Timeline Berbers

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 The Berbers spread across Morocco, Algeria, Tunisia and to some extent Libya and Egypt. Berbers make up 25% of the population of Algeria.
    (SFC, 3/16/01, p.A18)
 The Berbers were Morocco’s 1st inhabitants and their native language is called Tamazight.
    (SFC, 3/16/01, p.A14)

158        Apulieus of Madaura (~124-~180), Romanised Berber and author of “The Golden Ass" (aka the Metamorphoses) defended himself at the Roman basilica in Sabratha (Libya) against charges of witchcraft in an oration known as Pro de se magia, or more commonly the Apologia. The Golden Ass is the only Latin novel which has survived in its entirety, and is an imaginative, irreverent, and amusing work which relates the ludicrous adventures of one Lucius, who experiments in magic and is accidentally turned into an ass.
    (Arch, 9/02, p.47)(http://tinyurl.com/lrgfb8)

300        About this time Berbers from North Africa began to rule Ghana and continued for about the next 400 years. They are thought to have originated as nomads from the Middle East.
    (ATC, p.113)

644-700    Muslims began a wave of invasions across North Africa. Arabic was imposed on the local Berbers after the Muslims conquered Morocco.
    (SFC, 3/16/01, p.A14)

703        Dihya or Al-Kahina, a Jewish Berber queen and a religious and military leader, died about this time at the Battle of Tabarka (701 and 702 are also possible dates for this battle. She had led indigenous resistance to the Muslim conquest of the Maghreb, the region then known as Numidia. She was born in the early 7th century and died around the end of the 7th century in modern-day Algeria.
    (https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Dihya)(Econ., 9/19/20, p.47)

711        Jul 9, Berbers under Tarik-ibn Ziyad occupied Northern Spain. The Umayyads with the help of the Berbers in North Africa moved across the Strait of Gibraltar and began the conquest of Spain and Portugal. The Berber leader Tarik crossed the Strait of Gibraltar and began the Muslim conquest of Spain. The word Gibraltar comes from the term Jabal-al-Tarik, which means the hill of Tarik. Gebel-al-Tarik means "Rock of Tarik."
    (ATC, p.79)(Enc. of Africa, 1976, p.170)(SFEC, 9/29/96, Z1 p.2)(MC, 7/9/02)

887        Ibn Firnas (b.810), a Muslim Berber, polymath, inventor, engineer, aviator, physician, Arabic poet, and Andalusian musician, died. He is said to have jumped from a height, wings attached and covered head to toe in feathers, in a failed attempt at flying, although he survived the jump.
    (AFP, 11/17/10)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Abbas_Ibn_Firnas)

c900-1000    The Bourghwata kingdom translated the Koran into Berber, but the kingdom was vanquished by Sunni Muslim puritans.
    (SFC, 3/16/01, p.A18)

992        Ghana captured its chief trading rival, the Berber town of Audoghast.
    (Enc. of Africa, 1976, p.172)

c1000BC    The Garamantes, a tribal people descended from Berbers and Saharan pastoralists, inhabited the area of the Fazzan in southern Libya.
    (AM, 3/04, p.24)

1062        Marrakech [Marrakesh], the Arab name for Morocco, was built as a fortified city by the first Berber dynasty, the Almoravids. It was the terminus of a trade route running southward to the Niger River and of another running eastward to Cairo.
    (NH, 5/96, p.40)(SFEC, 7/25/99, p.T10)

1969        In Morocco a silver mine began operating at Imiter, a Berber village nestled in the High Atlas mountains. It was operated by the Metallurgical Society of Imiter, a sister group of Managem, which is indirectly controlled by a holding belonging to Morocco's royal family. By 2004 villagers noted local water levels dropping. In 2011 local women began turning out by the hundreds, along with their kids and men of all ages, to block some of the main wells supplying water for mining operations.
    (AFP, 3/15/12)

1980        In Algeria Berber anti-government sentiment was mobilized in the “Tamazight Spring" uprising.
    (SFC, 3/16/01, p.A18)

1988        Oct 11, Violence began to subside in Algeria, where mass rioting by youths had broken out a week earlier, prompting the government to declare a state of siege.
    (AP, 10/11/98)
1988        Oct, Berber riots left hundreds dead in the “Black October" riots.
    (SFC, 3/16/01, p.A18)

1994        Sep, In Algeria Lounes Matoub, a popular Berber singer, was kidnapped by Islamic militants. He was held for over 2 weeks and released after over 100,000 people demonstrated for his freedom.
    (SFC, 6/27/98, p.A13)

1996        Nov 28, In Algeria a referendum was passed that banned political parties based on religion, language and regionalism, a reference to the large Berber community which has long worked for recognition of its language. Opponents denounced the elections as a sham.
    (SFC, 11/30/96, p.A12)

1998        Jun 25, Lounes Matoub (42), a popular singer and Berber patriot, was killed near Beni Douala. The Armed Islamic Group later claimed responsibility.
    (SFC, 6/27/98, p.A13)(SFC, 7/2/98, p.C2)

1998        Jul 5, Algeria celebrated independence and put into effect a new law making Arabic the country’s sole official language. The Berber minority struggled to have the government recognize their own language, Tamazight.
    (SFC, 6/27/98, p.A13)(SFEC, 7/5/98, p.A18)

2000        Mar, In Morocco Berbers submitted the “Berber Manifesto," which called on the state to recognize Tamazight as a national language.
    (SFC, 3/16/01, p.A18)

2006        Libyan leader Moamer Kadhafi lifted a ban on Berber names.
    (Econ, 8/13/11, p.44)

2010        Jan 6, In Morocco the first Berber TV channel in the ancient but marginalized tongue of Amazigh was launched after a decades-long struggle.
    (AFP, 1/18/10)(http://tinyurl.com/yfl4jpp)

2011        Jun 29, French daily Le Figaro reported that France has begun parachuting arms shipments to Berber rebels fighting Kadhafi's forces in the highlands south of Tripoli.
    (AFP, 6/29/11)

2011        Jul 1, Moroccan constitutional reforms made Tamazight, a form of Berber, an official language. Its written tradition extended to at least 200BC. The Tuareg traditionally use their own alphabet, called Tifinagh, to write it.
    (SSFC, 7/17/11, p.N3)

2016        Sep 26, Morocco adopted Amazigh spoken by its Berber community as an official language alongside Arabic, rounding off a reform program launched by King Mohammed VI in 2011.
    (AFP, 9/27/16)

2018        Jan 12, Algerian Berbers marked their New Year as a public holiday with feasts, dancing and horse parades, a first for the North Africa region where indigenous peoples have long suffered marginalization. On December 27 veteran President Abdelaziz Bouteflika had decreed that Yennayer would become an official holiday for the first time "to strengthen national unity".
    (AFP, 1/12/18)

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