Timeline Byzantium

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History: http://www.metmuseum.org/toah/hd/byza/hd_byza.htm

The Eastern Roman Empire that dates from the fall of the Western Empire in 476AD. A three volume dictionary on Byzantium was edited by Alexander Kazhdan (d.1997 at 74).
 (WUD, 1994, p.204)(SFC, 6/10/97, p.A26)

38        According to tradition, St. Andrew founded the See of Byzantium (Constantinople) installing Stachys as bishop. Andrew is said to have been later martyred by crucifixion at the city of Patras (Patrć) in Achaea, on the northern coast of the Peloponnese.

293        Mar 1, Roman emperor Maximianus introduced tetrarchy.
    (SC, 3/1/02)

302        Anthony (b.266) of Antioch, an early Christian priest, suffered martyrdom with Anastasius, Julian, Celsus and Marcionilla during the persecutions of Diocletian.

305        May 1, Emperor Gaius Aurelius Valerius Diocletianus Jovius of Rome abdicated. Constantius I Chlorus (Flavius Valerius Constantius) became Western emperor. Galerius (Gaius Galerius Valerius Maximianus) became Eastern emperor.

309        Maximinus II Daia (d.313) became Eastern emperor.

312        Oct 27, Prior to a battle between Constantine and Maxentius, Constantine experienced a vision of Christ that ordered him to ornament the shields of his soldiers with the Greek letters chi and rho, the monogram for Christ. Constantine won the battle and attributed his success to Christ. He became emperor of the West and an advocate of Christianity. [see Oct 28]
    (MC, 1/20/02)(MH, 12/96)(CU, 6/87)

312          Oct 28, Constantine the Great defeated Marcus Aurelius Valerius Maxentius at the Mulvian Bridge. Constantine’s smaller army (about 50,000 strong) won a decisive victory there; while fleeing, Maxentius drowned in the river. Constantine was instantly converted when he saw a cross in the sky, with the inscription "In hoc signo vincit" ("In this sign you shall conquer"). [see Oct 27]
    (HN, 10/28/98)(DoW, 1999, P.398)

313        Apr 30, Licinius unified the whole of the eastern empire under his own rule.
    (HN, 4/30/98)

313        Constantine met with the eastern emperor at Milan, capital of the late Roman Empire. They agreed on a policy of religious tolerance. The Edict of Milan legalized Christianity, but also allowed Romans religious choice.
    (CU, 6/87)(ITV, 1/96, p.58)(SFEC, 7/13/97, p.T13)(SSFC, 3/21/04, p.M6)

313        Maximinus II Daia, Eastern emperor, was killed at Tarsus.

314-335    Pope Sylvester I. A document from the 9th or 10th century called the "Donation of Constantine" was forged to show Constantine granting to Sylvester and his successors spiritual supremacy over all matters of faith and worship and temporal dominion over Rome and the entire Western empire.

317        Aug 7, Flavius Julius Constantius II, Emperor Egypt, Byzantium, Rome (337-61), was born.
    (MC, 8/7/02)

324        Constantine chose Byzantium as his new capital. He moved his court to Byzantium and chiseled his name on the portal.
    (ATC, p.24)(WSJ, 3/28/97, p.A1)

325        Licinius (Valerius Licianus Licinius), Eastern emperor, was deposed and executed by Constantine.

326        Jul 25, Constantine refused to carry out the traditional pagan sacrifices.
    (HN, 7/25/98)

326        Constantine executed his son Flavius Julius Crispus, born to his 1st wife, under the persuasion of his 2nd wife Fausta.
    (PCh, 1992, p.48)

326-330    The Church of the Nativity in Bethlehem was built by the Roman emperor Constantine. The church was rebuilt under Justinian (527-565).
    (SFC, 12/26/96, p.B2)(WSJ, 4/5/02, p.A1)

330        May 11, Constantine renamed the town of Byzantium to: "New Rome which is Constantine’s City." It became know as Constantinople.
    (ATC, p.31)(HN, 5/11/98)

330        Constantine began the building of the Great Palace in Constantinople.
    (SFC, 7/27/98, p.A8)

335        Oct 21, Constantinople emperor (Constantine the Great) enacted rules against Jews.
    (MC, 10/21/01)

335        Byzantine Emperor Constantine built the Church of the Holy Sepulcher in Jerusalem on the hill of Golgotha, where his mother claimed to have found the remains of the True Cross. It was raised by the Persians in 614, reconstructed and again destroyed by Caliph Hakim of Egypt in 1009. It was rebuilt by the Crusaders.
    (WSJ, 1/27/07, p.W13)

337        May 22, Constantine (47), convert to Christianity and Emperor of Rome (306-37), died. He had made Christianity the official religion of the Roman Empire and had the Chapel of the Burning Bush built in the Sinai Desert at the site where Moses was believed to have witnessed the Miracle of the Burning Bush. He was baptized just before death.
    (V.D.-H.K.p.92)(PCh, 1992, p.48)(MC, 5/22/02)

337        Sep 9, Constantine's three sons, already Caesars, each took the title of Augustus. Constantine II and Constans shared the west while Constantius II took control of the east.
    (HN, 9/9/98)

347-407    The era of St. John Chrysostom. He was the ecumenical Patriarch of Constantinople.
    (WUD, 1994 p.264)

360        Feb 15, The first Hagia Sophia was inaugurated by Constantius II. It was built next to the smaller church Hagia Eirene in Constantinople. Both churches acted together as the principal churches of the Byzantine Empire.

361        Nov 3, Flavius Julius Constantius II (44), the 1st Byzantine Emperor, died. Flavius Claudius Julianus, Julian the Apostate, succeeded Constantius and tried to make paganism the official religion of the empire.
    (V.D.-H.K.p.92)(PCh, 1992, p.48)(MC, 11/3/01)

364        Feb 26, On the death of Jovian, a conference at Nicaea chose Valentinan, an army officer who was born in the central European region of Pannania, to succeed him in Asia Minor.
    (HN, 2/26/99)

379-395    Theodosius I (c.346-395) served as emperor East Roman Republic.
    (WUD, 1994 p.1471)

380        Theodosius I ordered that all people under his rule embrace Christianity.
    (SSFC, 3/21/04, p.M6)

384        Sep 9, Flavius Honorius, emperor East Roman Republic (395-423), was born.
    (MC, 9/9/01)

393         The ancient Olympic Games were held at intervals beginning in 776 BC until about 393 CE when they were abolished by Roman emperor Theodosius I after Greece lost its independence. The modern Olympic Games were started in 1896. [see 396CE]
    (HNQ, 11/23/98)

396        The last Olympic Games were held under Emp. Theodosius I, who halted them due to increasing professionalism and corruption. [see 393CE] In 2004 Nigel Spivey authored “The Ancient Olympics."
    (SFC, 7/14/96, p.T1)(WSJ, 8/13/04, p.W8)

401        Apr 10, Theodosius II, the Younger, Eastern Roman emperor, was born.
    (MC, 4/10/02)

408        May 1, Theodosius II succeeded to the throne of Constantinople.
    (HN, 5/1/98)

411        Proclus (d.485), Greek mathematician and theologian, was born. [see 412]
    (WUD, 1994 p.1147)(MC, 4/17/02)

412        Feb 8, St. Proclus, Patriarch of Constantinople, was born. [see 411]
    (HN, 2/8/98)

415        Archbishop Cyril of Alexandria sent a mob of religious police to stop Hypatia, an eccentric pagan ascetic and scholar. The mob kidnapped her, dragged her to a church, stripped and tortured her with broken shards of pottery. Her body parts were then butchered, put on public display and burnt to a crisp. In 2004 Jonathan Kirsch authored "God Against the Gods: The History of the War Between Monotheism and Polytheism."
    (SSFC, 3/21/04, p.M1)

421        Feb 8, Flavius Constantine became emperor Constantine III of Roman Empire West.
    (MC, 2/8/02)

425        Feb 27, Theodosius effectively founded a university in Constantinople.
    (HN, 2/27/99)

474        Jan 18, Leo I, Roman Byzantine Emperor (457-74), died. He was succeeded by his grandson Leo II.

474        Nov 17, Leo II (b.467), Roman Byzantine Emperor, died.

527        Apr 1, Emp. Justin named Justinianus co-emperor of Byzantium. [see Apr 4]
    (OTD)(PC, 1992 ed, p.54)

527        Apr 4, In Constantinople, Justin, seriously ill, crowned his nephew Justinian as his co-emperor. [see Apr 1]
    (HN, 4/4/99)

527        Aug 1, Justinus I, Byzantine emperor (518-27), died.
    (PC, 1992 ed, p.54)

527-548    Empress Theodora, considered the most powerful woman in Byzantine history, rules with her husband Justinian.
    (ATC, p.24)

527-565    Justinian ruled the Byzantine Empire.
    (WSJ, 4/5/02, p.W12)

532        Jan 13-532 Jan 14, The 2nd Hagia Sophia cathedral burned down in Constantinople during the Nika uprising, which failed leaving some 30-40,000 people dead. Justinian and his wife Theodora had attended festivities at the Hippodrome, a stadium for athletic competition. Team support escalated from insults to mob riots and in the end Constantinople lay in ruins. Justinian proceeded to rebuild the city with extensive commissions for religious art and architecture, including the new Hagia Sophia.
    (ATC, p.33)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hagia_Sophia)

534        Justinian brought the Vandal king into Constantinople and resurrected the triumphal procession of 71AD.
    (SFC, 10/23/06, p.A15)

536        Dec 9, Byzantine Count Belisarius entered Rome through the Asinarian Gate at the head of 5,000 troops. At the same time, 4,000 Ostrogoths left the city through the Flaminian Gate and headed north to Ravenna, the capital of their Italian kingdom. For the first time since 476, when the Germanic king, Odoacer, had deposed the last Western Roman emperor and crowned himself “King of the Romans," the city of Rome was once more part of the Roman empire—albeit an empire whose capital had shifted east to Constantinople. Belisarius had taken the city back as part of Emperor Justinian’s grand plan to recover the western provinces from their barbarian rulers. The plan was meant to be carried out with an almost ridiculously small expeditionary force. The 5,000 soldiers that General Belisarius led included Hunnish and Moorish auxiliaries, and they were expected to defend circuit walls 12 miles in diameter against an enemy who would soon be back, and who would outnumber them at least 10-to-1.
    (HN, 12/9/98)(HNC, 10/1/99)

537        Dec 27, The Hagia Sophia Byzantine cathedral in Constantinople was consecrated. St. Sophia (meaning "the holy wisdom" in Greek) was built by Emperor Justinian. It remained a symbol of Byzantine grandeur until Istanbul was conquered by Muslim armies.
    (Sky, 4/97, p.55)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hagia_Sophia)

540        The Byzantines conquered Ravenna, the capital of the Ostrogothic Kingdom, in northern Italy.

541-542    The Plague of Justinian swirled around the Mediterranean and recurred over the next two centuries. It killed as many as 40 million people and weakened the Byzantine Empire. "The bodies of the sick were covered with black pustules... the symptoms of immediate death," wrote Procopius, historian of the Byzantine Emperor Justinian. At its peak in Constantinople, he reported, the plague killed 10,000 people a day.
    (https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Plague_of_Justinian)(NG, 5/88, p.678)

552        Agents from Byzantium impersonating monks smuggled silkworms and mulberry leaves out of China in hollow canes.
    (WSJ, 1/11/99, p.R50)(Econ, 8/23/08, p.51)

554        Aug 14, Ravenna became the seat of the Byzantine military governor in Italy.
    (MC, 8/14/02)

558        May 7, The dome of the church of St. Sophia in Constantinople collapsed. Its immediate rebuilding was ordered by Justinian.
    (HN, 5/7/99)

560        Emperor Justinian about this time returned the treasure of Jerusalem, plundered by the Romans in 70AD, to the Church of the Holy Sepulchre in Jerusalem.
    (SFC, 10/23/06, p.A15)

562        Belisarius stood trial in Constantinople on a charge of corruption. The charge is presumed to have been trumped-up and modern research suggests that his former secretary Procopius of Caesarea may have judged his case. Belisarius was found guilty and imprisoned but not long after, Justinian pardoned him, ordered his release, and restored him to favor at the imperial court. Belisarius and Justinian, whose partnership had increased the size of the empire by 45 percent died within a few months of each other in 565.

565        Mar, Flavius Belisarius (b.c500), military commander of the Byzantine Empire, died. He was instrumental in the reconquest of much of the Mediterranean territory of the former Western Roman Empire, which had been lost less than a century before.

565        Nov 14, Justinian I, [Petrus Sabbatius], Byzantine emperor (527-565), died at age 83.
    (Baker, 2002)

578        Oct 5, Justinus II, Byzantine emperor (565-78), died.
    (MC, 10/5/01)

590        St. Elijah's Monastery, aka Dair Mar Elia, was completed in Mosul. It was named after Assyrian Christian monk St. Elijah, who began the construction in 582. In 2014 the Christian monastery was destroyed by the Islamic State.
    (AP, 1/20/16)(SFC, 1/21/16, p.A4)

602        Nov 23,  Phocas, a low-ranking officer under Emperor Maurice, captured Constantinople and overthrew Maurice, and declared himself Byzantine Emperor on the same day. Phocas deeply distrusted the elite of Constantinople, and therefore installed his relatives in high military positions, and brutally purged his opponents. Phocas was an incompetent leader, both of the administration and army, and under him the Byzantine Empire was threatened by multiple enemies, with frequent raids in the Balkans from the Avars and Slavs, and a Sassanid invasion of the eastern provinces.

602-628    The Byzantine–Sasanian War of 602–628 was the final and most devastating of the series of wars fought between the Byzantine Empire and the Sasanian Empire of Iran. The previous war between the two powers had ended in 591 after Emperor Maurice helped the Sasanian king Khosrow II regain his throne. In 602 Maurice was murdered by his political rival Phocas. Khosrow proceeded to declare war, ostensibly to avenge the death of Maurice. This became a decades-long conflict, the longest war in the series, and was fought throughout the Middle East: in Egypt, the Levant, Mesopotamia, the Caucasus, Anatolia, Armenia, the Aegean Sea and before the walls of Constantinople itself.

610        Oct 5, Heraclitus' fleet took Constantinople.
    (MC, 10/5/01)

626        Aug 7, Battle at Constantinople: Slavs, Persians and Avars were defeated. Emp. Heraclius repelled the attacks. The attacks began in 625.
    (PCh, 1992, p.60)(MC, 8/7/02)

628        Apr 3, In Persia, Kavadh sued for peace with the Byzantines. He handed back Armenia, Byzantine Mesopotamia, Syria, Palestine and Egypt.
    (HN, 4/3/99)

635        The Byzantine city of Tiberius, a major center of Jewish life and scholarship for nearly five centuries, was conquered by Muslim armies.
    (AP, 1/28/21)

636        Jul 23, Arabs gained control of most of Palestine from Byzantine Empire.
    (MC, 7/23/02)

636        Aug 15, At the Battle at Yarmuk, east of the Sea of Galilee, Islamic forces beat a Byzantine army and gained control of Syria.
    (PC, 1992, p.61)

636        Nov, The Siege of Jerusalem began as part of a military conflict between the Byzantine Empire and the Rashidun Caliphate. It began when the Rashidun army, under the command of Abu Ubaidah, besieged Jerusalem. After six months, Patriarch Sophronius agreed to surrender, on condition that he submit only to the Caliph. In April 637, Caliph Umar traveled to Jerusalem in person to receive the submission of the city. The Patriarch thus surrendered to him.

641        Feb 11, Heraclius (~65), emperor of Byzantium (610-641), died.
    (MC, 2/11/02)

649        May 14, Theodore, Greek Pope (642-49), excommunicated by Paul II, died.
    (MC, 5/14/02)

662        Aug 13, Maximus Confessor (b.c580), Greek theologian, died.
    (MC, 8/13/02)

668        Jul 15, Constantine II (37), emperor of Byzantium, died.
    (MC, 7/15/02)

711        Dec 11, Justitianus II (~42), emperor of Byzantium, died.
    (MC, 12/11/01)

729        Emperor Leo the Isaurian ordered the destruction of an icon of Christ set in the great Bronze Gate in Constantinople. Theodosia led a group of enraged women who killed the officer removing the image. Theodosia was killed in the forum and became a martyr-saint. Her saint’s day was May 29.
    (Ot, 1993, p.3)

741        Jun 18, Leo III de Isaurier, Byzantine Emperor (717-41), died.
    (MC, 6/18/02)

787        Sep 24, The 2nd Council of Nicaea (7th ecumenical council) opened in Asia Minor.

787          Oct 23, Byzantine Empress Irene (c. 752-803) attended the final session of the 2nd church council at Nicaea, Bithynia [now Iznik, a city in Anatolia (now part of Turkey)]. The council formally revived the adoration of icons and reunited the Eastern church with that of Rome.

c799-878    St. Ignatius Nicetas. He served as the Patriarch of Constantinople from 846-858 and 867-878.
    (WUD, 1994 p.708)

802        Oct 31, Empress Irene was driven out of Byzantium.
    (MC, 10/31/01)

811        Jul 26, Byzantine Emperor Nikephoros I, or Nicephorus I (b.750), died in the Battle of Pliska, one of the worst defeats in Byzantine history. He served as emperor from 802 to 811. Both Syriac sources such as Michael the Syrian and Arabic ones like al-Tabari and Mas'udi hold that the emperor was of a Ghassanid Arab origin. The Byzantines had plundered and burned the Bulgar capital Pliska which gave time for the Bulgarians under monarch Krum to block passes in the Balkan Mountains that served as exits out of Bulgaria.

820        Dec 25, Leo V, the Armenian, Byzantine gen. and Emperor (813-20), was murdered.
    (MC, 12/25/01)

828        Apr 5, Nicephorus (~77), patriarch of Constantinople (806-815), died.
    (MC, 4/5/02)

842        Feb 19, The Medieval Iconoclastic Controversy ended as a council in Constantinople formally reinstated the veneration of icons in the churches.

860        Jun 18, Swedish Vikings attacked Constantinople.
    (MC, 6/18/02)

866        Sep 19, Leo VI Sophos, Byzantine Emperor (886-912) and writer (Problematica), was born.
    (MC, 9/19/01)

867        Feb 11, Theodora, the Saint, beauty queen, Byzantine Empress, died.
    (MC, 2/11/02)

886        Aug 29, Basilius I, the Macedonian, Byzantine emperor (867-886), died.
    (MC, 8/29/01)

891        Feb 6, Photius, Byzantine theologist, patriarch of Constantinople, saint, died.
    (MC, 2/6/02)

904        Jul 31, Arabs captured Thessalonica of the Byzantine Empire.
    (HN, 7/31/98)

911        Sep 2, Viking monarch Oleg of Kiev, Russia, signed a treaty with the Byzantines.
    (MC, 9/2/01)

917        Aug 20, A Byzantine counter-offensive was routed by Syeon at Anchialus, Bulgaria.
    (HN, 8/20/98)

963        Mar 15, Romanus II (25), Byzantine emperor (959-63), died.
    (MC, 3/15/02)

969        Oct 28, After a prolonged siege, the Byzantines ended 300 years of Arab rule in Antioch.
    (HN, 10/28/98)

969        Dec 10, Nicephorus II Phocas, Byzantine co-Emperor (963-69), was murdered.
    (MC, 12/10/01)

972        John I Tzimiskes, the Byzantine Emperor at Constantinople (969-976), granted a charter for the Monastic Republic of Holy Mount Athos in Greece.
    (SSFC, 10/8/06, p.H1)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/John_I_Tzimisces)

988        Prince Vladimir of Kiev accepted Byzantine Orthodoxy. This is the traditional date for the beginning of Russian Christianity. The Kievan Rus ruler was baptized in the ancient Crimean Greek city of Chersonesus before bringing Christianity to the region.
    (SSFC, 6/24/01, p.A14)(AP, 8/1/15)

992        Constantinople granted Venetian goods lower tariffs than other merchandise.
    (WSJ, 1/11/99, p.R50)

1000        About this time a 174-page manuscript was copied onto goatskin parchment in Constantinople from papyrus versions of Archimedes’ original calculations and mathematical diagrams. Over the years it was written over. The Archimedes Palimpsest was later discovered and examined using x-ray technology at the Stanford Linear Accelerator Center.
    (SFC, 5/23/05, p.A4)

1009        Oct 18, Al-Hakim ordered the destruction of the Holy Sepulcher in Jerusalem and its associated buildings, apparently outraged by what he regarded as the fraud practiced by the monks in the "miraculous" Descent of the Holy Fire, celebrated annually at the church during the Easter Vigil.
    (https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Al-Hakim_bi-Amr_Allah)(WSJ, 5/7/01, p.A20)(WSJ, 1/27/07, p.W13)

1014        Oct 6, The Byzantine Emperor Basil II (958-1025) earned the title "Slayer of Bulgars" after he ordered the blinding of 15,000 Bulgarian troops. Basil II was godfather to Russia’s Prince Vladimir.
    (HN, 10/6/98)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Basil_II)(Econ, 2/16/08, p.60)

1034        Apr 11, Romanus III Argyrus, Byzantine emperor (1028-34), was assassinated by his wife.
    (MC, 4/11/02)

1053        Jun 18, In Italy Richard of Aversa helped win the Battle of Civitate, inflicting a decisive defeat over the papal army, which had joined Byzantium in an alliance against the Normans.

1071        Aug 26, Turks defeated the Byzantine army under Emperor Romanus IV at Manzikert (Malaz Kard), Eastern Turkey. Romanus was taken prisoner.
    (PCh, 1992, p.85)(Ot, 1993, p.4)

1096        Aug 1, The crusaders under Peter the Hermit reached Constantinople. Anna Comnena, a 13 year-old Christian in Constantinople, watched as the crusaders marched into the city.
    (ATC, p.18)(HN, 8/1/98)

1100-1200    Constantinople was devastated by fires in the 12th century.
    (SFC, 7/27/98, p.A8)

1153        Mar 23, The first Treaty of Constance was signed between Frederick I "Barbarossa" and Pope Eugene III. By the terms of the treaty, the Emperor was to prevent any action by Manuel I Komnenos to reestablish the Byzantine Empire on Italian soil and to assist the pope against his enemies in revolt in Rome.

1153        Anna Komnene (b.1083), Byzantine princess and scholar, died. She was a daughter of the Byzantine emperor Alexios I Komnenos and Irene Doukaina. She is one of the first known female historians, having written the Alexiad.

1156        May 28, Battle at Brindisi: King William of Sicily beat a Byzantine fleet.
    (MC, 5/28/02)

1156        The first foreign exchange contracts were issued and allowed the repayment of Genoese pounds debt with Byzantine bezants.
    (WSJ, 1/11/99, p.R42)

1157        The Bank of Venice issued the first government bonds to raise funds for was with Constantinople.
    (WSJ, 1/11/99, p.R42)

1182        In Constantinople Western Christians were massacred by Muslims. A cardinal was beheaded and 4,000 Western Christians were sold into slavery.
    (WSJ, 5/8/01, p.A26)

1185        Sep 12, Andronicus I Comnenus, Byzantine emperor (1183-85), was lynched.
    (MC, 9/12/01)

1198        Fleeing from the Turks, a group of Armenian nobles and their followers settled in Byzantine Cilicia where they established a state know as Lesser or Little Armenia. In this year the area attained the status of kingdom and survived to 1375.

1204        Apr 9, The Venetians began their assault on Constantinople.

1204        Apr 12, The Fourth Crusade, led by Boniface of Montferrat, sacked Constantinople. Constantinople fell to a combined force of Franks and Venetians. The 4th Crusade failed to reach Palestine but sacked the Byzantine Christian capital of Constantinople. Crusaders plundered the Hagia Sophia cathedral, making off with its gold, silver and relics.
    (AM, May/Jun 97 p.)(NH, 9/96, p.22)(HN, 4/12/98)(Econ., 7/11/20, p.39)

1204         Venice won control over most of Albania, but Byzantines regained control of the southern portion and established the Despotate of Epirus.
    (www, Albania, 1998)
1204        The rule of Venice over Crete dates to this year, when the Republic was awarded 3/8 of the Eastern Roman Empire for its role in supporting the Fourth Crusade.

1237        Mar 23, Jan of Brienne, King of Jerusalem, Emperor of Constantinople, died.
    (SS, 3/23/02)

1238-1263    The Byzantine Hagia Sophia church in Trebizond was built during the reign of Manuel I during this period. It was converted to a mosque in the 16th century.

1261        Aug 15, Constantinople fell to Michael VIII of Nicea and his army.
    (HN, 8/15/98)

1281         Osman I came to power at the age of 23 and began a steady campaign against the Byzantines until his death in 1324. He managed to capture many Byzantine fortresses, most notably Bursa, consolidating Ottoman power in the region. Generally regarded as the founder of the Ottoman Turkish state, Osman I (also known as Osman Gazi) led ongoing campaigns against the Byzantines in the 13th and early 14th centuries AD. Part of the migration of Turkic tribes into Anatolia, Osman was the son of Ertugrul, who had established a principality in present-day Sögüt, Turkey.
    (HNQ, 2/19/01)

1320        Oct 12, Michael IX Paleologi, emperor of Byzantine (1295-1320), died.
    (MC, 10/12/01)

1332        Feb 13, Andronicus II Palaeologus, Byzantine emperor (1282-1328), monk, died.
    (MC, 2/13/02)

1355        Dec 20, Stephen Urosh IV of Serbia died while marching to attack Constantinople.
    (HN, 12/20/98)

1361        The Ottomans under Orhan crossed into Europe and captured Adrianople (Edirne), the 2nd major city of Byzantium.
    (Ot, 1993, p.5)

1391-1425    Manuel II Palaeologus ruled the Byzantine empire.
    (Econ, 9/23/06, p.59)

1404        Feb 9, Constantine XI Dragases, last Byzantine Emperor, was born.
    (MC, 2/9/02)

1408        Sep 22, Johannes VII Palaeologus, Byzantine Emperor (1376-77, 90/1404-8), died.
    (MC, 9/22/01)

1422        Sep 6, Sultan Murat II ended a vain siege of Constantinople.
    (HN, 9/6/98)

1425        Jul 21, Manuel Palaeologus, Byzantine Emperor (1391-1425), writer, died. He ended his days after signing a humiliating peace with the Ottoman Turks.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Manuel_II_Palaeologus)(Econ, 9/23/06, p.59)

1448            Oct 31, Johannes VIII Palaeologus (b.1390), Emperor of Byzantium, died.

1453        Apr 22-1453 Apr 23, The Ottomans hauled 76 warships out of the water and dragged them on wood rails to bypass the Greek blockade of the Constantinople harbor.
    (ON, 10/00, p.12)(Ot, 1993, p.13)

1453        May 29, Constantinople fell to Muhammad II, ending the Byzantine Empire. The fall of the eastern Roman Empire, Byzantium, to the Ottoman Turks was led by Mehmed II. Emperor Constantine XI Dragases (49), the 95th ruler to sit on the throne of Constantine, was killed. The city of Constantinople fell from Christian rule and was renamed Istanbul. The Hagia Sophia was turned into a mosque. Spice prices soared in Europe. Nicolo Barbaro wrote his "Diary of the Siege of Constantinople." Manuel Chrysophes, court musician to Constantine XI, wrote a threnody for the fall of Constantinople. In 2005 Roger Crowley authored “1453 The Holy War for Constantinople and the Clash of Islam and the West."
    (NH, 9/96, p.22)(Sky, 4/97, p.53)(SFC, 7/27/98, p.A8)(WSJ, 1/11/99, p.R49)(ON, 10/00, p.12)(Ot, 1993, p.6)(WSJ, 1/2/02, p.A15)(SSFC, 8/14/05, p.F4)

1935        In Istanbul, Turkey, the Hagia Sophia Byzantine cathedral was turned into a museum. Also called the Church of Holy Wisdom, it was built in 537 and remained a symbol of Byzantine grandeur until Istanbul was conquered by Muslim armies.
    (AP, 7/24/09)

1976        Ernst Kitzinger (1912-2003), a foremost historian of Byzantine, early Christian and early medieval art, authored “Byzantine Art in the Making."
    (SFC, 2/10/03, p.B4)

2007        Judith Herrin authored “Byzantium: The Surprising Life of a Medieval Empire."
    (Econ, 10/6/07, p.97)

2010        Feb 8, Byzantium Novum was founded as a micronation dedicated to the revival of Byzantine civilization and culture.

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