Timeline Babylonia

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ABZU: http://www-oi.uchicago.edu/OI/DEPT/RA/ABZU/ABZU_REGINDX_MESO.HTML
Catholic Enc.:
Math in Babylon:

3500BC    Sumerians and Babylonians use sexigesimal (base 60) number system according to historian Eric Temple Bell.
3500BC    King Etena of Babylonia was pictured on a coin, flying on an eagle’s back.
    (NPub, 2002, p.2)

3500BC-2400BC    The Tower of Babel was built during this period by people of one language who inhabited the land of Shinar in the kingdom of Nimrod.
    (Econ, 4/26/08, p.108)

c2700BC    The Sumerian King, Gilgamesh, ruled the city of Uruk (Babylonia) which had grown to a population of over 50,000. Gilgamesh was the subject of many epics, including the Sumerian "Gilgamesh and Enkidu in the Nether World" and the Babylonian "Epic of Gilgamesh." In 1844 Westerners discovered an epic poem based on Gilgamesh on stone fragments in Mosul, Iraq. 5 Sumerian versions were later acknowledged. The 1st part of the poem was published in 1876. In 2004 Stephen Mitchell published “Gilgamesh: A New English Translation." Derek Hines authored “Gilgamesh."
    (eawc, p.1)(SFC, 12/14/04, p.E4)

2400BC    Dagan, a name that appears in early Mesopotamia, and that enters into the composition of proper names in Babylonia about this time. Dagan was later a name for head of the Philistine pantheon.
    (R.M.-P.H.C.p.99, p.104)

2145BC    Idin-Dagan, a king of Babylonia. and his son Isme-Dagan.

2000BC-1600BC    In Mesopotamia the Old Babylonian period began after the collapse of Sumer, probably due to an increase in the salt content of the soil that made farming difficult. Weakened by poor crops and lack of surplus goods, the Sumerians were conquered by the Amorites, situated in Babylon. The center of civility shifted north. The Amorites preserved much of the Sumerian culture but introduced their own Semitic language, an early ancestor to Hebrew, into the region.
    (eawc, p.2)

1900BC    The “Epic of Gilgamesh" was redacted from Sumerian sources and written in the Babylonian semetic.
    (eawc, p.3)

1900BC-1500BC    During this period a Semitic group of nomads migrated from Sumer to Canaan and then on to Egypt. They were led by a caravan trader, the Patriarch Abraham, who became the father of the nation of Israel. Ishmael was a son of Abraham had by Hagar. Isaac was a son of Abraham by Sarah. Hebrews trace their lineage through Isaac, Arabs through Ishmael.
    (eawc, p.3)(NW, 11/02, p.55)

1800BC    By this time the Old Babylonians employed advanced mathematical operations such as multiplication, division and square roots. Their duodecimal system, based on 12 and 6 to measure time, is still used today.
    (eawc, p.3)

1792BC-1750BC    Hammurabi, king of Babylon, established a code of laws during this period that became known as the Code of Hammurabi. They were inscribed on a basalt column, later found at Susa, Iran. One of the laws was that if a married woman was caught lying with another man, both should be bound and thrown into the river.
    (WH, 1994, p.13)(SFEC, 10/20/96, Z1 p.2)(Econ, 4/12/08, p.91)

1763BC    Hammurabi, the Amorite King, conquered all of Sumer. He wrote a “Code of Laws" that contained 282 rules including the principles of “an eye for an eye" and “let the buyer beware." It was one of the first codes of law in world history, predated only by the Laws of Lipit-Ishtar.
    (eawc, p.3)

1750BC    Hammurabi died but his empire lasted another 150 years when the Kassites, a non-semetic people, conquered most of Mesopotamia with the help of light chariot warfare.
    (eawc, p.3)

1600BC    The Kassites, a non-semetic people, conquered most of Mesopotamia with the help of light chariot warfare.
    (eawc, p.3)

1595BC    The Hittites captured Babylon and retreated. They left the city open to Kassite domination which lasted about 300 years. They maintained the Sumerian/Babylonian culture without innovations of their own.
    (eawc, p.4)

1300BC    A middle eastern empire of this time.
    (MT, 3/96, p.3)

1225BC    The Assyrian ruler, Tukulti-Ninurta, captured Babylon and the region of southern Mesopotamia, but their control did not last long.
    (eawc, p.5)

1000BC    Chaldeans traced their origins to about this time in Babylon.
    (SFC, 9/30/00, p.A12)

689BC        Sennacherib of Assyria destroyed Babylon, but his son rebuilt it.
    (eawc, p.7)

650BC        Babylon by this time was again prosperous following its destruction in 689 by Sennacherib of Assyria.
    (eawc, p.7)

614BC        The Babylonians (particularly, the Chaldeans) with the help of the Medes, who occupied what is today Iran, began a campaign to destroy the Assyrians.
    (eawc, p.8)

612BC        Ninevah (Mesopotamia) fell to the Babylonians. The Chaldeans, a semetic people, then ruled the entire region thereby issuing in the New Babylonian period that lasted to 539BC.
    (NG, Aug., 1974, S.W. Matthews, p.174)

609BC-593BC        Pharaoh Necho II ruled Egypt. The biblical king Josiah was slain on Har (Mt.) Megiddo (root of Armageddon) in the 7th cent. when he was betrayed by Pharaoh Necho whom he had come to stop from going to war on the side of the Assyrians against the Babylonians.
    (NG, Aug., 1974, p.180)(WSJ, 4/17/97, p.A20)

612BC        Ninevah (Mesopotamia) fell to the Babylonians.
    (NG, Aug., 1974, S.W. Matthews, p.174)

609BC        The biblical king Josiah of Judah was slain on Har (Mt.) Megiddo (root of Armageddon) about this time when he was betrayed by Pharaoh Necho, whom he had approached to stop from going to war on the side of the Assyrians against the Babylonians.
    (NG, Aug., 1974, p.180)(WSJ, 4/17/97, p.A20)(www.crystalinks.com/dynasty26.html)

605BC-562BC     Nebuchadnezzar II ruled in Babylon. He undertook some monumental building projects that included the Hanging Gardens. The New Babylonian Revival used glazed bricks for building thereby creating a colorful city. The king was fond of spinach.
    (SFC, 12/25/98, p.B5)(SFC, 3/24/00, p.B3)

604BC        Nebuchadnezzar of Babylon invaded and put the Philistines' cities to the sword. There is no remnant of them after that.
    (AP, 7/8/11)

595BC-589BC        Psammetichus II (Psamtik II), son of Nacho II, ruled in Egypt as a 26th Dynasty king. Psamtik II built the temple of Hibis in the al-Khargah oasis, 310 miles south of Cairo. It was built to worship Amun and contained statues of Amun's wife, Mut.
    (SFC, 7/16/99, p.D3)(www.crystalinks.com/dynasty26.html)

586BC        Nebuchadnezzar of Babylon, ruler of Mesopotamia, destroyed Jerusalem and recorded his deeds at the Nahr al Kalb (Dog River) cliff face between Beirut and Byblos. He destroyed the first Temple, built by Solomon and took the Jewish people into captivity.
    (NG, Aug., 1974, p.157)(SFC, 12/31/96, p.A11)(Econ, 12/20/03, p.26)
586BC        Ezekial, in exile at Babylon, described Tyre as it was before Nebuchadnezzar's attack in the Bible: (Ezekial 27:1-25). This time is known as the "Babylonian Captivity."
    (NG, Aug., 1974, p.162)(eawc, p.8)

585BC-572BC        Nebuchadnezzar of Babylon began his 13 year siege of Tyre.
    (NG, Aug., 1974, S.W. Matthews, p.157)

570BC        Oct, General Amasis (Ahmose II) defeated King Apries a 2nd time and took control of a united Egypt. Apries sought refuge abroad and later turned up at the court of Nebuchadnezzar of Babylon.

567BC        Apries, former ruler of Egypt, marched on Egypt at the head of a Babylonian army, but once again, Amasis defeated him, this time capturing the former king.

539BC        Babylon, under Chaldean rule since 612BC, fell to the Persians. Cyrus the Persian captured Babylon after the New Babylonian leader, Belshazaar, failed to read "the handwriting on the wall." The Persian Empire under Cyrus lasted to 331BC, when it was conquered by Alexander the Great. Cyrus returned some of the exiled Jews to Palestine, while other Jews preferred to stay and establish a 2nd Jewish center, the first being in Jerusalem. The Cyrus Cylinder was created following the Persian conquest of Babylon, when Cyrus overthrew the Babylonian king Nabonidus and replaced him as ruler, ending the Neo-Babylonian Empire. It was discovered in 1879 and became considered as the world's first declaration of human rights.
    (NG, Aug., 1974, p.174)(eawc, p.8,9)(http://tinyurl.com/lma678)(AFP, 2/7/10)

486BC        Darius, ruler of Persia, died. His preparations for a 3rd expedition against Greece were delayed by an insurrection in Egypt. He was succeeded by his son Xerxes (35), governor of Babylonia.

486BC-465BC        Xerxes the Great, king of Persia, ruled Egypt as the 3rd king of the 27th Dynasty. His rule extended from India to the lands below the Caspian and Black seas, to the east coast of the Mediterranean including Egypt and Thrace. Persia’s great cities Sardis, Ninevah, Babylon, and Susa were joined by the Royal Road. East of Susa was Persopolis, a vast religious monument. To the north of Persia were the Scythians.
    (V.D.-H.K.p.49)(eawc, p.11)(www.crystalinks.com/dynasty27a.html)

465BC-424BC        Artaxerxes, son of Xerxes I, ruled Persia in the Achaemenis dynasty and Egypt as the 4th king of the 27th Dynasty. The books of Ezra and Nehemiah remember him warmly because he authorized their revival of Judaism.  Esther, a Jewish woman living in Babylon, was chosen for her beauty to be his new queen. She later discovered a plot by the king’s vizier to slaughter all Jews. She informed the king and saved her people. This is remembered in the Jewish holiday of Purim.
    (www.crystalinks.com/dynasty27a.html)(WSJ, 4/10/09, p.W13)(http://tinyurl.com/d2gayf)

350BC        Babylonian tables of astronomical numbers regularly use zero.

323BC        Jun 10, Alexander died In Persia at Babylon at the age of 32. His general, Ptolemy, took possession of Egypt. Apelles was a painter in Alexander's court. He had been commissioned by Alexander to paint a portrait of Campaspe, Alexander's concubine. Apelles fell in love with Campaspe and Alexander granted her to him in marriage. In 1984 Curtius Quintas Rufus authored "the History of Alexander." In 1991 Peter Green authored "Alexander of Macedon, A Historical Biography."
    (V.D.-H.K.p.62)(BS, 5/3/98, p.12E)(WSJ, 2/11/00, p.W6)(ON, 1/01, p.11)(WBO)

276        The prophet Mani (b.210), a resident of Babylon, died. His writings led to Manichaeism, one of the major Iranian Gnostic religions, originating in Sassanid Persia. Although most of his original writings have been lost, numerous translations and fragmentary texts have survived. Manichaeism is distinguished by its elaborate cosmology describing the struggle between a good, spiritual world of light, and an evil, material world of darkness.

500        The second component of the Talmud, the Gemara, was compiled about this time in Babylon (later Iraq). It is a discussion of the Mishnah and related Tannaitic writings that often ventures onto other subjects and expounds broadly on the Tanakh. The first component, the Mishnah, the first written compendium of Judaism's Oral Law, dated to around 200.

776        Al-Jahiz (d.868), Muslim theologian and scholar, was born in Basra about this time. He is credited with writing nearly two hundred works, although fewer than one hundred survive today. His most famous work is Al-Hayawan" (The Book of animals), which merges discussions of zoology with philosophy.
    (Econ, 2/7/09, p.72)(www.enotes.com/classical-medieval-criticism/al-jahiz)

1271        The Polos were called back to Acre where the new Pope assigned two friars, Fra Nicolo da Vicenza and Fra Guielmo da Tripoli, to accompany them to visit the grand khan. They reached Armenia and heard that the soldan of Babylonia, named Bundokdari, had invaded Armenian territory. The friars feared for their lives and returned home.
    (TMPV, P.12)

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