Timeline China (A) thru 1924

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Leon Poon: http://www-chaos.umd.edu/history/welcome.html

China is about the same size as the US.
(SSFC, 10/9/05, Par p.27)
China means middle kingdom. China has 31 provinces.
    (SFC, 11/23/96, p.E4)(Econ, 7/30/05, p.36)

600Mil BC - 580Mil BC    Fossils of primitive multi-celled embryos with no bones or shells, possibly dating to this time, were found in 1998 in a phosphate mine near the town of Weng ‘an in China’s Guizhou province. Scientists named the bilaterians Vernanimalcula guizhouena (small spring animal).
    (SFC, 2/5/98, p.A1,11)(SFC, 6/3/04, A2)

580Mil BC    The Doushantuo, a geological formation in southern China, preserved many fossils from this time.
    (Econ, 3/23/13, p.83)

530Mil BC    Chengjiang fauna from the Yunnan Province of China. Specimens include: the arthropod Jianfengia, Facivermis, Trilobites (arthropod to 27"), Eldonia (a possible echinoderm), Microdictyon, Dinomischus, Sponges, Hyolith (possible mollusk), Anomalocaris, Xianguangia, and early brachiopods.
    (NG, V184, No. 4, Oct. 1993, R. Gore, p.133)
530Mil BC    Fishlike creatures, early agnathans, with marks of an early spine were found in 1998 in China’s Chengjiang fossil field.
    (SFC, 11/4/99, p.A8)

520Mil BC    An eyeless worm later dubbed Collinsium ciliosum filtered food from the ocean floor using frontal appendages developed into sieving baskets. Fossils of the armored creature were found in the rocks of China’s Yunnan province.
    (Econ, 7/4/15, p.67)

515Mil BC    A clawed critter later called Lyrarapax unguispinus lived on the seabed of what became southwest China. It belonged to an extinct early arthropod group called anomalocaridids.
    (Econ, 7/19/14,p.68)

250Mil BC    South China at this time was a large island just north of the equator with a tropical climate. In 2010 a smattering of fossil land plants from a mountain in Luoping suggested that the local marine community lived near a conifer forest.

240Mil BC    Fossils of Atopodentatus unicus, an aquatic reptile, roamed the seas about this time. It was identified in 2014 from fossils found in the Luoping formation of China’s Yunnan province.
    (Econ, 3/29/14, p.86)

197Mil BC - 190Mil BC        A bed of embryo lufengosaurus bones in southern China, reported in 2013, dated to this period.
    (SFC, 4/19/13, p.D7)

195Mil BC    A tiny animal the size of a paper clip from fossil beds in China’s Yunnan province dated to about this time. It was named Hadrocardium wui in 2001 and was considered as a possible ancestor to all living mammals.
    (SFC, 5/25/01, p.D8)

165Mil BC-125Mil BC    Fossils of fleas, from this period in China, were described in 2012 as being nearly an inch long and having a proboscis with serrated edges for biting and feeding.
    (SFC, 3/1/12, p.A2)

164 Mil    In 2006 a fossil from this time found in Inner Mongolia in China was reported to have been a mammal with a flat, scaly tail like a beaver, vertebra like an otter and teeth like a seal that swam in lakes eating fish. The new animal, about the size of a small female platypus, is not related to modern beavers or otters but has features similar to them. The researchers named it Castorocauda lutrasimilis.
    (AP, 2/23/06)

160Mil BC    A crested dinosaur with probable feathers inhabited northwestern China about this time. A fossil of the 10-foot long relative of Tyrannosaurus rex, later named Guanlong wucaii, was found in 2004.
    (SFC, 2/9/06, p.A5)(WSJ, 2/9/06, p.A1)
160Mil BC    A flying reptile called Darwinopterus modularis, later discovered in China’s Liaoning province, dated to this time. It was believed to be an example of a flying reptile in transition from a more primitive long tailed form exemplified by Rhamphorhynchus and the tailless creatures typified by Pteranodan. In 2011 the specimen was identified as a female carrying an egg seemingly designed for burial.
    (Econ, 10/17/09, p.96)(Econ, 1/22/11, p.96)
160Mil BC    The fossil of 10-foot dinosaur of this time was later discovered in northwestern China. In 2010 scientists said that the Haplocheirus sollers (simple, skillful hand) had short forearms, massive claws, 3 toes, a long beak, a keel-shaped chest and was a member of a family, the Alvarezsaurs, that evolved into birds.
    (SFC, 1/30/10, p.A10)

140Mil BC    Fossils of feathered birds, later called Confuciusornis, were found in 2002 in Liaoning province, China. They had bird-like short tales. In 2009 Chinese paleontologists reported that a small dinosaur named Tianyulong Confuciusi, which lived during the Cretaceous period, was covered with feather-like structures -- long before anything like feathers had been believed to have started developing.
    (SFC, 7/25/02, p.A3)(www.chinadaily.com.cn/china/2009-03/19/content_7594736.htm)

130Mil BC     The fossil Sinovenator (Chinese hunter) dated to at least this time. A member of the troodontid dinosaurs, it was about the size of a chicken and represented a possible link to birds. It was discovered in Liaoning province in 2002.
    (SFC, 2/14/02, p.A6)
130Mil BC    A small Tyrannosaurus rex from this time, named Dilong paradoxus, was discovered in China in 2004 with evidence that its body was covered in downy “protofeathers."
    (SFC, 10/8/04, p.A2)

128 Mil BC    In 2003 scientists reported a 4-winged, theropod dinosaur that dated to this time from China’s Liaoning province. They named it Microraptor gui.
    (SFC, 1/23/03, p.A2)

128Mil BC-121Mil BC    Chinese paleontologists found the fossil of a bird-like beast with the impression of feathers. The feathered dinosaur, a therapod, was about 3-feet long in life. 2 turkey-sized, fossil dinosaurs with feathers were found in China in 1997 in Liaoning province. They were distinctly older than archaeopteryx. The birds were therapods and could not fly. They were named Protarchaeopteryx robusta and Caudipteryx zoui.
    (SFC, 10/18/96, A9)(SFC, 6/24/98, p.A4)(SFC, 3/7/02, p.A2)

125Mil BC    Eomaia scansoria, a tiny shrewlike creature, lived in China’s Liaoning province. It was the earliest known representative of the Eutheria lineage. It’s fossils led researchers in 2002 to believe that it might be the direct ancestor of true placental mammals.
    (SFC, 4/25/02, p.A2)(SFC, 12/5/02, p.A23)
125Mil BC    In 2020 paleontologists in China discovered a brand new species of burrowing dinosaur that dates back to about this time. The fossils of the Changmiania liaoningensis were discovered in the Lujiatun Beds, located in northeast China in the Liaoning Province, in the oldest layers of the famous Yixian Formation. The Chinese word “Changmian" which means “eternal sleep".
    (Good Morning America, 9/21/20)
125Mil BC    In 2005 Farmers in Inner Mongolia found a fossil of a small mammal from about this time that displayed evidence of being able to glide. It was named Volaticotherium antiquius. Tests for age ranged as far back as 164Mil BC.
    (SFC, 12/14/06, p.A15)
125Mil BC    In 2009 paleontologists reported that a new dinosaur called Raptorex kriegsteini lived about this time. The nearly complete fossil had been found in northeastern China. It was about 9-feet long and weighed about 150 pounds and appeared to be a miniature prototype of T. Rex, which came some 35 million years later.
    (SFC, 9/18/09, p.A25)
125Mil BC    In 2010 British and Chinese scientists reported that Sinosauropteryx, a squirrel-sized dinosaur from this period, was covered in complex feathers colored in a subdued palette of chestnut and white stripes. It was first discovered in China in 1996 in fossil beds dated to 124.6-122 million years ago, during the late Barremian to early Aptian stages of the Early Cretaceous.
    (SFC, 1/28/10, p.A5)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sinosauropteryx)

c124Mil BC    A meat-eating dinosaur called Sinornithosaurus, dated to this time, was found in Liaoning province, China, around 2002. The skin was covered with fibers but it had no wings.
    (SFC, 7/25/02, p.A3)

124Mil BC-110Mil BC    The fossil of a full-fledged bird named Jeholornis prima, found in 2002 in Liaoning province, China, was dated to this time.
    (SFC, 7/25/02, p.A3)

120Mil BC    A fossil of Protopteryx from this time in China indicated feathers that were held to have evolved from scales.
    (SFC, 12/8/00, p.D4)
120Mil BC    Microraptor was one of many small, feathered dinosaurs, lived in China about this time in time early Cretaceous.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Microraptor)(Econ, 11/12/11, p.94)
120Mil BC    Scientists reported in 2008 that a sparrow-sized pterodactyl, which they named Nemicolopterus crypticus, inhabited China’s Liaoning province about this time.
    (SFC, 2/12/08, p.A5)

120k BC - 80k BC    Researchers in 2015 reported that 47 fossilized human teeth found in China’s Hunan province dated back to this period. Earlier fossils from southern Asia were only about 45,000 years old.
    (SFC, 10/15/15, p.A5)

110Mil BC    In 2006 Chinese researchers reported nearly complete fossils of Gansus yumenensis, a grebe-like waterbird from this time, making it the oldest for the group Ornithurae.
    (AP, 6/15/06)
110Mil BC    The carnivorous dinosaur Microraptor zhaoianus lived in China about this time along with the fish-eating bird Yanornis martini. A forged fossil in 1999 linked the 2 as one feathered dinosaur.
    (SFC, 12/5/02, p.F2)

90Mil BC    In 2001 Paul Sereno, a paleontologist, helped lead an expedition to China that uncovered the fossilized remains of the 25 young sinornithomimus near Suhongtu, a tiny, remote village in the Gobi desert about 370 miles (600 kilometers) west of Hohhot.
    (AP, 3/16/09)

85Mil BC    In 2005 Chinese researchers discovered a bird-like dinosaur that lived about this time. The feathered but flightless Gigantoraptor erlianensis weighed about 1.4 tons and had a beak but no teeth.
    (Reuters, 6/13/07)

55Mil BC    A tiny monkey-like creature lived in central China about this time. Fossil evidence indicated that it’s trunk was about 2.8 inches long. In 2013 the new species was named Archibus achilles.
    (SFC, 6/6/13, p.A9)(Econ, 6/8/13, p.82)

50Mil BC    The Tibetan Plateau began to lift about this time as India thrust northward. This led to the creation of the Gobi Desert north of the plateau.
    (SFC, 5/19/06, p.B7)

42Mil BC    Paleontologist Daniel Gebo announced in 2000 the discovery of bones from 2 tiny primates, the size of a human thumb, that lived at this time in Shanghuang, China. The Eosimias primates also lived here about this time.
    (SFC, 3/16/00, p.A1)

40Mil BC    The entire Tibetan Plateau underwent major uplifting as the Indian subcontinent bumped into Eurasia. Vast ranges rose from the Himalayas on the east to Afghanistan’s Hindu Kush and Iran’s Elburz mountains on the west.
    (SFC, 5/19/06, p.B7)(Econ, 1/26/17, p.31)

32Mil BC - 16Mil BC    The South China Sea was created over this period as the sea floor spread due to tectonic plates moving apart.
    (Econ, 2/12/11, p.90)

24Mil BC    A period of violent earthquakes shook the region that later became China’s Yunnan province and created the Ailao Shan range of Southwest China.
    (SFC, 5/19/06, p.B7)

23Mil BC    In China the Red and Yangzi rivers separated about this time. The Yangzi made a u-turn from flowing south and began flowing north-east. In 2013 sediment analysis confirmed this change.
    (Econ, 10/12/13, p.58)

2Mil BC     In 2007 researchers reported that the first skull of the earliest known ancestor of the giant panda has been discovered in China and estimated to be at least 2 million years old. The animal, formally known as Ailuropoda microta, or "pygmy giant panda," would have been about 3 feet long, compared to the modern giant panda, which averages in excess of five feet.
    (AP, 6/18/07)

1.66Mil BC    Stone tools of this age were later found in northern China in the Nihewan Basin west of Beijing.
    (Arch, 1/05, p.12)

1.2Mil BC    In 1993 a farmer in Sugeng, China, found a Pithecanthropus IX skull that dated to about this time.
    (MC, 5/16/02)

160,000BC    Scientists in 2019 reported that a fossilized chunk of jawbone found by a monk in a Chinese cave nearly 40 years earlier has been revealed as coming from the Denisovans, a mysterious relative of the Neanderthals. The right half of a jawbone with teeth is at least 160,000 years old.
    (AP, 5/2/19)

100,00BC-80000BC In 2007 a human skull from this time, consisting of 16 pieces, was dug up after two years of excavation at a site in Xuchang in China’s Henan province.
    (AFP, 1/23/08)

840000BC-420000BC    A large migration of people from Africa to Asia and Europe took place over this period. A 2nd migration period occurred from 150k-80k.
    (SFC, 3/7/02, p.A2)

670000BC-400000BC        Homo erectus occupied the Longushan cave. The Dragon Bone Hill site is 30 miles southwest of Beijing. The bones were found in the 1920s-1930s and were popularly referred to as Peking Man.
    (Arch, 5/04, p.52)

600000BC-300000BC    Excavations begun in 1921 at Zhoukoudian, China, suggested evidence that Peking Man had mastered fire and practiced cannibalism over this period. In 1975 Jia Lampo authored “The Cave Home of Peking Man."
    (NH, 3/1/04, p.46)

8000BC    It is believed that the Chinese became to first to domesticate wild boars about this time.
    (Econ, 12/20/14, p.68)

7000BC    A flute dating to this time was found in the 1980s in Jiahu. 6 flutes from the hollow wing bones of cranes were found in Zheng-zhou province from about this time.
    (SFC, 9/23/99, p.A8)(SFC, 4/29/00, p.D4)
7000BC    Scientists in 2004 found the earliest evidence of winemaking from pottery shards dating from 7,000 BC in northern China.
    (Reuters, 12/7/04)(SFC, 12/7/04, p.A1)

c4300 BC-2500BC    The Dawenkou culture. A 1999 show exhibited an urn from this period incised with a triple pictograph interpreted as sun-moon-mountain or sun-fire-mountain.
    (WSJ, 10/6/99, p.A20

4000BC    People in China’s Yellow River Valley switched from hunting and gathering to agriculture about this time.
    (SFC, 3/4/02, p.A3)
4000BC    The Chinese began working with silkworms about this time. They built their first silk machine about 2,000 BC.
    (Econ, 9/12/15, SR p.15)

c3500BC    The Hongshan culture at Niuheliang created temples and mounds and face sculptures of gods in unbaked clay with jade eyes.
    (NG, 12/97, Geogrph)

3280BC    An excavation at the Shuanghuaishu site in Gongyi on the outskirts of Zhengzhou in mid-May 2020 revealed the site of a huge settlement that archaeologists estimate dates back to about this time.

3000BC    In 2013 Chinese archaeologists said they have discovered some of the world's oldest known primitive writing, dating back to about this time, in eastern China. Some of the markings etched on broken axes resembled a modern Chinese character.
    (AP, 7/10/13)

3000 BC-1700BC    In China’s Late Neolithic, Longshan period, a walled settlement existed at what was later called the Puchengdian Ruins of Henan province.
    (Arch, 1/05, p.12)

c2850BC    China’s Emperor Fushi decreed that people would be identified with a formal family name as well as a familiar first name.
    (SFEC, 5/18/97, Z1 p.6)

2737BC    Chinese emperor Shen Neng (Shennong) prescribed marijuana tea to treat gout, rheumatism, malaria and poor memory.
    (WSJ, 2/8/05, p.D7)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Shennong)

2700BC    The Chinese developed India ink, mixing soot from pine smoke and lamp oil with gelatin of donkey skin and musk.
    (SFC, 7/26/04, p.F4)
2700BC    Chinese texts from this time describe plants to treat fevers.
    (Econ, 10/22/11, p.102)

2698BC     The beginning of the Chinese calendar. Feb 19,1996 begins the Year of the Rat and the year 4694. [lunar year, date not valid]
    (enRoute, 2/96, p.24)(SFEC, 2/2/97, DB. p.7)

2500BC-1CE    A sacrificial dump in Guanghan, Sichuan Province, in China was uncovered in 1976 and dated to this period. Large quantities of elephants tusks reveal that elephants roamed the area. Human figures, monster masks, and tree fragments made of bronze tubes were also found.
    (WSJ, 9/27/96, p.A16)

c2400BC    A site at Chien-kou near Handan of China's Longshan culture shows strong evidence of warfare between communities.
    (NH, Jul, p.30)

2100BC    Chinese Emperor Yu arranged the first Chinese headcount about this time.
    (Econ, 4/18/20, p.66)

2100BC-1600BC    The protohistoric Xia period. The Ba people controlled salt production on the Yangtze River. They then slowly migrated upstream and in 316BCE were subjugated by the Qin. Fuling was a burial site for the kings of Ba. Fengdu was the first capital of Ba. The 1996 Tujia minority claim descent from the Ba.
    (NH, 7/96, p.31)(WSJ, 2/19/98, p.A20)

2070BC    The Xia period began according to results from government funded studies in 2000 CE. This was about the middle of the prehistoric Longshan culture.
    (SFC, 11/10/00, p.D4)

2000BC    For as many as 4,000 years, the salty sand of the Taklimakan Desert in China held well-preserved mummies wearing colorful robes, boots, stockings and hats. The people were Caucasian not Asian. The bodies have been exhumed from the Tarim Basin of Xinjiang province since the late 1970s.
    (SFC, 5/6/96, p.C-1)
c2000BC    Feng shui began as a philosophy that held that the relationship between people, the Earth and objects affects the flow of energy, or chi, which influences work performance.
    (SFEC, 1/16/00, p.B7)

1920BC    In 2016 a team of researchers led by Wu Qianlong, a former Peking University seismologist, established that an earthquake triggered a huge landslide, damming the Yellow River. After 6-9 months the dam broke and tore through the gorge at 500 times the Yellow River's average discharge submerging the North China Plain that is considered the cradle of Chinese civilization. Historical texts from about 1,000 B.C. first mentioned a legendary Xia ruler, Yu, who had devised a system of dredges to control a great flood that spanned generations.
    (AP, 8/5/16)

1766BC    In China the Shang Dynasty, the 2nd dynasty of the country according to tradition, began. It flourished on the banks of the Yellow River from about 1400-1027BC. The period is known for its use of bronze containers, oracle bones and human sacrifice, which ended shortly after the collapse of the dynasty.
    (eawc, p.3)

1700BC-1100BC     This is the Shang Dynasty period of China. [see 1766BCE]
    (Arch, 9/00, p.34)

1600BC    Art pieces attributed to the Xia Dynasty of China before the 16th century are on exhibit at the Shanghai Museum. These include an ax blade, a three legged food vessel, and 3 wine vessels.
    (WSJ, 5/9/96, p.A-16)

1600BC – 1046BC    Chinese inscribed bronzes and oracle bones of the Shang dynasty date from about this time.

1600BC-300BC    Neolithic jade pieces represent some of the oldest of Chinese art.
    (WSJ, 2/19/98, p.A20)

1384BC    In China P’an Keng founded the city of Anyang. A mature culture with writing and art was developed by this time.
    (eawc, p.4)

c1300BC    China introduced books around this time.
    (WSJ, 1/11/99, p.R55)

1300BC-1100BC     From the late Shang Dynasty (13th to the 11th century BCE), a pair of 33-inch-tall ting tripod vessels, will be part of the traveling exhibit from the National Palace Museum, Taipei. [see 1600-1100]
    (WSJ, 12/29/95, p.A-11)
1300BC-1100BC    A 9-foot-tall bronze standing figure from this time was found in 1986 at a ‘sacrificial pit" at Sanxingdui in Sichuan province.
    (SFC, 6/15/00, p.E1)

c1116BC    In China an imperial decree stated that it was a requirement of the heavenly powers that people regularly take a moderate amount of alcoholic drink.
    (SFEC, 8/9/98, Z1 p.8)

1100BC-265BC    The Zhou period. [see 1027-771]
    (WSJ, 2/19/98, p.A20)

1045BC    The Zhou King Wu subdued the Shang. [see 1027BCE]
    (Arch, 9/00, p.37)

1042BC    Dan, Duke Wen of Zhou, a member of the royal family of the early Zhou dynasty, attained the regency and administered the kingdom himself until 1035BC. He was renowned for acting as a capable and loyal regent for his young nephew King Cheng, and for successfully suppressing the Rebellion of the Three Guards and establishing firm rule of the Zhou dynasty over eastern China. According to the legend, he initiated the feudalistic system, established the classic rites, created the classic Chinese music, completed the original I Ching and compiled a dream interpretation dictionary "Dreaming of Duke Zhou" (Zhougong Jie Meng).

1027BC    In China the last Shang ruler, Chou Hsin, was conquered by Wu-wang, and the Chou Dynasty began. It lasted to 221BCE and is typically divided into three periods.
    (eawc, p.5)

1027BC-771BC    The Western Chou period of the Chou Dynasty.
    (eawc, p.5)

c1000BC    An Indo-European group of people moved east to live in what later became Xinjiang province of western China. They left well-preserved Caucasian mummies of this age and 1,300 year old texts written in an unknown Indo European tongue. Some evidence showed that they had come from the steppes north of the Black and Caspian seas as the area filled with Iranian immigrants. They settled in the Tarim Basin on the edges of the Taklimakan Desert. They area has also been named Inner Asia, Chinese Turkistan and East Turkistan. The Uighers of Xinjiang sometimes show physical features that reflects Tocharian blood.
    (SFC, 2/27/98, p.A2)
c1000BC     In China's southwest one of the world's great cities flourished, and then inexplicably vanished, leaving no trace behind in the historical records. In 2001 excavations at Jinsha village began to uncover extensive artifacts.
    (AFP, 7/10/05)
1000BC    The Chinese invented kites about this time that could carry scouts on reconnaissance missions.
    (NPub, 2002, p.2)

841BC     A Zhou king died.
    (SFC, 11/10/00, p.D4)

c800BC    The Zhou of China were driven east by nomads.
    (Arch, 9/00, p.37)

771BC    In China the Chou Dynasty faced difficulty when King Yu alienated the noble class who refused to answer his call for help against invading barbarians. King Yu was killed and the nobles installed a new leader. The capital was moved eastward to Loyang and the "Western Chou" period ended.
    (eawc, p.7)

771BC-471BC    The Spring and Autumn Period. Jingzhou was the capital of the Chu Kingdom.
    (AMNHDT, 5/98)

771BC-221BC    The Eastern Zhou period. The power of the Zhou court waned and frequent state wars took place.
    (AM, 7/01, p.62)

722BC-481BC    In China the Ch’un Ch’iu period began. It was characterized by a deterioration of the feudal system and a collapse of central authority.
    (eawc, p.5,7)

700BC    Marijuana was put into the grave of a Caucasian shaman of the Gushi culture in the Yanghai Tombs in the Uighur autonomous region of China.
    (SSFC, 1/18/15, p.E6)

700BC-600BC    The earliest records of divination using the I Ching date from this period.
    (NH, 9/97, p.12)

650BC    The Chinese licensed lady lovers. This is considered as the 1st example of legalized prostitution.
    (SFC, 11/4/00, p.B3)

c604BC-531BC     Lao-tzu (Laozi), Chinese philosopher, author of the "Tao Te Ching" (Tao-te-jing) and founder of Taoism (Daoism) lived about this time. He encouraged people to live simply and according to nature. Taoism is one of the three major "spiritual ways" of China and has influenced Chinese thought--in religion, politics, the social system and the arts and sciences--for more than 2,000 years. The other two "spiritual ways" of China are Buddhism and Confucianism. "To lead the people, walk behind them." "The greater the number of laws and enactments, the more thieves and robbers there will be." "Quarrel with a friend -- and you are both wrong."
    (SFEC, 2/22/98, Z1 p.8)(AP,  5/4/98)(WSJ, 12/26/00, p.A9)(AM, 7/01, p.62)(HNQ, 11/5/01)

551BC    Confucius (d.479BCE), K'ung Fu-tzu [K'ung Fu-tse], Chinese philosopher, was born in Chufu, China. His followers transcribed his conversations in 20 books called the "Analects" following his death. He was an accountant and later taught the importance of centralized authority and filial piety. Like Aristotle, he believed the state to be a natural institution. He was the 11th child of a 70-year-old soldier. "All eminence should be based entirely on merit." "The way of a superior man is three-fold; virtuous, he is free from anxieties; wise, he is free from perplexities; bold, he is free from fear." "To see the right and not do it is cowardice." "Shall I teach you what knowledge is? When you know a thing, to hold that you know it; and when you don't know a thing, to allow that you don't know it. This is knowledge."
    (SFC, 8/10/96, p.E4)(http://eawc.evansville.edu, p.9)(SFC, 3/28/98, p.D3)(AP,  6/17/98)(SFEC, 2/27/00, Z1 p.2)(SFEC, 7/9/00, Z1 p.2)(SFC, 1/2/04, p.D8)

544BC-496BC    Chinese traditional accounts place Sun Tzu as a military general serving under King Helu of Wu. Historians have questioned whether or not Sun Tzu, aka Sun Wu, was an authentic historical figure. Modern scholars accepting his historicity place the completion of The Art of War in the Warring States Period (476–221 BC), based on the descriptions of warfare in the text, and on the similarity of text's prose to other works completed in the early Warring States period.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sun_Tzu)(Econ, 12/17/11, p.71)

500BC    Confucius composed the Analects about this time. 5 things constitute perfect virtue: gravity, magnanimity, earnestness, sincerity, kindness.
    (PC Comp. 12/94, p.278)
500BC    The game of Go was devised in China about this time.
    (Econ, 12/18/04, p.128)
500BC    The Chinese learned to ferment soybean around this time. The fermentation removed toxins and made soy easier to digest. It had already been used for thousands of years as fertilizer.
    (SSCM, 8/13/06, p.6)

492BC    Goujian, the king of Yue (later part of China’s Zhejiang province), was taken prisoner after a disastrous campaign against King Fuchai, a neighbor to the north. After a few years Fuchai let him return home as his vassal.
    (Econ, 12/4/10, SR p.3)

486BC    The first stretch of the north-south Grand Canal was begun and completed by about 400BC. It became fully navigable in the 14th century.
    (WSJ, 10/25/99, p.A50)(WSJ, 1/11/99, p.R51)(Econ, 5/22/10, SR p.12)

482BC    Goujian, the king of Yue (later part of China’a Zhejiang province), marched north with some 50,000 warriors and attacked King Fuchai putting his kingdom to the sword.
    (Econ, 12/4/10, SR p.3)

481BC-221BC    The Waring States period of the Chou Dynasty. [see 475-221] The states of Ch’in and Ch’u emerged as the primary competitors in the struggle to found an empire. During this period a 4-tiered class structure emerged consisting of lesser nobility (including scholars), the peasant farmers, the artisans, and the merchants, who held the lowest position in society. This was also known as the period of the Hundred Schools of Thought with the emergence of several schools of political philosophy that included: Confucianism, Taoism, Mohism and Legalism.
    (eawc, p.5,11)

479BC    Confucius (b.551BCE), K'ung Fu-tzu [K'ung Fu-tse], Chinese philosopher, died. In 2008 Kung Te-cheng (b.1920), the 77th lineal descendent of Confucius, died in Taiwan. In 2006 Kung Yu-jen, the 80th lineal descendent was born.
    (WSJ, 11/1/08, p.A6)

479BC    In China the philosopher Mo-tzu (d.438BCE), founder of Mohism, was born. He taught a message of universal love and compassion for the common plight of ordinary people.
    (eawc, p.11)

475BC-221BC    The Waring [Warring] States period. [see 403-321BCE]
    (SFC, 4/10/97, p.A16)(AMNHDT, 5/98)

433BC    The Marquis Yi of Zeng died about this time. His tomb was discovered in 1978.
    (WSJ, 9/27/96, p.A16)

403BC-321BC    During the Waring States period in China, the Pu people buried wedged wooden coffins into the cliffs a 1,000 feet above the Yangtze River in Jingzhu Gorge. [see 475-221BCE]
    (NH, 7/96, p.36,37)

c400BC    The tomb of Zeng Hou Yi (c400 BCE) was discovered. Artifacts were later exhibited in the Hubei Provincial Museum.
    (SSFC, 4/14/02, p.C9)

400BC-300BC    The Chinese began suffering from fierce attacks of nomadic herdsmen, the Hsiung-nu, from the north and west. They began to build parts of what came to be called the Great Wall for protection.
    (SFEM, 10/12/97, p.24)
400BC-300BC    The Zhuangzi, the 2nd great Taoist text, was compiled.
    (WSJ, 12/26/00, p.A9)

372BC-289BC    In China the Confucianist Meng-Tzu (Mencius) lived about this time. He departed from the ideas of Confucius by positing a theory of just rebellion against immoral rulers. "The great man is he who does not lose his child's heart."
    (https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mencius)(AP, 11/19/98)

369BC-286BC     Chuang-tzu (Zhuang Zhou), Chinese philosopher and writer, lived about this time. His work included the spiritual masterpiece "Inner chapters." "Rewards and punishments are the lowest form of education."
    (AP,  11/11/97)(NH, 7/00, p.59)(SSFC, 2/18/01, DB p.35)

364BC    Gan De, noted Chinese astronomer, reported a viewing of Jupiter and one of its 16 moons.
    (SFC, 4/10/97, p.A16)

350BC-338BC    In China Shang Yang ruled the Ch’in Dynasty. He operated against the assumptions of a theory of absolute aggression justified by the "School of Law."
    (eawc, p.12)

340BC    In China Ge Hong authored “The Handbook of Prescriptions for Emergencies."
    (Econ, 10/10/15, p.80)

320BC-235BC    In China the philosopher Hsun-tzu, the founder of Legalism, lived about this time. He was an orthodox Confucianist and believed strongly in moral education. He repudiated any belief in a spiritual realm and believed that human beings are evil by nature.
    (eawc, p.13)

316BC    The Ba people on the Yangtze River were subjugated by the Qin.
    (NH, 7/96, p.31)

316BC    The Ch’in conquered Shu and Pa (modern-day Szechuan) and gained a serious advantage over the Ch’u.
    (eawc, p.13)

300BC-200BC        A Chinese emperor about this time dispatched the sailor Hsu Fu to search the Pacific Ocean for the "drug of immortality." He came back empty-handed after the first trip and set out again never to return.
    (SFEC, 8/17/97, Z1 p.3)

300BC-200BC        Qu Wan, Chinese poet and official lived about this time. He despaired on the possibility of justice in this world and threw himself into a river.
    (WSJ, 9/24/97, p.A20)

280BC    Li Ssu, Legalist scholar, was born in the kingdom of Ch’u, later a region of China.
    (ON, 9/04, p.1)

278BC    Qu Yuan (b.~340BC), Chinese poet and scholar, died. His poems included “The Lament," written following the capture of Yingdu, capital of Chu, by General Bai Qi of the state of Qin.

259BC    Qin Shi Huangdi (d.210BC), the emperor who unified China, was born about this time. He became ruler of Qin at age 13. In 2006 Tan Dun’s opera “The First Emperor," premiered at the NY Metropolitan with Placido Domingo as the Emperor. It was based on the life of Qin Shi Huang (First August and Divine Emperor).
    (WSJ, 12/27/06, p.D8)(Econ, 9/8/07, p.87)

247BC    Li Ssu left Ch’u and traveled to Ch’in, a kingdom where Legalist doctrines were practiced. He found employment with Lu Pu-wei, the king’s grand councilor, who was compiling an encyclopedia. Lu Ssu soon became tutor to Prince Zheng, heir to the throne of Ch’in.
    (ON, 9/04, p.2)

246BC    In China the Ch’in completed the Chengkuo canal connecting the Ching and Lo rivers. This created a key agricultural and economic area in western Szechuan. About the same time the last Chou ruler was deposed.
    (eawc, p.14)

246BC    Qin Shihuangdi (13), became the head of Qin, one of 7 major Chinese states.
    (AM, 9/01, p.35)

231BC    King Qin Shihuangdi (28), head of one of 7 major states, embarked on a series of campaigns that in 10 years created China. The king of Ch’in invaded Han.
    (AM, 9/01, p.35)(ON, 9/04, p.3)

230BC    The capital of Han fell. Its king and entire extended family were massacred. Han was absorbed by Ch’in and under Li Ssu’s direction was transformed into a Legalist state.
    (ON, 9/04, p.3)

228BC    The Kingdom of Chao fell to the Ch’in.
    (ON, 9/04, p.3)

225BC    The Kingdom of Wei fell to the Ch’in.
    (ON, 9/04, p.3)

223BC    The Kingdom of Ch’u fell to the Ch’in. Li Ssu had the royal family spared.
    (ON, 9/04, p.3)

222BC    The Kingdom of Yen fell to the Ch’in. The royal family was slaughtered.
    (ON, 9/04, p.3)

221BC    The Kingdom of Ch’i fell to the Ch’in and Li Ssu advised King Zheng that there were no other countries worth conquering. King Zheng proclaimed himself Shi Huangdi, “First Emperor of the World Under Heaven."
    (ON, 9/04, p.3)
221BC    The Qin (Ch’in) unified China at the end of the "Warring States." King Zheng engaged in a process of unifying 7 kingdoms in China under a central bureaucracy. He killed most of the people in the 6 rival kingdoms and buried alive 400 scholars whose loyalty he questioned. The 1998 Chinese film "The Emperor’s Shadow" was directed by Zhou Xiaowen. It was a historical drama of the first emperor (Ying Zheng or Jiang Wen) of a united China. The 1999 film "The Emperor and the Assassin," directed by Chen Kaige, was about Zheng.
    (eawc, p.5,14)(NH, 7/96, p.31)(WSJ, 9/27/96, p.A16)(SFC, 6/24/98, p.E3)(SFEC, 12/12/99, Par p.11)(SFEC, 1/16/00, DB p.42)

221BC-206BC        Qin Shi Huang ruled as the first emperor of China. His tomb is in X’ian, one of the ancient capitals of China, and is guarded by thousands of life-sized terra-cotta soldiers. He fixed Chinese script of 2,500 characters. The Great Wall of China was completed under Shi Huangdi and his minister Li Ssu. In 2001 it was found that the Great Wall extended into Gansu province to Xinjiang and measured 4,470 miles. The wall was extended during the Ming Dynasty. In 1990 Arthur Waldron authored “The Great Wall of China."
    (WSJ, 2/19/98, p.A20)(SFC, 2/23/01, p.A20)(ON, 9/04, p.3)(WSJ, 5/10/06, p.D12)

221BC-220AD        A section of the Great Wall was built during the Qin (221-206 BC) and Han (206 BC to 220 AD) dynasties in northeastern Jilin province. In 2009 the Xinhua news agency reported the discovery of this section, 11km (6.7 miles) further east than what was previously thought to be the wall's terminus.
    (AFP, 9/22/09)

214BC        In China the building of the Great Wall was begun. It was designed to keep out the destitute and starving nomadic Hsiung Nu people.
    (eawc, p.15)
214BC        Guangdong province became a part of China.
    (WSJ, 9/16/99, p.A26)

213BC        Minister Li Ssu convinced Ch’in King Zheng to outlaw all philosophies except Legalism. Some 500 Confucian scholars resisted and were buried alive. A number of Confucian and Taoist libraries were burned.
    (ON, 9/04, p.4)

210BC        Qin Shi Huang (b.259BC), the first emperor of China, died while on a journey. His death was kept quite until the entourage returned home. He was buried near the city of Xi'ab in Central China with some 7-8,000 larger-than-life terracotta soldiers. The soldiers had real weapons and each had distinct facial features. Villagers found the 1st terracotta figure in 1974. [see Jul 11, 1975] Qin Shi Huangdi provided his empire with a uniform script, currency, a measuring system and a bureaucracy.
    (Smith., 4/95, p. 33,34)(WSJ, 3/11/97, p.A20)(HN, 7/11/01)(Econ, 9/8/07, p.87)
210BC        Crown Prince Fu Su, an anti-Legalist, committed suicide on orders from a forged message. Prince Hu-hai was installed as the Second Emperor. Chief eunuch Chao Kao and Li Ssu shared power at first but Chao Kao gained the backing of Hu-hai.
    (ON, 9/04, p.4)

208BC        Ch’in Chief eunuch Chao Kao had Li Ssu arrested and condemned to death. Most of Li Ssu’s reforms, including standardized writing, measurement and money, survived for over 2,000 years.
    (ON, 9/04, p.4)(EWH, 1968, p.57)

207BC        The end of the Ch’in Dynasty.
    (eawc, p.14)

206BC-195BC        In China Han Kao-tzu (Liu Ping), a man of humble origins, became the first ruler of the Han Dynasty. The dynasty lasted to 9CE.
    (eawc, p.15)

206BC-25    In 2003 China's Xinhua News Agency reported that archaeologists in western China had discovered five earthenware jars of 2,000-year-old rice wine in an ancient Han dynasty tomb (206BCE-25CE), and its bouquet was still strong enough to perk up the nose.
    (AP, 6/21/03)

206BC-220    The Han Dynasty ruled in China. The Western Han period. In the early Han period Prince Liu Sheng had a jade suit made of 2,498 pieces sewn together with gold thread for his death. Jade was also used to make plugs for his bodies orifices.
    (NH, 7/96, p.31)(WSJ, 2/19/98, p.A20)(WSJ, 2/19/98, p.A20)(WSJ, 9/27/96, p.A16)

206BC-220    The Zhangfei Temple was built on the Yangtze during this period. It was expected to disappear following the construction of the Three Gorges Dam in 2009.
    (SSFC, 4/14/02, p.C8)

202BC        Liu Pang claimed the Chinese Imperial throne. He was the 1st of 27 Lius to reign.
    (NG, Feb, 04, p.12)

200BC        The natural history classic "Erya" said that the Yangtze River was teeming with baiji, a freshwater white dolphin. By 1998 the baiji were on the verge of extinction.
    (SFC, 3/23/98, p.A8)

195BC        China's 1st Han Emperor Liu Pang died and his empress Lu Zhi took the empire for her own family.
    (NG, Feb, 04, p.13)(www.infoplease.com/ce6/people/A0830015.html)

186BC     In China Li Cang, the prime minister of Changsha, died. Lady Dai, his wife, died about 20 years later. Her tomb was found in the early 1970s on Mawangdui, a hill in Changsha, near the capital of Hunan Province. More than 1,400 equally well-preserved artifacts were found around her, designed to help her in the afterlife.
    (AP, 9/17/09)

180BC        The Liu clan regained control of China and enthroned Emperor Wen, a surviving son of Liu Bang.
    (NG, Feb, 04, p.13)

156BC-141BC    In China Han Ching-ti ruled the Han Dynasty.
    (eawc, p.15)

154BC        In China Han Ching-ti wrote the laws of inheritance that made all sons co-heirs of their father’s estate.
    (eawc, p.15)

145BC-90BC    In China Su-ma Ch’ien, the historian and author of the "Records of the Historian," was born. He included social and economic consideration in his history but mentioned nothing of Han Wu-ti and his administration. He was eventually castrated by Wu-ti after writing an apology on behalf of the Hsiung Nu. He died around 90BCE.
    (eawc, p.15)

141BC        Wu Di (15) became China's 5th Han emperor.
    (NG, Feb, 04, p.14)

133BC        China's Emperor Wu Di declared war on the Xiongnu, a nomadic people in northwest China.
    (NG, Feb, 04, p.15)

117BC        The original salt monopoly was set up during the Han dynasty.
    (WSJ, 6/20/01, p.A1)

110BC        The Han Dynasty subsumed northern Vietnam into imperial China about this time.
    (Econ, 7/23/16, p.67)

105BC        The Jihong Bridge across the Lancang River in Yunnan, China, was built. It linked 2 portions of the Southern Silk Road.
    (SFEC, 10/6/96, T5)

87BC        Chinese Emperor Wu Di died. Sima Qian, historian of the era, had been castrated by Wu Di for daring to stand in support of a disgraced general.
    (NG, Feb, 04, p.21)

37BC-448 The Koguryo kingdom straddled what is now North Korea and part of South Korea and the northeastern Chinese region of Manchuria. It spread Buddhism throughout the region.
    (AP, 2/1/04)

16BC        Flying Swallow (16) became empress to China's Emperor Cheng.
    (NG, Feb, 04, p.12)

1CE        The 2000 year-old city of Dujiangyan, perched on the hills where the River Min leaves the Tibetan highlands for the Sichuan plain, was founded.
    (SFC,12/26/97, p.A18)

2CE        A Chinese census counted 57,671,400 people.
    (NG, Feb, 04, p.12)

9CE        Jan, Wang Mang seized the throne from the Liu family and founded the Xin (or Hsin, meaning "new") Dynasty.

23CE        Oct 26, Wang Mang (b.~45BC), emperor of the Western Han Dynasty, died. His rule marks the separation between the Western Han Dynasty (before Xin) and Eastern Han Dynasty (after Xin). Chinese rebels known as Red Eyebrows entered Changan and beheaded Emp. Wang Mang. Liu Xiu (Guang Wu Di), a 9th generation descendant of Emp. Liu Bang, proclaimed himself emperor and led his followers to Luoyang to begin the Eastern Han rule. 
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Wang_Mang)(NG, Feb, 04, p.21)

25CE        Aug 5, Emperor Guangwu (5BC-57CE), became emperor of the Chinese Han Dynasty. He was born as Liu Xiu and became founder of the Later Han or Eastern Han (the restored Han Dynasty). He ruled over parts of China at first, and through suppression and conquest of regional warlords, the whole of China was consolidated by the time of his death. His government used rumors as a barometer of public sentiment. In 2011 Lu Zongli authored “Rumors in the Han Dynasty."
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Emperor_Guangwu_of_Han)(Econ, 3/17/12, p.56)

25-220        The Eastern Han Dynasty received embassies from Persia who brought lions to the court as tribute. From this originated the Lion Dancing which represents purity and protection to the Chinese. The dances are preformed on special occasions and on the Chinese New year.
    (Hem. 1/95, p. 123)

36        Chinese troops defeated the Hun ruler Zhizhi in what later became Uzbekistan. Among the captives were 145 Romans.
    (Econ, 12/18/04, p.59)

36        Ancient Chinese records recorded an August meteor shower that was later assumed to be the Perseids. The meteorites originated when the Swift-Tuttle comet passed so close to the sun that its ice head melted and left a stream of pea-sized particles.
    (SFC, 8/11/99, p.A2)

49        The Puyo tribe, living along the Sungari River in Manchuria, had their chief recognized as a wang (king) by the Chinese. Koguryo developed into a state during the long reign of Taejo that began four years later.

56        Huan Tan, Go strategist, died. In his book “Xin Lun" (New Treatise) he advised that the best approach to the game is to spread your pieces widely so as to encircle the opponent.
    (Econ, 12/18/04, p.128)

57CE        Mar 29, Chinese Han dynasty Emperor Guangwu (b.5BC), born as Liu Xiu, died. He had established his capital in Luoyang, 335 km (208 mi) east of the former capital Chang'an, ushering in the Later/Eastern Han dynasty. Guangwu was succeeded by Crown Prince Zhuang, who ascended the throne as Emperor Ming.

57CE        The King of Nakoku sent an envoy to the Eastern Han capital Loyang, the 1st recorded envoy to China from Japan.
57CE        Chinese Emperor Guangwu gave an envoy from the kingdom of Wa, as Japan was then known, a solid gold seal, with a handle in the form of a coiled serpent.
    (Econ., 5/9/20, p.52)

67        Two monks entered China on the Silk Road and introduced Buddhism in Luoyang.
    (NG, Feb, 04, p.28)

c100        The first Chinese dictionary was compiled about this time.
    (ATC, p.33)

105        Ts'ai Lun (Cai Lun), a Chinese government official (eunuch), told Emperor He about making zhi, i.e. paper. He used bark from mulberry trees and plant fiber pounded into pulp, which were then dried and matted into sheets. By the end of the second century, the Chinese were printing books on rag paper using wooden type.
    (NG, Feb, 04, p.9)(SSFC, 5/26/13, p.F5)(Econ, 6/7/14, p.87)

132        Zhang Heng introduced an earthquake weathercock, a device that could inform the Chinese court of a distant earthquake.
    (NG, Feb, 04, p.28)

135        Chinese astronomers recorded what later became known as a supernova.
    (SFC, 11/6/09, p.A7)

166        A Roman envoy arrived in China. This was their 1st recorded official contact.
    (ATC, p.33)(Econ, 12/18/04, p.58)

184        A Chinese peasant uprising threatened the capital.
    (NG, Feb, 04, p.28)

185        Dec 7, Emperor Lo-Yang of China saw a supernova (MSH15-52?).
    (MC, 12/7/01)

190        General Dong Zhuo seized power in China and placed a child, Liu Xie, on the throne.
    (NG, Feb, 04, p.28)
190        The abacus was invented about this time.
    (NW, 9/16/02, p.34D)

200-300    The scholar Wang Bi wrote an extensive commentary on the I Ching. He lived only to the age of 23. His commentaries dominate Chinese thinking on the I Ching until the Confucian revival in the 11th century. In 1997 an English translation by Richard John Lynn was published.
    (NH, 9/97, p.12)

220        The Han Dynasty dissolved as Liu Xie abdicated. Three separate kingdoms became established: Shu in the west, Wu to the east of the gorges, and Wei in the north. The later classic "Tale of the Three Kingdoms" traced the collapse of the Han Dynasty.
    (NH, 7/96, p.33)(WSJ, 9/16/99, p.A26)(NG, Feb, 04, p.28)

220        Cao Cao (65), skillful Chinese general and ruler, died. He built the strongest and most prosperous state in northern China during the Three Kingdoms period (208-280), when China had three separate rulers. In 2009 Chinese archeologists discovered his tomb in Xigaoxue, a village near the ancient capital of Anyang in central Henan province.
    (AP, 12/28/09)

223        The Shu king Liu Bei died at Baidi Cheng (White Emperor City).
    (NH, 7/96, p.33)

232-238    Tens of thousands of bamboo strips and wooden boards recording regional government matters during the Three Kingdoms period were found in an ancient well during construction in 1997 in the southern city of Changsha.
    (AM, May/Jun 97 p.26)

244        The Chinese state of Wei sent a force of 20,000 and took the Koguryo capital while the Puyo made an alliance by supplying the Chinese troops.

280-473    During some time in this period Sun Zi, also known as Master Sun, authored the famous Chinese mathematical text “Sun Tze Suan Ching." The 3-volume book contained the Chinese remainder problem in volume 3.
    (www.math.sfu.ca/histmath/China/3rdCenturyBC/Sunzi.html)(Econ, 3/24/07, p.92)

285        When Xienpei tribes from the north attacked, Puyo king Uiryo committed suicide; but the Chinese Qin state helped fight them off.

c300-400    Kuqa on the silk road in western China was a Buddhist center of learning.
    (SFEC, 11/22/98, p.T5)
c300-400    Hua mei (song thrush birds) fighting dates back to at least the Northern Wei dynasty of the 4th century.
    (WSJ, 4/6/00, p.A20)

303-360    Wang Xizhi, calligrapher. He is credited with taking the art of calligraphy to a higher level with the marriage of technical mastery and unprecedented individuality.
    (WSJ, 10/5/00, p.A24)

313        Nanai-vandak, a Sogdian agent, wrote that "The last emperor fled from Louyang [the eastern capital of China] because of famine and fire" due to nomadic invasions.
    (AM, 9/01, p.50)

386-535    The Northern Wei Dynasty is associated with the spread of Buddhism from India to China.
    (AM, 9/01, p.49)

470        Chinese philosopher Mozi (b.391) died about this time. Mohism or Moism was an ancient Chinese philosophy of logic, rational thought and science developed by the academic scholars who studied under Mozi and embodied in an eponymous book: the Mozi. Mozi taught that everyone is equal in the eyes of heaven. For those in power he believed that it should be based on meritocracy, or those who are worthy of power receive power.

477        The Shaolin Monastery, the cradle of kung fu and Zen Buddhism was founded in Dengfeng County, Henan province, China. In 495 the Shaolin Temple was built in the foothills of Mount Songshan, Henan province. It was later considered as the birthplace for Shaolin boxing, a combination of Buddhism and Chinese martial arts that evolved into kung fu (gongfu). In 1998 it established the Henan Shaolin Industrial Development Co as a vehicle to file for trademarks.
    (https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Shaolin_Monastery)(SFC, 9/26/02, p.B3)(Econ., 12/19/20, p.107)

500        China’s Grand Canal between Beijing and Hangzhou was finished about this time.
    (Econ, 10/12/13, p.16)

500-600    The historical Bodhidharma (known as Daruma in Japan) was an Indian sage who lived sometime in the fifth or sixth century AD. He is commonly considered the founder of Chan (Zen) Buddhism, and credited with Chan's introduction to China. Daruma’s philosophy arrived first in China, where it flowered and was called Chan Buddhism. Only centuries later did it bloom in Japan, where it is called Zen.

502-557    The Chinese Liang stele dates to this time.
    (WSJ, 2/19/98, p.A20)

535        Feb, In Southern China the Nan Shi Ancient Chronicle reported that "yellow dust rained down like snow."
    (WSJ, 5/15/00, p.A46)

550-577    The Northern Qi dynasty ruled in China. A wall parallel to the Great Wall in the Jinshanling area is attributed to their rule.
    (SFC, 2/9/06, p.E4)

552        Agents from Byzantium impersonating monks smuggled silkworms and mulberry leaves out of China in hollow canes.
    (WSJ, 1/11/99, p.R50)(Econ, 8/23/08, p.51)

581-618    The Sui Dynasty ruled in China. The "Sui Shu" are the annals of the Sui Dynasty and mention of cormorant fishing in Japan is made.
    (Jap. Enc., BLDM, p. 214)(SFEC, 8/11/96, Z1, p.6)(NH, 10/98, p.69)

589        Japanese official diplomatic delegations were sent to China (during the Sui dynasty) to learn Chinese culture, including Chinese court music, Gagaku (elegant music).

598-658    Chu Suilang: Tang Dynasty calligrapher.
    (SFC, 5/14/03, p.D1)

600        Yang Di (Yangdi), a Sui emperor, extended the Grand Canal. He reportedly assumed power by poisoning his father. Ma Shu-mou, aka Mahu, was one of the canal overseers and was said to have eaten a steamed 2-year-old child each day he worked on the canal. On completion the canal extended for 1,100 miles. 5.5 million people were pressed into service to complete 1,550 mile canal.
    (WSJ, 10/25/99, p.A50)(WSJ, 1/11/99, p.R51)

600        Li Shimin, son of Chinese General Li Yuan (the Duke of Tang), was born about this time.
    (ON, 5/06, p.1)

c600-700    The 7th century Chinese Buddhist pilgrim Hsuan-tsang sought out the sources of Buddhism in India.
    (AM, 9/01, p.48)
600-700    The silk road linking China’s merchants with Central Asia, the Middle East, Africa and Europe was revived in the 7th century after war had made it unusable for hundreds of years.
    (Econ, 7/2/16, p.37)
600-700     Dongba pictographs were used as early as the 7th century, during the early Tang Dynasty. By the Song Dynasty in the 10th century, dongba was widely used by the Naxi people.
    (https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Dongba_symbols)(Econ., 10/10/20, p.38)   

615        Yang Di (Yangdi), a Chinese Sui emperor, announced a 4th attempt to conquer Korea. In response to peasant rebellions in the north, Yangdi moved to the eastern city of Yangzhou.
    (ON, 5/06, p.1)

617        Jun, Chinese general Li Yuan (the Duke of Tang) declared his rebellion and ordered the Tang army to prepare a march against Chang’an (later Xian), capital of China and the world’s largest city.
    (ON, 5/06, p.2)(Econ, 3/15/08, p.101)

617        Dec 12, The Chinese city of Chang’an fell to the Tang army.
    (ON, 5/06, p.2)

618        Apr, General Li Yuan, the Duke of Tang, claimed the throne of China after receiving word that Emperor Yangdi had been assassinated in the city of Yangzhou. Yuan proclaimed himself Emperor Gaozu, the 1st monarch of the new Tang dynasty.
    (ON, 5/06, p.3)

618-907    The Tang Dynasty was in China. The marble head of Eleven-headed Avalokiteshvara dates to the Tang period. Porcelain was invented during the T’ang dynasty. Dongjing music, used by disciples of Confucius for meditation and by Taoists to accompany chanting, became the court music of the Tang Dynasty.
    (Jap. Enc., BLDM, p. 214)(NH, 7/96, p.32)(WSJ, 2/19/98, p.A20)(WSJ, 8/28/98, p.W10)(SFC, 3/28/00, p.A10)
618-907    The area of Tiananmen Square was first cleared.
    (SFC, 6/25/98, p.A8)

620        In northern China Gen’l. Li Shimin (~20) attacked Luoyang, which was held by the warlord Wang Shichong.
    (ON, 5/06, p.3)

621        Mar, In China a force of 120,000 men from Xia province advanced to rescue the city of Luoyang.
    (ON, 5/06, p.3)

621        May 28, In China Dou Jiande, general of the Xia army, was wounded and captured by the Tang army under Gen’l. Li Shimin at Hulao Pass. 3,000 Xia were killed and 50,000 were taken prisoners. The city of Luoyang soon surrendered. Xia province surrendered in turn.
    (ON, 5/06, p.4)

626        In China Gen’l. Li Shimin foiled an assassination attempt by 2 brothers. He ambushed his older brother, Jianchen, killing him with a bow and arrow, and became the oldest son and crown prince. Li Yuan abdicated 2 months later and Shimin became the new ruler under the name Emperor Taizong.
    (ON, 5/06, p.4)

630-700    Dee Jen-djieh, district magistrate, was born in the town of Tai-yuan. He was promoted to Minister of Sate with the title Duke Liang.  A novel of his judicial and detective work was written in the 18th century and translated by Robert Van Bulick in the late 20th cent. in a series of books title the Celebrated Cases of Judge Dee.
    (RBI, 1989, nar. by N. Dietz)

632        Hiuan-tsang, an Chinese pilgrim, visited the great Buddhas of Bamiyan in Afghanistan.
    (WSJ, 12/20/01, p.A13)

671        Chinese monk I-Tsing, wrote that he visited Srivijaya in for 6 months during this year. Srivijaya (also written Sri Vijaya) was a powerful ancient thalassocratic Malay empire based on the island of Sumatra, modern day Indonesia, which influenced much of Southeast Asia.

685        A manual on calligraphy was made. It summarized the aesthetic ideals and theories of Chinese writing.
    (SFEC, 10/6/96, DB p.37)

c696        Feng Du, a 1,300-year-old Tang dynasty city near the Yangtze River gorges, known as the city of ghosts.
    (WSJ, 10/8/96, p.A20)

699        Li Po (d.762), classical Chinese poet, was born. His poems included "Drinking Alone With the Moon."
    (SFC, 10/30/03, p.A26)

c700-1300    Dali was the capital of an independent kingdom of what became Yunnan province.
    (SFEC, 11/8/98, p.A30)

713        In China construction began on the Great Buddha of Leshan under the direction of the monk Haitong. It was completed after 90 years. In 2002 a $30 million restoration project aimed to preserve the 233-foot statue, the largest Buddha in the world.
    (Arch, 9/02, p.19)

c722        In China a 233-foot Buddha was built in Sichuan province. In 2002 a $30 million restoration project was undertaken.
    (SFC, 7/4/02, p.A12)

751        The Chinese army was beaten by the Arabs of the Abassid Caliphate at the Battle of Talas (Kyrgyzstan). Chinese prisoners soon taught Arabs the technology for making paper.
    (http://tinyurl.com/lwk9h5a)(Econ, 6/7/14, p.87)

755        Dec 16, The An Lushan rebellion began when general An Lushan declared himself emperor in Northern China, establishing a rival Yan Dynasty. The rebellion was quashed in 763.
    (Econ, 6/9/12, p.87)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/An_Lushan_Rebellion)

762        Li Bai (b.701), Chinese poet, died. He was acclaimed from his own day to the present as a genius and a romantic figure who took traditional poetic forms to new heights.

763        Feb 17, The An Lushan rebellion, begun in 755, ended. It had spanned the reigns of 3 Tang emperors before it was quashed. The rebellion and subsequent disorder resulted in a huge loss of life and large-scale destruction.
    (Econ, 6/9/12, p.87)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/An_Lushan_Rebellion)

763        Tibetan armies occupied the capital of China.
    (SFEM, 1/24/99, p.6)

765        Dec 31, The coffin of Ho-tse Shen-hui was interred in a stupa built in China.
    (MC, 12/31/01)

766        The poet Du Fu arrived in Baidi Cheng.
    (NH, 7/96, p.33)

772        Mar 1, Po Tjiu-I (Bai Juyi), Chinese poet (d.846), Governor of Hang-tsjow, was born. His work included the narrative poem "Song of the Pipa," which protested the social evils of his day.
    (WSJ, 3/17/00, p.W2)(SC, 3/1/02)

800-900    The 9th cent. poet Chu Chen Pu wrote about the hedgehog.
    (NH, 7/98, p.54)
c800-900    "The Diamond Sutra,’ a 9th century Chinese work, was found in 1900 in a cave in Duhuang by Sir Airel Stein, a British scholar-explorer, and handed over to the British Library.
    (SFEC, 6/11/00, p.A30)
800-900    The Uygur, a Turkic people, fled the Mongolian steppe and settled in Xinjiang.
    (NG, Feb, 04, p.12)

855        A version of "Cinderella" came from China about this time.
    (SFEC, 5/25/97, Z1 p.7)

868        A scroll of Buddhism’s “Diamond Sutra" was commissioned and dated by a man named Wang Jie as a gift to his parents. It was discovered in 1907 in one of the 450 Mogao Caves of Dunhuang in China’s northwestern Gansu Province.
    (SSFC, 5/8/16, p.C143)

c900-950    The 7-foot hanging scroll, ink-on-silk masterpiece "Riverbank" by Dong Yuan was created. It is the earliest surviving example of monumental Chinese landscape painting. The work was also thought to be a forgery by Chang Da-chien (1899-1983) through whom it passed to the New York Met.
    (WSJ, 7/2/97, p.A12)(WSJ, 7/24/97, p.A16)(WSJ, 12/13/99, p.A32)

902-970    Tao Gu. He wrote "Qing yi lu," (An Examination of Strange Accounts). He mentioned the Chinese use of cormorants for fishing.
    (NH, 10/98, p.69)

907-1279    "The Five Dynasties and the Song Period" by Richard M. Barnhart is the first section of Wu Hung’s 1997 "The Origins of Chinese Painting."
    (WSJ, 1/2/98, p.6)

939        Vietnam King Ngo Quyen (897-944) routed the Chinese in northern Vietnam and renamed the territory Dai Viet (Greater Viet).
    (Econ, 7/23/16, p.67)

940        Mount Paektu, a volcano straddling the border between North Korea and China, erupted about this time and covered a swath of North-East Asia in ashes. The millennium eruption is believed to have occurred between 930 and 940 AD.
    (Econ, 10/26/13, p.48)(AP, 9/3/14)

960-1127    The period of the Northern Song Dynasty. Most artistic representations of nature during this period carried auspicious meanings, e.g. bamboo signified resilience in the face of diversity, and the cicada bespoke immortality.
    (NH, 7/00, p.59)(SFC, 5/14/03, p.D3)

960-1279    The Sung (Song) dynasty ruled over China. It was from this period that the Japanese tea ceremony originated; the ritual was developed for a tranquility of mind. Since this period mountainous looking rocks have been prized as objects of contemplation.
    (Hem, Dec. 94, p.64)(SFC, 6/4/96, p.E5)

967        Li Cheng (b.919), Chinese artist of the song Dynasty, died.
    (SFC, 6/28/08, p.E1)

976        Nov 14, T'ai tsu, emperor of China and founder of Sung-dynasty, died.
    (MC, 11/14/01)

c998-1061    Bao Qingtian (Bao Zheng), Chinese judge of the Song Dynasty, had a reputation for sticking up for the common man.
    (Econ, 4/23/05, p.43)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bao_Zheng)

1000         Gunpowder was invented in China about this time.

1000-1100    There was a Confucian revival in China. The scholar Ch’eng I held that the I Ching was a means of inquiry into any possible matter.
    (NH, 9/97, p.12)

1000-1100    Chinese kilns mass produced ceramics for the imperial court.
    (WSJ, 1/11/99, p.R25)

1006        May 1, A supernova was observed by Chinese and Egyptians in constellation Lupus.
    (MC, 5/1/02)

1017        In China a hermit introduced the prime minister to "variolation," an inoculation using germs from smallpox survivors.
    (NW, 10/14/02, p.47)

1023        In China a government agency was formed to print paper money.
    (WSJ, 1/11/99, p.R42)

1024        In China the first state-backed paper money was introduced.
    (Econ, 2/25/12, SRp.4)

1030        A landslide on the Yangtze River cut off navigation for 21 years.
    (NH, 7/96, p.32)

1030        Fan Kuan (b.960), Chinese artist, died. His work included “Travelers and Streams and Mountains."
    (WSJ, 10/29/08, p.D9)

1030-1093    In China Shen Kua was an engineer and high official Chinese astronomer. In his1086 work "Dream Pool Essays," Shen Kua made the first reference to the magnetic compass. The work also gave the first account of relief maps and an explanation of the origin of fossils, along with other scientific observations. Shen Kua wrote his essays after being banished from office after an army under his command lost 60,000 killed in a battle with Khitan tribes.
    (WSJ, 1/11/99, p.R14)(HNQ, 4/22/99)

1041        In China Bi Sheng devised the first movable-type printing system with clay characters.
    (WSJ, 1/11/99, p.R14)

1045-1105    Huang Tingjian, calligrapher.
    (WSJ, 10/5/00, p.A24)

1075        The Jiaozhi (Vietnam) launched a war against China, with a force of some 100,000 surrounding Yongzhou (the southern region of Nanning). It was captured after a siege of 42 days.

1077-1090    The "heavenly clockwork," a mechanical water clock of Su Sung, was housed in a pagoda 5 stories high.
    (AM, 3/04, p.44)
1086        In China Shen Kua (1030-1093) gave an account of a magnetic compass for navigation in his work "Dream Pool Essays." The work also gave the first account of relief maps and an explanation of the origin of fossils, along with other scientific observations. Shen Kua wrote his essays after being banished from office after an army under his command lost 60,000 killed in a battle with Khitan tribes.
    (WSJ, 1/11/99, p.R14)(HNQ, 4/22/99)

1090        Guo Xi (b.~1001), Chinese artist of the song Dynasty, died about this time.
    (SFC, 6/28/08, p.E1)

1100-1200    The 16-foot scroll titled “Qingming Shanghe Tu" (Qingming Festival on the River) was created in the 12th century. It was believed to have been painted by Zhang Zeduan, an artist of the Song Dynasty.
    (SFC, 9/14/05, p.E2)(www.ibiblio.org/ulysses/gec/painting/qingming/)
1100-1200    The Song capital of Kaifeng in northern China was later believed to have been the most populous city of this period.
    (Econ, 1/21/12, p.44)

1101-1125    Huizong ruled over China. He was a calligrapher, painter and Confucian advocate of embracing antiquity. He broadened the scope of Imperial collecting to embrace bronze ritual objects as well as old paintings and calligraphy.
    (SFEC, 10/6/96, DB p.36)

1107        China printed money in 3 colors to thwart counterfeiters.
    (WSJ, 1/11/99, p.R42)

1107        Mi Fu (b.1051), Chinese calligrapher of the Northern Song period, died.
    (SFC, 5/14/03, p.D3)(SFC, 7/1/06, p.E1)

1127-1279    In 2007 Chinese archeologists raised a merchant ship loaded with porcelain and other rare antiques to the surface in a specially built basket. The 100-foot Nanhai No. 1, discovered in 1987, sank off the south China coast during the Southern Song Dynasty (1127-1279).
    (AP, 12/21/07)

1130        China’s Master-of-the-Nets Garden in Suzhou was built about this time.
    (SSFC, 6/25/06, p.A16)

1130-1200    Chu codified Confucian thought.
    (SFEC, 11/28/99, Z1 p.5)

1132        Invaders established what became known as the southern Song dynasty in Hangzhou.
    (WSJ, 1/11/99, p.R51)

1142        Jan 28, Yue Fei (b.1103), Chinese military general, died. There are conflicting views on how Yue died. According to The History of China: (The Greenwood Histories of the Modern Nations) and other sources, Yue died in prison. The Chronicle of Yue, Prince of E of Song says he was killed in prison. Fei was also a calligrapher, and poet who lived during the Southern Song dynasty. A biography of Yue Fei, the Eguo Jintuo Zubian, was written 60 years after his death by his grandson, the poet and historian Yue Ke.

1153        A chicken restaurant, the world's oldest existing eatery, opened in Kai-Feng, China.
    (WSJ, 1/11/99, p.R34)

1155        A map of western China was printed and is the oldest known printed map.
    (WSJ, 1/11/99, p.R14)

1160-1225    Ma Yuan, an academic painter, made his Southern Song masterpiece "Banquet by Lantern Light."
    (SFEC, 10/6/96, DB p.37)

1167        Genghis Khan (d.1227)  was born in the Hentiyn Nuruu mountains north of Ulan Bator in the early 1160's (it has been argued between 1162 and 1167, but recently agreement has been made for 1167), the son of the Kiyat-Borjigid chieftain Yisugei. His given name was Temujin, "the ironsmith," and he seized control over much of 5 million square miles that covered China, Iran, Iraq, Burma, Vietnam, and most of Korea and Russia. His efforts in Vietnam were not successful. "In Search of Genghis Khan" is a book by Tim Severin. He was succeeded by his son Ogedai, who was succeeded by Guyuk. Ogedai ignored numerous pleas from his brother Chaghatai to cut down on his drinking and died of alcoholism as did Guyuk.
    (WSJ, 1/11/99, p.R6)(www.royalalbertamuseum.ca/vexhibit/genghis/biog.htm)

1178        A Chinese colored scroll from this time depicted Buddhist guardians washing their clothes in a mountain stream. Buddha (d.483BCE) was said to have entrusted 16 disciples with the task of guarding the faith.
    (SFC, 12/5/03, p.D7)

1181        Aug 4, A supernova was seen in Cassiopeia. Chinese and Japanese astronomers observed a supernova. The star 3C58 was later identified as the heart of the explosion in the constellation Cassiopeia. In 2002 it was thought to be composed of quarks.
    (MC, 8/4/02)(SFC, 4/11/02, p.A2)

1191        Zen Buddhism, guided by the Dao (The Way) arrived to Japan from China.
    (Hem., 2/96, p.58)

1200        Jul 1, Sunglasses were invented in China.
    (MC, 7/1/02)

c1200        The painting "Reading the I Ching in the Pine Shade" was made.
    (NH, 9/97, p.)

1200-1299    Persia introduced polo to Arabia, China and India in the 13th century.
    (WSJ, 1/11/99, p.R34)

1206        Mongol leader Temujin (Genghis Khan) summoned the largest kuriltai in the history of his people. He handed down a codification of his laws and reforms, the Yasa, and named his people the Great Mongol Nation. He took the title of Chinggis Khan (Genghis Khan) and over the next twenty years conquered northern China and all of Asia west to the Caucasus. The Mongols numbered about 2 million and his army about 130,000.
    (ON, 8/12, p.10)(V.D.-H.K.p.169)(SFEM, 10/12/97, p.27)

1215-1294    Kublai Khan lived. He founded the Yuan dynasty and reunited China for the first time since the fall of the T’angs in 907. He was the grandson of Genghis Khan and established the Yuan dynasty in China. He built a court of gilded cane at Ta-tu (later Beijing) that inspired Marco Polo and Coleridge. He enforced the use of paper money and had ships built to carry 1,000 men.
    (V.D.-H.K.p.169)(WSJ, 1/11/99, p.R6)

1223        Ye Shi (b.1150), Chinese philosopher, died. He stressed practical learning and applying Confucian doctrine to real world problems.

1227        Aug 18, Genghis Khan (Chinggis), Mongol conqueror, died in his sleep at his camp, during his siege of Ningxia, the capital of the rebellious Chinese kingdom of Xi Xia. Subotai was one of Genghis Khan's ablest lieutenants, and went on to distinguish himself after the khan's death. In Khan's lifetime he and his warriors had conquered the majority of the civilized world, ruling an empire that stretched from Poland down to Iran in the west, and from Russia's Arctic shores down to Vietnam in the east.  Russian archaeologist Peter Kozloff uncovered the tomb of Genghis Khan in the Gobi Desert in 1927. In 2006 Zhu Yaoting, a Beijing academic, authored a biography of Genghis Khan.
    (AP, 8/18/97)(HN, 10/29/98)(Econ, 12/23/06, p.61)

1231        Guo Shoujing (d.1314), Chinese astronomer, was born. He developed water clocks with temperature compensation and escapements to provide high resolution time accuracy for astronomical observations, a “pinhole camera" to sharpen shadows cast by the sun and moon, mathematical tools for polynomial generation and interpolation, and other inventions for measurements.

1231-1322    The illustrated text of the Chinese Dharani Sutra of Great Splendor was created.
    (SFC, 8/21/03, p.E2)

1234        Ugoodei attacked and overcame the Chin (Juchen) dynasty of China.

1235        A murder was solved when field men were told to lay down their rice sickles and flies landed on only one.
    (SFEC, 9/28/97, Z1 p.2)

1237-1238    Batu Khan, a grandson of Genghis Khan, invaded Russia.
    (AM, Jul/Aug ‘97 p.28)

1241        Dec, The Great Khan Ogedei died after completing the Mongol conquest of China and Korea. In April the Mongols routed the armies of Poles, Germans, and Hungarians, at Liegnitz and Mohi, within easy distance of Vienna. Only the death of Ogedei stopped their advance into Europe.

1247        Zen monk Yishan Yining (d.1317), calligrapher and poet, was born.
    (WSJ, 1/8/02, p.A16)

1250        China began manufacturing guns.
    (WSJ, 1/11/99, p.R14)

1259-1294    The great Kublai Khan, a grandson of Genghis, reigned.

1253        A Franciscan friar journeyed to China to see the Great Khan.
    (WSJ, 9/4/98, p.W12)

1257        In Nepal an earthquake destroyed almost all of the Kathmandu Valley. A Newar architect named Araniko (1245-1306) emerged during the reconstruction of palaces, temples and pagodas. He was later summoned by Kublai Khan to work in Beijing, where his work included the White Stupa of Miaoying Temple, completed in 1288.
    (SSFC, 5/1/16, p.F4)(https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Araniko)

1287        The forces of Kublai Khan overran Burma. The royal city of Bagan (Pagan) was abandoned under threat from Kublai Khan in the 13th century. The brick temple of Ananda Pahto is in Bagan. More than 4,400 pagodas and 3,000 other religious structures of bricks and stones were built in Bagan, Myanmar's former capital, during a 243-year period from the 11th to 13th centuries, the result of extraordinary Buddhist fervor.
    (SFEC, 10/22/00, p.T9)(DC, 10/10/98)(AP, 12/1/03)

1260-1294    The Mongol Empire under Kublai Khan reached its height.
    (ATC, p.160)

1260-1344    Chen Shen, Chinese scholar.
    (NH, 7/00, p.59)

1260-1368    The Yuan Dynasty ruled in China with the capital in Beijing. The Yuan Dynasty was founded by Kublai Khan.
    (Jap. Enc., BLDM, p. 214)(SFC, 6/25/98, p.A8)

1260-1368    Musical productions known as Zaju became popular during the Yuan Dynasty. Zaju, an early form of opera, combined music, dance, song and speech into 4-act dramas with complex plots and characters.
    (WSJ, 1/11/99, p.R34)

1271        Aug, Jacob, an Italian-Jewish trader, arrived at the harbor of Zaitun in southeast China, 4-years before Marco Polo arrived. He wrote a manuscript that surfaced in 1997, translated by David Selbourne, a British scholar. Jacob described printing with movable wooden type, paper money, free daily newspapers, mass-circulation booklets, use of gunpowder, the practice of foot-binding, and tea-drinking. He also noted a lot of pornography and a liberated female sexuality. He described a foreign community with some 2,000 Jews and a great number of Muslims as well as Africans and Europeans and the oncoming threat of a Mongol invasion.
    (SFEC, 9/21/97, p.A23)

1271        The Mongols established the Yuan dynasty near Kahnbaliq, later Beijing.
    (WSJ, 1/11/99, p.R51)

1271-1368    "The Yuan Dynasty" by James Cahill is the 2nd section of Wu Hung’s 1997 "The Origins of Chinese Painting." The period is marked by the emergence of the literati-amateur movement.
    (WSJ, 1/2/98, p.6)

1272        Feb 24, Jacob, an Italian-Jewish trader, departed in haste from Zaitun, China. [see 1271]
    (SFEC, 9/21/97, p.A23)

1274        The first Mongol Invasion of Japan.
    (Jap. Enc., BLDM, p. 214)

1275-1292    Marco Polo left Italy for China. He lived there during the reign of Kubla Khan and learned about pasta, sherbet, and paper currency. During this time Marco Polo visited Hangzhou, called Kinsay in his writings, and described it as the finest and noblest city in the world.
    (Jap. Enc., BLDM, p. 214)(WSJ, 1/11/99, p.R14)(SSFC, 5/7/17, p.F4)

c1277        Invaders from central Asia conquered China.
    (ATC, p.73)

1279-1368    The Yuan, or Mongol, dynasty in China (1279-1368) was established by the great Kublai Khan (reigned 1259-94), a grandson of Genghis.

1280        Liu Guandao, court painter, depicted the Mongol ruler Kubilai Khan hunting on a sandy, windswept landscape.
    (SFEC, 10/6/96, DB p.37)

1280        In Germany a spinning wheel invented in China was demonstrated in Speyer.
    (WSJ, 1/11/99, p.R14)

1280-1354    Wu Chen, Chinese painter and master of calligraphy. He also mastered the play of void and presence at the heart of Chinese ink painting.
    (SFC, 10/14/96, p.B3)

1281        The second Mongol attempt to conquer Japan.
    (Jap. Enc., BLDM, p. 214)

1287        China’s government issued IOUs with a face value of a fixed number of silver coins.
    (Econ., 4/25/15, p.70)
1287        The forces of Kublai Khan overran Burma. The royal city of Bagan was abandoned under threat from Kublai Khan in the 13th century. The brick temple of Ananda Pahto is in Bagan. More than 4,400 pagodas and 3,000 other religious structures of bricks and stones were built in Bagan, Myanmar's former capital, during a 243-year period from the 11th to 13th centuries, the result of extraordinary Buddhist fervor.
    (SFEC, 10/22/00, p.T9)(DC, 10/10/98)(AP, 12/1/03)

1300-1400    The Romance of the Three Kingdoms, attributed to Luo Guanzhong, was written about this time. The historical novel was set in the turbulent years towards the end of the Han dynasty and the Three Kingdoms period in Chinese history, starting in 169 AD and ending with the reunification of the land in 280.
1300-1400    Kublai Khan made Beijing the imperial capital in the 14th century.
    (AMNHDT, 5/98)
1300-1400    Odoric of Pordenone spent 3 years in China in the 14th century.
    (NH, 10/98, p.69)
c1300-1400    Dongjing music arrived in Lijiang, the home of the minority Naxi, about this time. Chinese soldiers were settled in Lijiang at this time to guard against invaders from the west.
    (SFC, 3/28/00, p.A10)

c1308-1385    Wang Meng, Chinese artist, his work included "Temple at Mount Taibai."
    (WSJ, 1/2/98, p.6)

1313-1905    The four ancient Confucian texts, Ssu Shu, or "Four Books," were used as subject matter for official Chinese civil service exams in China. The volumes reputedly contain direct quotations from Confucius.
    (HNPD, 6/27/99)

1322        Zhao Mengfu (b.1254), Chinese calligrapher, died. His work included a hand scroll of “The Sutra on the Lotus of the Sublime Dharma." Chao Meng-fu was a prince and descendant of the Song Dynasty's imperial family, and a Chinese scholar, painter and calligrapher during the Yuan Dynasty.
    (SFC, 11/10/12, p.F1)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Zhao_Mengfu)

1327        Chinese artist Ren Renfa (b.1254) died. His work included the 6.6 foot scroll title "Five Drunken Princes Returning on Horseback." In 2020 the scroll sold for $41.8 million at a Sotheby's auction in Hong Kong.
    (https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ren_Renfa)(SFC, 10/9/20, p.A2)

1333        The Black Death erupted in China.
    (WSJ, 1/11/99, p.R54)

1342        A tombstone in Yangchou marked the death of an Italian girl named Katerina.
    (SFEC, 9/21/97, p.A23)

1350        Chinese landscape artist Huang Gongwang (1269-1354) painted "Dwelling in the Fuchun Mountains" about this time. The Yuan Dynasty painting was torn into two pieces some 360 years later by a private collector who tried to burn it as he was dying, but a relative quickly saved it from the flames Since 1949 one part has been stored in Taipei's Palace Museum, after the two sides separated during a civil war. In 2011 an exhibit in Taiwan reunited the two pieces.
    (AP, 4/22/11)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Huang_Gongwang)

1366        Wang Meng painted "Dwelling in the Qingbian Mountains."
    (SFC, 4/4/98, p.C1)

1368        Tamerlane lost control of China as the Mings took over local power. The Ming dynasty overthrew Mongol rule and slammed shut the Jade Gate to caravan traffic to Central Asia.
    (V.D.-H.K.p.172)(WSJ, 1/11/99, p.R49)

1368-1644    The period of the Ming Dynasty in China. Classical Chinese furniture refers to furniture made during the Ming and early Ching (1644-1912). During the Ming Dynasty the Great Wall of China was extended and renovated with watch towers and canons.
    (AAM, 3/96, p.9)(WSJ, 9/19/96, p.A18)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Great_Wall_of_China)
1368-1644    "The Ming Dynasty" by Yang Xin is the 3rd section of Wu Hung’s 1997 "The Origins of Chinese Painting." The period is marked by the emergence of the literati-amateur movement.
    (WSJ, 1/2/98, p.6)
1368-1644    China extended its hegemony over the Ryukyu Islands legitimating 3 kings in exchange for submission to the Ming emperor.
    (NH, 9/01, p.56)

1369        Hongwu, the first Ming emperor, established an imperial kiln at Jungdezhen (Jingdezhen) in south-central China. It became a famous porcelain center.
    (SFEC, 10/6/96, DB p.37)

1371-1435    Cheng Ho (Zheng He), eunuch admiral of the Ming dynasty, explored the Indian Ocean.
    (WSJ, 1/11/99, p.R51)

1372        The 1st Ryukyuan emissaries reached Nanjing and presented tribute to the Ming emperor.
    (NH, 9/01, p.56)

1391        China's Bureau of Imperial Supplies produced 2-foot by 3-foot sheets of toilet paper for use by the emperor.
    (WSJ, 9/10/03, p.B1)

1400        The Malaysian city of Malacca was founded and it was soon used by Zheng He, a Chinese Muslim from the Ming court, as a base for his treasure ships.
    (Econ, 11/15/14, SR p.5)

c1400-1425    Yong Le, the 3rd Ming emperor, created a permanent imperial residence in Beijing. Work was done by some 200,000 laborers and in time became the 8,886-room complex called the "Forbidden City."
    (WSJ, 1/11/99, p.R36)

1400-1500    A Shang Xi 15th cent. painting portrayed "The Xuande Emperor on an Outing."
    (WSJ, 2/19/98, p.A20)

1404-1423    China controlled the price of tea and was able to increase its stock of horses from 20,000 to 1,600,000.
    (WSJ, 8/15/00, p.A24)

1405        Admiral Zheng He, a Muslim eunuch, led a Ming dynasty fleet with 28,000 men through Southeast Asia to India and on to Africa and the Middle East. From 1405 to 1433 Zheng He led 7 voyages to promote trade and recognition of the Ming dynasty.
    (WSJ, 1/11/99, p.R51)(WSJ, 11/18/06, p.P11)(AP, 2/26/10)

1406        The Palace of Heavenly Purity, later renamed the People’s Cultural Palace, was built.
    (SFC,12/22/97, p.E7)

1408        The Yongle Encyclopedia was published in China. It consisted of thousands of volumes containing the knowledge of some 2,000 scholars.
    (WSJ, 3/18/09, p.A13)

1410-1419    Albertin de Virga, a Venetian, published a map during this period that described unexplored regions of Africa and Asia. It was later believed that he used Chinese sources.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/De_Virga_world_map)(Econ, 1/14/06, p.81)

1411-1430    Yishiha, a eunuch commander of the Ming dynasty, took several expeditions down the Amur River, which the Chinese called Heilongjiang (Black Dragon).
    (Econ, 12/19/09, p.72)

1418        In China a book was published about this time titled “The Marvelous Visions of the Star Raft." It documented some of the exploits of Admiral Zheng He, who roamed the oceans from 1405-1435.
    (Econ, 1/14/06, p.80)
1418        A massive fleet led by Ming dynasty admiral Zheng reached Malindi, Kenya. Kenyan lore later told of shipwrecked Chinese sailors settling in the region and marrying local women. In 2010 China and Kenya made plans to search Chinese ships wrecked during a visit by Ming dynasty admiral Zheng He.
    (AP, 2/26/10)
1418        In 2006 Liu Gang, a Beijing lawyer and amateur map collector, unveiled a map that proclaimed to be a 1763 copy of an older Chinese map dating to 1418. The map showed the world in 2 hemispheres, but its authenticity was questioned.
    (SSFC, 1/22/06, p.A9)(Econ, 1/14/06, p.80)

1421        Mar, Admiral Zheng He of the Ming dynasty embarked on a voyage that took him to the east coast of Africa. In 2002 an amateur historian proposed that he continued his voyage around the world. [see 1431]
    (SSFC, 3/17/02, p.A3)

1426        Vietnam provided a defeated Chinese army with boats and horses to carry home its soldiers.
    (NG, May, 04, p.94)

1431        Admiral Cheng Ho of the Ming dynasty led a fleet of 52 ships with nearly 30,000 men to the east coast of Africa. Shortly thereafter the Mings halted all voyages and begin to foster an attitude of anti-foreign conservatism.

1434        The imperial kiln at Jungdezhen in south-central China produced 250,000 pieces.
    (SFEC, 10/6/96, DB p.37)

1448        In China hyperinflation hit and paper money lost 97% of its value. China soon abandoned paper money.
    (WSJ, 1/11/99, p.R42)

c1450         Legend has it that in the mid-15th century Vietnam, King Le Loi defeated Chinese invaders with a magic sword given to him by the gods. After the victory, the king was said to be boating on the lake when a giant golden turtle rose to the surface and grabbed the sword in its mouth before plunging deep into the water to return it to its divine owners. The lake was later renamed "Ho Hoan Kiem," which means "Lake of the Returned Sword."
    (AP, 11/3/03)

1452-1510    Liu Jin, a court eunuch of the Ming dynasty in China. He abused his office to amass a great fortune and was executed for treason.
    (WSJ, 1/11/99, p.R8)

1459-1508    Wu Wei, artist. His work included the ink painting "Female Goddess or Immortal."
    (SFC, 2/20/01, p.B5)

1465-1487    During the Chenghua reign blended enamels over a blue underglaze decoration reached a classic stage of development. Lady Wan, consort of the emperor, was intimately associated with porcelains and their design.
    (SFEC, 10/6/96, DB p.37)

1475        The old Jihong Bridge over the Lancang River was reinforced with 18 iron chains over the 280-foot chasm.
    (SFEC, 10/6/96, T5)

1498        Jun 26, Toothbrush was invented. In China the first toothbrushes with hog bristles began to show up. Hog bristle brushes remained the best until the invention of nylon.
    (SFC, 6/6/98, p.E3)(MC, 6/26/02)

1500-1600    "Hsi Yu Chi" was a 16th century novel based on the account of a 7th century monk, Tripitaka, who traveled to India for 16 years for Buddhist scriptures. Journey to the West (Xi You Jì) was published during the Ming dynasty and attributed to Wu Cheng'en. It is one of the Four Great Classical Novels of Chinese literature. It has been described as arguably the most popular literary work in East Asia. Arthur Waley's popular abridged translation, Monkey, is well known in English-speaking countries.
    (SFC, 12/7/96, p.D1)(https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Journey_to_the_West)
c1500-1600    Lu Zhi, Chinese 16th century painter.
    (SSFC, 2/18/01, DB p.35)

1510        In China Liu Jin, a eunuch of the Ming dynasty, was executed for abusing his authority. He had grown wealthy from graft.
    (WSJ, 1/11/99, p.R4)

1523        Portuguese settlers were expelled from China.
    (TL-MB, p.12)

1526        Zhu Duan (b.1464), Chinese artist, died. His work included the hanging scroll “Looking at a Misty River at Dusk."
    (http://wwar.com/masters/z/zhu_duan.html)(SFC, 6/28/08, p.E1)

1530        In China the Ritan (sun altar) was built in Beijing under the Ming dynasty. Beijing at this time numbered about 700,000 people and was the world’s most populous city.
    (Econ, 12/19/15, p.54)

1541        Xie Shichen created the painting "Clearing Sky After Snow on the Purple Empyrean Palace at Mount Wudang."
    (SFC, 2/20/01, p.B5)

1542        The Taoist scroll "Marshal Wang" was created.
    (SFC, 2/20/01, p.B5)

1542        A landslide on the Yangtze River cut off navigation for 82 years.
    (NH, 7/96, p.32)

1549        Wen Cheng-ming created his hanging scroll "Trees in a Valley."
    (WSJ, 5/15/02, p.D7)

1554        Oct, Mongol fighters battled Chinese defenders at the Jinshanling wall. After 3 days of fighting the Chinese overwhelmed the Mongols.
    (SFC, 2/9/06, p.E4)

1555-1636    Tung Ch’i-ch’ang, painter and master of calligraphy. He also mastered the play of void and presence at the heart of Chinese ink painting.
    (SFC, 10/14/96, p.B3)

1556        Jan 24, The worst earthquake in history devastated China’s Shanxi Province, killing 830,000 people.
    (TL-MB, 1988, p.19)(PCh, 1992, p.190)

1559        Wen Zhengming (b.1470), Chinese artist, died. He was later considered the Michelangelo of Chinese art. Most of his work, composites of poetry, calligraphy and painting, was done to repay obligations.
    (Econ, 8/21/04, p.70)

1567-1619    In China "The Investiture of the Gods" or "The Creation of the Gods," also known by its Chinese names Fengshen Yanyi, was first published in book form. Xu Zhonglin, a Chinese writer who lived in the Ming dynasty, was the author.

1578        Li Shih-Chen summed up Chinese pharmacology in his "Great Pharmacopoeia."
    (TL-MB, 1988, p.22)

1580        Wu Bin (d.1643), Ming Dynasty painter, was born. His work included "Pine Lodge Amid Tall Mountains."
    (SFC, 3/13/03, p.E1)

1582        Aug, Mateo Ricci (1552-1610), a Jesuit priest, arrived in Macao. He mastered Chinese and went on to establish an influential Jesuit mission and in 1601 became an advisor to the emperor. He was later accused of "going native," and ignoring his mandate to spread the faith.  His 1602 map of the world in Chinese characters introduced the findings of European exploration to East Asia.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Matteo_Ricci)(WSJ, 9/4/98, p.W12)(Econ, 8/23/14, p.36)   

1587        Hai Rui (b.1514), Chinese statesman during the mid Ming dynasty, died. He is still revered as an impartial judge, reputed to be an honest and fearless official, who dared to give controversial advice to the emperor. He later became subject of a 1960s play, "Hai Rui Dismissed from Office," that provided Mao Zedong with the pretext to launch the Great Proletarian Cultural Revolution.

1592          May 23, Toyotomi Hideyoshi sent an army to invade Korea after Korea refused to help him invade China. The initial Imjin invasion was followed by a brief truce in 1596, and a second invasion in 1597. The conflict ended in 1598 with the withdrawal of the Japanese forces from the Korean Peninsula after a military stalemate in Korea's southern coastal provinces.
          (Jap. Enc., BLDM, p. 215)(http://tinyurl.com/gw7u8wm)

c1597        The Sao Paulo church in Macao was constructed by Portuguese colonists.
    (WSJ, 5/6/97, p.A19)

c1597        The "Materia Medica Pharmacopeia" was written and detailed some 1,900 herbs, minerals and animals used by the Chinese to treat ailments through the ages.
    (WSJ, 12/3/97, p.A1)

1598        Tang Xianzu, dramatist, wrote his 55-act Kunju opera "The Peony Pavilion." Kunju is the oldest of China’s 360 opera forms.
    (WSJ, 6/22/98, p.A20)

1602        Matteo Ricci, a Jesuit missionary from Italy, created the first Chinese map to show the Americas, at the request of Emperor Wanli. The map identified Florida as "the Land of Flowers" and put China at the center of the world. Ricci was among the first Westerners to live in what is now Beijing in the early 1600s. He became known for introducing Western science to China. In October, 2009, one such Ricci maps, one of only two in good condition, was purchased by the James Ford Bell Trust for $1 million, making it the 2nd most expensive rare map ever sold.
    (AP, 1/12/10)

1603        Oct 20, A Chinese uprising in the Philippines failed after 23,000 killed.
    (MC, 10/20/01)

1607        In China the Great Wall’s largest stone tower, Zhenbeitai, was built at Yulin, near the border of Inner Mongolia.
    (SSFC, 9/1/02, p.C6)

c1600-1700    Abakh Khoja ruled the region of Kashgar.
    (SFEC, 11/22/98, p.T5)

1610        A map of Asia viewed from the sea was drawn about this by a Chinese cartographer in Java. John Seldon, English lawyer, acquired this map through an English sea captain and bequeathed it to Oxford’s Bodleian library in 1654.
    (Econ, 1/18/14, p.80)

1610-1664    The painter Hong Ren. His work included "Peaks and Ravines at Jiuqi."
    (WSJ, 2/19/98, p.A20)

1616        Jul 29, Chinese playwright Tang Xianzu (b.1550) died. His major plays are collectively called the Four Dreams.
    (https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Tang_Xianzu)(Econ, 1/7/17, p.33)

1618-1689    The painter Gong Xian. His work included "Summer Mountains After Rain."
    (WSJ, 2/19/98, p.A20)

1626        China’s city of Peking (later Beijing) experienced a major flood.
    (Econ, 7/28/12, p.37)

1634        Ligdan Khan (reigned 1604-34), the last great Mongol leader, died. After his death, the Mongols were subdued by the Manchu and became part of the Ch’ing (Manchu) dynasty of China.

1636        Tung Ch’ich’ang (b.1555), Chinese painter, died.
    (SFC, 12/8/05, p.E12)

1643        Fang Yizhi, a Chinese scholar, wrote that smoking tobacco for too long would blacken the lungs and lead to death.
    (Econ, 1/28/12, p.44)
c1643        The later Zhengyici Theater in Beijing started as a temple in the late Ming period.
    (WSJ, 1/9/97, p.A8)
1643        Wu Bin (b.1580), Ming Dynasty painter, died. His work included "Pine Lodge Amid Tall Mountains."
    (SFC, 3/13/03, p.E1)

1643        Piotr Golovin, the Cossack governor of Russia’s Yakutsk province, sent an expedition under Vasily Poyarkov into the far eastern Amur watershed. After 3 winters Poyarkov returned to Yakutsk with fewer than a quarter of his 160 men.
    (Econ, 12/19/09, p.71)

1644        Apr 25, The Ming Chongzhen emperor committed suicide by hanging himself as Beijing fell to the bandit and rebel leader Li Dzucheng (39). The Qing, or Chi’ing, dynasty of China began when the Manchus invaded from Northeast China and overthrew the 300-year-old Ming Dynasty.
    (WSJ, 9/13/96, p.B8)(HN, 4/25/98)(PCh, 1992, p.239)

1644        China’s Manchu emperors ordered all subjects to shave the top of their heads and wear the rest of their hair in a braid (queu). The men complied until 1911 but the women did not.
    (SFEC, 9/8/96, Z1 p.6)
1644        Many Chinese mandarins fled to the port of Hoi An, Vietnam, when the Ming Dynasty was overthrown. Hoi An at this time was known as Faifo.
    (SFEC, 4/26/98, p.T4)

1644-1911    "The Qing Dynasty" by Nie Chongzheng is the 4th section of Wu Hung’s 1997 "The Origins of Chinese Painting." The period is marked by the emergence of the literati-amateur movement.
    (WSJ, 1/2/98, p.6)

1644-1912    The period of the Ching (Qing) dynasty of China. Others end it at 1911. Chinese GDP per person fell relentlessly during the Qing dynasty.
    (WSJ, 9/19/96, p.A18)(SFC, 10/14/96, p.B3)(Econ 6/17/17, p.40)

1654        John Seldon, English lawyer, bequeathed a map of Asia, drawn about 1610, to Oxford’s Bodleian library. In 2014 Timothy Brook authored “Mr Seldon’s Map of China: Decoding the Secrets of a Vanished Cartographer." Robert Batchelor authored “London: The Seldon Map and the making of a Global City, 1549-1689."
    (Econ, 1/18/14, p.80)

1661        Feb 5, Kangxi ascended the throne of China as a child. He was the 1st of three Qing emperors who reigned for 133 years until 1795. Kangxi ruled over China until 1722. The film “Forbidden City: The Great Within," depicts the period. Kangxi was followed by Yongzheng and Qianlong.
    (https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Kangxi_Emperor)(WSJ, 11/2/95, p.A-12)(Econ, 11/5/05, p.90)

1661        Apr 29, Chinese Ming dynasty occupied Taiwan.
    (HN, 4/29/98)

1661        In China the Manchus forced the whole population of the southern coast to move 30 km inland to prevent contact with the outside world.
    (Econ., 9/12/20, p.71)

1661-1722    Di Zi Gui (Standards for being a Good Pupil and Child) was written in the Qing Dynasty during the reign of the Kangxi Emperor (r. 1661-1722) by Li Yuxiu.

1673        Apr 5, Francois Caron (~72), admiral, governor (Formosa), drowned.
    (MC, 4/5/02)

1681        Fa Jo-chen created a 45-foot-long hand scroll of a winding river with the land on both sides rolled up in round, furry lumps.
    (WSJ, 5/15/02, p.AD7)

1683        Taiwan was claimed by China's Manchu dynasty after large-scale immigration from the Chinese mainland to the island.
    (AP, 8/12/06)

1685        Jun, Qing Emperor Kangxi sent Manchu, Chinese and Daurian forces in a siege against Russians at Albazino on the far eastern Amur River. Some 100 of 800 Russians were killed on the first day of the attack. The survivors surrendered and returned to Nerchinsk.
    (Econ, 12/19/09, p.71)

1686        Russians returned to Albazino on the far eastern Amur River and were again attacked by the Manchus. After a year’s siege they surrendered with only 40 of 900 alive.
    (Econ, 12/19/09, p.71)

1689        Russian and Manchu delegates met at Nerchinsk and drew up a treaty in Latin. This was China’s first treaty with a European power. China agreed to open up trade in exchange for Russia’s withdrawal from the Amur.
    (Econ, 12/19/09, p.71)

1690        Emp. Kangxi commissioned Wang Hui (1632-1717) to create a pictorial chronicle of a ceremonial tour. “The Kangxi Emperor’s Southern Inspection Tour" took 6 years and became a magnus opus of some 740 feet in 12 hand scrolls.
    (WSJ, 10/29/08, p.D9)

1694        Afaq Khoja (b.1626), a religious and political leader with the title of Khwaja in Kashgaria (in present-day Southern Xinjiang, China), died. The  Muhammad Yusuf tomb, later known as the Afaq Khoja mausoleum, was completed in 1640 and is considered the holiest Muslim site in Xinjiang.
    (https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Afaq_Khoja)(Econ., 1/2/21, p.30)

1696        The painter Bada Shanren created his work: "Ducks and Lotuses."
    (WSJ, 2/19/98, p.A20)

1699        References from the Ching dynasty refer to the Diaoyu Island located between Taiwan and Okinawa.
    (SFEC, 10/8/96, A8)

c1700-1800    The novel "Dream of the Red Mansion" was from the 18th century Qing Dynasty and chronicled opulence and wealth.
    (SFC, 9/1/01, p.A6)

1709        Qing emperor Qianlong built the gardens of Yuanmingyuan (the garden of perfection and light) on the outskirts of Beijing as the imperial summer palace. In 1860 Lord Elgin’s cavalry set fire and let the gardens burn for 3 days and nights.
    (www.china.org.cn/english/features/beijng/31186.htm)(Econ, 11/26/05, p.18)

1713        The Ningbo businesspeople transformed the converted Ningbo Residents Association into the Zhengyici Theater in Beijing. It had started as a temple in the late Ming period. The Ningbo had converted the temple into a bank and Residence Association in the early Qing period.
    (WSJ, 1/9/97, p.A8)

1717        Wang Hui (b.1632), Chinese master painter, died.
    (WSJ, 10/29/08, p.D9)

1722        A French Jesuit got into the Jingdezhen, a gated porcelain producing city in China, and sent home detailed letters on porcelain production. Within decades France developed its own porcelain production plant at Sevres.
    (WSJ, 1/11/99, p.R50)

1722        Yongzheng followed Kangxi and was the 2nd of three Qing emperors who reigned over China for 133 years (1662-1795). He was followed by Qianlong.
    (Econ, 11/5/05, p.90)

1729        In China opium smoking was banned.
    (WSJ, 1/11/99, p.R34)

1736-1795    The period of Emperor Qianlong’s (Ch’ien-lung) reign over China. Qianlong was a painter and calligrapher and showed an insatiable appetite for collecting art. His collection formed the core of the later National Palace Museum.
    (SFEC, 10/6/96, DB p.36)(SFC, 10/14/96, p.B3)(WSJ, 2/19/98, p.A20)

1742        Jul 11, A papal decree was issued condemning the disciplining actions of the Jesuits in China.
    (HN, 7/11/98)

1743        British Commodore George Anson reached China in his man-of-war.
    (WSJ, 9/4/98, p.W12)

c1750        In China's northeastern Hebei province large wooden figures were built in Puning Temple following a military victory. A 50-foot Buddhist boy and dragon princess were built to guard the deity Avalokitesvara.
    (SSFC, 11/9/03, p.C7)

1750-1799    Ho-Shen rose to power in China as the confidante to Emperor Kao-tsung. He served as a customs superintendent and pocketed a fortune by prolonging military campaigns and pocketing sums allocated to the military. He was arrested when the emperor died and died in prison.
    (WSJ, 1/11/98, p.R10)

1751        The Liu clan built its ancestral hall called Liu Man Shek Tong in Hong Kong.
    (Hem., Dec. '95, p.160)

1763        A Chinese map drawn by Mo Yi Tong imitated a world chart made in 1418. It showed barbarians paying tribute to the Ming emperor Zhu Di. The map was unveiled to the public in Beijing in 2006.
    (Econ, 1/14/06, p.80)

1769-1843    Howqua, aka Wu Bingjian, Chinese merchant. His father was permitted to trade silk and porcelain with foreigners. He lent large sums in silver dollars to foreign traders in exchange for a share of their shipments. He donated 1.1 million silver dollars toward reparations after the First Opium War.
    (WSJ, 1/11/98, p.R18)

1770s        The White Lotus rebellion against the Qing dynasty was led by Wang Lun, a master of martial arts and herbal medicine.
    (SFC, 7/23/99, p.A10)

1784        Feb 22, The US merchant ship "Empress of China" left New York City on the first American trade mission to China. Real profit came on the return when the ship brought back Chinese teas and porcelain.
    (AP,  2/22/99)(Econ, 4/1/17, p.59)

1788        May 24, Xiang Fei (b.1734), a figure in Chinese legend who was taken as a consort by the Qianlong Emperor of the Qing dynasty, died. Uighur legend has the "fragrant concubine" hated the advances of the emperor and died of poisoning.
    (https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Fragrant_Concubine)(Econ., 1/2/21, p.30)

1792-1793    Lord Macartney led the 1st British diplomatic mission to China.
    (NH, 7/00, p.62)

1793        China’s Emperor Qianlong accepted gifts from Lord George Macartney, but turned away the British fleet under his command with the declaration that China had all things in abundance and had no interest in “foreign manufactures."
    (WSJ, 1/11/99, p.R51)(Econ, 9/16/06, p.13)(Econ, 8/23/14, p.43)

1796        Feb 8, China’s Emperor Qianlong (1711-1799) abdicated in favor of his son. Despite his voluntary abdication, from 1796 to 1799 Qianlong continued to hold on to power and the Jiaqing Emperor (d.1820) ruled only in name.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Qianlong_Emperor)(Econ, 2/5/11, p.95)(Econ, 2/5/11, p.95)

1799        Feb 7, China’s Emperor Qianlong (b.1711) died. He was the sixth emperor of the Manchu-led Qing Dynasty, and the fourth Qing emperor to rule over China (1735-1796).

c1799        At the close of the 18th century the White Lotus Movement led a violent uprising in northeastern China.
    (WSJ, 4/26/99, p.A6)

1800-1900    Triads were secret societies first formed in China to oppose the harsh rule of the Manchu who created the Ching dynasty and who were viewed by many ethnic Han as outsiders.
    (SFC, 6/6/97, p.E3)

1807        Zheng Yi Sao took over a confederation of pirates in the South China Sea about this time following the death if her husband. At its peak the confederation numbered some 50-70 thousand mend and controlled 800 large vessels. The group disbanded in 1810 under an offer of amnesty.
    (WSJ, 11/22/08, p.W2)

1811        May 11, Chang and Eng Bunker, Chinese Siamese twins, were born.
    (MC, 5/11/02)

1814-1864     Hong Xiuquan, believed himself to be the second son of God. In 1851 he declared himself king of China and the world. In 1853 his Taiping army took the city of Nanjing as its heavenly capital. He ruled there until 1864. When the Qing (Manchu) government troops tightened their siege he died from eating what he said was manna sent by God to alleviate his believer's starvation. His story is told by Jonathan D. Spence in "God's Chinese Son: The Taiping Heavenly Kingdom of Hong Xiuquan."
    (WSJ, 1/5/96, p.A-8)

1815-1818    Famine stricken farmers in southwest China turned to growing opium, the most profitable crop then available. The famine was related to the 1815 eruption at Tambora, east of Bali.
    (Econ, 7/19/14,p.71)

1820        Sep 2, China’s Emperor Jiaqing (b.1760) died.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Jiaqing_Emperor)(Econ, 3/19/11, p.93)

1823        The Rishengchang Draft Bank in Pingyao became the first bank in China to issue checks.
    (Econ, 10/18/14, p.46)

1832-1914    This period was covered by Robert Bickers in his 2011 book: “The Scramble For China: Foreign Devils in the Qing Empire, 1832-1914."
    (Econ, 2/19/11, p.92)

1833        The British government removed the British East India Company’s monopoly of trade with China and banned it from trading in India entirely.
    (Econ, 12/17/11, p.111)

1834        Jul 15, Lord Napier of England arrived at Macao, China as the first chief superintendent of trade.
    (HN, 7/15/98)

1838        The British began allowing American ships to carry opium from India to China.
    (SFC, 8/8/20, p.B1)

1839        Jul 5, British naval forces bombarded Dingai on Zhoushan Island in China and occupy it.
    (HN, 7/5/98)

1839        Aug 23, The British captured Hong Kong from China.
    (MC, 8/23/02)

1839        Oct 1, The British government decided to send a punitive naval expedition to China.
    (HN, 10/1/98)

1839        Nov 3, The first Opium War between China and Britain broke out in and around Guangzhou and continued to 1942. Lin Zexu, a Qing official, started the Opium War when he ordered the dumping of 3 million pounds of Western-owned opium into the sea. 2 British frigates engaged several Chinese junks. In 2011 Julia Lovell authored “The Opium War: Drugs, Dreams, and the Making of China."
    (SFC, 6/10/97, p.D4)(AP, 11/3/97)(SSFC, 8/30/09, p.A21)(Econ, 10/29/11, p.99)

1839-1842    The Opium War between Britain and China started when Beijing tried to stop Western imports of the narcotic. The British won by steaming gunboats up the Yangtze River to the Grand Canal an then cutting off grain and other supplies to Beijing.
    (SFC, 6/10/97, p.D4)(WSJ, 1/11/99, p.R51)

1840        The British seized Hong Kong. [see 1841.][see 1842] Hong Kong was seized following the first opium war.
    (SFC, 7/2/96, p.A10)(SFEC, 11/10/96, Parade p.14)(SFC, 3/11/97, p.A12)

1841        Jan 20, The island of Hong Kong was ceded to Great Britain from China as part of the concessions from the Opium War. It became a capitalist bastion as opposed to the rest of China. The British won the first Opium War and forced China to open markets to foreign trade. Britain soon established a formal police force commanded mostly by British officers. Hong Kong returned to Chinese control in July 1997.
    (WSJ, 10/26/95, p.A-1)(SFEC, 11/10/96, Par p.14)(SFC, 3/11/97, p.A12)(SFC, 7/1/97, p.A8)(AP,  1/20/98)(HN, 1/20/99)(WSJ, 1/11/99, p.R49)(WSJ, 2/2/04, p.A12)

1842        Aug 29, Britain & China signed the Treaty of Nanking ending the Opium war. This opened the port of Shanghai to foreigners. The 1997 Chinese film "The Opium War" was directed by Xie Jin. It was about the events leading up to the Treaty of Nanking. The treaty of Nanking ceded Hong Kong Island to Britain in perpetuity.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Treaty_of_Nanjing)(SFC, 5/20/98, p.E3)

1842        Xiamen, known to the British as Amoy, was one of the five Chinese treaty ports opened by the Treaty of Nanjing at the end of the First Opium War between Britain and China. As a result, it was an early entry point for Protestant missions in China.

1842        Jardine, Matheson & Co., founded in Canton in 1832, built the first substantial house and established their head office on the recently acquired island of Hong Kong. This began an era of increased prosperity and expansion.

1843        Apr 5, Queen Victoria proclaimed Hong Kong a British crown colony.
    (HN, 4/5/99)

1843        Jun 26, Hong Kong was proclaimed a British Crown Colony. [see Apr 5]
    (MC, 6/26/02)

1844        Jul 3, Ambassador Caleb Cushing successfully negotiated a commercial treaty with China that opened five Chinese ports to U.S. merchants and protected the rights of American citizens in China.
    (HN, 7/3/98)

1845        May 10, During a celebrated round-the-world tour in 1844-46, the USS Constitution dropped anchor in the bay outside of Tourane, Cochin China (later part of Vietnam). While there, Bishop Dominique Lefevre, an imprisoned French missionary, requested the assistance of the ship's captain, "Mad Jack" Percival. The Americans attempted to negotiate with the Cochin Chinese, to no avail. Frustrated, they set sail from Cochin and continued on their course on May 26 without further word about or from the missionary, who was eventually retrieved by his own countrymen.
    (HNQ, 10/18/02)(AH, 12/02, p.25)

1845        Jul 25, China granted Belgium equal trading rights with Britain, France and the United States.
    (HN, 7/25/98)

1846        British firms began selling insurance policies in China.
    (Econ, 7/23/11, p.69)

1848        Feb 2, The 1st ship load of Chinese arrived in SF.
    (MC, 2/2/02)

1849        Aug 22, The Portuguese governor of Macao, China, was assassinated because of his anti-Chinese policies.
    (HN, 8/22/98)

1849-1875    Some 100,000 Chinese coolies arrived as laborers in Peru during this period.
    (Econ, 8/15/09, p.21)

1850        Feb 25, Doro Eldengge Huwangdi (b.1782), the Daoguang emperor, died. He was the 8th emperor of the Manchurian Qing dynasty and the 6th Qing (1820-1850) emperor to rule over China.

1850        Sep 22, An earthquake in Sichuan, China, killed some 300,000 people.

1850        Dec, The Taiping rebellion began against the ruling Manchu-led Qing Dynasty and continued to 1864. It was led by heterodox Christian convert Hong Xiuquan, who having received visions, maintained that he was the younger brother of Jesus Christ. About 20 million people died, mainly civilians, in one of the deadliest military conflicts in history. In 2012 Stephen R. Platt authored “Autumn in the Heavenly Kingdom: China, the West, and the Epic Story of the Taiping Civil War."
    (Econ, 8/6/11, p.74)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Taiping_Rebellion)(SSFC, 2/26/12, p.F5)

1852        Jan 3, The 1st Chinese arrive in Hawaii.
    (MC, 1/3/02)

1852        Jun 26, Tzu Hsi (17), aka Orchid or Lady Yehonala, married Ch'ing Emperor Hsien Feng. She had competed to become one of his 7 official wives or 3,000 concubines.
    (SSFC, 2/1/04, p.M6)

1853         The Taiping army of Hong Xiuquan took the city of Nanjing as its heavenly capital in the Taiping Rebellion (1851-1864). He claimed to be Jesus' brother and ruled there until 1864. Imperial troops crushed his movement and tens of millions died. Some 10,000 people were killed at Nanjing.
    (WSJ, 1/5/96, p.A-8)(WSJ, 4/26/99, p.A6)(SFC, 7/23/99, p.A10)   

1854        Jun 17, The Red Turban revolt broke out in Guangdong, China. The Red Turban Rebellion of 1854-1856, sometimes known as the Red Turban Revolt, was a series of uprisings by members of the Tiandihui or Heaven and Earth Society in the Guangdong province of South China.
    (HN, 6/17/98)(http://tinyurl.com/k3gz8ts)

1854        Yung Wing graduated from Yale and became the first Chinese student to graduate from an American university. He returned to China and laid the seeds for the Chinese Educational Mission, which lasted from 1872 to 1881. Wing returned to the US following numerous reform failures, where he died broke and alone.
    (SSFC, 2/13/11, p.G4)

1854        Robert Swinhoe (1836-1877), English naturalist, became the British council in Amoy (later Xiamen, China). Over the next 2 decades he collected and counted some 650 Chinese species of birds. In 1860 He became the first British representative on Formosa (later Taiwan).
    (Econ, 12/20/08, p.67)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Robert_Swinhoe)
1854        Nikolai Muraviev, a governor of eastern Siberia, raised an 800-strong Cossack unit and floated barges down the Shilka River to the mouth of the Amur River. Through encroachment, diplomacy and impudence he secured the Amur Basin for the Tsar.
    (Econ, 12/19/09, p.72)

1855        A third pandemic of bubonic plague broke out in China. It killed 12 million people and eventually spread to every continent of the world.
    (NG, 5/88, p.682)(SFC, 9/20/14, p.C1)

1856        Oct 8, Chinese police boarded the British vessel Arrow, arrested 12 Chinese crewmen on suspicion of piracy and lowered the British flag. This began the 2nd Anglo-Chinese War.
    (EWH, 4th ed, p.911)(MC, 10/8/01)

1857        Mar 3, Under pretexts, Britain and France declared war on China.
    (HN, 3/3/99)

1858        Jun 18, The US and China signed a treaty promoting "peace, amity and commerce."
    (AP, 6/18/08)

1860        Oct 7, During the 2nd Opium War British troops on the outskirts of Beijing began to plunder the gardens of Yuanmingyuan (the garden of perfection and light), the imperial summer palace built by the Qing emperor Qianlong in 1709. Lord Elgin’s cavalry soon set fire and let the gardens burn for 3 days and nights.
    (WSJ, 1/13/04, p.A8)(www.china.org.cn/english/features/beijng/31186.htm)

1860        Oct 12, British and French troops captured Beijing.
    (MC, 10/12/01)

1860        In China the Taiping Rising marked the first looting of Peking by the "big-nosed barbarians."
    (WSJ, 4/20/95, p. A-13)

1860        Signor Beato (d.1907), photographer, shot views of the Dagu forts, guarding the approaches to Beijing, with heaps of dead following their capture by an Anglo-French expedition.
    (WSJ, 11/27/00, p.A36)

1861        Nov 11, The Qing Dynasty established a new ministry of foreign affairs. It was housed in a building that had housed the Department of Iron Coins and was considered as a temporary institution.
    (WSJ, 5/16/97, p.A16)

1861        Shanghai came under attack from the Taiping rebellion (1851-1864, led by the self-proclaimed younger brother of Jesus Christ. To help pay for their defense, China’s provincial governments borrowed money from foreign investors. As collateral they offered claims on Shanghai’s customs revenues.
    (Econ, 11/19/11, p.78)
1861        Ch'ing Emperor Hsien Feng died in exile and his widow Orchid (26) became China's Empress Dowager.
    (SSFC, 2/1/04, p.M6)
1861        The British firm Butterfield & Swire began trading in Hong Kong and China.
    (Econ, 6/30/07, SR p.13)

1862        Jun 24, U.S. intervention saved the British and French at the Dagu forts in China.
    (HN, 6/24/98)

1862        The French established their first colonial base of Cochin-China, a region encompassing the southern third of current Vietnam.
    (https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cochinchina)(Econ, 7/23/16, p.68)

1862-1877    In China the Dungan Revolt was a mainly ethnic war also known as the Hui Minorities War. The revolt arose over a pricing dispute involving bamboo poles, when a Han merchant selling to a Hui did not receive the amount demanded for the goods. Total casualties of the conflict were estimated at 8-12 million.

1864        Jun 1, Hong Xiuquan (b.1814), leader of the Taiping Heavenly Army, died from poisoning. At the time of his death his led over 100,000 troops and controlled an area bigger than France. In 1996 Jonathan Spence authored “God’s Chinese Son," a biography of Xiuquan, who believed himself to be God’s second son.
    (WSJ, 8/18/07, p.P9)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hong_Xiuquan)

1865        Mar, Thomas Sutherland of Scotland founded the Hong Kong and Shanghai Banking Corporation (HSBC) to finance  the growing trade between China and Europe. It established the Shanghai branch on April 3, 1865.

1865-1869    Some 12,000 Chinese workers were brought to the US to help complete the transcontinental railroad.
    (WSJ, 1/11/99, p.R25)

1866        Nov 12, Sun Yat-Sen (d.1925), Chinese statesman and revolutionary leader, was born (trad) to a Christian peasant near Macao. He attended an Anglican grammar school in Hawaii, and went on to graduate from Hong Kong School of Medicine in 1892. While there he became involved in revolutionary activities and was forced to leave China in 1895. He organized a revolutionary secret society in 1905. In 1911 he returned to China after a successful revolution in the south and became provisional president of a republican government there before stepping aside for Yuan Shih-k'ai. Sun formed the nationalist Kuomintang party in 1912. "To understand is hard. Once one understands, action is easy."
    (HFA, '96, p.18)(AP,  6/22/97)(HNQ, 6/3/98)

1867        Jul 20, Imperial troops in Guizhou, China, killed 20,000 Miao rebels.
    (HN, 7/20/98)

1867        Anton Burlingame resigned his diplomatic post as US ambassador to China and was named High Minister Plenipotentiary and Envoy Extraordinary from the Court of Peking.
    (Ind, 8/11/01, 5A)

1868        Jul 28, Pres. Johnson signed the Burlingame Treaty. It was negotiated by Anson Burlingame, who represented the interests of China, and committed the US to a policy of noninterference in Chinese affairs. It also established commercial ties and provided unrestricted immigration of Chinese to the US.
    (Ind, 8/11/01, 5A)

1869        The Giant Panda of China was first made known to the West by the French missionary Armand David.

1870        Jun 21, A Chinese mob in Tianjin set upon the French consul and tore him limb from limb for firing his pistol at a Chinese official, wounding one of his retinue. The mob slaughtered about 20 foreigners including 2 priests and 10 nuns. Nearly 20 Chinese were later executed by the Qing to appease the French and avoid war. Diplomat Wanyan Chonghou soon sailed to France to issue a formal apology.
    (Econ, 12/21/13, p.71)

1870        Oct 20, The Summer Palace in Beijing, China, was burnt to the ground by a Franco-British expeditionary force.
    (HN, 10/20/98)

1870        Jul 14, Pres. Ulysses S. Grant signed the Naturalization Act of 1870 (16 Stat. 254). This was a United States federal law that created a system of controls for the naturalization process and penalties for fraudulent practices. It is also noted for extending the naturalization process to "aliens of African nativity and to persons of African descent" while also revoking the citizenship of naturalized Chinese Americans.
1870        Jul 14, The US Naturalization Act of 1870 revoked the US citizenship of Yung Wing, the first Chinese person to graduate from an American university (Yale 1854).

1870-1949    "Studies in the Economic History of Late Imperial China" and "The Chinese Economy" by Albert Feuerwerker was published in 2 volumes in 1996.
    (MT, Fall ‘96, p.14)

1871        Oct 24, Anti-Chinese rioting took place in Los Angeles. A mob in Los Angeles hanged 16 Chinese men and one woman after a policeman was shot, but not killed.
    (SFEC, 2/6/00, Rp.10)(SSFC, 6/3/07, p.M5)(Econ, 10/3/15, p.88)

1872-1881    The Chinese Educational Mission which existed during this period. It sent young boys to study in America to gain leadership skills as well as military and industrial expertise. In 2011 Liel Leibowitz authored “Fortunate Sons: The 120 Chinese Boys Who Came to America, Went to School, and Revolutionized an Ancient Civilization."
    (SSFC, 2/13/11, p.G4)

1873        Jun 29, China’s Emperor Tongzhi held the first imperial audience with foreign diplomats in 80 years. Japan’s foreign minister asked for compensation for an attack on sailors from the Ryukyu islands by aborigines on Taiwan. China disavowed responsibility.
    (Econ, 12/21/13, p.72)

1873        The main building of Britain’s Shanghai consulate was built in the riverside Bund district.
    (WSJ, 9/28/05, p.B1)

1876        Chen Banding (d.1970), Chinese painter, was born. His work included "Landscape" (1942).
    (SFC, 10/25/00, p.C5)

1879        Mar 25, Japan invaded the kingdom of Liuqiu (Ryukyu) Islands, formerly a vassal of China. The Ruykyuan monarchy was abolished and the islands were annexed to create the Okinawa Prefecture.  Prior to this Okinawa had paid tribute to both Japan and China. Okinawa became imperial Japan’s first colony.
    (SSFC, 3/11/01, Par p.5)(NH, 9/01, p.56)(Econ, 12/22/12, p.55)

1879        Sep, In St. Petersburg Chinese diplomat Wanyan Chonghou agreed to a treaty that awarded Russia a number of important parts of Xinjiang and gave Russia valuable long-term trading privileges deep in Qing territory. Chonghou had been expected get territory returned to Qing rule.
    (Econ, 12/21/13, p.72)

1880        Aug, Chinese diplomat Wanyan Chonghou (1826-1893), under int’l. pressure, was freed following a death sentence for making concessions to Russia rather than extracting concession as directed.
    (Econ, 12/21/13, p.70)

1881        China summoned home students who had been sent to study in America. Yung Wing (1828-1912), the first Chinese graduate from Yale (1854), had set up a program in 1872 to bring students from China to study in New England each year.
    (https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Yung_Wing)(Econ., 7/11/20, p.34)
1881        The New York Times predicted that “China cannot borrow our learning, our science, and our material forms of industry without importing with them the virus of political rebellion."
    (Econ, 12/3/16, p.72)

1882        May 6, Over President Arthur’s veto, Congress passed the Chinese Exclusion Act, which barred Chinese immigrants from the United States for 10 years. It was amended and passed by Congress on August 3 and was signed by Pres. Arthur. Renewals and amendments continued to 1904. The laws were repealed in 1943. In 2011 the US Senate passed a resolution expressing regret for the act.
    (AP, 5/6/97)(www.u-s-history.com/pages/h739.html)(SFC, 10/11/11, p.C1)

1882        Aug 3, US Congress passed the 1st Immigration Act. The amended act banned Chinese immigration for ten years. The Chinese Exclusion Act barred laborers from China and halted a massive immigration of Cantonese peasants. [see 1882-1943]
    (www.u-s-history.com/pages/h739.html)(HN, 8/3/98)(SFEC, 9/20/98, Z1 p.4)

1882        Sep 3, The French, Vietnamese and Chinese battled at Hanoi; hundreds died.
    (MC, 9/3/01)

1882-1943    In the US the Chinese Exclusion Act was in force. [see May 6, 1882] The Chinese Exclusion Act, prohibiting the immigration of Chinese laborers into the United States, was first passed in 1882 and then repealed by Congress in 1943. Strong anti-Chinese feeling in the West led to the 1882 act, which was extended for 10 years in 1894 and indefinitely in 1902. The laws were finally repealed in 1943 but only after the Chinese population in the U.S. had declined dramatically. In 2007 Jean Pfaelzer authored “Driven Out: The Forgotten War Against Chinese Americans."
    (SFEC, 8/18/96, DB p.27)(HNQ, 9/9/98)(SSFC, 6/3/07, p.M1)

1884        Jun 23, A Chinese Army defeated the French at Bacle, Indochina.
    (HN, 6/23/98)

1885        Apr 18, The Sino-Japanese war ended.
    (HN, 4/18/98)

1885        Canada began forcing tens of thousands of Chinese, who helped build the nation's railroad, to pay a "head tax" if they wished to remain in the country and then taxed them again to bring in their families. It started at $50 and by 1903 grew to $500. Collections ended in 1923, when immigration from China was banned. Canada only began admitting Chinese again in 1947. On June 22, 2006, Canada apologized.
    (AP, 6/23/06)

1886        Thomas Stevens, a British adventurer, made a 620 miles mile bicycle trip pedaling north on a high-wheeler from Guangzhou in the south to Jiujiang.
    (Econ, 5/26/12, SR p.3)

1887        Oct 31, Chiang Kai-Shek, Chinese Nationalist, was born.
    (HN, 10/31/98)

1887        China’s Huang Ho (Huang He, Yellow River) flooded and killed about 900,000 people. Up to 2.5 million people are thought to have drowned or died from disease and starvation.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Death_toll)(Econ, 9/10/16, p.69)

1887-1895    A group of five uninhabited islands in the East China Sea, known as Senkaku by Japan, or Diaoyu by China, belonged to the province of Taiwan.
    (Econ, 5/18/13, p.50)

1889-1933    Gao Qifeng, artist. He was a founder of the Lingnan School, a group of artists and social activists bent on modernizing Chinese painting.
    (SFC, 4/22/97, p.D2)

1890        China’s city of Peking (later Beijing) experienced another major flood.
    (Econ, 7/28/12, p.37)

1892        May 5, US Congress passed the Geary Chinese Exclusion Act, which required Chinese in the United States to be registered and carry an identity card or face deportation. The Six Companies of San Francisco ordered all 110,000 immigrants to refuse compliance.
    (AP, 5/5/97)(SSFC, 6/3/07, p.M5)

1892        Sun Yat-Sen (d.1925), Chinese statesman and revolutionary leader, graduated from the Hong Kong School of Medicine.
    (HFA, '96, p.18)(AP,  6/22/97)(HNQ, 6/3/98)

1892        Plague hit China and spread throughout south Asia. It ended after killing 6 million people in India.
    (SFC, 7/2/05, p.F9)

1893        Aug 10, Chinese were deported from SF under the 1892 Exclusion Act.
    (MC, 8/10/02)

1893        Dec 26, Mao Tse-tung, founding father of the People’s Republic of China  (PM 1949-76), was born in Shaoshan.
    (HFA, ‘96, p.44)(HN, 12/26/98)(SFC, 8/24/99, p.A12)(MC, 12/26/01)

1893        China’s Empress Dowager Cixi bestowed on a doctor in the imperial household the right to collect a prized medicinal herb on the Diaoyu islands, known to Japan as the Senkaku islands.
    (Econ, 12/22/12, p.53)

1894        Mar 4, There was a great fire in Shanghai; over 1,000 buildings were destroyed.
    (SC, 3/4/02)

1894        Mar 17, US and China signed a treaty preventing Chinese laborers from entering US. The Chinese government abandoned its migrant workers in exchange for a profitable trade deal with the US.
    (PC, 1992 ed, p.610)(SSFC, 6/3/07, p.M5)

1894        Aug 1, The First Sino-Japanese War erupted, the result of a dispute over control of Korea; Japan's army routed the Chinese.
    (AP, 8/1/04)

1894        Sep 15, Japan defeated China in the Battle of Ping Yang (Pyongyang).

1894         The plague in China reached its port cities and began to circle the globe. In Hong Kong it killed some 10,000 people. Dr Alexander Yersin, a French bacteriologist sent to Hong Kong by the Institute Pasteur, found in the buboes of the plague victims "a swarm of microbes, all similar in appearance...short bacilli with rounded ends."
    (NG, 5/88, p.684)

1894-1895     Japan went to war against China.
    (Jap. Enc., BLDM, p. 215)

1894        T.V. Soong (d.1971), Chinese financier and government official, was born. He was an official for the Chinese Nationalist government from 1927-1949. In 1923 he financed the Nationalist party of Sun Yat-Sen, his brother-in-law, and established the Central Bank of China. The bank became the government treasury in 1924 when Soong was appointed minister of finance. Chiang Kai-shek was another brother-in-law to Soong, and appointed him minister of foreign affairs in 1942. He invested heavily in foreign stock and moved to San Francisco in 1949 when mainland China was captured by the Soviets.
    (WSJ, 1/11/98, p.R18)

1895        Apr 17, China and Japan signed the peace treaty of Shimonoseki. This followed a war over control of the Korean peninsula. Taiwan and the islands that it controlled were taken over by Japan (see May 8).
    (HN, 4/17/98)(Econ, 1/15/05, Survey p.4)(Econ, 5/18/13, p.50)

1895        Apr 23, Russia, France, and Germany forced Japan to return the Liaodong peninsula to China.
    (HN, 4/23/99)

1895        May 8, China ceded Taiwan to Japan under the Apr 17 Treaty of Shimonoseki. This followed a war over control of the Korean peninsula. Japan began administering the Senkaku Islands between Okinawa and Taiwan following the Treaty of Shimonoseki. Japanese occupation ended in 1945. The US took over after WW II but returned them to Japan in 1972. China later disputed Japanese control of the islands.
    (SFEC, 10/8/96, A8)(Econ, 1/15/05, Survey p.4)(SSFC, 2/18/07, p.G5)(Econ, 9/25/10, p.54)

1895        Chinese government officials asked industrialist Zhang Jian to launch his business as a guandu shangban, a government-supervised, merchant-managed enterprise.
    (Econ., 11/28/20, p.37)
1895        In China a student-led protest erupted in Beijing against the humiliating terms of the peace treaty that followed China’s defeat in a war with Japan.
    (Econ, 10/11/14, p.50)
1895        Chinese authorities discovered a consignment of some 1000 revolvers hidden in casks of cement that had been shipped by the Scientific Agricultural Society, a group organized by Sun Yat-sen aiming to overthrow the Qing emperor.
    (ON, 10/08, p.6)

1895-1896    The Dungan Revolt of this period was a rebellion of various Chinese Muslim ethnic groups in Qinghai and Gansu against the Qing dynasty, that originated because of a violent dispute between two Sufi orders of the same sect. The Wahhabi inspired Yihewani organization then joined in and encouraged the revolt, which was crushed by loyalist Muslims.

1896        Oct 11, Chinese agents tricked Sun Yat-sen (1866-1925), Chinese revolutionary, into entering the Chinese Legation in London. They planned to ship him secretly back to China where a reward for his arrest amounted to half a million dollars. The story was made public by the London press and the Legation was forced to release him. In 1911 Sun Yat-sen played an important role in the overthrow of the Qing dynasty and came to be revered as the “Father of Modern China." 
    (ON, 10/08, p.7)

1896        Chinese cinema was born a year after it was invented in France.
    (Econ, 4/29/06, p.69)

1897        Feb, China’s Qing dynasty ceded the Kokang region to British Burma under the Beijing Convention. Kokang became part of Burma’s Shan state.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Kokang)(Econ., 3/14/15, p.41)

1897        Mar 5, Mei-ling Soong (d.2003, Madame Chiang Kai-shek, was born on Hainan Island, China. As wife of Generalissimo Chiang Kai-shek she was instrumental in enlisting U.S. sympathy and relief for China in World war II.
    (www.nndb.com/people/978/000086720/)(HN, 6/5/99)

1897        In China John Calvin Ferguson, the American head of what later became Jiao Tong Univ., built Shanghai’s Wukang Road in the city’s French concession so students could get to class.
    (Econ, 9/12/15, SR p.3)

1898        Jun 9, China leased Hong Kong's New Territories to Britain for 99 years by a convention signed in Peking, respecting an extension of Hong Kong territory, the New Territories, comprising the area north of Kowloon up to the Shum Chun (Shenzhen) River and 235 islands.

1898        Jun 11, Emperor Kuang-Hsu of China began 100 days of Reform in effort to modernize China, but conservative forces soon squelch the attempt.
    (AP, 6/11/03)

1898        Harbin was built by Russian workers who extended the trans-Siberian railway across Heilongjiang province.
    (SFC, 5/8/01, p.C2)

1898        Ye Yanlan (b.1823), Chinese painter, connoisseur and Qing Dynasty official, died.
    (SFC, 7/1/06, p.E8)

1899-1983    Chang Da-chien, painter, collector and forger. Some suspected that the 10th century work "Riverbank" attributed to Dong Yuan was actually a forgery by Chang.
    (WSJ, 12/13/99, p.A32)

1900         Jan 2, US Secretary of State John Hay announced the Open Door Policy to prompt trade with China. This policy rejected efforts to carve up China or restrict its ports.
    (AP, 1/2/98)(WSJ, 2/3/04, p.A12)

1900        Jan 27, Foreign diplomats in Peking fear revolt and demanded that the Imperial Government discipline the Boxer Rebels.
    (HN, 1/27/99)

1900        May 31, U.S. troops arrived in Peking to help put down Boxer Rebellion.
    (HN, 5/31/98)

1900        Jun 7, Boxer rebels cut the rail links between Peking and Tientsin in China.
    (HN, 6/7/98)

1900        Jun 13, China's Boxer Rebellion against foreigners and Chinese Christians erupted into violence. The Boxer Rebellion was a violent, anti-foreign uprising that broke out in reaction to years of foreign interference with Chinese affairs. Led by a Chinese secret society called Yi He Tuan--"the Righteous, Harmonious Fists"--the Boxers were aided by the Empress Dowager Ci Xi and pillaged the countryside, murdering foreigners and Chinese Christians. 200-300 foreigners died in the uprising but they were far outnumbered by Chinese victims.
    (AP,  6/13/97)(HNPD, 6/20/98)(Econ, 12/18/10, p.78)

1900        Jun 18, Empress Douairisre ordered I-Ho-Chuan (the Boxers) to kill all foreigners. [see Jun 21]
    (MC, 6/18/02)

1900        Jun 21, After the Empress declared war on all foreign powers, the Boxers began a two-month assault on the legations in Beijing. An international force of Japanese, Russian, German, American, British, Italian and Austro-Hungarian troops put down the uprising by August 14. The Boxer Rebellion was a violent, anti-foreign uprising that broke out in reaction to years of foreign interference with Chinese affairs. Led by a Chinese secret society called Yi He Tuan--"the Righteous, Harmonious Fists"--the Boxers were aided by the Empress Dowager Ci Xi and pillaged the countryside, murdering foreigners and Chinese Christians. In 2000 Diana Preston authored "The Boxer Rebellion: The Dramatic Story of China’s War on foreigners That Shook the World in the Summer of 1900."
    (HNPD, 6/21/99)(WSJ, 6/20/00, p.A24)

1900        Jul 14, European Allies retook Tientsin, China, from the rebelling Boxers.
    (HN, 7/14/98)

1900        Jun 26, The United States announced it would send troops to fight against the Boxer rebellion in China.
    (HN, 6/26/98)

1900        Aug 14, International forces from 8 nations, including 2,000 US Marines and Japanese troops, entered Beijing to put down the Boxer Rebellion, which was aimed at purging China of foreigners and foreign influence.
    (AP, 8/14/01)(Econ, 12/18/10, p.75)

c1900        Wang Yuanlu, a Chinese monk, discovered a set of manuscripts in the Mogao caves near Dunhuang in Gansu province. The "Library Cave" contained as many as 50,000 items, mostly Buddhist documents, from 400-1000CE.
    (AM, 7/00, p.72)

1900        As artillery shells crashed around their house during the siege of Tientsin, Lou Hoover played solitaire. She and new husband Herbert Hoover had moved there after their wedding in 1899. Herbert had been engaged as the Director General of the Department of Mines of the Chinese Government. News from China during the Boxer Rebellion was bleak, and one New York newspaper had reported their deaths and printed obituaries.
    (HNQ, 11/27/02)

1900        Greeks from the island of Kefalonia began to migrate to Manchuria after 1900 and flourished in the liquor and property business. Their world collapsed in 12949 when the Communists took power.
    (Econ, 8/23/08, p.52)

1900-1901    Sai Jinhua (c1872-1936), Chinese courtesan and the acquaintance of German field marshal Alfred von Waldersee, was credited with influencing Waldersee to moderate the harsh treatment of Beijing residents during the Boxer Rebellion. Jinhua used her knowledge of German to save the Qing emperor from German troops.

1901        Feb 26, Boxer Rebellion leaders Chi-Hsin (Chi-hsui) and Hsu-Cheng-Yu were publicly executed in Peking.
    (HN, 2/26/98)(SC, 2/26/02)

1901        Sep 7, The Peace of Peking (Beijing) ended the Boxer Rebellion in China.
    (AP, 9/7/97)

1901        Nov 29, Cixi (1835-1908), China’s empress dowager, received a new wood-bodied Duryea automobile to mark her 66th birthday. She is said to have fortified her driver, Sun Fuling, with a generous bowl of rice wine. Fuling promptly lost control of the car and ran over and killed a palace eunuch.
    (Econ, 8/22/09, p.40)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Empress_Dowager_Cixi)

1902        Jan 7, Imperial Court of China returned to Peking. The Empress Dowager resumed her reign.
    (HN, 1/7/01)

1902        Feb 1, China's empress Tzu-hsi forbade binding woman's feet.
    (MC, 2/1/02)
1902        Feb 1, U.S. Secretary of State John Hay protested Russian privileges in China as a violation of the "open door policy."
    (HN, 2/1/99)

1902        May, The government of China approved the Land Regulations of Gulangyu Island (Kulangu) allowing it to become the only international settlement on Chinese soil apart from the more celebrated International Settlement at Shanghai.
    (https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Gulangyu)(SSFC, 7/30/17, p.F3)

1903        China’s Tsingtao Brewery was set up by German brewers.
    (Econ, 5/31/14, SR p.14)

1904        Mar 4, Ding Ling, Chinese writer and women's rights activist, was born.
    (HN, 3/4/01)

1904        Aug 22, Deng Xiaoping (d.1997), Chinese leader from 1977 to 1987, was born in Sichuan province. He held nominal leadership position until his death.
    (HN, 8/22/00)(AP, 8/22/04)

1904        Aug 24, In the field battle at Liaoyang, China, some 200,000 Japanese faced 150,000 Russians. The Japanese defeated the Russians in October.
    (MC, 8/24/02)(PC, 1992, p.654)

1904        China passed a company law and the conglomerate of Zhang Jian became a stockholding firm.
    (Econ., 11/28/20, p.37)
1904        Arthur Brown authored “New Forces in Old China: An Unwelcome But Inevitable Awakening."
    (Econ, 6/25/11, SR p.3)

1905        Mar 10, Japanese Army captured Mukden, later Shenyang, China.
    (MC, 3/10/02)

1905        The four ancient Confucian texts, Ssu Shu, or "Four Books," were used as subject matter for official Chinese civil service exams (keju) in China from 1313 to 1905. The volumes reputedly contain direct quotations from Confucius.
    (HNPD, 6/27/99)(Econ., 9/5/20, p.34)
1905        Chinese revolutionary Song Jiaren met with Sun Yat-Sen in Tokyo and became a founding member of the Revolutionary Alliance, a forerunner of the Nationalist Party.
    (Econ, 12/22/12, p.67)  

1905-1998    Zhao Shao’ang, painter. He was a self-conscious modernizer of Chinese painting. His work included "Cicada and Bamboo" (1942).
    (SFC, 10/25/00, p.C5)

1906        Feb 7, Aisingyoro Henry Puyi, the last emperor of China, was born in Beijing.
    (SFC, 6/11/97, p.C16)(AP, 2/7/06)

1906        Nov 21, China prohibited opium trade.
    (MC, 11/21/01)

1907        Apr, William Edgar Geil (42), travel writer from Doylestown, Pa., arrived on his 2nd trip to China in Shanhaiaguan. He planned to follow the Great Wall of China from one end to the other and write a detailed account of the structure.
    (ON, 2/09, p.10)

1907        Jun 10, In China 11 men in five cars set out from the French embassy in Beijing on a race to Paris. Prince Scipione Borghese of Italy was the first to arrive in the French capital two months later. The 62-day race was won by an Italian built Itala.
    (AP, 6/10/07)(AH, 6/03, p.21)

1908        Nov 15, China's Empress Dowager Cixi died two weeks short of her 73rd birthday. In 2013 Jung Chang authored “Empress Dowager Cixi: The Concubine Who Launched Modern China."
    (AP, 11/15/08)(Econ, 11/30/13, p.84)
1908        Dec 2, Emp. Zxuan Tong (Aisingyoro Henry Puyi, 2 1/2 years old) ascended the dragon throne and became China's Last Emperor.
    (SFC, 6/11/97, p.A24)(MC, 12/2/01)

1908        Mar 16 The Chinese released the Japanese steamship Tatsu Maru.
    (HN, 3/16/98)

1909        Feb 26, Diplomats gathered in Shanghai agreed to set up the International Opium Commission. This was the first international effort to ban trade in a narcotic drug.
    (Econ, 3/7/09, p.15)

1909        Apr 13, William Edgar Geil (1865-1925), travel writer from Doylestown, Pa., returned to the US following his 2nd trip to China. He had traveled 1800 miles along the Great Wall of China gathering notes and photos, which he soon published in a 393-page volume titled “The Great Wall of China."
    (ON, 2/09, p.10)(http://tinyurl.com/dhtulo)

1909        In the Kando convention Japan gave China a chunk of Korean Manchuria in return for concessions.
    (Econ, 3/31/07, SR p.8)

1910        Feb 25, The Dalai Lama fled from the Chinese and took refuge in India.
    (HN, 2/25/98)

1910        Mar 10, Slavery was abolished in China.
    (HN, 3/10/98)

1910        Dec 5, China set this date for the removal of queus (a braid of hair) from the heads of male citizens. This was expected to glut the human hair market.
    (SSFC, 12/19/10, DB p.50)

1910        Dec 21, 2.5 million plague victims were reported in the An-Hul (Anhui) province of China. When a contagious pneumonic plague was ravaging northeastern China, Dr. Wu Lien-the, a Cambridge-educated modernizer of Chinese medicine, concluded that the disease traveled through the air. He adapted something he had seen in England and began instructing doctors, nurses, patients and members of the public to wear gauze masks.
    (HN, 12/21/98)(AP, 4/10/20)

1910        China’s imperial Manchu house staged a world’s fair in Nanjing calling it the “South Seas Encouraging Industry Meeting." 14 foreign countries took part.
    (Econ, 12/5/09, p.54)
1910        The French built a railroad line to link Haiphong, Vietnam, to Kunming, the capital of China's Yunnan province.
    (Econ, 11/8/03, p.42)

1911        May 8, England signed a treaty with China making opium the main trading commodity with the Chinese.
    (SMTS, 10/1/86, p.4)

1911        Oct 10-1911 Oct 14, Revolution in China began with a bomb explosion in Wuchang, Hubei province, and the discovery of revolutionary headquarters in Hankow. Revolutionaries under Sun Yat-sen (aka Sun Zhongshan) overthrew China's Manchu dynasty. The revolutionary movement spread rapidly through west and southern China, forcing the abdication of the last Ch'ing emperor, six-year-old Henry Pu-Yi. He was interned in Russia and China for 14 years after WW II and later worked as a gardener. By October 26, the Chinese Republic would be proclaimed, and on December 4, Premier Yuan Shih-K'ai would sign a truce with rebel general Li Yuan-hung. The Revolution declared that the art housed in the Forbidden City was to be for the public. The day became a holiday known as Double 10 or national Day.
    (WSJ, 12/29/95, p.A-11)(SFC, 7/1/97, p.A8)(AP, 10/10/97)(SFC, 10/10/98, p.A21)(HN, 10/10/98)(Econ, 12/22/12, p.68)(Econ, 11/5/16, p.38)

1911         Oct, In China the Revolution overthrew the Qing Dynasty and declared that the art housed in the Forbidden City was to be for the public.
    (WSJ, 12/29/95, p.A-11)(SFC, 7/1/97, p.A8)

1911        Nov 10, The Imperial government of China retook Nanking.
    (HN, 11/10/99)

1911        Dec 30, Sun Yat-sen was elected the first president of the Republic of China.
    (AP,  12/30/97)

1911        Chinese men stopped shaving their heads and wearing braids. The style had originated under the order of a Manchu emperor in 1644.
    (SFEC, 9/8/96, Z1 p.6)

1911        Tsinghua University was established in 1911 originally as "Tsinghua Xuetang," a preparatory school for students who would be sent by the government to study in universities in the United States. The school was renamed "Tsinghua School" in 1912. The university section was instituted in 1925 and undergraduate students were then enrolled. The name "National Tsinghua University" was adopted in 1928, and in 1929 the Research Institute was set up.

1911        The Yangtze River overflowed and some 100,000 people were killed.
    (SFC, 7/11/98, p.B3)

1911-1997     "Traditional Chinese Painting in the 20th Century" by Lang Shaojun is the 5th section of Wu Hung’s 1997 "The Origins of Chinese Painting." The period is marked by the emergence of the literati-amateur movement.
    (WSJ, 1/2/98, p.6)

1912        Jan 1, The Republic of China was formed with Sun Yat-Sen as president. Nationalist Party co-founder Song Jiaren began designing the institutions of the new democracy.
    (Econ, 12/22/12, p.68)

1912        Feb 12, China became a republic following the overthrow of the Manchu dynasty. Pu Yi (reign name Hsuan T'ung), the last Ch'ing (Manchu) emperor of China, abdicated. This marked the end of the Qing Dynasty. China adopted the Gregorian calendar.
    (HN, 2/12/01)(AP, 2/12/06)

1912        Feb 13, The Chinese imperial government acknowledged the new republic.
    (HN, 2/13/98)

1912        Mar 10, In China Yuan Shikai (b.1859) succeeded Sun Yat-Sen as President of the Republic of China.
    (Econ, 10/20/12, p.48)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Yuan_Shikai)

1912        Apr 2, Sun Yet Sen formed the Kuomintang-Party in China.
    (MC, 4/2/02)

1912        Apr 4, A Chinese republic was proclaimed in Tibet.
    (MC, 4/4/02)

1912        After the fall of the Manchu dynasty, Mongol princes, supported by tsarist Russia, declared the independence of Mongolia from China.

1913        Mar 22, In China Song Jiaren (30), a leader of the new Nationalist Party, died following a March 20 attack at the Shanghai railway station. All those involved in his killing died or went missing within a year.
    (Econ, 12/22/12, p.66)

1913        Mar, Frank Goodnow (1859-1939), a legal scholar from Columbia Univ., arrived in China to help draft a new Chinese constitution. One of two versions gave Yuan Shikai almost nearly unchecked powers of Chinese citizens.
    (Econ, 10/20/12, p.48)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Frank_Johnson_Goodnow)

1913        Apr 8, Opening of China's 1st parliament took place in Peking (Beijing).
    (MC, 4/8/02)

1913        Apr 26, Sun Yet San called for revolt against Pres. Yuan Shikai in China.
    (MC, 4/26/02)

1913        Jul 23, The "Second Revolution" broke out in south China.
    (AP,  7/23/97)

1913        In China the first committee to create a standard Chinese language was convened. Many meetings later the choice fell on the Beijing vernacular as the basis.
    (Econ, 10/15/16, p.39)
1913        The British convoked a conference at Simla, India, to discuss the issue of Tibet's status. The conference was attended by representatives of the British Empire, the newly founded Republic of China, and the Tibetan government at Lhasa.

1914        Feb 21, White Wolf troops attacked Zhanjiang, China.
    (MC, 2/21/02)

1914        May 1, Yuan Shikai, China's 1st president, won dictatorial qualification.
    (MC, 5/1/02)

1914        Nov 7, Japan attacked a German concession on Chinese peninsula of Shanghai.
    (MC, 11/7/01)

1914        An 840km stretch of frontier between China and India (Arunachal Pradesh state), in effect independent at this time, was settled by the governments of India and Tibet and named the McMahon Line after Sir Henry McMahon, creator of the border line. The conference in Simla placed Tawang inside the borders of India.
    (Econ, 8/21/10, p.18)(Econ, 10/20/12, p.37)
1914        King Rama VI of Thailand published a short book on the overseas Chinese in which he called them the “Jews of the Orient."
    (Econ, 10/10/15, p.42)

1915        Jan 15, Japan claimed economic control of China.
    (MC, 1/15/02)

1915        Nov 12, The Chinese liquor Moutai, which originated during the Qing Dynasty (1644-1912), won international fame with a gold medal at the 1915 Panama-Pacific Exposition in San Francisco. Maotai was named a national liquor in 1951, two years after the founding of People's Republic of China.

1915        Nov 19, The Allies asked China to join the entente against the Central Powers.
    (HN, 11/19/00)

1915        Dec 22, In China Yuan Shikai proclaimed the Empire of China (1915–1916) with himself as Emperor of China.

1915        Japan demanded major concessions from China.
    (Jap. Enc., BLDM, p. 215)

1916        Jun 6, China’s Pres. Yuan Shikai (b.1859) died.
    (Econ, 10/20/12, p.48)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Yuan_Shikai)

1917        Mar 14, China broke off diplomatic relations with Germany.
    (HN, 3/14/98)

1917        Apr 26, Ieoh Ming Pei (IM Pei), architect (1961 Brunner Prize), was born in Canton, China. He designed the East Wing of the US National Gallery of Art.
    (WSJ, 2/20/97, p.A18)(www.archpedia.com/Architects/IM-Pei.html)

1917        Aug 14, The Chinese Parliament declared war on the Central Powers, Germany and Austria, during World War I. Some 100,000 Chinese laborers ended up serving near the front lines in Flanders as the “Chinese Labor Corps," which endured military discipline under British officers. Hundreds died in the influenza that swept post-war Europe and the last were shipped home in 1920.
    (AP,  8/14/97)(Econ, 4/24/10, p.41)

1917        Nov 2, In the Lansing-Ishii Agreement the US recognized Japan's privileges in China.
    (MC, 11/2/01)

1917        When the tsarist regime fell, Mongolia reverted to Chinese control.

1918-1972    Chiang Kai-shek (1887-1975), Chinese statesman and president of the Republic (1943-1950) and President of the Republic of China, Taiwan (1950-1975), kept a diary during this period with a least a page entered daily in classical Chinese.
    (Econ, 5/9/09, p.86)

1919        May 4, Some 3,000 young scholars from 13 colleges and universities rallied at Tiananmen Square to protest the loss of Shandong province to the Japanese under the Versailles Treaty at the Paris Peace Conference. German concessions in China were bequeathed to Japan. Among the protestors were people who helped form the Communist Party.
    (SFC, 6/25/98, p.A8)(WSJ, 5/17/99, p.A21)(Econ, 5/3/08, p.13)

1919        In China Shougang Group steel mill was founded on the outskirts of Beijing. It was nationalized after the communist takeover in 1949. In 2008 the main plant was closed in an effort to improve air quality for the Olympics.
    (Econ, 3/15/08, SR p.6)

1919        Cornelius Vander Starr (1892-1968) founded "American Asiatic Underwriters" (later known as AIG) in Shanghai. AIG left China in early 1949 as Mao Zedong led the advance of the Communist People's Liberation Army. Starr moved the company headquarters to NYC.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cornelius_Vander_Starr)(Econ, 7/23/11, p.69)

1920        Apr 1, Toshiro Mifune, writer, actor (Shogun), was born in Tsing-tao, China.
    (MC, 4/1/02)

1920        Dec 15, China won a place on the League Council; Austria was admitted.
    (HN, 12/15/98)

1920        Dec 16, In China an 8.6 earthquake in the northwestern provinces of Gansu and Shanxi caused massive landslides and the deaths of 100,000- 200,000 people.
    (SFC, 1/800, p.A8)(www.ig.utexas.edu/research/projects/eq/faq/world.htm)

1920        Chao Shao-An, artist, became a student of Gao Qifeng. He mastered the technique of brush and ink on absorbent paper. His work included "Katydid and Weed" (1959); "Penglai Banana" (1964); "Vegetables" and "Autumn Colors" (1985); and "Cicada and Bamboo" (1971). He donated 80 works to the Asian Art Museum in SF in the 1990s.
    (SFC, 4/22/97, p.D1,2)

1921        Mar 18, Steamer "Hong Koh" ran aground off Swatow China killing 1,000.
    (MC, 3/18/02)

1921        Jul 11, Mongolia gained independence from China (National Day).
    (PGA, 12/9/98)

1921        Jul 1, The Communist Party of China (CPC), commonly known as the Chinese Communist Party (CCP), was founded by mainly by Chen Duxiu and Li Dazhao, with the help of the Far Eastern Bureau of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union and Far Eastern Secretariat of the Communist International.

1921        In China Lu Xun authored his allegorical novella “The Story of Ah Q." It contained  damning insights into the “feudal" thinking of the time.
    (Econ, 10/27/07, p.54)
1921        China’s Xiamen University was founded by Tan Kah Kee, a business tycoon, who made his fortune in Southeast Asia, including what is now Malaysia. In 2013 Xiamen University, based in eastern Fujian province, announced plans to open a branch in Malaysia by 2015.
    (AP, 6/11/13)
1921        Zhao Yuanren (1892-1982), aka Yuen Ren Chao, Chinese-American linguist, recorded the Standard Chinese pronunciation gramophone records distributed nationally, as proposed by Commission on the Unification of Pronunciation.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Yuen_Ren_Chao)(Econ, 7/5/14, p.15)

1922        Apr 29, A 100-mile-long battle raged near Peking, China.
    (HN, 4/29/98)

1922        Aug 2, China was hit by a typhoon and some 60,000 died.
    (MC, 8/2/02)

1923        Jun 16, Sun Yat Sen founded a military academy.
    (MC, 6/16/02)

1923        In Shanghai the Hong Kong and Shanghai Banking Corp., the 2nd largest banking institution in the world, erected a new office building.
    (SFCM, 3/20/05, p.25)

1924        Jan 9,  Sun Yat-sen appealed to the U.S. to seek international pressure for peace in China.
    (HN, 1/9/98)

1924        Oct 24, Christian Gen. Feng Joe Siang occupied Beijing.
    (MC, 10/24/01)

1924        The last emperor, Xuantong (Aisingyoro Henry Puyi), went to the puppet state of Manchukuo in northeast China after he was evicted from the Forbidden City by a warlord.
    (SFC, 12/20/96, p.B6)(SFC, 6/11/97, p.C16)
1924        China’s Chairman Mao created the Organization Department. It grew to become the world’s largest human resources department.
    (Econ, 1/21/12, SR p.9)

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