Timeline: Congo DRC, Democratic Republic of the Congo

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The Democratic Republic of the Congo was formerly named the Belgian Congo and later Zaire. Bantus are the majority ethnic group in Congo. This nation of 45 million is the 3rd largest in Africa.
    (NH, 7/96, p.14)(SFC, 10/26/96, p.A8)(SFC, 5/21/98, p.A14)
Congo DRC is about two-thirds size of western Europe.
    (Econ, 8/5/06, p.41)

88000BCE    The Katanda site in Zaire was dated to this time. Evidence in the 1990s showed bone points showed barbs on 3 edges and rings carved in the base to tie them to shafts.
    (SFC, 1/11/02, p.A2)

10000BC -1500AD    The Bachwezi people, also known as the Ancient Cwezi or Chwezi, were a group of people who legends say ruled the Empire of Kitara (Empire of the Sun), which encompassed a vast area including modern day Uganda, Sudan, northern Tanzania, the Democratic Republic of Congo, Rwanda, Burundi, Zambia and Malawi during this period.

1400-1500     The Kongo empire consisted of six provinces ruled by a monarch, the Manikongo of the Bakongo (Kongo peoples), but its sphere of influence extended to the neighboring states as well. Kongo’s king ruled about two million people. The capital, Mbanza, was built on a fertile plateau 100 miles east of the coast and 50 miles south of the Congo River in southwest Africa.
    (ATC, p.150)(www.economicexpert.com/a/Kongo.htm)

1482        Captain Diego Cao sailed south along the African coast and landed at the mouth of the Zaire (Congo) River. He left four servants and took four Africans hostage back to his king, John, in Portugal. This was the first European encounter with the vast kingdom of the Kongo.
    (ATC, p.149)

1483        Captain Diogo Cao visited Manikongo Nzinga in his capital, Mbanza, and persuaded the king to open his country to the Portuguese. Then were 6 states in the region: Sonho, Bamba, Pemba, Batta, Fango and Sundi. This last one (capital Ambezi) was the first to accept the Portuguese protectorate.

1526        Jul 6, King Afonso of Kongo (1509-1542) sent a letter of complaint to Portugal regarding the impact of slave trade in his country.

c1796        The Tutsi herders, Banyamulenge (people of the mountains), arrived into Zaire some 200 years ago. They moved with their cattle into the hills of Masisi in North Kivu and mountains of South Kivu.
    (SFC, 10/10/96, p.A14)(WSJ, 11/15/96, p.A16)

1874        David Stanley, British journalist, crossed Africa from the east to the west across the Congo River basin on a 999-day journey sponsored by London’s Daily Telegraph. In 2004 Tim Butcher, also a journalist for the Daily Telegraph, followed Stanley’s path on a trip that took 44 days. In 2008 Butcher authored “Blood River: A Journey to Africa’s Broken Heart."
    (WSJ, 10/31/08, p.A15)

1876        Sep 14, Henry Morton Stanley's expedition left Rwanda.
    (MC, 9/14/01)

1876        Oct 17, Henry Morton Stanley's expedition reached the Lualaba River.
    (MC, 10/17/01)

1877        Jun 3, Frank Pocock, British explorer, drowned in the Congo.
    (MC, 6/3/02)

1877        Henry Morton Stanley, a Welsh-born American explorer, emerged from the forests of Africa near the mouth of the Congo River. He had traced the river to its source. In 1878 he authored “Through the Dark Continent."
    (SFEC, 9/27/98, BR p.1)(WSJ, 11/3/07, p.W8)

1880        Catholicism became established in Congo.
    (SFC, 7/18/97, p.A10)

1880-1920    The population of Congo was halved due to murder, starvation, exhaustion, exposure, disease, and a lowered birth rate due to the exploitation by King Leopold II.
    (SFEC, 9/27/98, BR p.1)

1881        May 8, Henry Morton Stanley signed a contract with a Congo monarch. [see Sep 24]
    (MC, 5/8/02)

1881        Sep 24, Henry Morton Stanley signed a contract with Congo monarch. [see May 8]
    (MC, 9/24/01)

1883         Stanleyville (later Kisangani), Congo, was founded by Sir Henry Morton Stanley, the Anglo-American journalist who tracked down the missionary David Livingstone in Africa.
    (AP, 8/18/03)

1884        Roger Casement of Ulster joined an expedition up the Congo River led by Henry Morton Stanely. After 20 years in Africa he became the leading figure in an int’l. campaign to denounce the abuses committed by the Congo’s Belgian colonizers.
    (Econ, 7/7/12, p.75)

1885        Feb 26, The General Act of the Conference of Berlin was signed. The conference ushered in a period of heightened colonial activity by European powers, which eliminated or overrode most existing forms of African autonomy and self-governance.

1885        May 2, The Congo Free State was established by King Leopold II of Belgium.
    (HN, 5/2/98)

1885        A treaty made in Berlin called for the humane treatment of Africans.
    (SFEM, 8/16/98, p.12)

1887        The inflatable bicycle tire was invented and spawned, along with the car tire, a worldwide rubber boom.
    (SFEM, 5/7/00, p.9)

1890        William Sheppard (b.1865 in Virginia) left the US for missionary work in Congo. In 2002 Pagan Kennedy authored "Black Livingstone: A True Tale of African Adventure."
    (SSFC, 2/3/02, p.M1)

c1890-1899    In the late 19th century Belgium established the Tervuren Royal Museum for Central Africa. It was a result of the country’s colonial venture in the Belgian Congo, later Zaire, later Democratic Republic of Congo. The museum was founded as a showcase for business opportunities on the Congo.
    (SFC, 2/21/98, p.E1)

1891        Jul 31, Great Britain declared territories in Southern Africa up to the Congo to be within their sphere of influence.
    (HN, 7/31/98)

1892        In the Belgian Congo Capt. Alphonse Jacques de Dixmude (1858-1928) founded Albertville (Kalemie) on the shores of Lake Tanganyika and tried to put an end to the slave trade in the region.
1892        William Sheppard, US missionary, set out to find the hidden kingdom of Kuba and eventually made contact with King Kot aMweeky.
    (SSFC, 2/3/02, p.M1)

1893        Mar 4, Francis Dhanis' army attacked the Lualaba and occupied Nyangwe (Congo).
    (SC, 3/4/02)

1893        Mar 9, Congo cannibals killed 1000s of Arabs.
    (MC, 3/9/02)

c1898        Edmund Dene Morel, a London employee of the shipping line Elder Dempster, came to realize that a wealth of rubber and ivory cargo was arriving from Congo in exchange for military officers, firearms and ammunition. He deduced that forced labor was being used by King Leopold II of Belgium to extract native wealth.
    (SFEM, 8/16/98, p.4)

1901        Edmund Dene Morel (28) quit his London shipping line job and began a full time campaign to expose the barbarities in the Congo under Leopold II. He started his own publication, "The West African Mail," an illustrated weekly journal in 1903 as a forum on West and Central African Questions.
    (SFEM, 8/16/98, p.4)(SFEM, 8/16/98, p.7)

1903        May, In Britain the House of Commons passed a resolution urging that Congo natives be governed with humanity. Also the British consul in the Congo, Roger Casement, was asked to travel to the interior and report on conditions there.
    (SFEM, 8/16/98, p.8)

1903        Jun 29, The British government officially protested Belgian atrocities in the Congo. Missionaries, such as William Sheppard of Virginia, had provided information that soldiers of Leopold’s private army turned over the right hand of villagers they had killed in order to account for their used bullets. Leopold’s 19,000 man private army held hostage the wives of workers to force men to work.
    (HN, 6/29/98)(SFEM, 8/16/98, p.7,8)

1903        Samuel Verner, an American missionary and explorer, purchased Ota Benga, a young pigmy enslaved by another tribe. He was under contract to the St. Louis Fair to bring several Pygmies to America for a living display of the stages of evolution. After the fair Benga ended up at the Bronx Zoological Park where he was displayed with monkeys. In 1910 Benga moved to a Baptist seminary in Lynchburg, Va. In 1916 Benga committed suicide.
    (WSJ, 2/6/06, p.B1)

1904        The Congo Reform Association was born in England following the return of Roger Casement from the Congo and his meeting with Edmund Morel.
    (SFEM, 8/16/98, p.9)

1904        Edmund Morel journeyed to the US and encouraged the formation of an American Congo Reform Association. Its first president was Dr. G. Stanley Hall, president of Clark Univ.
    (SFEM, 8/16/98, p.11)

1905        Mark Twain wrote his pamphlet "King Leopold’s Soliloquy" in support of reform in the Congo. US Sec. of State Elihu Root was pressured to take action on the Congo.
    (SFEM, 8/16/98, p.11)

1906        Edmund Morel wrote "Red Rubber: the Story of the Rubber Slave Trade Flourishing on the Congo in the year of Grace 1906."
    (SFEM, 8/16/98, p.9)

1908        King Leopold II (d.1909) turned the Congo over to Belgium for a large sum of money. It was later estimated that the population of Congo dropped by 10 million people during the period of Leopold’s rule and its immediate aftermath. In 1998 Adam Hochschild published "King Leopold’s Ghost: A Story of Greed, Terror and Heroism in Colonial Africa."
    (SFEM, 8/16/98, p.12)

1917        Nov, The East African Campaign, a series of battles and guerrilla actions, which started in German East Africa (later Tanzania) and spread to portions of Mozambique, Northern Rhodesia, British East Africa, Uganda and the Belgian Congo, all but ended when the Germans entered Portuguese East Africa (later Mozambique) and continued the campaign living off Portuguese supplies.
    (http://tinyurl.com/lcfyagk)(Econ, 2/4/17, p.40)

1919        Nov 10, Moise Tshombe was born. He became Pres. of Katanga and then premier of the Congo (Zaire).
    (MC, 11/10/01)

1920-1929 Medical studies in 2014 confirmed that the common ancestor of HIV-1 group M virus originated in Kinshasa about this time.
    (Econ, 10/4/14, p.88)

1924        The permanent committee of the National Colonial Congress of Belgium (Congo) declared: "We run the risk of someday seeing our native population collapse and disappear… So that we will see ourselves confronted with a kind of desert."
    (SFEM, 5/7/00, p.9)

1924        Edward Dene Morel, Congo activist, was elected to the British Parliament. He soon died of a heart attack at age 51.
    (SFEM, 8/16/98, p.12)

1925        Jul 2, Patrice Lumumba, revolutionary, was born in Congo.
    (SC, 7/2/02)

1925        CongoDRC’s Virunga National Park, a 7,800-square-km (3,011-square-mile) park, was created. It was classified a UNESCO World Heritage Site in 1979.
    (AFP, 3/12/12)

1930        Oct 14, Joseph Desire Mobutu was born in Congo.
    (SFC, 5/17/97, p.A1)

1938        G. Trolli, an Italian physician working in the Belgian Congo (Zaire), reported a condition called konzo meaning "tied legs." It was later found to occur over wide areas of Central Africa and related to cyanide poison from improper preparation of cassava root.
    (NH, 7/96, p.14)(Econ, 9/7/13, p.78)
1938        In the Belgian Congo the 5,000 square km (1,900 square mile) Garamba National Park was established.
    (AP, 6/13/14)

1940        The Belgian colonial government in Leopoldville (later Kinshasa), Congo, ordered private mining companies to turn over their records to help the Allies find resources to help the war effort against Germany. Millions of tons of copper and tin, as well as some uranium, were shipped to the US. After the war records were shipped to Belgium’s Royal Museum for Central Africa in Brussels.
    (WSJ, 3/20/07, p.A13)

1948        Congolese musician Antoine Kolosoy (1925-2008), aka Papa Wendo, wrote his hit song "Marie-Louise," a eulogy to the sister of his guitarist. He is considered the "Father" of Congolese rumba.
    (https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Wendo_Kolosoy)(Econ, 12/20/03, p.66)

1957        A sizeable nationalist movement emerged in Congo and rapidly gained momentum.
    (HNQ, 11/27/00)

1957        Dr. Hilary Koprowski of the Wistar Institute in Philadelphia developed an oral polio vaccine and tested it in Africa (Congo). The Wister polio vaccine was given to some 300,000 people in the Belgian Congo from 1957-1960. A later theory held that reuse of needles during the immunization program caused AIDS via “serial passage" that transformed the SIV virus into HIV. In 1999 Edward Hooper authored “The River," a detailed hypothesis for the origin of AIDS in Africa. Hooper suspected that the Wister polio vaccine, produced from monkey kidney cells, contained SIV virus. In 2000 a computerized study indicated that the AIDS virus was introduced to humans about 1930.
    (www.cdc.gov/flu/avian/gen-info/pandemics.htm)(SFC, 2/2/00, p.A19)(SFC, 1/15/01, p.A11)(SFC, 4/13/05, p.A5)

1959        Nov 1, Patrice Lumumba was arrested in the Belgian Congo.
    (MC, 11/1/01)

1959        Congo’s Mobutu became an asset of the US CIA during a meeting in Brussels.
    (SFC, 9/8/97, p.A8)

1959        In the Belgian Congo a 50-kilowatt Triga Mark I nuclear reactor made by Gen’l. Atomic of San Diego went on line.
    (WSJ, 5/30/97, p.A1)

1959        Researchers in 1998 found the HIV virus of AIDS in a 1959 blood specimen (ZR59) from a Bantu man who died in Leopoldville, Belgian Congo (later Kinshasa, Congo). This became the oldest known case and researchers believed that incidents could go back to the 1940s.
    (SFC, 2/4/98, p.A5)(www.aidsorigins.com/content/view/165/2/)

1960        Jan, The Congolese hit song “Independence Cha Cha" was first performed.
    (Econ, 1/14/17, p.42)

1960        Jun 23, Patrice Lumumba and the MNC formed the first government, with Lumumba (35) as Congo's first prime minister and Joseph Kasavubu (1917-1969) as its president.

1960        Jun 30, Independence was granted to the Congo. A rebel movement freed the Belgian Congo from Belgium. In Zaire (Congo) Patrice Lumumba (1925-1961) became the first post-independence prime minister. He made Joseph Mobutu, a young military officer, his private secretary. Two months after he took power a sub-committee of the US National Security Council authorized the assassination of Lumumba.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Patrice_Lumumba)(SFC, 5/17/97, p.A14)(SFEM, 5/7/00, p.18)

1960        Jul 11, Katanga province, with the support of Belgian business interests and troops, broke away from the new Congolese government of Patrice Lumumba, declaring independence under Moise Tshombe leader of the local CONAKAT party. This led to five years of mayhem.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Congo_Crisis)(Econ, 9/27/14, p.59)

1960        Jul 16, The 1st UN troops reached Congo to replace Belgian troops.

1960        Aug 25, In Congo demonstrations took place against premier Lumumba.
    (chblue.com, 8/25/01)

1960        Sep 5, Congo’s President Kasavubu fired Premier Lumumba.

1960        Sep 14, A Congo coup led by Col. Mobutu overthrew PM Patrice Lumumba.

1960        Nov 27, Patrice Lumumba fled Leopoldville, Congo.
    (MC, 11/27/01)

1960        Dec 1, Patrice Lumumba was caught in the Congo.
    (MC, 12/1/01)

1960        Following the independence of Congo DRC the US CIA lingered for decades to keep uranium, and, later, other minerals out of Russian hands. In 2016 2016 Susan Williams authored “Spies in the Congo: America’s Atomic Mission in World War II."
    (Econ, 8/27/16, p.64)

1961        Jan 17, Patrice Lumumba (34), the 1st premier Congo, was murdered after 67 days in office. President Eisenhower allegedly approved the assassination of Congo's Patrice Lumumba. The US and Joseph Mobutu were implicated but no conclusive proof has emerged. Sidney Gottlieb (d.1999 at 80), a CIA deputy, carried a deadly bacteria to the Congo that was used to kill Lamumba. In 2000 the Belgium Parliament opened an inquiry into possible government involvement in the killing of Congo’s Premier Patrice Lumumba. This followed allegations in the new book "The Murder of Lumumba" by Ludo De Witte. In 2001 the inquiry found that King Baudouin knew of the plot but did nothing to stop it. The Katanga government did not announce the death until Feb 13. Moscow charged that UN Sec. Gen. Dag Hammarskjold was involved. In 2002, Belgium admitted responsibility for its part in the killing.
    (TMC, 1994, p.1961)(PCh, 1992, p.979)(SFC, 5/17/97, p.A14)(SFC, 5/3/00, p.A14)(WSJ, 11/9/01, p.A1)(BBC, 6/13/21)

1961        Jun, Congo DRC authorities accused Frank Carlucci (1930-2018), 2nd secretary of the US Embassy and a covert CIA agent,, of subversive activities and expelled him from the country.
    (https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Frank_Carlucci)(SFC, 6/6/18, p.D3)

1961        Sep 13, Battles took place between UN and Katanga troops in Congo.
    (MC, 9/13/01)

1961        Sep 18, Dag Hammarskjold, Secretary-General of the UN, was killed in a plane crash in Northern Rhodesia (now Zambia). He was flying to negotiate a cease-fire in the Congo. Hammarskjold was the son of a former Swedish prime minister. In 1953, he was elected to the top UN post and in 1957 was reelected. During his second term, he initiated and directed the United Nation's vigorous role in the Belgian Congo. Hammarskjold had sent Conor O’Brien (1919-2008), an Irish diplomat, to the Congo where a rebellion was openly being backed by Belgium and secretly by Britain and France. O’Brien ordered in UN troops, but the mission ended in disarray and the UN repudiated the mission. O’Brien recounted his version of the events in his book “To Katanga and Back" (1962).
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Dag_Hammarskj%C3%B6ld)(AP, 9/18/97)(SSFC, 12/21/08, p.B6)

1961        Nov 11, Congolese soldiers murdered 13 Italian UN pilots.
    (MC, 11/11/01)

1963        Mobutu, chief of staff of Congo’s army, visited the US White House as a guest of Pres. Kennedy.
    (SFC, 9/8/97, p.A8)
1963        In Congo DRC a businessman sent down a small pipe into Lake Kivu to harness flammable methane to power a brewery to produce Primus, a light lager.
    (Econ, 3/12/15, p.48)

1964        Oct 24, Belgian paratroopers liberated 1,000 white hostages in Stanleyville (Kisangani, Congo).
    (MC, 10/24/01)

1964        Oct 27, Congo rebel leader Christopher Gbenye held 60 Americans and 800 Belgians.
    (MC, 10/27/01)

1965        Apr 24, Che Guevara, his second-in-command Victor Dreke, and twelve of the Cuban expeditionaries arrived in the Congo. Guevara, Cuba’s head of the national bank and minister of industry, left Cuba to foment revolution in the Congo. He spent most of 1965 and 1966 in Central Africa, helping anti-Mobuto revolutionaries in the Republic of Congo. This turned out to be a disaster and he went to Bolivia.

1965        Nov 24, Congo had a military coup under Gen. Mobutu and Pres. Kasavubu was overthrown. Larry Devlin, US CIA station chief, had encouraged Mobutu to launch the coup. In 2007 Devlin authored “Chief of Station, Congo: Fighting the Cold War in a Hot Zone."
    (www.briefbio.com/pages/2974/Seko-Mobutu-Sese.html)(Econ, 2/24/07, p.95)

1965        Laurent-Desiree Kabila, Marxist revolutionary, fought with Ernesto "Che" Guevara on behalf of Congo’s People’s Revolutionary Party.
    (WSJ, 11/8/96, p.A10)

1965        In Zaire (later Congo) Army Chief-of-Staff Mobutu Sese Seko, a member of the Gbandi tribe, seized power in a military coup and began his dictatorship. His name meant “the cock who goes from homestead to homestead leaving no hen uncovered."
    (SFC, 10/28/96, p.A8)(SFC, 12/18/96, p.C2)(SFEC, 4/6/97, p.A16)(Econ, 12/18/04, p.61)

1966        The Brazzaville Treaty became effective after it was ratified by the five member countries: Cameroon, the Central African Republic, Chad, the Republic of Congo, and Gabon.

1967        Congo’s Pres. Mobutu presided over the adoption of a new constitution that vested all powers in the presidency and his political party.
    (SFC, 5/17/97, p.A14)

1967        The Organization of African Unity decided set up a regional nuclear research center in Kinshasa, Congo, and the US helped build a Triga Mark II research reactor made be General Atomic.
    (WSJ, 5/30/97, p.A4)

1968        Oct 9, Pierre Mulele, Congolese rebel leader, was publicly tortured and executed in the Congo [some sources give October 3].
    (WUD, 1994, p.1687)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pierre_Mulele)

1969        Mahele Lieko Bokoungo, a member of Congo’s Mbuza tribe, became Mobutu’s chief body guard.
    (SFC, 12/20/96, p.B5)

1971        Oct 27, The Democratic Republic of Congo was renamed Zaire.

1972        Mar, In Zaire (CongoDRC) the Trico II nuclear research reactor went on line.
    (WSJ, 5/30/97, p.A4)(www.globalsecurity.org/wmd/world/congo/index.html)

1972        In Zaire (later Congo DRC) Joseph-Desire Mobutu (1930-1997) changed his name to Mobutu Sese Seko Kuku Ngbendu wa za Banga, which meant "the all-powerful warrior who, because of his inflexible will to win, will go from conquest to conquest leaving fire in his wake.

1972        Zaire’s Mobutu Sese Seko passed a law granting Tutsis citizenship. He revoked it in 1981.
    (Econ, 8/21/04, p.39)

1974        Oct 30, Muhammad Ali and George Foreman held their "Rumble In the Jungle" boxing match in Zaire. Ali knocked out George Foreman in the eighth round of a 15-round bout in Kinshasa, Zaire, to regain his world heavyweight title, that was taken from him for refusing military service.
    (SFC, 2/10/97, p.E3)(WSJ, 2/14/97, p.A12)(AP, 10/30/97)

1975        Nov 20, An interim report by the US Senate’s Church Committee said that the CIA failed to assassinate Fidel Castro at least 8 times. The report also covered CIA activity in Chile, the Congo, the Dominican Republic and elsewhere.
    (WSJ, 8/5/06, p.A9)(http://en.wikisource.org/wiki/Church_Committee)

1976        Sep, Scientists in Antwerp received specimens from a fatally ill nun in Yambuku, Zaire (later CongoDRC), and soon realized they were dealing with a deadly and unknown virus. The Ebola virus was named after a river there. The virus starts with flu-like symptoms but can stop blood from clotting causing patients to bleed. An outbreak of the Ebola virus killed 280 people, most of whom were infected by reused syringes and needles. It was later believed that fruit bats served as a host for the virus.
    (SFC, 10/27/98, p.A5)(SFC, 1/8/02, p.A6)(Econ, 7/26/14, p.36)(Econ, 10/18/14, p.11)

1977        Jan 10, The crater walls of Congo’s Nyiragongo volcano fractured, and a lava lake drained in less than an hour. The lava flowed down the flanks of the volcano at speeds of up to 60 miles per hour on the upper slopes, overwhelming villages and killing at least 70 people.
    (SSFC, 1/20/02, p.A16)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mount_Nyiragongo)

1977        Rebel forces from Angola swept into Zaire and captured much of the copper-rich Shaba province. Zaire regained control after 3 months with American and other foreign support.
    (SFC, 11/11/96, p.A11)(SFC, 5/17/97, p.A14)

1978        In Zaire another coup attempt was begun in the Shaba province. American and other foreign support helped Mobutu maintain control.
    (SFC, 5/17/97, p.A14)

1978        In Zaire (later Congo) there was a separatist uprising in the southern Katanga province and at least 140 foreigners were massacred at the Kolwezi copper mine. Hundreds of Katangans also died.
    (WSJ, 9/3/98, p.A1)

1980        May 2, Pope John Paul II arrived Kinshasa for the centennial of Catholicism in Zaire and the beginning of his African tour.
    (SFC, 7/18/97, p.A10)(http://eightiesclub.tripod.com/id99.htm)

1980        May 4, Nine people were killed at Kinshasa, Zaire (later the Democratic Republic of Congo) during a stampede to attend mass given by Pope John Paul II.

1980-1989    During the 1980s Congo’s Mobutu Sese Seko imported 5,000 sheep from Venezuela for one his ranches by using a government owned DC-8 to make 32 round trips between Caracas and Zaire.
    (SFC, 9/8/97, p.A8)(http://tinyurl.com/2kg3bl)

1981        Zairean citizenship was withdrawn from the Banyamulenge Tutsis of eastern Zaire.
    (WSJ, 11/8/96, p.A10)

1984        CongoDRC held a census.

1985        Mahele Lieko Bokoungo fought back Congo’s Laurent Kabila, who had set up a rebel republic on the shores of Lake Tanganyika near Moba. The rebels under Kabila were mainly Tutsis and used militaristic and autocratic methods.
    (SFC, 12/20/96, p.B5)(SFC, 5/2/97, p.A14)

1986        In Congo DRC Ne Muanda Nsemi, chemistry professor at the University of Kinshasa, formed the Bundu Dia Kongo (BDK) movement to re-establish the ancient Kongo kingdom.
    (BBC, 4/25/20)

1989        Jan 12, Idi Amin was expelled from Zaire (later CongoDRC) and forced to return to Saudi Arabia.

1990        Mahele Lieko Bokoungo led Zairean soldiers to back up the Hutu regime of Pres. Juvenal Habyarimana of Rwanda.
    (SFC, 12/20/96, p.B5)

1991        Etienne Tshisekedi was installed as Congo’s prime minister after Mobutu was forced by foreign and domestic pressure to allow multiparty politics and accept a government formed by the opposition.
    (SFEC, 4/6/97, p.A16)

1991        Mahele Lieko Bokoungo became chief of staff of Congo’s armed forces.
    (SFC, 12/20/96, p.B5)

1991        Kabangu Kalunga, an intelligence office under Congo’s Mobutu, was sent to fight Tutsi-led rebels in Rwanda.
    (SFC, 10/14/98, p.C2)

1991        Riots by Congo’s unpaid soldiers killed hundreds of people and destroyed many businesses.
    (SFC, 3/18/97, p.A10)(WSJ, 5/30/97, p.A4)

1991        Thomas Kanza, head of a coffee trading operation, was convicted in Tennessee of fraud. The operation had $57,000 of investor’s money missing. In 1997 he was selected by Laurent Kabila as Congo’s first minister of int’l. cooperation.
    (WSJ, 2/9/98, p.A1)

1993        Congo’s Pres. Mobutu removed Etienne Tshisekedi, the first Zairean to graduate from law school, from office as prime minister.
    (SFC, 3/21/97, p.A19)

1993        Ethnic cleansing occurred in Congo’s Kasai Province.
    (WSJ, 12/10/96, p.A22)

1993        In Congo Mahele Lieko Bokoungo put down army-led looting in Kinshasa when he gave orders for loyal troops to fire on looters.
    (SFC, 12/20/96, p.B5)

1993        In Congo riots killed hundreds of people and destroyed many businesses.
    (SFC, 3/18/97, p.A10)

1994        Apr-1994 Aug, The Rwanda Patriotic Front (RPF) under Paul Kagame killed some 25-45,000 people during this period. They then pursued the genocidaires into Zaire where they killed some 200,000 more and in the process overthrew the government of Zaire.
    (Econ, 3/27/04, p.26)
1994        Apr-1994 Aug, Hutus slaughtered more than 500,000 people, mostly Tutsis, in Rwanda and fled to refugee camps in Zaire.
    (SFC, 10/22/96, p.B1)

1994        Jul 14, A tidal wave of Hutu refugees from Rwanda's civil war flooded across the border into Zaire, swamping relief organizations.
    (AP, 7/14/99)

1994        Jul 17, Hutus left Rwanda for refugee camps in Zaire.
    (SFEC, 11/19/96, p.A16)

1994        Jul 18, In Rwanda the Tutsi rebel movement (RPF) under Tutsi rebel leader Paul Kagame took power. It promised to rebuild the courts and execute the guilty for the slaughter of an estimated 500-800 thousand Tutsis. Two million refugees, mostly Hutus, fled to refugee camps in Zaire and Tanzania. Kagame studied at the US Army Command and General Staff College at Fort Leavenworth in 1990. In 2005 Jean Hatzfeld, French journalist, authored “Machete Season: The Killers in Rwanda Speak."
    (SFC, 417/96, p.A-9)(SFC, 8/9/96, p.A10)(SFC, 10/22/96, p.B1)(WSJ, 11/15/96, p.A16)(AP, 7/18/99)(SSFC, 6/26/05, p.C3)

1994        Rene Ngongo of Congo DRC founded the OCEAN environmental group, exposing the impact of deforestation and monitoring the plunder of minerals by warring factions during Congo's 1996-2002 civil wars.
    (AP, 10/13/09)

1995        Apr, The parliament passed a resolution that prevented refugees from Rwanda and Burundi from obtaining Zairean citizenship.
    (WSJ, 11/15/96, p.A16)

1995        May 9, Kinshasa, capital of Zaire, was placed under quarantine after an outbreak of the Ebola virus.
    (AP, 5/9/00)

1995        Jul, The Ebola virus killed 244 people in Kikwit, Zaire.
    (WSJ, 12/11/95, p.A-1)(SFC, 5/5/99, p.A11)

1995        Sep, In Congo government harassment of the Banyamulenge Tutsis began with an inventory of property, evictions and expulsions.
    (WSJ, 11/15/96, p.A16)

1995        Nov, Congo’s government told Jimmy Carter (visiting prior to a Cairo summit) that it may relax its end of year deadline for one million Rwandan refugees to leave or be thrown out.
    (WSJ, 11/22/95, p.A-1)

1995        Nov, Zairean Tutsis in Masis were targeted by authorities, the army and the locals. They were forced to flee and many were massacred.
    (WSJ, 11/15/96, p.A16)

1995        Dec, 26 At least 50 people were killed in Goma, Congo, in rioting between two army units guarding Rwandan refugees. Many civilians were killed.
    (WSJ, 12/27/95, p.A-1)

1996        Jan 8, A Russian-made Antonov-32 skidded into a crowded marketplace shortly after take-off in Kinshasa in Zaire and killed at least 350 people. The twin-turboprop was owned by African Air and was overweight when it took off. At least 470 people were injured.
    (WSJ, 1/9/96, p.A-1) (SFC, 5/12/96, p.A-14)(WSJ, 11/13/01, p.A14)

1996        May 17, Hutu gunmen attacked 800 Zairian Tutsis who had taken refuge in a church. They killed at least 12 and left 130 missing. Hutu refugees from Rwanda have been conducting a campaign to drive out other ethnic groups in eastern Zaire.
    (WSJ, 5/17/96, p.A-1)

1996        May 29, Hundreds of Tutsis crossed into Rwanda fleeing the fighting in Zaire. Thousands of displaced Tutsis are behind them in the Masisi and Rutshuru regions of northeastern Zaire.
    (SFC, 5/30/96, p.A9)

1996        Sep 4, In the Congo authorities found 200 slaughtered elephants in a marsh of the National Park of Odzala.
    (SFC, 9/5/96, p.A10)

1996        Oct 7, Ethnic Tutsi rebels slaughtered 34 patients in eastern Zaire. The government has given the 200,000 Tutsis a week to leave Zaire. The Tutsi Banyamulenge arrived into Zaire some 200 years ago.
    (SFC, 10/10/96, p.A14)(SFC, 10/12/96, p.A11)

1996        Oct 10, Armed men killed 50-60 civilians in eastern Zaire in the village of Bambu in the Masisi region. The Banyamulenge immigrated to eastern Zaire from Rwanda decades ago.
    (SFC, 10/12/96, p.A11)

1996        Oct 18, Fighting erupted between Zairean soldiers and the rebel alliance under Kabila.
    (SFC, 12/20/96, p.B5)

1996        Oct 20, Some 300 Congolese Hutu peasants were bludgeoned to death by Rwandan troops in Musekera. Details were not made public until 2010 by the local Observation Center for Human Rights and Social Assistance.
    (AP, 10/10/10)

1996        Oct 21, About 225,000 Hutu refugees fled camps in eastern Zaire. The governor of the area has given the 300,000 Banyamulenge Tutsis as week to leave. Zaire has camps holding about 1.5 million Hutu refugees, most of them from Rwanda.
    (SFC, 10/22/96, p.B1)

1996        Oct 25, The UN announced an emergency food airlift to eastern Zaire to help 300,000 Hutu refugees fleeing violence.
    (SFC, 10/26/96, p.A8)

1996        Oct 28, In Congo some 420,000 refugees were crowded into the Mugunga Camp as fighting expanded.
    (SFC, 10/29/96, p.A6)

1996        Oct 30, Rwandan commandos crossed into eastern Zaire to aid the Tutsi rebels there. Zaire had about 50,000 troops, but they were poorly trained, poorly armed, poorly led and notoriously poorly disciplined. Rwanda had about 54,000 soldiers in a well-disciplined army.
    (SFC, 10/31/96, p.A10)

1996        Oct 30, The Vatican said eastern Zaire’s Archbishop was killed, the 2nd in 2 months.
    (WSJ, 10/31/96, p.A1)

1996        Nov 1, Tutsi rebels and Rwandan forces besieged Goma, Congo, in a battle for control of the regional capital and its airport. In Kinshasha some 10,000 university students demanded war with Rwanda and Burundi.
    (SFC, 11/2/96, p.A8)

1996        Nov 5, Zairians in Kinshasa defied a ban on demonstrations and called for the government to resign.
    (WSJ, 11/6/96, p.A1)

1996        Nov 7, Laurent-Desiree Kabila, Marxist revolutionary, re-emerged as the "coordinator" of the Alliance of Democratic Forces of Congo-Zaire (AFDL).
    (WSJ, 11/8/96, p.A10)

1996        Nov 8, Congo’s Pres. Mobutu Sese Seko was recuperating from prostate cancer surgery at the Villa del Mare on the French Mediterranean. Recent Swiss reports put his holdings in Swiss banks at $4 billion.
    (SFC, 11/9/96, p.A12)

1996        Nov 14, Armed men surrounded the Mugunga refugee camp in eastern Zaire and began shooting indiscriminately at its inhabitants as they huddled for safety or tried to flee. Hundreds of men, women and children died over a three-day period, according to eyewitnesses and forensic evidence later gathered from mass graves.
    (AP, 10/1/10)

1996        Nov 18, Rwandan troops descended on the Chimanga refugee camp in eastern Zaire (later CongoDRC) and opened fire killing some 500 refugees.
    (Econ, 9/4/10, p.51)(http://tinyurl.com/29j5mmv)

1996        Nov 21, The Banyarwanda means "people of Rwanda" and includes the Banyamylenge and anyone else in eastern Zaire whose origins were in Rwanda. The Bangilima and the Mai-Mai are Zairean militias with a strong background in witchcraft. The Interahamwe are former Rwandan Hutu militiamen who played a role in the 1994 genocide.
    (SFC, 11/21/96, p.C6)

1996        Nov 21, Congo’s operating budget for this year was $350 million and the population was 45 mil.
    (WSJ, 11/21/96, p.A19)

1996        Nov 29, A Canadian-led int’l. force won approval to provide humanitarian aid. The force would be based in Uganda.
    (SFC, 11/30/96, p.A12)

1996        Nov 30, In Zaire a volcano erupted near the Rwanda-Uganda border.
    (SFC, 12/2/96, p.A12)

1996        Dec 4, In Zaire government troops went on a rampage of looting and raping in Kinsangani. Rebels announced the capture of Kindu 250 miles south of Kinsangani.
    (SFC, 12/5/96, p.C2)

1996        Dec 8, Rebels surrounded Bunia, the last government held town in eastern Zaire. Government troops were looting and targeting Greek merchants and members of the Nande ethnic group.
    (SFC, 12/9/96, p.A18)

1996        Dec 17, In Zaire Mobutu Sese Seko stage a triumphal home.
    (SFC, 12/18/96, p.C2)

1996        Dec 19, In Zaire Gen’l. Mahele Lieko Bokoungo was appointed the new army chief.
    (SFC, 12/20/96, p.B5)

1996        Dec 23, In Zaire a crises government was established under Prime Minister Leon Kengo wa Dondo. Gen’l. Likulia Bolongop was named the new defense minister.
    (SFC, 12/25/96, p.A10)

1996        Dec-1996 Jan, Hundreds of Hutu refugees were killed by rebels as they headed back home on the road from Hombo to Walikale.
    (SFC, 3/14/97, p.A12)

1996        Rwanda’s Paul Kagame dressed up an invasion of Zaire as an indigenous revolt and installed Laurent Kabila at its helm. Zimbabwe paid $5 million to help finance the Kabila regime in Congo.
    (WSJ, 10/8/98, p.A1)(Econ, 8/21/04, p.38)

1997        Jan 2, In Zaire rebel troops captured Pres. Seko’s 32,000 sq. mile Kilomoto gold mining region and the town of Mangbwalu.
    (SFC, 1/3/97, p.A18)

1997        Jan 6, In Zaire at least 100 lawmakers quit Pres. Seko’s parliamentary alliance to join a new nationalist group. Their goal appeared to be to topple Prime Minister Kengo wa Dondo.
    (SFC, 1/7/97, p.A9)

1997        Jan 9, Zaire’s Pres. Seko returned to France, apparently for cancer treatments.
    (SFC, 1/10/96, p.A15)

1997        Jan 24, A Zairean counteroffensive was supported by some 300 foreign mercenaries. About 400,000 Hutu refugees were trapped near regions of fighting and UN officials raised pleas for a truce to allow the refugees to move.
    (SFC, 1/25/97, p.A8)

1997        Feb 15, In Zaire Rwandan soldiers killed about 200 refugees near the town of Kigulube.
    (AP, 10/1/10)

1997        Feb 18, The UN endorsed a 5-point peace plan for Zaire.
    (SFC, 2/19/96, p.A10)

1997        Mar 14, In Zaire after a 3 week siege of Kisangani, rebels attacked the city, the 3rd largest in the country.
    (SFC, 3/15/97, p.A19)

1997        Mar 15, In Zaire rebel soldiers occupied Kisangani.
    (SFC, 3/17/97, p.A8)

1997        Mar 21, Zaire’s Pres. Mobutu returned to Kinshasa.
    (SFC, 3/21/97, p.A19)

1997        Mar 24, In Zaire Mobutu accepted the parliamentary vote of censure of prime minister Kengo wa Dondo.
    (SFC, 3/25/97, p.A12)

1997        Apr 1, In Zaire Etienne Tshisekedi was appointed prime minister. The next day he annulled the constitution, dissolved parliament and offered 6 Cabinet seats to the rebels. He planned a new transitional parliament and new multiparty elections.
    (SFC, 4/4/97, p.A16)

1997        Apr 4, Rebel forces captured Mbuji-Mayi, capital of Eastern Kasai province and home of Zaire’s diamond industry. Departing government troops looted the city and 100 people were killed in clashes between the retreating soldiers and locals.
    (SFC, 4/5/97, p.A8)

1997        Apr 5, In Zaire rebels agreed to allow a UN airlift of some 80,000 Rwandan refugees back to their homeland.
    (SFEC, 4/6/97, p.A17)

1997        Apr 7, Deserting government soldiers of Zaire’s 21st Brigade donned white scarves and declared themselves on the side of the rebels as the rebels approached Lubumbashi, the capital of the copper and cobalt rich Shaba province.
    (SFC, 4/8/97, p.A8)

1997        Apr 9, In Zaire Mobuto dismissed prime minister Etienne Tshisekedo and installed a military commander as prime minister.
    (SFC, 4/10/97, p.A1)

1997        Apr 24, In Zaire rebels were accused of having killed many refugees and burying them in a mass grave. Large amounts of airlift supplies intended to return Rwandan refugees were seized by rebels.
    (SFC, 4/25/97, p.A12)

1997        Apr 25, Zaire’s government claimed that Angolan troops had invaded near Cabinda. Angola was supporting Kabila’s rebels.
    (SFC, 4/26/97, p.A10)

1997        May 2, The Tenke Mining Corp. of Vancouver, Canada, signed a $250 million contract with the Zaire’s rebels to develop copper and cobalt deposits.
    (SFC, 5/10/97, p.A10)

1997        May 4, More than 100 Rwandan refugees died on an overcrowded train after rebel troops packed them aboard for delivery to an airstrip for flights to Rwanda. Peace talks onboard the South African naval vessel Outeniqua between Zaire’s Pres. Mobutu and Laurent Kabila failed to produce anticipated results.
    (WSJ, 5/5/97, p.A1)

1997        May 5, The rebels nationalized the Sizarail rail system, a consortium that belonged to South African, Belgian and Zairean interests.
    (WSJ, 5/6/97, p.A18)

1997        May 6, Pres. Mobutu Sese Seko left Zaire for a 3-day visit to Gabon. He was not expected to return.
    (SFC, 5/7/97, p.C2)

1997        May 8, In Zaire rebels were meeting increased resistance from French mercenaries and Angolan UNITA forces. A shortage of cash was also hindering their advance on Kinshasa.
    (WSJ, 5/9/97, p.A1)

1997        May 10, In Zaire Pres. Mobutu returned to Kinshasa from Gabon.
    (SFEC, 5/11/97, p.A7)

1997        May 13, In Zaire rebel troops reached Wendji and Mbandaka and proceeded to kill Hutu refugees. Estimates of deaths varied from 550-2000.
    (WSJ, 6/6/97, p.A11)(SFC, 9/23/97, p.A11)

1997        May 15, In mid May Kabila’s soldiers were reported to have killed as many as 275 people in Uvira on Lake Tanganyika.
    (SFC, 7/26/97, p.A14)

1997        May 16, Pres. Mobutu left Zaire.
    (SFC, 5/17/97, p.A1)   

1997        May 17, In Zaire rebel forces entered Kinshasa and Laurent Kabila declared himself president of the Democratic Republic of the Congo. Kabila requested Swiss authorities to block Mobuto Sese Seko’s access to his Swiss villa. The house was seized and searched and documents were found that related to his wealth. The seizure was declared legal Aug 7.
    (SFEC, 5/18/97, Z1 p.6)(SFC, 8/8/97, p.E3)(AP, 5/17/98)

1997        May 29, In Congo Kabila took a presidential oath of office and presented a timeline for future elections.
    (SFC, 5/30/97, p.A16)

1997        Jun 26, In Congo soldiers seized Etienne Tshisekedi after he gave a speech accusing the Kabila regime of establishing a new dictatorship.
    (WSJ, 6/27/97, p.A1)

1997        Jun 27, In Congo Etienne Tshisekedi was released.
    (WSJ, 6/30/97, p.A1)

1997        Jul 25, In Congo soldiers fired into a crowd of protestors in Kinshasa and killed at least 3 people. The protest was against Kabila’s ban on political activity.
    (SFC, 7/26/97, p.A14)

1997        Aug 7, In Switzerland the measures to freeze the assets of deposed Zairean Pres. Mobuto Sese Seko were declared legal.
    (SFC, 8/8/97, p.E3)

1997        Aug 14, Congo announced a $2.5 billion project to build roads and that it would seek EU financing.
    (WSJ, 8/14/97, p.A1)

1997        Sep 7, Mobuto Sese Seko (66), former dictator of Zaire, later Congo, died of prostate cancer in exile in Rabat, Morocco. Mobutu began his career in the Belgian Congolese army, rising to the highest rank available to Africans, sergeant-major. However, after leaving the army in 1956, he began to be involved with the independence movement, representing the nationalists at some negotiations. Five years after independence, in 1965, Mobutu, then commander in chief of the army, exploited a power struggle in the young government by assuming the presidency in a coup. Mobutu managed to stay in power over the following decades despite uprisings, coup attempts and Angola-backed rebels. In the early 1970s, he began to Africanize names in the country, most notably changing the name of the country from the Democratic Republic of the Congo to the Republic of Zaire and his own name from Joseph-Désiré Mobutu to Mobutu Sese Seko Koko Ngbendu Wa Za Banga (which means "The all-powerful warrior who, because of his endurance and inflexible will to win, will go from conquest to conquest, leaving fire in his wake"). The end of the Cold War meant that, in 1991, Mobutu could no longer hold the same dictatorial control he had held over the country nor keep his party, the MPR, as the only legal political entity. With the beginnings of a multiparty system and a lack of Western finance, Mobutu released control of the government to the rebel leader Laurent Kabila in May 1997. Kabila‘s rebels—backed by Rwanda and Uganda—had been gaining ground over the past seven months. Mobutu died in exile several months later. In 2001 Michela Wrong authored ""In the Footsteps of Mr. Kurtz: Living on the Brink of Disaster in Mobutu’s Congo."
    (SFC, 9/8/97, p.A8)(AP, 9/7/98)(HNQ, 2/15/01)(WSJ, 4/27/01, p.W10)

1997        Sep 12, In southeast Congo a plane crashed enroute to a religious meeting. All 20 aboard were killed.
    (SFEC, 9/14/97, p.A24)

1997        Oct 1, The UN withdrew its human rights investigators from Congo pending a clarification by the Kabila government on its policy.
    (SFC, 10/2/97, p.A12)

1997        Oct 1, Pres. Kabila ordered troops into the Congo Republic after 2 days of cross border shelling that killed as many as 31 in Kinshasa.
    (WSJ, 10/2/97, p.A1)

1997        Oct 3, UN officials reported that Congo has ordered int’l. refugee agencies to leave part of eastern Congo and was expelling Rwandans who have fled there to escape fighting in Rwanda.
    (SFC, 10/4/97, p.A10)

1997        Oct 25, Congo’s Pres. Kabila and the US ambassador to the UN announced an agreement for a UN investigation into alleged massacres by Kabila’s army.
    (SFEC, 10/26/97, p.A22)

1997        Nov 25, It was reported that police in Congo flogged 10 journalists for attending a news conference by politician Z’Ahidi Arthur Ngoma. Ngoma and five supporters were arrested after the conference.
    (SFC, 11/28/97, p.B5)

1997        Nov 28, In Congo rival factions of the army clashed and up to 20 people were killed in Kinshasa at the offices of Pres. Kabila.
    (SFC, 11/29/97, p.A14)

1997        Nov 30, In the Congo the government accused foreign broadcaster of tarnishing its image and shut down all local FM transmissions of international radio stations.
    (SFC, 12/1/97, p.A13)

1997        In Congo Laurent Kabila appointed his son, Joseph Kabila, as head of the army.
    (SFC, 1/18/01, p.A14)
1997        The Congolese franc replaced the hyperinflated zaire.
    (Econ, 1/14/17, p.41)   

1998        Jan 20, Joseph Olengankoy, Congo opposition leader, was arrested. He had refused to meet with Pres. Kabila to discuss his criticism.
    (SFC, 1/21/98, p.C12)

1998        Feb 20, In Congo troops of Pres. Kabila were sent to quell a rebellion by Mai-Mai tribal warriors. A human rights group, Azadho, later charged the troops in a massacre of over 300 civilians in Butembo.
    (SFC, 3/7/98, p.A10)

1998        Apr, The Congo government banned the African Association for Defense of Human Rights.
    (SFC, 10/2/98, p.B7)

1998        May 11, A new study was reported that James Kabari, Pres. Kabila’s chief of staff, supervised a special Rwandan military unit that killed 2,000 Hutus in 1997 in the Congolese town of Mbandaka with Kabila’s knowledge.
    (SFC, 5/11/98, p.A8)

1998        May 19, A Congo military court sentenced Masasu Nindanga and Joseph Olenghankoy, opponents of Pres. Kabila, to jail terms of 20 and 15 years with no right of appeal.
    (SFC, 5/20/98, p.C2)

1998        Jul 1, Etienne Tshisekedi, Congo opposition leader, was freed from internal exile and returned to the capital.
    (SFC, 7/2/98, p.C2)

1998        Aug 3, In Congo rebellious troops seized control of several cities. Sylvain Mbuchi, claimed to be the rebel leader and announced that the military had decided to remove Kabila from power. Kabila last week ordered Rwandan Tutsi troops to leave Congo.
    (SFC, 8/4/98, p.A8)(WSJ, 8/4/98, p.A1)

1998        Aug 5, In Congo Arthur Z’Ahidy [Zaidy] Ngoma, a Kinshasa politician, was identified as the leader of the rebels opposed to Kabila.
    (SFC, 8/6/93, p.A12)(WSJ, 8/7/98, p.A1)

1998        Aug 6, Rebels in Congo seized control of Moanda, an important oil depot.
    (SFC, 8/7/98, p.A14)

1998        Aug 7, Congo’s Pres. Kabila left Kinshasa for Lubumbashi, his former rebel base, to meet with a visiting South African delegation.
    (SFC, 8/8/98, p.A13)

1998        Aug 10, Congo claimed to have recaptured the Atlantic ports near the mouth of the Congo River that were taken by Tutsi rebels.
    (WSJ, 8/11/98, p.A1)

1998        Aug 12, Rwanda protested a Congo crackdown on ethnic Tutsis and charged that Kabila was arming Rwandan Hutus to put down a Tutsi-led revolt along the border.
    (WSJ, 8/13/98, p.A1)

1998        Aug 13, In Congo rebels seized the Inga hydroelectric dam and cut off power to Kinshasa. Kabila fired his army chief in response.
    (WSJ, 8/14/98, p.A1)(SFC, 8/17/98, p.A10)

1998        Aug 14, In Congo Bizima Karaha, a minister who had defected to the rebels, said that the port of Matadi was captured. A rebel army was marching toward Kinshasa from the western coastline.
    (SFC, 8/15/98, p.A10)

1998        Aug 15, In Congo the US Embassy shut its doors as rebels approached Kinshasa. Pres. Kabila and his ministers retired to Lubumbashi.
    (SFEC, 8/16/98, p.A12)

1998        Aug 16, Pres. Kabila flew to Angola to meet with Pres. dos Santos and request direct support against rebels. Air cargo support was being provided as well as several thousand Congolese exiles known as the Katangese Gendarmes.
    (SFC, 8/17/98, p.A10)

1998        Aug 21, Zimbabwe sent 600 troops to support Pres. Kabila in the Congo. Rwanda called for a cease fire and warned that it would intervene if the troops from Zimbabwe were not withdrawn.
    (SFC, 8/22/98, p.A8)

1998        Aug 23, In Congo rebels appeared to have seized Kisangani while government soldiers recaptured Kitona, a military base near the coast. Troops from Zimbabwe fought rebels advancing on Kinshasa. The capture of Kisangani effectively splitting Congo and cut off commerce with government-held territory and Kinshasa, the capital 900 miles downriver.
    (SFC, 8/24/98, p.A8)(WSJ, 8/24/98, p.A1)(AP, 8/18/03)

1998        Aug 24, Some 2,000 Angolan troops captured a coastal naval base and oil port and moved up the Congo River to battle the rebels.
    (SFC, 8/25/98, p.A7)

1998        Aug 25, Pres. Kabila declared that this day all Congolese should "take up arms, even traditional weapons -bows and arrows, spears and other things... to crush the enemy because otherwise we are going to become the slaves of these...Tutsi people."
    (SFC, 10/2/98, p.B7)

1998        Aug 26, In Congo Rwandan-backed rebels attempted an assault on Kinshasa but were held off by government soldiers and troops from Zimbabwe and Namibia.
    (SFC, 8/27/98, p.A10)

1998        Aug 27, In Congo Unita forces from Angola joined the rebels, while forces from Namibia fought for Kabila’s regime.
    (WSJ, 8/28/98, p.A1)

1998        Aug 31, Congo’s Kabila declared victory over the Tutsi-led rebels near Kinshasa and in the southwest.
    (WSJ, 9/2/98, p.A1)

1998         Sep 7, A summit in Zimbabwe was scheduled to create conditions for a cease-fire in Congo. A half dozen nations gathered to fashion a draft initiative for peace.
    (SFEC, 9/6/98, p.A11)(SFC, 9/8/98, p.A8)

1998        Sep 8, The Congo rebel delegation stormed out of the peace talks in Zimbabwe.
    (SFC, 9/9/98, p.A9)

1998        Sep 15, In Congo Pres. Kabila restored four generals from late dictator Mobutu’s regime. Government forces were said to be moving on Goma.
    (WSJ, 9/16/98, p.A1)

1998        Oct 5, In Congo rebels under Arthur Mulunda said they were within 12 miles of Kindu. The rebels were backed by troops and equipment from Rwanda and Uganda.
    (SFC, 10/6/98, p.A12)

1998        Oct 6, Rebel commander Richard Mondo told reporters that artillery rounds had been fired into Kindu and that advance units had crossed the Lualaba River. At least 18 government soldiers were reported killed.
    (SFC, 10/7/98, p.A12)

1998        Oct 10, In Congo Tutsi rebels shot down a Boeing 727 Lignes Aeriennes Congolaises airliner following takeoff from Kindu. Airline officials said there were 38 passengers, mostly women and children. Rebels claimed the passengers were soldiers. 41 people were killed.
    (SFEC, 10/11/98, p.A15)(AP, 6/11/13)

1998        Oct 11, Kindu, Congo, fell to the rebels supported by Rwanda and Uganda.
    (SFC, 10/14/98, p.C2)

1998        Oct 14, In Zimbabwe Pres. Robert Mugabe that he will meet with Kabila to discuss support against the rebels in Congo.
    (SFC, 10/15/98, p.A15)

1998        Oct 16, It was reported that Bobi Ladawa Mobutu, wife of Mobutu Sese Seko, and son, Nazanga, had established a Mobutu Family Foundation to carry out charitable programs in the US and Africa for young Africans. The former dictator was believed to have taken $10 billion from the Congo.
    (SFC, 10/16/98, p.A14)

1998        Oct 19, In Congo 16 Zimbabwean soldiers were captured by the rebels.
    (SFC, 10/21/98, p.C2)

1998        Oct 31, It was reported that a lightning bolt killed all 11 members of a Congolese soccer team in eastern Kasai province.
    (SFC, 10/31/98, p.A8)

1998        Oct, Congo’s new constitution was scheduled to be completed.
    (SFC, 5/30/97, p.A15)

1998        Nov 3, In Congo troops opened fire at a soccer match in Kinshasa and 4 people were killed.
    (WSJ, 11/4/98, p.A1)

1998        Nov 16, In Congo rebels said that they captured the port of Moba on Lake Tanganyika. UN officials said that over 65,000 people had been displaced since Aug 2.
    (SFC, 11/17/98, p.B3)

1998        Nov 20, It was reported that Kabila was signing away large stakes in Congo’s biggest enterprises to businessmen from Zimbabwe, Angola and Namibia in return for support against rebels backed by Uganda and Rwanda.
    (WSJ, 11/20/98, p.A1)

1998        Nov 23, Congo reported that warplanes of its Zimbabwe allies bombed and sank 6 boatloads of rebels on lake Tanganyika killing hundreds.
    (WSJ, 11/24/98, p.A1)

1998        Nov 28, Countries fighting in Congo agreed to a cease-fire during an African summit in Paris. The deal was brokered by UN Sec. Gen’l. Kofi Annan. Rebel leaders were not present.
    (SFEC, 11/29/98, p.A21)

1998        Dec 4, The former governor of Bas-Congo province, Fuko Unzola, was sentenced to 15 years in jail for treason, i.e. collaborating with Tutsi-led rebels.
    (SFC, 12/5/98, p.A14)

1998        Dec 7, Congolese rebels dismissed the tentative truce worked out in Paris by UN Sec. Gen’l. Kofi Annan.
    (SFC, 12/8/98, p.B5)

1998        Dec 15, Congo rebels claimed to have killed 47 Zimbabwean troops fighting for Kabila at Kabala.
    (WSJ, 12/16/98, p.A1)

1998        Dec 17-1998 Dec 18, A Congo cease-fire was to be signed before a meeting of the Organization of African Unity.
    (SFEC, 11/29/98, p.A21)

1998        Dec, A referendum on Congo’s new constitution was scheduled.
    (SFC, 5/30/97, p.A16)

1998        The Lusaka Treaty failed to resolve squabbles and ended with a resumption of war in Congo.
    (WSJ, 5/31/00, p.A26)

1998        Robert Mugabe of Zimbabwe, chairman of the African body “Organ on Politics, Defence and Security," joined with Namibia and Angola in a war of plunder in Congo.
    (Econ, 3/13/04, p.48)

1998        Dec 30-1999 Jan 1, Some 500 people were massacred in eastern Congo during the 3 day New Year holiday. The killings were by soldiers aligned with rebels led by Tutsi, but the victims were not Hutu.
    (SFC, 1/6/99, p.A7)

1998-2004    Congo strife over this period killed 3.8 million people, half of them children, mostly due to disease and famine.
    (WSJ, 12/10/04, p.A1)

1999        Jan 1, Congo rebels massacred at least 500 civilians over the last 3 days. Six Red Cross workers were among the dead.
    (WSJ, 1/6/99, p.A1)(WSJ, 1/11/99, p.A1)

1999        Jan 6, Congo rebel leader Ernest Wamba dia Wamba said his forces killed about 400 Burundi Hutu rebels fighting with the Congolese government troops and promised to investigate the alleged New Year murder of 500 civilians.
    (SFC, 1/7/99, p.A10)

1999        Jan 22, In eastern Congo government and rebel authorities accepted UN care for hundreds of thousands displaced by war.
    (SFC, 1/23/99, p.A11)

1999        Jan-1999 Jul, In Congo soldier’s under Pres. Kabila fled advancing rebel troops and killed numerous inhabitants in their path in the Equateur region. An estimated 300-900 people were killed and graves began to be uncovered in 2000.
    (SFC, 4/15/00, p.A15)

1999        Mar 3, The Ugandan army killed 15 of the Rwanda Hutu rebels who butchered 8 foreign tourists Mar 1. Another 100 rebels escaped into the bush inside the Republic of the Congo.
    (SFC, 3/5/99, p.A12)

1999        Mar 4, Congo rebels who served under Mobutu Sese Seko took the town of Bolobo, upstream from Kinshasa.
    (SFC, 3/5/99, p.D2)

1999        Mar 14, In southeastern Congo rebels reportedly killed over 100 villagers in retaliation for an attack by pro-government militia. Moise Nyarugabo, head of the rebel Congolese Democratic Coalition said his forces killed at least 150 Zimbabwean soldiers allied to Kabila at Kabinda. Zimbabwe denied the report.
    (SFC, 3/15/99, p.A9)(SFC, 3/17/99, p.C3)

1999        Mar 22, In Congo Mai Mai warriors hired by Rwanda were reported to have killed 100 people. Rwanda denied the report.
    (WSJ, 3/24/99, p.A1)

1999        Mar 24, In Congo a massacre of 250 people in the Kivu region was reported. The slayings by Rwandan troops appeared to be in retaliation for earlier attacks by Congolese Mai Mai tribesmen.
    (SFC, 3/25/99, p.A10)

1999        Apr 18, Pres. Kabila and Ugandan Pres. Museweni signed a cease-fire agreement that was mediated by Libyan leader Moammar Khadafy. Rwanda and Congolese rebels rejected the deal.
    (SFC, 5/29/99, p.A11)

1999        Apr 19, Kabila in 1997 set this date for presidential and legislative elections.
    (SFC, 5/30/97, p.A15)

1999        Apr 28, In eastern Congo Gov. Kanyamuhanga Gafunzi ordered 100,000 Rwandan refugees in Kivu province to go home within 15 days for supporting Hutu rebels.
    (SFC, 4/29/99, p.D8)

1999        Apr, The two Congos on opposite shores jointly signed a repatriation agreement with the UN High Commissioner for Refugees (UNHCR), and people who were prepared to return did so during the week of May 5-14, 1999. 353 returnees disappeared and were widely believed to have been murdered.
    (http://tinyurl.com/y44ztgjf)(AFP, 5/14/19)

1999        May 5, It was reported that over 63 people had died from an unknown disease that appeared to be a type of hemorrhagic fever. Most of the dead were gold miners and died within 6 days of becoming ill. The disease was caused by the Marburg virus.
    (SFC, 5/5/99, p.A11)(SFC, 5/7/99, p.D2)

1999        May 11, In Congo a government plane bombed rebel strongholds at Goma and Uvira and at least 28 people were killed according to Gen'l. Celestin Ilunga.
    (SFC, 5/12/99, p.C10)

1999        May 17, Ernest Wamba dia Wamba was ousted as the rebel leader of the Congolese Democratic Coalition.
    (SFC, 5/18/99, p.C12)(SFC, 8/16/99, p.A8)

1999        May 19, In Congo the rebel Congolese Democratic Coalition named Emile Ilunga as their new leader.
    (SFC, 5/20/99, p.A13)

1999        May 28, Rwanda declared a unilateral cease-fire in Congo where it was backing rebels to oust Pres. Kabila.
    (SFC, 5/29/99, p.A11)

1999        Jun, Ernest Wamba dia Wamba, head of the Rally for Congolese Democracy, moved his headquarters from Kisangani to Bunia. He declared a new province called Kibali-Ituri and appointed a Hema tribesperson as governor. This ignited a new round of fighting between the cattle-raising Hema and agrarian Lendu tribes.
    (SFC, 2/9/00, p.A13)

1999        Jul 1, In Congo fighting intensified as rebels advanced on key diamond areas near Kabinda and Miba.
    (SFC, 7/2/99, p.A18)

1999        Jul 2, The Congo government and rebel officials said they had reached an accord to end the 11-month war in the Democratic Republic of the Congo. Rebel forces were to be merged with the government army.
    (SFC, 7/3/99, p.A10)

1999        Jul 4, In Congo Abdulaiye Yerodia, the foreign minister, objected to the inclusion of foreign rebels in a joint military commission to verify terms of a cease-fire. Meanwhile The Congolese Liberation Movement, led by Jena-Pierre Bemba, took Gbadolite, 750 miles northeast of Kinshasa.
    (SFC, 7/5/99, p.A12)

1999        Jul 10, In Zambia 5 nations involved in the Congo civil war signed a peace accord.
    (SFC, 8/2/99, p.A12)

1999        Jul 11, In Congo rebels dismissed the peace agreement signed by 6 countries involved in the war and said the war would continue and get worse.
    (SFC, 7/12/99, p.A9)

1999        Aug 1, In Zambia Jean-Pierre Bemba, head of the Congo Liberation Movement, signed the cease-fire accord that representatives of 5 nations involved had signed on July 10. The Congolese Rally for Democracy faction still contested leadership between Ernest Wamba dia Wamba and Emile Ilunga.
    (SFC, 8/2/99, p.A12)

1999        Aug 4, In Congo at least 518 people, mostly civilians, were killed when Sudanese planes, at the request of Congo's government, bombed the rebel-held towns of Makanza and Bogbonga. Sudan denied the charges and Congolese Pres. Kabila denied responsibility.
    (SFC, 8/5/99, p.A12)(SFC, 8/7/99, p.A12)

1999        Aug 11, In Congo warring sides agreed to stop fighting until Aug 20 to allow the UN to vaccinate 10 million children against polio.
    (WSJ, 8/12/99, p.A1)

1999        Aug 15, Fighting in Kisangani (formerly Stanleyville) extended from the airport to the city center between forces from Uganda and Rwanda. Rebel leader Ernest Wamba dia Wamba was backed by Uganda, while Emile Ilunga was backed by Rwanda.
    (SFC, 8/16/99, p.A8)

1999        Aug 17, Rwanda and Uganda agreed to an immediate truce to 4 days of fighting in Kisangani, Congo.
    (SFC, 8/18/99, p.A12)

1999        Aug 24, Congo rebel leaders agreed to sign a peace accord.
    (WSJ, 8/25/99, p.A1)

1999        Aug 31, Congolese rebels signed a cease-fire in Zambia.
    (SFC, 9/1/99, p.A16)

1999        Oct 7, Rwanda reported that army troops and Congolese allies had killed over 200 Rwandan Hutu rebels over a weeklong operation along the border where 4,000 Hutu rebels had been based.
    (SFC, 10/9/99, p.A11)

1999        Oct 8, In Congo Pres. Kabila ordered foreign businessmen to put down a $500,000 guarantee by Dec. 21 or leave the country. The order came less than a week after he ordered a crackdown on Congo's illegal foreign exchange market, the shutdown of the main commercial district and the arrest of currency traders.
    (SFC, 10/9/99, p.A11)

1999        Oct 22, The Italian missionary news agency MISNA reported that the bodies of 61 civilians were reported found near the Congo village of Kashambi.
    (SFC, 10/23/99, p.A11)

1999        Nov 8, It was reported that 2 Congo rebel leaders were resuming their war on Kabila.
    (WSJ, 11/8/99, p.A1)

1999        Nov 9, Government forces bombed Nkembe. Rebel spokesman Kien-Kiey Mulumba said he would no longer honor the peace accord after the government killed 100 civilians in 4 days of fighting.
    (SFC, 11/10/99, p.A14)(SFC, 11/12/99, p.D2)

1999        Nov 23, In Congo Mayi-Mayi tribal fighters, armed mostly with bows and arrows, attacked Ugandan soldiers near Butembo and some 200 fighters were killed including about 100 Mayi-Mayi.
    (SFC, 11/25/99, p.D6)

1999        Dec 2, Congo rebels besieged a large contingent of Zimbabwean troops allied with Kabila and captured a Russian-built transport plane and 120 prisoners.
    (SFC, 12/3/99, p.A1)
1999        Dec 2, Congolese rebels lost Bokungu as Zimbabwean soldiers broke through to save surrounded comrades at Ikela airport.
    (SFC, 12/4/99, p.A14)

1999        Dec 31, In Congo Jean-Pierre Bemba said his Congolese Liberation Movement forces had ambushed and killed 80 government troops at Libanda.
    (SFC, 1/1/00, p.D4)

1999        Edward Hooper authored "The River," a detailed hypothesis for the origin of AIDS in Africa. He suspected that the Wister polio vaccine, which was given to some 300,000 people in the Belgian Congo between 1957-1960, was produced from monkey kidney cells that contained SIV virus.
    (SSFC, 1/14/01, p.A1,14)(www.avert.org/origins.htm)

1999        A local dispute between Hema and Lendu tribes people began over a farm in Djugu. The disputes broadened and led to substantial killings.
    (SFC, 1/29/01, p.A14)

1999        A UN peacekeeping force (MONUC) was deployed to Congo, but failed to keep anyone safe. In 2004 the UN Security Council ordered an expansion of forces from 10,000 to 16,000.
    (Econ, 12/4/04, p.45)

2000        Jan 24, Pres. Kabila met with other African presidents at the UN to end the Congo civil war. Kabila demanded that the UN deploy a peace-keeping force to monitor the truce.
    (SFC, 1/25/00, p.A10)

2000        Feb 9, It was reported that video footage was smuggled out to Kenya from the Ituri district of Congo by the Christoffel Blinden Mission, a Christian charity for the blind. It depicted the escalating tribal slaughter in the area.
    (SFC, 2/9/00, p.A1)

2000        Feb 24, The UN Security Council approved a proposal to send as many as 5,537 observers and peace-keeping troops to the Congo.
    (SFC, 2/25/00, p.A16)

2000        Apr 14, In Congo several explosions took place at the airport in Kinshasa and a number of people were killed. State radio reported that a short circuit sparked a fire that triggered explosions at an army munitions depot and that a fire spread to a fuel depot. The death toll reached 101 and 216 seriously injured.
    (SFC, 4/15/00, p.A13)(SFEC, 4/16/00, p.A21)(SFC, 4/17/00, p.A12)

2000        Apr 19, In southern Congo 6 Rwandan army officers and 4 Russian crew members were killed when their Antonov-8 aircraft crashed on takeoff at Pepa.
    (SFC, 4/21/00, p.A20)(WSJ, 4/21/00, p.A1)

2000        May 4, Congo agreed to cooperate with UN plans for a 5,500 member observer force to monitor the cease-fire.
    (SFC, 5/5/00, p.A18)

2000        May 5, In Congo Ugandan and Rwandan troops clashed at Kisangani and at least 10 civilians were killed and 100 wounded.
    (SFC, 5/6/00, p.C1)

2000        May 7, Pres. Kagami announced that Rwanda was prepared to quickly implement a phased withdrawal from Congo.
    (SFC, 5/8/00, p.A12)

2000        May 8, In Congo the city of Kisangani (formerly Stanleyville) was declared a neutral zone as Rwanda and Uganda agreed to withdraw their troops from the area and allow UN forces to take over.
    (SFC, 5/9/00, p.A12)

2000        May 16, In Congo an immediate pullout from Kisangani of forces from Rwanda and Uganda was agreed to in a bid to avert a wider war.
    (WSJ, 5/17/00, p.A1)

2000        Jun 7, In Congo troops from Uganda and Rwanda fought an artillery duel in Kisangani that set the city’s cathedral on fire.
    (WSJ, 6/8/00, p.A1)

2000        Jun 9, The 22-month civil war averaged some 2,600 deaths every day. The total was estimated at 1.7 million dead.
    (SFC, 6/9/00, p.A20)

2000        Jun 11, In Congo Rwandan troops drove Ugandan forces from Kisangani to end a week of indiscriminate shelling.
    (SFC, 6/12/00, p.A13)

2000        Aug 10, Rebels fought government troops near Dongo. Jean-Pierre Bemba, head of the Ugandan backed Congolese Liberation Movement, said his rebels had killed some 800 government soldiers on riverboats using missiles.
    (SFC, 8/12/00, p.A11)

2000        Aug 12, In Congo a Russian-made Antonov crashed on approach to Tshikapa and 27 people were killed.
    (WSJ, 8/14/00, p.A1)

2000        Sep 9, Rebels captured Dongo and forced the retreat of government troops toward Imese. Scores were killed in a 36-hour battle.
    (SFC, 9/11/00, p.13)

2000        Sep 11, In Congo rebels and Ugandan troops killed at least 30 pro-Kabila Mai-Mai fighters at Butembo in the Masisi region.
    (SFC, 9/13/00, p.A14)

2000        Nov 5, In Congo at least 20 people were killed in Bunia, before Uganda sent in tanks and troops to protect Ernest Wamba dia Wamba in a dispute with Mbusa Nyamwisi.
    (SFC, 11/8/00, p.B4)

2000        Dec 4, In southern Congo over 10,000 refugees were driven into northern Zambia due to renewed fighting over the last 12 days.
    (SFC, 12/5/00, p.A16)

2000        In CongoDRC Lyn Lusi (d.2012), British born administrator, and her Congolese husband set up a hospital in Goma to train Congolese doctors. It was destroyed by a volcano in 2002. They rebuilt it and named it HEAL Africa.
    (Econ, 3/31/12, p.110)(http://www.opusprize.org/winners/11_lusi.cfm)
2000        Asylum seekers fled to the Republic of Congo when the rebel Movement for the Liberation of Congo under Jean-Pierre Bemba overtook the Equateur province.
    (SFC, 5/28/02, p.E1)
2000        The Democratic Forces for the Liberation of Rwanda (FDLR) was formed after the Kinshasa-based Hutu command and the Kivu-based Army for the Liberation of Rwanda (ALiR) agreed to merge.
2000        It was estimated that Rwanda made $20 million per month mining coltan in Congo DRC. The mineral is used in the manufacture of capacitors for electronic equipment.

2001        Jan 16, In Congo Pres. Kabila was assassinated by one of his bodyguards, Rashidi Kasereka, who was immediately killed. In 2003 a military court sentenced 26 people to death for the assassination.
    (SFC, 1/17/01, p.A1)(SFC, 1/24/01, p.A12)(SFC, 1/8/03, p.A16)

2001        Jan 17, In Congo government ministers named Joseph Kabila, son of Laurent Kabila, as temporary head of state.
    (SFC, 1/18/01, p.A13)

2001        Jan 18, The Congo government announced the death of Laurent Kabila.
    (SFC, 1/19/01, p.A16)

2001        Jan 19, Fighting between Congo’s Hema and Lendu tribes people left about 118 Hema dead along with 159 Lendu.
    (SFC, 1/29/01, p.A12,14)

2001        Feb 2, Congo’s Pres. Joseph Kabila called for the armies of Rwanda, Uganda and Burundi to withdraw and promised that troops from Angola, Namibia and Zimbabwe would leave after stability was restored.
    (SFC, 2/3/01, p.A8)
2001        Feb 2, Hutu militiamen backing Joseph Kabila ambushed a bus in rebel-controlled eastern Congo and killed 11 passengers.
    (SFC, 2/6/01, p.A10)

2001        Feb 15, The warring parties met and Joseph Kabila agreed to initiate talks with rebel groups. The rebel Movement for the Liberation of Congo agreed to endorse a details withdrawal plan.
    (SFC, 2/16/01, p.A16)

2001        Feb 27, Rwanda began pulling back troops from a front-line Congo town.
    (WSJ, 2/28/01, p.A1)

2001        Feb 28, In Congo 3,000 troops from Rwanda and 150 from Uganda withdrew. All warring parties were scheduled to make way for an 18-mile buffer zone, to be monitored by the UN, by March 15.
    (SFC, 3/1/01, p.A10)

2001        Mar 7, Congo soldiers killed some of the 11 Lebanese nationals detained in the aftermath of the Kabila assassination.
    (SFC, 3/8/01, p.A16)

2001        Mar 13, Rebel leader Jean-Pierre Bemba completed his troop withdrawal from the front lines. The Congolese army and allies soon followed.
    (SFC, 3/16/01, p.A15)

2001        Mar 29, UN troops from Uruguay began to set up camp on Lake Tanganyika for their mission to help end the Congo civil war.
    (SFC, 3/30/01, p.D4)

2001        Apr 15, Rebels backed by Rwanda blocked the deployment of UN peacekeepers in Goma and demanded that the UN first condemn atrocities by Congo.
    (WSJ, 4/16/01, p.A1)

2001        Apr 26, In northeastern Congo 6 Red Cross workers were killed 30 miles north of Bunia.
    (SFC, 4/28/01, p.A10)

2001        May 4, In Goma, Congo, a ferry flipped at a dock on Lake Kivu and at least 19 people died.
    (SFC, 5/5/01, p.D1)

2001        May 7, A report by the Int’l. Rescue Committee estimated the death toll in Congo’s 33-month war at 2 ½ million people, mostly due to disease and malnutrition.
    (SFC, 5/5/01, p.A1)(WSJ, 5/10/01, p.A1)

2001        Jun 15, The UN voted to keep peacekeepers in Congo for another year.
    (SFC, 6/16/01, p.A7)

2001        Aug 20, Congo’s Pres. Kabila met with his main rival leaders for the 1st time to establish a transitional government and end 3 years of war.
    (SFC, 8/21/01, p.A7)

2001        Sep 2, Namibia confirmed that it had pulled all its troops from all of Congo except the capital. Uganda said it had pulled 6 of 10 battalions.
    (SFC, 9/3/01, p.A10)

2001        Sep 23, Congo rebel leader Adolphe Onusumba acknowledged peace talks with Zimbabwe’s Pres. Mugabe.
    (SFC, 9/24/01, p.B2)

2002        Jan 17, In CongoDRC the Mount Nyiragongo volcano erupted near Goma. Rivers of lava destroyed 14 villages. Goma was devastated and some 400,000 people fled their homes. About 250 people were killed and many sought refuge in Rwanda.
    (SFC, 1/18/02, p.A8)(SFC, 1/19/02, p.A1)(SSFC, 1/20/02, p.A16)(SSFC, 10/18/20, p.B10)

2002        Jan 21, Thousands of Congolese left Rwanda to return to Goma after receiving scant help.
    (SFC, 1/21/02, p.A3)

2002        Jan 22, In Goma, Congo, a gas station exploded after some spilled gas was ignited by lava. Dozens of people looting gasoline were killed.
    (SFC, 1/22/02, p.A6)

2002        Jan 23, In Congo some 22.5 tons of food was distributed to the volcano stricken people of Goma.
    (SFC, 1/24/02, p.A8)

2002        Feb 16, It was reported that over 40 people in Congo had been killed and dozens injured from massive mudslides triggered by rains.
    (SFC, 2/16/02, p.A26)

2002        Feb 26, In Congo peace talks were suspended a day after the opening ceremony due to wrangling over which political parties would be allowed to participate.
    (SFC, 2/27/02, p.A7)

2002        Apr 11, Congo’s government and rebels agreed to integrate into a new national army during peace talks in South Africa.
    (SFC, 4/12/02, p.A9)

2002        Apr 19, Congo peace talks broke down over power-sharing.
    (SFC, 4/20/02, p.A13)

2002        May 14, An uprising in Kisangani, Congo, left 163 people dead. Three top commanders: Barnard Biamungu, commander of the RCD's fifth brigade; Laurent Nkunda, seventh brigade commander; and Gabriel Amisi, assistant chief of staff for logistics were identified as part of the Rally for Democracy, the Rwandan-backed rebel group responsible for the massacre.
    (SFC, 6/1/02, p.A11)(AP, 8/19/02)

2002        May, The refugee numbers in Congo reached over 362,000.
    (SFC, 5/28/02, p.E5)

2002        Jun 11, An investigation began into claims by Congo’s Hemu community that some 2,400 of its people had been killed since April by the Lendu tribe and rebel allies.
    (SFC, 6/12/02, p.A14)

2002        Jul 22, Congolese and Rwandan leaders said that they've reached an agreement to end a four-year war in Congo, a fight that has defied resolution as it drew in eight African countries and claimed more than two million lives.
    (AP, 7/22/02)

2002        Jul 24, In Congo Hutu rebels rejected a peace deal that would force them back to Rwanda.
    (WSJ, 7/25/02, p.A1)

2002        Jul 30, The leaders of Congo and Rwanda signed a peace agreement, proclaiming it a key step in efforts to end a war that has embroiled six African nations and left 2.5 million people dead.
    (AP, 7/30/02)

2002        Aug 6, In northeastern Congo fighting began between rebels and tribesmen for control of Bunia, an important trading center, and killed at least 48 people, mostly civilians.
    (AP, 8/10/02)

2002        Aug 9, In northeastern Congo United Nations observers discovered a grave containing the hacked bodies of 38 women and children outside Bunia.
    (AP, 8/10/02)

2002        Aug 11, In Congo fighting around Bunia ended and at least 110 civilians were killed and more than 70 injured. More than 10,000 families were displaced during the fighting.
    (AP, 8/14/02)
2002        Aug 11, In eastern Congo renovation work uncovered the remains of 38 people buried in a communal grave at the site where the United Nations began building new headquarters for its peacekeeping force.
    (AP, 12/13/02)

2002        Aug 15, Uganda has agreed to withdraw its troops from neighboring Congo, where they were sent four years ago to support Congolese rebels and root out Ugandan insurgents.
    (AP, 8/16/02)

2002        Aug 28, The United Nations confirmed that Uganda and Zimbabwe have begun their pledged troop withdrawals from Congo.
    (AP, 8/28/02)

2002        Sep 5, In Congo some  6,000 Ngiti and Lendu tribe tribal fighters and their allies attacked the mission hospital in Nyankunde, slaughtering patients in their beds. They killed some 650 people from the Bira, Hema and 16 other tribes on the 1st day of the attacks.
    (AP, 12/24/02)

2002        Sep 14, In Congo DRC it was reported that some 1,200 people had died from a cholera epidemic and that another 18,000 were infected.
    (SFC, 9/14/02, p.A20)

2002        Sep 17, Rwanda began withdrawing troops from eastern Congo as part of an agreement signed with the Congolese government to end the four-year civil war in Africa's third-largest nation.
    (AP, 9/17/02)

2002        Oct 1, Rwanda began pulling out 6,000 troops from a Congo border province, the latest stage in a withdrawal of all its forces that it hopes to complete by week's end.
    (AP, 10/1/02)

2002        Oct 5, Rwanda withdrew its last troops from neighboring Congo, with some 1,100 soldiers marching in single file out of the war-ravaged country.
    (AP, 10/5/02)

2002        Oct 13, In eastern Congo fighting broke out in a strategic port when pro-government tribal fighters tried to wrest control of the town from rebels.
    (AP, 10/12/02)

2002        Oct 19, A rebel group in Congo said that it recaptured a strategic port in the eastern part of the country and took dozens of prisoners after heavy fighting.
    (AP, 10/19/02)

2002        Oct 21, A UN panel accused criminal groups linked to the armies of Rwanda, Uganda, Zimbabwe and Congo of plundering Congo's riches, and called on the United Nations to impose financial restrictions on 29 companies and 54 individuals.
    (AP, 10/21/02)

2002        Nov 11, Pres. Joseph Kabila has suspended every official accused in a U.N. report on the plunder of Congo's gold, diamond and other riches.
    (AP, 11/12/02)

2002        Nov 17, In Ankoro, Congo, government troops torched homes and shot residents in apparent reprisals for the beating of a soldier. Estimates of the death toll ranged from 29 to over 100.
    (AP, 11/21/02)

2002        Nov 24, Negotiations between the Congolese government and two rebel groups produced an agreement in principle on the workings of a transitional government.
    (AP, 11/24/02)

2002        Nov 26, The World Health Organization confirmed an outbreak of flu in rebel-controlled northern Congo, and the country's health minister said more than 500 people have died.
    (AP, 11/26/02)

2002        Nov 27, A WHO official said simultaneous outbreaks of the flu and meningitis have killed 185 people in a rebel-controlled area of northwestern Congo.
    (AP, 11/27/02)

2002        Dec 17, Congo's government, rebels and political opposition signed a power-sharing agreement after four years of war and 2.5 million lives lost.
    (AP, 12/17/02)

2003        Jan 7, In Congo a military court convicted and sentenced 26 people to death in the Jan 16, 2001 assassination of Congo's president, Laurent Kabila.
    (AP, 1/7/03)(SFC, 1/8/03, p.A16)

2003        Jan 8, A UN team was reported to be investigating reports that Congolese rebel troops had killed and eaten Pygmies in northeastern Congo. UN authorities confirmed the reports Jan 15 and identified the rebel campaign as "Operation Clean Slate."
    (AP, 1/8/03)(SFC, 1/16/03, p.A9)

2003        Jan 21, Congo’s health minister reported that a flu epidemic had killed more than 2,000 people in a far northern province.
    (AP, 1/21/03)

2003        Feb 2, A tornado tore through remote villages in Bandundu province in central Congo, killing 164 people, destroying homes and ruining crops.
    (AP, 2/6/03)

2003          Feb 24, In northeastern Congo hundreds of civilians were killed and hundreds more were missing after Congolese rebels allied with the government seized a key town and launched a two-day campaign of murder, rape, looting and destruction. In 2009 Germain Katanga and Mathieu Ngudjolo faced trial for planning and directing the massacre of more than 200 villagers in Bogoro.
    (AP, 3/1/03)(AP, 11/25/09)

2003          Mar 6, The Congolese government and rebels have agreed in Pretoria to meld their armed forces into a new national army in a bid to end a 4 ½-year civil war and reunify the vast central African nation.
    (AP, 3/7/03)

2003        Mar 18, Congo leaders signed a cease-fire with tribal militias and local chiefs in northeastern Congo.
    (AP, 3/18/03)

2003        Mar 19, In northeastern Congo 22 people were hacked to death.
    (AP, 3/21/03)

2003        Mar 22, In eastern Congo an overloaded ferry traveling between rebel-held ports sank in Lake Tanganyika, killing 111 people. It was sailing in Burundian waters to avoid rival tribal fighters.
    (AP, 3/24/03)

2003        Apr 1, Congo's government agreed to a power-sharing deal with rebel groups.
    (AP, 4/2/03)

2003        Apr 3, In northeastern Congo 966 people were killed in attacks by armed militants on villages in Ituri province. UN investigators later discovered some 20 mass graves in the region.
    (AP, 4/6/03)

2003        Apr 24, In Congo at least 60 members of the Lendu tribe were killed by the rival Hema in the Ituri region near the Uganda border. The attack was ordered by Hema militia leader Chief Yves Kahwa Mandro. The Lendu then killed about 60 Hema who were fleeing to Uganda to escape ongoing violence.
    (AP, 4/28/03)

2003        May 8, Rival tribal fighters battled for control of a northeastern Congolese town, killing at least 21 people and forcing thousands to flee. Fighters of the Union of Congolese Patriots, a rebel group dominated by Hema tribesmen, had attacked Bunia in a bid to seize its airport
    (AP, 5/8/03)
2003        May 8, A Russian-built cargo plane lost a back door ramp over Congo, hurling more than 100 Congolese soldiers and their families to their deaths.
    (Reuters, 5/9/03)(AP, 5/8/04)

2003        May 10, In northeastern Congo tribal militias battled for control of Bunia, killing at least 14 people.
    (AP, 5/11/03)

2003        May 15, Fleeing Congo civilians jammed roads out of Bunia by the thousands, trying to escape rival ethnic militias battling for control with mortars and machetes.
    (AP, 5/15/03)

2003        May 16, In northeastern Congo rival tribes fighting signed a cease-fire.
    (AP, 5/16/03)

2003        May 18, In northeastern Congo the savagely killed bodies of 2 UN military observers were found after having been reported missing for several days.
    (AP, 5/19/03)

2003        May 16, In northeastern Congo rival tribes fighting signed a cease-fire. There were over 100 confirmed killings and evidence of cannibalism.
    (AP, 5/16/03)(SFC, 5/20/03, p.A8)

2003        May 21, In northeastern Congo the death toll from more than a week of tribal fighting rose to 280 people.
    (AP, 5/22/03)

2003        Jun 14, French troops leading an international force engaged in a firefight with gunmen for the first time in their mission to stabilize the northeastern Congolese town of Bunia.
    (AP, 6/14/03)

2003        Jun 19, The Congolese government and two rebel factions agreed to halt fighting in an eastern region and pull back from newly occupied areas, hours after a battle for a key town there killed dozens of people.
    (AP, 6/19/03)

2003        Jun 29, Warring sides in Congo agreed on the formation of a unified military.
    (AP, 6/29/03)

2003        Jul 17, Congo's main rebel leaders were sworn as vice presidents in a new power-sharing government, designed to end the country's nearly 5-year civil war. 4 vice presidents represented the ruling party, the opposition party and 2 rebel groups.
    (AP, 7/17/03)(Econ, 8/9/03, p.39)

2003        Jul 24, Eleven aid workers believed abducted by Rwandan and Burundian rebels in a restive eastern province of war-ravaged Congo were killed.
    (AP, 8/7/03)

2003        Jul 25, In northeastern Congo thousands of tribal fighters attacked three villages with mortars, rocket-propelled grenades and assault rifles, killing as many as 150 people.
    (AP, 7/29/03)

2003        Aug 28, The WWF reported that the hippos of Congo's Virunga national Park have been nearly wiped out by poachers and civil war.
    (WSJ, 8/29/03, p.A1)

2003        Aug 31, It was reported that Congo tribal fighters killed at least 200 people over the last month and abducted scores more during a series of attacks that destroyed, Fataki, a northeast town once controlled by a rival tribe.
    (AP, 8/31/03)

2003        Oct 6, In northeastern Congo dozens of tribal fighters attacked Katchele village with assault rifles and machetes, killing at least 65 people, mainly children, looting property and setting huts on fire.
    (AP, 10/7/03)

2003        Oct, A bolt of lightning killed 11 students at the Mpimba Institute in Bikoro, Congo.
    (SFC, 10/18/03, p.A26)

2003        Nov 1, Two small rebel groups, the last rebel holdouts in eastern Congo, agreed to join the country's transitional government. Leaders, Patrick Masunzu and Aaron Nyamushebwa, agreed to join the government and integrate their forces into a new national army.
    (AP, 11/4/03)

2003        Nov 5, Pres. Bush met with Congo Pres. Joseph Kabila, who sought assurances of continued US humanitarian aid. The US has committed $77 million this year.
    (SFC, 11/6/03, p.A3)

2003        Nov 25, In Congo 2 ferries collided in a storm on Mai-Ndombe lake. At least 182 people were killed and more than 100 others were missing.
    (AP, 11/27/03)(AP, 11/28/03)

2003        Nov 29, In central Congo a Soviet-made plane crashed, killing 33, including 13 people on the ground.
    (AP, 11/29/03)(AP, 12/2/03)

2003        Dec 4, Congo health officials were investigating the poison deaths of 64 people, allegedly from a potion used to ward off evil spirits. A Roman Catholic priest, who allegedly administered the drink, fled the village of Bosobe early last week after people started falling ill.
    (AP, 12/5/03)

2003        The civil war in Congo (DRC), which had claimed at least 4 million people, stood in its final throes. This was the largest death toll since WW II.
    (Econ, 6/14/08, p.63)
2003        In eastern Congo Germain Katanga and Mathieu Ngudjolo led militias including child soldiers who attacked the village of Bogoro, killing over 200 people including women and children. Many of the victims were hacked to death with machetes. In 2008 Katanga and Ngudjolo stood for trial at the Int’l. Criminal Court at The Hague, Netherlands.
    (SFC, 9/27/08, p.A3)

2004        Jan 28, It was reported that Angolan troops and police have driven at least 10,000 Congolese from northern Angola's diamond zones in a bloody month-old campaign.
    (AP, 1/30/04)

2004        Jan 26, Nearly 200 people were missing after a barge caught fire and sank in a river in northwestern Congo near Lukelela. At least 301 people survived.
    (AP, 2/1/04)

2004        Feb 12, In Congo a Kenyan army officer, investigating reports of fighting between the rival Hema and Lendu tribal militias, was shot to death when his U.N. military convoy came under fire in Ituri province.
    (AP, 2/14/04)

2004        Feb 18, The UN said it would redeploy 4,000 of its forces to Congo's volatile northeast, where peacekeepers have come under fire from rival ethnic militias fighting for control of mineral riches.
    (AP, 2/18/04)

2004        Feb 22, In southeast Congo a militia led by a commander named "Cut-Throat" massacred more than 100 civilians and soldiers.
    (AP, 2/24/04)

2004        Mar 28, In Kinshasa, Congo, government forces battled attackers at military installations and television headquarters. Diplomats called it a coup attempt against Pres. Joseph Kabila.
    (AP, 3/28/04)

2004        Apr 25, Clashes between Congolese troops and Rwandan insurgents in eastern Congo killed at least 61 people over the weekend.
    (AP, 4/26/04)

2004        Apr 28, The Dian Fossey fund reported that the lowland gorilla population in eastern Congo has dropped over 70% since 1994 due to human warfare.
    (WSJ, 4/29/04, p.A1)

2004        May 6, Hundreds of Rwandan rebels attacked Kingi village in volatile eastern Congo, sparking a two-hour battle in which at least five Congolese soldiers and insurgents were killed.
    (AP, 5/7/04)

2004        May 26, The UN mission in Democratic Republic of Congo is widening an investigation into allegations peacekeepers sexually abused minors in the northeastern town of Bunia.
    (AP, 5/26/04)

2004        May 29, Unidentified gunmen shot and killed a U.N. military observer in eastern Congo and a second was reported missing. About 10,800 U.N. troops are deployed in Congo, monitoring the peace deal and helping the government regain control of the country. Elections are scheduled for June 2005.
    (AP, 5/29/04)

2004        Jun 1, Congolese soldiers battled troops loyal to Brig. Gen. Laurent Nkunda, a renegade commander in eastern Congo, breaking a shaky cease-fire.
    (AP, 6/1/04)

2004        Jun 2, In Congo DRC forces loyal to renegade Congolese Tutsi commander Brig- Gen. Laurent Nkunda, captured Bukavo, a key eastern border city from government troops.
    (AP, 6/2/04)(Econ, 6/5/04, p.46)

2004        Jun 3, In Congo U.N. troops opened fire on rioters, killing two, as a mob broke into their base and tens of thousands of protesters overran the capital city of Kinshasa. Demonstrations swept the country over fighting in its volatile east.
    (AP, 6/3/04)

2004        Jun 6, In eastern Congo insurgents ambushed a U.N. convoy, killing two South African peacekeepers and wounding nine others in continuing.
    (AP, 6/6/04)

2004        Jun 9, In eastern Congo Government forces regained control of Bukavu without a fight as rebel forces fled.
    (AP, 6/9/04)

2004        Jun 11, Congo's government said its security forces had put down an attempted coup by dissidents in President Joseph Kabila's personal guard.
    (AP, 6/11/04)
2004        Jun 11, Two crowded boats collided on a lake straddling the Congo-Rwanda border on and one of them capsized, with some 80 people believed trapped aboard.
    (AP, 6/11/04)

2004        Jun 14, UN humanitarian chief Jan Egeland said Eastern Congo is rapidly turning into a major humanitarian disaster, with 3.3 million people out of reach of relief groups.
    (Reuters, 6/14/04)

2004        Jul 3, Rwanda reopened its border with the Democratic Republic of Congo, further reducing tension between the two countries.
    (AFP, 7/3/04)

2004        Jul 27, The U.N. Security Council extended an arms embargo on Congo for a year as fighting continued between rival factions.
    (AP, 7/27/04)

2004        Aug 23, Azarias Ruberwa, prominent Tutsi and one of Congo’s 4 vice-presidents, announced that he and his party (RCD-Goma) were walking out of the transitional government.
    (Econ, 8/28/04, p.40)

2004        Oct 10, In eastern Congo 2 boat accidents on Lake Kivu killed 68 people.
    (AP, 10/12/04)

2004        Oct 16, Congo Pres. Joseph Kabila visited northeastern territory formerly held by rebels. The army claimed to have retaken a village near Zambia and killed at least 20 militiamen.
    (AP, 10/16/04)

2004        Oct, Congo’s government quelled an uprising near a mine owned by Australia’s Anvil Mining Ltd. The UN later accused Anvil of providing the government with vehicles and planes in the operation that killed scores of villagers. In 2007 a military court jailed two Congolese army officers for life for the 2004 massacre of civilians. The verdict cleared three Canadian mining company employees of complicity.
    (WSJ, 3/20/07, p.A13)(AFP, 6/29/07)

2004        Nov 22, A senior UN official said the UN is investigating about 150 allegations of sexual abuse by UN civilian staff and soldiers in the Congo, some of them recorded on videotape. Health officials said an outbreak of a severe form of typhoid has killed at least 16 people in Kinshasa, sickening at least 144 more.
    (AP, 11/22/04)

2004        Nov 25, Congo Pres. Joseph Kabila suspended 6 cabinet ministers and 10 directors of state-run companies. A parliamentary inquiry alleged they had embezzled government funds.
    (AP, 11/26/04)

2004        Nov 26, Rwanda said it was ready to hold talks with Democratic Republic of Congo Pres. Joseph Kabila to defuse growing tensions over Rwandan rebels based in eastern Congo.
    (Reuters, 11/27/04)

2004        Nov 29, Congo said it will send up to 10,000 soldiers to its eastern province of North Kivu to prevent rebels and Rwandan forces from launching cross border attacks.
    (AP, 11/30/04)
2004        Nov 29, Rwandan troops attacked a town in eastern Congo. The next day a Congolese commander said at least 19 civilians were killed.
    (Reuters, 11/30/04)

2004        Nov 30, Congo-based Rwandan rebels, under threat of imminent attack by Rwanda, repeated an allegation that Rwandan troops had crossed the border in recent days to seize the vast country's mineral-rich east.
    (AP, 11/30/04)

2004        Dec 9, An aid agency reported that some 1,000 Congolese civilians a day are dying from disease and malnutrition, due to a festering conflict that has killed 3.8 million people.
    (AP, 12/9/04)

2004        Dec 11, Rival factions of Congo's army battled in the eastern region of the vast country, killing several people.
    (AP, 12/12/04)

2004        Dec 14, Congo's government insisted that its forces were fighting Rwandan troops in the mineral-rich east of the country and not dissident units of the national army.
    (Reuters, 12/14/04)

2004        Dec 17, The UN said foreign troops have crossed into Congo and called on outside forces to stop giving weapons and reinforcements to renegade soldiers battling army loyalists.
    (AP, 12/18/04)
2004        Dec 17, Dissident forces attacked the village of Buramba, Congo, targeting civilians suspected of sympathizing with pro-government militiamen. At least 30 civilians were killed in the massacre believed to have been a reprisal for the killing of 3 renegade soldiers by a pro-government militia.
    (AP, 1/7/05)

2004        Dec 19, UN officials said about 100,000 civilians in eastern Congo have fled a week of fighting between renegade soldiers and army loyalists, hiding deep into the forest where humanitarian workers cannot reach them.
    (AP, 12/19/04)

2004        Dec 22-2004 Dec 26, Government troops in eastern Congo battled Rwandan militiamen in growing violence between the former allies from the country's bloody 1998-2002 war.
    (AP, 12/27/04)

2005        Jan 7, Congo’s electoral commission hinted that elections scheduled for June would be postponed.
    (Econ, 1/22/05, p.44)

2005        Jan 10, Congo security forces fired bullets and tear gas at demonstrators burning tires in Congo's capital, killing at 4 people among thousands protesting a government decision to delay upcoming national elections.
    (AP, 1/10/05)(Econ, 1/22/05, p.44)

2005        Jan 14, A strike brought the capital of the Democratic Republic of Congo to a standstill as public transport shut down and businesses remained closed in protest at the possible postponement of elections.
    (AFP, 1/14/05)

2005        Jan 29, A UN spokesman said militiamen armed with guns and machetes killed 16 people and kidnapped at least 34 girls in attacks this week on a remote area of eastern Congo.
    (AP, 1/29/05)

2005        Feb 8, UNICEF said that it was providing urgently needed aid for 50,000 people caught up in an upsurge in fighting in Congo.
    (AP, 2/8/05)

2005        Feb 18, The World Health Organization (WHO) said an outbreak of plague in northeastern Democratic Republic of Congo has killed 61 diamond miners and infected hundreds more.
    (AP, 2/18/05)

2005        Feb 25, In Congo militiamen in the volatile Ituri district ambushed UN troops. 9 Bangladeshi peacekeepers were killed in what was the 4th deadliest attack on UN troops in Africa.
    (AP, 2/25/05)

2005        Mar 1, In Congo UN peacekeeping troops, backed by an attack helicopter, responded after being fired on and killed up to 60 militants accused of terrorizing villagers and killing nine Bangladeshi peacekeepers. Congo arrested an eastern militia leader and 2 generals related to the peacekeeper killings. Women fighters were among the 50 people killed by UN troops under Dutch Gen. Patrick Cammaert. On April 12 the human rights group Justice Plus listed names of several alleged civilian victims from the raid in eastern Congo and said they "paid with their life, while the mandate of the United Nations was to protect them."
    (AP, 3/2/05)(WSJ, 3/2/05, p.A1)(Reuters, 3/5/05)(Econ, 3/12/05, p.49)(AP, 4/13/05)

2005        Mar 7, An international human rights group said militiamen and renegade soldiers have raped and beaten tens of thousands of women and young girls in eastern Congo, and nearly all the crimes have gone unpunished by the country's broken judicial system.
    (AP, 3/7/05)

2005        Mar 16, UN peacekeepers charged that militiamen in northeast Congo grilled bodies on a spit and boiled two girls alive as their mother watched, adding cannibalism to a list of atrocities allegedly carried out by Lendu warriors.
    (AP, 3/17/05)(Econ, 3/12/05, p.49)

2005        Mar 19, Congo soldiers arrested Thomas Lubanga, a warlord accused of years of atrocities in eastern Congo, where UN officials say rival militias have created the world's worst ongoing humanitarian crisis.
    (AP, 3/22/05)

2005        Apr 1, UN officials said a cholera epidemic has killed at least 4 and infected dozens in a squalid camp for displaced people in northeastern Congo, and it threatens to spread across the entire region.
    (AP, 4/1/05)

2005        Apr 2, UN troops killed up to 38 militia fighters during a raid by hundreds of peacekeepers backed by helicopter gunships in the Ituri district of eastern Congo.
    (Reuters, 4/2/05)

2005        Apr 18, The UN Security Council voted unanimously to widen the arms embargo in Congo as part of stepped-up efforts to bring peace to the African country's volatile east.
    (AP, 4/18/05)
2005        Apr 18, The annual Goldman Environmental Prizes were awarded in San Francisco. Recipients included Corneille E.N. Ewango of Congo for his efforts in animal and plant protection during a decade of civil war.
    (SFC, 4/18/05, p.B2)

2005        May 5, In central Congo a Russian-made airplane crashed, killing 10 of the 11 passengers aboard.
    (AP, 5/5/05)

2005        May 12, Gunmen ambushed a UN peacekeeping patrol in Congo's restless eastern Ituri region, killing one soldier and injuring five.
    (AP, 5/12/05)

2005        May 14, Congo's legislature adopted a constitution that reduces the required age for presidential candidates, a change that would allow President Joseph Kabila to stand in the country's next elections.
    (AP, 5/15/05)

2005        May 18, A UN report said Rwandan Hutu rebels operating in eastern Congo have killed, raped, or kidnapped more than 900 civilians over the past year.
    (AP, 5/18/05)

2005        May 23, In eastern Congo militiamen calling themselves Rastas killed at least 18 people and kidnapped at least 50 others in a late-night attack on the village of Ninja, hacking their victims to death as they ran for safety.
    (AP, 5/24/05)
2005        May 23, A Russian-made plane crashed shortly after takeoff near Bunyakiri, Congo, killing 26 people.
    (AP, 5/23/06)

2005        Jun 22, Senior peacekeepers said more than 15,000 gunmen have joined a UN disarmament process in Congo's Ituri district but that militias were still rearming and regrouping despite intense UN military operations.
    (Reuters, 6/22/05)

2005        Jun 27, In northeastern Congo militia fighters using women and children as human shields battled with UN peacekeepers south of Bunia.
    (AP, 6/27/05)

2005        Jun 30, In Kinshasa riot police fired tear gas and beat demonstrators with batons as thousands protested delays to Congo's first postwar presidential elections. At least six died in violence nationwide.
    (AP, 6/30/05)

2005        Jul 9, In Congo DRC Rwandan rebels burned 39 people alive, mostly women and children, when they torched the village of Mtulumamba in eastern Congo in what some locals said was punishment for supporting UN peacekeepers.
    (AP, 7/11/05)

2005        Jul 29, The UN Security Council voted unanimously to extend an arms embargo and other sanctions against Congo for another year.
    (AP, 7/29/05)

2005        Jul, Airborne researchers during the summer counted just 683 hippos on the Congolese side of Lake Edward, which straddles the Congo-Uganda border. In the 1970s researchers counted a record 9,600 hippos in the same area. The reduction of hippos and their dung, due to heavy poaching during civil strife, caused a severed drop in the population of tilapia fish.
    (WSJ, 11/19/05, p.A1)

2005        Aug 10, Congolese Vice President Azeria Ruberwa met with Ugandan President Yoweri Museveni in the Ugandan capital, Kampala. Ruberwa talked of his government's concerns about 14 Congolese men, suspected of plotting a coup, who were in Uganda. Rugunda said 8 men left before the expulsion order. The other six were given 48 hours to leave.
    (AP, 8/24/05)

2005        Sep 5, In eastern Congo a Russian-made airplane crashed in the forest, killing 7, including 3 Russian crew members.
    (AP, 9/5/05)

2005        Sep 12, An international environmental group warned that only 887 hippos are left in Congo, and that they will be extinct in the African country. The latest aerial survey puts the hippopotamus population in northeastern Congo's Virunga National Park down to under 1,000 animals, compared to some 29,000 in 1974.
    (AP, 9/12/05)

2005        Sep 30, Thousands of foreign militiamen in Congo appeared to ignore this day’s deadline to leave this central African country or be evicted by force.
    (AP, 9/30/05)

2005        Oct 28, The UN Security Council voted unanimously to extend the 16,700-member UN peacekeeping mission in Congo for a year and add 300 troops.
    (AP, 10/28/05)

2005        Oct 30, Congolese troops rescued four electoral workers from their militia captors in a raid that set off a battle that killed dozens of militiamen and one soldier. Some 40 Mayi-Mayi militiamen were killed by the army. One soldier was killed and three others injured.
    (AP, 11/2/05)

2005        Oct 31, Hundreds of government troops backed by U.N. peacekeepers began flushing heavily armed Rwandan rebels from eastern Congo, destroying insurgent camps and sending smoke rising above the restive region.
    (AP, 10/31/05)

2005        Nov 28, In eastern Democratic Republic of Congo, at least 60 people were killed when they were swept off the roof of a train into the river below as the train crossed a bridge.
    (AP, 11/29/05)

2005        Nov, Congolese soldiers engaged in a 6-day operation to clear militias from Virunga National Park. 14 rebels were killed and 321 captured.
    (WSJ, 11/19/05, p.A8)

2005        Dec 5, In Congo a magnitude 6.8 earthquake struck the Lake Tanganyika region of East Africa toppling dozens of homes in Kalemie and burying children in the rubble. Several people were reported killed.
    (AP, 12/05/05)(WSJ, 12/6/05, p.A1)

2005        Dec 18, Congo's war-beleaguered people voted in the first national ballot in over three decades, banging on polling-booth doors to be allowed in to say yes or no to a draft constitution meant to put the country on the path to democracy and lasting peace.
    (AP, 12/18/05)

2005        Dec 19, The International Court of Justice held Uganda responsible for the killing, torture and cruel treatment of civilians in Congo from August 1998 to July 1999 and ordered reparations. Fighting in the region raged for three more years and the armies withdrew only in June 2003, despite the court's order in July 2000 to halt operations and safeguard civilians.
    (AP, 12/19/05)

2005        Dec 20, The "Yes" vote in Democratic Republic of Congo's referendum on whether to accept a post-war constitution took a strong early lead after a poll seen as paving the way for elections next year.
    (AP, 12/20/05)

2005        Dec 24, Congolese and UN troops captured a militia base in the volatile east, as referendum results showed an overwhelming "Yes" to a new constitution intended to help end the country's conflict. UN and Congolese soldiers attacked militiamen in Ituri and Ugandan rebels in Kivu province killing some 80 rebels.
    (AP, 12/24/05)(Econ, 1/7/06, p.49)

2005        Dec 25-2005 Dec 26, Some 3,500 Congolese troops backed by 600 UN Indian peacekeepers battled Ugandan rebels near Congo's eastern city of Beni, leaving 35 rebels and one Indian UN soldier dead.
    (AP, 12/26/05)(AFP, 12/26/05)

2006        Jan 6, A study published in Britain's leading medical journal said war-ravaged Congo is suffering the world's deadliest humanitarian crisis, with 38,000 people dying each month mostly from easily treatable diseases.
    (AP, 1/6/06)

2006        Jan 11, Congo officials said a new constitution for was approved by a landslide vote, paving the way for historic presidential and parliamentary elections in March.
    (AP, 1/11/06)

2006        Jan 23, Ugandan rebels killed eight Guatemalan peacekeepers in Congo in an ambush near the border with Sudan. The gunbattle also left 15 attackers dead.
    (AP, 1/23/06)

2006        Jan 29, In eastern Congo rebels in Rutshuru forced a local radio station off the air after a wave of fighting and looting in the troubled Central African nation.
    (AP, 2/1/06)

2006        Feb 12, Jan Egeland, UN Under-Secretary-General for Humanitarian Affairs, said the international community must provide $680 million in aid for Congo this year to stop a humanitarian disaster that kills as many people as the 2004 Asian tsunami every six months.
    (Reuters, 2/12/06)

2006        Feb 13, The UN launched a $680 million aid plan for the Democratic Republic of Congo, complaining the world remained ignorant of what it called the worst humanitarian crisis since World War Two.
    (Reuters, 2/13/06)

2006        Feb 17, UN and government officials said 6 Congolese soldiers died of hunger in an army training camp that ran out of food in the east of the country.
    (AP, 2/17/06)

2006        Feb 18, The Democratic Republic of Congo adopted a new constitution aimed at bringing an end to decades of dictatorship, war and chaos in the vast country, and paving the way for elections by mid-2006.
    (AP, 2/18/06)

2006        Feb 20, In Congo Reuters obtained a copy of a 2005 report of a parliamentary investigation, established to probe business deals signed during Congo's 1996-1997 and 1998-2003 wars. The report said dozens of government contracts struck during Congo's wars must be renegotiated, some companies closed and leading individuals brought to justice.
    (Reuters, 2/20/06)

2006        Feb 23, A top UN humanitarian official said thousands of civilians have taken refuge on floating islands in the lakes of Congo's Katanga province to escape rape and murder by government and militia fighters.
    (Reuters, 2/23/06)

2006        Mar 1, Congolese army soldiers fighting alongside U.N. peacekeepers against ethnic militiamen mutinied and ransacked a UN camp in the east of the vast country. Hundreds of peacekeepers and thousands of government troops have fought for three days to dislodge militia fighters from the town of Tchei in northeastern Ituri district, where ethnic violence has killed 60,000 people since 1999.
    (Reuters, 3/1/06)(Reuters, 3/2/06)

2006        Mar 5, In eastern Congo UN troops killed several militia fighters during heavy clashes after a joint operation with the government army was aborted by a mutiny among its soldiers.
    (Reuters, 3/6/06)

2006        Mar 16, In Congo a defense ministry source said Defense Minister Adolphe Onusumba had written to the head of the army asking him to suspend or arrest General Widi Mbuilu Divioka, the army commander in Katanga province. The general was being accused of diverting military food trains for private business after at least 20 soldiers died from hunger or malnutrition at a southern camp.
    (Reuters, 3/16/06)
2006        Mar 16, Uganda's army said the leader of the Lord's Resistance Army (LRA) rebels had left a south Sudanese hideout and joined his deputy in the jungles of neighboring Congo.
    (AP, 3/16/06)

2006        Mar 17, Thomas Lubanga Dyilo, a Congolese militia leader accused of conscripting and enlisting children aged under 15 for warfare (1998-2002), became the first suspect sent for trial at the International Criminal Court (ICC) in the Netherlands.
    (Reuters, 3/17/06)(WSJ, 3/18/06, p.A1)

2006        Apr 2, In CongoDRC registration closed for multi-party elections. Over 70 people had filed for the presidency and 8,650 had signed up as candidates for the parliamentary elections.
    (Econ, 4/15/06, p.48)

2006        Apr 4, Human Rights Watch said tens of thousands of street children across Congo risk being recruited by political parties to create chaos, intimidate voters and contest the results of up-coming elections.
    (AP, 4/4/06)

2006        Apr 12, Government troops and UN peacekeepers launched a fresh military offensive in Congo's restive east, targeting Rwandan Hutu rebels blamed for attacking civilians at home and in Congo.
    (AP, 4/12/06)

2006        Apr 14, The Central African Republic said it has asked the International Criminal Court to investigate crimes against humanity allegedly committed by its former president and a Congolese vice president. Government spokesman Celestin Gamou said CAR suspects ex-President Ange-Felix Patasse and Congo Vice President Jean-Pierre Bemba of ordering or committing murder and rape against civilians, as well as of embezzling funds and destroying public and private property.
    (AP, 4/14/06)

2006        Apr 28, A cargo plane carrying telecom equipment crashed in eastern Congo, killing as many as eight passengers and crew on board. Another aircraft carrying three people disappeared in the same region.
    (AP, 4/28/06)

2006        Apr 29, The UN said reports of a Ugandan army incursion into Congo were "credible" after peacekeepers conducted a verification mission in the remote northeastern border region.
    (Reuters, 4/29/06)

2006        Apr 30, Congo's electoral commission said that national elections, the first in 40 years for the violence-plagued central African nation, will take place July 30, about a month later than planned.
    (AP, 4/30/06)

2006        May 1, Rwandan Hutu rebels attacked a village and an army camp in a raid that left 7 residents dead. Congolese troops killed six rebels during an attack at an army camp that also claimed the lives of a soldier and his wife.
    (AP, 5/2/06)

2006        May 10, The UN reported an upsurge of rapes, killings and torture by Congo's security forces and warned that UN peacekeepers overseeing the postwar transition in the country could end their cooperation with the police and army.
    (AP, 5/11/06)

2006        May 13, An international charity said rich countries are not giving enough money to help fight a humanitarian crisis in Congo, where more than 1,000 people die daily from violence, hunger and disease.
    (AP, 5/13/06)

2006        May 16, The UN mission Congo said Innocent Kaina, one of the founding members of a militia group in northeastern Congo, has been wounded and captured in fighting with the Congolese army.
    (Reuters, 5/16/06)

2006        May 23, Congo arrested a group of foreign security guards on suspicion of plotting a coup ahead of national elections. Interior Minister Theophile Mbemba said there were three Americans, 10 Nigerians and 12 South Africans among the group of 32 taken into custody. Mbemba said all the men had received visits from their respective ambassadors.
    (AP, 5/24/06)

2006        May 27, Congo released a group of South Africans, Nigerians and Americans arrested over what it called a suspected coup plot, saying it did not have time to try them itself before long-awaited national elections in July. In the volatile northeast Ituri district a Nepalese peacekeeper was killed and seven others were feared kidnapped by militiamen during a military operation. 2 peacekeepers were released on June 27. The remaining 5 were released July 8.
    (Reuters, 5/28/06)(AP, 5/29/06)(Reuters, 7/8/06)

2006        Jun 1, The German parliament overwhelmingly approved the government's plan to deploy German troops to the Democratic Republic of Congo during its July election, despite public skepticism about the mission.
    (AP, 6/1/06)

2006        Jun 20, UN Secretary-General Kofi Annan said in a report that Congo's armed forces and police are responsible for the majority of documented abuses against children in the chaotic country, sometimes abducting kids to carry equipment or for sex.
    (AP, 6/20/06)

2006        Jun 30, Campaigning began for Congo's first multiparty elections in more than 4 decades. Troops fired into a crowd and killed 12 protesters in retaliation for the death of a soldier in Matadi.
    (AP, 6/30/06)(Econ, 7/8/06, p.41)

2006        Jul 8, In Kinshasa, Congo, gunmen killed Mwamba Bapuwa (64), an independent journalist, a day after foreign donors called on the government to guarantee press freedoms ahead of historic elections this month. Bapuwa had recently criticized the government and survived a previous attack several months ago.
    (Reuters, 7/8/06)

2006        Jul 11, Police in Kinshasa, Congo, fired tear gas to break up stone-throwing demonstrators who were alleging electoral irregularities ahead of the country's first presidential vote in four decades.
    (AP, 7/12/06)

2006        Jul 17, Congo officials said Peter Karim, a warlord accused of kidnapping seven UN peacekeepers, has agreed to disband his militia and become a colonel in Congo's army. Gunmen opened fire on an election rally and killed several people in Congo's volatile east, the latest outburst of violence as the nation prepares for its first free legislative and presidential balloting in 46 years.
    (AP, 7/17/06)(AP, 7/19/06)

2006        Jul 24, A UNICEF report said more than 600 children die every day in war-ravaged Congo and even more are displaced, sexually abused or swept into the camps of combatant groups.
    (AP, 7/24/06)

2006        Jul 27, In Kinshasa, Congo, 3 policemen and a civilian were killed in clashes outside a stadium where 40,000 supporters greeted Vice-President Jean-Pierre Bemba, a rebel leader turned presidential candidate.
    (AFP, 7/27/06)

2006        Jul 30, Congolese voted in their first democratic election in more than four decades. Incumbent President Joseph Kabila later won a runoff.
    (AP, 7/30/06)(AP, 7/30/07)

2006        Jul 31, Dozens of polling stations reopened in Congo’s second-largest city, offering citizens stymied by violence during their nation’s historic elections another chance to vote.
    (AP, 7/31/06)

2006        Aug 1, A Congolese opposition party and former rebel group denounced widespread fraud in the country's historic elections in a protest that heralded a divisive political dispute over the polls.
    (AP, 8/1/06)

2006        Aug 3, In eastern Congo a small passenger plane crashed into a mountain and then tumbled into a valley, killing all 17 passengers and crew.
    (AP, 8/4/06)

2006        Aug 12, President Joseph Kabila's share of the vote in Congo's historic elections rose above 50% as 1 million more votes were counted and certified.
    (AP, 8/13/06)

2006        Aug 20, President Joseph Kabila failed to win an outright majority in Congo's first elections in more than four decades. Kabila won 45% of the 16.9 million votes cast in the July 30 ballot; Bemba had 20%. Former rebel leader Jean-Pierre Bemba will face Kabila in a second round of voting. Security-forces loyal to Kabila and Bemba fought gunbattles that killed at least two people.
    (AP, 8/21/06)

2006        Aug 21, A fierce gun battle pinned down foreign envoys in the Congolese capital Kinshasa as fighting erupted for a second day following the announcement of a presidential election run-off. At least five people died in overnight gunfire.
    (Reuters, 8/21/06)(AFP, 8/21/06)

2006        Aug 22, In Kinshasa fighting flared for a third day between supporters of Congo's two presidential candidates, as the UN called for an immediate cease-fire and a European Union military force was sending reinforcements.
    (AP, 8/22/06)

2006        Aug 28, In the Netherlands prosecutors at the International Criminal Court filed their first indictment, charging Thomas Lubanga, a former Congolese warlord, for allegedly abducting and recruiting children as young as 10 to fight in Congo's brutal civil war.
    (AP, 8/29/06)

2006        Sep 4, In CongoDRC a boat overloaded with passengers and freight sank in choppy waters on Lake Kivu, killing at least 35 people.
    (AP, 9/5/06)

2006        Sep 8, The UN's humanitarian chief called for an end to the rapes plaguing women in war-battered Congo and said the perpetrators, including those wearing military uniforms, must be severely punished.
    (AP, 9/8/06)

2006        Sep 9, In CongoDRC it was reported to take 155 days to register a business at a cost of 5 times the average annual income of $120.
    (Econ, 9/9/06, p.60)

2006        Sep 19, Supporters of Congo's presidential challenger barricaded streets, stopped traffic and threw stones in Kinshasa, a day after a fire at his headquarters destroyed the party's television and radio stations.
    (AP, 9/19/06)

2006        Sep 22, Democratic Republic of Congo's first freely elected parliament in more than 40 years convened, with President Joseph Kabila's coalition poised to appoint a prime minister.
    (AP, 9/22/06)

2006        Oct 3, In the Democratic Republic of Congo one person was killed and two injured when a Belgian drone from the EU force crashed in Kinshasa.
    (AFP, 10/3/06)

2006        Oct 11, Amnesty International said at least 11,000 children in Congo are still in the hands of armed groups or unaccounted for three years after the end of a war in which they were captured and forced to fight.
    (AP, 10/11/06)

2006        Oct 13, In Britain the chief of staff to the Democratic Republic of Congo's President Joseph Kabila was assaulted and robbed in northwest London while waiting to appear on a television program. Leonard She Okitundu was attacked by a gang who beat him around the head and body with a baseball bat, stripped him of his clothes, and posted pictures of them on the Internet. Okitundu said his attackers shouted that he was working for the Rwandans, and that they would kill anyone who obstructed Bemba.
    (AFP, 10/13/06)

2006        Oct 13, The WHO said it has confirmed an outbreak of plague in the Democratic Republic of Congo, with 42 deaths reported among 626 suspected cases over the past 10 weeks.
    (Reuters, 10/13/06)

2006        Oct 16, A US-based rights group accused soldiers in Congo's postwar, national-unity army of abducting civilians and forcing them to serve as personal attendants and mine workers in the troubled Central African country.
    (AP, 10/16/06)

2006        Oct 24, In CongoDRC more than a dozen people jailed for the 2001 assassination of Congolese President Laurent Kabila vanished from a prison in the capital Kinshasa.
    (Reuters, 10/24/06)

2006        Oct 29, Congo's President Laurent Kabila faced a former rebel chief in a runoff vote.
    (AP, 10/29/06)

2006        Oct 30, Counting from Congo's election proceeded swiftly. Rioters destroyed 43 polling stations and thousands of ballot papers were burned in the east after a soldier killed two election officials.
    (AP, 10/30/06)(WSJ, 10/31/06, p.A1)

2006        Oct 31, President George W. Bush ordered that assets be frozen of dissident general Laurent Nkunda and six others considered by the White House to be destabilizing forces in the Democratic Republic of Congo.
    (Reuters, 10/31/06)

2006        Nov 1, Congo's government welcomed a decision by the US to impose sanctions on seven warlords and businessmen who are accused of fueling instability in this vast country's lawless east.
    (AP, 11/1/06)

2006        Nov 2, Thousands returned to the polls in a northeast Congo town and recast ballots destroyed in rioting that followed the weekend presidential runoff.
    (AP, 11/2/06)

2006        Nov 10, Congo’s incumbent Joseph Kabila retained a commanding lead in the presidential runoff with about two-thirds of the vote counted.
    (AP, 11/10/06)

2006        Nov 11, In Congo gunfire and explosions boomed through Kinshasa in a new round of fighting between forces loyal to two presidential candidates awaiting the results of a runoff election meant to secure an end to years of war.
    (AP, 11/12/06)

2006        Nov 14, Nearly complete results give incumbent Joseph Kabila an insurmountable lead in Congo's presidential runoff, but his opponent, Jean-Pierre Bemba, alleged fraud.
    (AP, 11/14/06)

2006        Nov 15, In Congo incumbent Joseph Kabila was declared winner of historic presidential elections. The electoral commission gave Kabila 58% of the vote against 42% for Bemba. Former rebel leader Jean-Pierre Bemba, vowed to contest the count. Kabila lost to Bemba in 6 out of 11 provinces.
    (AP, 11/16/06)(Econ, 11/18/06, p.49)(Econ, 11/25/06, p.43)

2006        Nov 18, Jean-Pierre Bemba, the former rebel who lost Congo's presidential elections, filed a lawsuit at the Supreme Court to challenge the vote count as dozens of his supporters marched through downtown Kinshasa.
    (AP, 11/18/06)

2006        Nov 21, Gunfire and street fights erupted outside Congo's supreme court and a blaze swept through the building as hearings began over fraud allegations in a presidential election meant to bring lasting peace. Bosange Mbaka, a reporter with the Kinshasa-based newspaper Mambenga, was arrested while covering a supreme court hearing in Kinshasa. In May 2007 media rights group Reporters Without Borders (RSF) called for his release.
    (AP, 11/21/06)(AFP, 5/21/07)

2006        Nov 24, The UN said its investigators have discovered three mass graves at a northeast Congo military camp containing the bodies of 30 people, including women and children, who were allegedly killed by soldiers.
    (AP, 11/24/06)

2006        Nov 25, Congo’s government and the UN said fighters loyal to warlord Laurent Nkunda attacked army positions in eastern Congo with small arms and heavy weapons. Nkunda controlled thousands of fighters and claimed the loyalty of the 81st and 83rd army brigades, the troops involved in the most recent clashes. Nkunda controlled some 20,000 square miles in North Kivu province.
    (AP, 11/25/06)(Econ, 11/25/06, p.44)

2006        Nov 27, Congo’s supreme court upheld President Joseph Kabila's victory in landmark elections, ruling as unfounded the runner-up's charges of widespread fraud.
    (AP, 11/28/06)

2006        Dec 5, A shell apparently fired by Congolese troops fighting forces loyal to a dissident general near the Ugandan border landed among a group of some 12,000 refugees in Uganda, killing at least seven.
    (AFP, 12/6/06)

2006        Dec 6, Congo inaugurated Joseph Kabila as its first freely elected president in more than four decades.
    (AP, 12/6/06)
2006        Dec 6, A Ugandan army spokesman said at least 12,000 refugees fleeing fighting in eastern Congo DRC have crossed over the border into southwest Uganda.
    (AP, 12/6/06)

2006        Dec 7, Researchers said the Ebola virus may have killed more than 5,000 gorillas in West Africa (Congo-Gabon), enough to send them into extinction if people continue to hunt them.
    (Reuters, 12/7/06)

2006        Dec 15, In Kenya 11 African heads of state attending the 2nd International Conference on the Great Lakes Region signed a landmark $2 billion (1.5-billion-euro) security and development pact to forestall fresh violence in the area.
    (AFP, 12/15/06)

2006        Dec 27, Fighting broke out in eastern Congo between government troops and forces loyal to a dissident general, killing at least 19 people. A group of Congolese soldiers went on trial for war crimes, a month after UN investigators found mass graves inside their eastern army camp with some 30 bodies including women and children.
    (AP, 12/27/06)(Reuters, 12/28/06)

2006        Dec 28, Vital Kamerhe, an advisor to President Joseph Kabila, was named head of the Democratic Republic of Congo's new National Assembly, in a ballot that saw presidential allies sweep key parliamentary posts.
    (Reuters, 12/29/06)

2006        Bosco Ntaganda, a former Congolese warlord, was first indicted on war crimes charges by the ICC, which is based in The Hague, Netherlands. The court accused Ntaganda of using child soldiers for fighting in Ituri, in northeastern Congo, from 2002 to 2003.
    (AP, 10/13/10)

2007        Jan 5, In central Congo a diamond mine collapsed in Tshikapa. 2 people were soon rescued and 15 bodies were later pulled from the mine. Further rescue efforts were abandoned. The group appeared to have been teenagers who hoped that recent rains had uncovered diamonds in the community mine.
    (AP, 1/7/07)

2007        Jan 6, Cardinal Frederic Etsou-Nzabi-Bamungwabi (b.1930), Congo's top Roman Catholic prelate, died in a Belgian hospital. He had warned of what he called international meddling in the country's recent landmark elections.
    (AP, 1/7/07)

2007        Jan 17, Conservationists said rebels in eastern Congo, loyal to warlord Laurent Nkunda, have killed and eaten two silverback mountain gorillas in Virunga National Park. Congo’s army said Nkunda agreed two weeks ago to stop fighting government forces in exchange for a government promise not to pursue war crimes charges against him.
    (AP, 1/18/07)

2007        Jan 27, UN Secretary-General Ban Ki-moon held up Congo's first elections in 46 years as a sign of hope for the rest of Africa, praising the country's fragile democracy on his first tour of the continent.
    (AP, 1/27/07)

2007        Jan 29, The International Criminal Court (ICC) ruled there was enough evidence against Thomas Lubanga, a Congolese militiaman accused of recruiting child soldiers, to launch the new court's first trial.
    (Reuters, 1/29/07)

2007        Jan 31, In Congo at least 37 people were killed in clashes between security forces and opposition supporters protesting against the results of governorship polls in western Bas-Congo province.
    (Reuters, 2/1/07)

2007        Feb 3, In Congo officials said clashes last week between security forces and demonstrators claiming electoral fraud left 97 people dead in several southwestern towns.
    (AP, 2/2/07)(AP, 2/4/07)

2007        Feb 13, In south-east Congo a freight train derailed and at least 20 people were killed.
    (AFP, 2/14/07)

2007        Feb 15, The Security Council voted unanimously to extend the nearly 18,000-strong UN peacekeeping force in Congo for two months to give the secretary-general time to recommend possible changes in its mandate following last year's successful elections.
    (AP, 2/15/07)

2007        Feb 20, Congo’s army and UN officials said days of clashes between the army and Rwandan and Congolese militias in eastern Congo have killed at least 23 combatants and forced thousands to flee.
    (AP, 2/21/07)

2007        Feb 26, The World Vision humanitarian group said that more than 50% of children in refugee camps around Africa's volatile Great Lakes area have experienced some form of sexual abuse. The data, collected in camps in the Burundi, Congo (DRC), Tanzania, northern Uganda and Rwanda, said widespread poverty made children vulnerable to abuses.
    (AFP, 2/27/07)

2007        Mar 6, Fortunat Lumu, the head of Congo's atomic energy commission, was arrested along with an aide on suspicion of illegally selling uranium.
    (AP, 3/8/07)

2007        Mar 22, In Congo heavy gunfire broke out in Kinshasa near the home of a former warlord who placed second in last fall's presidential vote. Soldiers deployed throughout the city, and residents fled in vehicles and on foot.
    (AP, 3/22/07)

2007        Mar 23, Congo's chief prosecutor issued an arrest warrant for Jean-Pierre Bemba, a former warlord and senator, who took refuge inside a foreign embassy while his personal army and government troops fought in the capital. The head of Congo's army said in a nationally televised address that security forces had regained control of Kinshasa after two days of intense fighting against the militia of a former warlord who lost last year's presidential runoff. An aid group working with hospitals and morgues said more than 100 people died in two days of fighting. EU envoys later said the fighting left 600 dead.
    (AP, 3/23/07)(WSJ, 3/24/07, p.A1)(AP, 3/25/07)(WSJ, 3/28/07, p.A1)

2007        Apr 18, Burundi, Rwanda, the Democratic Republic of Congo and Uganda adopted a joint military strategy to fight rebel groups operating in the war-scarred Great Lakes region.
    (AP, 4/19/07)

2007        Apr 26, Six central African countries (Gabon, Equatorial Guinea, Chad, Central African Republic, Cameroon and Congo) plan to launch a common passport in July, permitting the free movement of goods and people across their borders.
    (AFP, 4/26/07)

2007        May 4, The UN agency for refugees began repatriating thousands of Congolese refugees in Zambia to the Democratic Republic of Congo.
    (AFP, 5/4/07)

2007        May 11-2007 May 12, Local militia allied to Rwandan Hutu rebels killed four Congolese soldiers during clashes in a volatile eastern region of the Democratic Republic of Congo.
    (AFP, 5/15/07)

2007        May 16, The UN Security Council voted unanimously to extend its peacekeeping mission in Congo until the end of the year while calling for a timetable to gradually withdraw the nearly 18,000-member force.
    (AP, 5/16/07)

2007        May 23, The BBC reported that Pakistani UN peacekeepers charged with disarming Congolese militia instead engaged in gold and weapons trafficking with militia members. The Pakistani unit in question deployed to Mongwalu in April 2005.
    (AP, 5/23/07)

2007        May 27, In eastern Congo Rwandan rebels attacked villagers with machetes, spears and hammers, killing 17, wounding 28 and taking up to a dozen hostages.
    (AP, 5/27/07)

2007        Jun 12, In Kinshasa, DRC, delegates from 20 African countries began talks on the process of disarming and reintegrating former combatants to boost peace and development on the violence-wracked continent.
    (AFP, 6/12/07)

2007        Jun 13, Serge Maheshe, a Congolese journalist working for the UN-sponsored Radio Okapi, was shot dead in the eastern Democratic Republic of Congo town of Bukavu. Police the next day arrested 2 soldiers for the killing.
    (AFP, 6/13/07)(Reuters, 6/15/07)

2007        Jul 9, The UN-backed Okapi radio station said that Floribert Chui Bin Kositi, a former Congolese rebel leader, was beaten to death in Congo’s restive eastern Kivu region. He held a senior position in a state-run body monitoring food imports and recently ordered a large consignment of rice to be destroyed on the grounds that it was unfit for human consumption.
    (AP, 7/10/07)

2007        Jul 13, UN officials said they are investigating allegations that Indian peacekeepers in Congo traded food and even military intelligence with Rwandan Hutu rebels in return for gold.
    (Reuters, 7/13/07)

2007        Jul 16, Dikembe Mutombo (41), NBA basketball star, said he wants to score for his native Democratic Republic of Congo by financing a new hospital and training young hoops players. Mutombo invested $15 million (11 million euros) in the construction of the hospital, more than half the total cost.
    (AP, 7/16/07)

2007        Jul 20, Aid officials said clashes between rival militia groups in eastern Congo have killed nine fighters and reduced dozens of houses to smoldering ruins. The fighting erupted a week ago in Minembwe, about 120 miles southwest of the eastern lakeside city of Uvira.
    (AP, 7/20/07)

2007        Jul 30, A UN investigator said extreme sexual violence against women is pervasive in the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC) and local authorities do little to stop it or prosecute those responsible.
    (AP, 7/30/07)

2007        Aug 1, A passenger train derailed in central Congo and eight cars tumbled off the tracks, killing about 100 people and trapping some passengers in the wreckage. People in the southeastern town of Moba attacked the UN office after a local radio station aired false rumors that the United Nations was to resettle Congolese ethnic Tutsis in the region. 4 UN military observers were wounded and 21 staff were evacuated.
    (AP, 8/2/07)(AP, 8/4/07)

2007        Aug 3, In Uganda gunmen on Lake Albert attacked a boat operated by Canada's Heritage Oil Corp., killing a British contractor. 3 armed patrol boats from Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC), on the other side of the lake, had opened fire on Heritage's boat.
    (AP, 8/3/07)

2007        Aug 18, UNESCO said a joint mission of several UN agencies is conducting an emergency investigation into the shooting of endangered mountain gorillas in a Democratic Republic of Congo national park. In the last two months, seven of the primates have been killed in separate incidents in the Virunga park.
    (AP, 8/19/07)

2007        Aug 20, South African President Thabo Mbeki arrived in Kinshasa for a working visit aimed at boosting relations with the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC).
    (AFP, 8/20/07)

2007        Aug 28, Africa's Great Lakes nations (Burundi, the Democratic Republic of Congo, Rwanda and Uganda) vowed to eliminate rebel groups roaming their territory and spurring insecurity in the continent's most volatile region.
    (AFP, 8/28/07)

2007        Aug 29, It was reported that more than 100 people have died in a remote part of Congo, including all those who attended the funerals of two village chiefs, in what health officials fear is an outbreak of hemorrhagic fever.
    (AP, 8/29/07)

2007        Sep 3, Congolese officials reported killing 28 soldiers loyal to Gen. Nkunda, a renegade army officer, in exchanges of machine gun and heavy weapons fire lasting several hours.
    (Reuters, 9/4/07)

2007        Sep 4, Rangers and 300 villagers abandoned a gorilla reserve in eastern Congo as government soldiers battled troops loyal to a renegade general in sections of Virunga park. The UN said ten thousand Congolese refugees have fled to neighboring Uganda following clashes between the Congolese army and renegade troops in its eastern provinces.
    (Reuters, 9/4/07)(AP, 9/4/07)(Econ, 9/8/07, p.52)

2007        Sep 7, Renegade Congolese General Laurent Nkunda said the Congolese army had attacked his position, breaking a fragile ceasefire negotiated by United Nations mediators in eastern Democratic Republic of Congo.
    (AP, 9/7/07)

2007        Sep 8, Congo and Uganda signed an agreement to immediately move refugee camps 93 miles from their shared border to improve security.
    (AP, 9/13/07)

2007        Sep 11, The World Health Organization issued an alert urging more doctors to travel to Congo to combat an outbreak of Ebola fever, which kills nearly all of those it infects and has no cure or treatment.
    (AP, 9/11/07)
2007        Sep 11, Six Congolese soldiers were detained by the Burundian navy for repeatedly attacking fishing boats on Lake Tanganyika and stealing their catch.
    (AFP, 9/12/07)

2007        Sep 13, The UN said the repatriation of Congolese refugees from neighbouring Zambia was suspended, due to insecurity in the small town of Moba where they are headed.
    (AP, 9/13/07)

2007        Sep 14, A UN spokesman said UN peacekeepers have discovered three graves, each containing several bodies, at Rubare, a military base in eastern Congo recently abandoned by rebels loyal to a renegade Gen. Nkunda.
    (Reuters, 9/14/07)

2007        Sep 17, China and the Democratic Republic of Congo signed a draft accord in which China would lend $5 billion to modernize Congo’s decrepit infrastructure and rich but deteriorated mining sector. Congo’s government later announced that Chinese state-owned firms would build or refurbish various railways, roads and mines at accost of $12 billion.
    (Reuters, 9/18/07)(Econ, 3/15/08, SR p.3)

2007        Sep 24, Two Congolese troops and a Ugandan soldier were killed in clashes on the flashpoint border of Lake Albert where oil was recently discovered. Six civilians were killed when Ugandan soldiers opened fire on a Congolese passenger boat on Lake Albert.
    (AFP, 9/25/07)(Reuters, 9/25/07)

2007        Sep 25, The World Health Organization said 8 more cases of Ebola have been identified in Congo, raising to 17 the number of people confirmed to have contracted the deadly illness.
    (AP, 9/25/07)

2007        Oct 4, In Congo a cargo plane crashed in a residential neighborhood near the main airport in Kinshasa, plowing into homes and killing at least 52 people. The next day Congolese President Joseph Kabila sacked Transport Minister Remy Henri Kuseyo Gatanga.
    (AP, 10/4/07)(Reuters, 10/5/07)

2007        Oct 11, Rebel leader Laurent Nkunda in eastern Congo called for a cease-fire as the army said the death toll from five days of clashes had risen to 122.
    (AP, 10/11/07)

2007        Oct 14, Opiyo Makasi, reported to be an operations and logistics commander of Uganda's Lord's Resistance Army, gave himself up along with his wife and they were transferred to Kinshasa, DRC. On Oct 25 Congolese authorities handed him to the UN peacekeeping mission in Congo (MONUC), which should prepare his eventual return to Uganda.
    (AP, 10/23/07)(AP, 10/25/07)   

2007        Oct 18,     Former Congolese warlord Germain Katanga, suspected of war crimes committed in northeast Democratic Republic of Congo in 2003, began his transfer to the International Criminal Court in The Hague.
    (AP, 10/18/07)

2007        Oct 22,     The United Nations Refugee agency (UNHCR) said some 8,000 Congolese refugees have fled to neighboring Uganda following clashes between Congo's army and dissident general Laurent Nkunda.
    (Reuters, 10/22/07)
2007        Oct 22,     Congolese militia leader Germain Katanga became only the second war crimes suspect to appear before the International Criminal Court at The Hague.
    (AFP, 10/22/07)

2007        Oct 25, Rebels in eastern Democratic Republic of Congo set new conditions for disarming, stalling the surrender of hundreds of fighters who have begun massing near a designated UN camp.
    (Reuters, 10/25/07)

2007        Oct 26, In Congo heavy rains swelled into a torrent of water that swamped Kinshasa, killing 30 people in less than 24 hours.
    (AP, 10/27/07)

2007        Oct 27, Mai Mai militia leader and army deserter Kibamba Kasereka said he had surrendered to the UN peacekeeping mission in the Democratic Republic of Congo's restive Nord-Kivu province, agreeing to calls to disarm his forces.
    (AFP, 10/27/07)

2007        Nov 5, In eastern Congo 27 UN peacekeepers from India were injured when attacked by a mob of hungry civilians who claimed not to have received any food aid.
    (Econ, 11/17/07, p.54)

2007        Nov 13, Thousands of refugees fled camps in eastern Democratic Republic of Congo's violent North Kivu province after the army said Tutsi-dominated insurgents attacked its positions nearby.
    (AP, 11/13/07)

2007        Nov 17, The UN children's agency said aid groups in Congo have secured the release of 232 child soldiers from militia fighters who forcibly recruited them in the east of the country. The 232 children, whose average age is 14, were separated this month in the eastern provinces of North and South Kivu from three different factions of the Mai Mai.
    (AP, 11/17/07)

2007        Nov 20, It was reported that Congo is setting aside more than 11,000 square miles of rain forest to help protect the endangered bonobo, a great ape that is the most closely related to humans and is found only in this Central African country.
    (AP, 11/21/07)

2007        Nov 21, The UN Security Council welcomed a deal signed by Congo and Rwanda to forcibly disarm Rwandan Hutu rebels in Congo in an effort to reduce tensions between the central African neighbors.
    (Reuters, 11/21/07)

2007        Nov 22, The UN resumed the repatriation of 12,000 Congolese refugees from Zambia which was suspended three months ago due to insecurity in the Democratic Republic of Congo's (DRC) Katanga province.
    (AP, 11/22/07)

2007        Nov 23, Explosions and machine-gun fire echoed through the hills of east Congo, where government troops battled rebels for a third day amid a deepening humanitarian crisis the UN says has displaced nearly 200,000 people in the past few months.
    (AP, 11/23/07)

2007        Dec 3, In Congo (DRC) some 25,000 government forces army attacked a stronghold of renegade Tutsi General Laurent Nkunda, a day after his men seized a strategic town from the government and forced out thousands of civilians. The troops were routed by some 4,000 insurgents.
    (Reuters, 12/3/07)(www.mail-archive.com/[email protected]/msg25522.html)(Econ, 6/14/08, p.63)

2007        Dec 5, Congo's army said it retook a strategic town on from rebels loyal to renegade Tutsi General Laurent Nkunda in the violence-torn eastern province of North Kivu.
    (AP, 12/5/07)
2007        Dec 5, An international aid organization said Angolan soldiers routinely and repeatedly rape Congolese women who have crossed the border illegally in search of work in the diamond fields.
    (AP, 12/5/07)

2007        Dec 14, Diplomats from the Democratic Republic of Congo and Uganda met in Kampala to discuss border tensions that have triggered deadly clashes on one of Africa's hottest frontiers in the search for oil. The UN said rival factions in Congo are forcibly recruiting hundreds of children and sending them to fight on the front lines of an escalating conflict in the east of the country.
    (AP, 12/14/07)(AP, 12/15/07)

2007        Dec 19, Uganda's military said it had shot dead two Congolese soldiers on the volatile border between the two countries, after they tried to resist being arrested on suspicion of raping two teenage girls.
    (Reuters, 12/19/07)

2007        Dec 21, The Security Council voted unanimously to extend the UN peacekeeping mission in Congo for a year and demanded that all militias and armed groups in the volatile east lay down their weapons and start disarming.
    (AP, 12/21/07)

2007        Dec 24, The international charity Save the Children said boys and girls are being recruited in record numbers to act as soldiers, spies and sex slaves in Congo and children have been spotted marching in formation in the war-wracked east of the country over the past week.
    (AP, 12/24/07)

2007        Congo’s operating budget for this year was $2.4 billion. Its population stood at about 60 million.
    (Econ, 7/28/07, p.46)
2007        Transparency Int’l. ranked Congo 168th out of 179 countries for freedom from corruption.
    (Econ, 3/15/08, SR p.13)

2008        Jan 6, In Kinshasa a peace summit aimed at ending fighting in Congo's blood-steeped eastern provinces of North and South Kivu opened without the presence of President Joseph Kabila and rebel leader General Laurent Nkunda.
    (Reuters, 1/6/08)

2008        Jan 13, Delegation chief Kambasu Ngeze said at a Congolese peace conference that renegade general Laurent Nkunda's Kivu movement vowed to continue its armed struggle "with neither remorse nor regret."
    (AP, 1/13/08)

2008        Jan 21, Officials said Congo government negotiators and rebel groups reached a deal to end fighting in the vast country's restive east, where some 800,000 people had to flee their homes over the last year.
    (AP, 1/21/08)

2008        Jan 22, A new survey said war, disease and malnutrition are killing 45,000 Congolese every month in a conflict-driven humanitarian crisis that has claimed 5.4 million victims in nearly a decade.
    (AP, 1/22/08)

2008        Jan 23, Militia leaders signed a peace accord with Congo's government aimed at ending years of fighting in the country's restive east.
    (AP, 1/23/08)

2008        Jan 27, At least 10 bodies were recovered after a boat capsized on Lake Tanganyika in eastern Congo. An official later said the overloaded boat was piloted by a drunken captain.
    (AP, 1/30/08)

2008        Jan 28, Congolese Tutsi rebels and Mai Mai militia clashed in eastern Democratic Republic of Congo, breaking a ceasefire signed last week aimed at ending A long-running conflict in the east.
    (AP, 1/28/08)

2008        Jan 29, Congolese Tutsi rebels and a rival Mai Mai militia group pledged to respect a recently-signed peace accord, a day after clashes between their fighters broke the ceasefire.
    (AP, 1/29/08)

2008        Feb 3, Two strong earthquake shook the African Great Lakes region, killing at least 37 people in Rwanda and six in the Democratic Republic of Congo.
    (AFP, 2/3/08)(AFP, 2/4/08)

2008        Feb 6, Congo arrested and turned over for trial Mathieu Ngudjolo, an army colonel and former rebel leader accused of leading a deadly 2003 attack on a village in the country's lawless east. Ngudjolo was expected to arrive at the International Criminal Court in the Hague the next day.
    (AP, 2/7/08)

2008        Mar 15, Congo’s foreign debt stood at $12 billion and interest payments consumed a large chunk of its budget.
    (Econ, 3/15/08, SR p.12)

2008        Mar 19, Conservationists said Honore Mashagiro, a ranger in Congo's Virunga National Park, has been arrested for allegedly masterminding the massacre last summer of 10 endangered mountain gorillas.
    (AP, 3/20/08)
2008        Mar 19, Uganda said that Lord's Resistance Army rebel leader Joseph Kony has left his base in the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC) and moved to the Central African Republic.
    (AP, 3/19/08)

2008        Mar 21, The Democratic Republic of Congo banned the ethnic-based religious and political sect Bundu dia Kongo (BDK), a shadowy separatist sect, following a 3-week police offensive against its western strongholds which UN investigators say killed dozens of people.
    (Reuters, 3/22/08)

2008        Apr 15, In eastern Democratic Republic of Congo at least 44 people were killed and up tot 100 injured when a passenger plane crashed onto a market district after taking-off at Goma.
    (Reuters, 4/16/08)(WSJ, 4/18/08, p.A1)

2008        Apr 29, The International Criminal Court in The Hague published an arrest warrant for Bosco Ntaganda (35), known as "the Terminator," a Congo militia leader wanted for allegedly using child soldiers.
    (Reuters, 4/29/08)

2008        May 23, UN peacekeepers found over 100 bodies in three mass graves in the east of Democratic Republic of Congo. A UN spokesman said they apparently were graves dating back to the 1990s, but that is was difficult to know accurately.
    (Reuters, 5/24/08)

2008        May 24, Belgian police in Brussels arrested Jean-Pierre Bemba (45), a Congolese warlord and ex-presidential candidate, after he was secretly charged with rape and torture. Bemba was accused of war crimes and crimes against humanity as head of a militia that allegedly committed atrocities in Central African Republic's conflict in 2002-2003.
    (AP, 5/25/08)

2008        May 26, A small faction of Rwandan Hutu rebels in east Democratic Republic of Congo pledged to lay down their guns and return home, but the main rebel movement refused and rejected the ceremony as a sham.
    (AP, 5/26/08)

2008        Jun 7, Congo President Joseph Kabila met with UN envoys who backed his plans to disarm and expel Rwandan rebels behind years of strife. They also planned to refocus the biggest UN peace force on rebuilding the shattered nation.
    (Reuters, 6/7/08)

2008        Jun 16, A conservation group said the northern white rhino of central Africa was on the verge of being wiped out. 4 surviving specimens in Congo’s Garamba National Park had not been seen since 2006.
    (SFC, 6/17/08, p.A3)

2008        Jul 3, Former Congolese rebel leader Jean-Pierre Bemba arrived in the Netherlands to face war crimes charges before the International Criminal Court.
    (AP, 7/3/08)

2008        Jul 7, In Congo (DRC) unidentified gunmen ambushed a vehicle belonging to the World Wildlife Fund in Virunga national Park, killing two people and wounding three others.
    (AP, 7/9/08)

2008        Jul 23, In Democratic Republic of Congo at least 45 people were killed and another 100 were missing after a boat sank on a remote stretch of the Ubangi river.
    (Reuters, 7/25/08)

2008        Jul 28, Antoine Wendo Kolosoy (aka Papa Wendo, b.1925), Congolese riverboat mechanic, boxer and rumba singer, died at age 82. He cut his first records in 1947 for Olympia, a Belgian label.
    (Econ, 8/16/08, p.84)

2008        Aug 5, Wildlife researchers said they have discovered some 125,000 western lowland gorillas deep in the forests of the Republic of Congo.
    (WSJ, 8/6/08, p.A10)

2008        Aug 13, The Indian army said that it was investigating UN allegations its troops had engaged in sexual abuse while on peacekeeping duties in the Democratic Republic of Congo. A five-story building in a crowded residential neighborhood of Mumbai, India's main financial city, collapsed after monsoon rains, killing at least 20 people.
    (AP, 8/13/08)

2008        Aug 28, Government forces fought Tutsi rebels in the fiercest clashes for months in eastern Congo, threatening a struggling peace process.
    (Reuters, 8/28/08)

2008        Sep 1, In east Democratic Republic of Congo a humanitarian plane carrying 17 passengers and crew crashed into a mountain with no sign of survivors.
    (Reuters, 9/2/08)

2008        Sep 11, A Paris court convicted Didier Bourguet, a former UN employee, for the rape of young Africans during his postings in Central African Republic and Congo. Bourguet was sentenced to nine years in prison for having committed about 20 rapes of teenage girls between 1998 and 2004 during his postings as a mechanic for the UN.
    (AP, 9/11/08)

2008        Sep 14, In eastern Congo a riot ensued following accusations that a soccer player was using witchcraft. 13 people were left dead.
    (SFC, 9/16/08, p.A7)

2008        Sep 27, It was reported that the elephant population in Congo’s Virunga National Park had dropped to under 200, mostly due to poaching. In 1964 there were an estimated 2,900. In 2006 the number had dropped to 400.
    (Econ, 9/27/08, p.62)

2008        Oct 7, The UN refugee agency said at least 5,000 people have fled violence in northeastern Congo and sought shelter in neighboring Sudan over the last two weeks due to ferocious attacks by rebels of the Lord's Resistance Army from neighboring Uganda.
    (AP, 10/7/08)

2008        Oct 10, Congo's President Joseph Kabila named Budget Minister Adolphe Muzito (51) as the new prime minister following the resignation of 83-year-old Antoine Gizenga.
    (Reuters, 10/10/08)
2008        Oct 10, The UN urged Congo and Rwanda to hold talks to avoid a war after Kinshasa accused its eastern neighbor of sending troops over the border to back Congolese rebels.
    (Reuters, 10/10/08)

2008        Oct 14, The UN said intense fighting between the Congolese army and Ugandan rebels have forced over 50,000 people to flee their homes in the north-eastern Democratic Republic of the Congo's Ituri region.
    (AP, 10/14/08)

2008        Oct 24, The World Food Program said fighting in eastern Congo has driven some 200,000 from their homes during the last 8 weeks, exacerbating an already dire humanitarian crisis.
    (AP, 10/24/08)

2008        Oct 26, Rebels seized an east Congo army base and the headquarters of a refuge housing some of the world's last mountain gorillas, in heavy fighting that sent thousands of civilians fleeing. An unknown number of soldiers, rebels and civilians were killed in the renewed fighting in North Kivu province.
    (AP, 10/26/08)

2008        Oct 27, Thousands of civilians threw rocks at four UN offices in eastern Congo, venting outrage at the organization's inability to protect them from rebel forces advancing on the provincial capital of Goma.
    (AP, 10/27/08)

2008        Oct 28, Rebels vowing to take Congo's eastern provincial capital of 600,000 people advanced toward Goma as Congolese troops and UN tanks retreated, while tens of thousands fled to a makeshift shelter.
    (AP, 10/28/08)

2008        Oct 29, Congolese rebel forces advanced on the eastern city of Goma, threatening to overwhelm government troops and a 17,000-strong UN force deployed to halt a return to all-out war. The Congolese army said troops from Rwanda have crossed the nearby border and attacked its soldiers in support of a minority Tutsi rebellion. Congolese rebels declared a ceasefire after a four-day push to the gates of Goma that threatened to drag Congo back to all-out war, but heavy gunfire resumed near the eastern city after dark.
    (Reuters, 10/29/08)(AP, 10/29/08)

2008        Oct 30, Laurent Nkunda, the rebel general besieging Congo's eastern provincial capital Goma, said he wants direct talks with the government about ending fighting in the region and his objections to a $5 billion deal that gives China access to the country's vast mineral riches in exchange for a railway and highway. Nkunda said he sent a letter to the UN peacekeeping mission in Goma saying he will set up an "urgent humanitarian corridor" for refugees and humanitarian aid. Refugees have continued fleeing the war-torn eastern province for neighboring Uganda.
    (AP, 10/30/08)(AFP, 10/30/08)

2008        Oct 31, Thousands of war-weary refugees set out on foot for their homes in eastern Congo, taking advantage of a cease-fire as American and UN envoys joined efforts there to find a political solution to the region's long-running rebellion.
    (AP, 10/31/08)

2008        Nov 1, Tutsi-led rebels tightened their hold on newly seized swaths of eastern Congo, forcing tens of thousands of frightened, rain-soaked civilians out of makeshift refugee camps and stopping some from fleeing to government-held territory. Congolese soldiers killed nine fighters from Uganda's Lord's Resistance Army (LRA) after 30-50 rebels attacked a village in northeast Democratic Republic of Congo.
    (AP, 11/2/08)(AFP, 11/2/08)

2008        Nov 4, Congolese rebel leader Laurent Nkunda threatened to take his eastern guerrilla war westwards to the capital Kinshasa unless the government agreed to talks on the country's future. Congo's government refused rebel leader Laurent Nkunda's demand for direct talks.
    (Reuters, 11/4/08)(AP, 11/4/08)

2008        Nov 5, In Congo heavy fighting erupted for a second day between rebels and a pro-government militia in lawless North Kivu province, but a wider cease-fire was holding around this provincial capital. In Kiwanja fighters loyal to rebel General Laurent Nkunda drove out pro-government Mai-Mai militia, sending its inhabitants fleeing in panic. A local clergyman said at least 180 civilians had been killed overnight. The next day UN peacekeepers found the bodies of a dozen shot civilians.
    (AP, 11/5/08)(AP, 11/6/08)(Econ, 11/8/08, p.61)

2008        Nov 7, The UN secretary-general joined African leaders to try to end the fighting in eastern Congo, where a fragile cease-fire is close to collapse. A UN official and a peacekeeping officer said Angolan troops are fighting alongside Congolese soldiers battling rebels outside the eastern provincial capital of Goma. The UN official said an unspecified number of Angolans arrived four days ago.
    (AP, 11/7/08)
2008        Nov 7, India said it will send one of its most decorated army units to join a UN mission in Congo and support other Indian troops as Congolese rebels advance to seize fresh areas.
    (Reuters, 11/7/08)

2008        Nov 8, Congolese soldiers advanced toward rebel lines in renewed fighting that threatens a tenuous cease-fire around the eastern provincial capital Goma.
    (AP, 11/8/08)

2008        Nov 9, Doctors struggled to contain an outbreak of cholera in a sprawling refugee camp near Congo's eastern provincial capital of Goma, as new fighting ignited fears that infected patients could scatter and launch an epidemic.
    (AP, 11/9/08)

2008        Nov 11, The UN reported that hundreds of Congolese soldiers rampaged through several villages in eastern Congo raping women and pillaging homes as they pulled back ahead of a feared rebel advance.
    (SFC, 11/12/08, p.A7)

2008        Nov 12, Angola announced it is mobilizing troops to send to neighboring Congo, heightening fears that the fighting in this central African nation will engulf other countries in the region. North of Kibati the bodies of two dead government soldiers lay in the center of the road beside a rebel checkpoint.
    (AP, 11/12/08)

2008        Nov 16, Congo's main rebel leader promised a UN envoy to support a cease-fire and UN efforts to end the fighting, and the diplomat said he hoped the warring sides would hold peace talks in Kenya. Congo government troops abandoned their position at Rwindi, 130 km (80 miles) north of Goma in North Kivu province, after a battle with the rebels involving small arms and heavier weapons. UN peacekeeping troops at Rwindi stayed in their base during the fighting.
    (AP, 11/16/08)(AP, 11/17/08)

2008        Nov 18, Demoralized Congolese government troops, retreating before eastern rebels, clashed with their own local militia allies who tried to make them stand and fight after the armed forces chief was replaced.
    (Reuters, 11/18/08)

2008        Nov 20, The UN Security Council voted unanimously to send some 3,000 additional UN peacekeepers to the Democratic Republic of the Congo to help prevent a new war in the country's east.
    (AP, 11/20/08)
2008        Nov 20, Britain called on Rwandan President Paul Kagame to use his "influence" over Congolese rebels led by general Laurent Nkunda to end to violence in eastern Democratic Republic of Congo.
    (AFP, 11/20/08)

2008        Nov 21, In eastern Congo armed men shot and killed a 20-year-old woman at the Kibati refugee camp where thousands of displaced people live in constant fear, caught between soldiers and rebels. Armed men also forced families there out of their huts and looted them. Didace Namujimbo, a journalist working for a UN-backed radio station, was shot dead in Bukavu.
    (AP, 11/21/08)(AP, 11/22/08)

2008        Nov 22, Congolese rebel leader Laurent Nkunda sought to reassure people in territory recently seized in a lightning advance, telling thousands gathered in Rutshuru for his first mass rally that his men intend to bring peace, not war, to Congo. A rebel offensive under Nkunda began to push some 1,500 Hutu FDLR militiamen from Ishasha. The move forced over 3,000 civilians to flee to neighboring Uganda.
    (AP, 11/22/08)(SFC, 11/27/08, p.A8)
2008        Nov 22, In eastern Congo 2 mass graves containing as many as 2,000 bodies were discovered in Bukavu on a plot of land formerly owned by a member of the Congolese Rally for Democracy (RCD), a Rwandan-backed rebel group. The RCD became a political party in 2003. Many of its top leaders were integrated into the government, taking jobs as vice presidents and army chiefs.
    (AP, 11/27/08)

2008        Nov 23, Congolese soldiers stopped a peacekeepers' convoy at an impromptu roadblock and dragged 23 Congolese men off the trucks, accusing them of being rebels. UN officials said the men were rebels who had surrendered as well as national policemen and civilians.
    (AP, 11/24/08)

2008        Nov 24, Congolese soldiers went on an overnight looting and shooting spree in a sprawling Congolese refugee camp, stealing from hungry and traumatized people who have fled fighting in the country's east.
    (AP, 11/24/08)

2008        Nov 27, More than 10,000 Congolese civilians fled to Uganda in a matter of hours to escape renewed fighting.
    (AP, 11/27/08)

2008        Nov 28, Congo rebels captured the border post of Ishasha in eastern Congo, increasing their stranglehold over the region. At least 13,000 frightened civilians have fled into Uganda over the last two days.
    (AP, 11/28/08)

2008        Nov 30, Rebels in eastern Congo pulled out of Ishasha, a town on the Ugandan border they captured in fighting that forced 10,000 people to flee.
    (AP, 12/2/08)

2008        Dec 8, Congolese rebels opened peace negotiations with a government delegation in Nairobi in their first direct talks on ending the conflict in eastern Democratic Republic of Congo.
    (AP, 12/8/08)

2008        Dec 12, A UN Security Council panel said that Rwanda and Congo are fighting a proxy war by aiding each other's enemies, a conclusion that could lead to additional UN sanctions over the conflict in the central African region. A UN report cited an advisor to Rwandan President Paul Kagame and a member of the Congolese opposition, both wealthy businessmen, as key financial backers of rebels in eastern DR Congo.
    (AP, 12/12/08)(AFP, 12/13/08)

2008        Dec 14, Uganda, southern Sudan and Congo launched an offensive against the Lord's Resistance Army bases based in eastern Congo in an attempt to end one of the continent's longest and most brutal wars.
    (AP, 12/15/08)

2008        Dec 21, Congolese Tutsi rebels threatened to advance into UN-monitored buffer zones in eastern Congo after refusing to sign a declaration ending hostilities with the government.
    (AP, 12/21/08)

2008        Dec 26, A Chinese man and two Lebanese nationals were shot dead in a crime wave in southeastern Democratic Republic of Congo that also left 10 Congolese dead this week. The mayor of Lubumbashi, Marie-Gregoire Tambila, said that 11 people had been killed in the last four days in her city, including a Lebanese national who was killed on Christmas day. In eastern Congo attackers, identified as members of the Lord’s Resistance Army, killed some 100 people at a church in Doruma. The UN said rebels had killed 189 people over 2 days.
    (AFP, 12/26/08)(SFC, 12/30/08, p.A10)

2008        Dec 30, Congo’s health minister said An Ebola virus outbreak has killed 11 people in western Congo. Caritas, a Catholic charity, reported that over 400 people have been killed in northeaster Congo since Christmas day.
    (AP, 12/30/08)(SFC, 12/31/08, p.A3)

2008        In CongoDRC Col. Samy Matumo, the commander of a renegade brigade, controlled the tin operations in Bisie, North Kivu province. He and his men extorted, taxed and appropriated as much as $80 million a year from mining operations in the area.
    (SSFC, 11/16/08, p.A21)
2008        Lisa F. Jackson (57), American filmmaker, produced her 75-minute film: “The Greatest Silence: Rape in the Congo.
    (SFC, 4/5/08, p.E1)
2008        In CongoDRC some 16,000 new cases of sexual violence, 65% of them involving children, were registered this year.
    (Econ, 8/15/09, p.54)

2009        Jan 2, Ugandan Lord's Resistance Army rebels killed two wildlife rangers and six other people in a remote national park in northeastern Congo.
    (AP, 1/6/09)

2009        Jan 5, In eastern Congo rival rebel chief of staff Bosco Ntaganda announced the dismissal of Laurent Nkunda and has taken control of the CNDP rebel movement.
    (AFP, 1/8/09)

2009        Jan 8, In eastern Congo Mai Mai militiamen attacked a group of seven rangers killing one in a government-controlled sector in the far north of Virunga National park.
    (AP, 1/10/09)

2009        Jan 12, War crimes prosecutors in The Hague accused former Congolese vice president Jean-Pierre Bemba of using systematic rape to terrorize civilians suspected of supporting rebels during a bloody power struggle in neighboring Central African Republic.
    (AP, 1/12/09)

2009        Jan 16, In eastern Congo the leader of a splinter rebel faction said his forces would stop fighting the government and the two sides would work together to battle Rwandan militias at the heart of the conflict. Ugandan rebels, according to the UN, massacred 100 civilians in Tora, a village in northeast Congo, the latest atrocity blamed on the insurgents.
    (AP, 1/16/09)(AP, 1/29/09)

2009        Jan 17, A human rights groups said Ugandan rebels in eastern Congo have ruthlessly killed at least 620 people in the past month, and vulnerable civilians in the region desperately need protection. According to Ugandan troops, the Lord's Resistance Army rebels set fire to a church in the village of Tora. it was unclear how many people were killed.
    (AP, 1/18/09)(AP, 1/19/09)

2009        Jan 20, Hundreds of Rwandan troops rolled into the Democratic Republic of Congo to join Congolese forces hunting Rwandan rebels operating there since 1994.
    (AFP, 1/20/09)

2009        Jan 22, Congolese and Rwandan troops advanced on the headquarters of Tutsi rebel leader, Laurent Nkunda, as Kinshasa used its neighbor to smother a rebellion in eastern DR Congo. Rwanda arrested Congo rebel leader Laurent Nkunda after he fled a joint operation launched by the armies of the two nations.
    (AP, 1/22/09)(AP, 1/23/09)

2009        Jan 26, The armies of Congo and Rwanda, battling together against Rwandan Hutu militiamen in eastern Congo, clashed with fighters trying to retake a village and killed 4 of them.
    (AP, 1/27/09)
2009        Jan 26, In the Netherlands the first-ever trial of the International Criminal Court began at The Hague with Thomas Lubanga, a Congolese militia commander, denying he committed war crimes by recruiting hundreds of child soldiers to kill and rape.
    (AP, 1/26/09)

2009        Jan 27, The UN refugee agency said thousands of Congolese civilians have fled across the border to South Sudan to escape rebels of the Lord's Resistance Army.
    (AP, 1/27/09)

2009        Jan 29, The first of more than 6,000 Congolese rebels took part in a ceremony to integrate their units into the regular army as part of a deal to end the conflict in eastern DR Congo.
    (AFP, 1/29/09)

2009        Feb 13, A Congolese military spokesman said more than 40 members of a Hutu militia suspected of atrocities during Rwanda's 1994 genocide were killed in an overnight air raid.
    (AP, 2/13/09)

2009        Feb 25, Rwandan troops began pulling out of eastern Democratic Republic of Congo after a controversial joint operation with Congolese troops against Rwandan Hutu rebels.
    (AFP, 2/25/09)

2009        Mar 15, Uganda began withdrawing troops hunting brutal Lord's Resistance Army rebels in neighboring Congo after the deadline for them to leave expired. Felix Kulaigye, a Ugandan military spokesman, said the operation had been a success, with around 100 rebels killed and more than 200 abductees rescued, and that Congo would continue the hunt.
    (AP, 3/15/09)

2009        Mar 23, The Congolese government signed a peace agreement with and a group known as CNDP, which later gave rise to M23. The agreement failed to bring peace.
    (AP, 2/6/13)

2009        Mar 26, French President Nicolas Sarkozy visited Brazzaville and Kinshasa. During the Kinshasa trip, given over in large part to regional political issues, Areva signed an agreement with the government allowing the company to prospect for and mine uranium.
    (AP, 3/27/09)

2009        Mar, The IMF disbursed nearly $200 million to boost the foreign-currency reserves of the Democratic Republic of Congo and maintain macroeconomic stability.
    (Econ, 4/18/09, p.54)
2009        Mar, In CongoDRC Thomas Kwoyelo, a commander of the Lord's Resistance Army, was captured in Garamba forest. In 2011 he faced a charges in Uganda.
    (AFP, 7/11/11)

2009        Apr 6, In Zambia western nations and lending agencies meeting in Lusaka agreed a financing package of more than $1 billion to improve infrastructure in southern and central Africa at an investment conference meant to expand transport links and trade. Britain said it would separately provide 100 million pounds ($149.2 million) to transform the region's infrastructure to increase trade and mitigate the effects of the global financial crisis. New projects will link businesses in 8 African countries: Tanzania, the Democratic Republic of Congo, Zambia, Malawi, Botswana, Zimbabwe, Mozambique and South Africa.
    (AP, 4/6/09)

2009        Apr 9, A top human rights group said in a report that at least 90 women have been raped and 180 villagers killed over the past two months by rebels as well as government forces in volatile eastern Congo.
    (AP, 4/9/09)

2009        Apr 29, A Boeing 737 on a test flight from Brazzaville crashed southeast of Kinshasa, killing 7 people.
    (AP, 4/30/09)

2009        Apr, UN special investigator Philip Alston said on October 15 that Congolese soldiers had killed 50 Rwandan Hutu refugees and abducted and raped around 40 women during an April attack on a refugee camp in eastern DR Congo.
    (AFP, 10/16/09)

2009        May 10, In the eastern Democratic Republic of Congo at least 60 people were killed over the last 48 hours during attacks blamed on Rwandan Hutu rebels.
    (AFP, 5/15/09)

2009        May 18, UN military commanders told top UN officials that Congolese rebels integrated into the country's army as part of a peace deal are looting, raping and killing the civilians they are meant to protect.
    (AP, 5/18/09)

2009        May 19, The UN Security Council said that it had asked the Congolese government to investigate and arrest five high-ranking army officers known to have committed atrocities.
    (AP, 5/19/09)

2009        May, In CongoDRC 2 former Norwegian soldiers (Tjostolv Moland and Joshua French) allegedly murdered their driver and attempted to murder a witness. The motive behind the killing was unknown. On Sep 8 they were convicted of espionage and murder. In 2010 a military judge threw out the ruling and ordered a new case. In August, 2013, Tjostolv Moland (32), died in prison. An autopsy report said he had hanged himself. French was freed in May, 2017.
    (AP, 12/4/09)(AFP, 9/8/09)(AP, 4/22/10)(AP, 8/29/13)(Reuters, 5/17/17)

2009        Jun 15, The Hague-based International Criminal Court ordered former Congolese rebel warlord Jean-Pierre Bemba to stand trial on charges of crimes against humanity and war crimes, including murder, rape and pillaging.
    (Reuters, 6/16/09)

2009        Jun 19, A top Congo army officer said 32 people have been killed in three days of fighting in eastern Congo between government soldiers and Rwandan Hutu rebels backed by Congolese militia allies.
    (Reuters, 6/19/09)

2009        Jun 22, In Democratic Republic of Congo rioting inmates overnight raped around 20 female prisoners during a failed prison break in Goma. Two people were killed and 12 others were injured when prisoners detonated two grenades.
    (Reuters, 6/23/09)

2009        Jun 26, A UN official said Ugandan rebels this year have killed around 1,200 Congolese civilians and abducted 1,500, mostly children, in a remote region of northeast Congo.
    (AP, 6/26/09)

2009        Jul 20, In eastern Democratic Republic of Congo at least 24 people, most of them civilians, were killed when rebels attacked an army base.
    (Reuters, 7/23/09)

2009        Jul 24, The UN refugee agency said 536,000 people have been chased from their homes in eastern Congo this year as a result of clashes between government forces and rebels linked to neighboring Rwanda's 1994 genocide.
    (AP, 7/24/09)

2009        Jul 27, A Congo government spokesman said The Democratic Republic of Congo has suspended transmission of French broadcaster Radio France International (RFI).
    (Reuters, 7/27/09)

2009        Aug 1, Humanitarian groups said members of the Lord's Resistance Army, a Ugandan rebel group, have launched attacks against towns in the Central African Republic that have left at least 10 people dead in the last two weeks. The attacks by the LRA, launched from its rear bases in the Democratic Republic of Congo, have also forced hundreds of people to flee their villages.
    (AFP, 8/2/09)

2009        Aug 6, DR Congo President Joseph Kabila met his Rwandan counterpart Paul Kagame in the lakeside city of Goma for the first official bilateral talks between the neighboring states in 13 years.
    (AP, 8/6/09)

2009        Aug 10, US Secretary of State Hillary Clinton arrived in the strife-torn Democratic Republic of Congo on the fourth leg of her seven-nation African tour. Clinton said she would press Democratic Republic of Congo's government to address the root causes of the conflict in the east and stop the use of women as "weapons of war."
    (Reuters, 8/10/09)

2009        Aug 11, Authorities in the Democratic Republic of Congo arrested Gregoire Ndahimana, a former Rwandan mayor, for his alleged role in the 1994 genocide. Measures were taken for him to be transferred to the International Criminal Tribunal for Rwanda (ICTR) headquarters in Arusha, Tanzania.
    (AFP, 8/12/09)
2009        Aug 11, In Congo US Secretary of State Hillary Clinton called for the Democratic Republic of Congo to punish soldiers responsible for rape as she toured the war-torn east. She also unveiled a $17 million plan to help fight the sexual violence in eastern Congo.
    (AFP, 8/11/09)(SFC, 8/12/09, p.A3)

2009        Sep 8, In the Democratic Republic of Congo two Norwegians were sentenced to death by a court for murdering a Congolese man in the northeast of the country in May.
    (AFP, 9/8/09)

2009        Sep 13, In southern Democratic Republic of Congo at least 14 people were dead and another 34 missing after their boat sank in an isolated stretch of the Lualaba river.
    (Reuters, 9/14/09)

2009        Oct 5, In Burundi 2 days of clashes began as government forces fired live rounds in the air to deter hundreds of Congolese refugees from returning home. Some 900 refugees had decided to return home on foot rather than be transferred to a new camp further away from the border with Democratic Republic of Congo.
    (AFP, 10/7/09)

2009        Oct 13, Activists from Congo, Rene Ngongo (48), and New Zealand, Alyn Ware (47), and an Ethiopia-based doctor from Australia, Catherine Hamlin (85), won the Right Livelihood Award, also known as the "alternative Nobel," for work to protect rain forests, improve women's health and rid the world of nuclear weapons. The honorary part of the award, without prize money, went to Canadian environmentalist David Suzuki (73) for raising awareness of climate change. Each will receive euro50,000 (US$74,000).
    (AP, 10/13/09)
2009        Oct 13, A report by a coalition of 84 organizations said more than 1,000 civilians have been killed and nearly 900,000 displaced in eastern Congo by Rwandan Hutu militiamen and Congolese forces since January.
    (AP, 10/13/09)

2009        Oct 14, The Democratic Republic of Congo said it had agreed with Angola to halt tit-for-tat expulsions of each other's citizens as victims told of being subjected to brutal rapes and lootings when they were thrown out by Luanda.
    (AFP, 10/14/09)

2009        Oct 28, The UN mission to Congo (MONUC) said Congolese soldiers killed their unit commander when he ordered them not to steal and pillage in eastern Democratic Republic of Congo. The men involved were former Mai-Mai militia members from the Congolese Resistance Patriots movement (PARECO) who recently became part of the army.
    (AFP, 10/29/09)

2009        Oct 29, In northern Democratic Republic of Congo armed villagers killed at least 47 policemen trying to intervene in ethnic clashes.
    (Reuters, 10/30/09)

2009        Oct 30, Congo's foreign minister said India has offered Democratic Republic of Congo $263 million in loans to build hydroelectric plants and repair battered infrastructure in the war-ravaged nation. The two countries agreed to the final terms of the loan package this week during a four-day visit by Foreign Minister Alexis Thambwe Mwamba to India.
    (Reuters, 10/30/09)

2009        Oct, In the Democratic Republic of Congo fighting broke out between two tribes, the Lobala and the Bombona, in a dispute over rich fishing waters in Dongo, 200 km (125 miles) south of Gemena, the main town in the Sud-Oubangui district. The clashes left some 270 people dead. A 600-strong unit of commando reinforcements wrested back control of the Dongo region on December 13.
    (AFP, 12/30/09)

2009        Nov 2, A top UN official announced that the UN has withdrawn its support for Congolese army units operating in eastern Democratic Republic of Congo, accusing its soldiers of killing 62 civilians.
    (AFP, 11/2/09)

2009        Nov 3, Rwanda said it has urged the UN to list the Rwandan Hutu rebel group operating in eastern Congo as a terrorist organization.
    (AFP, 11/3/09)
2009        Nov 3, Senior Lord's Resistance Army commander Charles Arop, who was implicated in leading a massacre on Christmas Day that killed at least 143 Congolese, surrendered to the Ugandan military stationed in the northeast of the Democratic Republic of Congo.
    (AFP, 11/5/09)

2009        Nov 8, The Democratic Republic of Congo government said security forces in an overnight raid on the town of Dongo have arrested about 100 armed men blamed for killing dozens of policemen in an attack in the country's isolated north last month.
    (AP, 11/8/09)

2009        Nov 15, India's Essar Group, and energy-to-steel conglomerate, said it has agreed to buy a majority stake in Dhabi Group's telecommunication businesses in African nations Uganda and Congo.
    (Reuters, 11/15/09)

2009        Nov 17, Two leading Rwandan Hutu rebels were arrested in Germany on suspicion of crimes against humanity and war crimes this year and in 2008 in DR Congo. The pair, Ignace Murwanashyaka (46) and Straton Musoni (48) are the leader and deputy leader respectively of the Democratic Liberation Forces of Rwanda. The FDLR is estimated to have 5,000 to 6,000 fighters, many of whom took part in the 1994 genocide in Rwanda before crossing into the neighboring Democratic Republic of Congo.
    (AFP, 11/17/09)

2009        Nov 24, A report was leaked on the UN’s peacekeeping mission in the CongoDRC, better known as MONUC. The report alleged collusion between peacekeepers and Congo’s army to help various rebel groups in exchange for cash and access to mineral wealth.
    (Econ, 11/28/09, p.54)(http://congosiasa.blogspot.com/2009/11/leak-un-expert-report.html)

2009        Nov 25, A United Nations report confirmed that one of Africa's most brutal rebel movements relies on a vast, international network of supporters in at least 25 countries including in the US and Europe who facilitate arms trafficking, money transfers and day-to-day operational support. The findings are a scathing indictment of how little has been done by the international community to cut off logistical support to the Democratic Forces for the Liberation of Rwanda (FDLR), an ethnic Hutu militia which has wreaked havoc in Congo.
    (AP, 11/25/09)
2009        Nov 25, In western Democratic Republic of Congo at least 73 people were killed and others missing after a logging boat sank in Lake Mai Ndombe in Bandundu province.
    (Reuters, 11/28/09)

2009        Nov 26, In the Congo four UN peacekeepers were wounded in northern Congo after a UN helicopter was attacked by armed men.
    (AP, 11/27/09)

2009        Nov 27, In Congo DRC four people died when a jail cell wall fell on them during an attempted prison escape in Kinshasa.
    (AP, 11/30/09)

2009        Dec 3, A Congolese court upheld death sentences for two Norwegians convicted of espionage and murder, prompting condemnation from Norwegian officials. They had been convicted in Sep of murdering their driver and attempting to murder a witness in May 2009.
    (AP, 12/3/09)

2009        Dec 14, Human Rights Watch said a UN-backed Congolese military operation to oust rebels from eastern Congo has caused more civilian casualties than damage to rebels, with more than 1,400 people deliberately killed over a nine-month period.
    (AP, 12/14/09)
2009        Dec 14-2009 Dec 17, In northeastern Congo at least 321 civilians were killed in a massacre by the Ugandan Lord's Resistance Army in the Makombo area. Villagers that escaped their LRA captors were sent back with their lips and ears cut off as a warning to others of what would happen if they tried to talk. News of the massacre was not made public until March 27, 2010.
    (AP, 3/27/10)

2009        Dec 21, The UN accused the Ugandan-based Lord's Resistance Army of killing, mutilating and raping villagers in Sudan and Congo in what may have been crimes against humanity.
    (AP, 12/21/09)

2009        Dec 23, The UN Security Council voted to renew the mandate of peacekeeping forces in Congo by 5 months instead of the usual year amid plans to overhaul their role in the war-torn country.
    (Reuters, 12/23/09)

2009        Gerard Prunier authored “Africa’s World War: Congo, the Rwandan Genocide, and the Making of a Continental Catastrophe."
    (Econ, 1/24/09, p.88)
2009        In Kinshasa, Congo, the music group Staff Benda Bilili, all victims of polio, released their first album entitled “Tres, Tres Fort."
    (Econ, 10/3/09, p.60)(www.crammed.be/staffbendabilili/)
2009        CongoDRC nationalized First Quantum, a Canada based company. A third of the company’s profits had come its Congo mine.
    (Econ, 9/20/14, p.60)
2009        In CongoDRC forced evictions and demolitions of hundreds of homes began near a copper and cobalt mine in Katanga province and were carried out by Enterprise General Malta Forrest, a subsidiary of the Belgian firm Groupe Forrest International. A prosecutor investigated the demolitions, but provincial officials and officials in Kinshasa, ordered that no charges be filed. This was only made public by Amnesty Int’l. in 2014.
    (AP, 11/24/14)
2009        Rwanda officially pulled out of Congo DRC, but maintained a network of spies and allies in the eastern part of the country.
    (Econ 7/15/17, p.22)

2010        Jan 1, A Congolese army officer said the Democratic Republic of Congo forces are to mount a new offensive against Rwandan Hutu rebels in the east of the country with the backing of UN troops.
    (AP, 1/1/10)

2010        Jan 10, In southeast Congo 6 people, including 5 children, died in a tin mine collapse. 2 people were left missing.
    (AP, 1/11/10)

2010        Feb 15, Congo’s Radio Okapi, a UN-run station, said Rwandan Hutu rebels have killed at least 27 people in eastern Congo already this month.
    (AP, 2/15/10)

2010        Feb 22, In eastern CongoDRC 3 people were killed when Congolese soldiers attacked a UN agency car and tried to loot it in South Kivu province. A combination of military personnel from the US Special Operations Command Africa, including US special forces and civilian specialists under contract, were said to be conducting training a battalion of Congolese soldiers in the city of Kisangani. The 8-month program for the battalion, which can consist of about 1,000 soldiers, will cover military basics but also will focus on human rights training. Human rights groups have previously accused Congo's poorly trained and irregularly paid army forces of attacking civilians.
    (AP, 2/23/10)(AP, 3/1/10)

2010        Feb 28, A UN-backed military operation against Rwandan Hutu rebels in eastern Democratic Republic of Congo was launched. The operation will involve 18 battalions from the Congolese FARDC army in a series of targeted attacks throughout north and south Kivu provinces in Congo's conflict-racked east.
    (AP, 3/4/10)

2010        Feb, In northeast Congo up to 100 people were killed about this time when the rebel Lord's Resistance Army attacked a village. News of the massacre did not become public until May 1 when UN humanitarian chief John Holmes said he learned of the killings when he visited Niangara, the nearest town which he reached by helicopter.
    (AP, 5/2/10)(Reuters, 5/2/10)

2010        Mar 10, A UN official said 90 Rwandan rebels have been killed  in eastern Congo during a two-week Congolese army operation conducted with the support of UN peacekeepers.
    (AP, 3/10/10)

2010        Mar 17, The Congolese army said more than 600 Rwandan Hutu rebels have been killed or captured since January in an operation backed by the UN mission to the country.
    (AP, 3/18/10)

2010        Apr 4, In northern Congo some 100-150 Enyele rebels attacked Mbandaka, capital of Congo's northern Equateur province. A UN peacekeeper from Ghana was fatally shot while in a car. A UN civilian and a South African pilot died during the fighting. At least 36 people, including policemen, an army officer and militiamen, died in the clashes between the Enyele and Munzale tribesmen reportedly over farming and fishing rights.
    (AP, 4/5/10)(AP, 4/6/10)(Econ, 4/17/10, p.51)

2010        Apr 5, In northern Congo UN-backed government forces retook the Mbandaka provincial airport from rebels. In eastern Congo 2 soldiers shot and killed national radio journalist Patient Chebeya Bakome. Bakome's brother said the soldiers shot Bakome in front of his wife and took his phone and money. Beni police arrested the 2 soldiers.
    (AP, 4/5/10)(AP, 4/6/10)

2010        Apr 7, Innovation for the Development and Protection of the Environment (IDPE) said that from March 3-28 Congo government troops killed 7 hippos and 5 elephants as well as five antelopes, four baboons, three chimpanzees and two buffalo in Virunga national Park, a UNESCO world heritage. The soldiers "use their wives and cousins to sell the meat" in villages near the park, the IDPE said in a report that included photos of decomposing elephant carcasses.
    (AFP, 4/8/10)

2010        Apr 9, In Congo 7 Congolese and one Swiss national, staff members of the Red Cross, were seized near the town of Fizi in South Kivu province by the Mai Mai Yakutumba rebels. The workers were released on April 16.
    (AP, 4/13/10)(AP, 4/16/10)

2010        Apr 15, A new study by Oxfam said the number of rapes carried out by civilians in eastern Congo has increased by 17-fold in the last few years. It said sexual assaults long perpetrated by armed groups are spreading across the population.
    (AP, 4/15/10)

2010        May 5, Congo’s government information minister said civilians who were being recruited to a new rebel movement in Congo's northwest captured the group's leader and he now will stand trial for war crimes. Odjani was captured by youths he was trying to recruit in the village of Dongo. In eastern Congo 80 people were missing and feared dead after an overloaded canoe capsized on a river. 45 people were rescued from the Congo River near the city of Kindu, the capital of Congo's eastern Maniema province.
    (AP, 5/6/10)

2010        May 24, The UN said an Indian UN peacekeeper and two Congolese nationals were killed in an ambush in North Kivu province, Democratic Republic of Congo.
    (Reuters, 5/24/10)

2010        May 27, UN experts said rebel groups in eastern Congo are illegally imposing taxes on trucks and pedestrians and receiving local, regional and international support in violation of UN sanctions.
    (AP, 5/27/10)

2010        May 28, The UN, bowing to pressure from Congo's President Joseph Kabila, agreed to withdraw up to 2,000 peacekeeping troops and redefine the remaining force as a "stabilization" mission in his nation to coincide with its 50th anniversary of independence.
    (AP, 5/28/10)

2010        Jun 2, In CongoDRC the body of Floribert Chebeya Bahizire of Voix des Sans Voix, or Voice of the Voiceless, was found in his car in a suburb of Kinshasa. The next day Navi Pillay, the top UN human rights official said the victim had suffered a pattern of intimidation because of his work. For the past two decades, Voix des Sans Voix had worked to document human rights abuses across Congo, focusing on corruption in the military and foreign support for militias. On June 4 several police officers were arrested as part of a preliminary investigation into the death of Bahizire.
    (AP, 6/3/10)(AP, 6/5/10)

2010        Jun 10, A Congo military court sentenced to death a British-Norwegian national and a Norwegian convicted of espionage and murder. Joshua French, the dual national, and Tjostolv Moland, both former Norwegian soldiers, were convicted last year of murdering their driver and attempting to murder a witness. The alleged motive is unknown. A lawyer said the two witnesses who testified against them were awarded large sums of money in compensation and have changed their stories countless times.
    (AP, 6/10/10)

2010        Jun 29, Congolese Gen. Amuli Bahigwa said the army has killed 80 rebels from neighboring Rwanda and Uganda who crossed into volatile eastern Congo. Bahigwa said the army killed the rebels in an operation that started June 1. He said four soldiers were killed and that Ugandan rebels killed eight civilians.
    (AP, 6/29/10)
2010        Jun 29, Uganda’s  Lieutenant Colonel Felix Kulayigye confirmed the ADF are attacking a Congolese town called Mutwanga and have killed 16 civilians. The Allied Democratic Forces, a group that claims it is fighting for equality for Muslims, battled Ugandan forces in country's Rwenzori region near the DRC, with the heaviest fighting occurring between 1996 and 2001.
    (AFP, 6/29/10)

2010        Jul 2, In eastern Congo a fuel tanker overturned and burst into flames, sparking a massive fire that killed at least 230 villagers and wounded more than 200 — some of whom had rushed to siphon leaking liquid from the vehicle illegally.
    (AP, 7/3/10)(SSFC, 7/4/10, p.A5)(SFC, 7/5/10, p.A2)

2010        Jul 8, The International Criminal Court at The Hague suspended Congolese militia chief Thomas Lubanga's trial and rapped prosecutors for abusing court processes and ignoring judges' orders.
    (AFP, 7/9/10)

2010        Jul 21, The US Dodd-Frank Act, signed today, all but shut down artisanal mining in much of eastern Congo DRC as it attempted to stop rebels from selling gold and diamonds to fund wars.
    (Econ, 8/27/16, p.36)

2010        Jul 24, Congolese rebels took an Indian pilot hostage when they attacked an aircraft on a remote airstrip in a tin mining zone in the country's North Kivu province.
    (Reuters, 7/25/10)

2010        Jul 26, Campaign group Global Witness said it was launching legal action against the British government for allegedly failing to refer companies trading Congolese "conflict minerals" for UN sanctions.
    (AFP, 7/26/10)

2010        Jul 27, In CongoDRC a boat ferrying about 200 passengers to Kinshasa capsized after hitting a rock. As many as 138 people were killed with 80 confirmed dead.
    (AP, 7/29/10)

2010        Jul 30, In eastern CongoDRC rebels from the Mai Mai militia and Rwandan Hutu FDLR  occupied Luvungi town, North Kivu, one day after beginning an attack there. Over the next 4 days they gang-raped scores of women. The rebels withdrew voluntarily on Aug 4. Later reports said there were over 500 systematic rapes.
    (AP, 8/23/10)(Reuters, 9/1/10)(AP, 9/7/10)

2010        Aug 11, In CongoDRC around 40 people were killed when an overloaded truck laden with passengers plowed into Lake Tanganyika,  Africa's deepest lake.
    (Reuters, 8/12/10)

2010        Aug 18, In the Democratic of Republic of Congo 3 Indian UN peacekeepers were killed in a surprise attack on their base by 50 fighters armed with machetes, spears and traditional weapons. The next day Congolese soldiers arrested two suspects in the killing of the Indian  peacekeepers.
    (Reuters, 8/18/10)(AFP, 8/19/10)

2010        Aug 25, Police in northeastern Congo said they have seized 116 elephant tusks and arrested two men following a truck crash.
    (AP, 8/25/10)
2010        Aug 25, In western Congo a passenger plane, operated by local airliner FILAIR, crashed, killing 19 people. Police said there were two survivors.
    (AP, 8/25/10)

2010        Aug, In CongoDRC rebel militants raped some 240 people over 4 days in the Walikale district of eastern Congo. At least 387 people were raped in the Walikale territory in late July and early, including men, children and a month-old baby boy. In 2011 survivors suffered reprisals and a judicial inquiry into the violence was suspended.
    (Econ, 1/15/11, p.64)(AP, 7/6/11)

2010        Sep 1, Gunmen in eastern Congo fired on a private plane carrying international aid workers who escaped into the forest. The aid workers were rescued later in the day by peacekeepers. A Congolese soldier and two militiamen were killed in the firefight. 2 pilots in another plane were captured after an attack by Mai Mai and Rwandan Hutu rebels shortly after landing at Kilambo. The pilots and 2 injured people were released on Sep 24.
    (AP, 9/1/10)(AP, 9/25/10)

2010        Sep 4, In southern Congo at least 200 people were feared dead after a boat engine caught fire and led the vessel to overturn on the Kasai River. Survivors who swam to safety  said nearby fishermen refused to help drowning passengers in the dark of night, instead looting the goods aboard the burning vessel and beating people with oars. Earlier the same day, a boat on a river in northwest Equateur Province hit a rock and capsized. More than 70 people were believed dead among 100 estimated passengers.
    (AP, 9/5/10)(AP, 9/6/10)

2010        Sep 7, Police in southeastern Congo say they have arrested three men carrying six suitcases full of elephant tusks. 3 Chinese nationals were caught at Lumumbashi's airport while trying to fly to Nairobi, Kenya. The men said they bought the ivory from antique dealers.
    (AP, 9/7/10)

2010        Sep 8, Congo’s President Joseph Kabila ordered the indefinite suspension near the mining hub of Walikale, where more than 240 people were treated for rape last month.
    (AP, 9/10/10)

2010        Sep 11, Congo’s President Joseph Kabila extended indefinite mining suspensions to three more provinces in the volatile east.
    (AP, 9/12/10)
2010        Sep 11, In Sudan a rare three-day meeting of 30 religious and community leaders as well as local government officials from the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC), south Sudan, the Central African Republic (CAR) and Uganda criticized the "lack of a coordinated and comprehensive strategy" to tackle the LRA rebels.
    (AFP, 9/11/10)

2010        Sep 29, In CongoDRC Armand Tungulu (30), a Congolese citizen living in Belgium, was taken into custody by Pres. Kabila's bodyguards after he threw rocks at the presidential motorcade. Witnesses said the guards beat Tungulu before arresting him. On Oct 4 a statement from the Congolese attorney general's office said Tungulu killed himself on the night of Oct 1 with a piece of cloth he had been using as a pillow. On October 14 the DR Congo refused to return to Belgium the body of a Tungulu.
    (AP, 10/4/10)(AP, 10/23/10)

2010        Oct 1, The UN released its 545-page report into mass killings in Congo over a ten-year period. Rwanda and Uganda insisted the $3 million report is flawed and could harm security in Africa's volatile Great Lakes region.
    (AP, 10/1/10)

2010        Oct 5, Fellow rebels handed over Congolese commander Sadoke Kokunda Mayele. He was arrested for allegedly leading fighters in the mass gang-rapes of more than 300 people from July 30 to August 2.
    (AP, 10/6/10)

2010        Oct 7, In eastern Congo children in Burinyi village found an unexploded grenade on their way to fetch water from a well. 5 children died when it detonated as they were playing with it.
    (AP, 10/7/10)

2010        Oct 14, Margot Wallstrom, the UN special representative for sexual violence in armed conflict, told the 15-nation Security Council that a man known as "Colonel Serafim" was among those believed to be responsible for the rape of over 300 people. She also said Congolese government troops are raping, killing and looting civilians in the same area of eastern Congo where militias carried out mass rapes over two months ago.
    (AP, 10/14/10)(AP, 10/14/10)

2010        Oct 15, Roger Meece, heads of the UN peacekeeping mission in Congo, said more than 15,000 people were raped in the volatile eastern region of Congo last year, according to the best data available.
    (AP, 10/15/10)
2010        Oct 15, Adrian Edwards, the UN High Commissioner for Refugees, said the rebels of the Lord's Resistance Army have killed at least 2,000 people and forced 400,000 to flee in three countries in less than two years. A UNHCR communique documented a mounting "campaign of terror against civilians" in the DR Congo, South Sudan and the CAR.
    (AFP, 10/15/10)

2010        Oct 17, Congo's first lady, Olive Lembe Kabila, led thousands of women marching in the country's volatile east to demand an end to a wave of mass rapes. 3 residents were killed when soldiers looted homes in Congo's South Kivu province.
    (AP, 10/17/10)(AP, 10/18/10)

2010        Oct 21, In CongoDRC a small plane was owned by a local airliner Starec Congo crashed into a gorilla park in eastern Congo killing its pilot and co-pilot. It was carrying some 3,300 pounds (1,500 kg) of commercial goods.
    (AP, 10/21/10)

2010        Oct 23, In Belgium police and demonstrators opposed to President Joseph Kabila of the Democratic Republic of Congo clashed in Brussels during a protest over the Oct 1 death in jail of Armand Tungulu, a visitng Congolese dissident who lived in Belgium.
    (AFP, 10/23/10)

2010        Oct 24, In CongoDRC militia attacked a UN base near Virunga National Park. Some 100 attackers were members of the shadowy Mai Mai militia. Peacekeepers killed 8 militiamen.
    (AP, 10/26/10)

2010        Oct 26, The UN Office for the Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs (OCHA) said at least 30 women were kept as prisoners in a dungeon-like structure and gang-raped over multiple weeks at the Congo and Angola border before being left in the bush without their clothes. The deportees said they were held by Angolan authorities in a dingy building. At least three were killed, including two men and a woman (27) who died after being raped repeatedly.
    (AP, 10/27/10)

2010        Oct 27, US officials said the Obama administration has granted a waiver allowing Chad, CongoDRC, Sudan and Yemen to continue receiving US military aid despite their use of child soldiers. Officials said cutting off aid would do more damage than good.
    (SFC, 10/28/10, p.A2)

2010        Nov 6, United Nations officials said they were investigating reports that some 700 Congolese women were sexually attacked along the country's border with Angola. Many women had said Angolan soldiers were responsible for their attacks.
    (AP, 11/6/10)

2010        Nov 8, In south-central Congo at least 42 people were killed when a truck overturned on the country's poorly maintained roads. 16 children were among the dead from the crash in Kasai-Oriental province.
    (AP, 11/9/10)

2010        Nov 17, In eastern Congo Rwandan Hutu rebels attacked a truck, killing at least three people and wounding several others. UN-run Radio Okapi earlier reported the rebels killed 21 people in the attack in the heavily forested Walikale territory, but a UN spokeswoman said peacekeepers on patrol in the area confirmed only three dead.
    (AP, 11/17/10)

2010        Nov 19, In the Republic of Congo 8 countries signed a convention to limit the spread of weapons in central Africa, but three countries opted out. Angola, Cameroon, the Central African Republic, Chad, the Democratic Republic of Congo, Gabon, The Republic of Congo, Sao Tome and Principe all signed. Burundi, Equatorial Guinea and Rwanda did not sign.
    (AFP, 11/20/10)

2010        Nov 29, The United Nations released a report saying armed groups in volatile eastern Congo, including the army, have bypassed international efforts at reform and have instead formed criminal networks to exploit the nation's mineral wealth.
    (AP, 11/29/10)

2010        Dec 1, The UN named 3 Rwandan rebel leaders and a Congolese military officer, suspected of recruiting child soldiers and other abuses, on its worldwide travel ban and assets freeze aimed at stemming widespread violence in Congo.
    (AP, 12/2/10)

2010        Dec 7, Hendrik Coetzee (35), an acclaimed South African outdoorsman, was dragged from his craft by a crocodile on the Lukuga River in Congo. 2 Americans watched, horrified, and paddled to safety. Coetzee was leading a kayaking expedition from the source of the White Nile into Congo.
    (AP, 12/9/10)

2010        Dec 10, UNICEF said a polio outbreak in CongoDRC has caused over 200 deaths. Most of those affected were young men between the ages of 15 and 24.
    (SFC, 12/11/10, p.A2)

2010         Claus Wischmann and Martin Baer produced the documentary “Kinshasa Symphony" in which they followed Armand Diangienda and the Orchestre Symphonique Kimbanguiste in Kinshasa as they prepared for a concert of Beethoven’s ninth symphony.
    (Econ, 3/27/10, p.94)(www.youtube.com/watch?v=_vTk0XsgZV4)
2010        Some 100,000 Twa pygmies remained in the Great Lakes region of Uganda, Rwanda, Burundi and CongoDRC. Most of them were barred from their ancestral forests including the Bwindi Impenetrable Forest, which was turned into a national park in 1991.
    (Econ, 9/25/10, SR p.11)

2011        Jan 1, In CongoDRC at least 67 women were raped in South and North Kivu provinces, including a teen-ager and two pregnant women. On Jan 21 Congo arrested Lt. Colonel Kibibi Mutwara, a senior army commander accused of ordering the rapes in Fizi. The arrest followed the detention of 10 other soldiers earlier in the week. On July 22, 2011, a UN report said investigators found at least 47 women were subjected to rape and other sexual assaults from Dec. 31, 2010, to Jan. 1, 2011 in an isolated and mountainous area of North Kivu province.
    (Reuters, 1/25/11)(AP, 7/22/11)

2011        Jan 22, The Rwandan army said its former chief of staff and an ex-spy chief, both exiled in South Africa, have formed a rebel group operating in neighboring Democratic Republic of Congo. Faustin Kayumba Nyamwasa and Patrick Karegeya and two other former top officials, also in exile, were last week sentenced to heavy jail terms for threatening state security.
    (AFP, 1/22/11)

2011        Jan 24, In CongoDRC’s Virunga National Park an attack killed three park rangers and five Congolese soldiers. Officials believed the attackers, who fled on foot, were Rwandan-led Hutu rebels who retaliated after rangers destroyed two of their camps in the park in December.
    (AP, 1/25/11)

2011        Feb 2, In CongoDRC at least 14 people were killed and around 20 injured when a goods train derailed in Western Kasai province.
    (AFP, 2/2/11)

2011        Feb 3, Authorities in Congo arrested four foreigners, an American, a Frenchman and two Nigerians, suspected of planning to smuggle millions of dollars of gold out of the country's lawless east. Army general Bosco Ntaganda, wanted by the ICC for recruiting child soldiers, received $6.5 million in cash for the gold, over 400kg, which was seized.
    (Reuters, 2/7/11)(Econ, 2/12/11, p.54)

2011        Feb 14, In the Democratic Republic of Congo a small plane used to deliver World Food Program aid crashed in Bukavu, killing its Russian pilot and his Congolese co-pilot.
    (AP, 2/15/11)

2011        Feb 21, In CongoDRC a mobile military court convicted army Lt. Col. Mutuare Daniel Kibibi (46) of crimes against humanity, a landmark verdict in this Central African country where aid groups say thousands are brutally raped each year and where impunity prevails for the soldiers and militia groups who terrorize civilians. 3 of Kibibi's officers received the same sentences, and 5 others got lesser sentences. 49 women who testified about the New Year attacks in Fizi were to receive up to $10,000 each in compensation from the government as part of the verdict.
    (AP, 2/21/11)

2011        Feb 25, UN officials said at least 40 people have been raped in eastern areas of the Democratic Republic of Congo over the past 2 weeks.
    (SFC, 2/26/11, p.A2)

2011        Feb 27, In CongoDRC assailants armed with machetes attacked the presidential residence in Kinshasa. At least 7 attackers and 2 guards were killed. President Kabila was not at home at the time. Congolese later picked up 126 suspects in what they say was a multi-pronged attack that centered on Congo's presidential palace in which 19 people were killed.
    (AP, 2/27/11)(SFC, 2/28/11, p.A2)(AP, 3/8/11)

2011        Apr 4, In CongoDRC a UN plane crashed while attempting to land at the airport serving Kinshasa, killing 32 UN officials and peacekeepers. One survivor was confirmed.
    (http://civiliancontractors.wordpress.com/)(SFC, 4/5/11, p.A2)

2011        Apr 18, In CongoDRC at least 23 people died when a truck crashed into an area where young girls were collecting water outside the eastern city of Goma.
    (AP, 4/19/11)

2011        Apr 25, In eastern Congo a boat owner said 72 people are missing after his boat capsized on Lake Kivu, possibly because of bad weather and high winds.
    (AP, 4/25/11)

2011        Apr 26, Congolese children's rights activist Murhabazi Namegabe was named winner of the $100,000 World Children's Prize for his efforts to protect children exploited by armed groups in the African country. The award foundation based in Mariefred, Sweden, cited Murhabazi's "dangerous struggle to free children forced to be child soldiers or sex slaves" in Congo.
    (AP, 4/26/11)

2011        May 2, In CongoDRC at least 106 people were missing after an overloaded boat capsized overnight on the Kasai River.
    (Reuters, 5/3/11)(SFC, 5/3/11, p.AA2)

2011        May 11, A new study released by the American Journal of Public Health said 1,152 women are raped every day in CongoDRC, a rate equal to 48 per hour.
    (AP, 5/11/11)

2011        May 25, US passage of the Dodd-Frank act

2011        May 27, CongoDRC’s North Kivu governor Julien Paluku said that Munyagishari, the suspected leader of an extremist Hutu militia, has been arrested and taken to Kinshasa.
    (AP, 5/27/11)

2011        Jun 10-2011 Jun 12, In Congo’s South Kivu province at least 121 rapes occurred during this period in the village of Nyakiele. Medicins Sans Frontieres worked with Congolese health officials and the UN to get more information. 55 women said they were raped in the night of June 10 to 11, while another said 72 women in the village of Kanguli reported having been violated that same night.
    (AP, 6/23/11)(Reuters, 6/24/11)(AP, 7/1/11)(AFP, 7/4/11)

2011        Jun 23, In CongoDRC right groups walked out of the Kimberley meeting in Kinshasa, where African countries, China and India supported a decision to allow Zimbabwe to sell some diamonds from its controversial Marange fields. The endorsement was opposed by Western nations, rights groups and industry.
    (AFP, 6/24/11)

2011        Jun 24, In CongoDRC a 4-day meeting of the Kimberly Process, a system to end the trade in “blood diamonds," ended. Chairman Mathieu Yamba announced that two Zimbabwean-South African joint ventures could resume diamond sales.
    (Econ, 7/2/11, p.40)
2011        Jun 24, In CongoDRC 19 people were believed dead after a boat capsized overnight on Lake Albert.
    (AP, 6/27/11)

2011        Jul 1, Doctors without Borders (MSF) said cholera has claimed 153 lives out of 2,787 cases in the capital of the Democratic Republic of Congo and the provinces. MSF said that the outbreak began in March in the northeastern city of Kisangani, and soon spread westwards, with the first cases reported in Kinshasa on June 20.
    (AFP, 7/1/11)

2011        Jul 3, In Uganda a motorized canoe left Panyimur on the Ugandan side of the 20-km-wide Lake Albert with 31 passengers aboard. It sank as it approached Mahagi on the Congolese side. In northeastern Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC) 30 people were missing and one was rescued when a motorized boat sank on Lake Albert.
    (AFP, 7/5/11)(AFP, 7/6/11)

2011        Jul 6, The UN Office for the Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs (OCHA) said the Lord's Resistance Army forces killed 26 civilians in the Democratic Republic of Congo in June alone.
    (AFP, 7/7/11)

2011        Jul 7, A CongoDRC colonel known as Kifaru, accused of mass rapes last June in volatile eastern Congo, surrendered with 106 others.
    (AP, 7/8/11)

2011        Jul 8, In CongoDRC a Hewa Bora Airways plane crashed in a thunderstorm as it was attempting to land in Kisangani airport, killing at least 48 people, and leaving a dozen or more buried in the wreckage. 53 passengers survived.
    (AP, 7/8/11)

2011        Jul 11, The European Union signed an agreement to provide 2.5 million euros ($3.5 million) to help care for rape victims in the Democratic Republic of Congo.
    (AFP, 7/11/11)

2011        Jul 22, The United Nations named two Congolese army colonels who appear to be blocking an investigation of soldiers accused of mass gang-raping at least 47 women in eastern Congo, and said if the attackers are not identified the officers themselves should stand trial for the crimes committed by the troopers under their command. Col. Chuma Balumisa was commander of the operational area including the attacked villages, and Col. Bobo Kakudji was commander of overall operations in North Kivu during the New Year eve rapes.
    (AP, 7/22/11)

2011        Jul 28, In CongoDRC more than 100 people were feared dead after a boat accident on the Tshuapa river in the northwest.
    (AFP, 7/29/11)(SFC, 7/29/11, p.A2)

2011        Aug 1, CongoDRC officials arrested Colonel Balumisa Chuma as he was smuggling a convoy of minerals in the east of the country.
    (AFP, 8/3/11)

2011        Sep 1, Congo DRC police in Kinshasa fired tear gas at hundreds of stone-throwing opposition supporters demonstrating against alleged fraud in the run up to November elections.
    (AP, 9/1/11)

2011        Sep 5, In CongoDRC leading opposition figure Etienne Tshisekedi formally submitted his candidacy for the upcoming presidential elections.
    (AP, 9/5/11)

2011        Sep 6, In CongoDRC police fired on protesters in Kinshasa after two early morning attacks in which people ransacked and looted the offices of opposition leader Etienne Tshisekedi and armed men set ablaze an independent television station that the government had previously tried to silence. At least one person was killed.
    (AP, 9/6/11)

2011        Sep 7, Congolese authorities imposed a temporary ban on political protests in the capital Kinshasa over fears of escalating violence in the run-up to November elections. 8 gunmen attacked a prison in the southeast, freeing a former militia leader and allowing close to 1,000 inmates to escape. Two people were killed as police recaptured 152 of the 967 escaped prisoners. Kyungu Mutanga, also known as "Commander Gedeon", took part in a spectacular jailbreak at the Kassapa prison in Katanga's capital Lubumbashi. Authorities soon offered $100,000 dollars for information leading to Gedeon’s arrest.
    (AFP, 9/7/11)(AP, 9/7/11)(AFP, 9/9/11)

2011        Sep 25, In CongoDRC 19 people died when a truck crashed while carrying goods and people 180 km outside Kinshasa.
    (AP, 9/25/11)
2011        Sep 25, In CongoDRC 114 prisoners fled the prison in Tshikapa, Kasai Occidental state, as an ill prisoner was being taken to the hospital. Police soon captured 90 convicts. Prisoners had complained previously over a lack of food and water at the prison and over the death of two prisoners amid those conditions.
    (AP, 9/26/11)

2011        Sep 28, In CongoDRC a dozen men scaled the wall of the private television station that supported Etienne Tshisekedi, the country's leading opposition presidential candidate. Investigators said the attackers doused the offices in gasoline and set them ablaze.
    (AP, 9/28/11)

2011        Sep, In CongoDRC an initiative by Invisible Children launched the LRA Crisis Tracker web site along with Resolve to map out LRA incidents, mostly in northern Congo. New high frequency radios were being distributed to help track the Lord's Resistance Army, a brutal militia that 100 US special forces troops were currently helping hunt.
    (AP, 11/8/11)

2011        Oct 4, In CongoDRC rebels killed five Congolese aid workers and two other civilians in an attack in the east at Fizi, Sud-Kivu province. Those responsible were said to be members of the Mai Mai Yakutumba militia and allied rebels of Burundi's National Liberation Front.
    (AFP, 10/6/11)

2011        Oct 11, UNICEF, the UN children's agency, warned that the west and central Africa region is facing one of the worst cholera epidemics in its history, with over 85,000 cases reported leading to 2,466 deaths this year. The most significant increases were in Chad, Cameroon, and in western Democratic Republic of Congo.
    (AFP, 10/11/11)

2011        Oct 18, Congolese police fired tear gas to disperse opposition supporters demanding free elections as a US think-tank said Kinshasa must take action to ensure the upcoming vote is credible.
    (AFP, 10/20/11)

2011        Nov 3, Ugandan militiamen, known as ADF-NALU, launched an overnight attack on a military base in Mukakira, eastern Congo, in an attempt to free detained leaders. Nine of the attackers were killed, along with two Congolese soldiers.
    (AP, 11/3/11)

2011        Nov 6, CongoDRC opposition leader Etienne Tshisekedi (79), while visiting in South Africa, proclaimed himself president and ordered his followers to stage jailbreaks to free detained colleagues. Since the electoral campaign opened Oct. 28, Tshisekedi's supporters have had clashes, some deadly, with police and Kabila supporters in several towns.
    (AP, 11/12/11)

2011        Nov 7, In the CongoDRC the Nyamulagira volcano (also known as Nyamuragira) began an eruption that happens about every two years. It has been described as Africa’s most active volcano and has erupted over 40 times since 1885.
    (AFP, 11/9/11)(http://tinyurl.com/ckekoy5)

2011        Nov 22, In CongoDRC gunmen in Kinshasa shot dead opposition lawmaker Marius Gangale in the latest violent episode ahead of the weekend elections.
    (AFP, 11/23/11)
2011        Nov 22, A survey of some 6,000 people over the last 12 months in Democratic Republic of Congo, Malawi, Mozambique, South Africa, Zambia and  Zimbabwe said police are the most corrupt institution in the six countries.
    (AFP, 11/22/11)

2011        Nov 26, In CongoDRC police fired bullets and tear gas into a crowd that included tens of thousands of opposition supporters in Kinshasa. The violence prompted officials to ban further rallies before the Nov 28 poll. At least 12 opposition partisans and bystanders were shot dead as the Republican Guard, the former presidential guard, quashed a rally by supporters of President Joseph Kabila's chief rival.
    (AP, 11/26/11)(AP, 11/27/11)(AFP, 12/2/11)

2011        Nov 28, In CongoDRC voting began despite delays and setbacks. Armed men attacked voting centers and a truck carrying ballots. 5 people were killed in the southeastern town of Lubumbashi after gunmen opened fire on a truck carrying ballots and on a polling center.
    (AP, 11/28/11)(AP, 11/30/11)

2011        Nov 29, CongoDRC officials extended voting to a second day in an attempt to prevent further unrest in sub-Saharan Africa's largest nation. The election was marred by missing ballots and violence.
    (AP, 11/29/11)

2011        Nov 30, CongoDRC officials extended voting to a third day in an attempt to prevent further unrest in sub-Saharan Africa's largest nation.
    (AP, 11/30/11)

2011        Dec 2, Human Rights Watch said CongoDRC election-related violence has already killed 18 civilians, amid fears that fresh unrest could erupt over alleged fraud. A UN report on March 20, 2012, said security forces killed at least 33 people among other "serious human rights violations" during  the November elections.
    (AFP, 12/2/11)(AFP, 3/21/12)

2011        Dec 3, Congo's Pres. Kabila, who is seeking a second term in a nation reeling from poverty and pummeled by war, was leading with just over 50 percent of the votes after early presidential poll results were released.
    (AP, 12/3/11)

2011        Dec 4, DR Congo President Joseph Kabila led chief rival Etienne Tshisekedi 49 percent to 34 with about half of polling centers counted.
    (AFP, 12/4/11)

2011        Dec 5, Johannesburg police fired rubber bullets to break up a group of demonstrators gathered in front of the ruling ANC party headquarters to protest South Africa's alleged involvement in fraud in the November 28 election in the Democratic Republic of Congo.
    (AFP, 12/5/11)

2011        Dec 7, In CongoDRC with 89.2% of precincts counted, Pres. Kabila had 8.3 million out of the 17.3 million votes, or 48%. Tshisekedi was trailing with 5.9 million votes, or 34%.
    (AP, 12/7/11)

2011        Dec 9, In CongoDRC provisional results published by the election commission handed victory to Pres. Joseph Kabila who won another term with 49% of the 18.14 million votes cast. Etienne Tshisekedi (78) took to the airwaves to say he rejected the results and proclaimed himself president, saying the election had been manipulated.
    (AP, 12/9/11)(AP, 12/10/11)

2011        Dec 10, CongoDRC police in Kinshasa prowled opposition neighborhoods rounding up young men, who were seen being dragged out of their homes and shoved into waiting cars. Congo's police chief said at least four people have been killed in the recent postelection violence. Observers with the Atlanta-based Carter Center said that there is growing evidence of possible vote suppression in parts of the country favorable to the opposition, and vote inflation in regions known to support Kabila.
    (AP, 12/10/11)
2011        Dec 10, Police in London arrested 143 people during an angry demonstration by up to 500 people against the re-election of President Joseph Kabila in the Democratic Republic of Congo.
    (AFP, 12/10/11)

2011        Dec 13, Police in eastern DR Congo broke up a banned opposition protest march against President Joseph Kabila's bitterly disputed re-election. Some 500 opposition supporters had defied a ban on protests imposed by the mayor of Bukavu.
    (AFP, 12/13/11)

2011        Dec 14, CongoDRC opposition leader Etienne Tshisekedi's party called for mass protests to "protect" the victory he claims to have won in disputed presidential polls.
    (AFP, 12/14/11)

2011        Dec 16, Judges of the International Criminal Court at The Hague decided not to charge Rwandan rebel leader Callixte Mbarushimana (48) for crimes committed in the Democratic Republic of Congo and ordered his release. Mbarushimana faced 13 counts of war crimes and crimes against humanity allegedly committed in DR Congo's Kivu provinces in 2009.
    (AFP, 12/16/11)

2011        Dec 18, In the CongoDRC opposition leader Etienne Tshisekedi declared himself winner of the recent presidential vote, despite placing second in official election results.
    (SFC, 12/18/11, p.A2)

2011        Dec 21, Human Rights Watch released a report stating CongoDRC security forces had killed at least 24 people and "arbitrarily" arrested dozens more since Kabila's disputed victory was announced December 9.
    (AFP, 12/22/11)

2011        Dec 23, DR Congo police banned a swearing-in ceremony for opposition leader Etienne Tshisekedi. Police fired tear gas at supporters of the opposition leader who had gathered near a stadium to see him inaugurating himself as president, three days after President Joseph Kabila was sworn in for a second term. Tshisekedi took the oath on a Bible at his home.
    (AFP, 12/23/11)(AP, 12/23/11)(AFP, 12/24/11)

2011        Dec 31, In France Leon Kengo (76), CongoDRC Senate chief, was attacked at the Gare du Nord train station "by bands of those who call themselves 'fighters' close to Etienne Tshisekedi." According to initial reports, Kengo had some teeth knocked out, was trampled underfoot, and rolled on the ground.
    (AFP, 1/1/12)

2011        Jason Stearns authored “Dancing in the Glory of Monsters: The Collapse of the Congo and the Great War in Africa."
    (Econ, 4/30/11, p.88)
2011        CongoDRC’s current budget was around $700 million, 40% of which was provided by the Un and other foreign outfits.
    (Econ, 9/24/11, p.60)
2011        The population of CongoDRC was about 70 million.
    (AP, 5/11/11)

2012        Jan 1, In CongoDRC 8 people died and 44 were wounded when a hand grenade exploded during an attempted jail break at the main prison in Bukavu, Sud-Kivu province. At least 18 people were killed in the town of Luyuyu in an attack by Rwandan Hutu rebels.
    (AFP, 1/2/12)(AFP, 1/4/12)

2012        Jan 3, In CongoDRC at least 8 people were killed in the town of Ngolombe in an attack by Rwandan Hutu rebels.
    (AFP, 1/4/12)

2012        Jan 12, DR Congo's influential Catholic church denounced "serious errors" in the tallying of November polls as the electoral commission announced a further delay in final vote results.
    (AFP, 1/12/12)

2012        Jan 18, Rwanda's military said it has suspended and put under house arrest four top military officers over allegations of business dealings with civilians in Congo.
    (AP, 1/18/12)

2012        Jan 20, The UN refugee agency said an upsurge in violence involving government troops and militia in eastern Democratic Republic of Congo has forced 100,000 people from their homes since November.
    (AFP, 1/20/12)

2012        Jan 25, CongoDRC aid workers declared "a humanitarian catastrophe" in southeastern Congo, and blamed the recent deaths of at least 25 people on Kyungu "Gedeon" Mutanga, a feared Mai Mai warlord who broke out of jail late last year.
    (AP, 1/25/12)

2012        Jan 27, In CongoDRC two months after voters went to polls in a chaotic election, the electoral commission announced that parties supporting Congo's president won two-thirds of legislative seats. Electoral officials said they also want to annul results of the legislative elections in seven of Congo's 169 voting districts and prosecute a dozen candidates accused of introducing irregularities and violence.
    (AP, 1/27/12)

2012        Jan 30, In CongoDRC a plane crashed after takeoff in South Kivu. There were at least five people on board.
    (AP, 1/31/12)

2012        Feb 2, CongoDRC officials from the discredited electoral commission announced the last of the winning legislators in results it has issued piecemeal and following a suspension of the count from the Nov. 28 balloting. Kabila still will command a majority in parliament, where his coalition of several parties has won about 260 of the 500 seats, down from more than 300 in the previous assembly.
    (AP, 2/2/12)

2012        Feb 12, In CongoDRC a private jet crashed while landing in the eastern city of Bukavu. Presidential aid Augustin Katumba Mwanke (48) was among those killed. There were 2 pilots and 7 passengers on the private jet. Two American crew members also died, as well as two people crushed by the plane as it came down at Bukavu airport.
    (AP, 2/12/12)(AFP, 2/13/12)

2012        Feb 16, In CongoDRC police in Kinshasa used tear gas to block a march by Christian groups protesting alleged fraud in the November polls that returned President Joseph Kabila and his party to power. Three priests and two nuns were among those jailed.
    (AFP, 2/16/12)(AP, 2/17/12)

2012        Feb 22, The top US special operations commander for Africa said  US troops helping in the fight against a brutal rebel group called the Lord's Resistance Army are now deployed in four Central African countries: Uganda, Congo, South Sudan and Central African Republic.
    (AP, 2/23/12)

2012        Mar 5, A marketing campaign was launched by the Ugandan advocacy group Invisible Children (www.kony2012.com) to vastly increase awareness about Joseph Kony, a jungle militia leader wanted for atrocities by the International Criminal Court and hunted by 100 US Special Forces advisers and local troops. His Lord’s Resistance Army (LRA) was operating in Congo, the Central African Republic and South Sudan.
    (AP, 3/8/12)

2012        Mar 6, The government of the Democratic Republic of Congo headed by PM Adolphe Muzito resigned more than three months after legislative elections.
    (AFP, 3/6/12)

2012        Mar 14, The International Criminal Court at The Hague convicted Congolese warlord Thomas Lubanga of using child soldiers, a verdict hailed as a legal landmark in the fight against impunity for the world's most serious crimes.
    (AP, 3/14/12)

2012        Mar 25, Twenty people from DR Congo drowned when their boats capsized while crossing the river border with Zambia enroute to a soccer game.
    (AFP, 3/27/12)

2012        Mar 30, The UN refugee agency warned that attacks by the renegade Lord's Resistance Army were on the rise and forcing thousands of people to flee. Since March 6, 13 new attacks were recorded in northwest CongoDRC, displacing 1,160 people in the region.
    (AFP, 3/30/12)

2012        Apr 11, CongoDRC’s President Joseph Kabila said he would not order the arrest of war crimes suspect Bosco Ntaganda "under pressure" from the international community. He said Ntaganda should be arrested and face a military tribunal in Congo. Kabila said the military doesn't need to hand Ntaganda over to the ICC.
    (AFP, 4/11/12)(AP, 4/11/12)

2012        Apr 18, CongoDRC Finance Minister Augustin Matata Ponyo Mapon (47) was appointed prime minister and asked to form a new government.
    (AFP, 4/19/12)

2012        Apr 29, The CongoDRC military launched an offensive against Bosco Ntaganda, who is wanted by The Hague for alleged war crimes. On May 5 the army announced a five-day cease-fire to give army defectors a chance to return. Defections began early this month, with ex-CNDP members claiming that the government had failed to implement the provisions in the 2009 accord. On May 6 they formed a new group taking the name - March 23 - from the date of the 2009 peace accord signed by rebel groups and the Congolese government.
    (AFP, 5/9/12)(AFP, 5/28/12)

2012        May 5, In CongoDRC at least 10 people, including four women working in the fields, were killed by presumed Rwandan rebels in a Sud-Kivu village.
    (AFP, 5/16/12)

2012        May 6, In CongoDRC the March 23 Movement (M23) was created by army mutineers who were part of the former rebel National Congress for the Defence of the People (CNDP), a Congolese Tutsi force that Rwanda denied supporting when it was waging its insurgency. The M23 Tutsi leaders came from the same ethnic group as Rwanda’s Pres. Kagame.
    (AFP, 5/28/12)(Econ, 11/24/12, p.57) 

2012        May 9, In CongoDRC the Nord-Kivu governor's office said a 25-ton arms cache has been found on the farm of Bosco Ntaganda, the leader and wanted war criminal of a band of Congolese army mutineers. The farm is located in Masisi," part of Nord-Kivu province, where clashes took place between April 29 and May 4.
    (AFP, 5/9/12)

2012        May 10, In eastern CongoDRC a military spokesman said hundreds of mutineers have returned to the army as a deadline loomed for the ex-rebel deserters to return to ranks.
    (AFP, 5/10/12)

2012        May 11, Uganda officials said more than 10,000 people have fled from DR Congo to neighboring Rwanda and Uganda following clashes between the Congolese army and rebels.
    (AFP, 5/12/12)

2012        May 12, CongoDRC government forces launched airstrikes against mutineers near the Rwandan border, where a rebel leader known as the "Terminator" was said to be hiding.
(AFP, 5/12/12)
2012        May 12, The WWF nature conservancy body said a ranger and two soldiers have been killed in Democratic Republic of Congo's Virunga national park as they protected a road used by civilians fleeing rebels.
    (AFP, 5/12/12)
2012        May 12, Ugandan forces captured Caesar Acellam, a senior commander of Joseph Kony's Lord's Resistance Army, after a brief fight with rebels near the Congo-Central African Republic border. Two other rebel fighters were also caught as they tried to cross a river called Mbomu. Officials say only about 200 LRA members remain the jungle.
    (AP, 5/13/12)

2012        May 13, CongoDRC mutineers allegedly killed 26 loyalist troops in heavy fighting near the Rwandan border.
    (AFP, 5/14/12)

2012        May 14, In CongoDRC Rwandan rebels killed 22 civilians in an attack in the village of Kamananga in Sud-Kivu province.
    (AFP, 5/16/12)

2012        May 15, In CongoDRC villagers marched on the UN base in the Bunyiakiri district of South Kivu province after an overnight attack which reportedly killed six people. At least 11 Pakistani peacekeepers were injured as villagers opened fire.
    (AFP, 5/15/12)

2012        May 16, Human Rights Watch said Congolese Gen. Bosco Ntaganda, already sought on an international arrest warrant for his alleged use of child soldiers during an earlier conflict, has forcibly recruited another 149 boys and teenagers since April. The UN said Rwandan rebels have killed at least 50 civilians so far this month in the volatile east.
    (AP, 5/16/12)(AFP, 5/16/12)

2012        May 19, In CongoDRC fighting broke out when mutineers attacked army positions in the Rutshuru territory near Virunga National Park on the Ugandan border, home to more than half the world's 700 or so mountain gorillas.
    (AFP, 5/20/12)

2012        May 22, In eastern CongoDRC a local activist said a feud between Rwandan Hutu rebels and the Mai Mai militia last week left more than 100 people dead, including civilians.
    (AFP, 5/22/12)

2012        May 23, The UN refugee agency said fighting between Congolese army and mutineers has forced tens of thousands of people from their homes since late April, with thousands taking refuge in Uganda and Rwanda.
    (AFP, 5/23/12)

2012        May 28, A confidential UN report said Rwandan citizens have been recruited and trained to fight in support of army mutineers in neighboring Democratic Republic of Congo.
    (AFP, 5/28/12)

2012        May 30, A Congolese military court slapped 13 officers with sentences ranging from two years to death for taking part in a mutiny in the east of the country.
    (AFP, 5/3o/12)

2012        Jun 6, In CongoDRC an army report said at least 200 mutineers have been killed in the eastern part of the country since fighting broke out in April. 40 troops from the FARDC regular army have also been killed in the clashes.
    (AFP, 6/6/12)
2012        Jun 6, A UN report said Joseph Kony's Lord Resistance Army has abducted more than 600 child soldiers and sex slaves over the past two years even as the hunt for the rebel leader intensifies. At least 591 children, including 268 girls, were reported seized over the same time in Democratic Republic of Congo, Central African Republic and South Sudan.
    (AFP, 6/6/12)

2012        Jun 13, A UN independent group of experts on CongoDRC briefed the UN Security Council saying very senior Rwandans, including the minister of defense, were backing rebels in the eastern Kivu provinces. Its report was published on June 29.
    (Econ, 7/7/12, p.48)

2012        Jun 20, In the Democratic Republic of Congo almost 170 soldiers, including seven senior officers, quit the army in the east of the DRC to join a mutinous armed force known as M23. The deserters were all members of a former rebel movement, the National Congress for the Defence of the People (CNDP), who were integrated into the army early in 2009, following a peace pact.
    (AFP, 6/21/12)

2012        Jun 25, In CongoDRC mutineers said fighting between the army and troops who have deserted resumed, after a week of relative calm, in the eastern Nord-Kivu province. Officials said militants have killed at least 10 people and kidnapped a foreigner in a park in the volatile northeast.
    (AFP, 6/25/12)(AP, 6/25/12)

2012        Jul 5, The DR Congo's army (FARDC) launched an offensive to rout mutinous armed troops of the March 23 Movement (M23) near the Virunga national park. North Kivu residents reported that M23 rebels attacked and fought army troops to dislodge them from Jomba, the only major village on the road from Bunagana border post to the eastern town of Rutshuru, a border crossing into Uganda and Rwanda. A UN peacekeeper from India was killed in clashes. The entire population of Bunagana and some 600 Congolese troops moved into Uganda.
    (AFP, 7/6/12)(AP, 7/5/12)

2012        Jul 8, In CongoDRC M23 rebels seized the eastern town of Rutshuru after the army fled their advance. A local official said the army looted during their retreat. M23 also took the towns of Ntamugenga and Rubare. 8 armored vehicles from the United Nations mission fled Rutshuru for a UN base five kilometers away in Kiwanja, where many local residents were sheltering in a camp for displaced people. Rebels said they would cede most of their gains to UN peacekeepers and police.
    (AFP, 7/8/12)

2012        Jul 10, In the Netherlands the International Criminal Court sentenced Congolese warlord Thomas Lubanga to 14 years in prison, a potential landmark in the struggle to protect children during wartime. Lubanga was found guilty in March of recruiting and using children in his Union of Congolese Patriots militia. An appeal in 2014 upheld his conviction.
    (AP, 7/10/12)(SFC, 12/2/14, p.A2)

2012        Jul 12, UN helicopters were deployed to stop a rebel advance on Goma after rebels seized a number of towns on DR Congo's border with Uganda.
    (AFP, 7/24/12)

2012        Jul 13, The International Criminal Court issued arrest warrants against Bosco Ntaganda, a rogue Tutsi Congolese general, and Sylvestre Mudacumura, a Rwandan Hutu rebel leader based in the Democratic Republic of Congo, who Kigali and Kinshasa accuse each other of using as proxies in DR Congo.
    (AFP, 7/13/12)

2012        Jul 14, Rwanda refused to take custody of 24 rebels who surrendered last May to UN peacekeepers in DR Congo, which accuses Kigali of backing an army mutiny in its restive east.
    (AFP, 7/14/12)

2012        Jul 15, In Ethiopia the leaders of Congo and Rwanda agreed in principle to back a neutral international armed force to combat Congo's newest rebellion and other fighters terrorizing civilians in the country's mineral-rich east. The African Union said it could help by sending soldiers.
    (AP, 7/16/12)

2012        Jul 21, The US government said it has cut this year's $200,000 planned military assistance to Rwanda amid concerns that the government in Kigali is supporting rebel movements in neighboring Congo.
    (AP, 7/21/12)

2012        Jul 24, UN helicopters fired on rebel positions in eastern Democratic Republic of Congo after new clashes broke out between rebel fighters and loyalist troops.
    (AFP, 7/24/12)

2012        Jul 25, In eastern CongoDRC M23 rebels allied with a local militia battled Congolese troops backed by UN peacekeepers, and allegedly fighting alongside rebels of the Democratic Front for the Liberation of Rwanda. At least 2 civilians were killed.
    (AP, 8/5/12)

2012        Jul 26, The UN's food agency said 10 Central African countries have agreed to take part in a regional initiative to monitor the Congo Basin, one of the world's largest primary rainforests. They included Burundi, Cameroon, Central African Republic, Chad, the Democratic Republic of Congo, Congo, Equatorial Guinea, Gabon, Rwanda and Sao Tome and Principe.
    (AFP, 7/26/12)

2012        Jul 27, The Netherlands said it has suspended part of its development aid to Rwanda because of Kigali's alleged support for rebels in neighboring Democratic Republic of Congo.
    (AFP, 7/27/12)

2012        Jul 31, UN diplomats said CongoDRC government forces have abandoned villages to rebel M23 forces in the east after running out of ammunition, amid mounting concern over the new conflict.
    (AFP, 7/31/12)

2012        Aug 6, In Uganda leaders from 11 countries forming the International Conference on the Great Lakes Region gathered in Kampala to discuss a new plan calling for a neutral international force to deploy in eastern Congo to get rid of all the fighters.
    (AP, 8/5/12)

2012        Aug 8, In CongoDRC 3 elite troops were killed at an airport at Lubumbashi in a night attack blamed on regional separatists. A national intelligence agency source said the attackers were from the same Katangan separatist group that carried out the earlier assault.
    (AFP, 8/8/12)
2012        Aug 8, In Uganda regional leaders ended a meeting on a proposed neutral force for eastern CongoDRC, with no concrete progress but a pledge to meet in a month.
    (AFP, 8/8/12)

2012        Aug 13, CongoDRC’s sports ministry said a judoka and three coaches from its Olympic delegation have gone missing after leaving the Athletes' Village at the London Games.
    (AFP, 8/13/12)
2012        Aug 13, In northeast CongoDRC a landslide at a gold mine in remote Pangoyi left at least 60 people dead.
    (AP, 8/16/12)

2012        Aug 18, In Mozambique Southern African leaders slammed Rwanda for supporting rebels in the Democratic Republic of Congo as a threat to regional stability and urged Kigali to immediately stop its "interference." The Southern African Development Community (SADC) mandated a mission to Rwanda to urge them to stop support for the M23.
    (AFP, 8/18/12)

2012        Aug 31, Rwanda announced it was pulling out 280 of its soldiers from eastern Democratic Republic of Congo, where they had been working with DR Congo troops fighting rebel militia there.
    (AFP, 8/31/12)

2012        Sep 4, The World Health Organization said the number of people with Ebola, a rare haemorrhagic disease, in northeastern Democratic Republic of Congo has tripled since mid-August, after 14 patients died in two weeks.
    (AFP, 9/4/12)

2012        Sep 14, The UN said that an outbreak of the Ebola virus has killed 31 people in northeastern Congo, more than doubling the death toll from a week ago.
    (AP, 9/14/12)

2012        Sep 28, In eastern CongoDRC another person was killed in Goma. That raised to 6 the number of people killed this week in Goma in shootouts linked to the Congolese army.
    (AP, 9/29/12)

2012        Oct 13, French President Francois Hollande said his country was committed to facilitating freedom of movement, exchange and trade within the French-speaking world during a visit to Congo for the Francophonie Summit.
    (AP, 10/13/12)

2012        Oct 20, In eastern Congo three Roman Catholic priests were kidnapped in Beni, north of Goma, in North Kivu province.
    (AP, 10/21/12)

2012        Nov 9, The Congolese army attacked M23 rebel positions, ending a two-month ceasefire. The next day an M23 spokesman said 10 civilians were killed when government forces fired on the rebel base in Kitagoma, in eastern Congo.
    (AP, 11/10/12)

2012        Nov 14, A United Nations report said that while international attention centers on the M23 rebels, other armed groups in eastern Congo have killed more than 260 civilians since April.
    (AP, 11/14/12)

2012        Nov 15, In CongoDRC 151 M23 rebels were reported killed in new fighting between the Congolese army and rebels, ending a two-month cease-fire in North Kivu province. Two army officers were killed and seven wounded in the fighting. Col. Vianney Kazarama, spokesman of the M23, denied the heavy casualties, saying that only two rebels were wounded.
    (AP, 11/15/12)(AP, 11/16/12)

2012        Nov 17, In CongoDRC the U.N.'s mission (MONUSCO) launched an aerial attack on the M23 rebel group after fighting resumed following a months long lull in violence.
    (AP, 11/17/12)

2012        Nov 18, In eastern CongoDRC a Rwandan-backed rebel group advanced to within 3 km (1.8 miles) of Goma, a crucial provincial capital, marking the first time that rebels have come this close since 2008.
    (AP, 11/18/12)

2012        Nov 20, In eastern CongoDRC M23, a rebel group created just seven months ago, seized the strategic provincial capital of Goma, home to more than 1 million people, and its international airport.
    (AP, 11/20/12)

2012        Nov 21, Thousands of Congolese soldiers and policemen defected to the M23 rebels, as rebel leaders vowed to take control of all Congo, including the capital Kinshasa. Congo President Joseph Kabila met with Rwanda President Paul Kagame In Uganda for emergency talks prompted by the fall of Goma. Rwanda is blamed for backing the M23 by Congo and by the United Nations.
    (AP, 11/21/12)
2012        Nov 21, A new UN report accused the Rwandan military of commanding and supporting rebel forces in eastern Congo and charged that Salim Saleh (52), the brother of Uganda's long-serving President Yoweri Museveni, actively backs the movement.
    (AP, 11/22/12)

2012        Nov 23, Congo's president has suspended the army's chief of staff, following the publication of a United Nations report which reveals that Gen. Gabriel Amisi oversaw a criminal network selling arms to rebels in the country's troubled east.
    (AP, 11/23/12)
2012        Nov 23, Congolese troops fleeing the M23 rebels raped at least 97 women and 33 girls, some as young as 6, over the last 24 hours. A UN report released on May 8, 2013 said most of the rapes took place  over Nov. 22-23, 2012, in the eastern Congo town of Minova.
    (AP, 5/8/13)

2012        Nov 24, Regional leaders meeting in Uganda called for an end to the advance by M23 rebels toward Congo's capital, and also urged the Congolese government to sit down with rebel leaders as residents fled some towns for fear of more fighting between the rebels and army. Locals in Minova reported that the retreating army troops had gone on a rampage over the last two nights.
    (AP, 11/24/12)

2012        Nov 27, Congo's M23 rebels defied a deadline imposed by neighboring nations, saying they will stay in the crucial, eastern city of Goma and will fight the Congolese army to hold it.
    (AP, 11/27/12)
2012        Nov 27, Congo residents and M23 rebels said that another rebel group, the FDLR, has crossed the border into Rwanda and is fighting the Rwandan army.
    (AP, 11/27/12)

2012        Nov 28, Congo rebels believed to be backed by Rwanda began retreating from the territory they seized last week and pulled out of Masisi. Gen. Sultani Makenga, the military chief of the eight-month-old rebellion, said that his fighters intend to abide by an ultimatum issued by the nations neighboring Congo, which called for the M23 rebels to retreat no later than Nov 30 to 20 km (12 miles) outside of Goma.
    (AP, 11/28/12)

2012        Nov 30, Rebels in Congo believed to be backed by Rwanda postponed their departure from the key eastern city of Goma by 48 hours for "logistical reasons," defying for a second time an ultimatum set by neighboring African countries and backed by Western diplomats.
    (AP, 11/30/12)
2012        Nov 30, Britain said it was withholding 21 million pounds of aid which was about to be paid to Rwanda because of "credible" reports the government in Kigali is supporting rebels in neighbouring Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC).
    (AP, 11/30/12)

2012        Dec 1, In CongoDRC rebels believed to be backed by Rwanda completed their retreat from Goma, less than two weeks after taking control of the strategic city.
    (AP, 12/1/12)

2012        Dec 18, The International Criminal Court (ICC) in The Hague acquitted Congolese militia leader Mathieu Ngudjolo of all charges of commanding fighters who destroyed a village in eastern Congo in 2003, raping and hacking to death some 200 people, including children.
    (AP, 12/18/12)
2012        Dec 18, The US Treasury Department made public sanctions against two leaders of Congo's M23 rebel group. The US government accused Baudoin Ngaruye and Innocent Kaina of using child soldiers.
    (AP, 12/18/12)

2012        Ben Rawlence authored “Radio Congo: Signals of Hope from Africa’s Deadliest War."
    (Econ, 7/14/12, p.75)

2013        Jan 6, The South African presidency announced that is sending 400 army troops to Central African Republic to help the country's army as it faces a threat from a coalition of rebel groups. Neighboring countries Cameroon, Gabon and Republic of Congo already have sent about 120 troops each to help stabilize the country confronted by the rebellion.
    (AP, 1/6/13)

2013        Jan 24, The UN Security Council approved the use of surveillance drones over eastern Congo to monitor roving militias.
    (SFC, 1/25/13, p.A2)

2013        Feb 5, South African police arrested 19 suspected members of a Congolese rebel group, accusing them of plotting to overthrow their nation's government after it recently came under attack by militants said to be backed by neighboring Rwanda.
    (AP, 2/5/13)

2013        Feb 6, In Uganda representatives of the Congolese government and the M23 rebels signed a preliminary agreement in which both parties accepted responsibility for the failure of an earlier 2009 peace deal.
    (AP, 2/6/13)

2013        Feb 8, Police in South Africa arrested the "ringleader" of a group of 19 Congolese rebels who now face charges of allegedly plotting a war to unseat Congolese President Joseph Kabila. Prosecutors last week identified Etienne Kabila  as being in charge of the group.
    (AP, 2/10/13)

2013        Feb 24, In Ethiopia 11 African countries signed a UN-drafted peace deal to stabilize Congo DRC, where rebels allegedly backed by neighboring countries last year threatened to oust the government.
    (AP, 2/24/13)

2013        Feb 27, In CongoDRC the M23 divided into two groups over disagreements on negotiations with the Congolese government. The splinter group is lead by the M23 president Jean-Marie Runiga and Gen. Baudoin Ngaruye. The new group is reported to be aligned with warlord Bosco Ntaganda.
    (AP, 3/1/13)

2013        Feb 28, In CongoDRC a spokesperson of the M23 said General Sultani Makenga has dismissed Jean-Marie Runiga, the president of the M23 rebel group, over accusations that he is supporting Bosco Ntaganda, a wanted war criminal.
    (AP, 2/28/13)

2013        Mar 1, Fighting erupted in eastern Congo between two factions of the M23 rebel group. An estimated 23 people died in the fighting, according to an officer with the main part of M23. The Congolese army entered Kiwanja, a town that was run by M23 rebels for more than six months. Doctors Without Borders said that more than 55 civilians have been killed in fighting in another town in Congo's east, Kitchanga, where 135 people have been wounded.
    (AP, 3/1/13)(AP, 3/2/13)

2013        Mar 3, The Congolese military said it has given control of two key eastern towns back to the M23 rebel group to avoid jeopardizing the ongoing peace process.
    (AP, 3/3/13)

2013        Mar 4, In CongoDRC a plane crash in the center of the eastern city of Goma killed seven people and injured three.
    (AP, 3/5/13)

2013        Mar 16, In CongoDRC a faction of the M23 rebel group under Gen. Sultani Makenga said it has regained control of all of the group's territory in eastern Congo, as Jean-Marie Runiga, the leader of its rival faction, was arrested in Rwanda.
    (AP, 3/16/13)

2013        Mar 18, In Rwanda Congolese warlord Bosco Ntaganda (39), nicknamed "The Terminator," showed up at the gates of the US Embassy in Kigali. Ntaganda asked to be handed over to the International Criminal Court, which issued its first arrest warrant for him in 2006.
    (AP, 3/19/13)

2013        Mar 23, In CongoDRC  at least 35 people were killed after hundreds of militia fighters attacked the southeast mining center of Lubumbashi. 245 Mai Mai fighters surrendered to UN peacekeepers.
    (AP, 3/24/13)

2013        Mar 28, The UN Security Council authorized a new intervention brigade for CongoDRC with a mandate to take military action alone or with Congolese troops against rebel groups to help bring peace in the conflict-racked east.
    (SFC, 3/29/13, p.A2)

2013        Mar, Lord's Resistance Army fighters in Congo released 28 abductees, women and children, suggesting the group is undergoing turmoil amid a manhunt, supported by US military advisers, for its leaders.
    (AP, 4/5/13)
2013        Mar, The UN Development Program named CongoDRC the least developed country in the world. It was tied with Niger.
    (Econ, 5/18/13, p.74)

2013        Apr 13, Congolese Justice Minister Wivine Mumba said a dozen senior officers in the Congolese army have been arrested for responsibility for mass rapes committed by several army units in eastern Congo in November 2012.
    (AP, 4/13/13)

2013        May 7, In eastern CongoDRC a UN peacekeeper from Pakistan was killed in South Kivu province.
    (AP, 5/8/13)

2013        May 8, In CongoDRC a community leader said that nearly 30 people have been kidnapped by the M23 rebels in their eastern fief of Rutshuru since the beginning of April. The kidnappings appear to be for ransom.
    (AP, 5/8/13)

2013        May 10, A contingent of about 100 Tanzanian troops began arriving in eastern Congo, a first step in assembling the new UN intervention brigade. 3,000 soldiers from South Africa, Tanzania and Malawi were expected in a month or two.
    (AP, 5/11/13)(AP, 5/14/13)(Econ, 6/15/13, p.50)

2013        May 15, In CongoDRC at least 24 militiamen and 3 soldiers died, including a lieutenant colonel, in fighting between soldiers and Mai Mai militiamen in Beni, 220 miles (350 km) north of Goma. 5 others, who were awaiting transfer to a military training center, were also killed.
    (AP, 5/15/13)

2013        May 17, The body of a Congolese journalist was found on the bank of the Ngezi River near the provincial capital of Bunia in eastern Congo. Guylain Chanjabo, a journalist at Radio Canal Révélation in Bunia, had disappeared 12 days ago.
    (AP, 5/18/13)

2013        May 20, In eastern CongoDRC clashes erupted near Muja between government troops and the M23 rebel group, believed to be backed by neighboring Rwanda.
    (AP, 5/20/13)

2013        May 21, In CongoDRC fighting between the M23 rebels and the army continued for a second day the eastern provincial capital of Goma. The clashes have so far killed 20 people, all of them either soldiers or rebels.
    (AP, 5/21/13)

2013        May 22, In CongoDRC UN Sec. Gen’l. Ban Ki-moon and World Bank president Jim Yong Kim launched a novel partnership in Kinshasa. $1 billion in funds pledged by the World Bank for development would back UN efforts for peace in eastern Congo.
    (Econ, 6/1/13, p.51)

2013        May 23, In CongoDRC M23 rebels fired two rockets into the eastern city of Goma, killing one person and wounding four. UN Secretary-General Ban Ki-moon arrived in Goma, hours after a rebel group fighting government forces nearby said they would impose a cease-fire to allow the visit to proceed.
    (AP, 5/23/13)

2013        May 29, A UN spokesman says that Congo's M23 rebels have fired several rockets on Goma over the past week, killing 2 people.
    (AP, 5/29/13)

2013        Jun 3, The Enough Project, the Satellite Sentinel Project and two other groups said in a new report that members of Joseph Kony’s LRA have turned to elephant poaching in CongoDRC and the CAR and that the militia trades illegal ivory to acquire food and other supplies. The report also said elephants of Garamba National Park also are being targeted by "members of the armed forces of (Congo), South Sudan, Sudan, and Uganda," citing the concerns of park rangers there.
    (AP, 6/3/13)

2013        Jun 27, The UN raised the alarm about the recent rape of 9 girls in eastern Congo. The youngest was 18 months old and 2 of the girls died.
    (SFC, 6/28/13, p.A2)

2013        Jul 14, Uganda Red Cross said more than 60,000 Congolese have fled to Uganda after a rebel attack on a town near the border in a continuing influx that is stretching humanitarian capacities.
    (AP, 7/14/13)

2013        Jul 14, In eastern CongoDRC fresh fighting erupted after more than 100 armed men disguised in women's clothing entered the country from Rwanda.
    (AP, 7/15/13)

2013        Jul 15, The Congolese army claimed that it killed 120 rebels in eastern Congo.
    (AP, 7/15/13)

2013        Jul 16, Congo's army says its helicopter gunships have bombarded rebel positions during a third straight day of fighting between government forces and M23 rebels.
    (AP, 7/16/13)

2013        Jul 22, Congo's army said fighting has resumed between government forces and M23 rebels in the east of the country following a three-day lull.
    (AP, 7/22/13)
2013        Jul 22, Human Rights Watch reported that the M23 rebel group in eastern Congo continued to receive significant support from neighboring Rwanda despite ongoing abuses including killings, rape and forced recruitment of children.
    (AP, 7/23/13)

2013        Jul 30, The UN peacekeeping mission in Congo announced that it plans to disarm anyone outside the national security forces who is caught with a firearm in the eastern city of Goma and its northern suburbs.
    (AP, 7/30/13)

2013        Jul, In CongoDRC 4 employees of Doctors Without Borders were taken hostage. In late August 2014 Chantal Kaghoma and three other employees were freed.
    (AFP, 8/31/14)

2013        Aug 23, Congo's government accused Rwanda of supporting a rebel attack on the eastern city of Goma.
    (AP, 8/23/13)

2013        Aug 24, In CongoDRC shells fired by M23 rebels killed at least 3 people in the eastern city of Goma. Two UN peacekeepers from Uruguay reportedly shot dead 2 people who were part of a crowd that tried to storm the mission's base in Goma during a protest against alleged UN inaction in the strife-torn region.
    (Reuters, 8/24/13)(AFP, 8/26/13)

2013        Aug 25, Congolese soldiers and rebels suffered heavy casualties as they fought for a 5th day near Goma.
    (SFC, 8/26/13, p.A2)

2013        Aug 26, The UN mission in the Democratic Republic of Congo said it has opened a probe after residents accused its peacekeepers of killing 2 people who tried to storm a UN base in Goma.
    (AFP, 8/26/13)

2013        Aug 30, In CongoDRC rebels entrenched in the hills above Goma declared a unilateral ceasefire and began retreating from the frontline, the first indication that a joint United Nations and Congolese offensive might be gaining the upper hand.
    (AP, 8/30/13)

2013        Sep 27, CongoDRC customs officers seized 375 kg of coltan, a precious mineral used in electronics, en route to Rwanda.
    (AFP, 9/29/13)

2013        Sep 28, In eastern CongoDRC fighting for a 2nd day between two rival militia forces left at least 10 people dead in the Masisi territory.
    (AFP, 9/30/13)

2013        Oct 13, A detachment of Angolan troops crossed into neighboring Congo Republic and detained a group of Congolese soldiers. The incident highlights tensions around Angola's oil-rich Cabinda enclave, which is separated from the rest of Angola and surrounded by Congo Republic and Democratic Republic of Congo. 55 soldiers of the Republic of Congo were released on Oct 18.
    (Reuters, 10/17/13)(AFP, 10/18/13)

2013        Oct 25, In CongoDRC fighting resumed between the army and rebels in the northeast, just days after the latest effort at peace talks fell apart. Rwanda said Congolese army shells had landed on its territory.
    (AFP, 10/25/13)(Reuters, 10/25/13)

2013        Oct 26, In eastern CongoDRC  fighting raged between soldiers and rebels for a second day.
    (AFP, 10/26/13)

2013        Oct 27, The Congolese army said it had recaptured two more towns and was heading for the rebel stronghold of Rutshuru in a third day of fighting. A Tanzanian officer with UN forces operating alongside government troops was killed in fighting with rebels.
    (Reuters, 10/27/13)(AFP, 10/27/13)

2013        Oct 28, The Congolese army, who one year ago abandoned their posts and fled in the face of an advancing rebel army, succeeded on in taking back Rumangabo, the fifth, rebel-held town.
    (AP, 10/28/13)

2013        Oct 29, In CongoDRC 6 people were killed in clashes between military police and a group of separatist attackers at a munitions depot in the southwestern city of Lubumbashi.
    (AFP, 10/29/13)
2013        Oct 29, South Africa signed an agreement to buy over half of the power generated by the first phase of the Grand Inga hydroelectric project in the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC).
    (Reuters, 10/29/13)

2013        Nov 3, Democratic Republic of Congo's M23 rebels declared a ceasefire in their fight with the army, in a move they hope will advance peace talks with the government.
    (Reuters, 11/3/13)

2013        Nov 4, Democratic Republic of Congo troops drove M23 rebels from one of their key hilltop positions in the east of the country, pushing on with their assault despite calls for a truce. Mortar shells fell on a market in eastern Congo, killing 4 people as fighting intensified between government soldiers and the M23 fighters.
    (AFP, 11/4/13)(AP, 11/4/13)

2013        Nov 5, A leader of the M23 rebel group in eastern Congo said his movement is ending its rebellion after more than a year and a half of fighting as the Congolese military seized the last two hills that had been held by the fighters.
    (AP, 11/5/13)

2013        Nov 7, Uganda’s military said Democratic Republic of Congo's M23 guerrillas, including rebel chief Sultani Makenga, have surrendered en masse in Uganda, signalling the end of an 18-month insurgency.
    (AFP, 11/7/13)

2013        Nov, An unpublished report by the Democratic Republic of Congo’s public prosecutor’s office said the country is owed an estimated $3.7 billion in unpaid customs duties and fines by companies operating in its copper-rich Katanga province between 2008 and 2013. News of the draft document was only made public in Jan, 2014.
    (Reuters, 1/30/14)

2013        Dec 3, UN forces in Democratic Republic of Congo launched unmanned aircraft to monitor the volatile border with Rwanda and Uganda, the first time UN peacekeepers have deployed surveillance drones. The UN announced its peacekeeping troops will go after other armed groups in the DRC, after helping to defeat the M23 rebel force.
    (Reuters, 12/3/13)(AFP, 12/3/13)

2013        Dec 10, The UN command and Congolese troops launched an offensive in the eastern Democratic Republic of Congo against against the FDLR (Democratic Forces for the Liberation of Rwanda), a Rwandan rebel group linked to the 1994 genocide.
    (AFP, 12/11/13)

2013        Dec 12, Congo and the so-called M23 rebels signed a peace agreement that will see the insurgent group demobilize its fighters and transform itself into a political party.
    (AP, 12/13/13)

2013        Dec 13, UN peacekeeping chief Herve Ladsous said an arsenal of weapons have been found by UN peacekeepers, including heavy caliber arms and enough ammunition to last a year, at the site of the last stand by M23 rebels in eastern Democratic Republic of Congo.
    (Reuters, 12/13/13)

2013        Dec 14, In CongoDRC unknown assailants over the last 24 hours killed people 21 in the villages of Musuku and Mwenda, in the eastern territory of Beni. The victims, including women and children, were found hacked to death and some were mutilated.
    (AP, 12/17/13)

2013        Dec 25, In eastern CongoDRC at least 40 civilians were killed by the Ugandan ADF-NALU rebel group attack on a village in North Kivu province. A special UN force in eastern Democratic Republic of Congo used helicopters to fire on the rebels and help government troops retake the town of Kamango.
    (AFP, 12/25/13)(Reuters, 12/26/13)

2013        Dec 30, Congolese security forces repelled a wave of coordinated attacks against symbols of power in the capital Kinshasa and other cities, leaving dozens of assailants dead in a day of fierce gunbattles. Congo's army clashed with followers of religious leader Paul Joseph Mukungubila Mutombo in the eastern mining city of Lubumbashi. The clashes left over 100 people dead and Mutombo went on the run.
    (AFP, 12/30/13)(Reuters, 12/30/13)(AFP, 12/31/13)
2013        Michael Deibert authored “Congo: Between Hope and Despair."
    (Econ, 11/2/13, p.54)

2014        Jan 2, In CongoDRC Colonel Mamadou Ndala (34), the commander of government troops fighting Ugandan Islamist rebels in the restive east of country, was killed along with two bodyguards in an ambush.
    (AFP, 1/2/14)(AP, 1/10/14)

2014        Jan 11, In CongoDRC 4 people were killed and two seriously injured in a clash between Virunga national park rangers and suspected Rwandan FDLR rebels.
    (AFP, 1/12/14)

2014        Jan 17, CongoDRC forces attacked Ugandan Islamist rebels in the lawless east, launching a UN-backed offensive to clear insurgents from the mineral-rich zone.
    (Reuters, 1/17/14)

2014        Jan 24, In CongoDRC an explosion at an arms depot killed over 20 people near the diamond-mining hub of Mbuji-Mayi.
    (Reuters, 1/25/14)(SFC, 1/27/14, p.A2)

2014        Feb 12, CongoDRC Pres. Joseph Kabila, announced an amnesty for former members of the defeated M23 rebel army.
    (AFP, 2/12/14)

2014        Feb 13, The UN mission in CongoDRC (MONUSCO) said more than 70 men and women have been summarily executed in the restive eastern part of the country late last month and early this month.
    (AFP, 2/13/14)

2014        Feb 14, The CongoDRC government said 22 Congolese soldiers and 230 Ugandan rebels have been killed in a nearly month-long offensive in restive eastern DRC.
    (AFP, 2/14/14)

2014        Feb 15, In CongoDRC journalist Germain Kennedy Muliwavyo (30) died after being shot in the head and stomach during an ambush 60 km outside of Beni.
    (AP, 2/16/14)

2014        Feb 26, The International Criminal Court led calls for the government of Democratic Republic of Congo to arrest visiting Sudanese President Omar Bashir, who is wanted on charges of genocide in Darfur.
    (AFP, 2/26/14)

2014        Mar 7, Congolese warlord Germain Katanga was convicted of being an accessory to war crimes including murder and pillage - only the second conviction in the 12-year history of the International Criminal Court (ICC) in The Hague. Katanga was convicted as an accessory in the attack on Bogoro village in 2003 that left some 200 civilians dead and many women raped and turned into sex slaves.
    (Reuters, 3/7/14)(SFC, 3/8/14, p.A2)

2014        Mar 11, In CongoDRC a ground assault by government forces in Makoyoya followed UN helicopter attacks and killed 22 rebels.
    (Econ, 3/15/14, p.47)

2014        Mar 22, Uganda said at least 107 people were killed and dozens of others were missing after a boat carrying mostly Congolese refugees capsized on Lake Albert that runs along the border of Uganda and the Democratic Republic of Congo. An estimated 250 people were on the boat with 41 rescued.
    (Reuters, 3/23/14)(AFP, 3/24/14)(AP, 3/25/14)

2014        Apr 15, In CongoDRC three gunmen ambushed and seriously wounded Emmanuel de Merode, chief warden of Virunga National Park.
    (AP, 4/16/14)

2014        Apr 22, In CongoDRC some 50 people were killed when a train derailed in the southeast.
    (AFP, 4/23/14)(SFC, 4/24/14, p.A2)

2014        Apr 25, In CongoDRC at least 23 people were killed when a stampede broke out in Kikwit, Bandundu province during a tribute for singer King Kester Emeneya (57), who died in Paris in February.
    (AP, 4/25/14)

2014        Apr 29, CongoDRC officials said nearly 40,000 Congolese citizens have been deported over the last two weeks from neighboring Republic of Congo because they did not have immigration papers.
    (SFC, 4/30/14, p.A2)

2014        May 10, In the Congo Republic Udjani Mangbama, DR Congo militia boss, was among 11 people killed in an area near Owando, 500 km north of Brazzaville.
    (AFP, 5/11/14)

2014        May 11, In CongoDRC a stampede at the Tata Raphael Stadium in Kinshasa killed at least 15 people and injured more than a dozen after police fired tear gas canisters into the crowd after fighting broke out at the end of a match between soccer teams, AS Vita Club and TP Mazembe.
    (AP, 5/12/14)(AFP, 5/12/14)

2014        May 23, The Int’l. Criminal Court (ICC) in The Hague sentenced Germain Katanga, a Congolese militia leader, to 12 years in prison for his role in a 2003 attack where more than 200 civilians were killed.
    (SFC, 5/24/14, p.A3)

2014        Jun 5, In CongoDRC at least four people were killed when 301 inmates broke out of the main prison in Bukavu.
    (AP, 6/6/14)

2014        Jun 7, In eastern CongoDRC armed men burst into a church overnight, killing up to 37 people including women and children. The victims were ethnic Bafuliru and were spending the night in the church in the South Kivu province after a meeting. The attack was believed to be in revenge of cattle raids.
    (AP, 6/7/14)(Reuters, 6/7/14)

2014        Jun 11, CongoDRC soldiers exchanged fire with Rwandan troops who crossed the border and seized a Congolese soldier.
    (Reuters, 6/11/14)

2014        Jun 12, Rwandan and Congolese troops traded heavy weapons fire in a second day of skirmishes between two neighbors locked in a decades-long dispute.
    (AFP, 6/12/14)

2014        Jun 13, In South Africa’s Johannesburg-based African Parks group said that since mid-May at least 68 elephants have been slaughtered by poachers over the last two months using chain saws and helicopters in the 5,000 square km (1,900 square mile) Garamba National Park in Congo.
    (AP, 6/13/14)

2014        Jul 1, The United States blacklisted a Ugandan Islamic group, the Allied Democratic Forces, for targeting children in armed conflict in the Democratic Republic of Congo.
    (Reuters, 7/1/14)

2014        Jul 2, African nations agreed to suspend military operations for six months against Congo-based Rwandan rebels in order to give them more time to lay down their arms. The suspension was announced after a meeting in Angola of foreign ministers from a regional bloc including Angola, Burundi, Central African Republic, Republic of Congo, DRC, Kenya, Uganda, Rwanda, South Sudan, Sudan, Tanzania and Zambia.
    (Reuters, 7/3/14)

2014        Jul 16, Medical charity Doctors Without Borders (MSF) said women and children are being kidnapped by armed gangs and forced to work as sex slaves in eastern Democratic Republic of Congo.
    (AFP, 7/16/14)

2014        Jul 22, In CongoDRC gunmen attacked a major military base in Kinshasa, but the government said the situation had been quickly brought under control. At least 4 attackers were reported killed.
    (Reuters, 7/23/14)

2014        Jul 23, Representatives of the Muslim and Christian factions battling in Central African Republic signed a cease-fire agreement in neighboring Republic of Congo.
    (AP, 7/23/14)

2014        Aug 7, An oil company owned by Israeli billionaire Dan Gertler said it had discovered reserves of around 3 billion barrels in the Democratic Republic of Congo.
    (Reuters, 8/7/14)

2014        Aug 20, Democratic Republic of Congo said it has sent its health minister and a team of experts to the remote northern Equateur province after several people died there from a disease with Ebola-like symptoms.
    (Reuters, 8/20/14)

2014        Aug 21, The WHO said at least 70 people have died in northern Democratic Republic of Congo from an outbreak of hemorrhagic gastroenteritis, denying that the illness was Ebola.
    (Reuters, 8/21/14)

2014        Aug 24, Congo DRC confirmed its first two cases this year of Ebola but claimed they were unrelated to the epidemic ravaging West Africa. The confirmation marked the 7th outbreak of Ebola in Congo DRC, where the virus was first identified in 1976 near the Ebola River.
    (AFP, 8/24/14)

2014        Sep 2, CongoDRC government said the death toll from an outbreak of the Ebola virus in the northern Djera region has risen to 31. The WHO confirmed there was no link with an epidemic in West Africa.
    (Reuters, 9/2/14)

2014        Sep 6, The Democratic Republic of Congo upped its death toll from Ebola to 32 but insisted the outbreak, separate from an epidemic raging in west Africa, could be contained in its remote forest hotspot.
    (AFP, 9/6/14)

2014        Sep 9, The Invisible Children organization said more than 70 women and children, abducted by the Lord’s Resistance Army, have been freed over the past month. 12 of the abductees managed to escape following recent clashes in CongoDRC between rebels and security forces.
    (SFC, 9/10/14, p.A2)

2014        Oct 1, The Democratic Republic of Congo raised its death toll from the Ebola virus to 42 as it struggled to contain the second outbreak of the disease in Africa this year.
    (AFP, 10/1/14)

2014        Oct 9, In CongoDRC 9 civilians were killed overnight when suspected members of a notorious Ugandan Islamist group stormed Oicha village.
    (AFP, 10/10/14)

2014        Oct 16, In eastern CongoDRC assailants hacked or stabbed 26 victims to death in the overnight onslaught in Beni. Civil society groups in the North-Kivu region said the attack was carried out by the Allied Democratic Forces, a Ugandan rebel group.
    (AFP, 10/16/14)

2014        Oct 17, In CongoDRC Ugandan rebels hacked and clubbed to death 10 women, 8 children and 4 men in the town of Eringeti.
    (AFP, 10/18/14)

2014        Oct 22, The European Parliament awarded the Sakharov Prize for Freedom of Thought to Congolese gynaecological surgeon Dr. Denis Mukwege (59) for risking his life to treat women and end the use of mass rape as a weapon of war.
    (SFC, 10/23/14, p.A4)

2014        Oct 30, In northeast CongoDRC ADF-NALU militants killed 14 people early today in the village of Kampi ya Chui. The ADF-NALU, an alliance of groups opposed to the Ugandan government, has operated from bases in neighboring Congo since the mid-2000s.
    (Reuters, 11/1/14)

2014        Oct 31, In northeast CongoDRC a crowd stoned to death a young man before burning and eating his corpse in Beni. The man aroused suspicion on a bus when passengers discovered he could not speak the local Swahili language and that he was carrying a machete.
    (Reuters, 11/1/14)

2014        Nov 18, Human Rights Watch said CongoDRC police committed abuses in "Operation Likofi," a three-month drive launched last November to quash an upsurge in armed robbery and other crimes by small gangs, known as kuluna. The report said police killed at least 51 young men and teenage boys when they were unarmed, outside their homes, or in open markets, for maximum intimidation effect.
    (AP, 11/18/14)

2014        Nov 20, In CongoDRC between 50 and 80 people were killed in an attack near Beni, North Kivu province.
    (AP, 11/22/14)

2014        Dec 11, In the southeast CongoDRC at least 129 people drowned when the passenger ship M/V Mutambala capsized on Lake Tanganyika.
    (AFP, 12/14/14)

2014        Dec 16, In Uganda scores of M23 rebels fled the camp where they were being held ahead of repatriation to CongoDRC.
    (SFC, 12/17/14, p.A2)

2014        Dec 20, In eastern CongoDRC 2 men were burnt alive by civilians after they attacked a military office in Beni.
    (AFP, 12/20/14)

2014        Dec 22, In CongoDRC at least 30 people died when an overcrowded boat hit a rock and sank on the Congo river. On Dec 25 rioting youngsters went on the rampage in Isangi, the vessel's scheduled destination.
    (AFP, 12/26/14)

2015        Jan 1, In Burundi a group of unidentified rebels crossed into the country overnight from DRCongo's eastern Kivu region.
    (AfP, 1/4/15)

2015        Jan 4, A Burundi military official said at least 105 rebels have been killed after a cross-border attack from the Democratic Republic of Congo following five days of non-stop military operations.
    (AFP, 1/4/15)

2015        Jan 5, In CongoDRC UN and Democratic Republic of Congo forces seized several rebel bases in an offensive launched against a Burundi rebel group.
    (AFP, 1/5/15)

2015        Jan 20, In CongoDRC hundreds of youths confronted police in the capital after deadly protests over a draft law that would enable President Joseph Kabila to extend his stay in power.
    (AFP, 1/20/15)

2015        Jan 22, In CongoDRC government spokesman Lambert Mende said that 12 people have died in three days of unrest and pillaging that began on Jan 19. A coalition of human rights groups said 42 people were killed by security forces firing on protesters. In the east 4 more people died during protests over a proposed law the opposition fears will prolong the president's time in power. On Feb 5 the government raised the death toll in Goma and Kinshasa to 27.
    (AP, 1/22/15)(AFP, 2/5/15)

2015        Jan 23, The Democratic Republic of Congo's Senate backed down on a hotly-contested electoral bill enabling President Joseph Kabila to extend his hold on power following days of deadly protests.
    (AFP, 1/23/15)

2015        Jan 31, DR Congo's foreign minister said government troops have started their long-awaited offensive against Rwandan Hutu rebels in the east of the country.
    (AFP, 1/31/15)

2015        Jan, The UN Security Council authorized a 3,000 strong multinational intervention force against the FDLR, a militia in eastern Congo formed two decades ago by Rwandan Hutu rebels after they lost power.
    (Econ, 1/24/15, p.43)

2015        Feb 3, In eastern CongoDRC 23 people were hacked to death in the city of Beni in the restive North Kivu province. Ugandan ADF-NALU rebels were suspected.
    (AFP, 2/4/15)

2015        Feb 12, In western CongoDRC dozens of people were missing after a collision between two boats on the Congo River. 3 bodies were recovered out of an estimated 100 on board one of the vessels. Some 42 survivors made it to shore.
    (Reuters, 2/14/15)

2015        Feb 15, Congo's Pres. Joseph Kabila condemned a decision by the United Nations to withdraw its support from a joint military offensive against a rebel group because the military decided it should be directed by two generals who have links to human rights violations.
    (AP, 2/15/15)

2015        Feb 24, The army of the Democratic Republic of Congo launched an assault against FDLR Rwandan Hutu rebels in the volatile east.
    (AFP, 2/24/15)

2015        Mar 4, Congo DRC police in Kinshasa said they have arrested a Belgian man (74) on allegations he raped two girls ages 11 and 13.
    (AFP, 3/4/15)

2015        Mar 18, In eastern Congo DRC violent clashes have erupted between the army and a militia, forcing many civilians to flee their homes. Rebels killed at least four civilians as they fled the Congolese army operation.
    (AFP, 3/19/15)(AP, 3/20/15)

2015        Mar 26, The UN Security Council voted to cut 2,000 troops from the UN peacekeeping force in the Democratic Republic of Congo despite calls from Kinshasa for a bigger drawdown.
    (AFP, 3/26/15)

2015        Mar 27, The UN High Commissioner for Refugees said that LRA fighters kidnapped 16 people last weekend who had been working in their fields in Congo, just over the border from Central African Republic. The rebels released 13 of them but were still holding three refugee boys.
    (AP, 3/27/15)

2015        May 5, In Congo DRC two UN peacekeepers were killed. Civilians had accused the Tanzanian UN troops of providing supplies to Islamist Ugandan rebels in east Congo. In 2016 a confidential UN Security Council report said Congolese troops killed the peacekeepers.
    (Reuters, 2/4/16)

2015        May 6, The UN mission in Congo DRC said four missing peacekeepers have been found following an attack that left 2 others dead.
    (SFC, 5/7/15, p.A2)
2015        Apr 6, Rwandan rebels in eastern Democratic Republic of Congo killed around 10 soldiers in an ambush in the Masisi region of north Kivu province.
    (Reuters, 4/8/15)

2015        May 8, In Congo DRC at least 7 bodies were killed in Matembo, North Kivu Province. A series of massacres in the area has left more than 300 people dead in the last seven months.
    (AFP, 5/9/15)(AP, 5/14/15)

2015        May 11, In eastern Congo DRC 6 people were hacked to death in a new attack blamed on Ugandan rebels near Beni.
    (AP, 5/12/15)    (AP, 5/14/15)

2015        May 13, In eastern Congo DRC suspected Allied Democratic Forces (ADF), a Ugandan Islamist rebel group, killed at least 22 people near Beni, North Kivu province, the third deadly attack on civilians in the region in the last week.
    (Reuters, 5/14/15)
2015        May 13, The UN peacekeeping mission said dozens of Pygmies in Democratic Republic of Congo's southeast have been killed by Bantu militiamen in the past week, in an escalation in a two-year ethnic conflict.
    (Reuters, 5/13/15)

2015        Jun 2, In eastern Congo DRC 4 soldiers and 3 assailants were killed overnight when a gang raided the Goma airport during an apparent robbery.
    (Reuters, 6/2/15)

2015        Jun 10, British NGO Global Witness said British oil company Soco International paid off an army officer accused of silencing critics of exploration in Democratic Republic of Congo's Virunga National Park. Global Witness published scans of four checks totaling $15,600 (14,000 euros) allegedly issued by Soco's Congolese subsidiary to the major posted to the park. Two receipts for the checks signed by the officer were dated May 15, 2014 and April 30, 2014.
    (AFP, 6/10/15)

2015        Jun 17, Democratic Republic of Congo topped the 2015 Corruption Risk Index by risk advisory firm Verisk Maplecroft, followed by Somalia, Central African Republic, Sudan and Equatorial Guinea.
    (Reuters, 6/17/15)
2015        Jun 17, In Congo DRC heavily armed poachers, believed to be from South Sudan, killed a ranger and two soldiers patrolling in Garamba National Park.
    (AP, 6/19/15)

2015        Jul 14, Ugandan rebels shot dead or burned alive 9 people during an attack in eastern Democratic Republic of Congo.
    (AFP, 7/15/15)

2015        Jul 23, In Congo DRC Ugandan ADF rebels killed 3 women and burned down four buildings in the village of Mayi-Moya, North Kivu province.
    (AFP, 7/24/15)

2015        Aug 7, In eastern Congo DRC an earthquake killed 2 children and a police officer and triggered fears that nearby volcano Mount Nyiragongo could erupt.
    (Reuters, 8/7/15)

2015        Aug 12, A UN report said a measles outbreak in the copper-mining Katanga province in the Democratic Republic of Congo has killed 315 people and infected at least 20,000.
    (Reuters, 8/12/15)

2015        Aug 26, UN peacekeepers said they would have to cut rations for 6,800 ex-rebels and their families left in limbo in government camps in the Democratic Republic of Congo, blaming a shortage of funds and calling for the state to step in.
    (AP, 8/26/15)

2015        Aug 31, In eastern Congo DRC unidentified gunmen killed six elite presidential guard soldiers in an ambush north of Goma.
    (Reuters, 8/31/15)

2015        Sep 6, Congo DRC local officials said 7 civilians were killed in a new attack by Ugandan rebels in the restive North Kivu Province. The Allied Democratic Forces (ADF) are accused of killing more than 400 people over the last 10 months.
    (AFP, 9/6/15)

2015        Sep 15, In Congo DRC more than 1,000 people demonstrated on the streets of the capital against what they said are plans by President Joseph Kabila to cling to power after his constitutional mandate ends next year.
    (Reuters, 9/15/15)

2015        Sep 17, Kenyan security forces searching one of its ships at Mombasa port discovered undeclared weapons among the consignment of UN vehicles. The consignment of vehicles was from Mumbai, India, and was destined for the UN peacekeeping mission in Congo. On Sep 27 the Norwegian-flagged ship was reported released.
    (AP, 9/23/15)(AP, 9/27/15)

2015        Sep 24, The South African military said it is withdrawing about 50 peacekeepers from a United Nations mission in Congo because they violated disciplinary codes.
    (AP, 9/24/15)

2015        Sep 24, In Congo DRC at least 8 people were killed in an attack on an army camp late today in Rumangabo village, North Kivu province, that local sources blamed on Rwandan Hutu rebels targeted by a Congolese army operation.
    (Reuters, 9/25/15)

2015        Sep 27, In Congo DRC 13 people were killed in the restive in an attack on a convoy transporting some $40,000 in salaries for teachers in South Kivu province.
    (AFP, 9/28/15)

2015        Oct 5, In Congo DRC 5 civilians were reportedly killed in a UN helicopter attack against rebel fighters. The MONUSCO raids were targeted at the Nduma Defense of Congo group, blamed for setting villages on fire in the region in recent days.
    (AFP, 10/8/15)
2015        Oct 5, In Congo DRC poachers killed 3 rangers and one military colonel who were part of a 10-man patrol that tracked the satellite collar of a killed elephant to the poacher’s camp in Garamba National Park. The anti-poaching patrol was outnumbered and forced to disperse.
    (SFC, 10/10/15, p.A2)

2015        Oct 6, Human Rights Watch said top security and ruling party officials in the Democratic Republic of Congo appear to have "hired thugs" to attack peaceful demonstrators last month in Kinshasa.
    (AFP, 10/6/15)

2015        Oct 9, In Congo DRC a new airline was launched in a bid to revolutionize air transport within the vast country where flights are currently operated only by the UN and small carriers blacklisted by the EU.
    (AFP, 10/9/15)

2015        Oct 16, The UN said a measles outbreak in Democratic Republic of Congo's copper-mining southeast has killed 428 people and infected about 30,000 since the start of the year.
    (Reuters, 10/16/15)

2015        Oct 17, In the Democratic Republic of Congo leaders of the Twa and Luba ethnic groups signed an agreement intended to end a conflict which has killed hundreds and displaced tens of thousands.
    (Reuters, 10/21/15)

2015        Nov 1, In eastern Congo DRC fourteen humanitarian workers were kidnapped in the Rutshuru region in North Kivu province.
    (Reuters, 11/2/15)

2015        Nov 9, In Congo DRC around 15 youth members of UNAFEC were arrested in Lubumbashi, including leader Kabulo Shimbe Zasou. The National Union of Federations of Congo was one of several parties expelled from the ruling coalition after voicing concern that President Joseph Kabila is seeking to cling to power beyond the end of his mandate in 2016.
    (Reuters, 11/10/15)

2015        Nov 10, Congo DRC police fired tear gas at hundreds of people armed with sticks and shovels protesting the arrest of several youth leaders in Lubumbashi.
    (Reuters, 11/10/15)

2015        Nov 13, The International Criminal Court at The Hague cut a 12-year prison term imposed on Congolese militia leader Germain Katanga for a brutal attack on a village, saying he would be freed in January after he had voiced regret for his actions.
    (AFP, 11/13/15)

2015        Nov 28, Congolese police fired tear gas to disperse hundreds of people who had gathered in the eastern city of Goma to pay tribute to victims of recurrent attacks nearby.
    (Reuters, 11/28/15)

2015        Nov 30, In eastern Congo DRC at least 13 people, including a UN peacekeeper, were killed in an overnight attack by rebels in North Kivu province. The attack was blamed on Ugandan rebels of the Allied Democratic Forces (ADF).
    (AFP, 11/30/15)
2015        Nov 30, In eastern Congo DRC more than 20 people were missing after a government-operated speed boat capsized on Lake Kivu.
    (Reuters, 11/30/15)

2015        Dec 1, In eastern Congo DRC fierce fighting between UN peacekeepers and Ugandan rebels raged, after a weekend attack by the mostly Muslim group left 24 people dead.
    (AFP, 12/1/15)

2015        Dec 7, Interpol agents arrested a Rwandan with a $5 million bounty on his head who is among the most wanted for the 1994 genocide. Ladislas Ntaganzwa was arrested in the eastern Congo city of Goma. Between about 14 and 18 April 1994 he is accused of substantially participating in the planning, preparation and execution of the massacre of over 20,000 Tutsis at Cyahinda Parish.
    (AP, 12/10/15)

2015        Dec 9, Luzolo Bambi, a counselor to President Joseph Kabila on graft and money laundering, said Congo DRC loses up to $15 billion a year due to fraud, an amount close to twice the central African country's budget.
    (Reuters, 12/9/15)
2015        Dec 9, Anger peaked in Kinshasa's slums as DR Congo's poor grappled with little more than bare hands against torrential rains and flooding that have left 31 people dead and 20,000 families homeless in less than three weeks.
    (AFP, 12/9/15)

2015        Dec 24, In central Congo DRC an air cargo plane overshot the runway in Mbuji-Mayi, hitting homes and killing at least 7 people on the ground.
    (AP, 12/25/15)

2015        Dec 31, Democratic Republic of Congo President Joseph Kabila pardoned nine members of the Bundu Dia Kongo (BDK) separatist group as he pursues a policy of national dialogue ahead of elections later this year.
    (AFP, 1/1/16)   

2016        Jan 7, In eastern Congo DRC Rwandan Hutu rebels killed 14 civilians from a rival ethnic group and wounded nine in the town of Lubero in North Kivu province.
    (Reuters, 1/7/16)

2016        Jan 19, Amnesty International said cobalt mined dangerously by children in the Democratic Republic of Congo could end up in the lithium batteries of smartphones and electric cars made by Apple, Samsung or Sony.
    (AFP, 1/19/16)

2016        Feb 4, Congo DRC authorities dismantled a major ivory network, arresting three traffickers in a blow to poaching operations that threaten the survival of the African forest elephant. Officials also seized 30 kg (66 pounds) of ivory ornaments and other items.
    (AP, 2/13/16)

2016        Feb 16, In Congo DRC a one-day general strike called to pressure President Joseph Kabila to quit power when his mandate ends in December paralyzed most economic activity in Kinshasa.
    (Reuters, 2/16/16)

2016        Feb 22, Congo DRC’s interior ministry said the Democratic Republic of Congo will allow some 150 children adopted by foreign parents, mostly Americans, to leave the country after spending more than two years in legal limbo.
    (Reuters, 2/22/16)

2016        Feb 29, In eastern Democratic Republic of Congo suspected Ugandan rebels killed 13 civilians in an overnight raid in the north of the North Kivu province.
    (AFP, 2/29/16)

2016        Mar 8, In southeastern Congo DRC 2 workers at Glencore's Katanga Mining copper and cobalt operation died and five remain missing after a pit wall collapsed. A collapsed wall at the open-pit mine killed all 7 people. A 10-day search effort recovered only 3 bodies.
    (Reuters, 3/8/16)(Reuters, 3/17/16)

2016        Mar 21, Congolese politician Jean-Pierre Bemba became the highest-ranking political leader to face a verdict from the International Criminal Court. He was found guilty of a 2002-2003 campaign of rape and murder in Central African Republic.
    (Reuters, 3/21/16)

2016        Mar 25, In the Congo DRC UN helicopter gunships attacked Ugandan rebels active in the volatile east, inflicting casualties.
    (AFP, 3/25/16)

2016        Mar 31, In eastern Congo DRC wildlife ranger Oscar Mianziro, was fatally shot in Kahuzi-Biega National Park as he returned from a mission to track endangered gorillas. He was killed while investigating a truck that had been looted and left on the side of a park road.
    (AP, 4/1/16)

2016        Apr 20, In southeastern Congo DRC police fired tear gas to disperse hundreds of anti-government protesters in Lubumbashi, who accused security forces of vandalizing posters of opposition leaders.
    (Reuters, 4/20/16)

2016        Apr 23, In Congo DRC elephant poachers killed three rangers in Garamba National Park and wounded two other people including the Swedish park manager. The poachers were believed to have come from South Sudan.
    (Reuters, 4/25/16)(SFC, 5/25/16, p.A3)
2016        Apr 23, In Congo DRC elephant poachers killed three rangers in Garamba wildlife park and wounded two other people including the Swedish park manager.
    (Reuters, 4/25/16)

2016        May 3, In northeastern Congo DRC 17 people were killed by armed attackers in Beni despite the presence of a UN outpost with 3,000 peacekeepers 20 miles away. UN blue helmets numbered 18,900 in the country.
    (Econ, 5/21/16, p.55)

2016        May 11, Democratic Republic of Congo's highest court ruled that President Joseph Kabila would stay in power beyond the end of his mandate if his government failed to hold an election due in November.
    (Reuters, 5/11/16)

2016        May 13, Congo police fired teargas at thousands of supporters rallying outside the prosecutor's office where a leading opposition presidential candidate Moise Katumbi was facing a hearing over accusations he was plotting a coup.
    (Reuters, 5/13/16)

2016        May 14, UN experts said Congolese army officers and police reported receiving pistols from a group of 30 North Korean instructors training their presidential guard and special police forces, which would appear to be a violation of UN sanctions banning Pyongyang from exporting weapons or providing military training.
    (AP, 5/13/16)

2016        May 25, A Democratic Republic of Congo opposition group, the Citizen’s Front, angered by a court decision to let President Joseph Kabila remain in office beyond his term, vowed to hold nationwide protests in defiance of bans imposed in some regions.
    (AFP, 5/25/16)

2016        May 26, In eastern Congo DRC a protester and a police officer were killed in protests in Goma against President Joseph Kabila over indications November's elections will be postponed.
    (Reuters, 5/26/16)
2016        May 26, A Congolese official said at least 23 rebels have been killed in an operation launched in May to combat rebels in the North Kivu province.
    (AP, 5/26/16)

2016        Jun 11, In Congo DRC two boats collided on Lake Maindombe capsizing one vessel and killing at least 27 people.
    (SFC, 6/13/16, p.A2)

2016        Jun 21, At The Hague the International Criminal Court handed down its toughest sentence yet, ordering former Congolese vice president Jean-Pierre Bemba to serve 18 years in jail for "sadistic, cruel" rapes and murders by his troops in Central African Republic.
    (AFP, 6/21/16)

2016        Jun 23, The World Health Organization (WHO) said if will carry out emergency yellow fever vaccination campaigns along the border between Angola and Congo. Since last December there were 347 suspected deaths from yellow fever in Angola and 75 deaths in Congo.
    (SFC, 6/23/16, p.A2)

2016        Jul 5, In northeastern Congo DRC suspected rebels from the Allied Democratic Forces (ADF), a Ugandan Islamist group, hacked to death at least 9 people in a village near Oicha.
    (Reuters, 7/5/16)

2016        Aug 8, In Congo DRC armed groups killed 14 people in a string of overnight attacks in the strife-torn North Kivu province, an area long shaken by ethnic violence.
    (AFP, 8/8/16)

2016        Aug 12, In Congo DRC security forces in Kasai Central province killed a tribal chief and militia leader nicknamed Kamwina Nsapu (Kamuina Nsapu), meaning Black Ant.
    (https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Kamwina_Nsapu_rebellion)(Econ 6/3/17, p.37)

2016        Aug 13, In eastern Congo DRC at least 36 people were killed late today in a massacre by suspected rebels of the Allied Democratic Forces (ADF), near Beni, North Kivu province, an area that has been shaken by violence since 2014.
    (AP, 8/15/16)

2016        Sep 9, The UN said its peacekeeping force in Congo has evacuated some 300 supporters of South Sudan's opposition leader Riek Machar, many of whom were wounded, acutely malnourished or in life-threatening condition.
    (AP, 9/9/16)

2016        Sep 13, The World Health Organization said yellow fever outbreaks in Angola and the Democratic Republic of Congo are "under control" after a massive vaccination campaign involving millions.
    (AFP, 9/13/16)

2016        Sep 15, Congo DRC Justice Minister Alexis Thambwe Mwamba said the Democratic Republic of Congo will form an interim government that includes opposition members, as part of a deal to set up new elections and break a political impasse.
    (Reuters, 9/15/16)

2016        Sep 19, In Congo DRC clashes took place ahead of a huge opposition rally in Kinshasa demanding that President Joseph Kabila step down. Anti-government protesters burned the body of a police officer in the Limete suburb of Kinshasa. By the end of the day at least 50 people were killed. The government put the death toll at 32.
    (AFP, 9/19/16)(Reuters, 9/19/16)(AP, 9/20/16)(AP, 9/22/16)

2016        Sep 20, In Congo DRC several people died in a second day of violence with three opposition HQ buildings torched in fresh clashes between police and opponents of President Joseph Kabila. Government soldiers in Kinshasa burned the offices of the opposition FONUS party.
    (AFP, 9/20/16)(Econ, 10/1/16, p.49)
2016        Sep 20, Air France canceled its morning flight to Kinshasa amid an escalation of street violence in the Democratic Republic of Congo capital over opposition claims the president wants to extend his mandate.
    (Reuters, 9/20/16)

2016        Sep 23, In Congo DRC 3 more people succumbed to their wounds after an attack by rebels in the northeast raising the death toll to at least 10. A dozen homes and two military camps were burned near Beni.
    (SFC, 9/24/16, p.A2)

2016        Sep 24, The African Union, European Union, UN and the 57 International Organization of La Francophonie made a joint appeal to the government and opposition in the Democratic Republic of Congo to exercise restraint amid violent political unrest.
    (AFP, 9/24/16)

2016        Oct 7, It was reported that President Barack Obama has issued waivers that continue millions of dollars in US military assistance for troubled South Sudan and six other nations where child soldiers have been used, disappointing advocates who say his administration hasn't made curbing the use of children in combat a higher priority. Waivers also have been granted to Somalia, Congo, Nigeria, Rwanda, Iraq and Myanmar.
    (AP, 10/7/16)

2016        Nov 5, Police in Congo's capital Kinshasa fired tear gas to disperse opposition supporters seeking to defy a ban on public protests and rally against plans by President Joseph Kabila to stay in power beyond the end of his mandate this year.
    (Reuters, 11/5/16)

2016        Nov 8, In Congo DRC two of the most popular radio stations in the country were jammed for the fourth day in a row, drawing criticism of the government from the United States and opposition groups.
    (Reuters, 11/8/16)
2016        Nov 8, In eastern Congo DRC a grenade detonated where a group of Indian peacekeepers were exercising morning on the outskirts of Goma, killing at least two people and sparking an angry demonstration that was dispersed by tear gas.
    (AP, 11/8/16)

2016        Nov 15, In Congo DRC reporter Marcel Lubala was shot three times early today at his home in the central town of Mbuji-Mayi. The group Journalist in Danger said  his body was dragged in front of his wife, who had been tied up.
    (AP, 11/16/16)

2016        Nov 17, DR Congo's president named opposition lawmaker Samy Badibanga as prime minister under a controversial power-sharing deal that effectively extends President Joseph Kabila's term in office.
    (AFP, 11/17/16)

2016        Nov 19, Congo DRC authorities blocked an opposition demonstration in the capital aimed at putting pressure on President Joseph Kabila to step down next month at the end of his mandate.
    (Reuters, 11/19/16)

2016        Nov 27, In northeastern Congo DRC  a local militia allegedly has killed at least 35 civilians with machetes and guns. The Mai Mai Mazembe militia group was named as being responsible for the attack.
    (AP, 11/27/16)

2016        Dec 3, Congolese troops detained 41 South Sudanese soldiers and one police officer after they fled a rebel assault over the frontier.
    (Reuters, 12/6/16)

2016        Dec 12, In CongoDRC the Union for Peace in Central African Republic (UPC) rebels killed at least 32 civilians in the town of Bakala, where they had been fighting the Popular Front for the Renaissance of Central African Republic (FPRC).
    (Reuters, 2/16/17)
2016        Dec 12, The European Union imposed sanctions on seven Congolese officials it says illegally suppressed anti-government protests in September, when dozens of demonstrators were killed.
    (Reuters, 12/12/16)
2016        Dec 12, The US government sanctioned two senior Democratic Republic of Congo officials for human rights violations and targeting the opposition, a week before the president's mandate is set to end. The US Treasury announced it was targeting Deputy PM Evariste Boshab, also the nation's interior and security minister, and Kalev Mutondo, head of the national intelligence agency.
    (AFP, 12/12/16)(Econ, 12/24/16, p.74)

2016        Dec 15, Congo DRC internet providers said authorities have ordered that social networks including Facebook and WhatsApp be blocked as of 11:59 PM Dec 18, before President Joseph Kabila's mandate expires on Dec 20.
    (AFP, 12/15/16)
2016        Dec 15, Bloomberg News agency reported that President Joseph Kabila and his family in the Democratic Republic of Congo have created a personal economic empire worth hundreds of millions of dollars.
    (AFP, 12/15/16)

2016        Dec 19, In eastern Congo DRC a South African soldier on a United Nations mission was killed in a rebel attack on their positions, the final day of President Joseph Kabila's mandated time in office. Four Mai Mai militiamen were killed in the fire-fight and two were captured.
    (Reuters, 12/19/16)
2016        Dec 19, In Congo DRC an announcement just before midnight of the appointment of a new government -- but with President Kabila still in ultimate control -- triggered cries of "treason", "provocation" and "confrontation".
    (AFP, 12/20/16)

2016        Dec 20, In Congo DRC black smoke rose over Kinshasa and angry young men waving red cards blocked roads as Pres. Joseph Kabila, clung to power. Security forces killed at least three demonstrators in Kinshasa and arrested scores more amid protests against Kabila's hold on power. The UN human rights director for the Democratic Republic of Congo said that there were "solid" reports that 20 civilians had been killed in confrontations with security forces in Kinshasa.
    (AFP, 12/20/16)(AP, 12/20/16)(Reuters, 12/20/16)
2016        Dec 20, In southeastern Congo at least six people were killed and 150 wounded as clashes broke out between Pygmies and Bantus.
    (Reuters, 12/22/16)

2016        Dec 21, Congolese security forces killed eight civilians and wounded 35 others in the southeastern mining hub of Lubumbashi over the last 24 hours during protests against President Joseph Kabila.
    (Reuters, 12/21/16)

2016        Dec 22, Congo DRC soldiers sealed part of the Matshipisha-Gbadolite neighborhood of Lubumbashi and carried out mass arrests of young men, as talks to defuse the country's explosive political crisis were set to continue.
    (AFP, 12/22/16)
2016        Dec 22, In eastern Congo DRC fighting between Hutu and Nande ethnic militias killed left at least 20 people dead in Bwalanda, North Kivu province.
    (Reuters, 12/22/16)(SFC, 12/24/16, p.A2)
2016        Dec 22, Democratic Republic of Congo troops killed 10 soldiers from neighboring Burundi after they crossed the border overnight in pursuit of rebels.
    (AFP, 12/26/16)

2016        Dec 23, In Congo DRC opposition leaders said politicians have agreed in principle to a deal under which President Joseph Kabila leaves office by the end of 2017, an unexpected breakthrough after dozens were killed in anti-government protests this week.
    (Reuters, 12/23/16)

2016        Dec 24, In northeastern Congo DRC rebels from the Allied Democratic Forces (ADF), dominated by puritanical Ugandan Muslims, killed at least 25 Hutu people after storming several villages.
    (AFP, 12/26/16)(SFC, 12/27/16, p.A2)

2016        Dec 25, In Congo DRC an ethnic Nande militia killed at least 13 Hutu civilians with guns and machetes in an apparent revenge attack for the deaths of Nande civilians last week.
    (Reuters, 12/25/16)

2016        Dec 27, In southwestern Congo floods triggered by two days of heavy rains and a river bursting its banks killed at least 50 people and left thousands more homeless.
    (AP, 12/29/16)

2016        Dec, Congo DRC’s President Joseph Kabila's regime drafted in fighters previously active in the M23 rebel group from neighboring Uganda and Rwanda to help suppress demonstrations, which erupted when he refused to step down at the end of his constitutional mandate according to a Dec. 4, 2017, report by Human Rights Watch.
    (AP, 12/4/17)
2016        The population of Congo DRC was estimated at 90 million. Kinshasa, the 3rd largest city of Congo DRC, was estimated at 8-12 million.
    (Econ, 4/16/16, SR p.15)(Econ, 5/14/16, p.39)

2017        Jan 1, In Congo DRC rival groups agreed a deal for hauling the country out of a perilous political crisis. Under a landmark accord, the country's contested president, Joseph Kabila, who under the constitution should have left office on December 20, will stay in power until elections are held at the end of 2017. During this period a so-called National Transition Council will be set up, headed by opposition leader Etienne Tshisekedi, and a prime minister will be named from opposition ranks.
    (AFP, 1/1/17)

2017        Jan 2, In Congo DRC a regional official said at least six people have been hacked to death in the troubled northeast in two attacks last week in Irumu territory blamed on Ugandan rebels. A civil society leader in Ituri, reported that 14 people were killed in the attacks, which took place in the villages of Saboko and Bialee.
    (AFP, 1/2/17)

2017        Jan 15, Armed Congolese rebels crossed back overnight into the country from their longtime refuge in Uganda. At least 200 former members of M23, an ethnic Tutsi group defeated by the Congolese army three years ago, took over a village in North Kivu province.
    (AFP, 1/15/17)

2017        Jan 23, Uganda said it had returned dozens of former combatants of a Democratic Republic of Congo rebel group to a military camp after they tried to sneak back to their own country in disguise last week.
    (Reuters, 1/23/17)

2017        Jan 29, In Rwanda 30 individuals, claiming to be members of the M23 Congolese militia group, were apprehended saying they sought refuge and were fleeing a Congo army offensive.
    (AFP, 1/30/17)

2017        Jan 31, The Congolese army said armed fighters belonging to the former M23 rebel group had captured four crew members of a military helicopter which crashed in eastern Congo DRC last week, and that three died after being tortured.
    (Reuters, 1/31/17)

2017        Feb 2, Congo DRC’s opposition leader Etienne Tshisekedi (84) died in Brussels, where he had been flown for medical treatment January 24 just as talks were scheduled to end the nation's months-long political crisis.
    (AFP, 2/2/17)
2017        Feb 2, Wildlife anti-trafficking organization Freeland said that almost three tons of scales from endangered African pangolins, hidden in sacks, were seized last December at Bangkok's main airport. The haul was worth more than $1 million dollars on the illegal market, and represented as many as 6,000 dead animals. The scales were sent from Kinshasa in Congo, via Turkey with a final destination listed as Vientiane, Laos.
    (AP, 2/2/17)

2017        Feb 3, Police in southwestern Democratic Republic of Congo killed at least eight members of Bundu dia Kongo (BDK), a separatist religious sect, escalating tensions in a normally peaceful part of a conflict-ravaged country.
    (Reuters, 2/3/17)

2017        Feb 13, In CongoDRC more than 100 people were killed in clashes between Congolese soldiers and militia fighters mainly armed with machetes and spears in clashes that began Feb 9 in the Dibaya area of Kasai-Central province.
    (AP, 2/14/17)

2017        Feb 14, Congo police made a pre-dawn raid on a separatist group in Kinshasa, killing four people but failing to arrest Ne Muanda Nsemi, a self-styled religious prophet and leader of Bundu dia Kongo (BDK).
    (Reuters, 2/14/17)

2017        Feb 22, The government of CongoDRC said that it was opening an investigation after video this month showed soldiers massacring civilians in central Kasai province. On March 18 a military auditor said seven army officers have been arrested and charged with war crimes in the massacre that left at least 13 people dead.
    (SFC, 2/23/17, p.A2)(SSFC, 3/19/17, p.A3)

2017        Feb 23, Congo's army said has killed at least 16 former members of a rebel group after they re-entered the country's east. Fighting near Rutshuru began a day earlier and by today the army had captured 68 former M23 rebels and 39 others surrendered.
    (AP, 2/23/17)

2017        Feb, Authorities in Democratic Republic of Congo expelled a filmmaker and researcher working for Greenpeace following a trip to forest communities affected by industrial logging.
    (Reuters, 3/1/17)

2017        Mar 1, In CongoDRC Congolese, Tanzanian and French workers were abducted from Canada’s Banro Mining Corp.'s Namoya gold mine. Rebels of the Rahiya Mutomboki group demanded $1 million in ransom for the five workers. The Tanzanian was soon released. The French man and three Congolese were released on May 27.
    (AP, 3/2/17)(AP, 5/28/17)

2017        Mar 4, The United Nations announced aid worth $5 million (4.7 million euros) to help people affected by the humanitarian crisis in the violence-wracked Kasai region of the Democratic Republic of Congo.
    (AFP, 3/4/17)

2017        Mar 8, Zeid Ra'ad al-Hussein, the top UN rights official, said three mass graves have been discovered in central Democratic Republic of Congo, where hundreds have been killed since July in clashes between security forces and a local militia.
    (Reuters, 3/8/17)

2017        Mar 10, A Congolese court in Beni sentenced to death nine rebels of the Allied Democratic Forces, for crimes against humanity. Two others were acquitted.
    (SFC, 3/11/17, p.A2)

2017        Mar 12, In eastern CongoDRC UN officials Michael Sharp of the United States and Zaida Catalan, a dual national of Chile and Sweden, disappeared along with four Congolese citizens while traveling in the Kasai region. On March 27 the bodies of Sharp, Catalan and a Congolese were found in the region. They had been investigating an armed conflict in the region between government forces and the Kamuina Nsapu militia. Jose Tshibuabua (1964-2019) was charged with murder after Reuters and Radio France Internationale (RFI) revealed in December 2017 that he had been working as an intelligence service informant at the same time he and several family with ties to the militia met the investigators to help them plan their fatal trip.
    (SFC, 3/16/17, p.A4)(AP, 3/28/17)(AFP, 3/29/17)(Reuters, 10/22/19)

2017        Mar 21, Canada-based Ivanhoe said it plans to develop the Kamoa-Kakula copper deposit in Congo DRC, calling it the biggest copper discovery ever.
    (http://tinyurl.com/u77c2w6)(Econ, 3/11/17, p.62)

2017        Mar 22, At the Hague International Criminal Court judges sentenced former Congolese VP Jean-Pierre Bemba to a year in jail and fined him 300,000 euros for bribing witnesses during his war crimes trial in an unprecedented case before the ICC.
    (AFP, 3/22/17)

2017        Mar 24, In CongoDRC Kamuina Nsapu militants decapitated 42 police officers after an ambush in Kasai province. The fighters spared the lives of six police officers because they spoke the local Tshiluba language.
    (Reuters, 3/25/17)(SSFC, 3/26/17, p.A6)
2017        Mar 24, The International Criminal Court at The Hague awarded $250 dollars as "symbolic" damages to each victim of former Congolese warlord Germain Katanga, a sum swiftly dismissed as meaningless by those who lost homes and loved ones in a militia attack on their village 14 years ago.
    (AFP, 3/24/17)

2016        Apr 10, Opposition calls for mass protests against Democratic Republic of Congo President Joseph Kabila fell flat when only a handful of people showed up, undermining efforts to oust him after his refusal to quit on expiry of his mandate last year.
    (AP, 4/9/17)

2017        Apr 17, It was reported that Congolese pastor Joseph Mukungubila Mutombo, wanted in his homeland for alleged involvement in violence more than three years ago, has obtained asylum in South Africa.
    (AFP, 4/17/17)

2017        Apr 19, The UN human rights office said that investigators have confirmed another 17 mass graves in central Congo, bringing the number to 40 discovered since clashes between soldiers and a local militia intensified in August. Congolese soldiers reportedly dug the 17 newly discovered mass graves after fighting with suspected militia members in late March and killing at least 74 people, including 30 children.
    (AP, 4/19/17)

2017        Apr 24, Six people were awarded the annual Goldman Environmental Prize. They included Mark Lopez of southern California for work focusing on contamination from a battery recycling plant; Rodrigue Mugaruka Katembo of Congo DRC for efforts to protect the Virunga National Park from oil extraction; Prafulla Samantara of India for efforts to halt an open-pit bauxite mine in Odisha state; Uros Maceri of Slovenia for efforts to halt pollution by the Lafarge Cement Co.; Wendy Bowman of Australia for her efforts to halt coal mining and pollution in the Hunter Valley; and Rodrigo Tot of Guatemala for efforts to halt evictions and government corruption related to nickel mining in El Estor and Agua Caliente.
    (SFC, 4/24/17, p.A10)

2017        Apr 29, In Congo DRC three days of rioting began when protesters angered by a string of unsolved murders threw up roadblocks and mobbed government offices in the restive gold-rich Ituri region.
    (AFP, 5/1/17)

2017        May 9, Democratic Republic of Congo President Joseph Kabila named a new transitional government, defying opponents who rejected the cabinet, saying it violated a previous agreement.
    (Reuters, 5/9/17)

2017        May 12, Congo DRC’s health minister said one person has been confirmed dead from Ebola in an outbreak in a remote corner of northern Congo as health authorities look into a total of nine suspected cases. The outbreak emerged April 22 in Bas-Uele province. The WHO said at least three people have died in the last three weeks.
    (AP, 5/12/17)(SFC, 5/13/17, p.A2)

2017        May 13, It was reported that hundreds of people from Democratic Republic of Congo's central Kasai region have been pouring into neighboring Angola every day for more than a month to escape violence plaguing their homes.
    (AFP, 5/13/17)

2017        May 16, In Congo DRC President Joseph Kabila named eight senior police officers as "national heroes". Former police chief John Numbi, believed by regime critics to be prime suspect in the murder of a key rights activist, was one of the eight.
    (AFP, 6/6/17)
2017        May 16, The World Health Organization said a second case of Ebola has been confirmed by laboratory testing amid an outbreak in a remote corner of northern Congo.
    (AP, 5/16/17)

2017        May 17, In Congo DRC Christian sect members stormed Makala Prison in Kinshasa, freeing Bundu dia Kongo movement leader Ne Mwanda Nsemi and 50 others.
    (AP, 5/17/17)

2017        May 19, In Congo DRC 68 of 74 prisoners escaped from a jail in Kasangulu, less than 48 hours after rebels attacked Kinshasa's main prison, freeing their leader and 50 others. Ten of the escaped prisoners were quickly recaptured.
    (AFP, 5/19/17)

2017        May 29, The Democratic Republic of Congo said it has approved using an experimental Ebola vaccine to combat an outbreak of the virus in the northeast.
    (AFP, 5/29/17)
2017        May 29, The EU extended it sanctions over the deteriorating situation in Congo, imposing travel bans and asset freezes on nine more senior security officials.
    (AP, 5/29/17)

2017        Jun 9, In Congo DRC unknown gunmen attacked the court office late today, burning several vehicles parked on the premises. One police officer was killed and another wounded in the assault, while three prisoners held there were later found to be missing in the Matete district in the east of Kinshasa.
    (AFP, 6/10/17)

2017        Jun 11, In eastern Congo DRC armed men attacked a prison in Beni killing at least 11 people and freeing more than 900 prisoners.
    (SFC, 6/12/17, p.A3)

2017        Jun 14, The World Health Organization said two separate outbreaks of the polio virus have been confirmed in Congo, the first cases of polio in the vast Central African nation since 2012.
    (AP, 6/14/17)

2017        Jun 20, The Catholic church released a document saying more than 3,300 people have been killed in central Congo’s Kasai province since August.
    (SFC, 6/21/17, p.A2)

2017        Jun 22, In northeastern Congo DRC at least 12 people were killed in heavy firefights between the army and militia fighters in and around Beni. Several students sitting exams were wounded in an explosion at a school in the city.
    (Reuters, 6/22/17)

2017        Jun 24, A new UN report said Angola has expelled more than 8,000 Congolese who entered the southern African country while fleeing deadly violence at home.
    (AP, 6/24/17)

2017        Jun 26, Congolese authorities have identified 10 more mass graves in a region where the military and militia fighters accuse each other of summary executions and burials. This bring to 52 the total number of such sites found in the Kasai region since the start of an insurrection last August by the Kamuina Nsapu militia.
    (Reuters, 6/26/17)

2017        Jul 3, In Congo DRC Banro Corp said fighting between the Congolese army and a local militia in the east has forced its Namoya gold mine to suspend all operations and temporarily evacuate its staff. Ten militiamen and two army soldiers have in fighting over the last 24 hours.
    (Reuters, 7/3/17)

2017        Jul 11, The UN said about 80,000 people have fled fighting between the Democratic Republic of Congo army and a new rebel coalition, joining the millions already uprooted in Africa's worst displacement crisis.
    (Reuters, 7/11/17)

2017        Jul 12, The UN said it has identified an additional 38 probable mass graves in Democratic Republic of Congo's central Kasai region, bringing the total to at least 80 since the outbreak of an insurrection last August.
    (Reuters, 7/12/17)

2017        Jul 14, In northeastern Congo DRC a security station was attacked by Mai Mai militia. Six Congolese rangers were found alive the next day in a large forest reserve, but American journalist Lisa Dupuy and at least three other security guards remained missing. Dupuy was found safe and sound on July 16. Four wardens and a civilian who was working as a tracker were killed in clashes along with a number of bandits.
    (AP, 7/15/17)(AP, 7/16/17)

2017        Jul 17, Congo DRC’s Pres. Joseph Kabila named Dieudonne Amuli Bahigwa to replace Charles Bisengimana as chief of the national police.
    (Reuters, 7/18/17)
2017        Jul 17, Gunmen in restive eastern Democratic Republic of Congo kidnapped two Catholic priests in an area at the center of over two years of massacres by unknown assailants, the country's conference of bishops said on Monday.
    (Reuters, 7/17/17)

2017        Jul 26, In Congo DRC one the most notorious warlords, Ntabo Ntaberi Sheka, wanted for alleged crimes against humanity, surrendered to UN peacekeepers.
    (Reuters, 7/26/17)
2017        Jul 26, The UN said Congo DRC military elements were responsible for digging at least 42 mass graves in three Kasai provinces after clashes with alleged militia members in recent months. Experts were appointed to look into the growing crisis.
    (SFC, 7/27/17, p.A2)

2017        Jul 28, In Congo DRC at least one person was killed and an estimated 20 inmates escaped in a prison break in the eastern city of Bukavu.
    (Reuters, 7/28/17)

2017        Jul, In Congo DRC a court sentenced businessman Sindika Dokolo in absentia to a year in prison for real-estate fraud.
    (Econ, 9/2/17, p.41)

2017        Aug 4, In eastern Congo DRC a group of Twa pygmies attacked the Luba, a Bantu ethnic group, near Kalemi, in Tanganyika province. More than 50 people were killed in clashes between the ethnic groups.
    (Reuters, 8/6/17)

2017        Aug 7, Congolese security forces killed at least 14 members of separatist sect Bundu dia Kongo (BDK) during clashes in the capital Kinshasa and southwestern city of Matadi in which at least one police officer also died. On August 10 Human Rights Watch said at least 27 people, including three police officers, were killed in the clashes between protesters and police.
    (Reuters, 8/7/17)(AP, 8/10/17)

2017        Aug 8, In Congo DRC opposition campaigners launched a two-day general strike to pressure President Joseph Kabila to set an election date -- a day after 12 people were shot dead in an anti-government rampage in the capital.
    (AFP, 8/8/17)

2017        Aug 14, UN food agencies said nearly eight million people face acute hunger in the Democratic Republic of Congo as a result of conflict, especially in the central Kasai region.
    (AFP, 8/14/17)

2017        Aug 16, In eastern Congo DRC at least 200 people were believed killed in a landslide in Tora village, Ituri province. 48 houses were destroyed. 140 bodies were soon recovered and over 100 were believed still buried.
    (Reuters, 8/17/17)(SSFC, 8/20/17, p.A4)(AFP, 8/21/17)

2017        Aug 19, Congolese businessman Sindika Dokolo and other activists published a manifesto telling Pres. Kabila to step down and called for civil disobedience if he does not by the end of the year.
    (Econ, 9/2/17, p.41)

2017        Sep 3, The leader of the opposition in the Democratic Republic of Congo, Felix Tshisekedi, returned to Kinshasa just as police arrested some of his supporters during a demonstration.
    (AFP, 9/3/17)

2017        Sep 4, A Congo DRC officials said at least eight people have died after a bolt of lightning struck a small-scale goldmine in Haut-Uele province.
    (AFP, 9/4/17)

2017        Sep 7, A study by wildlife trade monitoring network Traffic said weak governance, corruption and shifting trade dynamics are seriously undermining efforts to control ivory trafficking throughout Cameroon, the Central African Republic, Congo-Brazzaville, the Democratic Republic of the Congo and Gabon.
    (AFP, 9/7/17)   

2017        Sep 8, The UN warned that its staff had witnessed destruction and suffering on "an enormous scale" in the Democratic Republic of Congo's volatile Kasai region.
    (AFP, 9/8/17)

2017        Sep 15, In eastern Congo DRC at least 36 Burundian refugees were killed in clashes with Congolese security forces in the town of Kamanyola over plans to send some of them home. One Congolese officer was killed. Congo's government spokesman Lambert Mende denied that those killed were refugees, saying that the clashes broke out when assailants from an unidentified armed group attacked an office belonging to the national intelligence agency.
    (Reuters, 9/16/17)(SSFC, 9/17/17 p.A3)

2017        Sep 18, A new report by the Congo Research Group (CRG) at New York University said Congolese army commanders orchestrated a wave of massacres that killed hundreds of people between 2014-2016 as they vied for influence with anti-government insurgents in northeastern Democratic Republic of Congo.
    (Reuters, 9/18/17)

2017        Sep 19, A local Congo DRC official said the bodies of 17 civilians apparently fleeing violence in the troubled North Kivu province have been found in Lake Edward.
    (AFP, 9/19/17)

2017        Sep 20, A Congo official said that flooding caused by torrential rains overnight has killed at least 12 people and left 92 others missing in North Kivu province.
    (AP, 9/20/17)

2017        Sep 25, In eastern Congo DRC a teenager (14) was killed in protests against instability in Bukavu. Locals were protesting against chronic instability, including a spate of armed robberies.
    (AFP, 9/25/17)

2017        Sep 30, In Congo DRC a military cargo plane crashed in Kinshasa, killing its 12 crew members.
    (Reuters, 9/30/17)

2017        Oct 6, In eastern Congo DRC militia fighters attacked a UN peacekeeping base, triggering clashes that left two of the fighters dead and two peacekeepers slightly wounded. Thirty-four rebels from a Mai-Mai militia have been killed in fighting with Congo's army in the past week.
    (Reuters, 10/6/17)

2017        Oct 7, In northeastern Congo DRC militants ambushed a group of about 30 civilians and killed many of them before fighting a fierce battle with the army. The militants were said to belong to the Allied Democratic Forces (ADF), a Ugandan Islamist group active near the border between Congo and Uganda.
    (Reuters, 10/8/17)

2017        Oct 9, In eastern Congo DRC a UN peacekeeper was killed and 12 others injured after an attack near a UN base in Mamundioma by Ugandan rebels belonging to the group known as ADF. At least 22 people were reported missing.
    (AP, 10/9/17)(SFC, 10/10/17, p.A2)

2017        Oct 11, Congo DRC’s electoral commission said an election to replace President Joseph Kabila cannot take place before April 2019, a delay that the opposition said would cause an impatient population to "take matters into its own hands".
    (Reuters, 10/11/17)

2017        Oct 30, In eastern Congo DRC one police officer and one civilian were killed in clashes between security forces and protesters in Goma demanding the departure of President Joseph Kabila.
    (Reuters, 10/30/17)

2017        Nov 5, In Congo DRC clashes between Congolese troops and supporters of renegade Colonel Abbas Kayonga in the eastern city of Bukavu killed seven people before he surrendered and turned himself in to UN peacekeepers. Kayonga was sacked on Nov. 2 from his post overseeing anti-fraud efforts in local mines.
    (Reuters, 11/5/17)

2017        Nov 8, In southeastern Democratic Republic of Congo nine children died and another was missing after a canoe capsized on Lake Tanganyika.
    (AFP, 11/9/17)

2017        Nov 12, In Congo DRC about 30 people were killed and more than two dozen injured when a train derailed then caught fire near the town of Buyofwe.
    (Reuters, 11/13/17)

2017        Nov 30, Congo DRC police fired tear gas to disperse demonstrators in several cities and arrested two opposition leaders in a clampdown on protests against President Joseph Kabila.
    (AFP, 11/30/17)

2017        Nov, Angola’s Pres. Joao Lourenco removed the former president's daughter, Isabel dos Santos, as chair of the national oil company, Sonangol. She is said to be Africa's richest woman. Two-thirds of Angolans lived in poverty on less than $2 a day. Isabel’s husband Sindika Dokolo was a Congolese businessman and noted collector of Congolese art.
    (AP, 11/22/17)(Econ, 9/16/17, p.44)

2017        Dec 7, In Congo DRC an attack in North Kivu province targeted a base of the UN's MONUSCO force, killing at least 14 UN peacekeepers from Tanzania. Five Congolese soldiers and a further 53 personnel were also injured in the worst single attack against a UN mission in recent history.
    (AP, 12/7/17)(AFP, 12/9/17)(AFP, 12/15/17)

2017        Dec 13, In eastern Congo DRC a military court sentenced 12 militia members to life in prison for gang rapes of dozens of children and for murder. Provincial deputy Frederic Batumike was convicted for organizing violence that began in 2013 and continued for years in the village of Kavumu.
    (SFC, 12/14/17, p.A2)

2017        Dec 15, In the Netherlands judges at the International Criminal Court ruled that former Congo DRC warlord Thomas Lubanga, convicted in 2012 of using child soldiers, is liable for $10 million in reparations to victims in the African nation.
    (AP, 12/15/17)

2017        Dec 27, Officials said the Congolese army has stepped up arrests of South Sudanese refugees and tightened the border in a bid to block rebels from seeking sanctuary in its country.
    (AFP, 12/27/17)
2017        Dec 27, Uganda’s military said its forces have killed more than 100 rebels in eastern Congo accused of carrying out the Dec. 7 attack on a UN base.
    (SFC, 12/28/17, p.A2)

2017        Dec 30, Congolese authorities ordered all internet and SMS services cut until further notice as police banned demonstrations saying that all gatherings of more than five people would be dispersed to ensure public order. Catholic activists called for protests against President Joseph Kabila's refusal to step down from office.
    (Reuters, 12/31/17)

2017        Dec 31, Congolese security forces shot dead two man in Kinshasa and injured several others in a bloody crackdown on Catholic worshippers who gathered at churches across the country to demand President Joseph Kabila leave power. Security forces killed at least seven people and at least one policeman died amid violence as more than a thousand people demonstrated in the capital.
    (AFP, 12/31/17)(Reuters, 12/31/17)(AP, 12/31/17)

2018        Jan 3, In Congo DRC 44 people perished overnight in Kinshasa as shanty homes were swept away by killer floods and landslips.
    (AFP, 1/6/18)

2018        Jan 12, Congolese police fired teargas to disperse dozens of churchgoers who had gathered in the capital Kinshasa to mourn seven people killed in protests against President Joseph Kabila two weeks ago.
    (Reuters, 1/12/18)

2018        Jan 13, Catholics in the Democratic Republic of Congo called for a fresh rally against "the dictatorship" as they step up pressure on President Joseph Kabila.
    (AFP, 1/13/18)

2018        Jan 14, In Congo DRC suspected militia fighters killed four Congolese soldiers in a hit-and-run attack on a military post in Kananga, Kasai-Central province's capital.
    (Reuters, 1/14/18)

2018        Jan 21, Congolese security forces shot dead at least six people and wounded dozens more as they fired tear gas to disperse a protest organized by the Catholic church in Kinshasa against President Joseph Kabila. 68 people were wounded and 121 arrested. The UN later said it had information about "a number of other killings" in protests elsewhere in the country and that UN monitors were among the targets of violence by Congolese security agents.
    (Reuters, 1/23/18)(Reuters, 1/21/18)

2018        Feb 3, Congolese security forces grabbed Father Sebastien Yebo outside his church this morning following a mass in Kinshasa, beat him and threw him into a jeep. He was let go in the afternoon after several hours of interrogation over his alleged links with the Kamwina Nsapu militia.
    (AFP, 2/4/18)

2018        Feb 5, In Congo DRC militia Chief Kalamba Dilondo, accused of waging a weeks-long terror campaign in the Kasai region, surrendered to authorities.
    (AFP, 2/6/18)

2018        Feb 6, Belgium's foreign ministry said the Democratic Republic of Congo has ordered Belgium to close a consulate and cut flights by Brussels Airlines, in a further deterioration of relations between Belgium and its former colony.
    (Reuters, 2/6/18)

2018        Feb 8, The UN said a military offensive launched last month by Congolese troops against Ugandan militants in eastern Democratic Republic of Congo is likely to force nearly 370,000 people from their homes.
    (Reuters, 2/8/18)

2018        Feb 13, Six Congolese soldiers were killed in a clash with Rwandan forces inside Congo's Virunga National Park. The two countries disputed which side of the poorly demarcated border the clash took place on, each accusing the other's forces of violating the frontier.
    (Reuters, 2/16/18)
2018        Feb 13, The UN Refugee Agency (UNHCR) said over 22,000 people fled Congo to Uganda last week following a surge of ethnic violence in the northeast, raising the total number of arrivals to about 34,000 since the start of the year.
    (Reuters, 2/13/18)

2018        Feb 14, The British government said it has frozen 580,000 pounds ($802,894) in assets held by several dozen militia leaders, army officers and private organizations with ties to Democratic Republic of Congo. The freezes were mandated by the European Union as part of a sanctions regime imposed by the United Nations.
    (AP, 2/14/18)

2018        Feb 19, Authorities in eastern Congo said two workers with a French aid group have been killed by armed gunmen in a village North Kivu province while a third has been taken hostage.
    (AP, 2/20/18)

2018        Feb 21, In western Rwanda anti-riot police surrounded at least 3,000 Congolese refugees who had camped at a UN refugee office overnight to protest reduced food rations at their camp. UNHCR said last month it was cutting rations due to funding shortages.
    (Reuters, 2/21/18)

2018        Feb 22, Rwandan police fired tear gas to disperse at least 3,000 Congolese refugees who had been protesting for two days at a UN refugee office in western Rwanda against a reduction in food rations at their camp.
    (Reuters, 2/22/18)
2018        Feb 22, The United Nations refugee agency UNHCR said twenty-six refugees from the Democratic Republic of Congo have died in a camp in Uganda from acute diarrhea, and hundreds more cases have been registered.
    (Reuters, 2/22/18)

2018        Feb 25, In Congo DRC a policeman shot prominent activist Rossy Mukendi of the Collective 2016 citizen's movement in Kinshasa. Mukendi soon died of his wounds and the policeman was arrested.
    (Reuters, 2/25/18)(AFP, 2/27/18)

2018        Feb 26, In eastern Congo DRC a local official said inter-ethnic clashes have killed at least 22 people, including 15 civilians, over the past two days.
    (Reuters, 2/26/18)

2018        Feb 27, In Congo DRC a judicial source said a military court has jailed a police officer for life for killing a demonstrator opposed to President Joseph Kabila. Eric Boloko was shot at point-blank range with live ammunition February 25 in Mbandaka.
    (AFP, 2/27/18)

2018        Mar 1, In northeastern Congo DRC at least 34 bodies were found after killings in several villages in Ituri province. The violence has been between members of the Lendu and Hema groups.
    (AP, 3/2/18)

2018        Mar 3, In eastern Congo DRC seven people died in a raid by suspected Ugandan Islamist rebels in the village of Eringeti, North Kivu province.
    (AFP, 3/4/18)

2018        Mar 9, The United Nations warned that more than 2 million children in the Democratic Republic of Congo are estimated to be at risk of dying from severe acute malnutrition if they do not get the aid they need.
    (Reuters, 3/9/18)

2018        Mar 10, Democratic Republic of Congo opposition groups rallied behind exiled figure Moise Katumbi at talks in South Africa aimed at forging a united front to fight elections due by the end of the year.
    (AFP, 3/10/18)

2018        Mar 11, Congo DRC officials said President Joseph Kabila has enacted a law to hike taxes on so-called strategic metals and ordered government consultations with foreign companies worried by the change.
    (AFP, 3/11/18)

2018        Mar 13, A local leader in Congo DRC said at least 40 people have been killed in the last 48 hours in ethnic violence in northeastern between Hema cattle herders and Lendu farmers.
    (Reuters, 3/13/18)

2018        Mar 20, In Congo DRC Abbas Kayonga, the former anti-corruption chief fighting fraud in lucrative eastern mines, was jailed for life by a military court on charges of rebellion and murder.
    (AFP, 3/21/18)

2018        Mar 22, The UN Security Council in a unanimous statement said at least 13.1 million Congolese are in need of humanitarian aid, including 7.7 million who are severely food insecure.
    (AFP, 3/24/18)

2018        Mar 25, The EU said it was "extremely concerned" about DR Congo after the country announced it would decline a $1.7 billion international aid package. The United Nations has declared the humanitarian crisis in the DR Congo to be a Level 3, the UN's highest-level emergency.
    (AFP, 3/25/18)

2018        Mar 26, Democratic Republic of Congo said it would refuse international financing for a long-delayed presidential election and fund the poll itself, saying donors' conditions amounted to "foreign interference".
    (Reuters, 3/26/18)

2018        Mar 27, Congo DRC authorities said they are investigating exiled opposition leader Moise Katumbi, who has vowed to stand in December's presidential elections.
    (AFP, 3/28/18)
2018        Mar 27, In Congo DRC rebels from a Ugandan Islamist group called the Allied Democratic Forces (ADF) killed at least 11 civilians during a raid on the city of Beni late today. The next day FIFA opened an investigation less than three months before Russia hosts the World Cup.
    (Reuters, 3/28/18)
2018        Mar 27, The UN Security Council unanimously backed a resolution that tasks the peacekeeping mission in the Democratic Republic of Congo with helping to prepare elections and avoid deadly violence.
    (AFP, 3/27/18)

2018        Mar 31, The Democratic Republic of Congo's main opposition party chose Felix Tshisekedi, the son of its founder and historic opposition figure, as its leader and presidential candidate in long delayed polls due at the end of the year.
    (AFP, 3/31/18)

2018        Apr 9, In Congo DRC six rangers were killed in an ambush in the Virunga National Park, the country's famed haven for gorillas and other endangered species.
    (AFP, 4/9/18)

2018        Apr 13, Congo took the extraordinary step of boycotting an international conference that reaped hundreds of millions of dollars to help its people, saying the Central African country's humanitarian crisis has been exaggerated. UN humanitarian chief Mark Lowcock said he expected $530 million in pledges by the end of the day.
    (AP, 4/13/18)

2018        Apr 17, In Congo DRC FIFA Council member Constant Omari was arrested in Kinshasa on suspicion of corruption and was being held in a public prosecutor's office and questioned for alleged involvement in embezzling money.
    (AP, 4/18/18)

2018        May 1, Rwandan police arrested 23 Congolese refugees after senior police officers and government officials were pelted with stones during a visit to refugee camp, authorities said after two days of clashes.
    (Reuters, 5/2/18)

2018        May 10, A Congo DRC hospital director said there are five new suspected cases of Ebola in the northwestern town of Bikoro, where an outbreak of the often deadly hemorrhagic fever was declared this week.
    (AP, 5/10/18)

2018        May 11, In Congo DRC a park source said some tourists have been kidnapped and a convoy attacked in the Virunga National Park, a famed haven for gorillas and other endangered species. A guard was killed and two British tourists with their driver were abducted.
    (AFP, 5/11/18)(SFC, 5/12/18, p.A2)

2018        May 13, Britain's foreign minister Boris Johnson said that the two Britons held hostage in Democratic Republic of Congo have been released.
    (Reuters, 5/13/18)

2018        May 14, The World Health Organization said it has been given the go-ahead by officials in the Democratic Republic of Congo to import and use an experimental Ebola vaccine in the country. The vaccine, developed by Merck in 2016, has proven safe and effective in human trials, but it is still experimental as it does not yet have a license. The Congo DRC had reported 39 suspected, probable or confirmed cases of Ebola between April 4 and May 13, including 19 deaths.
    (Reuters, 5/14/18)

2018        May 17, In Congo DRC case of Ebola was reported confirmed in Mbandaka a city of more than 1 million in northwestern Equateur province, bringing the latest outbreak of the often deadly hemorrhagic fever out of remote rural areas.
    (AP, 5/17/18)

2018        May 18, Congo's health minister announced that three new cases of the often lethal Ebola virus have been confirmed in Mbandaka, a city of more than 1 million people.
    (AP, 5/19/18)

2018        May 21, In Congo DRC the death toll in an outbreak of Ebola rose to 26 after a person died in the northwest city of Mbandaka, as the government began vaccinating first responders against the dreaded disease.
    (AFP, 5/21/18)

2018        May 22, Congo's health ministry announced six new confirmed Ebola cases and two new suspected cases as vaccinations entered a second day in an effort to contain the deadly virus in Mbandaka, a city of more than 1 million.
    (AP, 5/22/18)

2018        May 23, In northwestern Congo DRC 50 people died late today in a boat accident on the Momboyo river in Tshuapa province.
    (AP, 5/25/18)

2018        May 26, Congo DRC's health ministry said Ebola vaccinations will begin May 28 in the two rural areas where the latest deadly outbreak was declared this month, as the number of confirmed Ebola cases rose to 35, including 10 deaths.
    (AP, 5/26/18)

2018        May 27, Congo DRC's health ministry said another person has died of a confirmed case of Ebola, bringing the number of fatalities to 12. The latest death was in Iboko, a rural area in northwestern Equateur province. Congo now has 35 confirmed Ebola cases.
    (AP, 5/27/18)

2018        May 30, In Congo DRC religious groups and delegates of the Pygmy people indigenous to the Democratic Republic of Congo met to push forward with a campaign to protect the Congo Basin rainforest.
    (AFP, 5/31/18)

2018        May, Congo DRC police began carrying out Operation Likofi, meaning "punch" in the local Lingala language, and continued to December. In 2019 Human Rights Watch (HRW) accused Congolese police of summarily executing at least 27 people, some of whom were bound, strangled and mutilated in a crackdown on gangs in the capital Kinshasa.
    (Reuters, 2/21/19)

2018        Jun 2, Congo DRC health authorities said they had detected five fresh suspected cases of Ebola in the deadly outbreak afflicting the northwest of the country.
    (AFP, 6/2/18)

2018        Jun 6, Congo DRC's health ministry said two more people have died of Ebola, bringing the toll to 27. Fifty-eight Ebola cases have been recorded as of June 4.
    (AFP, 6/6/18)

2018        Jun 8, At The Hague International Criminal Court appeals judges overturned the convictions of former Congolese Vice President Jean-Pierre Bemba for atrocities committed by his forces in Central African Republic. Bemba was sentenced in 2016 to 18 years in prison.
    (AP, 6/8/18)

2018        Jun 23, Congo's government said it will give former Vice President Jean-Pierre Bemba, recently acquitted on appeal at the International Criminal Court of war crimes, a diplomatic passport to allow him to return to the country.
    (AP, 6/23/18)

2018        Jul 3, Human Rights Watch said at least 5,000 people have been killed in the Kasai region of Congo DRC over the past two years and more than 1.4 million displaced, while "only a few low-level criminal suspects have been prosecuted".
    (Reuters, 7/4/18)

2018        Jul 5, A Ugandan soldier was killed in clashes on Lake Edward straddling the border with Democratic Republic of Congo. One Ugandan and two Congolese were wounded.
    (Reuters, 7/6/18)

2018        Jul 7, In eastern Congo DRC ten people were burnt to death in ethnic attacks in South Kivu. In North Kivu the Ugandan navy fired on Congolese fishermen overnight and seven people were missing in Lake Edward.
    (AFP, 7/7/18)

2018        Jul 15, Congo DRC state television reported that Pres. Kabila has appointed General John Numbi to the role of inspector general of the Congolese Armed Forces. Numbi has been placed under sanctions by the US, EU and Switzerland for alleged killings of scores of civilians by forces controlled by him over several years.
    (Reuters, 7/15/18)

2018        Jul 18, Democratic Republic of Congo's parliament passed a law expanding financial privileges for former presidents, a move seen as an incentive for President Joseph Kabila to step down following an election in December.
    (Reuters, 7/19/18)

2018        Jul 24, Congo DRC officially declared the end of an outbreak of Ebola, bringing the curtain down on a 10-week re-emergence of the disease which claimed 33 lives. This was the country's ninth outbreak of Ebola since 1976.
    (AFP, 7/24/18)

2018        Jul 28, Uganda said it had sentenced 35 people from neighboring Democratic Republic of the Congo for up to three years for illegal fishing on Lake Albert.
    (AFP, 7/28/18)

2018        Jul 30, Multimillionaire and political heavyweight Moise Katumbi (53) said he had sought permission to return to DR Congo this week to contest presidential elections in one of Africa's most volatile countries. The former governor of the mineral-rich province has been living in self-imposed exile in Belgium since May 2016 after falling out with President Joseph Kabila.
    (AFP, 7/30/18)

2018        Aug 1, Former DR Congo warlord Jean-Pierre Bemba returned home to huge crowds and police firing teargas, reflecting the country's high-voltage political mood.
    (AFP, 8/1/18)
2018        Aug 1, Congo's health ministry said at least four new cases of Ebola have emerged in the country's east, just a week after an outbreak in the northwest was declared over.
    (AP, 8/1/18)

2018        Aug 3, Congo DRC barred opposition leader Moise Katumbi (53) from returning home to file a bid to run in the volatile country's presidential elections. The public prosecutor's office said Katumbi had been charged with "harming the state's domestic and external security" and would be immediately arrested if he returned.
    (AFP, 8/3/18)

2018        Aug 8, A spokesman said Congo's President Joseph Kabila will not stand in the election scheduled for December, finally agreeing to obey a two-term limit but picking a hard-core loyalist under European Union sanctions to stand instead.
    (Reuters, 8/8/18)
2018        Aug 8, CongoDRC began Ebola vaccinations in the country's latest outbreak of the deadly virus that has already claimed at least nine lives in North Kivu province.
    (AP, 8/8/18)

2018        Aug 10, In northeastern CongoDRC suspected rebels killed seven civilians in a late night attack in the Beni territory. The attack attributed to Ugandan Allied Democratic Forces (ADF) rebels.
    (AP, 8/11/18)(AFP, 8/11/18)

2018        Aug 14, CongoDRC's health ministry said its latest Ebola outbreak has spread from North Kivu province into neighboring Ituri province.
    (SFC, 8/15/18, p.A2)

2018        Aug 18, CongoDRC's government said deadly Ebola outbreak has now claimed 49 lives since the start of the month. A day earlier the World Health Organization said it expects more cases.
    (AFP, 8/19/18)

2018        Aug 21, CongoDRC said it has approved four more experimental treatments against the deadly Ebola virus as the health ministry raced to contain an outbreak in its violence-torn east. The total number of deaths rose to 59 and confirmed cases to 75 since last month.
    (Reuters, 8/22/18)

2018        Aug 24, CongoDRC's election commission ruled out the candidacy of Jean-Pierre Bemba on the basis that he had been "convicted by the International Criminal Court" in March 2018 for bribing witnesses. He was handed a year-long prison term and a 300,000 euro fine. But the Hague court had overturned Bemba's conviction for war crimes.
    (AFP, 8/25/18)

2018        Aug 25, CongoDRC authorities said an outbreak of Ebola has killed 67 people this month, as they rolled out a battery of new drugs to tackle the virus amid concerns it has spread to a rebel-encircled area. Congo's health ministry said two of the first 10 people to receive an experimental treatment for the Ebola virus in the latest outbreak have recovered.
    (AFP, 8/25/18)(AP, 8/25/18)

2018        Aug 28, A Swiss court sentenced Pascal Collard to an 18-month suspended prison term for corruption related to Congolese oil contracts. The former Gunvor employee said he paid bribes to the president of the Republic of Congo via a presidential aide and Belgian firm Semlex to win the contracts. Collard said managers at Gunvor knew about the payments and approved them to win the deals between 2009 and 2011.
    (Reuters, 9/26/18)

2018        Sep 3, Zimbabwe's wildlife authority said it is donating 10 white rhinos to Democratic Republic of Congo to re-establish a population driven to extinction by poachers a decade ago.
    (Reuters, 9/3/18)

2018        Sep 4, Former DR Congo warlord Jean-Pierre Bemba denounced a long-delayed December presidential election as a "parody" after he was banned from contesting and accused President Joseph Kabila of trying to hand pick a successor by eliminating serious rivals. Bemba was one of six presidential hopefuls who was excluded by the election commission from the December 23 vote.
    (AP, 9/4/18)

2018        Sep 5, Congo health officials said that a case of Ebola has been discovered in Butembo, a city of 1.4 million people in the country's northeast. Since August 1 the current Ebola outbreak has seen 93 confirmed cases which have caused 54 deaths.
    (AP, 9/5/18)

2018        Sep 12, DR Congo's navy accused Ugandan troops of killing four Congolese fishermen, whose bound and bullet-riddled bodies surfaced a day earlier on Lake Edward, which is shared by the two neighboring countries.
    (AFP, 9/13/18)

2018        Sep 17, In northern CongoDRC at least 27 were killed after a passenger boat capsized overnight along the Mongala River.
    (SFC, 9/20/18, p.A2)
2018        Sep 17, The International Criminal Court sentenced Congolese politician Jean-Pierre Bemba to a 300,000 euro fine and a 12 month sentence for witness tampering, but his sentence was reduced to zero due to time already served.
    (Reuters, 9/17/18)

2018        Sep 20, A Congolese woman (32), who refused an Ebola vaccination and then disappeared, died of the virus near the heavily traveled border with Uganda, which is preparing to begin vaccinations as needed.
    (AP, 9/22/18)

2018        Sep 22, In eastern CongoDRC at least 14 civilians and four soldiers were killed in a six-hour attack by rebels on the town of Beni. Local officials warned the unrest could hamper efforts to quash an Ebola epidemic in the area.
    (Reuters, 9/23/18)

2018        Sep 24, In CongoDRC the death toll from a weekend attack in the restive east rose to 21, with the violence prompting aid groups to suspend their Ebola work in the area.
    (AFP, 9/24/18)

2018        Sep 25, In CongoDRC four pro-democracy Filimbi activists were sentenced to 12 months behind bars for insulting the president. Seven activists from a pro-democracy movement called Congolese Stand Up! remained in secret detention.
    (AFP, 9/26/18)

2018        Sep 28, In CongoDRC the latest Ebola outbreak had 124 confirmed cases, including 71 deaths. The World Health Organization said risk of the deadly virus spreading from Congo is now "very high" after two confirmed cases were discovered near the Uganda border.
    (AP, 9/29/18)

2018        Oct 4, In eastern CongoDRC a rebel attack on an army post left six people dead. The Ugandan Allied Democratic Forces (ADF) was suspected of having carried out the late night attack in the city of Beni.
    (AFP, 10/5/18)
2018        Oct 4, Human Rights Watch said more than 235 people have been killed in the Beni area of CongoDRC this year in attacks with guns, axes or machetes. More than 165 others have been kidnapped. In the past four years more than 1,000 people have died.
    (AP, 10/4/18)

2018        Oct 5, The Nobel Peace Prize went to Denis Mukwege, a doctor who treats war rape victims in the Democratic Republic of Congo, and Nadia Murad, a Yazidi rights activist and survivor of sexual slavery by Islamic State. Mukwege dedicated his award to all women affected by rape and sexual violence.
    (Reuters, 10/5/18)

2018        Oct 6, In western CongoDRC at least 53 people were dead and more than 72 people hospitalized after a tanker truck collided with another truck in the village of Mbuba, Kongo Central province.
    (AP, 10/7/18)(AP, 10/8/18)

2018        Oct 7, A local CongoDRC official said machete-wielding attackers killed at least 14 civilians near the village of Rubaya in the restive North Kivu province.
    (AFP, 10/7/18)

2018        Oct 14, Congolese migrants and officials said dozens of people were killed this month in neighboring Angola in a crackdown on artisanal diamond mining, an accusation Angolan security forces strongly denied. Border guard officials said the Angolan operation began on October 1.
    (Reuters, 10/14/18)

2018        Oct 16, The UN refugee agency expressed concern over Angola's expulsion of some 200,000 Congolese in the past two weeks, saying it would create a humanitarian crisis.
    (SFC, 10/17/18, p.A2)

2018        Oct 20, Congolese rebels killed 15 civilians and abducted a dozen children in an attack in the Beni area at the center of the latest deadly Ebola outbreak. Confirmed Ebola cases have now reached 200, including 117 deaths.
    (AP, 10/21/18)(SFC, 10/22/18, p.A2)
2018        Oct 20, Angolan state minister Pedro Sebastiao said about 380,000 illegal migrants, mostly from the neighboring Democratic Republic of Congo, have left Angola in less than a month during a massive operation targeting diamond smuggling. He told traveling reporters that diamonds worth more than $1 million had been seized.
    (AFP, 10/21/18)

2018        Oct 26, CongoDRC police fanned out across Kinshasa and other main cities as thousands of opposition supporters marched seeking the withdrawal of electronic voting machines in a long-delayed election due at the end of December.
    (AFP, 10/26/18)

2018        Oct 27, In CongoDRC tens of thousands rallied in support of Emmanuel Ramazani Shadary, President Joseph Kabila's preferred successor, two months before an election that could mark the country's first democratic transition of power.
    (Reuters, 10/27/18)

2018        Nov 1, The Ebola outbreak in eastern Democratic Republic of Congo has claimed 180 lives, according to the health ministry, with 10 more reported deaths in recent days.
    (AFP, 11/2/18)

2018        Nov 3, In eastern CongoDRC rebels late today killed at least seven civilians and abducted 15 others, including children, in fresh raids in the North Kivu region bordering Uganda.
    (AFP, 11/4/18)

2018        Nov 9, Congo's health ministry said the latest Ebola outbreak is the worst in the country's recorded history with 319 confirmed and probable cases. The deadly virus has killed about 198 people since the outbreak was declared Aug. 1 in the volatile east.
    (AP, 11/10/18)

2018        Nov 11, Seven CongoDRC opposition leaders, meeting in Geneva, picked the little-known Martin Fayulu (61) as their joint candidate for the December 23 ballot to succeed President Joseph Kabila, who has been in power for 18 years. UDPS leader Felix Tshisekedi was widely regarded as the front-runner.
    (AFP, 11/12/18)
2018        Nov 11, In eastern CongoDRC suspected Ugandan rebels killed six people overnight, hacking one woman to death, and kidnapped five others -- mostly children -- in the Beni area.
    (AP, 11/11/18)

2018        Nov 12, DR Congo's main opposition party rejected a deal agreed by its leader just a day earlier to select a single opposition candidate for upcoming presidential elections.
    (AP, 11/12/18)

2018        Nov 15, A report from New York University's Congo Research Group and the Bridgeway Foundation said an Islamist rebel group in eastern Democratic Republic of Congo received money from a financier linked to Islamic State, suggesting tentative ties between the Congo insurgents and other jihadists in Africa and beyond. The report said Islamist "financial facilitator" Waleed Ahmed Zein paid the Allied Democratic Forces at least once. The ADF was set up by Ugandan Muslims in the 1990s purporting to fight for the rights of the Tablighi Jamaat sect.
    (Reuters, 11/15/18)

2018        Nov 18, Authorities in the Democratic Republic of Congo provisionally freed 17 pro-democracy activists who were arrested in the capital on November 1.
    (AFP, 11/19/18)

2018        Nov 23, Congo's two leading opposition parties announced that they are joining forces for a run at the presidency after withdrawing from a wider pact to support a single contender to take on President Joseph Kabila's chosen candidate. Felix Tshisekedi with Congo's most prominent opposition party said he will represent his party as well as that of Vital Kamerhe.
    (AP, 11/23/18)

2018        Nov 24, Congo DRC ministers in the outgoing government of Joseph Kabila awarded themselves "golden-handshake" benefits in two decrees, that safeguarded lifetime cash payments. The decrees will benefit 71 ex-ministers, 11 former deputy ministers and two government secretaries, along with "personalities who carry out duties equivalent in rank to members of the government in the cabinet of the president of the republic and the cabinet of the prime minister. The two decrees were published in the official government gazette on December 15.
    (AP, 2/1/19)

2018        Nov 26, The WHO said Congo last week began the first-ever trial to test the effectiveness and safety of four experimental Ebola drugs, the first time scientists have directly compared such treatments.
    (AP, 11/26/18)

2018        Nov 27, Congolese opposition scion Felix Tshisekedi (55) returned home to Kinshasa greeted by tens of thousands of supporters as he kicked off his campaign to replace longtime president and foe Joseph Kabila in December elections.
    (AFP, 11/27/18)

2018        Nov 29, The WHO said Congo's deadly Ebola outbreak is now the second largest in history with 198 confirmed deaths and 47 probable ones
    (SFC, 11/30/18, p.A2)

2018        Dec 6, In eastern CongoDRC suspected militiamen killed at least 18 civilians, near the town of Beni, the epicenter of an Ebola outbreak. Congo's health ministry announced 13 new confirmed cases. New cases were soon reported in Butembo, a city with more than 1 million residents.
    (Reuters, 12/7/18)(SFC, 12/8/18, p.A2)

2018        Dec 7, CongoDRC officials said authorities have arrested a Congolese colonel who failed to disclose that he had met with two UN experts just two days before the March 2017 killings of American Michael Sharp and Swedish national Zaida Catalan.
    (AP, 12/7/18)

2018        Dec 9, At least two Rwandan soldiers were killed in an attack by rebels who had crossed the border from the Democratic Republic of Congo.
    {CongoDRC, Rwanda}
    (AFP, 12/14/18)

2018        Dec 10, In eastern CongoDRC suspected ADF militiamen killed nine civilians in a fresh late night attack in the town of Oicha, in the Beni region.
    (AP, 12/11/18)

2018        Dec 11, In CongoDRC two supporters of opposition candidate Martin Fayulu were killed and 43 hurt as he went for a rally in Lubumbashi.
    (AFP, 12/13/18)

2018        Dec 12, In CongoDRC police fired teargas and live bullets for a second day to disperse supporters of opposition presidential candidate Martin Fayulu, killing three people in the town of Kalemie in the southeastern Katanga region.
    (Reuters, 12/12/18)(AFP, 12/12/18)(AFP, 12/13/18)

2018        Dec 13, In CongoDRC an early-morning fire in Kinshasa destroyed nearly 80 percent of the capital city's voting machines just 10 days before the presidential election.
    (AFP, 12/13/18)
2018        Dec 13, In CongoDRC a teenager was shot dead in the central Kasai region as party faithful gathered ahead of a rally by Felix Tshisekedi of the UDPS, one of the leading opposition candidates.
    (AP, 12/13/18)

2018        Dec 16, In CongoDRC at least one person was killed and over 80 injured in clashes between supporters of rival candidates in Tshikapa, a city in the central Kasai region, just days ahead of a crucial presidential election.
    (AFP, 12/17/18)

2018        Dec 19, In CongoDRC Andre Kimbuta, the governor Kinshasa, cancelled all political rallies in the capital for the 21 candidates vying for the presidency in the Dec. 23 elections.
    (AP, 12/19/18)

2018        Dec 20, The Democratic Republic of Congo's election board postponed a presidential vote scheduled for Dec. 23 by one week until Dec. 30 after a fire destroyed voting materials.
    (Reuters, 12/20/18)
2018        Dec 20, Congo's health minister said the second-deadliest Ebola outbreak in history is "certainly" expected to continue for another three or four months. So far there have been 549 Ebola cases in the outbreak that was declared on Aug. 1, including 501 confirmed cases. There have been 278 confirmed deaths.
    (AP, 12/20/18)
2018        Dec 20, A Congolese cargo plane went missing after delivering materials for a presidential election to Tshikapa. The plane crashed and it was not clear how many people were on board.
    (Reuters, 12/21/18)

2018        Dec 22, In eastern CongoDRC rebels attacked the city of Beni late today, killing five civilians and wounding eight others. The ADF militia from Uganda was blamed.
    (AP, 12/23/18)

2018        Dec 25, In CongoDRC at least 27 people were dead after a bus and a truck collided overnight about 200 km southwest of Kinshasa.
    (AP, 12/25/18)
2018        Dec 25, Opposition candidates in this weekend's presidential election in Democratic Republic of Congo demanded that the electoral board deactivate SIM cards in voting machines to prevent the electronic transmission of results.
    (Reuters, 12/25/18)

2018        Dec 26, CongoDRC's national electoral commission (CENI) said an Ebola outbreak - the second-worst in history - was behind the postponement of voting until March in the eastern cities of Beni and Butembo and surrounding areas. It cited ethnic violence for the same delay in the western city of Yumbi.
    (Reuters, 12/26/18)

2018        Dec 27, Security forces in eastern Democratic Republic of Congo fired live rounds and tear gas to scatter demonstrators who burned tires and attacked Ebola centers in protest at their exclusion from the presidential election. 24 patients fled an Ebola treatment center in Beni when it came under attack by people protesting the cancellation of Sunday's presidential election in the eastern city.
    (Reuters, 12/27/18)

2018        Dec 28, In CongoDRC protests flared for a second straight day in eastern cities in response to the decision to cancel voting in Beni and Butembo in the east and Yumbi in the west. New polling showed opposition candidate Martin Fayulu favored to win the Dec. 30 elections.
    (AP, 12/28/18)

2018        Dec 30, CongoDRC struggled with hundreds of reports of malfunctioning voting machines, missing voters' lists, vote-buying and other problems. The election in Beni ended on time, and the vote-counting began. Officially, voting in Beni and Butembo was to take place in March, months after Congo inaugurates its new president in mid-January.
    (AP, 12/30/18)

2018        Dec, In western Congo DRC at least 535 men, women and children from the Banunu community were killed in attacks by Batende villagers, some beheaded and many slain as they tried to flee across the Congo River. Investigators later said the casualty numbers were likely to be higher than the verified figure because bodies were believed to have been thrown into the river.
    (Reuters, 3/12/19)(SFC, 3/13/19, p.A4)

2018        The Association for Free Research and International Cooperation (AFRIC), run by Yevgeny Prigozhin’s St. Petersburg-based organization, was founded as a “network of agents of influence" meant to provide “expert evaluations and opinions beneficial to Russia" in Africa. AFRIC sent “election observers"—many of them well-known white supremacists and neo-Nazis from Europe—to try to sway democratic races in Zimbabwe, Madagascar, Democratic Republic of the Congo and South Africa, in races in which other arms of Prigozhin’s vast empire often supported one or more of the candidates.
    (The Daily Beast, 3/2/21)

2019        Jan 1, Democratic Republic of Congo's government cut internet connections and SMS services across the country for a second straight day as the country nervously awaited results from the weekend's chaotic presidential election.
    (Reuters, 1/1/19)

2019        Jan 2, DR Congo said it had pulled accreditation for Florence Morice, a French radio journalist, and cut off the broadcasts of Radio France Internationale (RFI) amid tensions over the counting of votes in crucial elections.
    (AFP, 1/2/19)
2019        Jan 2, A Red Cross official said hundreds of refugees have crossed into Uganda from Congo in the aftermath of that country's presidential election, heightening concerns about the possible cross-border spread of Ebola.
    (AP, 1/2/19)
2019        Jan 2, The first of about 80 US military personnel arrived in Gabon in case they are needed to protect US citizens and diplomatic facilities in Congo's capital Kinshasa.
    (Reuters, 1/4/19)

2019        Jan 5, In CongoDRC the country's powerful Catholic church warned of a popular "uprising" if untrue results are announced.
    (AP, 1/5/19)

2019        Jan 8, Congo-based SYMOCEL said 16 percent of vote counting centers it had observed relied on tallies transmitted by voting machines instead of hand-counted tallies as required by law. The observer mission said it had witnessed 52 "major" irregularities in the 101 vote-counting centers it observed, including people tampering with results.
    (Reuters, 1/8/19)

2019        Jan 10, Congo's electoral commission (CENI) announced overnight that Felix Tshisekedi (55) had won the Dec. 30 vote, edging out another challenger, businessman Martin Fayulu. The Catholic Church, one of the country's most respected institutions, challenged the official results, suggesting its tally did not give victory to opposition leader Tshisekedi. Four protesters were killed in clashes with security forces in Kikwit.
    (AP, 1/10/19)(Reuters, 1/11/19)

2019        Jan 11, Congo runner-up Martin Fayulu announced he will file a court challenge to the presidential election results. Fayulu's camp said its tally showed he won 62 percent of the vote, with Felix Tshisekedi taking 19 percent. The influential Catholic Church also rejected the official result based on tallies by its 40,000-strong observer team. Police confronted opposition protesters in eastern Goma city, killing at least one person.
    (AP, 1/11/19)(Reuters, 1/11/19)

2019        Jan 12, Congo's presidential runner-up Martin Fayulu said he has asked the constitutional court to order a recount in the disputed election.
    (AP, 1/12/19)

2019        Jan 13, The Southern African Development Community (SADC) urged Democratic Republic of Congo to recount votes cast in its disorganized presidential election, raising pressure on Kinshasa to ensure the legitimacy of the next government and avert widespread violent unrest.
    (Reuters, 1/13/19)

2019        Jan 14, DR Congo's Constitutional Court said it would start hearing an appeal on Jan. 15 against presidential election results that gave victory to opposition leader Felix Tshisekedi.
    (AFP, 1/14/19)

2019        Jan 16, The UN said at least 890 people are believed to have been killed over three days in December in ethnic violence in northwestern Democratic Republic of Congo, and it warned that the toll could be higher still.
    (Reuters, 1/16/19)

2019        Jan 18, The UN human rights office said at least 34 people have been killed in Congo since disputed provisional election results were announced on Jan. 10.
    (AP, 1/18/19)

2019        Jan 20, Congo's Constitutional Court confirmed the victory of Felix Tshisekedi, dismissing the claims of massive vote fraud by runner-up Martin Fayulu.
    (AP, 1/20/19)

2019        Jan 22, The EU and African Union committed to work closely with Congo's president-elect Felix Tshisekedi, backing off reservations about the disputed vote.
    (AP, 1/22/19)

2019        Jan 24, Felix Tshisekedi (55) was sworn in as Congo's president. He immediately pledged tolerance and announced the imminent release of all political prisoners.
    (AP, 1/24/19)

2019        Jan 26, In CongoDRC local authorities said 600 rebels, whose conflict killed several thousand people in the restive Kasai region, have ended their war and surrendered their weapons in a sign of support for new President Felix Tshisekedi.
    (AFP, 1/26/19)

2019        Jan 29, Congo DRC army and health sources said two soldiers in Beni have died after catching Ebola in an outbreak that has killed hundreds in the eastern region. The deaths of the soldiers brought the total toll to 459 recorded deaths.
    (AP, 1/29/19)
2019        Jan 29, Three Congo DRC militia leaders, including a man accused of murdering 39 police officers, surrendered in a show of support for new President Felix Tshisekedi.
    (AFP, 1/29/19)

2019        Feb 4, Congo DRC's outgoing government defended decrees granting former ministers lifetime salaries and other benefits following strong criticism in a country where most of the population lives in poverty.
    (Reuters, 2/4/19)

2019        Feb 6, In Congo DRC stoppages that hit transport, a key port, television, insurance and the fire service continuing as Pres. Tshisekedi visited Kenya on his first foreign tour.
    (AFP, 2/6/19)

2019        Feb 7, Congo's new President Felix Tshisekedi landed in Brazzaville, the capital of neighboring Republic of the Congo, to start his first international trip since being elected president in late January.
    (AP, 2/7/19)

2019        Feb 12, Congo DRC's army said it killed four members of the notorious ADF militia and freed four hostages in an operation in the country's troubled east.
    (AFP, 2/12/19)

2019        Feb 22, In eastern Congo DRC a new case of Ebola was confirmed in the Beni area where authorities believed the epidemic had been brought under control after 23 days without any fresh infections.
    (AFP, 2/23/19)

2019        Feb 24, In eastern Congo DRC attackers set fire to an Ebola treatment center run by Medecins Sans Frontieres (MSF) late today, forcing staff to evacuate patients. One caretaker was killed and another injured.
    (Reuters, 2/25/19)(SFC, 2/27/19, p.A2)

2019        Mar 2, Recently elected DR Congo President Felix Tshisekedi pledged to pardon political prisoners and said he would work for the return of those who had fled abroad for political reasons.
    (AFP, 3/2/19)

2019        Mar 3, In eastern Congo DRC bandits shot dead six people overnight, sparking angry protests by residents who blockaded the main street running through Goma city.
    (AFP, 3/3/19)

2019        Mar 7, Medecins Sans Frontières said the battle against Ebola in Democratic Republic of Congo is failing because ordinary people do not trust health workers and an overly militarized response is alienating patients and families.
    (Reuters, 3/7/19)

2019        Mar 9, In eastern Congo DRC armed Mai Mai militiamen attacked an Ebola treatment center at the heart of an outbreak of the disease, killing a policeman before being repelled by security forces.
    (AP, 3/9/19)

2019        Mar 13, Congo's new Pres. Felix Tshisekedi pardoned about 700 political prisoners who were jailed under his predecessor.
    (SFC, 3/14/19, p.A2)

2019        Mar 15, In Congo DRC at least one person was left dead after protests over local elections turned violent. Members of President Felix Tshisekedi's Union for Democracy and Social Progress took to the streets in Kinshasa and in other parts of the country after the party failed to win any senate seats from Kinshasa in the regional assembly.
    (AP, 3/16/19)

2019        Mar 18, In Congo DRC 32 people were killed and 91 others injured when a freight train carrying stowaways derailed overnight in central Kasai province.
    (AFP, 3/18/19)

2019        Mar 21, Congo DRC's health ministry said a six-month-old baby in the eastern city of Bunia has died of Ebola, becoming the first fatality of the disease in a provincial capital.
    (AFP, 3/21/19)

2019        Mar 31, In northeastern Congo DRC voters in Beni and Butembo, towns ravaged by conflict and an Ebola epidemic, took part in long-delayed elections. At stake were 15 seats in the lower house of parliament, which counts 500 lawmakers.
    (AFP, 3/31/19)

2019        Apr 2, Congo DRC's army captured Masudi Alimasi Kokodiko, leader of the widely feared Raia Mutomboki militia, in South Kivu's Shabunda territory. He has been accused of orchestrating mass rapes and other atrocities.
    (Reuters, 4/4/19)
2019        Apr 2, The World Health Organization said Ebola is on the rise in eastern Congo following a series of attacks on health facilities. A total of 73 new cases were reported last week, compared to 57 the week before.
    (AP, 4/2/19)

2019        Apr 4, Belgium's PM Charles Michel apologized for the kidnapping, segregation, deportation and forced adoption of thousands of children born to mixed-race couples during Belgium's colonial rule of Burundi, Congo and Rwanda.
    (SFC, 4/5/19, p.A2)

2019        Apr 6, Congolese began engaging Burundian rebels in clashes with two armed groups in the east of Democratic Republic of Congo. Over the next 3 days 36 rebels were reportedly killed as well as three soldiers.
    (Reuters, 4/12/19)

2019        Apr 9, In eastern Congo DRC a boat sunk on a river. Sixteen survivors were found near the spot and 37 bodies were later recovered near the village of Kata lama. The vessel had capsized with nearly 130 people on board.
    (AFP, 4/23/19)

2019        Apr 11, Congo's health ministry reported 1,206 confirmed and probable cases of Ebola, including 764 deaths. Health ministry statistics showed 40 new cases over two days this week. 75% of new Ebola cases have no obvious link to previous patients, meaning that officials have lost track of where the virus is spreading.
    (AP, 4/12/19)

2019        Apr 15, In Congo DRC a motorized boat capsized on Lake Kivu, killing 13 people. 35 people were rescued but 114 remained missing.
    (AFP, 4/18/19)

2019        Apr 16, In Congo DRC eight government soldiers were killed in North Kivu province by assailants who appeared to belong to the Allied Democratic Forces, a rebel group with origins in Uganda.
    (SFC, 4/20/19, p.A2)

2019        Apr 19, In Congo DRC WHO epidemiologist Richard Valery Mouzoko Kiboung, was shot dead in an assault by armed Mai-Mai militiamen on Butembo University Hospital. The doctor had been deployed to help combat Ebola in the region.
    (AFP, 4/20/19)

2019        Apr 20, The DR Congo army fought off an attack by a Mai-Mai rebel group on the Katwa hospital near the city of Butembo, killing one militiaman.
    (AFP, 4/20/19)

2019        Apr 29, Congo's health ministry confirmed 27 cases of Ebola today, the highest number since the outbreak was declared in August.
    (AP, 4/30/19)

2019        May 3, More than 1,000 people have now died of Ebola in the Democratic Republic of Congo, as aid workers warned that the highly contagious virus combined with insecurity in the restive region was creating a "deeply worrying situation".
    (AFP, 5/3/19)

2019        May 7, In Congo DRC three suspects in the killing of UN investigators Michael Sharp of America and Zaida Catalan, a Swede, in March 2017, escaped from prison overnight. Evariste Ilunga, Kanowa Tshiaba and Mbayi Amoxi Tshikangu were on trial accused of participating in the killings.
    (Reuters, 5/07/19)

2019        May 8, In eastern Congo DRC heavy fighting between the army and local militiamen killed at least nine people in the Ebola-stricken city of Butembo.
    (Reuters, 5/08/19)

2019        May 13, In eastern Congo DRC police and soldiers repelled an overnight attack on an Ebola treatment center in Katwa, killing one Mai-Mai assailant. Two patients also died after the nursing staff fled the facility.
    (AFP, 5/13/19)(SFC, 5/14/19, p.A2)

2019        May 15, In northeast Congo DRC at least 19 people were killed when gunmen attacked a fish market in the village of Tara near Lake Albert.
    (AFP, 5/19/19)

2019        May 20, Congolese opposition leader Moise Katumbi returned home from three years in exile.
    (Reuters, 5/20/19)

2019        May 23, The UN named David Gressly as pointman to coordinate the global response to the devastating Ebola epidemic in the Democratic Republic of Congo, as it ramps up efforts to contain the outbreak.
    (AP, 5/23/19)

2019        May 25, In western Congo DRC at least 30 people were killed and 200 left missing after a boat sank late today on Mai-Ndombe. Many of those aboard were teachers who had traveled to collect salaries due to poor roads.
    (SFC, 5/27/19, p.A2)

2019        May 30, Congolese forces killed 26 rebels from a group thought to be linked to Islamic State while repelling an attack in east Congo's Ebola zone.
    (Reuters, 5/30/19)

2019        Jun 4, It was reported that deadly Ebola outbreak in eastern Congo has surpassed 2,000 cases and is picking up speed.
    (AP, 6/4/19)

2019        Jun 10, Health authorities in the Democratic Republic of Congo declared an epidemic of measles which may have killed 1,500 people, according to statistical analysis.
    (AFP, 6/11/19)

2019        Jun 14, The World Health Organization emergency committee met on whether to declare a raging Ebola epidemic an international threat, after an outbreak that began in Democratic Republic of Congo crossed into Uganda. The committee expressed deep concern but declined to declare a global emergency.
    (AFP, 6/14/19)(SFC, 6/15/19, p.A4)

2019        Jun 17, Democratic Republic of Congo's army sent a battalion of troops to oust illegal miners from land worked by a majority-owned Chinese company.
    (AFP, 6/18/19)

2019        Jun 18, The UN and local authorities said hundreds of thousands of people have fled inter-ethnic violence in northeastern areas of the Democratic Republic of Congo in the past two weeks. Local officials last week said at least 50 people had been killed in a matter of days in Ituri province, while other sources put the death toll from the inter-ethnic violence at over 70.
    (AFP, 6/18/19)

2019        Jun 19, A Congo DRC army spokesman said the military has deployed hundreds of soldiers to protect a major copper and cobalt mine owned by China Molybdenum Co Ltd from illegal miners. About 60% of the world's cobalt is found in CongoDRC.
    (Reuters, 6/19/19)(Econ., 10/17/20, p.40)

2019        Jun 24, Congo DRC's health ministry said more than 1,500 people have died in a nearly 10-month-old outbreak of Ebola.
    (AFP, 6/24/19)

2019        Jun 27, In Congo DRC at least 36 artisanal miners were killed by a landslide at the Kamoto Copper Company (KCC) concession, a copper and cobalt mine run by Glencore. The death toll soon rose to 43.
    (Reuters, 6/28/19)

2019        Jun 30, Police in Congo DRC dispersed hundreds of anti-government marchers in Kinshasa and a protester was shot dead in the eastern city of Goma after President Felix Tshisekedi, the son of opposition icon Etienne Tshisekedi, warned against "confusing democracy with anarchy".
    (AFP, 6/30/19)

2019        Jul 2, The UN World Food Program (WFP) said it will triple the number of people it is providing food and cash assistance to in northeastern Congo's Ituri province, which is facing inter-ethnic violence and an Ebola epidemic.
    (AP, 7/3/19)

2019        Jul 8, The Int'l. Criminal Court (ICC) in the Netherlands convicted Bosco Ntaganda, a former rebel commander known as "The Terminator," of 18 counts of crimes against humanity for his role in a bloody ethnic conflict in the Congo DRC in 2002-2003.
    (SFC, 7/9/19, p.A4)

2019        Jul 15, The World Health Organization (WHO) warned that Ebola's arrival in eastern Congo's main city of Goma severely raises the risk of the virus spreading if it takes root in this metropolis near the border with Rwanda. Goma's first confirmed Ebola case was confirmed a day earlier.
    (Reuters, 7/15/19)(SFC, 7/16/19, p.A4)

2019        Jul 17, The World Health Organization announced that deadly Ebola outbreak in Congo is now an international health emergency, after a case was confirmed in Goma, a city of 2 million people.
    (AP, 7/17/19)

2019        Jul 24, The World Bank Group said it is readying a $300 million package of grants and credits to support the fight against the deadly Ebola virus in Democratic Republic of Congo.
    (Reuters, 7/24/19)
2019        Jul 24, The Saudi foreign ministry informed the Congo's embassy in Riyadh that it has stopped issuing visas to people from Congo, citing the Ebola outbreak there, even as the World Health Organization recommends against travel restrictions.
    (AP, 7/26/19)

2019        Jul 25, The UN reported that nearly 700 people in the Democratic Republic of Congo were victims of summary and extrajudicial executions this year, with a third carried out by security forces.
    (AFP, 7/25/19)

2019        Jul 26, In eastern Congo DRC four people, including two expatriates, working for the Canadian gold mining company Banro were abducted in the southern Maniema province.
    (AP, 7/29/19)

2019        Jul 30, In eastern Congo DRC the second patient to be diagnosed with Ebola in Goma died overnight after he sought treatment too late and was already bleeding. Confirmation of the case increased fears the virus could take root in the densely populated city of 2 million.
    (Reuters, 7/31/19)

2019        Aug 1, Rwandan authorities closed the border with the Ebola-hit Congolese city of Goma for everyone other than Congolese citizens leaving Rwanda, as a third case was confirmed in Goma. Rwanda's health minister said the border with Democratic Republic of the Congo remained open, appearing to contradict an earlier statement that the frontier was closed near the Ebola-hit Congolese city of Goma.
    (Reuters, 8/1/19)

2019        Aug 2, Congo DRC's Ebola response coordinator said the second case of Ebola recorded in Goma had a large family including 10 children and managed to infect several people before dying of the hemorrhagic fever. WHO spokeswoman Margaret Harris said 538 primary and secondary contacts had so far been traced of all four Ebola patients in Goma.
    (Reuters, 8/2/19)

2019        Aug 12, It was reported that scientists are a step closer to being able to cure the deadly Ebola hemorrhagic fever after two experimental drugs showed survival rates of as much as 90% in a clinical trial in Congo. An antibody cocktail called REGN-EB3 developed by Regeneron and a monoclonal antibody called mAb114 will now be offered to all patients infected with the viral disease.
    (Reuters, 8/12/19)

2019        Aug 16, Congo DRC health officials said a woman and her child were the first two cases confirmed with Ebola in the South Kivu region this week, opening a new front in the fight against the outbreak. The Ebola outbreak in eastern Congo has killed 1,808 people out of 2,765 confirmed cases.
    (Reuters, 8/16/19)(SFC, 8/17/19, p.A2)

2019        Aug 19, Congo DRC’s Health Ministry said overnight that authorities have confirmed a new case of Ebola in the remote, militia-controlled territory of Walikale, hundreds of kilometers away from where previous cases near the border with Uganda and Rwanda occurred.
    (Reuters, 8/19/19)

2019        Aug 23, The World Health Organization's emergencies chief said the ongoing Ebola outbreak in Congo is approaching a "stark" milestone with nearly 2,000 people killed by the virus in the year-long epidemic.
    (AP, 8/23/19)

2019        Aug 26, Congo's PM Illunga Illunkamba announced a new government, eight months after President Felix Tshisekedi's election victory, with about two thirds of posts going to allies of former president Joseph Kabila.
    (Reuters, 8/26/19)

2019        Sep 12, In Congo DRC up to 50 people were reported killed when a cargo train derailed in the southeastern province of Tanganyika early today.
    (Reuters, 9/12/19)

2019        Sep 14, Former Congolese health minister Oly Ilunga was taken into custody over alleged mismanagement of funds for the country's response to the Ebola epidemic. Ilunga oversaw Congo DRC's handling of the outbreak, the second deadliest in history, for nearly a year.
    (Reuters, 9/14/19)

2019        Sep 21, Dr. Denis Mukwege, the Nobel Peace Prize-winning surgeon whose hospital in war-torn Congo has treated over 50,000 victims of sexual violence, said he has launched a fund with the goal of providing reparations for survivors of conflicts around the world.
    (AP, 9/22/19)

2019        Sep 23, The World Health Organization announced Congo will start using a second experimental Ebola vaccine, as efforts to stop the deadly outbreak are stalled and Doctors Without Borders criticizes vaccination efforts to date. The second vaccine, made by Johnson & Johnson, will be used from October in areas where Ebola is not actively spreading.
    (AP, 9/23/19)

2019        Sep 27, Canadian gold miner Banro Corporation said it has suspended operations at several of its sites in Democratic Republic of Congo because the company can no longer ensure their security from armed rebels.
    (Reuters, 9/27/19)

2019        Oct 9, UNICEF, the UN children's agency, said more than 4,000 people have died in Congo this year in the world's largest measles outbreak. More than 200,000 measles cases have been reported across Congo since January.
    (AP, 10/9/19)

2019        Oct 10, In eastern Congo DRC a cargo plane carrying presidential staff crashed, and all eight passengers and crew were feared dead.
    (Reuters, 10/11/19)

2019        Nov 7, The International Criminal Court at The Hague passed its highest ever sentence, sending Congolese warlord Bosco Ntaganda, known as "The Terminator," to prison for 30 years for crimes including murder, rape and sexual slavery.
    (AP, 11/7/19)

2019        Nov 9, Congolese forces said they had killed 25 Islamist rebels since launching an offensive against them on Oct. 30 in the eastern region of North Kivu province, an area also struggling with an Ebola outbreak. Congolese forces killed Juvenal Musabimana, also known by his nom de guerre Jean-Michel Africa, alongside four of his bodyguards following an intense firefight in Binza, North Kivu, near the Ugandan border. Musabimana led a splinter group of the Democratic Forces for the Liberation of Rwanda (FDLR), a group founded by Hutu officials who fled Rwanda after orchestrating the 1994 genocide.
    (AP, 11/9/19)(Reuters, 11/10/19)

2019        Nov 15, In eastern Congo DRC suspected Islamist militants killed at least 15 people in and around the village of Mbau, in the latest massacre since the army launched a major offensive against the rebels last month.
    (AP, 11/16/19)   

2019        Nov 24, In Congo DRC a small passenger plane carrying at least 17 passengers crashed shortly after takeoff in the eastern city of Goma, killing at least 25 people, including people on the ground.
    (AP, 11/24/19)

2019        Nov 25, In Congo DRC angry residents of the eastern city of Beni burned the town hall and stormed the United Nations peacekeeping mission after rebels killed eight people and kidnapped nine overnight in their latest assault.
    (AP, 11/25/19)(Econ., 9/5/20, p.37)

2019        Nov 26, Congo DRC officials said heavy rains have left at least 32 people dead in and around Kinshasa.
    (SFC, 11/27/19, p.A2)
2019        Nov 26, The World Health Organization (WHO) and the UN Children's Fund (UNICEF) evacuated dozens of their staff working on the Ebola epidemic from the town of Beni in the Democratic Republic of Congo due to the worsening security situation.
    (Reuters, 11/26/19)

2019        Nov 28, In eastern Congo DRC rebels killed four Ebola response workers overnight, an alarming development that could cause the waning outbreak to again pick up momentum in what has been called a war zone. An overnight attack in Oicha killed more than a dozen people. Officials blamed rebels of the Uganda-based Allied Democratic Forces.
    (AP, 11/28/19)(SFC, 11/28/19, p.A2)

2019        Nov 30, A crowd in eastern DR Congo lynched two people they suspected of being members of a militia blamed for the killing of more than 100 civilians over the past month. The killings came on the same day that UN peacekeeping chief Jean-Pierre Lacroix visited the area where anti-UN protests have erupted since the militia attacks.
    (AP, 11/30/19)

2019        Nov 29, In eastern Congo DRC suspected Islamist fighters killed 14 people in the village of Kukutama, North Kivu state.
    (AP, 12/1/19)

2019        Dec 8, Congolese health authorities said an Ebola survivor has fallen ill with the disease for a second time in eastern Congo. It was not yet clear if it was a case of relapse or reinfection. The Ebola outbreak in Democratic Republic of Congo has infected over 3,300 people and killed more than 2,200 since the middle of last year, making it the second worst year on record.
    (Reuters, 12/8/19)

2019        Dec 13, In eastern Congo DRC rebels again attacked Beni, a city at the center of the Ebola outbreak, killing at least six people including a pregnant woman.
    (AP, 12/14/19)

2020        Jan 30, In eastern Congo DRC rebels of the Allied Democratic Forces (ADF) killed at least 36 people in overnight attacks on villages in Beni territory.
    (SFC, 1/31/20, p.A2)

2020        Feb 21, A small group of desert locusts entered Congo, marking the first time the voracious insects have been seen in the Central African country since 1944. Locusts, carried in part by the wind, arrived on the western shore of Lake Albert near the town of Bunia. Kenya, Somalia and Uganda also have been battling locust swarms, which can reach the size of major cities.
    (AP, 2/25/20)

2020        Feb 28, In Congo DRC General Delphin Kahimbi, the country's top army spy, died following media reports that he was being investigated for allegedly seeking to destabilize the country. His wife said he had suffered a heart attack. President Felix Tshisekedi later said his death was apparently due to hanging.
    (Reuters, 3/7/20)

2020        Mar 3, The World Health Organization (WHO) said that the last patient being treated for Ebola in Democratic Republic of Congo was discharged today, bringing the 19-month-old outbreak closer than ever to an end.
    (Reuters, 3/3/20)

2020        Mar 10, Congo DRC reported its first case of coronavirus.
    (AP, 3/10/20)

2020        Mar 21, Congo DRC reported its first coronavirus death.
    (AP, 3/21/20)

2020        Apr 8, In Congo DRC Vital Kamerhe, the chief of staff to President Tshisekedi, was arrested in Kinshasa, after hours of questioning into the alleged misappropriation of funds.
    (BBC, 4/9/20)

2020        Apr 10, The Democratic Republic of the Congo said that the first person to contract Ebola in more than 50 days, a 26-year-old man, has died. The disease has killed more than 2,200 people in the DRC.
    (Reuters, 4/11/20)

2020        Apr 12, The World Health Organization said Democratic Republic of Congo has recorded a second Ebola death in days following more than seven weeks without a new case.
    (Reuters, 4/12/20)

2020        Apr 17, In Congo DRC at least 25 people were killed when the Mulongwe River flooded in Uvira city, Sout Kivu province.
    (SFC, 4/20/20, p.A2)
2020        Apr 17, The WHO said five new Ebola infections have been recorded in eastern Congo since last week in a new flare-up just as the government was about to declare an end to the deadly epidemic.
    (Reuters, 4/17/20)

2020        Apr 23, In Congo DRC self-styled prophet Ne Muanda Nsemi was arrested by police in Kinshasa after a shoot-out in a residential neighborhood. He is the leader of an outlawed group called Bundu Dia Kongo (BDK) that wants to revive the ancient Kongo kingdom. Eight people were killed, 35 injured and 203 arrested during the operation. At least 20 people are said to have died in recent deadly clashes between BDK members and police.
    (BBC, 4/24/20)

2020        Apr 24, In Congo DRC at least 12 rangers were killed by suspected members of a Rwandan rebel group in the Virunga National Park. About 60 militiamen ambushed a convoy of civilians that was being protected by the rangers.
    (BBC, 4/24/20)

2020        Apr 26, French energy major Total said that 14 workers including two of its staff have tested positive for the new coronavirus at its sites in Congo Republic, but output at the 190,000 barrels per day operations have not been affected.
    (Reuters, 4/26/20)

2020        May 17, In northeastern Congo DRC an armed group of fighters from the Cooperative for the Development of the Congo (CODECO) killed at least 20 civilians early today in a raid on the Hema village of Ndjala in Ituri province. The militia group is made up of fighters from the Lendu ethnic group.
    (Reuters, 5/17/20)

2020        May 19, Human Rights Watch said Democratic Republic of Congo police killed at least 55 people in a crackdown on a separatist religious sect in April, more than double the toll reported by the interior ministry at the time. In April, the interior ministry said police had killed 22 BDK members in two raids, one of which led to the arrest of BDK leader Ne Muanda Nsemi at his home in the capital Kinshasa.
    (Reuters, 5/19/20)

2020        May 26, In CongoDRC Judge Raphael Yanyi Ovungu reportedly died of a heart attack. An autopsy later showed that the judge, who was overseeing a corruption trial involving Vital Kamerhe, the president's chief of staff, actually died of stab wounds to the head.
    (Bloomberg, 6/16/20)(Econ., 6/27/20, p.37)

2020        May 29, Congolese militia leader Trésor Mputu Kankonde, accused of involvement in the murder of an American citizen and a Swedish national working with the United Nations, was arrested more than three years after their brutal slayings. The bodies of American Michael Sharp, Swedish national Zaida Catalan and a local interpreter, Betu Tshintela, were found in March 2017 after they went missing while investigating human rights abuses in central Congo.
    (AP, 5/30/20)

2020        May, In eastern Congo DRC gold was found in Luhihi, sparking a rush by artisan miners.
    (Econ., 12/19/20, p.80)

2020        Jun 1, The World Health Organization said officials have confirmed a second Ebola outbreak in Congo. Congolese health authorities have identified six cases in the north near Mbandaka in Equateur province, including four fatalities. Congo has also confirmed 611 cases of COVID-19, including 20 deaths, and the number was rising.
    (AP, 6/1/20)

2020        Jun 3, In eastern CongoDRC 16 civilians, five of them children, were killed overnight in a fresh massacre in Ituri province.
    (AFP, 6/3/20)

2020        Jun 5, The UN called on Congolese authorities to establish state authority in conflict regions by increasing the presence of security forces and ensuring civilian protection. Various conflicts involving armed groups and government forces in Congo have killed more than 1,300 civilians in the past eight months and violence has surged in recent weeks in eastern provinces.
    (AP, 6/5/20)

2020        Jun 15, Medical authorities said the Democratic Republic of Congo has recorded up to 17 Ebola cases in a new outbreak of the deadly virus in the western province of Equateur, and 11 of those infected have died.
    (Reuters, 6/15/20)

2020        Jun 18, The UN reported that DR Congo's military is receiving weapons and training from multiple countries without notifying the United Nations as required by a 2004 resolution. Experts pointed to instructors and equipment from Albania, Romania, Turkey, South Africa, Israel, China, Iran, the United Kingdom, North Korea, Sudan and the United States, among others.
    (AP, 6/18/20)

2020        Jun 19, UN experts reported that armed groups, criminal networks and some law enforcement agents in Congo are reaping vast sums of money from illegally exploiting gold and other natural resources and smuggling them to Uganda, Burundi, Rwanda, Tanzania and the United Arab Emirates.
    (AP, 6/19/20)

2020        Jun 20, In CongoDRC Vital Kamerhe, President Felix Tshisekedi's chief of staff, was sentenced to 20 years' hard labor, after facing charges of embezzling almost $50m (£39m) of public funds. The judge presiding over the case was murdered in May. Kamerhe's supporters say the trial is a political move designed to prevent him from standing for president. Co-accused Lebanese businessman Jammal Samih was also sentenced to 20 years in prison.
    (BBC, 6/20/20)(Econ., 6/27/20, p.37)

2020        Jun 25, Eastern Congo marked an official end to the second deadliest Ebola outbreak in history, which killed 2,280 people over nearly two years, as armed rebels and community mistrust undermined the promise of new vaccines. No new cases of the disease have been reported in the north-east of the country, where dozens of armed groups operate, since 27 April. However, DR Congo is dealing a fresh Ebola outbreak in the north-west of the country.
    (AP, 6/25/20)(BBC, 6/25/20)

2020        Jun 30, Congolese President Felix Tshisekedi vowed to root out the corruption and impunity that has hindered the country since its independence from Belgium as the nation marked its 60th anniversary amid a global reckoning over racial inequality.
    (AP, 6/30/20)
2020        Jun 30, Belgium's King Philippe, in a letter to the Congolese Pres. Felix Tshisekedi, expressed his regret for the violence carried out by the former colonial power when it ruled over what is now Congo.
    (AP, 6/30/20)
2020        Jun 30, The UN said more than one million people have been forced to flee their homes in the violence-ravaged eastern Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC) since the start of the year.
    (AP, 6/30/20)

2020        Jul 1, Uganda opened part of its border with the Democratic Republic of Congo to allow in thousands of people stuck in no-man's land for more than a month.
    (BBC, 7/1/20)

2020        Jul 9, In CongoDRC two protesters were shot dead and a policeman was lynched in clashes over plans to name a new head to the country's election panel. Police in Kinshasa used tear gas to break up thousands of members of President Felix Tshisekedi's Union for Democracy and Progress (UDPS) who had marched to near the seat of parliament.
    (AFP, 7/9/20)

2020        Jul 16, In CongoDRC at least 40 people disappeared after members of the armed group known as Ngumino attacked the village of Kipupu while they were being pursued by the Mai Mai rebel group. Fighting that followed between the armed groups in villages in South Kivu province killed at least 43 people.
    (AP, 7/18/20)

2020        Jul 21, The World Health Organization said it is facing a “serious funding gap" to battle the new outbreak of Ebola in remote corners of northern Equateur province amid the global COVID-19 pandemic. Already there have been 20 confirmed deaths since the outbreak was declared on June 1.
    (AP, 7/21/20)

2020        Aug 5, The UN reported that more than 1,300 people were killed in the first half of 2020 by armed groups in DR Congo, three times more than in the same period in 2019.
    (AFP, 8/5/20)

2020        Aug 25, The Democratic Republic of Congo said it has ended the world's largest measles outbreak that has killed more than 7,000 children since it was declared 14 months ago.
    (Reuters, 8/25/20)

2020        Aug 28, The UN rights chief called on the Democratic Republic of Congo to swiftly investigate death threats against Nobel Peace Prize laureate Denis Mukwege and bring those responsible to justice. Death threats were made in July after he had sent out a tweet condemning the massacre of 18 people in South Kivu, the strife-torn province in eastern DR Congo where he has his clinic. Mukwege, a Congolese gynecologist shared the Nobel Peace Prize in 2018 for his work against sexual violence in war.
    (AFP, 8/28/20)

2020        Sep 2, It was reported that Congo is seeing an upsurge in cases of the plague, as the vast Central African nation also battles outbreaks of COVID-19 and Ebola. Since June, Congo has recorded at least 65 cases of the plague, including at least 10 deaths, in the eastern Ituri province.
    (AP, 9/2/20)

2020        Sep 4, UN Secretary-General Antonio Guterres warned that there is a risk of famine and widespread food insecurity in four countries affected by conflict — Congo, Yemen, northeast Nigeria and South Sudan — and that the lives of millions of people are in danger.
    (AP, 9/4/20)

2020        Sep 9, United Nations peacekeepers returned to provide protection for a Nobel Peace Prize-winning Congolese Dr. Denis Mukwege, who has faced death threats, after alarmed supporters urged the UN to reinstate the security following months without it.
    (AP, 9/9/20)

2020        Sep 11, In CongoDRC more than 50 people were killed after landslides collapsed three artisanal gold mining wells near the city of Kamituga in eastern Congo’s South Kivu province.
    (AP, 9/12/20)

2020        Oct 20, It was reported that more than 1,300 prisoners have escaped from Kangbayi prison in eastern Democratic Republic of Congo's Beni city after suspected Islamist rebels attacked the facility. Two inmates were shot dead during the raid. The Allied Defence Forces (ADF) was thought to have launched the assault to free its members.
    (AP, 10/20/20)

2020        Nov 18, Democratic Republic of Congo announced the end of its 11th Ebola outbreak in the Equateur province as health authorities looked to apply lessons from the successful response to the fight against COVID-19 in Africa.
    (Reuters, 11/18/20)(SFC, 11/19/20, p.A2)
2020        Nov 18, The United Nations humanitarian office said it is releasing $100 million in emergency funding to seven countries at risk of famine in Africa and the Middle East amid conflict and the COVID-19 pandemic. A statement overnight said $80 million of the money will go to Afghanistan, Burkina Faso, Congo, Nigeria, South Sudan and Yemen. Another $20 million has been set aside for "anticipatory action to fight hunger in Ethiopia.
    (AP, 11/18/20)

2020        Nov 23, Ntabo Ntaberi, a former militia leader in the Democratic Republic of Congo, was sentenced in Goma to life in prison for crimes against humanity, including mass rape.
    (BBC, 11/23/20)

2020        Dec 7, It was reported that Congo’s Pres. Felix Tshisekedi has announced an end to the coalition between his party and that of former president Joseph Kabila. Kabila’s supporters make up a majority in Congo's legislature, which Tshisekedi threatened to dissolve if the crisis persists.
    (AP, 12/7/20)

2020        Dec 9, The UN hit out at violence that erupted in DR Congo's parliament, pitting backers of President Felix Tshisekedi against supporters of his predecessor Joseph Kabila.
    (AFP, 12/9/20)

2020        Dec 23, At least 26 people died late today when their boat capsized on Lake Albert near the town of Kolokoto while trying to return to Congo from Uganda.
    (BBC, 12/24/20)

2020        Dec 31, In Congo DRC at least 25 people were killed in an attack on New Year’s Eve by Allied Democratic Forces rebels in eastern Beni territory. Other people were kidnapped.
    (AP, 1/1/21)

2021        Jan 3, It was reported that two men convicted over the assassination of the Democratic Republic of Congo's Pres. Laurent Kabila 20 years ago have been pardoned. Col Eddy Kapend and Georges Leta, implicated in the killing, had their death sentences commuted last June.
    (BBC, 1/3/21)

2021        Jan 6, Authorities in eastern Congo fear more than 40 people are dead after a motorized wooden boat capsized overnight on Lake Kivu.
    (AP, 1/6/21)

2021        Jan 8, It was reported that 23 accused of being behind the 2001 assassination of Laurent Kabila, the former president of Democratic Republic of Congo, have been released after spending nearly two decades behind bars.
    (BBC, 1/8/21)

2021        Jan 10, In eastern Congo gunmen killed at least six rangers in Virunga National Park, the latest attack in the area that is home to some of the world's last mountain gorillas.
    (AP, 1/10/21)

2021        Jan 22, In CongoDRC several hundred members of parliament left the majority political grouping (FCC) affiliated with former president Joseph Kabila. Most joined two of the largest opposiiton parties in supporting a new majority called the "Sacred Union" set up by Pres. Felix Tshisekedi.
    (Econ., 2/13/21, p.47)

2021        Jan 24, It was reported that former US President Donald Trump's administration in its final week in office, eased sanctions against Israeli mining magnate Dan Gertler that were imposed for alleged corruption in Congo. The license was not announced publicly. Anti-graft campaigners urged President Joe Biden's Treasury to revoke the license.
    (Reuters, 1/25/21)(Econ., 1/30/21, p.38)

2021        Jan 28, CongoDRC's National Assembly passed a motion of no confidence in the cabinet of PM Sylvestre Ilunga Ilunkamba, effectively forcing its resignation.
2021        Jan 28, Human Rights Watch accused the government of Congo’s Pres. Felix Tshisekedi of having arbitrarily detained and prosecuted journalists and activists.
    (Econ., 2/13/21, p.48)

2021        Feb 10, In Congo DRC’s North Kivu province a second case and death of Ebola was recorded in the health zone of Biena. Health officials had confirmed a case of Ebola Feb. 7 in another woman who was from the village of Biena and died in Butembo.
    (AP, 2/11/21)

2021        Feb 14, In Congo DRC suspected Islamists killed three soldiers and 13 civilians and burnt down a church in a raid on Ndalya village in northeastern Ituri province.
    (Reuters, 2/15/21)
2021        Feb 14, In Congo DRC at least 60 people drowned after a boat capsized on the Congo River. Some 300 people were rescued but as many as 200 others remained unaccounted for.
    (BBC, 2/16/21)

2021        Feb 15, The World Health Organization (WHO) said an Ebola vaccination campaign has begun in the city of Butembo, in eastern Congo DRC. Congo has confirmed four cases of Ebola since a resurgence of the virus was announced on Feb. 7 in Butembo.
    (Reuters, 2/15/21)

2021        Feb 16, The UN announced it is releasing $15 million from its emergency relief fund to help Guinea and Congo combat new outbreaks of Ebola.
    (AP, 2/16/21)

2021        Feb 22, Luca Attanasio (43), Italy's ambassador to the Democratic Republic of Congo, died following an attack near Goma, North Kivu province. An Italian military police officer travelling with the WFP envoy and a Congolese driver were also killed.
    (BBC, 2/22/21)

2021        Mar 1, It was reported that three new cases of Ebola have been confirmed in eastern Democratic Republic of Congo, bringing to 11 the number of cases since authorities declared a resurgence of the virus last month.
    (Reuters, 3/1/21)

2021        Mar 8, At The Hague International Criminal Court judges awarded $30 million (25.3 million euros) in reparations to victims of crimes for which Congolese warlord Bosco Ntaganda was convicted including child soldiers and victims of rape and sexual slavery.
    (AP, 3/8/21)

2021        Mar 14, In eastern Congo DRC attackers killed at least a dozen villagers in raid late today on the village of Bulongo. Rights groups blamed the Allied Democratic Forces (ADF), a Ugandan militia active in eastern Congo since the 1990s.
    (AP, 3/15/21)

2021        Apr 1, UK charity Oxfam said it has suspended two members of staff in the Democratic Republic of Congo over allegations of sexual exploitation and bullying.
    (BBC, 4/1/21)

2021        Apr 2, Medical charity Médecins Sans Frontières (MSF) said a new measles outbreak has flared up in the Democratic Republic of Congo just eight months after authorities declared an end to the worst known outbreak in the country's history.
    (Reuters, 4/2/21)

2021        Apr 6, Two UN agencies warned that over 27 million people in Congo are suffering from acute hunger, a record high representing almost one-third of the conflict-wracked African nation’s estimated population of 87 million.
    (AP, 4/6/21)

2021        May 1, In eastern CongoDRC senior Muslim cleric Sheikh Ali Amini was shot dead while praying in the main mosque in Beni city. The cleric was a strong critic of Islamic militancy in the region. His attack came on the heels of attacks in villages for days that left 19 dead.
    (AP, 5/2/21)

2021        May 3, CongoDRC's Ministry of Public Health declared an end to the latest Ebola outbreak that began Feb. 7 in the town of Butembo.
    (SFC, 5/4/21, p.A3)

2021        May 8, Congo’s Pres. Felix Tshisekedi, the current head of the African Union, met with Egyptian and Sudanese officials amid international and regional efforts to relaunch negotiations over Ethiopia’s disputed dam on the Nile River’s main tributary.
    (AP, 5/8/21)

2021        May 13, In CongoDRC police used tear gas and rubber bullets to disperse thousands of people who gathered outside the Martyrs' Stadium in Kinshasa for the Islamic holiday of Eid al-Fitr. 41 people were arrested at the scene in clashes fuelled by a leadership dispute between two camps within the Muslim community. Twenty-nine people were soon sentenced to death, however the death penalty is no longer applied in DR Congo and those found guilty will serve life sentences instead.
    (BBC, 5/15/21)

2021        May 21, The UN humanitarian agency urged heavy punishments for aid workers and others who committed sex abuses during the Ebola epidemic in eastern Congo, saying it has launched a hotline to receive complaints from victims.
    (AP, 5/21/21)

2021        May 22, In CongoDRC Mount Nyiragongo erupted. Tens of thousands of people fled the eastern city of Goma late today when lava began to spew from the flanks of the volcano. At least 32 people were killed amid chaos in Goma. Residents of Buhene returned early the next day to find that their homes had been swallowed by a river of lava, about half a mile wide. Nearly 500,000 people were left without clean drinking water after the volcano erupted.
    (NY Times, 5/23/21)(AP, 5/23/21)(AP, 5/24/21)(SSFC, 5/30/21, p.B8)(BBC, 6/2/21)

2021        May 27, It was reported that tens of thousands of people have been evacuated from the city of Goma in the Democratic Republic of Congo over fears of another volcanic eruption.
    (BBC, 5/27/21)

2021        May 31, In eastern CongoDRC attacks on two villages overnight in Ituri province left at least 49 people dead.
    (SFC, 5/31/21, p.A4)

2021        Jun 11, CongoDRC reported 254 new Covid-19 infections, mostly in the capital, Kinshasa, along with three deaths. Since the outbreak began, about 35,000 infections and 834 have officially been recorded in DR Congo.
    (BBC, 6/13/21)

2021        Jun 27, In CongoDRC a suicide bomber detonated his explosives at a busy intersection in Beni. Another explosion rocked a Catholic church. Neither bomb killed any civilians, but the government closed major gathering spaces for two days and imposed restrictions on public meetings as a precaution against further explosions. The Islamic State soon claimed responsibility.
    (AP, 6/28/21)(AP, 6/29/21)

2021        Jul 1, CongoDRC officials said at least 9 civilians, including women, were killed in an attack by rebels in the eastern city of Beni. This was the third such attack in the Beni area this week.
    (AP, 7/1/21)

2021        Jul 6, The Belgian government said its Africa Museum, once a celebration of the country's colonial rule, will begin a multi-year process of returning stolen art to Democratic Republic of Congo.
    (Reuters, 7/6/21)

2021        Jul 15, In Angola a reservoir used to store mining pollutants was breached. Tailings were later seen to have leaked into the Lova river following a rupture in a spillway for the mine waste dam of Catoca Mining Company, Angola's biggest diamond mine. The pollution caused by the leak turned rivers red and caused fish to die in Congo's southern Kasai province. By Aug. 9 the breach was sealed.
    (Reuters, 8/20/21)

2021        Aug 28, In eastern CongoDRC suspected Islamist militants killed at least 19 people in an overnight raid on Kasanzi-Kithovo village near Virunga National Park, North Kivu province.
    (Reuters, 8/29/21)

2021        Sep 1, In eastern CongoDRC around 80 people were feared missing after armed rebels ambushed a convoy and set fire to 16 vehicles. Blame was put on the Allied Democratic Forces (ADF), an Islamist militant group. Four civilians were killed and dozens taken hostage in Ituri province. The army freed more than 50 of the hostages and operations are underway to recover the remaining captives.
    (Reuters, 9/1/21)

2021        Sep 13, Congo's government said President Felix Tshisekedi has received his first dose of the Moderna COVID-19 vaccine, after a six-month wait caused by his unwillingness to take the AstraZeneca shot.
    (Reuters, 9/13/21)

2021        Sep 15, CongoDRC police beat a journalist and fired tear gas to disperse a small crowd in Kinshasa during an opposition protest over alleged election meddling.
    (Reuters, 9/16/21)

2021        Sep 26, In CongoDRC Ndakasi, an orphaned mountain gorilla who famously posed for a selfie with her caretaker at Virunga National Park, died at 14 after a long illness.
    {CongoDRC, Primates}
    (AP, 10/7/21)

2021        Sep 28, The World Health Organization's regional director for Africa said that the agency was "heartbroken" by the findings of an independent commission on sex abuse in the Democratic Republic of Congo. The commission found that some 21 of 83 alleged perpetrators were employed by the WHO, and that the abuses, which included nine allegations of rape, were committed by both national and international staff.
    (Reuters, 9/28/21)

2021        Sep 29, The United Nations said summary killings in the troubled east of DR Congo surged last month, driven by rebel groups but also the armed forces.
    (AFP, 9/29/21)

2021        Oct 6, In CongoDRC a 3-year-old boy tested positive for Ebola near the eastern city of Beni, one of the epicenters of the 2018-2020 outbreak, and died from the disease.
    (Reuters, 10/8/21)

2021        Oct 7, The European Commission suspended funding to the World Health Organization's programs in the Democratic Republic of Congo due to concerns over the UN agency's handling of the sexual abuse scandal.
    (Reuters, 10/28/21)

2021        Oct 13, Medics in eastern Congo began an Ebola vaccination campaign, days after the death of a two-year old boy raised fears of another major outbreak. CongoDRC confirmed a second case of Ebola after a woman (42) tested positive in the city of Beni.
    (Reuters, 10/13/21)(Reuters, 10/14/21)

2021        Oct 16, CongoDRC police used tear gas to break up clashes between supporters of the president and an opposition leader, as lawmakers selected a new head of the electoral commission. Around 10,000 supporters of opposition leader Martin Fayulu marched through the streets of Kinshasa in protest over several issues.
    (Reuters, 10/17/21)

2021        Oct 17, In southern CongoDRC about 50 people were killed when a truck overturned and plunged into a river in Haut Katanga province.
    (Reuters, 10/19/21)

2021        Oct 18, The World Health Organization (WHO) said 3 new Ebola cases have been confirmed in eastern Democratic Republic of Congo, bringing the total to five in the last 10 days.
    (Reuters, 10/18/21)

2021        Oct 20, In eastern CongoDRC at least 16 people were killed and several others kidnapped by rebels near Beni. Ugandan-based ADF rebels were blamed. The Islamic State later claimed responsibility for the attack.
    (AP, 10/21/21)(Reuters, 10/23/21)

2021        Oct 28, Democratic Republic of Congo's environment minister said the country intends to ban all log exports and implement other measures to lessen threats to its carbon-absorbing tropical rainforest, a major bulwark against climate change.
    (Reuters, 10/28/21)

2021        Nov 3, In Congo DRC 9 people were killed in clashes in the eastern city of Bukavu early today after an incursion by unidentified gunmen.
    (Reuters, 11/3/21)

2021        Nov 4, In Congo DRC thousands of historic artefacts were destroyed late today in the town of Gungu after a private museum burnt to ashes.
    (BBC, 11/5/21)

2021        Nov 8, In eastern Congo DRC gunmen seized at least two villages overnight near the border with Uganda and Rwanda. A local official blamed fighters from the M23 rebel group.
    (Reuters, 11/8/21)

2021        Nov 11, In eastern Congo DRC at least two people drowned and dozens left missing after a passenger boat sank on Lake Kivu. Volunteers counted 15 bodies by the time the search was called off in the evening due to heavy rain.
    (Reuters, 11/11/21)

2021        Nov 17, Lawmakers in eastern CongoDRC said at least 144 civilians have been killed this month. Parliament approved a motion to extend the state of siege as it as done every two weeks despite objections by lawmakers in North Kivu and Ituri provinces.
    (Reuters, 11/17/21)

2021        Nov 26, Democratic Republic of Congo President Felix Tshisekedi agreed to a joint operation with Uganda's army against Islamist rebels accused of suicide bombings in Kampala this month.
    (Reuters, 11/29/21)

2021        Nov 30, In eastern CongoDRC one Congolese and one international staff member of the International Committee of the Red Cross (ICRC) were abducted in North Kivu province. Uganda and Democratic Republic of Congo mounted air and artillery strikes in a joint operation in North Kivu province against an Islamic State-linked militia.
    (Reuters, 11/30/21)

2021        Dec 1, Hundreds of Ugandan soldiers in armoured vehicles crossed the border into eastern Democratic Republic of Congo, as a joint offensive against an Islamic State-linked armed group appeared to expand.
    (Reuters, 12/1/21)

2021        Dec 6, The United States imposed sanctions on Alain Mukonda, a Democratic Republic of Congo national, it accused of providing support to Israeli mining magnate Dan Gertler, part of a policy to target corruption in the central African country.
    (Reuters, 12/6/21)

2021        Dec 7, In CongoDRC Vital Kamerhe, former chief of staff to President Felix Tshisekedi, was granted provisional release from prison where he was serving a 13-year sentence for embezzling $48 million in public funds.
    (Reuters, 12/7/21)

2021        Dec 10, Democratic Republic of Congo's environment minister said unidentified officials forged her signature to grant conservation licenses for the country's vast forests that play a pivotal role in regulating the Earth's climate.
    (Reuters, 12/10/21)

2021        Dec 14, It was reported that the Congolese rumba, now has Unesco-protected status. It is the culmination of campaigning by two countries - the Democratic Republic of Congo and neighboring Congo-Brazzaville.
    (BBC, 12/14/21)

2021        Dec 16, Authorities in Democratic Republic of Congo declared the end of its 13th Ebola outbreak that emerged in early October in North Kivu province and infected 11 people, killing six of them.
    (Reuters, 12/16/21)

2021        Dec 20, In eastern CongoDRC residents of Goma launched violent protests in which at least two people died over fears that police from neighboring Rwanda had entered the country.
    (AP, 12/20/21)

2021        Dec 23, In eastern CongoDRC at least three people died in a plane crash in South Kivu province. Another local official said the death toll could be as high as five.
    (Reuters, 12/23/21)

2021        Dec 25, In eastern CongoDRC a suicide bomber struck a restaurant in the city of Beni, killing at least five people as well as himself.
    (Reuters, 12/25/21)

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