Timeline Australia thru 2006

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Australia is about the same size as the 48 adjoining US states.
(SSFC, 10/9/05, Par p.27)
The states of Australia included Queensland (Brisbane); the island state of Tasmania (about the size of West Virginia).
3.6Bil BC    Fossils of bacteria from Western Australia and south Africa date to about this time.
    (SFC, 8/23/96, p.A21)(NH, 7/98, p.22)

4.37Bil BC    Scientists in 2014 reported that a zircon crystal discovered in Western Australia in 2010 has been determined to be 4.374 billion years old, making it the oldest rock ever discovered on Earth. In 2005 Scientists had used the radioactive decay rate of uranium to date zircons from Western Australia to 4.3Bil BC - 4.1Bil BC. The evidence pointed to a watery world well-suited for life to emerge.
    (SFC, 5/7/05, p.A4)(SSFC, 1/4/15, p.C12)

3.6Bil BC    Fossils of bacteria from Western Australia and south Africa date to about this time.
    (SFC, 8/23/96, p.A21)(NH, 7/98, p.22)

3.5Bil BC    The Apex Chert of Australia indicate that by this time at least 11 kinds of bacteria existed.
    (PacDis, Winter ’97, p.34)

3.465        In 1993 paleobiologist J.W. Schopf reported the discovery of microfossils dating to this time in the Apex chert of the Warrawoona group in Western Australia. In 2002 Martin Brasier of the Univ. Of Oxford said the fossils were just mineral artifacts.
    (SFC, 8/22/11, p.A2)

3.4Bil BC    Scientists in 2006 reported that stromatolites in western Australia, created about this time, were likely formed when dirt sediments mixed with carbon dioxide, expelled from bacteria, along with water and minerals trapped in the microbe’s sticky mucilage.
    (SFC, 6/8/06, p.A6)
3.4Bil BC    A team of scientists in 2011, led by David Wacey and Martin Brasier, reported the discovery of fossilized, single-celled organisms dating to this time in sandstone of the Strelley Pool rock formation in Western Australia.
    (SFC, 8/22/11, p.A2)

2.7Bil BC    In 1999 Australian geologists under Jochen J. Brocks reported fossil "biomolecules" from this time. Traces of steranes produced by eukaryotes, and methylhopanes from cyanobacteria were reported.
    (SFC, 8/13/99, p.A1,21)

2Mil BC - 50,000BC    In Australia a herbivorous diprotodon, the largest marsupial to ever roam the earth, lived about this time. A fossil of the car sized mega-wombat was unearthed in northern Australia in 2011.
    (AFP, 7/6/11)

1.2Bil BC    Scientists reported in 2002 that sandstone rocks from the Sterling Range of Australia showed evidence of wormlike creatures from about this time.
    (SFC, 5/10/02, p.A2)

500Mil BC    A huge shellfish-type creature called anomalocaris lived about this time. In 2011 Australian scientists hailed the discovery of a pair of insect-like eyes belonging to a freakish prehistoric super-predator. The fossilized eyes measuring three cm (1.2 inches) across and with a whopping 16,000 individual lenses.
    (AFP, 12/8/11)

170Mil BC    The semi-aquatic platypus is thought to have split off from a common ancestor shared with humans approximately about this time. In 2008 scientists laid bare the platypus genome of 2.2 billion base pairs spread across 18,500 genes.
    (AFP, 5/8/08)

150Mil BC    Australia's funnel-web spiders emerged about this time. Their venom is extremely lethal to people.
    (Econ., 9/26/20, p.74)

125Mil BC    Meat-eating dinosaurs, known as ceratosaurs, lived in Australia about this time. They represented globe-trotting groups which spread out across the world before the continents began to separate. In 2006 a ceratosaur ankle bone was found near the coastal town of San Remo by an amateur paleontologist.
    (AFP, 5/7/12)

115Mil BC    In 2007 scientists reported that large, carnivorous dinosaurs roamed southern Australia about this time, when the continent was joined to Antarctica. The 12-foot dinosaurs were padded with body fat to survive temperatures as low as minus 30 degrees Celsius. Their findings were based on fossil footprints.
    (Reuters, 10/23/07)

115Mil BC - 105Mil BC    Dinosaur tracks were made in Australia during this period when it was connected to Antarctica and was located much closer to the South Pole, as a part of the paleogeographic continent of Gondwana. The average temperature of the area was around 68 degrees Fahrenheit (20 degrees Celsius). In 2011 printed slabs of sandstone were found along the rocky and remote Milanesia Beach in Otways National Park, west of Melbourne.
    (AP, 8/11/11)

100Mil BC    Australia split from Gondwana about this time and began drifting north away from what is now Antarctica, pushed by the expansion of a rift valley into the eastern Indian Ocean.
    (AP, 6/8/06)
100Mil BC    A snake, later named Wonambi, emerged in Australia about this time. It was believed to have gone extinct about 50,000 BC.
    (SFC, 2/16/06, p.A4)

650Mil BC    In 2008 Australian scientists said they had discovered in an outback mountain range a reef that was under water at this time.
    (AFP, 9/22/08)

630Mil BC-542 Mil BC    This is known as the Ediacaran Period, during which animals began to appear according to the fossil record. It is named after the locality in Australia where they were first discovered.

560Mil BC    In 2003 a fossil of a 2.56-inch fishlike animal from the Flinders Ranges of southern Australia was believed to be at least 560 million years old, 30 million years older than the previous record.
    (AP, 10/23/03)

380Mil BC    In 2009 Scientists from Australia and Britain studying 380 million-year-old fossils of the armored placoderm fish, or Incisoscutum richiei, said embryos in the fish indicated that sex as we know it, fertilization of eggs while they are still inside a female, took place as much as 30 million years earlier than previously thought. They originally thought the fish laid their eggs before fertilization.
    (AP, 2/26/09)

250Mil BC    The worst mass extinction in Earth’s history occurred about this time. 90% of life in the oceans and 70% of land animals disappeared within a million years due to a suspected asteroid impact. This was later called the "Permian-Triassic Extinction" and "The Great Dying." Scientists later suspected that an eruption of flood basalt in Russia, the Siberian Traps, caused the massive extinction. In 2004 scientists suggested that the extinction was caused by a meteorite that hit the north coast of Pangea, forming a crater known as the Bedout High, later a part of the Australian continent.  [see 225 and 200 mil]
    (SFC, 2/23/01, p.A1)(SFC, 6/10/02, p.A6)(Econ, 11/8/03, p.78)(SFC, 5/14/04, p.A1)

130Mil BC    Stegosaurus dinosaurs left footprints near Broome.
    (SFC, 10/16/96, p.A10)

115Mil BC    In 2006 scientists identified two ancient reptiles that swam in icy waters off Australia about this time. The discoveries, dubbed Umoonasaurus and Opallionectes, belonged to a group of animals called plesiosaurs, long-necked marine reptiles that lived during the time of the dinosaurs. Both creatures lived in a freezing polar sea that covered what is now Australia, when the continent was located much closer to Antarctica.
    (AP, 7/28/06)

110Mil BC    The Daintree rain forest of North Queensland dated to this time.
    (SSFC, 6/9/02, p.C7)

96Mil BC    Paleontologists in 2019 said fossils of the pterosaur, named Ferrodraco lentoni, unearthed in the Australian state of Queensland, lived about this time during the Cretaceous Period. It boasted a 13-foot (4-meter) wingspan, a bony crest at the tip of its upper and lower jaws and spike-shaped teeth perfect for a diet of fish.
    (Reuters, 10/3/19)

80Mil BC     The landmass that was to become New Zealand, broke away from Gondwana, splitting away from Australia and Antarctica as the Tasman Sea opened up. This split off an area about ten times the size of present-day New Zealand, a continental fragment called Zealandia. Full separation took over 20 million years with the Tasman Sea reaching its present width of 2,000 km around 60 million years ago. In 1995 the name and concept for the continent of Zealandia was proposed by Bruce Luyendyk. In 2017 scientists reported that a continent named Zealandia, believed to have broken away from Australia about this time, sank beneath the sea as part of the break-up of the super-continent known as Gondwanaland.
    (http://tinyurl.com/y3u7o99j)(Reuters, 2/18/17)

25Mil BC    In 1997 a teenage surfer named Staumn Hunter found a whale fossil in a limestone rock at Jan Juc Beach, Australia. Researchers named it Janjucetus hunderi in his honor. In 2006 researchers said it was an ancestor of modern baleen whales. The fossil suggests a creature that grew to a little more than 11 feet with teeth about an inch-and-a-half long.
25Mil BC    In 2007 Scientists reported that a fossil from this time, found in Queensland, Australia, in the 1990s, has revealed that a predecessor of the hopping kangaroo once galloped on all fours, had dog-like fangs and possibly climbed trees.
    (AP, 12/6/07)

20Mil BC-10Mil BC    A team of Australian paleontologists in 2006 said they had found the fossilized remains of a fanged killer kangaroo and what they describe as a "demon duck of doom" that lived during this period in Queensland state.
    (AP, 7/12/06)

15Mil BC    In Australia sheep-sized relatives of modern-day wombats lived treetops about this time. The wombat-like marsupial was later named Nimbadon lavarackorum. The world's largest tree-climbing marsupial were among fossils found at the Riversleigh World Heritage Site in Queensland state. The Nimbadon fossil material was found in 2010.
    (SFC, 7/17/10, p.A2)(AFP, 5/3/12)

400000BC - 48000BC     A human group, later called the Denisovans, lived in Asia during this period. They then interbred with humans expanding from Africa along the coast of South Asia. In 2010 fossil evidence from a Siberian cave in 2008 revealed that their DNA was related to the DNA of people from New Guinea, which contained 4.8% Denisovan DNA. 3-5% of the DNA from native people of Papua New Guinea, Australia, the Philippines and other nearby islands came from Denisovans, who left Africa as far back as 800,000 BC. In 2014 scientists reported that a genetic between extinct Denisovans and some modern-day Tibetans and Sherpas.
    (SFC, 12/23/10, p.A4)(SSFC, 9/16/12, p.C11)(SFC, 7/3/14, p.D1)

150000BC    In 1980 evidence of Aboriginal habitation were discovered in charcoal remains deep in the bed of the Great Barrier Reef and dated to about this time.
    (SFEC, 2/28/99, p.T4)

114000BC    Controversial data from the Jinmium rock-shelter in northern Australia suggests humans may have reached the continent at this time.
    (AM, Mar/Apr 97 p.21)

100000BC-50000BC    The 200-pound Genyornis newtoni, an ostrich-like bird, and the 25-foot Megalonia lizard were among the megafauna that flourished in Australia during this period.
    (SFC, 1/8/99, p.A2)

53000BC-50000BC    During this period the first humans migrated to Australia from the islands of Indonesia. It is believed that they came in bamboo rafts from Indonesia and also from southern China.
    (SFC, 1/8/99, p.A2)(NG, Oct. 1988, p.467)

53000BC-45000BC    Australia’s early human population wiped out the continent’s megafauna over this period.
    (SFC, 6/8/01, p.A8)

51000BC    The fossil of a Diprotodon, a giant marsupial from this time, was excavated in 2001 from Cox’s Creek in New South Wales.
    (SFC, 6/8/01, p.A8)

50000BC    Research on hair DNA in 2011 indicated that the first humans arrived in Australia about this time.
    (SFC, 9/23/11, p.A10)

48000BC-44000BC    In Australia about 85% of the land-dwelling megafauna weighing over 100 pounds went extinct about this time. It was later suspected that systematic burning of the forests by humans contributed to the extinction. Some 55 species died off including the 230-pound flightless "thunder bird" called genyornis.
    (SFC, 1/8/99, p.A2)(SFC, 6/8/01, p.A8)

45000BC    The extinction of most of Australia’s large animals occurred about this time, shortly after the arrival of humans.
    (SFC, 7/8/05, p.A2)
41000BC    A land bridge between Australia and Tasmania formed about this time allowing people to cross into Tasmania. Two thousand years later the megafauna of Tasmania were gone.
    (Econ, 9/14/13, SR p.5)
41000BC    The skull of a giant kangaroo dating to this time was found in a cave in the thick rainforest of the rugged northwest of Tasmania in 2000. Scientists used the skull to argue that that man likely hunted to death the giant kangaroo and other very large animals on the southern island of Tasmania.
    (AP, 8/12/08)

400000BC - 48000BC     A human group, later called the Denisovans, lived in Asia during this period. They then interbred with humans expanding from Africa along the coast of South Asia. In 2010 fossil evidence from a Siberian cave in 2008 revealed that their DNA was related to the DNA of people from New Guinea, which contained 4.8% Denisovan DNA. 3-5% of the DNA from native people of Papua New Guinea, Australia, the Philippines and other nearby islands came from Denisovans, who left Africa as far back as 800,000 BC.
    (SFC, 12/23/10, p.A4)(SSFC, 9/16/12, p.C11)

38000BCE-1996    Scientists in Australia said that they found a shrub in Tasmania that began growing 40,000 years ago. Dubbed "King’s Holly," the plant clones itself and now covers 2 secluded river gullies in the remote southwest.
    (SFC, 10/26/96, p.A17)

35000BC    In 2008 archeologists unearthed tools dating back at least 35,000 years in a rock shelter in Australia's remote northwest, making it one of the oldest archaeological finds in that part of the country.
    (AP, 4/7/08)
35000BC    A piece of a stone axe dating to this time was discovered in 2010 on sacred Aboriginal land in Australia, the oldest object of its type ever found. Archeologists said the discovery is evidence that Aboriginal Jawoyn people from Arnhem Land could have been the first to grind axes to sharpen their edges.
    (AP, 11/5/10)
35000BC    In Australia the Budj Bim volcano erupted about this time. Three overlapping volcanic craters formed Lake Surprise in what later became southwestern Victoria state. The mountain was named Mount Eeles in 1836 by Major Thomas Mitchell after William Eeles of the 95th Regiment of Foot who fought with Mitchell in the Peninsular War. A draftsman's error meant that the name was rendered Eccles from 1845.
    (Econ., 2/29/20, p.65)

35000BC-25000BC    Aboriginal rock paintings in Australia were made as far back as this time.
    (SFEC, 2/28/99, p.T4)

28000BC    In 2012 archaeologist Bryce Barker dated the oldest piece of rock art in Australia and one of the oldest in the world: an Aboriginal work created about this time in the Northern Territory rock shelter known as Nawarla Gabarnmang.
    (AP, 6/18/12)

20000BC    In Australia scientists in 2005 said hundreds of human footprints dating back 20,000 years were discovered in a dry lake bed near Willandra Lakes, southwest of Sydney.
    (Reuters, 12/21/05)

2217BC    In 2013 scientists reported DNA evidence that people from India arrived in Australia about this time and mixed with the local aboriginals.
    (Econ, 1/19/12, p.77)

1500BC    Domesticated dogs companied people to Timor, New Guinea and Australia by about this time. The dogs reverted to a feral existence and in Australia became dingoes.
    (NH, 11/1/04, p.14)

1522        In 2007 The book "Beyond Capricorn" said a 16th century maritime map in a Los Angeles library vault, which accurately marks geographical sites along Australia's east coast in Portuguese, proves that Portuguese seafarer Christopher de Mendonca lead a fleet of four ships into Botany Bay in this year.
    (Reuters, 3/21/07)

1642        Nov 24, Abel Janszoon Tasman (d.1659) discovered Van Diemen's Land (Tasmania).
    (MC, 11/24/01)

1643        Dec 25, Captain William Mynors of the Royal Mary, a British East India Company vessel, named Christmas Island when he sailed past it on Christmas Day. Sovereignty of the island was transferred to Australia in 1957.

1659        Oct 10, Able Janszoon Tasman, navigator, died at about 56. He discovered Tasmania.
    (WUD, 1994 p.1455)(MC, 10/10/01)

1757        Jun 1, Ignaz J. Pleyel, Austrian composer, piano builder (Piano method), was born. (MC, 6/1/02)

1768        Aug 26, Capt James Cook departed from Plymouth with Endeavour to the Pacific Ocean. Daniel Solander and Joseph Banks accompanied Cook to catalog plants and animals of Australia and New Zealand on the 3-year journey.
    (www.artstor.org/what-is-artstor/w-html/col-endeavour-london.shtml)(SSFC, 4/19/09, Books p.J7)

1768-1771    Capt. James Cook charted the coasts of both the north and south islands of New Zealand and Australia. Cook made his historic voyages in colliers, slow but strong ships designed primarily for carrying coal. His ship was named the Endeavour. Cook's voyage to Australia kept a botanical record called the Banks Florilegium. The 738 original plates commissioned by Sir Joseph Banks was not printed until a 100 set limited edition in 1989.
    (SFC, 6/18/96, p.D1)(WSJ, 10/5/99, p.A24)

1770        Apr 9, Captain James Cook discovered Botany Bay on the Australian continent.
    (HN, 4/9/98)

1770        Apr 19, Capt. James Cook first saw Australia. [see Apr 9]
    (MC, 4/19/02)

1770        Apr 20, Captain Cook arrived in New South Wales, Australia.
    (HN, 4/20/98)

1770        Jun 11, Capt. James Cook, commander of the British ship Endeavour, discovered the Great Barrier Reef off Australia by running onto it.
    (AP, 6/11/97)(HN, 6/11/98)

1774        Capt. Cook discovered the 13-square-mile Norfolk Island 1,000 miles east of Sidney. It was later turned into a penal settlement from which the last prisoner left in 1855.
    (AP, 8/12/02)

1787        May 13, Arthur Phillip set sail from Portsmouth, Great Britain, with 11 ships of criminals to Australia. By year’s end some 50,000 British convict servants were transported to the American colonies in commutation of death sentences. After the American Revolution, Britain continued dumping convicts in the US illegally into 1787. Australia eventually replaced America for this purpose. Penal transports continued until 1853, which left a remarkable legacy: an almost totally unexplored continent settled largely by convicted felons.
    (HNQ, 1/24/99)(www.foundingdocs.gov.au/item.asp?dID=35)

1788        Jan 18, The first English settlers arrived in Australia's Botany Bay to establish a penal colony. They found the location unsuitable and Capt. Arthur Philip moved on to Sydney Cove. England sent the first sheep along with convicts to Australia.
    (NG, 5.1988, pp. 575)(SFEC, 1/4/98, p.T4)(AP, 1/18/98)(Econ, 5/7/05, Survey p.14)

1788        Jan 26, The 1st fleet of ships carrying 736 convicts from England landed at Sydney Cove, New South Wales, Australia. The first European settlers in Australia, led by Capt. Arthur Phillip, landed in present-day Sydney. The day is since known as Australia’s national day. In 2006 Thomas Keneally authored “The Commonwealth of Thieves: The Story of the Founding of Australia."
    (AP, 1/26/98)(HN, 1/26/99)(WSJ, 9/19/00, p.A1)(Econ, 7/15/06, p.83)

1788        As British settlers arrived in Australia the native Aborigines are believed to have numbered about 750,000, and to have inhabited Australia for up to 70,000 years.
    (AP, 1/30/08)

1789        The prison ship Lady Julian delivered over 200 women to the penal colony at Sydney harbor. In 2002 Sian Rees authored "The Floating Brothel: The Extraordinary True Story of an Eighteenth-Century Ship and Its Cargo of Female Convicts."
    (SSFC, 3/3/02, p.M3)

1789        Smallpox was introduced to Australia and caused devastation among the aborigines.
    (SFC, 10/19/01, p.A17)

1790        Pemulway, an Aboriginal warrior, speared and killed the governor’s gamekeeper at Botany Bay and waged war against the British for 12 years. His head was later sent to England. Eric Willmot later authored "Pemulway, the Rainbow Warrior."
    (SFEC, 9/10/00, p.T4)

1791        In Australia officials granted parcels of land around Sydney to convicts who have served their time, beginning years of dispossession of Aborigines that continued as white settlers dispersed throughout Australia. Clashes between Aborigines and settlers led to tens of thousands of deaths among Aborigines and hundreds of settler deaths.
    (AP, 1/30/08)

1792        Arthur Phillip, the 1st governor of New South Wales, Australia, returned to England accompanied by Bennelong, an Aboriginal who had earlier attacked and wounded him. Philip later gave Bennelong a house on a point in Sydney Cove. In 1973 it became the site of the Sydney Opera House.
    (Econ, 7/15/06, p.83)

1795        Apr 28, Charles Sturt (d.1869), explorer of Australia, was born in India. British explorer Charles Sturt is known as the "father of Australian exploration." He was the first to penetrate deep into Australia's interior from 1828 to 1845 during three hazardous expeditions. In 1828 he discovered the Darling River and in January 1830 the Murray River, which he followed until he reached present day Goolwa. His last expedition came to an end when his eyesight was impaired by exposure and illness. Scotsman John McDouall Stuart was part of Stuart's final expedition and went on to become a major explorer, crossing the continent from Adelaide to Port Darwin in 1862.
    (http://members.ozemail.com.au/~fliranre/home.htm)(HN, 4/28/98)(HNQ, 5/26/98)   

1797        Australia’s first coal mining began at Newcastle.
    (Econ, 6/6/09, p.39)

1802        A British exploring party led by Matthew Flinders landed on a 96-mile-long island southwest of Adelaide and slaughtered 31 kangaroos for a feast. This 3rd largest island off Australia was thus named Kangaroo Island. Flinders named the Great Barrier Reef and found a passage to the Corral Sea. He is best remembered for circumnavigating Australia and giving the continent its name.
    (SFEC,12/21/97, p.T6)(SSFC, 3/24/02, p.C22)(WSJ, 7/23/04, p.W12)(Econ, 5/31/14, p.77)

1802        In Australia the Aboriginal warrior Pemulwuy (b.~1750) was shot dead. His head was cut off and believed to have been placed in a jar and sent to England. He opposed British settlement and was described by Sydney's then governor Philip King as "a terrible pest to the colony" but also "a brave and independent character."
    (AFP, 1/15/10)

1803         Mar 5, Australia's first newspaper, "The Sydney Gazette & New South Wales Advertiser" was 1st published.

1804        Feb 20, Hobart, Tasmania, was founded as a penal colony.

1804        Australian soldiers fired on an aboriginal hunting party on Tasmania and killed some 50 people. Some were salted down and sent to Sydney as anthropological curiosities.
    (WSJ, 8/2100, p.A1)

1810        Jul 11, The Australian-Briton Frederick Hasselborough discovered the uninhabited Macquarie island, half-way between New Zealand and Antarctica, accidentally when looking for new sealing grounds. The island took its name after Colonel Lachlan Macquarie, Governor of New South Wales from 1810 to 1821.

1813        Explorers Gregory Blaxland, William Wentworth and William Lawson blazed the first trail from Sydney across the Blue Mountains to the fertile western plains.
    (Hem., 1/97, p.53)
1813        Bennelong (49), an Australian Aborigine, died. He was one of the first Aborigines to live among white settlers after the landing of the First Fleet in 1788, when he was kidnapped and employed as a cultural interlocutor by the British. Bennelong had adapted to the European way of life, teaching the colonizers about Aboriginal customs and language and learning to speak English, but ultimately became an alcoholic.
    (AFP, 3/19/11)

1819        In Sydney convict labor built the Hyde Park Barracks and the state Parliament.
    (SFEC, 1/4/98, p.T4)

1820        Aug 9, David Stuurman (1773-1830) escaped from South Africa's Robben Island for a 2nd time. He was soon captured and in 1823 was transported to Australia. He was first arrested in 1809 and charged for resisting colonial rule as well as opposing the conscription of the Khoi into militias that were created to defend the colony and to attack the San and amaXhosa. He first escaped Robben Island in Dec. 1809.
    (BBC, 3/16/21)

1829        In Western Australia the Nyoongar people were largely dispossessed by white settlement. In 2006 they proved native title to over more than 6,000 square kilometers (2,300 square miles) covering Perth and its surrounds by continuing to observe traditional customs.
    (AFP, 9/20/06)

c1830-1840    Wine production began in Hunter Valley, north of Sydney
    (SFEC, 9/10/00, p.T6)

1831        The Sydney Morning Herald printed its premier issue at the Keep Within Compass pub.
    (SFEC, 9/10/00, p.T10)

1831        James Busby, Scottish-born father of Australian viticulture, collected 680 different vines from botanical gardens in Montpellier, Paris and London and brought them to Australia. These included the syrah grape, called shiraz in Australia.
    (SFC, 5/5/05, p.F10)

1833        Jul, In Australia the native warrior Yagan was shot dead by teenage bounty hunters. He had been a go-between for his people and European settlers in Western Australia and later an implacable foe. His head and the tribal tattoo on his back were hacked off and taken to Britain for study and display. The body parts were returned in Sep 1997. A statue was erected in his honor on an island park in Perth in 1983. It was repeatedly vandalized and its head was sawed off in 1997 shortly after the homecoming of Yagan’s real head. In 2010 his remains were laid to rest in a traditional ceremony after his skull was recovered from Britain.
    (SFEC, 10/5/97, p.A20)(AFP, 7/10/10)

1833        Oct 19, Adam Lindsay Gordon, Australian poet, was born.
    (HN, 10/19/00)

1834        Aug, The barque Charles Eaton was wrecked on Australia’s Great Barrier Reef. 2 years later the schooner Isabella arrived in Sydney with the cabin boy of the lost ship, a 5-year old child and 17 skulls of passengers murdered on Boydang Island. This event prompted an expedition to survey the reef, the Torres Strait and the southern coast of new Guinea. In 2005 Jordan Goodman authored “The Rattlesnake: A Voyage of Discovery to the Coral Sea," an account of the survey expedition.
    (Econ, 3/19/05, p.88)

1835        Dec 30, HMS Beagle and Charles Darwin sailed from NZ to Sydney.
    (MC, 12/30/01)

1836        Feb 17, HMS Beagle and Charles Darwin left Tasmania.
    (MC, 2/17/02)

1836        Mar 6, HMS Beagle and Darwin reached King George's Sound, Australia.
    (MC, 3/6/02)

1836        May 21, Eliza Fraser was shipwrecked off the coast of Queensland, Australia and was soon captured by aborigines on Great Sandy Island (later Fraser island). A rescue party that included John Graham, an escaped convict who had lived for six years with the Aborigines, brought her back to Brisbane in August.
    (http://adb.anu.edu.au/biography/fraser-eliza-anne-12929)(Econ, 5/31/14, p.77)

1837        Nov 21, Thomas Morris of Australia skipped rope 22,806 times.
    (MC, 11/21/01)

1838        Jun 10, In Australia white settlers led the Myall Creek massacre near Gwydir River, New South Wales. Up to 30 unarmed indigenous Australians were killed by ten Europeans and one African.
    (https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Myall_Creek_massacre)(Econ, 6/25/16, p.76)

1840        The Australian merchant ship “Success" was built in Burma.  In 1857 prisoners from Success murdered the Australian Superintendent of Prisons John Price, the inspiration for the character Maurice Frere in Marcus Clarke's novel “For the Term of His Natural Life."
1840        Polish explorer Paul Strzelecki named Australia’s highest peak in honor of the Polish national hero Tadeusz Kosciuszko. Early surveyors messed up the transcription and the peak was named Mt. Kosciusko. Decades later it was discovered that the mountain was a few feet lower than a neighboring peak. The New South Wales Lands Dept. swapped their names to resolve the issue. In 1996 there was a move to restore the missing z to the name.
    (SFEC, 11/24/96, T7)(SSFC, 12/25/11, p.N6)

1843        Jul, In Australia a group of men called the Highland Brigade, under the leadership of Angus McMillan, surrounded a Gunai encampment at Warrigal Creek and proceeded to slaughter the people. A wounded child was forced to lead them to other settlements and as many as 200 Gunai died in one day.
    (Econ, 6/25/16, p.74)

1844        Barbara Thompson (1831-1916), a Scottish girl, was possibly the sole survivor from the wreck of the cutter America, which ran onto Madjii Reef at Horn Island near Cape York Endeavour Strait off Queensland, Australia. She was taken in by one of the buwai gizumabaigalai (clan leaders) of the Kaurareg people, who believed that she was the returned spirit (markai) of his recently deceased daughter. She managed to retunr to Sidney in 1849.
1844        Wine production began at the Penfold Magill Estate in Adelaide.
    (SFEC, 9/10/00, p.T6)

1845        Cooper’s Creek, 800 miles north of Melbourne, was discovered by non-Aborigines.
    (ON, 12/01, p.)

1847        Johann Gramp, founder of Orlando Wines, planted the first vineyard in the Barossa Valley on the banks of Jacob’s Creek.
    (Label, JC Merlot-1999, 8/8/00)

1849        Apr, Australians began showing up in San Francisco. By mid-1851 some 11,000 had arrived including 7,500 from Sydney.
    (SFC, 7/21/18, p.C1)

1850        Jul 14, The 1st public demonstration of ice made by refrigeration took place. James Harrison of Australia designed an ice-making machine. It was an improvement on one invented by Jacob Perkins in 1834.
    (MC, 7/14/02)(WSJ, 1/11/99, p.R14)

1850        Rabbits were introduced to Australia about this time and soon became pests.
    (Nat. Hist., 4/96, p.16)

1850        The Granny Smith apple originated about this time in Australia. According to Morgan and Richards The Book of Apples: A Mrs. Smith, born in England in 1800, emigrated to Australia in 1838. In 1860s she found some seedlings growing in a creek where she had tipped out some apples brought back from Sydney. Tree was propagated and later family increased their orchards and marketed fruit in Sydney.

1851        Australia’s first gold rush began and raised boomtowns like Ballarat.
    (SFEC, 9/10/00, p.T9)

1854        Nov, A wooden boat called Mystery set sail from Cornwall, bound for Australia with seven Cornishmen hoping to escape their lives of poverty and dig for gold Down Under, a trip that eventually took 116 days.
    (AFP, 10/21/08)

1854        In Australia Chartist ideas influenced the miners of Eureka Stockade in 1854 in Victoria where they adopted all of Chartism's six points including the secret ballot. Chartism was a movement for political and social reform in the United Kingdom during the mid-19th century, between 1838 and 1850. It takes its name from the People's Charter of 1838.

1855-1880    Edward "Ned" Kelly was an outlaw folk hero who was hung for his crimes. Inspired by tales of the American ironclad, the Monitor, Kelly wore an 80-pound suit of armor during his final crimes. In 2000 Peter Carey authored the novel "True History of the Kelly Gang."
    (SFC, 5/3/97, p.E4)(WSJ, 1/05/00, p.W8)(SSFC, 1/14/01, BR p.1)

1856        The state of Victoria first adopted paper ballots for voting.
    (WSJ, 11/9/00, p.A1)

1856        Australia's Van Dieman's Island was renamed Tasmania.
    (Econ, 1/17/04, p.37)

1856        Rabbits were let loose in Australia about this time.
    (WSJ, 4/5/96, p.B-6)

1856        Descendants of the Bounty mutineers moved from Pitcairn to Norfolk Island, 1,000 miles from the Australia mainland.
    (Econ, 7/10/04, p.38)

1857        Nov 26, First Australian Parliament opened in Melbourne.
    (AP, 11/26/02)

1857        The Botanical Garden in Adelaide was founded.
    (SFEC, 10/25/98, p.T5)

1857        Robert O’Hara Burke (36), a police superintendent, was hired by a committee in Melbourne to cross the continent.
    (ON, 12/01, p.1)

1858        Narcisse Pelletier (1844-1894) was abandoned during the dry season, on eastern Cape York Peninsula in Australia. He was discovered and rescued by an Aboriginal family and went on to live with the Uutaalnganu speakers for the next 17 years until he was found by the crew of the John Bell on 11 April 1875.

1859        The Yalumba Winery in the Barossa Valley, South Australia, was begun by the Sam Smith family.
    (SFEC, 10/25/98, p.T5)

1860        Aug 20, Robert O’Hara Burke led a group of 15 men, 27 camels and 23 horses out of Melbourne on an expedition to cross Australia.
    (ON, 12/01, p.1)

1860        Nov 11, Robert O’Hara Burke arrived at Cooper’s Creek with his advanced party of 8 men, 15 horses and 16 camels.
    (ON, 12/01, p.1)

1860        Dec 16, Robert O’Hara Burke set out from Cooper’s Creek toward the gulf of Carpentaria with 3 men, William Wills (26), John King (21) and Charles Gray, 6 camels and 1 horse.
    (ON, 12/01, p.2)

1861        Feb 11, Australian explorers Burke and Wills approached the coast of Carpetaria but were forced to turn back when no path through the coastal marsh was found.
    (ON, 12/01, p.2,3)

1861        Feb 13, In Australia the 4-man Burke party began their 700-mile return to Cooper’s Creek under constant rain.
    (ON, 12/01, p.2)

1861        Apr 17, In Australia Charles Gray, the ex-sailor in the Burke party, was found dead in his bed roll.
    (ON, 12/01, p.2)

1861        Apr 21, In Australia the Burke party of 3 reached Cooper’s Creek and found a message that the 4-man depot party under William Brahe had left earlier the same day for Darling with 6 camels and 12 horses. The Burke party departed Cooper’s Creek for the police station at Mount Hopeless, 150 miles away.
    (ON, 12/01, p.3)

1861        Apr 29, In Australia the Burke party shot one of their last 2 camels after it got stuck in mud. Supplies were divided between the 3 men and one camel.
    (ON, 12/01, p.4)

1861        May 7, In Australia the lost Burke party encountered some Aborigines and partook of some nardoo cakes that provided a euphoric effect.
    (ON, 12/01, p.4)

1861        May 30, In Australia William Wills returned to the Cooper’s Creek depot and left an updated message as to the Burke party’s plight.
    (ON, 12/01, p.5)

1861        Jun 29, Australian explorers Robert O’Hara Burke and John King left William Wills in search of Aborigines.
    (ON, 12/01, p.5)

1861        Jul 2, Australian explorer Robert O’Hara Burke died near Cooper’s Creek and John King pressed on to look for native Aborigines. King later returned to William Wills but found him dead. King continued to survive with the local Aborigines until he was rescued. In 1991 Tom Bonyhady authored "Burke and Wills: From Melbourne to Myth."
    (ON, 12/01, p.5)

1861        Sep 18, Australian explorer John King (d.1872) was found by a rescue party. A land prospector or "squatter" touring the area in 1875 met an Aboriginal woman who claimed to have witnessed Robert O’Hara Burke being shot by John King, and he detailed her story in his journal. Historian Darrell Lewis unearthed the story around 1990.
    (ON, 12/01, p.5)(AFP, 7/23/11)

1862        Scotsman explorer John McDouall Stuart crossed the continent from Adelaide to Port Darwin.
    (HNQ, 5/26/98)

1863        Jan 25, James Morrill (1824-1865), a British citizen, ended years of living among Australian Aborigines after a shipwreck in 1846.

1864        Feb 17, Andrew Barton "Banjo" Paterson (d.1941), Australian poet and journalist, was born. He is best known for his song “Waltzing Matilda."
    (HN, 2/17/01)(NG, 8/04, p.29)

1866        Jan 2, Gilbert Murray, Australian born scholar who became the chairman of the League of Nations, 1923 through 1928, was born.
    (HN, 1/2/99)

1867        Mar 5, An abortive Fenian uprising against English rule took place in Ireland. The unsuccessful rebellion by the Irish Republican Brotherhood, known as the Fenians, gave Australia it final generation of convicts. The 1999 book "The Great Shame and the Triumph of the Irish in the English-Speaking World" by Thomas Keneally tells the story of the Irish shipped to Australia.
    (AP, 3/5/98)(SFEC, 9/26/99, BR p.1,6)

1869         In Australia Mother Mary MacKillop (1842-1909), founder of the Sisters of St Joseph, was excommunicated for inciting her followers to disobedience. The bishop who punished her recanted three years later and she was exonerated by a church commission.
    (AP, 2/19/10)

1870        Henry Redford rustled a thousand head of cattle from near Fairfield and drove them over a thousand miles across uncharted desert to market in South Australia.
    (NG, 12/97, p.56)

1871        In Australia Sister Mary MacKillop (1842-1909) was briefly dismissed from the Roman Catholic Church after her order of nuns exposed a pedophile priest. She and 47 other nuns were thrown onto the streets of Adelaide, relying on the charity of friends to survive. In 2010 MacKillop was canonized as Australia's first saint.
    (AP, 10/15/10)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mary_MacKillop)

1872        Oct 19, World's largest gold nugget (215 kg) was found in New South Wales, Australia.
    (MC, 10/19/01)

1874        Sep 1, In Australia Sydney General Post Office opened.
    (SC, 9/1/02)

1875        Phylloxera, a sap-sucking a pest of commercial grapevines, was recorded in Australia.
    (https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Phylloxera)(Econ., 7/4/20, p.73)

1877        In Australia Hermannsburg was founded as a Lutheran mission in the Northern Territory.
    (Econ, 6/19/10, p.45)

1878        Jan 19, The narrow-gauge Ghan rail line was begun to serve cattle and sheep ranchers in the outback. It reached Alice Springs in 1929. Camels from Afghanistan, India and Pakistan were imported to help work on the line.
    (SFEC, 10/10/99, p.T9)

1879        The Royal National Park, Australia’s first national park, was officially gazetted.
    (Hem., 1/97, p.56)

1880        Nov 11, In Australia Ned Kelly (b.1855), outlaw, was hanged. The day before he died Kelly wrote to the governor of the jail asking "permission for my friends to have my body that they might bury it in consecrated ground." Kelly was hanged at the Old Melbourne Gaol but documents show his remains and those of 32 other executed prisoners were exhumed and reburied at Pentridge Prison in 1929. In 2011 his headless remains were identified using a DNA sample taken from Melbourne teacher Leigh Olver, Kelly's sister Ellen's great-grandson. In 2011 Victorian state attorney general Robert Clark decided to return his bullet-ridden bones to his descendants so they could meet his last request.
    (WSJ, 9/21/00, p.A8)(SSFC, 1/14/01, BR p.6)(AP, 3/9/08)(AFP, 9/1/11)(AFP, 11/9/11)

1880        Sydney journalists J.F. Archibald and John Haynes founded “The Bulletin" with an editorial focus on political and business commentary, with some literary content. The magazine shut down in 2008 due to falling circulation blamed in part on the Internet.
    (AP, 1/24/08)
1880        Melbourne, Australia, held an Int’l. Exposition.
    (Hem, 8/02, p.46)

1882        Jul 8, Percy Grainger, composer, pianist, conductor (Hill Songs), was born in Melbourne.
    (MC, 7/8/02)

1882        Aug 29, Australia defeated England in cricket for the first time. The following day an obituary appeared in the Sporting Times addressed to the British team.
    (HN, 8/29/98)

1883        Davenport Bromfield (1862-1954), a surveyor from Australia, ran away with Mary Ware (1851-1935), a married mother of 3. They escaped to New Zealand and then to San Francisco, where Bromfield became an established surveyor in San Mateo County.
    (Ind, 1/5/02, 5A)
1883        In Australia Charles Rasp, a boundary rider on a remote sheep station in New South Wales, discovered a silver mine that would become one of the biggest in the world. Broken Hill Proprietary’s rich history began in a silver, lead and zinc mine in Broken Hill, Australia. BHP was incorporated in 1885.
    (https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=F1PTOu1iN2w)(Econ 5/20/17, p.55)

1884        The Ghan rail line reached Oodnadatta.
    (SFEC, 10/10/99, p.T9)

1884        The Six Foot Track, a 26-mile bridle trail joining Katoomba and Jenolan Caves, was first mentioned in newsprint.
    (Hem., 1/97, p.54)

1886        Peter "Black Prince" Jackson (1861-1901), St. Croix-born boxer, won the Australian heavyweight championship. In 1892 he won the British Empire title.

1886        The Clunies-Ross family was granted the Cocos Islands in the Indian Ocean, about 2,700 kilometers (1,680 miles) northwest of Perth, by Queen Victoria. Captain John Clunies-Ross, a Scottish trader, had landed there in 1825.
    (AFP, 1/21/08)

1887        A cyclone killed some 140 oyster crewmen in Broome, Australia.
    (NG, 11/04, p.98)

1886-1952     Sister Elizabeth Kenny, Australian nurse: "Some minds remain open long enough for the truth not only to enter but to pass on through by way of a ready exit without pausing anywhere along the route." 
    (AP, 11/25/97)

1888        The Queen Victoria Building was built in Sydney, Australia.
    (Hem, 6/96, p.64)

1888        George Chaffey, a Canadian-born, irrigation expert, selected a site for an irrigation colony near Mildurain Victoria. This led to the establishment of the Chateau Mildura Winery. The name was changed to Mildara in 1937.
    (SSFC, 4/29/01, p.E7)

1889        Jan 16, An Australian record temperature of 128.5F, or 53.1C, was recorded in Cloncurry, Queensland. Later investigations revealed that this temperature was measured in an improvised screen made from a beer crate and that it equated to 47–49 °C under standard conditions.

1889        Dec, The poem Clancy of the Overflow by Banjo Paterson 1st appeared in the Christmas edition of Australia’s Bulletin magazine.
    (NG, 8/04, p.10)

1889        The Sydney Town Hall was built and in the Italian Renaissance style. It was later restored.
    (SFEC, 1/4/98, p.T4)

1890-1900    A gold mining boom led to the growth of Kalgoorlie, 300 miles inland from Perth in Western Australia.
    (SFEC, 9/10/00, p.T10)

1890-1900    Australia experienced a big drought that caused a major retreat and reassessment by farmers.
    (AP, 5/24/05)

1892        The Sydney Victorian style Strand Arcade on George Street was built.
    (SFEC, 1/4/98, p.T4)

1893        The Daly Waters Hotel and Pub opened in the Northern Territory town of Daly Waters.
    (SFEC, 9/10/00, p.T10)

1894        South Australia became the first place in the world to let women stand for parliament.
    (Econ, 10/22/16, p.34)

1895        A.A.B. Peterson, aka Banjo Paterson, (1864-1941) wrote his poem Waltzing Matilda while on holiday in Queensland, Australia. The name referred to a slang term for drifting around the outback with a bedroll (your matilda) slung over the shoulder. Christina Macpherson adopted the poem to the Scottish tune “Thou Bonnie Wood o’ Craigielea." He later had his image pictured on Australia's $10 bill.
    (SFEC, 5/30/99, Z1 p.8)(NG, 8/04, p.24)

1895-1902    In Australia a drought over this period was so severe that it helped nudge Australia’s 6 states into uniting. It thus came to be called the federation drought.
    (Econ, 4/28/07, p.82)(www.austehc.unimelb.edu.au/fam/1610.html)

1898        Sep 24, Howard W Florey, pathologist, was born in Australia. He purified penicillin and won a Nobel Prize 1945.
    (MC, 9/24/01)

1899        In Australia Sidney Kidman began cattle ranching in Anna Creek, South Australia. In 2015 his descendants put the ten stations of S. Kidman & Co., reputed to be the world’s biggest cattle ranch by area, up for sale.
    (Econ, 10/3/15, p.68)

1900        Jan 19, In Australia Arthur Paine (33), a delivery man whose daily work brought him into contact with Central Wharf, died of Bubonic plague. A population of black rats had been likely introduced to Australia on the first fleet of ships carrying white settlers.

1900        Jul 9, Queen Victoria signed The Commonwealth of Australia Constitution Act, uniting 6 separate colonies under a federal government, effective Jan 1, 1901.
    (HN, 7/9/98)(www.servat.unibe.ch/icl/as__indx.html)

1900        In Australia Helena Rubinstein (b.1871 in Cracow) opened a beauty shop and sold a cold cream developed by a Hungarian chemist and relative, Jacob Lykusky.
    (SFEM, 8/23/98, p.29)
1900        In Australia residents of Roma, Queensland, struck natural gas while drilling deep for water.
    (Econ, 6/2/12, p.50)

1901        Jan 1, The Commonwealth of Australia became official as established in the July 9, 1900, Commonwealth of Australia Constitution Act. 6 colonies became an independent federation with Edmund Barton as the 1st prime minister. Although independent it still recognized Britain’s royalty as Australia’s head of state. The governor-general, a representative of the queen nominated by the prime minister, was appointed by the British monarch.
    (AP, 1/1/98)(SFC, 2/3/98, p.A7)(SFC, 12/31/00, p.A18)

1901        Jul 28, Alfred Renton Bryant Bridges (d.1990), aka Harry Bridges, American labor leader who headed the West Coast Longshoremen’s Union, was born in Australia.
    (SFC, 7/27/01, p.A21)(HN, 7/28/98)

1901        Dec 23, Australia's Immigration Restriction Act 1901 was an Act of Parliament which limited immigration to Australia and formed the basis of the White Australia policy. The term was widely used to encapsulate a set of historical policies that aimed to forbid people of non-European ethnic origin, especially Asians (primarily Chinese) and Pacific Islanders from immigrating to Australia. A dictation requirement was ended in 1958 and the whole policy was ended in 1973. The term "wog" (Westernized Oriental Gentleman) referred to non European immigrants while "skippies" described Anglo-Saxons.
    (https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/White_Australia_policy)(SFC, 5/9/00, p.A14)

1902        Feb 27, Harry 'Breaker' Morant (1864-1902) and Peter Handcock were executed for the murder of 12 prisoners of war in the dying days of the Boer war. George Witton had his death sentence commuted because it contained serious errors. Morant, who volunteered to fight with the British in South Africa, was born in England but became well known in Australia as a poet and a horsebreaker. In 1980 the film ‘Breaker’ Morant was produced in Australia. In 2010 Australia sent Britain a petition calling for posthumous pardons for Morant and Handcock. The petition argued the accused were denied the right to communicate with the Australian government or relatives after their arrest and during their trials and were refused an opportunity to prepare their cases.
    (AFP, 2/10/10)(www.awm.gov.au/people/267.asp)

1902        In Australia various governments met at Corowa on the Murray River, to try to secure their water supply.
    (Econ, 2/23/08, p.60)

1904        The first regional art gallery in New South Wales was built at Broken Hill.
    (Hem., 2/97, p.94)

1906        Sep 1, Papua New Guinea was placed under Australian administration, which continued to 1973.
    (www.hubert-herald.nl/PapuaNewGuinea.htm)(Econ, 5/28/11, SR p.17)

1907        Jul 4, Heavy weight champ Tommy Burns (1881-1955) knocked out Bill Squires of Australia in the first round in Colma, Ca.

1908        Aug 20, The American Great White Fleet arrived in Sydney, Australia, to a warm welcome.
    (HN, 8/20/98)

1908        Dec 26, Jack Johnson (1878-1946) of Texas knocked out Tommy Burns in Australia to become the 1st black world heavyweight boxing champion. He was not officially given the title until 1910 when he beat Jim Jeffries in Las Vegas. In 1913 Johnson fled the US because of trumped up charges of violating the Mann Act's stipulations against transporting white women across state lines for prostitution. Johnson held the title until 1915. In 1920 he returned to the US, was arrested and served a one year sentence in Leavenworth in Kansas, where he was appointed athletic director of the prison.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Jack_Johnson_(boxer))(ON, 4/09, p.7)

1909        Feb 17, Marjorie Lawrence, soprano (Venus-Tannhauser), was born in Australia.
    (MC, 2/17/02)

1909        Jul 26, The SS Waratah left Durban, South Africa, with 211 passengers and crew. The steamship, enroute from Melbourne to London, was due in Cape Town 3 days later, but never arrived.
    (Econ, 9/19/09, p.94)

1909        Aug 8, In Australia Sister Mary MacKillop (b.1842) died. She had founded the Sisters of St Joseph at age 24 and spent her life educating the poor and taking learning to the harsh Outback. In 2009 Pope Benedict XVI recognized a miracle in which she apparently cured a woman of cancer, paving the way to making her Australia’s first saint.
    (AFP, 12/20/09)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mary_MacKillop)

1909        Dec 5, George Taylor made the first manned glider flight in Australia in a glider that he designed himself.
    (HN, 12/5/98)

1910        Australia’s government began removing Aboriginal children from their families, in what was considered to be best for the children. The race was later estimated to number about 60,000 nationally at this time, and was said to be doomed to extinction. The policy continued into the 1970s. As many as 100,000 children were seized from their parents creating what was later called the "stolen generation."
    (SFC, 5/29/97, p.A10)(SFC, 5/26/00, p.A20)(AP, 1/30/08)

1911        Dec 22, The Commonwealth Bank of Australia (CommBank) was founded as a government bank. In 1991 it became a public company.
    (https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Commonwealth_Bank)(Econ, 8/12/17, p.58)

1911        The Australian federal government took control of the Northern Territory as part of a deal to build a railway linking Adelaide to Darwin.
    (Econ, 8/9/03, p.36)

1912        May 28, Patrick White, Australian writer (The Tree of Man, The Eye of the Storm), was born.
    (HN, 5/28/01)

1912        In Australia the Vlaming Head Lighthouse was built on the North West Cape.
    (SFEC, 11/14/99, p.T4)
1912        Australian pioneers diverted the waters of the Murrumbidgee River to create one of the biggest irrigation projects in the country.
    (Econ, 12/11/10, p.54)
1912        The Australian Antarctic Expedition of 1911-1914 began using an airplane to tow gear onto the ice in preparation for their sledging journeys. The plane, the first from France's Vickers factory, had not been seen since the mid-1970s, when researchers photographed the steel fuselage nearly encompassed in ice. Australian researchers stumbled on remains of the plane on Jan 1, 2010.
    (AP, 1/2/10)

1914        Aug 4, Britain and Belgium declared war after German troops entered Belgium. The United States proclaimed its neutrality. Britain’s entry also committed its dominions of Australia, Canada, Newfoundland, New Zealand and South Africa. AS WWI started the financial press helped to cover up news of a run on the Bank of England.
    (HNQ, 7/24/98)(AP, 8/4/97)(Econ, 8/2/14, p.45)(Econ, 9/27/14, p.70)

1914        Nov 9, The Australian light cruiser HMAS Sydney wrecked the German cruiser Emden, forcing her to beach on a reef on North Keeling Island in the Indian Ocean.
    (HN, 11/9/99)

1914        Australia's Section 70 of the Crimes Act prohibited a government employee from sharing information without a supervisor’s permission.
    (AP, 6/29/21)

1915        Apr 25, Australian and New Zealand troops landed at Gallipoli in Turkey in hopes of attacking the Central Powers from below. Allied soldiers, ANZAC, invaded the Gallipoli Peninsula in Turkey in an unsuccessful attempt to take the Ottoman Turkish Empire out of the war. The allies were defeated in one of the deadliest battles of the war.
    (AP, 4/25/97)(SFC, 2/18/98, p.A18)(HN, 4/25/99)

1915        Aug 7, In the assault up Russell's Top at Gallipoli 232 Australians died.
    (MC, 8/7/02)

1915        Dec 18, In a single night, about 20,000 Australian and New Zealand troops slipped away from Gallipoli, undetected by the Turks defending the peninsula.
    (HN, 12/18/98)

1916        Apr 26, Morris L. West, novelist (Shoes of the Fisherman), was born in Australia.
    (MC, 4/26/02)

1916        Jul 19, In the WWI Battle at Fromelles, France, German machine guns and artillery left over 5,500 Australians and over 1,500 British killed, wounded or missing in less than 24 hours.
    (SFC, 7/20/10, p.A2)

1917        Sep 26, Australian Private Thomas Hurdis (26) was wounded in Belgium, and died on Oct. 3 in a US field hospital in France. His skull with a bullet lodged in bone between his eyes was later put on display at the Mutter Museum of The College of Physicians of Philadelphia. On July 20, 2018, the skull was buried in Hurdis' grave at the French Mont Huon Military Cemetery in Le Treport in a ceremony attended by Hurdis' family and Australian troops.
    (AP, 7/21/18)

1917        Oct 31, Australia and New Zealand Army Corps (ANZAC) defeated Ottoman troops to gain control of a strategic crossroads at Beersheba that helped clear the way to Jerusalem during World War I.
    (http://tinyurl.com/yaqsor8k)(AFP, 10/31/17)

1918        Mar 23, Alick Wickham dove 200' into Australia's Yarra River.
    (SS, 3/23/02)

1918        Australia established its alternative vote for elections. This ranked candidates on the ballot in order of preference.
    (Econ, 4/30/11, p.13)
1918        The last quartz mines closed in Ballarat.
    (SFEC, 9/10/00, p.T9)

1919        Dec 10, Captain Ross Smith became the first person to fly 11,500 miles from England to Australia.
    (HN, 12/10/98)

1920        Mar 16, Leo McKern, actor (Blue Lagoon, Help, Mouse that Roared, Rumpole of the Bailey), was born in Sydney, Australia.
    (MC, 3/16/02)

1920        Nov 3, Oodgeroo Noonuccal [Kath Walker], Australian Aboriginal poet, was born.
    (HN, 11/3/00)

1920        Australia-based Qantas Airlines was founded as Queensland and Northern Territory Aerial Services Ltd. Regular passenger service began in 1922.
    (AP, 7/25/08)(http://airlines.ws/qantas.htm)

1921        Big Flat, Australia, near Coober Pedy. Opals were discovered. Today 70% of the local people (3,500) live underground in former mines and specially dug caves since it gets so hot in the summer (130 degrees). Coober Pedy is  derived from the aboriginal term "kupa piti," which means white man’s hole.
    (WSJ, 6/12/95, p.A-12)

1922        Nov 2, Australian Qantas airways began service.

1922        Vegemite, a salty, slightly bitter spread made from brewer's yeast, was introduced by Australian chemist Cyril Callister for the Fred Walker Cheese Company in Melbourne. The company wanted a Vitamin B-rich spread that could compete with Britain's popular Marmite. The name came in a 1923 national poll. In 2009 Kraft Foods Australia announced that a creamier variation of Vegemite would be on store shelves July 5 alongside the original.
    (AP, 6/15/09)
1922        Reginald Arthur Borstel (b.1875), Australian artist, died. He was known for his ship portraits.
    (SSFC, 3/27/05, p.B5)
1922        Henry Lawson (b.1867), Australian poet, died.
    (NG, 8/04, p.1)
1922        In Australia Colin Campbell Ross was hanged for raping and murdering Alma Tirtschke (12) and dumping her body in an alley in 1921. In 2008 the city of Melbourne posthumously pardoned him for the crime after new tests found crucial evidence against him was flawed.
    (Reuters, 5/27/08)

1926        Nov 7, Joan Sutherland, operatic singer, was born in Sydney, Australia. She retired in 1990 and in 1998 published her autobiography.
    (WSJ, 3/25/98, p.A20)(HN, 11/7/98)(MC, 11/7/01)

1927        A new law prohibited hunters from killing koalas for their pelts.
    (SFC, 7/29/00, p.E3)

1928        Feb 7, Australian Bert Hinkler took off from London in a two-seat Avro 581E Avian biplane on the first leg of his solo flight from England to Australia.
    (HNQ, 2/7/01)

1928        Feb 22, Australian Bert Hinkler ended his 11,250-mile adventure in Darwin, Australia, after flying 128 hours in less than 16 days. The unassuming Hinkler's grueling flight was little noted by the press until he reached India, then the world press got caught up in the drama of another "Lone Eagle" performance so soon after Charles A. Lindbergh's transatlantic flight. As he plotted a course across Asia and the Timor Sea using a London Times atlas as his navigational chart, a newspaper editor dubbed him "Hustling Hinkler," a nickname later immortalized by the American Tin Pan Alley hit song, "Hustling Hinkler Up in the Sky."
    (HNPD, 2/7/99)

1928        Jun 9, Charles Kingsford-Smith & Charles Ulm were the 1st to fly across the Pacific when they ended their flight from California to Brisbane, Australia.
    (NPub, 2002, p.11)

1928        Capt. Harry Lyon navigated the southern Cross on its epic flight from San Francisco Bay to Australia.
    (SFC, 8/15/03, p.E9)

1928        The Bathers Pavilion Restaurant opened on Sydney’s Balmoral Beach.
    (SFEC, 1/4/98, p.T5)

1929        Aug 6, The 1,360 km. Ghan rail line reached Alice Springs. It was named after Afghan camel drivers who predated the railway. In 2004 service was extended to Darwin.
    (SFEC, 10/10/99, p.T9)(SSFC, 10/26/03, p.C2)

1930        Apr 29, Telephone connection England-Australia went into service.
    (MC, 4/29/02)

1930        May 24, Amy Johnson became the first woman to fly from England to Australia.
    (HN, 5/24/98)

1930        Oct 8, Paul Hogan, Australian actor (Crocodile Dundee, Lightning Jack), was born.
    (MC, 10/8/01)

1931        Feb 23, Nellie Melba (Helen Mitchell), Australian soprano, died.
    (MC, 2/23/02)

1931        Mar 11, Rupert Murdoch, media baron, was born in Melbourne, Australia.
    (WSJ, 6/5/07, p.A20)(www.filmreference.com/film/22/Rupert-Murdoch.html)

1931        Jul 28, Hubert Wilkins, Australian explorer, set out from England for Norway aboard the submarine Nautilus. The ship was the former US WW I vessel O-12. Wilkins planned to reach the North Pole but failed. [see Aug 28]
    (ON, 1/02, p.8)

1931        Dec 11, The Statute of Westminster recast the British Empire as a Commonwealth of Nations.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Statute_of_Westminster_1931)(Econ, 8/2/14, p.45)

1931        Arnhem Land in northern Australia was made an Aboriginal reserve.
    (SFEC, 2/28/99, p.T1)

1931        The last lesser bilby (Macrotis leucura), a small marsupial with rabbit-like ears, was collected. It had been widespread in Australia’s sand dune deserts and Aborigines reported that a few survived into the 1960’s.
    (Nat. Hist., 4/96, p.17)

1932        Mar 19, Sydney Harbor Bridge, Australia, officially opened.
    (AP, 3/19/03)   

1932        Dec 19, The British Broadcasting Corp. began transmitting overseas with its "Empire Service" to Australia.
    (AP, 12/19/97)

1932        Sydney’s Harbor Bridge between north and south Sydney was completed after 10 years. It was supposed to be the world's longest single-span bridge on completion, but New York’s Bayonne Bridge beat it by 25 inches.
    (SFEC, 1/4/98, p.T1)(USAT, 9/17/99, p.1D)(SFEC, 9/10/00, p.T12)

1932        Phar Lap, an Australian race horse, took ill and died after being taken to the United States. The giant New Zealand-born chestnut became an icon in Australia during the Great Depression, winning 37 of his 51 races, including one Melbourne Cup in 1930 and two Cox Plates in 1930 and 1931. In 2008 tests proved that Phar Lap was poisoned by arsenic.
    (AFP, 6/19/08)

1933        Sep 14, Zoe Caldwell, actress (Prime of Miss Jean Brodie), was born in Australia. In 2001 Caldwell authored “I Will Be Cleopatra: An Actress’s Journey."
    (www.infoplease.com)(SSFC, 12/16/01, p.M4)

1934        The Australian song "Kookaburra" was penned by teacher Marion Sinclair for a Girl Guides Jamboree. In 1990 music company Larrikin acquired the rights to "Kookaburra." In 2010 the Australian band Men at Work were found guilty of plagiarizing the children's ditty in their 1980s hit "Down Under" after a court battle involving two of the nation's most iconic songs.
    (AFP, 2/4/10)(http://cip.law.ucla.edu/cases/inplay_larrikin.doc)

1935        In Australia cane toads (Bufo marinus) from Hawaii were introduced to wipe out beetles that were devastating Queensland's sugar cane industry. The beetles survived and the toads became a pest and a threat to the native quolls, small spotted marsupials. On March 28, 2009, a festive mass killing of the creatures began as “Toad Day Out." The corpses were turned into fertilizer for the very farmers who've battled the pests for years. In 2010 scientists reported that cat food attracts carnivorous meat ants, which swarm over and munch on baby toads killing 70 percent of them.
    (Econ, 7/12/03, p.38)(SFC, 6/10/06, p.B8)(AP, 3/26/09)(AFP, 2/18/10)
1935        A 2nd cyclone again killed some 140 oyster crewmen in Broome, Australia. [see 1887]
    (NG, 11/04, p.98)

1937        In Australia the assimilation of mixed-blood Aborigines, by force if necessary, was adopted as official policy at a meeting of federal and state officials, while Aborigines living a "tribal life" are to stay on reserves.
    (AP, 1/30/08)

1938        Jul 28, Robert Hughes [Studley Forrest], writer, critic, was born in Australia.
    (SC, 7/28/02)

1938        Xavier Herbert authored “Capricornia," a sweeping novel of social relations between Australia’s white majority and indigenous aboriginals in the far north. The novel became a classic example of well-intentioned social protest.
    (Econ, 3/3/07, p.89)

1939        Jan 29, Germaine Greer, feminist, author (Female Eunuch), was born in Melbourne, Australia.
    (MC, 1/29/02)

1939        Apr 26, Following a period during which the Country Party leader, Sir Earle Page, was caretaker Prime Minister, Robert Gordon Menzies (1894-1978) was elected Leader of the UAP and was sworn in as PM.

1939        Sep 3, Britain and France declared war on Germany, two days after the Nazi invasion of Poland. After Germany ignored Great Britain's ultimatum to stop the invasion of Poland, Great Britain declares war on Germany, marking the beginning of World War II in Europe. France follows 6 hours later quickly joined by Australia, NZ, South Africa & Canada.
    (AP, 9/3/97)(HN, 9/3/98)(MC, 9/3/01)

1939        Australia set up a wheat board for growers to market their crops collectively and get better prices. The AWB was privatized in 1999 and later quoted on the stock market.
    (Econ, 7/30/05, p.59)

1940        Jul 1, Australia refused entry to Dutch Jewish refugees.
    (MC, 7/1/02)

1940        Aug 16, Bruce Beresford, Australian film director, was born. His films include "Breaker Morant" and "Driving Miss Daisy."
    (HN, 8/16/00)

1940        Aug 31, Jack Thompson of Australia, actor (Breaker Morant), was born.
    (YN, 8/31/99)

1940        Nov 8, The MV City of Rayville, an American freighter carrying a cargo of lead, wool and copper from Australia to New York, sank in the Bass Strait after striking a German mine, a year before the United States entered the war. One seaman drowned while trying to recover personal items from the sinking vessel but 37 other crew survived. In 2009 the wreck was found off of Australia’s southeastern coast.
    (AP, 4/1/09)

1940        Australia found itself with a hung parliament. Robert Menzies (1894-1978) relied on 2 independent parties to stay in power, but the arrangement collapsed a year later.
    (Econ, 8/28/10, p.31)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Robert_Menzies)

1941        Jan 21, Australia & Britain attacked Tobruk, Libya.
    (MC, 1/21/02)

1941        Jan 22, British and Australian troops captured Tobruk from Italians.
    (MC, 1/22/02)

1941        Feb 5, Andrew Barton "Banjo" Paterson (b.1864), Australian poet and journalist, died. He is best known for his song “Waltzing Matilda."
    (www.whatsthenumber.com/oz/voice/writers/paterson0.htm)(NG, 8/04, p.29)

1941        Nov 19, The ship HMAS Sydney was sunk off the west coast of Australia in a battle with the German raider Kormoran, with the loss of all 645 on board. The Kormoran also sank, but 318 of the German vessel's crew of 397 were rescued. The 9,500 ton Kormoran had been disguised as a Dutch merchant ship when it opened fire on the Sydney. The government banned all media from reporting the news for 12 days as it scrambled to explain what happened. In March, 2008, the wrecks of the Kormoran and the Sydney were found. In 2009 a military inquiry said Navy Capt. Joseph Burnett made "errors of judgment" in the tragedy.
    (AFP, 8/10/07)(AP, 3/16/08)(Reuters, 4/8/08)(AP, 11/19/08)(AP, 8/12/09)

1941        Dec 7, Australian bombers landed on Timor and Ambon.
    (MC, 12/7/01)

1942        Feb 19, Port Darwin, on the northern coast of Australia, was bombed by about 150 Japanese warplanes; at least 243 people were killed. General George C. Kenney, who pioneered aerial warfare strategy and tactics in the Pacific theater, ordered 3,000 parafrag bombs to be sent to Australia, where he thought they might come in handy against the Japanese. Darwin was virtually leveled by 64 bombing raids over 21 months.
    (HN, 2/19/98)(SFEC, 9/10/00, p.T10)(AP, 2/19/08)

1942        May 31, In Australia 3 midget submarines slipped into the Sidney Harbor after being launched from a fleet of five larger Japanese submarines offshore. Two were spotted and attacked, leading the two-man crews to commit suicide. A 3rd midget submarine managed to fire two torpedoes at the US heavy cruiser USS Chicago, one of which exploded beneath an Australian depot ship HMAS Kuttabul, killing 21 sailors. In 2006 the M24 midget submarine was found by scuba divers in deep waters off the coast. In 2007 the Australian government decided to leave the M24 and its 2 Japanese sailors undisturbed on the seabed.
    (AFP, 11/24/06)(AFP, 5/23/07)

1942        Oct 26, In the 4th day of the battle at El Alamein (Egypt) the Australians made a breakthrough.
    (MC, 10/26/01)

1942        Oct 30, On the 8th day of battle at El Alamein a new Australian assault began.
    (MC, 10/30/01)

1943        Mar 2, The battle of the Bismarck Sea began. US and Australian warplanes were able to inflict heavy damage on a Japanese convoy.
    (AP, 3/2/07)

1943        Mar 3, US defeated Japan in the Battle of Bismarck Sea.
    (SC, 3/3/02)

1943        May 7, Peter Carey, Australian writer (Illywhacker, Oscar and Lucinda), was born.
    (HN, 5/7/02)

1943        May 14, Australia’s AHS Centaur was sunk without warning after it was torpedoed by a Japanese submarine. Of the 332 people on board, only 64 survived. In 2009 deep-sea searchers found the wreck of the hospital ship off the city of Brisbane.
    (AFP, 12/19/09)

1943        May 19, Billy Sing (b.1886), credited with being the most successful and feared sniper in the Gallipoli campaign, died in Australia. The Australian-Chinese war hero was credited with having killed more than 200 enemy soldiers. In 2010 a television film, "The Legend of Billy Sing," raised the ire of the Australian-Chinese community because it  featured a white actor as Billy Sing.
    (AFP, 5/9/10)

1943        Jun 14, A US Army B-17 took off from Mackay, Australia, and crashed in fog at nearby Bakers Creek, killing 40 of the 41 servicemen crammed into the bomb bay and crannies of the aircraft. Wartime censorship restrictions suppressed news of the crash.
    (AP, 6/14/03)

1943        A draught occurred in the outback of Western Australia.
    (NH, 2/97, p.12)

1944        Jan 18, Paul Keating was born in Sydney, Australia. He later became the 24th Prime Minister of Australia, serving from 1991 to 1996.

1944        Apr, Nancy Wake (1912-2011), a New Zealand-born Australian, parachuted back into France before D-Day, tasked with helping distribute weapons to Resistance fighters. She became known as the "The White Mouse" for her ability to evade the Germans. She and her husband had helped Allied servicemen and Jewish refugees escape into Spain before she took her partner's advice and fled to England in 1943.
    (AFP, 8/8/11)

1944        Sep 12, A US submarine patrol that included the USS Pampanito, the Growler and the Sealion II, came upon a Japanese convoy carrying war material. The Japanese transport Kachidoki Maru, carrying over 900 British soldier, was sunk by the Pampanito. Much of the convoy was sunk including most of some 2,000 Allied prisoners of war. The subs after chasing stragglers of the convoy returned to find 159 British and Australian survivors clinging to wreckage [see Sep 15]. Some 1000 POWs from Australia were on the Japanese freighter Enoura Maru sunk by the USS Sealion. Alistair Urquhart of Scotland, a prisoner on the Kachidoki Maru, was picked up 5 days later by a Japanese whaling ship and taken to Japan, where he was forced to work in a coal mine. Kachidoki Maru had been captured earlier in the war as the President Harrison home ported in SF. The Pampanito was later berthed as a visitor attraction in SF. In 2008 Urquhart (89) visited the Pampanito.
    (SFC, 5/27/97, p.A17)(SFC,12/5/97, p.C3)(SFC, 9/17/08, p.B1)

1944        Sep 15, The submarine USS Pampanito picked up 73 allied prisoners left adrift following the Sep 12 submarine attack on a Japanese convoy that included the transport ships Rakuyo Maru and Kachidoki Maru.
    (SFC, 3/18/09, p.B2)(SSFC, 9/15/19, p.A2)

1944        Nov 8, In Hungary Peter Balazs (18) was fatally beaten to death for failing to wear a yellow star marking him as a Jew. In 2009 Australia agreed to extradite Charles Zentai (87) to face charges regarding the fatal beating of Balazs. In 2012 Australia said Mr Zentai cannot be surrendered for extradition because the offence of 'war crime' did not exist under Hungarian law at the time of his alleged criminal conduct.
    (www.shalom-magazine.com/Article.php?id=480310)(AP, 11/12/09)(AFP, 8/15/12)

1945        Australian soldier Edward Kenna (d.2009 at 90) single-handedly stormed a Japanese machine-gun nest at Wewak, New Guinea, firing a Bren gun from his hip with enemy bullets passing under his arms as he advanced. Kenna was awarded a Victoria Cross for his valor.
    (AFP, 7/9/09)

1947        Joan Sutherland made her operatic debut in Sydney.
    (WSJ, 3/25/98, p.A20)

1948        Australia’s produced its first locally made car, a Holden FX. In late 2013 Holden, a part of General Motors, said it would quit in 2017.
    (Econ, 2/15/14, p.58)

1951        Jul 31, Evonne Goolagong, Australian tennis player and first aborigine in an international sport, was born.
    (HN, 7/31/98)

1952        Oct 3, The British detonated their 1st atomic bomb, a 25-kiloton device, in the Monte Bello Islands off Australia. In 1998 a visit to the islands was limited to one hour due to lingering radiation.
    (SFC, 1/2/99, p.A14)(SFC, 3/13/02, p.A26)(AP, 10/3/08)

1952        In Australia Rupert Murdoch (21) inherited 2 fledgling newspapers in Adelaide. By 2003 his empire generated $17 billion a year in revenues.
    (WSJ, 1/11/99, p.R42)(Econ, 8/30/03, p.61)

1953        May 25, Jane Priest, Prince Charles' lover, was born in Perth, Australia.
    (SC, 5/25/02)

1954        Feb 3, Millions greeted Queen Elizabeth in Sydney on her first royal trip to Australia.
    (HN, 2/3/99)

1954        Sep 8, SEATO (Southeast Asia Treaty Organization), a sister organization to NATO, was created under the Manila Pact by the Southeast Asia Collective Defense Treaty, to stop communist spread in Southeast Asia (Vietnam, Cambodia and Laos). The United States, Australia, France, Great Britain, New Zealand, the Philippines, Pakistan, and Thailand signed the mutual defense treaty. SEATO dissolved in 1977.
    (HNQ, 4/2/01)(http://tinyurl.com/hpawj)

1954        In Australia Evdokia Petrov (d.2002), Soviet Union spy, was abducted by Soviet agents after she and her husband Vladimir Petrov (d.1991), the third secretary at the Soviet embassy in Australia, defected. Australian police snatched her back as her plane  stopped for fuel in Darwin.
    (AP, 7/26/02)

1956        Nov 22, Melbourne opened the 16th Olympiad. 65 countries and 4,276 athletes competed. Closing ceremonies were held on Dec 8. The Netherlands and Spain withdrew from the summer Olympics in support of Hungary following Russia’s invasion. 45 athletes from Hungary defected during the games. Egypt, Lebanon and Iraq boycotted the games in protest over British and French actions over the Suez Canal. China boycotted protesting the inclusion of athletes from Taiwan.  
    (SFEC, 9/10/00, p.T8)(WSJ, 9/15/00, p.A1)(WSJ, 4/12/08, p.R2)
1956         In Australia Joaquin Capilla (27) of Mexico won a bronze medal for springboard diving and a gold for platform diving.
    (AP, 5/9/10)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Joaqu%C3%ADn_Capilla)
1956        In Australia Murray Rose (1939-2012) became an Olympic champion winning the first of his three gold medals at the Melbourne Games in the 4 x 200m freestyle relay.
    (AFP, 4/16/12)

1957        Japan’s PM Nobusuke Kishi visited Australia and signed a commerce treaty. He was the country’s first post-war prime minister to visit Australia.
    (Econ, 7/12/14, p.37)

1958        Jun 19, Entrepreneurs Richard Knerr and Arthur Melin sought a trademark for a plastic cylinder based on a similar toy in Australia. Wham-O began selling the Hula Hoop following a demonstration of a rattan hoop imported from Australia. After one year teenagers in the US purchased some 100 million hoops at a suggested retail price of $1.98.
    (SFC, 7/1/02, p.B5)(SFC, 6/19/08, p.C3)

1958        Oct 1, Britain transferred Christmas Island (south of Java) to Australia.
    (MC, 10/1/01)

1958        Nov 30, Australian explorer Sir Hubert Wilkins (70) died. In 1959 the USS Skate became the 1st submarine to surface at the North Pole and the ship’s crew held a funeral service and scattered the ashes of Wilkins (d.1958), who had attempted the feat in 1931.
    (ON, 1/02, p.9)

1958        Slim Dusty (1927-2003), Australian country music singer, made a hit with the song "A Pub With No Beer."
    (SFC, 9/20/03, p.A21)

1959        Aug 31, Australia defeated the US for tennis' Davis Cup.
    (YN, 8/31/99)

1960        Jan 2, Australia recorded a record temperature of 50.7° C at Oodnadatta.
    (Econ, 1/12/13, p.34)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Oodnadatta)

1960        Australia ended a 22-year ban on the export of iron-ore. The ban had been imposed to protect its steel industry.
    (Econ, 1/26/17, p.34)

1961        Feb 20, Percy Aldridge Grainger (78), Australian-US composer, pianist, died.
    (MC, 2/20/02)

1961        In Australia the Packer family bought The Bulletin magazine (1880-2008), scrapped its racist masthead ("Australia for the White Man"), and entered a period of strong growth, high circulation and influence.
    (AP, 1/24/08)
1961        Australia’s federal Marriage Act was enacted, but it did not define marriage. In 2004 the act was amended to say that “marriage is the union of a man and a woman to the exclusion of all others".   
    (http://www.austlii.edu.au/au/legis/cth/consol_act/ma196185/)(Econ, 10/8/16, p.37)

1962        Australia granted Aborigines the right to vote.
    (Econ, 5/7/05, Survey p.14)

1963        Sep 18, The USSR ordered 58.5 million barrels of cereal from Australia.
    (MC, 9/18/01)

1964        Nov 10, Australia began a draft to fulfill its commitment in Vietnam.
    (HN, 11/10/98)

1964        Donald Home authored “The Lucky Country." His intent in writing the book was to document Australia's climb to power and wealth. The title has become a nickname for Australia and is generally used favorably, although the origin of the phrase was negative.
    (https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/The_Lucky_Country)(Econ, 1/9/16, p.57)

1965        Apr 29, Australian government announced it would send troops to Vietnam.
    (MC, 4/29/02)

1965        In Australia the Hazelwood power station in Victoria started generating electricity. In 2017 the coal-powered station was closed, following ten others closed over seven previous years.
    (Econ, 4/1/17, p.65)
1965        New Zealand signed a free trade deal with Australia.
    (Econ, 2/11/17, p.62)

1966        Mar 8, Australia announced that it would triple the number of troops in Vietnam.
    (HN, 3/8/98)

1966        Mar 27, Anti-Vietnam war demonstrations took place in US, Europe and Australia.
    (MC, 3/27/02)

1966        Aug 18, Australians bloodily repulsed a Viet Cong attack at Long Tan, South Vietnam.
    (HN, 8/18/98)

1967        Feb 3, Ronald Ryan (b.1925) was the last person executed in Australia.

1967        May 27, Australians approved a referendum to amend the constitution to allow the federal government to make laws for indigenous Australians and to include them in the national census. The referendum became law on August 10.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Australian_referendum,_1967_(Aboriginals))(Econ, 6/2/07, p.43)

1967        Dec 17, Australia’s PM Harold Holt (59) plunged into the surf at Victoria during a stroll on the beach and vanished. In 2005 a coroner officially confirmed that Holt had drowned.
    (SFEM, 10/11/98, p.26)(AP, 9/2/05)

1967        Exmouth was founded near the tip of the North West Cape in western Australia as a support base for a US Naval Communications Station.
    (SFEC, 11/14/99, p.T1)
1967        Australia pressured mining-company officials to develop the Panguna mine on Bougainville, Papua New Guinea, in the face of local opposition. Cabinet minutes of this were not declassified until 1998.
    (WSJ, 3/18/98, p.A14)

1968        Feb 26, Lionel Rose (1949-2011) outpointed Fighting Harada in Tokyo and became a national sports hero and an icon for Australia's indigenous community. Hundreds of thousands lined Melbourne's streets to welcome him home after his title triumph. He lost the world bantamweight title to Mexican Ruben Olivares in a fifth-round knockout in August 1969.
    (AFP, 5/9/11)(http://aso.gov.au/titles/radio/lionel-rose-wins-world-title/notes/)

1969        Jun 2, Australian aircraft carrier Melbourne sliced the destroyer USS Frank E. Evans in half during NATO maneuvers off the shore of South Vietnam. 74 US sailors were killed.
    (HN, 6/2/98)(SFC, 6/19/08, p.B5)

1969        The Indian Pacific Railway was completed with a new standard gauge from Sydney to Perth, 2,720 miles. Until this time different rail lines employed different gauges.
    (SFEM, 10/11/98, p.29)

1969        At their peak in 1969, 68,889 combat troops from Australia, New Zealand, the Republic of Korea, Thailand and the Philippines were deployed in Vietnam.
    (HNQ, 4/14/00)

1969        Filippo Casella began making wine in Australia after having moved from Italy. Casella Wines introduced their Yellow Tail brand in 2001.
    (SFC, 1/5/06, p.F2)

1970        Jan 12, In Australia British toddler Cheryl Grimmer (3) was kidnapped from a changing area after spending a morning at the seaside with her mother and three brothers near the city of Wollongong in New South Wales (NSW). In 2020 NSW authorities upped the reward on the cold case to one million Australian dollars (£528,000) for information leading to arrest and conviction.
    (The Telegraph, 1/12/20)

1970        Apr 29, In Australia a large wooden log was placed on the winding track in front of a royal train carrying Queen Elizabeth and her husband Prince Philip to the town of Orange. The train did not derail as it was traveling too slowly. The incident was only revealed in 2009 by a retired detective.
    (AFP, 1/28/09)

1970        Jul 2, Jessie Street (b.1889), Australian civil rights activist, died.

1970        Nov 3, An Australian bomber crashed in Vietnam near the Laos border. The bodies of Flying Officer Michael Herbert (24) and navigator, Pilot Officer Robert Carver (24), were listed as missing until their remains were discovered in 2009. They were the last of Australia’s Vietnam era MIAs.
    (AP, 7/30/09)

1970        Germaine Greer (b.1939), Australian academic writer, published "The Female Eunuch." The work insisted on women's right to free sexuality and vaginal pleasure. In 1999 Christine Wallace published the biography: "Germaine Greer: Untamed Shrew."
    (SFEC, 7/4/99, BR p.5)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Germaine_Greer)

1970        The film "Walkabout" by Nicolas Roeg was produced. It was about the Australian aborigines.
    (SFC, 12/29/96, DB p.8)

1970        In Australia the last laws granting authorities wide powers to take Aboriginal children away from their families were abolished. Many Aborigines said statistics show the government is still far more likely to take Aboriginal children into foster care for reasons such as abuse than white children. Estimates put the number of children taken since 1910 at 55,000.
    (AP, 1/30/08)(Econ, 2/2/08, p.50)

1970        Leonard Casley, a wheat farmer in Western Australia, declared his property independent and styled himself as Prince Leonard I.
    (Econ, 12/24/05, p.85)

1970-1979    In the 1970s the Australian government took over the Ghan rail line, running from Adelaide to Alice Springs, and upgraded the tracks to standard gauge. The last Ghan steam engine was replaced in 1982.
    (SFEC, 10/10/99, p.T9)

1971        Jun 13, The Broderick nonuplets were born in Sydney, Australia. None of the five boys (two stillborn) and four girls live for more than six days.

1971        Jul 18, New Zealand and Australia announced they would pull their troops out of Vietnam.
    (HN, 7/18/98)

1971        Nov 1, The Five Power Defense Arrangements were concluded by the defense ministers of Australia, Britain, Malaysia, New Zealand and Singapore. In 2017 it was upgraded to deal with terrorism threats and new security concerns.
    (Econ, 11/5/11, p.54)(AP, 6/2/17)

1971        Sidney Nolan (1917-1992), Australia’s best known modernist, created a piece called “Snake." It was composed of 1,620 individual panels.
    (www.brittenpears.org/gallery/album07/rumours19Snake)(Econ, 1/29/11, p.84)
1971        Australia joined with New Zealand and 14 independent of self-governing island nations to form the South Pacific Forum. The name was changed in 2000 to Pacific Islands Forum. Member states include: Australia, the Cook Islands, the Federated States of Micronesia, Fiji, Kiribati, the Marshall Islands, Nauru, New Zealand, Niue, Palau, Papua New Guinea, Samoa, the Solomon Islands, Tonga, Tuvalu, and Vanuatu. Since 2006, associate members territories are New Caledonia and French Polynesia. In 2011 Guam, the Northern Marianas and American Samoa became associate members.
    (Econ, 10/20/07, p.61)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pacific_Islands_Forum)(Econ., 2/13/21, p.41)
1971        Hunting crocodiles, aka "salties," was banned in the Northern Territory.
    (WSJ, 1/24/00, p.A1)
1971        In Australia Harold Thomas (b.1947), an Aboriginal artist, designed a flag as a banner for a campaign to allow Aboriginals to reclaim their traditional lands. In 1995 the flag was made an official "Flag of Australia". In 2018 Thomas sold exclusive rights to the flag to WAM Clothing. Until 2018 the flag had been reproduced freely.
    (https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Harold_Thomas_(activist))(Econ., 10/17/20, p.32)

1971-1972    In Australia William McMahon (1908-1988) served as the country’s 20th prime minister. He retained his seat in parliament until his retirement in 1982. He was later remembered as one of the country's least popular leaders.
    (AP, 4/3/10)(www.spiritus-temporis.com/william-mcmahon/)

1972        Dec 2, In Australia Neville Bonner (1922-1999) became the first Aborigine to be elected to the federal Parliament. In 1971 he became the first Aboriginal person to sit in the Commonwealth parliament when he was chosen to fill a vacancy in the Senate caused by the resignation of a Liberal senator for Queensland.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Australian_federal_election,_1972)(SFC, 2/6/99, p.A21)

1972        Dec 5, Gough Whitlam (1916-2014), labor leader, became the 21st prime minister of Australia. He served to Nov 11, 1975.
1972        Dec 15, The Commonwealth of Australia ordered equal pay for women.
    (HN, 12/15/98)(http://tinyurl.com/5ry8re)

1972        Australia and Indonesia agreed to a maritime boundary set by the deepest point between them in the Timor Sea.
    (Econ, 6/8/13, p.44)

1973        May 12, In Australia the northeast town of Nimbin was on the verge of closing when a group of university students held the Aquarius hippy festival in a nearby paddock. Many hippies put down roots and build an alternate culture. By 2007 Nimbin's marijuana smoking reputation had become global with busloads of young foreign tourists.
    (Reuters, 4/19/07)(www.milesago.com/Festivals/aquarius73.htm)

1973        Sep 18, Australia abolished the death penalty.
    (SFC, 1/9/02, p.A8)(http://tinyurl.com/6bbah5)

1973        Sep 21, The painting "Blue Poles" by Jackson Pollock (1912-1956) sold for $2,000,000 to the Australian National Gallery.

1973        Oct 20, Queen Elizabeth II opened the Sydney Opera House built on Bennelong Point. It was designed by Danish architect Joern Utzon and cost 102 million Australian dollars, 14 times the original estimate. Utzon left the project in 1966. In 2000 Utzon was named consulting architect and in 2003 was called back to redo the interiors.
    (SFEC, 1/4/98, p.T4)(SFEC, 9/10/00, p.T12)(WSJ, 10/2/03, p.D10)(Econ, 7/15/06, p.83)

1973         Oct, Tony and Maureen Wheeler produced the first Lonely Planet travel book, "Across Asia on the Cheep," from a kitchen table in Australia. By 2002 it had 600 titles in print.
    (SFEC, 8/29/99, p.T2)(SSFC, 1/18/04, p.C3)

1973        Patrick White (1912-1990), British-born Australian, won the Nobel Prize in Literature.
    (AP, 10/8/09)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Patrick_White)

1973        In Australia the government eliminated its White Australia Policy, an immigration policy which favored applicants from certain countries.
    (SFC, 5/9/97, p.E3)(www.multiculturalaustralia.edu.au/hotwords/hottext.php?id=78)

1974        May 20, Ian Fairweather (b.1891), Scotland-born Australian artist, died. He lived for much of his life as a recluse on Bribie Island, north of Brisbane. In Murray Bail authored “Fairweather," a biography with color reproductions. The book was expanded in 2009.
    (Econ, 4/18/09, p.91)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ian_Fairweather)

1974        Dec 25, The category 4 Cyclone Tracy reduced 90% of Darwin, Australia, to rubble. 65 people died including 49 in the city and 16 at sea.
    (SFEC, 9/10/00, p.T10)(www.emergency-management.net/cyclone.htm)

1974        In Australia the flooding of Brisbane led authorities to build the Wivenhoe dam west of the city in the hope of deterring another flood.
    (Econ, 1/15/11, p.45)

1975        Jun 11, Australia’s Racial Discrimination Act became law under Australia's multicultural policy to protect minorities against intolerance. It is not enforced by prison sentences or fines, but enables judges to make orders to correct breaches.
    (AP, 9/28/11)(www.comlaw.gov.au/Details/C2004C06314)

1975        Jun 21, The West Indies, captained by Clive Lloyd won the first World Cup Cricket series, beating Australia by 17 runs at Lords.

1975        Oct 16, In East Timor five Australian journalists were killed when Indonesian troops overran the border town of Balibo. A 6th died weeks later when Jakarta launched a full-scale assault on Dili. In 2009 the film “Balibo," by Australian director Rob Connolly, depicted the killings.
    (AP, 7/22/09)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Balibo_Five)

1975        Nov 11, Sir John Kerr, Australia’s governor-general, fired PM Edward Gough Whitlam. He was the 1st elected PM removed in 200 years. Kerr asserted his authority as the constitutional representative of Queen Elizabeth. In 2020 the "palace letters," correspondence between Kerr and Buckingham Palace, were made public revealing that Kerr never informed the Queen directly of his plan.
    (SFC, 11/2/99, p.A14)(http://whitlamdismissal.com/)(Econ., 7/18/20, p.28)

1975        The mystery film "Picnic at Hanging Rock" starred Rachel Roberts and Dominic Guard and was directed by Peter Weir. It was set in 1900 in Australia.
    (SFC, 7/1/98, p.E4)

1976        May 4, Australian PM Malcolm Fraser announced that "Waltzing Matilda" would serve as his country's national anthem at the upcoming Olympic Games.
    (AP, 5/4/06)

1976        Malcolm Douglas (1941-2010), Australia's original TV crocodile hunter, shot to fame with the production of his first documentary, "Across The Top." He had trekked across Australia's harsh hinterland filming his encounters with poisonous snakes and ferocious reptiles.
    (AFP, 9/23/10)
1976        Australia’s federal government passed legislation granting Aboriginal ownership to large parts of the Northern Territory, kicking off a new movement to reclaim traditional lands.
    (AP, 1/30/08)
1976        Australian athletes won 5 medals, none of them gold, in the Montreal Olympics.
    (WSJ, 9/21/00, p.A8)
1976        South Australia became the first English-speaking jurisdiction to ban rape within marriage.
    (Econ, 10/22/16, p.34)
1976        Dorothy Schiff (1903-1989) sold the New York Post, founded in 1801, to Rupert Murdoch, Australian media tycoon, for $30 million.
    (WSJ, 4/7/07, p.P10)(www.ketupa.net/murdoch2.htm)

1977        Dec 18, Cyril Ritchard (b.1897), Australia-born actor, died. He was awarded a Tony in 1955 for Supporting Actor in the musical “Peter Pan."

1977        The rock band INXS was formed in Perth. Lead singer Michael Hutchence committed suicide in 1997 at a Sydney hotel.
    (SFC,11/24/97, p.A21)

1978        Jun 24, In Australia a peaceful march was held in Sidney as a protest for gay rights and the decriminalization of homosexuality. The protest was marred by police brutality with 53 people arrested in subsequent scuffles. The march also sparked the annual Sidney Mardi Gras parade that grew into a major tourist spectacle.
    (Reuters, 3/3/18)

1978        Oct, The Holden Commodore, a medium to large sedan, began to be sold by Holden. It was manufactured from 1978 to 2017 in Australia and from 1979 to 1990 in New Zealand, with production in Australia ending on 20 October 2017. From 2018 the Holden Commodore is fully imported from Opel Germany, and is a badge-engineered Opel Insignia.

1978        Australia granted self-government to its Northwest Territory, an area that covers almost a fifth of the country.
    (Economist, 9/29/12, p.46)
1978        Control of the Cocos Islands was ceded to Australia by a descendent of the Clunies-Ross family, which settled the Indian Ocean coral atolls in 1827.
    (Econ, 12/24/05, p.84)

1979        Jul 11, The abandoned 78-ton US space station Skylab made a spectacular return to Earth, burning up in the atmosphere and showering debris over the Indian Ocean and Western Australia. Solar storms were blamed for Skylab’s premature fall back.
    (AP, 7/11/97)(SFC, 6/3/00, p.A6)(SFC, 3/7/06, p.A5)

1979        The Australian film "Breaker Morant" was directed by Bruce Beresford.
    (SFEC,12/21/97, DB p.51)

1979        The Australian film "Mad Max" starred Mel Gibson and was directed by George Miller. It was filmed near Broken Hill in New South Wales.
    (Hem., 2/97, p.91)(SFEC, 9/24/00, DBp.59)

1979        The Australian film "My Brilliant Career" starred Judy Davis and Sam Neill. It was directed by Gillian Armstrong.
    (SFEC, 5/10/98, Par p.18)(SFEC, 9/24/00, DBp.59)

1979        Dr. J. Robert Warren first observed an apparent bacterium in the lower part of stomach biopsies. In 1982 Dr. Barry Marshall managed to grow the slow-growing Helicobacter pylori bacterium in a culture. In 2005 the Australian researchers won a Nobel Prize for their work.
    (SFC, 8/7/97, p.A11)

1980        Aug 17, In Australia Lindy Chamberlain’s 9-week baby, Azaria, was allegedly dragged away from a family campsite at Uluru, or Ayers Rock, by a dingo. The body was never found and Lindy Chamberlain-Creighton and ex-husband Michael Chamberlain were both convicted for the death but later exonerated in a case which made global headlines. She was released after 4 years and the Meryl Streep film "A Cry in the Dark" was based on her story. In 2012 a 4th coroner inquest ruled that a dingo was responsible for the infant’s death.
    (SFC, 4/10/98, p.A14)(AFP, 10/6/04)(AFP, 10/11/10)(SFC, 6/12/12, p.A2)

1981        Apr 29, In Sydney, Australia, 16 patients died in a nursing home fire in suburban Sylvania Heights.
    (AP, 11/19/11)(http://tinyurl.com/6sq3xp8)

1981        The Australian film "Gallipoli" was directed by Peter Weir (b.1944).
    (SFEC,12/21/97, DB p.51)
1981        The film "Mad Max II" with Mel Gibson was filmed near Broken Hill in New South Wales, Australia.
    (Hem., 2/97, p.91)
1981        Australia’s Great Barrier Reef was named a World Heritage Site by UNESCO.   
    (Econ, 5/31/14, p.77)

1982        Australian Thomas Keneally authored "Schindler's List." He received his information from Leopold Page (d.2001 at 87), No. 173 on Schindler’s list. "Schindler's List," Steven Spielberg's drama about the Holocaust, won Golden Globes for best dramatic picture and best director in 1994.
    (AP, 1/22/99)(SFC, 3/14/01, p.C2)

c1982        Two Australian doctors, Barry Marshall and Robin Warren, discovered Helicobacter pylori, a bacterium that was later shone to cause stomach ulcers.
    (SFC, 8/7/97, p.A11)

1983        Mar 5, The Australian Labor Party won the federal election. The new prime minister, former trade unionist Bob Hawke, had vowed to stop the Franklin River dam from being constructed, and the anti-dam vote increased Hawke's majority.

1983        Jul 1, In Australia the High Court on circuit in Brisbane ruled by a vote of 4 to 3 in the federal government's favor and prohibited Franklin River dam-related clearing, excavation and building activities that had been authorized by Tasmanian state legislation.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Franklin_Dam)(Econ, 2/12/11, p.49)

1983        Jul, The Tuna Task Force (TTF) issued a draft plan of management. It contained 14 recommendations, the most important of which include the use of catch-quotas, minimum limits on fish-size, limited-entry and further limits on purse-seine operations. It was proposed that the plan should come into effect at the beginning of the 1983-84 fishing season (on 1 October 1993). Because of difficulties in reaching agreement on all aspects, this target was not achieved. Australia, New Zealand and Iceland pioneered Individual Transferable Quotas (ITQs) for commercial fisheries.
    (http://www.fao.org/DOCREP/005/Y2684E/y2684e20.htm)(Econ, 9/20/08, p.97)

1983        Sep 26, The Liberty of the  New York Yacht Club lost the America Cup to the Australia II, owned by businessman Alan Bond. In 1851 the Schooner America outraced the Aurora off the English coast to win a trophy that became known as the America’s Cup. For 132 years the New York Yacht Club had defeated all challengers to retain the prestigious America’s Cup, the record for the longest winning streak in sports history.
    (https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/1983_America%27s_Cup)(AP, 8/22/97)(SFEC, 10/1/00, p.T4)

1983        Oct, In Australia Edwina Boyle disappeared from her Melbourne suburb home. Her husband Frederick William Boyle (35) of Carrum Downs, dismembered her, and hid her body in a 44-gallon drum. In 2006 his son-in-law opened the drum a found her remains. A post-mortem showed she died of a bullet wound to the head. In 2008 Boyle was convicted of murder.
    (AFP, 1/31/08)(Reuters, 2/9/08)

1983        Dec 12, Australia’s labor government under Bob Hawke allowed its dollar to float.
    (http://intl.econ.cuhk.edu.hk/exchange_rate_regime/index.php?cid=28)(Econ, 5/28/11, SR p.3)

1983        Dame Roma Mitchell, retired from the South Australia state Supreme Court after serving 18 years.
    (SFC, 3/6/00, p.A23)
1983        Pastor Brian Houston founded his Hillsong congregation in Sidney, Australia. The 45-member congregation grew to 15,000 in 2005. Houston was the author of the book “You Need More Money."
    (Econ, 5/7/05, Survey p.11)

1984        Mar 28, Zoe, the 1st frozen-embryo child, was born in Melbourne, Australia. Scientists reported the birth 2 weeks later.

1984        Jul, In Australia Margaret Tapp was strangled and her daughter Seana raped and later killed. In 2008 Melbourne police withdrew charges against Russell John Gesah, accused in the murders, after DNA evidence used against him was found to have been taken elsewhere and mistakenly tested with samples from the Tapp murder scene.
    (Reuters, 8/7/08)

1985        Apr 12, In Australia the charred remains of Sandra White (34) were found in rural Victoria. In 2009 Steven Hutton (54) was later accused of strangling her and setting her on fire. He is alleged to have confessed to the killing after being detained in a London psychiatric hospital following a road accident in 1990. In 2009 he was set to be extradited from Britain.
    (AFP, 3/20/09)

1985        Oct 15, Shelley Taylor of Australia made the fastest swim ever around Manhattan Island, doing it in 6 hours 12 minutes 29 seconds.

1986        In Australia the left-of-center Labor government began to implement an innovative retirement system. It was based primarily on mandatory private savings in plans called "superannuation funds."
    (WSJ, 12/31/97, p.A10)(www.heritage.org/Research/SocialSecurity/BG1149.cfm)

1987        Jul 11, Australian Prime Minister Bob Hawke won a third consecutive term, becoming the first Labor Party leader in the country's history to be elected to three straight terms in office.
    (AP, 7/11/97)

1987        Nov 11, Vincent Van Gogh’s painting "Irises" was bought from the estate of Joan Whitney Payson by Alan Bond, an Australian businessman, for $53.9 million at Sotheby’s in New York.
    (HN, 11/11/98)(Econ, 11/18/06, p.79)

1987        Australian businessman Alan Bond founded Bond University, the country’s first private higher education institution.
    (Econ, 6/13/15, p.62)
1987        Queensland, Australia, began using a random placement system of cameras to help control traffic.
    (Econ, 6/2/07, p.62)

1988        Jan 26, Australians celebrated the 200th anniversary of their country as a grand parade of tall ships sailed in Sydney Harbor, re-enacting the voyage of the first European settlers.
    (AP, 1/26/98)

1988        Apr 30, World Exposition, Expo 88 opened in Brisbane, Australia.

1988        Dec 10, In Australia American mathematician Scott Johnson (27) was found dead at the base of a cliff near Manly’s North Head in Sidney. In 2020 police arrested a man (49) and charged with murdering the Johnson.
    (AP, 5/12/20)

1988        The Australian film “The Dunera Boys" was based on the story of 2,000 Jews who fled to England from Austria Germany in 1940 and were put on the passenger ship Dunera bound for Australia, where they were interned in camps until 1942.
    (SFC, 10/8/05, p.B5)

1988        The film "Outback Bound" was made near Broken Hill in New South Wales, Australia.
    (Hem., 2/97, p.92)

1988        The Australian Capital Territory (ACT), a region comprising Canberra, gained self-government.
    (Econ, 6/17/06, p.50)

1988        Australia pioneered the use of plastic money.
    (Econ, 2/5/05, p.71)

1988        In Australia the Murray-Darling Basin Commission was established to regulate water use in the river system. In 2003 the mouth at Adelaide dried up for a 2nd time since European settlement. 4 states shared the Murray-Darling river system, which fed two-thirds of the country’s irrigated farmland.
    (Econ, 7/12/03, p.38)(Econ, 4/24/10, p.41)

1989        Aug 13, Thirteen people were killed when their hot air balloon collided with another over the Australian outback near the town of Alice Springs. The two balloons were flying at an altitude of 600 meters when one plunged to the ground after the collision.
    (AP, 2/26/13)

1989        Nov 6, The Asia Pacific Economic Cooperation (APEC) forum, initiated by Australia, began as an informal Ministerial-level dialogue group with 12 members: Australia, Brunei, Canada, Indonesia, Japan, Malaysia, New Zealand, Philippines, Singapore, South Korea, Thailand, United States.
    (SFEC,11/23/97, p.A21)(www.apec.org/apec/member_economies.html)

1989        The Australian film "Dead Calm" was directed by Philip Noyce.
    (SFEC,12/21/97, DB p.51)

1989        In Australia ATSIC was established by Bob Hawke's Labor government through the Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Commission Act 1989 (the ATSIC Act). It took effect on 5 March 1990. It provided a means of self-determination for indigenous people.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Aboriginal_and_Torres_Strait_Islander_Commission)(SFC, 4/20/04, p.F1)

1989        Pernod Ricard SA acquired the Australian wine brand Jacob’s Creek.
    (WSJ, 9/7/05, p.B2)

1990        The Australian firm Thomas Hardy & Sons, a family firm that had made wine for 160 years, entered the market in Europe with an investment in Domaine de la Baume in Languedoc, France.
    (WSJ, 5/30/03, p.A3)

1990-1999    In the 1990s a movement began to establish the Australian bilby, an long-eared, endangered marsupial of the bandicoot family, as a symbol for an Australian Easter.
    (WSJ, 3/25/05, p.A1)

1991        May 29, Coral Browne (77) Australian actress, (Dreamchild, Ruling Class), died of cancer.

1991        Jul 4, In Australia Victor Chang, who had earned an international reputation for his pioneering work on heart transplant methods, was shot dead near his home as he made his way to work. Phillip Choon Tee Lim and co-offender Chew Seng Liew were imprisoned over the killing of Chang in the exclusive Sydney suburb of Mosman, following a failed extortion attempt. In 2010 Lim (50) was extradited to Malaysia after serving 18 years in prison.
    (AP, 3/2/10)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Victor_Chang)

1991        Aug 19, Yankel Rosenbaum (29), an Australian Hasidic scholar, was killed in rioting that erupted in the Crown Heights section of Brooklyn following the traffic death of a black child. Earlier in the day Gavin Cato (7) had been hit and killed by a car in a Rabbi’s motorcade. On Oct 29, 1992, a New York City jury acquitted 17-year-old Lemrick Nelson of Rosenbaum’s murder. In February 1997, a jury convicted Nelson and Charles Price of violating Rosenbaum's civil rights. In 1998 Lemrick Nelson Jr. was sentenced to 19 and 1/2 years in prison. In 1998 the city settled a suit for $1.35 million brought by Jews who accused City Hall of insufficient protection during the riots. In 2002 Lemrick Nelson and Charles Price had their verdicts thrown out and a new trial scheduled. In 2005 NYC agreed to pay $1.25 million to settle a suit brought by the Rosenbaum family.
    (SFC, 4/1/98, p.A2)(SFC, 4/3/98, p.A2)(SFC, 1/8/02, p.A3)(SSFC, 6/19/05, p.A3)

1991        Dec 20, In Australia Paul Keating took over as the country’s 24th prime minister. He continued to 1996.
    (Econ, 5/28/11, SR p.3)(http://primeministers.naa.gov.au/primeministers/keating/)

1991        Dec 31, President Bush arrived in Australia as part of a 12-day Pacific trip.
    (AP, 12/31/01)

1991        In Australia a simple formula of catchy children's tunes with sing-along lyrics and entertaining dances was born when Anthony Field, Murray Cook and Greg Page were studying to become pre-school teachers. They formed a children's band called The Wiggles went on to become a global cultural force. They planned to be the subject of an exhibition at Sydney's Powerhouse Museum to celebrate their 20th year in 2011.
    (AFP, 9/19/10)
1991        Dame Roma Mitchell, founder of the Australian Human Rights Commission, became governor of South Australia state.
    (SFC, 3/6/00, p.A23)
1991        A toxic algae bloom choked a 1,000km stretch of Australia’s Darling River.
    (Econ, 4/28/07, p.82)

1992        Mar 27, Lang Hancock (b.1909), pioneer Pilbara tycoon, died. He was famous for discovering the world's largest iron ore deposit in 1952 and becoming one of the richest men in Australia,
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Lang_Hancock)(Econ, 4/19/08, p.53)

1992        The Australian film "Proof" was directed by Jocelyn Moorhouse.
    (SFEC,12/21/97, DB p.51)
1992        The Australian film "Romper Stomper" was directed by Geoffrey Wright.
    (SFEC, 9/24/00, DBp.59)
1992        The Australian film "Strictly Ballroom" was directed by Bazz Luhrmann.
    (SFEC,12/21/97, DB p.51)

1992        Australia’s Keating government passed a law requiring workers to set aside big chunks of their income into a superannuation account for retirement. This began to create a huge national retirement pool.
    (WSJ, 12/6/05, p.A1)(Econ, 5/28/11, SR p.6)
1992        Australia’s High Court accepted the concept of “native title," which struck down the doctrine of British settlers that the land they found was terra nullius (belonging to no one). The landmark Mabo decision resulted in legislative recognition of native title rights over some government-owned lands and years of acrimonious debate about the issue.
    (Econ, 5/7/05, Survey p.15)(AP, 1/30/08)(Econ, 5/28/11, SR p.11)
1992        In Australia the Labor government of Paul Keating introduced a policy of mandatory detention for asylum seekers, pending assessment of their claims.
    (Econ., 4/25/15, p.24)
1992        Australia’s High Court made the sterilization of retarded girls illegal if not medically required, unless a court or tribunal approved it.
    (SFC,12/16/97, p.B3)
1992        The Australian wine firm Thomas Hardy & Sons merged with a rival to create BRL Hardy.
    (WSJ, 5/30/03, p.A3)

1992        In Yemen 2 hotel bombs directed at US servicemen killed 2 Australians. The bombing was later linked to Osama bin Laden, the scion of a wealthy Saudi family. He was stripped of his Saudi citizenship in 1994.
    (SFC, 8/14/96, p.A10,12)

1993        Aug 28, In Australia Jeffrey Gilham (23) allegedly stabbed his father, mother and brother to death in their Sydney home, but told police he killed his sibling in a fit of rage after discovering he had murdered their parents. He pleaded guilty in 1995 to the manslaughter of his brother (25), escaping with a five-year good behavior bond. Gilham was eventually charged with the killings of his parent in February 2006 after 13 years of campaigning by his paternal uncles. In 2009 Jeffrey Gilham was sentenced to life in prison. In 2012 a court found Jeffrey should be acquitted and not retried over the killing of his parents.
    (AFP, 3/11/09)(AFP, 6/25/12)(http://tinyurl.com/6mx57rr)

1993        Sep 23, Sydney, Australia, was selected to host the 2000 Summer Olympics, beating Beijing by 2 votes. It was later revealed that 2 African members of the IOC had been bribed the night before the vote.
    (AP, 9/23/98)(SFC, 1/23/99, p.A1)

1993        China curbed satellite dish sales and ownership after Rupert Murdoch, who had just bought Star TV, said that satellite broadcasting threatened totalitarian regimes by enabling viewers to bypass state controlled media.
    (WSJ, 3/26/96, p.A-15)(SFC, 5/8/99, p.C1)(Econ, 9/24/05, p.80)
1993        In Australia the Daintree Eco Lodge and Spa opened in the rain forest of North Queensland.
    (SSFC, 6/9/02, p.C7)
1993        In Australia, a developer bought a 260-acre site in Cardwell, Queensland, across from Hichinbrook Island, the world’s largest island national park. His $100 million plans to develop the site faced major opposition in 1998 even after 12 million was invested.
    (SFC, 1/16/98, p.B4)

1994        Australia’s Labor government passed native title laws.
    (SFC,12/18/97, p.C9)
1994        Australia’s foreign minister, Gareth Evans, accused "freelance military personal and business spivs" (shady dealers) in Thailand of providing refuge for Khmer Rouge leaders and helping them get gems and timber out of Cambodia. The statement was made after 2 Australians were murdered by the Khmer Rouge.
    (SFC, 6/7/96, p.A12)
1994        Australian states began reforming water management.
    (Econ, 11/5/16, p.19)
1994        Fires in Sydney, Australia, killed 4 people and destroyed 1.9 million acres of forest.
    (SFC, 12/4/97, p.A18)
1994        The Hendra virus was first discovered and named for the Australian suburb where it was found in an outbreak that killed a horse trainer and 13 horses. It causes flulike symptoms that can lead to pneumonia or encephalitis. It is believed to originate in fruit bats in Australia and mainly infects horses.
    (AP, 9/2/09)

1995        Mar 5, An Australian yacht broke in two and sank in heavy wind and fierce winds off the Southern California coast, the first sinking in the history of America's Cup racing; all 17 crew members were rescued.
    (AP, 3/5/00)

1995        Australia's Northern Territory introduced the world's first voluntary euthanasia legislation, but it was overturned in 1997 by the federal government.
    (AP, 9/21/09)

1995        Australia’s Macquarie Bank won a tender to build the M2 toll road in Sydney by floating a company that would own the road.
    (Econ, 10/15/05, p.81)

1996        Feb 14, A failed Loral Intelsat satellite launch caused a rocket to hit a village near the Xichang Space Center in China’s southwest Sichuan province. China acknowledged 6 deaths. US intelligence estimated the death toll at 200. The rocket was a new-generation Long March 3B. The satellite was intended for TV shows in Latin America for Rupert Murdoch’s News Corp.
    (WSJ, 2/16/96, p.A-1)(WSJ, 3/4/96, p. A-6)(SFC, 6/15/98, p.A5)

1996        Mar 2, The first conservative government in 13 years was elected in a landslide victory. John Howard with a pro-business coalition defeated the reformist labor party of Paul Keating.
    (WSJ, 3/4/96, p. A-1)(SFC, 11/27/98, p.A16)

1996        Mar 11, In Australia John Howard was sworn in as prime minister.
    (Econ, 3/11/06, p.40)

1996        Apr 23, Pamela Lyndon Travers (96), Australia born writer (Mary Poppins), died in London.

1996        Apr 28, A lone gunman, Martin Bryant (b.1967), killed 35 tourists visiting a colonial prison on the Australian island of Tasmania. He was later sentenced to 35 life terms in prison.  Less than two weeks after the Port Arthur massacre, Australia banned semi-automatic rifles and shotguns.
    (https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Martin_Bryant)(WSJ, 4/29/96, p.A-1)(SFC, 11/22/96, p.A22)(AP, 3/28/19)

1996        Jun 8, China set off an underground nuclear test blast. The Australian Seismological Center reported a nuclear test by China having a body wave magnitude of 5.7, a middle range explosion, in the Lop Nor area of Xinjiang Province. This was the 44th test since 1964.
    (SFC, 6/8/96, p.A11)(AP, 6/8/06)

1996        Jul 1, The world’s first voluntary suicide law was scheduled to go into effect in Australia. The Rights of the Terminally Ill Act originated in Darwin. The world’s first law making it legal for doctors to assist in the suicides of terminally patients was passed by the Northern Territories Parliament. The national parliament overturned the law a year later and passed a law to prevent the country’s three self-governing territories from legislating on the matter.
    (WSJ, 6/27/96, p.A18)(SFC, 1/14/98, p.C3)(Reuters, 7/27/05)(Econ, 10/22/16, p.34)

1996        Jul 7, The average cost of a Big Mac in Australia was $1.97.
    (SFC, 7/7/96, Parade, p.17)

1996        Jul, In Atlanta Australian equestrian Gillian Rolton (1956-2017) broke multiple bones during a cross-country ride, but remounted following two falls to finish the competition and help her team win a gold medal.
    (https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=7tXL9atLwAo)(SSFC, 12/10/17, p.C11)
1996        Jul, In Sydney Ivan Milat (b.1944), Australian outdoorsman, was jailed for life for murdering seven backpackers. Milat killed three Germans, two Britons and two Australians between 1989 and 1992. Their bodies were later found in shallow graves in a remote forest southwest of Sydney.
    (http://www.nationmaster.com/encyclopedia/Ivan-Milat)(AP, 1/27/09)

1996        Aug 19, In Canberra, Australia, protestors stormed the parliament in opposition to changes in labor laws and proposed budget cuts to reduce the nation’s debt.
    (SFC, 8/20/96, p.A10)   

1996        Aug 21, Rescuers worked to save some 200 pilot whales on the southwestern coast near Dunsborough. Most were herded to sea but 14 died.
    (SFC, 8/22/96, p.E3)

1996        Sep 22, In Australia Bob Dent became the first person to kill himself legally under the world’s only voluntary euthanasia law.
    (SFC, 9/27/96, p.A13)

1996        Oct 16, It was reported that fossilized footprints of a stegosaurus dinosaur were discovered stolen last week from Aboriginal grounds near Broome.
    (SFC, 10/16/96, p.A10)

1996        Oct 16, The Australian Senate called for self-determination in East Timor and supported independence from Jakarta. The government had earlier recognized the incorporation of East Timor into Indonesia.
    (SFC, 10/17/96, A11)

1996        Oct, The rabbit calcivirus was released. It quickly cut the rabbit population and forced eagles to concentrate on road kill. Increased incidents of vehicle collisions with eagles was reported.
    (SFC, 1/18/96, p.A16)

1996        Nov 22, Martin Bryant, who gunned down 35 people on Apr 28 at Port Arthur, Australia, was sentenced to life behind bars with no chance for parole.
    (AP, 11/22/97)

1996        The Australian film "Angel Baby" by Michael Rymer won all the top Australian awards. It starred John Lynch, Jacqueline McKenzie and Colin Friels.
    (SFC, 1/31/97, p.D3)
1996        The Australian film "Floating Life" starred Annette Shun Wah and Annie Yip. It was directed by Clara Law. It was about a Hong Kong family that moves to Australia.
    (SFC, 8/4/99, p.E3)
1996        The Australian film "Shine" was produced. It rated a 5th place in the 1996 top 10 by one reviewer. It was based on the life of pianist David Helfgott. Geoffrey Rush won the 1997 Academy Award for best actor. A 1998 book by Margaret Helfgott showed how the film twisted and perverted the facts of Helfgott’s life.
    (SFC, 12/29/96, DB p.31)(WSJ, 7/27/98, p.A12)
1996        Australia granted full independence to its central bank.
    (Econ, 5/7/05, Survey p.4)
1996        Australia’s Argyle diamond mine left the De Beers cartel.
    (https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Argyle_diamond_mine)(Econ, 2/25/17, p.51)

1997        Feb 4, The parliament voted to begin the process of becoming a republic. A constitutional convention was planned for the fall and delegates would decide on how to put the issue to the electorate.
    (WSJ, 2/5/97, p.A1)

1997        Mar 2, The Australian film "Children of the Revolution" was released in the US.
    (SFEC, 3/2/97, DB p.48)

1997        Mar 7, It was disclosed that the reputed Aboriginal painter Eddie Burrup was actually 82-year-old Elizabeth Durack.
    (SFC, 3/8/96, p.A11)

1997        Mar 13, It was revealed that the 1995 award-winning autobiography of an Aboriginal woman, "My Own Sweet Time, " was actually written by a 47-year-old white man in Sydney named Leon Carmen.
    (SFC, 3/14/97, p.A16)

1997        Mar 24, The Australian Senate struck down the law passed by the Northern Territory’s Parliament that allowed doctor-assisted suicide for the terminally ill. The law might be reinstated in 2000 if the territory is granted proposed statehood because under the constitution the national Parliament cannot override state laws. A growing interest soon developed in travel to Mexico to buy liquid pentobarbital (Nembutol), which causes a painless death. The Australian government later banned Philip Nitschke's book, "The Peaceful Pill Handbook" (2006) which gives tips on everything from carbon monoxide to buying pentobarbital in Mexico.
    (SFC, 3/25/97, p.A12)(SFC, 1/14/98, p.C3)(Reuters, 6/3/08)

1997        Apr, Pauline Hanson published her book "Pauline Hanson: The Truth." In it she warned that Australia’s president in 2050 will be "Poona Li Hung," a "lesbian of Indian and Chinese background...a part machine...produced by a joint Korean-Indian-Chinese research team."
    (SFC, 5/9/97, p.E3)

1997        Apr, The Australian comedy film "Love Serenade" was shown at the SF Film Festival.
    (SFC, 4/23/97, p.D3)

1997        Apr, The Australian film "The Quiet Room" was released in the US.
    (WSJ, 4/25/97, p.A12)

1997        May, The Cadbury Schweppes company launched Yowies, miniature plastic bush animals covered in chocolate with names such as Boof, Rumble and Ditty that quickly became the champion in pester power.
    (WSJ, 8/21/98, p.B1)

1997        Jul 4, It was reported that Australia had sold 167 tons of gold over the last 6 months in order to put the money into more productive assets.
    (SFC, 7/4/97, p.C1)

1997        Aug 18, Burnum Burnum (b.1936 as Henry James Penrith), Aboriginal activist, died at age 61. He had been a member of the "stolen generation," Aborigine children taken from their families into government welfare.
    (SFC, 8/19/97, p.A20)

1997        Oct 11, A photograph titled "Piss Christ" at the National Gallery of Victoria in Melbourne by Andres Serrano (47) was damaged when an attacker wrenched it from the wall. The photograph depicted Jesus immersed in urine. The next day an 18-year-old attacked the work with a hammer while a companion diverted attention by pulling other pieces off the wall.
    (SFC, 10/14/97, p.B5)

1997        Nov 22, Michael Hutchence (b.1960), lead singer for the Australian rock band INXS, committed suicide at a Sydney hotel.
    (SFC,11/24/97, p.A21)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Michael_Hutchence)

1997        Dec 3, Fires in the southeast destroyed 38 houses and killed 2 firefighters. Up to 150 fires were raging in New South Wales.
    (SFC, 12/4/97, p.A18)

1997        Dec 15, A government report said that at least 1,045 retarded women and girls have been sterilized since a 1992 law that made it illegal without special approval.
    (SFC,12/16/97, p.B3)

1997        The Australian film "The Castle" was directed by Rob Sitch.
    (SFEC, 9/24/00, DBp.59)
1997        In Australia a national inquiry said policies removing Aboriginal children from their parents caused massive trauma to 100,000 children and their families, and recommended the "stolen generation" be compensated. The final report, "Bringing Them Home - Report of the National Inquiry into the Separation of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Children from Their Families" was released. PM John Howard refused an official apology.
    (AP, 1/31/08)
1997        Australia’s Macquarie Island, located about halfway between Australia and Antarctica, was designated a World Heritage site as the world's only island composed entirely of oceanic crust. It is known for its wind-swept landscape, and about 3.5 million seabirds and 80,000 elephant seals migrate there each year to breed. In 2009 researchers said a 1995 decision to eradicate cats from Macquarie island allowed the rabbit population to explode and, in turn, destroy much of its fragile vegetation that birds depend on for cover.
    (AP, 1/13/09)
1997        Australian businessman Alan Bond was sentenced to four years in prison on charges of fraud.
    (Econ, 6/13/15, p.62)

1998        Jan 13, A federal court upheld the armed forces’ right to expel HIV-positive soldiers.
    (SFC, 1/14/98, p.C3)

1998        Feb 7, Over 1000 defense force personnel were called to help clean up parts of the Northern Territory where the worst  floods in 40 years resulted from the overflowing Katherine River.
    (SFC, 2/7/98, p.A5)

1998        May 26, In Australia the first National Sorry Day was held, to acknowledge the wrong that had been done to indigenous families and to allow healing process to begin. Sorry Day is also in remembrance of mistreatment of the Aboriginal people and not only to the children involved in the Stolen Generation. The day was held annually until 2004. It was renamed National Day of Healing from 2005, however, in September, 2005, the name reverted when the National Sorry Day Committee decided to restore the name Sorry Day.

1998        Jul 7, The Senate passed a law that scaled back Aboriginal land rights under threat by Prime Minister John Howard to dissolve both houses and call for new elections.
    (SFC, 7/8/98, p.A12)

1998        Jul 11, It was reported that dingoes from Mount Archer National park near the central Queensland coast were stalking neighborhoods for food.
    (SFC, 7/11/98, p.A8)

1998        Jul 29-1998 Jul 30, In Australia giardia and cryptosporidium were found throughout the water supply of Sydney. PM John Howard called the crises an international embarrassment.
    (SFC, 8/1/98, p.A11)

1998        Aug 5, It was reported that Ian Murphy, founder of the Freedom Scouts, believed that a million Indonesians planned to invade the country within 5 years. His organization trained as a guerrilla force to hit and run and protect Australia from attack.
    (SFC, 8/5/98, p.A8)

1998        Oct 3, In Australia parliamentary elections were scheduled. The conservative coalition of John Howard won re-election by a narrow margin.
    (WSJ, 10/1/98, p.A1)(SFEC, 10/4/98, p.A17)

1998        Nov, Burger King, a unit of Diageo PLC, opened its 10,000th restaurant in Australia.
    (WSJ, 5/13/99, p.B13)

1998        Dec, A brushfire in Queens that started near Linton killed 5 volunteer fire-fighters.
    (SFC, 12/5/98, p.A5)

1998        Dec 28, At least 6 sailors were feared dead from a gale that struck off Australia during the Sydney-to-Hobart yacht race. Oracle CEO Larry Ellison skippered the Sayonara to victory.
    (SFC, 12/29/98, p.A1)'

1998        Mandy Sayer of Australia published her novel "Dreamtime Alice." It was about her years performing as a tap dancer on the streets of Manhattan and New Orleans with her father, a drummer, in the 1960s.
    (WSJ, 5/20/98, p.A12)
1998        Aden Ridgeway became the 2nd Australian Aborigine to be elected to the federal Parliament.
    (SFC, 2/6/99, p.A21)
1998        In Australia’s waterfront war Chris Corrigan, head of the cargo-handling Patrick Corp., took on the “wharfies" and smashed their union’s control of the docks.
    (Econ, 10/30/04, p.70)
1998        Alphonse Gangitano, Melbourne drug lord, was shot dead in his home. Retaliatory killings followed.
    (Econ, 6/18/05, p.39)
1998        A rise in sea temperatures due to El Nino caused a mass bleaching of the world’s coral reefs. Up to 90% of the Indian Ocean’s coral reefs turned to skeletal wastes. A mass bleaching on Australia's Great Barrier Reef occurred when sea temperatures spiked. More followed in 2002, 2016, 2017 and 2020.
    (Econ, 5/12/12, p.87)(Econ, 4/18/20, p.28)
1998        Saudi Arabia, in response to a massive outbreak of rift-valley fever, imposed a trade ban to prevent nomadic herders from selling sheep and goats for sacrifice during the hajj pilgrimage to Mecca. The government opted to buy more expensive Australian livestock instead.
    (Econ, 2/3/07, p.80)

1999        Jan 22, In Manoharpur, India, Graham Stewart Staines (58), an Australian missionary, and his 2 sons (10 & 8) were burned to death by activists of the radical Bajrang Dal. Dara Singh led some 30 men in the attack. Singh was captured in Jan 2000. In 2003 Mahendra Hembram (23), a security guard, stood by the statement he gave in a lower court in 2002 that he burned the missionary's jeep, killing the missionary and young sons as they slept. In 2003 13 men were convicted for the murders. A trial court later sentenced Dara Singh to death but in 2011 it was reduced to life in prison on appeal.
    (SFEC, 1/24/99, p.A14)(SFC, 2/2/00, p.A17)(AP, 3/24/03)(AP, 9/15/03)(AP, 1/21/11)

1999        Apr 19, One of the annual Goldman Environmental Prizes went to: Jacqui Katona and Yvonne Margarula, Australian aboriginal women, who have led a fight against the mining of a uranium deposit by Kakadu National Park on lands owned by the Mirrar people.
    (SFC, 4/19/99, p.A2)

1999        May 17, US authorities charged Jean-Philippe Wispelaere of Australia for trying to sell classified American defense documents. Wispelaere had worked in Canberra for the Australian Defense Intelligence Organization.
    (SFC, 5/18/99, p.A3)

1999        Jul 27, In Switzerland 19 people were killed as they tried to "canyon" down a narrow gorge  on the Saxeten River off Lake Brienz. Two people were still missing and 13 were identified as Australians.
    (SFC, 7/28/99, p.A1)(SFC, 7/29/99, p.A10)

1999        Aug 26, The Parliament recognized 200 years of injustice to its indigenous people.
    (SFC, 8/27/99, p.D3)

1999        Sep 6, Jiang Zemin arrived in Australia, the first visit there by a Chinese president.
    (WSJ, 9/7/99, p.A1)

1999        Sep 15, The UN authorized an int'l. peacekeeping force in East Timor led by Australia with some 8,000 troops from a number of nations.
    (SFC, 9/15/99, p.A15)(WSJ, 9/16/99, p.A1)

1999        Oct 10, Morris West, thriller writer, died at age 83. His 27 novels included "The Devil's Advocate," "Children of the Sun," and "Shoes of a Fisherman."
    (SFC, 10/11/99, p.A24)

1999        Oct 23, Albert Tucker, hailed as Australia's most influential 20th century painter, died at age 84. His work was the 1st Australian art to be purchased by New York's MOMA.
    (SFC, 10/25/99, p.A24)

1999        Oct 31, Jesse Martin of Australia became the youngest person to circumnavigate the globe, sailing solo, non-stop and unsupported. He sailed from Melbourne, Australia, on December 8, 1998 aged 18 years 104 days and returned on October 31 1999, taking 327 days 12 hours 52 minutes.
    (AP, 8/27/09)

1999        Nov 6, In Australia elections to decide on severance of ties with the royal family were scheduled. 54.5% voted against a republic in which the head of state would be elected by Parliament.
    (SFC, 11/2/99, p.A12)(SFEC, 11/7/99, p.A21)

1999        Dec 2, In Australian a rail collision outside Sydney killed 7 passengers and injured over 50. A commuter train with 450 people slammed into the back of the transcontinental Indian Pacific with 159 passengers.
    (SFC, 12/3/99, p.D4)

1999        Dec, Victoria and New South Wales planned to open heroin injecting rooms for addicts. A UN narcotics board considered sanctions against Australia if the plan went into effect. At stake was $100 million in export revenues for opium used by pharmaceuticals.
    (SFC, 12/22/99, p.A19)

1999        The Australian film "The Castle" stared Michael Caton and Tiriel Mora. It was directed by Rob Sitch.
    (WSJ, 5/7/99, p.W6)
1999        The Australian film "Head On" starred Alex Dinitriades and Paul Capsis. It was directed by Ana Kokkinos and told an intimate story of male sexual confusion.
    (SFC, 11/8/99, p.D3)(SFC, 11/11/99, p.B3)
1999        The Australian film "The Well" starred Pamela Rabe and Miranda Otto. It was directed by Samantha Lang.
    (SFC, 4/16/99, p.C6)
1999        Rupert Murdoch (68), Australian born media mogul, married Wendi Deng (31), Chinese-born junior TV executive.
1999        Natasha Ryan (14) disappeared in Queensland. Leonard John Fraser, an alleged serial killer, was charged with her murder. In 2003 she was found hiding at the home of a boyfriend.
    (AP, 4/11/03)
1999        Australia started pumping from the Laminaria-Corallina oil field in the Timor Sea.
    (Econ, 6/5/04, p.40)
1999        Australia withdrew from the Int’l. Court of Justice’s jurisdiction on maritime boundary questions shortly before East Timor’s independence.
    (Econ, 6/5/04, p.40)
1999        A 2006 report by East Timor's Truth and Reconciliation Commission found that Australia actively lobbied to delay East Timor's independence vote in 1999 and prevent its separation from Indonesia.
    (AFP, 2/2/06)
1999        The Guinness Book of Records described Australia’s Palm Island as the most violent place on Earth outside a combat zone.
    (AFP, 1/26/07)
1999        Leslie Cunliffe, dubbed the "Silence of the Lambs" rapist by Australian authorities, posed as a policeman to abduct a 21-year-old woman at gunpoint from the southern city of Geelong and locked her in a backyard shed with padded walls. Cunliffe, a British man, served 12 years in prison for torture and rape and in 2011 faced deportation.
    (AFP, 6/18/11)

1999-2003    The US Volcker report of 2005 said that Australia's wheat exporter, AWB Ltd., paid over $221 million during this period to the Jordanian company, Alia, and that some of the money was for the benefit of the Iraqi government. During this period AWB sold over $2.3 billion in wheat to Iraq. In 2006 11 former executives faced prosecution for illegal kickbacks from Iraq.
    (Econ, 1/28/06, p.41)(Econ, 12/2/06, p.46)

2000        Feb, The Australian film "The Wog Boy" opened with Steve Karamitsis.
    (SFC, 5/9/00, p.A10)

2000        Mar 5, Dame Roma Mitchell, founder of the Australian Human Rights Commission, died at age 86. She was Australia's first female Supreme Court Judge and state governor.
    (SFC, 3/6/00, p.A23)

2000        May, Some 100 billion locusts threatened the states of New South Wales, Queensland and South Australia. It was the worst infestation in over a decade.
    (SFC, 5/6/00, p.B8)

2000        May, A mining company discovered a huge underground water reservoir in Western Australia that covered an area 435 by 25 miles.
    (SFC, 5/20/00, p.D8)

2000        May 27, In Australia the "Declaration of Reconciliation" was presented by prime Minister John Howard to help heal the history of government racism toward the native aborigines. Howard removed a phrase of apology in one passage and substituted regret.
    (SFC, 5/26/00, p.A14)

2000        Jun 23, In Australia a fire at a hostel in Childers, 130 miles north of Brisbane, killed at least 15 foreign backpackers.
    (SFC, 6/23/00, p.D3)

2000        Jul 1, Australia adopted the Goods and Services Tax (GST).
    (SMH, 7/1/00)

2000        Jul 14, In Australia John Roche contacted the Australian intelligence agency, known as ASIO to discuss information regarding his contacts with al-Qaeda.
    (LAT, 6/7/04)
2000        Jul 14, Mark Oliphant, a physicist who helped split the atom in 1932, died at age 98. He founded the Australian Academy of Science and was appointed as the governor of South Australia state (1971-1976).
    (SFC, 7/18/00, p.A22)

2000        Aug 28, Foster’s Brewing of Australia reported a deal to buy the California Beringer winery for some $1.5 billion.
    (SFC, 8/29/00, p.A1)

2000        Sep 5, A Beechcraft King Air 200 plane crashed near Mount Isa after flying for 6 hours on autopilot. 8 people were killed and believed to have blacked out after loss of cabin pressure following takeoff from Perth.
    (SFC, 9/6/00, p.A11)

2000        Sep 11, Some 5,000 protestors rallied against the Asia-Pacific Economic Summit 2000 in Melbourne.
    (SFC, 9/11/00, p.A14)

2000        Sep 12, A series of clashes between police and protesters marred a generally peaceful second day of the three-day Asia-Pacific Economic Summit in Melbourne, Australia.
    (AP, 9/12/01)

2000        Sep 15, The XXVII Olympic Games opened in Sydney. The 2000 Summer Olympics opened with a seemingly endless parade of athletes and coaches and a spectacular display that included wild fantasy, blazing color, and booming cheers; Aborigine runner Cathy Freeman ignited an Olympic ring of fire.
    (SFC, 9/16/00, p.A1)(AP, 9/15/01)

2000        Sep 15-2000 Oct 1, The 2000 Summer Olympics were held in Sydney, Australia.
    (WSJ, 8/8/95, p. B-1)(USAT, 5/7/98, p.6E)

2000        Sep 17, In Sydney swimmer Tom Dolan of the United States won the 400-meter individual medley.
    (AP, 9/17/01)

2000        Sep 30, In Sydney, Australia, Marion Jones won Olympic gold in the U.S. women's 1,600-meter relay and bronze with the 400-meter squad, making her the only woman to win five track medals at one Olympics. In 2007 the IOC stripped Jones of her 5 medals due to use of steroids.
    (AP, 9/30/01)(WSJ, 12/13/07, p.A1)

2000        Oct 1, In Sydney, Australia, the 2000 summer Olympics ended with a big party. The US (97), Russia (88) and China (59) topped the medal count.
    (SFC, 10/2/00, p.A1)(WSJ, 10/2/00, p.A1)

2000        Nov, In New South Wales the worst flooding in 40 years stretched across a third of the state.
    (SFC, 11/25/00, p.D8)

2000        The Northern Territories proposal for statehood was due for action.
    (SFC, 1/14/98, p.C3)

2000        The Solar Sailor, a prototype solar-powered ferry, began operating in Sydney harbor.
    (SFC, 2/6/01, p.A14)

2001        Jan 12, Johnny Warangkula, Papunya Tula school Aborigine artist, died at age 75. His dot paintings included "Water Dreaming at Kalipinypa, 1972."
    (SFC, 2/17/01, p.A24)

2001        Feb 17, In Queensland state elections the opposition Labor Party won at least 60 of 89 seats. Many traditional conservatives switched to the right-wing One Nation group headed by Pauline Hanson.
    (SFC, 2/19/01, p.A10)

2001        Mar 15, Australia’s HIH Insurance, the country’s 2nd largest insurance firm, was forced into liquidation. This led to a revision of regulatory oversight.
    (Econ, 5/28/11, SR p.5)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/HIH_Insurance)

2001        Mar, Billiton, a South African mining company, and Broken Hill Proprietary (BHP), an Australian rival, revealed plans to merge.
    (Econ, 8/21/10, p.56)

2001        Apr 15, Australia indicated that it would not ratify the Kyoto treaty to reduce carbon-dioxide emissions and said the treaty is probably defunct now that the US has repudiated it.
    (WSJ, 4/16/01, p.A1)

2001        Jul 4, Australia’s interim cabinet approved East Timor’s demands for 90% of the revenues from oil and gas reserves in the Timor Sea.
    (SFC, 7/5/01, p.A8)

2001        Jul 14, In Australia British backpacker Peter Falconio (28) was murdered and his girlfriend, Joanne Lees. Murdoch was assaulted while they backpacking in the Outback. In 2005 Bradley John Murdoch (47), was convicted and given a mandatory life sentence.
    (AP, 12/13/05)

2001        Aug 4, Steve Fossett launched his 5th bid to circle the globe in an unpressurized gondola from Australia. He set a duration record on Aug 16 over Argentina.
    (SFC, 8/17/01, p.D1)

2001        Aug 17, Balloonist Steve Fossett was forced down by bad weather in Brazil after traveling 12,695 miles.
    (SFC, 8/18/01, p.A8)

2001        Aug 24, Australia’s Parkes Observatory picked up an unusual burst of radio waves from the direction of the Small Magellanic Cloud. Astronomers only noticed it in 2007 while poking around the in Parke’s archived data. Similar unrepeated “fast radio bursts" (FRBS) were later noted elsewhere.
    (Econ, 3/18/17, p.81)

2001        Aug 27, Australia denied access to the Tampa, a Norwegian cargo ship carrying some 433 refugees, mostly from Afghanistan, who had been rescued from a sinking Indonesian ferry.
    (SFC, 8/29/01, p.A8)(Econ, 5/7/05, Survey p.13)

2001        Aug 29, Australian commandos seized the Norway cargo ship carrying 438 rescued refugees after the captain defied orders not to enter Australian waters.
    (SFC, 8/30/01, p.A12)

2001        Aug 31, Ministers of New Zealand and Nauru announced that they would take the Afghanistan asylum seekers stranded in Australian waters.
    (SFC, 9/1/01, p.A6)

2001        Sep 7, Australia intercepted a boat with 200 migrants and put them on the same ship taking 433 Afghans to Papua New Guinea.
    (SSFC, 9/9/01, p.A15)

2001        Sep 13, An Indonesian boat with 129 people, mostly from Iraq, refused to change course and landed at Australia’s Ashmore Reef. The UN issued Australia a warning that it could be breaching its int’l. obligations toward refugees by mounting a blockade.
    (SFC, 9/14/01, p.A32)

2001        Sep 28, In Australia a leech dropped off Peter Cannon as he and an accomplice tied a woman (71) to a chair in her remote home in the Tasmanian woods and stole several hundred dollars in cash. Australian officials extracted blood from the leech. In 2009 DNA evidence led the police to Cannon, who admitted to robbing the elderly woman.
    (AP, 10/20/09)

2001        Oct 17, Peter Carey won his 2nd Booker Prize for his novel "True History of the Kelly Gang," a fictional account of the 19th century Australian outlaw.
    (SFC, 10/18/01, p.B3)

2001        Oct 19, A refugee ship, enroute from Indonesia to Australia, carrying some 353 emigrants from Iraq, Iran, Afghanistan, Palestine and Algeria, sank off the island of Java. 44 people survived.
    (SFC, 10/23/01, p.C1)(AP, 2/3/06)(Econ, 4/25/09, p.49)

2001        Oct, A plague of bush rats was reported to have destroyed half of Queensland’s surviving wheat crop, already decimated by drought. The rats were accompanied by an explosion in the population of feral cats.
    (SFC, 10/13/01, p.C10)

2001        Nov 10, In Australia conservative PM Howard faced Labor’s Kim Beazley in elections. Howard and his conservative government won a 3rd term. Howard’s Liberal Party won 68 seats of the 150 in the lower house. The coalition National Party won 12 seats. Labor won 67 and independents won 3.
    (WSJ, 11/9/01, p.A1)(SSFC, 11/11/01, p.A15)

2001        Dec 11, Australia reported that an Australian citizen, David Hicks (26), who had trained with the al Qaeda, had been captured in Afghanistan.
    (SFC, 12/12/01, p.A19)(SFC, 12/15/01, p.A16)

2001        Dec 28, Bush fires reached within 12 miles of Sydney. Some 150 home were already destroyed by over 100 fires across new South Wales. 80% of the Royal National Park had burned. A number of blazes were due to arson, and 3 teenagers and 2 men had been arrested.
    (SFC, 12/29/01, p.A3)

2002        Jan 2, Fires continued near Sydney and almost 160 houses were lost. 21 arson suspects had been arrested since the fires began Christmas eve. Arson bombs were found in Sydney’s northern suburbs.
    (SFC, 1/3/02, p.A4)

2002        Jan 3, Fires continued for the 11th straight day. At least 40 were fires were started by arsonists. Over 100 fires covered 1,250 square miles.
    (SFC, 1/4/02, p.A14)

2002        Jan 7, Rain began to fall over the charred 1.2 million acres west of Sydney.
    (SFC, 1/7/02, p.A5)

2002        Jan 24, Some 200 mainly Afghan asylum seekers continued their hunger strike for a 10th day in Woomera. Some had sewn their lips together. Australia resumed processing asylum applications following a mass suicide attempt.
    (SFC, 1/25/02, p.A15)(WSJ, 1/25/02, p.A1)

2002        Jan 30, Woomera asylum seekers said they would end their hunger strike and continue negotiations with the government. At Camp Curtin about 100 immigrants refused to eat for a 3rd day.
    (SFC, 1/31/02, p.A9)

2002        Mar 31, On Australia’s Norfolk Island Glenn McNeill (24) of New Zealand hit Janelle Patton (29) with his car and later stabbed her "just to make sure she was dead." McNeill was arrested in 2006 based on DNA evidence. Patton suffered 64 separate injuries including a fractured skull and numerous stab wounds in the attack In 2007 McNeill told police he had been smoking cannabis when he hit Patton. On Mar 9 a jury convicted McNeill of murder. On July 25 he was sentenced to 24 years in jail.
    (AP, 8/12/02)(Econ, 7/10/04, p.38)(Reuters, 3/9/07)(AFP, 7/25/07)

2002        Apr 10, In Australia Caroline Stuttle (19) was pushed to her death from a bridge in the north-eastern city of Bundaberg. In 2004 Douglas Previte (32), a drug-addicted drifter, was found guilty for the murder and robbery that netted him 73 pence ($1.80) in change.
    (AP, 10/15/04)

2002        Apr 14, Glenn Murcutt, Australian architect, was selected as the winner of the Pritzker Architectural Prize.
    (SFC, 4/16/02, p.D5)

2002        May 20, East Timor, with a population at about 800,000, celebrated independence. A legal battle loomed with Australia over the disputed Greater Sunrise natural gas field in the Timor Sea. The filed lay 95 miles south of East Timor and 250 miles north of Australia.
    (SFC, 5/20/02, p.A6)(WSJ, 5/20/02, p.A19)(WSJ, 6/10/04, p.A1)

2002        Jun 5, In Australia PM John Howard used World Environment Day to reject calls for his government to ratify the Kyoto Protocol on global warming.
    (AP, 6/6/02)

2002        Jun 17, Australian scientists said they had successfully "teleported" a laser beam encoded with data, breaking it up and reconstructing an exact replica a yard away.
    (AP, 6/17/02)

2002        Jun 19, American adventurer Steve Fossett launched his latest solo round-the-world balloon trip from Australia, his silver balloon rising over this western farming town after a long delay caused by surface winds.
    (AP, 6/19/02)

2002        Jun 22, An aboriginal artist, famed for his paintings of the Northern Territory’s Western Desert, died at age 70 in Alice Springs. His name was kept anonymous in respect of Aborigine belief that the dead not be identified.
    (SSFC, 6/23/02, p.A2)

2002        Jul 2, Steve Fossett became the 1st person to fly a balloon solo around the world. On his 6th attempt he completed the journey in 13 days, 12 hours, 16 minutes and 13 seconds. He departed from Australia Jun 19 and covered an estimated 19,428 miles.
    (SFC, 7/3/02, p.A3)

2002        Jul 3, Over Australia balloonist Steve Fossett was forced to spend an extra night in the air as the winds that helped him become the first person to fly solo around the world bedeviled the final stage of his voyage.
    (Reuters, 7/3/02)

2002        Jul 4, In Australia Steve Fossett launched Independence Day celebrations early when his Spirit of Freedom balloon ended its record-breaking flight around the world.
    (AP, 7/4/02)

2002        Jul 19, Evdokia Petrov (88), former Soviet Union spy, died in Melbourne. She lived under the name Maria Anna Allyson. Her husband Vladimir Petrov (1991) was the third secretary at the Soviet embassy in Australia and also covertly served as a KGB spy. They defected in 1954.
    (AP, 7/26/02)

2002        Jul 23, Leo McKern (82), Australian actor, died in Bath, England. He played the barrister in the TV show "Rumpole of the Bailey."
    (SFC, 7/24/02, p.A1)

2002        Jul 27, Nearly 60 false killer whales stranded on an Australian beach died or were euthanized after failed attempts to return them to the water.
    (AP, 7/27/02)

2002        Jul, Alexander Downer, Australia’s foreign minister, accused Saddam Hussein of developing weapons of mass destruction. Iraq soon after announced that it would cut its wheat purchases from Australia. Directors of AWB, Australia's wheat exporter, flew to Iraq and struck a new deal for wheat shipments.
    (Econ, 1/28/06, p.42)

2002        Aug 2, Australia and Malaysia signed a counter-terrorism pact which pledged them to work together to fight suspected Islamic militants in the region.
    (Reuters, 8/2/02)

2002        Aug 8, Australia's highest court ruled that Aborigines do not have rights to oil or minerals found under tribal land now being used by mining companies.
    (AP, 8/8/02)
2002        Aug 8, The Chinese government awarded an Australian consortium a 25-year natural gas supply contract in Australia's biggest-ever foreign trade deal.
    (AP, 8/8/02)

2002        Sep 27, In Australia a federal judge formally gave control of a remote chunk of the northwest slightly bigger than Greece to an Aboriginal tribe, marking the end of six years of negotiations.
    (AP, 9/27/02)

2002        Oct 12, In Indonesia a car bomb ripped through the Sari Club at the Kuta Beach resort packed with foreign tourists on the island of Bali, sparking a blaze that killed 202 people and injured 300 others. It was the worst terrorist act in Indonesia's history. Authorities said a second bomb exploded near the island's U.S. consular office. An estimated 100 victims were from Australia. Imam Samudra was later charged with engineering the blast. In 2004 Samudra (34) published a jailhouse autobiography “Me Against the Terrorist," in which he called for fellow Muslim radicals to take the holy war to cyberspace. In 2005 Sally Neighbour authored “In the Shadow of Swords: How Islamic Terrorists Declared War on Australia."
    (AP, 10/13/02)(SSFC, 10/12/02, p.A1)(SFC, 12/17/04, p.W1)(Econ, 12/17/05, p.83)

2002        Oct 21, In Australia Xiang Huan Yun (36) opened fire at Monash University in Melbourne in, killing two people and seriously wounding 5 others. Yun was soon charged with two counts of murder and five counts of attempted murder.
    (AP, 10/21/02)(AP, 10/22/02)

2002        Oct 24, In southern Australia a train and a school bus collided, killing six people.
    (AP, 10/24/02)

2002        Oct 25, Australia's prime minister promised to give the world's 50 poorest countries better access to his nation's markets and called on other rich nations to do the same.
    (AP, 10/26/02)

2002        Oct 27, The Australian government listed the militant Islamic network Jemaah Islamiyah as a terrorist group.
    (AP, 10/30/02)

2002        Nov 14, Australia added four more Islamic groups to its list of banned "terrorist" organizations and said that anyone linked to the groups and living in Australia would be targeted by police and security forces.
    (Reuters, 11/14/02)
2002        Nov 14, In Sydney, Australia, some 1,000 protesters demonstrated against globalization and a possible war with Iraq, and blocked downtown intersections in defiance of a ban on mass street gatherings imposed for a two-day mini-summit of the World Trade Organization.
    (AP, 11/13/02)

2002        Nov 21, In Australia speaker Jonathan Hunt ruled that "knitting is permitted in the house but is not permitted from the minister's chair." Retired lawmaker Marilyn Waring admitted to knitting 32 garments during 9 years in Parliament. She said in her autobiography it was the only productive thing she had accomplished in the debating chamber.
    (AP, 11/23/02)

2002        Dec 7, In Australia wildfires raging across Sydney's northern fringe blackened 250,000 acres.
    (AP, 12/7/02)

2002        Dec 12, Australia's highest court dismissed one of the nation's longest running tribal land claims. The Yorta Yorta tribe began the battle in 1994 for a special property right known as native title in 800 square miles of land around the Murray River in eastern Australia. The area is now occupied by farmers.
    (AP, 12/12/02)

2002        Dec 13, In Australia an attacker poured hydrochloric acid on the face and down the throat of Dominic Li, a Sydney suburban accountant. Li went into a coma and died three weeks later. In 2006 a man who helped arrange Li’s murder was sentenced to up to 18 years in jail.
    (Reuters, 2/17/06)

2002        Dec 16, It was reported that a severe drought ravaging most of Australia's rural sector will slash farm exports by 13 percent this fiscal year. Triggered by abnormal sea temperatures, El Nino was blamed for severe drought in Australia, which slashed crops and caused a liquidation of the nation's livestock. The drought continued thru 2005.
    (AP, 12/16/02)(AP, 5/24/05)

2002        Dec 20,  Grote Reber (90), a pioneer of radio astronomy died in Tasmania. He followed up Karl Jansky's 1933 announcement of the discovery of radio waves from space and in his spare time in 1937 built a 30-foot antenna dish, the 1st radio telescope, in his back yard in Wheaton, Ill., and managed to pick up signals two years later.
    (AP, 12/25/02)

2002        Dec 31, Australia's asylum seeker detention centers were in turmoil following an attempted mass breakout and riot in a Sydney centre, an armed stand off at another and fires burning in two.
    (Reuters, 12/31/02)

2002        The first Timor Sea Treaty was signed with Australia giving East Timor 90% of the revenue from a Joint Petroleum Development Area (JPDA).
    (Econ, 6/8/13, p.44)

2003        Jan 10, An Australian euthanasia campaigner complained that customs officials seized a machine he designed to help people kill themselves as he prepared to board a flight to the United States.
    (AP, 1/10/03)

2003        Jan 18, Heavy bush fires hit Canberra, Australia, killing 4 people. At least 388 homes were destroyed.
    (AP, 1/19/03)

2003        Jan 31, In Australia a commuter train derailed south of Sydney and 9 people were killed.
    (AP, 1/31/03)

2003        Feb 2, Australia's first cloned sheep, Matilda (b. Apr, 2000) died unexpectedly of unknown causes.
    (AP, 2/7/03)

2003        Feb 8, In Australia 750 nude women formed a heart around the words 'No War' near the town of Byron Bay to protest possible war with Iraq.
    (AP, 2/8/03)

2003      Feb 15, Tens of thousands of people gathered in downtown Sydney and around Australia to protest possible war with Iraq and their country’s involvement.
    (AP, 2/16/03)

2003      Feb 16, In Australia PM John Howard said he respects the views of hundreds of thousands of citizens who took part in peace protests over the weekend but would not be swayed by their opposition to war with Iraq.
    (AP, 2/17/03)

2003      Mar 11, A top Australian intelligence adviser resigned to protest the government’s hardline policy on Iraq. Andrew Wilkie, one of its senior intelligence analysts argued that, based on U.S. and other intelligence information he has seen, there is currently no justification for a war on Iraq.
    (IPS, 3/12/03)

2003        Mar 18,  In Australia PM John Howard said his government would commit 2,000 military personnel to any U.S.-led strike aimed at disarming Iraq.
    (AP, 3/19/03)

2003        Apr 17, Sir William Gunn (89), a sheep farmer who took over his family's flock as a teenager and rose to become one of the most powerful men in Australian agriculture, died.
    (AP, 4/18/03)

2003        Apr 20, An Australian navy vessel boarded a North Korean ship off Sydney and charged it with involvement in a $48 million heroin shipment to Victoria.
    (WSJ, 4/22/03, A1)

2003        May 1, The Australian stock market began trade in Australia's first-ever listed brothel, The Daily Planet. Shares began trading at 31 cents. Heidi Fleiss was on hand to promote the enterprise and her new book, "Pandering."
    (AP, 5/1/03)

2003        Jun 25, An Australian military spokesman said the army will kill as many as 15,000 kangaroos to keep a southeastern army base from being overgrazed.
    (AP, 6/25/03)

2003        Jul 2, The film "Ken Parks" by Larry Clark and Edward Lachman received an illegal public screening in Balmain, a suburb of Sydney, Australia. The film was about the dysfunctional lives of skateboarders in the suburbs of Visalia, Ca., and was banned due to its explicit sex and violence.
    (SFC, 7/7/03, p.D2)

2003        Jul 17, The leaders of an Australian Christian church voted to allow homosexuals to become priests, drawing protest from within the congregation.
    (AP, 7/17/03)

2003        Jul 23, In "Operation Helpem Fren" an Australian-led peacekeeping force poured into the Solomon Islands to keep the island chain from slipping deeper into anarchy.
    (AP, 7/24/03)(Econ, 8/9/03, p.34)

2003        Aug 1, Australia’s island state of Tasmania reported that a deadly facial cancer was killing Tasmanian devils, a carnivorous marsupial the size of a small dog.

2003        Aug 7, An Australian patrol boat spotted the Viarsa, a Spain-based fishing vessel, near Heard Island, half way between Australia and South Africa. The Viarsa with 96 tons of Chilean Sea Bass fled south and was chased for 3 weeks until cornered with help by ships from Britain and South Africa. In 2006 G. Bruce Knecht authored “Hooked: Pirates, Poaching and the Perfect Fish," an account of the chase and the Chilean Sea Bass.
    (WSJ, 5/4/06, p.B1)

2003        Aug 20, In Australia Pauline Hanson, the right-wing firebrand known for her anti-immigration rhetoric, was sentenced to three years in jail for fraudulently setting up her One Nation political party and illegally using electoral funds.
    (AP, 8/20/03)

2003        Sep 14, A Saudi importer of  some 58,000 Australian sheep was reported to be trying to give them away for free. The sheep had  been stranded for five weeks on the ship, the Cormo Express, due to a 6% infection rate for scabby mouth disease. Australia in 2002 had imposed tougher rules on ships exporting livestock to the Persian Gulf after it was revealed that 14,500 sheep had died from heat stress in one month. Some 5,700 sheep aboard the Cormo Express died before Eritrea accepted the animals.
    (AP, 9/14/03)(Econ, 12/2/06, p.88)

2003        Sep 19, Slim Dusty (76), Australian country music singer born as David Gordon Kirkpatrick, died while recording his 106th album. His career took off in 1958 with the song "A Pub With No Beer."
    (SFC, 9/20/03, p.A21)

2003        Oct 22, In southern Australia the fossil of a 2.56-inch fishlike animal from the Flinders Ranges was believed to be at least 560 million years old, 30 million years older than the previous record.
    (AP, 10/23/03)
2003        Oct 22, Christina Mae Watson (26) died as she and her new husband dove off the tropical coast of Queensland. In 2009 David Gabriel Watson, of Birmingham, Alabama, pleaded guilty to manslaughter. He was expected to serve just one year of the four-and-a-half-year sentence in the death of his wife of 11 days. Watson served an 18-month sentence in Australia and was deported to the US in 2010 where he faced 2 murder counts in Alabama. On Feb 23, 2012, Watson was acquitted of murder charges after a Birmingham judge ruled that prosecutors lacked sufficient evidence.
    (AP, 6/5/09)(SFC, 11/26/10, p.A7)(SFC, 2/24/12, p.A5)

2003        Oct 23, Pres. Bush, was heckled inside and outside Australia's Parliament. He said that the war in Iraq was right and inevitable, but that Americans and Australians "still have decisive days ahead" and that the broader war on terror could be long and drawn out.
    (AP, 10/23/03)

2003        Oct 24, Chinese President Hu Jintao became the first Asian leader to address Australia's parliament.
    (AP, 10/24/03)

2003        Oct 28, Australia and New Zealand said they will start withdrawing troops from the Solomon Islands, claiming success in a mission to restore law and order.
    (AP, 10/28/03)

2003        Nov 4, The Minasa Bone, an Indonesian fishing boat with 14 Kurds aboard, sought asylum on Melville Island, Australia. The government quickly moved to separate Melville Island from Australia for migratory purposes and forced the boat back to Indonesia.
    (Econ, 11/22/03, p.41)

2003        Dec 4, The Australian government said it will join a U.S. program to build a missile defense system, calling the threat of ballistic missiles too grave to ignore.
    (AP, 12/4/03)

2003        Dec 7, Daniel Morcombe (13) was last seen waiting for a bus in northern Queensland. In 2011 west coast truck driver Brett Peter Cowan (41) was charged with Morcombe's abduction, murder and interfering with his corpse. Police confirmed that three bones recently found at Beerburrum State Forest belonged to Morcombe.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Disappearance_of_Daniel_Morcombe)(AFP, 8/28/11)

2003        Dec, Australia launched an enhanced cooperation program for Papua New Guinea.
    (Econ, 5/7/05, Survey p.11)

2003        Russell Crowe learned to play a violin in a few months before he starred in the 19th century war drama "Master and Commander." In 2018 the 128-year-old violin, made by Leandro Bislach, sold for 135,000 Australian dollars ($104,000).
    (AP, 4/7/18)
2003        Mark Latham (42) became head of Australia’s Labor party.
    (Econ, 9/24/05, p.53)
2003        Jim Bacon, head of the Labor Party government of Tasmania, appointed Richard Butler, former UN arms inspector, as governor.
    (Econ, 1/17/04, p.37)
2003        Andrew Forrest, a former stockbroker, founded Fortescue to mine iron ore in the Pilbara region of Western Australia. The company’s first shipment to China went out in May, 2008.
    (Econ, 11/15/08, p.50)
2003        Australia’s 3 phone companies began blocking service to stolen phones. By 2011 thefts of stolen phones had dropped 25% even as the number of mobile phones increased from 15 million to 26 million.
    (SFC, 12/3/11, p.C2)
2003        In New South Wales, Australia, the lower reaches of the Great Anabranch of the Darling River ran dry following a 10-year drought.
    (Econ, 5/7/05, Survey p.15)

2004        Feb 1, The first passenger train to cross Australia from south to north set off on its three-day journey, marking a new era of rail travel through the vast Outback. Regular train service from Adelaide to Darwin would take 43 hours. Plans for the Transcontinental line had begun in 1911.
    (SSFC, 10/26/03, p.A1)(AP, 2/1/04)

2004        Feb 16, In Australia rioters set fire to a train station and pelted police with gasoline bombs in an Aboriginal ghetto in Sydney during a nine-hour street battle that began after a teenager died, allegedly while being chased by officer.
    (AP, 2/16/04)

2004        Mar 17, It was reported that locusts have swarmed through the Australian Outback, devastating crops just as farmers had begun recovering from a two-year drought.
    (AP, 3/17/04)

2004        Mar 20, Thousands of protesters marched in Australia to mark the first anniversary of the Iraq war. Protests extended across Asia with some 30,000 marching in Japan.
    (AP, 3/20/04)
2004        Mar 20, The Economist reported that a Goldman Sachs study found consumers in Australia and Spain to be the most vulnerable, of 19 countries, to higher interest rates or recession.
    (Econ, 3/20/04, p.85)

2004        Mar 24, Australia's parliament passed a law making the Great Barrier Reef the most protected reef system on earth. A fishing ban on a third of the World Heritage site would begin in July.
    (AP, 3/24/04)

2004        Apr, Australian police, trying to break a large drug syndicate, supplied information that led to the arrest of the nine Australians on Indonesian resort island of Bali. The nine were allegedly carrying 11.2 kilograms (24.7 pounds) of heroin at the time and faced the death penalty on drugs charges.
    (AP, 10/26/05)

2004        May 4, In Australia 800 delegates of the Country Women's Association of New South Wales voted to drop the singing of "God Save the Queen" altogether and only permit renditions of "Advance Australia Fair", the national anthem.
    (AFP, 5/4/04)

2004        May 14, In Copenhagen, Denmark, Australian Mary Donaldson married Danish Crown Prince Frederik, becoming Crown Princess Mary.
    (AP, 5/14/04)

2004        May 18, Australia and the US signed a bilateral free trade agreement.
    (WSJ, 5/19/04, p.A16)

2004        May 27, Australia's conservative government introduced legislation to ban same-sex marriages and wants immigration rules to stop gays and lesbians from adopting foreign children. The government has also announced that same-sex partners will be recognized for the first time by federal authorities as dependents.
    (AP, 5/27/04)
2004        May 27, In Australia British-born Jack Roche changed his plea from innocent to guilty, acknowledging his role in an al-Qaida plot to blow up the Israeli Embassy in Canberra. On June 1 Roche was sentenced to 9 years in prison.
    (AP, 5/28/04)(AP, 6/1/04)

2004        May 30, Australians have been warned they face an environmental crisis unless they stop squandering scarce water resources in the world's most arid inhabited continent.
    (AFP, 5/30/04)

2004        Jun 25, Australia's government decided to cover most of the outside of cigarette packages with graphic images showing the physical damage caused by smoking.
    (AFP, 6/25/04)
2004        Jun 25, The Council of Australian Governments (COAG) agreed to and signed the National Water Initiative (NWI) to improve water management across the country.

2004        Jul 4, Australia and Thailand signed a free-trade agreement that officials believe will boost the economies of both countries by billions of dollars over the next two decades.
    (AP, 7/5/04)

2004        Jul 24, An online statement by a group representing itself as al-Qaida's European branch threatened to turn Australia into "pools of blood" if it doesn't withdraw its troops from Iraq.
    (AP, 7/25/04)

2004        Jul 30, A new Austrian postage stamp featuring a likeness of California Gov. Arnold Schwarzenegger went on sale on his birthday.
    (AP, 7/30/04)

2004        Aug 5, David Hicks, Australian terror suspect held at the Guantanamo Bay base in Cuba, signed an affidavit stating: "Interrogators once offered me the services of a prostitute for 15 minutes if I would spy on other detainees." Hicks documented a number of physical abuses.
    (Reuters, 12/9/04)

2004        Aug 12, It was reported that a huge ant colony measuring 100 kilometers (62 miles) across had been found under the southern Australian city of Melbourne. The ants were a mutant variety of Argentine ants.
    (AP, 8/12/04)

2004        Aug 13, Australia's parliament approved a free trade pact with the United States.
    (AP, 8/13/04)

2004        Aug 25, David Hicks, an Australian cowboy who'd converted to Islam and allegedly fought for the Taliban in Afghanistan, pleaded innocent to war crimes charges before a U.S. military commission. He was detained by the U.S. Government in Guantanamo Bay until 2007 when he became the first to be tried and convicted under the U.S. Military Commissions Act of 2006. He was extradited to Australia to serve the remainder of his sentence. Hicks served his nine month term in Adelaide's Yatala Labor Prison and was released under control order on December 29, 2007.
    (AP, 8/25/05)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/David_Hicks)

2004        Aug 26, Australia announced a cruise missile program to give it the region's "most lethal" air combat capacity, a move that further strained awkward relations with Indonesia.
    (AP, 8/26/04)

2004        Sep 5, Australian Prime Minister John Howard defended his country's controversial refusal to ratify the Kyoto Protocol on greenhouse gases as he launched the 19th World Energy Congress in Sydney.
    (AP, 9/5/04)

2004        Sep 9, In Indonesia a car bomb exploded outside the gates of the Australian Embassy in Jakarta, killing eight people and wounding more than 160.
    (AP, 9/9/04)(Econ, 9/11/04, p.39)

2004        Oct 9, Prime Minister John Howard scored a convincing victory in Australia's federal election, winning a historic fourth term.
    (AP, 10/9/04)

2004        Oct 21, Australian police arrested 3 Chinese men in Sydney after they uncovered $74 million worth of crystal methamphetamine hidden in hollowed-out candles from China.
    (AP, 10/22/04)

2004        Oct, Congo’s government quelled an uprising near a mine owned by Australia’s Anvil Mining Ltd. The UN later accused Anvil of providing the government with vehicles and planes in the operation that killed scores of villagers. In 2007 a military court jailed two Congolese army officers for life for the 2004 massacre of civilians. The verdict cleared three Canadian mining company employees of complicity.
    (WSJ, 3/20/07, p.A13)(AFP, 6/29/07)

2004        Nov 13, Australian police arrested two men and seized three million ecstasy tablets that the pair is accused of importing from Poland hidden inside a bakery oven.
    (AP, 11/13/04)

2004        Nov 16, In northeast Australia a speeding high-speed passenger train derailed, injuring nearly all 163 people on board.
    (AP, 11/17/04)

2004        Nov 28, On southern Australia’s King Island about 80 whales and dolphins died after beaching, and about 50 more were still at risk.
    (AP, 11/29/04)

2004        Nov, Cameron Doomadgee died on Australia’s Palm Island soon after he was arrested by Senior Sergeant Chris Hurley for public drunkenness. A first autopsy put the cause of death down to a fall, leading to a riot that saw the island's police station, barracks and watchhouse destroyed. In 2007 officer Hurley was charged for Doomadgee’s death.
    (AFP, 1/26/07)

2004        Dec 24, The world's biggest earthquake in almost four years, measuring 8.1 on the Richter scale, struck off the coast of Australia's southern island state of Tasmania, but caused no damage or injury.
    (AP, 12/24/04)

2004        Australia prohibited the importation of asbestos.
    (AP, 8/15/12)
2004        Australia’s Macquarie Bank organized a deal to take over Chicago’s Skyway toll road under a 99-year lease for $1.8 billion.
    (WSJ, 12/6/05, p.A1)
2004        Australia’s housing market peaked after more than 2 years of 15% or greater annual growth.
    (WSJ, 7/14/05, p.A1)

2005        Jan 1, Australia was forecast for 3.4% annual GDP growth with a population at 20.3 million and GDP per head at $30,630.
    (Econ, 1/8/05, p.90)
2005        Jan 1,  Australia’s free trade agreement with the US became effective.
    (Econ, 5/7/05, Survey p.10)

2005        Jan 5, Australian PM John Howard pledged $765 million over five years to Indonesian tsunami reconstruction and development due to the Dec 26 disaster.
    (AP, 1/6/05)(Econ, 1/15/05, p.38)

2005        Jan 11, At least eight people were killed in a wildfire that raced through southern Australia’s Eyre Peninsula, forcing terrified residents to leap into the sea to avoid the flames.
    (AP, 1/11/05)

2005        Jan 12, Firefighters brought Australia's deadliest bushfires in 20 years under control after 9 people died in the blazes in the Eyre Peninsula.
    (AP, 1/12/05)

2005        Jan 16, Australian born and bred Charlie Bell (44), the first non-American to head the McDonald's chain of 30,000 burger restaurants in 119 countries, died in Sydney from cancer.
    (AP, 1/17/05)

2005        Jan, Mark Latham, head of Australia’s Labor Party, resigned.

2005        Feb 7, Australia's central bank warned that interest rates, stable at 5.25 percent since December 2003, may be raised within months amid signs of renewed inflationary pressures.
    (AP, 2/7/05)

2005        Feb 21, In Sierra Leone an Australian investigator for a U.N.-backed war-crimes tribunal was convicted of sexually assaulting a 13-year-old girl who sought a job as a nanny in his household.
    (AP, 2/21/05)

2005        Feb 22, PM John Howard said Australia will send an extra 450 troops to Iraq to help protect a Japanese humanitarian mission and bolster the country's transition to democracy.
    (AP, 2/22/05)

2005        Feb 24, Australian PM John Howard dismissed as "alarmist" a warning by his government's chief economic adviser that the US was heading for a financial crash that could ravage the global economy.
    (AP, 2/25/05)

2005        Mar 2, Australia’s central bank raised interest rates to 5.5% from 5.25%. The 2004 annual growth rate was reported to be 1.5%.
    (WSJ, 3/3/05, p.A11)

2005        Mar 16, Tropical Cyclone Ingrid flattened Faraway Resort, a tourist resort built to showcase the beauty of northern Australia.
    (AP, 3/16/05)

2005        Mar, Australia’s current account deficit hit 7.1% of GDP.
    (Econ, 5/7/05, Survey p.4)
2005        Mar, Mining giant BHP-Billiton paid $7 billion to acquire WMC Resources of Australia. WMC owned the Olympic Dam copper an d gold mine, which also contained the world’s largest uranium deposit.
    (Econ, 8/21/10, p.56)

2005        Apr 1, Australia and NATO signed an agreement to cooperate in the fight against international terrorism, weapons proliferation and other global military threats.
    (AP, 4/1/05)

2005        Apr 2, An Australian navy helicopter crashed on the earthquake-devastated Indonesian island of Nias. Media reported that nine people were killed and two were rescued.
    (AP, 4/2/05)

2005        Apr 4, The leaders of Australia and Indonesia signed a partnership agreement that they said would lead to new security pact between their countries.
    (AP, 4/4/05)

2005        Apr 7, Australia’s PM John Howard and Malaysia’s Abdullah Ahmad Badawi announced plans to negotiate a free trade agreement but refused to concede ground on key differences regarding Canberra's role in the region.
    (AP, 4/7/05)

2005        Apr 8, The Wiggles, 4 Australian performers, topped BRW Magazine's list of Australia's 50 richest performers in 2004 with an estimated gross income of $34.5 million, up from $10.7 million in the previous year.
    (AP, 4/8/05)

2005        Apr 13, Australia’s Mining giant BHP Billiton said it had won a 71.5% rise in iron ore prices with a number of its steel customers.
    (AP, 4/13/05)

2005        Apr 14, Amanda Vanstone, Australia’s immigration minister, said Australia would take in 140,000 immigrants in 2005-06, the biggest number for 35 years.
    (Econ, 4/30/05, p.40)
2005        Apr 14, Australian authorities seized some 5 million ecstasy tablets and arrested 4 men in what they said was the biggest ever haul of the party drug anywhere in the world.
    (AFP, 4/15/05)

2005        Apr 17, In Indonesia authorities arrested 9 young Australians, the Bali Nine, for trying to smuggle 8.3 kg of heroin to Australia. In Feb, 2006, 2 of the 9 were sentenced to death and the rest to life in prison. An appeal by 4 sentenced to prison led to a change in their sentences to death. In 2008 three of the convicted Australians had their death sentences reduced to life imprisonment. In 2011 Australian drug smuggler Scott Rush (24) won an appeal reducing his death sentence to life imprisonment.
    (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bali_Nine)(Econ, 9/16/06, p.52)(AFP, 3/6/08)(AP, 5/10/11)

2005        Apr 18, Australia and China agreed to start talks on a free trade pact. Visiting PM John Howard also announcing Canberra's recognition of China as free market economy.
    (AP, 4/18/05)

2005        Apr 21, Police in Melbourne seized 18 million dollars (14 million US) worth of the party drug ecstasy a week after announcing a world-record haul of the substance.
    (AFP, 4/22/05)

2005        Apr 26, In Australia, a state official said thousands of wild camels will be shot in the Outback from helicopters in an effort to reduce their numbers.
    (AP, 4/26/05)

2005        Apr, Australia’s unemployment rate fell to 5.1%.
    (Econ, 5/7/05, Survey p.5)

2005        May 7, In northeastern Australia a commuter airplane carrying 15 people slammed into a hillside and everyone on board was feared killed.
    (AP, 5/7/05)

2005        May 10, Peter Costello, Australia’s finance minister, proposed his 10th budget that included income tax cuts worth almost $17 billion.
    (Econ, 5/14/05, p.44)

2005        May 12, Australian police arrested five men after seizing more than 115 kgs (253 pounds) of heroin, with a street value of more than A$60 million (US$46 million), hidden in containers of plastic chairs from China.
    (AP, 5/13/05)

2005        May 13, East Timor finished talks in Sydney, Australia, that managed to overcome 2 main sticking points on their maritime border and revenue from the Greater Sunrise gasfield. They agreed to defer the boundary issue for 50 years along with a 50% revenue split.
    (Econ, 5/21/05, p.46)

2005        May 20, Australia stepped up diplomatic efforts to stop Japan from increasing its whale hunt, saying up to 35 countries were opposed to the plan.
    (Reuters, 5/20/05)

2005        May 26, It was reported that Jayant "Jay" Patel (56), an America surgeon born and trained in India and linked to the deaths of at least 87 patients in Australia over two years (2003-2005, had been given glowing references by six colleagues in the United States despite having been cited for negligence there earlier. In 2006 a court issued warrants for Patel’s arrest on three charges of manslaughter and five charges of causing grievous bodily harm to patients at Bundaberg Base Hospital in Queensland. Patel was hired at Bundaberg without disclosing that he had been disciplined for negligence by medical boards in Oregon and New York. In 2008 Patel was arrested by FBI agents in Oregon.
    (AP, 5/26/05)(AP, 11/22/06)(AFP, 3/12/08)

2005        May 27, Schapelle Corby (27), an Australian woman, was convicted and sentenced to 20 years in prison for smuggling nine pounds of marijuana onto Indonesia's Bali island. In 2012 the justice ministry recommended granting clemency Corby. Lawyers argued she had gone insane after being jailed in Bali’s Kerobokan prison. Her sentenced was reduced by 5 years. Corby was released on Feb 10, 2014.
    (AP, 5/27/05)(AFP, 4/4/12)(AFP, 5/21/12)(AP, 2/10/14)

2005        Jun 2, Australia led 15 countries including Britain, France and Germany in a protest on against Japan's plans to expand its annual whale hunt.
    (AP, 6/2/05)
2005        Jun 2, On Australia's southwest coast up to 160 whales became stranded on 2 beaches after 2 pods beached themselves.
    (AP, 6/2/05)

2005        Jun 4, Australian officials said a senior Chinese diplomat has sought Australian government protection for himself and his family, claiming he faces persecution if he goes home. Analysts said Chen Yonglin's defection could muddy Canberra's relations with Beijing.
    (AP, 6/4/05)

2005        Jun 6, It was reported that the rate of rural suicide in Australia is among the highest in the world as farmers battle the stress of years of drought, failed crops, mounting debt and slowly decaying towns.
    (Reuters, 6/6/05)

2005        Jun 7, In Australia 2 Chinese defectors, one of them a diplomat who walked away from his post, claim that China is running a spy network in Australia and other Western countries.
    (AP, 6/8/05)

2005        Jun 11, Australian farmers danced in the rain as downpours delivered the first soaking falls in over four years to large parts of drought-ridden eastern Australia.
    (AP, 6/11/05)

2005        Jun 13, Australia and Pakistan signed a new counter-terrorism pact during a visit by Pakistani President Pervez Musharraf.
    (AP, 6/13/05)
2005        Jun 13, Australia handed East Timor the base at Moleana, a tiny town near the border with Indonesia, signaling the end of a six-year mission that heralded a controversial new era of regional intervention in East Timor.
    (AP, 6/12/05)

2005        Jun 15, Iraqi troops, backed by US forces, freed an Australian hostage after six weeks in captivity. The release came as a suicide bomber dressed in an Iraqi army uniform blew himself up in a mess hall north of Baghdad, killing at least 25 Iraqi soldiers and injuring 27. A suicide car bomber slammed into 3 police cars on patrol in eastern Baghdad, killing 8 officers.
    (AP, 6/15/05)

2005        Jun 16, Australian scientists said they have found a way to make blood cells in volume out of human master cells, which could eventually lead to production of safe blood cells for transfusions and organ transplants.
    (Reuters, 6/16/05)

2005        Jun 17, Australia pledged to ease a controversial policy of locking up refugees.
    (AFP, 6/18/05)

2005        Jun 18, In Australia more than a dozen Chinese nationals detained for immigration violations slashed their wrists and body parts in attempted suicide fearing they will be deported.
    (AFP, 6/18/05)

2005        Jun 21, In Australia PM John Howard introduced new legislation on the detention of illegal immigrants.
    (Econ, 6/25/05, p.42)

2005        Jun 23, Australia's Deputy Prime Minister John Anderson resigned because of health concerns.
    (AP, 6/23/05)

2005        Jun 30, In Australia a clinical audit of cases handled by surgeon Dr. Jayant Patel nicknamed "Dr. Death" by his former colleagues, has found he contributed to eight patient deaths during his two years at a Queensland hospital, far fewer than earlier reported.
    (AP, 6/30/05)
2005        Jun 30, Storms lashed Australia's east coast in a violent end to one of the country's worst droughts on record.
    (AP, 6/30/05)

2005        Jul 3, One of Australia's 12 Apostles has disappeared. One of nine limestone stacks that made up the famous landmark off Australia's southern coast collapsed into the Indian Ocean.
    (AP, 7/4/05)

2005        Jul 8, Australia granted fugitive former Chinese diplomat Chen Yonglin a permanent visa allowing him to stay in the country indefinitely.
    (AFP, 7/8/05)

2005        Jul 16, In Australia Sir Ronald Wilson (82), a former World War II fighter pilot who became a respected Australian judge and headed a national inquiry into the "stolen generations" of Aboriginal children, died.
    (AP, 7/17/05)

2005        Jul 21, In Indonesia the first suspect to face charges in the 2004 bombing of the Australian Embassy was sentenced to 3 ½ years in prison for assisting the attack's perpetrators, but was cleared of more serious charges.
    (AP, 7/21/05)

2005        Jul 26, A government-commissioned study said Australia will become warmer and drier with average national temperatures rising as much as two degrees Celsius and rainfall decreasing significantly by 2030.
    (AFP, 7/26/05)

2005        Jul 27, Environment Minister Ian Campbell said Australia and the US have been secretly negotiating a new international pact on greenhouse gas emissions to replace the Kyoto Protocol, which they refused to sign.
    (AP, 7/27/05)
2005        Jul 27, In Australia Bob Carr (57), premier of New South Wales, resigned. He was replaced by Morris Lemma.
    (Econ, 8/6/05, p.34)

2005        Jul 29, The ASEAN summit concluded in Vientiane, Laos. Australia agreed to sign a non-aggression pact with the group in exchange for an invitation to another summit, where ASEAN hopes to start work on an East Asian free-trade area.
    (Econ, 7/30/05, p.39)

2005        Jul 31, The HMAS Brisbane, a decommissioned U.S.-built Australian naval destroyer (1966-2001), was scuttled with explosives off the coast of Queensland. The vessel sank evenly to its resting point about 115 feet beneath the surface to become an artificial reef and a major diving attraction.
    (AP, 7/31/05)

2005        Aug 9, Australia’s Foreign Minister Alexander Downer said Australia and China are negotiating an agreement to allow Australia to export uranium to China for peaceful purposes.
    (AP, 8/9/05)

2005        Aug 16, It was reported that scientists in Australia's tropical north are collecting blood from crocodiles in the hope of developing a powerful antimicrobial drugs for humans, after tests showed that the reptile's immune system kills HIV.
    (Reuters, 8/16/05)

2005        Aug 17, Australian scientists said that cyclone Ingrid, which lashed northeastern Australia in March, inflicted damage on 10 per cent of the Great Barrier Reef.
    (AP, 8/17/05)

2005        Aug 23, Australians who take drugs into Asia are stupid and should not expect to be bailed out by the Australian government, PM John Howard said after another two Australians were detained in Indonesia over drugs.
    (Reuters, 8/23/05)
2005        Aug 23, Australia’s government and moderate Muslim leaders pledged to join forces in the fight against terrorism and blend Australian values with Islamic teachings at mosques and schools.
    (AP, 8/23/05)

2005        Aug 30, In Australia protesters demanding an end to the Iraq war and a cut in Third World debt broke through a steel fence around the Sydney Opera House at the start of the Forbes Global CEO Conference.
    (AP, 8/30/05)
2005        Aug 30, Australia and New Zealand lobbied the United Nations Security Council to indict Zimbabwean President Robert Mugabe and his government in the International Criminal Court for crimes against humanity.
    (AP, 8/30/05)

2005        Sep 6, Australia staged a high seas arrest of a Cambodian-flagged ship with an international crew suspected of fishing illegally in sub-Antarctic waters.
    (AFP, 9/10/05)
2005        Sep 6, In Australia Donna Fitchett (46) murdered her 2 sons aged 9 & 11. She was first convicted in 2008 and sentenced to 24 years prison. She appealed her conviction and was granted a retrial in May, 2010. A jury again found her guilty after she admitted drugging her sons and then strangling one and smothering the other. On Sep 1, 2010, she was sentenced her to 27 years in prison.
    (AP, 9/1/10)

2005        Sep 14, In Australia the CSIRO (Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organization) Total Wellbeing Diet book was reported to have already sold 370,000 copies. Publishers targeted sales of one million to the country of just 20 million people.
    (AP, 9/14/05)

2005        Sep 19, Mark Latham, former head of Australia’s Labor Party, published “The Latham Diaries," the story of the Labor Party from 1996-2005, and a sobering account of the state of Australian democracy 100 years after Federation.

2005        Sep 25, In Australia 20 high-tech solar-powered cars from 10 countries set off on a 3,000 kilometer (1,860 mile) race across the vast outback in the 8th World Solar Challenge. The Nuna team of the Delft University of Technology from the Netherlands scored a hat-trick with their third victory in a row; their Nuna 3 won with a record average speed of 103 km/h.
    (AP, 9/25/05)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/World_Solar_Challenge)

2005        Sep 27, Australian PM John Howard won unanimous support from state premiers for tough new counter-terrorism laws, including detention without charge and electronic tagging of suspects.
    (AP, 9/27/05)

2005        Sep 28, In Australia a team from Holland, known more for its windmills than its sunshine, won a four-day, 1,860 mile, international solar-powered car race across deserts, notching up their third straight victory. The "Challenge," to design and build a car capable of crossing Australia on the power of daylight, was launched in 1987 and teams and individuals from corporations and universities throughout the world take part.
    (AP, 9/29/05)

2005        Sep 29, Officials announced that Rupert Murdoch's Asian broadcast business is buying a 20 percent stake in the Indonesian television network ANTV.
    (AP, 9/30/05)

2005        Oct 3, Australians Barry J. Marshall and Robin Warren won the 2005 Nobel Prize in medicine for showing that bacterial infection, not stress, was to blame for painful ulcers in the stomach and intestine.
    (AP, 10/3/05)

2005        Oct 10, Japan's space agency conducted a test flight of a supersonic jet prototype in the Australian Outback.
    (AP, 10/10/05)

2005        Oct 25-2005 Oct 26, Over 130 whales died in a mass stranding on a remote beach in Australia’s southern island state of Tasmania.
    (AP, 10/25/05)

2005        Oct, Australia’s government announced a deal with the Labor government of the Northern Territories to shake up communal management of aboriginal land by introducing market-driven incentives.
    (Econ, 11/19/05, p.46)

2005        Nov 8, Police in Australia arrested 17 suspects in a string of raids and said they had foiled a major terror attack. Algerian-born Abdul Nacer Benbrika, a prominent radical Muslim cleric, was among those arrested after the government strengthened laws to detain those in the early stages of planning terror acts following the London transport bombings in July.
    (AP, 11/7/05)(AP, 10/25/10)

2005        Nov 15, Hundreds of thousands of workers staged what unionists called the biggest protest in Australia's history against PM John Howard's proposed labor reforms.
    (AP, 11/15/05)

2005        Nov 17, Australian researchers confirmed they have scrapped 10 years of research into genetically modified peas because the altered version caused lung inflammation in mice.
    (AFP, 11/18/05)
2005        Nov 17, It was reported that Syria had detained 4 Australian-Iraqi women at the Damascus airport for allegedly trying to take gun parts hidden in a child's toy onto a plane bound for Australia.
    (AFP, 11/17/05)

2005        Nov 23, Australia's PM John Howard visited Pakistan's devastated earthquake zone and announced a further 37 million dollars in aid for victims of the disaster.
    (AP, 11/23/05)

2005        Dec 1, Reserve Bank of Australia (RBA) board member Robert Gerard announced his resignation, a week after revelations about his disputes with the tax office.
    (AFP, 12/01/05
2005        Dec 1, Australia and East Timor finalized a revenue-sharing pact covering the $5 billion Sunrise natural-gas project.
    (WSJ, 12/2/05, p.A8)

2005        Dec 2, Singapore executed 25-year-old Australian Nguyen Tuong Van for drug trafficking, after he had a "beautiful last visit" with his family. Australia's leader protested the sentence, saying it would damage ties.
    (AP, 12/02/05)
2005        Dec 2, Peter Menegazzo, one of Australia's main cattle barons, was among four people killed in a light plane crash in the Outback.
    (AP, 12/03/05)

2005        Dec 7, Australia’s Treasurer Peter Costello unveiled details of the nation’s Future Fund with seed capital of $13.56 billion to cover public service pension liabilities.
    (WSJ, 12/8/05, p.A14)

2005        Dec 8, In the first visit to Australia by a Turkish leader, PM Recep Tayyip Erdogan criticized military solutions to the so-called "war on terror", saying the US-led invasion of Iraq had transformed the country into a training ground for extremists.
    (AFP, 12/08/05)

2005        Dec 11, In Australia racial tension erupted into violence on a Sydney beach when around 5,000 people, some yelling racist chants, attacked youths of a Middle Eastern background. White youths were angered by reports that youths of Lebanese descent had assaulted two lifeguards. Young men of Arab descent retaliated in several Sydney suburbs, fighting with police and smashing cars.
    (AP, 12/11/05)(AP, 12/11/06)

2005        Dec 12, Young people riding in vehicles smashed cars and store windows in suburban Sydney, a day after thousands of drunken white youths attacked people they believed were of Arab descent at a beach in the same area in one of Australia's worst outbursts of racial violence. About 50 cars had swept into the area, disgorging men of Middle Eastern appearance who began trashing every car in sight with baseball bats.
    (AFP, 12/12/05)

2005        Dec 13, In Australia a jury convicted Bradley John Murdoch (47), a mechanic, in the July 14, 2001, Outback death of British backpacker Peter Falconio (28). He also was convicted of assaulting and abducting Falconio's girlfriend, Joanne Lees. Murdoch was given a mandatory life sentence by Northern Territory Supreme Court Justice Brian Martin.
    (AP, 12/13/05)

2005        Dec 15, An emergency sitting of Australia’s parliament passed special laws allowing Sydney police to "lockdown" parts of Sidney to stop racial unrest. The New South Wales (NSW) state parliament also increased the penalty for rioting from 10 to 15 years and doubled the sentence for affray to 10 years.
    (Reuters, 12/15/05)
2005        Dec 15, Australia announced a major program to expand and upgrade its military forces to cope with increasing commitments at home and abroad.
    (AP, 12/15/05)

2005        Dec 20, One in three Australians believe too many immigrants are allowed into the country and 16 percent oppose multiculturalism, according to a survey after the country's worst racial violence in decades.
    (AFP, 12/20/05)
2005        Dec 20, Rebekah Lawrence (34) committed suicide in Sydney. In 2009 a coroner said that participation in an intense self-help course led a woman to suffer a psychotic breakdown before she stripped naked and leaped to her death from an office window in front of horrified co-workers. Her death came two days after she completed The Turning Point, a four-day seminar run by the Sydney self-development company People Knowhow.
    (AP, 12/8/09)

2005        Dec 26, Kerry Packer (68), Australian media mogul, died in his Sydney home. He built his empire on the Nine Network television station and the Australian Consolidated Press magazine publishing business but in recent years had concentrated his efforts more in the gaming industry.
    (SFC, 12/27/05, p.B4)(Econ, 1/7/06, p.77)

2005        Dec 28, Australian investment bank Macquarie Bank Ltd. said it had bought an 81 percent interest in two Canadian healthcare projects, nine months after acquiring a Canadian aged care housing provider.
    (Reuters, 12/28/05)

2005        Dec 30, Across southeast Australia firefighters battled to contain scores of wildfires in scorching, tinder-dry conditions and were bracing for more blazes in the days ahead.
    (AP, 12/30/05)

2005        Craig Thomson, Australia’s national secretary of the Health Services Union, allegedly made a payment of A$2,475 ($2,595) to a Sydney brothel on his union credit card. Thomson, who was elected to government in 2007. The HSU first became aware of questionable financial transactions in May of 2008 as a result of an exit audit following Craig Thomson's departure as national secretary. In 2011 the lawmaker's former union asked police to investigate his union credit card bills.
    (Reuters, 8/24/11)

2006        Jan 1, Raging bushfires have destroyed at least 10 homes and threatened scores more in southeast Australia as a scorching heat wave hit Sydney with its hottest New Year's Day on record.
    (AFP, 1/1/06)

2006        Jan 2, In eastern Australia 5 people were killed when a plane carrying a group of skydivers plunged into a dam near Brisbane.
    (AP, 1/2/06)

2006        Jan 7, In eastern Australia a 21-year-old woman died after a shark attack near North Stradbroke Island. A camper on a nearby beach said the woman had been scuba diving in waist-deep water at the time of the attack.
    (AP, 1/7/06)

2006        Jan 10, Australia said it will send an extra 110 troops to Afghanistan to bolster the fight against Islamist militants, increasing its presence in the country to about 300.
    (AP, 1/10/06)

2006        Jan 11, The Asia Pacific Partnership on Clean Development and Climate opened in Sidney. It brought together senior ministers from the US, Australia, Japan, China, South Korea and India, along with executives from energy and resource firms. The US and Australia insisted at the opening of a two-day climate change conference that industry leaders can be relied upon to voluntarily slash emissions blamed for heating the earth's atmosphere.
    (AP, 1/11/06)
2006        Jan 11, In Egypt a tour bus carrying Australian tourists overturned on a wet highway, killing six people and injuring at least 24.
    (AP, 1/11/06)

2006        Jan 12, Australia and East Timor agreed to equally share revenue from the Greater Sunrise natural gas project in the Timor Sea.
    (WSJ, 1/13/06, p.A8)

2006        Jan 16, A lawyer told a government inquiry that Australia's wheat exporter, AWB Ltd., knowingly provided hundreds of millions of dollars in kickbacks to Saddam Hussein's regime and deceived the United Nations about the payments under the oil-for-food program.
    (AP, 1/16/06)

2006        Jan 19, Dragan Vasiljkovic, a Serbian-Australian man accused of ordering the torture of Croats during the bloody breakup of the former Yugoslavia, was arrested in Sydney. Authorities said Vasiljkovic trained and commanded a unit of the Croatian Serb special forces known as the "Kninjas." At the time, the rebels were engaged in a major campaign of ethnic cleansing, forcing tens of thousands of local Croats to flee their homes.
    (Reuters, 1/20/06)

2006        Jan 23, In Australia commercial fishing was banned in Sydney's harbor due to dangerous levels of poisonous dioxin being found in prawns and fish. Prawn fishing had already been banned a month earlier. Greenpeace said some of the pollution originated in Homebush Bay on the Parramatta River, some 12 kilometers (7.5 miles) from Sydney Harbor Bridge. From 1957 to 1976 Union Carbide made chlorinated herbicides there, including 2,4,5,-T a component of the infamous Agent Orange used during the Vietnam War.
    (AP, 1/24/06)
2006        Jan 23, Wildfires raged across southern Australia. A firefighter was killed as a fire truck overturned speeding to a blaze. Distraught ranchers shot cattle injured by the flames.
    (AP, 1/23/06)

2006        Jan 25, In Australia emergency crews rushed to clean up 10,000 liters of fuel oil that fouled mangroves off Gladstone City near the Great Barrier Reef after two vessels collided.
    (AP, 1/25/06)

2006        Jan 28, Warren Mundine, previously an advisor on Aboriginal issues to the conservative government of PM John Howard, took over the role of Australian Labor Party president. The first Aborigine to be elected president of an Australian political party, Mundine said that he wanted to enter parliament after his term finishes.
    (AFP, 1/28/06)
2006        Jan 28, A 20-million US dollar FA-18 Hornet strike fighter jet was lost when it crashed during a training exercise off the Queensland coast.
    (AFP, 1/30/06)

2006        Jan 30, Australian Gas Light Company (AGL) announced that it would build the country's largest wind farm as part of efforts to meet its legal obligation to invest in renewable energy. The 95 megawatt facility would cost 236 million dollars (177 million US dollars) and use 45 wind turbines over an area of 14 square kilometers (5.6 square miles) near the town of Hallett in South Australia.
    (AFP, 1/30/06)

2006        Feb 6, In eastern Australia police investigating the deaths of 13 hospital patients recommended charging Dr. Jayant Patel, an Indian-born American surgeon, with four counts of manslaughter and six counts of grievous bodily harm.  On June 29, 2010, Patel (60) was found guilty of killing three of his patients and grievously harming another.
    (AP, 2/6/06)(AP, 6/29/10)
2006        Feb 6, Australian police arrested three men over a shipment of almost 46 kilograms (101 pounds) of crystal methamphetamine hidden in a speedboat imported from Canada.
    (AFP, 2/7/06)

2006        Feb 7, Mario Condello (53), an Australian underworld figure due to face court on incitement to murder charges, was shot dead in his driveway overnight, bringing the toll in a gangland war to 28. Melbourne's gang war began in 1998 when self-styled "Godfather" Alphonse Gangitano, 40, was shot dead in his laundry.
    (Reuters, 2/7/06)

2006        Feb 8, Australia and New Zealand vowed to work to build a single economic market on the back of strengthening trade ties, but stopped short of endorsing a single currency.
    (AP, 2/8/06)

2006        Feb 9, Australian senators voted to remove an effective ban on abortion drug RU-486.
    (AP, 2/9/06)
2006        Feb 9, An Australian inquiry into alleged kickbacks paid to Iraq under the UN oil-for-food program claimed its first scalp with the resignation of Andrew Lindberg, the chief executive of wheat exporter AWB.
    (AFP, 2/9/06)

2006        Feb 13, In Indonesia 2 Australians were sentenced to death for trying to smuggle 18.3 pounds of heroin in 2005 from the Indonesian resort island of Bali to their homeland. In February, 2015, Myuran Sukumaran (33) and Andrew Chan (31) faced immediate execution.
    (AP, 2/14/06)(SFC, 2/15/15, p.A6)(SSFC, 2/15/15, p.A6)

2006        Feb 15, An Australian television network broadcast photographs and video clips that it said were previously unpublished images of the abuse of Iraqis held in US military custody at Abu Ghraib prison in 2003. Many of the images broadcast were more graphic than those previously published, showing what appear to be dead bodies, as well as wounded people and prisoners performing sex acts.
    (AP, 2/15/06)

2006        Feb 16, Australia's parliament stripped regulatory control of an abortion drug from the country's health minister, a staunch Roman Catholic who once warned of an "epidemic" of abortion in Australia.
    (AP, 2/16/06)

2006        Feb 22, Former US President Bill Clinton and Australia announced plans to combat AIDS in China, Vietnam and Papua New Guinea, warning that 40 percent of all new infections could be in the Asia-Pacific region by 2010.
    (AP, 2/22/06)

2006        Feb 26, In Australia Joseph Terrence Thomas (32), a former taxi driver known as "Jihad Jack" and alleged by prosecutors to be an agent for Osama bin Laden's Al-Qaeda network, was convicted of receiving funds from the group but acquitted on more serious terrorism charges.
    (AFP, 2/26/06)

2006        Feb, China detained an Australian and later convicted under China's state security laws. James Sun, a former Chinese air force employee, was helping to recruit foreign students to Australia when he was seized by security police and detained as he headed to dinner. Sun was accused of "seducing" a former air force colleague into copying more than 1,000 top-secret and classified documents, and of passing them to the Taiwanese. He was found guilty in late 2007 and sentenced to life in prison. In 2011 the foreign ministry in Canberra confirmed the story.
    (AFP, 2/1/11)

2006        Mar 2, Vietnam announced it has commuted the death sentence of Nguyen Van Chinh (45), a convicted Australian drug trafficker, to life imprisonment after heavy lobbying by the Australian government.
    (AP, 3/2/06)

2006        Mar 6, PM John Howard in New Delhi said Australia will consider selling uranium to India if it is convinced about New Delhi's commitment to follow global nuclear safeguards for its civilian atomic reactors.
    (AP, 3/6/06)

2006        Mar 12, Queen Elizabeth II arrived in Australia for a five-day state visit that has reignited the simmering debate over whether she should remain the country's head of state.
    (AP, 3/12/06)

2006        Mar 15, Britain's Queen Elizabeth II was greeted with protests, as well as pomp, when she arrived in the southern Australian city Melbourne to open the Commonwealth Games.
    (AP, 3/15/06)

2006        Mar 18, Anti-war protesters marched in Australia, Asia, Turkey and Europe in demonstrations that marked the third anniversary of the US-led invasion of Iraq with a demand that coalition troops pull out.
    (AP, 3/18/06)

2006        Mar 19, Australian Prime Minister John Howard's Liberal Party was defeated at the weekend in two state elections where Labor governments held on to power.
    (AP, 3/19/06)

2006        Mar 20, The most powerful storm to hit Australia in three decades laid waste to its northeastern coast, mowing down sugar and banana plantations with 180 mph winds but causing no deaths or serious injuries.
    (AP, 3/20/06)

2006        Mar 21, Troops began delivering aid to an estimated 7,000 people who lost their homes to the cyclone that battered Australia's northeastern coast.
    (AP, 3/21/06)

2006        Mar 23, The Australian air force sank a North Korean cargo ship for target practice. It had been seized in 2003 after being used to smuggle heroin into Australia.
    (AP, 3/23/06)

2006        Mar 24, Indonesia recalled its ambassador in Australia in response to the granting of temporary asylum to 42 of 43 Papuans who landed in northern Australia by boat in January. The asylum request from the 43rd Papuan is still being considered.
    (AFP, 3/26/06)

2006        Mar 25, Researchers said a prototype scramjet engine, that could ultimately lead to two-hour jet flights from Australia to Britain, was launched in the South Australian outback.
    (AFP, 3/25/06)

2006        Mar 30, Researchers in Australia's Outback launched a test flight of a supersonic jet designed to fly 10 times faster than conventional airplanes.
    (AP, 3/30/06)
2006        Mar 30, Australia's remote northwest shore was lashed by 80 mph winds as Cyclone Glenda made landfall. There were no immediate reports of substantial damage.
    (AP, 3/30/06)

2006        Mar 31, Australian police arrested and charged three men with alleged links with a terrorist organization after counter-terrorism teams swooped on Melbourne's northern suburbs.
    (Reuters, 3/31/06)

2006        Apr 1, Chinese Premier Wen Jiabao arrived in Australia for a visit aimed at finalizing a uranium supply deal and speeding up free trade negotiations between the two nations.
    (AFP, 4/1/06)

2006        Apr 3, Australia agreed to sell China uranium for nuclear power stations despite concerns that Beijing could divert the material to atomic weapons.
    (AP, 4/3/06)

2006        Apr 7, Australian PM John Howard moved to ease Indonesian outrage over a decision to grant visas to asylum-seekers from Papua, saying his government would review the process.
    (AP, 4/7/06)

2006        Apr 10, Mark Vaile, Australia's trade minister, said he did not read a string of diplomatic cables warning that the country's monopoly wheat exporter allegedly was paying multimillion-dollar kickbacks to Saddam Hussein's regime.
    (AP, 4/10/06)
2006        Apr 10, Australian scientists reported the discovery of an "anti-freeze gene" that allows Antarctic grass to survive at minus 30°C, saying it could prevent multi-million-dollar crop losses from frost.

2006        Apr 18, Australia said it will send up to 110 troops to the Solomon Islands to help restore calm after the election of a new prime minister sparked rioting.
    (AP, 4/18/06)

2006        Apr 21, Australia became debt free as it paid off the last of its government borrowing.
    (WSJ, 4/21/06, p.A7)

2006        Apr 30, In Australia rescuers made voice contact with two miners trapped a half mile beneath the earth for nearly a week. Todd Russell (34) and Brant Webb (37) were trapped April 25 when a small earthquake caused a rock collapse at the Beaconsfield Gold Mine. One of their co-workers was killed in the quake.
    (AP, 5/1/06)

2006        May 3, Australia raised its benchmark interest rate by a quarter point to 5.75%. This sent its currency to a seven-month peak against the US dollar.

2006        May 9, Australia's government unveiled a big-spending "boom budget" that will use a projected 10 billion dollar (7.7 billion US) surplus to finance across-the-board tax cuts and build up the military and national security agencies.
    (AP, 5/9/06)
2006        May 9, In Beaconsfield, Australia, Brant Webb and Todd Russell were rescued from a mine more than a half mile underground. A small earthquake on April 25 trapped Webb and Russell in the 4-foot-tall safety cage they were working in under tons of rock. Mourners gathered to bury, Larry Knight, who died in the same rock collapse.
    (AP, 5/9/06)

2006        May 11, In Australia the local assembly of the Australian Capital Territory (ACT), which encompasses the national capital Canberra, adopted controversial legislation in a late night vote providing for civil unions between same-sex couples, the first such law in Australia.
    (AFP, 5/12/06)

2006        May 12, It was announced that "King Kong" star and Oscar nominee Naomi Watts of Australia has agreed to serve as special representative for the Joint United Nations Program on AIDS (UNAIDS).
    (AFP, 5/12/06)

2006        May 17, In Australia widespread evidence of child abuse in Aboriginal communities has sparked calls for the Australian government to take greater action to protect children at risk.
    (AFP, 5/17/06)

2006        May 18, In Australia officials released a 2005 statement in which Australia's national wheat exporter admitted paying money to Saddam Hussein's regime.
    (AFP, 5/18/06)
2006        May 18, A Canadian citizen and two US navy sailors were handed lengthy prison sentences for attempting to smuggle methamphetamine into Australia stashed in the radar dome of a visiting warship.
    (AP, 5/18/06)
2006        May 18, Australian PM John Howard, during his first official visit to Ottawa, urged Canada to work with his country on climate change, much to the horror of environmentalists. Australia did not ratify the Kyoto Protocol.
    (AFP, 5/18/06)

2006        May 20, Australian Aborigines rejected calls for military peacekeepers to protect indigenous women and children from violence, as a new report revealed high levels of sexual abuse of young indigenous males.
    (AFP, 5/20/06)

2006        May 24, International peacekeepers and troops from Australia and New Zealand were headed to East Timor to help restore order after gunbattles between disgruntled ex-soldiers and the military killed two people and wounded nine.
    (AP, 5/24/06)

2006        May 25, PM John Howard increased Australia’s contingent to Timor-Leste to some 1,300 troops. 500 Malaysians and troops from New Zealand and Portugal were also deployed.
    (Econ, 6/3/06, p.15)

2006        Jun 13, Conservative PM John Howard's federal government has invoked special powers to invalidate a territory's law that had been the first in Australia giving legal recognition to same-sex relationships. On May 11 the Australian Capital Territory, which includes the national capital Canberra, became the first of Australia's six states and two territories to legally recognize gay and lesbian relationships.
    (AP, 6/13/06)

2006        Jun 19, Faheem Khalid Lodhi (36), a Pakistani-born architect was convicted of plotting a terrorist attack in Australia. He was arrested in April 2004 at his home in suburban Sydney. The jury convicted Lodhi of charges relating to maps, chemical inquiries and bombmaking instructions. On August 23 he was sentenced to 20 years in prison.
    (AP, 6/19/06)(AP, 8/23/06)

2006        Jun 21, Australian soldiers in Baghdad mistakenly opened fire on Iraqi Trade Minister Abdul Falah al-Sudany's bodyguards, killing one and wounding three people. The Australian government apologized the next day.
    (AP, 6/22/06)

2006        Jun 22, In Australia a 176-year-old giant tortoise, believed to have been studied by famed English naturalist Charles Darwin, died after a short illness. Harriet was originally named Harry, as she was mistakenly identified as male, an error which was not rectified for more than a century.
    (AFP, 6/23/06)

2006        Jun 25, Actress Nicole Kidman married country music star Keith Urban in Sydney, Australia.
    (AP, 6/25/07)

2006        Jun 28, Australia's PM Howard hailed his country's record liquid natural gas export contract with China as a symbol of blossoming trade between the countries during an inaugural ceremony with Premier Wen Jiabao at the Chinese gas terminal in Shenzen.
    (AP, 6/28/06)

2006        Jul 4, Two former currency dealers for Australia's biggest bank were jailed for their part in a 260 million US dollar rogue trading scandal. Vince Ficarra (27) and David Bullen (34) made a raft of fictitious trades for the National Australia Bank (NAB) between September 2003 and January 2004 to mask massive losses. Bullen was sentenced to 44 months in prison and Ficarra to 28 months.
    (AFP, 7/4/06)

2006        Jul 6, An Australian consortium led by Macquarie Bank said it has agreed to a friendly 1.59 billion US dollar takeover of US utility Duquesne Light Holdings.
    (AP, 7/6/06)

2006        Jul 31, Australian PM John Howard said he would seek a fifth straight term, ending his ambitious deputy's leadership hopes and cementing his place as one of the world's most successful conservative leaders.
    (Reuters, 7/31/06)

2006        Aug 2, Australia's central bank raised interest rates by 25 basis points to a six-year high of 6.0% in an effort to head off inflationary pressures in a booming economy.
    (AFP, 8/2/06)
2006        Aug 2, The Australian government said it had started reducing troop numbers in East Timor as security in the tiny nation was steadily improving.
    (AP, 8/3/06)

2006        Aug 7, Robert McNaught of the Siding Spring Observatory in Australia made the 1st sighting of a comet that came to be called Comet McNaught.
    (Econ, 1/20/07, p.89)

2006        Aug 14, Australian PM John Howard ditched plans for a tough new immigration law, conceding he did not have sufficient support in parliament.
    (AFP, 8/14/06)

2006        Aug 18, Anglo-Australian resources giant BHP Billiton closed its operations at the world's biggest copper mine in Chile and ended negotiations with striking workers. The strike began on August 7 at the Escondida Mine, majority owned by BHP. The Chilean government has signaled it was ready to intervene.
    (AP, 8/18/06)

2006        Aug 25, The UN established a new mission in East Timor but left Australian-led troops in place following a dispute over whether they should remain independent or be part of a UN force.
    (Reuters, 8/25/06)

2006        Aug 28, Don Chipp (81), an Australian politician famed for his pledge to "keep the bastards honest," died after a long battle with Parkinson's disease.
    (AFP, 8/29/06)

2006        Aug 30, Canadian miner Uranium One said it had approved Australia's fourth uranium mine, the Honeymoon project in the South Australian outback.
    (AP, 8/30/06)

2006        Sep 4, Steve Irwin (44), world-famous Australian "crocodile hunter" and television environmentalist, was killed by a stingray blow to the chest while filming a documentary on the Great Barrier Reef. His "Crocodile Hunter" show, in which the adventurer appeared in his trademark khaki shorts and shirt, was first broadcast in 1992 and has been shown around the world on the Discovery cable network ever since.
    (AFP, 9/4/06)

2006        Sep 6, An Indonesian appeals court sentenced four Australian members of a drug smuggling ring to death, prompting a protest from the Australian government. Scott Rush, Tan Duc Than Nguyen, Si Yi Chen and Matthew Norman had originally received life terms for trying to take home more than 18 pounds of heroin from Indonesia's resort island of Bali last year.
    (AP, 9/6/06)

2006        Sep 19, In Australia Judge Murray Wilcox granted Aborigines a title claim over Perth, the capital of Western Australia.
    (AFP, 9/20/06)
2006        Sep 19, Australia and Japan imposed financial sanctions on 11 North Korean companies, a Swiss company and its president, based on allegations they helped the communist nation's weapons programs.
    (AP, 9/19/06)

2006        Sep 20, In Australia arrested 5 Canadian men after cocaine worth A$35 million ($26 million) was found hidden inside computer monitors. This was believed to be Australia's fifth-largest illegal drugs seizure.
    (Reuters, 9/21/06)

2006        Oct 9, Cambodian PM Hun Sen began a six-day official visit to Australia that will focus on security and trade.
    (AFP, 10/9/06)

2006        Oct 12, More than 100 wildfires raged across Australia, sending firefighters scrambling to protect homes and farmland.
    (AP, 10/12/06)

2006        Oct 15, Foreign Minister Alexander Downer said Australia would cut ministerial contacts with its northern neighbor until an investigation was held into the escape from Papua New Guinea of a Solomon Islands official wanted on child sex charges. Julian Moti, now in custody in the Solomons and facing charges of illegal entry, was wanted in Australia on child sex charges involving a 13-year-old girl in Vanuatu in 1997. Moti was deported to Australia in 2007. His case was thrown out in December after the court found that Australian officials had colluded in his illegal deportation.
    (AFP, 10/15/06)(Econ, 10/28/06, p.51)(Econ, 5/19/12, p.49)

2006        Oct 16, Australia said it will ban North Korean ships from entering its ports, toughening its response to the North's reported nuclear test.
    (AP, 10/16/06)

2006        Oct 17, Australia's worsening drought was driving farmers to suicide. Scientists and politicians said government funds should be used to help them leave increasingly unviable land.
    (AFP, 10/17/06)

2006        Oct 18, Australia’s Tasmania state unveiled an historic five million dollar (3.8 million dollars US) compensation package for Aborigines forcibly taken from their families as children.
    (AFP, 10/18/06)

2006        Oct 22, PM John Howard announced that Australia is to launch a 500-million-dollar drive to tackle global warming, as the country battles its worst drought in more than a century.
    (AFP, 10/22/06)

2006        Oct 23, An Australian scientist said Global warming will force changes to Australia's A$4.8 billion ($3.6 billion) wine export industry, threatening the very existence of some varieties as temperatures rise.
    (AP, 10/23/06)

2006        Oct 24, The environmental group WWF said Australians soak up more scarce resources than almost any other nation and produce so much waste on average that their mark on the world's ecology exceeds China.

2006        Oct 27, Australia gave the green light to the southern hemisphere's largest wind farm, the country's 2nd major project aimed at reducing greenhouse gas emissions announced this week.
    (AFP, 10/27/06)

2006        Oct 31, Australia pointed an accusing finger at China and India as major polluters as it refused to ratify the Kyoto Protocol on climate change despite a major new report warning of impending catastrophe.
    (AFP, 10/31/06)

2006        Nov 5, Fiji's military, locked in a standoff with the government, accused Australia on of breaching its sovereignty by sending an unspecified number of police it described as mercenaries into the country.
    (AP, 11/5/06)

2006        Nov 7, Australia's Senate narrowly voted to lift the country's ban on cloning human embryos for stem cell research. A leading expert at a crisis summit said Australia, already the world's driest inhabited continent, is in the grip of its worst drought in 1,000 years.
    (AP, 11/7/06)(AFP, 11/7/06)

2006        Nov 10, Chevron Corp. unveiled the Clio field, one of Australia’s biggest natural gas discoveries.
    (WSJ, 11/11/06, p.A4)

2006        Nov 12, The Australian government denied that a new security pact with Indonesia means that it would be party to the suppression of Indonesian separatists. The new agreement was to be signed Nov 13 on the Indonesian resort island of Lombok.
    (AP, 11/12/06)

2006        Nov 18, In Australia police on horseback and wielding batons clashed with rock- and bottle-throwing demonstrators outside a G-20 meeting of some the world's top financial officials, turning what had been promised as a peaceful rally against poverty into running street skirmishes.
    (AP, 11/18/06)

2006        Nov 21, An Australian government report said Australia should use its uranium to fuel its own nuclear power industry and curb greenhouse gas emissions. Australia held 38% of the world’s low cost uranium reserves.
    (Econ, 11/25/06, p.59)

2006        Nov 27, An official inquiry into the corruption that riddled the UN oil-for-food program in Iraq cleared the Australian government but cited 12 top executives for bribing Saddam Hussein's regime.
    (AFP, 11/27/06)

2006        Nov 30, Tens of thousands of Australians rallied against controversial industrial relations laws, temporarily bringing parts of the country's major cities to a halt. Critics said the laws passed 12 months ago strip power from unions and erode job security, wages and conditions.
    (AFP, 11/30/06)

2006        Dec 4, Insurance Australia Group (IAG) announced it will buy British motor insurer Equity Insurance Group for 570 million pounds.
    (AFP, 12/4/06)

2006        Dec 6, Australia's Parliament lifted a four-year ban on cloning human embryos for stem cell research despite opposition from the prime minister and other party leaders.
    (AP, 12/6/06)

2006        Dec 8, Thousands of firefighters rushed to contain more than a dozen wildfires burning across southern Australia amid fears that high temperatures and gusty winds forecast this weekend could further stoke the blazes, threatening farms and towns.
    (AP, 12/8/06)

2006        Dec 10, More than 3,000 firefighters battled some of Australia's worst wildfires in 70 years, as flames fanned by strong winds and searing temperatures destroyed one home and threatened dozens more.
    (AP, 12/10/06)

2006        Dec 14, Australian flag carrier and national icon Qantas accepted an increased 11.1-billion-dollar (8.7 billion US) offer from a private equity group, a day after rejecting a lower bid.
    (AP, 12/14/06)
2006        Dec 14, Australia and France signed an agreement on military cooperation designed to enhance their ability to work together.
    (AFP, 12/14/06)

2006        Dec 18, An Australian court ruled that providing Web links to copyright-protected music is enough to make a site legally liable. The case created legal uncertainty for search engines around the world. The full bench of the Federal Court upheld a lower court ruling that Stephen Cooper, the operator of the Web site in question, as well as Comcen, the Internet service provider that hosted it, were guilty under Australian copyright law.
    (AP, 12/21/06)

2006        Dec 20, The USDA for the 1st time released a database that included the recipients of about $56 billion in subsidies. The USDA also suspended Australia’s state wheat export monopoly, AWB Ltd., for its dealings with the former Saddam Hussein regime in Iraq.
    (AP, 12/19/06)(WSJ, 12/20/06, p.A8)

2006        Dec, Australia’s PM John Howard stripped the country’s wheat board of its monopoly following a bribery scandal.
    (Econ, 1/13/07, p.36)

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