Timeline Chad

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Univ. of Penn. : http://www.sas.upenn.edu/African_Studies/Country_Specific/Chad.html
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 North central Africa, north of CAR, west of Sudan, south of Libya. The capital is N'Djamena (Ndjamena).
 (WSJ, 1/2/98, p.8)(SFC, 11/23/00, p.D5)

7.6Mil BC    In July, 2002, scientists led by Michael Brunet reported a hominid species, dating to about this time, found in the Djurab desert, Sahel region of northern Chad. They named the group Sahelanthropus tchadensis (with the nickname Toumai, "hope of life" in the Goran language). Other scientists later denied it was a human ancestor. DNA analysis in 2006 suggested that Toumai, with its human and chimp features, preceded the human-chimp split. The analysis also suggested that human lineage stemmed from a human-chimp hybrid.
    (SFC, 7/11/02, p.A1)(WSJ, 7/11/02, p.B1)(SFC, 10/10/02, p.A2)(SFC, 5/18/06, p.A3)(SFC, 2/8/13, p.D5)

3.5Mil BC-3 Mil BC    On Jan 23, 1995, a French team of paleontologists led by Michel Brunet discovered a lower jaw with 7 teeth and a separate canine of a hominid from this time period. The discovery was made in a dried lake bed of central Chad and named Australopithecus bahrelghazalia after the Arab name of a nearby river.
    (SFC, 5/23/96, p.A14)

700        The empire of Kanem began forming about this time under the nomadic Tebu-speaking Kanembu and spanned bits of Chad, Cameroon, southern Libya, Niger and Nigeria. By the 15th century the intermarriage of the Kanembu and Bornu peoples created a new people and language, the Kanuri.

1851        German traveler Heinrich Barth discovered the Royal Chronicle or Girgam, which described the history Kanem-Bornu Empire. It existed in Chad and Nigeria from the 9th century AD onward and lasted as the independent kingdom of Bornu until 1900.

1910        French Equatorial Africa was a former administrative grouping of four French territories in west central Africa. It was first formed by the federation of 3 French imperial colonies: Gabon, Middle Congo, and Ubangi-Shari-Chad. It comprised a total area of 969,112 square miles (2,500,000 sq km). Chad was separated from Ubangi-Shari in 1920 to form a fourth colony.

1920        Chad was separated from Ubangi-Shari to form a 4th colony of French Equatorial Africa.

1934        French Equatorial Africa was transformed into a unified territory of France. In 1946 it was re-divided into four separate overseas territories.

1958        Nov 28, Chad, Gabon and Middle Congo, became autonomous republics within the French community. The Middle Congo province of French Equatorial Africa voted to proclaim itself independent as the Congo Republic (Brazzaville).
    (AP, 11/28/97)

1960        Aug 11, Chad became independent from France, but remained within the French community. Francois Tombalbaye became the 1st president.
    (PC, 1992, p.973)(EWH, 1st ed., p.1173)

1963        May 25, The Organization of African Unity (OAU) was founded, in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia, by Chad, Mauritania & Zambia. Emperor Haile Selassie was among the key African leaders who founded the Organization of African Unity. He oversaw the maiden meeting of the continental body. In 2001 it was replaced the African Union.
    (AP, 5/25/97)(SFC, 7/12/01, p.A12)(AP, 2/10/19)

1964        The Customs and Economic Union of Central Africa, UDEAC from its name in French, was established by the Brazzaville Treaty. Members included Cameroon, the Central African Republic, Chad, the Republic of Congo, and Gabon.
    (AP, 9/29/13)

1966        The Brazzaville Treaty became effective after it was ratified by the five member countries: Cameroon, the Central African Republic, Chad, the Republic of Congo, and Gabon.

1974        Oil was discovered in Chad.
    (WSJ, 6/24/03, p.A9)

1975        Abdelkader Wadal Kamougue, a southern Chad leader, led a coup.
    (SFC, 7/12/96, p.A1)

1976         The Development Bank of Central African States (BDEAC) was established and included six members of the Economic and Monetary Community of Central Africa: Cameroon, the Central African Republic, Chad, Congo, Equatorial Guinea and Gabon.
    (AP, 9/23/09)

1980-1982    In Chad Goukouni Weddeye served as president until he was overthrown by Hissene Habre. He went to Algeria where he has lived, some of the time helping to plan rebellions against Habre, who was later overthrown by Idriss Deby Itno. In 2009 Weddeye planned to return to Chad.
    (AFP, 8/21/09)

1982        Jun 7, Hissene Habre (b.1942) deposed PM Goukouni Oueddei and became dictator of Chad until 1990. Under Habre the secret police allegedly killed tens of thousands of people and tortured as many as 200,000. Habre received US support because he opposed Libyan leader Moammar Khadafy. Habre was deposed on Dec 1, 1990, by Idriss Deby and fled to Senegal with $11 million.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hiss%C3%A8ne_Habr%C3%A9)(WSJ, 5/31/00, p.A26)

1982-1990    In Chad thousands of people were killed or grievously hurt during this ďblack years" period. Saleh Younous, head of the Directorate of Documentation and Security (DDS), led the political police under dictator Hissene Habre.
    (AFP, 11/14/14)

1987        France ousted Libyan troops from a disputed area of northern Chad. In the proxy war, code-named Arid Farmer, France and the US backed government forces against Libyan troops.
    (SFC, 6/22/99, p.A12)(WSJ, 2/11/03, p.D8)

1990         Nov, In Chad Idriss Deby (37), a guerilla chief, seized power in a coup. His Zaghawa tribe came to dominate the government and was widely opposed by other Chadians from other regions.
    (www.atlapedia.com/online/countries/chad.htm)(Econ, 3/4/06, p.42)

1990        Dec 1, Hissene Habre (b.1942), dictator of Chad, was deposed by Idriss Deby and fled to Senegal with $11 million.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hiss%C3%A8ne_Habr%C3%A9)(WSJ, 5/31/00, p.A26)

1991        The French supported strongman in Chad was removed from office.
    (WSJ, 1/24/97, p.A14)

1992        A commission set up in Chad accused Habre's regime of 40,000 political killings and 200,000 cases of torture.
    (AP, 11/25/05)

1992        Hissene Habre fled to Senegal from Chad with $11 million in loot.
    (WSJ, 5/31/00, p.A26)

1992        An agreement was made on sharing water from Nubian sandstone aquifer system, the largest in the world, located under Chad, Egypt, Libya and Sudan.
    (Econ, 10/9/10, p.87)

1994        Oil in Chad was estimated to be at least 1 million barrels.
    (WSJ, 6/24/03, p.A9)

1995        Laurent Pope, former US ambassador to Chad, admitted that half of the $300 million in assistance provided by the US (Agency for Intíl. Development) since 1982 was wasted.
    (WSJ, 1/2/98, p.8)

1996        Jun 3, In Chad Pres. Idriss Deby led 15 candidates in the upcoming first multiparty elections.
    (WSJ, 8/8/95, p. A1)

1996        Jul 3, Chadís Pres. Idriss Deby won 70% of the vote. He defeated Abdelkader Wadal Kamougue, a southern leader who led coup in 1975. The election was widely seen as flawed.
    (SFC, 7/12/96, p.A1)(WSJ, 5/29/01, p.A1)

1996        The life expectancy for women in Chad was 40 years.
    (SFC, 5/6/96, p.A-4)

1997        Aug, A plague of locusts began to spread across southwest Chad with as many as 200 locusts per square yard.
    (SFC, 9/27/97, p.A21)

1998        Aug, Troops from Chad were sent to support Kabila in the Congo.
    (SFC, 10/15/98, p.A15)

1998        Dec, Chad's parliament passed into law an agreement for strict auditing of its oil income.
    (WSJ, 6/24/03, p.A9)

2000        Jan 25, A complaint was submitted in Dakar, Senegal, against former Chad dictator Hissene Habre. It detailed 97 allegations of political killings, 142 cases of torture and 100 disappearances. Habre was indicted on Feb 3.
    (SFC, 1/27/00, p.C2)(SFC, 2/4/00, p.D8)

2000        Feb, A Senegalese court indicted Hissene Habre, the former autocrat of Chad.
    (WSJ, 5/31/00, p.A26)

2000        May, Chad received a $25 million bonus from the oil consortiumís junior partners, Chevron and Petronas of Malaysia, in the new pipeline deal.
    (SFC, 12/6/00, p.C20)

2000        Jun 6, The World Bank approved a $3.7 billion oil well and pipeline project led by Exxon and Mobile to link oil fields in Chad across 663 miles to the Atlantic coast of Cameroon.
    (SFC, 6/7/00, p.A12)

2000        Oct 18, The World Bank endorsed a $3.5 billion oil project in Chad with 80% of the revenues to go to development. 10% was to be invested for future generations. The pipeline was to go from southern Chad to an Atlantic port in Cameroon. By 2008 rather than comply with the bankís strictures, Chad had repaid its loans in full and spent its oil money as it pleased.
    (SFC, 11/23/00, p.D5)(Econ, 9/27/08, p.63)

2000        Nov 23, It was reported that $4 million of a $25 million bonus payment from the new oil project was used by the Chad government to buy weapons.
    (SFC, 11/23/00, p.D5)(SFC, 12/6/00, p.C20)

2001        Mar 20, Senegalís highest court said that it has no authority to prosecute Hissene Habre, Chadís former president, on charges of torture.
    (SFC, 3/21/01, p.A14)

2001        Apr 12, A trailer truck carrying some 100 passengers went off the Chagoua Bridge and plunged into the Chari River near the Chad capital of NíDjamena. Most were missing and feared dead.
    (SFC, 4/14/01, p.A10)

2001        May 20, Chad held elections and Pres. Deby was later declared the winner. Police had detained 6 opposition candidates and beat dozens of their supporters.
    (WSJ, 5/29/01, p.A1)

2001        Jul 19, Scientists in Chad found fossils in the Djurab desert of a human ancestor that they later dated to 6-7 million years BP. In 2002 they named the group Sahelanthropus tchadensis (with the nickname ToumaÔ, ďhope of life" in the Goran language).
    (NW, 7/22/02, p.46)

2002        Sep 24, Youssouf Togoimi, rebel head of the Movement for Democracy and Justice in Chad and a former minister in the government of President Idriss Deby, died from wounds suffered after his vehicle struck a land mine Aug 28. Togoimi died in a hospital in neighboring Libya where he was flown for treatment.
    (AP, 9/26/02)

2003        Jul 15, Chad began pumping oil to Cameroon, part of a project to help alleviate crushing poverty in the two countries. The 4.2 billion project was funded by the World Bank on the condition that the oil money be used for development. Pres. Idris Deby later diverted the money to the general budget and for weapons.
    (AP, 7/16/03)(SFC, 12/21/07, p.A31)

2003        Sep, Refugee numbers in Chad reach 65,000. UN agencies estimate at least 500,000 people in Darfur need humanitarian aid.

2003        Oct 3, The first tanker set off the Cameroon port of Kribi with crude oil from a massive $3.7 billion, 665-mile pipeline from the landlocked nation of Chad.
    (AP, 10/6/03)

2003        Dec 14, Chad's government signed a cease-fire with rebel forces at the end of talks in Burkina Faso.
    (AP, 12/14/03)

2003        Chadís population was about 8 million.
    (SFC, 11/23/00, p.D5)

2004        Jan 26, Sudanese planes dropped bombs in western Sudan, sending hundreds of people fleeing across the border into Chad where aid workers scrambled to provide them food and shelter in the barren desert.
    (AP, 1/27/04)

2004        Feb 17, UN agencies began urgently airlifting relief supplies into eastern Chad and western Sudan to help more than 600,000 Sudanese lacking food, water and medical supplies because of fighting.
    (AP, 2/17/04)

2004        Mar 9, In Chad 2 days of fighting broke out as the army battled Islamic militants near a remote village on the country's western border with Niger, killing 43 "terrorists" of a group suspected of links with al-Qaida. Chadís defense minister said hundreds of Arab militiamen from Sudan had raided a village inside Chad, setting off gun battles with the army that killed dozens of fighters.
    (AP, 3/12/04)(AP, 5/9/04)

2004        Mar 18, A rebel group in Chad captured Amari Saifi, one of North Africa's most notorious terrorists, along with 9 others. Saifi is and an Algerian extremist suspected in the hostage-taking of 32 European tourists last year.
    (AP, 5/14/04)

2004        Jun 12, Central African leaders of Chad and Cameroon officially opened the taps on one of the largest private investments in sub-Saharan Africa, a 663-mile, $3.7 billion pipeline snaking from Chad through virgin rain forests to the Atlantic.
    (AP, 6/12/04)

2004        Jun 17, A Chad military official said Arab militias, known as Janjawids, fought Chadian troops in Birak, a locality inside Chad about 10 miles (six kilometers) from the border with western Sudan. 69 Janjawids militiamen were killed and two taken prisoner in the fighting. He did not give figures for any losses among Chadian troops.
    (AP, 6/17/04)

2004        Jul 10, Sudan, under international pressure to take action to end the humanitarian crisis in Darfur, agreed with Chad to deploy a joint force along their troubled border.
    (AFP, 7/11/04)

2004        Aug 14, Africaís worst desert locust plague in 15 years continued across Chad.
    (SFC, 8/14/04, p.C8)

2004        US Special Forces began training local troops in Mauritania and Mali under a program called the Pan-Sahel Initiative. The program was renamed the Trans-Sahara Counter-Terrorism Initiative and taken over by Marines, who extended the training to Chad and Niger.
    (SFC, 10/2/04, p.A8)

2005        Jun, The Trans-Sahara Counter-Terrorism Initiative began operations. The US funded plan intended to provide military equipment and development aid to 9 north-east African countries considered fertile ground for Muslim militant groups. Participating countries included Algeria, Chad, Mali, Mauritania, Morocco, Niger, Nigeria, Senegal, and Tunisia.
    (SFC, 12/27/05, p.A1)

2005        Sep 19, Belgium issued an international arrest warrant for Chad's former leader Hissene Habre, charging him with atrocities during his 1982-90 rule. Habre, who lives in exile in Senegal, is being pursued under Belgium's "universal jurisdiction" laws, which allow for prosecutions for crimes against humanity wherever they were committed.
    (AP, 9/29/05)

2005        Oct 18, Transparency International ranked Bangladesh and Chad as the most corrupt on an annual list of corruption levels in 159 nations. At the other end of the scale, Iceland was ranked least corrupt. Turkmenistan, Myanmar, Haiti, Nigeria, Equatorial Guinea, the Ivory Coast and Angola joined Chad and Bangladesh as the most corrupt countries.
    (AP, 10/18/05)

2005        Oct, The government of Chad said it intends to amend a law governing petrodollars so it can use a larger chunk for any purpose it likes.
    (SFC, 12/30/05, p.C2)

2005        Nov 25, Hissene Habre, Chad's former dictator, was freed after a Senegalese court said it had no jurisdiction to rule on his extradition to Belgium to stand trial for war crimes.
    (AP, 11/25/05)

2005        Nov 27, Senegal's foreign minister said the African Union will decide the fate of Chad's former dictator, wanted in Belgium for trial on human-rights abuses allegedly committed during his regime.
    (AP, 11/28/05)

2005        Dec 8, Paul Wolfowitz, head of the World Bank, issued a statement to Chad expressing serious concerns about proposed changes to the use of petrodollars.
    (SFC, 12/30/05, p.C2)

2005        Dec 18, Chad blamed its neighbor Sudan for a rebel raid on an eastern garrison and announced it was exercising its right to pursue the attackers on Sudanese soil. A spokesman said an early morning attack on Adre's garrison was mounted by army deserters allied with a recently formed rebel group called the Rally for Democracy and Liberty (RDL), which Chad accuses of being a "militia used by the Sudanese government."
    (AP, 12/18/05)

2005        Dec 19, Chad's army said its forces had killed about 300 rebels after they launched a failed offensive on a border town in one of the worst attacks in an escalating conflict. Chad's foreign minister said the troops then chased the rebels into Sudan and destroyed their bases across the border.
    (AP, 12/19/05)

2006        Jan 4, Chad's President Idriss Deby urged the UN to take control of Sudan's volatile Darfur region because he said Khartoum was using the conflict there to destabilize neighboring states.
    (Reuters, 1/4/06)

2006        Jan 7, The World Bank under Paul Wolfowitz halted all lending to Chad saying the country broke a deal to use oil money to cut poverty.
    (WSJ, 1/7/06, p.A1)(Econ, 3/4/06, p.69)

2006        Feb 8, In Libya the leaders of Sudan and Chad signed a peace agreement to end increasing tension over Sudan's Darfur region, pledging to normalize diplomatic relations and deny refuge to each other's rebel groups. A communique issued by Sudan, Chad and Libya, as well as Burkino Faso, Congo and the Central African Republic, whose leaders attended the talks, said a committee of African countries overseen by Libya would monitor the implementation of the deal.
    (AP, 2/9/06)

2006        Feb 13, Joey Cheek (26), American speedskater, won a gold medal in the 500-meter sprint in Turin, Italy, and announced that he would donate his $25,000 award from the US Olympic Committee to a refugee program in Chad.
    (SFC, 2/14/06, p.A1)

2006        Apr 12-2006 Apr 13, Sudanese Janjaweed militia with local Chadian recruits shot or hacked to death 118 villagers in eastern Chad in a bloody spillover of violence from Sudan's Darfur region.
    (Reuters, 5/25/06)

2006        Apr 13, In Chad government troops using tanks and attack helicopters repelled a rebel assault on NíDjamena, Chad's capital. At least 100 rebels were killed. President Deby went on state-run radio to assure residents he remained in control, and he blamed Sudan, whose Darfur crisis has spilled over into his country.
    (AP, 4/13/06)(Econ, 4/22/06, p.50)

2006        Apr 14, Chad broke off diplomatic relations with Sudan and threatened to expel 200,000 Sudanese refugees, blaming its neighbor for a rebel attack that killed 350 in the capital.
    (AP, 4/14/06)

2006        Apr 15, Chad threatened to cut off its flow of oil unless the World Bank releases $125 million frozen in a dispute over how the central African country should spend its oil revenues.
    (AP, 4/15/06)

2006        Apr 16, Chad's Pres. Deby promised the UN that refugees from Sudan's Darfur region will not be forcibly returned.
    (AP, 4/17/06)

2006        May 3, Chadians voted for president despite no real alternatives to incumbent Idriss Deby, who rebuffed calls to delay the election in this emerging African oil exporter in favor of peace talks with rebels.
    (AP, 5/3/06)

2006        Jun 11, A military transport plane crashed as it tried to land at an unlit airport at night in Chad's main eastern city, killing five people. Chad rebels claimed that they shot the C-130 military plane down at Abeche airport.
    (AP, 6/12/06)

2006        Jun 16, A joint UN and African Union delegation met Chadian President Idriss Deby to discuss the possible deployment of UN troops in Sudan's war-ravaged western Darfur region.
    (AFP, 6/16/06)

2006        Jun 20, Chad accused Sudan of cross-border attacks and urged the Security Council to meet over its neighbor's alleged "aggression and destabilization."
    (AP, 6/20/06)

2006        Jun 26, An attack on an army camp in the Central African Republic (CAR) resulted in 33 deaths. The provisional toll included 11 CAR soldiers, two Chadian soldiers from the multinational force FOMUC and 20 attackers.
    (AFP, 6/27/06)

2006        Jul 2, Senegal's President Abdoulaye Wade said his country would try Chad's former leader Hissene Habre, wanted by Belgium for trial on charges of war crimes and crimes against humanity.
    (AFP, 7/2/06)

2006        Jul 14, The World Bank said it and Chad had resolved a dispute over oil revenues that will result in significant increases in government spending on projects that benefit the poor.
    (AP, 7/14/06)

2006        Aug 6, Taiwan condemned China after oil producer Chad switched diplomatic ties to Beijing from Taipei, forcing Premier Su Tseng-chang to scrap his plans to visit the African nation at the last minute.
    (Reuters, 8/6/06)

2006        Aug 8, Chad and Sudan agreed to reopen their borders and resume diplomatic relations that they severed in a dispute four months ago.
    (AP, 8/9/06)

2006        Aug 26, Chad ordered US energy giant Chevron and Malaysia's Petronas to leave the country within 24 hours for failing to honor tax obligations, a move apparently aimed at increasing control over its oil output. Chad's president Idriss Deby suspended the oil minister and two other Cabinet members who negotiated deals with the two foreign oil firms.
    (AP, 8/27/06)

2006        Aug 30, Conservationists said the remains of 100 African elephants killed for their tusks have been found in Chad not far from Sudan's troubled Darfur region.
    (AP, 8/31/06)

2006        Sep 1, In Chad US Senator Barack Obama held talks with President Idriss Deby Itno on the crisis in Sudan's Darfur region and on Chad's oil production, on the final stop of the African-American politician's tour of the continent.
    (AP, 9/1/06)

2006        Sep 7, Chad Pres. Idriss Deby and Chevron CEO David OíReilly met in Paris for talks on oil taxes. Chad said Chevron agreed to pay back taxes.
    (SFC, 9/9/06, p.C1)

2006        Oct 7, Sudanese soldiers crossed the border into eastern Chad to fight a group of Darfur rebels, leaving more than 300 people injured.
    (AP, 10/8/06)

2006        Oct 18, Local and UN officials said Sudanese Janjaweed militia and Chadian rebels have attacked at least 10 villages in south-east Chad in the past fortnight, killing over 100 people and displacing more than 3,000.
    (Reuters, 10/18/06)

2006        Oct 23, In southeastern Chad armed men attacked Am Timan, 24 hours after briefly seizing the town of Goz Beida near the Sudan border. The insurgents, calling themselves the Union of Forces for Democracy and Development (UFDD), the latest in a string of titles grouping various rebel factions, have said they want polls to end the "catastrophic" rule of President Idriss Deby.
    (Reuters, 10/24/06)

2006        Oct 27, The UN said it is sending a mission to Chad and the Central African Republic to look at operations to curb the escalating violence and help protect hundreds of thousands of civilians.
    (AP, 10/28/06)

2006        Oct 28, Chad accused Sudan's air force of bombarding four towns along its eastern frontier and said its armed forces were ready to repel further aggression.
    (Reuters, 10/28/06)

2006        Oct 31, A small clash between ethnic Arab and ethnic African villagers along Chad's border with Darfur escalated into a large-scale attack in which Arabs killed 128 Africans. The fight broke out in Amtiman in southeastern Chad between two small groups after a member of one group insulted the other.
    (AP, 11/7/06)

2006        Nov 2, Senegal moved closer to bringing Hissene Habre, a former Chadian dictator accused of war crimes, to justice after the government announced that local laws would be revised and a special commission formed to organize and oversee his trial.
    (AP, 11/3/06)

2006        Nov 13, Chad declared a state of emergency in three eastern regions where ethnic clashes have left as many as 200 people dead and raised fears that Sudan's Darfur conflict is spilling across the border.
    (AP, 11/14/06)

2006        Nov 18, Gabonese President Omar Bongo said in a statement that the Central African Economic and Monetary Community (CEMAC) had "acceded to a request from the Central African Republic authorities to intervene in securing conflict zones." CEMAC's members include the Central African Republic, Chad, Gabon, Congo, Cameroon and Equatorial Guinea.
    (AFP, 11/18/06)

2006        Nov 24, Chadian rebels rolled into the east of the country in their second offensive within a month against President Idriss Deby Itno. Chad extended a state of emergency for six months in the country's eastern provinces, where ethnic clashes have killed as many as 400 people and raised fears that Sudan's Darfur conflict is spilling across the border.
    (AP, 11/24/06)

2006        Nov 25, In eastern Chad fighting broke out between the national army and rebels, and rebels claimed they had seized the major city in the area.
    (AP, 11/25/06)

2006        Nov 26, In eastern Chad government forces entered Abeche, one day after rebels launched an attack and claimed to have seized the town.
    (AP, 11/26/06)

2006        Nov 28, A Chadian military reconnaissance plane was shot down in eastern Chad in an attack likely carried out by rebels.
    (AP, 11/28/06)

2006        Dec 1, Amnesty International accused the government of Chad of failing to act as Janjaweed militia carry out increasing attacks on civilians.
    (AFP, 12/1/06)

2006        Dec 6, In Chad an association of radio broadcasters said private radio stations began a three-day protest of government censorship of their reporting on Chad's volatile east.
    (AP, 12/6/06)

2006        Dec 17, In eastern Chad marauding fighters killed and mutilated 20 civilians. The  government blamed the atrocities on militias backed by neighbouring Sudan. Government forces who battled the attackers after their raids on the refugee camp and two other nearby villages also saw eight of their soldiers killed and the victims' eyes gouged out. The army killed nine fighters in return and took four prisoners.
    (AFP, 12/19/06)

2006        Dec 24, Chad's president and the leader of a rebel faction that tried to oust him earlier this year signed a peace accord in Libya, but other Chadian insurgents dismissed the deal and vowed to fight on.
    (Reuters, 12/24/06)

2006        Dec 25, Chad's President Idriss Deby Itno and rebel leader Mahamat Nour Abdulkerim arrived in N'Djamena after signing a peace deal in Libya. One of the current rebel leaders, Timane Erdimi, dismissed the significance of the deal with Nour's FUC, some of whose men went off to join a coalition led by the Rally of Democratic Forces (RAFD) headed by Erdimi and his twin brother Tom. Deby's government is also up against the Union of Forces for Democracy and Development (UFDD), led by former defense minister Mahamat Nouri, and the Chadian National Concord movement led by Hassan Saleh al-Djinedi.
    (AFP, 12/25/06)

2006        France used Chadís airspace to train fighter pilots and maintained a military presence in the eastern part of the country.
    (Econ, 11/11/06, p.54)

2007        Jan 15, Anti-government rebels in Chad said they have captured a new location in the far north of the central African country after ending a truce at the weekend. Chadian defense minister, General Bichara Issa Djadallah, denied the rebel claim.
    (AFP, 1/15/07)

2007        Jan 17, Chadian rebels captured the small town of Ade on the border with Sudan, the latest in a series of raids in the lawless east of the central African country.
    (AP, 1/17/07)

2007        Jan 24, A hijacker seized a Sudanese passenger plane carrying 103 people and forced the pilot to fly to the Chadian capital, N'Djamena, where he surrendered. The gunman wanted the plane to be flown to Britain but when told there was insufficient fuel agreed to go to the capital of neighbouring Chad. He said he wanted to draw attention to the Darfur conflict.
    (AP, 1/24/07)

2007        Feb 1, Chadian rebels fighting to overthrow President Idriss Deby attacked the eastern border town of Adre on the main road route into Sudan's Darfur region.
    (AP, 2/1/07)

2007        Feb 15, A summit of African leaders opened in Cannes on the French Riviera. The crisis in Darfur and violence in Guinea overshadowed the summit, as well as perennial issues of poverty, development and AIDS. France won agreement from three involved African nations (Sudan, Chad and Central African Republic) that they would not support armed rebel movements on each other's territories.
    (AP, 2/15/07)(AP, 2/15/07)

2007        Feb 21, At a regional meeting in Libya the leaders of Sudan and Chad said they agreed to redouble efforts to end violence spilling over their border from Darfur.
    (Reuters, 2/21/07)

2007        Feb 23, Chadian PM Pascal Yoadimnadji (56) died at a Paris hospital following a brain hemorrhage.
    (AP, 2/23/07)

2007        Feb 28, Djidda Moussa Outman, Chad's minister of foreign affairs, said that Chad had never accepted the idea of a military force of "whatever nature" on its eastern border.
    (AP, 3/1/07)

2007        Mar 4, Chad named the former rebel leader Mahamat Nour Abdelkerim as its new defense minister in a major reshuffle of the volatile central African country's government.
    (AFP, 3/4/07)

2007        Mar 6, The government of Chad refused to allow the UN to send an advance mission to prepare for the possible deployment of UN peacekeepers, a setback to plans to help thousands of civilians caught in the spillover of the Darfur conflict in neighboring Sudan.
    (AP, 3/7/07)

2007        Mar 31, Janjaweed militiamen killed up to 400 people in the volatile eastern border region near Sudan, leaving an "apocalyptic" scene of mass graves and destruction. Chadian officials initially said 65 people had died, but added that the toll was sure to rise.
    (AP, 4/10/07)

2007        Apr 10, South African President Thabo Mbeki arrived in Khartoum to join the international push for UN peacekeepers in Darfur, amid fears of a regional spillover after clashes between Sudan and Chad. Officials said the UN, the African Union and the Sudanese government have reached agreement to beef up the African force in Sudan's violence-wracked Darfur region with UN troops, police and equipment.
    (AP, 4/10/07)

2007        Apr 26, Six central African countries (Gabon, Equatorial Guinea, Chad, Central African Republic, Cameroon and Congo) plan to launch a common passport in July, permitting the free movement of goods and people across their borders.
    (AFP, 4/26/07)

2007        May 3, African neighbors Sudan and Chad signed a Saudi-brokered reconciliation deal in Saudi Arabia, requiring both sides to cooperate with the United Nations to stabilize Darfur and the adjacent region in Chad.
    (AP, 5/3/07)

2007        May 4, A rebel spokesman said a Saudi-brokered reconciliation deal signed by Chad with its neighbor Sudan will not halt a guerrilla war by Chadian rebels aimed at toppling President Idriss Deby.
    (Reuters, 5/4/07)

2007        May 9, Chad pledged to work to demobilize hundreds of child soldiers fighting in the ranks of the government army and rebel groups across the conflict-torn central African country.
    (Reuters, 5/9/07)

2007        Jun 3, In Libya African leaders sought to reconcile differences between neighbors Chad and Sudan over Darfur and boost Somalia's embattled transitional government at a regional summit.
    (AFP, 6/3/07)

2007        Jul 2, Brahim Deby (27), the son of Chad's president, was found dead with a head wound in the basement of his apartment building in a Paris suburb. Authorities treated the case as a murder investigation.
    (AP, 7/2/07)

2007        Jul 23, The European Union took the first step towards sending forces to Chad and the Central African Republican to help the United Nations protect refugees trapped in the violent region bordering Darfur.
    (AP, 7/23/07)

2007        Aug 23, The government of Chad said it will adhere to a program designed to put pressure on countries to be open about revenues from exports of oil, natural gas and minerals.
    (AP, 8/23/07)

2007        Sep 7, UN Secretary General Ban Ki-moon arrived in Chad for talks with President Idriss Deby Itno on the Darfur crisis in neighbouring Sudan, and the plight of refugees who have fled to his country.
    (AP, 9/7/07)

2007        Sep 25, The UN Security Council unanimously passed a French resolution endorsing sending a European Union-UN force to Chad and the Central African Republic to protect civilians reeling from a spillover of the Darfur conflict.
    (AP, 9/25/07)

2007        Oct 15, European Union foreign ministers gave their final approval to deploy a 3,000-strong EU peacekeeping force for one year to help refugees and displaced people living along Darfur's borders with Chad and the Central African Republic.
    {EU, Sudan, Chad, CAR}
    (AP, 10/15/07)

2007        Oct 16,     Chad's government declared a state of emergency along its eastern border with Sudan's Darfur and in its remote desert north to tackle a fresh flare-up of ethnic violence that killed at least 20 people.
    (AP, 10/16/07)

2007        Oct 25, In Chad 9 French citizens were arrested after a group tried to fly 103 African children to France, saying it wanted to save them from the crisis in neighboring Darfur. On Oct 29 six French nationals were charged with kidnapping and a judge in the eastern city of Abeche also agreed to allow prosecution charges of complicity against three French journalists.
    (AP, 10/26/07)(AP, 10/30/07)

2007        Oct 28, Authorities in Chad charged six French charity workers with kidnapping after they tried to put 103 children on a plane to France, claiming they were orphans from Sudan's conflict-wracked Darfur region. The charity workers were later convicted, jailed for several months, then pardoned.
    (AP, 10/29/08)

2007        Nov 4, In Chad 3 French journalists and 4 Spanish flight attendants, among 17 detained for over a week in an alleged attempt to kidnap 103 African children, were released. French President Nicolas Sarkozy arrived in Chad on a visit to discuss the fate of Europeans facing charges for trying to fly 103 African children to Europe.
    (AP, 11/4/07)(Reuters, 11/4/07)

2007        Nov 9, A Belgian pilot and three Spanish flight crew were set free by authorities in Chad who had accused them of complicity in a plot to kidnap 103 children and take them to France for adoption.
    (AP, 11/9/07)

2007        Nov 26, In eastern Chad rebels and government soldiers fought gunbattles near the border with Sudan's Darfur region after two rebel groups ended a month-long ceasefire. A rebel group, Union of Forces for Development and Democracy, claimed to have killed over 200 government soldiers with 20 of its fighters lost.
    (Reuters, 11/26/07)(AP, 11/27/07)(SFC, 11/27/07, p.A17)

2007        Nov 29, In eastern Chad new fighting erupted near the border with Sudan's strife-torn Darfur region between the army and a leading rebel group.
    (AP, 11/29/07)

2007        Nov 30, In Chad anti-government rebels declared a "state of war" against French and foreign military forces in an apparent warning to an EU peacekeeping force that plans to deploy soon in eastern Chad.
    (Reuters, 11/30/07)

2007        Dec 4, The Chadian army fought heavy battles against rebel forces in the east of the country near the border with Sudan's troubled Darfur region.
    (AFP, 12/4/07)

2007        Dec 7, Six French nationals detained in Chad on suspicion of trying to illegally fly 103 children to Europe started a hunger strike, complaining their case was being neglected.
    (Reuters, 12/8/07)

2007        Dec 26, A Chadian court convicted six French aid workers of trying to kidnap 103 African children and sentenced them to eight years of forced labor. The French Foreign Ministry in Paris said it would ask Chadian authorities to transfer the six convicted to France. The countries have a bilateral judicial agreement that could allow for such a transfer.
    (AP, 12/26/07)

2007        Dec 28, In Chad 6 French aid workers sentenced to eight years' forced labor for trying to kidnap 103 children left for France, boarding a plane in handcuffs as security officers looked on.
    (AP, 12/28/07)

2007        Dec 29, Sudan accused Chadian aircraft of bombing its western Darfur region in what it called "repeated aggressions" by its western neighbor. a Sudanese foreign ministry statement said 3 Chadian war planes bombed two areas in West Darfur on December 28.
    (AFP, 12/30/07)

2008        Jan 7, Chadian air force planes attacked a Chadian rebel base across the border, southwest of El-Geneina in the Darfur region of Sudan.
    (AP, 1/7/08)

2008        Jan 11, Belgium, France and Poland pledged to provide the resources needed to launch a European Union peacekeeping force for Chad and the Central African Republic.
    (AP, 1/11/08)

2008        Jan 28, The EU launched its long-awaited peacekeeping force for Chad and the Central African Republic to help protect hundreds of thousands of refugees from strife-torn Darfur.
    (AFP, 1/28/08)
2008        Jan 28, A French court sentenced six French charity workers to 8 years in prison, after they were convicted in Chad of trying to kidnap 103 children they said were orphans from Darfur.
    (AP, 1/28/08)

2008        Jan, The population of Central African Republic was about 4 million. Bandits known as Zaraguina, mostly from Chad, were reported to be looting, kidnapping and demanding thousands of dollars in ransom for local cattle herders from the Peuhl tribe.
    (Econ, 1/26/08, p.47)

2008        Feb 1, Chad's army fought to drive off rebels who pushed to within 100 km (60 miles) of the capital N'Djamena and the clashes delayed the deployment of European peacekeepers. A French Defense Ministry official said France has sent about 150 supplementary troops to Chad as a "precautionary measure" in response to a rebel offensive.
    (AP, 2/1/08)
2008        Feb 1, In Ethiopia a summit of African Union leaders shifted its attention from the crisis in Kenya to Chad, with delegates voicing fears of a major conflict that could scupper peace efforts in Sudan.
    (AP, 2/1/08)

2008        Feb 2, African Union leaders condemned the latest unrest in Chad and Kenya at the close of a summit overshadowed by new crises on the continent and which saw little headway achieved on older ones. Hundreds of rebels penetrated the capital of Chad, clashing with government troops and moving on the presidential palace after a three-day advance through the oil-producing central African nation.
    (AFP, 2/2/08)(AP, 2/2/08)

2008        Feb 3, Chadian forces backed by tanks and helicopter gunships struggled to repel a rebel assault on the capital, and insurgents claimed to have trapped the president in his palace. Chadian rebels, reportedly backed by Sudanese military aircraft, launched an attack on the eastern town of Adre, which borders on Sudan's Darfur region.
    (AP, 2/3/08)(AFP, 2/3/08)

2008        Feb 4, In Chad government forces and rebels clashed for a third day in the capital of N'Djamena with gunfire and shelling heard throughout the city.
    (AP, 2/4/08)

2008        Feb 7, Chadian President Idriss Deby Itno issued a "solemn call" for a European peacekeeping force for Darfur refugees, to deploy as soon as possible. The president also said he was "ready to pardon" six French aid workers convicted in December of trying to kidnap more than 100 children they said were orphans from Darfur.
    (AP, 2/7/08)(AFP, 2/7/08)

2008        Feb 10, The UN refugee agency said up to 12,000 "terrified" refugees from Sudan's Darfur region have fled across the border to neighboring Chad after the latest air strikes by the Sudanese military and thousands more may be on their way.
    (AP, 2/10/08)

2008        Feb 11, Chad's PM Nouradin Koumakoye demanded that the international community remove refugees who have fled to Chad from Sudan's Darfur region.
    (AP, 2/11/08)

2008        Feb 14, Chad's Pres. Idriss Deby declared a state of emergency and signed a decree increasing government powers for 15 days.
    (SFC, 2/15/08, p.A12)

2008        Feb 29, The UN refugee agency said that 3,000 refugees from Darfur have arrived in Chad in the last week, bringing the total number to over 13,000 in February alone.
    (AFP, 2/29/08)

2008        Mar 4, France pinned the blame on Sudanese forces for a shooting near the border with Chad that left one French soldier wounded and another missing and asked Sudanese authorities for help in locating the missing soldier. Sgt. Gilles Pollinís remains were formally identified Mar 7 and flown to Paris from Khartoum.
    (AP, 3/4/08)(AP, 3/7/08)

2008        Mar 13, Chad accused Sudan of sending anti-government rebels across their border into its territory as international mediators struggled to broker a fresh peace accord between the two neighbors. The presidents of Chad and Sudan signed a non-aggression pact, vowing not to support rebel attacks against each other, many of which were launched from troubled Darfur.
    (AP, 3/13/08)(AFP, 3/14/08)

2008        Mar 17, An EU force of 3,700 troops still deploying in Chad and the Central African Republic (CAR) announced the official start of its year-long mission to protect refugees and displaced people. The EU force in Chad was known as EUFOR, and the UN Mission there and the CAR was called MINURCAT.
    (AFP, 3/17/08)(Econ, 5/31/08, p.52)

2008        Mar 31, Chad's state radio announced that the president has pardoned six French aid workers convicted of kidnapping 103 children.
    (AP, 3/31/08)

2008        Apr 2, Chad's main rebel group urged former colonial ruler France to stop backing President Idriss Deby Itno and cease flying over rebel positions in the central African nation's restive east.
    (AP, 4/2/08)

2008        May 1, Pascal Marlinge, the country head of Save the Children UK in Chad, was shot dead by gunmen who held up his three-car convoy between the villages of Forchana and Hadjer Hadid, not far from the border with Sudan's Darfur region. UN aid agencies suspended all but their most urgent work in eastern Chad for two days in a "symbolic protest."
    (Reuters, 5/2/08)

2008        May 10, Sudanese soldiers clashed with Darfur rebels of the Justice and Equality Movement (JEM) in the north of the capital Khartoum where a curfew has now been imposed. Officials later said more that 200 people were killed in the weekend fighting. The rebels had traveled from Chad in 191 land cruisers and pick-up trucks. On May 27 an official Egyptian newspaper claimed that Sudanese forces searching the rebel JEM movement found modern Iranian weapons with them and that authorities had seized large amounts of ammunition and Iranian equipment.
    (AFP, 5/10/08)(AP, 5/13/08)(Econ, 5/17/08, p.59)(AFP, 5/27/08)

2008        May 11, Sudan severed diplomatic ties with Chad, accusing its neighbor of backing a first ever Darfur rebel assault on Khartoum, and partly lifted a curfew amid its clampdown on remaining rebels.
    (AFP, 5/11/08)

2008        May 12, Chad closed its border with Sudan and put a halt to bilateral trade, a minister said, a day after Sudan severed diplomatic ties with Chad.
    (AP, 5/12/08)

2008        Jun 14, Rebels in Chad attacked the eastern town of Goz-Beida, and Irish EU troops took up defensive positions between the fighting and a refugee camp.
    (Reuters, 6/14/08)

2008        Jun 18, A military official said Chadís army has killed 161 rebels in a battle in the eastern part of the country.
    (SFC, 6/19/08, p.A17)

2008        Jun 30, Brahim Deby, the eldest son of Chadís President Idriss Deby, was found dead in the basement of his apartment building in a Paris suburb. He was asphyxiated by chemicals from a fire extinguisher that lay near his body. In late November Romanian police arrested a French-Romanian national identified as Marius C. after on a warrant from France.
    (AP, 11/28/08)(www.alertnet.org/thenews/newsdesk/L02560147.htm)

2008        Jul 18, Senegalís President Abdoulaye Wade said Sudan President Omar al-Beshir has agreed to restore relations with Chad, more than two months after Khartoum severed ties accusing Ndjamena of backing Darfur rebels.
    (AFP, 7/18/08)

2008        Aug 15, In Chad a court sentenced former President Hissene Habre and 11 rebels to death. Habre was awaiting trial in Senegal for torture and murder.
    (SFC, 8/16/08, p.A5)

2008        Nov 9, Troubled neighbors Chad and Sudan exchanged ambassadors, six months after diplomatic ties were ruptured over tit-for-tat accusations of support for armed rebels.
    (AFP, 11/9/08)

2008        Chadís population was about 10 million.
    (SFC, 11/23/00, p.D5)

2009        Jan 14, The UN Security Council authorized 5,200 UN peacekeepers to replace a 3,300-strong EU force in Chad and Central African Republic, which have been seriously affected by fighting in neighboring Sudan's Darfur region.
    (AP, 1/14/09)

2009        Jan 28, Five African and international human rights groups called on the African Union to press Senegal to move forward with the trial of former Chadian dictator Hissene Habre.
    (AP, 1/28/09)
2009        Jan 28, French PM Francois Fillon said 1,000 French 1,650 soldiers would be pulled out from the EUFOR mission to protect refugees in Chad. He also says France's 1,800-strong contingent in Ivory Coast will be reduced by half.
    (AP, 1/28/09)

2009        Jan 30, In Libreville, Gabon, leaders of the six Central African states (Cameroon, Chad, Gabon, CAR, Congo, Equatorial Guinea), began meeting to discuss closer economic ties, including the creation of a new regional airline. The Economic and Monetary Union of Central Africa, known as CEMAC, planned discussions on such issues as monetary reform and the free movement of citizens.
    (AFP, 1/30/09)

2009        Feb 4, Polandís defense minister stated plans to end military missions in Lebanon, the Golan Heights and Chad in an effort to cut spending due to the global economic crisis.
    (AP, 2/4/09)

2009        Feb 14, Over 6,000 people have fled the Ndele region of the Central African Republic for a Chadian border village after violence erupted between two ethnic groups, the Runga and the Gulus.
    (AFP, 2/14/09)

2009        Feb 19, Belgium took Senegal to the International Court of Justice over the African nation's failure to prosecute a former Chad president for crimes against humanity and torture.
    (AP, 2/20/09)

2009        Mar 15, In Abeche, Chad, UN forces took over command from EU peacekeepers to protect refugees and displaced people in Chad and the Central African Republic.
    (AFP, 3/15/09)

2009        Apr 6, Belgium began World Court proceedings against Senegal in an effort to bring former Chad President Hissene Habre on trial for alleged widespread human rights abuses during his eight-year reign. A Chadian commission of inquiry has concluded that Habre's regime killed at least 3,780 political opponents, but added that the figure likely represents only 10 percent of his victims.
    (AP, 4/6/09)

2009        May 5, Sudan denied accusations by the government of Chad that its forces had launched an attack against the neighboring African state.
    (AFP, 5/5/09)

2009        May 8, Chadís government claimed that 225 rebels and 22 soldiers had been killed in clashes over the last 2 days south of the main eastern city of Abeche.
    (AFP, 5/9/09)

2009        May 16, Sudan accused Chad of mounting a second series of air strikes on its territory and said the conflict between the African neighbors must be resolved politically.
    (AFP, 5/16/09)

2009        May 17, Chad said its air force had completed raids on "mercenaries" inside Sudan, announcing its aircraft had destroyed seven groups of fighters while ground forces had captured 100 prisoners on the border.
    (Reuters, 5/17/09)

2009        Jun 16, The US added six African countries to a blacklist of countries trafficking in people, and put US trading partner Malaysia back on the list. Chad, Eritrea, Niger, Mauritania, Swaziland, and Zimbabwe were added to the list in the annual report. Removed from the list were Qatar, Oman, Algeria, and Moldova.
    (AFP, 6/16/09)

2009        Jul 16, The Chadian rebel Union of Forces of Resistance (UFR) claimed the Chadian air force attacked two villages in the southeastern Chadian region of Tissi. Rebels claimed some 50 had been killed some 100 wounded. Sudan accused Chad of launching air raids on its western region of Darfur.
    (AFP, 7/16/09)

2009        Jul 19,     Sudan said it was committed to peace with neighboring Chad after accusing it of bombing its western Darfur region last week, but also warned it would not be held back if threatened.
    (AFP, 7/19/09)

2009        Sep 9, Conservationists said poaching and drought-related hunger have killed more than 100 of Kenya's famous elephants in the north of the country so far this year. Around 23,000 elephants live in Kenya but populations can be devastated by poaching within a couple of years. A recent survey in Chad showed its elephant population had declined from 3,800 to just over 600 in the past three years.
    (AP, 9/9/09)

2009        Sep 30, Amnesty International said tens of thousands of women who fled unrest in Darfur face the daily threat or rape and violence in refugee camps in neighboring Chad.
    (AP, 9/30/09)

2009        Nov 9, In eastern Chad a French Red Cross staff member was abducted by several armed men, close to the border with Sudan. Laurent Maurice was freed in Sudan on Feb 6.
    (AFP, 11/10/09)(AP, 2/7/10)

2009        Dec 24, A delegation headed by Chadian Foreign Minister Moussa Faki Mahamat met Sudanese Omar al-Beshir and helped restore trust between the neighbors.
    (AFP, 12/25/09)

2010        Jan 1, Chad's President Idriss Deby Itno called on rebel forces in the troubled central African nation to lay down their weapons, saying constant conflict was hindering development.
    (AFP, 1/1/10)

2010        Feb 20, Darfur's most heavily armed rebel group, the Justice and Equality Movement, said that it had signed a framework agreement with the Sudanese government in Chad that provides for a ceasefire. Sudanese President Omar Hassan al-Bashir was due to sign the same agreement with JEM leader Khalil Ibrahim in Qatar on Feb 23, watched by diplomats and the presidents of Chad and Eritrea.
    (AFP, 2/20/10)(Reuters, 2/23/10)

2010        Mar 22, West African farmers appealed for help as drought and famine menaced people and livestock, with malnutrition already affecting nearly a third of the population. Leaders of the nine countries in the Permanent Interstate Committee for Drought Control in the Sahel (CILSS) planned to meet in NíDjamena on March 25.
    (AFP, 3/23/10)

2010        Apr 10, The border between Chad and Sudan reopened seven years after the Darfur conflict forced its closure, in another sign of improved relations between the former foes.
    (AFP, 4/14/10)

2010        May 19, Chadian authorities at Ndjamena airport refused entry to Khalil Ibrahim and a number of other JEM members who had arrived from the Libyan capital Tripoli. Chadian authorities confiscated their passports and refused to let them into Chadian territory and ordered them to go back to Libya. Khalil and his delegation had planned to head to Darfur through Chad.
    (AP, 5/19/10)

2010        May 25, Chad's government succeeded in forcing a 3,300-strong UN peacekeeping force operating in Chad and the Central African Republic to pull out by the end of this year.  The UN Food and Agriculture Organization warned that a dramatic shortfall in donations for Chad's agriculture relief puts 2 million people at risk of hunger.
    (AP, 5/25/10)

2010        Jul 9, Aid agency Oxfam warned that the food crisis gripping the Sahel region of Africa was reaching disastrous levels and called on governments and the international community to act now. The crisis stretched across the region taking in Burkina Faso, Chad, Mali, Niger and northern Nigeria.
    (AFP, 7/9/10)

2010        Jul 20, Sudan expelled three top Chadian rebel chiefs on the eve of a visit to Chad by Sudanese President Omar al-Beshir.
    (AFP, 7/20/10)

2010        Jul 21, President Omar al-Bashir arrived in Chad, the first time Sudan's leader has been in a member state of the International Criminal Court. He arrived to take part in a summit of the Community of Sahel-Saharan States. Human Rights Watch said that Chad should arrest al-Bashir or risk becoming the first ICC member state to harbor a suspected war criminal.
    (AP, 7/21/10)
2010        Jul 21, Sudanese rebel group JEM signed a landmark deal with the UN, pledging to protect children caught up in the Darfur conflict.
    (AFP, 7/21/10)

2010        Sep 3, Chad health officials said an outbreak of cholera in the Central African nation has killed at least 41 people.
    (AP, 9/4/10)

2010        Oct 19, The UN said that 377 people had died in flooding in central and west Africa, with nearly 1.5 million people affected since the start of the rainy season in June. The highest toll was in Nigeria with 118, followed by Ghana (52), Sudan (50), Benin (43), Chad (24), Mauritania (21), Burkina Faso (16), Cameroon (13), Gambia (12), with other countries reporting less than 10 dead.
    (AFP, 10/19/10)

2010        Oct 27, US officials said the Obama administration has granted a waiver allowing Chad, CongoDRC, Sudan and Yemen to continue receiving US military aid despite their use of child soldiers. Officials said cutting off aid would do more damage than good.
    (SFC, 10/28/10, p.A2)

2010        Nov 19, In the Republic of Congo 8 countries signed a convention to limit the spread of weapons in central Africa, but three countries opted out. Angola, Cameroon, the Central African Republic, Chad, the Democratic Republic of Congo, Gabon, The Republic of Congo, Sao Tome and Principe all signed. Burundi, Equatorial Guinea and Rwanda did not sign.
    (AFP, 11/20/10)

2010        Nov 30, Chad's army said it has entered the northwest part of neighboring Central African Republic and pushed out a group of rebels that had attempted to take the town of Birao.
    (AP, 12/1/10)

2011        Apr 25, Chadís Pres. Idriss Deby Itno won nearly 84% of the vote in elections, which the opposition boycotted.
    (AFP, 8/8/11)

2011        Apr, In Chad at least 30 elephants were poached this month.
    (Econ, 5/21/11, p.56)

2011        May 20, In Libya NATO fighter jets struck three ports in bombing runs overnight, targeting Gadhafi's navy with a goal of protecting the nearby rebel-held port of Misrata. A NATO strike this morning hit a police academy in the Tripoli neighborhood of Tajoura. An international aid group said that 3,800 Chadians who fled fighting in Libya are stranded in a remote desert town in northern Chad. NATO warplanes bombed command centers near Tripoli and in the southwest as part of a continuing effort to cut communications links between Gadhafi and his units on the battlefields.
    (AP, 5/20/11)(AP, 5/21/11)

2011        Jun 2, In the Central African Republic sporadic gunfire was heard overnight in Bangui, capital of the CAR, but tension slowly eased after two days of bloodshed targeting Muslims. 11 people were killed including 8 Chadians in violence targeting Muslims in Bangui.
    (AFP, 6/2/11)(AFP, 6/3/11)

2011        Jun, Chadís President Idriss Deby Itno inaugurated the Djarmaya refinery, located 40 km (25 miles) north of the Chadian capital Ndjamena. He described it as a "gift from China" that would offer energy independence to his land-locked nation. Chinaís state-owned China National Petroleum Corporation International (CNPCI) owned 60%.
    (AFP, 2/7/12)

2011        Jul 1, The African Union, meeting in Equatorial Guinea, said Senegal must try Hissene Habre, the former dictator of Chad, who has been living in the Senegalese capital for decades. Habre has lived in Senegal since 1990, and Senegal agreed to create a special court to try him more than five years ago.
    (AP, 7/2/11)

2011        Jul 7, In Libya the International Organization for Migration (IOM) began an operation to return home around 2,000 Chadian migrants, mostly women and children, trapped in Libya.
    (AP, 7/9/11)

2011        Jul 10, Senegal, under international pressure, reversed course and called off the extradition of former Chadian dictator Hissene Habre. The decision came hours before Habre was to be deported to Chad.
    (AP, 7/10/11)

2011        Jul 14, Chad's former president Hissene Habre, in exile in Senegal, said in a published interview that he would be willing to appear before an international tribunal to answer charges of atrocities during his 1982-1990 rule.
    (AFP, 7/14/11)

2011        Jul 27, Chadian rebels denounced the repatriation and imprisonment of 27 senior members of their force captured in Sudan.
    (AFP, 7/27/11)

2011        Aug 8, Chadís Pres. Idriss Deby Itno vowed he would battle corruption as he was sworn in as president for a new five-year term.
    (AFP, 8/8/11)

2011        Sep 29, In Sweden the winners of Right Livelihood Awards, sometimes referred to as the alternative Nobel prizes, were announced. Human rights activist Jacqueline Moudeina of Chad; Spanish-based nonprofit GRAIN; and American midwifery educator Ina May Gaskin will share the euro150,000 ($205,000) cash award. Chinese solar power pioneer Huang Ming received an honorary award for developing "cutting-edge technologies."
    (AP, 9/29/11)

2011        Oct 11, UNICEF, the UN children's agency, warned that the west and central Africa region is facing one of the worst cholera epidemics in its history, with over 85,000 cases reported leading to 2,466 deaths this year. The most significant increases were in Chad, Cameroon, and in western Democratic Republic of Congo.
    (AFP, 10/11/11)

2011        Nov 18, The European Commission said an extra 10 million euros ($13.5 million) in humanitarian funding will go on addressing "major shortfalls" in food in the Sahel region. The crisis is affecting 7 million people in Burkina Faso, Chad, Mali, Mauritania, Niger and Nigeria.
    (AFP, 11/19/11)

2011        Dec 8, The UN's World Food Program said meager rains and diminished harvests have left between five and seven million people in Africa's Sahel region facing food shortages. The countries of Niger, Mauritania, Mali and Chad were worst hit.
    (AFP, 12/9/11)

2012        Jan 22, Voters in Chad went to the polls for the first local elections in the central African country's history, after the ballot had been rescheduled several times.
    (AFP, 1/22/12)

2012        Jan 26, In Nigeria a police source said some 200 people, mostly Chadian "mercenaries," have been arrested following last week's attacks in the northern main city of Kano. Gunmen killed 15 village traders returning from a market at night and set their bodies ablaze in northern Zamfara state.
    (AFP, 1/26/12)(AFP, 1/27/12)

2012        Feb 6, The Chadian National Electoral Commission, CENI, announced that the ruling Patriotic Salvation Movement, MPS, party of President Idriss Deby Itno and its allies had won majority of towns in the first local elections to be organized in the country.
2012        Feb 6, Chad announced it was reopening a major oil refinery it had earlier ordered shut because of a price dispute with its Chinese part-owners. The Djarmaya refinery was ordered closed on January 19.
    (AFP, 2/6/12)

2012        Feb 15, United Nations and EU aid chiefs called for "urgent" assistance for West Africa's drought-hit Sahel region (Burkina Faso, Chad, Mali, Mauritania, Niger), saying it needed $725 million (552 million euros) this year.
    (AFP, 2/15/12)

2012        Feb 16, The mediation and security council of the West African regional group ECOWAS approved humanitarian aid of three million dollars for victims of the food crisis and rebel attacks in the Sahel region (Burkina Faso, Chad, Mali, Mauritania, Niger).
    (AFP, 2/16/12)

2012        Feb 23, Chad's supreme court confirmed victory for President Idriss Deby Itno's ruling party in the country's first local elections.
    (AP, 2/24/12)

2012        Feb 27, Nigerian immigration services said they have repatriated around 11,000 foreigners mainly from Niger and Chad over the past six months to curb a growing Islamist insurgency. Gunmen in the north killed three policemen when they hurled explosives and opened fire on a police station in Jama'are, Bauchi state.
    (AFP, 2/27/12)(AFP, 2/28/12)

2012        Mar 12, Belgium launched a bid in the UN's highest court to force Senegal to bring Hissene Habre, dubbed "Africa's Pinochet", to trial for crimes against humanity or to extradite him. The former Chad president was offered safe haven in Senegal after his overthrow in 1990.
    (AFP, 3/12/12)

2012        Apr 10, UN children's aid organization UNICEF led a cross-agency appeal for funds for the Sahel region (parts of Burkina Faso, Chad, Mali, Mauritania and Niger) where 15 million are suffering from malnutrition.
    (AFP, 4/10/12)

2012        Apr 23, Aid agencies said they are facing a multi-million dollar funding shortage to deal with a food crisis in the Sahel where people are resorting to increasingly desperate measures to survive. The crisis has so far affected Chad, Mali, Mauritania and Niger.
    (AFP, 4/23/12)

2012        Apr 27, The UN food agency appealed to oil- and mineral-rich nations to set up a fund to combat the food crisis gripping the Sahel desert region (Chad, Mali, Burkina Faso, Mauritania and Niger) and other parts of Africa. The group said it needed $110 million (83 million euros) to combat the crisis in the short term.
    (AFP, 4/27/12)

2012        Apr 30, Chad called for the 16-nation Lake Chad Basin Commission to set up a joint force tasked with containing the Nigerian Islamist group Boko Haram.
    (AFP, 4/30/12)

2012        Jun 24, In the Central African Republic a violent clash pitted CAR troops against an unidentified group of armed men attempting to launch an assault on the site of a uranium plant operated by French mining company Areva. The armed men were believed to be members of the Chadian rebel Popular Front for Recovery (FPR) led by 'General' Baba Ladde. The rebels seized five French nationals and two locals.
    (AFP, 6/25/12)(AP, 6/26/12)

2012        Jul 20, The United Nations' highest court ordered Senegal to prosecute former Chadian dictator Hissene Habre on torture charges "without further delay" if the country does not extradite him to Belgium.
    (AP, 7/20/12)

2012        Jul 26, The UN's food agency said 10 Central African countries have agreed to take part in a regional initiative to monitor the Congo Basin, one of the world's largest primary rainforests. They included Burundi, Cameroon, Central African Republic, Chad, the Democratic Republic of Congo, Congo, Equatorial Guinea, Gabon, Rwanda and Sao Tome and Principe.
    (AFP, 7/26/12)

2012        Aug 22, Senegal and the African Union finalized a deal on how to try Hissene Habre, a former Chadian dictator, who is accused of ordering thousands of political opponents to be tortured or killed.
    (AP, 8/23/12)

2012        Sep 1, Chad warned that flooding of vast fields of crops and locust infestations had added to a severe food crisis in a country already battling chronic malnutrition.
    (AFP, 9/1/12)

2012        Sep 3, CAR officials said that Gen. Baba Ladde, a rebel leader from Chad known by his nickname "The Father of the Bush," has turned himself in to authorities in the capital of the Central African Republic.
    (AP, 9/3/12)

2012        Dec 6, Nearly 2,000 Chadian refugees, who fled a 2008 civil war between rebels and government forces into Cameroon, began leaving their camp to return to their home country.
    (AP, 12/6/12)

2012        Dec 16, Libya's parliament voted to close the country's borders with Sudan, Niger and Chad, declaring the south a restricted military area. Four policemen were shot dead in the eastern city of Benghazi when gunmen fired rocket-propelled grenades on a security compound there.
    (AP, 12/16/12)

2012        Dec 18, Some 2,000 soldiers from Chad arrived to help the government of Central African Republic fight a rapidly advancing rebel movement, as the fighters claimed to have seized a sixth town.
    (AP, 12/19/12)

2012        Dec 19, Senegal's national assembly adopted a much-anticipated law, which creates a special tribunal to try ex-Chadian dictator Hissene Habre. This was the first step in ending 22 years of impunity that began when the deposed former president fled to Senegal, leaving behind a country strewn with mass graves.
    (AP, 12/19/12)

2013        Feb 5, In Mali troops from France and Chad moved into Kidal in an effort to secure the strategic northern city.
    (AP, 2/5/13)

2013        Feb 8, Senegal officially launched its tribunal investigating former Chadian dictator Hissene Habre for alleged crimes against humanity, a move rights groups called a decisive turning point in the campaign to bring him to justice.
    (AP, 2/8/13)

2013        Feb 12, Two French aid workers were convicted of fraud and sentenced to 2 years in prison for trying to bring 103 children from central Africa to France for adoption, claiming they were orphans from Darfur. Four other Zoe's Ark members were convicted of trying to bring foreign minors into France, but given suspended sentences ranging from 6 months to a year. The six workers were arrested in Chad in 2007 as they sought to put the children on a plane.
    (AP, 2/12/13)

2013        Feb 22, In northern Mali Chadian army troops killed 65 Islamic extremist rebels and destroyed five vehicles in fierce fighting. 13 Chadian soldiers were killed in the fighting.
    (AP, 2/23/13)

2013        Mar 1, Chadian President Idriss Deby announced that government troops fighting to dislodge an al-Qaida affiliate in northern Mali killed one of the group's leading commanders, Abdelhamid Abou Zeid. On March 23 France confirmed Zeidís death and said he was killed in operations in the Adrar des Ifoghas mountains in northern Mali in late February.
    (AP, 3/1/13)(AP, 3/23/13)

2013        Mar 2, Chad's military chief announced that his troops deployed in northern Mali had killed Moktar Belmoktar, the terrorist who orchestrated the attack on a natural gas plant in Algeria that left 36 foreigners dead.
    (AP, 3/2/13)

2013        Mar 15, In southwestern Chad over the last 24 hours at least 86 elephants, including 33 pregnant females, were killed by poachers for the ivory of their tusks.
    (Econ, 4/20/13, p.47)

2013        Apr 12, In northern Mali a suicide bombing by members of an al-Qaida branch in North Africa killed at least three soldiers from Chad. Two suicide bombers were killed in the operation, and many civilians were injured in the attack.
    (AP, 4/12/13)

2013        Apr 15, Chadian President Idriss Deby said his country's troops are pulling out of Mali three months after the French-led mission to oust al-Qaida-linked militants began.
    (AP, 4/15/13)

2013        Jul 2, In Senegal a special tribunal charged former Chad dictator Hissene Habre with crimes against humanity, over two decades after his arrival in the west African country.
    (AP, 7/2/13)

2013        Sep 18, In northern Mali a company of about 150 Chadian soldiers of the UN peacekeeping force abandoned their posts in protest at the length of time they have served.
    (Reuters, 9/18/13)

2013        Oct 17, The UN General Assembly elected five new members to the Security Council. The uncontested seats included Chad, Chile, Lithuania, Nigeria and Saudi Arabia.
    (AP, 10/17/13)

2013        Oct 23, In Mali a suicide bomber killed two Chadian troops from the UN peacekeeping mission and injured six others in an attack on a checkpoint at the entry to the northern town of Tessalit.
    (Reuters, 10/23/13)

2013        Nov 14, In Sudan a number of Chadian troops in a joint force with Sudan were killed battling tribal fighters in the troubled Darfur region.
    (AFP, 11/16/13)

2013        Nov 21, Chad's PM Joseph Djimrangar Dadnadji offered his resignation to Pres. Idriss Deby after his party proposed a motion of no confidence in him, accusing him of ordering arbitrary arrests of his deputies.
    (AFP, 11/21/13)

2013        Dec 23, In the Central African Republic Chadian peacekeepers opened fire on a crowd demonstrating against their presence, killing one person and injuring several others in Bangui.
    (Reuters, 12/23/13)

2013        Dec 25, In the Central African Republic a spokesman for MISCA, the peacekeeping force, said Chadian troops will be redeployed from Bangui amid charges they were siding with a former rebel group.
    (AFP, 12/25/13)

2014        Jan 9, In Chad African leaders began talks to tackle the sectarian violence wracking the Central African Republic, with the pressure piling on the country's embattled Pres. Michel Djotodia.
    (AFP, 1/9/14)

2014        Jan 10, Central African Republic's interim President Michel Djotodia and his prime minister resigned, according to a statement issued after a two-day summit in neighboring Chad. Alexsandre-Ferdinand Nguendet took over as Acting President.
    (Reuters, 1/10/14)(Econ, 1/18/14, p.50)

2014        Jan 14, The UN human rights office said a UN human rights team has gathered testimony that Chadian citizens, including peacekeepers, carried out mass killings during chaotic violence in the Central African Republic. The team also received reports that French disarmament of ex-Seleka forces left Muslim communities vulnerable.
    (Reuters, 1/14/14)

2014        Jan 21, France said it will create new outposts and broaden its military presence in Africa's turbulent Sahel region to better fight the terror threat from extremist groups like al-Qaida. Defense Minister Jean-Yves Le Drian said France is moving toward a regional counterterrorism approach in former colonies like Chad, Ivory Coast, Burkina Faso, Niger and Mali.
    (AP, 1/21/14)

2014        Feb 24, In Central African Republic Chadian peacekeepers shot dead 3 civilians in a Christian neighborhood of Bangui.
    (Reuters, 2/24/14)

2014        Mar 29, In Central African Republic Chadian soldiers, sent to repatriate their compatriots, killed at least 8 civilians when they opened fire on crowds in Bangui. Chadian troops were accused of killing 32 civilians when they opened fire on a crowd.
    (AFP, 3/30/14)(AP, 4/3/14)

2014        Apr 3, Chadian officials said they are withdrawing their peacekeepers from the regional mission in Central African Republic.
    (AP, 4/3/14)

2014        May 8, France said it will deploy 3,000 soldiers to combat Islamist violence in the vast and largely lawless Sahel region to pursue counter-terrorism in north Mali, the north of Niger and in Chad.
    (AFP, 5/8/14)

2014        May 12, Chad announced it was shutting down its southern border with the strife-wracked Central African Republic until the conflict in the poor, landlocked nation is resolved.
    (AFP, 5/12/14)

2014        May 17, France and five African countries (Benin, Cameroon, Chad, Niger and Nigeria) declared war on the Boko Haram extremist Islamic sect. West African leaders met in Paris to improve cooperation in the fight against Boko Haram and other militant groups.
    (Reuters, 5/17/14)(SSFC, 5/18/14, p.A5)

2014        Jul 1, The UN warned that nearly 800,000 refugees in Africa have had their food rations slashed by up to 60 percent, threatening to push many to the brink of starvation. The situation was most dire for the 300,000 refugees in Chad, mainly from Sudan's Darfur region and from the Central African Republic.
    (AP, 7/1/14)

2014        Jul 16, Medical charity MSF said  a survey of nearly 33,000 Central African refugees in neighboring Chad had shown 8 percent questioned had lost at least one member of their family. The report said refugees reported 2,599 deaths between November 2013 and April 2014.
    (Reuters, 7/16/14)

2014        Jul 17, French President Francois Hollande began a visit to Ivory Coast to boost economic ties with a nation emerging from a long conflict that divided it and set back production. Ivory Coast still hosts hundreds of French companies. His 3-day tour proceeded to Niger and Chad.
    (AFP, 7/17/14)(Econ, 7/19/14, p.45)

2014        Jul 23, Cameroon, Chad, Niger and Nigeria pledged to mobilize a joint force to tackle the growing regional threat posed by Boko Haram Islamist militants operating mainly in Nigeria.
    (Reuters, 7/24/14)

2014        Aug 10, In Nigeria Boko Haram abducted some 100 young men and several women in Doron Baga in the Kukawa area near the border with Chad. 28 older men were reported killed. The terrorists were stopped as they crossed the Chad border by Chadian soldiers who killed most of them and set free 65 men and 22 women. More than 30 were still suspected to be held by the extremists.
    (AP, 8/15/14)(Reuters, 8/15/14)(AFP, 8/16/14)

2014        Sep 18, In Mali 5 Chadian peacekeepers died and three others were injured when their truck was hit by an explosive device.
    (AFP, 9/19/14)

2014        Nov 14, In Chad twenty nine aides to ousted dictator Hissene Habre went on trial before a special court in N'djamena charged with mass murder and torture during his rule in the 1980s.
    (AFP, 11/14/14)

2015        Jan 13, The UN said that the latest wave of Boko Haram's "vicious, ruthless attacks" in northeastern Nigeria has sent 11,320 people fleeing into Chad in a matter of days.
    (AFP, 1/13/15)

2015        Jan 17, Chad sent troops, about 400 military vehicles including tanks and armored vehicles, and several attack helicopters to Cameroon and Nigeria to aid in the fight against the Islamist militants. It was reported that Cameroon, Chad and Niger have launched a regional bid to combat the Boko Haram Islamists. In Chad tens of thousands marched in the capital to show support for the fight against Boko Haram chanting in French and Arabic: "Kick the forces of evil out of our territory."
    (AFP, 1/17/15)(AP, 1/18/15)

2015        Jan 29, Chad sent a warplane dropping bombs and ground troops to drive Islamic extremists from a Nigerian border town, leaving it strewn with the bodies of the Islamic extremists. Boko Haram fighters made a second attack in a week on Maiduguri.
    (AP, 1/30/15)

2015        Jan 30, In northern Cameroon 3 soldiers and 123 Boko Haram militants were killed when the Islamist group attacked a Chadian army contingent over the last 24 hours near the border town of Fotokol.
    (AFP, 1/31/15)

2015        Jan 31, Chadian aircraft bombed the Nigerian town of Gambaru in a raid targeting extremist group Boko Haram.
    (AFP, 1/31/15)

2015        Feb 1, Chadian aircraft struck Boko Haram positions in the Nigerian border town of Gambaru for a second straight day.
    (AFP, 2/1/15)

2015        Feb 3, Chadian troops clashed with Boko Haram fighters in the northeastern Nigerian towns of Gambaru and Ngala in a bid to break the Islamist insurgents' grip on the town bordering Cameroon. More than 200 extremists and 9 Chadian troops were reported killed.
    (Reuters, 2/3/15)(SFC, 2/5/15, p.A3)

2015        Feb 5, In Cameroon Boko Haram fighters continued their attack on Fotokol, leaving nearly 100 people dead and some 500 wounded. Cameroonian soldiers assisted by Chadian forces chased hundreds of Boko Haram fighters out of Fotokol.
    (AP, 2/6/15)

2015        Feb 6, Forces from Chad and Niger repelled Islamic extremists from Nigeria as they attacked Bosso town inside Niger, marking the second foreign country attacked by Boko Haram this week. 109 Boko Haram fighters were killed by soldiers responding to attacks in fighting in the towns of Bosso and Diffa near the border with Nigeria. 4 soldiers were killed and 17 wounded.
    (AP, 2/6/15)(AP, 2/7/15)

2015        Feb 11, Chadian soldiers killed 13 fighters from Islamist militant group Boko Haram in a battle in the Nigerian town of Gambaru. One Chadian soldier was reported killed.
    (Reuters, 2/11/15)

2015        Feb 13, Suspected Boko Haram militants staged their first attack in Chad, hitting the third country outside Nigeria base in recent days.
    (AP, 2/13/15)

2015        Feb 17, Two Chadian soldiers and several Boko Haram fighters were killed in violent clashes around Dikwa, some 50 km (31 miles) southwest of Gambaru. Chad's army seized control of Dikwa. Abu Ashshe, a Boko Haram commander notorious for seizing cattle in the area, was among those killed.
    (AFP, 2/18/15)(AFP, 2/19/15)

2015        Feb 18, Nigeria claimed to have killed more than 300 Boko Haram militants in a counter-offensive, as Chad pushed into rebel-held areas. Suspected Boko Haram gunmen attacked the Tamsu-Shehuri village on where they killed more than 12 people.
    (AFP, 2/18/15)(AP, 2/21/15)

2015        Feb 21, French Foreign Minister Laurent Fabius arrived in Chad as part of a 48-hour trip to countries affected by Boko Haram's insurgency. He will travel to Cameroon and Niger next.
    (Reuters, 2/21/15)

2015        Mar 2, Nigerian troops repelled an attack by Boko Haram on Konduga, killing more than 70 insurgents. In the northeast Chadian forces regained control of Dikwa, a town occupied by the militants for weeks, but not before the defeated Islamic extremists killed hundreds of civilians.
    (AP, 3/3/15)

2015        Mar 6, The African Union endorsed the creation of a regional force of up to 10,000 men to join the fight against Boko Haram.
    (AFP, 3/8/15)

2015        Mar 8, The armies of Chad and Niger launched a major ground and air strike against Boko Haram in northeastern Nigeria.
    (AFP, 3/8/15)

2015        Mar 9, About 10 Chadian soldiers died in fighting to free two towns in northern Nigeria previously held by Boko Haram. A Niger military source said about 300 Boko Haram militants had been killed. About 30 Nigerien and Chadian soldiers were wounded in clashes over Malam Fatouri and Damasak.
    (Reuters, 3/9/15)

2015        Mar 14, Troops from Chad and Niger seized Damasak in northeastern Nigeria in the latest defeat for the militants. Soldiers from Niger and Chad soon discovered the bodies of at least 70 people, many of them beheaded, dumped near a bridge outside Damasak. It was later reported that Boko Haram militants kidnapped more than 400 women and children from Damasak.
    (Reuters, 3/19/15)(AP, 3/20/15)(Reuters, 3/25/15)

2015        Mar 21, In northeast Nigeria Chadian troops returned to the border town of Gamboru, after Boko Haram took advantage of a lack of military presence to kill 11 people on March 18-19.
    (AFP, 3/21/15)

2015        Mar 22, Two Chadian army helicopters bombed Nigerian Boko Haram positions killing several dozen militants near a village on the border with Niger.
    (AP, 3/23/15)

2015        Mar 26, Troops from Chad and Niger pursued Boko Haram fighters across a northern Nigeria border area, driving them out of a village they held there and causing some to flee into Niger.
    (Reuters, 3/26/15)

2015        Mar 30, In Niger militants tried to attack the town of Bosso, just over the border with Nigeria. Troops from Niger and Chad intervened, killing 47 militants and destroying several of their vehicles and mortars.
    (AP, 3/31/15)

2015        Apr 1, In northeastern Nigeria 9 Chadian soldiers were killed and 16 wounded after being ambushed by Boko Haram fighters between Malam Fatori and the border town of Bosso in Niger.
    (AFP, 4/2/15)

2015        Apr 3, In Chad 7 civilians were killed in Tchoukou Telia near Lake Chad in an attack blamed on Nigerian Boko Haram rebels.
    (AFP, 4/6/15)

2015        Apr 10, Chad said 71 of its soldiers have been killed and 416 injured in two-and-a-half months' fighting Boko Haram.
    (AFP, 4/10/15)

2015        May 20, Chadian lawmakers voted to indefinitely extend the mandate of troops participating in a regional effort to combat Nigeria's Boko Haram Islamist militants until the joint mission was completed.
    (Reuters, 5/20/15)

2015        May 27, A clash between Chad's army and Boko Haram on a Lake Chad island killed 4 soldiers and 33 Islamists.
    (AFP, 5/29/15)

2015        Jun 15, In Chad 33 people were killed and over 100 wounded in suicide bombings outside the police headquarters and police academy in N'Djamena. The government blamed Boko Haram militants.
    (AFP, 6/15/15)(AFP, 6/18/15)

2015        Jun 17, Chad warplanes bombed Boko Haram positions in neighboring Nigeria to avenge twin suicide bombings in the capital this week blamed on the jihadists. The government also announced it was banning the burqa nationwide in a security clampdown.
    (AFP, 6/18/15)

2015        Jun 29, In Chad two suicide bombings rocked the capital N'Djamena, killing over 30 people.
    (AP, 6/29/15)(Econ, 2/13/15, p.40)

2015        Jul 1, Chad banned the wearing of the burqa, the Muslim womanís covering that hides even the eyes, two days after suicide bombers killed more than 30 people.
    (Econ, 2/13/15, p.40)

2015        Jul 11, In Chad a man dressed in a woman's burqa blew himself up in the main market in N'Djamena early today, killing 15 people and injuring 80. A second explosion about 30 km north of N'Djamena killed one person.
    (Reuters, 7/11/15)

2015        Jul 17, Chadian troops killed 19 insurgents after Boko Haram attacked an army post on the fringes of Lake Chad.
    (AFP, 7/17/15)

2015        Jul 20, In Senegal the trial of former Chadian dictator Hissene Habre, accused of overseeing the deaths of thousands, had a chaotic beginning as security forces ushered the ex-leader into and then out of the Senegal courtroom amid protests by his supporters.
    (AP, 7/20/15)

2015        Jul 30, Chad reintroduced the death penalty just six months after its abolition, as legislators passed a stringent anti-terror bill in the face of a spate of deadly Boko Haram attacks.
    (AFP, 7/31/15)

2015        Jul 31, The Chadian army said in a statement that 117 jihadist fighters and two soldiers have died in an operation against Boko Haram Islamists holed up on the islands of Lake Chad in the last two weeks with ongoing military operations.
    (AFP, 7/31/15)

2015        Aug 12, Chadís Pres. Idriss Deby said Boko Haram has a new commander named Mahamat Daoud, said to have replaced Abubakar Shekau, and that Daoud is willing to negotiate with Nigeriaís new government.
    (SFC, 8/13/15, p.A5)

2015        Aug 21, Mťdecins Sans FrontiŤres (MSF) said around 40,000 people have fled their homes in Chad in the past two weeks following attacks by Islamist militant group Boko Haram.
    (Reuters, 8/20/15)

2015        Aug 29, Chad executed 10 members of Nigerian Islamist militant group Boko Haram by firing squad, a day after they were sentenced on terrorism charges. Among the executed was Mahamat Moustapha, a 30-year-old Cameroonian who was accused of masterminding a series of attacks on N'Djamena.
    (Reuters, 8/29/15)

2015        Oct 6, In Chad Boko Haram Islamists attacked government soldiers, killing 11 and wounding 13. The army said 37 Boko Haram fighters died in the fighting.
    (AP, 10/6/15)    (SFC, 10/8/15, p.A3)

2015        Oct 10, In Chad 37 people were killed in a triple bombing targeting a market and refugee camp in the village of Baga Sola. Security sources blamed Nigeria's Boko Haram Islamist group.
    (Reuters, 10/10/15)(AFP, 10/12/15)

2015        Nov 1, In Chad at least 3 soldiers were killed and 14 others wounded in a series of attacks blamed on Boko Haram Islamic militants. 14 militants were reported killed.
    (AP, 11/1/15)(AFP, 11/1/15)

2015        Nov 8, In Chad a twin suicide bombing by women attackers in the flashpoint area of Lake Chad killed at least 3 people and wounded 14 others.
    (AP, 11/8/15)

2015        Dec 5, In Chad four female suicide bombers attacked the Chadian island of Koulfoua on Lake Chad. State TV said the provisional death toll was 19 dead, including the four kamikazes, and 130 injured.
    (Reuters, 12/5/15)

2015        Dec 23, In Chad 3 militants were killed when they detonated suicide bombs after being found out by a group of local people as they sought to embark from an island to a lakeside market in Bol. A fourth set off his bomb but survived.
    (Reuters, 12/23/15)

2016        Feb 8, In Chad Zouhoura (16) was assaulted in a brutal attack that shocked many, triggering weeks of demonstrations by thousands of young people in the streets. Five alleged rapists, who include the sons of three generals, were taken into custody together with four suspected accomplices. Zouhoura soon returned to France, where she already lived with relatives from 2009 to 2015, and decided to speak out publicly in Paris to fight impunity for sex criminals in her central African nation homeland.
    (AFP, 3/22/16)

2016        Feb 13, Chad national radio reported that Pres. Idriss Deby Itno has appointed Albert Pahimi Padacke as the new prime minister, as he looks to extend his grip on power in the central African nation.
    (AFP, 2/14/16)

2016        Mar 4, At a meeting in Chad's capital N'Djamena, defense chiefs from Chad, Niger, Burkina Faso, Mali and Mauritania -- the so-called G5 Sahel countries -- pledged to form special units to respond quickly to threats and attacks from Islamist militants.
    (Reuters, 3/5/16)

2016        Mar 12, In northern Mali 2 UN peacekeepers from Chad were shot dead and a third slightly wounded by one of their colleagues.
    (AFP, 3/13/16)(AP, 3/13/16)

2016        May 16, The UN said more than nine million people in the Lake Chad region are in desperate need of food aid as the violent insurgency continues being waged there by Boko Haram.
    (AFP, 5/16/16)

2016        May 18, In northeastern Mali 5 Chadian peacekeepers were killed and three others wounded during an ambush in the Kidal region. Three suspects were captured following the attack.
    (AFP, 5/19/16)

2016        May 30, In Senegal former Chad dictator Hissene Habre (1982-1990) was given a life sentence for war crimes, crimes against humanity and a slew of other charges, including rape. The verdict marks the first time a country has convicted a former leader of another nation for rights abuses.
    (AFP, 5/30/16)

2016        Jun 8, Chad reportedly sent some 2,000 troops to neighboring Niger, where Boko Haram insurgents inflicted heavy losses in the town of Bosso last week. On June 18 Chadian troops were reported to be in Nigeria but not in Niger.
    (AFP, 6/8/16)(Reuters, 6/18/16)

2016        Jul 29, In Senegal the Extraordinary African Chambers ordered Chad's ex-dictator Hissene Habre to pay more than 4,700 victims at least $17,000 each for abuses suffered during his time in power. The tribunal has already frozen some of Habre's assets. The defense has 15 days to appeal the reparation award.
    (AP, 7/29/16)

2016        The African Union (AU) introduced a single African passport. The first recipients were Rwandaís Pres. Paul Kagame and Chadís Pres. Idriss Deby.
    (Econ 6/10/17, p.49)

2017        Jan 5, The International Committee of the Red Cross (ICRC) said women in the Lake Chad basin, where the borders of Chad, Cameroon, Niger and Nigeria meet, have been forced to sell sex to survive due to an insurgency by Boko Haram fighters that has driven millions from their homes and left children to starve.
    (Reuters, 1/5/17)

2017        Jan 21, Representatives of Libya's neighbors meeting in Cairo warned the North African nation's main rival factions against seeking to settle their differences through military force, as Egypt announced that efforts were underway to bring their leaders together to chart a "joint vision" for the country. The representatives came from Libya, Egypt, Sudan, Algeria, Chad, Niger and Tunisia as well as the UN envoy to Libya.
    (AP, 1/21/17)

2017        Jan 30, Chad's foreign minister Moussa Faki Mahamat was named as the new AU Commission chairperson, beating four others to succeed South Africa's Nkosazana Dlamini-Zuma.
    (AFP, 1/30/17)

2017        Feb 23, UN aid agencies and donor countries gathered in Oslo for a two-day meeting to raise emergency aid for millions of people threatened by famine in the Lake Chad region, which comprises northeast Nigeria, northern Cameroon, western Chad and southeast Niger.
    (AFP, 2/23/17)

2017        Feb 24, In Norway fourteen donor countries, with the US conspicuously absent, pledged $672 million in emergency aid for people threatened by famine after eight years of Boko Haram violence in the Lake Chad region, but the sum is just a fraction of what the UN says is needed.
    (AFP, 2/24/17)

2017        Mar 23, In Chad Frenchman Thierry Frezier was kidnapped in a remote region near the border with Sudan's Darfur region early today.
    (Reuters, 3/23/17)(Reuters, 5/7/17)

2017        Apr 27, An appeals court in Senegal upheld the life sentence of former Chad dictator Hissene Habre on war crimes and crimes against humanity charges, bringing to an end a landmark trial pursued by victims for more than 16 years.
    (AP, 4/27/17)

2017        May 5, In northern Chad Boko Haram militants killed nine soldiers in an attack on a military camp. 28 militants were reported killed.
    (Reuters, 5/6/17)

2017        May 7, Thierry Frezier, an employee of a French mining company operating in Chad, arrived in the Sudanese capital Khartoum after being rescued in a raid organized by France, Chad and Sudan. He was kidnapped in Chad in March and taken to the Darfur area of Sudan. Five kidnappers were arrested in the raid.
    (Reuters, 5/7/17)

2017        Jun 3, Mali's military chief said the countries of West Africa's Sahel region are requesting 50 million euros ($56 million) from the European Union to help set up a multinational force to take on Islamist militant groups. the so-called G5 Sahel countries included Chad, Niger, Burkina Faso, Mali and Mauritania.
    (Reuters, 6/3/17)

2017        Jun 21, The UN Security Council unanimously adopted a resolution that paves the way for the deployment of a five-nation African military force to fight jihadists in the Sahel region. Burkina Faso, Chad, Mali, Mauritania and Niger had agreed in March to set up the special joint counterterrorism operation.
    (AFP, 6/21/17)

2017        Jul 2, In Mali French Pres. Emmanuel Macron met with leaders from five regional countries known as the G5 (Burkina Faso, Chad, Mali, Mauritania, Niger). He said France will provide military support for operations as well as 70 tactical vehicles and communications, operations and protective equipment to support a new multinational military force against extremists in the vast Sahel region.
    (AP, 7/2/17)

2017        Aug 23, Chad's government says it is closing Qatar's embassy there and accuses the Gulf nation of trying to destabilize the Central African country via neighboring Libya.
    (AP, 8/23/17)

2017        Aug 28, The leaders of France, Germany, Italy and Spain met in Paris with counterparts from Libya, Niger and Chad to discuss ways to curb illegal migration across the Mediterranean Sea to European shores.
    (AP, 8/28/17)

2017        Oct 28, The G5 Sahel force (Burkina Faso, Chad, Mali, Niger and Mauritania), backed by France and the United States, launched its campaign to counter escalating Islamist insurgencies amid growing unrest.
    (Reuters, 11/2/17)

2017        Oct 30, Secretary of State Rex Tillerson said the United States has promised $60 million to support the Group of Five Sahel States (G5 Sahel: Burkina Faso, Chad, Mali, Mauritania, and Niger) Joint Forceís counterterrorism efforts.
    (Reuters, 10/30/17)

2017        Nov 1, Gabon arrested Abdoulaye Mohamoud Ibrahim, the Chadian head of a major ivory trafficking ring syndicate, and eight accomplices, including his wife, son and daughter-in-law, after a two-year investigation assisted by Interpol and French law enforcement. The ring's "moneyman" was arrested three weeks later. The arrests were only announced in January, 2018, due to continuing investigations.
    (AP, 1/20/18)

2017        Nov 20, The United States charged former top Hong Kong government official Chi Ping Patrick Ho (68) with links to a Chinese energy conglomerate and former Senegalese foreign minister Cheikh Gadio (61) with bribing high-level officials in Chad and Uganda in exchange for contracts for the mainland company.
    (Reuters, 11/21/17)

2017        Nov 23, France-based Interpol said 40 suspected human traffickers have been arrested and nearly 500 of their victims freed in a vast police operation in five African countries. The operation earlier this month was carried out in Chad, Mali, Mauritania, Niger and Senegal.
    (AP, 11/24/17)

2017        Dec 13, French President Emmanuel Macron hosted a summit for the leaders of the G5 Sahel (composed of the armies of Mali, Mauritania, Niger, Burkina Faso and Chad) plus Germany and Italy as well as the Saudi and Emirati ministers. Saudi Arabia and the United Arab Emirates committed 130 million euros ($152.75 million) to tackle Islamist militants in the region.
    (Reuters, 12/13/17)

2018        Jan 8, The defence and foreign ministers of Burkina Faso, Chad, Mali, Mauritania and Niger, the G5 Sahel, pledged to pool military efforts to fight terrorism have set up a fiduciary fund to oversee donations for their campaign.
    (AP, 1/9/18)

2018        Jan 9, Nigeriaís military said troops from Nigeria and neighboring countries have launched major offensives against the two Boko Haram factions and their leaders. Soldiers from Cameroon, Chad, Niger and Nigeria were targeting Abubakar Shekau in the Sambisa Forest, and Mamman Nur, on and around Lake Chad, both in Borno state.
    (AFP, 1/9/18)

2018        Jan 31, The UN refugee agency appealed for $157 million (126 million euros) to help over a quarter of a million people affected by the insurgency led by the militant Islamist group Boko Haram. Since 2013, the Boko Haram conflict has internally displaced another 2.4 million people in northeast Nigeria, Cameroon, Chad and Niger.
    (AFP, 1/31/18)

2018        Feb 6, In Niger five Sahel countries (Burkina Faso, Chad, Mali, Mauritania and Niger) made a pitch for further funds for a joint force to fight jihadism in their fragile region.
    (AFP, 2/7/18)

2018        Feb 23, EU leaders and intíl. donors in Brussels pledged 414 million euros ($510 million) to help five countries in West Africa's vast Sahel region (Burkina Faso, Chad, Mali, Mauritania and Niger) set up a new counterterror force as a deadly jihadist threat grows.
    (AP, 2/23/18)(AFP, 2/23/18)

2018        May 3, Six critically endangered black rhinos were en route from South Africa to Chad in a pioneering project to re-introduce the animals to a country where they were wiped out by poaching nearly 50 years ago.
    (AFP, 5/3/18)

2018        May 4, Chad President Idriss Deby vowed to crack down on entrenched graft as he signed a decree to create a new republic based on constitutional changes attacked by the opposition.
    (AFP, 5/4/18)

2018        May 6, In Chad six people were killed, including four government officials and a soldier, in an overnight attack by Boko Haram jihadists on an army checkpoint on an island in Lake Chad.
    (AFP, 5/6/18)

2018        Jul 19, In Chad 18 people were killed in an attack by suspected Boko Haram jihadists in the Lake Chad region near the border with Niger.
    (AP, 7/22/18)

2018        Aug 29, Britain's Theresa May landed in Nigeria's capital on the second leg of her maiden Africa tour aimed at drumming up post-Brexit trade deals outside the EU. Britain said it would open new embassies in Chad and Niger to boost its diplomatic presence in Africa's troubled Sahel region.
    (AFP, 8/29/18)

2018        Sep 13, Chadian army helicopters med bombing runs over a gold mining town along the Libyan border, where government forces have clashed with a fledgling rebel movement. Two civilians died the next day from their wounds. The rebel movement, the Military Command Council for the Salvation of the Republic (CCMSR), founded in 2016, has fought Chadian forces several times near the Libyan border since last month.
    (Reuters, 9/15/18)

2018        Sep 19, The UN said more than 500 people have died from cholera in the Lake Chad region since the start of the year, representing the worst outbreak to hit the area in four years. The Lake Chad region straddles parts of Nigeria, Cameroon, Chad and Niger, which are also grappling with a jihadist insurgency.
    (AFP, 9/19/18)

2018        Sep 29, Chad's security and army sources said six people, including two soldiers, died in an overnight Boko Haram attacks near Lake Chad. Chadian troops reportedly killed 17 assailants in a counter-offensive.
    (AP, 9/29/18)

2018        Oct 21, Officials from Chad and South Africa said two of six critically endangered black rhinos have died of unknown causes five months after being flown from South Africa to Chad in a pioneering project to re-introduce the animals. The carcasses of the cow and bull were discovered on October 15.
    (AFP, 10/21/18)

2018        Nov 5, In Senegal a two-day African security forum opened in Dakar amid concerns about funding for a much-trumpeted initiative to bind the G5 Sahel force (Burkina Faso, Chad, Mali, Mauritania and Niger) into an anti-terror force.
    (AFP, 11/5/18)

2018        Nov 25, Chadian President Idriss Deby met with Israeli PM Benjamin Netanyahu in Jerusalem, the first such visit by a leader of the central African nation which severed bilateral ties in 1972.
    (Reuters, 11/25/18)

2018        Nov 29, Top leaders from Chad, Nigeria, Niger and Cameroon held talks in N'Djamena (Chad) to discuss the recent escalation of attacks by Boko Haram jihadists in the Lake Chad area.
    (AFP, 11/29/18)

2018        Dec 6, The European Union and France said their total investment in development funding aimed at preventing terrorism in the G5 African Sahel countries (Mauritania, Burkina Faso, Chad, Mali, and Niger) would rise to 1.3 billion euros ($1.5 billion), as the region struggles with jihadism and lawlessness.
    (AFP, 12/6/18)

2018        Dec 15, In Nigeria leaders of countries in the Lake Chad region met to give fresh impetus to their fight against Boko Haram. Benin, the Central African Republic, Cameroon, Chad, Niger and Nigeria will hold a follow-up to a November gathering in Chad to tackle a surge in Boko Haram attacks in the restive region.
    (AFP, 12/15/18)

2018        Dec 22, French President Emmanuel Macron traveled to Chad for a two-day visit to meet with French soldiers deployed in the Sahel region with Operation Barkhane amid persistent extremist threats.
    (AP, 12/22/18)

2018        Dec 23, Speaking on a visit to Chad, French Pres. Emmanuel Macron insisted that France will make no cuts to its military despite domestic budget tightening.
    (AP, 12/23/18)

2018        Dec 26, In Nigeria militants attacked a military base late today in Baga, in eastern Borno state. 10 people were killed and clashes were continued as the militants tried to capture the town. The attacks in the Baga-Kawa area caused more than 6,357 people to flee east into Chad and some 20,000 others to flee to safety within Nigeria.
    (Reuters, 12/28/18)(Reuters, 1/18/19)

2018        Dec 27, In southern Libya a Chadian armed group attacked a military camp of forces loyal to General Khalifa Haftar, killing one and injuring 13 others near Traghen, about 400 km north of the border with Chad.
    (Reuters, 12/27/18)

2019        Jan 20, Israel confirmed a diplomatic rapprochement with Muslim-majority Chad as PM Benjamin Netanyahu used a visit to the Chadian capital to stress their mutual interest in confronting Islamist insurgencies.
    (Reuters, 1/20/19)
2019        Jan 20, In northern Mali Al-Qaida-linked jihadists killed at least eight Chadian UN peacekeepers in an attack at the Aguelhok base 200 km (125 miles) north of Kidal.
    (AP, 1/20/19)

2019        Jan 29, The United Nations refugee agency says more than 30,000 Nigerians fled the border town of Rann over the weekend to seek safety in Cameroon as attacks by Boko Haram extremists continue. Spokesman Babar Baloch said thousands more have fled to neighboring Chad because of the violence in northeastern Nigeria.
    (AP, 1/29/19)

2019        Feb 3, French warplanes struck a rebel convoy in northern Chad, helping local troops repel an incursion across the border from Libya, a sign France's support for President Idriss Deby goes beyond fighting Islamist militants.
    (Reuters, 2/4/19)

2019        Feb 7, Chadian President Idriss Deby said a column of rebels which had sought to cross into the country from Libya had been "destroyed" in a series of strikes carried out by French warplanes. The French military has said Mirage 2000 jets struck an armed convoy on three days this week, destroying about 20 of roughly 50 pickup trucks.
    (AFP, 2/7/19)

2019        Feb 9, The Chadian military said it had captured more than 250 rebels, including some top leaders, after an operation against a convoy of militants trying to cross into the country from Libya in late January that also involved French airstrikes. An anti-Deby rebel group, the Union of Resistance Forces (UFR), claimed to have crossed into northern Chad with "three columns" of vehicles.
    (AFP, 2/9/19)

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