kenya, Somalia, Ethiopia, Sudan and Eritrea.
    (AP, 11/17/06)

2006        Nov 20, Eritrea and Ethiopia both rejected plans by a UN-appointed border panel to demarcate their contentious frontier on paper.
    (AFP, 11/21/06)

2006        Dec 12, Eritrea said it aims to become the 1st country in the world to turn its entire coast into an environmentally protected zone to ensure balanced and sustainable development.
    (AFP, 12/12/06)

2006        Eritrea denied the US Embassy staff permission to travel outside the capital of Asmara. Washington imposed similar restrictions on Eritrea’s diplomats in the US.
    (SFC, 8/18/07, p.B2)

2007        Mar 3, Britain sent a crisis team to Ethiopia in an effort to obtain the release of five British embassy workers or their relatives who were kidnapped along with a group of French while on a trip to remote northeastern Ethiopia. An Ethiopian administrator accused Eritrean forces of kidnapping a group of five Europeans and 13 Ethiopians in a remote part of Ethiopia, and taking them to a military camp near the Eritrean border.
    (AP, 3/3/07)(Reuters, 3/3/07)

2007        Mar 13, Five Europeans, kidnapped in Ethiopia and held captive for 13 days, were released in good health in Eritrea. 8 Ethiopians kidnapped with the group were still missing.
    (AP, 3/14/07)(WSJ, 3/14/07, p.A1)

2007        Mar 16, Ethiopia called for international pressure to be applied on Eritrea, which it accuses of holding eight Ethiopians still missing after the release of five European captives.
    (AP, 3/16/07)

2007        Mar 31, In Eritrea a ban on female circumcision went into effect. A health survey by Eritrea's government in 2002 found 62 percent of circumcised women in the Red Sea state had the procedure done before their first birthday. Less than one percent had been performed by trained health professionals.
    (Reuters, 4/5/07)

2007        Apr 21, Eritrean President Issaias Afeworki arrived in Sudan determined to kick-start talks to end the violence in Darfur.
    (AFP, 4/21/07)

2007        Apr 22, Government officials said 8 Ethiopians held hostage for 52 days after they were kidnapped along with five European tourists have been released unharmed. The ex-hostages later told Ethiopian television that they had been mistreated by their captors, who wore Eritrean army uniforms.
    (AP, 4/22/07)(AFP, 4/27/07)

2007        Apr 24, In Ethiopia Ogaden rebels raided a Chinese-run oil field near the Somali border, killing 65 Ethiopians and nine Chinese workers. An Ethiopian rebel group claimed responsibility. The next day Ethiopia blamed Eritrea for the attack. Eritrea issued a swift, angry denial.
    (AP, 4/24/07)(AP, 4/25/07)(WSJ, 4/25/07, p.A1)

2007        Jul 26, UN arms experts reported that Eritrea has secretly supplied "huge quantities of arms" to a Somali insurgent group with alleged ties to al-Qaida in violation of an international arms embargo and despite the deployment of African peacekeepers.
    (AP, 7/26/07)

2007        Nov 9, Egyptian border guards opened fire on Hana Mohamed (24) of Eritrea after she failed to heed their warnings to stop south of the Rafah border crossing. The young woman bled to death after being shot in the legs.
    (AFP, 11/10/07)

2007        Dec 1, A deadline for Ethiopia and Eritrea to agree on the physical demarcation of their border expired amid escalating tension between the two nations, leaving the frontier only delineated on maps.
    (AP, 12/1/07)

2007        Dec 22, Ethiopia claimed it was receiving an influx of around 600 Eritreans fleeing political oppression in their country every month.
    (AP, 12/22/07)

2008        Jan 25, Ethiopia's administration for refugee and returnee affairs said  that more than 450 Eritreans, including 234 soldiers, fled their country into Ethiopia in January alone.
    (AP, 1/25/08)

2008        Jan 30, The UN Security Council renewed the mandate of the struggling UN peace force on the Eritrea-Ethiopia border for six months despite a request from Secretary-General Ban Ki-moon for just one month.
    (Reuters, 1/30/08)

2008        Feb 4, The UN Security Council sent a "firm and unwavering demand" that Eritrea immediately lift fuel restrictions hampering the efforts of peacekeepers monitoring a tense buffer zone between Ethiopia and Eritrea.
    (AP, 2/4/08)

2008        Feb 8, The UN said it is being forced to prepare an imminent pullout from Eritrea and plans to relocate all its peacekeeping troops there across the border in Ethiopia.
    (AP, 2/9/08)

2008        Feb 16, Egyptian border guards shot and killed an Eritrean woman and arrested her two young daughters after they tried to cross illegally into Israel.
    (AP, 2/16/08)

2008        Mar 13, In Ethiopia a bus hit a landmine near the disputed Ethiopian-Eritrean border, killing at least eight people and wounding 27 others.
    (AFP, 3/14/08)

2008        May 6, Djibouti, a key US ally in the Horn of Africa, urged the UN Security Council to take immediate action to prevent a conflict with its northern neighbor Eritrea.
    (AP, 5/6/08)

2008        Jun 10, Fighting between Djibouti and Eritrea killed nine Djiboutians and wounded 60 others. The UN Security Council joined the US on June 12 in condemning the Eritrean military action.
    (AP, 6/12/08)

2008        Jun 13, Amnesty International said Egypt has deported 400 Eritrean asylum seekers back to Asmara and plans to forcibly return 1,200 more who are being held in detention in Egypt, putting them at serious risk of torture.
    (AP, 6/13/08)

2008        Jul 12, Ethiopia said it has arrested eight "Eritrean-trained" rebels suspected of carrying out bombings that rocked the capital Addis Ababa and killed eight people earlier this year.
    (Reuters, 7/13/08)

2008        Jul 22, Sheik Hassan Dahir Aweys took over the Islamist opposition Alliance for the Re-Liberation of Somalia (ARS), which operates in exile in Eritrea.
    (AP, 7/25/08)

2008        Jul 30, The UN Security Council voted to end an 8-year-long peacekeeping mission between Eritrea and Ethiopia despite continuing tensions, a move that the United Nations' chief has warned could lead to a new war.
    (AP, 7/30/08)

2008        Aug 26, A Maltese fishing trawler rescued the migrants. Authorities said the survivors first told the fishermen that 10 people were missing, but later said as many as 70 people from Somalia, Eritrea and Sudan made the sea voyage with them.
    (AP, 8/28/08)

2008        Dec 22, A Sudanese official said at least 18,000 Eritrean and Somali refugees have arrived in Sudan since the start of the year, and the government is struggling to provide them with aid.
    (Reuters, 12/22/08)

2009        Mar 23, Sudan's president traveled to Eritrea, choosing one of Africa's most politically isolated nations for his first trip abroad since an international court sought his arrest on charges of war crimes in Darfur. Adam Khater, the Fellowship for African Relief's Darfur director, was shot to death at his home in the town of Kongo Haraza, near Sudan's border with Chad.
    (AP, 3/23/09)(AP, 3/24/09)

2009        May 22, The African Union called on the UN Security Council to take "immediate measures" to impose sanctions on Eritrea over its support for Islamist insurgents in Somalia.
    (AFP, 5/22/09)

2009        Jun 16, The US added six African countries to a blacklist of countries trafficking in people, and put US trading partner Malaysia back on the list. Chad, Eritrea, Niger, Mauritania, Swaziland, and Zimbabwe were added to the list in the annual report. Removed from the list were Qatar, Oman, Algeria, and Moldova.
    (AFP, 6/16/09)

2009        Aug 18, An international claims commission in The Hague awarded Ethiopia slightly more than Eritrea as it settled mutual claims worth hundreds of millions of dollars for death, injury, rape, looting and destruction during their two-year border conflict. This concluded a complex arbitration that was part of the 2000 peace agreement closing out a border conflict that cost tens of thousands of lives.
    (AP, 8/19/09)

2009        Aug 20, Italian customs found a boat with five Eritrean survivors of what it called a "shocking tragedy. Around 75 African migrants died in the Mediterranean after their stranded boat ran out of food and water.
    (Reuters, 8/21/09)

2009        Sep 5, In Sweden Tesfaldet Tesloy (28), an illegal Eritrean immigrant who has lived in Sweden for six years, appeared on TV to collect a tax-free lottery prize of 1.2 million Swedish crown (101,654 pounds). Sweden's attempts to deport the man have failed due to his country's refusal to take him back, highlighting a common problem for immigration officials.
    (Reuters, 9/5/09)

2009        Oct 10, Ethiopian PM Meles Zenawi accused Eritrea of sowing havoc in the region as Addis Ababa reiterated calls for sanctions over Asmara's alleged support for Somalia's rebels.
    (AP, 10/10/09)

2009        Dec 8, The Committee to Protect Journalists (CPJ), a New York based media rights watchdog, said that Eritrea tops the list of African countries that jail journalists for their work.
    (AP, 12/8/09)

2009        Dec 12, In Kenya 12 players of the Eritrean national football squad failed to show up at the airport to return home. They were later reported to have disappeared in Nairobi with the intention of seeking asylum.
    (AFP, 12/15/09)

2009        Dec 23, The UN Security Council imposed an arms embargo on Eritrea and pledged to slap financial and travel restrictions on its leaders for arming Islamist militants in Somalia.
    (SFC, 12/24/09, p.A2)

2010        May 2, Ethiopia’s information minister said police have arrested 10 suspected Islamic militants they believe were sent by Eritrea to carry out attacks to upset May 23 general elections.
    (AFP, 5/2/10)

2010        Jul 8, Libya said that it has granted some 400 Eritreans permission to stay after human rights group warnings that refugees and asylum seekers among them risked abuse if forcibly repatriated.
    (AFP, 7/8/10)

2010        Aug 13, In Egypt a gunbattle between Eritrean migrants and Bedouin traffickers demanding more money to take them to Israel left at least four people in the Sinai Desert. 2 others were shot dead by Egyptian police barring them from illegally crossing the border. A woman died of her injuries on Aug 15. Police later said as many as 10 migrants were killed and that dozens more could be lost in the desert.
    (AP, 8/14/10)(Reuters, 8/15/10)(AP, 8/15/10)

2010        Eritrea began supplying arms and supplies to Al Shabab militants in Somalia.
    (SSFC, 4/29/12, p.E9)

2011        Apr 5, Ethiopia’s PM Meles Zenawi told lawmakers Ethiopia is ready to help the people of Eritrea topple the regime of Issaias Afeworki, ruling out a military invasion.
    (AFP, 4/5/11)

2011        Apr 20, Hundreds of Eritrean exiles marched in the capital of neighboring Ethiopia to protest their country's autocratic leadership.
    (AP, 4/20/11)

2011        Sep 19, The UN refugee agency said nearly 3,000 Eritreans were flooding into Sudan and Ethiopia every month from Eritrea, a country of some five million people and about the size of England.
    (AFP, 9/19/11)

2011        Oct 25, Human Rights Watch said Sudan has condemned more than 300 Eritreans asylum seekers to "certain detention and abuse" by deporting them back to Eritrea, one of the "most brutal" countries in the world. Last week Sudan handed more than 300 Eritreans to the neighboring country's military without screening them for refugee status.
    (AFP, 10/25/11)

2011        Nov 2, Kenyan military spokesman Maj. Emmanuel Chirchir said that military planes would target and attack weapons flown into the Somali town of Baidoa so they cannot be used. A July UN report said illicit flights with weapons or fighters for Somali militants could be originating from Eritrea, Yemen or the United Arab Emirates. The report also said Eritrea gives about $80,000 a month to al-Shabab-linked individuals in Nairobi.
    (AP, 11/2/11)

2011        Nov 8, Diplomats said Eritrea's president has asked for a personal hearing before the UN Security Council in a bid to head off new sanctions over alleged support for Somalia's Islamist rebels.
    (AFP, 11/8/11)

2011        Dec 5, The UN Security Council toughened sanctions against Eritrea which neighboring governments accuse of plotting terrorist attacks and supporting Somali Islamist rebels.
    (AFP, 12/5/11)

2011        The population of Eritrea was about 5.3 million at this time.
    (Econ, 7/23/11, p.44)

2012        Jan 12, The UN High Commissioner for Refugees, Antonio Guterres, speaking in Sudan said Eritrean refugees are being kidnapped and sometimes killed by human traffickers. He called for global action against the crimes.
    (AFP, 1/12/12)

2012        Jan 16, The Sudanese Media Center said intelligence officers have broken up a ring preparing to smuggle Eritreans to Israel, just days after UN officials voiced concern over the gangs.
    (AFP, 1/16/12)

2012        Jan 17, Gunmen in Ethiopia's arid north attacked a group of European tourists traveling in one of the world's lowest and hottest regions, killing five, wounding two and kidnapping two. The attack was blamed on groups trained and armed by the Eritrean government.
    (AP, 1/18/12)

2012        Feb 14, An Eritrean opposition party official, Mohammed Ali Ibrahim, went missing in eastern Sudan. His party feared he may have been kidnapped by Asmara's security agents.
    (AFP, 2/16/12)

2012        Mar 15, Ethiopian forces entered archrival Eritrea and carried out what a government spokesman described as "a successful attack" against military posts.
    (AP, 3/15/12)

2012        Mar 16, The Eritrean government said that an attack on its military outposts by neighboring Ethiopia was carried out with the help of the US and meant to divert attention from a decade-old border dispute between the two countries.
    (AP, 3/16/12)

2012        Apr 23, Eritrea said President Issaias Afeworki is at the "peak of his health" in a statement aimed to quash rumors the authoritarian leader is sick.
    (AFP, 4/23/12)

2012        May 2, Eritrea has surpassed North Korea as the world's top press censor, with Syria and Iran placing third and fourth in a new list published by the Committee to Protect Journalists.
    (AFP, 5/2/12)

2012        Jul 5, The United States placed sanctions on six alleged backers of Al-Qaeda-linked Shebab rebels in Somalia, naming them as two Eritrean government officials, a Sudanese national and three Kenyans.
    (AFP, 7/5/12)

2012        Jul 7, Egyptian border guards arrested 68 Eritreans and Ethiopians trying to sneak across the border into Israel.
    (AFP, 7/8/12)

2012        Jul 9, Abbes Settou of Eritrea, who drank sea water to survive, was spotted clinging to a jerry can and the remains of the stricken boat off the Tunisian coast by fishermen who alerted the coast guard. 54 migrants trying to reach Italy died of thirst when their inflatable boat ruptured in the Mediterranean.
    (AFP, 7/11/12)

2012        Aug 30, Rights group Reporters Without Borders said 3 journalists jailed since late 2001 have died in prison in Eritrea, the world's worst country for press freedom. Dawit Habtemichael, Mattewos Habteab and Wedi Itay were reported to have died by former prison guards who have since fled the secretive.
    (AFP, 8/30/12)

2012        Sep 6, Israel agreed to allow 3 Eritrean refugees, from a group of over 20 stranded for a week along at newly built fence along the border with Egypt, to enter the country for humanitarian reasons. The others were to be taken to Cairo by Egyptian authorities.
    (SFC, 9/7/12, p.A2)

2013        Jan 15, Human Rights Watch said in a report that workers in Eritrea were forced to construct the Bisha mine operated by Canadian company Nevsun Resources.
    (AP, 1/15/13)

2013        Jan 21, In Eritrea more than 100 dissident soldiers stormed the Ministry of Information in Asmara and read a statement on state TV saying the country's 1997 constitution would be put into force. Government soldiers surrounded the ministry, an indication the action by the dissident soldiers had failed.
    (AP, 1/21/13)

2013        Apr, Saudi media said an Eritrean military pilot sent by Asmara to reclaim a jet stolen by two fellow officers when sought asylum in the kingdom had herself defected.
    (Reuters, 11/12/13)

2013        May 9, Amnesty Int’l. said Eritrea's government has jailed about 10,000 dissidents without charge or trial over the years and described the Horn of Africa nation as one of the world's most repressive states. Among those behind bars are 187 people detained since January.
    (AP, 5/9/13)

2013        Oct 3, A smuggler's boat, carrying migrants from Eritrea, Ghana and Somalia, capsized off Italy’s southern island of Lampedusa. 160 bodies were soon recovered and 155 people rescued. 366 lives were lost. On Nov 8 police said dozens of the asylum-seekers had been raped and tortured in Libya before starting their journey. Three traffickers were under arrest.
    (AP, 10/3/13)(AP, 10/4/13)(AP, 10/6/13)

2013        Oct 8, Divers in Italy recovered 18 more bodies, bringing the total to 250, from the Oct 3 shipwreck in which only 155 of the estimated 500 African asylum seekers, most if not all from Eritrea, survived.
    (AFP, 10/7/13)(SFC, 10/8/12, p.A2)

2013        Nov 12, Saudi media said 3 Eritrean military officers have asked for political asylum in Saudi Arabia after Saudi air force jets forced their aircraft to land in the southern part of the kingdom.
    (Reuters, 11/12/13)

2014        May 3, In Sudan hundreds of exhausted illegal migrants reached the safety of a northern town, after 10 died when human traffickers abandoned them in the desert. Most appeared to be Ethiopian or Eritrean but there were some Sudanese as well.
    (AP, 5/3/14)

2014        May 5, A yacht and a dinghy crammed with immigrants trying to enter Greece capsized in the eastern Aegean Sea, leaving at least 22 dead, including 4 children, and potentially several more missing. 36 survivors were identified as 23 Somalis, nine Syrians and three Eritreans.
    (AP, 5/514)

2014        May 27, Sheila B. Keetharuth, the UN "special rapporteur" on human rights in Eritrea, reported that torture, sexual violence and extra-judicial killings "continue unabated" in the Horn of Africa country.
    (Reuters, 5/27/14)

2014        Jun 27, The UN Human Rights Council agreed to set up a year-long inquiry into human rights in Eritrea, similar to previous high-level investigations into Syria, North Korea and Sri Lanka.
    (Reuters, 6/27/14)
2014        Jun 27, In Israel Eritrean and Sudanese migrants left the open Holot detention center, saying Israel has not processed their claims for asylum. They camped out by the border after Israel's army prevented them from crossing into Egypt.
    (AP, 6/29/14)

2014        Oct 27, UN chief Ban Ki-moon announced at the start of a visit to Ethiopia that the EU and several regional development banks have pledged $8 billion in development aid for projects across eight countries in the Horn of Africa. Countries targeted are Djibouti, Eritrea, Ethiopia, Kenya, Somalia, South Sudan, Sudan, and Uganda.
    (AFP, 10/27/14)(AP, 10/27/14)

2014        Dec 19, The pilot of the Ethiopian attack helicopter forced his co-pilot and technician to land in Eritrean territory. The helicopter was conducting a routine training flight when it disappeared.
    (AP, 12/23/14)

2015        Apr 21, The New York-based Committee to Protect Journalists issued its annual list of the world's top 10 most censored countries: Eritrea tope the list followed by North Korea, Saudi Arabia, Ethiopia, Azerbaijan, Vietnam, Iran, China, Myanmar and Cuba.
    (AP, 4/21/15)

2015        May 12, Eritrean diplomat Mohammed Idris, from the Red Sea state's mission to the African Union, sought asylum in Ethiopia, citing rights abuses at home.
    (Reuters, 5/13/15)

2015        Jun 8, A UN investigation said Eritrea's government is responsible for systematic and widespread human rights abuses on an almost unprecedented scale, driving some 5,000 Eritreans to flee every month.
    (AFP, 6/8/15)

2015        Jun 24, A UN expert called for a probe into whether the Eritrean government should face justice for alleged crimes against humanity following a damning report on sweeping rights violations.
    (AFP, 6/24/15)

2016        Jun 8, Eritrea's government rejected accusations of human rights abuses after a UN commission of inquiry said Eritrea's "systematic, widespread" human rights abuses should be referred to the International Criminal Court as crimes against humanity that include enslavement of up to 400,000 people.
    (Reuters, 6/8/16)(AP, 6/8/16)

2016        Jun 12, Eritrea's Information Ministry said Ethiopia has unleashed an attack against Eritrea in the Tsorona Central Front.
    (AP, 6/13/16)

2016        Jun 23, Hundreds of Eritrean refugees and dissidents in Ethiopia demonstrated against alleged human rights abuses committed by their government back home, expressing support for a new UN commission report that accuses the government of crimes against humanity, including enslavement, rape and torture, over the past 25 years.
    (AP, 6/23/16)

2016        Jul 4, Italian police arrested 25 Eritreans, 12 Ethiopians and an Italian who they said belonged to an organization that had smuggled thousands of migrants into Europe from Africa.
    (AP, 7/4/16)

2016        Nov 15, A group of 188 Eritreans headed to Germany from Italy as the first tranche of 500 that Germany pledged to take monthly from Italy.
    (SFC, 11/16/16, p.A2)

2017        Jun 14, Qatar said it has pulled all of its 450 troops from the border of Djibouti and Eritrea, east African nations that have a long-running territorial dispute which Doha had helped mediate. Eritrean forces moved in after the troops departed.
    (AP, 6/14/17)

2017        Jun 16, Djibouti said it has lodged a formal complaint with the African Union after accusing soldiers from neighboring Eritrea of occupying a contested mountainous area after Qatari peacekeepers left the region this week.
    (AP, 6/16/17)

2017        Jul 3, Djibouti said it has asked the African Union to deploy observers along its disputed border with Eritrea after Qatar withdrew its peace-keeping troops on June 14.
    (Reuters, 7/3/17)

2017        Jul 8, Eritrean officials claimed "victory" after the UN cultural agency unanimously decided to put the African nation's capital city of Asmara on the UNESCO World Heritage list — the result of years of lobbying by one of the world's most reclusive governments.
    (AP, 7/8/17)

2017        Aug 17, A Swiss federal court ruled that Eritrean asylum-seekers who completed military service in the East African country can legally be sent home if their asylum cases are rejected. The ruling could have sweeping implications for thousands of Eritreans who make up Switzerland's largest pool of asylum-seekers by nationality. In June, a special investigator for the UN said Eritreans continue to suffer arbitrary arrest, enforced disappearances and a national system of military service that amounts to enslavement.
    (AP, 8/31/17)

2017        Oct 31, In Eritrea at least 28 people were killed in two days of rare protests in Asmara. More than 100 people were injured in the protests that began a day earlier and escalated today.
    (AP, 11/1/17)

2017        Dec 22, The US State Department re-designated China, Eritrea, Iran, Myanmar, North Korea, Sudan, Saudi Arabia, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan and Uzbekistan as "countries of particular concern" under the International Religious Freedom Act for having engaged in or tolerated egregious violations of religious freedom.
    (AP, 1/4/18)

2018        Jan 5, Sudan closed the border with Eritrea a week after Sudan's President Omar al-Bashir announced a six-month state of emergency in the regions of Kassala and North Kurdufan. Sudanese police fired teargas to disperse some 400 demonstrators who marched through the city of Sennar to protest against a hike in bread prices.
    (Reuters, 1/6/18)

2018        Jan 17, It was reported that the Dutch government has told the highest representative of Eritrea in the Netherlands to leave the country as the government saw mounting evidence of Eritrea continuing to force tax payments from people who fled the country.
    (AP, 1/17/18)

2018        Feb 20, Israel authorities transferred the first Eritrean detainees, detained at the Holot open detention center, to Saharonim Prison after they refused to leave the country.
    (AFP, 2/22/18)

2018        Jun 5, Ethiopia's new PM Abiy Ahmed, a former army officer who fought against Eritrea, declared the country would abide by a 2000 peace deal and 2002 boundary ruling, handing back the occupied frontier town of Badme.
    (AFP, 6/7/18)

2018        Jun 20, Eritrea's President Isaias Afwerki announced he is sending a rare delegation to neighboring Ethiopia for peace talks, days after Ethiopia's new PM Abiy Ahmed took a major step toward calming deadly tensions with its decades-long rival.
    (AP, 6/20/18)

2018        Jun 26, A delegation of top officials from Eritrea arrived in Ethiopia for the first peace talks in 20 years.
    (AP, 6/26/18)

2018        Jul 8, Eritrean President Isaias Afkweri met with Ethiopian PM Abiy Ahmed for a summit in Asmara for the first time in two decades as direct international telephone connection was restored between the two countries.
    (Reuters, 7/8/18)

2018        Jul 9, Eritrean and Ethiopian leaders formally restored relations, ending 20 years of enmity. Ethiopian PM Abiy Ahmed (42) and Eritrean President Isaias Afwerki (72) also signed agreements in Asmara to open embassies in their respective capitals, restore flight services and use port facilities in Eritrea.
    (AP, 7/9/18)

2018        Jul 14, Eritrean President Isaias Afwerki pledged to resolve his country's dispute with Ethiopia in a historic visit to Addis Ababa aimed at cementing peace less than a week after the nations declared an end to two decades of conflict.
    (AFP, 7/14/18)

2018        Jul 16, Eritrea's President Isaias Afwerki reopened his country's embassy in Ethiopia, the latest in a series of dizzying peace moves after two decades of war between the neighbors.
    (AFP, 7/16/18)

2018        Jul 18, Eritrea and Ethiopia resumed commercial airline flights for the first time in two decades. Two flights left Addis Ababa within minutes of each other and an hour and a half later touched down in the Eritrean capital Asmara.
    (AFP, 7/18/18)

2018        Jul 19, The latest Global Slavery Index showed one in 10 people in North Korea live in slavery, with most forced to work for the state. The index listed Eritrea, Burundi, the Central African Republic, Afghanistan, Mauritania, South Sudan, Pakistan, Cambodia and Iran as the worst offenders after North Korea.
    (AP, 7/19/18)

 2018        Jul 24, The UAE hosted the leaders of Ethiopia and Eritrea, lauding their "bold and historic" rapprochement as enhancing prospects for peace and prosperity.
    (Reuters, 7/24/18)

2018        Jul 28, Somalia's President Mohamed Abdullahi Mohamed arrived in Eritrea for a 3-day visit, amid another diplomatic thaw in the restless Horn of Africa region.
    (AP, 7/28/18)

2018        Jul 30, The presidents of Eritrea and Somalia said they plan to establish diplomatic relations, the latest sign of thawing relations across the Horn of Africa following Eritrea's rapprochement with Ethiopia.
    (Reuters, 7/30/18)

2018        Aug 7, Ethiopia's government signed an agreement to end hostilities with the Oromo Liberation Front, which it had previously declared a terrorist movement. The government signed a reconciliation agreement to end hostilities with the OLF's exiled leader Dawud Ibsa, who lives in exile in Asmara, Eritrea.
    (Reuters, 8/7/18)

2018        Sep 5, Eritrea's state television said reported on plans to improve its transport connections with Ethiopia by upgrading a road that stretches from its port in Assab to a town across the border with its neighbor. The road has not been used for two decades since a two-year war broke out between the two countries in 1998.
    (Reuters, 9/5/18)
2018        Sep 5, Ethiopian, Eritrean and Somalia leaders met in Eritrea's capital Asmara, furthering the diplomatic thaw in the strategic Horn of Africa region.
    (AP, 9/5/18)

2018        Sep 6, Ethiopia reopened its embassy in the Eritrean capital, the latest step in restoring ties after the two nations ended decades of conflict.
    (AFP, 9/6/18)

2018        Sep 7, Eritrea and Djibouti agreed to normalize relations after a decade of diplomatic stalemate.
    (SFC, 9/8/18, p.A2)

2018        Sep 11, The leaders of Ethiopia and Eritrea re-opened crossing points on their shared border for the first time in 20 years, cementing a stunning reconciliation and giving Addis Ababa a direct route to its former foe's Red Sea ports.
    (Reuters, 9/11/18)

2018        Sep 16, Eritrean President Isaias Afwerki and Ethiopian PM Abiy Ahmed signed a "peace agreement "during a summit in Saudi Arabia.
    (AP, 9/16/18)

2018        Oct 12, According to the UN refugee agency UNHCR Ethiopian authorities have registered more than 6,700 new arrivals from Eritrea since the border's opening. Eritrean refugee arrivals to Ethiopia have jumped to about 390 per day from around 53.
    (AFP, 10/12/18)
2018        Oct 12, Italy's PM Giuseppe Conte made a rare visit to Eritrea to support its surprising new peace with neighboring Ethiopia as the international community waits to see what happens next in one of the world's most closed-off nations.
    (AP, 10/12/18)

2018        Nov 9, In Ethiopia Somalia's President Mohamed Abdullahi Mohamed and Eritrean President Isaias Afwerki met with Ethiopian PM Abiy Ahmed to cement regional economic ties as relations warm between the once-rival nations.
    (AFP, 11/9/18)

2018        Nov 11, Thousands of Ethiopians and Eritreans took part in a 10-km reconciliation run in Addis Ababa in the first joint sporting event since the former bitter foes launched a rapid diplomatic thaw in July.
    (AFP, 11/11/18)

2018        Nov 14, The UN Security Council unanimously voted to lift a nearly decade-old arms embargo and targeted sanctions on Eritrea after a rapprochement with Ethiopia and thawing of relations with Djibouti.
    (Reuters, 11/14/18)

2018        Dec 26, Eritrea partially closed two border crossings with Ethiopia that opened this year after the former East African rivals made peace and restored relations. Only Ethiopians faced the restrictions.
    (AP, 12/28/18)

2019        Jan 7, Ethiopian PM Abiy Ahmed and Eritrean President Isaias Afwerki reopened a border crossing between their countries as part of an ongoing reconciliation between the former foes.
    (AFP, 1/7/19)

2019        Mar 4, In South Sudan the leaders of Ethiopia and Eritrea met with President Salva Kiir seeking to breathe new life into a flagging peace agreement signed six months ago between his government and rebels.
    (AFP, 3/4/19)

2019        Sep 10, Media watchdog Committee to Protect Journalists listed Eritrea as the world’s most censored state. North Korea and Turkmenistan came in 2nd and third. The report also cited extreme measures in nine other countries including China and Saudi Arabia.
    (AFP, 9/10/19)

2020        Jan 17, It was reported that the most serious outbreak of locusts in 25 years is spreading across East Africa and posing an unprecedented threat to food security in some of the world’s most vulnerable countries. Authorities said unusual climate conditions are partly to blame. The outbreak has affected parts of Djibouti, Eritrea, Ethiopia, Somalia and Sudan.
    (AP, 1/17/20)

2020        Jan 31, The Trump administration announced that it was restricting immigrants from six additional countries that officials said failed to meet minimum security standards, as part of an election-year push to further clamp down immigration. Immigrants from Kyrgyzstan, Myanmar, Eritrea, Nigeria, Sudan and Tanzania will face new restrictions in obtaining certain visas to come to the United States.
    (AP, 1/3120)

2020        Apr 13, The UN said swarms of locusts in Ethiopia have damaged 200,000 hectares (half a million acres) of cropland and driven around a million people to require emergency food aid. Billions of desert locusts have already chomped their way through much of East Africa, including Ethiopia, Somalia, Kenya, Djibouti, Eritrea, Tanzania, Sudan, South Sudan and Uganda.
    (AFP, 4/13/20)

2020        May 21, The World Bank announced a $500 million program for East African countries affected by historic desert locust swarms. The affected countries included Ethiopia, Somalia, Kenya, Djibouti, Eritrea, Tanzania, Sudan, South Sudan and Uganda.
    (SFC, 5/22/20, p.A6)

2020        Oct 31, Eritrea's government declared that Ethiopia's Tigrayan People's Liberation Front (TPLF) was "on its deathbed".
    (Econ., 11/7/20, p.41)

2020        Nov 10, Ethiopia’s deadly conflict with its northern Tigray region spilled over borders as several thousand people fled into Sudan, while the Tigray regional leader accused Eritrea of attacking at the request of Ethiopia’s federal government. PM Abiy Ahmed said in a series of tweets that he wanted "to assure Ethiopians again" that there would be no dialogue until after rule of law was achieved.
    (AP, 11/10/20)(BBC, 11/11/20)

2020        Nov 14, In Ethiopia gunmen killed at least 34 people on a passenger bus in the western region of Benishangul-Gumuz. Residents of Asmara, the capital of Eritrea's, reported hearing loud explosions, amid reports of rockets landing near the city's airport. No casualties were yet reported. Tigrayan leader Debretsion Gebremichael has suggested that his forces have been fighting 16 divisions of the Eritrean army on several fronts for the past few days.
    (BBC, 11/15/20)

2020        Nov 28, In Ethiopia TPLF leader Debretsion Gebremichael said that Mekelle was under "heavy bombardment", and said that government forces had started an operation to capture it. Ethiopia's army chief of staff said the military has control of Mekele. In Aksum Eritrean soldiers went on a rampage, shooting at unarmed civilian men and boys who were out on the streets.
    (BBC, 11/28/20)(AP, 11/28/20)(BBC, 2/26/21)

2020        Dec 1, UNHCR, the UN's refugee agency, said thousands of Eritrean refugees in Ethiopia's conflict-hit northern region of Tigray have run out of food.
    (BBC, 12/1/20)

2021        Jan 6, A senior Ethiopian military official confirmed the presence of security forces from neighboring Eritrea in the deadly conflict in his country’s northern Tigray region, contradicting the Ethiopian government’s denials.
    (AP, 1/7/21)

2021        Jan 27, The US called for the immediate withdrawal of Eritrean troops in Ethiopia's Tigray region.
    (BBC, 1/27/21)

2021        Jan 30, Tigray-allied media outlet Dimtsi Weyane posted audio comments late today by Debretsion Gebremichael, the fugitive leader of Ethiopia’s embattled Tigray region, urging the international community to investigate alleged “genocide" and other abuses by forces including those from neighboring Eritrea.
    (AP, 1/30/21)

2021        Mar 4, UN humanitarian chief Mark Lowcock warned that “a campaign of destruction" is taking place in Ethiopia’s embattled Tigray province, saying at least 4.5 million people need assistance and demanding that forces from neighboring Eritrea accused of committing atrocities in Tigray leave Ethiopia.
    (AP, 3/4/21)

2021        Mar 22, The European Union imposed sanctions on Eritrea over human rights violations and blacklisted the country's National Security Office which is tasked with intelligence gathering, arrests and interrogations.
    (AP, 3/22/21)

2021        Mar 23, It was reported that Ethiopia's PM Abiy Ahmed has acknowledged for the first time that troops from neighboring Eritrea have been in the Tigray region following the outbreak of conflict in November.
    (BBC, 3/23/21)

2021        Mar 26, Ethiopia's PM Abiy Ahmed announced the withdrawal of Eritrean troops from Tigray region. No date has been set.
    (BBC, 3/26/21)

2021        Apr 2, The G7 group of leading economic powers condemned the killing of civilians, sexual and gender based violence, indiscriminate shelling and the forced displacement of residents of Tigray and Eritrean refugees.
    (BBC, 4/2/21)

2021        Apr 3, The Ethiopian Foreign Ministry said Eritrean forces have started withdrawing from Ethiopia's Tigray region.
    (Reuters, 4/4/21)

2021        Apr 15, Amnesty International said Eritrean soldiers remain in Ethiopia’s embattled Tigray region and are killing civilians weeks after Ethiopia said the soldiers would leave. Deadly fighting continued in several parts of Tigray.
    (AP, 4/15/21)

2021        May 4, Eritrea’s Pres. Isaias Afwerki arrived in Khartoum for talks with Sudanese officials amid tensions over a longtime border dispute between Sudan and Ethiopia. He was received by Gen. Abdel-Fattah Burhan, head of Sudan's ruling sovereign council.
    (AP, 5/4/21)

2021        Jun 7, Eritrea’s foreign minister blamed US administrations that supported the Tigray People’s Liberation Movement for the last 20 years for the current war in northern Ethiopia's Tigray region, saying that blaming Eritrea for the fighting was unfounded.
    (AP, 6/7/21)

2021        Jun 15, Ethiopia’s UN ambassador said that Eritrean troops who have been fighting with his country’s forces in a war against the Tigray region’s fugitive leaders “will definitely leave soon," a move that would be welcomed by many.
    (AP, 6/15/21)

2021        Jun 22, A UN human rights expert said Eritrea now has "effective control" of parts of Ethiopia's Tigray region. Mohamed Abdelsalam Babiker called for troops to withdraw and for a prompt investigation into abuses, including the abduction of refugees.
    (AP, 6/22/21)

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