Timeline Ecuador

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6000BC    Researchers in 2007 reported that evidence for the use of chili peppers date back to this time in Ecuador. Botanists if general agreed that chili peppers originated in Bolivia. Evidence for early use was also found in the Bahamas, Colombia, Panama, Peru and Venezuela.
    (SFC, 2/16/07, p.A7)

c500        The Manteno people inhabited the area of northern Ecuador. It was believed that they ran a vast maritime empire and traded with the Aztecs in Mexico and made voyages of 3,000-4,000 miles. In 1998 a team led by John Haslett (34) attempted to duplicate their maritime voyages with a 20-ton, 60-foot balsa raft.
    (SFC, 1/6/99, p.A8)

1509-1520    The Spanish colonized the area of Nueva Granada (modern Colombia, Ecuador, Panama, Venezuela).
    (http://homepage20.seed.net.tw/[email protected]/flags/wfh/pg-am-4.htm)

1533        Aug 29, Francisco Pizarro captured Cuzco and completed his conquest of Peru. He ordered the imprisonment and murder of Atahualpa, the last ruler of the Inca Empire. Ruminahui (Rumanahui), a general of Atahualpa, led 15,000 soldiers into the mountains north of Quito, after Pizarro killed the Inca emperor Atahualpa. His forces carried an estimated 70,000 man-loads of gold.
    (TL-MB, 1988, p.14)(AP, 8/29/97)(SFEC, 7/5/98, p.A10)(SFEC, 8/9/98, p.A15)

1534        Dec 6, Quito, Ecuador, was founded by Spanish.

1535        Mar 10, Bishop Tomas de Berlanga discovered the Galapagos Islands.

1599        In Ecuador Andres Sanchez Gallque painted the New World’s first signed and dated portrait: “Don Francisco de la Robe and His sons Pedro and Domingo" (The Mulatto Gentlemen of Esmeraldas).
    (WSJ, 9/21/06, p.D6)(http://tinyurl.com/zn644)

1735        A French expedition to South America was led by Charles-Marie de la Condamine. It produced the earliest maps of the northern part of the continent and led to the introduction of platinum and rubber to Europe. In 2004 Robert Whitaker authored “The Mapmaker’s Wife: A True Tale of Love, Murder, and Survival in the Amazon." It was an account of Jean Godin (d.1792), the expedition’s mapmaker, and his wife, Isabel Grameson. The couple married in Quito in 1741.
    (Econ, 5/15/04, p.81)(ON, 5/05, p.1)

1749        Mar, Jean Godin, French geographer, left Quito, part of the Viceroyalty of Peru (later Ecuador), in an attempt to reach France to settle his family estate. He traveled by an eastern route across South America and became stranded in French Guiana for over 20 years. In 2004 Robert Whitaker authored “The Mapmaker’s Wife: A True Tale of Love, Murder, and Survival in the Amazon." It was an account of Jean Godin (d.1792), French mapmaker, and his wife, Isabel Godin. They managed to reunite in 1770.
    (Econ, 5/15/04, p.81)(ON, 5/05, p.4)

1769        Oct 1, Isabel Godin, the wife of French surveyor Jean Godin, departed Riobamba, Ecuador, with an escort of 31 Indians in an effort to reach her husband in French Guiana.
    (ON, 5/05, p.2)

1770        Jul 18, Isabel Godin, having traveled from Ecuador the length of the Amazon, reunited with her husband Jean Godin in French Guiana.
    (ON, 5/05, p.4)

1783-1830    Simon Bolivar, called "the Liberator," was a leader in Venezuela for struggles of  national independence in South America. He formed a Gran Columbia that lasted 8 years but broke apart into Venezuela, Colombia and Ecuador.
    (AHD, p.148)(SFC, 6/14/97, p.E3)

1797        Feb 4, Earthquake in Quito, Ecuador, some killed 40,000 people. Riobamba was destroyed.

1809        Aug 10, Ecuador struck its first blow for independence from Spain.
    (AP, 8/10/97)

1813        Apr, Captain David Porter of the U.S. Navy sailed the USS Essex into the Galapagos Archipelago after a six month journey around Cape Horn, eager to find a way to help his country in their powder-keg relations with Great Britain. Capt. Porter made his first landfall at a place called Post Office Bay, on Charles Island, and raided the barrel there that served as the informal but effective communications link between whaling ships and the outside world. The primitive post box, a barrel system of drop-off and pick-up, had been established some 20 years earlier, but its efficiency had become well-known. Inside of half a year, Capt. Porter and the Essex had captured 12 British whalers and devastated the whale British industry in the Pacific, forcing a reallocation of Royal Navy ships to far from the "home front" in North America.

1820        Nov 25, A truce was signed at Trujillo. Gen. Antonio Jose de Sucre arranged the 6-month armistice on behalf of Bolivar. It was not recognized by the Spanish president of Quito.

1822        May 24, At Battle of Pichincha (Ecuador) General Sucre (1795-1830) won a decisive victory against Spanish forces. Shortly after the battle, Sucre and Bolivar entered the newly-liberated Quito and Sucre was named President of the Province of Quito, which formed Gran Colombia with Venezuela and Colombia.
    (HN, 5/24/98)(AP, 11/24/02)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Antonio_Jos%C3%A9_de_Sucre)

1826-1828    Gen. Antonio Jose de Sucre (1793-1830), Venezuela-born national hero of Ecuador, served as president of Bolivia.

1828        The Republic of Gran Colombia fell apart due to political rivalries between its constituent provinces. Colombia, Ecuador and Venezuela became independent countries.
    (ON, 3/05, p.2)

1830        Jun 4, Gen. Antonio Jose de Sucre (b.1793), Venezuela-born national hero of Ecuador, was shot to death near Pasto, Colombia. Ecuador’s national currency, the sucre, was named after him.
    (SFC, 9/8/00, p.D2)(www.famousamericans.net/antoniojosedesucre/)

1830        Dec 17, Simon Bolivar (b.1783), called "the Liberator," died of TB in Santa Marta, in Colombia. He was a leader in Venezuela for struggles of  national independence in South America. He formed a Gran Colombia that lasted 8 years, but broke apart into Venezuela, Colombia and Ecuador. In 2006 John Lynch authored “Simon Bolivar: A Life."
    (AHD, p.148)(SFC, 6/14/97, p.E3)(AP, 12/17/97)(Econ, 7/1/06, p.77)

1832-1889    Juan Montalvo, Ecuadorian essayist and political writer: "There is nothing harder than the softness of indifference."
    (AP, 7/23/99)

1835        Sep 15, HMS Beagle and Charles Darwin reached the Galapagos Islands, a scattering of 19 small islands and scores of islets.
    (SFC, 12/4/94, p. T-5)(www.gct.org/darwinfact.html)

1835        Sep 17, Charles Darwin landed on Chatham in the Galapagos archipelago.
    (MC, 9/17/01)

1835        Sep 23, HMS Beagle sailed to Charles Island in the Galapagos archipelago.
    (MC, 9/23/01)

1835        Oct 8, HMS Beagle and Charles Darwin reached James Island, Galapagos archipelago.
    (MC, 10/8/01)

1835        Oct 20, HMS Beagle left the Galapagos Archipelago and sailed to Tahiti.
    (MC, 10/20/01)

1906        Jan 31, A magnitude 8.8 quake off the coast of Ecuador and Colombia. It generated a tsunami that killed at least 500 people.
    (AP, 2/27/10)

1906        Nov 9, President Theodore Roosevelt left Washington D.C. for a 17 day trip to Panama and Puerto Rico, becoming the first president to make an official visit outside of the US. His trip popularized the Panama hat, a product actually made in Ecuador and shipped since the 1840s to prospective gold diggers in Panama. The toquilla straw hats had been made in Ecuador as long ago as the 17th century.
    (HN, 11/9/98)(Econ, 7/19/14, p.33)

1911        Dec 22, In Ecuador President Estrada died of a heart attack.

1912        Jan 4, Ecuador’s former President Eloy Alfaro returned to Ecuador and attempted another coup but was defeated, arrested and jailed by General and former President Leonidas Plaza.

1912        Jan 28, In Ecuador a group of pro-Catholic soldiers supported by a mob, broke into the prison where former Press. Alfaro and his colleagues were detained and dragged them along the cobbled streets of the city center. This sparked the Concha Revolution.

1912        Aug 31, In Ecuador Leónidas Plaza was inaugurated for a 2nd term as president. Gen. Plaza had received 98% of the vote in the presidential election. His 1st term was from September 1, 1901 to August 31, 1905.

1912-1916    Ecuador’s Concha Revolution was an outcome of the Jan 28, 1912, assassination of liberal leader Eloy Alfaro, who was responsible for the Liberal Revolution of 1895. The novel “Cuando los guayacanes florecían" (1954) by Estupiñán Bass recounts the events of the Concha Revolution.

1922        May 29, Ecuador became independent.
    (HN, 5/29/98)

1929        Friedrich Ritter and his lover Dore Strauch left their spouses in Germany to live on the uninhabited Floreana island in the Galapagos. Their letters home were leaked to the press and others soon followed. In 2014 the documentary film “The Galapagos Affair: Satan Comes to Eden" was produced.
    (SFC, 4/11/14, p.E7)

1934        Sep 1, Jose Maria Velasco (1893-1979) began serving as president of Ecuador. He served 5 terms, but only one (1952-1956) without being ousted by the army.

1941        Peru and Ecuador went to war over a border conflict.
    (WSJ, 1/20/98, p.A1)

1942        A treaty set the 1,050-mile border between Peru and Ecuador, but a 49-mile stretch in the Cordillera del Condor region was not demarcated.
    (SFC, 10/17/98, p.A14)

1945        Feb 14, Peru, Paraguay, Chile and Ecuador joined the United Nations.
    (AP, 2/14/98)

1947        Feb 12, A record 100.5-kg sailfish was caught by C.W. Stewart off the Galapagos Islands, Ecuador.
    (MC, 2/12/02)

1949        Feb 13, A mob burned a radio station in Ecuador after the broadcast of H.G. Wells’ "War of the Worlds."
    (HN, 2/13/98)

1952        Feb 26, The U.S. signed a military aid pact with Ecuador.
    (HN, 2/26/98)

1952        Aug 18, Chile, Ecuador and Peru signed the Declaration on the Maritime Zone. On Jan 27 the Int’l. Court of Justice ruled on the sea border between Chile and Peru. It confirmed Chile’s hold over inshore waters rich in fish.
    (http://tinyurl.com/nx4o9uz)(Econ, 2/1/14, p.30)

1955        Ecuador ratified the 1954 OAS convention on diplomatic asylum.
    (Economist, 9/15/12, p.16)

1956        In Ecuador members of the Auca tribe killed 5 missionary men of the Plymouth Brethren. The Auca are also known as Tagaeri or Jivaro.
    (WSJ, 1/17/03, p.W13)(SFC, 9/3/04, p.W2)

1957        Rolf Blomberg published "Buried Treasure and the Anacondas," an account of the search for Inca treasure in the Llanganati Mountains, Ecuador.
    (SFEC, 7/5/98, p.A10)

1958        Colombian Dr. Alberto Vejarano Laverde and engineer Jorge Reynolds Pombo developed the first artificial pacemaker with internal electrodes and external electronic unit and implanted it into Gerardo Florez (70), a priest from Ecuador, who then lived another 18 years.
    (Econ, 3/9/13, TQ p.6)(http://tinyurl.com/3rgfcqq)

1959        Ecuador turned 97% of the Galapagos Islands into a national park.
    (SSFC, 12/22/02, p.M6)

1959        Ecuador’s population  was estimated at 4.1 million.
    (WUD, 1994, p. 453)

1960        Carlos Julio Arosemena (d.2004), was elected vice president of Ecuador.
    (AP, 3/5/04)

1961        Carlos Julio Arosemena (d.2004) rose to the presidency of Ecuador following the ouster of President Velasco Ibarra in a military coup.
    (AP, 3/5/04)

1961        Nicole Hughes Maxwell (d.1998 at 92) wrote "Witch Doctor’s Apprentice: Hunting for Medicinal Plants in the Amazon," an account of her experiences in the upper Amazon with native Indians and their medicines. She was a founder of the Ecuadoran Institute of Geography and Ethnology.
    (SFEC, 5/24/98, p.B6)

1963        Carlos Julio Arosemena, president of Ecuador, was deposed in a military coup.
    (AP, 3/5/04)

1964-1992    Texaco dumped some 18 billion gallons of toxic waste into open pits, estuaries and rivers and allegedly polluted some 2.5 million acres of pristine rain forest. Texaco merged with Chevron in 2001 and a suit over the toxic waste went to trial in Ecuador in 2003. In 2014 Paul M. Barrett authored “Law of the Jungle: The $19 Billion Legal Battle Over Oil in the Rain Forest and the Lawyer Who’d Stop at Nothing to Win."
    (SFC, 5/1/03, A8)(SFC, 10/21/03, p.A3)(SSFC, 9/21/14, p.N1)

1972        Feb 15, A left-leaning military coup in Ecuador, led by Guillermo Rodríguez Lara, removed, Pres. Velasco Ibarra from office for the fifth time. Military rule continued to 1979.
    (www.yachana.org/indmovs/chronology.php)(WSJ, 12/6/95, p.A-1)(USAT, 2/11/97, p.5A)

1978        Jul 3, The Amazon Pact was established. Bolivia, Brazil, Colombia, Ecuador, Guyana, Peru, Suriname, and Venezuela signed the Amazon Pact, a Brazilian initiative designed to coordinate the joint development of the Amazon Basin.

1978        UNESCO named Ecuador’s 19 Galapagos Islands a World Heritage Site.
    (SSFC, 12/22/02, p.M6)(Econ, 8/28/10, p.49)

1979        Apr 29, Democracy was restored in Ecuador. Jaime Roldos Aguilera was elected as president in a 2nd round of voting. He was killed in plane crash in 1981.
    (AP, 4/21/05)(Econ, 10/14/06, p.39)(www.binghamton.edu/cdp/era/elections/ecu79pres.html)

1981-1984    Osvaldo Hurtado, Jaime Roldos' vice president, served as president of Ecuador.
    (AP, 4/21/05)

1982        Ten goats were abandoned on Ecuador’s Galapagos Isabella Island and by 2002 increased to over 100,000.
    (SSFC, 12/22/02, p.M6)

1984-1988    Leon Febres Cordero as president of Ecuador.
    (AP, 4/21/05)

1984        Abdala Bucaram was elected mayor of Guayaquil, the Ecuador’s largest city. He left the country shortly thereafter when an arrest warrant was issued for him for insulting the armed forces. He had said that the army was useless and wasted half the nation’s budget on marching in the country’s independence day parade.
    (WSJ, 7/3/96, p.A8)

1987        Mar 13, The president of Ecuador announced his country had suspended payments on its foreign debt after earthquakes killed hundreds of people and ruptured the country's main oil pipeline. The quake destroyed nearly 25 miles of oil pipeline.
    (AP, 3/13/97)(SFC, 5/1/03, A8)

1987        In Ecuador members of the Tagaeri tribe killed Spanish Bishop Alejandro Lavaca and Colombian nun Ines Arango with poison-tipped spears. The 2 had been dropped in by an oil company helicopter to bring the word of god and discuss the arrival of oil workers.
    (SFC, 9/3/04, p.W2)

1988        Febres Cordero's four-year presidential term ended, but as the combative leader of the rightist Social Christians, Ecuador's largest and best organized party, he continued to dominate Congress and the courts for the next 15 years.
    (AP, 10/9/06)

1988-1992    Rodrigo Borja served as president of Ecuador.
    (AP, 4/21/05)

1991-1993    Ecuador’s government overestimated domestic crude oil demand and to boost its share of production from Texaco operated wells. It then sold the oil on int’l. markets depriving Texaco of profits. In 2011 Chevron, which acquired Texaco in 2001, won a $96 million judgement against Ecuador.
    (SFC, 9/1/11, p.D3)    

1991-1995    Argentina shipped weapons to Ecuador and Croatia. The guns were initially shipped to Panama and Bolivia and the Argentine government later blamed arms dealers for their diversion.
    (SFEC, 10/25/98, p.A24)

1992        Aug 10, Sixto Duran Ballen (b.1921), US-born architect, began serving as president of Ecuador. His term lasted to 1996.

1992        Ecuador left OPEC, after nearly two decades of membership, with an outstanding debt of $5.7 million. In 2007 it planned to rejoin OPEC.
    (WSJ, 10/9/07, p.A11)

1992        Texaco quit drilling in Ecuador after nearly 30 years. It left behind a toxic dump of some 1.8 million gallons of spilled crude oil.
    (SFC, 5/1/03, A8)

1994        Luis Noboa died at the age of 78. The Noboas family dominated the banana business in Ecuador.
    (WSJ, 12/6/95, p.A-1)

1995        Ecuador’s population was 11 million people of which about 3 million earned their livelihood from the banana business.
    (WSJ, 12/1/95, p.A-10)

1995        Ecuador engaged in a border war with Peru. Ecuador defended the Tiwintza Hill against a Peruvian assault. Argentine arms were transported to Ecuador by the US Fine Air airline owned by Barry and Lary Fine. The Fine brothers were tried in absentia in Lima in 1997.
    (SFC,10/22/97, p.A10)(SFC, 10/24/98, p.A12)

1996        Mar 29, An earthquake in central Ecuador killed 29 people.
    (SFC, 4/6/96, p.A-13)

1996        May 20, In Ecuador elections were held to replace Pres. Sixto Duran Ballen, Christian Democrat Jaime Nebot led but a runoff was possible.
    (WSJ, 5/20/96, P.A1)(SFC, 2/8/97, p.A11)

1996        Jul 7, In Ecuador lawyer Abdala Bucaram, aka El Loco, was elected president with 54% of the vote. He led the center-left Roldosista party
    (SFC, 7/8/96, p.A8)

1996        Aug, Ecuador’s Pres. Bucaram invited Lorena Bobbit, famous for slashing off her American husband’s penis, to lunch at the national palace.
    (SFC, 2/7/97, p.A1,19)

1996        Oct 12, Ecuador’s Pres. Abdala Bucaram released his debut Rock ‘n’ Roll CD this week: "A Madman in Love."
    (SFC, 10/12/96, p.A10)

1996        Oct 22, In Quito, Ecuador, a Boeing 707 cargo plane crashed after takeoff when it struck the bell tower of the La Dolorosa Church and burst into flames. At least 10 people were killed.
    (SFC, 10/23/96, p.A10)

1996        The Argentine oil firm Compania General de Combustibles (CGC) received a contract to drill for oil in Sarayaca, Ecuador, home to some 2,000 Quichua Indians. Natives fended off oil drilling well into 2004.
    (SFC, 8/13/04, p.W1)

1996        Fishermen in the Galapagos islands slit the throats of 9 giant tortoises on Santa Cruz Island to protest government quotas on sea cucumbers.
    (SSFC, 12/10/00, p.A34)

1997        Feb 5, Hundreds of thousands began a 48-hour general strike against Ecuador’s Pres. Abdala Bucaram to protests economic austerity, nepotism and corruption.
    (SFC, 2/6/97, p.C2)

1997        Feb 6, Ecuador’s Congress voted to remove Pres. Abdala Bucaram from office on the grounds of "mental incapacity." Fabian Alarcon was chosen by Congress to replace him. Bucaram’s vice-president, Rosalia Arteaga, said she was assuming the presidency.
    (SFC, 2/7/97, p.A1,19)

1997        Feb 9, An agreement was reached to have Rosalia Arteaga serve as interim president of Ecuador until the passing of a constitutional amendment to elect a successor.
    (SFC, 2/10/97, p.A8)

1997        Mar 7, Ecuador’s Supreme Court charged Bucaram with corruption, embezzlement, nepotism and influence peddling. When ousted Pres. Abdala Bucaram abandoned the presidential palace in Feb., he walked out with 11 burlap bags allegedly stuffed with $3 million.
    (SFC, 3/10/97, p.A9)

1997        Apr 9, Ecuador’s Supreme Court ordered the arrest of former president Abdala Bucaram and his aide Marco Albuja  on charges of misusing presidential funds.
    (SFC, 4/10/97, p.A16)

1997        Nov 22, It was reported that flooding and mudslides in Ecuador had killed 27 people over the last 3 weeks.
    (SFC,11/22/97, p.C2)

1997-1998    Fabian Alarcon, president of Congress, replaced Bacaram as president of Ecuador.
    (AP, 4/21/05)

1998        Jan 19, Peru and Ecuador signed an accord pledging to settle their longtime 49-mile border conflict by May.
    (WSJ, 1/20/98, p.A1)

1998        May 28, In Ecuador Simon Bolivar Chanalata, a hotel clerk, engaged in a fight with 2 US sailors who were visiting while on a naval exercise. Chanalata died 6 days later and his family filed a $1.5 million suit against the US Navy. The 2 Navy men faced charges of involuntary manslaughter.
    (SFC, 4/16/99, p.D5)

1998        May 31, Alvaro Noboa, scion of the Ecuador’s wealthiest family, made a run for the presidency in the first round of elections. Jamil Mahuad led the elections with 36.7%, but failed to get a majority. Alvaro Noboa had 29.8%. A runoff was scheduled for Jul 12.
    (SFC, 5/28/98, p.A8)

1998        Jul 12, In Ecuador Jamil Mahuad, the mayor of Quito, won the election according to exit polls. His margin was 51.3% to 48.7 and he promised to fight poverty.
    (SFC, 7/13/98, p.A7)(SFC, 7/14/98, p.A9)

1998        Aug 5, In Ecuador 2 earthquakes struck the coast at Bahia de Caraquez and killed 3 people.
    (SFC, 8/6/93, p.A14)

1998        Aug 21, It was reported that a comprehensive treaty between Ecuador and Peru had been drafted and only required political will to end the 57-year-old conflict. The military in Ecuador held 23 large companies in areas such as auto assembly, shrimping, mining, oil and hotels.
    (WSJ, 8/21/98, p.A15)

1998        Aug 29, In Quito, Ecuador, a Cuban plane with 90 people onboard crashed. 80 people were killed including 5 children playing on the ground. At least 8 people survived the crash of the Russian-made Tupelov-154.
    (SFEC, 8/28/98, p.A15)(SFC, 8/31/98, p.A10)(AP, 8/29/08)

1998        Sep 14, Ecuador allowed its currency, the sucre, to drop by almost 10%. Pres. Jamil Mahuad outlined a new emergency economic package. The currency devaluation went to 15% and a new austerity eliminated power subsidies.  Welfare coupons for $17 were to be issued to the poor beginning Nov 1.
    (WSJ, 9/15/98, p.A17)(WSJ, 9/16/98, p.A17)

1998        Sep 15, In the Galapagos Islands the Cerro Azul volcano on Isabela Island began erupting and threatened turtle colonies.
    (SFC, 9/18/98, p.D8)

1998        Sep 23, Demonstrations in Quito, Ecuador, erupted over the devaluation of the sucre. Unions called for a national strike for Oct 1.
    (SFEC, 10/4/98, p.T11)

1998        Oct 16, Lawmakers in Ecuador and Peru agreed to let their border dispute be resolved by the US, Brazil, Chile and Argentina.
    (SFC, 10/17/98, p.A14)

1998        Oct 23, Peru and Ecuador settled their border dispute with a line along the Cordellera de Condor mountain range. Contiguous national parks were to be created in the disputed area. Tiwintza Hill, allocated to Peru, was to be granted as private property to Ecuador.
    (SFC, 10/24/98, p.A12)

1998        Oct 26, Ecuador and Peru signed a peace treaty in Brazil and settled their land dispute. The agreement defined a 49-mile border left undrawn in a 1942 treaty.
    (SFC, 10/27/98, p.B5)(SFEC, 11/14/99, p.A22)

1998        Dec 2, Filanbanco, Ecuador’s largest bank, was turned over to the federal government with net losses of $661 million US dollars. Owners Roberto and William Isaias fled to the US owing $661 million to the state Deposit Guarantee Agency.
    (www.ecuador-investing.com/rafael-correa/filanbanco/)(Econ, 7/12/08, p.48)

1998        Ecuador adopted a constitution that gave indigenous communities the right to settle internal conflicts according to their traditions.
    (SFC, 9/3/04, p.W2)
1998        Ecuador passed the Special Law to enhance protection for the Galapagos Islands.
    (SSFC, 12/22/02, p.M6)
1998        Lenin Moreno (b.1953), elected president of Ecuador in 2017, was mugged this year and from then on has used a wheelchair.
    (Econ, 2/18/17, p.28)
1998        Ecuador’s sucre fell 54.13% this year.
    (SFC, 3/5/99, p.D2)
1998        Texaco completed a $40 million oil cleanup in Ecuador. The Ecuadoran government, PetroEcuador and 5 municipalities released the company from all liabilities and obligations related to its oil operations. A class-action suit against ChevronTexaco opened in 2003.
    (SFC, 10/21/03, p.A3)(Econ, 5/23/09, p.42)

1998-2000    Jamil Mahuad served as president of Ecuador. He driven from office after 16 months.
    (AP, 4/21/05)

1999        Jan 29, Ecuador’s Pres. Jamil Mahuad declared a large area of the Amazon jungle off limits to oil drilling, lumbering, mining and colonization. The decree strengthened legislation controlling the exploitation of the 2.7 million acres of Cuyabeno-Imuya and Yasuni national parks.
    (SFC, 1/30/99, p.A14)

1999        Feb 17, In Ecuador legislator Jaime Hurtado was shot dead along with 2 aides in Quito.
    (WSJ, 2/18/99, p.A1)

1999        Feb, In Ecuador Ana Lucia Armijos (50) took office as the Minister of Finance.
    (WSJ, 5/27/99, p.A1)

1999        Mar 3, In Ecuador the sucre fell 14% and the Banco del Occidente closed due to liquidity problems.
    (WSJ, 3/4/99, p.A9)

1999        Mar 8, Ecuador’s government declared a banking holiday to deal with the plunging currency.
    (WSJ, 3/9/99, p.A17)

1999        Mar 9, Ecuador declared a 60-day state of emergency prompted by the economic crises.
    (WSJ, 3/10/99, p.A14)

1999        Mar 10, Two days of general strikes were scheduled in Ecuador.
    (WSJ, 3/10/99, p.A14)

1999        Mar 11, In Ecuador Pres. Mahuad announced tax increases and other harsh measures to fight the economic crises.
    (SFC, 3/12/99, p.A14)

1999        Mar 15, In Ecuador the banks reopened as taxi drivers protested the doubling of gas prices.
    (SFC, 3/16/99, p.A9)

1999        Mar 16, In Ecuador former Pres. Fabian Alarcon was arrested on charges that he loaded the state payroll with phantom employees while serving as the head of Congress.
    (SFC, 3/17/99, p.C3)

1999        Mar 18, In Ecuador Pres. Mahuad revoked the decree doubling gas prices under protests from taxi drivers.
    (SFC, 3/19/99, p.A14)

1999        Apr 30, Ecuador reached an agreement with the IMF for a $900 million loan package.
    (WSJ, 5/3/99, p.A1,16)

1999        May 13, Ecuador and Peru signed a treaty settling their 50-year border dispute over a 50 mile stretch in the Amazon jungle.
    (WSJ, 5/14/99, p.A1)

1999        Sep 26, In Ecuador Pres. Jamil Mahuad announced that only interest on bonds not guaranteed by the US Treasury would be paid. A $98 million payment interest payment on its Brady bonds was due the next day.
    (SFC, 9/28/99, p.C16)

1999        Sep 30, Ecuador defaulted on a $44.5 million Brady bond interest payment. Debt restructuring plans were underway.
    (WSJ, 10/1/99, p.A13)

1999        Oct 6, One person died as the Pichincha volcano dumped 5,000 tons of ash over the city of Quito, Ecuador.
    (SFC, 10/7/99, p.C2)

1999        Oct 16, In Ecuador some 25,000 people were evacuated from the area of Tungurahua volcano.
    (SFC, 11/6/99, p.A24)

1999        Nov 25, Ecuador’s 15,728-foot-high Guagua Pichincha volcano had a major eruption.
    (SFC, 4/15/00, p.A26)

1999        Nov, Ecuador’s Pres. Mahuad agreed to a 10-year deal with the US for a $62 million upgrade of the Air Force base at Manta as an advance post for combating narco traffic. In 2006 president-elect Rafael Correa said he would not renew the lease.
    (SFC, 12/31/00, p.B2)(Econ, 12/23/06, p.52)

1999-2000    In Ecuador some 750,000 people migrated after bank collapses triggered a slump.
    (Econ, 10/6/07, p.42)

2000        Jan 6, In Ecuador police broke up a march in Quito where people demanded the ouster of Pres. Mahuad following a state of emergency and currency plunge.
    (WSJ, 1/7/00, p.A1)

2000        Jan 10, Ecuador announced that its currency, the sucre, would be replaced with the US dollar. The sucre recently plunged to 29,000 to the dollar.
    (SFC, 1/11/00, p.A12)

2000        Jan 17, In Ecuador police broke up a march by oil workers in Quito as some 30,000 troops were deployed in fears of unrest.
    (WSJ, 1/18/00, p.A1)

2000        Jan 21, In Ecuador the military demanded the resignation of Pres. Jamil Mahuad and declared itself in charge through a 3-man junta that included Gen. Carlos Mendoza, indigenous leader Antonio Vargas and former Supreme Court Chief Carlos Solorzano.
    (SFC, 1/22/00, p.A1)

2000        Jan 22, In Ecuador Vice President Gustavo Noboa took over as president under int'l. pressure against the civilian-military junta.
    (SFEC, 1/23/00, p.A21)

2000        Jan 27, Hundreds of military officers were arrested or detained for their role in toppling Ecuador’s Pres. Mahuad. Gustavo Noboa named a finance chief who would press to make dollars the country's currency.
    (WSJ, 1/28/00, p.A1)

2000        Mar 1, In Ecuador the Congress passed legislation to replace the sucre with US dollars in a bid to end a recession.
    (WSJ, 3/2/00, p.A1)

2000        Mar 9, In Ecuador Pres. Noboa signed a bill that made the US dollar the official currency.
    (SFC, 3/10/00, p.D6)

2000        Apr 1, Ecuador’s transition to the dollar began.
    (SFC, 4/26/00, p.A12)

2000        Jun 13, The dollar was scheduled for use in all banking operations in Ecuador.
    (SFC, 4/26/00, p.A12)

2000        Jul 13, Ecuador’s Supreme Court ordered the arrest of ousted president Jamil Mahuad on charges of illegally freezing bank accounts in Mar, 1999. The court also called for the arrest of former finance minister Ana Lucia Armijos.
    (SFC, 7/15/00, p.A13)

2000        Sep 8, In Ecuador the dollar became the official currency for business transactions. Sucres would still be exchangeable at banks for 6 months. Inflation for the year was projected to be at least 85.4%.
    (SFC, 9/8/00, p.D2)

2000        Sep 13, All Ecuadoran sucre bills were scheduled for withdrawal from circulation.
    (SFC, 4/26/00, p.A12)

2000        Oct 12, In Ecuador suspected Columbian FARC guerrillas kidnapped 5 Americans and 5 other foreign oil workers, hijacked a helicopter, and crossed back to Columbia. It was later suspected that the kidnappers were Ecuadoran criminals rather than Colombian guerrillas. One American was later killed and 2 Frenchmen escaped. 7 were released Mar 1, 2000.
    (SFC, 10/13/00, p.A17)(SFC, 10/20/00, p.D8)(WSJ, 2/2/00, p.A1)(SFC, 3/2/01, p.A16)

2000        Oct 21, Ecuador reported that a melting glacier on El Altar volcano caused a lagoon to burst its banks and a mudslide that killed at least 10 people.
    (SFC, 10/21/00, p.D8)

2000        Nov, Fishermen in the Galapagos islands turned a 4-day strike on lobster quotas and rampaged on the islands of Santa Cruz, San Cristobal and Isabela.
    (SSFC, 12/10/00, p.A27)

2000        Dec 13, In Ecuador an oil pipeline bombing killed 8 bus passengers near the Colombian border.
    (WSJ, 12/14/00, p.A1)

2000        Dec, Ecuador was burdened with $13 billion in foreign debt.
    (SFC, 12/31/00, p.B2)

2000-2002    Gustavo Noboa, Mahuad's vice president, served as president of Ecuador.
    (AP, 4/21/05)

2001        Jan 16, The Ecuadoran tanker Jessica with 243,000 gallons of fuel, ran aground on San Cristobal island in the Galapagos.
    (SFC, 1/20/01, p.A11)

2001        Jan 19, The tanker Jessica, aground on Ecuador’s San Cristobal island, cracked its cargo hold and began leaking fuel. Some 150,000 gallons of diesel and bunker fuel were released. It was later learned that the oil caused the deaths of thousands of marine iguanas.
    (SFC, 1/22/01, p.A10)(SFC, 6/6/02, p.A2)

2001        Feb 1, In Sucumbios, Ecuador, Ronald Clay Sander (54), an oil technician from Missouri, was found shot to death. He had been kidnapped in October and 7 more hostages were still held.
    (SFC, 2/2/01, p.D2)

2001        Feb 5, Soldiers in Ecuador battled Indians opposed to fuel and public transportation increases. The Red Cross said 4 Indians died.
    (WSJ, 2/6/01, p.A1)

2001        Mar 1, In Ecuador 7 foreign oil workers (a Chilean, an Argentine, a New Zealander and four Americans), kidnapped last October, were released following a $13 million ransom.
    (SFC, 3/2/01, p.A16)(AP, 3/1/02)

2001        Jun 12, A mudslide killed 36 stranded motorists in the Ecuador Andes. The deaths raised to 41 the total dead from recent heavy storms.
    (SFC, 6/13/01, p.D4)

2002        Jan 17, An Ecuadoran oil-company plane crashed in Colombia and all 26 aboard were feared dead. The plane was found Jan 24 with no survivors.
    (WSJ, 1/21/02, p.A1)(SFC, 1/25/02, p.A15)

2002        Jan 28, An Ecuadoran TAME Airlines Boeing 727-100 crashed along the Colombia border with 92 people aboard. The wreckage was found on a glacier of the Nevado de Cumbal volcano and there were no survivors.
    (SFC, 1/29/02, p.A8)(SFC, 1/30/02, p.A8)

2002        Jan 31, Ecuador designated a 557 sq-km (215 sq-mi) area in the Amazon rainforest the Cofan Ecological Reserve. Field Museum scientists from Chicago assisted Cofan Indians and Ecuadoran scientists by cataloging the species in the area and declaring it to be the most biologically diverse mountain range in the world.
    (EB, 2002, p.11)

2002        Feb, Millennium Hotels fully-opened its luxurious 17-suite Royal Palm Resort on 400 acres of the Galapagos Islands.
    (SSFC, 1/13/02, p.C12)

2002        May 18, It was reported that the US-funded Plan Colombia had caused widespread crop damage in Ecuador. The coca leaf fumigation affected some 10,000 Ecuadorians along the Colombia border where the RoundupUltra herbicide was spread by Colombian airplanes.
    (SFC, 5/18/02, p.A11)

2002        Jun 24, In Ecuador Finance Minister Carlos Julio Emanuel resigned amid allegations of corruption within the ministry.
    (AP, 6/24/02)

2002        Jul 16, In Ecuador Julia Butterfly Hill was arrested with 7 other demonstrators in Quito for protesting a proposed oil pipeline from the Amazon Basin to the port of Esmeraldas that would run through the Mindo-Nambillo Reserve. Hill was deported July 18.
    (SFC, 7/18/02, p.A12)(SFC, 7/19/02, p.A14)
2002        Jul 16, In Ecuador rains caused a landslide that buried 11 vehicles including a bus with 40 people.
    (SFC, 7/18/02, p.A15)

2002        Jul 26, In Guayaquil, Ecuador, South American presidents gathered for a 2nd region-wide summit in the face of political instability and economic turmoil.
    (AP, 7/26/02)

2002        Oct 20, In Ecuador at least five candidates had a shot at qualifying for a runoff spot in presidential elections. With 53 percent of the votes counted, Lucio Gutierrez (45) a dismissed army colonel, led with 19% of the vote. Banana magnate Alvaro Noboa (51) Ecuador's richest businessman, was close behind with 17.6%.
    (AP, 10/20/02)(AP, 10/21/02)

2002        Oct 31, The US enacted the Andean Trade Promotion and Drug Eradication Act (ATPDEA) as a replacement for the similar Andean Trade Preference Act (ATPA). It granted duty-free access to a wide range of exports from Bolivia, Colombia, Ecuador, and Peru.

2002        Nov 20, In Riobamba, Ecuador, a series of explosions at an ammunition depot left at least 7 people dead and 140 injured.
    (WSJ, 11/21/02, p.A1)(AP, 11/22/02)

2002        Nov 24, In Ecuador Lucio Gutierrez (45), who led a Jan 2000 coup against Pres. Jamil Mahuad, was elected over billionaire Alvaro Noboa (52) in a runoff election. He was driven from office after 27 months
    (SSFC, 11/24/02, p.F1)(AP, 11/25/02)(SFC, 11/25/02, p.A3)

2002        Michael D’Orso authored "Plundering Paradise: The Hand of Man on the Galapagos Islands."
    (SSFC, 12/22/02, p.M6)

2002        About 60% of Ecuador's 12 million people lived in cities. 60% of Ecuadorians were mixed-race, 30% Indian, 3% black and 7% of European or other descent. More than 60% of the population lived in poverty. 95% were Roman Catholic.

2003          Mar 8, The presidents of Peru and Ecuador inaugurated a bridge connecting the two nations. The $1.8-million bridge spans the Canchis River near the Peruvian town of Namballe, 500 miles northeast of Lima.
    (AP, 3/9/03)

2003        May 18, Ecuadorian anti-drug agents seized three tons of cocaine in one of the nation's largest drug seizures ever. In Oct 2001 police seized 3.2 tons in Guayaquil.
    (AP, 5/20/03)

2003        May 26,  In Ecuador 9 renegade Huaorani killed 26 members of the Tagaeri tribe. They justified the massacre as payback for a 1993 murder. Huaorani elders pardoned all attackers. Loggers were suspected as influencing the Huaorani.
    (AP, 5/29/03)(SFC, 9/3/04, p.W1)

2003        Aug 11, The Dominican Republic granted asylum to former Ecuadorian President Gustavo Noboa, who has been under investigation for allegedly mishandling his country's foreign debt negotiations and costing the country $9 billion.
    (AP, 8/12/03)

2003        Aug 21, In Ecuador some 1000 Indians and union workers marched through Quito, protesting the economic policies of President Lucio Gutierrez.
    (AP, 8/21/03)

2003        Sep 8, In Ecuador spokesman Marcelo Cevallos said Pres. Lucio Gutierrez will set a national example and start showing up on time for meetings and appointments in an effort to combat a national lack of punctuality. Cevallos apologized to the audience for showing up late for the interview.
    (AP, 9/9/03)

2003        Oct 21, In Ecuador, a decade after Texaco pulled out of the Amazon jungle, the US petroleum giant went on trial in a lawsuit filed on behalf of 30,000 poor Ecuadorians.
    (AP, 10/21/03)

2003        Oct, In Ecuador Cesar Fernandez, former governor of a coastal province, was arrested for exporting almost half a ton of cocaine to Mexico. Allegation later arose that Fernandez had contributed to the election campaign of Pres. Lucio Gutierrez.
    (Econ, 11/29/03, p.35)

2003        Oct, Transparency International ranked Ecuador as the 2nd most corrupt country in Latin America.
    (Econ, 11/1/03, p.36)

2003        Dec 11, In Ecuador teachers striking for raises and parents demanding better schools clashed with police in protests that sought symbolically to take over the capital's downtown.
    (AP, 12/11/03)

2004        Jan 2, Ecuadorian authorities captured Ricardo Ovidio Palmera Pineda, aka Simon Trinidad, one of the 7 members who make up the ruling secretariat of the Revolutionary Armed Forces of Colombia, or FARC. He was arrested at dawn in a medical clinic in Ecuador.
    (AP, 1/3/04)(Econ, 1/10/04, p.30)

2004        Jan 9, In Ecuador about 20 women inmates stripped off clothing and protested from their Guayaquil Prison roof, claiming they've been held for more than a year without trial and should be freed.
    (AP, 1/9/04)

2004        Feb 2, The US ambassador to Ecuador said the US will withhold $15 million in military aid to Ecuador for not signing an agreement granting US military members immunity from an international court.
    (AP, 2/2/04)

2004        Jan 15, Ecuador's government declared a state of emergency in the prison system after a series of protests.
    (AP, 2/18/04)

2004        Feb 17, In Ecuador riot police firing tear gas clashed with hundreds of Indian protesters, leaving at least 17 people injured in the second day of demonstrations demanding more roads and better education for isolated Andean communities. Separately prison inmates held 360 visitors hostage to protest overcrowding, long sentences and poor conditions including a lack of running water.
    (AP, 2/17/04)

2004        Mar 5, Carlos Julio Arosemena (84), one-time president of Ecuador whose term ended in a 1963 military coup, died. Elected vice president in 1960, Arosemena rose to the presidency following the ouster of President Velasco Ibarra a year later in a military coup.
    (AP, 3/5/04)

2004        Apr 6, In Ecuador in the midst of a national strike by prison guards, inmates in Quito's women's prison took two television news crews hostage to press their demands for shorter sentences and better living conditions.
    (AP, 4/6/04)

2004        May 18, Colombia, Ecuador and Peru opened negotiations in Cartagena for a free trade accord with the United States as anti-riot police clashed with protesters who say the pact would lead to job losses in the South American nations.
    (AP, 5/18/04)

2004        Jun 1, Ecuador's Finance Minister Mauricio Pozo resigned, leaving struggling President Lucio Gutierrez to find a replacement to lead an economic policy approved by international lenders but unpopular at home.
    (AP, 6/1/04)
2004        Jun 1, Ecuador hosted the Miss Universe pageant. Jennifer Hawkins, a 20-year-old, blue-eyed Australian, was named Miss Universe 2004.
    (AP, 6/2/04)

2004        Jun 7, In Ecuador Indians blocked the Pan American Highway. They demanded the resignation of Pres. Gutierrez as he hosted an OAS meeting.
    (WSJ, 6/8/04, p.A1)

2004        Jun 8, In Ecuador foreign ministers from around the Americas declared war on the deeply ingrained corruption in the region at the end of a two-day meeting in Quito.
    (AP, 6/9/04)

2004        Jun 29, In Ecuador 33 prisoners, some armed with assault rifles and knives, battled their way out the front door of Quito's main prison in an escape that left 4 inmates and a guard dead.
    (AP, 6/29/04)

2004        Sep 27, Galapagos park rangers ended a 17-day protest after Ecuador's government fired a new park director the rangers claimed favored commercial fishing over the islands' unique environment.
    (AP, 9/27/04)

2004        Oct 19, UN officials warned that the spread of AIDS in Ecuador's most populated province is reaching levels comparable to Africa and the Caribbean a decade ago and could mushroom into a national epidemic if left unchecked.
    (AP, 10/20/04)

2004        Nov, In Ecuador former government allies failed in an attempt to impeach Pres. Gutierrez. An ad hoc alliance between the populist Roldosista Party and banana magnate Alvaro Noboa sacked most of the Supreme Court.
    (Econ, 4/9/05, p.30)

2004        Dec 8, In Quito, Ecuador, inmates in the largest prison took 180 visitors hostage to protest what they called overcrowding, poor conditions and long sentences.
    (AP, 12/9/04)

2005        Feb 16, In Ecuador tens of thousands of protesters gathered near Quito's presidential palace to demand President Lucio Gutierrez's resignation, accusing him of authoritarian rule and with packing the supreme court with his own judges.
    (AP, 2/17/05)

2005        Feb 21, Ecuador opened the door to a U.N. probe into President Lucio Gutierrez's dismissal of the country's Supreme Court after the UN made a rare public appeal for an investigation.
    (Reuters, 2/21/05)

2005        Mar 23, Police fired tear gas into Ecuador's Congress before dawn to disperse opposition lawmakers who refused to leave after a legislative session that cut short a debate on candidates for attorney general.
    (AP, 3/23/05)

2005        Mar 31, The president of Ecuador's Supreme Court annulled corruption charges against former President Abdala Bucaram, paving the way for his possible return from political asylum in Panama.
    (AP, 4/1/05)

2005        Apr 2, Ecuador's former president Abdala Bucaram returned home after spending eight years in exile in Panama, telling thousands that he plans to lead a "revolution of the poor" modeled after President Hugo Chavez' Venezuela.
    (AP, 4/3/05)

2005        Apr 15, Ecuador’s Pres. Lucio Gutierrez declared a state of emergency in Quito and dissolved the Supreme Court, saying the unpopular judges were the cause of three days of pot-banging street protests.
    (AP, 4/16/05)

2005        Apr 16, Ecuador’s Pres. Lucio Gutierrez revoked the one-day-old state of emergency as thousands of people took to Quito's streets in defiance of the ban on demonstrations.
    (AP, 4/17/05)

2005        Apr 18, In Ecuador anti-government protests spread from Quito as a river of demonstrators poured into the streets of Guayaquil to demand that President Lucio Gutierrez step down.
    (AP, 4/18/05)

2005        Apr 19, Hours after Ecuador's embattled President Lucio Gutierrez said he would not resign, at least 30,000 people tried to march to the presidential palace in the capital's largest demonstration yet against the country's leadership, demanding that Gutierrez resign.
    (AP, 4/20/05)

2005        Apr 20, Ecuador’s 100-member Congress voted 60 to 0 to remove President Lucio Gutierrez from office amid street protests calling for his ouster for abuse of power and misrule. Brazil granted asylum to Gutierrez. Alfredo Palacio, a heart surgeon and Ecuador's vice president, assumed the presidency.
    (SFC, 4/21/05, p.A3)(Econ, 4/23/05, p.37)

2005        May 9, In Ecuador former President Gustavo Noboa was placed under house arrest on charges he mishandled Ecuador's foreign debt negotiations during his three-year term.
    (AP, 5/9/05)

2005        Jun 21, In Ecuador police reported the break up an international cocaine ring led by a Lebanese restaurant owner suspected of raising money for Hezbollah, the Shiite Muslim group the U.S. classifies as a terrorist organization.
    (AP, 6/22/05)

2005        Jun 23, Ecuador’s foreign minister said his country will not sign a pact to grant US military personnel special immunity from the International Criminal Court, even if that means more aid cuts from Washington.
    (AP, 6/23/05)

2005        Jun 24, Ecuador inmates stepped up a protest for improved conditions. Some prisoners were voluntarily hung from crosses and others using their blood to scrawl out demands.
    (AP, 6/25/05)

2005        Aug 12, A small boat overloaded with 113 illegal immigrants capsized and sank in rough waters off Colombia's Pacific coast. An Ecuadoran fishing boat found 9 survivors 2 days later. In Nov. Ecuadoran police arrested a married couple for being part of a gang of 11 human traffickers who charged as much as $12,000 per person for passage to the US.
    (AP, 8/18/05)(AP, 11/15/05)

2005        Aug 18, Ecuador’s president said protests have completely halted national oil production despite imposition of emergency rule in 2 Amazon provinces.
    (WSJ, 8/19/05, p.A1)

2005        Aug 19, Ecuador’s defense minister quit.
    (WSJ, 8/22/05, p.A1)

2005        Aug 21, Protests in Ecuador's northeast Amazon region that brought oil production to a halt were suspended after demonstrators and the government agreed to a truce.
    (AP, 8/21/05)

2005        Aug 24, Government officials from Ecuador and Venezuela singed a preliminary agreement by which Venezuela would lend Ecuador a million barrels of crude oil between September and October. A loan of naphtha and diesel was also part of the deal.
    (WSJ, 8/25/05, p.A7)

2005        Sep 30, South American presidents committed themselves to establishing a continental free trade zone. The South American summit was attended by the presidents of Chile, Bolivia, Peru, Paraguay, Ecuador, Venezuela, Brazil and Argentina.
    (AP, 10/1/05)

2005        Oct 5, Hurricane Stan knocked down trees, ripped roofs off homes and washed out bridges in southeastern Mexico, but it was the storms it helped spawn that were far more destructive, killing more than 65 people in Central America. Officials in El Salvador said 49 people had been killed, mostly due to two days of mudslides sparked by rains. 9 people died in Nicaragua, including six migrants believed to be Ecuadorians killed in a boat accident. Four deaths were reported in Honduras, three in Guatemala and one in Costa Rica.
    (AP, 10/5/05)

2005        Oct 4, Colombia granted political asylum to former Ecuadorian President Lucio Gutierrez, who has said he faces treason charges in his homeland.
    (AP, 10/4/05)

2005        Oct 13, Lucio Gutierrez, ousted Ecuadorian President said he was renouncing his asylum in Colombia and would return to his own country, where he faces arrest, and attempt to regain power.
    (AP, 10/13/05)

2005        Oct 14, Lucio Gutierrez, former Ecuador president who was ousted from office, returned to Ecuador in a bid to regain power, but he was arrested moments after his plane landed.
    (AP, 10/15/05)

2005        Oct 26, In Ecuador Jose Cabrera, a 71-year-old provincial notary, died in a luxury hotel room and left behind a teenage girlfriend, who later said he'd been on cocaine and Viagra, and a crumbling $800 million pyramid scheme that soon blossomed into a nationwide scandal.
    (AP, 12/27/05)

2005        Nov 30, Ecuador swore in a new Supreme Court, seven months after former President Lucio Gutierrez dismissed the entire bench, a move that led to his ouster.
    (AP, 11/30/05)

2006        Jan 12, In Ecuador police used tear gas to disperse about 2,000 demonstrators after they burned an American flag in front of the government palace to protest a free trade pact with the United States.
    (AP, 1/12/06)

2006        Feb 8, A deputy minister said  Ecuador is not likely to extend a deal that allows the United States to use an anti-narcotics air base on its territory due to a surge in sentiment against the American military presence.
    (AP, 2/8/06)

2006        Feb 22, In Ecuador 2 dozen pipeline workers held hostage by protesters escaped as soldiers and police battled to end violent demonstrations that have interrupted the flow of crude through the country's two main pipelines.
    (AP, 2/22/06)

2006        Mar 3, In Ecuador a judge released former President Lucio Gutierrez from prison, ruling he broke no law by accusing his successor of conspiring to oust him from power.
    (AP, 3/3/06)

2006        Mar 8, In Ecuador soldiers fired tear gas to disperse rock-throwing oil workers, hours after President Alfredo Palacio declared a state of emergency in three jungle provinces to quell a strike and regain control of oil installations.
    (AP, 3/8/06)

2006        Mar 15, Alfredo Castillo, Ecuador's interior minister, resigned as protests over a US free trade plan spread from the Andean highlands to the oil-producing southeast jungle, where police clashed with demonstrators. His comments appeared to support the protesters and showed disloyalty to Pres. Palacio.
    (AP, 3/15/06)

2006        Mar 16, Ecuador's Supreme Court released former President Gustavo Noboa from house arrest after reducing charges against him for allegedly mishandling the country's foreign debt negotiations during his three-year term.
    (AP, 3/16/06)

2006        Mar 20, In Ecuador police fired tear gas at dozens of Indian demonstrators trying to reach the government palace in Quito to protest free-trade talks with Washington.
    (AP, 3/20/06)

2006        Mar 21, The Ecuadorian government declared a state of emergency in four provinces to curb nine days of Indian protests against a proposed free-trade deal with the US.
    (AP, 3/21/06)

2006        Mar 24, In southern Ecuador a plane crashed into the side of a tire factory in Cuenca, killing five of the 14 people aboard.
    (AP, 3/24/06)

2006        Apr 12, Ecuador's Environment Minister Ana Alban said some 5,000 Ecuadorians illegally residing in the ecologically fragile Galapagos Islands will face deportation to the mainland.
    (AP, 4/12/06)

2006        Apr 19, Ecuador approved revisions to its Hydrocarbons Law to increase state revenue from private crude-oil producers. The changes became effective on April 25.
    (WSJ, 4/21/06, p.A7)(WSJ, 4/26/06, p.A8)

2006        May 15, Ecuador expelled Occidental Petroleum following a dispute over the sale of oil-drilling rights by Occidental to Canada’s EnCana Corp. without government approval. Occidental filed for international arbitration.
    (WSJ, 5/16/06, p.A12)(Econ, 5/20/06, p.41)

2006        Jun 14, Four Andean nations (Bolivia, Ecuador, Colombia and Peru) agreed to chart new trade plans with the United States without Venezuela.
    (AP, 6/14/06)

2006        Jul 15, Thousands of Ecuadorian villagers fled their homes on the slopes of the Tungurahua volcano since it began erupting lava and toxic gases.
    (AP, 7/16/06)

2006        Aug 17, An overnight volcanic eruption in Ecuador's Andes mountains killed at least one person and left more than 60 others missing. It was the first fatality reported from a Tungurahua eruption since the volcano rumbled back to life in 1999 after staying dormant for eight decades.
    (AP, 8/17/06)

2006        Aug 27, Maria Esther de Capovilla (116), considered the world oldest person, died in her native Ecuador. Elizabeth Bolden (116) of Memphis, Tenn., became the oldest known person alive according to Guinness World Records.
    (AP, 8/28/06)

2006        Sep 24, In Ecuador a speeding bus overturned on a curving mountain road near Quito, killing 47 people and injuring five children.
    (AP, 9/25/06)

2006        Oct 15, Ecuador held presidential elections. The favorite was Rafael Correa (43), a leftist pledging to lead a "citizens' revolution" against a political establishment widely seen as corrupt and incompetent. He faced a strong challenge from Alvaro Noboa, a banana billionaire who also pushed a populist line. The elections headed to a 2nd round after Alvaro Noboa, who favored strong relations with the US, narrowly defeated Rafael Correa in the first round. A Nov 26 runoff had been expected as none of the 13 candidates appeared likely to win outright.
    (AP, 10/14/06)(AP, 10/16/06)(Econ, 10/14/06, p.39)

2006        Oct 17, In Ecuador with 60% of the vote counted, Rafael Correa was all-but tied with Alvaro Noboa, each with about 25%.
    (AP, 10/17/06)

2006        Nov 26, Ecuador held presidential elections. Rafael Correa (43), a US-trained economist who has pledged radical reforms to clean up corruption, faced Alvaro Noboa (56), a billionaire and Ecuador's wealthiest man. Ecuador is an oil-exporting country, but three-quarters of its 13.4 million inhabitants live in poverty.
    (AP, 11/26/06)

2006        Nov 27, In Ecuador partial returns showed Rafael Correa with as many as twice the votes recorded as for his banana tycoon rival, who claimed the polls were rigged.
    (AP, 11/27/06)

2006        Dec 15, Ecuador recalled its ambassador to Colombia, protesting Bogota's decision to resume aerial coca fumigation along the shared border.
    (AP, 12/15/06)

2006        Dec 28, Ecuador’s President-elect Rafael Correa appointed seven women to his Cabinet, including the country’s first female defense minister, saying he wanted to promote gender equality.
    (AP, 12/28/06)

2006        Dec 30, A car bomb exploded in a parking lot at Madrid's glittery new airport terminal, and the government blamed the Basque separatist group ETA. 26 were slightly injured. The bodies of two people from Ecuador were later recovered. This signaled the apparent end of a nine-month ceasefire.
    (AP, 12/31/06)(AP, 1/6/07)

2006        Dec 31, In Ecuador the Andean Trade Promotion and Drug Eradication Act, a package of trade benefits with the US offered in exchange for cooperation in counter-drug activities expired, but was extended for six months.
    (AP, 5/7/07)

2006        In Ecuador Fabricio Correa, the older brother of Pres. Rafael Correa, acted as a fund-raiser for his brother’s election campaign. Following the election Fabricio gained government contracts for road building and oil services worth some $167 million. In 2009 Fabricio the president demanded that the contracts be rescinded. Fabricio in turn alleged corruption by aides of the Pres. Correa.
    (Econ, 10/17/09, p.52)
2006        The population of Ecuador was about 13 million. Its $10 billion economy was saddled with $10 billion in foreign debt.
    (Econ, 10/14/06, p.39)

2007        Jan 5, Leon Febres Cordero, Former President of Ecuador (1984-1988), resigned from Congress and political life, citing unspecified medical problems. His center-right Social Christian Party long dominated Ecuadorian politics.
    (AP, 1/6/07)

2007        Jan 15, In Ecuador nationalist Rafael Correa was sworn in as president. He pledged to fight a political establishment widely discredited as corrupt. He signed a decree calling a referendum for a Constituent Assembly and doubled a monthly welfare payment to $30 for some 1.3 million of the poorest people.
    (AP, 1/15/07)(Econ, 1/20/07, p.48)(Econ, 4/21/07, p.39)

2007        Jan 24, Ecuador's first female defense minister died in a collision of two helicopters that also killed her daughter and five members of the military.
    (AP, 1/25/07)

2007        Jan 30, Supporters of Ecuador’s leftist President Rafael Correa armed with sticks and stones fought their way into the Congress building, demanding lawmakers call a referendum on whether the country's constitution should be rewritten.
    (AP, 1/31/07)

2007        Feb 1, Ecuador’s government named Lorena Escudero (41) to be defense minister, to take over after the first female to hold the office was killed in a helicopter accident.
    (AP, 2/1/07)

2007        Feb 2, Ecuador’s President Rafael Correa dismissed the country's army commander, just over a week after a military helicopter crash killed Ecuador's first female defense minister.
    (AP, 2/2/07)

2007        Feb 13, Ecuador's Congress approved holding a referendum on whether to create an assembly to rewrite the constitution, bowing to demands by the new leftist president who is seeking to weaken traditional political parties.
    (AP, 2/13/07)

2007        Feb 17, Ecuador’s new leftist President Rafael Correa said he will resign if his supporters do not win control of an assembly to rewrite Ecuador's constitution.
    (AP, 2/17/07)

2007        Mar 7, Ecuador’s highest electoral court voted to dismiss 57 congressmen for allegedly interfering with a referendum on whether to rewrite the constitution, in an escalating fight over Ecuador's charter.
    (AP, 3/7/07)

2007        Mar 13, Some 20 lawmakers fired last week by Ecuador's top electoral court for allegedly interfering with plans for a constitutional referendum forced their way past dozens of police guarding Congress and took up their seats.
    (AP, 3/13/07)

2007        Mar 20, Ecuador's constitutional crisis took a new twist as alternate lawmakers were escorted into Congress under the cover of darkness and sworn in to replace some of the legislators fired by the country's highest electoral court.
    (AP, 3/20/07)

2007        Mar 28, Ecuador's highest electoral court fired a judge who tried to return half the country's legislators to their posts as a political crisis over the rewriting of the country's constitution deepened.
    (AP, 3/29/07)

2007        Apr 4, Ecuador's constitutional court upheld a decision by the country's electoral tribunal to fire more than half of the politically unstable nation's legislature.
    (AP, 4/5/07)

2007        Apr 11, Officials said Ecuador’s former President Gustavo Noboa will face charges for allegedly mishandling foreign debt negotiations during his three-year term (2000-2003).
    (AP, 4/12/07)

2007        Apr 15, Ecuadoreans voted on whether to create a special assembly to rewrite their constitution. Exit polls said voters overwhelmingly supported Pres. Correa's plan to remake the nation's system of government and weaken its discredited Congress.
    (AP, 4/15/07)(AP, 4/16/07)

2007        Apr 20, Final results from a nationwide referendum showed an overwhelming majority of Ecuadoreans supported President Rafael Correa's push for a special assembly to rewrite the constitution.
    (AP, 4/21/07)

2007        Apr 23, Ecuador's highest court reinstated 51 lawmakers ousted last month for allegedly interfering with a referendum on the South American nation's need for a new constitution, the 19th over the last 180 years.
    (AP, 4/23/07)(Econ, 9/1/07, p.30)

2007        Apr 24, Ecuador's popular President Rafael Correa tightened his hold over all branches of government, sending police to prevent the return of opposition lawmakers as his tentative majority in Congress dismissed all nine members of the nation's highest court.
    (AP, 4/24/07)

2007        Apr 26, Ecuador’s President Rafael Correa went deep into the Amazon jungle to show his disdain for Chevron Corp., which is on trial here for allegedly failing to clean up billions of gallons of toxic wastewater. He is the nation’s first president to support the estimated 30,000 settlers and Amazon Indians who are suing the US oil giant. Plaintiffs sought $6 billion in damages, alleging that Texaco dumped more than 18 billion gallons of oily wastewater into the verdant rain forest, and failed to properly clean it up. Their evidence includes studies showing elevated cancer rates in the area.
    (AP, 4/28/07)

2007        May 3, Ecuador's new leftist government set up a truth commission to investigate alleged human rights abuses committed over the last 27 years, particularly during the right-wing administration of former President Leon Febres Cordero.
    (AP, 5/4/07)

2007        May 7, Ecuador's foreign minister said President Rafael Correa has decided not to renew a 1993 bilateral investment treaty with the United States, which expires this week.
    (AP, 5/7/07)

2007        Jul 20, Ecuador's Pres. Rafael Correa overturned a ban on the sale of shark fins, which are popular in Asia, but stipulated they can only be sold if the sharks are caught by fishermen accidentally.
    (AP, 7/20/07)

2007        Aug 9, In Ecuador Venezuelan President Hugo Chavez offered to help Ecuador build a $5 billion oil refinery, as the socialist leader pledged to spread his government's oil wealth to another South American ally.
    (AP, 8/10/07)

2007        Aug 23, More than 800 Colombian refugees crossed over the border to Ecuador from the violence-ravaged department of Narino. The UN estimated that about 3 million Colombians have been driven from their homes by violence without leaving the country, making it the largest internal refugee population in the world after Sudan.
    (AP, 8/25/07)

2007        Aug 30, Hundreds of Colombian peasants returned home from Ecuador after the government promised to protect them from leftist rebels trying to sabotage a coca eradication campaign.
    (AP, 8/30/07)

2007        Sep 30, The people of Ecuador voted on electing a constitutional assembly to rewrite the constitution. Supporters of Pres. Correa won some 70 of the 130 assembly seats.
    (WSJ, 10/2/07, p.A8)(Econ, 10/6/07, p.40)

2007        Oct 1, Ecuador’s Pres. Rafael Correa announced a plan to wipe out the party system and tighten government control of the economy after appearing to win a free hand to overhaul the constitution.
    (WSJ, 10/2/07, p.A8)

2007        Nov 26, In Ecuador about 60 miners were trapped after the blast in the village of Ponce Enriquez, 230 miles southwest of Quito.
    (AP, 11/27/07)

2007-2016    Ecuadorean officials received about 33.5 million in bribes during this period from Odebrecht, a Brazilian construction firm according to the US Dept. of Justice.
    (Econ, 2/18/17, p.29)

2008        Feb 6, Ecuador's Tungurahua volcano shot columns of ash miles into the air, as officials ordered the evacuation of 3,000 villagers living near its slopes.
    (AP, 2/6/08)

2008        Feb 28, In Ecuador a landslide caused some 4,000 barrels of oil to spill from its main pipeline contaminating Coca River.

2008        Mar 1, Colombia's defense minister said security forces killed Raul Reyes (59), a leading commander of the FARC rebel group, in combat and air strikes in neighboring Ecuador. Reyes was the nom de guerre of Luis Edgar Devia. 23 other rebels were also killed and a laptop computer was seized with documents indicating a close relationship between the rebels and Venezuela’s Pres. Chavez. Colombia later acknowledged that an Ecuadorean was killed during the raid. It was later reported that a computer memory stick was acquired in the raid that held the names, aliases and identity numbers of 9,387 rebels, including some photos.
    (AP, 3/1/08)(AP, 3/5/08)(Econ, 3/8/08, p.43)(AP, 3/24/08)(AP, 9/25/08)

2008        Mar 2, Venezuela and Ecuador ordered troops to their borders with Colombia, sharply raising tensions after Colombia killed a top rebel leader on Ecuadorean soil. Ecuadorean troops recovered the seminude bodies of 15 rebels in their jungle camp. Soldiers also found three wounded women at the camp, a Mexican philosophy student injured by shrapnel and two Colombians, who were evacuated by helicopter to be treated.
    (AP, 3/3/08)

2008        Mar 3, Ecuador's president said that his government was in "very advanced" talks with Colombian rebels to free 12 hostages, including former presidential candidate Ingrid Betancourt and three US contractors, but was thwarted by Colombia’s military raid. Venezuela and Ecuador expelled Colombia’s diplomats and cracked down on trade across the border.
    (AP, 3/4/08)

2008        Mar 5, The Washington-based OAS declared Colombia’s attack on rebels in Ecuador a violation of Ecuador's sovereignty and called for OAS Secretary-General Jose Miguel Insulza to lead a delegation to both countries to ease tensions. But the resolution stopped short of explicitly condemning the assault. Pres. Chavez said Venezuela will search for other countries like Ecuador, Brazil and Argentina to replace products imported from Colombia.
    (AP, 3/6/08)

2008        Mar 7, At a summit in the Dominican Republic the presidents of Colombia, Venezuela and Ecuador agreed to end a bitter dispute triggered by a Colombian cross-border raid with testy handshakes and an apology.
    (AP, 3/8/08)

2008        Apr 12, In Ecuador 5 young British women were killed in a bus crash while the 15 other people on board were injured.
    (AFP, 4/13/08)

2008        Apr 13, The winners of this year’s Goldman Awards were reported to be: Feliciano dos Santos (43) of Mozambique, the director of Estamos, an environmental group promoting sanitation, sustainable development and reforestation; Marina Rikhvanova (46), founder of Baikal Environmental Wave, which forced the rerouting of an oil pipeline in the Baikal basin; Pablo Fajardo (35) and Luis Yanza (48) of Ecuador, co-founders of the Amazon Defense Front, which accused Texaco (now Chevron) of dumping oil and wastewater into local streams; Rosa Hilda Ramos (63) of Puerto Rico, head of a movement to protect the Las Cicharillas Marsh; Ignace Schops (43) of Belgium, head of a movement to establish Belgium’s 1st and only national park; Jesus Leon (42) of Mexico, co-founder of the Center for Integral Small Farmer Development of the Mixtec (CEDICAM).
    (SSFC, 4/13/08, p.A4)

2008        Apr 18, Ecuador's constitutional assembly approved a decree revoking most of the mining concessions in the country, following up on the leftist government's pledge to take greater control over natural resources.
    (AP, 4/18/08)

2008        Apr 19, In Ecuador flames started by fireworks swept through a nightclub in Quito, killing at least 14 people who were unable to escape through the club's padlocked doors.
    (AP, 4/19/08)

2008        May 14, US federal prosecutors said Willbros Group Inc., a Houston-based oil services company, agreed to pay $32.3 million in criminal and civil penalties to settle charges that it bribed officials in Nigeria and Ecuador to get contracts between 2003-2005.
    (WSJ, 5/15/08, p.B2)

2008        May 23, In Brazil 12 South American leaders gathered in Brasilia to set up the Union of South American Nations. UNASUR was expected to replace the South American Community, declared in 2004, and unite the Mercosur and Andean Community free trade areas. Members included Argentina, Bolivia, Brazil, Chile, Colombia, Ecuador, Guyana, Paraguay, Peru, Suriname, Uruguay and Venezuela.
    (https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/UNASUR_Constitutive_Treaty)(Econ, 5/31/08, p.41)

2008        Jun 6, Colombia's presidential spokesman said Colombia and Ecuador are restoring diplomatic ties at the charge d'affaires level following mediation by former US Pres. Carter.
    (AP, 6/6/08)

2008        Jun 12, Ecuadorean police arrested four men, including at least three Colombians, who were allegedly plotting to kill President Rafael Correa (45). The next day police said 2 of the Colombians purportedly acknowledge having links to Colombia's right-wing paramilitaries and said they were offered US$1.5 million to kill Correa.
    (AP, 6/13/08)

2008        Jul 4, Ecuador's constitutional assembly pardoned hundreds of jailed convicts, low-level drug couriers known as "mules." An estimated 1,200 prisoners may be eligible for pardon.
    (AP, 7/7/08)

2008        Jul 8, Ecuador's government seized 3 television stations and 195 businesses, owned by the Isaias family, to collect debts stemming from the 1998 failure of Filanbanco, owned by Roberto and William Isaias. The economy minister resigned just hours before the takeover.
    (AP, 7/9/08)(Econ, 7/12/08, p.48)

2008        Jul 24, In Ecuador a special assembly approved a new 444-article draft constitution granting its leftist president broad powers, including the ability to dissolve Congress and set monetary policy, and freeing him to run for office through 2017.
    (AP, 7/25/08)(Econ, 8/2/08, p.40)

2008        Jul 29, Ecuador’s Foreign Ministry said the US military must stop using its only outpost in South America for anti-drug flights when Washington's 10-year lease on the base in Ecuador expires in 2009.
    (AP, 7/29/08)

2008        Aug 4, Ecuador's government said it would seize a family business group's stock shares in 58 companies to help recover debts generated by the collapse of the family's former bank. The action came a little less than a month after authorities seized 200 businesses linked to the family of William and Roberto Isaias, who fled to the US in 2000 shortly after their bank collapsed.
    (AP, 8/4/08)

2008        Sep 23, Ecuador expelled a leading Brazilian construction firm sending in troops to seize projects worth $800 million. Pres. Correa was battling with the Odebrecht firm over a dam which the government said was badly built.
    (WSJ, 9/24/08, p.A24)

2008        Sep 28, Ecuadoreans voted on a new constitution that would significantly broaden leftist President Rafael Correa's powers and let him run for two more consecutive terms. Correa's avowed quest for an "equitable, just" Ecuador won a major boost as voters approved a new constitution that will help the leftist president consolidate power and enable him to run for two more consecutive terms. The new constitution conferred on ecosystems “the inalienable right to exist, flourish and evolve." The new constitution also imposed a 12-month deadline for approving new regulatory measures.
    (AP, 9/28/08)(AP, 9/29/08)(Econ, 10/18/08, p.68)(Econ, 10/3/09, p.44)

2008        Oct 12, Pope Benedict XVI gave the Roman Catholic church four new saints, including an Indian woman whose canonization is seen as a morale boost to Christians in India who have suffered Hindu violence. They included Sister Alphonsa (1910-1946) of the Immaculate Conception, a nun from southern India and India’s first woman saint; Gaetano Errico (1791-1860), a Neapolitan priest who founded a missionary order in the 19th century; Sister Maria Bernarda, born as Verena Buetler (1848-1924) in Switzerland, who worked as a nun in Ecuador and Colombia; and Narcisa de Jesus Martillo Moran (1832-1869), a 19th century laywoman from Ecuador who helped the sick and the poor.
    (AP, 10/12/08)

2008        Oct 29, In Ecuador a new temporary Supreme Court was picked by lottery. Judges said they will boycott it. The temporary 21-member court, chosen at random from the ranks of the 31 former justices, is supposed to operate until a permanent body takes over in 2009.
    (AP, 10/29/08)

2008        Oct 30, An Ecuadorean presidential commission concluded that US intelligence services infiltrated the Andean nation's military and police and supported a cross-border incursion by Colombian troops that killed a top rebel commander.
    (AP, 10/31/08)

2008        Nov 8, On Long Island, NY, 7 students from Patchogue-Medford High School attacked Marcelo Lucero (38), an immigrant from Ecuador. Jeffrey Conroy (17) stabbed and killed Lucero as he struggled to defend himself. Police soon arrested the 7 teens. In 2010 Jeffrey Conroy (19) was convicted of manslaughter.
    (SFC, 11/22/08, p.A6)(SFC, 4/20/10, p.A6)

2008        Nov 15, The government of Ecuador delayed a $30.6 million interest payment on part of its debt of $10 billion, which amounted to 21% of GDP. A committee soon reported evidence of malfeasance on debt contracts issued between 1976 and 2006.
    (Econ, 11/29/08, p.44)

2008        Dec 12, Ecuador’s Pres. Rafael Correa said his nation will skip a $30.6 million payment to bondholders due on Dec 15. This was Ecuador’s 3rd default in 3 decades.
    (WSJ, 12/12/08, p.A8)(Econ, 7/4/09, p.34)

2008        Dec 15, In Ecuador former President Leon Febres Cordero (77) died. The colorful, right-wing leader served as president from 1984-1988 and had dominated Ecuadorean politics for almost two decades. He was dubbed the "owner" of the nation by his opponents.
    (AP, 12/15/08)

2008        Dec, Ecuador’s Central Bank signed an agreement under which Iran’s Central Bank would set up a credit line of $40 million, extendable by $80 million, for the use of Ecuadorean importers.
    (Econ, 4/17/10, p.44)

2009        Jan 29, Mexican police detained an Ecuadorean man for carrying about $2.5 million in cash in a suitcase at Mexico City's international airport.
    (AP, 1/31/09)

2009        Feb 7, In Ecuador President Rafael Correa ordered the expulsion of a top US diplomat he accused of suspending $340,000 in annual aid because Ecuador would not allow the US to veto appointments to the anti-smuggling police.
    (AP, 2/7/09)

2009        Feb 18, In Ecuador US diplomat Mark Sullivan was declared a “persona non grata" and told to leave. Pres. Correa later said Sullivan had directed CIA operations in Ecuador.
    (SFC, 2/23/09, p.A2)

2009        Mar 10, Spanish police said they have arrested an Ecuadorian woman who tried to smuggle into Barcelona liquid cocaine hidden in spray cans of products to starch clothes or clean glass.
    (AFP, 3/10/09)

2009        Mar 19, In Quito, Ecuador, a small army plane crashed into an apartment building, killing seven people and sending a fireball into the evening sky. The dead included 3 soldiers, the pilot’s wife and son and 2 people on the ground.
    (AP, 3/20/09)

2009        Mar 25, An Ecuadorean air force training jet crashed in a jungle area near the Colombian border. The pilot and a member of the air force rescue team were killed when a cable snapped as they were being lifted to a helicopter.
    (AP, 3/25/09)

2009        Apr 20, Ecuador’s finance minister Maria Elsa Viteri said the government will buy back about $3.2 billion in Global 2012 and 2030 bonds, worth about 32% of Ecuador's total foreign debt at a 70% discount, ending months of speculation about a default. A government audit last year determined that conditions surrounding the debt sale had left the bonds "illegal and illegitimate," prompting President Rafael Correa to order the refinancing.
    (AP, 4/20/09)

2009        Apr 26, Ecuador held elections. President Rafael Correa, a feisty leftist popular for his social programs, was widely favored to win re-election. Correa won 51.2 percent of the vote in an eight-candidate field, making the leftist economist the first Ecuadorean president in 30 years to be chosen without a runoff vote.
    (AP, 4/26/09)(AP, 4/27/09)

2009        May 8, In Ecuador an angry mob dragged two suspected robbers from a police station in Valencia and burned them to death.
    (AP, 5/8/09)

2009        May 30, In Colombia 3 computers were seized in the Bogota home of a Adela Perez (36), a suspected FARC operative. One computer, finally decrypted in July, contained an hour-long video that appeared to confirm that Colombia's largest rebel army gave money to the 2006 election campaign of President Rafael Correa of Ecuador.
    (AP, 7/17/09)

2009        Jul 10, Millions of Argentines stayed home from work, churches in Bolivia canceled Mass and Ecuador announced its first fatalities from swine flu, as the virus continued its spread during the South American winter season.
    (AP, 7/11/09)

2009        Jul 17, In Ecuador a US anti-narcotics force flew its last surveillance mission from Ecuador's Pacific Coast. The force had begun dismantling its operation and would be out of the country by September, two months before the end of its lease.
    (AP, 7/19/09)

2009        Aug 3, Ecuadorean President Rafael Correa, announced that "many" radio and TV frequencies will revert to the state over what he called irregularities in their licenses. He gave no specifics.
    (AP, 8/3/09)

2009        Aug 10, Leaders of the Union of South American Nations (UNASUL), a 12-member group inspired by Brazil, met in Quito, Ecuador, in an attempt to further integration. Colombia’s Pres. Uribe did not attend, in part because Ecuador broke of ties with Colombia last year.
    (Econ, 8/15/09, p.31) 

2009        Aug 13, Ecuador’s Citizen Participation Minister Doris Soliz called for the creation of local citizen committees to defend the government and its "revolution," sparking criticism that the president aims to control opponents in a system reminiscent of Cuba or Venezuela.
    (AP, 8/13/09)

2009         Aug, Aliaksandr Barankov (27) arrived in Ecuador after fleeing fraud and extortion charges in Belarus. He called the charges bogus, retribution for his having exposed a petroleum-smuggling ring involving senior officials of President Lukashenko's government, including relatives of the leader.
    (AP, 8/20/12)

2009        Sep 6, In Ecuador Lt. Col. John Merino, President Rafael Correa's chief of security, died of swine flu. Ecuador has reported 36 confirmed deaths from swine flu as of last week, along with 1,382 infected.
    (AP, 9/7/09)
2009        Sep 6, The El Salvador navy said it has found 76 migrants aboard a boat in the Pacific. They included 25 Bangladeshis, 25 Nepalese, 21 Eritreans and five Ecuadoreans. The boat had set sail a week ago from the Ecuadorean port of Manta.
    (AP, 9/7/09)

2009        Sep 18, In Ecuador the last 15 US troops left the Pacific Manta air base, officially closing the US military post in what Ecuador's government calls a recovery of sovereignty.
    (AP, 9/19/09)

2009        Sep 28, In Ecuador hundreds of Indians blocked the Pan American highway in several provinces with rocks, tree trunks and burning tires to protest new water, mining and oil laws.
    (AP, 9/28/09)

2009        Sep 30, In Ecuador a battle in the southeastern jungle killed at least one Indian and wounded 40 police and nine Indians on the Upano River in the province of Morona Santiago. The Amazon Indian federation said 500 police provoked the violence by attacking Shuar Indians who were blocking roads to protest resources legislation.
    (AP, 10/1/09)

2009        Sep 9, In Ecuador Gloria Daniela Lopez, a Los Angeles college student, was stabbed to death in Ambato. Her body was found the next day with her throat slit. A family friend later said she had been decapitated and possibly raped. A local police investigation was said to be stalled because she was American.
    (SFC, 10/9/09, p.D5)

2009        Dec 15, Ecuador said that it had reached a deal with the EU aimed at ending a long-running dispute between Latin American nations and the EU over tariffs on bananas.
    (AFP, 12/15/09)

2009        Ecuador’s authorities seized over 73 tons of drugs, mostly cocaine, this year.
    (Econ, 3/27/10, p.42)

2010        Jan 11, In Ecuador Quito Mayor Augusto Barrera said his government will impose new driving restrictions to keep 80,000 private cars off the capital’s congested streets during rush hour. tens of thousands of protesters crowded into downtown Guayaquil, answering a call from the mayor of Ecuador's biggest city to demonstrate against the national government. Mayor Jaime Nebot, a conservative, accused President Rafael Correa of trying to build a system that Nebot called a copy of Venezuela's leftist leader, Hugo Chavez.
    (AP, 1/11/10)

2010        Feb 11, In Ecuador tens of thousands of protesters crowded into downtown Guayaquil, answering a call from the mayor of Ecuador's biggest city to demonstrate against the national government. Mayor Jaime Nebot, a conservative, accused President Rafael Correa of trying to build a system that Nebot called a copy of Venezuela's leftist leader, Hugo Chavez.
    (AP, 2/11/10)

2010        Mar 26, In Ecuador a district court judge convicted Emilio Palacio, a newspaper editorial writer for the newspaper El Universo, of insulting the head of the government's National Financial Corp. and sentenced him to three years in prison.
    (AP, 3/27/10)

2010        Mar 30, In Ecuador journalist Emilio Palacio, facing a 3-year prison sentence for defamation, accused President Rafael Correa of orchestrating his prosecution as a warning that critics of the government will be severely punished.
    (AP, 3/30/10)
2010        Mar 30, Chevron said the Permanent Court of Arbitration in The Hague has ruled in favor of its claim against Ecuador related to past operations of its Texaco unit. The tribunal ruled that Ecuador’s courts delayed rulings on a contract dispute and awarded Chevron about $700 million as of Dec 22, 2006. A separate case over a $27 billion pollution claim remained pending.
    (SFC, 3/31/10, p.A2)

2010        Apr 6, In Ecuador 20 columnists and contributors to the state newspaper El Telegrafo said they will no longer write for the paper because of alleged censorship.
    (AP, 4/6/10)

2010        Apr 10, Bolivian delegate Pablo Solon confirmed that the US reduced aid after Bolivia opposed the adoption of the Copenhagen Accord brokered at the UN climate summit last December in the Danish capital. The Washington Post reported on April 9 that the US is cutting $3 million to Bolivia and $2.5 million to Ecuador from its Global Climate Change initiative.
    (AP, 4/10/10)

2010        Apr 17, Ecuador’s President Rafael Correa said Ecuador will move to take over the operations of foreign oil companies in the country unless they sign new contracts agreeing to increased state control over the sector.
    (Reuters, 4/17/10)

2010        May 28, In Ecuador strong explosions rocked the Tungurahua volcano, prompting evacuations of hundreds of people from nearby villages.
    (AP, 5/29/10)

2010        Jun 7, A commission named by Ecuador's left-leaning government to investigate human rights violations in the previous quarter century blamed late right-wing President Leon Febres Cordero for two-thirds of such cases. Elsie Monge, president of the so-called truth commission, said that the 1984-88 Cordero administration was marked by "a climate of fear and anxiety."
    (AP, 6/7/10)

2010        Jul 3, The US Drug Enforcement Administration said it has helped seize a submarine capable of transporting tons of cocaine. DEA officials said that the diesel electric-powered submarine was constructed in a remote jungle and captured near a tributary close to the Ecuador-Colombia border. Ecuadorean authorities seized the sub before it could make its maiden voyage. The sophisticated camouflaged vessel has a conning tower, periscope and air-conditioning system. It measured about nine-feet-high from the deck plates to the ceiling and stretched nearly a 100 feet long. The DEA says it was built for trans-oceanic drug trafficking.
    (AP, 7/3/10)

2010        Jul 28, The Galapagos Islands, 620 miles (1,000 kms) off Ecuador's coast, were removed from the UNESCO list of sites endangered by environmental threats or overuse.
    (AP, 7/28/10)

2010        Aug 2, In Colombia Orlando Sigifredo Ibarra Sarmiento, an Ecuadoran businessman (37), was seized in the border city of Ipiales. In 2012 a deserter from a guerrilla army led the hostage to freedom.
    (AP, 9/10/12)

2010        Aug 29, In Ecuador a bus ran off a highway and overturned, killing at least 36 people. At least 12 others were badly hurt. The bus from the Turismo Oriental line had left the city of Cuenca with about 30 passengers and had picked up others along the way to Quito.
    (AP, 8/29/10)

2010        Sep 5, In Ecuador 15 people were killed and at least seven injured when a drunken Luis Alberto Hessmer Vargas drove an SUV into a crowded bus stop in the coastal city of Guayaquil.
    (AP, 9/6/10)

2010        Sep 17, Chevron Corp. rejected new estimates of damages in the jungles of Ecuador that rose to a range of $40 to $90 billion. The suit stemmed from operations by Texaco from 1972-1990 when it managed a drilling consortium. Chevron bought Texaco in 2001.
    (SFC, 9/18/10, p.D3)

2010        Sep 30, In Ecuador rebellious police threw the country into chaos. 8 people were killed including at least two police officers and a soldier. 247 were injured in the mayhem. Insurgents also paralyzed the nation with airport shutdowns and highway blockades. Pres. Correa (47) was trapped inside the hospital for hours before troops rescued him amid a blaze of gunfire. Police chief Freddy Martinez was not involved in the protests but failed to stop them, so he was the first senior officer to lose his job. Correa’s efforts to cut back spending had made him enemies, including some of the rank and file in the security forces.
    (AP, 10/1/10)(Reuters, 10/1/10)(Econ, 10/9/10, p.54)

2010        Oct 1, Ecuador was under a state of siege, the streets quiet with the military in charge of public order. Three police colonels were arrested for failing to prevent a massive protest by their subordinates that left 5 people dead. 
    (AP, 10/1/10)(AP, 10/3/10)

2010        Oct 2, Ecuador agreed to raise wages in the armed forces by up to $35 million annually, days after soldiers battled rebel police to rescue President Rafael Correa from what he called a coup bid. Defense Minister Javier Ponce said it was chance the wage were agreed two days after the assault on Correa. He said the increases will cost $30 million to $35 million a year.
    (Reuters, 10/4/10)

2010        Oct 6, Ecuador's interior minister said 46 police officers have been detained for alleged participation in the Sep 30 police revolt against President Rafael Correa that claimed 5 lives.
    (AP, 10/7/10)

2010        Oct 7, In Ecuador a court was issued authorizing the jailing of 12 police officers and a police colonel while prosecutors investigate the Sep 30 police uprising that resulted in 5 deaths.
    (AP, 10/7/10)

2010        Oct 15, In Ecuador a tunnel collapsed in a gold mine in the south, trapping four miners 490 feet (150 meters) underground. Authorities said rescue efforts were under way. The bodies of 2 miners were found the next day as rescue efforts continued for 2 others. Their bodies were found on Oct 20.
    (AP, 10/15/10)(AP, 10/17/10)(Reuters, 10/20/10)

2010        Dec 24, The Ecuadorean government recognized Palestine as a sovereign state.
    (AP, 12/25/10)
2010        Dec 24, In Ecuador an overcrowded bus plunged into a 1,100-foot (350m) ravine leaving 38 people dead and 46 injured.
    (AP, 12/25/10)

2011        Feb 13, In Brockton, Massachusetts, the bodies of Maria Palaguachi-Cela (25) and her 2-year-old son, Brian Caguana, were found stuffed into a dumpster. They had been bludgeoned to death. Suspect Luis Guaman (42) soon fled to Ecuador. On April 30, 2012, Guaman was convicted in Ecuador of premeditated murder and faced 16-25 years in prison. On May 8, 2012 he was sentenced to 25 years in prison and fined $10,000.
    (http://tinyurl.com/6n7clej)(AP, 4/30/12)(AP, 5/8/12)

2011        Feb 14, An Ecuadorean judge ruled that Chevron Corp. was responsible for oil contamination in a wide swath of Ecuador's northern jungle. The plaintiffs' attorney says the company was fined $8 billion. The company said that it would appeal, and called the judge's decision "illegitimate and unenforceable."
    (AP, 2/14/11)

2011        Feb 25, Panama customs director Gloria Moreno de Lopez said that nearly a half ton (421 kilos) shark fins were found at Panama's international airport in a shipment labeled as dried fish. She says the container originated in Ecuador and was bound for New York City.
    (AP, 2/26/11)

2011        Mar 7, A US federal judge extended his temporary order banning collection of an $18 billion judgment by the courts in Ecuador against Chevron, saying the oil company could face irreparable harm because it appeared that lawyers for Ecuadoreans who sued over rainforest contamination were going to try to quickly collect the award.
    (AP, 3/7/11)

2011        Mar 23, Mexican authorities said they have detained Victor Manuel Felix, an in-law of top drug lord Joaquin "El Chapo" Guzman, who allegedly ran a transnational drug operation that reached as far as Ecuador. 8 other people were detained along with Felix in raids in three Mexican states that began last week. Raids in Ecuador resulted in the detention of 9 suspects. The navy announced it had detained 7 local police officers, most from the Monterrey suburb of San Nicolas de los Garza, on suspicion of working for drug cartels. A daylight shooting in Monterey, thought to involve rival drug gangs, killed a teenage boy and 2 adult males.
    (AP, 3/24/11)

2011        Apr 5, Ecuador said it is expelling US Ambassador Heather Hodges over a diplomatic cable divulged by WikiLeaks that accused Jaime Hurtado Vaca, a newly retired police chief, of a long history of corruption and speculates that President Rafael Correa was aware of it.
    (AP, 4/5/11)

2011        May 7, Ecuadoreans voted on 10 ballot questions proposed by leftist President Rafael Correa that could affect press freedom and the judiciary's independence. Five of the questions mandated constitutional change. The other five required congressional action. Two controversial questions from the referendum appeared to be headed for defeat.
    (AP, 5/7/11)(AP, 5/8/11)(Econ, 5/14/11, p.46)

2011        May, Ecuador banned bullfighting in which bull dies after five centuries of tradition.
    (SSFC, 7/3/11, p.A4)

2011        Jul 16, Authorities in Ecuador banned the sale of alcohol in the coastal municipality of Urdaneta in Los Rios province after at least 19 people died after drinking adulterated alcohol. The victims began drinking the alcohol on July 7. Adulterated liquor was later traced to a factory near Guayaquil, where methanol was being added to fruity wines. By September some 51 were dead and 771 poisoned.
    (AP, 7/15/11)(AP, 7/17/11)(Econ, 9/24/11, p.49)

2011        Jul 20, In Ecuador a judge ordered Emilio Palacio, a former columnist for El Universo, and 3 of the paper’s directors, to pay Pres. Rafael Correa $40 million in damages for an article published in February, 2010, regarding a mutiny by police. Correa had asked for $80m. In September an appeals courts upheld 3-year prison sentences for the columnist and directors as well as $42 million in fines. On Feb 16, 2012, Ecuador's highest court upheld the criminal libel verdict.
    (Econ, 7/30/11, p.34)(SFC, 9/21/11, p.A2)(AP, 2/16/12)

2011        Jul 21, Ecuadoran authorities said they have seized 357 dead sharks from a boat fishing illegally in the protected waters off the Galapagos Islands.
    (SFC, 7/22/11, p.A2)

2012        Jan 4, An Ecuadoran appeals court upheld last year’s landmark $9.5 billion judgement against Chevron Corp. over oil contamination in the Amazon rain forest.
    (SFC, 1/5/12, p.D1)

2012        Jan 26, Ecuador’s health ministry said it will investigate and act forcefully against any clinics found to be trying to force homosexuals to change their sexual orientation.
    (SFC, 1/27/12, p.A2)

2012        Feb 6, An Ecuadorean judge ordered two journalists, Juan Carlos Calderon and Cristian Zurita, to pay $1 million each to President Rafael Correa, finding them guilty of defamation for reporting that he knew about contracts his older brother had with the state in a case brought by Correa over their 2010 book "The Big Brother."
    (AP, 2/8/12)

2012        Feb 9, Ecuador's foreign minister said police in Italy found nearly 90 pounds (40 kilos) of cocaine last month in diplomatic mail sent to the Mediterranean country and two suspects have been arrested. The crates had been inspected by police dogs before leaving Ecuador, but had traveled to Italy through a third country.
    (AP, 2/9/12)

2012        Feb 16, Ecuador's highest court upheld a July 20, 2011, criminal libel verdict favoring President Rafael Correa, sentencing three newspaper executives and a columnist to three years in prison each and ordering them to pay a total of $42 million in damages. Three of the four defendants left Ecuador before the verdict, saying they feared for their safety, and Panamanian President Ricardo Martinelli announced he was granting political asylum to El Universo's director, Carlos Perez.  
    (AP, 2/16/12)

2012        Feb 19, In northern Ecuador a bus toppled over a cliff killing 27 adults and 2 children near the town of Quajara.
    (SFC, 2/20/12, p.A2)

2012        Feb 27, Ecuador’s President Rafael Correa said he would drop two controversial lawsuits against El Universo newspaper and the authors of the 2010 book  "The Big Brother."
    (SFC, 2/28/12, p.A2)

2012        May 8, Ecuador’s legislature passed legislation that would require banks to forgive any outstanding debt on mortgages for first-time home buyers of properties worth up to $146,000 if they default and forfeit a home.
    (SFC, 5/10/12, p.A2)

2012        May 30, Ecuadorans sued Chevron in Canada in an attempt to seize $18 billion in assets after the company refused to pay a verdict against it in Ecuador.
    (SFC, 5/31/12, p.A13)

2012        Jun 5, Bolivia, Ecuador, Nicaragua and Venezuela said they were pulling out of the Inter-American Treaty of Reciprocal Assistance during an annual meeting of the Organization of American States (OAS) in Bolivia.
    (SFC, 6/6/12, p.A2)

2012        Jun 24, In Ecuador’s Galapagos National Park the only remaining Pinta Island tortoise and celebrated conservation icon, passed away. Lonesome George, estimated to be more than 100 years old, was discovered in 1972 at a time when tortoises of his type were already believed to be extinct.
    (AFP, 6/25/12)

2012        Jun 26, Ecuador’s coast guard said marines have seized a semisubmersible capable of transporting 10-15 tons of cocaine. The 50-foot vessel was under construction on a small island in the gulf of Guayaquil.
    (SFC, 6/27/12, p.A2)

2012        Jun 27, Lawyers representing Amazon rain forest residents in Ecuador filed a 2nd lawsuit in Brazil to seize assets of Chevron Corp. as part of their effort to collect an $18.2 billion judgement they won in Ecuador in 2011.
    (SFC, 6/28/12, p.A2)

2012        Aug 16, Ecuador granted political asylum to WikiLeaks founder Julian Assange, setting up a diplomatic confrontation with Britain, which angrily insisted it would extradite him to Sweden.
    (AFP, 8/16/12)

2012        Oct 27, Ecuador’s Pres. Rafael Correa announced plans to give a bigger share of bank profits to the country's poor. Under his plan, taxes would go up on bank holdings abroad and an excise tax on financial services would increase, with the proceeds used to increase lump-sum payments for single mothers, the elderly poor and other needy Ecuadoreans.
    (AP, 10/31/12)

2012        Nov 1, Lawyers for Amazonian Indians said they are seeking the seizure of $2 billion of Chevron Corp.'s assets in Argentina as they tried to collect an $18.7 billion environmental judgment won in Ecuador last year.
    (AP, 11/1/12)

2012        Nov 7, An Argentine judge embargoed Chevron Corp.’s assets in Argentina to carry out an Ecuadoran court order that awarded $19 billion to plaintiffs in an environmental damage lawsuit in the Amazon.
    (SFC, 11/8/12, p.A3)

2012        Nov 15, An Ecuadoran helicopter began dropping nearly 22 tons of specially designed poison bait on the Galapagos island of Pinzon, launching the second phase of a campaign to clear out some 180 million non-native rodents.
    (AP, 11/15/12)

2012        Dec 19, Ecuador's Central Bank President Pedro Delgado resigned after acknowledging that he presented a fake academic degree 22 years ago, a scandal that prompted the country's leader to call for him to face justice. Delgado, who is a cousin of Ecuadorean President Rafael Correa, apologized to the nation.
    (AP, 12/20/12)

2013        Feb 17, Ecuadoreans cast ballots with President Rafael Correa (48), a dynamic, polemical economist, highly favored to win a 2nd re-election. His leftist government has won broad backing from the lower classes as it leads Latin America in social spending as a portion of the economy. Correa won 56.9% of the vote against 23.8% for his closest challenger, longtime banker Guillermo Lasso.
    (AP, 2/17/13)

2013        Mar 5, In Ecuador a Huaorani couple, including village leader Ompure, died in a spearing attack. A revenge attack by a Huaorani war party later killed a number of people at the settlement of Taromenane.
    (SFC, 4/4/13, p.A2)(SSFC, 4/7/13, p.A4)

2013        May 24, Ecuador’s Pres. Rafael Correa took office for a 3rd term.
    (Econ, 8/24/13, p.36)

2013        Mar 27, It was reported the Ecuador planned to auction off 7.4 million acres of Amazon rain forest to Chinese oil companies. 7 indigenous groups said they had not consented to the projects.
    (SSFC, 3/31/13, p.A4)

2013        Jun 4, Ecuador's state oil company resumed pumping through the country's main pipeline, four days after it was damaged by a landslide. But crude spilled by the accident reached tributaries of the Amazon River and polluted drinking water for a regional capital far downstream.
    (AP, 6/4/13)

2013        Jun 13, Ecuador passed a new mining law imposing an 8% ceiling on previously open-ended royalties and streamlined the permit processes.
    (Econ, 6/22/13, p.41)

2013        Jun 24, Ecuador's foreign minister said his country will act not on its interests but on its principles as it considers an asylum request from National Security Agency leaker Edward Snowden, wanted for revealing classified US secrets.
    (AP, 6/24/13)

2013        Jun 27, Ecuador's leftist government thumbed its nose at Washington by renouncing US trade benefits and offering to pay for human rights training in America in response to pressure over asylum for former intelligence contractor Edward Snowden.
    (AP, 6/27/13)

2013        Jun 28, Vice President Joe Biden asked Ecuador to turn down an asylum request from National Security Agency leaker Edward Snowden.
    (AP, 6/29/13)

2013        Oct 1, A judge in Ecuador ordered the arrest of three retired senior military officers and the house arrest of seven more on charges of committing crimes against humanity almost 30 years ago.
    (Reuters, 10/1/13)

2013        Oct 26, Panama granted asylum to an Ecuadoran opposition politician sentenced to prison last month for his role in a multiple homicide case, finding that he was subjected to political persecution. Tito Galo Lara Yepez (45) was convicted on Sep 2 as an accomplice in the murder of an Ecuadoran couple and their four-year-old child and sentenced in absentia to 10 years in prison.
    (AFP, 10/26/13)

2013        Dec 12, USAID acting Mission Director Christopher Cushing said a decision to leave Ecuador by Sep 2014 comes as a result of Ecuador’s decision to prohibit approval of new USAID assistance programs.
    (CSM, 12/14/13)

2014        Jan 23, Ecuadorean airline Tame suspended its once-daily flights to and from Venezuela until that country's cash-strapped government pays it $43 million owed for ticket sales.
    (AP, 1/23/14)

2014        Jan 25, Ecuador stressed it wanted the number of US military staff on its territory reduced, and warned it also would not allow US "espionage equipment."
    (AFP, 1/25/14)

2014        Mar 4, A federal judge in New York ruled that a 2011 $9.5 billion judgement against Chevron Corp. in Ecuador was the result of fraud, committed by lawyers who sued the company for allegedly poisoning part of the Amazon rain forest.
    (SFC, 3/5/14, p.A1)

2014        Apr 4, Ecuador's Tungurahua volcano spewed a 6-mile (10-km) column of ash after a powerful, five-minute explosion that shot pyroclastic material onto its northern and northwestern flanks.
    (AP, 4/4/14)

2014        Apr 7, Ecuador issued a letter ordering the US Embassy's military group, about 20 Defense Department employees, to leave the country by month's end, in a further indication of strained relations.
    (AP, 4/26/14)

2015        Apr 16, In Ecuador Clever Jimenez, a congressman for a left-wing party, was sentenced to 18 months in jail for accusing Pres. Corea of responsibility for 5 deaths during a police mutiny on Sep 30, 2010.
    (http://tinyurl.com/p59shbz)(Econ, 8/1/15, p.32)

2014        May 6, Ecuador’s electoral council rejected as insufficient a petition drive calling for voters to decide whether to proceed with oil drilling in the pristine Yasuni nature reserve.
    (SFC, 5/8/14, p.A7)

2014        Aug 12, In Ecuador a 5.1 magnitude earthquake left at least 4 people dead in the Quito region.
    (SFC, 8/13/14, p.A2)(SFC, 8/14/14, p.A2)

2014        Aug, In Ecuador some 700 companies were dissolved by the regulatory Superintendent of Companies because of financial problems.
    (Econ, 1/3/15, p.p.14)

2014        Sep, In Ecuador the Garcia Moreno Prison in Quito was abandoned after some 2,600 prisoners were transferred to a larger and more modern penitentiary. The old facilty was built in 1875 to house 300 prisoners.
    (SSFC, 5/3/15, p.A3)

2015        May 25, In Ecuador's Galapagos islands the Wolf volcano erupted after being dormant for 33 years. The eruption threatened a unique species of pink iguanas.
    (Reuters, 5/25/15)

2015        Jun 25, In Ecuador some 350,000 people took to the streets of Guayaquil to demonstrate against plans to impose punitive additional taxes on inheritances and gains from property transactions.
    (http://tinyurl.com/oewr457)(Econ, 8/1/15, p.32)

2015        Jul 6, In Ecuador Pope Francis celebrated an outdoor Mass for hundreds of thousands of people gathered under a broiling sun at Samanes Park on the northern edge of the port city of Guayaquil and then flew back to Quito.
    (AP, 7/6/15)

2015        Jul 7, In Ecuador Pope Francis held an open-air Mass that drew over a million people and pressed his case for a new economic and environmental order on his last full day in Quito.
    (SFC, 7/8/15, p.A4)

2015        Jul 8, Pope Francis flew to Bolivia after drawing about 1.5 million people to Masses in Ecuador on the first leg of a "homecoming" tour.
    (Reuters, 7/8/15)

2015        Aug 13, Britain said it would make a formal protest to Ecuador over its decision to provide asylum to WikiLeaks founder Julian Assange in its London embassy and so prevent his extradition to Sweden over alleged sex crimes.
    (Reuters, 8/13/15)

2015        Aug 15, In Ecuador several villages were evacuated, as the Cotopaxi volcano rumbled to life, angrily spewing ash into the sky and threatening nearby residents with potential volcanic landslides.
    (AFP, 8/15/15)

2015        Dec 3, Ecuador's Congress voted overwhelmingly to lift presidential term limits from 2021, triggering violent demonstrations that saw police attacked with spears, clubs and home-made rockets.
    (AP, 12/3/15)

2015        Dec 13, Ecuador said it has signed a pact with Sweden that would allow WikiLeaks founder Julian Assange to be questioned by Swedish authorities at Ecuador's embassy in London where he has been holed up for more than three years since facing sexual assault charges.
    (Reuters, 12/13/15)

2015        Dec, Ecuador, bowing to pressure from the Cuban government, imposed a visa requirement on Cubans, in effect closing off the most popular route to the United States.
    (Econ, 1/16/16, p.38)

2016        Feb 5, President Rafael Correa said he has fired Ecuador's military high command for refusing to pay back to the state $41 million from an overvalued land deal.
    (AP, 2/5/16)

2016        Apr 16, In Ecuador a magnitude 7.8 earthquake killed 660 people, caused devastation in coastal towns and left an unknown number trapped in ruins. More than 700 aftershocks soon followed.
    (Reuters, 4/17/16)(AFP, 4/23/16)(SFC, 5/17/16, p.A2)

2016        Apr 20, President Rafael Correa said Ecuador will temporarily increase some taxes, sell assets, and may issue new bonds on the international market to fund a multi-billion dollar reconstruction after a devastating 7.8 magnitude quake. The death toll from the weekend earthquake neared 600.
    (Reuters, 4/21/16)
2016        Apr 20, A 6.1-magnitude earthquake struck off the coast of Ecuador.
    (AFP, 4/20/16)

2016        Apr 22, The World Bank said it would lend Ecuador $150 million to speed up assistance to victims of last week's major earthquake that devastated large areas of the country's northern coast.
    (Reuters, 4/22/16)

2016        May 18, In Ecuador two earthquakes at magnitude 6.7 and 6.8 struck in the early morning and at midday leaving one person dead and dozens injured.
    (SFC, 5/19/16, p.A4)

2016        Dec 14, In Ecuador indigenous Shuar protesters attacked the Chinese owned Exploracobres copper mine leaving at least one police officer dead.
    (SFC, 12/16/16, p.A2)

2016        Dec, Ecuador’s environmental ministry said it would shut down Accion Ecologica, a group that backed the Shuar people in a fight over the opening of a copper mine.
    (Econ, 2/11/17, p.29)

2017        Jan 13, In Ecuador at least 19 people were killed and more than a dozen injured when a long distance passenger bus collided with an off-duty school bus along a highway near the Pacific coastline.
    (AP, 1/14/17)

2017        Feb 19, Ecuador held elections choosing between a candidate who vowed to continue President Rafael Correa's populist platform or one of several more conservative contenders who pledge to attack corruption and cut taxes to stimulate the Andean nation's flagging economy. Ruling party leftist Lenin Moreno was just shy of a first-round victory and faced ex-banker Guillermo Lasso in a runoff on April 2.
    (AP, 2/19/17)(SFC, 2/22/17, p.A2)

2017        Apr 2, Ecuador held presidential elections. Business-friendly former bank boss Guillermo Lasso (b.1955) faced leftist government candidate Lenin Moreno (b.1953). Lenin Moreno won the presidential election 51% to 49%, but his conservative challenger demanded a recount as supporters took to the streets in protest.
    (Reuters, 4/2/17)(Reuters, 4/3/17)(Econ 5/20/17, p.30)

2017        Apr 13, Ecuador's electoral council late today approved a partial recount of votes in the April 2 disputed presidential election, in a bid to highlight what it says was a fair process after the losing conservative candidate said there was fraud.
    (Reuters, 4/14/17)

2017        May 15, Spanish police said they stopped a ship carrying 2.5 metric tons of cocaine in a joint operation with the US Drug Enforcement Agency, Britain's National Crime Agency, and police in neighboring Portugal. Officials said Spanish authorities cooperated with Ecuadorean police to intercept a ship off that Latin American country bringing more than 5.5 metric tons of cocaine to Spain.
    (AP, 5/15/17)

2017        May 24, Ecuador's incoming President Lenin Moreno was sworn into office. A day earlier he named several people from the private sector to key cabinet posts.
    (AP, 5/24/17)

2017        Jun 16, Former Ecuadorean President Abdala Bucaram returned to the South American nation he fled two decades ago after lawmakers declared him mentally unfit to rule. He arrived in Guayaquil after legal claims alleging he embezzled some $3 million in public funds expired.
    (AP, 6/17/17)

2017        Jul 14, In central Ecuador fourteen people were killed late today and 26 injured when a bus drove off the highway, flipped and caught fire.
    (AFP, 7/15/17)

2017        Aug 3, Ecuador’s Pres. Lenin Moreno removed VP Jorge Glas, a close friend of former Pres. Rafael Correa, from any active role in government.
    (Econ, 8/12/17, p.27)

2017        Oct 2, In Ecuador authorities ordered Vice Pres. Jorge Glas (48) held in pretrial detention in Quito and froze his assets. This was associated accusation of bribery related to Brazil’s Odebrecht construction company.
    (SFC, 10/4/17, p.A2)

2017        Dec, In Ecuador WikiLeaks founder Julian Assange was "naturalized" as a citizen, at his request. This was announced in January, 2018, as Ecuador's foreign minister said she was seeking a "dignified and just" solution to his situation with Britain.
    (Reuters, 1/11/18)

2017        The population of Ecuador was about 16 million.
    (Econ, 2/18/17, p.28)

2018        Jan 6, Ecuador’s lawmakers selected Maria Alejandra Vicuna (40) as vice-president to replace Jorge Glas, who was sentenced to 6 years in jail for his role in a bribery scheme involving Brazil’s Odebrecht company.
    (AP, 1/6/18)

2018        Feb 4, Ecuadoreans voted almost 2-1 in a referendum to prevent unlimited presidential re-election and blocked former leftist President Rafael Correa from returning to power.
    (Reuters, 2/4/18)(SFC, 2/5/18, p.A5)

2018        Feb 6, A British court rejected an attempt by Wikileaks founder Julian Assange to have a warrant for his arrest quashed, dashing his hopes of an exit from the Ecuadorean embassy in London where he has been holed up for over five years.
    (Reuters, 2/6/18)

2018        Feb 26, Two presumed stowaways died in Ecuador after they fell from the landing gear of a New York-bound plane.
    (AP, 2/26/18)

2018        Feb, An Ecuadorian bank and Wells Fargo have reached an out-of-court settlement over a 2015 cyber heist. Banco del Austro had sought to hold Wells responsible for authorizing the fraudulent transfer of $12 million from its account in 2015.
    (Reuters, 4/16/18)

2018        Mar 26, In Ecuador three journalists working for El Comercio were kidnapped and transported to Colombia by a holdout faction of the FARC. On April 13 Pres. Lenin Moreno confirmed that the three journalists had been killed. On June 21 their bodies were found in a restless border region of Colombia.
    (SFC, 3/28/18, p.A2)(SFC, 4/14/18, p.A2)(AP, 6/23/18)

2018        Mar 28, The government of Ecuador said it has suspended outside communications for Wikileaks founder Julian Assange at its London Embassy due to his failure to honor a 2017 written agreement not to send messages involving "interference in relation to other states".
    (SFC, 3/29/18, p.A4)

2018        Apr 17, Ecuadorean authorities said that a dissident rebel group has kidnapped two more people in the same conflictive border area where three press workers taken hostage by the group were killed last week.
    (AP, 4/17/18)

2018        Jun 21, In Colombia the bodies of three kidnapped Ecuadorean press workers were found killed in a restless border region. The journalists of Ecuador's El Comerico newspaper were kidnapped in Ecuador on March 26 and murdered in Colombia.
    (AP, 6/23/18)

2018        Jul 3, A judge in Ecuador ordered former Pres. Rafael Correa jailed for failing to appear in court as part of an investigation into the botched 2012 kidnapping of an opposiiton lawmaker. The judge also approved a request to seek Correa's extraditioon from Belgium.
    (SFC, 7/4/18, p.A2)

2018        Jul 10, Ecuador's highest court upheld a $9.5 billion judgement against Chevron for decades of rainforest damage. California-based Chevron no longer operates in the country.
    (SFC, 7/12/18, p.C4)

2018        Aug 12, In Ecuador at least 12 people were killed and another 30 injured when a bus carrying fans of the Ecuadorean soccer team Barcelona SC overturned on a highway after a game.
    (AP, 8/13/18)

2018        Aug 14, In Ecuador a bus carrying travelers from Colombia and Venezuela crashed early today near Quito, killing 24 people and injuring 18 others.
    (AFP, 8/14/18)(SFC, 8/15/18, p.A2)

2018        Sep 1, A bus crash in Ecuador's Andes mountains left 11 people dead, bringing the country's death toll from such accidents to 46 in the past three weeks.
    (AP, 9/1/18)

2018        Nov 23, Ecuador officials said it will cost $550 million to respond to the influx of Venezuelan migrants.
    (SSFC, 11/25/18, p.A4)

2018        Nov, An Ecuadorean court authorized the extradition of wood pellet salesman Paul Ceglia, who faced US charges of mail fraud and wire fraud over allegations he forged documents to extort Facebook and Zuckerberg. Ceglia had sued Zuckerberg in 2010 saying he had signed a contract in 2003 while studying at Harvard University that gave him half of the planned social network site that would become Facebook. In April, 2019, Ceglia requested asylum in Ecuador.
    (Reuters, 4/12/19)

2018        Dec 28, Ecuador's government banned most fireworks in the Galapagos archipelago due to damage caused to the islands' wildlife from the sounds of explosions, including heart problems and nervous stress.
    (AP, 12/28/18)

2019        Jan 8, Authorities in Latvia confiscated two tons of cocaine with a street value of a billion euros ($1.15 billion), the largest seizure ever in the Baltic country. The drug originated from Ecuador. Five Latvian citizens were detained, including one with a previous conviction for smuggling and money laundering.
    (AP, 1/14/19)

2019        Jan 11, In Ecuador at least 17 people died and 12 others were injured in a fire at a drug rehabilitation clinic in Guayaquil.
    (Reuters, 1/12/19)

2019        Feb 13, US immigration authorities in Miami detained brothers William and Roberto Isaias from Ecuador who are wanted in the South American country for allegedly stealing millions of dollars from a now-defunct bank.
    (AP, 2/17/19)

2019        Feb 21, The International Monetary Fund said Ecuador has agreed to receive $10 billion in financial aid from global development bodies over three years.
    (AFP, 2/21/19)

2019        Feb 22, A deep magnitude-7.5 earthquake struck the Ecuador-Peru border region early today, causing tremors that the Ecuadorian president said were felt around the country.
    (Reuters, 2/22/19)

2019        Mar 22, In Chile a group of South American presidents formed Prosur, a new regional bloc to replace Unasur, founded in 2008. The new bloc included Argentina, Brazil, Chile, Colombia, Ecuador, Paraguay and Peru.
    (SSFC, 3/24/19, p.A4)

2019        Mar, In Ecuador the government of Lenin Moreno signed a $4.2 billion, 3-year agreement with the IMF aimed at softening the effects of deficit cutting and making the economy more competitive.
    (Econ., 7/4/20, p.27)

2019        Apr 11, Ecuador arrested Ola Bini (36), an ace Swedish programmer who was an early, ardent supporter of WikiLeaks, as he prepared to board a flight to Japan. Prosecutors alleged a plot to blackmail the country's president over his abandonment of Julian Assange.
    (AP, 4/13/19)
2019        Apr 11, British police dragged Julian Assange out of the Ecuadorean embassy after his seven-year asylum was revoked, paving the way for his extradition to the United States for one of the biggest ever leaks of classified information.
    (Reuters, 4/11/19)
2019        Apr 11, Facebook blocked the page of former Ecuadorian President Rafael Correa in what the firebrand leader is lambasting as part of a "brutal persecution." Correa had been posting information online about an offshore bank account allegedly used by the brother of Ecuador's current president, Lenin Moreno, to stash millions. Facebook prohibits users from sharing private personal information like financial records that may "compromise the identity of people using our platform".
    (AP, 4/12/19)

2019        Apr 15, Ecuador's President Lenin Moreno told Britain's Guardian newspaper that WikiLeaks founder Julian Assange repeatedly violated his asylum conditions and tried to use the Ecuadorian embassy in London as a center for spying. Moreno denied to the Guardian that he had acted as a reprisal for the way in which documents about his family had been leaked.
    (Reuters, 4/15/19)

2019        Apr 26, In Ecuador an indigenous Amazon tribe won an early court victory in its fight to stop oil extraction in its ancestral territory. A judge in a provincial court determined that the Waorani people have a right to be consulted before any oil drilling takes place.
    (AP, 4/27/19)

2019        Jun 4, Ecuador's President Lenin Moreno blocked the extradition to the United States of a New York man charged with trying to defraud Facebook Inc founder Mark Zuckerberg. Paul Ceglia spent nearly 3-1/2 years as a fugitive before being arrested in Ecuador last year. Ceglia, who is in jail, has requested asylum in Ecuador.
    (Reuters, 6/7/19)

2019        Jun 12, Ecuador's highest court approved same-sex marriage in a landmark ruling in the traditionally Catholic and conservative South American country.
    (AFP, 6/12/19)

2019        Jun 20, An Ecuador court ordered the release of Ola Bini, a Swedish national with ties to WikiLeaks founder Julian Assange, who was accused of computer hacking. His April 11 detention was deemed "arbitrary".
    (AFP, 6/21/19)

2019        Jul 18, In Ecuador a lesbian couple married in the country's first same-sex wedding since a landmark ruling last month by the Constitutional Court.
    (SFC, 7/19/19, p.A2)

2019        Sep, Ecuador's legislature approved medical use of cannabis containing less than 1% of THC. Pres. Lenin Moreno was given a month to veto, but did not.
    (SFC, 12/17/19, p.A4)

2019        Oct 4, In Ecuador protests over fuel subsidy cuts paralyzed transportation for a second day as authorities held 275 people in jail for unrest triggered by President Lenin Moreno's belt-tightening fiscal package.
    (Reuters, 10/4/19)

2019        Oct 5, Ecuadorean indigenous and union organizations kept protests going and promised no let-up in their push to overturn austerity measures by President Lenin Moreno's government that have convulsed the nation for three days.
    (Reuters, 10/5/19)

2019        Oct 7, In Ecuador indigenous protesters paralyzed roads around the country and blocked a main highway into the capital in a fifth day of action against government austerity measures that have sparked the worst unrest in years, resulting in 477 arrests.
    (Reuters, 10/7/19)

2019        Oct 8, Ecuador's government said it would be open to mediation via the United Nations or the Catholic Church, after almost a week of anti-austerity protests that have rocked the nation and brought hundreds of arrests. President Lenin Moreno ordered a curfew around government buildings after six days of violent anti-austerity protests that have pushed his administration out of the capital Quito and brought hundreds of arrests.
    (Reuters, 10/8/19)(The Telegraph, 10/9/19)

2019        Oct 9, Indigenous-led protesters began a national strike in Ecuador after President Lenin Moreno refused to step down or overturn anti-austerity measures that have triggered the worst unrest in a decade. At least one indigenous protester was killed in unrest in Quito amid protests that were expected to continue against the austerity measures.
    (Reuters, 10/9/19)(Reuters, 10/10/19)

2019        Oct 13, Ecuador's army patrolled the streets of Quito as the government of President Lenin Moreno and indigenous leaders prepared for talks to end more than a week of fuel price protests. Moreno and indigenous leaders struck a deal late today to cancel the disputed austerity package.
    (AP, 10/13/19)(SFC, 10/15/19, p.A3)

2020        Feb 29, Ecuador said it has confirmed the first case of a fast-spreading new coronavirus. The patient had arrived in Ecuador on Feb. 14 on a direct flight from Madrid without showing any symptoms, but soon felt ill and went to a hospital where she was diagnosed with the coronavirus.
    (Reuters, 2/29/20)

2020        Mar 2, Ecuador confirmed five cases in patients who all had direct contact with an elderly woman who brought the virus to the Andean country from Spain.
    (Reuters, 3/2/20)

2020        Mar 13, Ecuador suspended large events and shut its schools as it confirmed 15 cases of the coronavirus.
    (Econ, 4/11/20, p.24)

2020        Apr 2, Ecuador confirmed 3,160 cases of coronavirus and 120 deaths, likely a vast underestimate. Untold numbers of Ecuadorians were dying of unrelated diseases that can’t be treated because hospitals are overwhelmed.
    (AP, 4/3/20)

2020        Apr 7, An Ecuadoran court found former Pres. Rafael Correa (57) guilty of corruption and sentenced him in absentia to eight years in prison. Correa has been living in his wife's native Belgium since 2017.
    (SFC, 4/8/20, p.A2)

2020        Apr 8, Ecuador's Energy Ministry said that it had placed barriers around an oil spill in an area home to several indigenous communities and near the source of drinking water for the city of El Coca, with some 45,000 residents. Two parallel pipelines broke when the Quijos River flooded. Oil exports were soon suspended.
    (Reuters, 4/9/20)(SSFC, 4/12/20, p.A3)

2020        Apr 16, Ecuador reported about 8,225 positive cases, about 403 people dead and another 632 probable deaths from coronavirus in the country. The COVID-19 outbreak has overwhelmed the health system, in some cases leaving authorities unable to collect the bodies of the deceased and forcing the government to temporarily store corpses in refrigerated shipping containers.
    (Reuters, 4/17/20)

2020        Apr 24, Ecuador's health minister said the country's coronavirus case total was twice as high as previously confirmed, as authorities added 11,000 new infections that resulted from delayed testing.
    (Reuters, 4/24/20)

2020        May 4, Hong Kong customs officials impounded 24 tons of shark fins from Ecuador with a retail value of $1.1 million.
    (Econ., 11/21/20, p.30)

2020        May 8, The World Bank approved $506 million in emergency loans and grants for Ecuador to help it grapple with one of the worst outbreaks in Latin America.
    (Reuters, 5/8/20)

2020        May 11, There are now 107 coronavirus cases in Ecuador's Galapagos Islands, including about 50 crew members still aboard the Celebrity Flora, a luxury ship operated by a subsidiary of Royal Caribbean Cruises. The islands' first four cases were diagnosed in late March, all believed to have come from Guayaquil before travel was cut off. Tourism has ground to a halt and an economic crisis has left many of the 30,000 residents jobless.
    (AP, 5/11/20)

2020        May 19, Ecuador said it is closing several embassies and state enterprises to save money amid an economic crisis provoked by the coronavirus pandemic. Nearly 34,000 people in the country have been infected and at least 2,800 have died. Authorities have reported another 1,700 deaths probably caused by the virus but not included in the official death toll.
    (AFP, 5/19/20)

2020        May, The IMF approved an additional $643 million emergency loan to Ecuador.
    (Econ., 7/4/20, p.27)

2020        Jul 10, China said it was suspending imports from three Ecuadorean shrimp producers after detecting coronavirus in recent shipments, prompting one of the Ecuadorean producers to accuse China of "tarnishing the reputation" of the industry.
    (Reuters, 7/10/20)

2020        Oct 31, China suspended imports from FIREXPA S.A., an Ecuadorian seafood product manufacturer, after the novel coronavirus was found on the packaging of a batch of imported frozen fish, according to a notice by the General Administration of Customs.
    (Reuters, 10/31/20)

2021        Feb 7, Ecuador held presidential elections.
    (AP, 2/21/21)

2021        Feb 10, It was reported that Italian police have intercepted cocaine worth £228 million. The cocaine was hidden in containers full of exotic fruit from Ecuador and coffee and frozen meat from Brazil.
    (The Telegraph, 2/10/21)

2021        Feb 21, Final results from a Feb. 7 presidential election in Ecuador confirmed that former banker Guillermo Lasso came second behind leading candidate Andrés Arauz, meaning the two will contest a runoff vote in April. Just 32,600 votes separated the two candidates.
    (AP, 2/21/21)

2021        Feb 22, In Ecuador prison riots broke out at prisons in three cities. By the next day 62 inmates died as a result of fights between rival gangs and an escape attempt.
    (AP, 2/23/21)

2021        Apr 1, Ecuadorean President Lenin Moreno declared a 30-day state of exception in eight of the country's 24 provinces, which includes a curfew, due to a spike in coronavirus infections and associated deaths. Ecuador has more than 330,000 infections and 16,877 deaths confirmed and probable by COVID-19.
    (Reuters, 4/2/21)

2021        Apr 11, Ecuador held runoff presidential elections. Former banker Guillermo Lasso won by half a percentage point over Andres Arauz, a protégé of former Pres. Rafael Correa.
    (SFC, 4/13/21, p.A2)

2021        Apr 28, Pope Francis responded to reports of poor governance and moral failings in the Ecuadorian diocese of Riobamba by not only accepting the resignation of the retiring bishop but that of his heir apparent as well.
    (AP, 4/28/21)

2021        May 17, Darwin’s Arch, a famous, photo-friendly rock formation in the remote Galápagos Islands, collapsed because of natural erosion.
    (NY Times, 5/18/21)

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