Timeline Canada thru 2000

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Canadian coins: http://coinhistory.info/canada/
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Canada is about the same size as the US.
(SSFC, 10/9/05, Par p.27)
The native Assembly of First Nations was composed of 633 hereditary and elected chiefs of Canadian tribes. The Nisga'a in BC are one of the seven coastal First Nations people.
    (G&M, 7/31/97, p.A18)(SFEC, 9/26/99, p.T5)

4.55-Bil BC-4.45Bil BC    Researchers in 2010 found what a slab of mantle under Baffin Island, Canada, believed to date to this period. This would be the oldest rock found thus far on earth.

4.28Bil BC    In 2008 scientists reported that a pinkish tract of bedrock on the eastern shore of Canada's Hudson Bay contains the oldest known rocks on Earth, formed 4.28 billion years ago, not long after the planet was formed. In 2010 older rock, dating from 4.55 to 4.45 was found on Baffin Island, Canada.
    (Reuters, 9/25/08)(http://geology.com/press-release/ancient-mantle-rocks/)

4Bil BC    Northwest Canada was formed.
    (NG, March 1990, p. 126)

3.77Bil BC    Scientists in 2017 reported that microfossils of tiny tubular structures in ancient Canadian rocks dated to about this time and were believed to be microbes. The rocks from Quebec dated back to between 3.8 and 4.3 billion years.
    (SFC, 3/2/17, p.A6)(Econ, 3/4/17, p.63)

2Bil BC    Fossils found in rock from Ontario, Canada, consist of bacteria and blue-green algae.
    (E&IH, 1973, p.111)

c2Bil BC    A Mount Everest-sized object crashed near Sudbury, Canada about this time and left a crater covering 1,800 sq. km.
    (PacDis, Winter ’97, p.35)

1.85Bil BC    In Ontario, Canada, near the town of Sudbury, a meteor that was at least 10 miles across struck down. The remaining crater is 60 by 45 miles and was found to contain a profusion of "buckyballs" (peculiar hollow molecules of carbon) with samples of ancient star stuff packed inside.
    (SFC, 4/12/96, p.A-7)

600Mil BC    Layers of lava and ash from volcanic activity of this time were later evident at Green Gardens, Newfoundland, Canada.
    (SSFC, 8/17/03, p.C7)

570Mil BP-230Mil BP    In northern Alberta is the Peace River Arch; the Transcontinental Arch extends from Minnesota to Arizona and in Montana is the Montana Dome. The Ozark Mountains lie on the site of a dome and from Nashville, Tennessee, north to Michigan lies the Cincinnati Arch. Between Peace River, north-west Canada, and Montana and occupying much of Saskatchewan is the Williston Basin. Michigan lies four-square upon the Michigan Basin, while much of Illinois and Indiana is underlain by the Illinois Basin. Most of these broad, gentle features developed during Paleozoic time and have been dormant ever since.
    (DD-EVTT, p.172)

560Mil BC    The Fermeuse formation of Newfoundland, Canada, dated to about this time. In 2014 scientists identified traces of muscle in a cnidarian, Haootia quadriformis, a creature related to modern jellyfish, sea anemones and coral. 
    (Econ, 8/30/14, p.70)

515Mil BC    The Burgess Shale, a rock formation amid the glaciated mountains from British Columbia to Utah, created by mud slides that swept shallow water Cambrian creatures over a marine cliff and buried them almost instantly. Specimens include: Pikaia (a chordate, ancestor of fish, reptiles, and mammals), Odontogriphus, Amiskwia, Ottoia (a Priapulid worm), Wiwaxia (a Polychaete worm or mollusk), Burgessochaeta (an annelid worm), Opabinia, Sanctacaris (arthropod, forerunner of spiders and scorpions), Canadaspis (arthropod, early crustacean), Aysheaia (possible arthropod), Eldonia, Hyolith, Brachiopods, Dinomischus, Anomalocaris, Sponges and Trilobites. In 1989 Stephen Jay Gould authored "Wonderful Life: The Burgess Shale and the Nature of History." In 1998 Simon Conway Morris authored "The Crucible of Creation: The Burgess Shale and the Rise of Animals."
    (NG, V184, No. 4, Oct. 1993, p.124)(NH, 12/98, p.48)(SFC, 11/5/07, p.A3)

505Mil BC    In 2014 researchers described a fish named Metaspriggina walcotti that dated to about this time. It was collected in the Burgess Shale of British Colombia and featured large eyes and a notochord running along its back.
    (Econ, 6/14/14, p.74)

500Mil BC    A 30-mile size crater, a mile underneath the bed of Lake Huron, just north of Port Huron, Michigan, marks the impact of a meteor. It was discovered in 1990 by scientists from the Geological Survey of Canada.
    (LS MAG, Spring 1995, p.31)

500Mil BC-480Mil BC    Scientists in 2002 reported that sandstone from this period found north of lake Ontario, contained tracks of foot-long critters with at least 8 pairs of walking legs. They may have been euthycarcinoids, whose segmented bodies included outer shells and long legs.
    (SFC, 6/4/02, p.A2)

415Mil BC    The lighthouse at Peggy's Cove in Halifax, Canada, stands on granite boulders of this age.
    (SFEC, 11/28/99, p.T8)

383Mil BC    In 2004 paleontologists found fossils of a primitive fish, named Tiktaalik roseae, on Ellesmere Island in Canada’s Nunavut territory that dated to about this time. The fossils showed evidence of ribs, neck, rudimentary ear bones and primitive limbs.
    (SFC, 4/6/06, p.A1)(Econ, 4/8/06, p.79)

375Mil BC    In 2006 scientists reported the discovery of a predator fossil fish dating to this time in on Canada’s Ellesmere Island in the High Arctic. It was later named Tiktaalik roseae and further analysis found it to have developed a mobile neck, an important development for living on land. The fish displayed bones at the ends of its fins suggestive of developing fingers and toes.
    (SFC, 10/16/08, p.A10)(SFC, 5/12/09, p.A8)

359Mil BC-345Mil BC    In 2005 it was reported that tracks of 4-legged terrestrial animals dated to this period were found at Nova Scotia’s Bay of Fundy.
    (NH, 2/05, p.p.16)

350Mil BC - 270Mil BC    The first amniotes were small, apparently secretive insect eaters. The remains of the earliest representatives were found inside fossilized trunks of hollow Nova Scotia logs. Amphibians, newts, salamanders and frogs are all that remain today of a group that became highly successful and varied in the Carboniferous and Permian periods. The rise of the insects provided a generous food supply. The amniote egg allowed the animal to develop to a stage resembling a fully grown adult gave freedom from the watery environment.
    (NH, 6/96, p.41)(DD-EVTT, p.254-255)

320Mil BC    Reversing Falls in the Bay of Fundy, New Brunswick, Canada, dates to this time and is where at high tide surging salt water reverses the fresh water of the St. John River up 48 feet at high tide.
    (SFEC, 5/25/97, p.T7)

190Mil BC    A 4th mass extinction occurred at the end of the Triassic. Lake Manicouagan in Quebec, a 60-mile crater, was formed by a cosmic impact that may be related to the extinction. Cotylosaurs, a possible missing link between mammals and reptiles, were lost.
    (SFEC, 8/22/99, Par p.12)
190Mil BC    Fossils of frogs date back to about this time.
    (Econ 7/8/17, p.71)

125Mil BC    In 2004 Canadian geologists reported the discovery of dinosaur tracks and a fossilized turtle shell, estimated to be about 125 million years old, north of Terrace, British Columbia.
    (Reuters, 9/21/04)

110Mil BC     An ankylosaur, a plant-eating dinosaur with powerful limbs, armor plating and a club-like tail inhabited northern Alberta. Its fossils, discovered in 2011, were not supposed to be there because the area at this time was covered by water.
    (Reuters, 3/26/11)

80Mil BC    Upper Cretaceous Oldman and Edmonton formation in Alberta, Canada, has fossils of Struthiomimus. It was typical of the "ostrich dinosaurs," the last of the coelurosaurs. Their forelegs had three-fingered grasping hands. The body was long, horizontal, and balanced by a long rigid tail.
    (TE-JB, p.58)

79Mil BC    A triceratops, later named Wendiceratops pinhornensis, thrived in Alberta, Canada, during this time. In 2015 she was said to be one of the oldest members of the Ceratopsidae ever found.
    (SFC, 7/9/15, p.D2)

78Mil BC    A dinosaur species of this time, later found in Canada and named Albertaceratops nesmoi, was a plant-eater with yard-long horns over its eyebrows, suggesting an evolutionary middle step between older dinosaurs with even larger horns and the small-horned creatures that followed.
    (AP, 3/4/07)

76Mil BC    The horned dinosaur Spinops sternbergorum, which comes from the same herbivore family as the Triceratops, lived about this time. It remains were discovered in 1916 in a quarry known as the "bone bed" in Alberta, Canada. In 2011 scientists identified the bull-size dinosaur as a new species of the Late Cretaceous.
    (AP, 12/8/11)(http://tinyurl.com/7s7ubxt)

70Mil BC    In 2008 a Canadian researcher reported what is believed to be North America's smallest dinosaur, a 70-million-year-old chicken-sized beast that was also unusual for its diet of insects. Its bones were excavated near Red Deer, in fossil-rich Alberta, in 2002 among about 20 Albertosaurus remains, and went unnoticed.
    (AP, 9/24/08)
70Mil BC    The dinosaur Hypacrosaurus stebingeri, a rhinoceros-sized creature, lived about this time in Canada.
    (Econ, 1/7/17, p.62)

49Mil BC    The mountains in British Columbia had already risen as high as 14,000 feet by this time.
    (SSFC, 1/16/11, p.C2)

22000BC    In 2017 it was reported that archeological studies at the Bluefish Caves in Canada’s Yukon territory showed evidence that animal bones dating to about this time had been stripped of their flesh by stone tools.
    (Econ, 2/25/17, p.70)

10900BC    Wildfires about this time broke out across the US and Canada after an object, roughly a kilometer across, grazed the Earth and broke up in the atmosphere depositing its oomph as heat. A mass extinction about this time occurred in parts of North America and coincided with the growing population of Indian hunters. Archeologists later identified a layer of charcoal and glass-like beads of carbon as evidence of the event. Fires melted substantial portions of the Laurentide glacier in Canada sending waves of water down the Mississippi that caused changes in the Atlantic Ocean currents. This started a 1,300-year ice age known as the Younger Dryas.
    (SFC, 1/8/99, p.A2)(Econ, 5/26/07, p.94)(SFC, 1/2/09, p.A2)

10700 BC    Melting glaciers caused a deluge of some 2,000 cubic miles of fresh water from a prehistoric lake in southwestern Ontario. This impacted the Atlantic thermohaline circulation and sent temperatures over the North Atlantic plummeting. Temperatures in Greenland dropped by 18 degrees Fahrenheit.
    (WSJ, 7/17/03, p.A1)(WSJ, 5/14/04, p.B1)

6200BC    The glacial lake Agassiz-Ojibway, body of water so vast that it covered parts of Manitoba, Saskatchewan, North Dakota, Ontario and Minnesota, massively drained, sending a flow of water into the Hudson Strait and the Labrador Sea. The sudden flood of fresh water diluted the saltiness of the Gulf Stream weakening its flow.
    (Econ, 9/9/06, Survey p.6)(AFP, 2/24/08)

c1001        Norse sagas claim that Leif Ericson and a band of 35 men sailed for western lands based on an account by the Viking Bjarni Herjulfsson, who had sighted land after being blown off course. They found a land they called Vinland and built houses but returned to Greenland before the winter.
    (HT, 5/97, p.31)

1005        Leaf Ericson’s brother, Thorvald, had arrived in Vinland but was killed by native Indians and his Viking companions returned to Greenland. A 3-year settlement was begun a few years later when Thorfin Karlsefni established a base with around 100 men and women at the L’Anse aux Meadows in Newfoundland.
    (HT, 5/97, p.33)(ON, 12/07, p.5)

1007         Thorfinn Karlsefni and Gudrid Thorbjarnardottir embarked with a 3-ship expedition to the new World. Snorri Thorfinnson, son of Gudrid Thorbjarnardottir and Thorfinn Karlsefni, was born in Vinland (probably Newfoundland), the 1st European born in the New World. The family later returned east and settled in Iceland.
    (SFC, 9/16/02, p.A2)(ON, 12/07, p.5)

1013        The last Viking attempt to settle Vinland was made.
    (SFEM, 11/15/98, p.25)

1497        Jun 24, Italian explorer John Cabot (1450-1498?), (aka Giovanni Caboto), on a voyage for England, landed in North America on what is now Newfoundland or the northern Cape Breton Island in Canada. He claimed the new land for King Henry VII. He documented the abundance of fish off the Grand Banks from Cape Cod to Labrador.
    (NH, 5/96, p.59)(WUD, 1994, p.206)(AP, 6/24/97)(HN, 6/24/98)

1500-1530    The so-called Mantle site, a settlement on the North shore of Lake Ontario, was occupied by the Wendat (Huron). Excavations at the site, between 2003 and 2005, uncovered its 98 longhouses, a palisade of three rows (a fence made of heavy wooden stakes and used for defense) and about 200,000 artifacts. Scientists estimate between 1,500 and 1,800 individuals inhabited the site.

1517        Jun 11, Sir Thomas Pert reached Hudson Bay.
    (SC, 6/11/02)

1528        England established its first colony in the New World at St. Johns, Newfoundland.
    (SFEC, 4/25/99, Z1 p.8)

1534        May 10, Jacques Cartier reached Newfoundland. He noted the presence of the Micmac Indians who fished in the summer around the Magdalen Islands north of Nova Scotia.
    (CFA, '96, p.46)(SFEC, 5/11/97, p.T15)

1534        Jun 9, Jacques Cartier became the first man to sail into the mouth of the St. Lawrence River.

1534        Jun 29, Jacques Cartier discovered Canada’s Prince Edward Islands.
    (MC, 6/29/02)

1534        Jul 24, Jacques Cartier (43) on his 1st trip to the new world, landed in Canada and claimed it for France. Jacques Cartier while probing for a northern route to Asia visited Labrador and said: "Fit only for wild beasts... This must be the land God gave to Cain." [see May 10]
    (NG, V184, No. 4, 10/1993, p. 4)(MC, 7/24/02)

1534        Sep, During his voyage back to France Cartier learned from the 2 Native sons, Dom Agaya and Taignoagny, who he'd kidnapped from Iroquoian Chief Donnacona, that their father's village of Stadacona (present-day Quebec) was called a 'kanata'. Cartier wrote the name 'Kanata' on his charts and maps, perhaps to mark the land belonging to Chief Donnacona's tribe. This is the first recorded use of the name 'Canada', and the name by which the country would become known.

1535        Sep, The site of the city of Quebec was first visited by Jacques Cartier during his 2nd voyage to the New World. It was an Indian village called Stadacona. Quebec is the oldest continuously inhabited settlement in what is now Canada.
    (HNQ, 10/3/99)(Canada, 1960, p.20)

1535        Oct 2, Jacques Cartier first saw the site of what is now Montreal and proclaimed "What a royal mountain," hence the name of the city. [see 1536] Having landed in Quebec a month ago, Jacques Cartier reached a town, which he names Montreal.
    (SFEC, 3/2/97, p.T7)(HN, 10/2/98)

1536        May, Jacques Cartier sailed for France from Canada and carried with him the kidnapped local chief Donnacona, who later died in France. Donnacona, prior to his death, described a mythical kingdom with great riches called Saguenay.
    (Canada, 1960, p.21)

1541        Aug 23, Jacques Cartier landed near Quebec on his third voyage to North America and established a short-lived community there.
    (HN, 8/23/98)(TL-MB, 1988, p.16)

1557        Sep 1, Jacques Cartier, French explorer, died in St. Malo, France.

1576        Jul 28, Martin Frobisher, English navigator, discovered Frobisher Bay in Canada. He explored the Arctic region of Canada and twice brought tons of gold back to England that was found to be iron pyrite. Michael Lok, textile exporter, led the financing for the 1st expedition which was made to find a route to China. Lok was later sued for losses from 3 expeditions.
    (TL-MB, 1988, p.22)(SFEM, 11/15/98, p.26)(ON, 12/03, p.7)

1592        Juan de Fuca, a Greek sailing for Spain, sailed into a strait that later became the border between Canada’s Vancouver Island, BC, and the Olympic Peninsula of Washington state. The waterway was later named the Strait of Juan de Fuca.
    (NG, 7/04, p.66)

1604        Samuel de Champlain sailed into the river estuary at what later became the seaport of St. John in New Brunswick.
    (SFEC, 7/30/00, p.T5)

1605        Jun, Pierre Dugua moved the French settlement at St. Croix, Maine, to Nova Scotia at a site named Port Royal.
    (SSFC, 6/27/04, p.A2)

1607        Sep 28, Samuel de Champlain and his colonists returned to France from Port Royal Nova Scotia.
    (HN, 9/28/98)

1608        Jul 3, The city of Quebec was founded as a trading post by Samuel de Champlain. The French adventurer Etienne Brule accompanied Champlain to North America and was reportedly eaten by the Huron Indians.
    (AP, 7/3/97)(www.fordham.edu/halsall/mod/1608champlain.html)

1609         Sep 12, English explorer Henry Hudson sailed into the river that now bears his name. Henry Hudson sailed for the Dutch East India Company in search of the Northwest Passage, a water route linking the Atlantic and Pacific Oceans, when he sailed up the present-day Hudson River.
    (AP, 9/12/97)(HNQ, 7/23/00)

1610        Aug 3, Henry Hudson of England discovered a great bay on the east coast of Canada and named it for himself.
    (HN, 8/3/98)(HNQ, 7/23/00)

1611        Jun 22, English explorer Henry Hudson, his son and several other people were set adrift in present-day Hudson Bay by mutineers. The starving crew of the Discovery, which had spent the winter trapped by ice in Hudson Bay, mutinied against Hudson, who was never seen again.
    (AP, 6/22/97)(SFEM, 11/15/98, p.26)(MC, 6/23/02)

1612        The French explorer Etienne Brule is believed to be the first European to see the Great Lakes. Brule, believed to have been born in 1592, journeyed to North America with Samuel de Champlain in 1608 and helped found Quebec. Brule explored Lake Huron in 1612 and is believed to have also explored Lakes Ontario, Erie and Superior after 1615. Brule is the first European to live among the Indians and was probably the first European to set foot in what is now Pennsylvania. Brule was eventually killed by the Hurons, for reasons never known, in 1632.
    (HNQ, 6/29/98)
1612        French explorer Samuel de Champlain compiled a 17 by 30 inch map depicting the coast of New England and the Canadian maritime provinces.
    (SFC, 12/5/15, p.A6)

1615        Jul 28, French explorer Samuel de Champlain discovered Lake Huron on his seventh voyage to the New World.
    (HN, 7/28/98)

1616        Jan 20, The French explorer Samuel de Champlain arrived to winter in a Huron Indian village after being wounded in a battle with Iroquois in New France.
    (HN, 1/20/99)

c1620        A settlement was established at Cupers Cove (now Cupids) in Newfoundland.
    (SFEM, 11/15/98, p.23)

1621        Sep 21, King James of England gave Canada to Sir Alexander Sterling.
    (MC, 9/21/01)

1627        Jul 23, Sir George Calvert arrived in Newfoundland to develop his land grant.
    (HN, 7/23/98)

1632        Olivier Le Jeune (7), a black boy born in Madagascar, was sold to a clerk in the future province of Quebec. He was later considered the first known black enslaved in Canada.
    (SFC, 2/12/10, p.A18)

1635        Dec 25, Samuel de Champlain (b.1575), French navigator and founder of Quebec City, died in Quebec. In 2008 David Hackett Fischer authored “Champlain’s Dream."

1640        In Canada three French nuns in Quebec established Le Monastere des Augustines (the Augustine Monastery). In 1962 the remaining nuns donated the building to a non-profit. In 2015 it was re-opened as a luxury 65-room hotel, retreat and wellness center.
    (SSFC, 7/2/17, p.F6)

1642        May 17, Paul de Chomedy de Maisonneuve landed on the Island of Montreal and gave the name Ville-Marie to the town he constructed at the foot of Mont Royal.

1642        May 18, The Canadian city of Montreal was founded by French colonists.
    (AP, 5/18/08)

1656        Oct 25, A party of Oneida Indians killed 3 Frenchmen near Montreal. In response Gov. Gen. Louis d’Ailleboust arrested a hunting party of 12 Mohawks and Onondagas and ordered the arrest of all Iroquois in the French colonies.
    (AH, 4/01, p.34)

1663        Quebec became the capital of New France.
    (HNQ, 10/3/99)

1668        The British trading ship Nonsuch 1st sailed into Hudson Bay.
    (SSFC, 12/22/02, p.C6)

1669        Jul 6, LaSalle left Montreal to explore Ohio River.
    (MC, 7/6/02)

1670        May 2, The Company of Adventurers of England Trading into Hudson Bay (the Hudson Bay Co.) was chartered by England's King Charles II to exploit the resources of the Hudson Bay area. By 2006 it had mutated into Canada’s largest non-food retailer.
    (AP, 5/2/97)(HN, 5/2/98)(AH, 4/01, p.36)(Econ, 2/4/06, p.36)

1672        Apr 30, Marie of the Incarnation (b.1599, French Ursuline nun and the leader of the group of nuns sent to establish the Ursuline Order in New France, died in Quebec City. She was canonized a saint on April 2, 2014.

1672        May 17, Frontenac became governor of New France (Canada).
    (MC, 5/17/02)

1680        Kateri Tekakwitha (b.1656), known as the "Lily of the Mohawks," died in Canada. She was born to a pagan Iroquois father and an Algonquin Christian mother in upstate New York. Her parents and only brother died when she was 4 during a smallpox epidemic that left her badly scarred and with impaired eyesight. She went to live with her uncle, a Mohawk, and was baptized Catholic by Jesuit missionaries. But she was ostracized and persecuted by other natives for her faith. In 2012 she was named a saint in the Catholic church.
    (AP, 10/20/12)

1685        In Canada there was a shortage of currency and playing cards were assigned monetary values for use as money.
    (WSJ, 1/11/99, p.R42)

1688        The Notre-Dame-des-Victoires, the oldest stone church in North America, was built in Quebec City, Canada.
    (SSFC, 7/30/06, p.G8)

1689        Aug 4-1689 Aug 5, War between England and France led them to use their native American allies as proxies. In retaliation for the French attack on the Seneca in 1687, one thousand, five hundred Iroquois, with English support, attacked Lachine down river from the mission of the Mountain of Ville-Marie (Montreal), killing some 400. They put everything to fire and axe.  Some suggest that this is a gross exaggeration and that only 24-25 were killed and likely 90 were captured by the Iroquois, but never returned.

1689        Aug 25, The Iroquois took Montreal.
    (MC, 8/25/02)

1690        May 11, In the first major engagement of King William’s War, British troops from Massachusetts seized Port Royal in Acadia (Nova Scotia and New Brunswick) from the French.
    (HN, 5/11/99)

1690        Oct 7, The English attacked Quebec under Louis de Buade.
    (MC, 10/7/01)

1690        Oct 23, American colonial forces from Boston led by Sir William Phips, failed in their attempt to seize Quebec. Phips lost 4 ships on the return trip due to stormy weather.
    (Arch, 1/05, p.50)(http://www.biographi.ca/EN/ShowBio.asp?BioId=34586)

1700        Jan 26, A magnitude 9.0 earthquake shook Northern California, Oregon, Washington and British Colombia. It triggered tsunami that damages villages in Japan.
    (AP, 2/27/10)

1708        Mar 6, Francis de Laval (b.1623), the first bishop of Quebec, died. He was beatified in 1980 and canonized in 2014.

1708        Aug 29, French Canadian and Indian forces attacked the village of Haverhill, Mass., killing 16 settlers.
    (AP, 8/29/08)

1708        Dec 21, French forces seized control of the eastern shore of Newfoundland after winning a victory at St. John’s.
    (HN, 12/21/98)

1710        Oct 13, English troops occupied Acadia, Nova Scotia.
    (MC, 10/13/01)

1710        Oct 16, British troops occupied Port Royal, Nova Scotia.
    (MC, 10/16/01)

1710        Mohawk and Mohican chiefs from Canada visited Queen Anne in London on a diplomatic mission.
    (Econ 7/1/17, p.29)

1711        Aug 23, A British attempt to invade Canada by sea failed.
    (HN, 8/23/98)

1713        Apr 11, The Peace of Utrecht was signed, France ceded Maritime provinces to Britain. The French colony of Acadia, now Nova Scotia, was ceded to Great Britain. The Acadians had come from western France to fish and farm. Those who would not swear allegiance to the crown were deported. Many of these deportees went to the bayou country of Louisiana.
    (WUD, 1994, p.7)(WSJ, 9/4/96, p.A12)(HN, 4/11/98)

1734        In Canada a black slave named Marie-Joseph Angelique was hanged for setting fire to the Montreal home of her master. She became the title character in a 1999 play by Lorena Gale.
    (WSJ, 6/22/99, p.A24)(SFC, 2/12/10, p.A18)

1737        Rev. Andrew Le Mercier, a Huguenot living in Boston, set the first horses out to graze on Sable Island, 100 miles east of Nova Scotia. A few decades later Thomas Hancock of Boston plundered some 60 horses from Acadian settlers expelled from Nova Scotia by British overlords, and settled them on Sable Island. Hardy descendants of the horses still thrived in 1998.
    (SFC, 7/23/98, p.C3)

1745        Jun 16, English fleet occupied Cape Breton on St. Lawrence River.
    (MC, 6/16/02)

1745        Jun 17, American New Englanders captured Louisburg, Cape Breton, from the French. The ragtag army captured France's most imposing North American stronghold on Cape Breton Island in Nova Scotia.
    (HN, 5/17/98)(WSJ, 10/5/99, p.A24)(MC, 6/17/02)

1749        The city of Halifax, Nova Scotia, was founded.
    (SFEC, 6/13/99, p.T3)

1755        Jun 16, British captured Fort Beausejour and expelled the Acadians. The Accadians of Nova Scotia were uprooted by an English governor and forced to leave. Some 10,000 people moved to destinations like Maine and Louisiana. Some moved to Iles-de-la-Madeleine off Quebec. The Longfellow story "Evangeline" is based on this displacement.
    (SFEC, 8/22/99, p.T8,9)(SSFC, 6/2/02, p.C7)(MC, 6/16/02)

1755        Oct 24, A British expedition against the French held Fort Niagara in Canada ended in failure.
    (HN, 10/24/98)

1756        May 17, After a year and a half of undeclared war Britain declared war on France, beginning the French and Indian War. England hoped to conquer Canada. The final defeat of the French came in 1763 with the British victory at the Battle of Quebec on the Plains of Abraham.
    (HN, 5/17/98)(HNPD, 9/13/98)(http://tinyurl.com/afbze)

1756-1763    The Seven Years War. France and Great Britain clashed both in Europe and in North America. In 2000 "Crucible of War" by Fred Anderson was published. France, Russia, Austria, Saxony, Sweden and Spain stood against Britain, Prussia and Hanover. Britain financed Prussia to block France in Europe while her manpower was occupied in America. This was later considered to be the first global war because of the number of countries involved.
    (V.D.-H.K.p.223)(SFC, 7/7/96, BR p.7)(WSJ, 2/10/00, p.A16)(Econ, 3/28/20, p.19)

1758        Jul 26, British battle fleet under Gen. James Wolfe captured France's Fortress of Louisbourg on Ile Royale (Capre Breton Island, Nova Scotia) after a 7-week siege, thus gaining control of the entrance to the Saint Lawrence River.
    (HN, 7/26/98)(MC, 7/26/02)

1759        Jul 25, British forces defeated a French army at Fort Niagara in Canada. During their 7 Years' War.
    (HN, 7/25/98)(SC, 7/25/02)

1759        Sep 13, During the final French and Indian War, the Battle of Quebec [Canada] was fought. British Gen. James Wolfe’s army defeated Commander Louis Joseph de Montcalm’s French forces on the Plains of Abraham overlooking Quebec City. An English fleet of 20 ships led by General James Wolfe landed 3,600 English troops near Quebec in the early hours of the day. The fleet was sent up the St. Lawrence River to take the region from the French. "Measured by the numbers engaged," wrote historian Francis Parkman, the Battle of Quebec "was but a heavy skirmish; measured by results, it was one of the great battles of the world." On this rainy morning the armies of England and France clashed outside the walls of Quebec City and altered the balance of power of an entire continent. The battle on the Plains of Abraham lasted less than half an hour. As French forces withered and an English victory became apparent, Wolfe was shot in the chest, his third wound of the battle. He said to a distraught soldier just before he died, "Do not weep, my dear. In a few minutes I shall be happy." By the time the rain had washed away the blood, Quebec had surrendered to the British. Four years later, the Treaty of Paris gave England sole dominion over most of the land that Quebec City had governed, from Cape Breton Island in the Gulf of St. Lawrence to the Mississippi River.
    (CFA, '96, p.54)(SFC, 7/7/96, BR p.7)(AP, 9/13/97)(HNQ, 9/8/98)(HNPD, 9/19/98)

1759        Sep 14, Louis Joseph de Montcalm-Grozon, Marquis de Montcalm (b.1712) and chief of French forces, died at age 47 on the Plains of Abraham in Canada.

1759        Sep 18, Quebec surrendered to the British and the Battle of Quebec ended. The French surrendered to the British after their defeat on the Plains of Abraham.
    (AP, 9/18/97)(HN, 9/18/98)
1759        Sep 18, British commander James Wolfe died at the Battle of Quebec.
    (MC, 9/18/01)

1760        Apr 28, French forces besieging Quebec defeated the British in the second battle on the Plains of Abraham.
    (HN, 4/28/98)

1760        Sep 8, The French surrendered the city of Montreal to British Gen. Jeffrey Amherst. [see Sep 18, 1759]
    (HN, 9/8/98)(MC, 9/8/01)

1760        A treaty was made with the Mi'kmaq Indians. It was later interpreted to support fishing for profit rights in their traditional 4 Atlantic provinces.
    (WSJ, 12/6/99, p.A27)

1763        Feb 10, Britain, Spain and France signed the Treaty of Paris ending the French-Indian War. France ceded Canada to England and gave up all her territories in the New World except New Orleans and a few scattered islands. France retained the sugar colonies of Martinique and Guadeloupe.
    (HN, 2/10/97)(AP, 2/10/97)(AP, 2/10/08)(SSFC, 7/6/14, p.L5)

1763        Oct 7, George III of Great Britain issued a royal proclamation reserving for the crown the right to acquire land from western tribes. This closed lands in North America north and west of Alleghenies to white settlement and ended the acquisition efforts of colonial land syndicates. The Royal Proclamation of 1763 guaranteed Indian rights to land and self-government.
    (www.bloorstreet.com/200block/rp1763.htm)(SSFC, 8/29/04, p.M5)(Econ, 9/16/06, p.46)

1763        Dec 28, John Molson, founder of the Montreal Molson brewery, was born.
    (MC, 12/28/01)

1766        Jul 24, At Fort Ontario, Canada, Ottawa chief Pontiac and William Johnson signed a peace agreement.
    (HN, 7/24/98)

1770        Benjamin West painted “The Death of General Wolfe." It depicts the Sep 13, 1759, Battle of the Plains of Abraham, outside Quebec City. West’s painting was the first by an American artist to gain international renown.
    (NY Times, 11/25/20)

1773        Jul 20, Scottish settlers arrived at Pictou, Nova Scotia (Canada).
    (MC, 7/20/02)

1775        Sep 25, British troops captured Ethan Allen, the hero of Ticonderoga, when he and a handful of Americans led an attack on Montreal, Canada.
    (AP, 9/25/97)(HN, 9/25/98)

1775        Nov 12, US Gen. Montgomery began his siege of St. John’s and brought about the surrender of 600 British troops.
    (ON, 3/00, p.6)

1775        Nov 13, American forces under Gen. Richard Montgomery captured Montreal. This was part of a two-pronged attack on Canada, with the goal of capturing Quebec entrusted to Benedict Arnold, who was leading a 1,100 man force through a hurricane ravaged Maine wilderness. In 2006 Thomas A. Desjardin authored “Through A Howling Wilderness," an account of Arnold’s march to Quebec.
    (AP, 11/13/97)(WSJ, 5/12/06, p.W5)

1775        Dec 31, The British repulsed an attack by Continental Army generals Richard Montgomery and Benedict Arnold at Quebec during a raging snowstorm; Montgomery was killed.
    (AP, 12/31/97)(SFEC, 1/10/99, p.T5)

1776        Mar 17, British forces evacuated Boston to Nova Scotia during the Revolutionary War. In some of the bloodiest fighting of the Revolutionary War, American and French troops failed to take Savannah.
    (HN, 3/17/98)

1776        Sep 2-1776 Sep 9, The Hurricane of Independence killed 4,170 people from North Carolina to Nova Scotia.
    (WSJ, 9/13/01, p.B11)

1776        Oct 13, Benedict Arnold was defeated at Lake Champlain by the British, who then retreated to Canada for the winter. Arnold’s efforts bought the colonists 9 months to consolidate their hold in northern New York. In 2006 James L. Nelson authored “Benedict Arnold’s Navy."
    (HN, 10/13/98)(WSJ, 5/12/06, p.W5)

1778        Mar 15, Nootka Sound, Vancouver Island, was discovered by Captain Cook.
    (HN, 3/15/98)(MC, 3/15/02)

1780        May 19, A mysterious darkness enveloped much of New England and part of Canada in the early afternoon; the cause has never been determined.
    (HFA, '96, p.30)(DTnet, 5/19/97)

1780        Oct 31, The HMS Ontario was lost with barely a trace and as many as 130 people aboard during a gale on Lake Ontario. In 2008 explorers found the 22-gun British warship. Canadian author Arthur Britton Smith chronicled the history of the HMS Ontario in a 1997 book, "The Legend of the Lake."
    (AP, 6/14/08)

1783        May 9, Alexander Ross, pioneer, fur trader, was born in Canada.
    (MC, 5/9/02)

1783        The so-called Aroostook War stemmed from a boundary dispute that had loomed since 1783 between Maine and New Brunswick and was not settled by the Peace of Ghent. After Maine became a state in 1820, it disregarded British claims in making land grants to settlers along the Aroostook River.
    (HNQ, 9/30/99)

1783        Loyalist Tory homes in Maine were taken apart and moved to New Brunswick, Canada, and reassembled. Boatloads of newcomers from New York and New England moved. Some of the new arrivals froze to death in makeshift shelters that winter.
    (SFEC, 5/25/97, p.T6,7)

1783        John H. Molson (19) acquired a share in a log cabin brewery on the banks of the St. Lawrence River and began the Molson beer empire.
    (WSJ, 6/29/04, p.A11)

1783        Some 3,000 Blacks, who had obtained British certificates of freedom for their loyalty in the American Revolution, arrived in Nova Scotia and spent some miserable years there. In 1785 a delegation sailed to Britain where they were offered passage to Africa in return for establishing a British colony in Sierra Leone. In 2017 a UN human rights working group criticized Canada and Nova Scotia for failure to ensure that the descendants of the loyalists have clear title to land they inherited.
    (MT, summer 2003, p.8)(Econ, 9/30/17, p.34)

1784        Oct 19, John McLoughlin (d.1857), Hudson's Bay Co. pioneer at Fort Vancouver and in Oregon Country, was born in Quebec.

1784        The British gave their Indian allies from New York a large parcel of land southwest of Toronto after they fled to Canada following the American war of independence. In 2006 the Six Nations Iroquois Confederacy claimed that part of this land had been sold without their proper consent for a new housing development in Caledonia.
    (Econ, 9/16/06, p.46)

1785        The port city of St. John in New Brunswick was incorporated.
    (SFEC, 7/30/00, p.T5)

1785        Loyalist graduates of Harvard and King’s College founded the Univ. of New Brunswick.
    (SFEC, 5/25/97, p.T7)

1787        Nov 21, Samuel Cunard (d.1865), founder of the 1st regular Atlantic steamship line, was born in Canada.
    (MC, 11/21/01)(WSJ, 7/1/03, p.D8)

1788        Jun 11, The 1st British ship to be built on Pacific coast was begun at Nootka Sound, BC.
    (SC, 6/11/02)

1789-1793    Alexander Mackenzie, Scottish-born fur trader, became the 1st European to cross the North American continent.
    (SFC, 1/31/04, p.D12)

1792        May 11, The Columbia River was discovered by Captain Robert Gray.
    (HN, 5/11/98)

1792        Niagara-on-the-Lake became the 1st capital of the Upper Canada (later Ontario). The Parliament met for 5 sessions before moving to York (Toronto).
    (WSJ, 7/25/02, p.D10)

1792        The British St. George’s Bay Company transported a 2nd group of settlers to Freetown. This included 1,196 Blacks from Nova Scotia, 500 Jamaicans and dozens of rebellious slaves from other colonies.
    (MT, summer 2003, p.8)

1793        Alexander Mackenzie, Scottish-born fur trader, reached the Pacific coast completing his crossing of North America. He began the trip in 1789. He raised Britain's claims to the pacific Northwest.
    (SFEC, 5/25/97, Z1 p.7)(SFC, 1/31/04, p.D12)

1795        In Nova Scotia, Canada, local youths on Oak Island stumbled on an unusual depression that appeared to lead to a shaft. For years treasure hunters dug down into what became known as the “Money Pit."
    (WSJ, 8/31/05, p.B1)

1796-1865    Thomas Chandler Haliburton, Canadian jurist and humorist: "When a man is wrong and won't admit it, he always gets angry."
    (AP, 6/14/99)

1808        Jul 2, Simon Fraser completed his trip down Fraser River, BC. He landed at Musqueam.
    (SC, 7/2/02)

1809        Aug 17, In Canada work commenced on Nelson’s column, a tribute Adm. Horatio Nelson, was erected Place Jacques-Cartier, Montreal, Quebec.

1812        Jul 12, United States forces led by General William Hull entered Canada during the War of 1812 against Britain. However, Hull retreated shortly thereafter to Detroit. Madison had called for 50,000 volunteers to invade Canada but only 5,000 signed up.
    (AP, 7/12/99)(ON, 9/02, p.2)

1812        Oct 13, At the Battle of Queenston Heights, a Canadian and British army defeated the Americans who had tried to invade Canada. This was the 1st major land battle in the War of 1812.
    (HN, 10/13/98)(HNQ, 1/31/02)

1813        Apr 27, Americans forces under Gen. Zebulon M. Pike (34) captured York (present day Toronto), the seat of government in Ontario; Pike was killed.
    (HN, 4/27/99)(MC, 4/27/02)

1813        May 27, Americans captured Fort George, Canada.
    (HN, 5/27/98)

1813        Jun 6, The U.S. invasion of Canada was halted at Stoney Creek, Ontario.
    (HN, 6/6/98)

1813        Oct 5, In Canada the Battle of the Thames, also known as the Battle of Moraviantown, was decisive in the War of 1812. Some 600 British regulars and 1,000 Indian allies under British Major General Henry Procter and Shawnee leader Tecumseh were greatly outnumbered and quickly defeated by US forces under the command of Maj. Gen. William Henry Harrison. Tecumseh (45) was killed in this battle. US Col. Richard Mentor Johnson led troops in the Battle of the Thames and was said to have killed Tecumseh, a claim that he later used to his political advantage.

1813        Oct 26, Canadian militia defeated American forces at the Battle of Chateauguay.

1813        American militiamen burned down the Ontario town of Niagara-on-the Lake.
    (WSJ, 8/29/97, p.A9)

1814        Jul 5, US troops under Gen. Jacob Brown and Gen. Winfield Scott defeated a superior British force under Maj. Gen. Phineas Riall near the Niagara River at Chippewa, Canada. British casualties exceeded 500 compared to some 300 Americans.
    (AH, 10/07, p.53)

1814        Jul 25, British and American forces fought each other to a stand off at Lundy's Lane (Niagara Falls), Canada, in some of the fiercest fighting in the War of 1812.
    (HN, 7/25/98)

1815        Jan 11, Sir John A. Macdonald, the first prime minister of Canada, was born in Glasgow, Scotland.
    (AP, 1/11/98)

1817        Oct 13, William Kirby, Canadian writer, was born.
    (HN, 10/13/00)

1817        The Bank of Montreal was established as Canada's first bank. It later became known as BMO Financial Group.
    (AFP, 1/28/14)

1818        Apr 16, U.S. Senate ratified the Rush-Bagot amendment to form an unarmed U.S.-Canada border.
    (HN, 4/16/98)

1818        Oct 20, The United States and Britain established the 49th Parallel as the boundary between Canada and the United States.
    (HN, 10/20/98)

1820        Aug 12, Oliver Mowat, a founder of the Canadian Confederation, was born.
    (SC, 8/12/02)

1821        Jul 2, Charles Tupper, 6th Canadian PM (1896), was born.
    (SC, 7/2/02)

1824        Jun 8, A washing machine was patented by Noah Cushing of Quebec.
    (MC, 6/8/02)

1824        Newfoundland became a British colony. It became a province of Canada in 1949.
    (SFEC, 6/25/00, BR p.6)

1825        Feb 22, Russia and Britain established the Alaska/Canada boundary.
    (HN, 2/22/98)

1825        The Miramichi fires burned some 3 million acres in Maine and New Brunswick, Canada.
    (SFC, 10/30/03, p.A15)

1827        Aug 10, There were race riots in Cincinnati and some 1,000 blacks left for Canada.
    (MC, 8/10/02)

1827        The Univ. of Toronto, Canada, was founded.
    (Econ, 1/22/05, p.20)

1827        The Chippewa community of Aamjiwnaang First Nation was founded in Ontario just across from Port Huron, Mich. Much of the original reserve was sold via questionable land deals in the 1960s. In 1993 the percentage of boys born in the community began dropping and by 2005 girls outnumbered boys by 3:1. Local petrochemical manufacturing was suspected as the cause.
    (SSFC, 12/18/05, p.A30)

1827        The U.S. and Great Britain submitted the Maine and New Brunswick boundary dispute to arbitration by the King of the Netherlands in 1827, whose compromise was accepted by the British but rejected by the U.S.
    (HNQ, 9/30/99)

1831        Mar 31, Quebec and Montreal were incorporated.
    (HN, 3/31/98)

1831        May 31, Captain John Ross, English explorer, identified the magnetic north pole on the west coast of the Boothia Peninsula, Netsilik territory.

1833        Aug 8, Lt. George Back and his team reached Fort Resolution on Great Slave Lake on their expedition to find Arctic explorer Capt. John Ross.
    (ON, 5/04, p.10)

1833        Aug 17, The first steam ship to cross the Atlantic entirely on its own power, the Canadian ship Royal William, began her journey from Nova Scotia to The Isle of Wight.
    (HN, 8/17/98)

1833        Aug 23, The British Parliament ordered the abolition of slavery in its colonies by Aug 1, 1834. This would free some 700,000 slaves, including those in the West Indies. The Imperial Emancipation Act also allowed blacks to enjoy greater equality under the law in Canada as opposed to the US. Some 46,000 people were paid a total of 20 million pounds in compensation for freeing their slaves.
    (V.D.-H.K.p.276)(MT, 3/96, p.14)(PC, 1992, p.412)(AH, 10/02, p.54)(SFC, 2/28/13, p.A2)

1833        Oct, Capt. John Ross (1877-1856), Arctic explorer, returned to England.

1833        John James Audubon visited Canada’s Grand Manan Island off the southeast coast of New Brunswick to see herring gulls nesting in trees.
    (NH, 9/96, p.58)

1834        Mar 6, The city of York in Upper Canada was incorporated as Toronto.
    (AP, 3/6/98)

1834        Aug 1, The British Emancipation Act went into effect abolishing slavery throughout the British Empire. This ended slavery in Canada, in the West Indies and in all Caribbean holdings. Some 35,000 slaves were freed in the Cape Colony. The Minstrels Parada in Cape Town, SA, originated as a spontaneous outpouring of marches, music and dancing to mark the abolition of slavery.
    (NH, 7/98, p.29)(HN, 8/1/98)(EWH, 4th ed, p.885)(AP, 1/2/06)

1837        Mar 24, Canada gave blacks the right to vote.

1837        Dec 29, Canadian militiamen, claiming self-defense, destroyed the Caroline, a US steamboat docked at Buffalo, N.Y. It was being used to ferry supplies to anti-British rebels in Canada.
    (AP, 12/29/97)(Econ, 11/22/03, p.25)

1838        Mar 3, Rebellion at Pelee Island, Ontario, Canada.
    (SC, 3/3/02)

1838        Canadian lumberjacks entered the disputed Maine and New Brunswick territory in 1838 and began lumbering operations. The arrest by Canadians of a Maine-appointed agent sent into the area to force out the Canadians marked the beginning of the undeclared conflict called the Aroostook War, which saw the Nova Scotia legislature make war appropriations and the U.S. Congress authorize a force of 50,000 men and $10 million. General Winfield Scott brokered a truce between Maine and New Brunswick which averted a real war.
    (HNQ, 9/30/99)

1839        Feb 12, Aroostook War took place over a boundary dispute between Maine and New Brunswick. [see 1838]
    (MC, 2/12/02)

1839        Nov 16, Louis-Honore Frechette, Canadian poet, was born.
    (HN, 11/16/00)

1841        Feb 10, Upper Canada and Lower Canada were proclaimed united under an Act of Union passed by the British Parliament.
    (AP, 2/10/07)

1841        Jun 14, The first Canadian parliament opened in Kingston.
    (AP, 6/14/97)

1842        Aug 9, The United States and Canada signed the Webster-Ashburton Treaty, resolving a border dispute between Maine and Canada's New Brunswick.
    (AP, 8/9/97)(HN, 8/9/98)(HNQ, 9/30/99)   

1843        Thomas Haliburton of Windsor, Nova Scotia, published a novel that described local boys playing hurley, an early form of hockey, behind Kings Edgehill School.
    (WSJ, 1/23/02, p.A1)

1843        The Univ. of Michigan enrolled its 1st international student. A Canadian joined the body of 43 students.
    (LSA, Fall/03, p.38)

1843        In Canada James McDermott was convicted and hanged for the murder Dr. Thomas Kinnear and his lover, Nancy Montgomery. Kinnear’s servant, 16-year-old Grace Marks, was sentenced to life imprisonment for aiding and abetting her fellow servant, James McDermott, in the murder. In 1996 Margaret Atwood wrote a novel: "Alias Grace" based on the incident.
    (SFEC, 11/3/96, BR p.1)(WSJ, 11/15/96, p.A14)

1844        Sep 25-1844 Sep 27, The first int’l. cricket match was played between the USA and Canada at the St George's Cricket Club, Bloomingdale Park, NY. Canada won by 23 runs.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/United_States_v_Canada_%281844%29)(Econ, 7/24/10, p.83)

1844-1885    Louis Riel, Metis leader, was born in Manitoba.
    (SFC, 1/22/98, p.B2)

1845        May 28, A fire in Quebec Canada destroyed 1,500 houses.
    (MC, 5/28/02)

1846        Jun 15, The United States and Britain signed a treaty settling a boundary dispute between Canada and the United States in the Pacific Northwest at the 49th parallel. Great Britain and the U.S. agreed on a joint occupation of Oregon Territory. President Polk agreed to a compromise border along the 49th parallel. The debate over the northwestern border of the United States. The campaign slogan "54-40 or fight" referred to the debate over the northwestern border of the United States. The slogan "54-40 or fight" refers to the north latitude degree and minute where many Americans wanted to place the border between the U.S. and then Great Britain in the Pacific Northwest.
    (AP, 6/15/97)(HN, 6/15/98)(SFC, 1/25/99, p.A3)(HNQ, 3/28/00)
1846        Jun 15, Washington diplomats established a straight line border between the US and Canada in the northwest and thus established Point Roberts, Wa. as the westernmost corner of the US. The enclave is 4.9 sq. miles.
    (SFC, 5/20/96, p.A-6)

1846-1854    John Rae (b.1813), Scottish-born explorer, helped map the western shore of Hudson’s Bay and the Arctic over this period. He discovered the last link of the Northwest Passage. In 2002 Ken McGoogan authored "Fatal Passage," an account of Rae’s explorations.
    (WSJ, 4/19/02, p.W10)

1846-1859    Ownership of the San Juan Islands was not settled in the 1846 Oregon Treaty. The Pig War of 1859 forced an arbitration under Kaiser Wilhelm I of Germany. Six Royal Marines and 16 US soldiers died during the 13-year occupation from drownings, disease and suicides.
    (SFEC, 6/18/00, p.T8)

1847        Jun 11, A written record was found in 1859, indicating that Sir John Franklin died on this day, and that Erebus and Terror were abandoned in April 1848. The crews' deaths have been attributed to either scurvy or lead poisoning originating from the solder on food tins. Both ships and the remains of most of the 129 crewmen have never been found. After commissioning three unsuccessful search expeditions, the British Admiralty posted a reward for anyone who could ascertain the fate of the crewmen of the HMS Erebus and Terror, who had sailed from England in May 1845 to navigate through the Arctic and find the elusive Northwest passage. Success was anticipated with Franklin commanding well-equipped crews and ships, but by 1847, the British Admiralty had received no reports of Franklin. Subsequent expeditions found evidence of the Franklin Expedition. Three graves dug into the permafrost were discovered in 1850 on Devon Island, their headstones dated 1846. In 2010 Anthony Brandt authored “The Man Who Ate His Boots: The Tragic History of the Search for the Northwest Passage." The book pivoted around explorer John Franklin (1786-1847).
    (HNQ, 6/11/98)(HN, 6/11/99)(ON, 11/03, p.12)(SFC, 4/9/10, p.F6)

1848        Mar 29, Niagara Falls stopped flowing for 30 hours due to an ice jam in the Niagara River.
    (HN, 3/29/98)(MC, 3/29/02)

1849        Jul 12, William Osler (d.1919), physician, author (circulatory system), was born in Canada. "The philosophies of one age have become the absurdities of the next, and the foolishness of yesterday has become the wisdom of tomorrow."
    (AP, 10/15/98)(MC, 7/12/02)

1850        May, An American expedition, organized by shipping magnate Henry Grinnell, departed to the Canadian Arctic to search for Sir John Franklin and his 1845 Expedition. In late August it joined with British rescue ships. They soon found 3 graves dug into the permafrost of Beechey Island with headstones dated 1846. A written record was found in 1859, indicating that Franklin died on June 11, 1847, and that Erebus and Terror were abandoned in April 1848. The crews’ deaths have been attributed to either scurvy or lead poisoning originating from the solder on food tins. Both ships and the remains of most of the 129 crewmen have never been found.
    (HNQ, 6/11/98)(ON, 6/09, p.3)

1851        Apr 23, Canada issued its first postage stamp, the Three-Penny Beaver, which carried an image of the beaver.
    (CFA, '96, p.44)(Econ, 1/23/10, p.38)

1853        Nov 24, William Masterson (Bat Masterson), journalist, gambler, frontier lawman, was born in Henryville, Quebec. He died at his desk as a NYC sports reporter. [see Nov 24, 1856]
    (SFC, 8/2/97, p.E3)(MC, 11/24/01)

1854        Sep 27, The first great disaster involving an ocean liner in the Atlantic occurred when the steamship Arctic sank off the coast of Newfoundland with 300 people aboard. It had collided in heavy fog with the French ship Vesta.
    (AP, 9/27/97)(Arch, 7/02, p.7)(Arch, 9/02, p.6)

1854        The Investigator, deployed in 1850 with a 66-man crew, was abandoned after being locked in the grip of Arctic ice for two winters. The crew, led by Captain Robert John LeMesurier McClure, left behind a cache of equipment and provisions on the shore of what is now part of Aulavik National Park. The British ship was sent to search for two lost vessels that were part of Sir John Franklin's ill-fated 1845 Royal Navy expedition to discover the Northwest Passage linking the Atlantic to the Pacific through Canada's Arctic archipelago. Canadian archeologists discovered the wreckage of the ship in 2010 at the remote Mercy Bay site in the Northwest Territories.
    (Reuters, 7/29/10)

1855        Dec 14, Ice hockey was played by 2 military teams in Canada. [see 1875]
    (CFA, ‘96, p.60)(WSJ, 1/11/99, p.R34)(http://library.thinkquest.org/10480/hockey.html)

1856        Nov 24, Bat Masterson was born in Quebec, Canada. [see Nov 24, 1853]

1857        Dec 31, Britain's Queen Victoria decided to make Ottawa the capital of Canada.
    (AP, 12/31/97)

1857        In Montreal, Canada, the Anglican Christ Church Cathedral was constructed. In the 1980s it was elevated on pylons to allow for an expansion of the underground city.
    (SSFC, 10/9/05, p.D5)

1857        In British Columbia nine American slaves arrived at Vesuvius Bay on Salt Spring Island to make a fresh start in a new land. They were later joined by settlers from Hawaii.
    (SFEC, 7/26/98, p.T5)

1858        Aug 5, Cyrus W. Field completed the first transatlantic cable. It linked Newfoundland to Ireland. The line went completely dead in October. William Thompson oversaw the operation at sea aboard the HMS Agamemnon, which laid half the cable. The other half was laid by the USS Niagara. The cables had been spliced at a central meeting point on June 26. A new attempt to lay newly designed cable failed in 1865. Another attempt in 1866 succeeded.
    (www.pbs.org/wgbh/amex/cable/peopleevents/e_inquiry.html)(AP, 8/5/08)(ON, 10/10, p.2)

1858        Aug 16, A telegraphed message from Britain’s Queen Victoria to President Buchanan was transmitted over the recently laid trans-Atlantic cable. The cable linked Ireland and Canada and failed after a few weeks.
    (AP, 8/16/97)(www.pbs.org/wgbh/amex/cable/peopleevents/e_inquiry.html)

1858        Gold was reported found on the sand banks of the Fraser River in BC. The first Chinese arrived in British Columbia seeking gold along the Fraser River.
    (enRoute, 2/96, p.21)(SFEC, 9/26/99, p.T4)
1858        Canada developed its own currency.
    (Econ, 5/12/12, p.78)

1858        Britain made British Columbia a crown colony.
    (SFEC, 9/26/99, p.T4)

1859        The Pig War on San Juan Island forced an arbitration under Kaiser Wilhelm I of Germany, who awarded the San Juan islands to the US. Six Royal Marines and 16 US soldiers died during the 13-year occupation from drownings, disease and suicides.
    (SFEC, 6/18/00, p.T8)

1861        Nov 6, Dr. James Naismith (d. Nov 28, 1939), Canadian physical education instructor, was born. He invented the game of basketball in 1891.
    (DTnet, 11/28/97)(HN, 11/6/99)

1861        Dec 20, Transports were loaded with 8,000 troops in England. They were setting sail for Canada so that troops would be available if the "Trent Affair" was not settled without war.
    (HN, 12/20/98)

1862        Apr 19, Simon Fraser, Canadian explorer, died.
    (MC, 4/19/02)

1862        In Canada Billy Barker, a former British sailor, struck gold in an area called Williams Creek in British Columbia (Canada). The strike gave birth to the town of Barkerville.
    (SSFC, 4/7/13, p.P4)

1863        Aug 12, 1st cargo of lumber left Burrard Inlet in the Vancouver, BC area.
    (SC, 8/12/02)

1864        Jun 29, In Canada the St-Hilaire train disaster occurred near the town of Mont-Saint-Hilaire, Quebec. The train, which had been carrying many German and Polish immigrants, failed to acknowledge a stop signal and fell through an open swing bridge into the Richelieu River. The widely accepted death toll was 99 persons.

1864        Sep 1, The Charlottetown Conference, convened in Charlottetown, Prince Edward Island, was the first of a series of meetings that ultimately led to the formation of the Dominion of Canada.
    (HNQ, 8/22/99)

1864        Oct 19, The northernmost action of the American Civil War took place in the Vermont town of St. Albans. A band of Confederates led by Kentuckian Bennett Young raided the town near the Canadian border with the intent of robbing three banks and burning the town. While they managed to leave town and hide out in Canada with more than $200,000, their attempts to burn down the town failed. Most of the raiders were captured and imprisoned in Canada and later released after a court ruled the robberies in St. Albans were acts of war.
    (HNQ, 12/9/98)

1866        Jun 7, Irish Fenians raided Pigeon Hill, Quebec.
    (SC, 6/7/02)

1866        Oct 15, A great fire in Quebec destroyed 2,500 houses.
    (MC, 10/15/01)

1866        Colonel John O’Neill of the Fenian Brotherhood--formerly of the U.S. cavalry--led a force of Irish-Americans against this British-ruled Canada. A year after America’s Civil War ended, scores of Irish Americans who had once fought for the Union or the Confederacy joined forces against a new enemy.
    (HNQ, 4/17/01)

1867        Mar 29, The British Parliament passed the North America Act (later known as the Constitution Act) to create the Dominion of Canada.
    (HN, 3/29/98)(AP, 3/29/07)

1867        Jul 1, Canada became a self-governing dominion of Great Britain as the British North America Act took effect. The Dominion of Canada included New Brunswick, Nova Scotia, Ontario and Quebec. A dispute with Manitoba on territory in northwest Ontario was settled in 1889 on behalf of Ontario. John Alexander Macdonald became the 1st prime minister.
    (AP, 7/1/97)(www.canadiana.org/citm/themes/constitution/constitution13_e.html)

1867        The Conservative Party of Canada became Canada's first governing party under Sir John A. Macdonald. In 1942 it became the Progressive Conservative Party of Canada.
1867        Lacrosse was declared the national game of Canada.
    (WSJ, 1/11/99, p.R34)

1868        Apr 7, Thomas D’Arcy McGee, Irish patriot and author, was shot and killed in Ottawa, Canada. Patrick J. Whelan, a Fenian sympathizer, was accused, tried, convicted, and hanged for the crime. In 2008 David A. Wilson authored Thomas D’Arcy McGee: Passion, Reason and Politics 1825-1857."
    (WSJ, 5/15/08, p.A15)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Thomas_D'Arcy_McGee)

1869        Apr 9, The Hudson Bay Company ceded its territory to Canada.
    (MC, 4/9/02)

1869        Nov 1, Louis Riel seized Fort Garry, Winnipeg, during the Red River Rebellion. Louis Riel, Metis leader, helped stage an uprising against the influx of white settlers in Manitoba that resulted in a provisional government that he led. Manitoba was admitted as Canada’s 5th province and the Metis were allocated 1.4 million acres of land, but Riel fled charged with failing to stop the execution of Thomas Scott, an English Protestant captured during the fighting.
    (SFC, 1/22/98, p.B2)(HN, 11/1/98)(Reuters, 11/22/02)

1869-1934    Marie Dressler, Canadian actress: "Never one thing and seldom one person can make for a success. It takes a number of them merging into one perfect whole."
    (AP, 4/19/99)

1869-1944     Stephen Leacock, Canadian humorist-educator: "If youth only had a chance or old age any brains."
    (AP, 4/28/98)

1870        Feb 12, An official proclamation set April 15 as last day of grace for US silver coins to circulate in Canada.
    (MC, 2/12/02)

1870        May 25, Irish Fenians raided Eccles Hill, Quebec.
    (SC, 5/25/02)

1870        May 12, An act creating the Canadian province of Manitoba was given royal assent, to take effect in July.
    (AP, 5/12/08)

1870        Jul 15, Manitoba entered confederation as the fifth Canadian province.
    (AP, 7/15/07)

1870        Sep 27, Henry T.P. Comstock (50), Canadian silver prospector, died.
    (MC, 9/27/01)

1870-1996    In Canada an estimated 150,000 indigenous children were wrenched from their homes over this period and sent to Christian boarding schools, where many were sexually and physically abused. In 2008 PM Stephen Harper delivered an unqualified public apology.
    (Econ, 6/14/08, p.50)

1871        Jul 20, British Columbia joined Confederation as a Canadian province. Canada’s government promised BC a railroad link to the eastern provinces as it joined the nation.
    (AP, 7/20/97)(ON, 11/07, p.9)

1871        Emily Carr (d.1945), Canadian artist and author, was born in Victoria. "You come into the world alone and you go out of the world alone yet it seems to me you are more alone while living than even going and coming."
    (AP, 7/11/98)(SSFC, 9/23/01, p.T2)

1873        Mar 9, Royal Canadian Mounted Police founded. [see May 23]
    (MC, 3/9/02)

1873        Apr 1, The British White Star steamship Atlantic, enroute to NYC from Liverpool with 811 passengers under Capt. James Agnew Williams (33), sank off Nova Scotia killing 565 people, mostly women and children. A court of inquiry suspended Williams for 2 years.
    (ON, 4/03, p.7)

1873        May 23, Canada's North West Mounted Police force was established. The North West Mounted Police was formed by the Canadian government to protect new settlers in the territory between Manitoba and British Columbia. [see Mar 9]
    (AP, 5/23/97)(HNQ, 5/5/98)

1873        Jul 1, Prince Edward Island became the 7th Canadian province.
    (MC, 7/1/02)

1873        Louis Riel of Manitoba was elected to the federal Parliament in Ottawa but lawmakers were resentful of his 1869 uprising and moved to deny him his seat. This led to a nervous breakdown and he spent three years in a mental institution in Quebec.
    (SFC, 1/22/98, p.B2)
1873        In Canada female property owners in British Columbia got the right to vote in municipal elections.
    (Econ., 11/28/20, p.16)

1874-1950     William Lyon Mackenzie King, Canadian statesman: "Government, in the last analysis, is organized opinion. Where there is little or no public opinion, there is likely to be bad government, which sooner or later becomes autocratic government."
    (AP, 5/13/97)

1875        Mar 3, The 1st recorded hockey game took place in Montreal. [see 1855]
    (SC, 3/3/02)

1875        Aug 26, John Buchan (d.1940), Lord Tweedsmuir, was born in Perth, Scotland. He became a writer and governor general of Canada (1935), and was famous for his spy story "The Thirty-Nine Steps" (1915). "There may be Peace without Joy, and Joy without Peace, but the two combined make Happiness."
    (HN, 8/26/99)(WSJ, 12/9/06, p.P12)(AP, 1/7/98)

1875        Dec 17, Violent bread riots took place in Montreal.
    (MC, 12/17/01)

1875        Calgary was founded by Troop F of the royal Northwest Mounted Police. They built a log fort at the junction of the Bow and Elbow Rivers to control illegal whiskey traders operating from outposts with names like Fort Whoop-Up.
    (SFEC, 6/25/00, p.T11)

1876        A city market was built In St. John, New Brunswick. It was still active in 2000 and called the Old City Market.
    (SFEC, 7/30/00, p.T5)

1876        In Canada the Indian Act was enacted by the Parliament under the provisions of Section 91(24) of the Constitution Act, 1867, which provides Canada's federal government exclusive authority to legislate in relation to "Indians and Lands Reserved for Indians." The statute concerns registered Indians (that is, First Nations peoples of Canada), their bands, and the system of Indian reserves.
    (Econ, 3/28/09, p.46)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Indian_Act)

1877        May 7, Indian chief Sitting Bull entered Canada with a trail of Indians after the Battle of Little Big Horn.
    (HN, 5/7/99)

1877        Aug 2, Sir James Douglas (b.1803), the first provincial governor of British Columbia (1858-1864), died. He was the son of a black woman from Barbados and a Scottish planter.
    (SFC, 2/12/10, p.A18)

1877        Oct 17, Brigadier General Alfred Terry met with Sitting Bull in Canada to discuss the Indians' return to the United States.
    (HN, 10/17/99)

1879        May 25, W. Maxwell Aitken, Lord Beaverbrook, Canada-English banker, was born.
    (SC, 5/25/02)

1880        Aug, Eight Inuit from Canada’s north-eastern coast agreed to travel to Europe to be exhibits in a human zoo. They soon died from smallpox. The skeletons of Abraham Ulrikab (1845-1881) and most of his companions were rediscovered in 2014 fully mounted for display in the storerooms of a French museum.
    (Econ., 2/28/15, p.30)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Abraham_Ulrikab)

1880        Britain assigned all North American Arctic islands to Canada, right up to Ellesmere Island. From this vast swath of territory were created three provinces (Manitoba, Saskatchewan, Alberta) and two territories (Yukon and Nunavut), and two extensions each to Quebec, Ontario, and Manitoba.

1881        Apr 11, River ferry "Princess Victoria" sank in Thames River, Ontario, and 180 died. [see May 24]
    (MC, 4/11/02)

1881        May 24, Some 200 people died when the Canadian ferry Princess Victoria sank near London, Ontario. [see Apr 11]
    (AP, 5/24/97)

1881        William Cornelius Van Horne (1843-1915), Illinois-born railroad manager, joined the Canadian Pacific Railway (CPR) as general manager with the task of managing the construction of the trans Canada railway.
    (ON, 11/07, p.9)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/William_Cornelius_Van_Horne)

1883        Nov 18, The United States and Canada adopted a system of Standard Time zones. The railroad companies got together and established standard railroad time to increase safety and surmount complex scheduling on local times. This put an end to “God’s time."
    (HFA, '96, p.18)(NG, March 1990, p.115)(AP, 11/18/97)(WSJ, 3/31/05, p.D8)

1883        The first Brownie book was published. Palmer Cox (1840-1924), Canadian illustrator and writer, created the stories and drawings, which first appeared in 1879. 12 more books followed and in 1891 Cox registered the illustrations under the new copyright law.
    (SFC, 12/26/07, p.G3)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Palmer_Cox)

1883-1998    In Canada some 150,000 aboriginal children were removed from their homes and put into residential schools modelled on Victorian poor houses. Half were physically or sexually abused. In 2008 a “truth and reconciliation commission" was set up as part of a settlement of a class-action suit brought by survivors against the government and the churches that operated the schools. Hector-Louis Langevin (1826-1906), Secretary of State for the Provinces, was the architect of the residential school program.
    (https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hector-Louis_Langevin)(Econ, 6/6/15, p.28)(Econ 7/1/17, p.29)

1884        Jul 25, Davidson Black, doctor of anatomy (identified Peking Man), was born in Canada.
    (SC, 7/25/02)

1884        In Canada the Quebec City Armory was built. It was famous for having the largest suspended wood ceiling in Canada. In 2008 it was destroyed by fire.
    (SFC, 4/5/08, p.A2)
1884        Metis leaders in Saskatchewan found Louis Riel in Montana and convinced him to set up another provisional government.
    (Reuters, 11/22/02)
1884        Joseph Burr Tyrell led the first expedition for the Geological Survey of Canada to Alberta, Canada. He found rich coal deposits and dinosaur remains along the Red Deer River.
    (CFA, ‘96, p.62)(SSFC, 5/19/13, p.N5)

1885        Mar 26, Louis Riel's forces defeated Canadian forces at Duck Lake, Saskatchewan.
    (SS, 3/26/02)(ON, 11/07, p.12)

1885        Apr 24, Metis rebels won a major victory over Canadian troops at Fish Creek, Saskatchewan. The troops had been shipped to the region by way of the new Canadian Pacific Railway.
    (Reuters, 11/22/02)(ON, 11/07, p.12)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/North-West_Rebellion)

1885        May 9, In the Battle of Batoche, Saskatchewan, Metis rebels ran out of ammunition and resorted to firing pebbles from their guns, until they were forced to retreat.

1885        May 15, Metis rebels surrendered to Canadian forces.
    (ON, 11/07, p.12)

1885        Jul 2, Canada's North-West Insurrection ended with the surrender of Big Bear.
    (SC, 7/2/02)

1885        Sep 15, Jumbo (b.~1860), a circus elephant, was killed in Ontario, Canada, after being struck by a goods train while being loaded into a circus carriage. In 2014 John Sutherland authored “Jumbo: The Unauthorized Biography of a Victorian Sensation."
    (Econ, 2/8/14, p.81)

1885        Nov 7, The Canadian Pacific Railway completed its transcontinental rail line with the last spike driven at the Rocky Mountain town of Craigellachie.
    (SFEM, 10/10/99, p.46)(ON, 11/07, p.12)

1885        Nov 16, Canadian rebel Louis Riel was executed for high treason after he led another uprising that was crushed by a powerful militia.
    (AP, 11/1697)(SFC, 1/22/98, p.B2)

1885        Canada unjustly imprisoned Cree Chief Poundmaker, or Pihtokahanapiwiyin, for treason. He was jailed for seven months before being released because of bad health in 1886 and died shortly after. In 2019 PM Justin Trudeau, who had been criticized by some indigenous communities, apologized and posthumously exonerated Chief Poundmaker.
    (Reuters, 5/24/19)
1885        Canada began forcing tens of thousands of Chinese, who helped build the nation's railroad, to pay a "head tax" if they wished to remain in the country and then taxed them again to bring in their families. It started at $50 and by 1903 grew to $500. Collections ended in 1923, when immigration from China was banned. Canada only began admitting Chinese again in 1947. On June 22, 2006, Canada apologized.
    (AP, 6/23/06)
1885        In BC St. Paul’s Church was built at Fulford. It was the first church on Salt Spring Island.
    (SFEC, 7/26/98, p.T5)
1885        Canada established Banff National Park in central Alberta. In 2017 bison were re-introduced to the park.
    (Reuters, 2/13/17)

1886        Apr 6, The City of Vancouver, Canada, was incorporated. The ceremony was delayed when it was discovered no one had thought to bring paper on which to write down the details. The ceremony was held in Jonathan Miller's house. The population of the city was about 1,000.

1886        Jun 13, A swift fire destroyed Vancouver, Canada, in a time variously reported between twenty and forty-five minutes. At least eight people died, and some accounts claim 28. About 1,000 wooden buildings, virtually the entire city, were totally consumed.
    (Econ, 6/11/11, p.42)(www.vancouverhistory.ca/chronology2.html)

1886        Jul 4, The 1st scheduled Canadian transcontinental passenger train (CPR) reached Pt. Moody, BC. It had left Montreal on June 28.
    (ON, 11/07, p.12)

1886        The Passenger Vessel Services Act (PSA) of this year required that cruise ships stopping in at US ports be built and registered in the US, be owned by US citizens and manned by American seamen—or that they stop at a foreign port before returning passengers to their departure point. It was designed to protect US ferry boats operating on the Great Lakes from Canadian competition.
    (SFEC, 5/11/97, p.C10)(SFEC, 5/25/97, p.B1)

1887        May 23, The 1st transcontinental train arrived in Vancouver, BC.
    (MC, 5/23/02)

1887        In Canada a mining blast in Nanaimo killed 148 miners.
    (WSJ, 1/11/99, p.27)

1888        The Banff Springs Hotel opened in what later became Canada's first national park.
    (SFEM, 10/10/99, p.46)

1889        In Canada a dispute with Manitoba on territory in northwest Ontario was settled on behalf of Ontario.

1889        In New Brunswick, Canada, the Algonquin Hotel was built at the seaside resort of St. Andrews.
    (SFEC, 7/30/00, p.T5)

1889        A telegraph line connected Victoria to India by way of an undersea cable from Bamfield.
    (SSFC, 3/3/02, p.C8)

1889        Canada’s Bank of Nova Scotia opened a branch in Jamaica.
    (Econ, 3/29/08, p.50)

1891        Dec 1, The Canadian, Dr. James B. Naismith, sports figure, inventor, teacher, invented the game of basketball at the YMCA in Springfield, Mass. A janitor provided peach baskets instead of the requested boxes.
    (Hem, Dec. 94, p.126)(DTnet, 11/28/97)(MC, 12/1/01)

1892-1979    Mary Pickford, silent film actress, was born as Gladys Marie Smith in Toronto. Her life is documented in the 1997 book: "Pickford: The Woman Who Made Hollywood" by Eileen Whitfield.
    (SFC,11/26/97, Z1 p.E6)

1893        Jul 1, Canada enacted a riot act as part of its criminal code.
    (SSFC, 7/26/09, p.A4)(http://tinyurl.com/lfqouh)

1893        Dec 5, 1st electric car was built in Toronto. It could go 15 miles between charges.
    (MC, 12/5/01)

1893        The baronial-style Royal Victoria Hospital was built in Montreal, Canada, through the financial donations of Scottish immigrants: the cousins Donald Smith, 1st Lord Strathcona, and George Stephen, 1st Lord Mount Stephen.
1893        Lord Stanley, the 6th governor general of Canada, established the Stanley Cup. It was presented to the champion hockey league team. The Stanley Cup, the trophy of professional ice hockey‘s championship, is named for Frederick Arthur, Lord Stanley of Preston, governor general of Canada. The trophy was first played for in 1893-94 and was won by the Montreal Amateur Athletic Association team. Since 1917, it has gone to the winner of the National Hockey League playoffs.
    (WSJ, 9/6/96, p.A1)(HNQ, 7/28/00)

1894        The Metropolitan United Church was built in British Columbia. In 2000 it was taken over by the Victoria Conservatory of Music.
    (WSJ, 8/30/06, p.D8)

1895        Sep 18, John G. Diefenbaker, conservative prime minister (13th) of Canada from 1957 to 1963, was born in Neustadt, Ontario.
    (HN, 9/18/98)(MC, 9/18/01)

1895        A Parisian artist and 5 assistants completed a 15,400-sq.-foot circular painting of Jerusalem at the moment of Christ’s crucifixion after 4 years of work. It went on display at the St. Anne Museum in St. Anne de Beaupre, Quebec.
    (SSFC, 1/21/01, p.T10)

1895-1957    J. Bartlet Brebner, Canadian historian: "Americans are benevolently ignorant about Canada, while Canadians are malevolently well-informed about the United States."
    (AP, 7/1/99)

1896        Aug, 16, A white man from California named George Carmack, a fellow not employed at anything in particular, was hiking around northwest Canada’s Yukon River area with his two Indian brothers-in-law "Skookum Jim" Mason and "Tagish Charley." The three found gold on Rabbit Creek, a stream that feeds the Yukon River near Dawson, Alaska.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Klondike_Gold_Rush)(CFA, '96, p.88)(HN, 8/19/01)

1898        Jun 13, The Yukon Territory of Canada was organized.
    (AP, 6/13/97)

1900        Britain had 188 banks and Canada had 35. Within 25 years half the banks in both countries had disappeared.
    (Econ, 11/10/12, p.78)

1901        Jan 23, A great fire ravaged Montreal, resulting in $2.5 million in property lost.
    (HN, 1/23/99)

1901        Oct 22, Charles Huggins, US physician, was born in Canada.
    (MC, 10/22/01)
1901        Oct 22, In Canada the A.J. Goddard, a Yukon River stern-wheeler, sank during a winter storm in Lake Laberge, 40 miles north of Whitehorse. 3 men perished in the sinking, but 2 survived. It had been disassembled and carried it thought the narrow White Pass in the winter of 1897. In 2008 archeologists found evidence of the ship. In 2009 divers found the remains of the vessel.
    (SFC, 11/30/09, p.A13)(www.yukon-news.com/news/15560/)

1901        Dec 11, Marconi sent his 1st transatlantic radio signal from Cornwall, England to Newfoundland, Canada. The first transmission failed, but another the next day succeeded.
1901        Dec 12, Italian scientist and engineer Guglielmo Marconi received the first long-distance radio transmission in St. John's, Newfoundland. Electrical engineer John Ambrose Fleming transmitted the Morse code signal for "s" from across the Atlantic Ocean in England and Marconi heard it--three short clicks--through a radio speaker. Marconi had begun experimenting with radiotelegraphy around 1895, and he realized that messages could be transmitted over much greater distances by using grounded antennae on the radio transmitter and receiver. A few years after the successful transmission with Fleming, Marconi opened the first commercial wireless telegraph service.
    (HNPD, 12/12/98)

1902        Jun 19, Guy Lombardo (d.11/5/1977) Canadian bandleader was born in London, Ontario. He played the sweetest music this side of heaven with his Royal Canadians and sold over 100 million records.
    (DTnet, 6/19/97)

1902-1979    Donald Creighton, Canadian historian: "History is the record of an encounter between character and circumstances."
    (AP, 12/15/00)

1903        May 24, Arthur Vineberg, Canadian heart surgeon, was born.
    (HN, 5/24/01)

1903        Oct 20, A joint commission ruled in favor of the United States in a boundary dispute between the District of Alaska and Canada.
    (AP, 10/20/97)

1904        Apr 8, Britain and France signed a series of agreements dubbed the entente cordial. It marked the end of almost a century of intermittent conflict between the two nations and their predecessor states. King Edward VII gifted French president Emile Loubet a richly-decorated casket to seal the deal. It was in fact a series of agreements between Britain and France on issues from colonialism in North Africa to fishing rights in Newfoundland. The casket contained a roll of parchment inscribed with a text celebrating Anglo-French friendship and, on the lid, a golden sculpture, the allegorical figure of Peace crowning France and Britain with laurels. The Entente cordiale, along with the Anglo-Russian Entente and the Franco-Russian Alliance, later became part of the Triple Entente among the UK, France, and Russia.
    (Econ, 3/26/11, p.64)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Entente_cordiale)(AP, 1/23/21)

1904        Apr 19, Much of Toronto was destroyed by fire.
    (MC, 4/19/02)

1904        In Canada St. Joseph's Oratory was founded in Montreal by Andre Bessette. He was canonized by Pope Benedict XVI in 2010.
    (AFP, 3/24/19)
1904        Canada’s Parliament, angered by soaring imports of cut-price steel, imposed punitive tariffs on US steel.
    (AP, 6/4/16)
1904        Canada's North West Mounted Police force was renamed the Royal North West Mounted Police by King Edward VII. With the incorporation of the federal organization called the Dominion Police in 1920, the name Royal Canadian Mounted Police was adopted.
    (AP, 5/23/97)(HNQ, 5/5/98)
1904        Edmonton, Canada, a fur-trading hub and a center for agriculture and cattle, became a city.
    (SSFC, 10/4/15, p.M4)
1904        In Victoria, British Columbia, Jennie Butchart began a garden of peas and roses. The garden grew to 55 acres of flower beds and became world famous.
    (SSFC, 5/30/04, p.D7)

1905        Sep 1, Alberta and Saskatchewan became the 8th and 9th Canadian provinces.
    (Econ, 9/10/05, p.37)(AP, 9/1/06)

1905        Auto plants were opened in Canada.
    (WSJ, 6/19/96, Adv. Supl)

1906        Nov 22, The Canadian steamship J.H. Jones went down during a storm on Lake Huron, near Lion's Head, Ontario, with 30 people on board. Only one body was ever found. In 2018 wreckage of the ship was found.
    (http://tinyurl.com/y9lde8cu)(SFC, 9/17/18, p.A2)

1906        Dec 6, Lt. Thomas E. Selfridge flew a powered, man-carrying kite that carried him 168 feet in the air for seven minutes at Baddeck, Nova Scotia.
    (HN, 12/6/98)

1906        Dec 24, Canadian physicist Reginald A. Fessenden became the first person to broadcast a music program over radio, from Brant Rock, Mass.
    (AP, 12/24/97)

1906        The steamer Valencia from SF ran aground at bluffs on the west side of Vancouver Island. Many of the passengers and crew made it to shore, but none of the 126 survived due to exposure.
    (SSFC, 3/3/02, p.C8)

1907        Apr 16, Joseph-Armand Bombardier, inventor of the snowmobile, was born in Valcourt, Quebec, Canada.

1907        Sep 15, Fay Wray (d.2004), film actress, was born in Alberta, Canada. She became best known for her 1933 performance in “King Kong."
    (SFC, 8/10/04, p.B7)

1907        Oct 17, Guglielmo Marconi began offering limited commercial wireless telegraph service between Nova Scotia and Ireland.
    (AP, 10/17/07)

1907        Nov 20, The McLaughlin Motor Car Company was founded in Ontario, Canada, under Samuel McLaughlin (1871-1972). In 1910 he became a director of General Motors and sold his company in 1918 becoming president of General Motors of Canada.

1907        The Royal Alexandria Theater was built in Toronto, Canada.
    (SFEC, 12/7/96, p.C21)
1907        Canada’s government created a Marine Lifesaving Trail between Bamfield and Port Renfrew on Vancouver Island to aid future shipwreck victims. The trail later became part of the West Coast Trail.
    (SSFC, 3/3/02, p.C8)
1907        A great cantilever bridge collapsed in Quebec killing 75 workers.
    (MT, Summer/04, p.7)
1907        Glenn Curtiss, of New York, joined with Alexander Graham Bell, F.W. Baldwin, Thomas Selfridge, and John McCurdy, working in Nova Scotia, to found the Aerial Experiment Association (AEA) to developing a practical flying machine.
    (ON, 12/11, p.10)

1908        Oct 15, John Kenneth Galbraith, economist, writer and diplomat, was born in Canada. His work included "A History of Economics" and "Affluent Society" (1958). He won the Hillman Award in 1958. In 2005 Richard Parker authored the biography “John Kenneth Galbraith: His Life, His Politics, His Economics."
    (WSJ, 1/11/99, p.R50)(HN, 10/15/00)(WSJ, 2/22/05, p.D10)

1908        Dec 6, First flight of the Silverdart with Canadian JAD McCurdy at the controls.
    (HN, 12/6/98)

1908        Assiniboine Park was built in Winnipeg, Canada.
    (SSFC, 12/22/02, p.C6)

1909        Jan 9, The Silver Dart made the 1st manned flight in Canada. It was funded by the Aerial Experiment Association, founded by Alexander and Mabel Bell.
    (ON, 1/03, p.5)

1909        Aug 25, Ruby Keeler, dancer (Dames, 42nd Street), was born in Halifax, NS.
    (MC, 8/25/02)

1909        Canada and the US signed a Boundary Waters Treaty that set up an Int’l. Joint Commission to deal with water disputes. Water was allowed to exit Lake Superior through locks, power plants and gates on the St. Marys River, but in amounts strictly regulated under the 1909 pact with Canada.
    (Econ, 7/16/05, p.34)(AP, 8/3/07)

1910        The Flexner Report, a book-length study of medical education in the US and Canada, led to the overhaul of medical education. It was written under the aegis of the Carnegie Foundation.
    (Econ, 6/11/11, p.65)

1911        Feb 22, Canadian Parliament voted to preserve the union with the British Empire.
    (HN, 2/22/98)

1911        Jul 1, A proclamation removed "Dei Gratia" from Canada's coins.
    (MC, 7/1/02)

1911        Jul 18, Hume Cronyn, actor (World According to Garp, Cocoon), was born in London, Ontario.
    (MC, 7/18/02)

1911        Jul 21, Marshall McLuhan (d.1980), Canadian English professor and communication theorist, author of "The Medium is the Message," was born. He wrote the book: "Understanding Media: The Extensions of Man." "Only the vanquished remember history."
    (V.D.-H.K.p.357)(HN, 7/21/98)(AP, 4/11/00)

1911        Oct 10, Sir Robert Borden (1854-1937) began serving as Canada's prime minister and continued to 1920. In 2011 his image was placed on the front of a Canadian $100 bill.
    (Reuters, 11/14/11)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Robert_Borden)

1912        May 26, Jay Silverheels (d.1980) was born as Harold J. Smith on the Six Nations Indian Reservation, Brantford, Ontario, Canada. He was the son of a Mohawk Indian chief and became an actor who portrayed Tonto on "The Lone Ranger."

1912        Jun 6, In Alaska the Novarupta volcano began erupting 6 miles from Mount Katmai. When the eruption stopped on June 9th, the ash cloud had spread across southern Alaska. This was later recognized as the most powerful volcanic eruption of the 20th century. Crops withered across Canada and the US that summer under skies shrouded with volcanic ash. 
    (http://geology.com/novarupta/)(Hem, 4/96, p.78)

1912        Aug 21, Mr. Carter-Cotton was chosen as 1st chancellor of Univ. of British Columbia.
    (SC, 8/21/02)

1912        The 1st Calgary Stampede began as a rodeo organized by American Guy Weadick, a trick roper.
    (SFEC, 6/25/00, p.T11)

1912        Dofasco was founded in Canada as the Dominion Steel Casting Co. to make railway parts. In 2006 it accepted a bid by Arcelor, a European steel giant.
    (Econ, 2/4/06, p.36)

1913        Apr 25, Russ Conway Brandon, actor (Richard Diamond Private Eye), was born in Manitoba.
    (SS, 4/25/02)

1913        The Bain Morgan bath house in Montreal was constructed for C$300,000.
    (Hem., 12/96, p.64)

1914        May 9, Clarence Eugene Snow (d.1999), later known as singer Hank Snow (I Went to Your Wedding), was born in Brooklyn, Nova Scotia. His songs included the 1950 hit "I'm Moving On."
    (SFC, 12/21/99, p.A27)(MC, 5/9/02)

1914        May 29, The Canadian ship Empress of Ireland sank while enroute to Quebec City to Liverpool after colliding with the Norwegian coal freighter Storstad. 1,012 (1,024) of the 1,500 passengers and crew were killed. The site of the tragedy was proclaimed a protected historic and archeological site by Quebec in 1999.
    (SFC, 4/23/99, p.D3)(SC, 5/29/02)

1914        Aug 4, Britain and Belgium declared war after German troops entered Belgium. The United States proclaimed its neutrality. Britain’s entry also committed its dominions of Australia, Canada, Newfoundland, New Zealand and South Africa. AS WWI started the financial press helped to cover up news of a run on the Bank of England.
    (HNQ, 7/24/98)(AP, 8/4/97)(Econ, 8/2/14, p.45)(Econ, 9/27/14, p.70)

1914        The Grand Trunk Railway established Prince Rupert in British Columbia.
    (SFEC, 9/26/99, p.T5)

1915        Feb 12, Lorne Greene, actor (Bonanza, Battlestar Galactica), was born in Ottawa, Canada.
    (MC, 2/12/02)

1915        Jul 10, Saul Bellow, Pulitzer Prize-winning American author and writer of Jewish moral and social alarm, was born in Montreal. "A man is only as good as what he loves." In 2000 James Atlas authored "Bellow: A biography."
    (AP, 9/30/98)(HN, 7/10/98)(SFEC, 10/15/00, BR p.1)

1915        Sep 11, Sir William Cornelius Van Horne, former president of the CPR, died in Montreal. His mansion was on Minister’s Island in New Brunswick, Canada. The American-born Van Horne had managed the construction of Canada’s transcontinental railway (1881-1886). Van Horne was buried in Joliet, Ill.
    (SFEC, 5/25/97, p.T7)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/William_Cornelius_Van_Horne)

1915        Sep 19, Elizabeth Stern, Canadian pathologist, was born. She first published a case report linking a specific virus to a specific cancer.
    (HN, 9/19/00)

1916        Feb 3, Canada's original parliament buildings, in Ottawa, burned down.
    (AP, 2/3/97)

1916        May 1, Glenn Ford, actor, was born in Quebec, Canada. He starred in the film "The Blackboard Jungle."
    (HN, 5/1/99)(MC, 5/1/02)

1917        Mar 27, The Seattle Metropolitans became the first U.S. team to win the Stanley Cup as they defeated the Montreal Canadiens.
    (AP, 3/27/97)

1917        Apr 9, Battle of Arras began as Canadian troops launched a massive assault on Vimy Ridge in France. The assault brought four Canadian divisions fought together for the first time and cost 10,600 lives. The Canadians succeeded in battling through snow and sleet to push out the Germans who had long held the strategic post.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Battle_of_Arras_%281917%29)(Econ, 8/2/14, p.45)(AP, 4/8/17)

1917        May 21, Raymond Burr, actor, was born in BC, Canada. He played Perry Mason on television.
    (HN, 5/21/99)(MC, 5/21/02)

1917        Mar 27, The Seattle Metropolitans became the first US team to win the Stanley Cup as they defeated the Montreal Canadiens.
    (AP, 3/27/97)

1917        Aug 29, Canada’s PM Robert Borden introduced the Military Service Act. The Act was passed: allowing the government to conscript men across the country if the PM felt that it was necessary.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Conscription_Crisis_of_1917)(Econ, 8/2/14, p.45)

1917        Dec 6, In Nova Scotia some 2000 people were killed and thousands wounded following an explosion in Halifax harbor. The Imo, a Norwegian freighter ship, had collided with the French munitions ship Mont Blanc and a fire soon caused a massive explosion. A local court found Captain Le Medec of the Mont Blanc and other defendants guilty of the collision. Canada’s Supreme Court ruled that the captains of both ships were equally to blame. A Privy Council in London ruled that Le Medec had done nothing illegal.
    (EWH, 4th ed, p.1054)(ON, 7/05, p.7)(AP, 12/6/07)

1918        Jan 1, Canada’s Unionist government began to enforce the Military Service Act.

1918        Jan 28, Lieutenant Colonel John McCrae (b.1872), Canadian MD and author of the poem Flanders Field (1915), died.

1918        May 15, Joseph Wiseman, actor (Dr No, Viva Zapata, Les Miserables), was born in Montreal.
    (MC, 5/15/02)

1918        Oct 25, The Canadian steamship Princess Sophia foundered off the coast of Alaska; some 350 people perished.
    (AP, 10/25/08)

1918        Vancouver workers staged a general strike after a union organizer was killed under mysterious circumstances by a posse seeking draft dodgers outside the mining town of Cumberland.
    (WSJ, 1/11/99, p.R27)

1918        William Faulkner (1897-1962), American novelist, enlisted in the Royal Canadian Air Force as a cadet pilot. Before he finished his basic training, World War I ended and he returned to his home in Oxford, Mississippi. Faulkner, born in New Albany, Mississippi, was awarded the Nobel Prize for Literature in 1949 and the Pulitzer Prize in 1955. Faulkner died July 6, 1962.
    (HNQ, 10/29/01)

1919        May 5, George London, bass-baritone (The Flying Dutchman, Wotan, Scarpia. Rigoletto), was born in Montreal, Canada.
    (MC, 5/5/02)

1919        Jun 14, Pilot John William Alcock (1892-1919) and navigator Arthur Witten Brown (1886-1948) took off from St. John’s, Newfoundland, for Clifden, Ireland, on the first nonstop transatlantic flight. The flight lasted 16 hours and 28 minutes and carried the first transatlantic airmail. They won a 10 thousand pound prize, first offered by the Daily Mail in 1913.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Arthur_Whitten_Brown)(ON, 4/09, p.1)

1919        Jun 15, British Captain John Alcock (26) and navigator Lieutenant Arthur Whitten Brown (32) completed the world's first non-stop transatlantic flight in a groundbreaking journey between Newfoundland in Canada and Ireland.
    (AFP, 6/13/19)

1919        Oct 18, Pierre Elliott Trudeau, (L) 15th Canadian PM (1968-79, 1980-84), was born.

1919-1990     Laurence J. Peter, Canadian-born educator and author of "The Peter Principle" Thought for Today: "A pessimist is a man who looks both ways when he's crossing a one-way street."
    (AP, 8/11/97)

1920        Feb 1, The Royal North West Mounted Police was formed as the Royal Northwest Mounted Police merged with Dominion Police and incorporated as the federal organization called the Dominion Police. The name Royal Canadian Mounted Police was adopted.
    (AP, 2/1/97)(AP, 5/23/97)(HNQ, 5/5/98)(MC, 2/1/02)

1920        Feb 7, Oscar Brand, folk vocalist (Draw Me a Laugh), was born in Winnipeg, Canada.
    (MC, 2/7/02)

1920        Rural Canadian physician Dr. Frederick G. Banting first conceived the idea of extracting insulin from the pancreas. It took him and 3 others 8 months to develop the process.
    (HNPD, 1/23/99)(SFC, 7/1/00, p.B5)
1920        Solomon Frank Samuels (S.F. Samuels) founded the Reliable Toy Co. in Toronto.
    (SFC, 2/7/07, p.G7)
1920        The first Arctic onshore oil wells were sunk in Canada’s Mackenzie River valley.
    (Econ, 6/16/12, SR p.13)

1921        May 12, Farley Mowat, Canadian nature writer (Never Cry Wolf), was born.
    (HN, 5/12/01)

1921        May 17, Toronto's Dr. Banting (1891-1941) and graduate student Charles Best (1899-1978) began research at the Univ. of Toronto that led to their discovery of insulin. [see Jul 27] In 1982 Michael Bliss authored “The Discovery of Insulin."
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Frederick_Banting)(WSJ, 10/4/08, p.W8)

1921        Jul 27, Canadians Sir Frederick Banting and Charles Best isolated insulin at the University of Toronto.
    (HN, 7/27/01)

1921        Aug 10, Franklin D. Roosevelt (39) was stricken with polio at his summer home on the Canadian island of Campobello, New Brunswick. Mrs. Roosevelt acted as her partially paralyzed husband’s eyes and ears by traveling, observing and reporting her observations to him. As First Lady, an author and newspaper columnist and, later, a delegate to the United Nations, Eleanor Roosevelt labored tirelessly for the poor and disadvantaged. In the words of historian John Kenneth Galbraith, she showed "more than any other person of her time, that an American could truly be a world citizen."
    (HNPD, 10//99)(SSFC, 8/1/04, p.D11)

1921        Oct 13, The Daily Colonist in Victoria BC mentioned the term "cold turkey" in reference to quitting an addiction. This was the first know use of the term in print.
    (SFEC, 1/25/98, Z1 p.8)

1921        The lions in the Royal Arms of Canada were designed by a committee of Parliament and proclaimed by King George V.
    (G&M, 7/31/97, p.A6)

1921-1926    W.L. Mackenzie King, Liberal Party, served as the 10th Prime Minister of Canada.
    (CFA, ‘96, p.81)

1922        Jan 11, Insulin, then called isletin, was 1st used to treat diabetes on Leonard Thompson (14) of Canada. [see Jan 23]

1922        Jan 23, The first successful test on a human patient with diabetes occurred when a 2nd dose of insulin was administered to dangerously ill Leonard Thompson (14). Following the birth of an idea and nine months of experimentation, and through the combined efforts of four men at the University of Toronto, Canada, insulin for the treatment of diabetes was first discovered and later purified for human use. Rural Canadian physician Dr. F.G. Banting first conceived the idea of extracting insulin from the pancreas in 1920. He and his assistant C.H. Best prepared pancreatic extracts to prolong the lives of diabetic dogs with advice and laboratory aid from Professor J.J.R. Macleod. The crude insulin extract was purified for human testing by Dr. J.B. Collip. Insulin, now made from cattle pancreases, lifted the death sentence for diabetes sufferers around the world.
    (HNPD, 1/23/99)(www.insulinfreetimes.org/00_spring/giants.htm)

1922        Aug 2, Alexander Graham Bell (b.1847), Scottish-US physicist (telephone), died in Nova Scotia. He and Gardiner Hubbard, his father-in-law, were the founders of the National Geographic Society.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Alexander_Graham_Bell)(ON, 1/03, p.5)

1922        Sep 1, Yvonne De Carlo, actress (10 Commandments, Munsters) was born in Vancouver, BC.
    (SC, 9/1/02)

1922        Nov 11, Canada’s Vernon McKenzie urged fighting U.S. propaganda with taxes on U.S. magazines.
    (HN, 11/11/98)

1922        Mennonites from Canada and Pennsylvania fled persecution and settled near Chihuahua, Mexico.
    (SFEC, 6/1/97, p.T3)(SFEC, 11/5/00, p.T4)

1923        Apr 25, Melissa Hayden, ballerina (1961 Silver Bowl), was born in Toronto, Canada.
    (SS, 4/25/02)

1923        Jul, In Canada an officially sanctioned chuckwagon race started at the Calgary Stampede.
    (SFEC, 6/25/00, p.T11)(SSFC, 7/2/17, p.F4)

1923        The Canadian Government Motion Picture Bureau was formed.
    (WSJ, 1/13/00, p.A20)

1924        Jul 24, Palmer Cox (b.1840), Canadian artist and writer, died. He wrote and illustrated children’s stories about brownies, little elves from Scottish folklore. 2 dozen of his stories were collected and published in 1887 as “The Brownies: Their Book." His characters inspired the name for a Kodak camera and for young girl scouts.
    (SFC, 10/19/05, p.G2)(http://freemasonry.bcy.ca/biography/cox_p/cox_p.html)

1924        The Saskatchewan Wheat Pool was established as a grain handling, agri-food processing and marketing company based in Regina, Saskatchewan. In 2007 it became known as Viterra. In 2012 it was taken over by Swiss-based Glencore.
    (Econ, 6/23/12, p.42)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Saskatchewan_Wheat_Pool)

1925-1933    Moose Jaw, Saskatchewan, was used by Al Capone-led mobsters to store liquor for smuggling to the US on the Soo Line. Underground tunnels, built for steam heating the city, were converted mob quarters. In 2000 "The Tunnels of Moose Jaw" opened as a tourist attraction.
    (WSJ, 8/19/02, p.B1)

1926        Jun 3, Colleen Dewhurst, actress (Maggie-Blue & Grey), was born in Montreal, Canada.
    (MC, 6/3/02)

1926        Jul 21, Norman Jewison, Canadian film director (Moonstruck, ...and Justice For All), was born in Toronto.

1926        Oct 29, Jonathan Stewart Vickers, tenor, was born in Prince Albert, Canada.
    (MC, 10/29/01)

1926        Johnny Miles (d.2003 at 97) of Canada won the Boston Marathon.
    (BS, 6/26/03, 7A)

1926        A government crises put the governor general into a position to fire the prime minister.
    (SFC, 10/25/99, p.A11)

1927        Jan 9, Fire in Laurier Palace cinema in Montreal killed 78 children.
    (MC, 1/9/02)

1927        Feb 18, The U.S. and Canada established diplomatic relations independently of Great Britain.
    (HN, 2/18/98)

1927        Aug 7, The Peace Bridge between the United States and Canada was dedicated during ceremonies attended by the Prince of Wales, Canadian PM William Lyon Mackenzie King and US Vice President Charles Dawes.
    (AP, 8/7/07)

1927        Nov 12, Canada was admitted to the League of Nations.
    (HN, 11/12/98)

1927        Thomas Barnett, a natural history enthusiast, founded the Niagara Falls Museum in an old brewery. Its Egyptian collection was sold in 1999 to Georgia’s Emory Univ.
    (AM, 9/01, p.23)

1927        William Wrigley, gum magnate, staged a swimming race between Catalina Island and the California coast, which measured over 20 miles. George Young (17) of Canada won.
    (WSJ, 4/18/08, p.W4)

1928        Mar 31, Gordie Howe, NHL right wing (Detroit Redwings), was born in Floral, Sask., Canada.
    (MC, 3/31/02)

1928        May 4, Maynard Ferguson, jazz trumpeter (Roulette), was born in Verdun, Quebec.
    (MC, 5/4/02)

1928        Jun 3, Commander Amelia Earhart departed with pilot Bill Stultz from Boston Harbor to Halifax, Nova Scotia, and then to Trepassey, Newfoundland. From there on June 17 they embarked on a trans-Atlantic flight from Newfoundland to the British Isles.
    (AP, 6/17/97)(HNQ, 3/8/02)(ON, 12/07, p.8)

1928        Jun 17, Amelia Earhart embarked on a trans-Atlantic flight from Newfoundland to Ireland as a passenger. They landed the next day in Wales
    (AP, 6/17/97)(ON, 12/07, p.9)

1928        Aug 7, Amazing Randi (James Randi), skeptic magician (Nova), was born in Toronto, Ontario.
    (MC, 8/7/02)

1928        Dec 20, 1st international dogsled mail left Minot, Maine, for Montreal.
    (MC, 12/20/01)

1928-1972    The Alberta Sterilization Act caused over 2,000 Albertans to be sterilized in order to prevent the mentally handicapped from passing on potentially defective genes. In 1998 the government agreed to compensate nearly 500 people who were sterilized without their consent.
    (SFC, 6/6/98, p.A11)

1929        Jan 2, The United States and Canada reached agreement on joint action to preserve Niagara Falls.
    (AP, 1/2/98)

1929        Mar 22, A US Coast Guard vessel sank a Canadian schooner suspected of carrying liquor.
    (MC, 3/22/02)

1929        Jun 7, John Turner, (L) 17th Canadian PM (1984), was born in Richmond, England.
    (SC, 6/7/02)

1929        Nov 11, The Ambassador Bridge, linking Detroit, Michigan, to Windsor, Ontario, Canada, was completed and opened for traffic 4 days later. Financier Joseph Bower led the project which became the longest suspension bridge in the world, exceeding by 100 feet the Philadelphia-Camden Bridge completed in 1926.

1929        Dec 13, Christopher Plummer, actor (Sound of Music, Doll's House), was born in Toronto.
    (MC, 12/13/01)

1929        Dec 31, Guy Lombardo and his Royal Canadians played "Auld Lang Syne" as a New Year’s Eve song for the first time. Scottish poet Robert Burns is credited with writing the song, although a similar poem by Robert Ayton (1570-1638), not to mention even older folk songs, use the same phrase, and may well have inspired Burns. The literal translation means "old long since" which less literally meant "days gone by."
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Auld_Lang_Syne)(WSJ, 12/29/06, p.W10)

1929        The pilot of a Fokker C.IV crashed in Vancouver, Canada, during an attempt to fly nonstop from Seattle to Tokyo. The 1923 plane became a tourist attraction, then burned and ended up in Maine, where it was restored for the Owls Head Transportation Museum.
    (SFC, 9/13/07, p.E3)

1930        Jul 25, Maureen Forrester, contralto (Resurrection Symphony), was born in Montreal, Canada.
    (SC, 7/25/02)

1930        Jul 29, The US Coast Guard towed the Canadian rum-runner Ray Roberts into SF with a cargo of 1,050 cases of whiskey.
    (SFC, 7/29/05, p.F7)

1930s-1950s    Maurice Duplessis served as the autocratic premier of Quebec.
    (SFC, 3/5/99, p.D2)

1931        Jan 27, Mordecai Richler (d.2001), Montreal author, (Apprenticeship of Duddy Kravitz), was born.
    (MC, 1/27/02)

1931        Jun 7, Lang Jeffries, actor (Skip-Rescue 8), was born in Ontario, Canada.
    (SC, 6/7/02)

1931        Jul 2, Robert Ito, actor (Sam-Quincy ME), was born in Vancouver, BC.
    (SC, 7/2/02)

1931        Jul 10, Alice Munro, Canadian writer (Open Secrets, Friend of my Youth), was born.
    (HN, 7/10/01)

1931        Nov 12, Maple Leaf Gardens opened in Toronto, Ontario, Canada as the new home of the Maple Leafs of the National Hockey League.
    (MC, 11/12/01)

1931        Dec 11, The Statute of Westminster recast the British Empire as a Commonwealth of Nations.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Statute_of_Westminster_1931)(Econ, 8/2/14, p.45)

1931        Saskatchewan was the 3rd most populous province in Canada, but then the depression and drought ushered in 8 decades of decline.
    (Econ, 6/7/08, p.51)

1932        May 20, Amelia Earhart took off from Newfoundland to become the first woman to fly solo across the Atlantic. Because of weather and equipment problems, Earhart set down in Northern Ireland after 13 ½ hours instead of her intended destination, France.
    (HFA, '96, p.30)(HN, 5/20/01)(AP, 5/20/07)(ON, 12/07, p.9)

1932        Jul 18, The United States and Canada signed a treaty to develop the St. Lawrence Seaway.
    (AP, 7/18/97)

1933        Dec 21, Newfoundland reverted to being a crown colony.
    (MC, 12/21/01)

1933        Wilf Carter (aka Montana Slim, 1905-1996), Canadian singer, had his songs "Swiss Moonlight Lullaby" and "The Capture of Albert Johnson" released by RCA Victor.
    (SFC, 12/11/96, p.A24)

1934        Jan 11, John Chretien was born.
    (WP, 6/29/96, p.A20)

1934        Apr 11, Mark Strand (b.1934), Canadian poet, was born. He became the fourth national poet laureate in 1990, and received dozens of angry letters when he announced that he would not write any poems for national public figures, even if the president's dog died. "Poetry is about slowing down. You sit and you read something, you read it again, and it reveals a little bit more, and things come to light you never could have predicted."

1934        May 28, The Dionne quintuplets -- Annette, Cecile, Emilie, Marie and Yvonne -- were born to Elzire Dionne at the family farm in Ontario, Canada. The were children removed from their parents by the Ontario government and put on public display, before paying customers, at a theme-like-park called Quintland. In 1998 3 surviving sisters accepted a $2.8 million settlement from the Ontario government.
    (AP, 5/28/97)

1935        Mar 16, John J.R. Macleod (58), Scottish-Canadian physiologist (Nobel 1923), died.
    (MC, 3/16/02)

1935        Apr 2, Sharon Acker, actress (Della Street-Perry Mason 1973), was born in Toronto, Canada.
    (MC, 4/2/02)

1935        Jul 17, Donald Sutherland, actor (M*A*S*H, Body Snatchers), was born in Saint John, New Brunswick.

1935        John Buchan (1875-1940), Scottish novelist and Unionist politician, became Governor General of Canada and was created Baron Tweedsmuir. Canadian PM William Lyon Mackenzie King had wanted him to go to Canada as a commoner, but King George V insisted on being represented by a peer.

1935        Canada’s wheat growers set up a state-run, but voluntary body, to market their crops collectively and get better prices. In 1943 the Canadian Wheat Board (CWB) became compulsory.
    (Econ, 7/30/05, p.59)

1936        Jan 14, American explorer Lincoln Ellsworth and Canadian pilot Herbert Hollick-Kenyon were rescued by the research ship Discovery II. The pair had made the first flight across Antarctica, 2,300 miles from the Weddell Sea to the Ross Sea, landed when their plane's engine faltered, and waited in the previously constructed shelter at Little America for a month to be picked up. After his earlier attempts to cross Antarctica failed, Ellsworth set out with Hollick-Kenyon in the monoplane Polar Star and succeeded. Part of the area that Ellsworth and Hollick-Kenyon flew over in 1935 has been named the Ellsworth Highlands.
    (HNPD, 1/14/99)

1936        The Canadian Broadcasting Corp. (CBC) was founded.
    (Econ, 6/8/13, p.42)

1937        Jun 29, Joseph-Armand Bombardier received notification that the Canadian government had granted his patent request for his snowmobile (une autoneige).
    (ON, 4/03, p.6)

1937        “Bill" Griffith P. Taylor, an Australian-Canadian, built his automatic block setting crane: the “Meccano Robot Gargantua." An article describing the crane was published in the March 1938 issue of Meccano Magazine.
1937        Americans Robert H. Bates and Bradford Washburn reached the summit of Mount Lucania in Canada’s Yukon Territory. At this time Lucania was the highest unscaled peak in North America. They were forced by weather to hike some 100 miles for their return. Bates had joined Washburn in 1935 to map the Yukon Territory for the National Geographic Society.  
    (WSJ, 9/29/07, p.A6)

1938        Aug 18, President Roosevelt dedicated the Thousand Islands Bridge connecting the United States and Canada.
    (AP, 8/18/97)

1938        Nov 17, Gordon Lightfoot, folksinger (Sundown), was born in Ontario, Canada.
    (MC, 11/17/01)

1938        William Lyon Mackenzie King served as prime minister and suffered from arthritis.
    (G&M, 7/30/97, p.A24)

1938        Prime Minister Mackenzie invited Scottish documentarian John Grierson to assess the Canadian film business.
    (WSJ, 1/13/00, p.A20)

1939        Mar 7, Guy Lombardo and Royal Canadians made the 1st recording of "Auld Lang Syne."
    (MC, 3/7/02)

1939        May 17, Britain's King George VI and Queen Elizabeth arrived in Quebec on the first visit to Canada by reigning British sovereigns.
    (AP, 5/17/99)

1938        May 26, Teresa Stratas, [Anastasia Stratakis], soprano (Salome), was born in Toronto.
    (MC, 5/26/02)

1938        Aug 18, President Roosevelt and Canadian PM William Lyon Mackenzie King dedicated the Thousand Islands Bridge connecting the United States and Canada.
    (AP, 8/18/07)

1939        Jun 4, During what became known as the "Voyage of the Damned," the SS St. Louis, carrying 907 Jewish refugees from Germany, was turned away from the Florida coast. Also denied permission to dock in Canada and Cuba, the ship eventually returned to Europe. The passengers were divided among England, France, Belgium and Holland and a number of the refugees later died in Nazi concentration camps. By 2003 efforts to track their fates identified 935 out of the 937 passengers. Some 260 ended in Nazi killing centers.
    (AP, 6/4/99)(SFC, 10/4/99, p.D3)(SSFC, 12/7/03, Par p.5)(Econ, 6/24/06, p.44)

1939        Sep 10, Canada declared war on Nazi Germany.
    (AP, 9/10/97)

1939        Dec 23, The first Canadian troops arrived in Britain.
    (HN, 12/23/98)

1939        The National Film Board (NFB) was formed as a successor to the Canadian Government Motion Picture Bureau.
    (WSJ, 1/13/00, p.A20)

1940        May 14, Emma Goldman, anarchist revolutionary, author (Living My Life), died in Toronto and was buried in Chicago. In 1974 Carol Bolt wrote a play on the formative years of Emma titled: "Red Emma: Queen of the Anarchists." In 1995 Ms. Bolt wrote a libretto based on the play for an opera with music by Gary Kulesha. In 1961 Richard Drinnon authored "Rebel In Paradise: A Biography of Emma Goldman." In 1971 Alex Shulman authored "To the Barricades: The Anarchist Life of Emma Goldman."
    (WSJ, 12/11/95, p.A-1)(ON, 4/00, p.5)(MC, 5/14/02)

1940        Jun 10, Italy declared war on France and Britain; Canada declared war on Italy.
    (AP, 6/10/97)

1940        Jun 11, Princess Juliana of the Netherlands arrived in Canada as an exile.
    (AP, 6/11/03)

1940        Aug 17, President Roosevelt and Canadian Prime Minister William Mackenzie King met in Ogdensburg, N.Y., where they agreed to set up a joint defense commission.
    (AP, 8/17/97)

1940        Herbert Yardley, American cryptographer, was hired to help set up Canada’s wartime code-breaking operation.
    (Econ, 12/19/15, p.41)

1940-1959    During this period in Quebec thousands of poor or illegitimate children were falsely labeled as mentally deficient and sent to church-run psychiatric institutions under the government of Maurice Duplessis. More federal funds were thus secured for their assistance. In 2001 some 1000 surviving victims accepted a government offer of $16,650 each in compensation for mistreatment.
    (SFC, 7/2/01, p.B1)

1941        Jan 3, Canada & US acquired air bases in Newfoundland with a 99 year lease.
    (MC, 1/3/02)

1941        Aug 2, Buffy Sainte-Marie, folksinger and songwriter, was born in Saskatchewan, Canada.

1941        Aug 9, US President Franklin Roosevelt and PM Winston Churchill met at Placentia Bay, Newfoundland. Their meeting produced the August 14 Atlantic Charter, an agreement between the two countries on war aims, even though the US was still a neutral country.

1941        Dec 25, Free French occupied the French Islands of St. Pierre and Miquelon off the Canadian coast.
    (HN, 12/25/98)
1941        Dec 25, Japan announced the surrender of the British-Canadian garrison at Hong Kong. Major John Crawford (d.1997) and some 1,975 Canadian soldiers were captured and incarcerated at the Sham Shui Po prison camp at Kowloon for 44 months.
    (G&M, 7/30/97, p.A24)(HN, 12/25/02)(AP, 12/25/07)

1941        Jul 30, Paul Anka, singer and song-writer, was born in Ottawa. He later composed the song "My Way."
    (G&M, 7/30/97, p.A24)

1941        The NFB won its first Oscar for the film "Churchill's Island."
    (WSJ, 1/13/00, p.A20)

1942        Mar 3, Canada's Avro Lancaster military plane made its 1st combat flight.
    (SC, 3/3/02)

1942        Jul 1, Genevieve Bujold, actress (King of Hearts, Choose Me, Coma), was born in Montreal.
    (MC, 7/1/02)

1942        Jul 5, Ian Fleming graduated from a training school for spies in Canada.
    (MC, 7/5/02)

1942        Aug 19, About 5,000 Canadian and 2,000 British soldiers launched a disastrous raid against the Germans at Dieppe, France. Over 3,600 men perished in this battle. The information gathered from this landing was considered valuable for planning the successful Allied landings in Northern Africa, Sicily, and Normandy, France.  Brit. Col. Pat Porteous (d.2000) received a Victoria Cross for his valor in the attack which was aimed at gaining experience for the later D-Day invasion.
    (AP, 8/19/97)(HN, 8/19/98)(SFC, 10/16/00, p.A22)(MC, 8/19/02)

1942        Oct 1, At Frobisher Bay, Baffin Island, Canada, the US Air Force Crystal II Radar Base was established as part of the defensive DEW Line Project. The air base was closed in 1963. The site was renamed Iqaluit in 1987 and in 1999 became the capital city of the Inuit-run territory of Nunavut.
    (SSFC, 5/15/11, p.C3)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Frobisher_Bay_Air_Base)

1942        Nov 2, An amphibious aircraft foundered in rough weather, in the waters surrounding what is now the Mingan Archipelago National Park Reserve in the eastern Gulf of Saint Lawrence. The plane was based at Presqu'Ile, Maine, in the US, and serviced an airfield in the village of Longue-Pointe-de-Mingan, Quebec. Four of the crew escaped the flooding plane and were rescued by local fishermen rowing out from shore in open boats in rough seas. Five others perished, trapped inside. In 1941 and 1942, the US had constructed a series of airfields in Eastern Canada to ferry aircraft to Allied air forces in Northern Europe, as part of the so-called "Crimson Route." Wreckage of the downed plane was found in 2009.
    (AFP, 8/7/09)

1942        Nov 21, The Alaska-Canadian Highway across Canada was formally opened.
    (HFA, '96, p.42)(AP, 11/21/97)

1942        Dec 10, The Progressive Conservative Party of Canada was founded. The party had begun as the Conservative Party of Canada in 1867, becoming Canada's first governing party under Sir John A. Macdonald, In 2003 it was dissolved under PM Stephen Harper and merged into the Conservative party of Canada.

1942-1945    Some 22,000 Japanese-Canadians were interred during WW II. Their property was confiscated and sold to pay for the camps. At the end of the war they were not allowed to return to their former communities. The 1981 novel "Obasan" by Joy Kogawa was about their experiences.
    (SFC, 2/8/99, p.E1,3)

1943        Jan 13, The Canadian corvette Ville de Quebec rammed the German U-224 submarine, which sank in the Mediterranean Sea with 57 of its crew. German Lt. Wolf Danckworth was the only survivor. Years later Danckworth established contact with Canadian sailor Frank Arsenault, who was on the Ville de Quebec when it rammed the sub, and the two became good friends.
    (SFC, 12/25/10, p.C1)

1943        Mar 19, Airship Canadian Star was torpedoed and sank.
    (MC, 3/19/02)

1943        Nov 7, Joni Mitchell, singer, songwriter, was born as Roberta J. Anderson in Alberta, Canada.   

1943        J.T. McCurdy (1886-1947),  Canadian psychiatrist, authored "The Structure of Morale,"  an objective analysis of the nature of the psychological factor in war.

1944        Jun 6, The code name for the beach used by the Canadians for the D-day invasion of Normandy was Juno.
    (HNQ, 8/13/98)
1944        Jun 6, By the end of D-Day 156,000 Allied soldiers had come ashore on the Normandy beaches with losses of 2,500 men. By the end of the day, the Allies had established a tenuous beachhead that would lead to an offensive that pinned Adolf Hitler's Third Reich between two pincers--the Western Allies and the already advancing Soviets--accelerating the end of World War II. A million Allied troops, under the overall command of General Dwight D. Eisenhower, moved onto five Normandy beachheads in three weeks. Operations “Neptune" and “Overlord" put forces on the beaches and supplies aimed at the liberation of Europe and the conquest of Germany. Operation Overlord landed 400,000 Allied American, British, and Canadian troops on the beaches of Normandy, France. In addition, US and British airborne forces landed behind the German lines and US Army Rangers scaled the cliffs at Pointe de Hoc. More than 6,000 trucks of the Red Ball Express kept gasoline and other vital supplies rolling in as American troops and tanks pushed the Germans back toward their homeland.
    (SDUT, 6/6/97, p.B9)(HN, 6/6/98)(HNPD, 6/6/99)(ON, 2/08, p.12)

1944        Aug 4, A Halifax JP-276A took off on its final flight from the Italian city of Brindisi around 8 p.m., to drop weapons, ammunition and medical supplies for resistance fighters involved in the Warsaw Uprising against the Nazis. The plane was shot down by Poland's Nazis occupiers and crashed near the town of Dabrowa Tarnowska, in southern Poland. Remnants were recovered in 2006 and the remains of the crew, 5 Canadians and 2 Britons, were formally buried in 2007.
    (AP, 10/4/07)

1944        Sep 11, President Roosevelt and British PM Winston Churchill met in Canada at the second Quebec Conference.
    (AP, 9/11/97)

1944        Sep 12, The second Quebec Conference opened with President Roosevelt and British Prime Minister Winston Churchill in attendance.
    (AP, 9/12/06)

1944        Sep 27, Aimee Semple McPherson (b.1890), Canadian and US evangelist and faith healer, died at age 53.

1945        Apr 1, Canadian troop freed Doetinchem, Enschede, Borculo & Eibergen.
    (MC, 4/1/02)

1945        Apr 12, Canadian troops liberated the Nazi concentration camp at Westerbork, Neth.
    (MC, 4/12/02)

1945        Apr 15, British and Canadian troops liberated the Nazi concentration camp at Bergen-Belsen. It is a village in west Germany about 30 miles north of Hanover. About 40,000 people were liberated from the camp, although about 13,000 later died of illness. Overall, about 70,000 people died in Belsen.
    (AHD, p.122)(AP, 4/17/05)

1945        Apr 17, Canadian lead tanks roll into Apeldoorn, Netherlands, loudly cheered by relieved residents.

1945        Oct 23, Jackie Robinson signed a Montreal Royal contract.
    (MC, 10/23/01)

1945        Nov 12, Neil Percival Young, musician, singer and song writer, was born in Toronto. His rock groups later included "Buffalo Springfield," "Crosby, Stills, Nash and Young" and "Crazy Horse." In 2002 Jimmy McDonough authored: "Shakey: Neil Young’s Biography."
    (SSFC, 5/12/02, p.M1)

1945        Russian code clerk Igor Gouzenko defected to Canada and Elizabeth Bentley changed her role from Soviet courier to FBI informant. They helped the West gain an understanding of Soviet spy rings in North America.
    (WSJ, 9/22/99, p.A22)

1946        Feb 15, Royal Canadian mounted police arrested 22 as Soviet spies.
    (HN, 2/15/98)

1946        Apr 18, Jackie Robinson debuted as 2nd baseman for the Montreal Royals.
    (MC, 4/18/02)

1946        Oct 20, Anne Murray, country singer (Snowbird), was born in Springhill, Nova Scotia.
    (MC, 10/20/01)

1946        Nov 8, In Canada Viola Desmond (1914-1965) rejected racial discrimination by sitting in a whites-only section of a New Glasgow, Nova Scotia, movie theatre. She was arrested and fined. In 2010 she was granted a posthumous pardon, the first to be granted in Canada.
    (https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Viola_Desmond)(AP, 12/8/16)

1946        A dissenting Mormon sect from Utah set up a community practicing polygamy in Bountiful, BC, Canada. In 2009 2 leaders of the Bountiful commune appeared in court to answer criminal charges.
    (Econ, 1/24/09, p.44)       
1946        Ben Weider (d.2008 at 85) and his brother Joe, Canadian body builders, co-founded the International Brotherhood of Body Builders (IFBB). In 1968 they brought Austrian body builder Arnold Schwarzenegger to California.
    (SSFC, 10/19/08, p.B6)
1946        Lincoln Toys began operating in Walkerville, Ont., and continued to 1958.
    (SFC, 10/1/08, p.G6)

1947        Jan 1, Canada’s Citizenship Act of this year became effective. It said that citizens living outside Canada on their 24th birthday would automatically lose their citizenship unless they filled out a form saying they wished to keep it. The law was amended in 1977 and raised the age factor to 28.
    (Econ, 2/3/07, p.39)(www.theshipslist.com/Forms/citizenship.htm)

1947        William Ormond Mitchell (d.1998 at 83) published his first novel "Who Has Seen the Wind." It was about a boy on the prairies who comes to grips with birth, death, justice and faith.
    (SFC, 2/28/98, p.A19)
1947        Canada’s Montreal mayor-to-be Jean Drapeau declared food trucks to be unsanitary and undignified. The Montreal ban on food trucks ended in 2013.
    (SSFC, 6/23/13, p.A4)

1948        Jun 3, Newfoundland and Labrador voted by a slim margin to relinquish status as a British colony and to become the 10th province of Canada.
    (Econ, 10/13/07, p.42)(www.heritage.nf.ca/law/referendums.html)

1948        Nov 15, William Lyon Mackenzie King retired as prime minister of Canada after 21 years; he was succeeded by Louis St. Laurent.
    (AP, 11/15/98)

1948        In Canada the Giant Mine in Yellowknife, Northwest Territories, opened for the production of gold. Canada took over the mine in 1999 after it went bankrupt.
    (Econ, 9/27/14, p.38)

1949        Mar 31, Newfoundland, later called Newfoundland and Labrador, left the UK and entered confederation as Canada's 10th province. In 1998 Wayne Johnston authored “The Colony of Unrequited Dreams," a novel about postconfederation Newfoundland and its 1st premier, Joe Smallwood. In 2000 Johnston authored “Baltimore’s Mansion," a personal memoir of Newfoundland.
    (SFEC, 6/25/00, BR p.6)(AP, 3/31/08)

1949        Apr 4, The (NATO) North Atlantic Treaty Organization pact was signed by the US, Great Britain, France, Belgium, the Netherlands, Luxembourg, Italy, Portugal, Denmark, Iceland, Norway and Canada. It provided for mutual defense against aggression and for close military cooperation.
    (www.nato.int/cps/en/natolive/official_texts_17120.htm)(TOH, 1982, p.1949)

1949        Sep 17, More than 130 people died when fire gutted the Canadian passenger steamer Noronic at a pier in Toronto.
    (AP, 9/17/99)

1949        Nov 28, Victor Ostrovsky, Canadian-Israeli, Mossad agent (By Way of Deception), was born.
    (MC, 11/28/01)

1950        Feb 13, A US Air Force B-36 crashed near the coast of northern British Columbia during a simulated nuclear attack on San Francisco. 12 of 17 men on board survived. A Mark 4 bomb, which lacked a plutonium core needed for a nuclear blast, was dropped over the ocean before the plane crashed.
    (SFC, 5/25/12, p.A16)(www.air-and-space.com/b-36%20wrecks.htm#44-92075)

1950        Jun 2, Joanna Gleason, actress (Morgan-Hello Larry), was born in Toronto, Canada.
    (SC, 6/2/02)

1950        Sep 26, Because of forest fire in British Columbia a blue moon appeared in England.
    (MC, 9/26/01)

1950        Oct 31, John Candy, comedian (SCTV, Uncle Buck), was born in Ontario, Canada.
    (MC, 10/31/01)

1950        Ed McCurdy (d.2000 at 81), singer and songwriter, released his first folk album: "Ed McCurdy Sings Songs of the Canadian Maritimes."
    (SFC, 4/3/00, p.B2)

1950        Canada stopped discharging refinery waste from its Ottawa mint into the Ottawa River.
    (WSJ, 9/25/96, p.C19)

1950        There was a major flood on the Red River that forced 25% of the residents of Winnipeg, Manitoba, from their homes.
    (SFC, 4/30/97, p.A11)

1950        Martha Matilda Harper (b.1857), Canadian-born hair-care businesswoman, died. She was probably the 1st person to perfect the franchise system of business organization.
    (WSJ, 4/23/02, p.D7)(WSJ, 4/22/03, D7)

1952        Sep 6, Canadian television broadcasting began in Montreal.
    (AP, 9/6/97)

1952        Oct 31, The Stratford Shakespearean Festival of Canada was incorporated as a legal entity. It was organized by Tom Patterson. The 1st performance opened Jul 13, 1953.
    (WSJ, 7/18/02, p.D10)

1952        Nov 19, Scandinavian Airlines opened a commercial route from Canada to Europe.
    (HN, 11/19/98)

1952        The Canadian Government formed the Crown corporation Atomic Energy of Canada Limited, or AECL, from precursor organizations dating back to the early 1940s.
    (www.science.uwaterloo.ca/~cchieh/cact/nuctek/canhistory.html)(Econ, 6/20/09, p.38)

1953        Mar 3, Canadian Comet crashed at Karachi, 11 killed.
    (SC, 3/3/02)

1953        Jul 13, The 1st Shakespeare Festival in Stratford, Ontario, organized by Tom Patterson, opened with Alec Guiness in Richard III.
    (WSJ, 7/18/02, p.D10)

1953        Aug, Canadian officials took 34 Inuit from Port Harrison (later known as Inukjuak) in Hudson Bay and put them on a boat north. One month and 1,390 miles later, the group was split in two and deposited on two remote islands, Resolute Bay and Grise Fiord. The Inuit later said the government used them to assert Canadian sovereignty in the Arctic at a time when Ottawa was worried about excessive US influence in the region.
    (Reuters, 4/20/06)

1953        Marilyn Monroe stayed at the Tekarra Lodge in Jasper, Alberta, Canada, while filming “River of No Return" (1954). She had been asked to leave the Jasper Park Lodge for dressing inappropriately.
    (SSFC, 5/19/13, p.N7)

1954        Mar 30, Canada's first subway line opened in Toronto.
    (CFA, '96, p.42) (HN, 3/30/98)

1954        Aug 4, A uranium rush began in Saskatchewan, Canada.
    (MC, 8/4/02)

1954        Oct 15, Hurricane Hazel struck US and Canada and 348 people died. 81 people were killed in Ontario where damages were estimated at $24 million.
    (AP, 10/16/04)   

1954        Quebec celebrated its first Winter Carnival.
    (SFEC, 1/10/99, p.T5)

1954        Jean Drapeau (d.1999 at 83) took office as mayor of Montreal. He spent 29 of the next 32 years as mayor.
    (SFC, 8/17/99, p.C2)

1955        Jan 7, The opening of the Canadian Parliament in Ottawa was televised for the first time.
    (AP, 1/7/05)

1955        Glenn Gould, Canadian pianist, recorded the "Goldberg Variations" by Bach. The recording was released in 1956. He abandoned the concert hall in 1964.
    (SFEC, 5/25/97, p.C15)(WSJ, 10/7/99, p.A28)

1956        Sep 24, The first transatlantic telephone cable system from Newfoundland to Scotland began operation.
    (HN, 9/24/98)(MC, 9/24/01)

1956        Nov 2, The UN passed an American resolution, 64 to 5, for a ceasefire at the Suez Canal in Egypt. The General Assembly took up a Canadian suggestion for an emergency force to monitor the ceasefire. The UN Emergency Force (UNEF) became the first “blue hat" UN peacekeepers.
    (Econ, 7/29/06, p.24)(www.un.org/en/peacekeeping/missions/past/unefi.htm)

1956        In Edmonton, Canada, John Etter Clark, a provincial politician who served as a member of the Legislative Assembly of Alberta for four years, killed his wife, son, three daughters and an employee of their family farm before taking his own life.
    (AP, 12/31/14)
1956        Route 199 knitted together the 7 main Iles-de-la-Madeleine off Quebec.
    (SSFC, 6/2/02, p.C6)
1956        Canadian Les Dawes (d.2002) produced his first La Dawri car, a fiberglass body on a Ford chassis. He moved to Southern California where his La Dawri Coachcraft produced some 800 car kits before it folded in the late 1960s.
    (SSFC, 9/30/07, p.B1)

1957        Jun 10, John Diefenbaker, Progressive Conservative Party, was elected PM of Canada. He served until 1963.
    (CFA, '96, p.81)(HN, 9/18/98)(MC, 6/10/02)

1957        Aug 1, The United States and Canada reached agreement to create the North American Air Defense Command (NORAD).
    (AP, 8/1/97)

1957        Oct 14, Lester Bowles Pearson (1897-1972, former president of the UN General Assembly (1952-1953) and later Canadian PM (1963-1968) won the Nobel Peace Prize for his role in defusing the Suez crisis.

1957        Nov 3, Canada fired up the National Research Universal (NRU) nuclear reactor near Ottawa. The 200 MWt reactor began producing medical and industrial radioisotopes, including molybdenum-99, a critical isotope used for medical diagnoses.
    (Econ, 6/20/09, p.38)(www.aecl.ca/Science/RR/History.htm)

1957        A group of scientists and supporters from around the world gathered in Pugwash, Nova Scotia, to call attention to the risks of nuclear war. In 1995 scientists in London had issued a manifesto declaring that researchers must take responsibility for their creations, such as the atomic bomb. The manifesto served as the philosophical origin for the Pugwash Conference.
    (WSJ, 10/16/95, p. A-15)(SFC, 9/2/05, p.B5)

1958        Mar 25, Canada’s era of supersonic flight began when pilot Jan Zurakowski took off from Malton Airport near Toronto in an Avro CF-105 Arrow for a 35-minute maiden flight. Less than a month later, Zurakowski flew the Arrow at Mach 1.5 at an altitude of 50,000 feet. In spite of the aircraft’s early promise, the Canadian government scrapped the project before the Arrow could be put into production.
    (HN, 3/21/99)

1958        May 12, The United States and Canada signed an agreement to create the North American Air Defense Command (later the North American Aerospace Defense Command, or NORAD for short).
    (AP, 5/12/08)

1958        May 19, The United States and Canada formally established the North American Air Defense Command (NORAD).
    (AP, 5/19/97)(Econ, 3/5/05, p.38)

1959        Jun 26, President Eisenhower joined Britain's Queen Elizabeth II in ceremonies officially opening the St. Lawrence Seaway.
    (CFA, '96, p.48)(AP, 6/26/97)

1958        Jul 8, President Eisenhower began a visit to Canada, where he conferred with Prime Minister John Diefenbaker and addressed the Canadian Parliament.
    (AP, 7/8/08)

1959        Steven Truscott (14) was convicted for the rape and strangling death of 12-year-old school friend Lynne Harper, becoming Canada's youngest death-row inmate. His sentence was commuted to life in prison, and he was quietly released after 10 years behind bars. Truscott always insisted he was innocent and sought complete exoneration in 2007. On Aug 28, 2007 he was acquitted by the Ontario Court of Appeal.
    (Reuters, 1/31/07)(Reuters, 8/28/07)

1959        Canadian Joseph-Armand Bombardier introduced the Ski-Doo snowmobile.
    (ON, 4/03, p.6)

1960        Oct 19, Canada and the United States agreed to undertake a joint Columbia River project to provide hydroelectric power and flood control.
    (HN, 10/19/98)

1960s        Manitoba’s Premier Duff Roblin urged the building of a floodway around Winnipeg to reduce water levels during major flooding.
    (SFC, 4/30/97, p.A11)

1960-1970    Louis J. Robichaud (1926-2005) served as the Liberal premier of New Brunswick, Canada.
    (CP, 1/11/05)

1961        Jan 17, US Pres. Dwight Eisenhower and Canada’s PM John Diefenbaker signed a treaty to jointly control the Columbia River. The treaty was implemented in 1964.
    (Econ, 6/7/14, p.42)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Columbia_River_Treaty)

1961        Jan 26, Wayne Gretzky, NHL great scorer (Oiler, King, Rangers), was born in Brantford, Ont.
    (MC, 1/26/02)

1961        Aug 26, The official International Hockey Hall of Fame opened in Toronto.
    (AP, 8/26/97)

1961        In Canada the New Democratic party (NDP) was formed as an uneasy alliance of prairie populists and urban trade unionists.
    (Econ, 8/27/11, p.31)

1961        Isadore Sharp opened the 1st Four Seasons Hotel in Toronto, Canada. In 2006 he joined with partners in a $3.7 billion buyout offer to take the company private. In 2007 Sharp unloaded all but a 5% stake when the company went private. By 2009 the chain had 83 hotels in 35 countries. In 2009 he and Alan Philips authored “Four Seasons: The Story of a Business Philosophy."
    (SFC, 11/7/06, p.C3)(WSJ, 4/28/09, p.A11)

1962        Marshall McLuhan (1911-1980), Canadian educator, authored “The Gutenberg Galaxy: The Making of Typographic Man." In it he analyzes the effects of mass media, especially the printing press, on European culture and human consciousness.

1962        In Ontario, Canada, the town of Niagara-on-the-Lake began its Shaw festival, producing plays written during George Bernard Shaw’s lifetime, i.e. 1856-1950.
    (WSJ, 8/29/97, p.A9)

1963        Feb 4, In Canada's Yukon territory a small plane piloted by Ralph Flores crashed shortly after takeoff from Whitehorse. The pilot and passenger Helen Klaben (1941-2018) survived the crash and endured 49 days of subzero temperatures before they were rescued.
    (SFC, 12/13/18, p.C5)

1964        Feb 18, Joseph-Armand Bombardier (b.1907), inventor of the snowmobile, died in Sherbrooke, Quebec, Canada.
    (ON, 4/03, p.6)

1964        Apr, Tim Horton (1930-1974), Canadian hockey player, and Jim Charade opened the first Tim Hortons franchise, a coffee and donut shop.
    (http://tinyurl.com/l57srxu)(Econ, 12/13/14, p.38)

1964        May 5, Separatists rioted in Quebec.
    (MC, 5/5/02)

1964        Dec 15, Canada's House of Commons approved dropping the "Red Ensign" flag in favor of a new design.
    (AP, 12/15/97)

1964        Jane Rule (1931-2007), American-born Canadian writer, authored her novel, “Desert of the Heart." It later became recognized as a landmark work of lesbian fiction.
    (SFC, 12/10/07, p.C5)

1964        Glenn Gould, Canadian concert pianist, abandoned public performances and devoted himself to recording, writing and making documentaries.
    (WSJ, 10/7/99, p.A28)

1965        Feb 15, Canada replaced the Union Jack flag with the Maple Leaf in ceremonies in Ottawa.
    (CFA, '96, p.40)(HN, 2/15/98)(AP, 2/15/98)(440 Int’l., 2/15/99)

1965        Mar 1, Gas explosion killed 28 in apartment complex at La Salle, Quebec, Canada.
    (SC, 3/1/02)

1965        Apr 1, Henry D.G. Crerar (b.1888), Canadian general and the country's "leading field commander" in World War II, died.

1965        Nov 9, A major power failure hit the East Coast of the US. New York City experienced a major blackout just after 5:30 PM. In the great Northeast blackout several US states and parts of Canada were hit by a series of power failures lasting up to 13 1/2 hours. Nine Northeastern states and parts of Canada went dark in the worst power failure in history, when a switch at a station near Niagara Falls failed.
    (HFA, '96,p.42)(SFE,10/1/95, Z1, p.10)(AP, 11/9/97)(HN, 11/9/98)

1965        Canada required its senators to step down at age 75.
    (Econ, 1/2/10, p.30)

1966        Mar 4, Canadian Pacific airliner exploded on landing in Tokyo and 64 died.
    (SC, 3/4/02)

1966        Toronto, Canada, added an east-west line to its u-shaped north-south track subway system.
    (Econ, 1/14/17, p.30)

1966-1967    The US military tested Agent Orange, Agent Purple and several other powerful defoliants on a small section of the base in Gagetown, New Brunswick, Canada, over seven days in 1966 and 1967.
    (AP, 9/13/07)

1967        Apr 27, Expo '67 was officially opened in Montreal by Canadian Prime Minister Lester B. Pearson. The urban theme park, La Ronde, was built on the Ile Sainte-Helene for the exposition and continues on to today. The Expo featured the big-screen, multi-projector film Polar Life. This led to the formation of Multiscreen Corporation and eventually IMAX.
    (Hem., 7/95, p.129)(Hem., 3/97, p.81)(AP, 4/27/97)

1967        Jul 24, French President Charles de Gaulle stirred controversy during a visit to Montreal, Canada, when he declared, ''Vive le Quebec libre!'' (Long live free Quebec!).
    (AP, 7/24/07)

1967        Oct 29, Expo 67 in Montreal closed after six months.
    (AP, 10/29/07)

1967        Charles Plunket Bourchier Taylor (1935-1997), Beijing correspondent for the Globe & Mail, published "Reporter in Red China."
    (G&M, 7/31/97, p.A20)
1967        The play "Fortune and Men’s Eyes" by John Herbert (d.2001 at 75), Canadian playwright, was produced off Broadway. It provided a glimpse of sexual struggles behind prison doors.
    (SFC, 6/29/01, p.D5)
1967        The government of Canada took over the coal mines of Cape Breton, Nova Scotia. In the 1970s the government lured some 1,800 new workers to the mines to secure a cheap source of energy for Nova Scotia. In 1999 the government attempted to end the costly public venture but faced strikes by miners who claimed inadequate severance packages.
    (WSJ, 1/12/00, p.A18)
1967        Canada revised its immigration policy. A new point system removed discrimination and prejudice from the process of choosing which immigrants to let in. It rewarded education, fluency in English or French, and work experience.
    (SFC, 11/29/96, p.A29)(Econ, 1/10/15, p.31)
1967        Toronto's first Caribbean festival began as a contribution from its West Indian community to Canada's 100th anniversary of Confederation and coinciding with Expo '67 celebrations in Montreal.
    (Reuters, 8/3/02)
1967        Alberta, Canada, began to develop its oil sands. Fort McMurray, population 4,000, grew to 65,000 residents by 2007, including some 200 families from Venezuela.
    (WSJ, 6/26/07, p.A12)
1967        McDonald's opened its first restaurant outside the US in Canada.
    (WSJ, 5/13/99, p.B13)

1968        Apr 20, Pierre Elliott Trudeau was sworn in as Canada’s 15th Prime Minister. He succeeded Lester B. Pierson and continued in office to 1979.
    (CFA, '96, p.81)(AP, 4/20/97)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pierre_Trudeau)

1968        Jun 25, The Canadian federal election was held to elect members of the Canadian House of Commons of the 28th Parliament of Canada. The Liberal Party won a majority government under its new leader, PM Pierre Trudeau.

1968        Jun 24, The St. Jean Baptiste parade in Montreal, an annual celebration of Quebec nationalism, erupted in violence.
    (WSJ, 10/3/00, p.A26)

1968        Jun 25, The Canadian federal election was held to elect members of the Canadian House of Commons of the 28th Parliament of Canada. The Liberal Party won a majority government under its new leader, PM Pierre Trudeau.

1968        Jun, In Quebec, Canada, the summertime Festival d’Ete de Quebec was begun.

1968        Dec 26, A Palestinian terrorist attack in Athens on an Israeli civilian airliner killed one person. Mahmoud Mohammad (25) and Maher Suleiman (19) were later captured by Greek officials, In 1970, a Greek court convicted Mahmoud Mohammad for his role in the attack. In 1987 Mahmoud Mohammed Issa Mohammed entered Canada, where he was ordered to be deported in 1988. In 2007 he was still in Canada after some 30 appeals and reviews.
    (http://tinyurl.com/35olct)(Econ, 9/15/07, p.48)(www.skyjack.co.il/chronology.htm)

1968        Pierre Trudeau, PM of Canada, published an admiring book about Mao Tse-Tung’s China.
    (WSJ, 10/3/00, p.A26)
1968        Canada renamed its air and sea forces as the Maritime and Ari Commands. In 2011 the naming reverted to the Royal Canadian Navy and Royal Canadian Air Force. The Land Force again became the Canadian Army.
    (Econ, 8/20/11, p.38)

1969        Apr 14, The first major league baseball game in Canada was played in Montreal. The expansion Montreal Expos hosted their first game north of the border, marking the first time a regular season major league game is played outside of the US. The Expos won their debut at Jarry Park, edging the St. Louis Cardinals, 8-7.
    (HN, 4/14/98)(www.baseball-reference.com/bullpen/1969_Expos)

1969         May 11, Canada’s CBC public broadcaster announced it will no longer accept advertising from tobacco companies.

1969        May 14, Abortion and contraception was legalized in Canada.
    (MC, 5/14/02)

1969        May 31, John Lennon and Yoko Ono recorded "Give Peace a Chance" during their “Bed-In" at the Queen Elizabeth’s Hotel in Montreal.

1969        Jul 7, Canada's House of Commons gave final approval to a measure making the French language equal to English throughout the national government.
    (AP, 7/7/97)

1969        Sep 13, John Lennon and his wife, Yoko Ono, presented the Plastic Ono Band in concert for the first time at the Toronto Peace Festival (Lennon's first in four years). The 1st hit by the new group, "Give Peace a Chance," made it to number 14 on the charts.

1969        Nov 23, Jonathan Seet, Canadian singer, was born in Singapore. Seet was born to a Singaporean father and an Irish mother who emigrated to Canada shortly after he was born.

1969        Neil Young (b.1945, Canadian singer and songwriter, produced his solo album with the title track "Everybody Knows This Is Nowhere."
    (WSJ, 4/28/99, p.A16)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Neil_Young)
1969        Ben Metcalfe (d.2003 at 83) coordinated the initial campaigns of the Winnipeg-based Don't Make a Wave Committee (later Greenpeace) against planned nuclear tests in the Aleutian Islands.
    (SSFC, 10/19/03, p.A31)
1969        Dr. Henri Morgentaler (1923-2013) set up Canada's first independent abortion clinic in Montreal. Up to this time the procedure could only be performed in hospitals and was limited to cases when doctors deemed that continuation of a pregnancy could harm a woman.
    (Reuters, 5/29/13)
1969         In Saskatoon, Canada, David Milgaard (16) was convicted for the murder and rape of Gail Miller. He was in prison for 23 years until DNA tests proved that the crime was done by Larry Fisher, a multiple rapist. His story was later told by Peter Edwards and Joyce Milgaard, David's mother in the book "A Mother's Story."
    (SFC, 6/2/99, p.A10)

1970        May 12, Premier Robert Bourassa (1933-1996) began serving his first term as the Liberal Premier of the province of Quebec. This term ended in 1976. He then served a 2nd term from 1985-1994.
    (SFC, 10/3/96, p.C6)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Robert_Bourassa)

1970        Jun 1, The Canadian dollar was allowed to float.

1970        Oct 5, British trade commissioner James Richard Cross was kidnapped in Canada by militant Quebec separatists; he was released the following December.
    (AP, 10/5/00)

1970        Oct 10, In the October Crisis Quebec Provincial Labor Minister Pierre Laporte and the British trade commissioner James Cross were kidnapped by the left-wing, nationalist Front de Liberation du Quebec, Quebec Liberation Front (FLQ), a militant separatist group. Laporte's body was found about a week later. Mr. Cross was released but Mr. LaPorte was found dead strangled in the trunk of a car. The Canadian government refused to pay a ransom. Prime Minister Pierre Trudeau responded by suspending civil liberties in Quebec and invoking the War Measures Act, and sending over 1,000 troops to the French-Canadian province.
    (SFC, 10/3/96, p.C6)(SFC, 11/22/96, p.A20)(AP, 10/10/97)

1970        Oct 12, In Quebec, Canada, the "October Crises" continued. PM Pierre Trudeau imposed martial law in Quebec and sent troops into Montreal because of bombings and killings by the Quebec Liberation Front.
    (SFC, 10/3/96, p.C6)(SFC, 11/22/96, p.A20)(SFC,12/27/97, p.A12)

1970        Oct 13, Canada established diplomatic relations with China.

1970        Oct 17, Pierre Laporte (b.1921), the Quebec minister of labor, was found strangled to death 7 days after his kidnapping by the Quebec Liberation Front (FLQ).

1970        Oct 28, In Canada Gerald Regan (b.1928) became premier of Nova Scotia and continued to 1978. In 1995 charges were filed that he sexually assaulted 2 girls (14) in 1956 and another young woman (18) in 1969. He was tried in 1998 at age 70. He was acquitted by a jury as 19 other women came forward with charges of sexual assault.
    (SFC, 12/17/98, p.C9)(SFEC, 12/20/98, p.A35)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Gerald_Regan)

1970        The Don't Make a Wave Committee of Winnipeg, Canada, was renamed Greenpeace and Ben Metcalfe became the 1st chairman.
    (SSFC, 10/19/03, p.A31)

1970        West Kildonan, a suburb of Winnipeg, Canada, was incorporated into Winnipeg. Mayor Daniel Abraham Yanofsky (d.2000 at 74), a chess grandmaster, transferred to the City Council and served to 1986.
    (SFC, 3/11/00, p.A17)

1970        Canada’s government set aside the Pacific Rim National Park Reserve to protect the coastal environment.
    (SFEC, 10/8/00, p.T9)

1971        Mar 4, Canadian Prime Minister Pierre Elliott Trudeau (52) married Margaret Sinclair (22) in North Vancouver, B.C. They later divorced.
    (AP, 3/4/99)(SFC, 9/29/00, p.D7)

1971        May 18, The last victim of Wayne Boden (1948-2006), Canadian serial killer and rapist, was found. He earned the nickname "the Vampire Rapist" because he had the penchant of biting the breasts of his victims.

1971        Sep 15, A group of activists set sail on the Phyllis Cormack for Alaska from Vancouver, Canada, to stop a US nuclear weapons test in the Aleutian Islands. Panels reading Green and Peace dangled from the bridge. Bob Hunter (d.2005), one of the activists, became the 1st president of Greenpeace (1973-1977).
    (GQ, summer ‘96, p.18)(SFC, 4/30/97, p.A9)(Econ, 5/14/05, p.89)

1971        Oct 8, Canada’s PM Pierre Trudeau declared Canada to be bilingual and multicultural.
    (Econ, 11/18/06, p.39)(www.cic.gc.ca/english/resources/publications/legacy/chap-6b.asp)

1971        Robin Winks authored “The Blacks in Canada."
    (SFC, 2/12/10, p.A18)

1971        Marie Paule Giguere (50), a Catholic nun in Quebec, founded the Army of Mary as a prayer group, saying she was receiving visions from God. In 2007 the Vatican declared her teachings were heretical and in Arkansas six nuns were excommunicated after refusing to give up membership in the sect.
    (SFC, 9/27/07, p.A20)

1971-1988    Peter Bronfman (1929-1996) and his brother Edward Bronfman co-owned the Montreal Canadiens hockey team. Their uncle, Samuel, was the founder of the liquor company, Seagram Co. Ltd. The brothers acquired holdings in Brascan Ltd., a property mgmt. company, Noranda Inc., a natural resource company, and John Labatt Ltd., one of Canada’s 2 biggest brewers.
    (SFC, 12/3/96, p.D2)

1972        Apr 15, Canada’s PM Pierre Trudeau and President Richard Nixon met in Ottawa to sign the Great Lakes Water Quality Agreement. The agreement followed measurements that showed that high concentrations of phosphorus and nitrogen led to the lakes being choked to death from vegetation and algae. Methods for quantifying eutrophication had been developed by Swiss scientist Richard Vollenweider (1922-2007).
    (http://tinyurl.com/ygrc3p)(WSJ, 2/3/07, p.A8)

1972        Aug 10, An Earth-grazing meteoroid grazed the atmosphere above Canada. It entered the Earth's atmosphere in daylight over Utah.

1972        Nov 27, Pierre Trudeau formed his Canadian government.
    (MC, 11/27/01)

1972        Trudeau’s government increased the value and duration of unemployment benefits and decreased the period required to qualify.
    (WSJ, 2/7/97, p.A17)
1972        Mel Lastman, founder of the Bad Boy discount appliance chain, was elected mayor of North York, a municipality just north of Toronto. He went on to win 11 straight elections.
    (SFC,12/897, p.A15,17)
1972        Stephen Reid, a member of the Stopwatch Gang trio, was sentenced to prison. He escaped 2 times but was recaptured and was released in 1987. In 1986 he authored "Jackrabbit Parole" while in prison. The gang was estimated to have stolen some $15 million in 140 North American robberies. In 1999 he was again caught following a robbery in Victoria and was convicted of attempted murder and other charges.
    (SFC, 6/25/99, p.A10)(SFC, 12/2/99, p.D16)
1972        Daniel Abraham Yanofsky (d.2000 at 74), a chess grandmaster and Winnipeg City Councilman, was awarded the Order of Canada.
    (SFC, 3/11/00, p.A17)

1973        Canada’s Supreme Court recognized that indigenous title to land existed.
    (Econ, 7/5/14, p.31)
1973        Indian PM Indira Gandhi visited Canada.
    (AP, 4/15/15)

1974        May 8, In Canada the government of Pierre Trudeau fell on a sub-amendment to the budget (thus a question of confidence).

1974        Jun 29, Russian ballet dancer Mikhail Baryshnikov defected in Toronto, Canada.

1974        Jul 8, Trudeau's Liberal Party won Canadian parliamentary election.

1974        The Royal Canadian Mounted Police (RCMP) began recruiting women for the first time.
    (Econ, 6/29/13, p.35)
1974        Canada’s coast guard discovered resonance icebreaking.
    (Econ, 4/15/17, p.67)
1974        Barry Sherman (d.2017) founded Canada’s generic drugmaker Apotex, then built it into one of the world's largest pharmaceutical makers. By 2017 it had annual sales of more than C$2 billion in more than 45 countries.
    (Reuters, 12/16/17)

1975        Jan 2, Ken Brugger, searching on behalf of Canadian entomologist Dr. Fred A. Urquhart, found that vast numbers of monarch butterflies, wintered at Cerro Pelon, an inactive volcano a hundred miles west of Mexico City. Urquhart had been tagging butterflies and searching for their winter quarters since 1954. In 1986 the Mexican government established some protection over 5 sites where monarchs were known to overwinter.
    (ON, 4/07, p.12)

1975        May 6, In hockey the Philadelphia Flyers won the semifinal series over Boston 4 games to 1.

1975        Public radio on the Canadian Broadcasting network (CBC) went free of advertising.
    (Econ, 6/8/13, p.42)

1976        May 16, The Montreal Canadiens won the Stanley Cup hockey finals in 4 games over the Philadelphia Flyers.

1976        Jun 26, The CN Tower in Toronto, at this time the world’s tallest free-standing structure (553 meters), opened to the public.

1976        Jul 14, Canada abolished the death penalty.
    (SFC,10/18/97, p.A13)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Capital_punishment_in_Canada)

1976        Jul 17, The XX1 Olympiad, opened in Montreal. Closing ceremonies for the summer Olympics were held August 1. 26 African nations boycotted the games after the IOC failed to bann New Zealand after its rugby team toured South Africa. Taiwan withdrew after it was denied the right to compete as the Republic of China.  In 1998 it was revealed that 143 members of the East German team had taken performance-enhancing drugs.
    (WSJ, 7/15/96, p.B1)(WSJ, 10/21/98, p.A1)(WSJ, 4/12/08, p.R2)

1976        Jul 25, Edwin Moses (b.1955), American track star, won an Olympic Gold Medal In Montreal in the 400-meter hurdles.

1976        Jul 31, "Sugar" Ray Charles Leonard (b.1956), American boxer, won an Olympic gold medal in Montreal.

1976        Nov 15, Rene Levesque's "Parti Quebecois" won elections in Quebec. The pro-independence Parti Quebecois first came to power.
    (SFC, 10/3/98, p.A21)(www.cbc.ca/news/background/parti_quebecois/)

1976        Lotfi Mansouri was appointed the general director of the Canadian Opera Company in Toronto.
    (SFC, 2/2/99, p.A11)
1976        Canada’s Alberta province set up the Heritage Savings Trust Fund, a sovereign wealth fund (SWF). In 2014 it was valued at $15.3 billion.
    (Econ, 1/25/14, p.61)
1976        The Summit of leading industrial nations was held in San Juan, Puerto Rico. The addition of Canada let it be called the Group of Seven or G-7.
    (SFC, 6/20/97, p.A16)

1977        Jan 28, A heavy blizzard began in Eastern Canada and the US. It claimed as many as 100 lives. This was the only blizzard declared a natural and national disaster by the American and Canadian governments. In 1978 Erno Rossi authored “White Death: Blizzard of ’77."

1977        Feb 11, A 20.2-kg lobster was caught off Nova Scotia. This was the heaviest known crustacean to date.

1977        Jun, The Inuit Circumpolar Council, a multinational non-governmental organization (NGO), met for the first time. Originally known as the Inuit Circumpolar Conference, the ICC represented the 150,000 Inuit (often referred to as Eskimo) people living in the United States, Canada, Greenland, and Russia.
    (Econ, 3/5/11, p.68)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Inuit_Circumpolar_Council)

1977        Timothy Findley (d.2002), Canadian writer, authored his novel "The Wars," which contrasted social struggles in Toronto with trench horrors in WW I.
    (SFC, 6/22/02, p.A18)

1977        The Canada Human Rights Act was passed and required that men and women be paid the same amount for doing the same work.
    (SFC, 7/30/98, p.A12)
1977        Canada extended its territorial waters out to 200 miles to stop fishing by boats of foreign nations.
    (NH, 5/96, p.61)
1977        English was banned in Quebec.
    (SFEC,12/28/97, Z1 p.2)
1977        Ernst Zundel (b.1939), German neo-Nazi, founded a small press publishing house in Canada called Samisdat Publishers, which issued such pamphlets as “The Hitler We Loved and Why" and “Did Six Million Really Die?," both prominent documents of the Holocaust denial movement. He wrote under the name of Christof Friedrich. In 2005 he was deported to Germany, where he was charged for inciting racial hatred. In 2007 he was sentenced to 5 years in prison.
    (SFC, 12/9/00, p.A11)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ernst_Z%C3%BCndel)

1978        Jan 24, Cosmos 954, a 4-month-old nuclear-powered Soviet satellite plunged through Earth's atmosphere and disintegrated, scattering radioactive debris over parts of northern Canada.
    (SSFC, 3/18/01, p.A1)(AP, 1/24/08)

1978        Feb 9, Canada announced it was expelling 13 Soviet diplomats who it said had tried to recruit a Royal Canadian Mounted Police officer.
    (HN, 2/9/97)(www.cnn.com/almanac/9802/09/)

1978        Canada implemented security certificates to detain and expel, without disclosing evidence, non-citizens suspected of terrorism. On October 22, 2007, the Conservative government introduced a bill to amend the security certificate process by introducing a "special advocate", lawyers who would be able to view the evidence against the accused.
    (Econ, 10/24/09, p.42)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Security_certificate)

1979        May 22, Canadians went to the polls in parliamentary elections that put the Progressive Conservatives under Joseph Clark in power, ending the 11-year tenure of PM Pierre Elliott Trudeau.
    (AP, 5/22/97)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Canadian_federal_election,_1979)

1979        Jun 4, Joe Clark of the Progressive Conservatives became the 16th prime minister of Canada.
    (AP, 6/4/07)

1979        Aug 26, Alvin Karpis (1907-1979), Canadian-born US gangster, died. His autobiography, “The Alvin Karpis Story," was completed in 1971.
    (WSJ, 7/15/04, p.D8)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Alvin_Karpis)

1979        Nov 4, In Iran, as Islamist students stormed the US Embassy in Tehran, six American diplomats escaped and found sanctuary at the home of Canadian ambassador Ken Taylor (d.2015 at 81) and his first secretary, John Sheardown. Taylor then worked with the Canadian government and the CIA to obtain Canadian passports and forged visas allowing the diplomats to fly to Switzerland.
    (SFC, 10/17/15, p.C3)

1979        John Crosbie (d.1994), a Canadian writer, founded the Save the Puns Foundation.
    (WSJ, 1/22/98, p.A17)

1980        Feb 18, Pierre Elliott Trudeau's Liberal Party won Canada's elections. Trudeau again served as the 15th Prime Minister of Canada.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Canadian_federal_election,_1980)(CFA, '96, p.81)

1980        May 12, Maxie Anderson (45) and his son Kris (23) completed the 1st balloon crossing of the American continent as they landed their helium-filled balloon on Canada’s Gaspe Peninsula. Their journey began May 8 in Marin Ct., Ca.
    (SFC, 5/6/05, p.F2)

1980        May 20, In Canada a referendum of 59.5% of Quebec voters rejected separatism.

1980        Jul 1, "O Canada" was proclaimed the national anthem of Canada.
    (CFA, '96, p.48)(AP, 7/1/97)

1980        Oct 3, In France a Paris synagogue bombing killed 3 French men and one Israeli woman. In 2008 Canadian police arrested Hassan Diab in response to a request from France, where he was wanted on charges of murder and attempted murder in the bombing. Diab denied guilt and stamps in his 1980 passport indicated he was not in France at the time of the bombing. In April 2012 Canada’s then-justice minister Rob Nicholson signed an extradition order surrendering Diab to France. On Nov 15, 2014, Diab was charged in Paris. He has claimed that he was studying in Beirut at the time of the bombing and has said that he had been confused with someone with the same name.
    (AP, 11/13/14)(AFP, 11/15/14)

1980        Oct 28, Canada’s federal government under Pierre Trudeau introduced a national energy program, which forced Alberta to sell its oil to Canadians at below market prices. The policy was dismantled in 1984.
    (Econ, 12/3/05, Survey p.6)(http://tinyurl.com/32q2bt)

1980        Nov 17, Clifford Olson (1940-2011) began a murder spree killing 3 girls and 8 boys, ages 9 to 18, in British Columbia over an eight month period. The victims were tortured and sexually assaulted. Olson, who had an extensive criminal history, was arrested on August 12, 1981. He later confessed to the murders and, in a controversial deal, gave police information on the location of the victims' bodies in return for a C$100,000 ($95,000) payment to his family.
    (Reuters, 10/1/11)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Clifford_Olson)

1980        Dec 31, Marshall McLuhan (b.1911), Canadian professor, cultural philosopher and writer, died at age 69. He was the author "Understanding Media: The Extensions of Man." In 1996 a CD-ROM titled "Understanding McLuhan" was released.
    (SFEC, 9/8/96, BR p.8)(V.D.-H.K.p.357)(AP, 12/31/05)

1980        In Canada the first Montreal International Jazz Festival was launched by L’Equipe Spectra.
    (Econ, 6/21/14, p.82)
1980        Canola Oil was registered as the name for a vegetable oil of low saturated fat. It was originally called low erucic acid rapeseed oil and was developed by the Univ. of Manitoba plant breeder Baldur Stefansson after WW II. Oleic acid later replaced erucic acid which was found to cause cancer in lab studies.
    (BS, 5/3/98, p.6F)
1980        Peter Munk, Hungary-born entrepreneur, along with David Gilmour and several Arab investors founded Barrick Petroleum Corp., a Canada-based mining operation. In 1983 the company went public as Barrick Resources Corp., which grew to become Barrick Gold. By 2008 the company was worth $38 billion with mines on 5 continents.
    (www.referenceforbusiness.com/history2/71/Barrick-Gold-Corporation.html)(Econ, 4/19/08, p.80)

1980-1989    Conrad Black and David Radler launched a small newspaper acquisition spree generated by their 1st small paper, the Sherbrooke Record in Quebec. In 2003 Black and Radler became embroiled in suits stemming from their operations in Hollinger Int'l.
    (WSJ, 1/30/04, p.A1)

1981        Jun 28, Terry Fox (22), born in Winnipeg and raised in Port Coquitlam, died of cancer. Fox, who planned to run a marathon a day until he ran across Canada, was forced to stop his journey on Sept. 1, 1980, because the cancer that took his leg had spread to his lungs. He ran 5,373 kilometers over 143 days. His goal was to raise $1 for cancer research for every Canadian, which would have been about $24 million in 1980.
    (AP, 9/19/05)

1981        Sep 23, Chief Dan George (b.1899), actor, died at 82 in British Columbia, Canada. His films included “Harry & Tonto" (1974) and “Little Big Man" (1970). He was born Geswanouth Slahoot on a First Nations Reserve in North Vancouver. His English name was Dan Slaholt. His last name was changed to George when he entered a residential school at the age of 5.

1981        Israel promised Canada that the Mossad spy agency would not use Canadian passports.
    (WSJ, 10/3/97, p.A1)

1982        Jan 9, A 5.9 earthquake hit New England & Canada; the 1st since 1855.

1982        Feb 15, The Ocean Ranger oil-drilling platform sank off the coast of Newfoundland during a fierce storm and 84 men were killed.
    (AP, 2/15/98)(WSJ, 10/3/01, p.A20)

1982        Apr 17, Canada adopted a new Constitution to replace the 1867 British North America Act. It enshrined special rights for indigenous peoples. Pierre Trudeau added a Charter of Rights and Freedoms to Canada’s constitution. Quebec did not sign the 1982 Constitution.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Constitution_of_Canada)(WSJ, 10/3/00, p.A26)

1982        Jul 24, Anna Paquin, Oscar winning actress (Piano), was born in Winnipeg, Manitoba.

1982        Aug 4, Ronald Smith of Canada killed two Americans in Montana during a drunken road trip. In March 1893 Smith was convicted and sentenced to death.
    (Econ, 5/24/08, p.55)(http://bulk.resource.org/courts.gov/c/F2/914/914.F2d.1153.88-4115.html)

1982        Oct 4, Glenn H. Gould (b.1932), eccentric Canadian pianist, died in Toronto of a cerebral hemorrhage. In 1997 Peter F. Ostwald wrote a biography titled: "Glenn Gould." In 2010 the documentary “Genius Within: The Inner Life of Glenn Gould" was directed by Pater Raymont and Michele Hozer.
    (WSJ, 8/5/97, p.A16)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Glenn_Gould)(SFC, 11/19/10, p.E8)

1982        Oct 16, Hans Selye (b.1907), pioneering Austrian-Canadian endocrinologist of Hungarian origin, died in Montreal, Canada. Selye conceptualized the physiology of stress as having two components: a set of responses which he called the "general adaptation syndrome", and the development of a pathological state from ongoing, unrelieved stress.   

1982        The Canadian NFB documentary film "If You Love This Planet" was an anti-nuclear film that won the best documentary Oscar.
    (WSJ, 1/13/00, p.A20)
1982        Choi Jung-hwa, a South Korean taekwondo master, hired two agents to shoot South Korean President Chun Doo-hwan during a visit to Canada. The plot, however, was detected and Choi went into hiding in Eastern Europe and North Korea. In 1991, he surrendered to Canadian authorities and was sentenced to six years in prison, but was released after one year for good behavior. In 2008 he returned to South Korea.
    (AP, 9/9/08)

1983        Mar 7, In France Claude Vivier (b.1948), a French-Canadian composer, was found stabbed to death. A 19-year-old man was convicted of the murder. Vivier left behind 48 completed scores and part of a 49th. His 1976 "Siddartha" was a 30 minute orchestral piece written on commission from the CBC (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Claude_Vivier).
    (SFEC, 1/4/98, DB. p.31)

1983        Jun 2, A toilet caught fire on Air Canada's DC-9 and 23 died at Cincinnati.

1983        Trivial Pursuit was big as was MTV (Music Television). Linda F. Pezzano (d.1999 at 54), marketing consultant, invented the "viral marketing concept" to publicize the Canadian board game.
    (TMC, 1994, p.1983)(SFC, 10/30/99, p.C2)

1983        A couple of Canadian vineyards began producing ice wine, a 1794 German invention (eiswein), using frost-bitten grapes to produce a desert wine.
    (Econ, 5/22/04, p.32)(http://wine.about.com)

1983        In Regina, Canada, JoAnn Wilson (43) was found in the garage of her home, beaten, hacked and shot in the head. Her former husband, Colin Thatcher, former cabinet minister in Saskatchewan's government, was sentenced to life in prison for her murder. In 2006 he was granted full parole.
    (Reuters, 12/1/06)

1984        Feb 29, Canadian Prime Minister Pierre Elliott Trudeau announced he was stepping down after more than 15 years in power.
    (AP, 2/29/00)

1984        Apr 13, Pete Rose, playing for the Montreal Expos, became the 1st NL baseball player to get 4,000 hits in a career, joining Ty Cobb to become only the second player to enter the 4000 hit club.

1984        Jun 30, John Turner, Liberal Party, was sworn in as Canada's 17th prime minister, succeeding Pierre Elliott Trudeau.
    (CFA, '96, p.81)(AP, 6/30/04)

1984        Jul-1985 May, Seven men, three women and two children were tortured killed in Calaveras County, Ca., at the home of Leonard Lake as part of "Project Miranda," inspired by the John Fowles novel, "The Collector." Lake killed himself with cyanide during a police interview. Charles Ng was arrested in Canada in 1985 for stealing and extradited to the US after 6 years for his role in the murders.
    (SFC,10/18/97, p.A13)(SFC, 10/25/98, p.A5)

1984        Sep 4, Canada's Progressive Conservatives, led by Brian Mulroney, won a landslide victory in general elections over the Liberal Party of Prime Minister John N. Turner.
    (AP, 9/4/04)

1984        Sep 17, Progressive Conservative leader Brian Mulroney took office as Canada's 18th prime minister.
    (AP, 9/17/99)

1984        In Canada Larry Zolf authored “Survival of the Fattest -an Irreverent View of the Senate".
    (http://poifarbnew.ru/wawiwynu.pdf)(Econ, 8/13/16, p.24)
1984        The film "Next of Kin" was directed by Canadian Atom Egoyan. It was about a lazy 23-year-old living with his parents.
    (SFC,12/26/97, p.C1)
1994        In Canada an Ontario judge ruled that lap dancing was not indecent under standards previously set by the Supreme Court. The ruling was overturned in 1997.
    (SFC, 6/28/97, p.E3)
1984        In Canada responsibility for security intelligence was taken away from the Mounties when a separate intelligence agency was created.
    (Econ, 9/23/06, p.42)
1994        In Canada a majority of the Mohawk Council of Kahnawake passed a bylaw stipulating that a person must have at least 4 Mohawk great grandparents to live or own property on its 13,000 acre reservation just south of Montreal.
    (Econ, 2/27/10, p.44)
1984        Guy Laliberte and a group of stilt-walkers from Baie-Saint-Paul created The Cirque de Soleil, a Canadian animal-free circus. Revenues in 2004 reached $550 million.
    (SFC, 9/14/96, p.B4)(Econ, 2/5/05, p.61)(Econ, 2/15/14, p.59)
1984        Mike Lazaridis, while a student at the Univ. of Waterloo in Ontario, co-founded Research In Motion (RIM) with Douglas Fregin. In 1997 Lazaridis came up with the idea for a small thumb-using keyboard and RIM went on to produce the hand-held Blackberry e-mail device.
    (Econ, 3/19/05, p.68)(Econ, 9/23/06, TQ p.36)
1984        Canada established a tidal research station in its eastern Bay of Fundy.
    (Econ, 4/28/07, p.71)

1985        Mar 17, President Reagan agreed to a joint study with Canada on acid rain.
    (HN, 3/17/98)

1985        May 31, Some 41 tornadoes swept through parts of Pennsylvania, Ohio, New York and Ontario, Canada, during an eight-hour period killing 88 people with over 1,000 injured.
    (AP, 5/31/05)

1985        Jun 23, All 329 people aboard an Air India Boeing 747 were killed when Flight 182 from Montreal to London crashed into the Atlantic Ocean near Ireland, apparently because of a bomb. An hour earlier, a bomb in baggage intended for another Air India flight exploded in a Tokyo airport, killing two baggage handlers. In 2000 Canadian police arrested 2 men of Sikh origin for the bombing. In 2001 Canadian prosecutors filed murder charges against Inderjit Singh Reyat. In 2003 Reyat was sentenced to 5 years for his role in making the bomb. Reyat spent 10 years in prison for building the bomb that exploded at the Narita airport, and another five years for helping make the Flight 182 bomb. In 2005 a Canadian judge acquitted 2 men who had been accused of conspiring in the case. Talwinder Parmar (1944-1992) was later assumed to have been the mastermind behind the attacks. In 2010 Reyat was found guilty of perjury. In 2011 he was sentenced to an additional 9 years in prison. In 2017 Canada’s parole board allowed Reyat to return to private residence following a year in a halfway house.
    (AP, 6/23/97)(SFC, 10/28/00, p.A13)(SFC, 6/6/01, p.C3)(AP, 2/11/03)(AP, 3/17/05)(Econ, 6/16/07, p.47)(Reuters, 9/18/10)(Reuters, 1/7/11)(AFP, 2/15/17)

1985        Sep 1, A US-French expedition located the wreckage of the Titanic, sunk in 1915, about 560 miles off Newfoundland, Canada. Oceanographer Robert Ballard used the ship Knorr to pinpoint the location of the Titanic. The Knorr was decommissioned in 2014 and in 2016 was transferred to the Mexican Navy.
    (www.titanic-titanic.com/discovery_of_titanic.shtml)(SFC, 3/14/16, p.A5)

1985        Sep 25, The Tyrell Museum of Paleontology was opened to the public. It is located 140 km. northeast of Calgary at Drumheller, Alberta, Canada.
    (CFA, '96, p.63)

1985        Dec 12, 248 American soldiers and eight crew members were killed when an Arrow Air charter crashed after takeoff from Gander, Newfoundland.
    (AP, 12/12/97)

1985        Canadian writer Margaret Atwood (b.1939) authored her novel “The Handmaid’s Tale." In 2017 it was made into a ten-part television series.
    (Econ, 4/22/17, p.76)
1985        UNESCO declared Old Quebec a World Heritage Site. It was the first city in North America to attain the status.
    (SFEC, 1/10/99, p.T4)
1985        The Mali town of Sanankoroba established a sister-town relationship with Sainte-Elizabeth, Quebec.
    (SFC, 2/27/98, p.D2)
1985        Wilf Carter was inducted into the Canadian music hall of fame.
    (SFC, 12/11/96, p.A24)
1985        Canadian Auto Workers broke away from the US-based United Auto Workers to form their own union.
    (WSJ, 1/11/99, p.R27)
1985        Brenda O’Connor (20), her husband Lonnie Bond and their baby son disappeared. A video made by Leonard Lake and Charles Ng later showed her bound to a chair at his hideaway near Wilseyville in Calaveras Ct., Ca. Charles Ng was arrested in Canada for killing a dozen people in a hideaway in the Sierra Nevada foothills in 1984-1985. He fought extradition for 6 years but was finally returned to California by a Canadian Supreme Court order.
    (SFC, 10/28/98, p.A1)(SFC, 8/31/96, p.A23)

1985-1987    A bug in the software of Therac-25 radiotherapy machines, produced by Atomic Energy of Canada Limited, caused massive overdoses of radiation to several patients killing at least 5.
    (Econ, 6/2/12, TQ p.20)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Therac-25)

1985-1994    Premier Robert Bourassa led the province of Quebec for his 2nd term.
    (SFC, 10/3/96, p.C6)

1986         May 25, In Canada Punjab Minister Malkiat Singh Sidhu was attacked near Gold River on Vancouver Island when he was on a private trip to attend his nephew's wedding. Though Sidhu survived, he was assassinated five years later in Moga, Punjab. Jaspal Atwal was one of four men later convicted of attempting to kill Sidhu. He was also charged, but not convicted, in connection with a 1985 attack on Ujjal Dosanjh, a staunch opponent of the Sikh separatist movement's push for an independent state of Khalistan, who later became Premier of British Columbia.
    (https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Malkiat_Singh_Sidhu)(AP, 2/23/18)

1986        Nov 22, Elzire Dionne, who gave birth to quintuplets in 1934, died at a hospital in North Bay, Ontario, Canada, at age 77.
    (AP, 11/22/06)

1986        In Canada there was a World Exposition in Vancouver.
    (SFC, 8/26/97, p.A1)
1986        The Quebec Iron and Titanium (QIT) subsidiary of Rio Tinto, an int’l. mining concern, began pursuing rights in Madagascar to extract high-grade ilmenite, a form of titanium dioxide used to whiten toothpaste, paint and cleansing powders. A 15,000 acre site at Fort Dauphin was expected to yield 750,000 tons a year over 60 years for an investment of $400 million. The Malagasy government would receive about $40 million per year plus $10 million in taxes and fees. A decision was expected in 2005.
    (SFC, 1/15/98, p.A10)(WSJ, 11/17/04, p.A1)

1987        Jun 30, Canada introduced a one dollar coin that was soon nicknamed the Loonie.
    (WSJ, 11/6/97, p.A22)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Loonie)

1987        Sep 16, In Canada an international convention met in Montreal and negotiators from 23 of the world’s major industrial nations signed a treaty to slow down global chlorofluorocarbon (CFCs) production in order to restore atmospheric ozone. One of its most important architects was Egyptian scientist Mostafa Tolba (1922-2016). The Montreal Protocol, a treaty designed to save the Earth's ozone layer by calling on nations to reduce emissions of harmful chemicals by the year 2000, was amended in 1990 and 1992. In 1991 a fund was established to help developing countries meet their obligations By 2016 197 nations had signed the Montreal Protocol.
    (NOHY, W3/90, p.47)(SFC, 5/31/96, A1,17)(SFEC, 6/15/97, BR p.4)(AP, 9/16/97)(Econ, 4/2/15, p.78)(Econ, 9/24/16, p.58)

1987        Sep 20, Pope John Paul II concluded an 11-day visit to North America as he celebrated Mass for thousands of Indians at Fort Simpson in Canada's Northwest Territories.
    (AP, 9/20/97)

1987        Oct 3, Negotiators for the United States and Canada reached agreement in Washington D.C., on a framework to eliminate all tariffs between the world's two largest trading partners.
    (AP, 10/3/97)

1987        Nov 1, Rene Levesque (b.1922), Quebec premier (1976-85), died at age 65.

1987        The film "Family Viewing" was directed by Canadian Atom Egoyan. It was a dark comedy about a man who fancies S&M and phone sex.
    (SFC,12/26/97, p.C18)

1987        The Meech Lake Accord was an attempt to modify the Constitution and give Quebec some special recognition. Quebec did not ratify it and it did not take effect.
    (SFC, 1/29/99, p.A12)

1988        Jan 2, President Reagan and Canadian Prime Minister Brian Mulroney signed an agreement to lift trade restrictions between their countries.
    (AP, 1/2/98)

1988        Jan 28, The Supreme Court of Canada struck down the nation's restrictive abortion law.
    (AP, 1/28/98)

1988        Feb 13, The 15th winter Olympics opened in Calgary, Alberta, Canada.
    (AP, 2/13/98)

1988        Feb 14, Hours after learning that his sister had died of leukemia, American Dan Jansen (b.1965) lost his bid for a gold medal at the Winter Olympics in Calgary, Canada, when he fell during the 500-meter speed-skating event.
    (AP, 2/14/98)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Dan_Jansen)

1988        Feb 26, The Soviet Union's hockey team clinched the gold medal at the Winter Olympics in Calgary, Canada.
    (AP, 2/26/98)

1988        Feb 27, Katarina Witt of East Germany won the gold medal in women's figure skating at the Winter Olympics in Calgary, Canada, with Elizabeth Manley of Canada placing second and Debi Thomas of the United States, third. Debi Thomas became the first African American to win a medal at the Winter Olympics.
    (AP, 2/27/98)(HN, 2/27/99)

1988        Feb 28, The 15th Olympic Winter Games held its closing ceremony in Calgary, Canada.
    (AP, 2/28/98)

1988        May 26, The National Hockey League's Edmonton Oilers completed a four-game sweep of the Boston Bruins to capture their fourth Stanley Cup in five seasons.
    (AP, 5/26/98)

1988        Jun 17, Leaders of the world's seven biggest industrial democracies began arriving in Toronto for their annual economic summit, with the host, Canadian Prime Minister Brian Mulroney, forecasting progress on dismantling farm subsidies and alleviating Third World debt.
    (AP, 6/17/98)

1988        Jun 19, Leaders of the world's seven wealthiest industrial democracies opened a three-day economic summit in Toronto.
    (AP, 6/19/98)

1988        Jun 21, Leaders of the world's seven richest nations concluded their three-day summit in Toronto.
    (AP, 6/21/98)

1988        Jul 21, Canada’s Multiculturalism Act of 1988 replaced a previous policy of assimilation with one of acceptance of diversity.
    (Econ, 11/18/06, p.39)(www.pch.gc.ca/progs/multi/policy/act_e.cfm)

1988        Aug 9, Hockey star Wayne Gretzky of the Edmonton Oilers was traded to the Los Angeles Kings.
    (AP, 8/9/98)

1988        Sep 22, The government of Canada apologized for the World War II internment of Japanese-Canadians and promised compensation.
    (AP, 9/22/98)

1988        Sep 24, Canadian sprinter Ben Johnson won the men's 100-meter dash in 9.79 seconds at the Seoul Summer Olympics. He was disqualified three days later for using anabolic steroids.
    (AP, 9/24/98)(Econ, 8/2/08, SR p.15)

1988        Sep 27, Canadian sprinter Ben Johnson left for home in disgrace 3 days after placing first in the men's 100-meter dash at the Seoul Summer Olympics. He was stripped of his gold medal by officials who said he had used anabolic steroids.
    (AP, 9/27/98)

1988        Nov 21, Canada's Progressive Conservative Party, led by Prime Minister Brian Mulroney, won the country's general election.
    (AP, 11/21/98)

1988        Nov 25, An earthquake centered in eastern Canada and measuring 5.7 on the Richter scale was felt widely across Canada and in the northeastern United States.
    (HN, 11/25/98)

1988        Canada reformed its tax system flattening the rate structure and cutting top rates.
    (Econ, 9/24/11, p.84)
1988        European Airbus jets were sold to Canada. In 1996 there were allegations of kickbacks in the deal and in 1996 Swiss Bank records were sought in a corruption probe. Prime Minister Mulroney filed suit in 1996 for being named in the scandal.
    (WSJ, 6/20/96, p.A14)
1988        In Canada Claude Comair, a Lebanese-born, computer animation specialist, founded the DigiPen Institute of Technology in Vancouver. It taught students fundamentals of video game development and in 1996 moved to Seattle.
    (WSJ, 10/13/98, p.A1)

1989        Mar 13, In Canada a transformer failure on one of the main power transmission lines in the HydroQuebec system precipitated a catastrophic collapse of the entire power grid. The string of events that produced the collapse took only 90 seconds from start to finish. The transformer failure was a direct consequence of ground induced currents from a solar flare. 6 million people lost electrical power for 9 or more hours.
    (www.windows.ucar.edu/spaceweather/blackout.html)(ON, 4/12, p.6)

1989        Mar 1, Charlie Francis, the coach of Canadian sprinter Ben Johnson (b.1961), testified that Johnson began using steroids in 1981.
    (SC, 3/1/02)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ben_Johnson_(athlete))

1989        Apr 1, In Canada the Oka conflict began when some 200 Mohawks from the Kanesatake reserve marched though the town of Oka protesting plans to expand the village's nine-hole golf course to 18 holes, saying expansion encroaches on their burial ground. A 78-day standoff began on July 11, 1990 and ended Sep 26, 1990. The Oka Crisis cost the Quebec government an estimated $180 million not including the cost of the army. 

1989        May 25, The Calgary Flames won their first Stanley Cup by defeating the Montreal Canadiens in game six of their championship series.
    (AP, 5/25/99)

1989        Jul 1, The 1987 Montreal Protocol, an international treaty dealing with ozone-destroying pollutants, went into effect. The treaty sought to cut in half production of chemicals posing the greatest risk to ozone.
    (HNQ, 8/11/99)(NYT, 10/8/04, p.A16)

1989        Oct 15, The NHL's Wayne Gretzky of the Los Angeles Kings surpassed Gordie Howe's scoring record of 1,850 points, in a game against the Edmonton Oilers.
    (AP, 10/15/99)

1989        Dec 6, In Canada 14 women were shot to death at the University of Montreal's school of engineering by Marc Lepine, who then took his own life.
    (AP, 12/6/97)

1989        Dec 25, In Canada a 6.3 earthquake, the Ungava event, struck northern Quebec and was later attributed to retreating ice sheets from 10,000 years earlier.
    (WSJ, 6/9/06, p.A11)

1989        The film "Speaking Parts" was directed by Canadian Atom Egoyan. It was about a hotel laundry worker obsessed with watching videos of a bit actor.
    (SFC,12/26/97, p.C18)
1989        Canada ceased issuing C$1 notes. Canada had replaced the C$1 note with a coin in 1987 and the C$2 note with a coin in 1996.
    (WSJ, 11/6/97, p.A22)(www.dallasfed.org/research/swe/1997/swe9704.html)
1989        A human rights tribunal ruled that equal rights must be provided for women. This opened Canadian military jobs for women except for submarine duty.
    (SFC, 3/26/98, p.B2)

1989-1997    More than 275,000 Hong Kong residents emigrated to Canada during this period. A Canadian residency permit could be secured by an investment of $112,000.
    (Econ., 8/1/20, p.33)

1990        Feb 13, At a conference in Ottawa, the United States and its European allies forged agreement with the Soviet Union and East Germany on a two-stage formula to reunite Germany.
    (AP, 2/13/00)

1990        The Canadian Parliament began tracking attendance.
    (SFC, 3/25/98, p.C14)
1990        The first exchange traded fund (ETF), an open ended mutual fund, was created by the Toronto Stock Exchange.
    (Econ, 4/21/07, p.83)(http://tinyurl.com/38dajn)
1990        Canada-based Bombardier took over American-based Learjet.
    (Econ, 1/4/14, p.23)

1991        Jul 9, The American League defeated the National League, 4-to-2, in the All-Star Game in Toronto.
    (AP, 7/8/01)

1991        Aug 22, The Supreme Court of Canada struck down the so-called rape shield law, which said the previous sexual conduct of a rape victim could not be used in court.
    (AP, 8/22/01)

1991        Sep 8, A 55 ton concrete beam fell in Montreal's Olympic Stadium.

1991        Nov 8, The European Community and Canada imposed economic sanctions on Yugoslavia in an attempt to stop the Balkan civil war.
    (AP, 11/8/01)

1991        Dec 17, Joey Smallwood (b.1900), Canadian politician and the first premier of Newfoundland (1949-1972), died.

1991        The film "The Adjustor" was directed by Canadian Atom Egoyan. It was about an insurance adjuster who gets involved in his clients’ lives.
    (SFC,12/26/97, p.C18)

1991        In Canada the Algonquins on the Rapid Lake reserve struck a trilateral deal giving them a share in what happens on their traditional territory and a share in any revenues. The Rapid Lake reserve was established for the use of the Algonquins of Barriere Lake in 1961. Since forest resources are a provincial jurisdiction, a pilot project about the management of renewable resources (wildlife and forest) was negotiated between the Government of Quebec and the Algonquins of Barriere Lake.
    (http://tinyurl.com/y8ka7qbl)(Econ 7/1/17, p.30)
1991        In Canada the province of Ontario passed the Arbitration Act, which allowed family law disputes to be settled by arbitration. The Act permitted religiously based as well as secular arbitration tribunals in the province.
    (Econ, 2/16/08, p.66)(www.religioustolerance.org/shariaon.htm)
1991        A 7-member Royal commission on Aboriginal Peoples was created after a lengthy armed standoff between Mohawk Indians and security forces in Quebec.
    (SFC, 11/22/96, p.A20)
1991        In Alberta a gas leak forced Wiebo Ludwig to evacuate his 320-acre Trickle Creek "community." Ludwig blamed the Alberta oil and gas industry for the death of 60 of his livestock and a succession of human health problems. The gas wells produced sour gas, a gas laced with the neurotoxin hydrogen sulfide.
    (SFC, 2/16/99, p.C2)(SFC, 4/20/00, p.C3)
1991        Stewart Blusson, Canadian geologist, discovered a trove of diamonds south of the Arctic Circle in the Northwest Territories.
    (WSJ, 7/5/01, p.B1)(WSJ, 10/4/06, p.B2)

1992        Jan 22-1992 Jan 30, Roberta Bondar was the first Canadian woman in space. She rode the shuttle Discovery and performed life and material-science experiments.
    (USAT, 7/26/99, p.14A)

1992        Aug 11, In Washington, D.C., negotiators for the United States, Canada and Mexico continued to work out final details of the proposed North American Free Trade Agreement.
    (AP, 8/11/97)

1992        Aug 12, The North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA) was announced in Washington, D.C. after 14 months of negotiations between the United States, Mexico and Canada. It created the world's wealthiest trading bloc.
    (AP, 8/12/97)(HN, 8/12/02)

1992        Sep, In Edmonton, Canada, Corinne Gustavson (6) was kidnapped, sexually assaulted and killed. In 2005 Clifford Sleigh was found guilty of her first-degree murder, aggravated sexual assault and kidnapping and sentenced to prison with no parole for 25 years.
    (AP, 5/27/05)

1992        Oct 7, Trade representatives of the United States, Canada and Mexico initialed the North American Free Trade Agreement during a ceremony in San Antonio, Texas.
    (AP, 10/7/97)

1992        Oct 17, The Atlanta Braves defeated the Toronto Blue Jays in game one of the World Series, 3-to-1.
    (AP, 10/17/97)

1992        Oct 18, The visiting Toronto Blue Jays defeated the Atlanta Braves in game two of the World Series, 5-to-4, evening the series at one game apiece. The pre-game ceremony was marred by a U.S. Marine Corps color guard that mistakenly presented the Canadian flag upside-down.
    (AP, 10/18/97)

1992        Oct 20, The host Toronto Blue Jays defeated the Atlanta Braves, 3-2 in game three of the World Series, taking a two-games-to-one lead. This was the first World Series game to be played outside the U.S. During the pre-game ceremony, a Marine color guard presented the Canadian flag correctly, two days after another guard held the banner upside-down before game two.
    (AP, 10/20/97)

1992        Oct 21, The Toronto Blue Jays won game four of the World Series, defeating the Atlanta Braves 2-1.
    (AP, 10/21/97)

1992        Oct 24, The Toronto Blue Jays became the first non-U.S. team to win the World Series as they defeated the Atlanta Braves, 4-3, in game six.
    (AP, 10/24/97)

1992        Oct 26, Voters in Canada rejected a constitutional reform package known as the Charlottetown Accord.
    (AP, 10/26/97)

1992        Dec 5, Ralph Klein, a Progressive Conservative, was elected premier of Alberta. He began to lead Canada in deregulation and privatization. Klein retired at the end of 2006.
    (Econ, 7/17/04, p.37)(Econ, 12/2/06, p.44)

1992        Dec 17, President Bush, Canadian Prime Minister Brian Mulroney and Mexican President Carlos Salinas de Gortari signed the North American Free Trade Agreement in separate ceremonies.
    (AP, 12/17/97)

1992        The "English Patient" by Michael Ondaatje, born in Sri Lanka, became the first Canadian novel to win the Booker Prize.
    (SFEC, 11/17/96, p.C15)
1992        The legislature of British Columbia voted 51-1 to declare the province a nuclear-weapons-free zone.
    (SFC, 7/22/99, p.C2)
1992        Captain Sandra Perron, the country’s first female infantry officer, was beaten by other officers, tied to a tree and left barefoot in the snow for 2 hours during a training exercise.
    (SFC, 1/1/97, p.C1)
1992        Voters in the Northwest Territories agreed to the formation of an Inuit governed territory called Nunavut, which means "our land" in the Inuktitut language. The change would take effect Apr 1, 1999.
    (SFC, 3/28/98, p.A10)
1992        A US Senate report linked the Sun Yee On triad to criminal organizations in Canada, the Dominican Republic, and 7 US cities including SF. The report stated that the syndicate was in outright control of the entertainment industry in Hong Kong.
    (SFC, 2/18/98, p.A7)
1992        Canada closed the Grand Banks off of Newfoundland to all cod fishing. The cod fishery had collapsed due to overfishing. By 2012 the fishery had still not recovered.
    (NH, 5/96, p.61)(Econ, 2/25/12, p.71)

1993        Feb 24, Canadian Prime Minister Brian Mulroney announced he was stepping down.
    (AP, 2/24/98)

1993        Mar 11, Dino Bravo (b.1948), wrestler (WWF), was shot to death in Laval, Quebec, Canada. Bravo, born as Adolfo Bresciano, was known as the “World’s Strongest Man." 

1993        Mar 16, Canadian soldiers in Somalia beat to death a local teenager, Shidane Arone, during their participation in the UN humanitarian efforts. An inquiry led to the disbanding of Canada's elite Canadian Airborne Regiment, greatly damaged the morale of the Canadian Forces, and damaged both the domestic and international reputation of Canadian soldiers.

1993        Jun 23, Canada's Senate ratified the North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA).
    (AP, 6/23/02)

1993        Apr 3, President Clinton and Russian President Boris Yeltsin opened a weekend summit in Vancouver, B.C., beginning talks after a luncheon with Canadian Prime Minister Brian Mulroney.
    (AP, 4/3/98)

1993        May 27, The Canadian House of Commons approved the North American Free Trade Agreement.
    (AP, 5/27/98)

1993        Jun 13, Canada's Progressive Conservative Party chose Defense Minister Kim Campbell to succeed Brian Mulroney as prime minister; she was the first woman to hold the post.
    (AP, 6/13/98)

1993        Jun 25, Kim Campbell was sworn in as Canada's 19th prime minister, the first woman to hold the post.
    (CFA, '96, p.81)(AP, 6/25/98)

1993        Aug 13, Negotiators for the US, Canada and Mexico announced they had resolved side issues concerning the proposed North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA).
    (AP, 8/12/98)

1993        Oct 12, The Toronto Blue Jays won their second straight American League pennant, defeating the Chicago White Sox in six games.
    (HN, 10/12/98)

1993        Oct 16, The Toronto Blue Jays defeated the Philadelphia Phillies, 8-5, in game one of the World Series.
    (AP, 10/16/98)

1993        Oct 17, The Philadelphia Phillies defeated the Toronto Blue Jays, 6-4, evening the World Series at one game each.
    (AP, 10/17/98)

1993        Oct 19, The Toronto Blue Jays took a 2-1 lead in the World Series by defeating the Philadelphia Phillies 10-3.
    (AP, 10/19/98)

1993        Oct 20, Toronto took a 3-1 lead in the World Series as the Blue Jays defeated the Philadelphia Phillies, 15-14.
    (AP, 10/20/98)

1993        Oct 21, The Philadelphia Phillies beat the Toronto Blue Jays 2-0 in game five of the World Series; Toronto still led the Series 3-2.
    (AP, 10/21/98)

1993        Oct 25, Canada's Liberal Party ended nine years of rule by the Progressive Conservatives in national elections; Liberal leader Jean Chretien became the 20th Prime Minister, succeeding Kim Campbell.
    (CFA, '96, p.81)(AP, 10/25/98)

1993        Oct, Robert Latimer (44), a farmer, killed his disabled 12-year-old daughter, who suffered from cerebral palsy, using exhaust fumes from his pickup truck. He was convicted in 1997 but sentenced to one year in jail and one year probation. In 2001 the Supreme Court upheld his murder conviction.
    (SFC, 12/2/97, p.A12)(SFC, 1/19/01, p.A17)

1993        The film "Calendar" was directed by Canadian Atom Egoyan. It was shot in Armenia with funds won from the Moscow Prize for "The Adjustor." It was a memory piece of himself as a photographer.
    (SFC,12/26/97, p.C18)
1993        Canada’s former PM Mulroney began accepting cash from Karlheinz Schreiber, a lobbyist for Airbus and Thyssen. This was only made public in 2003. Public hearings in the matter began in 2009. Schreiber said he handed over C$300,000 ($256,000) in cash to Mulroney in separate hotel meetings so that Mulroney could help promote establishment of a factory to build light armored vehicles.
    (Econ, 4/4/09, p.44)(Reuters, 5/12/09)
1993        In Canada Karla Homolka pleaded guilty in the sex slayings of two southern Ontario teenagers Leslie Mahaffy and Kristen French. She was sentenced to 12 years in prison and was set for release in 2005. Her husband Paul Bernardo, eventually convicted of raping 13 Ontario women or girls, committed many of the assaults during the first three years of his relationship with Homolka.
    (AP, 6/3/05)
1993        In Canada diamond prospectors found nickel deposits in Labrador’s Voisey Bay. Vale of Brazil opened a mine there in 2005.
    (Econ, 4/12/14, p.27)

1993-1994    Members of the Canadian 12th Armored Regiment were assigned to protect the Bakovici mental hospital in Bosnia. Later 57 members were accused of various abuses that included sex, drinking, and patient abuse.
    (SFC, 1/18/96, p.A8)

1993-2002    Paul Martin served as Canada’s finance minister.
    (Econ, 1/1/05, p.39)

1994        Jun 14, The New York Rangers won hockey's Stanley Cup for the first time in 54 years, defeating the Vancouver Canucks.
    (AP, 6/14/99)

1994        Sep 12, The Parti Quebecois won a parliamentary election.
    (MC, 9/12/01)

1994        Oct 5, 48 members of a secret religious doomsday cult were found dead in apparent murder-suicides carried out simultaneously in two Swiss villages; five other bodies were found in a sect apartment in Montreal, Canada.
    (AP, 10/5/99)

1994        Nov 8, In Vancouver a sniper shot and wounded a doctor of an abortion clinic at his home.
    (SFC, 1/29/98, p.A10)

1994        The film "Exotica" was directed by Canadian Atom Egoyan. It won Canada’s Genie Award for best film. It was about 5 characters whose lives intersected at a strip club.
    (SFC,12/26/97, p.C18)
1994        Canada leased its major airports to private-sector entities.
    (Econ, 8/12/17, p.52)
1994        An Ontario judge ruled that lap dancing was not indecent under standards previously set by the Supreme Court. The ruling was overturned in 1997.
    (SFC, 6/28/97, p.E3)
1994        Wal-Mart acquired 122 Woolco stores in Canada.
    (Econ, 2/26/05, p.37)

1995        May 8, Helmut Oberlander (b.1924), a former Nazi decorated for service in a death squad that executed 91,678 people in southern Russia, was extradited to Canada from Florida.
    (SSFC, 4/4/10, Par. p.5)(www.justice.gov/opa/pr/Pre_96/May95/261.txt.html)

1995        Jun 15, The Summit of 7 leading industrialist nations, G-7, met in Halifax, Canada, for talks on a unified front against terrorism. President Clinton met with Japanese PM Tomiichi Murayama on the opening day of a Group of Seven summit in Halifax, Nova Scotia.
    (AP, 6/15/00)(SFC, 6/20/97, p.A16)

1995        Sep 6, An Ontario Provincial Police sniper fatally wounded protester Dudley George (1957-1995) as police moved in to try to end the occupation of Ipperwash Provincial Park, on the shores of Lake Huron, by demonstrators who were demanding the return of the park and adjacent lands to native ownership. The Chippewas of Kettle and Stony Point First Nation claimed the park lands as an aboriginal burial ground. In 2007 Ontario said it will return 109 acres to native ownership.
    (Reuters, 12/21/07)

1995        Oct 30, The people of Quebec rejected an independence referendum by a very narrow margin, 50.6% to 49.4%. It was the 2nd defeat in 15 years. The margin was 50,000 votes out of 5 million cast.
    (WSJ, 11/1/95, p.A-1)(SFC, 11/9/96, p.A12)(WSJ, 10/3/00, p.A26)

1995        Oct 31, Stung by defeat in the secession referendum, Quebec Premier Jacques Parizeau said he would resign as head of the bitterly divided province at year’s end.
    (AP, 10/31/00)

1995        Nov 10, In Ancaster, Ont., a sniper shot and wounded a doctor of an abortion clinic at his home.
    (SFC, 1/29/98, p.A10)

1995        Dec 2, Robertson Davies, Canadian writer, died. His book "The Merry Heart: Reflections on Reading, Writing and the World of Books" was published posthumously in 1997. His 11 novels included "Fifth Business," "What's Bred in the Bone," "The Lyre of Orpheus" and “The Cunning Man." Just before his death he finished a libretto for the opera "The Golden Ass" based on the Metamorphoses by Apuleius.
    (SFEC, 7/6/97, BR p.1)(WSJ, 5/14/99, p.W8)(WSJ, 2/25/06, p.P6)

1995        The Canadian government recorded a federal deficit of CA$37.5 billion.
    (Fin. Post, 11/2/95, p.2)
1995        Canada enacted a tough federal Firearms Act. It was upheld in 2000 and required all gun owners to registers all firearms with police by 2003. In 2009 plans were afoot to repeal the long-gun (rifles and shotguns) registry, dismantling some 8 million firearms records.
    (WSJ, 6/16/00, p.A1)(SSFC, 11/8/09, p.A10)
1995        Ontario's government unveiled the biggest budget cuts ever made by a Canadian province, $4.4 bil. over three years. The cuts will eliminate 3,500 public sector jobs and cut $1 bil. from hospital funding.
    (WSJ, 11/30/95, p.A-1)
1995        British Columbia enacted a Forest Practices Code to ensure higher environmental standards and enforcement. A 1997 report indicated that that standards were not being followed or enforced.
    (SFC, 6/23/97, p.A8)
1995        Native protestors at Gustafsen Lake took up arms against the RCMP. They claimed that the land was sacred and never ceded to the crown. In 1997 13 people were sentenced to prison terms up to 4 1/2 years for the protests.
    (G&M, 7/31/97, p.A1)
1995        Belgium based Interbrew bought Labatts of Canada.
    (Econ, 12/17/11, p.125)

1996        Jan, Lucien Bouchard took over as Quebec’s premier and promised to mend fences.
    (WSJ, 8/22/96, p.A8)

1996        Feb 15, In the Toronto Globe and Star there was a report by Peter Whelan that "pesticides sprayed on fields in Argentina were killing tens of thousands of wintering Swainson’s hawks that nest on the Canadian prairies and the adjacent US Great Plains."
    (NH, 10/96, p.51)

1996        Apr 13, The annual Canadian seal hunt in Newfoundland went out of control and some 16,500 seals were slaughtered instead of the 8,000 quota.
    (SFC, 4/13/96, p.A-15)

1996        May 12, The Canadian province of Ontario announced a 15% tax cut last week under Premier Mike Harris, who was elected last June on promises to cut the budget deficit and taxes. His cuts have led to tuition increases, expected hospital closures or consolidations, and the marked elimination of 10,000 government jobs.
    (SFC, 5/12/96, p.A-10)

1996        May, Forms for the national census went out. It is held every five years and this year’s form included questions on housework, child and elder care for the first time.
    (WSJ, 8/9/96, p.A5c)

1996        Jun, Canada’s unemployment rate jumped to 10%.
    (WSJ, 7/8/96, p.A4)

1996        Jul 10, A coalition of Canadian groups threatened to boycott Florida unless the US relents on the Helms-Burton law that imposes sanctions on foreign companies that trade with companies expropriated by from the US by Cuba.
    (WSJ, 7/11/96, p.A9)

1996        Jul 23, In Toronto, a police officer was charged with criminal negligence in the shooting of a protester who became the first Canadian Indian in modern times killed in a land dispute with the government.
    (AP, 7/23/97)

1996        Jul 23, Canadian researchers found a hormone, GLP-2, that stimulates growth of the lining of the small intestine.
    (WSJ, 7/23/96, p.B6)

1996        Sep 19, The Arctic Council was founded to promote joint scientific research and to study pollution, conservation and mapping. The Ottawa Declaration named eight members of the Arctic Council: Canada, Russia, Norway, Denmark, Iceland, the United States, Sweden and Finland. The first step towards the formation of the Council occurred in 1991 when eight Arctic countries signed the Arctic Environmental Protection Strategy (AEPS).
    (Econ, 3/24/12, p.61)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Arctic_Council)

1996        Sep 14, Team Canada lost the hockey finals of an 8-nation tournament for the World Cup to a US team.
    (SFE, 9/17/96, p.A12)

1996        Oct 22, The Godfrey-Milliken bill was introduced in response to the US Helms-Burton bill. It said that 3 million Canadian descendants of 80,000 uprooted loyalists from the time of the American Revolution have a right to compensation for their confiscated property.
    (SFC, 10/23/96, p.A8)

1996        Oct 25, Protestors opposed to spending cuts in Toronto shut down the mass transit system. Ontario Premier Mike Harris planned to cut the provincial budget by 20% in order to wipe out the deficit by the turn of the century.
    (SFC, 10/26/96, p.A8)

1996        Nov 29, A Canadian-led int’l. force won approval to provide humanitarian aid. The force would be based in Uganda.
    (SFC, 11/30/96, p.A12)

1996        Nov, Canada revised rules on overseas sales of ecologically sensitive technology to enable the sale of two 700-megawat Candu 6, nuclear reactors to China. The $3 billion project will be built in Qinshan and financed by a $1.1 billion loan from Ottawa.
    (SFC, 12/31/96, p.A11)
1996        Nov, The Canadian firm Hurricane Hydrocarbons Ltd. (later known as PetroKazakhstan Inc. of Calgary) won the bidding in the Kazakhstan’s first oilfield privatization. For $120 million it acquired a field producing 50,000 barrels a day with reserves of 340 million barrels. The deal was accompanied by an array of social obligations. It later faced problems with the Kazakh government over fuel pricing and environmental rules.
    (WSJ, 11/18/97, p.A1)(WSJ, 6/1/05, p.A11)

1996        Canada’s PM Chretien set up a program to promote federalism in Quebec after voters narrowly rejected secession in a referendum.
    (Econ, 11/5/05, p.42)
1996        Inco Corp. acquired the nickel deposits at Voisey Bay in Labrador from Diamond Fields Resources Inc. for $3.2 billion in cash and stock. At this time nickel was trading at $3.70 per pound.
    (WSJ, 10/15/98, p.B4)
1996        Canada began replacing its two-dollar notes with $2 coins called "toonies."
    (WSJ, 7/13/99, p.B1)(Econ, 3/16/13, p.75)

1996        Rebecca Middleton (17) of Ontario, Canada, died after being raped, tortured and stabbed on a beach in Bermuda. A suspect, Kirk Orlando Mundy, was allowed to strike a plea bargain deal with police in which he admitted to being an accessory after the fact and was sentenced to five years. The case against the other suspect, Justis Raham Smith, collapsed after a judge in Bermuda said there was insufficient evidence.
    (Reuters, 4/1/06)

1997        Jan 22, Canada and Cuba announced a 14-point agreement. They pledged cooperation on human rights and sought to shield foreign investors targeted for punishment by Washington.
    (SFC, 1/23/96, p.A8)

1997        Mar 22, Five Solar Temple cult members died in an apparent mass suicide in Quebec.
    (WSJ, 3/24/97, p.A1)
1997        Apr, The US Illegal Immigration Reform and Responsibility Act went into effect and began creating border crossing problems for Canadian business travelers.
    (WSJ, 6/4/98, p.A13)
1997        Apr, The Toronto Stock Exchange closed in favor of automated trading.
    (WSJ, 9/15/97, p.B1)

1997        May 30, Canada's 8-mile long Confederation Bridge, connecting New Brunswick to Prince Edward Island, was scheduled to be opened. It cost C$1 billion.
    (WSJ, 2/14/97, p.A1)(Econ, 11/29/03, p.34)

1997        Jun 2, A federal election on this date was called by Prime Minister Jean Chretien. He called for a mandate to decide Canada’s priorities now that the federal deficit was tamed. Voters returned Chretien and his centrist Liberal Party to power with a slight parliamentary majority.
    (SFC, 4/28/97, p.10)(SFC, 6/3/97, p.A8)

1997        Jun, The Supreme Court ruled that lap dancing violates standards of decency.
    (SFC, 6/28/97, p.E5)

1997        Jul 1, Thailand let its currency, the baht, float and it devalued about 20%. This event marked the beginning of the Asian economic crises. In 1999 Thailand sought to extradite Rakesh Saxena, a currency trader, from Canada for his role in an alleged fraud that drained over $2 billion from the Bangkok Bank of Commerce, which led to the devaluation of the baht. Pin Chakkaphak was blamed for the collapse of the currency and fled Asia. He was ordered back from Britain in 2001 to face accounting and theft charges. In 2009 Saxena (57) arrived in Thailand after his extradition from Canada to face charges he embezzled $88 million from the Bangkok Bank of Commerce, which collapsed in 1995. Saxena was also implicated in backing the attempted 1997 coup in Sierra Leone.
    (SFC, 7/3/97, p.D4)(WSJ, 7/21/97, p.A1)(SFEC, 5/31/98, p.D1)(WSJ, 5/7/99, p.A1)(SFC, 3/9/01, p.A16)(Econ, 3/25/06, p.80)(AP, 10/30/09)(Econ, 11/7/09, p.42)

1997        Jul 2, A Canadian commission, established to review the actions of peace-keeping troops in Somalia between 1992-93, concluded that the troops were unprepared and victimized by commanders who ignored problems that escalated to torture and the killing of a Somali teenager.
    (SFC, 7/3/97, p.C2)

1997        Jul 3, Lions Gate Entertainment Corp. (Lionsgate) was formed in Vancouver, BC. Its headquarters were later moved to Santa Monica, Ca.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Lions_Gate_Entertainment)(Econ, 1/25/14, p.57)

1997        Jul 21, In Canada fishermen released the Malaspina ferry, a blocked Alaska-bound ship at Prince Rupert. They were protesting US fishing of sockeye salmon heading for spawning in British Columbia.
    (SFC, 7/22/97, p.A10)

1997        Aug 14, It was reported that Ontario planned to close down 7 of 19 nuclear power plants for repairs. Inadequate maintenance practices and management problems were charged in an internal document and, Allan Kupcis, the CEO had resigned.
    (SFC, 8/14/97, p.C3)

1997        Oct 13, In Quebec a bus with 48 senior citizens overturned near St. Joseph-de-la-Rive and 43 were killed.
    (SFC, 10/14/97, p.A12)

1997        Oct 27, Teachers in Ontario walked out in protest against budget cuts.
    (WSJ, 10/28/97, p.A1)

1997        Nov 10, Classes resumed in Ontario following settlement of the teacher’s strike.
    (SFEC,11/10/97, p.A13)

1997        Nov 11, In Winnipeg a sniper shot and wounded a doctor of an abortion clinic at his home.
    (SFC, 1/29/98, p.A10)

1997        Nov 19, 45,000 Canadian postal workers went on strike after Canada Post ordered staffing levels cut.
    (WSJ, 11/20/97, p.A1)

1997        Nov 25, President Clinton and Pacific Rim leaders meeting in Vancouver, British Columbia, approved a rescue strategy for Asian economies shaken by plunging currencies, bank failures and bankruptcies. The 2-day APEC summit in Vancouver closed and leaders agreed to an IMF bailout plan. Forum leaders also agreed to admit Russia, Vietnam and Peru into the organization as of 1998.
    (SFC,11/26/97, p.C2)(HN, 11/25/98)

1997        Dec 3, In Canada as many as 120 countries began signing a ban on land mines in Ottawa. The US, China, Russia, Iraq were among those countries refusing to sign the ban.
    (SFC, 12/4/97, p.A1)

1997        Dec 4, Postal workers ended their strike under threat of heavy fines with a 5.15% wage increase over 3 years.
    (SFC,12/5/97, p.B5)

1997        Ontario’s Premier forced the municipal merger of Toronto, East York, Scarborough, York, Etobicoke and North York.
    (SFC,12/897, p.A15)
1997        Quebec, Canada, introduced a highly subsidized, early childhood education program for all.
    (Econ, 6/25/16, p.68)
1997        ING Direct, an online banking service under Dutch parent ING Groep NV, was launched in Canada. In 2000 it began operations in the US from Wilmington, Del. By the end of 2007 it had over 7 million customers and $62 billion in deposits. In 2008 Arkadi Kuhlman, ING’s US chief, and Bruce Philp, chairman of ING Direct’s marketing partner, authored “The Orange Code: How ING direct Succeeded by Being a Rebel with a Cause."
    (WSJ, 12/10/08, p.A17)

1998        Jan 2, In Canada Mayor Mel Lastman began running the new municipality of greater Toronto.
    (SFC,12/897, p.A18)

1998        Jan 4, Nirmal Singh Gill (65) was found beaten and bleeding in the parking lot of a Sikh temple in Surrey near Vancouver. He soon died. 5 young men linked to a white supremacist group, White Power, were later jailed on charges of murder.
    (SFC, 4/23/98, p.A16)

1998        Jan 5, An ice storm knocked out electricity in Quebec & Ontario.
    (MC, 1/5/02)

1998        Jan 7, The government apologized to the nation’s indigenous peoples for past acts of oppression and pledged $245 million for counseling and treatment programs. The aboriginal population is about 810,000 that includes 38,000 Inuits and 139,000 Metis, people of mixed Indian and white ancestry.
    (SFC, 1/8/98, p.A13)

1998        Jan 8-1998 Jan 9, The US Northeast and Canada were hit with a severe ice storm and at least 16 people were reported killed. Three million people were left without power and damage was estimated to reach $350 million.
    (SFC, 1/9/98, p.A3)(SFC, 1/10/98, p.A8)

1998        Feb, Senator Andrew Thompson was stripped of his salary for poor attendance. He resigned 6 weeks later.
    (SFC, 3/25/98, p.C14)

1998        Mar 6, It was reported that Panama hired a Canadian Indian tribe, the Tsuu T’ina, to clean out unexploded bombs and shells from an area of Empire Range, which US military forces abandoned.
    (SFC, 3/6/98, p.A12)

1998        Mar 13, Canada legalized the growing of industrial hemp
    (SFC, 3/14/98, p.A10)

1998        Apr 18, It was reported that marijuana revenues from British Columbia were estimated to be $400 million to over $3 billion.
    (SFC, 4/18/98, p.A8)

1998        Apr 26, Jean Chretien, Prime Minister of Canada, visited Cuba and with Fidel Castro inaugurated a new $40 million terminal at the Havana airport.
    (SFC, 4/20/98, p.A10)(SFC, 4/27/98, p.A12)

1998        Apr 27, In Cuba Prime Minister Chretien urged Fidel Castro to release four leading dissidents. It was reported that about 350 political prisoners were currently held.
    (SFC, 4/28/98, p.A6)

1998        May 21, Canada ordered major cuts in the catch of Coho salmon on the West Coast due to declining stocks. Fishing on the Skeena and Thompson River runs was banned and US officials were urged to take similar action.
    (WSJ, 5/22/98, p.A1)

1998        Jun 18, A commuter plane crashed near Montreal with engineers of Canadian General Electric Co. All 11 people aboard were killed.
    (SFC, 6/19/98, p.B4)

1998        Jul 29, A human rights tribunal ruled that Canadian public servants in female-dominated job categories deserved compensation for unequal pay. Payment was to be retroactive to March, 1985, and would range from $10k to 20k.
    (SFC, 7/30/98, p.A12)

1998        Jul 31, The Canadian dollar hit a historical low of 66.10 cents to $1US.
    (SFC, 8/1/98, p.A10)

1998        Aug 18, Micmac Indians on the Listuguj reservation ended a 3 week standoff over timber rights in Quebec.
    (SFC, 8/19/98, p.C16)

1998        Aug 20, In Canada the Supreme Court ruled that Quebec can’t secede unilaterally, but that if the province votes for secession, it must negotiate with the rest of Canada.
    (WSJ, 8/21/98, p.A12)

1998        Aug, In Alberta the RC Mounted Police arrested evangelical pastor Wiebo Ludwig (56), his wife and son and a friend for bombing an oil-well site. They were later released for lack of evidence. Over the last 2 ½ years some 160 attacks were made on natural resource companies in the area.
    (SFC, 11/3/98, p.C3)

1998        Sep 1, Pilots for Air Canada went on a two-week strike for the first time in the association’s 61 year history.
    (SFC, 9/2/98, p.A10)

1998        Sep 2, A Swissair MD-11 jetliner crashed off Nova Scotia with 229 people aboard and all were feared dead. The New York to Geneva flight had 136 Americans on board.
    (SFC, 9/3/98, p.A1)(SFC, 9/4/98, p.A17)(AP, 9/2/99)(WSJ, 11/13/01, p.A14)

1998        Sep 4, In Yarmouth Harbor, New Brunswick, the new Incat 046 catamaran collided with a fishing dragger and killed Captain Clifford Hood (33). The new ferry carried up to 900 passengers and 240 cars from Bar Harbor, Maine, to Yarmouth across the Bay of Fundy at 50 mph. Travel time was cut in half from 6.5 hours for the 105 mile run.
    (SFEC, 10/5/98, p.A3,5)

1998        Sep 6, Divers working off Nova Scotia found the flight data recorder from Swissair Flight 111, which had crashed Sep 2, killing all 229 people on board. However, it turned out the recorder had stopped working several minutes before the crash.
    (AP, 9/6/03)

1998        Sep 10, Air Canada and its pilots reached an agreement to end a 9-day strike. [see Sep 14]
    (SFC, 9/11/98, p.A3)

1998        Sep 11, Divers off Nova Scotia recovered the cockpit voice recorder from Swissair Flight 111, which had crashed Sept. 2, with 229 people aboard. The data recorder was found Sep 6.
    (AP, 9/11/03)

1998        Sep 14, Air Canada pilots ended a 13-day strike with a 9% salary increase over 2 years.
    (SFC, 9/15/98, p.A10)

1998        Oct 12, Canada planned to begin discussion with Norway, Sweden, Iceland and Liechtenstein for the first trans-Atlantic free-trade pact.
    (WSJ, 10/12/98, p.A1)

1998        Oct 27, In Canada the National Post began operations as a new national daily under the control of media tycoon Conrad Black.
    (WSJ, 10/26/98, p.A15)

1998        Oct, A bomb exploded at a gas well near Beaverlodge, Alberta. It was initially blamed on Wiebo Ludwig, a Calvinist organic farmer and preacher. It was later reported that the bomb was planted by the RCMP to insinuate an informant into Ludwig's band.
    (SFC, 2/16/99, p.C2)

1998        Nov 26, The Supreme Court of Canada ruled authorities at elementary and secondary schools have the right to search a student without first obtaining a search warrant.
    (AP, 11/26/02)

1998        Nov 30, Quebec's separatist premier, Lucien Bouchard, was returned to power, but with only 43 percent of the vote, setting back the Parti Quebecois' goal of seeking independence from Canada. The party won 42.7% of the vote vs. 43.7% for the Liberals.
    (AP, 11/30/99)(SFC, 12/1/98, p.A10)(WSJ, 12/2/98, p.A1)

1998        Dec 1, A new gun control law went into effect that required all 3 million gun owners to be licensed and every one of an estimated 7 million rifles and handguns to be registered.
    (SFEC, 3/28/99, p.A22)

1998        Wayne Johnson authored his novel “The Colony of Unrequited Dreams," set in Canada’s province of Labrador.
    (Econ, 8/19/17, p.28)
1998        The Canadian comedy film "Hard Core Logo" starred Hugh Dillon and was directed by Bruce McDonald. It was about the reunion of a Vancouver punk band and based on the novel by Michael Turner.
    (SFC, 12/4/98, p.C9)
1998        In Canada the Nisga’a First Nations tribe signed a treaty after more than a century of negotiation and litigation. The 6,400 Nisga’a gained ownership of almost 2,000 square km (770 square miles) in the Nass valley plus powers of self-government.
    (Econ, 12/12/09, p.40)
1998        US federal prosecutors in NY brought charges of fraud against Livent Inc., the Toronto-based producer of “Phantom of the Opera." US authorities deferred to their Canadian counterparts as Canadian police charged founder Garth Drabinsky and other executives with fraud. A trial was slated to begin in 2007.
    (WSJ, 10/27/05, p.C1)
1998        Quebec created a publicly funded day care program.
    (SFC, 6/9/00, p.A17)
1998        Ellesmere Island National Park Reserve was created. It covered 37,775 sq. km. of the island, the northernmost part of North America.
    (SFEM, 6/11/00, p.24)

1999        Jan 1, In Canada an avalanche, possibly triggered ceremonial gunfire, hit the Inuit village of Kangiqsualujjuaq, Quebec, and 9 people were killed.
    (SFC, 1/2/99, p.C12)(SFEC, 1/3/99, p.A17)

2000        Jan, In Alberta Wiebo Ludwig, an environmental radical, was arrested on charges of bombing a gas well.
    (SFC, 4/20/00, p.C3)

1999         April 1, In recognition of Inuit land claims, 770,000 sq. mls. of the Canadian Northwest Territories' Central Keewatin and Baffin Region became Nunavut Territory. Nominations for naming the western half were solicited. The territory would be governed by a 19-member legislature.
    (CAM, Nov. Dec. '95, p.28)(WSJ, 10/9/97, p.B1)(SFC, 3/30/99, p.F3)(SFEC, 8/15/99, p.T5)

1999        Apr 19, One of the annual Goldman Environmental Prizes went to: Bernard Martin, a Canadian fisherman, for his work opposing large factory trawlers.
    (SFC, 4/19/99, p.A2)

1999        Apr 19, In Canada a Toronto transit strike forced 800,000 commuters to seek alternate transportation.
    (WSJ, 4/20/99, A1)

1999        Apr 28, In Canada a 14-year-old boy shot 2 17-year-olds and killed one at W.R. Myers High School in Taber, Alberta. Jason Lang was killed and Shane Christmas was seriously wounded.
    (SFC, 4/29/99, p.A16)(SFC, 4/29/99, p.D4)

1999        May 20, In Canada the Supreme Court struck down a heterosexual definition of "spouse" as unconstitutional.
    (SFC, 5/21/99, p.A12)

1999        Jun 3, Ontario's Conservative Party, led by former golf pro Mike Harris, won the elections.
    (SFC, 6/4/99, p.D2)
1999        Jun 3, The US and Canada signed a 10-year accord to limit salmon fishing in the northwest based on the abundance of particular species.
    (WSJ, 6/4/99, p.A1)

1999        Jun 26, In Quebec 47,000 nurses launched a wildcat strike over wages and working conditions following 14 months of negotiations.
    (SFEC, 6/27/99, p.A21)

1999        Jun 30, In Canada the highest court in BC upheld a ruling that Canada's law against the possession of child pornography is unconstitutional.
    (SFC, 7/1/99, p.a14)

1999        Jul 17, The body of Canadian singer Fatima Kama (28) was found when a member of the public spotted a black suitcase abandoned on the third floor of a Heathrow Airport parking lot. Youssef Ahmed Wahid, a former Kuwait Airways steward, was arrested within days of the discovery at his hometown of Ramadiyeh in southern Lebanon. He reportedly denied having anything to do with the killing, and was eventually released and then went on the run. In 2010 authorities in Bahrain arrested Wahid as a suspect in the case. On Oct 3, 2011, Wahid was sentenced to at least 24 years in prison.
    (AP, 8/24/10)(AP, 10/3/11)

1999        Jul 19, In Nanaimo public hearings began on the expropriation of a 140-square-mile area of Nanoose Bay by the federal government from the province. The area was used by the US for torpedo testing.
    (SFC, 7/22/99, p.C2)

1999        Aug 14, In Canada hunters found the body of an ancient hunter preserved in a glacier in the Tatshenshini-Alsek Provincial Wilderness, 1000 miles north of Vancouver. The "Iceman" (aka Kwaday Dan Sinchi) was later reported to be about 500 years old.
    (SFC, 8/25/99, p.A1,9)(AM, 9/01, p.17)

1999        Aug, Alfred Reumayr of British Columbia was arrested in a joint operation by the US Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco, Firearms and Explosives and the Royal Canadian Mounted Police. In 2008 he pleaded guilty to plotting to blow up the Trans-Alaskan oil pipeline on New Year's Day 2000. He had planned to buy energy securities at low prices before the attack, and hoped to profit by selling them at a higher price amid market turmoil afterward.
    (AP, 3/14/08)

1999        Sep 1, The 8th biennial summit of Francophone nations was scheduled to open in Moncton, New Brunswick.
    (WSJ, 8/30/99, p.B1)

1999        Sep 3, In Canada at least 7 people were killed on a foggy patch of Highway 401 between Windsor and London as over 60 vehicles piled up.
    (SFC, 9/4/99, p.A12)

1999        Oct 10, Windsor, Nova Scotia, Canada, held its first pumpkin regatta on Lake Pesaquid. Danny Dill, son of Howard Dill, had proposed the pumpkin boating event to help the town capitalize on its history as the birthplace of giant pumpkin growing. In the 1970s Howard Dill had engineered mammoth pumpkins and patented the seed as Dill’s Atlantic Giant.
    (WSJ, 10/20/07, p.A1)(http://tinyurl.com/3y5me4)
1999        Sep 10, It was reported that Canada has 339 species in serious danger of disappearing and no federal legislation for protection of endangered animals.
    (SFC, 9/10/99, p.D4)

1999        Oct 13, Robert A. Mundell (66), a Canadian born professor at Columbia Univ., won the Nobel Prize in Economics for his study of cross-border capital flows, flexible foreign exchange rates, and supply side economics. A 1961 paper by Mundell had pioneered the theory of an “optimal currency area," which later helped shape the euro zone.
    (WSJ, 10/14/99, p.A2)(Econ, 6/13/09, SR p.10)

1999        Oct, Hong Kong born Adrienne Clarkson (60) was named governor general. She was the first Asian to serve as the queen's representative in Canada.
    (SFC, 10/25/99, p.A11)

1999        Nov 8, In Canada employers in BC locked out 2,000 waterfront workers and disrupted trade valued at $60 million per day.
    (WSJ, 11/9/99, p.A1)

1999        Dec 14, In Seattle Ahmed Ressam (32), an Algerian, was arrested after crossing the border at Port Angeles from Canada with a car trunk with over 150 pounds of bomb-making materials that included 200 pounds of urea, timing devices and a bottle of RDX, cyclotrimethylene trinitramine. Canadian authorities later issued an arrest warrant for Abdelmajed Dahoumane for possessing or making explosives. Dahoumane was arrested in Algeria In Oct, 2000. In 2001 Ressam admitted that he planned to detonate a bomb at the LA Int’l. Airport. Mokhtar Haouari provided fake ID and $3,000 to Ressam. Haouari was sentenced to 24 years in prison in 2002. In 2005 Ressam was sentenced to 22 years in prison.
    (SFC, 12/18/99, p.A1)(SFC, 12/20/99, p.D3)(SFC, 12/25/99, p.A3)(SFC, 12/30/99, p.A5)(SFC, 12/7/00, p.C10)(SFC, 5/30/01, p.A5)(SFC, 1/17/02, p.A12)(SFC, 7/28/05, p.A3)

1999        The Canadian comedy film "Last Night" was directed by Don McKellar.
    (WSJ, 11/5/99, p.W10)
1999        A 9-floor mausoleum condominium in Vancouver, with 4 of the floor underground, was scheduled to be completed by builder Alvin Mitchell. Theme floors for various religious groups would be included along with a roof top pyre with room for viewers.
    (WSJ, 3/9/98, p.A1)
1999        Canada took charge of the Giant Mine in Yellowknife, Northwest Territories, after the owner declared bankruptcy. The mine site contained some 237,000 tons of arsenic trioxide, a lethal compound produced in the extraction of gold.
    (Econ, 9/27/14, p.38)
1999        In Canada the Perimeter Institute for Theoretical Physics (PI) was set up at Waterloo, Ontario, by Mark Lazaridis, founder and co-CEO of Research In Motion. Lazaridis' initial donation of $100 million was announced on October 23, 2000.
1999        The fungus Cryptococcus gattii, normally found in Australia and other tropical zones, was discovered on Vancouver Island, Canada. By 2007 at least 8 people had died from infection and another 163 sickened.
    (SSFC, 4/8/07, p.A11)

2000        Feb 7, Doug Henning, Canadian-born magician, died in Los Angeles at age 52 from liver cancer.
    (SFC, 2/9/00, p.C5)(AP, 2/7/01)

2000        Mar 15, Canada passed the Clarity Act, which set out a procedure for the government to negotiate with any province that votes for independence by a clear majority.
    (www.cric.ca/en_html/guide/clarity/clarity_act.html)(Econ, 1/14/06, p.18)

2000        Mar 25, The Reform Party entered the Canadian Reform Conservative Alliance to oppose the governing Liberal Party.
    (SFC, 3/27/00, p.A13)

2000        Mar, Health Canada quarantined the country’s sperm banks after a woman contracted chlamydia from a donor sample.
    (SSFC, 3/25/01, p.C4)

2000        Apr 19, Wiebo Ludwig, an environmental radical, was convicted for bombing a gas well in 1998 and sentenced to prison.
    (SFC, 4/20/00, p.C3)

2000        Apr 29, It was reported that the Molson Beer ad, "Joe’s Rant" featuring Jeff Douglas (28), had become a national phenomenon for Canadian pride.
    (SFC, 4/29/00, p.A13)

2000        May 26, In Canada an outbreak of E. coli in Walkerton, Ontario, left 5 people dead and made over 1,000 very ill. The local water system had become contaminated.
    (SFC, 5/27/00, p.A13)

2000        May 27, Maurice "Rocket" Richard, hockey star, died at age 78. He led the Canadiens to 8 Stanley Cups.
    (WSJ, 5/30/00, p.A1)

2000        Jun 4, A 3-day meeting on trade of the 34-nation OAS, Organization of American States, began in Windsor, Canada. Police arrested 41 protesters.
    (SFEC, 6/4/00, p.A20)(SFC, 6/5/00, p.A9)

2000        Jun 15, In Canada demonstrators in Toronto protested cuts in social programs and clashed with police.
    (SFC, 6/16/00, p.A19)

2000        Jun 30, A bill that erased virtually all legal distinctions between heterosexual marriages and same-sex unions went into effect.
    (SFC, 7/3/00, p.A12)

2000        Jun, British Columbia created a publicly funded day care program.
    (SFC, 6/9/00, p.A17)

2000        Jul 11, In Vancouver Dr. Garson Romalis (63) was stabbed outside his abortion clinic by a suspected anti-abortion extremist. In 1994 Romalis was shot at his home by an anti-abortion sniper from Vermont.
    (SFC, 7/15/00, p.A14)

2000        Jul 14, A tornado hit the Green Acres campground near Red Deer, Alberta, and 9 people were killed. A 10th camper died the next day.
    (SFEC, 7/16/00, p.A2)(SFC, 7/17/00, p.A13)

2000        Jul, Stockwell Day, a Conservative from Alberta, was elected leader of the Canadian Conservative Alliance over founder Preston Manning.
    (SFC, 7/22/00, p.A10)

2000        Aug 3, Canadian sailors dropped from helicopters and took over the GTS Katie, a private American freighter, that held 3 Canadian soldiers and $250 million in military equipment that was being returned from Kosovo. The freighter had refused to dock over a payment dispute.
    (SFC, 8/4/00, p.A17)

2000        Sep 28, In Canada Pierre Trudeau, 2-time former premier, died at age 80. He led Canada from 1968-1979 and from 1980-1984.
    (SFC, 9/29/00, p.D7)

2000        Oct 3, Canadian Prime Minister Pierre Trudeau (10/18/1919-09/28/2000) was buried in Montreal. The spring of 1968 a wave of "Trudeaumania" swept Canada and Trudeau became a star (and Prime Minster) until he lost eleven years later. He won parliament election again in 1980-1984. Trudeau was noted for legislation that shaped Canada's future including supporting many women entering into political positions. On a personal note Trudeau was noted for taking a swing at the press either physically or verbally. While quite dapper with his trade mark rose in the lapel and his sexy style, Trudeau had a comical side sliding down banisters, and doing pirouettes behind the Queen's back at Buckingham Palace. Pierre Elliott Trudeau was named top Canadian newsmaker of the 20th century.
    (MC, 10/3/01)

2000        Oct 22, Canada’s Prime Minister Jean Chretien called for new elections in an attempt to increase his parliamentary majority.
    (SFC, 10/23/00, p.A10)

2000        Oct 27, Canadian authorities arrested the men they say masterminded the 1985 bombing of an Air India jumbo jet near Ireland that claimed the lives of all 329 people aboard. The men were acquitted at trial in March 2005.
    (AP, 10/27/05)

2000        Oct, Ron and Loren Koval disappeared and were soon accused of stealing over $50 million as directors of a financial company and health center in Toronto.
    (SFC, 11/4/00, p.A12)

2000        Nov 20, In Calgary Samer Jaber (17), a student at Lester B. Pierson High School, was stabbed to death over a $30 debt.
    (SFC, 11/21/00, p.A14)

2000        Nov 23, Canadian authorities apprehended Lai Changxing, a fugitive smuggler from Fujian province of China.
    (SFC, 12/27/00, p.C18)

2000        Nov 27, Prime Minister Jean Chretien (66) led the Liberal Party to a 3rd consecutive majority government in parliamentary elections with 41% of the popular vote and increased their seats in parliament to 173 of 301. The 63% turnout was a record low.
    (SFC, 11/28/00, p.A16)(SFC, 11/29/00, p.A16)(WSJ, 11/29/00, p.A1)
2000        Nov 27, Toronto Mayor Melvin Lastman was re-elected. In Dec. it was revealed that Lastman had engaged in a 14-year affair with Grace Louie that ended in 1971. Louie had just filed suit and alleged that Lastman fathered her 2 youngest sons.
    (SFC, 1/5/01, p.D6)

2000        Dec 9, Pres. Putin said he would follow the recommendation of the pardons commission and free Edmond Pope. It was later reported that Pope’s efforts to buy technology ran parallel to Canadian efforts to buy advanced Shkval torpedoes from a defense plan in Kyrgyzstan.
    (SSFC, 12/10/00, p.A27)(SFC, 1/3/01, p.A10)

2000        Dec 18, In Canada Pres. Putin of Russia met with Prime Minister Chretien and together supported existing nuclear arms accords. Chretien did not join Putin’s opposition to a US missile defense plan.
    (SFC, 12/19/00, p.B4)

2000        In Canada Mike Lazaridis, co-founder of Research In Motion (RIM), founded the Perimeter Institute for Theoretical Physics just outside Ontario’s Waterloo Univ. His initial support included a donation of C$100 million.
    (Econ, 3/19/05, p.68)(Econ, 9/23/06, TQ p.36)

2000        Canadian researchers began pancreatic islet transplants to patients with diabetes with 70-80% success to eliminate insulin shots.
    (WSJ, 4/10/02, p.A1)

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