Timeline Belarus

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History: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=yNgqNA7HRHc
Map (Interactive Map of Belarusian History):

 Belarus is about the size of Kansas.
    (SFC, 10/19/04, p.A6)

1015        Vladimir I (b.958), a prince of Novgorod and grand prince of Kiev, died. He had married the sister of Byzantine Emp. Basil II and was baptized in Crimea. Originally a Slavic pagan, Vladimir had converted to Christianity in 988 and Christianized the Kievan Rus. His domain split into warring fiefs that eventually gave rise to Belarus, Russia and Ukraine.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Vladimir_I_of_Kiev)(Econ, 11/5/16, p.44)

1067        Minsk (Belarus) was founded.
    (SFC, 7/5/97, p.C2)

1410        Jul 15, Lithuanian-Polish forces defeated the Teutonic Knights at the Battle of Tannenberg, Prussia, thereby halting the Knights’ eastward expansion along the Baltic and hastening their decline. Vytautas and Jogaila with hired mercenaries from Belarus along with Tartars and Czechs defeated the Teutonic Knights between Grunvald (Zalgiriai) and Tannenberg southeast of Malburg. Grand Master Ulrich von Jungingen and many of his nobles were killed. The war officially ended with the Treaty of Thorn in which the Knights gave up Zemaitija to Vytautas.
    (COE)(H of L, 1931, p.52)(DrEE, 11/9/96, p.6)

1484          Mar 4, Casimir (Kazimierz), the son of Lithuania’s Grand Duke Casimir, died in Grodno at age 25. In 1602 he was declared a saint and protector of Lithuania. St. Casimir was born Oct 3,1458, in Cracow.
    (LHC, 3/4/03)

1566          Mar 11, The 2nd Lithuanian statutes went into effect and upheld a democracy of landowners. The Statute of Lithuania gave the Seimas legislative power. The parliament had developed since Casimir ascended to the Polish throne. It was composed of an upper chamber or Council of Lords and assemblies of noblemen. They assembled in Vilnius or Brest-Litovsk.
    (DrEE, 10/5/96, p.5)(LHC, 3/11/03)

1582        Sep 8, A small Belorussian-Lithuanian force overcame a larger Muscovite force.
    (SFC, 9/2/96, p.A12)

1812        Nov 26, In Belarus Napoleon Bonaparte's army began crossing the Beresina River over two hastily constructed bridges. The Battle of Berezina began as Napoleon’s army retreated from its invasion of Russia. Heavy losses were later estimated to be as many as 25,000.
    (HN, 11/26/99)(AP, 11/24/19)

1812        Nov 29, The last elements of Napoleon Bonaparte's Grand Armee retreated across the Beresina River in Russia. Tens of thousands of French troops and civilians perished when the Russians attacked Napoleon's army as it crossed the Berezina River in Belarus on the punishing retreat from Moscow. The following Spring it was recorded that 32,000 bodies were rounded up and burned on the river banks near Studianka.
    (HN, 11/29/99)(AP, 11/26/07)(www.wtj.com/articles/berezina/)

1830        Nov 29, In Warsaw young Polish officers from the local Army of the Congress, Poland's military academy revolted against the Russian Empire. They were led by lieutenant Piotr Wysocki and were soon joined by large segments of societies of Lithuania, Belarus, and the Right-bank Ukraine. Nicholas I ruthlessly repressed the insurrection and by October 1831 Polish forces capitulated.
    (https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/November_Uprising)(WSJ, 4/13/99, p.A16)

1887        Jul 7, Marc Chagall (d.1985), French painter and designer, was born in Vitebsk, Belarus, Russia, as Moishe Shagal. He left there in 1907 to attend art school in St. Petersburg. He was sent to Paris by a benefactor and befriended Chaim Soutine and Alexander Archipenko and stayed until 1914. "From late cubism he adopted a manner of making forms and space interpenetrate." His work included "Les Amoureux" (The Lovers - 1916), a portrait of himself and his wife. In 1996 it sold for $4.2 mil. In 1997 Mikhail Guerman published "Marc Chagall: The Land of My Heart - Russia."
    (SFC,7/2/96,p.E3)(WSJ,10/8/96,p.A20)(SFEC,12/797,Par p.6)(HN, 7/7/01)

1893-1943    Chaim Soutine, artist, was born in Minsk. He studied art in Vilnius and moved to Paris. His work is seen in 3 distinct ways: as a crude primitive, as a master continuing in the French tradition, and as a prophet who helped form later painters.
    (WSJ, 5/14/98, p.A20)

1903        In Belarus Jews made history by being the first to resist a pogrom, defending 26 synagogues and prayer houses.
    (AP, 4/12/08)

1905        May 26, There was a pogrom against Jews in Minsk, Byelorussia.
    (MC, 5/26/02)

1918          Mar 3, Germany, Austria-Hungary, Bulgaria, the Ottoman Empire and Russia signed the Treaty of Brest-Litovsk, which ended Russian participation in World War I. Germany and Austria forced Soviet Russia to sign the Peace of Brest, which called for the establishment of 5 independent countries: Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania, Poland and Ukraine. The Treaty of Brest-Litovsk, which ended Russian participation in World War I, was annulled by the November 1918 armistice. The treaty deprived the Soviets of White Russia.
    (HN, 3/3/99)(LHC, 3/1/03)(AP, 3/3/08)

1918        Mar 25, Belarus proclaimed independence from Russia. The Belarusian People's Republic lasted until 1919.
    (LHC, 3/25/03)(AP, 3/25/18)

1919          Feb 27, The Bolsheviks took Lithuania and joined it with Belarus as a single Soviet republic. Litbel lasted until June 25.
    (LHC, 2/27/03)

1922        Dec 30, Vladimir I. Lenin proclaimed the establishment of the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics. The Soviet Union was organized as a federation of RSFSR, Ukrainian SSR, Belorussian SSR and Transcaucasian SSR.
    (AP, 12/30/97)(HN, 12/30/98)(MC, 12/30/01)

1922        The Belorussian Soviet Socialist Republic used a red and green flag.
    (SFC, 9/2/96, p.A12)

1923        Aug 15, Simon Peres [Persky], premier of Israel, was born in Belarus.

1937-1941    Some 2 million people were killed during Stalinist purges on the outskirts of Minsk.
    (SSFC, 9/2/01, p.A14)

1940-1945    Szymon Serafimowicz, a retired carpenter, was scheduled to be tried in 1996 in England for the killing of three Jews in Belarus in the early 1940s.
    (SFC, 4/16/96, p.A-9)

1941        Jun, The Nazis invaded Belarus in the summer of 1941. In Domachevo the Schutzmannschaft, a German-run police force was staffed by volunteers.
    (SFEC, 2/14/99, p.A23)

1941        Oct 14, The 1st mass deportations took place at Kovno, Lodz, Minsk & Riga.
    (MC, 10/14/01)

1941        Jun 24, Germans advanced into Russia and took Vilnius, Brest-Litovsk and Kaunas.
    (MC, 6/24/02)

1941        Jun 26, In Belarus Soviet NKVD mass-executed prisoners from Minsk in the nearby Tsagelnya forest. The wooden statue Mourning Ange, by sculptor Gennady Matusevich, was later erected at the location. Commemorative events are held every year in June. In 1942 Jonas Petruitis authored “Kaip jie mus sušaudė" (How They Shot Us Down).

1941        Jul 18, SS troops drowned 40 Jews in Dvina River in Byelorussia.
    (MC, 7/18/02)

1941        Nov, Some 4,000 who remained in Gomel, Belarus, were shot by the Nazis. Most of the 40,000 who had lived there had managed to escape before the Nazis arrived.
    (AP, 4/12/08)   

1941-1943    The three Jewish Bielski brothers, escaped Nazi-occupied Poland and established a refuge in the forests of Belarus. By the end of WWII they succeeded in saving some 1,200 men, women and children. In 2003 Peter Duffy authored "The Bielski Brothers: The True Story of Three Men Who Defied the Nazis, Saved 1,200 Jews and Built a Village in the Forest." Their story was depicted in the 2009 film “Defiance," directed by Edward Zwick.
    (SSFC, 7/13/03, p.M4)(WSJ, 1/2/08, p.W1)

1942        Jul 28, Nazis liquidated 10,000 Jews in Minsk, Russia.
    (SC, 7/28/02)

1942        Jul 30, German SS einsatzgruppen death battalions killed 25,000 Jews in Minsk, Byelorussia.
    (MC, 7/30/02)

1942        Jul 31, The German SS gassed some 1,000 Jews in Minsk, Byelorussia.
    (MC, 7/31/02)

1942        Aug 7, The Nazi 36th Police Battalion, made up of ethnic Estonians, massacred some 2,500 Jews at Novogrudok, Belarus (according to the Simon Wiesenthal Foundation).
    (SSFC, 2/15/04, p.A4)

1942        Oct 29, Nazis murdered some 16,000 Jews in Pinsk, Soviet Union.
    (MC, 10/29/01)

1942        Oct, On Yom Kippur 2,900 Jews were killed in Domachevo.
    (SFEC, 2/14/99, p.A23)

1942        Nov 6, Nazis executed 12,000 Minsk ghetto Jews.
    (MC, 11/6/01)

1942        Anthony Sawoniuk was convicted in London in 1999 for the murders of 2 Jewish women in Domachevo in this year. He was sentenced to life in prison.
    (SFC, 4/3/99, p.A4)

1943        Sep 11, The Jewish ghettos of Minsk & Lida in Byelorussia were liquidated.
    (MC, 9/11/01)

1943        Oct, Germans demolished the ghetto buildings of Minsk, known as the Yama, or Pit, in an effort to find Jews in hiding. 2,000 remaining Jews were rounded up and killed. More than 100,000 Jews were killed there from August 1941.
    (AP, 10/21/08)

1943        Michael Gorshkow, Estonian-Nazi interrogator, helped round up some 3,000 Jewish men, women and children at Slutsk, Belarus, where they were shot to death.
    (SSFC, 2/15/04, p.A4)

1944        Jun 29, A Russian assault battalion opened fire on German forces on the outskirts of Bobruisk, Belarus. As many as half of the 10,000 German soldiers were killed. In 1962 Nikolai Litvin, a Russian soldier present that day, completed his memoir. It was finally published in 2007 under the title "800 Days on the Eastern Front."
    (WSJ, 6/30/07, p.P6)

1944        Minsk was liberated from the Nazis.
    (SFC, 7/5/97, p.C2)

1955        May 16, Olga Korbut, Olympic gymnast (2 golds-1972), was born in Grodno, Byelorussia.
    (HN, 5/16/98)(MC, 5/16/02)

1961        In Belarus the Gomel Jewish cemetery was destroyed when a sports stadium was built. The remains lay largely undisturbed until the spring of 2008 when reconstruction began and a bulldozer turned up the first bones. Workers said they had no choice but to consign the bones to city dumps.
    (AP, 4/12/08)

1972        Aug 31, Olga Korbut (b.1955) of Belarus, USSR, won Olympic gold medal in floor exercises and the balance beam.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Olga_Korbut)(AP, 8/31/02)

1985         Svetlana Alexievich (b.1948), a Belarusian investigative journalist, authored “The Unwomanly Face of War." In 2017 it was published in English.
    (https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Svetlana_Alexievich)(Econ 7/22/17, p.65)

1986        Apr 26, The world's worst nuclear accident occurred in Pripyat, Ukraine, north of Kiev, at 1:23 a.m. as the Chernobyl atomic power plant exploded. A 300-hundred-square-mile area was evacuated and 31 people died as unknown thousands were exposed to radioactive material that spread in the atmosphere throughout the world. An exploded at Chernobyl, Ukraine, and burned for 10 days. About 70% of the fallout fell in Belarus. Damage was estimated to be up to $130 billion. By 1998 10,000 Russian "liquidators" involved in the cleanup had died and thousands more became invalids. It was later estimated that the released radioactivity was 200 times the combined bombs dropped on Hiroshima and Nagasaki. It was later found that Soviet scientists were authorized to carry out experiments that required the reactor to be pushed to or beyond its limits, with safety features disabled.
    (WSJ, 11/8/95, p.A-1)(SFC, 4/27/98, p.A14)(SFC, 12/18/99, p.C4)(AP, 4/26/05)(Econ, 10/6/07, p.18)

1988        Mass graves were discovered in the Kurapaty region outside of Minsk. Initial reports said the bodies belonged to people killed in Stalin purges. Pres. Lukashenko later said the bodies belonged to Belarusian Jews killed by Nazis.
    (SSFC, 9/2/01, p.A14)

1990        Mar 4, Voters in the Soviet republics of Russia, Byelorussia and the Ukraine participated in local and legislative elections, resulting in notable gains for reformists and nationalists.
    (AP, 3/4/00)

1990        Jul 27, White Russia (Belarus) declared sovereignty.

1991        Apr 10, A day after Mikhail Gorbachev appealed for a moratorium on all strikes, demonstrations and rallies, an estimated 200,000 workers in Byelorussia defied the Soviet president by staging a work stoppage in the capital, Minsk.
    (AP, 4/10/01)

1991        Aug 25, White-Russia (Belarus) declared it's independence.

1991        Sep 28, Stanislau Shushkevich became the first leader and head of state of independent Belarus after the dissolution of the Soviet Union.

1991        Dec 8, Russia, Byelorussia and Ukraine declared the Soviet national government dead, forging a new alliance to be known as the Commonwealth of Independent States. Stanislau Shushkevich of Belarus, together with the leaders of Russia (Boris Yeltsin) and Ukraine (Leonid Kravchuk), signed a declaration that the Soviet Union was dissolved and replaced by the Commonwealth of Independent States; the declaration later became known as the "Belavezha Accords".
    (AP, 12/8/01)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Stanislau_Shushkevich)

1991        Dec, Boris Yeltsin, Ukrainian Pres. Leonid Kravchuk, and Belarus Pres. Stanislav Shuskevich met in a hunting lodge to proclaim the Soviet Union null and void and to form a loose Commonwealth of Independent States.
    (SFC, 9/9/98, p.A10)

1991        Belarus gained independence.
    (G&M, 1/31/96, p.A-8)

1994        Jan 26, The Belarus Parliament ousted its reform-minded leader, Stanislav Shushkevich, in protest against his support for market economics.

1994        Jun 23, Belarus began two days of presidential elections. Part two took place on July 10. Alexander Lukashenko (b.1954), a former collective-farm boss, was elected president over PM Viacheslav Kebich and assumed office on July 20.

1994        A proposal was made to unite the monetary systems of Belarus and Russia, but fell apart when Russia refused to accept the financial burden of propping up Belarus.
    (WSJ, 3/25/96, p.A-14)

1994        Belarus gave up the nuclear weapons it inherited in the breakup of the Soviet Union, but it retained its highly enriched uranium stocks.
    (AP, 12/1/10)

1995        Apr, Seventeen lawmakers from the Belorussian Peoples Front (BNF), who refused to leave the parliament in protest of Lukashenko’s call to dump the red and white flag, were beat up by police and dragged out.
    (SFC, 9/2/96, p.A14)

1995        Sep 12, The Belarussian military border guards shot down a hydrogen balloon during an international race, killing its two American pilots.
    (SFC, 9/2/96, p.A12)(AP, 9/12/00)

1996        Jan, Belarus Pres. Alexander Lukashenko, president, brought back an almost identical version of its green and red Soviet era flag, and installed Russian as an official language. 95% of the people speak Russian as their main tongue.
    (G&M, 1/31/96, p.A-8)(Econ., 8/29/20, p.16)

1996        Apr 2, A treaty between Russia and Belarus was to be signed April 2. The plan was to create a supranational supreme council with its own anthem, flag and budget with members retaining sovereignty and national budgets. Other former Soviet states would be welcome to join.
    (WSJ, 3/25/96, p.A-1)

1996        May, Police battled demonstrators in central Minsk who protested the pro-Russian policies of Pres. Alexander Lukashenko.
    (SFC, 5/31/96, A16)

1996        Jun 14, Victor Gonchar, Lukashenko’s most active critic in parliament, was fired upon by police.
    (SFC, 9/2/96, p.A14)

1996        Aug 8, A crackdown on commercial banks was begun with new rules and sharp restrictions and in some cases nationalization. All banks must register by Jan 1, 1997.
    (WSJ, 8/9/96, p.A1,7)

1996        Aug 23, The Pres. said too many are trying to dodge the annual 92% tax on corporate earnings.
    (WSJ, 8/23/96, p.A8)

1996        Sep 6, Belarus lawmakers challenged the president and added amendments to a referendum that proposed the elimination of the presidency, popular election of local governors and tougher controls on government spending. Earlier in the week Lukashenko had the tax service freeze the accounts of 5 leading independent newspapers. They set Nov 24 as the voting date to abolish the presidency.
    (SFC, 9/7/96, p.A10)(WSJ, 10/8/96, p.A17)

1996        Nov 7, Pres. Lukashenko called a national referendum to obtain power to disband the legislature and extend his term of office from 5 to 7 years. His new constitution extended his office by 10 years, allowed him to appoint judges, boards and deputies, and would ban private property in the country.
    (SFC, 9/2/96, p.A14)

1996        Nov 18, Belarus PM Mikhail Chigir resigned and 75 of 199 lawmakers signed petitions to impeach Pres. Lukashenko.
    (SFC, 11/19/96, p.A13)

1996        Nov 21, Belarus still had 18 SS-25 nuclear ICBMs.
    (WSJ, 11/21/96, p.A22)

1996        Nov 24, Parliament set its own date for a vote to approve the abolishment of the office of the president. Lukashenko had the backing of the security apparatus which numbered about 150,000 in the pop. of 10 mil.
    (WSJ, 10/8/96, p.A17)

1996        Nov 25, In Belarus Pres. Lukashenko claimed victory in a referendum that proposed restarting his 5-year term with broad new powers. It extended his term to 2001, granted him immunity from prosecution, gave him control of key political positions from judgeships to Parliament seats and the authority to declare a state of emergency at will. Russia said that all nuclear warheads from Belarus had been returned.
    (SFC, 11/26/96, p.B2)(WSJ, 12/3/96, p.A18)(WSJ, 11/26/96, p.A1)

1996        Nov 26, In Belarus supporters of President Alexander Lukashenko broke away from Parliament, setting up their own assembly.
    (AP, 11/26/02)

1996        Dec 26, A $3.5-4 billion nuclear power plant was planned to be built over the next 3 years.
    (WSJ, 12/27/96, p.A4)

1996        Belarus Pres. Lukashenko held a referendum on capital punishment and 80% of voters supported it. Executions were done Soviet-style, with a bullet in the back of the head.
    (AP, 10/13/09)
1996        Vesna, a Belarus human rights group, began providing legal assistance to thousands of Belarusians who were fined, arrested or imprisoned for criticizing President Alexander Lukashenko's authoritarian policies.
    (AP, 8/5/11)

1997        Mar 23, American diplomat Serge Alexandrov, first secretary at the US embassy in Minsk, was ordered to leave the country for participating in an anti-government march. The Foreign Ministry accused him of being a CIA agent.
    (SFC, 3/25/97, p.A14)

1997        Mar 26, Belarus Pres. Lukashenko announced the revival of the Soviet tradition of “subbotniks," weekend unpaid mandatory labor.
    (SFC, 3/27/97, p.A15)

1997        May 1, The government imposed a $3 million tax fine on the Soros Foundation for alleged currency exchange violations. Soros called it a blatant attempt to suppress the independent sector in Belarus.
    (SFC, 5/2/97, p.A16)

1997        May 23, Russia and Belarus signed a union charter for economic, military and political cooperation.
    (SFC, 5/24/97, p.A8)

1997        Jul 27, In Belarus some 5-7 thousand marchers rallied to condemn Pres. Lukashenko. Within hours activists were detained by the government.
    (SFC, 7/28/97, p.A3)

1997        Aug 21, The Kremlin demanded the release of journalists of ORT TV. They had been jailed in Belarus for allegedly trying to cross the border illegally into Lithuania. The journalists had made negative reports on Pres. Lukashenko.
    (SFC, 8/22/97, p.A15)

1997        Sep 3, Belarus tax officials emptied the bank account of the Soros foundation and forced it to close down.
    (SFC, 9/4/97, p.A12)
1997        Oct 8, Pavel Sheremet, a TV journalist held for illegally crossing into Lithuania, was released after a 2-month detention. He still faced charges and was not allowed to leave Minsk.
    (SFC, 10/9/97, p.C3)

1997        Inflation in Belarus for the year ranged around 63%. The government forced all private companies to reregister their licenses and didn’t allow many of them to stay in business. Of an estimated 212,504 private companies and individual businesses, 123,869 closed up in 1997. Cheap credit and privileged trade access to Russia kept the  “Lukanomics" economy growing at a 10% rate, but the growth was not expected to be sustainable.
    (WSJ, 2/23/98, p.A19)

1998        Mar, The Belarus currency plunged heavily this month. Lukashenko ordered the arrest of some 30 government officials that he held responsible and marshaled the KGB to enforce various new decrees in an attempt to impose order on the markets.
    (WSJ, 3/30/98, p.A15)

1998        Jun 10, Belarus delayed a deadline for foreign diplomats to leave their residences to permit repairs following protests by diplomats.
    (WSJ, 6/10/98, p.A1)

1998        Jun 20, Ambassadors of the EU nations announced that they would leave Belarus to protest a government move barring them from their homes.
    (SFEC, 6/21/98, p.A17)

1998        Jul 13, Ten nations joined the EU in locking out the leaders of Belarus for the eviction of foreign ambassadors.
    (SFC, 7/14/98, p.A9)

1998        Nov 25, From Belarus it was reported that food rationing had been imposed for milk, meat and other goods due to shortages.
    (SFC, 11/26/98, p.B5)

1998        Dec 25, Belarus Pres. Lukashenko and Russian Pres. Boris Yeltsin declared an agreement to begin unifying their currencies and economies next year.
    (SFC, 12/26/98, p.A1)

1998        Dec 27, Belarus monthly income was reported to be down to an average $40 per month with sever inflation and product shortages.
    (SFEC, 12/27/98, p.A21)

1998        Belarus Pres. Lukashenko shut down Svaboda, the only independent newspaper in the country.
    (SFEC, 12/27/98, p.B13)

1999        Mar, Belarus police arrested former Premier Mikhail Chigir after he registered to run in opposition sponsored unofficial presidential elections. He was released in November but still faced a trial on corruption charges.
    (SFC, 12/1/99, p.C3)

1999        Apr 5, Gennady Karpenko, Belarus opposition leader and former deputy speaker of the 1996 disbanded parliament, died at age 49.
    (SFC, 4/8/99, p.C5)

1999        May 16, In Belarus an unofficial presidential election drew to a close after 10 days of door-to-door vote getting. One of the 2 candidates withdrew and the other was in prison and the affair was denounced by Pres. Lukashenko. Organizers pronounced the election invalid on May 19, claiming harassment, and called for another vote in 3 months.
    (SFC, 5/17/99, p.A10)(SFC, 5/21/99, p.D2)

1999        May 30, In Belarus at least 54 people, mostly teen-age girls, were killed in a stampede near an underground passageway in Minsk as they left a concert by a local beer company due to a sudden heavy rain.
    (SFC, 5/31/99, p.A10)

1999        Jul 20, The term of Belarus Pres. Lukashenko expired. He had extended his term to 2002 but the US said it would no longer recognize him.
    (WSJ, 7/22/99, p.A1)

1999        Jul 22, In Minsk, Belarus, police broke up a march by some 5,000 people against Pres. Lukashenko.
    (WSJ, 7/23/99, p.A1)

1999        Sep, In Belarus Lukashenko opponents, Viktor Gonchar and Anatoly Krasovsky, were shot to death. In 2001 2 KGB agents spoke on videotape and admitted the murders.
    (SFC, 8/28/01, p.A6)

1999        Oct 2, In Vitebsk, Belarus, it was reported that the remains of 375 people were found during excavation work at the abandoned Assumption Cathedral. The cathedral had served as a Nazi prison during WW II.
    (SFC, 10/2/99, p.A13)

1999        Dec 8, Russia and Belarus signed a 3rd union agreement. It proposed combining currencies by 2005 and the introduction of a joint tax system in 2001.
    (SFC, 12/9/99, p.C4)

2000        Mar 25, Thousands of people demonstrated in Minsk against the rule of Pres. Lukashenko and clashed with police.
    (SFC, 3/27/00, p.A13)

2000        Oct 15, Belarus held Parliamentary elections. Authorities hand-picked most candidates and those with known anti-Lukoshenko views were barred from running. Average salary in Belarus was $50 per month. An opposition call for a boycott failed due to rural government support.
    (SFEC, 10/15/00, p.A22)(SFC, 10/16/00, p.F8)

2001        Jul 19, It was reported that 2 Belarussian defectors alleged that the Lukashenko regime ran a death squad that had killed as many as 30 foes.
    (WSJ, 7/19/01, p.A1)

2001        Aug 27, In Belarus a videotape was released that showed 2 men saying they were members of the Belarus KGB and had shot to death 2 Lukashenko opponents in Sep., 1999.
    (SFC, 8/28/01, p.A6)

2001        Sep 9, Belarus held Presidential elections. Pres. Lukashenko won with 75.6% of the vote. There were widespread allegations of fraud and abuse. Opposition leader Vladimir Goncharik won 15.4%.
    (SSFC, 9/2/01, p.A14)(SFC, 9/10/01, p.B1)(SFC, 9/11/01, p.B3)

2002        Oct 30, Belarus authorities reported the discovery of a mass grave on a military base at Slutsk with the remains of up to 12,000 people killed during World War II. Some 800,000 Jew of Belarus were killed by Nazis.
    (AP, 10/31/02)

2002        Dec 2, Belarus said its ambassador to Japan has refused an order to return to the ex-Soviet state in what the envoy's friends said could be an attempt to stage a "Cold War-style" defection.
    (Reuters, 12/2/02)

2003        Jan 20, The leaders of Russia and Belarus reaffirmed their commitment to closer integration under a union treaty that has developed slowly since it was created nearly seven years ago.
    (AP, 1/20/03)

2003        Apr 14, The US followed the lead of 14 European countries and lifted a travel ban imposed last November on the president and seven top ministers of Belarus over alleged human rights violations in the former Soviet republic.
    (AP, 4/15/03)

2003        Jun 22, Vasil Bykov (79), one of the best-known and most talented writers in Belarus and a harsh critic of its authoritarian leader, died. His books about World War II — including "Sign of Misfortune," "Alpine Ballad" and "Sotnikov" were required reading for all Belarusian school children.
    (AP, 6/23/03)

2003        Jul 30, In Paris, France, 2 men from Belarus were arrested for running Regpay, an Internet-based child porn trade. A 3rd partner was arrested 2 days later in Spain. Agents later arrested 330 Regpay subscribers in the US.
    (WSJ, 1/17/06, p.A6)

2003        Oct 12, In  Belarus a patient at a mental hospital set fire to the building, killing 30 people and injuring 31.
    (AP, 10/12/03)

2004        Feb 16, In Belarus President Alexander Lukashenko ordered the Justice Ministry to strengthen control over political parties, community organizations and unions.
    (AP, 2/16/04)

2004        Jul 27, Belarus ordered a leading independent university closed, citing licensing problems, a week after a march against Lukashenko’s rule.
    (WSJ, 7/28/04, p.A1)

2004        Sep 19, Belarus barred dozens of opposition candidates from running in the Oct 17 legislative elections.
    (WSJ, 9/20/04, p.A1)

2004        Oct 17, Belarus voters went to the polls to decide whether to abolish presidential term limits and allow the authoritarian president to run for a third term in 2006. Opposition leaders accused the government of arresting exit-poll takers and turning away election observers.
    (AP, 10/17/04)

2004        Oct 18, In Belarus Elections Chairwoman Lidiya Ermoshina announced that the preliminary tally of all the ballots showed that more than 77 percent of registered voters approved dropping the two-term limit and that nationwide turnout was nearly 90 percent. The Organization for Security and Cooperation in Europe said that the elections "fell significantly short" of democratic norms. Thousands of people took to the streets to protest the results.
    (AP, 10/18/04)(SFC, 10/19/04, p.A6)

2004        Dec 30, Mikhail Marinich, Belarus opposition figure and former economic affairs minister, was sentenced to 5 years in prison for stealing computers owned by the US Embassy. The embassy did not report any thefts and the charges were considered spurious.
    (SFC, 12/31/04, p.A3)

2005        Mar 25, Some 1000 Belarusian demonstrators tried to rally outside the office of authoritarian President Alexander Lukashenko to demand his ouster, but they were beaten back by riot police swinging truncheons.
    (AP, 3/25/05)

2005        May 31, A Belarus court sentenced 2 opposition leaders to 3 years of compulsory labor for organizing a 2004 anti-Lukashenko demonstration.
    (WSJ, 6/1/05, p.A1)

2005        Aug 2, Belarusian police arrested two leaders of an ethnic Polish cultural group after seizing the group's headquarters, raising already heightened tensions between the neighboring countries.
    (AP, 8/2/05)

2005        Oct 2, The fragmented political opposition in Belarus chose Alexander Milinkevich (58), a former US-educated physicist, to challenge President Alexander Lukashenko in next year's presidential election.
    (AP, 10/2/05)

2005        Oct, In Belarus Veronika Cherkasova (44), who had worked for independent media outlets for the past 15 years, was killed in her home in Minsk. Sergei Ivanov, a top prosecutor in charge of the investigation, decided in December to suspend an inquiry "owing to the absence of individuals who can be brought to justice."
    (AP, 12/28/05)f

2005        Nov 23, Poland's two leading newspapers blacked out large sections of their front pages in an eye-catching protest against media repression in neighboring Belarus.
    (AP, 11/23/05)

2005        Nov, The opposition in Belarus invited citizens to mark the 16th of every month by turning off their lights and placing a candle in the window. They also adopted denim as their color following the September beating of activist Mikita Sasim, who made a flag of his denim shirt before being beaten unconscious by police.
    (Econ, 11/19/05, p.56)

2005        Dec 2, Belarus' lower house of parliament passed legislation that would make it a crime to discredit the state, be a member of the political opposition or an advocate for human rights.
    (AP, 12/02/05)

2005        Dec 14, Belarusian lawmakers passed legislation that would crack down on Internet dating and online spouse searches in the latest in a series of stringent government controls backed by authoritarian President Alexander Lukashenko.
    (AP, 12/14/05)

2005        Dec 16, Belarus' parliament set March 19 as the date for presidential elections, giving the opposition just a week to register a candidate to challenge authoritarian incumbent Alexander Lukashenko.
    (AP, 12/16/05)

2006        Mar 2, Belarussian President Alexander Lukashenko defiantly told his Western critics to stay out of his country's affairs, while an opposition rival for the presidency was beaten by security forces and detained.
    (AP, 3/2/06)

2006        Mar 10, Belarus told a group of EU legislators who were planning to monitor the upcoming presidential vote to stay home, labeling them troublemakers.
    (WSJ, 3/11/06, p.A1)

2006        Mar 14, Belarus authorities arrested more opposition activists as Belarusians cast early ballots for the March 19 presidential election.
    (AP, 3/14/06)

2006        Mar 19, In Belarus exit poll results gave hard-line incumbent Alexander Lukashenko an overwhelming lead in the presidential vote. The opposition candidate said he would not recognize the results. In 2009 Lukashenko said in an interview that he took 93% of the vote in the polls, but had the number reduced for "psychological" reasons.
    (AP, 3/19/06)(AFP, 8/27/09)

2006        Mar 20, European observers said that Belarus' presidential election did not meet international standards for a free and fair vote because of widespread detentions and intimidation.
    (AP, 3/20/06)

2006        Mar 23, Belarussian protestors camped out for a fifth day in central Minsk as an opposition party leader released from prison declared that President Alexander Lukashenko's regime was at a "dead-end."
    (AFP, 3/23/06)

2006        Mar 24, In Belarus police stormed the opposition tent camp in Minsk and rounded up hundreds of demonstrators who had spent a fourth night protesting President Alexander Lukashenko's victory in a disputed election. The US joined European nations in imposing sanctions on Belarus in retaliation for the crackdown on political protesters.
    (AP, 3/24/06)

2006        Mar 25, In Belarus riot police clashed with protesters in Minsk, forcing demonstrators back and hitting several with truncheons. Four explosions were heard, apparently percussion grenades set off by police.
    (AP, 3/25/06)

2006        Mar 28, Rights advocates said some 20 detained opposition supporters have gone on hunger strike to protest conditions at a Belarusian jail holding 400 opposition supporters, as authorities continued to crackdown on dissent following the disputed March 19 election.
    (AP, 3/28/06)

2006        Mar 30, Russia's natural-gas monopoly OAO Gazprom said that Belarus must pay European rates for its gas, an apparent bargaining ploy to win control over its neighbor's gas pipeline system and one that could stir trouble between the allies.
    (AP, 3/30/06)

2006        Apr 8, Belarussian President Alexander Lukashenko has been sworn in for a third five-year term and used the occasion to lash out at his foreign critics.
    (AP, 4/8/06)

2006        Apr 10, The EU barred Belarus President Alexander Lukashenko and dozens of his senior officials from entering any bloc countries to protest his re-election last month in a vote that international observers said was rigged.
    (AP, 4/10/06)

2006        Apr 21, Russia began delivering advanced anti-aircraft missiles to Belarus.
    (AP, 4/22/06)

2006        May 1, In Belarus more than 1,000 protesters carrying banned flags marched through Minsk to demand the release of jailed opposition leaders who had pledged to work for the removal of President Alexander Lukashenko.
    (AP, 5/1/06)

2006        May 25, In Belarus the Justice Ministry said it had asked a court to close down one of the country's leading human rights groups, the Belarusian Helsinki Committee.
    (AP, 5/25/06)

2006        May 26, In Belarus a monument to Soviet secret police founder Felix Dzerzhinsky was unveiled in Minsk, provoking protests from human rights defenders and opposition politicians.
    (AP, 5/26/06)

2006        May 29, A Belarus court sentenced Sergei Lyashkevich, an opposition campaign official, to five months in prison after convicting him of training and paying people to riot. Lyashkevich had directed opposition candidate Alexander Milinkevich's campaign office in Shchuchin.
    (AP, 5/29/06)

2006        Jul 13, In Belarus Alexander Kozulin (50), an opposition leader, was convicted of organizing an unauthorized rally against the disputed election of Pres. Lukashenko and sentenced to 5 1/2 years in jail.
    (AP, 7/13/06)

2006        Jul 24, In Belarus leftist Venezuelan President Hugo Chavez exchanged declarations of solidarity with the authoritarian leader of isolated Belarus, who shares his anti-US views. During the talks with Lukashenko, the two sides signed seven agreements on military-technical cooperation, economic and other ties as well as a declaration pledging a strategic partnership. Bilateral trade was just under $16 million in 2005.
    (AP, 7/24/06)

2006        Oct 26, Belarusian opposition leader Alexander Milinkevich was awarded the Sakharov Prize by the EU Parliament for his fight for democracy in the former Soviet republic.
    (AP, 10/26/06)

2006        Nov 23, Belarusian police detained opposition leader Alexander Milinkevich during a visit to a province where he was gathering signatures in support of candidates for local elections.
    (AP, 11/23/06)

2006        Nov 28, Belarus hosted a summit of the Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS). The participants fail to agree on any significant multilateral initiative and the summit itself was sullied by a media scandal.
2006        Dec 8, The wife of Alexander Kozulin, a Belarusian opposition leader imprisoned since last spring's protests, said her husband has entered the 50th day of a hunger strike and is in critical condition.
    (AP, 12/8/06)

2006        Dec 12, In Belarus Alexander Kozulin, a jailed former opposition presidential candidate, ended a hunger strike after refusing food for 54 days.
    (AP, 12/12/06)

2006        Dec 26, Talks between Belarus and the Russian state gas monopoly on Russia's demand for a price increase brought no resolution and a top company official said Belarus could face a New Year's gas cutoff. Gazprom said it failed to gain assent to double gas prices, but added that any cutoff would no affect EU nations.
    (AP, 12/26/06)(WSJ, 12/27/06, p.A1)

2006        Dec 27, Belarus issued an implicit threat that it could stop Russian gas deliveries through its pipelines to western Europe unless Russia's gas monopoly Gazprom relented on demands Minsk pay steep price increases in 2007.
    (AP, 12/27/06)

2006        Dec 31, Belarus agreed to a more than doubling of the price it pays for Russian gas, signing what it called an "unfortunate" deal two minutes before a midnight New Year's Eve deadline expired.
    (AFP, 1/1/07)

2007        Jan 3, Belarus vowed to charge fees for transshipped oil.
    (WSJ, 1/4/07, p.A1)

2007        Jan 6, Belarus stepped up its dispute with Russia over energy sales by announcing Saturday it has started a customs case against Transneft, Russia's pipeline operator.
    (AP, 1/6/07)

2007        Jan 7, Russia stopped pumping oil into  a pipeline network that crossed Belarus. The line delivered 12.5% of the EU’s oil needs.
    (Econ, 1/13/07, p.44)

2007        Jan 8, A senior Russian official said that Russia has been forced to stop delivering oil to Europe via Belarus after disruptions to the flow of exports it blamed on Minsk.
    (AP, 1/8/07)

2007        Jan 10, Belarus lifted a duty it had imposed on Russian fuel transiting the country.
    (SFC, 1/11/07, p.A7)

2007        Jan 11, Oil flowed again through the main pipeline from Russia to Europe after Moscow and Belarus agreed to settle a dispute that has hurt Russia's reputation as an energy supplier.
    (AP, 1/11/07)

2007        Jan 12, Russia reportedly agreed to slash the duty on oil exports to Belarus by 70% and Belarus will share with Moscow a substantial amount of profits from the refined oil products it sells to Europe.
    (AP, 1/12/07)

2007        Jan 14, Belarus held local elections. Government loyalists appeared to sweep the local elections, as President Alexander Lukashenko retained a firm grip over the former Soviet nation. Belarus opposition and human rights activists denounced the vote as rigged, and the United States and the European Union said it failed to meet democratic standards.
    (AP, 1/15/07)

2007        Mar 1, Belarus dismissed new financial sanctions imposed by the United States as politically senseless. President Alexander Lukashenko said his country was ready to normalize relations with Washington.
    (AP, 3/1/07)

2007        Mar 23, In Somalia a cargo plane was shot down by a missile during takeoff died. Ten of the crew died in the crash. Rescuers found a wounded crew member and took him to a Mogadishu hospital where he died while being treated. All crew members were either Ukrainian or Belarussian. Egi Azarian, acting head of Belarus-based Transaviaexport, confirmed that the company's plane was shot down.
    (AP, 3/24/07)

2007        Mar 25, In Belarus security forces prevented up to 1,500 opponents of President Alexander Lukashenko from protesting in the same square where unprecedented rallies shook the former Soviet republic a year ago.
    (AFP, 3/25/07)

2007        Apr 25, A top US diplomat warned of new sanctions against Belarus if authorities refuse to release what he said were political prisoners, and dropping charges against others.
    (AP, 4/25/07)

2007        May 21, The presidents of Belarus and Iran sought to cement ties that the Belarusian leader called "a strategic partnership." Belarus will develop an oil field in Iran under an agreement announced by President Alexander Lukashenko during a visit by Pres. Mahmoud Ahmadinejad.
    (AP, 5/21/07)

2007        May 23, Belarus lawmakers backed legislation stripping hundreds of thousands of disabled and retired people and students of social benefits and other state payments.
    (AP, 5/23/07)

2007        Jun 29, In Minsk Venezuelan President Hugo Chavez called for a strategic partnership with Belarus, calling his counterpart a "brother-in-arms" and lamenting the pressure he said the US was putting on Minsk and Caracas.
    (AP, 6/29/07)

2007        Aug 1, Russia's state-controlled gas monopoly said that it will reduce natural gas supplies to Belarus by 45 percent as of Aug 3 after Minsk failed to pay in full for previous gas shipments.
    (AP, 8/1/07)

2007        Dec 8, Venezuela’s Pres. Hugo Chavez promised to supply the oil needs of Belarus for years to come and dismissed Western accusations that Pres. Alexander Lukashenko is a dictator. Chavez presented Lukashenko with a medal, and they signed an agreement pledging military cooperation.
    (AP, 12/9/07)

2007        Dec 14, The leaders Belarus and Russia pledged closer cooperation on military, economic and foreign policy but gave no indication that the ex-Soviet neighbors were moving closer to a long-discussed full merger.
    (AP, 12/14/07)

2007        Dec 15, Russia's state-controlled gas monopoly said Belarus will pay nearly 20 percent more for Russian gas beginning next year.
    (AP, 12/15/07)

2008        Jan 10, In Belarus police broke up a rally of 2,000 entrepreneurs protesting moves by the authoritarian government to increase the burden on private business. The demonstrators opposed new legislation that would force them to reregister their ventures and double the amount of taxes they have to pay.
    (AP, 1/10/08)

2008        Jan 21, Police in ex-Soviet Belarus dispersed a protest by about 2,000 entrepreneurs denouncing President Alexander Lukashenko's decree that places restrictions on hiring staff. Businessmen said the new regulations deny them the right to hire workers outside their immediate families or obliges them to re-register and be subject to higher taxes.
    (AP, 1/21/08)

2008        Mar 7, The Belarusian Foreign Ministry said it has demanded that the US ambassador leave the country and recalled its ambassador in the US over Washington's economic sanctions against the ex-Soviet nation.
    (AP, 3/7/08)

2008        Mar 25, Belarus said it had uncovered a spy ring working for Washington, deepening a diplomatic and human rights row between the countries. Police beat demonstrators with truncheons and hauled them into waiting trucks as thousands of opposition protesters turned out in defiance of a government ban on the anniversary of the 1918 short-lived declaration of independence.
    (AP, 3/25/08)

2008        May 3, An embassy representative said 11 US diplomats have left Belarus after a row with the tightly controlled former Soviet state over human rights and sanctions.
    (AP, 5/3/08)

2008        Jun 25, Dozens of Belarusian news Web sites filled their pages with grim black banners to protest a new media law that will severely restrict the last source of independent information in the repressive ex-Soviet state.
    (AP, 6/26/08)

2008        Jul 2, President Alexander Lukashenko said he acceded to Western and opposition demands for greater democracy ahead of elections.
    (WSJ, 7/3/08, p.A1)

2008        Jul 4, In Belarus about 50 people were wounded by a home-made bomb that sprayed nuts and bolts into a crowd at an open-air concert in Minsk attended by long-time ruler President Alexander Lukashenko.
    (Reuters, 7/4/08)

2008        Jul 23, Venezuela signed over three more oil fields to a joint venture with Belarus, with Venezuelan President Hugo Chavez declaring that the two nations were strongly united in their resistance to "US imperialism" and Washington's "lackeys."
    (AP, 7/23/08)

2008        Aug 11, In Belarus Emmanuel Zeltser, an American lawyer, was sentenced to 3 years in prison after being convicted at a closed trial for commercial espionage and using false documents. He is an expert on organized crime and money laundering. The US raised protests over his detention and concerns about his health in custody. Zeltser (55) was released on June 30, 2009, following a presidential pardon.
    (AP, 8/12/08)(AP, 7/1/09)

2008        Aug 16, Jailed Belarusian opposition leader Alexander Kozulin, considered in the West to be the ex-Soviet state's most prominent political prisoner, was released. Kozulin was one of two opposition candidates to run against Lukashenko in a 2006 election and was jailed for 5 1/2 years for helping stage mass protests against the official result declaring the president the winner by a landslide.
    (Reuters, 8/16/08)

2008        Sep 20, Belarus President Alexander Lukashenko said he will cease all dialogue with Western countries if they fail to recognize the ex-Soviet state's parliamentary election.
    (AP, 9/20/08)

2008        Sep 28, Belarussians voted in parliamentary elections that could determine whether President Alexander Lukashenko's regime warms to the West or moves deeper into Russia's orbit. Loyalists of Lukashenko won every seat in the parliamentary polls that observers said failed Western standards and had the opposition crying foul.
    (AFP, 9/28/08)(AP, 9/29/08)

2008        Sep 29, Opposition activists in Belarus called for the US and EU not to recognize the results of parliamentary elections swept by supporters of Belarusian President Alexander Lukashenko, who had promised the vote would meet international standards.
    (AP, 9/29/08)

2008        Oct 13, The EU temporarily lifted a travel ban on the president of Belarus, a country regarded as Europe's last dictatorship, as relations with the country start to thaw.
    (AP, 10/13/08)

2008        Nov 2, Belarus President Alexander Lukashenko greeted visiting Libyan leader Moammar Gadhafi and said he hopes to boost ties between their countries.
    (AP, 11/2/08)

2008        Dec 15, In Belarus nearly 2,000 entrepreneurs rallied Minsk, decrying new regulations that they said are destroying small business in the ex-Soviet republic. New regulations, which take effect Jan 1, included doubling their taxes and forcing them to reregister their businesses.
    (AP, 12/15/08)

2008        Dec 22, Belarus' president sought $3 billion in economic aid from Russia to help its struggling economy, but Moscow demanded in return that Belarus recognize two breakaway Georgian regions as independent nations.
    (AP, 12/22/08)

2009        Jan 1, The IMF announced plans to lend Belarus $2.5 billion to help the country cope with the global economic crises.
    (WSJ, 1/2/09, p.A5)

2009        Feb 3, The Kremlin said Russia and Belarus will create a new military system to monitor and defend their air space.
    (WSJ, 2/4/08, p.A10)

2009        Feb 4, Russia sought to bolster its security alliance with six other ex-Soviet nations (Armenia, Belarus, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan and Uzbekistan) by forming a joint rapid reaction force in a continuing effort to curb US influence in energy-rich Central Asia.
    (AP, 2/4/09)

2009        Mar 15, Belarus' authoritarian Pres. Lukashenko allowed a banned organization of ethnic Poles to meet for the first time in four years, sending a tentative signal of his willingness to relax his tight hold in exchange for warmer ties with the West. The Union of Poles has been banned since riot police were sent in to take over its headquarters in March 2005.
    (AP, 3/15/09)

2009        Mar 26, The UN's top human-rights body approved a proposal by Muslims nations urging passage of laws around the world to protect religion from criticism. The resolution was sponsored by Pakistan, Belarus and Venezuela.
    (AP, 3/26/09)(Econ, 4/4/09, p.17)

2009        Apr 27, Belarus' authoritarian Pres. Lukashenko met with Pope Benedict XVI on his first trip to Western Europe since the European Union lifted a travel ban imposed in 1999 over his dismal human rights record. The EU lifted the ban to allow Lukashenko to attend an East-West summit in Prague, Czech Republic, in May.

2009        May 7, The European Union extended its hand to former Soviet republics, holding a summit to draw them closer into the EU orbit despite Russia's deep misgivings. Presidents, premiers and their deputies from 33 nations signed an agreement meant to extend the EU's political and economic ties. The six ex-Soviet republics to whom the “eastern partnership" would apply are Armenia, Azerbaijan, Belarus, Georgia, Moldova and Ukraine.
    (AP, 5/7/09)(Econ, 1/10/15, p.49)

2009        May 28, Russian PM Vladimir Putin met Belarus President Alexander Lukashenko in Minsk amid talk of massive loans to Minsk, just days after the Belarussian strongman made a furious attack on his Moscow ally.
    (AFP, 5/28/09)

2009        Jun 14, Belarus boycotted a Moscow-led security summit to protest a Russian ban on Belarusian dairy products, deepening a politically charged dispute between the two ex-Soviet neighbors. Russian President Dmitry Medvedev and the other Organization of the Collective Security Treaty (CSTO) leaders signed an agreement creating a joint rapid-reaction force that could bolster the power and prestige of the seven-nation alliance, seen largely as an ex-Soviet answer to NATO.
    (AP, 6/14/09)

2009        Jun 17, Belarus set up customs posts on its border with Russia for the first time in 14 years as a trade dispute between the two countries escalated.
    (AP, 6/17/09)

2009        Jun 29, In Belarus Vasily Yusepchuk (30), an illiterate, itinerant Gypsy worker, was sentenced to death by Brest Regional Court. He did chores for elderly women, and allegedly would sneak back at night to rob and strangle them. Lawyers insisted the case hinged exclusively on a confession that they claim was obtained through torture.
    (AP, 10/13/09)

2009         Aug, Aliaksandr Barankov (27) arrived in Ecuador after fleeing fraud and extortion charges in Belarus. He called the charges bogus, retribution for his having exposed a petroleum-smuggling ring involving senior officials of President Lukashenko's government, including relatives of the leader.
    (AP, 8/20/12)

2009        Dec 6, In Belarus men appearing to be law enforcement officers abducted four opposition activists in an attempt to scare them away from political activity in the repressive former Soviet republic. The activists were held for several hours in an imitation execution, before being released in the woods dozens of miles (km) from the capital, Minsk.
    (AP, 12/9/09)

2009        Dec 16, In Belarus the Nasha Niva independent newspaper said President Alexander Lukashenko has issued a decree to tighten state control over the Internet.
    (AFP, 12/16/09)

2010        Feb 11, Thai prosecutors said they have dropped charges against the five-man crew of an aircraft accused of smuggling weapons from North Korea, saying the men, arrested on Dec 12, might be guilty but would be deported to preserve good relations with their home countries. The decision was made after the governments of Belarus and Kazakhstan contacted the Thai Foreign Ministry and requested the crew's release so they can be investigated at home.
    (AP, 2/11/10)

2010        Mar 25, In Belarus some 2,000 opposition activists held a protest rally despite police blocks that authorities explained were part of security measures against an alleged bomb threat. March 25 has long been a traditional day of opposition demonstration, marking what they call Freedom Day, the anniversary of the 1918 declaration of the first, short-lived independent Belarusian state.
    (AP, 3/25/10)

2010        Mar 30, Amnesty International said Europe had its first year without executions in 2009. But the London-based organization said the spell was recently broken by the execution of two men in Belarus.
    (AP, 3/30/10)

2010        Apr 20, Kyrgyzstan's ousted president was in exile in Belarus, as the interim authorities controlling the Kyrgyz capital warned he would be imprisoned if he tried to return to the Central Asian country.
    (AP, 4/20/10)

2010        Jun 21, Russia started cutting most natural gas supplies to ex-Soviet neighbor Belarus over what it claims is a debt of nearly $200 million, threatening to rekindle political disputes in the region over energy policy.
    (AP, 6/21/10)

2010        Jun 22, Belarussian President Alexander Lukashenko ordered the shutdown of transit of Russian gas to Europe, escalating a new "gas war" after Moscow slashed supplies to Minsk in a debt dispute. Belarus said Gazprom owes it 217 million dollars in transit fees.
    (AFP, 6/22/10)

2010        Jun 23, Lithuania said its Russian gas supplies, which transit through Belarus, had been cut by 30 percent as a result of Russia's energy dispute with Belarus.
    (AP, 6/23/10)

2010        Jun, Stuxnet, computer malware, was first detected by VirusBlokAda, a security firm in Belarus. It was tailored for Siemens supervisory control and data acquisition (SCADA) systems commonly used to manage water supplies, oil rigs, power plants and other industrial facilities. It was able to recognize a specific facility's control network and then destroy it. The code had a technology fingerprint of the control system it was seeking and would go into action automatically when it found its target. In September German computer security researcher Ralph Langner said he suspected that Stuxnet's mark was the Bushehr nuclear facility in Iran. Unspecified problems have been blamed for a delay in getting the facility fully operational. Stuxnet used 4 main exploits, packets of computer code that allow hackers to infiltrate or gain control of computers running software with design flaws.
    (AP, 9/24/10)(Econ, 10/2/10, p.63)(Econ, 3/30/13, p.65)

2010        Jul 4, Russia’s NTV, a TV channel controlled by Gazprom, aired “Godfather," a documentary that portrayed Belarus Pres. Lukashenka as a brutal election-rigging, opposition-repressing tyrant.
    (Econ, 7/24/10, p.53)

2010        Jul 5, Belarus signed a customs union with Russia and Kazakhstan.
    (Econ, 7/24/10, p.53)

2010        Sep 3, In Belarus the editor a popular opposition website was found dead amid an ongoing crackdown on government critics and independent media. The body of Oleg Bebenin (36) was found in his country house outside Minsk.
    (AP, 9/4/10)

2010        Oct 16, In Belarus visiting Pres. Chavez of Venezuela promised that Belarusian refineries, the backbone of the country's economy, would see no oil shortages for the next 200 years.
    (AP, 10/16/10)

2010        Dec 1, Belarus announced that it will give up its stockpile of material used to make nuclear weapons by 2012. The arrangement was announced on the sidelines of an international security meeting in the Central Asian nation of Kazakhstan by US Secretary of State Hillary Rodham Clinton and her Belarussian counterpart, Sergei Martynov.
    (AP, 12/1/10)

2010        Dec 19, Belarus held elections. Authoritarian leader Alexander Lukashenko expressed confidence that he would win a fourth term. Opposition leaders and rights activists reported that more than 30 people campaigning against the president had been detained. The country's election commission declared that Lukashenko got almost 80% of the vote in a preliminary count, handing him a fourth term in office.
    (AP, 12/19/10)(AP, 12/20/10)

2010        Dec 20, International observers and Western governments accused Belarus' strongman leader of using fraud and violence to remain in power after more than 16 years of repressive rule, saying that Pres. Lukashenko's re-election had been seriously flawed.
    (AP, 12/20/10)

2010        Dec 21, In Belarus Grigory Kostusyev, a presidential candidate arrested after weekend elections, said the KGB tried to pressure him into renouncing his opposition to the country's authoritarian regime.
    (AP, 12/21/10)

2010        Dec 22, A rights group said Belarus has opened criminal probes against 18 leading opposition figures over involvement in post-election riots that could see them jailed for up to 15 years. Belarus has said it arrested over 600 people in the wake of recent protests against authoritarian President Alexander Lukashenko's re-election.
    (AFP, 12/22/10)

2010        Dec 23, The EU and the US jointly threatened to review ties with Belarus following an opposition crackdown after elections that kept President Alexander Lukashenko in power.
    (AFP, 12/23/10)

2010        Dec 24, Belarus President Alexander Lukashenko was officially declared the winner of a fourth term in office in a vote that both his challengers and international monitors say was tainted by fraud.
    (AP, 12/24/10)

2010        Dec 28, Belarus Pres. Lukashenko appointed Mikhail Myasnikovich (60), the official head of the Belarussian Academy of Sciences, as the new prime minister.
    (SFC, 12/29/10, p.A2)

2010        Dec 29, Belarus lawyers said the seven presidential candidates who were arrested after this month's election have been formally charged with organizing a mass public disturbance and face up to 15 years in prison.
    (AP, 12/30/10)

2010        Dec 30, Reporters Without Borders said that since Dec. 25, the Belarus KGB had searched the offices of 3 news outlets and an opposition party, the homes of 2 journalists, 2 human rights activists, 2 former presidential candidates and 4 of their advisers. The homes of 2 more journalists were searched the next day.
    (AP, 12/31/10)

2010        Dec 31, Belarus declared that Europe's top rights watchdog would no longer be able to work in the country, after the OSCE condemned the conduct of this month's presidential election.
    (AP, 12/31/10)

2010        The population of Belarus was about 10 million.
    (Econ, 12/4/10, p.66)

2011        Jan 5, A lawyer for the Belarus Helsinki Committee said police had seized computers at its office and taken its director in for questioning.
    (AP, 1/5/11)

2011        Jan 14, In Belarus state-controlled media accused the intelligence services of Germany and Poland of trying to organize a coup during last month's presidential election.
    (Reuters, 1/14/11)

2011        Jan 21, Belarus Pres. Lukashenko (56) warned that no dissent will be tolerated as he took the oath of office for a fourth time in a ceremony that was boycotted by EU ambassadors.
    (AP, 1/22/11)

2011        Jan 31, The US and the EU imposed sanctions against Belarus Pres. Lukashenko and scores of other officials for a broad crackdown on the opposition following fraudulent elections last year.
    (SFC, 2/1/11, p.A2)

2011        Feb 4, US Sens. John McCain and Joseph Liberman visited Lithuania. McCain and Lieberman slammed the Belarusian regime, labeling President Alexander Lukashenko a ruthless tyrant and called on Washington to take the lead on imposing sanctions on the country.
    (AP, 2/4/11)

2011        Mar 24, The Czech Interior Ministry said Ales Mikhalevich has been given political refugee status. The Belarus political activist had been jailed and beaten after running against Alexander Lukashenko in presidential elections. Mikhalevich was released on Feb 19.
    (AP, 3/24/11)

2011        Mar 25, In Belarus police attacked hundreds of opposition activists who tried to hold an anti-government rally. March 25 has long been a traditional day of opposition rallies marking the anniversary of Belarus' short-lived declaration of independence from Russia in 1918.
    (AP, 3/26/11)

2011        Mar 29, The Obama administration slapped sanctions on a state-owned energy company in Belarus over a $500 million investment with an Iranian firm accused of contributing to Iran's suspect nuclear program.
    (AP, 3/29/11)

2011        Apr 11, In Belarus a subway bombing in Minsk left 11 dead and more than 200 wounded. 4 others died soon after. Authorities soon detained several people in what they are calling a terrorist attack. Suspects Dmitry Konovalov (25) and Vladislav Kovalyov (25) went on trial in September. On Nov 30 both men were convicted of terrorism and sentenced to death.
    (AP, 4/12/11)(AP, 4/25/11)(AP, 9/15/11)(AP, 11/30/11)

2011        Apr 13, Belarus President Lukashenko announced three suspects had confessed to the April 11 Minsk metro bombing that killed 12 as he threatened a new wave of repression against the opposition. Two more suspects were detained by the next day.
    (AFP, 4/13/11)(Reuters, 4/14/11)

2011        Apr 27, In Belarus a Minsk court found Dmitry Bondarenko guilty of organizing a rally protesting election results last December that attracted some 50,000 people. He was sentenced to two years in prison for his part in organizing the rally.
    (AP, 4/27/11)

2011        May 14, Andrei Sannikov (57), a Belarusian presidential candidate, was sentenced to five years in prison following a trial that he denounced as political punishment for challenging the nation's authoritarian ruler. On May 16 a court gave his journalist wife, Irina Khalip, a two-year suspended prison sentence for taking part in an antigovernment rally.
    (AP, 5/14/11)(AP, 5/16/11)(Econ, 5/14/11, p.66)

2011        May 28, In Belarus plainclothes officers and one in uniform burst into the office where the round-table on police reform was being held. The seven activists arrested included a Russian and three Ukrainians.
    (AP, 5/28/11)

2011        Jun 23, Belarus police released most of the 450 or so protesters they detained the previous evening at a rally against President Alexander Lukashenko in the capital Minsk. Several dozen were put on trial. The protests in Minsk, and nearly 30 other Belarusian cities, was the third such action in as many weeks.
    (Reuters, 6/23/11)(AP, 6/23/11)

2011        Jun 29, Belarusian police violently dispersed the latest peaceful rally by thousands of people protesting Lukashenko's regime and the country's worst financial crisis since the fall of the Soviet Union two decades ago.
    (AP, 6/30/11)

2011        Jul 2, The Belarus government, eager to avoid protests on the July 3 national holiday, began blocking access to the social media sites, including VKontakte, a Russian version of Facebook.
    (AP, 7/3/11)
2011        Jul 2, Russia restored power to Belarus after a 4-day cutoff due to unpaid bills.
    (SSFC, 7/3/11, p.A5)

2011        Jul 3, Belarus blocked access to Facebook, Twitter and a major Russian social networking site in an attempt to prevent opposition protests on a national holiday. Thousands of police and special forces were deployed in the center of Minsk, the capital.
    (AP, 7/3/11)

2011        Jul 6, Belarus police attacked peaceful protesters detaining hundreds in the latest series of rallies calling for the ouster of Pres. Lukashenko.
    (SFC, 7/7/11, p.A2)

2011        Aug 4, Belarus police detained Ales Belyatsky of the human rights Vesna group outside his home in the capital, Minsk, and also conducted searches in his apartment and country house, as well as the group's offices. The group criticized Lithuanian authorities for providing information on Belyatsky's activities to Belarusian police. The Lithuanian Justice Ministry said it will now cut off communication channels that were used to provide legal information to Belarus.
    (AP, 8/5/11)

2011        Aug 12, Poland's PM Donald Tusk lambasted prosecutors for giving Belarusian police confidential financial information on Ales Belyatsky, a prominent human rights activist. The information contributed to his arrest and allowed Belarusian authorities to file criminal charges against him.
    (AP, 8/12/11)

2011        Aug 16, Poland's prosecutor general announced the dismissal of two officials who played a role in giving Belarus financial data about Ales Belyatsky, a leading human rights activist, information that resulted in his arrest.
    (AP, 8/16/11)

2011        Aug 19, Belarus said it has suspended an effort to fully give up its Soviet-era stockpile of highly enriched uranium with US assistance in response to new American sanctions.
    (AP, 8/19/11)

2011        Oct 1, In Belarus Dmitry Uss, one of the seven opposition presidential candidates arrested after last year's election, was released from jail after a pardon from authoritarian President Alexander Lukashenko. Two other candidates remained in prison, serving sentences of five to six years. Two others were given suspended sentences and freed nearly five months after their arrest. Another has fled the country and been given asylum in the Czech Republic. The seventh was released several days after his arrest.
    (AP, 10/2/11)

2011        Oct 8, In Belarus some 1,000 protesters rallied in Minsk to call for new presidential and parliamentary elections as the country experienced its worst financial crises since the fall of the Soviet Union.
    (SSFC, 10/9/11, p.A4)

2011        Oct 13, Belarus published new measures granting police sweeping new powers in a clampdown on opposition groups.
    (SFC, 10/14/11, p.A2)

2011        Oct 26, Russian newspaper journalist Igor Karmazin, working on a report about the opposition in Belarus, said he was deported overnight from the authoritarian ex-Soviet nation by the secret police. Lukashenko said that his government has learned the lessons of the Arab Spring uprisings and knows how to deal with protests organized through social networks.
    (AP, 10/26/11)

2011        Nov 24, Belarus' leading human rights activist, Ales Belyatsky (49), was convicted of tax evasion and sentenced to 4.5 years in prison at a trial condemned by US and European Union officials as politically motivated.
    (AP, 11/24/11)

2011        Dec 19, Belarus police arrested dozens of regime opponents who tried to stage a banned vigil in Minsk. Australian filmmaker Kitty Green (27) was detained while covering a topless protest outside the offices of the Belarussian KGB security services to mark Lukashenko's disputed re-election a year ago. Three members of the radical Femen group were also seized by KGB security agents who forced them to strip naked in a forest and threatened to torch them.
    (AFP, 12/20/11)

2012        Feb 28, The EU announced the withdrawal of its envoys from Belarus, hours after Belarus asked the head of the EU's delegation in Minsk and the Polish ambassador to leave and said it was withdrawing its own from Brussels and Warsaw. The tit-for-tat followed EU sanctions passed a day earlier on Belarus over repression of the political opposition.
    (AP, 2/29/12)

2012        Mar 17, Belarus state television reported that both Vladislav Kovalyov (26) and Dmitry Konovalov (26) had been put to death, which in Belarus is done with a shot to the back of the head. Two men were convicted of carrying out a deadly subway bombing last year in Minsk. Belarus is the only country in Europe that still puts people to death, and rights activists claim that around 400 people have been executed since the 1991 Soviet collapse.
    (AP, 3/18/12)

2012        Mar 25, In Belarus several thousand people joined an anti-government rally calling for the release of political prisoners and for European-style democracy.
    (SFC, 3/26/12, p.A2)

2012        Apr 14, Belarus pardoned Andrei Sannikov, a political prisoner and former presidential candidate. He had been convicted in 2011 of organizing mass unrest.
    (SSFC, 4/15/12, p.A5)

2012        Apr 25, European ministers began returning to Belarus. Poland, Lithuania and Sweden sent their representatives back to Minsk today. Other ambassadors will return over the next hours and days.
    (Reuters, 4/25/12)

2012        Jul 4, A Swedish ad team from Studio Total dropped hundreds of teddy bears carrying messages promoting human rights onto Belarus. On Aug 11 the ad team was summoned by Belarus' top security agency — the KGB — for violating the country's air space. On Aug 14 Studio Total instead offered to discuss the stunt directly with Belarus President Alexander Lukashenko and invited him to Sweden.
    (AP, 8/11/12)(AP, 8/14/12)

2012        Aug 8, Belarus ordered Sweden to close its embassy in Minsk by the end of the month, a move that comes only days after Belarusian President Alexander Lukashenko's regime forced the Swedish ambassador out of the country.
    (AP, 8/8/12)

2012        Sep 23, Belarus held parliamentary elections without the main opposition parties, which boycotted the vote to protest the detention of political prisoners. Not a single opposition politician won a seat in the parliament in the vote. Int’l vote observers the next day condemned the elections as lacking in competition.
    (AP, 9/23/12)(AP, 9/24/12)

2012        Dec 7, Belarus Pres. Lukashenko signed a decree banning some industrial workers from leaving their jobs, in an effort to stem an expodus of workers to Russia.
    (SFC, 12/8/12, p.A2)

2013        Jan, Belarus police began going after gays, raiding their clubs and locking up clubbers overnight, and summoning gay activists for questioning in response to a decision by gay activists across the country to try to legally register their rights organization, GayBelarus.
    (AP, 2/15/13)

2013        Jun 13, Germany-based Opel said GM signed an agreement today to start building its Corsa model at facilities owned by partner Unison in Belarus.
    (AP, 6/13/13)

2013        Aug 30, Russia banned pork imports from Belarus, stepping up a diplomatic and trade war over the arrest of Uralkali's CEO, Vladislav Baumgertner, a Russian businessman, and threatening to deepen the isolation of its former Soviet ally. The dispute followed the collapse this month of a Russia-Belarus sales cartel that controlled two-fifths of the $20-billion global market for potash, an ingredient used in mineral fertilizers.
    (Reuters, 8/30/13)

2013        Sep 2, Belarus authorities issued an arrest warrant for Suleyman Kerimov (47), a Russian billionaire who co-owns the Moscow-based potash company Uralkali, as a power struggle escalated over exports of the fertilizer.
    (AP, 9/2/13)

2013        Oct 19, Belarus freed Paval Sevyarynets (36), a leading opposition politician. He had served three years forced labour for protesting against the iron-fisted rule of President Alexander Lukashenko.
    (AFP, 10/19/13)

2013        Nov 26, In Yemen unknown gunmen killed a foreign military expert and wounded his colleague in a drive-by shooting in Sanaa. The two were Belarussian citizens who were working "on private contract."
    (AP, 11/26/13)

2013        Dec 25, Russia’s Pres. Putin announced $2 billion in loans to Belarus next year following talks with Belarus Pres. Alexander Lukashenko.
    (SFC, 12/26/13, p.A2)

2014        Mar 29, German magazine Der Spiegel reported that the US National Security Agency kept more than 300 reports on Chancellor Angela Merkel in a special databank about scores of foreign heads of state. Other leaders listed in the databank include the heads of Peru, Somalia, Guatemala, Colombia and Belarus.
    (AP, 3/29/14)

2014        May 29, Russian President Vladimir Putin signed a deal creating an economic union with ex-Soviet states Belarus and Kazakhstan.
    (AFP, 5/29/14)

2014        Jun 21, Belarus released Ales Bialiatski (51), the leader of the Vyasna rights group, nearly three years into his prison sentence and 20 months ahead of schedule.
    (AP, 6/21/14)

2014        Aug 26, In Belarus Russian President Vladimir Putin met with Ukrainian President Petro Poroshenko, urged him not to escalate an offensive against pro-Moscow rebels, and threatened economic retaliation for signing a trade accord with the EU. Poroshenko replied by demanding a halt to arms shipments from Russia to the separatist fighters.
    (Reuters, 8/26/14)

2014        Sep 1, In Belarus pro-Russian rebels softened their demand for full independence, saying they would respect Ukraine's sovereignty in exchange for autonomy — a shift that reflects Moscow's desire to strike a deal at a new round of peace talks.
    (AP, 9/1/14)

2014        Sep 5, In Ukraine fighting raged between government forces and pro-Russian rebels just east of the strategic port of Mariupol despite the start of talks between envoys from Ukraine and Russia in Minsk on a ceasefire and a peace plan. Ukraine and pro-Russian rebels agreed to a ceasefire.
    (Reuters, 9/5/14)

2014        Nov 25, In Belarus Alexander Alesin, a military analyst for a well-known weekly newspaper, went missing since when he was reportedly snatched in a cafe in Minsk by unknown men. On Dec 8 police admitted holding him in jail.
    (AP, 12/8/14)

2014        Dec 19, Belarus imposed a 30 percent fee on currency exchange transactions in an effort to contain panic that has spilled over from neighboring Russia.
    (AP, 12/19/14)

2014        Dec 23, Russia and four other ex-Soviet nations completed the creation of a new economic alliance intended to bolster their integration. The Eurasian Economic Union, which includes Russia, Belarus, Kazakhstan, Armenia and Kyrgyzstan, comes to existence on Jan 1. Belarus President Alexander Lukashenko cracked the ceremonial veneer of the meeting by launching a harsh attack on Moscow for damaging Belarus' economic interests with moves to restrict its exports to Russia.
    (AP, 12/23/14)

2014        Dec 24, In Belarus peace talk began aimed at reaching a stable cease-fire in Ukraine between its government forces and pro-Russian armed groups. Talks ended after over five hours with no indication of progress.
    (AP, 12/24/14)(SFC, 12/25/14, p.A5)

2015        Jan 2, The Eurasian Economic Union, a trade bloc of former Soviet states, expanded to four nations when Armenia formally joined, a day after the union between Russia, Belarus and Kazakhstan began.
    (AP, 1/2/15)

2015        Jan 31, Ukrainian former president Leonid Kuchma, a Russian diplomat and an Organization for Security and Cooperation in Europe (OSCE) official met at a state residence in the Belarussian capital Minsk for a new round of peace talks.
    (Reuters, 1/31/15)

2015        Mar 20, Russian President Vladimir Putin called for a single currency with the Kremlin's closest ex-Soviet allies at a meeting with his Kazakh and Belarusian counterparts in Kazakhstan’s capital Astana.
    (AFP, 3/20/15)

2015        Aug 22, Belarusian President Alexander Lukashenko unexpectedly pardoned six political prisoners in the former Soviet republic, including former opposition presidential candidate Nikolai Statkevich (59), who spent nearly five years in prison.
    (AP, 8/23/15)

2015        Sep 19, Russian President Vladimir Putin said he has backed the establishment of an airbase in neighboring Belarus.
    (Reuters, 9/19/15)

2015        Oct 5, Belarusian independent media outlets accused the government of blocking their websites less than a week before presidential elections.
    (AP, 10/5/15)   

2015        Oct 6, Belarussian President Alexander Lukashenko said his country did not need a Russian military base.
    (Reuters, 10/6/15)

2015        Oct 8, Belarusian writer Svetlana Alexievich (b.1948) won the Nobel Prize in literature for works that chronicled the great tragedies of the Soviet Union and those that followed in the wake of its 1991 collapse. Her work included "Zinky Boys: Soviet Voices from the Afghanistan War" (1989), “Enchanted with Death" (1993) and "Voices from Chernobyl: Chronicle of the Future" (1997).
    (AP, 10/8/15)   

2015        Oct 11, Belarus held presidential elections. Authoritarian leader Alexander Lukashenko faced no serious competition and was expected easily to win a fifth term. Lukashenko won 83.5 percent of the vote.
    (AP, 10/11/15)(AP, 10/12/15)

2015        Oct 29, The EU said it will suspended most sanctions against Belarus for four months as of Oct 31, citing "improving relations" after authoritarian President Alexander Lukashenko released all remaining political prisoners.
    (Reuters, 10/29/15)

2016        Mar 4, It was reported that a Lithuanian court sentenced Andrey Osurkov (29), a former paramedic with the Baltic nation's armed forces, to three years in jail for spying for neighboring Belarus.
    (AP, 3/4/16)

2016        Mar 11, Belarussian media said security service have detained prominent businessman Yury Chizh on suspicion of large-scale tax evasion.
    (Reuters, 3/13/16)

2016        May 6, Federal authorities in Pittsburgh said two men have been charged by authorities in Belarus with receiving $1.35 million stolen in a phishing scheme from the bank account of a Pennsylvania oil and gas drilling company. Aleskey Yaroshevich (34) and Egor Pavlenko (41) reportedly received a $1.35 million transfer made in September 2012. Both men were in custody in Minsk.
    (AP, 5/6/16)

2016        Nov 30, A human rights group says that Belarus, the only European country that hasn't abolished capital punishment, has executed a third person in a year.
    (AP, 11/30/16)

2017        Feb 2, Belarus said it suspected Russia was trying to restore a formal border zone between the two countries, a move it said flouted agreements on freedom of movement and trade and raised questions about Moscow's real intent.
    (Reuters, 2/2/17)

2017        Feb 3, Belarussian President Alexander Lukashenko said a Russian move to create border zones near his country's frontier looked like a political attack and that Moscow had threatened to halve oil supplies to Minsk.
    (Reuters, 2/3/17)

2017        Feb 26, In Belarus  about 3,000 people demonstrated across the country against an unpopular new labor law that targets the unemployed. Many people were unhappy with a so-called "anti-sponging" law that forces citizens to pay the equivalent of $250 if they work less than half the year and do not register with nation's labor exchanges.
    (AP, 2/26/17)

2017        Feb 27, The EU extended its arms embargo and some targeted sanctions against Belarus for another year after it saw insufficient progress to end them.
    (AP, 2/27/17)

2017        Mar 9, Belarus Pres. Alexander Lukashenko suspended collection of a fee from the unemployed which had sparked an unusual wave of protests throughout the authoritarian country.
    (AP, 3/9/17)

2017        Mar 20, Belarus Pres. Alexander Lukashenko said Western intelligence agencies are using a "fifth column" to cause unrest and threaten the stability of his regime.
    (AP, 3/20/17)

2017        Mar 25, Belarus authorities detained some 400 people during an attempt to hold a street protest in the capital Minsk, amid rising public anger over falling living standards and an unpopular tax on the unemployed.
    (Reuters, 3/25/17)(AP, 3/26/17)

2017        Mar 26, Belarus police arrested about 30 demonstrators in Minsk who were demanding to know the whereabouts of friends and relatives detained in the breakup of a mass protest.
    (AP, 3/26/17)

2017        Mar 31, Belarus police searched the offices of a Polish satellite TV channel that has given extensive coverage to a recent wave of anti-government protests.
    (AP, 3/31/17)
2017        Mar 31, Leaders of Turkmenistan and Belarus attended the launch of a huge potash fertilizer plant worth more than $1 billion. The plant in Garlyk, built near huge potash deposits, was built by Belarus.
    (AP, 3/31/17)

2017        Apr 29, Belarus police informed the wife of leading opposition figure Nikolai Statkevich that he had been arrested and jailed for five days. An unusually widespread wave of protests broke out in Belarus this year and another has been called for May 1 in the capital.
    (AP, 4/30/17)

2017        Jun 15, Lithuania called a nuclear power plant under construction in Belarus a threat to the Baltic republic. Lawmakers voted to declare that the plant in Atsravets, some 50 km (30 miles) south of Vilnius, poses a threat to the environment, living standards and public health.
    (AP, 6/15/17)

2017        Jul 3, In Belarus about 100 people protested, calling for the former Soviet republic to reduce its military dependence on Russia and seek closer ties with Europe.
    (AP, 7/3/17)

2017        Aug 26, Belarusian opposition figure Nikolai Statkevich was sent to jail for 15 days after being seized by police in Minsk. He had been sentenced in absentia about two weeks ago on charges of organizing a demonstration in July against the massive military exercises that are planned for next month with Russia.
    (AP, 8/26/17)

2017        Sep 14, Russia’s Zapad (West) 2017 maneuvers, mainly in Belarus this year, got underway involving thousands of troops, tanks and aircraft. The exercises will last until Sept. 20.
    (AP, 9/14/17)

 2017        Sep 18, Russian President Vladimir Putin attended the weeklong war games with Belarus that have demonstrated the Russian military's resurgent might and made neighboring countries nervous.
    (AP, 9/18/17)

2017        Sep 28, Ukraine's Commander in Chief Viktor Muzhenko said Russia has withdrawn only a few units from Belarus and had lied about how many of its soldiers were there in the first place. A Belarussian defense ministry spokesman later said the last train of Russian troops and equipment had left Belarus today.
    (Reuters, 9/29/17)(Reuters, 9/30/17)

2017        Oct 21, In Belarus some 200 people rallied in Minsk, calling for the resignation of President Alexander Lukashenko, who has ruled the former Soviet republic since 1994.
    (AP, 10/21/17)

2017        Oct 30, In Belarus leading opposition figure Mykola Statkevich was stopped by traffic police and detained. He had been due to travel to Ukraine for a conference the next day involving members of the European Parliament.
    (AP, 10/31/17)

2017        Nov 1, A court in Belarus sentenced opposition leader Vladimir Neklyaev (71) to ten days in jail for calling on supporters to join unsanctioned protests last month.
    (AP, 11/1/17)

2017        Nov 20, Belarus's KGB state security service said it had uncovered a spy ring working for the Ukrainian defence ministry that had been set up by a detained Ukrainian radio correspondent. Minsk-based journalist Pavlo Sharoyko was arrested in October and charged with being an undercover intelligence officer. The Ukrainian defence ministry denied the allegations against Sharoyko who it said had worked as a spokesman for the ministry before switching to journalism in 2009.
    (Reuters, 11/20/17)

2017        Nov 24, The EU pledged to deepen ties with six former Soviet states (Ukraine, Georgia, Moldova, Armenia, Azerbaijan and Belarus), as part of efforts to counter Russian influence, but warned them they had no chance of joining the bloc any time soon.
    (AP, 11/24/17)

2018        Jan 25, It was reported that Belarusian authorities have blocked access to charter97.org, a popular opposition website, over alleged legal violations.
    (AP, 1/25/18)

2018        Mar 25, In Belarus scores of protesters were arrested in Minsk as supporters of the country's repressed opposition tried to hold a march. President Alexander Lukashenko allowed March 25 to be publicly celebrated this year for the first time in his 24-year rule.
    (AP, 3/25/18)(AFP, 3/25/18)

2018        Apr 19, The Belarus parliament passed a measure prohibiting internet users from commenting on forums without authorization and requiring online publications to register with the government as mass media.
    (AP, 4/19/18)

2018        May 22, Belarus appointed an ambassador to Stockholm, ending a six-year-old diplomatic spat over a pro-democracy stunt that saw hundreds of teddy bears airdropped by a Swedish public relations firm over the former Soviet republic.
    (Reuters, 5/22/18)

2018        Jun 1, Belarus President Alexander Lukashenko said his country was ready to bring back border controls with Russia after 20 years of free movement if a recent reimposition of spot checks by Moscow proved to be long-lasting.
    (Reuters, 6/1/18)

2018        Jul 3, Belarus authorities in Minsk thwarted the opposition's attempt to hold a rally and detained several activists.
    (AP, 7/3/18)
2018        Jul 3, The European Commission called on Belarus to develop an action plan "to ensure timely implementation of all safety improvement measures in accordance with their safety significance" for the nearly completed Astravets nuclear power plant.
    (Reuters, 7/4/18)

2018        Aug 9, Belarus' Investigative Committee confirmed the detention of six journalists, including Deutsche Welle's Paulyuk Bykowski. DW lodged a protest. Authorities said the journalists are charged with getting unsanctioned access to state news agency BelTA, and failing to pay for its information.
    (AP, 8/9/18)

2018        Aug 18, Belarus press reported that Pres. Alexander Lukashenko (63) has dismissed the country's prime minister and other top ministers. Lukashenko named Sergei Rumas, the head of the country's Development Bank, as new prime minister. He also named four new deputy prime ministers, as well as new ministers of the economy, communications and industry, among other posts.
    (Reuters, 8/18/18)

2018        Oct 5, Belarus Pres. Alexander Lukashenko rejected prospective steps against domestic violence as Western "nonsense," saying that physical punishment could be useful in raising children.
    (AP, 10/6/18)

2019        Jan 10, Belarus Pres. Alexander Lukashenko sternly warned Russia that it could lose its ally if it fails to offer compensation for higher oil prices.
    (AP, 1/10/19)   

2019        Jan 15, In Thailand Anastasia Vashukevich, a model from Belarus who claimed last year that she had evidence of Russian involvement in helping elect Donald Trump president, pleaded guilty in a court in Pattaya in a case related to holding a sex training seminar and will be deported. She and seven co-defendants were given suspended 18-month prison terms and fines.
    (AP, 1/15/19)

2019        Jan, In Belarus the remains of at least 1,214 people were found in the center of Brest, which was home to a large, vibrant Jewish community before the Second World War. Their remains were buried at local cemetery on May 22.
    (AP, 5/22/19)

2019        Feb 1, Belarusian model Anastasia Vashukevich, who claims to have information on the ties between Russia and Donald Trump's election campaign, said she has turned it over to Russian billionaire businessman Oleg Deripaska.
    (AP, 2/1/19)

2019        Feb 11, In Belarus a 10th-grade high school student stabbed and killed his history teacher and a classmate at a high school. He also stabbed two classmates who tried to protect the teacher at a school in the town of Stolbtsy.
    (AP, 2/11/19)

2019        Mar 1, Belarus Pres. Alexander Lukashenko strongly rejected the possibility that Russia could incorporate his nation, as the two former Soviet republics discussed how to more closely integrate their economies, including a possible joint currency.
    (AP, 3/1/19)

2019        Mar 4, Belarus lifted a restriction on the number of US diplomats allowed on its territory that had been in force since 2008, a move aimed at improving ties with Washington. Minsk had reduced the number of US diplomats to five from the previous 35 after the United States imposed sanction against Belarusian authorities.
    (Reuters, 3/4/19)
2019        Mar 4, Lithuanian PM Saulius Skvernelis said he will ask Belarus to convert its Russian-built nuclear power plant to gas provided by Lithuania's liquefied natural gas (LNG) terminal and a planned gas link between Lithuania and Poland.
    (Reuters, 3/4/19)

2019        Mar 5, Belarus Pres. Alexander Lukashenko called for better ties with NATO and lifted restrictions on US diplomats, an apparent bid to win concessions from Moscow by dangling the prospect of rapprochement with the West.
    (AP, 3/5/19)

2019        Apr 4, Belarus police arrested 15 demonstrators who were trying to prevent the removal of wooden crosses from the Kurapaty woods near the capital of Minsk where tens of thousands of people were executed under Soviet dictator Josef Stalin.
    (AP, 4/4/19)

2019        Jul 24, In Turkey Belarus diplomat Alexander Poganshev was taken to a hospital to undergo surgery after being attacked by a retired military officer in Ankara, who later committed suicide. The incident did not appear to be politically motivated.
    (AP, 7/25/19)

2019        Oct 1, Negotiators meeting in the Belarusian capital of Minsk agreed on a schedule under which elections will be held in the breakaway regions of Ukraine and a new law will be passed granting them special status. The plan was proposed by Frank-Walter Steinmeier when he was Germany’s foreign minister and is known as the Steinmeier formula.
    (Bloomberg, 10/2/19)

2019        Nov 17, Belarus voted in parliamentary elections that will be closely watched by the West to see how much leeway President Alexander Lukashenko (65) will allow opposition candidates while keeping his grip on power. Lukashenko threatened to pull out of signing an integration deal with Russia next month if Moscow failed to resolve their dispute over energy subsidies.
    (Reuters, 11/17/19)

2019        Nov 18, Opposition groups in Belarus lost their only two seats in parliamentary elections criticized by international observers, as the country’s authoritarian leader focused on looming trade negotiations with Russia. The two sitting opposition deputies and many other opposition activists were barred from running.
    (Bloomberg, 11/18/19)

2019        Dec 7, Belarus Pres. Alexander Lukashenko met with his Russian counterpart Vladimir Putin in Russia to discuss "key issues in our bilateral relations. Roughly 1,000 Belarusians joined an unauthorized demonstration against the prospect of a closer union with Russia.
    (AFP, 12/7/19)

2019        Dec 8, In Belarus some 500 hundred protesters braved the repressive climate to hold a demonstration for a 2nd day against deepening the country's ties with Russia.
    (AP, 12/8/19)
2019        Dec 8, Belarus state news agency Belta reported that the government is seeking about $70 million in compensation because of disruption in flows in a pipeline on its territory caused by contaminated Russian oil. The Russian Druzhba pipeline, which pumps 1 million barrels per day of oil to eastern and western Europe, was found in mid-April to be contaminated.
    (Reuters, 12/8/19)

2019        Dec 16, Belarus said it has reached an agreement with China to receive a $500-million loan. The loan will be provided by the Shanghai office of the China Development Bank.
    (AP, 12/16/19)

2020        Jan 3, Belarus suspended its oil exports after Moscow stopped supplying crude until contracts for this year are drawn up. A day later Belarus reached an agreement for limited oil supplies to ensure refinery operations for January.
    (SFC, 1/4/20, p.A2)(SSFC, 1/5/20, p.A4)

2020        Jan 31, US Secretary of State Mike Pompeo visited Belarus and said that the United States is willing and able to provide Belarus with 100% of its oil and gas, taking a slap at Russia which recently cut off supplies. Russia stopped supplying oil to Belarus after Dec. 31. The two nations had failed to renegotiate an agreed oil price for this year during drawn-out negotiations on deepening the integration of their economies.
    (AP, 2/1/20)

2020        Feb 28, The list of countries hit by the COVID-19 illness edged toward 60 as Azerbaijan, Belarus, Lithuania, Mexico, the Netherlands, New Zealand and Nigeria reported their first cases.
    (AP, 2/28/20)

2020        Mar 13, Belarus said it has recorded 27 people infected with coronavirus, six more than a day before.
    (Reuters, 3/13/20)

2020        Apr 8, Belarus health officials reported 205 new cases of the coronavirus bringing the total to 1,066 with 13 deaths. Last week Pres. Alexander Lukashenko dismissed concerns around the pandemic as "mass psychosis" and appeared more worried about the impact of a lockdown on the country's struggling economy.
    (SFC, 4/9/20, p.A5)

2020        Apr 13, Belarus Pres. Alexander Lukashenko said he believed nobody in Belarus would be killed by the virus. The health ministry, which encourages people to reduce contact to prevent the spread of the coronavirus, says 36 people in Belarus have died of it.
    (Reuters, 4/15/20)

2020        Apr 19, Thousands of Belarusians converged on churches across the country on Sunday to celebrate Easter, ignoring calls from health authorities and church leaders to stay at home to prevent the spread of the coronavirus.
    (Reuters, 4/19/20)

2020        Apr 20, Schools reopened in Belarus. The number of people infected with the coronavirus was now 6,264 and included 51 deaths.
    (SFC, 4/21/20, p.A4)

2020        Apr 25, In Belarus hundreds of thousands of state employees, including doctors and nurses, took part in a government-decreed national day of civic labor despite worries about the country's sharply rising coronavirus infections. Belarus reported 817 new cases, the country's highest single-day increase. It has reported a total of 9,590 confirmed infections and 67 deaths.
    (AP, 4/25/20)

2020        Apr 28, Belarus reported 900 new cases of the coronavirus bringing the total to 12,208. The UN urged Belarussians to stay home amid the growing outbreak.
    (SFC, 4/29/20, p.A4)

2020        May 9, In Belarus some 4,000 troops paraded in Minsk before crowds of spectators, many not wearing face masks. President Alexander Lukashenko has dismissed the dangers of the coronavirus.
    (AFP, 5/9/20)

2020        May 18, It was reported that the US has sent an 80,000-ton shipment of oil to Belarus, as the country seeks to diversify its supplies following a price dispute with Russia.
    (SFC, 5/18/20, p.A2)

2020        May 24, In Belarus about 1,000 protesters denouncing authoritarian President Alexander Lukashenko’s seeking of another term in an upcoming election held the largest opposition demonstration of the year in the capital Minsk. Many of the demonstrators wore masks, defying Lukashenko’s dismissal of coronavirus concerns as a “psychosis." Belarus has recorded more than 36,000 cases of coronavirus infection.
    (AP, 5/24/20)

2020        May 31, Belarus human rights group Vesna said more than 30 people have been detained in recent days amid demonstrations against authoritarian President Alexander Lukashenko, who is running for another term. Those detained included Nikolai Statkevich, one of Belarus’ most prominent opposition figures, and popular opposition blogger Sergei Tikhanovsky.
    (AP, 5/31/20)

2020        Jun 11, Belarusian opposition activist Svetlana Tikhanovskaya, who has been rallying against the reelection of authoritarian President Alexander Lukashenko and collecting signatures to run against him, canceled rallies in big cities amid crackdown on her supporters.
    (AP, 6/11/20)

2020        Jun 18, Belarusian authorities detained potential presidential candidate and former Belgazprombank chief Viktor Babariko after arresting 15 bank executives on tax evasion and money laundering charges and putting the bank under temporary administration. Several thousand demonstrators formed a chain that spread for about four km (2.5 miles) across downtown Minsk to protest Babariko’s detention.
    (AP, 6/19/20)

2020        Jun 19, Belarus Pres. Alexander Lukashenko said that his government has thwarted a foreign-inspired plot to destabilize the nation ahead of the August presidential election in which he is seeking a sixth term. Police arrested demonstrators and journalists this evening to break up new protests against Lukashenko, hours after he blamed foreign plotters for fomenting unrest.
    (AP, 6/19/20)(The Telegraph, 6/19/20)

2020        Jul 14, Belarus authorities barred Valery Tsepkalo and Vikto Babariko from running in the August 9 presidential election presidential elections. Police officers detained more than 250 people after mass protests erupted against the barring.
    (SFC, 7/15/20, p.A2)(AP, 7/15/20)

2020        Jul 24, Belarus opposition candidate Valery Tsepkalo, who planned to challenge longtime authoritarian Pres. Alexander Lukashenko in next month's presidential election, said he has fled the country. Tsepkalo said that he moved to Russia with his two children after unnamed sources in the Belarus's Interior Ministry and the State Security Committee (the KGB) warned him about a looming arrest and plans to strip him of his parental rights and take his children away.
    (AP, 7/24/20)

2020        Jul 29, Belarusian authorities detained dozens of Russian private military contractors accused of planning to destabilize Belarus amid an election campaign. 32 members of Russia's Wagner private military company were detained overnight at a sanitarium outside Minsk by a SWAT team from the Belarusian State Security Committee.
    (AP, 7/29/20)

2020        Aug 9, Belarus held a presidential election. Opposition supporters suspected that election officials will manipulate results to give President Alexander Lukashenko (65) a sixth term in office. The opposition has coalesced around one candidate: Sviatlana Tsikhanouskaya, the wife of a jailed opposition blogger. A government exit poll said Aleksandr Lukashenko had won almost 80 percent of the vote. That triggered protests against the repressive regime, and a heavy police response.
    (AP, 8/9/20)(NY Times, 8/10/20)

2020        Aug 10, Belarus’ authoritarian President Alexander Lukashenko warned that the protesters who challenge the official vote results extending his 26-year rule will face a tough crackdown, deriding the opposition as “sheep" manipulated by foreign masters. Election officials said that Lukashenko won a sixth term in office with 80% of the vote, while opposition challenger Sviatlana Tsikhanouskaya got 10%. Protester Alexander Taraikovsky (34), died in the Minsk under disputed circumstances. Mobile phone internet went offline after protesters clashed with police a day earlier.
    (AP, 8/10/20)(Reuters, 8/11/20)(AP, 8/15/20)

2020        Aug 11, Sviatlana Tsikhanouskaya, the top opposition candidate in Belarus' presidential vote, said she has left for Lithuania and called on her supporters to end demonstrations. Her husband has been at a Belarusian jail since his arrest in May.
    (AP, 8/11/20)

2020        Aug 12, Hundreds of women rallied across Belarus’ capital to protest a brutal police crackdown that left hundreds injured and thousands detained while challenging election results extending the 26-year rule of the country’s authoritarian leader. More than 300 CEOs of IT companies and investors signed a letter demanding a new election as well as an end to state-sponsored violence. Otherwise, they claimed, they'll head elsewhere.
    (AP, 8/12/20)(The Week, 8/12/20)

2020        Aug 13, Crowds of protesters in Belarus swarmed the streets and thousands of workers rallied outside industrial plants to denounce a police crackdown on demonstrations over a disputed election that extended the 26-year rule of authoritarian President Alexander Lukashenko. Nearly 7,000 people have been detained and hundreds injured in a harsh clampdown by police on demonstrators protesting the official results.
    (AP, 8/13/20)

2020        Aug 14, Authorities in Belarus freed at least 2,000 of about 7,000 people who had been pulled off the streets by riot police in the days following a disputed election. Graphic descriptions of savage beatings and other abuse by police brought tens of thousands into the streets of Minsk in the biggest challenge in his tenure.
    (AP, 8/15/20)

2020        Aug 15, Belarus' embattled President Alexander Lukashenko appealed to his long-time ally Russian President Vladimir Putin as protesters continue to call for his resignation following his recent disputed election victory, which the opposition alleges he rigged. Thousands of demonstrators in Belarus gathered at the spot in the capital where a protester died in clashes with police, calling for authoritarian Lukashenko to resign after 26 years in power.
    (The Week, 8/15/20)(AP, 8/15/20)

2020        Aug 16, In Belarus thousands of people gathered in a square near the main government building for a rally to support President Alexander Lukashenko. Opposition supporters whose protests have convulsed the country for a week held a major march in Minsk.
    (AP, 8/16/20)
2020        Aug 16, The Kremlin said Russian President Vladimir Putin told his Belarusian counterpart Alexander Lukashenko that Moscow was ready to offer Minsk military assistance if necessary to quell anti-government protests in Belarus.
    (The Week, 8/16/20)

2020        Aug 17, Belarusian leader Alexander Lukashenko warned protesters that he will not give in to their demands for a new presidential election—unless they assassinate him. Workers heckled and jeered Lukashenko as he visited a factory and strikes grew across Belarus, raising the pressure on the authoritarian leader to step down after 26 years in power.
    (The Daily Beast, 8/17/20)(AP, 8/17/20)

2020        Aug 18, In Belarus more factories joined a growing strike turning up pressure on Pres. Alexander Lukashenko to resign.
    (SFC, 8/19/20, p.A2)

2020        Aug 19, Belarusian opposition leader Svetlana Tikhanovskaya urged EU leaders to reject the results of the presidential election which sparked massive protests and saw strongman leader Alexander Lukashenko claim a sixth term.
    (The Telegraph, 8/19/20)

2020        Aug 20, It was reported that hundreds of Belarus employees of state television have gone on strike amid a rising tide of protests, calling for the resignation of Pres. Lukashenko after a vote the opposition saw as rigged. The state television workers were joined by journalists from the leading daily Zvyazda, who put out a statement demanding an end to censorship.
    (AP, 8/20/20)

2020        Aug 21, Belarus's state publishing house stopped printing top independent newspapers the Narodnaya Volya and Komsomolskaya Pravda, citing equipment malfunction. Authorities threatened demonstrators with criminal charges in a bid to stop protests.
    (AP, 8/22/20)

2020        Aug 22, The Belarusian Association of Journalists said that more than 20 news sites had been blocked, including those of US-funded Radio Liberty and Belsat, a Polish-funded satellite TV channel focusing on Belarus.
    (AP, 8/22/20)

2020        Aug 23, In Belarus more than 100,000 protesters demanding the resignation of authoritarian Pres. Alexander Lukashenko rallied in a vast square in Minsk, keeping up the massive outburst of dissent that has shaken the country since a disputed presidential election two weeks ago. Lukashenko made a dramatic show of defiance against the massive protests demanding his resignation, toting a rifle and wearing a bulletproof vest as he strode off a helicopter that landed at his residence while demonstrators massed nearby.
    (AP, 8/23/20)
2020        Aug 23, More than 50,000 Lithuanians joined hands in a human chain stretching 32 km (20 miles) from the capital of Vilnius to the Belarus border to express solidarity with their neighbor's dramatic struggle for democracy.
    (AP, 8/23/20)

2020        Aug 24, Belarus police detained several leading opposition activists who have helped spearhead a wave of protests challenging the re-election of Pres. Alexander Lukashenko.
    (SFC, 8/25/20, p.A2)

2020        Aug 25, Authorities in Belarus steadily cranked up the pressure on protesters pushing for the resignation of the country's authoritarian leader, jailing several opposition activists, summoning others for questioning and selectively ordering demonstrators to appear in court.
    (AP, 8/25/20)

2020        Aug 26, Belarus' Nobel Prize-winning author Svetlana Alexievich was summoned for questioning and police detained dozens of demonstrators in a continuing crackdown on protests challenging the re-election of the country's authoritarian ruler. She is a member of an opposition council created to facilitate talks on a transition of power.
    (AP, 8/26/20)

2020        Aug 27, Russian President Vladimir Putin vowed military support for embattled Belarusian leader Alexander Lukashenko, while urging a peaceful resolution to unrest and demonstrations that erupted after a disputed election.
    (AFP, 8/27/20)

2020        Aug 29, Belarus officials cracked down on the news media, deporting some foreign journalists and revoking the accreditation of many local journalists.
    (SSFC, 8/30/20, p.A5)

2020        Aug 30, In Belarus tens of thousands of demonstrators gathered in Minsk beginning the fourth week of daily protests demanding the resignation of the country's authoritarian president after an election they call rigged gave him a sixth term in office.
    (AP, 8/30/20)

2020        Aug 31, Belarus authorities jailed factory strike organizer Anatoly Bokun for 15 days and detained a leading opposition activist as part of a methodical effort to suppress weeks of protests against Pres. Lukashenko.
    (SFC, 9/1/20, p.A3)
2020        Aug 31, The Baltic states of Estonia, Latvia and Lithuania slapped their own travel sanctions on 30 top officials in Belarus, including Pres. Alexander Lukashenko, in response to a brutal crackdown against protesters who say the Aug. 9 presidential election was rigged.
    (AP, 8/31/20)

2020        Sep 1, Authorities in Belarus detained scores of protesters as university students took to the streets of Minsk on the first day of classes to demand that authoritarian President Alexander Lukashenko resign after an election the opposition has denounced as rigged.
    (AP, 9/1/20)

2020        Sep 2, In Belarus dozens of journalists gathered outside a police station in Minsk to protest the detention of colleagues covering a demonstration against the nation's authoritarian president and an election the opposition sees as rigged.
    (AP, 9/2/20)

2020        Sep 3, Belarus President Alexander Lukashenko reshuffled his top lieutenants in an apparent attempt to strengthen his rule amid weeks of protests pushing for his resignation.
    (AP, 9/3/20)

2020        Sep 4, In Belarus hundreds of demonstrators rallied again in Minsk to protest the disputed reelection of the nation's authoritarian president. Police dispersed university students attempting to show solidarity with peers who were detained earlier in the week. Police entered the State Linguistics University in Minsk to disperse an action by students who were expressing solidarity with classmates detained earlier. Officers rounded up several participants.
    (AP, 9/4/20)
2020        Sep 4, Sviatlana Tsikhanouskaya, the main opposition challenger in Belarus’ disputed presidential election, spoke to the UN Security Council and urged the international community to impose sanctions on “the individuals that committed electoral violations and crimes against humanity" and take other measures to stop the violence against protesters.
    (AP, 9/5/20)

2020        Sep 6, In Belarus, despite a show of force from authorities, protesters set out to pressure President Alexander Lukashenko to step down after his disputed re-election. A massive rally in Minsk that drew an estimated 100,000 protesters. 633 people were detained for taking part in unsanctioned protests.
    (The Week, 9/6/20)(AP, 9/7/20)

2020        Sep 7, In Belarus leading opposition activist Maria Kolesnikova and two other members of an opposition council went missing, raising fears they were detained as authorities seek to squelch nearly a month of protests against the re-election of the country's authoritarian leader. The next day Kolesnikova ripped up her passport to avoid being forced to move to Ukraine.
    (AP, 9/7/20)(SFC, 9/9/20, p.A2)

2020        Sep 9, Belarus authorities detained lawyer Maxim Znak, one of the last two leading members of an opposition council who remained free.
    (SFC, 9/10/20, p.A2)
2020        Sep 9, Serbia suspended all foreign military exercises on the eve of planned maneuvers with Russia in Belarus, citing alleged pressure from the European Union.
    (AP, 9/9/20)

2020        Sep 11, Belarus authorities detained scores of demonstrators while seeking to end more than a month of protests against the rigged re-election of Pres. Alexander Likashenko.
    (SFC, 9/11/20, p.A3)

2020        Sep 12, In Belarus about 10,000 women marched through Minsk with riot police violently detaining dozens of the marchers.
    (The Week, 9/13/20)

2020        Sep 13, In Belarus tens of thousands of people reportedly took to the streets in Minsk again. Police said around 250 protesters have been arrested. More than 100,000 demonstrators called for the authoritarian president to resign
    (The Week, 9/13/20)(AP, 9/13/20)

2020        Sep 14, Belarus' authoritarian Pres. Alexander Lukashenko visited Russia in a bid to secure more loans and political support, as demonstrations against the extension of his 26-year rule entered their sixth week. President Vladimir Putin announced a $1.5 billion loan to Belarus when he hosted his counterpart for more than four hours of talks in Sochi.
    (AP, 9/14/20)(AP, 9/15/20)

2020        Sep 17, Sviatlana Tsikhanouskaya, the main opposition candidate in Belarus' disputed presidential election, said that activists are compiling a list of law enforcement officers who were allegedly involved in violence against protesters denouncing the results of the vote.
    (AP, 9/17/20)

2020        Sep 18, Belarus opposition leader Sviatlana Tsikhanouskaya demanded an international mission to document what she called "atrocities" during crackdowns on anti-government protests, but said she was ready for talks to end weeks of violence.
    (Reuters, 9/18/20)
2020        Sep 18, The UN Human Rights Council agreed to a resolution submitted by the European Union to launch closer UN monitoring of alleged rights violations in Belarus, despite multiple attempts by Russia to water it down.
    (Reuters, 9/18/20)

2020        Sep 19, Belarus police cracked down sharply in Minsk on a women’s protest march demanding the authoritarian president’s resignation, arresting more than 300 including an elderly woman who has become a symbol of the six weeks of protest that have roiled the country.
    (AP, 9/19/20)

2020        Sep 20, More than 100,000 protesters marched in Minsk in the sixth straight weekend of demonstrations calling for the resignation of President Alexander Lukashenko. Videos shared by local media showed security forces pulling protesters off the streets in simultaneous marches in other cities. Police detained more than 400 protesters.
    (The Week, 9/21/20)(AP, 9/21/20)

2020        Sep 23, President Alexander Lukashenko of Belarus was sworn to his sixth term in office at an inaugural ceremony that was not announced in advance amid weeks of huge protests of the authoritarian leader's reelection, which the opposition says was rigged. Thousands of Belarusians took to the streets of the capital of Minsk and other cities to protest the inauguration. 364 people were detained, including 252 in Minsk. The vast majority remained in custody, awaiting court hearings.
    (AP, 9/23/20)(AP, 9/24/20)

2020        Sep 23, Thousands of Belarusians took to the streets of the capital of Minsk and other cities to protest President Alexander Lukashenko's morning inauguration, which took place without advance public notice. 364 people were detained, including 252 in Minsk. The vast majority remained in custody, awaiting court hearings.
    (AP, 9/24/20)

2020        Sep 24, In Belarus anti-government rallies continued this morning despite the previous night's crackdown. Hundreds of people in Minsk formed human chains of solidarity in different parts of the city and obstructed vehicle traffic by driving slowly or stopping altogether, honking in protest. Authorities detained Lyudmila Kazak, a lawyer representing Maria Kolesnikova, a top opposition activist who was jailed this month amid mass protests against the country's authoritarian president.
    (AP, 9/24/20)(AP, 9/25/20)

2020        Sep 26, In Belarus hundreds of women calling for Pres. Lukashenko to step down protested in Minsk, continuing the large demonstrations that have rocked the country since early August. Police detained 150 protesters as anti-government protests spanned 22 cities.
    (AP, 9/26/20)(AP, 9/28/20)

2020        Sep 27, Belarus detained 350 protesters as anti-government protests spanned 22 cities. About 100,000 demonstrators marched in Minsk demanding the resignation of Pres. Lukashenko.
    (AP, 9/28/20)

2020        Sep 29, Britain and Canada imposed sanctions on Belarusian President Alexander Lukashenko, his son and other senior government officials following the disputed presidential election and a crackdown on protesters in Belarus.
    (AP, 9/29/20)

2020        Sep 30, It was reported that coders and software engineers, many of whom are linked to the state-sponsored Hi-Tech Park in Minsk, have formed a hacking collective called Cyber Partisans which is wreaking havoc as Lukashenko tries to quell a growing revolution.
    (The Daily Beast, 9/30/20)

2020        Oct 1, Belarus started giving shots to volunteers in human trials of Russia's coronavirus vaccine Sputnik V, which received Russian government approval in August but drew considerable criticism from experts, as it had only been tested on several dozen people. Belarus has reported 78,631 confirmed coronavirus cases and 833 deaths. It is one of the few countries in the world that didn't impose a lockdown and continued to hold mass public events during the pandemic.
    (AP, 10/1/20)
2020        Oct 1, In Sweden prominent Belarus opposition figure Ales Bialiatski (58) and imprisoned Iranian human rights lawyer Nasrin Sotoudeh (57) were awarded the Right Livelihood Award, sometimes referred to as the “Alternative Nobel," together with US activist Bryan Stevenson (60) and Nicaraguan activist Lottie Cunningham Wren (61).
    (AP, 10/1/20)

2020        Oct 2, EU leaders finally agreed to hit Belarus with sanctions early today before warning Turkey it faced the same punishment if it continued oil and gas drilling in disputed areas of the Mediterranean. Cyprus had vetoed agreement on the sanctions, which do not hit President Alexander Lukashenko personally, until it was satisfied the EU's condemnation of Turkey was strong enough.
    (The Telegraph, 10/2/20)

2020        Oct 4, In Belarus more than 100,000 marched in Minsk calling for the resignation of Pres. Lukashenko. 317 people were reported detained in Minsk and other cities. More than 10,000 people have been detained since the last election with at least 244 implicated in criminal cases related to the protests.
    (SFC, 10/5/20, p.A2)(SFC, 10/6/20, p.A2)

2020        Oct 5, Lithuania and Poland recalled their ambassadors from neighboring Belarus, where hundreds of people have been detained during massive protests against the authoritarian president who won a sixth term in office in an election widely seen as rigged.
    (AP, 10/6/20)

2020        Oct 9, Lithuania said it had decided to recall five diplomats from Minsk, the capital of Belarus, with a government spokeswoman saying Belarus had demanded that 11 diplomats be sent home.
    (AP, 10/9/20)

2020        Oct 10, Belarus' authoritarian President Alexander Lukashenko visited a prison to talk to opposition activists, who have been jailed for challenging his re-election that was widely seen as manipulated and triggered two months of protests.
    (AP, 10/10/20)

2020        Oct 11, Belarus detained 713 people in rallies across the country. An estimated 100,000 people took part in the Minsk rally. By the next day 570 of them remained in custody awaiting a court hearing.
    (AP, 10/12/20)

2020        Oct 22, The European Union awarded its top human rights prize to the Belarus opposition movement and its leader, Sviatlana Tsikhanouskaya, for their challenge to President Alexander Lukashenko’s long, hard-line reign.
    (AP, 10/22/20)

2020        Oct 25, Belarusian police used stun grenades against protesters as tens of thousands of people headed towards Independence Palace in Minsk demanding that President Alexander Lukashenko resign. Tens of thousands of protesters swarmed the streets of Minsk, pressing for the resignation of the country's authoritarian leader in what human rights activists described as the largest anti-government rally since late August.
    (Reuters, 10/25/20)(AP, 10/25/20)

2020        Oct 26, In Belarus factory workers, students and business owners in Belarus began a strike to demand that authoritarian President Alexander Lukashenko resign after more than two months of continuing mass protests following a disputed election.
    (AP, 10/26/20)

2020        Oct 27, Belarus President Alexander Lukashenko urged authorities to take action against plant workers and students who participate in a strike called by the opposition as the authoritarian leader made another attempt to halt protests of his reelection.
    (AP, 10/27/20)

2020        Oct 29, Belarus shut its borders with Latvia, Lithuania, Poland and Ukraine for most visitors. Lukashenko also reshuffled his top officials this week, appointing Interior Minister Yuri Karayev and Security Council Secretary Valery Vakulchik his envoys to the westernmost Grodno and Brest regions bordering Poland and Lithuania.
    (AP, 10/31/20)

2020        Nov 1, In Belarus thousands of protesters swarmed the streets of Minsk to demand the resignation of longtime President Alexander Lukashenko — the 13th straight Sunday marked by demonstrations against his rule. Police used stun grenades and fired warning shots in the air to break up the crowds.
    (AP, 11/2/20)

2020        Nov 2, Western nations decried arbitrary arrests and other forms of repression in Belarus during a review of its record at the UN’s top human rights body.
    (AP, 11/2/20)

2020        Nov 6, The European Union imposed sanctions on the president of Belarus and 14 other officials over their roles in the security crackdown launched during protests of the country's contested August presidential election.
    (AP, 11/6/20)

2020        Nov 7, Belarusian President Alexander Lukashenko formally opened the country’s first nuclear power plant, a project sharply criticized by neighboring Lithuania. The Russian-built and financed Astravyets plant is located about 40 km (25 miles) southeast of Vilnius.
    (AP, 11/7/20)

2020        Nov 8, In Belarus club-swinging police went after demonstrators in Minsk who were demanding the resignation of the country’s authoritarian president, the 90th consecutive day of protests. Nearly 400 people were reportedly arrested including 9 journalists and well-known model Olga Khizhinkova, a former Miss Belarus.
    (AP, 11/8/20)
2020        Nov 8, Belarus' first nuclear power plant stopped generating electricity a day after it was formally opened by President Alexander Lukashenko and some of its equipment needs to be replaced.
    (AP, 11/10/20)

2020        Nov 12, In Belarus Raman Bandarenka (31), a military veteran and children's art teacher, died at a Minsk hospital after several hours of surgery due to serious injuries by police inside a van. The opposition alleged that he was brutally beaten by police who dispersed a protest in Minsk. Bandarenka’s death caused public outrage and fueled more demonstrations. Roman Bondarenko had tried to stop thugs of Alexander Lukashenko from taking down red and white ribbons, a symbol of national resistance.
    (AP, 11/13/20)(AP, 2/19/21)(Econ., 12/5/20, p.16)

2020        Nov 13, In Belarus thousands of people rallied following the death of a 31-year-old opposition supporter who died in a hospital after he was reportedly beaten by security forces. The European Union condemned the continued violent crackdown that Belarusian authorities have waged on peaceful protesters.
    (AP, 11/13/20)

2020        Nov 15, In Belarus more than 500 people were reported arrested in protests around the country calling for authoritarian President Alexander Lukashenko to step down. The Viasna human rights organization said the nationwide arrest total was at least 928 and that some of those detained were beaten by police.
    (AP, 11/15/20)

2020        Nov 16, In Belarus crowds of retirees marched in Minsk, marking 100 days since mass protests began and became an almost-daily feature of life in the country after authoritarian President Alexander Lukashenko won his sixth term in a widely disputed election.
    (AP, 11/16/20)

2020        Nov 19, Belarus' nuclear power plant, which went out of service a few days after it started operating, resumed producing electricity at 40% capacity. Lithuanian authorities have said construction of the Russian-built and -financed plant was plagued by accidents, stolen materials and the mistreatment of workers.
    (AP, 11/19/20)

2020        Nov 22, In Belarus demonstrations that attracted thousands were the 16th consecutive Sunday of large protests against President Alexander Lukashenko. More than 140 people were reported arrested and many of them beaten by police during the protests.
    (AP, 11/22/20)

2020        Nov 23, In Belarus over 2,000 retirees staged a protest in Minsk to demand the resignation of the country's authoritarian leader who won his sixth terms in office in a disputed election.
    (AP, 11/23/20)

2020        Nov 27, Belarus President Alexander Lukashenko said that he would not remain in the post he has held for more than 26 years if his country adopts a new constitution. However, Lukashenko did not describe the amendments he is seeking or give a timeline for when a new constitution might be adopted.
    (AP, 11/27/20)

2020        Nov 29, In Belarus over 180 people were reported detained during protests across the country against authoritarian Pres. Alexander Lukashenko.
    (AP, 11/29/20)

2020        Dec 1, Belarus opposition leader Sviatlana Tsikhanouskaya said the opposition will compile a register of law enforcement officers accused of abuses against peaceful demonstrators protesting the reelection of the country's authoritarian leader.
    (AP, 12/1/20)

2020        Dec 2, Belarusian media reported two cases of people jailed for flying a pre-Lukashenko national flag – a red horizontal strip between two white ones – from their balconies. The flag is seen as a symbol of nationalist opposition to Mr Lukashenko.
    (The Telegraph, 12/2/20)

2020        Dec 6, In Belarus more than 300 people were detained in Minsk, where crowds of people took to the streets for the 18th consecutive weekend, demanding the ouster of the country's authoritarian leader who won a sixth term in office in an election widely seen as rigged.
    (AP, 12/6/20)

2020        Dec 12, It was reported that Switzerland has frozen the financial assets of the president of Belarus, Alexander Lukashenko, following the violent aftermath of the elections in the east European country.
    (Reuters, 12/12/20)

2020        Dec 13, In Belarus crowds of people took to the streets in Minsk in a weekly protest against the country’s authoritarian leader who won a sixth term in office in a disputed election. Nearly 170 people were reportedly detained.
    (AP, 12/13/20)

2020        Dec 17, The EU imposed a new round of sanctions on Belarus, targeting dozens more officials over their role in the security crackdown launched after the contested presidential elections in August.
    (AP, 12/17/20)

2020        Dec 20, In Belarus around 100 people were detained in Minsk during the anti-government protests that were prompted by the reelection of the country’s authoritarian leader and continued for over four months. The Viasna human rights center released the names of 141 people detained in Minsk and other cities.
    (AP, 12/20/20)

2020        Dec 24, Belarus Archbishop Tadeusz Kondrusiewicz of Minsk and Mohilev arrived home. Kondrusiewicz was barred from entering the ex-Soviet nation for nearly four months after his criticism of the Belarusian authorities' crackdown on protests demanding the resignation of the country's authoritarian leader.
    (AP, 12/25/20)

2020        Dec 29, Belarus said it has begun administering the Russian-made Sputnik V coronavirus vaccine, after the first consignment arrived in Minsk. Belarus expects to vaccinate around 200,000 people with Sputnik V in the first stage of its national program.
    (AP, 12/29/20)

2021        Jan 22, Former presidential candidate Sviatlana Tsikhanouskaya, the main opposition challenger in Belarus’ disputed presidential election urged the UN to call for a halt to “violence and lawlessness" in the country, including media censorship, internet shutdowns, website blockages and cancellation of accreditation for journalists.
    (AP, 1/22/21)

2021        Jan 23, Belarus police arrested about 100 people in Minsk who formed human chains in demonstrations calling for authoritarian Pres. Alexander Lukashenko to resign.
    (AP, 1/23/21)

2021        Feb 11, The authoritarian leader of Belarus slammed six months of demonstrations against him as a foreign-directed “rebellion," and he announced plans for constitutional reforms, which the opposition has rejected as window dressing.
    (AP, 2/11/21)
2021        Feb 11, The EU and the World Health Organization said they would spend 40 million euros ($48.48 million) over three years to ensure better access to COVID-19 vaccines in Armenia, Azerbaijan, Belarus, Georgia, Moldova and Ukraine.
    (Reuters, 2/11/21)

2021        Feb 12, Belarus President Alexander Lukashenko said that a referendum on changing the country's constitution would be held no later than Jan. 18, 2022.
    (SFC, 2/13/21, p.A3)

2021        Feb 16, Authorities in Belarus raided homes and offices of journalists and human rights activists in the latest move to squelch protests against authoritarian Pres. Alexander Lukashenko.
    (AP, 2/16/21)

2021        Feb 18, A court in Belarus handed two local journalists two-year prison sentences for their live coverage of an anti-government rally in the capital Minsk late last year. Katerina Andreeva (27) and Daria Chultsova (23) who both work for Poland-based television network Belsat, were convicted of fomenting protest with their live-streamed coverage of a demonstration against autocratic President Alexander Lukashenko.
    (CBS News, 2/18/21)

2021        Feb 22, Russian President Vladimir Putin hosted his Belarusian counterpart Alexander Lukashenko for talks, amid media reports suggesting that the leader of Belarus was coming to Russia to secure another loan.
    (AP, 2/22/21)

2021        Mar 2, A court in Belarus handed a half-year prison sentence to journalist Katsiaryna Barysevich on charges of revealing personal data in her report on the Nov. 12 death of protester Raman Bandarenka, part of authorities’ crackdown on demonstrations against authoritarian President Alexander Lukashenko.
    (AP, 3/2/21)

2021        Mar 5, Lithuania refused to extradite to Belarus opposition figure Sviatlana Tsikhanouskaya, with the Baltic nation's foreign minister saying “hell will freeze over first" before the demand by Belarus' authoritarian leader is granted.
    (AP, 3/5/21)

2021        Mar 8, A film was released by the Poland-based opposition news service NEXTA accusing Belarusian President Alexander Lukashenko of spending hundreds of millions of dollars on gilded residences, planes and Rolls-Royce and Maybach cars. It quickly gained millions of YouTube views.
    (https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=JEbKtZRAGGI)(Reuters, 3/10/21)

2021        Mar 11, It was reported that a rumbling political crisis in Belarus has spilled over into the Eurovision Song Contest this week, as the country's state broadcaster nominated a band that has released songs mocking protests against President Alexander Lukashenko. The entry, by Galasy ZMesta, has received 5,800 likes and 40,000 dislikes on the competition's official YouTube page since March 9, with more than half a million views.
    (https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=XohDxCXOsdI)(Reuters, 3/11/21)

2021        Mar 27, Belarus police arrested more than 100 people who assembled for a protest march in Minsk to call for the resignation of the country's authoritarian president.
    (AP, 3/27/21)
2021        Mar 27, It was reported that organizers of this year's Eurovision Song Contest have disqualified Belarus, ruling that its entry song - by a band whose lyrics have been deemed in the past to mock anti-government protests - is in breach of competition guidelines.
    (Reuters, 3/27/21)

2021        Apr 17, Russia’s main security agency said it has arrested two Belarusians who it said were preparing a plot to overthrow Belarus’ government and kill authoritarian President Alexander Lukashenko. Aleksandr Feduta and Yuras Zyankovich were handed over to Belarus.
    (AP, 4/17/21)

2021        Apr 24, Belarus sate news reported that President Alexander Lukashenko said he will sign a decree allowing the transfer of presidential power to the security council if he were to become unable to perform his duties.
    (Reuters, 4/24/21)

2021        May 12, In Belarus Alexander Burakov, a freelance correspondent for Deutsche Welle, was arrested while waiting with other journalists for access to the trial of six people charged with mass unrest. On May 15 he was sentenced to 20 days in jail for taking part in an “unauthorized event".
    (AP, 5/15/21)

2021        May 18, Belarusian authorities made the Tut.by news site unavailable to readers and raided its offices and the homes of some staff members. Officials maintained that the news site, arguably the most popular one in Belarus, violated media laws by publishing content on behalf of BYSOL, a foundation that helps victims of political repression but lacks proper state registration.
    (AP, 5/21/21)

2021        May 23, A Ryanair tourist flight from Athens to Vilnius was forced to land in Belarus by a MiG-29 fighter jet after a bogus bomb threat so authorities could arrest Roman Protasevich (26), a journalist opponent of hardman president Lukashenko.
2021        May 23, Lithuanian prosecutors launched a criminal investigation into the forced diversion of a RyanAir flight en route to Vilnius, Lithuania's capital, to Minsk, Belarus, where police arrested prominent dissident journalist Raman Pratasevich.
    (Reuters, 5/23/21)

2021        May 24, Britain barred Belarus’s national airline and instructed UK aircraft to avoid Belarussian airspace after a Ryanair passenger jet was forced to land in Minsk.
    (AP, 5/24/21)
2021        May 24, Western outrage grew and the European Union threatened more sanctions over the forced diversion of a plane to Belarus in order to arrest opposition journalist Raman Pratasevich. The dramatic gambit apparently ordered by the country’s authoritarian president to suppress dissent was denounced as piracy, a hijacking and terrorism.
    (AP, 5/24/21)
2021        May 24, Thailand said it will extend the gap between the first and second doses of AstraZeneca's COVID-19 vaccine to 16 weeks, in an effort to inoculate more people faster.
    (Reuters, 5/24/21)

2021        May 25, Belarus’ isolation deepened as commercial planes avoided its airspace, the European Union worked up new sanctions, and a senior UN official said he was concerned for the welfare of Raman Pratasevich, the opposition journalist arrested in Minsk after his plane was diverted there. The UN human rights watchdog demanded that Belarus release Protasevich.
    (AP, 5/25/21)(Reuters, 5/25/21)

2021        May 28, Russia's Pres. Vladimir Putin met with Belarus dictator Alexander Lukashenko in the Black Sea resort of Sochi. Lukashenko pressed a briefcase of mysterious documents onto Putin, saying it contained everything he needed to know about what “really happened" with the forced landing of Ryanair flight in Minsk.
    (The Telegraph, 5/28/21)   
2021        May 28, It was reported that about 500 Belarusian farm workers recruited under a Government visa scheme to help Britain bring in its summer harvest are trapped in Belarus by the flight hijack crisis.
    (The Telegraph, 5/28/21)
2021        May 28, The Biden administration announced new crackdowns against Belarus as punishment for forcing down a Ryanair flight to arrest an opposition journalist.
    (Axios, 5/28/21)

2021        May 29, The head of Belarusian national airline Belavia condemned as "despicable" the decision by numerous EU countries to impose airspace restrictions on the carrier following the forced landing of a passenger jet in Minsk.
    (Reuters, 5/29/21)

2021        May 30, In Belarus Aliaksei Shota, an editor for the popular Internet news site Hrodna.life, was detained amid a crackdown on independent journalists and opponents of authoritarian President Alexander Lukashenko. A bus carrying unidentified men pulled up outside Shota’s residence and seized him.
    (AP, 5/30/21)

2021        May 31, The NATO military alliance said it is restricting access to its headquarters for a group of Belarus officials in the wake of Minsk’s decision to divert a Ryanair passenger plane to arrest a dissident journalist earlier this month.
    (AP, 5/31/21)

2021        Jun 1, Belarusian political activist Stepan Latypov (41) stabbed himself in the neck on the first day of his trial and was rushed to hospital. Following surgery Latypov was returned to prison.
    (CBS News, 6/2/21)

2021        Jun 3, In Belarus a video appeared on state TV of dissident activist Raman Pratasevich (26) in which he repented for his opposition activities. The Belarusian opposition quickly called the confession coerced.
    (SFC, 6/5/21, p.A2)

2021        Jun 7, Lithuania says Belarus could be behind a recent migrant influx and claimed that Belarus border guards have been covering the tracks of the migrants. Lukashenko has warned that Belarus could retaliate against the latest EU sanctions by loosening border controls against Western-bound illegal migration and drug trafficking.
    (AP, 6/7/21)

2021        Jun 8, Belarus' authoritarian president Alexander Lukashenko signed a law that threatens demonstrators with years in prison — the latest move in a relentless crackdown on protests against his rule.
    (AP, 6/8/21)

2021        Jun 9, Belarusian opposition leader Sviatlana Tsikhanouskaya called for the creation of an international tribunal to investigate and prosecute crimes reportedly committed by the government and its longtime authoritarian leader, Alexander Lukashenko.
    (AP, 6/9/21)

2021        Jun 21, The United States imposed sanctions on more than a dozen Belarusian individuals and entities, joining Britain, Canada and the European Union in applying pressure for human rights abuses and the erosion of democracy.
    (Reuters, 6/21/21)

2021        Jun 22, Belarus' authoritarian President Alexander Lukashenko warned that his country will not try to stem a flow of illegal migrants to the European Union.
    (AP, 6/23/21)

2021        Jun 24, The European Union slapped economic sanctions on Belarus in response to what the EU called the “escalation of serious human rights violations" including the detention of journalist Raman Pratasevich.
    (AP, 6/24/21)

Subject = Belarus
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